Indandione VKAs have been widely used for decades, especially in Eastern Europe and France. Contrary to coumarin VKAs, the relative contribution of individual factors to the indandione-VKA response is poorly known. In the present multicentre study, we sought to develop and validate a model including genetic and non-genetic factors to predict the daily fluindione dose requirement in elderly patients in whom VKA dosing is challenging. We prospectively recorded clinical and therapeutic data in 230 Caucasian inpatients mean aged 85 ± 6 years, who had reached international normalized ratio stabilisation (range 2.0-3.0) on fluindione. In the derivation cohort (n=156), we analysed 13 polymorphisms in seven genes potentially involved in the pharmacological effect or vitamin-K cycle (VKORC1, CYP4F2, EPHX1) and fluindione metabolism/transport (CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A5, ABCB1). We built a regression model incorporating non-genetic and genetic data and evaluated the model performances in a separate cohort (n=74).Body-weight, amiodarone intake, VKORC1, CYP4F2, ABCB1 genotypes were retained in the final model, accounting for 31.5% of dose variability. None influence of CYP2C9 was observed. Our final model showed good performances: in 83.3% of the validation cohort patients, the dose was accurately predicted within 5 mg, i.e.the usual step used for adjusting fluindione dosage. In conclusion, in addition to body-weight and amiodarone-intake, pharmacogenetic factors (VKORC1, CYP4F2, ABCB1) related to the pharmacodynamic effect and transport of fluindione significantly influenced the dose requirement in elderly patients while CYP2C9 did not. Studies are required to know whether fluindione could be an alternative VKA in carriers of polymorphic CYP2C9 alleles, hypersensitive to coumarins. PMID:24337438
The main objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of self-reported weight and height among women with eating disorders. The study sample consisted of 271 women aged 18-50 yrs: 73 anorexic patients (AN) with a body mass index (BMI) of <18.50 kg/m2, 54 normal weight bulimic or rehabilitated patients (BU/RE: 18.5 or =25 kg/m2) and 106 normal weight women without an eating disorder (NW: 18.5body weight (BW) and height were recorded during an interview, and measured using standard procedures, and their self-reported and measured BMI was calculated (kg/m2). In comparison with the measured data, the AN patients tended to overestimate their bodyweight by 0.48+/-2.05 kg (p<0.05), whereas the OW/OB and BU/RE patients underestimated it (OW/OB: -1.52+/-3.21 kg, p=0.006; BU/RE: -1.12+/-2.60 kg, p=0.003). All of the groups overestimated height by at least 1 cm, and the OW/OB group overestimated it by 2.31+/-2.94 (p=0.00000). These differences were reflected in the significant underestimate of BMI by all groups except the AN patients. Pearson's correlation coefficients between the self-reported and measured variables ranged from 0.95 to 0.98. The results of a Bland & Altman analysis showed that the underestimates of weight and BMI were related to the magnitude of the values (BW: r=-0.24, p<0.000078; BMI: r=-0.37, p<0.00000), the differences being greater with increasing values of weight and BMI; sensitivity as greater for the AN patients. The self-reported data led to a significant misclassification of body mass categories, especially among the BU/RE and OW/OB subjects. Our results show that the over-reporting of height and under-reporting of bodyweight led to significant underestimates of BMI. The AN subjects seemed to know their weight quite well, whereas the BU/RE and OW/OB women significantly underestimated it. On the basis of these findings, measured weight and height should always be preferred to self-reported values. PMID:20571324
Ciarapica, D; Mauro, B; Zaccaria, M; Cannella, C; Polito, A
... to medicines, thyroid problems, heart failure, and kidney disease. Good nutrition and exercise can help in losing weight. Eating extra calories within a well-balanced diet and treating any underlying medical problems can help to add ...
HEALTH ISSUE: Bodyweight is of physical and psychological importance to Canadian women; it is associated with health status, physical activity, body image, and self-esteem. Although the problems associated with overweight and obesity are indeed serious, there are also problems connected to being underweight. Weight prejudice and the dieting industry intensify body image concerns for Canadian women and can have
Health Issue Bodyweight is of physical and psychological importance to Canadian women; it is associated with health status, physical activity, body image, and self-esteem. Although the problems associated with overweight and obesity are indeed serious, there are also problems connected to being underweight. Weight prejudice and the dieting industry intensify body image concerns for Canadian women and can have a major negative impact on self-esteem. Key Findings Women have lower BMIs than men, a lower incidence of being overweight and a higher incidence of being underweight. However, women across all weight categories are more dissatisfied with their bodies. Sixty percent of women are inactive, and women with a BMI of 27 or higher are more likely to be inactive than women with lower BMIs. The data show that women are aware of the health benefits of exercise, but there is a gap between knowledge and practice. When asked about barriers to health improvement, 39.7% of women cited lack of time and 39.2% lack of willpower. Data Gaps and Recommendations Weight prejudice must be made unacceptable and positive body image should be encouraged and diversity valued. Health policies should encourage healthy eating and healthy activity. Health curricula for young students should include information about healthy eating, active lifestyle, and self-esteem. Physical activities that mothers can participate in with their families should be encouraged. Research should be funded to elucidate the most effective methods of getting women to become and remain physically active without focusing on appearance. PMID:15345068
This investigation uncovered processes underlying the dynamics of bodyweight and body image among individuals involved in nascent heterosexual marital relationships in Upstate New York. In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 34 informants, 20 women and 14 men, just prior to marriage and again one year later were used to explore continuity and change in cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors relating to bodyweight and body image at the time of marriage, an important transition in the life course. Three major conceptual themes operated in the process of developing and enacting informants' bodyweight relationships with their partner: weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk. Weight relevance encompassed the changing significance of weight during early marriage and included attracting and capturing a mate, relaxing about weight, living healthily, and concentrating on weight. Weight comparisons between partners involved weight relativism, weight competition, weight envy, and weight role models. Weight talk employed pragmatic talk, active and passive reassurance, and complaining and critiquing criticism. Concepts emerging from this investigation may be useful in designing future studies of and approaches to managing bodyweight in adulthood. PMID:21864601
Objective: Stress has been identified as a significant factor in health and in racial\\/ethnic health disparities. A potential mediator in these relationships is bodyweight. Design: Cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between stress, race, and bodyweight were examined in an ethnically diverse sample of overweight and obese women with Type 2 diabetes (n = 217) enrolled in a behavioral weight
Karen Hye-cheon Kim; Zoran Bursac; Vicki DiLillo; Della Brown White; Delia Smith West
The prevalence of excess bodyweight in Americans is increasing despite national efforts to reverse this trend. Excess bodyweight is a more common problem in women, especially minority women, than in men. It increases the risk of developing a host of adverse health conditions, and it places significant social and economic strains on the health care system. Excess body
The purpose of this study was to compare results obtained from various methodologies for genome-wide association studies, when applied to real data, in terms of number and commonality of regions identified and their genetic variance explained, computational speed, and possible pitfalls in interpretations of results. Methodologies include: two iteratively reweighted single-step genomic BLUP procedures (ssGWAS1 and ssGWAS2), a single-marker model (CGWAS), and BayesB. The ssGWAS methods utilize genomic breeding values (GEBVs) based on combined pedigree, genomic and phenotypic information, while CGWAS and BayesB only utilize phenotypes from genotyped animals or pseudo-phenotypes. In this study, ssGWAS was performed by converting GEBVs to SNP marker effects. Unequal variances for markers were incorporated for calculating weights into a new genomic relationship matrix. SNP weights were refined iteratively. The data was bodyweight at 6 weeks on 274,776 broiler chickens, of which 4553 were genotyped using a 60 k SNP chip. Comparison of genomic regions was based on genetic variances explained by local SNP regions (20 SNPs). After 3 iterations, the noise was greatly reduced for ssGWAS1 and results are similar to that of CGWAS, with 4 out of the top 10 regions in common. In contrast, for BayesB, the plot was dominated by a single region explaining 23.1% of the genetic variance. This same region was found by ssGWAS1 with the same rank, but the amount of genetic variation attributed to the region was only 3%. These findings emphasize the need for caution when comparing and interpreting results from various methods, and highlight that detected associations, and strength of association, strongly depends on methodologies and details of implementations. BayesB appears to overly shrink regions to zero, while overestimating the amount of genetic variation attributed to the remaining SNP effects. The real world is most likely a compromise between methods and remains to be determined. PMID:24904635
A study was conducted to investigate associations between ethnicity and acculturation status and risk factors for eating disorders among young adult women. A community sample of 14,779 women aged 18–23 completed a comprehensive mail-out survey, which incorporated questions on country of birth, length of time spent in Australia, bodyweight, weight dissatisfaction, dieting, binge eating, and compensatory disordered eating behaviours.
The bodyweight contingency of self-worth (bodyweight CSW) is the tendency for people to base their self-esteem on bodyweight. In two studies, the bodyweight contingency was evaluated against a general appearance contingency of self-worth (appearance CSW) to investigate whether or not individuals may base self-esteem on bodyweight. Compared to the appearance CSW, the bodyweight CSW
ABSTRACT Five clinical studies of calcium intake, designed with a primary skeletal end point, were reevaluated to explore associations be- tween calcium intake and bodyweight. All subjects were women, clustered in three main age groups: 3rd, 5th, and 8th decades. Total sample,size was,780. Four of the studies,were,observational;,two were cross-sectional, in which body mass index was regressed against entry level
K. Michael Davies; Robert P. Heaney; Robert R. Recker; Joan M. Lappe; M. Janet Barger-lux; Karen Rafferty; Sharilyn Hinders
SUMMARY The number of Americans who are overweight or obese has reached epidemic proportions. Elevated weight is associated with health problems and increased medical expenditures. This paper analyzes Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) to investigate the role of alcohol consumption in weight gain. Alcohol is not only an addictive substance but also a high-calorie beverage that can interfere with metabolic function and cognitive processes. Because men and women differ in the type and amount of alcohol they consume, in the biological effects they experience as a result of alcohol consumption, and in the consequences they face as a result of obesity, we expect our results to differ by gender. We use first-difference models of body mass index (BMI) and alcohol consumption (frequency and intensity) to control for time-invariant unobservable factors that may influence changes in both alcohol use and weight status. Increasing frequency and intensity of alcohol use is associated with statistically significant yet quantitatively small weight gain for men but not for women. Moreover, the first-difference results are much smaller in magnitude and sometimes different in sign compared to the benchmark pooled cross-sectional estimates. PMID:19548203
FRENCH, MICHAEL T.; NORTON, EDWARD C.; FANG, HAI; MACLEAN, JOHANNA CATHERINE
Original article Directional selection on bodyweight and hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila) strains were selected for increased and decreased bodyweight during 13 generations. A greater divergence of response to selection for bodyweight. In both types of crosses, hybrid dysgenesis induced modification
Reduced-calorie diets are difficult to follow because they often require elimination of certain foods, leading to poor compliance and limited success. However, a low-calorie, nutrient-dense diet has the potential to accommodate a daily snack without exceeding energy requirements, even during weight loss. This pilot study evaluated the effects of a reduced-calorie diet including either a daily dark chocolate snack or
Kathryn E. Piehowski; Amy G. Preston; Debra L. Miller; Sharon M. Nickols-Richardson
The topic of holiday weight gain has been a frequent subject of the lay media; however, scientific interest has only been recent. Multiple studies in Western societies have reported average weight gains among adults during the period between mid-November and mid-January that were about 0.5 kg. The range in individual weight changes was large, however, and the already overweight and obese gain more weight than those who are healthy weight. When the average gain across the year was also measured, the holiday weight was the major contributor to annual excess weight gain. Efforts patterned to increase awareness to energy balance and bodyweight have been shown to be successful at reducing such gain. An exception to holiday weight gain being a major contributor to annual excess gain has been children, in whom summer weight gains have been observed to be the major contributor to average excess weight gain. PMID:24662697
We have identified an eating disorder in 13% of women hospitalized on a medical ward for various reasons. These as well as obese patients undergo wide fluctuations of weight sometimes exceeding 30% of their present weight. Surprisingly, even in the absence of eating disorders, the changes in weight during adulthood are marked (22% of present bodyweight). Weight history should be included systematically in the medical history, since it can underscore concern over weight or even an unrecognized eating disorder. PMID:1754869
Allaz, A F; Archinard, M; Reverdin, N; Waldvogel, F
The load bearing bodyweight of wing-body and all-body hypersonic aircraft is estimated for a wide variety of structural materials and geometries. Variations of weight with key design and configuration parameters are presented and discussed. Both hot and cool structure approaches are considered in isotropic, organic composite, and metal matrix composite materials; structural shells are sandwich or skin-stringer. Conformal and pillow-tank designs are investigated for the all-body shape. The results identify the most promising hypersonic aircraft body structure design approaches and their weight trends. Geometric definition of vehicle shapes and structural analysis methods are presented in appendices.
Ninety Friesian and 153 Water Buffalo cows, 6 to 60 months and 100 to 500 kg bodyweight, were used in this study. Total body water was determined by 3H-radio- isotope dilution technique and dry bodyweight deduced by subtracting total body water from live bodyweight. In Friesians and Buffaloes there were significant posi- tive correlations (P < 0.01)
LEARNING OUTCOME: To investigate relationships between body image score and 1) bodyweight; 2) % body fat; 3) body mass index (BMI); and 4) waist-to-hip (WHR) in older women.Relationships between bodyweight, percent body fat, BMI and WHR were described among 73 healthy, elderly women (69.54±0.82 years) who were sedentary (n=26) or engaged in moderate exercise (n=47). Data collection included
M. C. Mitchell; C. J. Alish; D. L. Habash; K. Ward
Young adult females' attitudes toward bodyweight regulation contain important emotional components. To study the effects of bodyweight cues on emotionality, 160 college students (75 females, 85 males) completed either a bodyweight related (Q1) or control (Q2) questionnaire prior to taking the California Test of Personality (CTP). An analysis of…
The purpose of this research was to validate a modified version of the Weight Bias Internalization Scale (WBIS-M) that is applicable to individuals across different bodyweight statuses. One hundred forty-eight men and women completed an online survey that included the WBIS-M and relevant measures of psychopathology. Results indicated that the WBIS-M had high internal consistency and strong construct validity. The WBIS-M also demonstrated significant correlations with body image, eating pathology, self-esteem, and symptoms of anxiety and depression, and was associated with these outcomes distinctly from antifat attitudes and body mass index. Implications for the use of this scale in diverse samples are discussed. PMID:24100004
Acute marijuana use is classically associated with snacking behavior (colloquially referred to as “the munchies”). In support of these acute appetite-enhancing effects, several authorities report that marijuana may increase body mass index in patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus and cancer. However, for these medical conditions, while appetite may be stimulated, some studies indicate that weight gain is not always clinically meaningful. In addition, in a study of cancer patients in which weight gain did occur, it was less than the comparator drug (megestrol). However, data generally suggest that acute marijuana use stimulates appetite, and that marijuana use may stimulate appetite in low-weight individuals. As for large epidemiological studies in the general population, findings consistently indicate that users of marijuana tend to have lower body mass indices than nonusers. While paradoxical and somewhat perplexing, these findings may be explained by various study confounds, such as potential differences between acute versus chronic marijuana use; the tendency for marijuana use to be associated with other types of drug use; and/or the possible competition between food and drugs for the same reward sites in the brain. Likewise, perhaps the effects of marijuana are a function of initial weight status—i.e., maybe marijuana is a metabolic regulatory substance that increases bodyweight in low-weight individuals but not in normal-weight or overweight individuals. Only further research will clarify the complex relationships between marijuana and bodyweight. PMID:25337447
Acute marijuana use is classically associated with snacking behavior (colloquially referred to as "the munchies"). In support of these acute appetite-enhancing effects, several authorities report that marijuana may increase body mass index in patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus and cancer. However, for these medical conditions, while appetite may be stimulated, some studies indicate that weight gain is not always clinically meaningful. In addition, in a study of cancer patients in which weight gain did occur, it was less than the comparator drug (megestrol). However, data generally suggest that acute marijuana use stimulates appetite, and that marijuana use may stimulate appetite in low-weight individuals. As for large epidemiological studies in the general population, findings consistently indicate that users of marijuana tend to have lower body mass indices than nonusers. While paradoxical and somewhat perplexing, these findings may be explained by various study confounds, such as potential differences between acute versus chronic marijuana use; the tendency for marijuana use to be associated with other types of drug use; and/or the possible competition between food and drugs for the same reward sites in the brain. Likewise, perhaps the effects of marijuana are a function of initial weight status-i.e., maybe marijuana is a metabolic regulatory substance that increases bodyweight in low-weight individuals but not in normal-weight or overweight individuals. Only further research will clarify the complex relationships between marijuana and bodyweight. PMID:25337447
As the results of bariatric surgery become increasingly successful, the demand for dy contouring following significant weight loss is rapidly growing. Persons who have lost weight are often unpleasantly surprised with the hanging folds of tissue and loose skin that may be present. The following article is a review of the surgical treatment currently available to provide a more pleasing body contour after successful weight loss. PMID:15550812
This article reports the findings of a statewide study evaluating the bodyweights of nearly all public school students in Arkansas. Researchers in Arkansas analyzed "body-mass index" data for more than 345,000 students at all grade levels in 93 percent of the state's public schools during the 2003-04 school year. Based on the data, the…
An imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure will lead to a change in bodyweight (mass) and body composition (fat and lean masses). A quantitative understanding of the processes involved, which currently remains lacking, will be useful in determining the etiology and treatment of obesity and other conditions resulting from prolonged energy imbalance. Here, we show that the long-term
Cross-sectional studies have reported significant temporal increases in prevalence of childhood obesity in both genders and various racial groups, but recently the rise has subsided. Childhood obesity prevention trials suggest that, on average, overweight/obese children lose bodyweight and nonoverweight children gain weight. This investigation tested the hypothesis that overweight children lose bodyweight/fat and nonoverweight children gain bodyweight/fat using a longitudinal research design that did not include an obesity prevention program. The participants were 451 children in 4th to 6th grades at baseline. Height, weight, and body fat were measured at month 0 and month 28. Each child's BMI percentile score was calculated specific for their age, gender and height. Higher BMI percentile scores and percent body fat at baseline were associated with larger decreases in BMI and percent body fat after 28 months. The BMI percentile mean for African-American girls increased whereas BMI percentile means for white boys and girls and African-American boys were stable over the 28-month study period. Estimates of obesity and overweight prevalence were stable because incidence and remission were similar. These findings support the hypothesis that overweight children tend to lose bodyweight and nonoverweight children tend to gain bodyweight. PMID:20885393
Williamson, Donald A; Han, Hongmei; Johnson, William D; Stewart, Tiffany M; Harsha, David W
Seventeen active males (age 22.9 +/- 4.9 year) participated in a study to examine the effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation on total bodyweight (TBW), percent body fat, body water content, and caloric intake. The TBW was measured in kilograms, percent body fat by hydrostatic weighing, body water content via bioelectrical impedance, and caloric intake by daily food log. Subjects were paired and assigned to a creatine or placebo group with a double-blind research design. Supplementation was given for 4 weeks (30 g a day for the initial 2 weeks and 15 g a day for the final 2 weeks). Subjects reported 2 days a week for supervised strength training of the lower extremity. Significant increases before and after the study were found in TBW (90.42 +/- 14.74 to 92.12 +/- 15.19 kg) and body water content (53.77 +/- 1.75 to 57.15 +/- 2.01 L) for the creatine group (p = 0.05). No significant changes were found in percent body fat or daily caloric intake in the creatine group. No significant changes were noted for the placebo group. These findings support previous research that creatine supplementation increases TBW. Mean percent body fat and caloric intake was not affected by creatine supplementation. Therefore weight gain in lieu of creatine supplementation may in part be due to water retention. PMID:14636103
In this paper, preliminary qualitative and quantitative comparisons of the bodyweight of five hypersonic aircraft configurations are conducted. The five configurations are briefly described as follows: (1) a wing-and-body arrangement with a power-law, circular cross-section body and a delta wing; (2) an all-body vehicle with delta planform and elliptical cross-sections; (3) a wingless wave rider configuration; (4) a winged wave rider configuration; and (5) the spacewing concept, an oblique flying wing at low speed that yaws to 90 deg sweep and flies end-on at hypersonic speeds. The vehicles are defined by their external moldline geometries and by the interior arrangement of their fuel tanks and other components. Intersecting, circular-lobed tankage is used in vehicles with noncircular bodies. The nonusable volume of such concepts is calculated. The structural concept, structural materials, Thermal Protection System, and heat load are allowed to vary with vehicle longitudinal station. Relative strengths and weaknesses of the various hypersonic aircraft concepts in terms of bodyweight are summarized.
Ardema, Mark D.; Terjesen, Eric J.; Roberts, Cathy D.; Chambers, Mark C.
Obesity is a leading preventable cause of death worldwide, with increasing prevalence in adults and children, and authorities view it as one of the most serious public health problems of the 21st century. Sixty-two percent of the Hungarian adult population has overweight and 27% is morbidly obese and, therefore, it is a significant interest to treat this condition. The authors review the diagnosis and the associated diseases of morbid obesity. The initial enthusiasm with the gastric band has settled now, as the long-term outcome showed only very limited reduction in the excess bodyweight and the complication rate was as high as 50%. The sleeve gastrectomy may induce 60-70% of excess weight loss, however, the long term follow-up data is very limited. The Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is the gold-standard of the bariatric procedures, with proven 60-75% excess weight loss and 80% type 2 diabetes remission. The body image usually changes with weight loss, and frequently a body contouring procedure is required to improve it. Multi-disciplinary team of super-specialised doctors is required to perform these procedures. PMID:24936572
With the advent of bariatric surgery, body contouring has grown to a new speciality in plastic surgery. Following massive weight loss, patients generally have skin redundancy on the trunk, buttocks, breast, upper arms, thighs and face, leading to a poor quality of life and social acceptance. This condition motivates many patients to consult a plastic surgeon to address these problems. Thus, plastic surgery has become an integral part of the surgical treatment of the morbidly obese. The aim of post-bariatric plastic surgery should be to restore a normal body image of the patient with as few surgeries as possible and with a tolerable risk. This article addresses different plastic surgery procedures that can be successfully applied in order to correct various body contouring deformities. Patient selection, technical details, pre- and postoperative care, possible complications and expected results are all discussed. PMID:19242884
Objective: Because post-bariatric surgery patients undergo massive weight loss, the resulting skin excess can lead to both functional problems and profound dissatisfaction with appearance. Correcting skin excess could improve all these corollaries, includingbody image. Presently, few data are available documenting body image and weight-related quality of life in this population.Research Methods and Procedures: Eighteen patients who underwent both bariatric
Angela Y. Song; J. Peter Rubin; Veena Thomas; Jason R. Dudas; Kacey G. Marra; Madelyn H. Fernstrom
This study examined the combined effect of objective and subjective bodyweight, as well as gender, on illness-related absenteeism.\\u000a A sample of 162 Hong Kong white-collar employees was surveyed. Using hierarchical regression analysis, we were able to confirm\\u000a our hypotheses, derived from the objectified body consciousness (OBC) theory, that the positive relationship between objective\\u000a bodyweight and illness-related absenteeism is
Biological rhythms are present in the lives of almost all organisms ranging from plants to more evolved creatures. These oscillations allow the anticipation of many physiological and behavioral mechanisms thus enabling coordination of rhythms in a timely manner, adaption to environmental changes and more efficient organization of the cellular processes responsible for survival of both the individual and the species. Many components of energy homeostasis exhibit circadian rhythms, which are regulated by central (suprachiasmatic nucleus) and peripheral (located in other tissues) circadian clocks. Adipocyte plays an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis, the signaling of satiety and cellular differentiation and proliferation. Also, the adipocyte circadian clock is probably involved in the control of many of these functions. Thus, circadian clocks are implicated in the control of energy balance, feeding behavior and consequently in the regulation of bodyweight. In this regard, alterations in clock genes and rhythms can interfere with the complex mechanism of metabolic and hormonal anticipation, contributing to multifactorial diseases such as obesity and diabetes. The aim of this review was to define circadian clocks by describing their functioning and role in the whole body and in adipocyte metabolism, as well as their influence on bodyweight control and the development of obesity. PMID:20712885
Understanding the role of body size in relation to the accuracy of body image perception in men is an important topic because of the implications for avoiding and treating obesity, and it may serve as a potential diagnostic criterion for eating disorders. The early research on this topic produced mixed findings. About one-half of the early studies showed that obese men overestimated their body size, with the remaining half providing accurate estimates. Later, improvements in research technology and methodology provided a clearer indication of the role of weight status in body image perception. Research in our laboratory has also produced diverse findings, including that obese subjects sometimes overestimate their body size. However, when examining our findings across several studies, obese subjects had about the same level of accuracy in estimating their body size as normal-weight subjects. Studies in our laboratory also permitted the separation of sensory and nonsensory factors in body image perception. In all but one instance, no differences were found overall between the ability of obese and normal-weight subjects to detect overall changes in body size. Importantly, however, obese subjects are better at detecting changes in their body size when the image is distorted to be too thin as compared to too wide. Both obese and normal-weight men require about a 3%–7% change in the width of their body size in order to detect the change reliably. Correlations between a range of body mass index values and body size estimation accuracy indicated no relationship between these variables. Numerous studies in other laboratories asked men to place their body size into discrete categorizes, ranging from thin to obese. Researchers found that overweight and obese men underestimate their weight status, and that men are less accurate in their categorizations than are women. Cultural influences have been found to be important, with body size underestimations occurring in cultures where a larger body is found to be desirable. Methodological issues are reviewed with recommendations for future studies. PMID:25114606
Over the past decade or so, CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) peptides have emerged as major neurotransmitters and hormones. CART peptides are widely distributed in the CNS and are involved in regulating many processes, including food intake and the maintenance of bodyweight, reward and endocrine functions. Recent studies have produced a wealth of information about the location, regulation, processing
G. Rogge; D. Jones; G. W. Hubert; Y. Lin; M. J. Kuhar
The role of dietary energy density (ED) in the regulation of energy intake (EI) is controversial. Methodologically, there is also debate about whether beverages should be included in dietary ED calculations. To address these issues, studies examining the effects of ED on EI or bodyweight in nonelderly adults were reviewed. Different approaches to calculating dietary ED do not appear to alter the direction of reported relations between ED and bodyweight. Evidence that lowering dietary ED reduces EI in short-term studies is convincing, but there are currently insufficient data to determine long-term effectiveness for weight loss. The review also identified key barriers to progress in understanding the role of ED in energy regulation, in particular the absence of a standard definition of ED, and the lack of data from multiple long-term clinical trials examining the effectiveness of low-ED diet recommendations for preventing both primary weight gain and weight regain in nonobese individuals. Long-term clinical trials designed to examine the impact of dietary ED on energy regulation, and including multiple ED calculation methods within the same study, are still needed to determine the importance of ED in the regulation of EI and bodyweight. PMID:25398750
Central nervous system control of food intake and bodyweight G. J. Morton1 , D. E. Cummings2 , D. In addition, normal-weight indi- viduals are protected against expansion of body fat stores induced of an elevated bodyweight, rather than the absence of regulation, and that deleterious interactions between
HERITABILITY OF THE DIFFERENCES IN BODYWEIGHT BETWEEN SEXES AT DIFFERENT AGES IN TWO STRAINS the genetic parameters of sexual dimorphism for bodyweight at 4, 6 and 8 weeks of age for two strains : Dokki 4 and White Plyn:outh Rock. The estimates of heritabilities of sex differences in bodyweight from
AGE, LENGTH, AND BODYWEIGHT OF SALMON CAUGHT BY JAPANESE HIGH SEAS FLEETS IN NORTH PACIFIC Marine Fish and Wildlife Service, Amie J. Suomela, Commissioner AGE, LENGTH, AND BODYWEIGHT OF SALMON CAUGHT and 1956, and the bodyweight data for 1955 were taken from the Interim Reports on Research by the Japanese
The present study examined the psychological and weight-related correlates of body checking and avoidance behaviors in individuals who have lost weight through obesity treatment. Among 185 individuals in behavioral weight-control treatment, the prevalence of body checking and avoidance behavior was assessed, as well as the relationship of checking and avoidance to attitudinal disturbances, weight loss, and perception of struggling in
This study investigated the body image perceptions among adolescents in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE). A cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst 661 adolescents (324 males; 337 females) aged 12-17 years selected from government schools using a multistage stratified random sampling technique. A pretested validated questionnaire was employed to determine the perception of adolescents toward their weight status. A nine figure silhouette illustration was used to measure perceptions of their ideal body image and how it compares with their current bodyweight. The results revealed that overweight (18.5%) and obesity (27.2%) were higher among males than in females (13.1% and 20.5% respectively). A high proportion of overweight males and females considered themselves as average (45.0% and 52.3%, respectively). Similarly, 56.9% of obese male and 46.4% of females considered themselves as average weight. Of non-overweight/obese males and females, 27.6% and 39.3% respectively, were pressured by parents to gain weight (p > 0.000). In general overweight and obese adolescents were more likely to face pressure from their parents and teased by friends than non-overweight/obese adolescents. Compared to their current body image, overweight and obese adolescents chose a significantly lighter figure as their ideal (p < 0.000). It is suggested that the current health education curriculum should include information related to healthy bodyweight and appropriate diet and lifestyle so as to minimize risk of developing distorted body image concerns in adolescence and beyond. PMID:23588446
Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) provides functional information and can be used for the detection and\\u000a characterization of pathologic processes, including malignant tumors. The recently introduced concept of “diffusion-weighted\\u000a whole-body imaging with background body signal suppression” (DWIBS) now allows acquisition of volumetric diffusion-weighted\\u000a images of the entire body. This new concept has unique features different from conventional DWI and may
Thomas C. Kwee; Taro Takahara; Reiji Ochiai; Rutger A. J. Nievelstein; Peter R. Luijten
Data collected on three South African Merino flocks were used to estimate genetic and phenotypic correlations of total weight of lamb weaned over three parities (TWW) with two-tooth bodyweight at 14 to 17 months of age (BW), clean fleece weight (CFW) and mean fibre diameter (MFD). The flocks included were maintained under widely divergent environmental conditions, and included the
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Objective: The authors assessed associations between bodyweight perception and weight loss strategies. Participants: They randomly selected male and female college students (N = 38,204). Methods: The authors conducted a secondary data analysis of the rates of weight loss strategies and bodyweight perception among students who completed the…
Wharton, Christopher M.; Adams, Troy; Hampl, Jeffrey S.
Body mass index (BMI) and body type of female and male adolescent ballet dancers (n = 90) and school students (n = 156) were determined. Participants were asked for the bodyweight she or he would prefer, and ballet students were administered the Eating Attitudes Test-40 (EAT-40). Results between age groups and with reference values were compared. Both in dancers and controls, girls wanted to lose more bodyweight than boys, with female ballet dancers more than female controls. The desire for reducing bodyweight was expressed by female ballet dancers of all BMI percentiles and body types, with the highest difference between real and desired bodyweight in 11-, 13-, and 16-year-olds. In the other groups, a quest for lower bodyweight was expressed only by adolescents of higher BMI and pyknomorphic and/or mesomorphic body type. Female ballet dancers of all age groups sought to reach bodyweights below the 5th percentile or below 82% of normal bodyweight. Desired bodyweight change was influenced by BMI and body type and correlated positively with EAT-40 score. PMID:9636944
Bettle, N; Bettle, O; Neumärker, U; Neumärker, K J
Understanding of the benefits of self-weighing are currently mixed, particularly with respect to women’s psychological health.\\u000a Applying Objectification theory (Fredrickson and Roberts 1997), we explored the role of body surveillance as a mechanism in the link between self-weighing, a common weight management\\u000a technique, and body dissatisfaction. The study was cross-sectional and the sample included primarily Caucasian, US college\\u000a students from
Introduction: One of the problems of today and probably this century is obesity, which is classified by the WHO as a disease. Material and methods: We performed a prospective cross-sectional study of the bodyweight impact on certain biochemical indicators in menopausal women living in the municipalities Cazin and Velika Kladusa. Results and discussion: The study included 334 women aged 40-60 years, who had regular medical examinations. For each patient at the beginning of the study we measured: body mass index, total cholesterol values, LDL, HDL and triglycerides fractions. Our findings indicate an increase in total cholesterol, LDL fraction and triglycerides in patients with increased body mass index, without statistical significance. Values of HDL fraction were significantly decreased with increasing body mass index. PMID:24944530
\\u000a In normal weight women, a 10–15% reduction from ideal bodyweight (IBW) is associated with amenorrhea [1, 2]. There is considerable interindividual variation in the menstrual cycle manifestations that may occur in association with\\u000a low bodyweight. It is likely that the key element involved in eating disorders or low weight related amenorrhea is stress.\\u000a It appears that the adaptation
Background: Little is known about the composition and source of weight loss after bariatric surgery for morbid obesity. Purpose:\\u000a This study was undertaken to determine changes in weight, body mass index (BMI), lean bodyweight (LBW), fat weight (FW) and\\u000a left ventricular cardiac mass (LVM) following vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG). Methods: After VBG for morbid obesity, 26\\u000a women and four
Vivian Gahtan; Sarah E. Goode; Helen Z. Kurto; Douglas D. Schocken; Pauline Powers; Alexander S. Rosemurgy
the macronutrient flux balances and all previous models are special cases of this model. We show that the generic dynamical behavior of body composition for a clamped diet can be divided into two classes. In the first class, the body composition and mass are determined uniquely. In the second class, the body composition can exist at an infinite number of
Given the rising prevalence of overweight and sociocultural portrayal of increasingly thin female body ideals and muscular\\/lean\\u000a male body ideals, we examined trends in bodyweight evaluation using two cross-sectional surveys of US undergraduates in 1990\\u000a (n?=?794) and 2005 (n?=?794). Trends in bodyweight evaluation variables were examined and compared to respondents’ current body mass index. Results\\u000a suggest men are
Lori Neighbors; Jeffery Sobal; Claudia Liff; Dana Amiraian
The study examined associations among physical activity, cigarette smoking, body mass index, perceptions of bodyweight, weight-management goals, and weight-management behaviors of public high school adolescents. The CDC Youth Risk Behavior Survey provided a cross-sectional sample (n = 3,089) of public high school students in South Carolina.…
Paxton, Raheem J.; Valois, Robert F.; Drane, J. Wanzer
Body, liver, heart and spleen weights were measured in 3 different breeds and 2 breed crosses over an age range of 0–8 weeks. Correlation coefficients, linear regression equations, standard deviations of observations around regression lines, and the standard errors of the slopes were calculated to study the effects of age, breed, and bodyweight on organ weight. The principal findings
Objective: To determine if inaccurate bodyweight perception predicts unhealthy weight management strategies and to determine the extent to which inaccurate bodyweight perception is associated with depressive symptoms among US college students. Participants: Randomly selected male and female college students in the United States (N = 97,357).…
Harring, Holly Anne; Montgomery, Kara; Hardin, James
Objective: To determine if inaccurate bodyweight perception predicts unhealthy weight management strategies and to determine the extent to which inaccurate bodyweight perception is associated with depressive symptoms among US college students. Participants: Randomly selected male and female college students in the United States (N = 97,357). Methods: Data were from the 2006 National College Health Assessment. Analyses were
By observing the art of different eras, as well as the more recent existence of the media, it is obvious that there have been dramatic changes in what is considered a beautiful body. The ideal of female beauty has shifted from a symbol of fertility to one of mathematically calculated proportions. It has taken the form of an image responding to men's sexual desires. Nowadays there seems to be a tendency towards the destruction of the feminine, as androgynous fashion and appearance dominate our culture. The metamorphosis of the ideal woman follows the shifting role of women in society from mother and mistress to a career-orientated individual. Her depiction by artists across the centuries reveals this change in role and appearance that should be interpreted within the social and historical context of each era with its own theories of what constituted the ideal female bodyweight. PMID:20492540
Objectives: The study explored associations between bodyweight, psychiatric disorders and body image in a nonclinical sample of female adolescents. It was also investigated whether complaints of negative body image could be an indicator of psychiatric morbidity. Methods: A sample of 136 Swiss female high school students, 15–20 years of age, initially had weight, height and body image (FBeK questionnaire)
Barbara Buddeberg-Fischer; Richard Klaghofer; Victoria Reed
Primates show a strong positive relationship between bodyweight and home range area. Dietary habits also influence home range area. Folivorous primates occupy smaller home range areas for their bodyweight than do frugivores and omnivores. Primates generally require smaller home range area per individual than solitary terrestrial mammals, but primates living in social groups have much larger total home
Restraint in a metal tube is a reproducible method of inducing gastric ulcers in rats. However, it may be impossible to compare results from animals of different bodyweight. To make this comparison possible, a theoretical relation was established between the size of the tube and the bodyweight of the animal. When using this relation a constant ulcer incidence
The global obesity epidemic has heightened the debate about dietary factors contributing to weight gain. Media stories have\\u000a promulgated the notion that obesity has increased despite reductions in dietary fat intake. Some have even speculated that\\u000a lower dietary fat levels may be driving the rapid rise in weight gain within the population. A close examination of the science\\u000a reveals a
The following were recorded for 17 Mongolian gerbils,Meriones unguiculatus, which varied in weight between weanling size and almost 100 grams: body lengths, bodyweights, organ weights of the thyroid,\\u000a kidney, adrenal, brain, pituitary, lung, testis, spleen, heart, eye, and liver. Results were analyzed graphically and statistically.\\u000a The thyroid, kidney, adrenal, brain, pituitary, lung, and eye weights vary with respect to
Abstract Objective: To examine body mass index (BMI) and cognitive decline in subjects diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: Neuropsychological testing was conducted of 286 MCI subjects. General estimating equations (GEE) assessed...
The majority of women gain more weight during pregnancy than what is recommended. Since gestational weight gain is related\\u000a to short and long-term maternal health outcomes, it is important to identify women at greater risk of not adhering to guidelines.\\u000a The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between body image and gestational weight gain. The Body Image
Ushma J. Mehta; Anna Maria Siega-Riz; Amy H. Herring
Background: The relationship between obesity, impaired respiratory function and weight loss is established. Objective: Some aspects need further elucidation: the different impact of the pathological modifications of body compartments (total and regional fat mass and lean body mass) on respiratory function, the choice of a restricted diet, the relationship between the modifications of body compartments and the variations in respiratory
Antonino De Lorenzo; Patrizia Petrone-De Luca; Guido F. Sasso; Maria G. Carbonelli; Paolo Rossi; Aldo Brancati
Body mass index (BMI) and body type of female and male adolescent ballet dancers (n = 90) and school students (n = 156) were determined. Participants were asked for the bodyweight she or he would prefer, and ballet students were administered the Eating Attitudes Test-40 (EAT-40). Results between age groups and with reference values were compared. Both in dancers
Norman Bettle; Oliver Bettle; Ursula Neumärker; Klaus-Jürgen Neumärker
The aim of the study was to analyze correlations between endogenous intoxication (EI) and lipid peroxidation (LP) indices in patients with cardiovascular and endocrine diseases and healthy individuals, taking into account the presence of excessive bodyweight (EBW), as well as to compare EI and LP indices in practically healthy people with and without excessive bodyweight (EBW). The subjects were 165 people, including 36 healthy individuals and 129 patients with cardiovascular and endocrine disease. The healthy ones were divided into two groups: 20 with and 16 without EBW. To evaluate the degree of EI, the concentration of middle-molecular-weight peptides (MMWP) was measured by the method offered by N. I. Gabrielyan et al. in 1984. To evaluate LP processes, serum levels of the secondary LP product, malonic dialdehyde, and two antioxidative enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, were measured. The results show that treatment aimed at LP suppression is not appropriate; it should be aimed at the cause of LP activation instead, which is the increase of MMWP level due to EBW. LP activation significantly correlates with increase of MMWP blood level (p < 0.05). EBW worsens EI and activates LP in healthy people, thus being a stress factor to the organism. Increased MMWP level and LP activation in healthy individuals with EBW may be a premorbid diagnostic marker. PMID:16404941
Abyla?uly, Zh; Oshakbaev, K P; Kozhabekova, B N; Erdesova, G E; Imantaeva, G M; Uberbaeva, G K
\\u000a In applying diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS) technique, DW-MR images\\u000a are acquired during free breathing, which results in images with high signal-to-noise ratio using relatively thin image sections\\u000a (4–5 mm). Image acquisition during free breathing is possible because bulk tissue motion, including respiratory motion, may\\u000a be considered as types of coherent motion, which do not result
Background and Objectives: We investigated whether there was a statistically significant difference in patient need for postoperative analgesia based on adjusted bodyweight between heavier and lighter women who underwent laparoscopic tubal ligation with bupivacaine injection at the skin incision. Methods: We examined 49 records of women who underwent laparoscopic tubal ligation at Oklahoma State University Medical Center between 2000 and 2005 and received an injection of bupivacaine at the surgical site during the procedure. Postsurgical morphine was measured as doses per kilogram of bodyweight against total bodyweight and as total milligrams per kilogram of bodyweight against total bodyweight. A regression was performed for each measurement. Results: Heavier women required significantly fewer total milligrams of morphine per kilogram of bodyweight and fewer total doses of morphine per kilogram of bodyweight than lighter women (2-tailed P = .0035 and P = .0018, respectively). Conclusion: Our data may suggest that lipophilic bupivacaine injected at a surgical site is held in place better and works for a longer period when more fat is present.
Roehl, Bryan C.; Payton, Mark E.; Witter, LouAnn C.
Body dissatisfaction and body image disturbances are prevelant in college age females and can contribute to reduced health and wellness. Therefore, it is important to understand factors that may be associated these body image-related concerns. This study compared the body satisfaction of body-imaged-disturbed college women involved in weight training to those not involved. Body satisfaction of body-image-disturbed undergraduate females (Mage
Dissatisfaction with body image is thought to be a key factor in the etiology of eating disorders among women. In contrast, men are reported to be generally satisfied with their bodyweight and body shape. The present survey study examined the relative desire for thinness or weight gain among 226 male and female freshman students. Most 18-year-old women (85%) wished
D tIRING THE I'AST DECADE, a number of investigators have addressed themselves to the task of developing a simplified and widely applicable method for accurately assessing percentage body fat and lean bodyweight in human subjects. Bodly fat and! lean bodyweight can be estimated precisely throtlgh such complex laboratory methods as radliography, helium (!ilution, total bodly water, total bodly
Background: This study examined the mediating function of bodyweight perception (BWP) in the relation between body mass index (BMI) and unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCBs; eg, fasting, using diet pills, or laxatives), and between BMI and suicidal ideation. It also explored the correlation between exposure to multiple UWCBs and suicidal…
Kim, Dong-Sik; Cho, Youngtae; Cho, Sung-Il; Lim, In-Sook
Energy homeostasis is critical for the survival of species. Therefore, multiple and complex mechanisms have evolved to regulate energy intake and expenditure to maintain bodyweight. For weight maintenance, not only does energy intake have to match energy expenditure, but also macronutrient intake must balance macronutrient oxidation. However, this equilibrium seems to be particularly difficult to achieve in individuals with low fat oxidation, low energy expenditure, low sympathetic activity or low levels of spontaneous physical activity, as in addition to excess energy intake, all of these factors explain the tendency of some people to gain weight. Additionally, large variability in weight change is observed when energy surplus is imposed experimentally or spontaneously. Clearly, the data suggest a strong genetic influence on bodyweight regulation implying a normal physiology in an ‘obesogenic’ environment. In this study, we also review evidence that carbohydrate balance may represent the potential signal that regulates energy homeostasis by impacting energy intake and bodyweight. Because of the small storage capacity for carbohydrate and its importance for metabolism in many tissues and organs, carbohydrate balance must be maintained at a given level. This drive for balance may in turn cause increased energy intake when consuming a diet high in fat and low in carbohydrate. If sustained over time, such an increase in energy intake cannot be detected by available methods, but may cause meaningful increases in bodyweight. The concept of metabolic flexibility and its impact on bodyweight regulation is also presented. PMID:19136979
Average annual winter (December-February) bodyweights of Ohio ruffed grouse (Bonasa um- bellus) from both the glaciated northeast and the more southern unglaciated hill country ranges showed only small deviations from the 4-year (1974-1977) mean. Hill country grouse were heavier (P < 0.05) than northeastern birds in winter, but not in fall (October-November). Year-around (1969-1982) bodyweights were obtained only
Gravity is a force that influences all living systems, and is often disregarded in the study of environment on growth and development. To assess the effect of gravity exposure on growth, immature rats (130-200 g) were evaluated during chronic altered gravity exposure and during transition between gravity fields. The effects of 14 days of spaceflight on bodyweight gain were evaluated (n=12) and compared to controls. Spaceflight did not affect weight gain. In 6 rats, the transition from spaceflight to 1 G showed a significant (p less than 0.05) post flight weight loss over 48 hr of 13 g compared to controls. Over subsequent days this loss was compensated for with no difference noted after 5 days. Exposure to hypergravity, 2 G for 16 days, was evaluated in groups of n=6 (Control; On Center Control (OCC); Centrifuged). With centrifugation or OCC there was a reduction in bodyweight within 24 hr. The OCC regained control weights within 13 days. The weight difference, 26 +/- 1 g, persisted with 2 G with no subsequent difference in weight gain over days 3-16 compared to controls; 3.7 +/- 0.1 versus 3.9 +/- 0.1 g/day respectively. Transition from centrifugation to 1 G resulted in a weight increase within 48 hours. Over 16 days the rate of gain was increased 3.1 +/- 0.1 g/day for centrifuge compared to 2.1 +/- 0.1 g/day for controls between Day 3 to 16. However, differences from control were still noted on Day 16. Transition from one gravity field to another causes acute changes in bodyweight. Transition to microgravity or 1 G, following the acute changes, results in adjustments to attain a normal weight. In hypergravity the acute reduction in bodyweight persist, but weight gain is normal. Transitioning from hypergravity to 1G results in an increased weight gain to compensate for the persistent reduction during exposure.
Wade, Charles E.; Harper, J. S.; Daunton, N. G.; Corcoran, M. L.; Morey-Holton, E.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)
weight, race\\/ethnicity, parity, and lactation. Bodyweight at conception may be particularly important among race\\/ethnic groups in which the prevalence of obesity is high (8). Both mean gestational weight gain and prevalence of overweight women in the US popu- lation have increased over the past two decades (8, 11-13). It has not been established whether increased gestational weight gain is
A sharp increase in bariatric surgery has resulted in spike in the population of patients seeking body-contouring procedures. Skin and soft tissue redundancy of the trunk, buttocks, breasts, upper arms, and thighs following massive weight loss is unsightly and results in medical problems such as musculoskeletal strain from increased tissue weight, intertrigo or functional limitation with walking, maintaining adequate hygiene,
We studied bodyweights and composition of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) during fall migration 1975-77 on stopover sites along the upper Mississippi River near La Crosse, Wisconsin (Navigational Pools 7 and 8) and Keokuk, Iowa (Navigational Pool 19). Bodyweights varied (P < 0.001) by age and sex without interaction. Weights varied by year (P < 0.001) on Pools 7 and 8. Mean weights increased (P < 0.01) within age and sex classes by date and averaged 3.6 and 2.7 g daily on Pools 7 and 8 and Pool 19, respectively. Percent fat was highly correlated (P < 0.001) with carcass weight for each age and sex. Live weight was a good predictor of total body fat. Mean estimated total body fat ranged from 200 to 300 g and comprised 15-20% of live weights among age and sex classes. Temporal weight patterns were less variable for adults than immatures, but generally increased during migration. Length of stopover varied inversely with fat reserves among color-marked adult males. Variation in fat condition of canvasbacks during fall may explain the mechanism regulating population ingress and egress on stopover sites. Fat reserves attained by canvasbacks during fall stopover may have adaptive significance in improving survival by conditioning for winter.
Background: Adolescence may be a crucial period for developing obesity and associated mental health problems. This study examined the relationship of weight status on body image, eating behavior, and depressive symptoms in youth. Methods: A survey was conducted on 1490 youth attending grades 7-12. Participants completed questionnaires on body…
Goldfield, Gary S.; Moore, Ceri; Henderson, Katherine; Buchholz, Annick; Obeid, Nicole; Flament, Martine F.
This study investigated associations between eating regulation behaviors and body mass index (BMI), weight, and percent body fat in male and female students over the first two years of college. Subjects included 328 college students (215 females and 113 males). Height and weight (via standard techniques), body composition (via bioelectrical impedance analysis), and eating regulation behaviors (using the Regulation of Eating Behavior Scale) were conducted two to three times during both the freshman and sophomore years. Significant associations between eating regulation and BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were shown mostly in females. In females, higher BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat at the end of the second year of college were found in those with low levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and high levels of amotivation, while lower BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were associated with high levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and low levels of amotivation. The findings that specific eating behaviors in females during the first two years of college influence BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat may be useful for inclusion in university programs focused on college student health to help decrease the risk of obesity and disordered eating/eating disorders in female college students. PMID:24854827
Gropper, Sareen S; Arsiwalla, Dilbur D; Lord, Denali C; Huggins, Kevin W; Simmons, Karla P; Ulrich, Pamela V
This study assessed the relation between weight and weight-related factors (i.e., body dissatisfaction, body esteem, teasing frequency, and the effects of teasing) in a community sample of prepubescent African American girls. African American girls (N = 97) in Grades 3 to 5 completed the McKnight Risk Factor Survey-Third Edition and had their…
Tyler, Chermaine; Johnston, Craig A.; Dalton, William T., III; Foreyt, John P.
Despite knowledge that early pubertal timing predicts adolescent girls' substance use, it is still unclear whether this relationship persists beyond early adolescence and whether it is conditional on girls' bodyweight. This study examined the moderating role of bodyweight in the association between early pubertal timing and adolescent girls'…
Background Health professionals working in primary care and public health have opportunities to address bodyweight status issues with their patients through face-to-face contact. The objectives of this all-Ireland project are: 1. to assess the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups on bodyweight status; 2. to assess the health professional groups' ability to identify bodyweight status in both adults and children. The health professional groups are: (a) community related public health nurses; (b) school public health nurses; (c) GPs and practice nurses (primary care); and (d) occupational health nurses (workplace) from both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Methods/Design This all-Ireland multi-disciplinary project follows a mixed methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, and consists of four components: 1. Literature review - to explore the role of health professionals in managing obesity through spontaneous intervention in a variety of health promotion settings. 2. Telephone interviews and focus groups - to gain an in-depth insight into the views of health professionals in assessing bodyweight status. 3. Survey (primarily online but also paper-based) - to determine the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of health professionals in assessing bodyweight status. 4. Online evaluation study - an online interactive programme will be developed to assess health professionals' ability to identify the bodyweight status of adults and children. Discussion This project will assess and report the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups within Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland on bodyweight status, and their ability to identify bodyweight status in both adults and children. The results of this project will generate recommendations for clinical practice in managing obesity, which may inform policy guidelines. PMID:21453525
As for many human diseases, the incidence of obesity and its associated health risks are sexually dimorphic: worldwide the rate of obesity is higher in women. Sex differences in metabolism, appetite, body composition, and fat deposition are contributing biological factors. Gonadal hormones regulate the development of many sexually dimorphic traits in humans and animals, and, in addition, studies in mice indicate a role for direct genetic effects of sex chromosome dosage on bodyweight, deposition of fat, and circadian timing of feeding behavior. Specifically, mice of either sex with 2 X chromosomes, typical of normal females, have heavier bodyweights, gain more weight, and eat more food during the light portion of the day than mice of either sex with a single X chromosome. Here we test the effects of X chromosome dosage on bodyweight and report that gonadal females with 2 X chromosomes express higher levels of GH gene (Gh) mRNA in the preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus than females with 1 X chromosome and males. Furthermore, Gh expression in the POA of the hypothalamus of mice with 2 X chromosomes correlated with bodyweight; GH is known to have orexigenic properties. Acute infusion of GH into the POA increased immediate food intake in normal (XY) males. We propose that X inactivation–escaping genes modulate Gh expression and food intake, and this is part of the mechanism by which individuals with 2 X chromosomes are heavier than individuals with a single X chromosome. PMID:23861378
Background: Boric acid is widely used in biology, but its bodyweight reducing effect is not researched. Methods: Twenty mice were divided into two equal groups. Control group mice drank standard tap water, but study group mice drank 0.28mg/250ml boric acid added tap water over five days. Total bodyweight changes, major organ histopathology, blood biochemistry, urine and feces analyses were compared. Results: Study group mice lost bodyweight mean 28.1% but in control group no weight loss and also weight gained mean 0.09% (p<0.001). Total drinking water and urine outputs were not statistically different. Cholesterol, LDL, AST, ALT, LDH, amylase and urobilinogen levels were statistically significantly high in the study group. Other variables were not statistically different. No histopathologic differences were detected in evaluations of all resected major organs. Conclusion: Low dose oral boric acid intake cause serious bodyweight reduction. Blood and urine analyses support high glucose, lipid and middle protein catabolisms, but the mechanism is unclear. PMID:22135611
Aysan, Erhan; Sahin, Fikrettin; Telci, Dilek; Yalvac, Mehmet Emir; Emre, Sinem Hocaoglu; Karaca, Cetin; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut
This research evaluated a dual pathway model for body dissatisfaction among adolescent boys. The study provides empirical\\u000a support for the importance of distinguishing between weight and muscularity concerns in understanding male body image. A total\\u000a of 128 boys from grades 8 and 11 completed a self-report questionnaire. Results indicated that weight and muscularity concerns\\u000a each made unique contributions to body
The objective of this study was to develop a transparent, comprehensive, and flexible model for each trait for the formulation of breeding objectives for sow traits in swine breeding programs. Economic values were derived from submodels considering a typical Australian pig production system. Differences in timing and expressions of traits were accounted for to derive economic weights that were compared on the basis of their relative size after multiplication by their corresponding genetic standard deviation to account for differences in scale and genetic variability present for each trait. The number of piglets born alive had the greatest contribution (27.1%) to a subindex containing only maternal traits, followed by daily gain (maternal; 22.0%) and sow mature weight (15.0%). Other traits considered in the maternal breeding objective were preweaning survival (11.8%), sow longevity (12.5%), gilt age at puberty (8.7%), and piglet survival at birth (3.1%). The economic weights for number of piglets born alive and preweaning piglet survival were found to be highly dependent on the definition of scale of enterprise, with each economic value increasing by approximately 100% when it was assumed that the value of extra output per sow could be captured, rather than assuming a consequent reduction in the number of sows to maintain a constant level of output from a farm enterprise. In the context of a full maternal line index that must account also for the expression of direct genetic traits by the growing piglet progeny of sows, the maternal traits contributed approximately half of the variation in the overall breeding objective. Deployment of more comprehensive maternal line indexes incorporating the new maternal traits described would lead to more balanced selection outcomes and improved survival of pigs. Future work could facilitate evaluation of the economic impacts of desired-gains indexes, which could further improve animal welfare through improved sow and piglet survival. The results justify further development of selection criteria and breeding value prediction systems for a wider range of maternal traits relevant to pig production systems. PMID:25367527
The relation between bodyweight and responding established with unsignaled delayed reinforcement was investigated. In three experiments, naive rats were deprived to either 70%, 80%, or 90% of ad libitum weight and were then exposed to tandem variable-interval 15-s differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior 30-s schedules. The tandem schedule defined a resetting unsignaled delay-of-reinforcement procedure. In the first experiment, speed of magazine training, acquisition of lever pressing, and final rate of lever pressing were related to bodyweight. In the next experiment, lever pressing was established and maintained in rats that were magazine trained at 70% of ad libitum weight but that were then exposed to the delay procedure at 90% of ad libitum weight. Responding did not change consistently either across or within subjects in subsequent conditions in which bodyweight was manipulated. In the final experiment, lever pressing was established and maintained with delayed reinforcement in the absence of magazine training for each of 2 rats at 70% and for 1 of 2 rats at 90% of ad libitum weight. The results further illuminate the conditions under which responding can be established in the absence of training and when such responses are reinforced only following an unsignaled delay period. PMID:9037784
The Skinny on BodyWeight Regulation: The Role of Retinoid Signaling in Photoperiod-Mediated Weight model for investigating the mechanisms regu- lating bodyweight and metabolic rate. Before winter decrease ( 30%) in bodyweight (2Â6). This decrease allows animals to survive challenging winter conditions
...usefulness in reducing or maintaining bodyweight. 105.66 Section 105.66...usefulness in reducing or maintaining bodyweight. (a) General requirements...usefulness in reducing or maintaining bodyweight shall bear: (1)...
...usefulness in reducing or maintaining bodyweight. 105.66 Section 105.66...usefulness in reducing or maintaining bodyweight. (a) General requirements...usefulness in reducing or maintaining bodyweight shall bear: (1)...
...usefulness in reducing or maintaining bodyweight. 105.66 Section 105.66...usefulness in reducing or maintaining bodyweight. (a) General requirements...usefulness in reducing or maintaining bodyweight shall bear: (1)...
SCALING RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BODYWEIGHT AND FERMENTATION GUT CAPACITY IN AXIS DEER DAWN M 78666, USA The scaling relationship between bodyweight and fermentation gut capacity presumably impacts dietary patterns of ruminants. Interspecific scaling relationships between bodyweight and fermentation
Aspbury, Andrea S. - Department of Biology, Texas State University
...usefulness in reducing or maintaining bodyweight. 105.66 Section 105.66...usefulness in reducing or maintaining bodyweight. (a) General requirements...usefulness in reducing or maintaining bodyweight shall bear: (1)...
...usefulness in reducing or maintaining bodyweight. 105.66 Section 105.66...usefulness in reducing or maintaining bodyweight. (a) General requirements...usefulness in reducing or maintaining bodyweight shall bear: (1)...
Fat distribution alterations and lipodystrophy occur as part of a broad spectrum of body alterations in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)\\/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Recent advances in HIV therapies, including highly active antiretroviral therapy, contribute to these fat distribution alterations. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the relationships of weight change, body image, length of time with HIV\\/AIDS
Inge B. Corless; Patrice K. Nicholas; Chris A. McGibbon; Christine Wilson
Research compared obese and average-weight children with regard to concerns about being or becoming overweight, history of dieting, concerns about the effects of eating food, and perceived discrepancy between real and ideal body image. Participants included 526 obese and average-weight elementary-age school children to whom questionnaires were administered. Gender (male\\/female), obesity status (obese\\/average-weight), and grade level (lower elementary\\/upper elementary) were
The proposed Weight and Body Conditioning Program for High School Athletes focuses on Exercises that can be performed without the use of expensive gym equipment. Often public schools do not have the financial resources that private school have to create state-of-the art exercise and training rooms for athletes. In addition, public schools are frequently the victims of budget cuts such
The guidelines for body contouring reconstructive surgery present an evidence-based guide for management of redundant tissue after massive weight loss. A standardised referral pathway to ensure safe and equitable patient care on the National Health Service (NHS) throughout England is recommended. A database of all patients for research purposes is suggested. PMID:24909630
The impact of energy economy on bodyweight loss was inves- tigated in 20 obese women, submitted to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Resting energy expenditure (REE), substrate oxidation rates, plasma glucose, free fatty acid, and insulin and leptin levels were measured before and 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. Predicted REE was obtained from linear regression analysis of REE and
E. BOBBIONI-HARSCH; P. MOREL; O. HUBER; F. ASSIMACOPOULOS-JEANNET; G. CHASSOT; T. LEHMANN; M. VOLERY; A. GOLAY
The desire to achieve a normal, culturally acceptable body is often seen as the main driver of food-consumption practices adopted by individuals who are concerned about their bodyweight. In social research into weight management self-control is therefore often a central theme. Turning the focus towards practices and values related to food shopping, this study adds to our understanding of central features in perceptions of normality among people with weight concerns. In a qualitative study 25 people who participated in a dietary intervention trial in Denmark were interviewed and five people were observed. The study shows that the aim of achieving a normal body does not eclipse the importance of enacting values linked to ideas of the 'normal consumer'. Using empirical examples, the study illuminates how consumer freedom is attained in ways that are both complementary to, and in conflict with, practices and experiences of controlling food intake. The paper suggests that freedom and control are composite and complementary ideals of normality for people with weight concerns. On the basis of this insight, the authors discuss the contribution the paper makes to existing studies of weight management and food consumption. PMID:25086208
A postichopus japonicus (Holothuroidea, Echinodermata) is an ecological and economic species in East Asia. Conventional biometric monitoring method includes diving for samples and weighing above water, with highly variable in weight measurement due to variation in the quantity of water in the respiratory tree and intestinal content of this species. Recently, video survey method has been applied widely in biometric detection on underwater benthos. However, because of the high flexibility of A. japonicus body, video survey method of monitoring is less used in sea cucumber. In this study, we designed a model to evaluate the wet weight of A. japonicus, using machine vision technology combined with a support vector machine (SVM) that can be used in field surveys on the A. japonicus population. Continuous dorsal images of free-moving A. japonicus individuals in seawater were captured, which also allows for the development of images of the core body edge as well as thorn segmentation. Parameters that includebody length, body breadth, perimeter and area, were extracted from the core body edge images and used in SVM regression, to predict the weight of A. japonicus and for comparison with a power model. Results indicate that the use of SVM for predicting the weight of 33 A. japonicus individuals is accurate (R 2=0.99) and compatible with the power model (R 2=0.96). The image-based analysis and size-weight regression models in this study may be useful in bodyweight evaluation of A. japonicus in lab and field study.
Social stressors at work (such as conflict or animosities) imply disrespect or a lack of appreciation and thus a threat to self. Stress induced by this offence to self might result, over time, in a change in bodyweight. The current study investigated the impact of changing working conditions —specifically social stressors, demands, and control at work— on women’s change in weightedBody-Mass-Index over the course of a year. Fifty-seven women in their first year of occupational life participated at baseline and thirty-eight at follow-up. Working conditions were assessed by self-reports and observer-ratings. Body-Mass-Index at baseline and change in Body-Mass-Index one year later were regressed on self-reported social stressors as well as observed work stressors, observed job control, and their interaction. Seen individually, social stressors at work predicted Body-Mass-Index. Moreover, increase in social stressors and decrease of job control during the first year of occupational life predicted increase in Body-Mass-Index. Work redesign that reduces social stressors at work and increases job control could help to prevent obesity epidemic. PMID:24429516
of bodyweight (BW) may not determine proportional variations on body condition (BC), specially during parturition up to the sixth month of lactation. The treatments consisted of 3 different levels of intake : (T1) = ad libitum, (T2) = food enough to meet the maintenance requirements plus a milk production of 15 kg
The role of possessing an abnormal bodyweight in the body image alterations of obese patients was evaluated in bariatric surgery subjects prior to and at long term after operation, when bodyweight and shape had become steadily normalized. Body image was assessed by the body dissatisfaction scale of the Eating Disorders Inventory, the Body Shape Questionnaire, and the Body
Gian Franco Adami; Anna Meneghelli; Annalisa Bressani; Nicola Scopinaro
1. The present study was conducted to compare bodyweight, daily weight gain, relative growth rate, food intake, food conversion efficiency, abdominal fat weight, thyroid weight, plasma T4 concentration, body temperature, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production and heat production among three Japanese?quail lines selected for bodyweight: a random bred line (RR) and lines for large (LL) or small (SS)
Background Childhood obesity is a continuing problem in the UK and South Asian children represent a group that are particularly vulnerable to its health consequences. The relationship between body dissatisfaction and obesity is well documented in older children and adults, but is less clear in young children, particularly South Asians. A better understanding of this relationship in young South Asian children will inform the design and delivery of obesity intervention programmes. The aim of this study is to describe body image size perception and dissatisfaction, and their relationship to weight status in primary school aged UK South Asian children. Methods Objective measures of height and weight were undertaken on 574 predominantly South Asian children aged 5-7 (296 boys and 278 girls). BMI z-scores, and weight status (underweight, healthy weight, overweight or obese) were calculated based on the UK 1990 BMI reference charts. Figure rating scales were used to assess perceived body image size (asking children to identify their perceived body size) and dissatisfaction (difference between perceived current and ideal body size). The relationship between these and weight status were examined using multivariate analyses. Results Perceived body image size was positively associated with weight status (partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 0.63 (95% CI 0.26-0.99) and for BMI z-score was 0.21 (95% CI 0.10-0.31), adjusted for sex, age and ethnicity). Body dissatisfaction was also associated with weight status, with overweight and obese children more likely to select thinner ideal body size than healthy weight children (adjusted partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 1.47 (95% CI 0.99-1.96) and for BMI z-score was 0.54 (95% CI 0.40-0.67)). Conclusions Awareness of body image size and increasing body dissatisfaction with higher weight status is established at a young age in this population. This needs to be considered when designing interventions to reduce obesity in young children, in terms of both benefits and harms. PMID:21214956
Here we review the emerging neurobiological understanding of the role of the brain’s reward system in the regulation of body\\u000a weight in health and in disease. Common obesity is characterized by the over-consumption of palatable\\/rewarding foods, reflecting\\u000a an imbalance in the relative importance of hedonic versus homeostatic signals. The popular ‘incentive salience theory’ of\\u000a food reward recognises not only a
Emil Egecioglu; Karolina P. Skibicka; Caroline Hansson; Mayte Alvarez-Crespo; P. Anders Friberg; Elisabet Jerlhag; Jörgen A. Engel; Suzanne L. Dickson
The empirical scaling from adult to pediatric using allometric size adjustments based on bodyweight continued to be the mainstream method for pediatric dose selection. Due to the flexibility of a polynomial function to conform to the data trend, an empirical function for simulating age-matched weight and body mass index by gender in the pediatric population is developed by using a polynomial function and a constant coefficient to describe the interindividual variability in weight. A polynomial of up to fifth order sufficiently described the pediatric data from the Center for Disease Control (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO). The coefficients of variation to describe the variability were within 17%. The percentages of the CDC simulated weights for pediatrics between 0 and 5 years that fell outside the WHO 90% and 95% confidence boundaries were well within the expected percentage values, indicating that the CDC dataset can be used to substitute for the WHO dataset for the purpose of pediatric drug development. To illustrate the utility of this empirical function, the CDC-based age-matched weights were simulated and were used in the prediction of the concentration-time profiles of tenofovir in children based on a population pharmacokinetic model whose parameters were allometrically scaled. We have shown that the resulting 95% prediction interval of tenofovir in newborn to 5 years of age was almost identical whether the weights were simulated based on WHO or CDC dataset. The approach is simple and is broadly applicable in adjusting for pediatric dosages using allometry. PMID:25155824
Sy, Sherwin K B; Asin-Prieto, Eduardo; Derendorf, Hartmut; Samara, Emil
The purpose of this study was to identify new indexes of body composition that characterize the normal weight obese (NWO) women. We measured body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and resting metabolic rate (RMR) by indirect calorimetry in a cohort of seventy-five healthy Italian women, subdivided into three groups (nonobese/controls, NWO, preobese-obese women). Despite a normal body mass index (BMI), the NWO women have a higher body fat mass percentage (FAT %) (38.99 +/- 6.03) associated to a significant (p = 0.02) lower amount of lean mass of legs (12.24 +/- 1.31) and lean mass of left leg (6.07 +/- 0.64) with respect to the control group. The NWO group showed a significant (p = 0.043) lower RMR (1201.25 +/- 349.02) in comparison with nonobese and preobese-obese women. To classify NWO individuals among general population, we identified three significant body composition indexes: abdominal index, leg index and trunk index. The NWO women showed significant increased value in the three indexes (p < 0.001). Our results suggest that, despite a normal BMI, the NWO women displayed a cluster of anthropometric characteristics (body fat mass percentage, leg indexes) not different to obese women ones. An appropriate diet-therapy and physical activity may be protecting NWO individuals from diabetes and cardiovascular diseases associated to preobese-obese women. PMID:16910350
Di Renzo, L; Del Gobbo, V; Bigioni, M; Premrov, M G; Cianci, R; De Lorenzo, A
Toxoplasmosis, a disease caused by the parasitic protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, can cause a number of clinical signs in mice, includingweight loss. This weight loss likely is related to the host immune response and is important to monitor in Toxoplasma studies. Several studies have demonstrated that nesting material can affect bodyweights of mice. We therefore sought to assess the effects of nesting material on bodyweights of mice infected with Toxoplasma. We housed mice with or without nesting material and weighed and clinically assessed them twice weekly for 30 days prior to and 5 wk after Toxoplasma inoculation. Nesting material did not significantly alter the weights of mice after Toxoplasma inoculation but did decrease rates of growth prior to inoculation. Nesting material did not affect the clinical outcome of Toxoplasma infections, supporting the provision of nesting material in mouse Toxoplasma experiments. PMID:24041206
OF CONTENTS. Y1 1 1 LIST OF TABLES. . . . LIST OF FIGURES. CHAPTER X11 I INTRODUCTION: ASSESSMENT OF BODY COMPOSITION IN FISH, II DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A STANDARD WEIGHT (Ws) EQUATION FOR CHANNEL CATFISH, Ictalurus punctatus Introduction.... Methods. . Results and Discussion. 6 7 12 III APPLICATION OF ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY FOR NONDESTRUCTIVE MEASUREMENT OF CHANNEL CAT- FISH, Ictalurus punctatus, BODY COMPOSITION, . . . . ?. . . . . . . . . . . 23 Introduction. . 23 CHAPTLR...
Excess bodyweight (EBW) is an independent risk factor for many human malignancies, including cancers throughout the gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary tract from the esophagus to the colorectum. The relative risk of gastrointestinal cancer in obese individuals is approximately 1.5–2.0 times that for normal weight individuals, with organ-specific and gender-specific differences for specific cancers. The association between EBW and risk of
Abstract # 6851 Assessing the Role of Potatoes and Glycemic Index in BodyWeight Management for weight loss than glycemic index, we expect no difference in bodyweight (BW) changes between low glycemic)]. Preliminary data indicates no significant treatment effect on bodyweight or composition, glucose tolerance
Background: This study examined the relationship between actual bodyweight and self-perceived weight, and how perception of one's weight affects weight management behaviors among US adolescents. Methods: Adolescents ages 16-19 years with objectively-measured weight and height and self-reported perception of weight, weight-loss efforts, and…
Research has shown that exercise for weight control is associated with disordered eating indices in older adolescent or adult\\u000a exercisers in fitness centers. This study examined whether these relationships could be replicated in a more general sample\\u000a of 140 Dutch adolescent girls between 13 and 18 years old. Questions about sport participation, items from the Multidimensional\\u000a Body Image Questionnaire and BULIT-R,
Liesbeth Woertman; Frank C. Bakker; Raôul R. D. Oudejans
Standardized uptake values(SUVs) arewidelyusedto measure 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)uptake in venoustumors.ft has beenreported thatnormalization ofFDGuptake forpatient bodyweight(SUV@) overestimates FDGuptake inheavypatients, as theirfraclionof bodyfat (wfthlow FDGuptake)is oftenin creased. The objecth,eofthusstudywas to determineifâ€śnormal izalionof FDGuptake for the body surface areaâ€ť (SUV@)is independentofthe patient'sbodysize and is morereliablethan SUVbW.Methods: FDG-PET images were acquired on 44 pa tients (body walght range: 45â€\\
Chun K. Kim; Naresh C. Gupta; B. Chandramouli; Abass Alavi
The aim of this study was to describe the effectiveness of individualized dietary counseling in obese subjects based on narrative interview technique on the maintenance of bodyweight reduction, changes in dietary behaviors, including type of cooking and physical activity. One-hundred subjects out of four-hundred patients met the inclusion criteria. Individually, 45-minute educational program with motivation counseling was performed in 0, 6 and 12 weeks of the study. Patients were advised to follow individually well-balanced diet for 12 weeks. The individuals were asked about the changes in their dietary habits (Food Frequency Questionnaire). The mean percentage of bodyweight changes from the baseline were as follows: in 6th week- 5.9%, in 12th week - 10.9% and in 52th week - 9.7% (P < 0.0001), however there were no statistically significant changes while comparing bodyweight in 12th and 52th week. The maintenance of bodyweight reduction was connected with the dietary habits changes, mainly the type of cooking and increased consumption of vegetable oils. In conclusion, individualized dietary counseling, based on narrative interview technique is an effective intervention for obesity treatment that may help maintain bodyweight reduction and adapt the pro-healthy changes in type of cooking and sources of dietary fat. PMID:25311271
Energy density is a relatively new concept that has been identified as an important factor in bodyweight control in adults and in children and adolescents. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 encourages consumption of an eating pattern low in energy density to manage bodyweight. This article describes the systematic evidence-based review conducted by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (DGAC), with support from the US Department of Agriculture's Nutrition Evidence Library, which resulted in this recommendation. An update to the committee's review was prepared for this article. PubMed was searched for English-language publications from January 1980 to May 2011. The literature review included 17 studies (seven randomized controlled trials, one nonrandomized controlled trial, and nine cohort studies) in adults and six cohort studies in children and adolescents. Based on this evidence, the 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee concluded that strong and consistent evidence in adults indicates that dietary patterns relatively low in energy density improve weight loss and weight maintenance. In addition, the committee concluded that there was moderately strong evidence from methodologically rigorous longitudinal cohort studies in children and adolescents to suggest that there is a positive association between dietary energy density and increased adiposity. This review supports a relationship between energy density and bodyweight in adults and in children and adolescents such that consuming diets lower in energy density may be an effective strategy for managing bodyweight. PMID:22480489
Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Obbagy, Julie E; Altman, Jean M; Essery, Eve V; McGrane, Mary M; Wong, Yat Ping; Spahn, Joanne M; Williams, Christine L
'Fetal programming' is a newly emerging field that is revealing astounding insights into the prenatal origins of adult disease, including metabolic, endocrine, and cardiovascular pathophysiology. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that rat pups conceived, gestated and born at 2-g have significantly reduced birth weights and increased adult bodyweights as compared to 1-g controls. Offspring were produced by mating young adult male and female rats that were adapted to 2-g centrifugation. Female rats underwent conception, pregnancy and birth at 2-g. Newborn pups in the 2-g condition were removed from the centrifuge and fostered to non-manipulated, newly parturient dams maintained at 1 -g. Comparisons were made with 1-g stationary controls, also crossfostered at birth. As compared to 1-g controls, birth weights of pups gestated and born at 2-g were significantly reduced. Pup bodyweights were significantly reduced until Postnatal day (P) 12. Beginning on P63, bodyweights of 2-g-gestated offspring exceeded those of 1-g controls by 7-10%. Thus, prenatal rearing at 2-g restricts neonatal growth and increases adult bodyweight. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that 2-g centrifugation alters the intrauterine milieu, thereby inducing persistent changes in adult phenotype.
Baer, Lisa A.; Rushing, Linda; Wade, Charles E.; Ronca, April E.
Excessive BW has become a major health issue in the equine (Equus caballus) industry. The objectives were to determine if the addition of neck circumference and height improved existing BW estimation equations, to develop an equation for estimation of ideal BW, and to develop a method for assessing the likelihood of being overweight in adult equids. Six hundred and twenty-nine adult horses and ponies who met the following criteria were measured and weighed at 2 horse shows in September 2011 in Minnesota: age ? 3 yr, height ? 112 cm, and nonpregnant. Personnel assessed BCS on a scale of 1 to 9 and measured wither height at the third thoracic vertebra, body length from the point of shoulder to the point of the buttock, neck and girth circumference, and weight using a portable livestock scale. Individuals were grouped into breed types on the basis of existing knowledge and were confirmed with multivariate ANOVA analysis of morphometric measurements. Equations for estimated and ideal BW were developed using linear regression modeling. For estimated BW, the model was fit using all individuals and all morphometric measurements. For ideal BW, the model was fit using individuals with a BCS of 5; breed type, height, and body length were considered as these measurements are not affected by adiposity. A BW score to assess the likelihood of being overweight was developed by fitting a proportional odds logistic regression model on BCS using the difference between ideal and estimated BW, the neck to height ratio, and the girth to height ratio as predictors; this score was then standardized using the data from individuals with a BCS of 5. Breed types included Arabian, stock, and pony. Mean (± SD) BCS was 5.6 ± 0.9. BW (kg) was estimated by taking [girth (cm)(1.48)6 × length (cm)(0.554) × height (cm)(0.599) × neck (cm)(0.173)]/3,596, 3,606, and 3,441 for Arabians, ponies, and stock horses, respectively (R(2) = 0.92; mean-squared error (MSE) = 22 kg). Ideal BW (kg) was estimated by taking [length (cm) × 2.8] + [height (cm) × 4.2] - 611, 606, and 577 for Arabians, ponies, and stock horses, respectively (R(2) = 0.86; MSE = 24). Equids with a BCS of ? 7 had a greater likelihood of being overweight, and the model suggested cutoffs at the 48th and 83rd percentiles for underweight and overweight individuals, respectively. Morphometric measurements were successfully used to develop equid BW-related equations. PMID:24663191
Martinson, K L; Coleman, R C; Rendahl, A K; Fang, Z; McCue, M E
Background Successful weight management involves the regulation of eating behavior. However, the specific mechanisms underlying its successful regulation remain unclear. This study examined one potential mechanism by testing a model in which improved body image mediated the effects of obesity treatment on eating self-regulation. Further, this study explored the role of different body image components. Methods Participants were 239 overweight women (age: 37.6 ± 7.1 yr; BMI: 31.5 ± 4.1 kg/m2) engaged in a 12-month behavioral weight management program, which included a body image module. Self-reported measures were used to assess evaluative and investment body image, and eating behavior. Measurements occurred at baseline and at 12 months. Baseline-residualized scores were calculated to report change in the dependent variables. The model was tested using partial least squares analysis. Results The model explained 18-44% of the variance in the dependent variables. Treatment significantly improved both body image components, particularly by decreasing its investment component (f2 = .32 vs. f2 = .22). Eating behavior was positively predicted by investment body image change (p < .001) and to a lesser extent by evaluative body image (p < .05). Treatment had significant effects on 12-month eating behavior change, which were fully mediated by investment and partially mediated by evaluative body image (effect ratios: .68 and .22, respectively). Conclusions Results suggest that improving body image, particularly by reducing its salience in one's personal life, might play a role in enhancing eating self-regulation during weight control. Accordingly, future weight loss interventions could benefit from proactively addressing body image-related issues as part of their protocols. PMID:21767360
The major objective of this research was to develop equations to estimate BW and body composition using measurements taken with inexpensive instruments. We used five groups of chickens that were created with different genetic stocks and feeding programs. Four of the five groups were from broiler genetic stock, and one was from sex-linked heavy layers. The goal was to sample six males from each group when the group weight was 1.20, 1.75, and 2.30 kg. Each male was weighed and measured for back length, pelvis width, circumference, breast width, keel length, and abdominal skinfold thickness. A cloth tape measure, calipers, and skinfold calipers were used for measurement. Chickens were scanned for total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) before being euthanized and frozen. Six females were selected at weights similar to those for males and were measured in the same way. Each whole chicken was ground, and a portion of ground material of each was used to measure water, fat, ash, and energy content. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate BW from body measurements. The best single measurement was pelvis width, with an R2 = 0.67. Inclusion of three body measurements in an equation resulted in R2 = 0.78 and the following equation: BW (g) = -930.0 + 68.5 (breast, cm) + 48.5 (circumference, cm) + 62.8 (pelvis, cm). The best single measurement to estimate body fat was abdominal skinfold thickness, expressed as a natural logarithm. Inclusion of weight and skinfold thickness resulted in R2 = 0.63 for body fat according to the following equation: fat (%) = 24.83 + 6.75 (skinfold, ln cm) - 3.87 (wt, kg). Inclusion of the result of TOBEC and the effect of sex improved the R2 to 0.78 for body fat. Regression analysis was used to develop additional equations, based on fat, to estimate water and energy contents of the body. The body water content (%) = 72.1 - 0.60 (body fat, %), and body energy (kcal/g) = 1.097 + 0.080 (body fat, %). The results of the present study indicated that the composition of a chicken's body could be estimated from the models that were developed. PMID:11469647
Body image and weight loss beliefs and behaviors were assessed in 341 female and 221 male high school students. Estimates of body dissatisfaction varied depending on the measurement strategy used. Despite having similar weight distributions around the expected norm, girls were significantly more dissatisfied with their bodies than boys. Body Mass Index was positively related to body dissatisfaction in girls
Susan J. Paxton; Eleanor H. Wertheim; Kay Gibbons; George I. Szmukler; Lynne Hillier; Janice L. Petrovich
II. Statistical comparison of White Leghorn, Degalb 101 inbred hybrids, and Hyline 934 inbred hybrids, for bodyweight, egg weight, egg production, and feed efficiency . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . 12 III . Correlation coefficients between... total feed con- sumption and various hereditary oharaoteristioa in which the three breeding groups differ RIQURXS 1. Average bodyweights by 4 week periods 2. Average egg weights by 4-week periods 3. Average egg produotioa by 4-week periods Pounds...
Weight-loss supplements typically fall into 1 of 4 categories depending on their hypothesized mechanism of action: products that block the absorption of fat or carbohydrate, stimulants that increase thermogenesis, products that change metabolism and improve body composition, and products that suppress appetite or give a sense of fullness. Each category is reviewed, and an overview of the current science related to their effectiveness is presented. While some weight-loss supplements produce modest effects (<2 kg weight loss), many have either no or few randomized clinical trials examining their effectiveness. A number of factors confound research results associated with the efficacy of weight-loss supplements, such as small sample sizes, short intervention periods, little or no follow-up, and whether the supplement is given in combination with an energy-restricted diet or increased exercise expenditure. There is no strong research evidence indicating that a specific supplement will produce significant weight loss (>2 kg), especially in the long term. Some foods or supplements such as green tea, fiber, and calcium supplements or dairy products may complement a healthy lifestyle to produce small weight losses or prevent weight gain over time. Weight-loss supplements containing metabolic stimulants (e.g., caffeine, ephedra, synephrine) are most likely to produce adverse side effects and should be avoided. PMID:22465867
Deficits in dopamine D2/D3 receptor (D2R/D3R) binding availability using PET imaging have been reported in obese humans and rodents. Similar deficits have been reported in cocaine-addicts and cocaine-exposed primates. We found that D2R/D3R binding availability negatively correlated with measures of bodyweight at the time of scan (ventral striatum), at 1 (ventral striatum) and 2 months (dorsal and ventral striatum) post scan in rats. Cocaine preference was negatively correlated with D2R/D3R binding availability 2 months (ventral striatum) post scan. Our findings suggest that inherent deficits in striatal D2R/D3R signaling are related to obesity and drug addiction susceptibility and that ventral and dorsal striatum serve dissociable roles in maintaining weight gain and cocaine preference. Measuring D2R/D3R binding availability provides a way for assessing susceptibility to weight gain and cocaine abuse in rodents and given the translational nature of PET imaging, potentially primates and humans.
Michaelides M.; Wang G.; Michaelides M.; Thanos P.K. Kim R.; Cho J.; Ananth M.; Wang G.-J.; Volkow N.D.
AND DISCUSSION ~ ~ ~ A. Feed Efficiency B. Egg Production C. BodyWeights D. Egg Weights. E. Pause in Production. F. Effect of Position Page 1 7 9 . 11 . 12 . 14 . 15 . 16 G. Cage Performance Versus Floor Performanoe. . . 18 H ~ Age to 50 Percent... ~ Statistical comparison of White Inbred Hybrid No. 1, and Inbred for initial bodyweight, change average body ~eight, and age to production Leghorns, Hybrid No. 2, in bodyweighted 50 percent 29 VII ' Statistical comparison of White Leghorns, Inbred...
to elucidate the mechanism controlling voluntary food intake in ruminants was to determine and compareEffects of long-term ad libitum feeding on the voluntary food intake, bodyweight, body composition in bodyweight and food intake could be divided into three phases. In the first phase, a high food intake
Five commercial botanical products (Shilianhua [SLH] tablets, Shiu Huo pills, Fenulyn, Bitter Melon, and Glucose Metabolic Support), available in the US market, with reported claims for regulation of metabolism were screened for their effect on bodyweight gain in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Pilot results suggested that SLH tablets attenuated bodyweight gain, whereas Shiu Huo pills and Fenulyn tended to promote weight gain in the mice on the high-fat diet. To investigate the bioactive components in the SLH tablet, the wild SLH plant (Sinocrassula indica Berge) was collected from China and used to make a variety of extracts including aqueous extract, ethanol extract (SLH-E), and subfraction F100. In the study of metabolic activities, the extracts were administrated through food intake by incorporating them into the diet. A rigorous evaluation of the extracts on bodyweight was conducted in 2 animal models. The aqueous extract and SLH-E were tested in dietary obese mice, while F100 together with SLH-E was tested in KK-Ay mice, a genetic diabetic model. In the 12- to 16-week study, bodyweight was not significantly altered by the SLH extracts in the 2 animal models. The results suggest that neither the total extract nor the purified components from the SLH plant have a clear effect in the regulation of bodyweight. The weight reduction observed with the over-the-counter SLH tablet in the pilot studies may be secondary to other components in the tablet, but not from the SLH extract. PMID:18555854
Yin, Jun; Zuberi, Aamir; Gao, Zhanguo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Zhijun; Cefalu, William T; Ye, Jianping
Satiety is a complex psycho-physiological mechanism that allows the adjustment of energy intake to expenditures. As such, it plays an important role among the numerous interacting mechanisms contributing to bodyweight control. Booth and Nouwen rightfully stress that satiety claims can be misleading and even dangerous when they are misrepresented or misinterpreted as slimming claims. Indeed, a substance that might enhance satiety, especially by affecting sensations on the short term, will not necessarily help to decrease energy intake on the longer term or facilitate weight loss. While denouncing abusive claims, the article by Booth and Nouwen also refers to numerous contributions of satiety mechanisms that could potentially affect intake and weight control over the long term. We propose that multi-step proofs of concepts could be useful in this field. Satiety effects are one early step in a complex demonstration of how a substance could affect short-term intake, hormonal mechanisms, and medium or long term changes in bodyweight. An example of such a step-wise process is described (beneficial effects of calcium and dairy products on appetite and weight change). Booth and Nouwen insist that satiety effects should be evaluated in the context of the local socio-cultural meal pattern and lifestyle. This wise advice supports the use of multi-step proofs of concept, perhaps including the use of biomarkers as well as behavioural measures, before any satiety enhancement claim can be considered to have any actual impact on bodyweight control. PMID:21192996
The present experiment examined effects of nicotine on bodyweight of male and female rats when Oreo cookies, potato chips, laboratory chow, and water were available. Bodyweight and eating behavior were measured for 17-day periods before, during, and after nicotine or saline administration. There was an inverse relationship between nicotine and bodyweight. These effects were paralleled by changes
Neil E. Grunberg; Kathryn A. Popp; Suzan E. Winders
BACKGROUND: A sedentary lifestyle is often assumed to lead to increases in bodyweight and potentially obesity and related diseases but in fact little is known about the genetic association between physical activity and bodyweight. We tested for such an association between bodyweight and the distance, duration, and speed voluntarily run by 310 mice from the F2 generation
199 Influence of latent `asymptomatic' toxoplasmosis on bodyweight of pregnant women Jaroslav bodyweight in the 16th week of gravidity (p = 0.02) than Toxoplasma-negative women. Moreover is extremely high. Therefore, even its mild symptoms such as the decreased bodyweight in Toxoplasma
Correlates of population density and bodyweight of raptors in the family Accipitridae was signiÂ®cant using independent contrasts. Contrasts in bodyweight were positively correlated with mean with population density. Key words: Accipitridae, bodyweight, comparative method, independent contrasts
BodyWeight Status, Inflammation, and Prognostic Markers in Early-Stage Prostate Cancer Brown Bag Explore the effect of post-treatment changes in bodyweight status on 2-year risk of PSA failure Specific cancer-specific mortality Other Â· Bodyweight since age 25 & 40 years Other Â· D'Amico 5-yr PSA
Genetic correlation between length of wattles and female bodyweight at sexual maturity in the foul in order to estimate phenotypic and genetic correlations between female bodyweight and their length in other strains and genetic correlation between female bodyweight and this trait. Material and methods
Direct and correlated responses to selection for large and small 6-week bodyweight in mice Yolanda.01 for divergence. Correlated responses for 3-week bodyweight did not show asymmetry, the corresponding values and the total number of young born in the first 3 births (TNY-3). Key words : Mice, bodyweight, selection
Recent changes in bodyweight and wing length among some British passerine birds Yoram Yom, J., Thorne, C. J. R. and du Feu, R. 2006. Recent changes in bodyweight and wing length among some recent decreases in bodyweight (Bergmann's rule) and increases in wing length (Allen's rule) in 14
Background: Following a bariatric surgery and massive weight-loss, the outcome is usually sullied by consequences on the body's contour and redundant skin. Aims: We aimed to record the frequency of contour irregularities and quantify patients’ satisfaction with appearance and anticipations from body contouring surgery. Materials and Methods: The ethical committee at King Abdulaziz University Hospital approved the study, and patients were consented. A cross-sectional study targeting the post-bariatric patients from May 2011 to April 2012 was conducted at our hospital. We used post-massive weight loss Satisfaction Questionnaire. Results: The total numbers of patients were 64 (51 women and 13 men), of which 57 patients (89.2%) developed sagging skin. Most patients were dissatisfied with their appearance after weight loss. The most common zones were the upper arms (50%) and abdomen (45%). Considerably more women (36.2%) than men (24%) were dissatisfied with certain body areas. The most noticeable expectation of patients from body contouring surgery was improved cosmetic appearance (65.6%) and self-confidence (64.1%). More women (70.58%) than men (46.15%) expected a better cosmetic appearance after body contouring (P = 0.003). Conclusion: After bariatric surgery, sagging excess skin is an unsatisfactory problem. Therefore, body contouring surgery must be included in morbid obesity management. PMID:23724406
Aldaqal, Saleh M; Makhdoum, Ahmad M; Turki, Ali M; Awan, Basim A; Samargandi, Osama A; Jamjom, Hytham
Among adolescent girls, the health effects of frequent self-weighing are unclear. This study examines cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between frequency of self-weighing and body mass index (BMI), body satisfaction, weight control behaviors, and binge eating among a diverse population of adolescent girls. The study was conducted in the Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area from 2007–2009. The study population included 356 adolescent girls (mean age =15.7 years); 46.2% of the girls were overweight or obese and over 75% were from a racial/ethnic minority group. Anthropometric and survey data were collected at baseline and at follow-up, nine months later. Hierarchical linear regression models were developed to test associations. Cross-sectionally, frequent self-weighing was associated with lower body satisfaction (p = 0.034) and higher rates of healthy (p = 0.002), unhealthy (p = 0.016), and extreme (p = 0.038) weight control behaviors. A quadratic association was found between frequency of self-weighing and binge eating, with girls who weighed themselves least and most frequently reporting the highest prevalences of binge eating (p = 0.014). No association was observed between frequency of self-weighing and girls’ BMI (p = 0.111). Short-term longitudinal associations between baseline frequency of self-weighing and changes in body satisfaction, weight control behaviors, binge eating, or BMI were not observed. Findings suggest that among adolescent girls, frequent self-weighing is cross-sectionally associated with both healthy and potentially harmful unhealthy weight control behaviors, and does not contribute to weight loss over time. Adolescents should not be encouraged to engage in frequent self-weighing. PMID:22717180
Among adolescent girls, the health effects of frequent self-weighing are unclear. This study examines cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between frequency of self-weighing and body mass index (BMI), body satisfaction, weight control behaviors, and binge eating among a diverse population of adolescent girls. The study was conducted in the Minneapolis/St Paul, MN, metropolitan area between 2007 and 2009. The study population included 356 adolescent girls (mean age 15.7 years); 46.2% of the girls were overweight or obese and >75% were from a racial/ethnic minority group. Anthropometric and survey data were collected at baseline and at follow-up 9 months later. Hierarchical linear regression models were developed to test associations. Cross-sectionally, frequent self-weighing was associated with lower body satisfaction (P=0.034) and higher rates of healthy (P=0.002), unhealthy (P=0.016), and extreme (P=0.038) weight control behaviors. A quadratic association was found between frequency of self-weighing and binge eating, with girls who weighed themselves least and most frequently reporting the highest prevalences of binge eating (P=0.014). No association was observed between frequency of self-weighing and girls' BMI (P=0.111). Short-term longitudinal associations between baseline frequency of self-weighing and changes in body satisfaction, weight control behaviors, binge eating, or BMI were not observed. Findings suggest that among adolescent girls, frequent self-weighing is cross-sectionally associated with both healthy and potentially harmful unhealthy weight control behaviors, and does not contribute to weight loss over time. Adolescents should not be encouraged to engage in frequent self-weighing. PMID:22717180
Summary Background and Objectives A high body mass index (BMI) is associated with lower mortality in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Short-term weight gains and losses are also related to lower and higher mortality risk, respectively. The implications of weight gain or loss may, however, differ between obese individuals and their nonobese counterparts. Design, Setting, Participants, & Measurements The Current Management of Secondary Hyperparathyroidism: A Multicenter Observational Study (COSMOS) is an observational study including 6797 European hemodialysis patients recruited between February 2005 and July 2007, with prospective data collection every 6 months for 3 years. Time-dependent Cox proportional hazard regressions assessed the effect of BMI and weight changes on mortality. Analyses were performed after patient stratification according to their starting BMI. Results Among 6296 patients with complete data, 1643 died. At study entry, 42% of patients had a normal weight (BMI, 20–25 kg/m2), 11% were underweight, 31% were overweight, and 16% were obese (BMI ?30 kg/m2). Weight loss or gain (<1% or >1% of bodyweight) was strongly associated with higher rates of mortality or survival, respectively. After stratification by BMI categories, this was true in nonobese categories and especially in underweight patients. In obese patients, however, the association between weight loss and mortality was attenuated (hazard ratio, 1.28 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.74 to 2.14]), and no survival benefit of gaining weight was seen (hazard ratio, 0.98 [95% CI, 0.59 to 1.62]). Conclusions Assuming that these weight changes were unintentional, our study brings attention to rapid weight variations as a clinical sign of health monitoring in hemodialysis patients. In addition, a patient’s BMI modifies the strength of the association between weight changes with mortality. PMID:24009217
Cabezas-Rodriguez, Ivan; Carrero, Juan Jesus; Zoccali, Carmine; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Ketteler, Markus; Floege, Jurgen; London, Gerard; Locatelli, Francesco; Gorriz, Jose Luis; Rutkowski, Boleslaw; Memmos, Dimitrios; Ferreira, Anibal; Covic, Adrian; Teplan, Vladimir; Bos, Willem-Jan; Kramar, Reinhard; Pavlovic, Drasko; Goldsmith, David; Nagy, Judit; Benedik, Miha; Verbeelen, Dierik; Tielemans, Christian; Wuthrich, Rudolf P.; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Martinez-Salgado, Carlos; Fernandez-Martin, Jose Luis; Cannata-Andia, Jorge B.
The role of possessing an abnormal bodyweight in the body image alterations of obese patients was evaluated in bariatric surgery subjects prior to and at long term after operation, when bodyweight and shape had become steadily normalized. Body image was assessed by the body dissatisfaction scale of the Eating Disorders Inventory, the Body Shape Questionnaire, and the Body Attitude Questionnaire. When the individuals were obese, a sharply impaired body image was observed; following operation, weight loss corresponded to normalization of body dissatisfaction, feeling of fatness, and physical attractiveness, whereas body disparagement and salience of shape, although improved in comparison to preoperative data, remained significantly different from that of controls. In the obese patients, some aspects of body image alterations are substantially accounted for by overweight status; other aspects reflect inner feelings, which are partially independent of the actual bodyweight and shape. PMID:10193918
Adami, G F; Meneghelli, A; Bressani, A; Scopinaro, N
, AND BODYWEIGHT J. M. JONES, W. H. DAMERON, S. P. DAVIS, B. L. IVARWICK, AND R. E. PATTERSON Division of Range Ani .*,*Z$* q@* . - *F 6 m: . *L 2 I". . -. = *'.. . . . *\\** **..:..* -1GRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS GIRH GILCHRIST... type in Rambouillet ewes on fleece weight, length staple, fineness of fiber and bodyweight. Heaviest scoured fleeces .e produced during the third age year, however when considered on rer an unscoured or scoured basis the differences in production...
Patterson, R.E.; Warwick, B.L.; Davis, S. P; Dameron, W. H.; Jones, J. M. (John McKinley)
Background/Objectives: Bodyweight is negatively associated with adolescent Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL). Despite this well-established relationship, some adolescents with obesity do not display the expected HRQoL decreases. This study hypothesised weight perception as a moderator of the association between weight status and adolescent HRQoL. Subjects/Methods: Subjects were secondary school students from an obesity prevention project in the Barwon South-West region of Victoria, Australia, entitled It's Your Move (N=3040). Measures included standardised body mass index (BMI-z; World Health Organization growth standards), weight perception and HRQoL, measured by the Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory. Linear regression and average marginal effect analyses were conducted on cross-sectional baseline data to determine the significance of any interaction between weight perception and measured weight status in shaping adolescent HRQoL. Results: The BMI-z/perceived weight status interaction was significantly associated with adolescent HRQoL outcomes. Adolescents with BMI z-scores in the overweight/obesity range who perceived themselves as overweight had lower HRQoL than those who perceived themselves as ‘about right.' Conversely, adolescents with BMI scores in the lower end of the normal range or in the thinness range who perceived themselves as underweight had lower HRQoL than those with ‘about right' perceptions. Conclusions: This was the first study to report third-variable impacts of a body-perception variable on the relationship between adolescent weight status and HRQoL. Adolescents' weight perceptions significantly moderated the relationship between overweight/obesity and reduced HRQoL. Adolescents who were outside the normal weight range and misperceived their objectively measured weight status enjoyed a higher HRQoL than adolescents whose weight perception was concordant with their actual weight status. These findings suggest that practitioners may need to exercise caution when educating adolescents about their weight status, as such ‘reality checks' may negatively impact on adolescent HRQoL. It is suggested that more research be conducted to examine this potential effect. PMID:24824556
Bodyweight stability may imply active regulation towards a certain physiological condition, a bodyweight setpoint. This interpretation is ill at odds with the world-wide increase in overweight and obesity. Until now, a bodyweight setpoint has remained elusive and the setpoint theory did not provide practical clues for bodyweight reduction interventions. For this an alternative theoretical model is necessary, which is available as the settling point model. The settling point model postulates that there is little active regulation towards a predefined bodyweight, but that bodyweight settles based on the resultant of a number of contributors, represented by the individual’s genetic predisposition, in interaction with environmental and socioeconomic factors, such as diet and lifestyle. This review refines the settling point model and argues that by taking bodyweight regulation from a settling point perspective, the road will be opened to careful dissection of the various contributors to establishment of bodyweight and its regulation. This is both necessary and useful. Nutrigenomic technologies may help to delineate contributors to bodyweight settling. Understanding how and to which extent the different contributors influence bodyweight will allow the design of weight loss and weight maintenance interventions, which hopefully are more successful than those that are currently available. PMID:25338273
Keijer, Jaap; Hoevenaars, Femke P. M.; Nieuwenhuizen, Arie; van Schothorst, Evert M.
Methods of forming composite materials include coating particles of titanium dioxide with a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon, and reacting the titanium dioxide with the substance including boron and the substance including carbon to form titanium diboride. The methods may be used to form ceramic composite bodies and materials, such as, for example, a ceramic composite body or material including silicon carbide and titanium diboride. Such bodies and materials may be used as armor bodies and armor materials. Such methods may include forming a green body and sintering the green body to a desirable final density. Green bodies formed in accordance with such methods may include particles comprising titanium dioxide and a coating at least partially covering exterior surfaces thereof, the coating comprising a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon.
Lillo, Thomas M.; Chu, Henry S.; Harrison, William M.; Bailey, Derek
Objective Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a complex and heterogeneous childhood disorder that often coexists with other psychiatric and somatic disorders. Recently, a link between ADHD and bodyweight dysregulation has been reported and often interpreted as impaired self-regulation that is shared between the two conditions. The objective of this study is to investigate the relation between bodyweight/BMI and cognitive, emotional and motor characteristics in children with ADHD. Methods 284 ADHD children were stratified by weight status/BMI according to WHO classification and compared with regard to their neurocognitive characteristics, motivational style, and motor profile as assessed by a comprehensive battery of tests. All comparisons were adjusted for demographic characteristics of relevance including, socioeconomic status (SES). Results Both Obese and overweight ADHD children exhibited significantly lower SES compared to normal weight ADHD children. No significant differences were observed between the three groups with regards to their neurocognitive, emotional and motor profile. Conclusions Our findings provide evidence that differences in weight/BMI are not accounted for by cognitive, motivational and motor profiles. Socio-economic characteristics are strongly associated with overweight and obesity in ADHD children and may inform strategies aimed at promoting healthier weight. PMID:23383165
Choudhry, Zia; Sengupta, Sarojini M.; Harvey, William J.; Fortier, Marie-Eve; Schmitz, Norbert
Factors related to the height of the load and the frequency of handling have become a way to predict the acceptable standard weight lifted for workers whose main task is the manual lifting of materials and measuring the conditions is important to determine a maximum weight lifted. This study was conducted to twenty (20) workers between eighteen (18) and forty (40) years old with a minimum six months experience and belonging to the warehouse and packaging area of a dairy products company. Consideration was given to three different heights such as knuckle, shoulder and total height as well as frequencies of 2, 4 and 6 times per minute. Average values for lifted weight were 17.9306 ± 2.37 kg. The conclusions and recommendations included a review of legislation related to Colombian maximum acceptable weight of lifting due to the current law does not match the acceptable weight handled in this research. PMID:22316950
Saavedra-Robinson, Luisa; Quintana, Leonardo A J; Fortunato Leal, Luis Díaz; Nińo, María
Objective. To examine the association between different marital transitions and changes in body mass index (BMI) and bodyweight. Methods. A systematic literature search was conducted for peer-reviewed articles published between January 1990 and December 2011. Longitudinal studies were included if they compared dependent variables, such as BMI or weight, before and after a change in marital status. Results. Twenty articles were included: 4 articles described only transitions into marriage and/or cohabitation, 2 articles described only transitions out of marriage and/or cohabitation, and 14 articles described both. Overall, transitions into marriage were associated with weight gain, whereas transitions out of marriage were associated with weight loss. No major differences were observed between genders or across specific marital transition states. Conclusions. Additional research is warranted to better understand this phenomenon and the impact of marital transitions on obesity and obesity-related behaviors. This paper highlights potential opportunities to incorporate programs, practices, and policies that aim to promote and support healthy weights and lifestyles upon entering or leaving a marriage or cohabiting relationship. PMID:23050125
Dinour, Lauren; Leung, May May; Tripicchio, Gina; Khan, Sahar; Yeh, Ming-Chin
Objective: To assess changes in body composition with weight loss in obese subjects randomized to a laparoscopic adjustable gastric band surgical program or a medical program using a very-low-energy diet and orlistat.Research Methods and Procedures: Using body composition measurements by DXA, neutron activation for total body nitrogen, and whole body ? counting for total body potassium, we studied changes in
John B. Dixon; Boyd J. G. Strauss; Cheryl Laurie; Paul E. O'Brien
A computer program developed for determining the subsonic pressure, force, and moment coefficients for a fuselage-type body using slender body theory is described. The program is suitable for determining the angle of attack and sideslipping characteristics of such bodies in the linear range where viscous effects are not predominant. Procedures developed which are capable of treating cross sections with corners or regions of large curvature are outlined.
We investigated the relationship between being bullied and measured bodyweight and perceived bodyweight among adolescents of a middle-income sub Saharan African country. Our data originated from the Global School-based Health Survey, which targets adolescents aged 13–15 years. Student weights and heights were measured before administrating the questionnaire which included questions about personal data, health behaviors and being bullied. Standard criteria were used to assess thinness, overweight and obesity. Among 1,006 participants who had complete data, 16.5% (95%CI 13.3–20.2) reported being bullied ?3 days during the past 30 days; 13.4% were thin, 16.8% were overweight and 7.6% were obese. Categories of actual weight and of perceived weight correlated only moderately (Spearman correlation coefficient 0.37 for boys and 0.57 for girls; p < 0.001). In univariate analysis, both actual obesity (OR 1.76; p = 0.051) and perception of high weight (OR 1.63 for “slightly overweight”; OR 2.74 for “very overweight”, both p < 0.05) were associated with being bullied. In multivariate analysis, ORs for categories of perceived overweight were virtually unchanged while ORs for actual overweight and obesity were substantially attenuated, suggesting a substantial role of perceived weight in the association with being bullied. Actual underweight and perceived thinness also tended to be associated with being bullied, although not significantly. Our findings suggest that more research attention be given to disentangling the significant association between body image, overweight and bullying among adolescents. Further studies in diverse populations are warranted. PMID:23644826
Wilson, Michael L.; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Rousson, Valentin; Bovet, Pascal
Anterior pituitary weights and gonado?trophin concentration, bodyweight changes and ovarian weights were followed every two weeks in three lighting treatment periods in spring hatched turkeys. In the growing period (12 to 20 weeks of age), all of the characters changed with the increasing age of the birds while no changes were associated with the lighting treatments (either 14 hr
The accuracy of weight loss in estimating successful changes in body composition (BC), namely fat mass (FM) loss, is not known and was addressed in our study. To assess the correlation between change in bodyweight and change in FM, fat% and fat-free mass (FFM), 465 participants (41% male; 41 ± 13 years), who met the criteria for weight change
Paulina Cruz; Bruce D. Johnson; Susan C. Karpinski; Katherine A. Limoges; Beth A. Warren; Kerry D. Olsen; Virend K. Somers; Michael D. Jensen; Matthew M. Clark; Francisco Lopez-Jimenez
CORRELATIONS OF WEIGHT, LENGTH, AND OTHER BODY MEASUREMENTS IN THE WEAKFISH, CYNOSCION RECALl for pagination #12;CORRELATIONS OF WEIGHT, LENGTH, AND OTHER BODY MEASUREMENTS IN THE WEAKFISH, CYNOSCION REGALIS we are sure that none of the weights recorded are influenced by the ripening of the gonads
Background: A diet with a high glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) may promote overconsumption of energy and increase the risk of weight gain. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the relation between GI and GL of habitual diets and subsequent 6-y changes in bodyweight, body fat distribution, and body composition in a ran- dom
. In this study, using independent manipulations of bodyweight and body mass, we examined the relative this hypothesis by measuring muscle activity while experimentally manipulating bodyweight and mass by 1) decreasing bodyweight using a weight support system, 2) increasing body mass alone using a combination
Objectives: To investigate the association of current smoking with body mass index (BMI) and perceived bodyweight among high school students in the United States. Methods: We analyzed data from the 1999-2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Results: Perceived bodyweight and BMI were associated with adolescents' current smoking. Adjusted odds ratios…
AIMSTo evaluate the effect of the administration of growth hormone on stature, bodyweight, and body composition in children aged between 4 and 10 years with Prader-Willi syndrome.METHODSHeight, weight, and skinfold thickness were recorded in 25 children using standard anthropometric techniques at recruitment, and six months later, shortly before the start of daily subcutaneous injections of growth hormone. Body composition
P S W Davies; S Evans; S Broomhead; H Clough; J M E Day; A Laidlaw; N D Barnes
BACKGROUND: Years spent in college represents a critical time for obesity development though little information is known regarding how bodyweight and composition changes beyond the first year of college. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in bodyweight and composition and the factors influencing those changes among sophomore females. METHODS: Body composition by dual energy X-ray
Holly R Hull; Michelle L Morrow; Mary K Dinger; Jennifer L Han; David A Fields
An experiment is conducted to determine whether the NASA Space Shuttle food system can provide the food and fluid required to mitigate weight loss and physical decomposition in 12 female subjects for 28 days. Subjects receive only foods from the Space Shuttle system for four weeks within an 11-wk monitoring period. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is employed throughout the trial period to study lean body mass, percent body fat, and energy-intake levels with attention given to differences the experimental diet and the subjects' typical diet. Percent body fat is found to change significantly with losses of less than 0.05 percent, whereas energy intake based on autonomous diet choices by the participants does not vary significantly. Lean body mass remains unchanged throughout the study in which the subjects receive a relatively low-fat and low-protein menu. The 100 items on the space shuttle list of approved food items are shown to provide a palatable dietary framework for maintaining the health of female astronauts.
Lane, Helen W.; Frye, Sherrie; Kloeris, Vickie; Rice, Barbara; Siconolfi, Steven F.; Spector, Elisabeth; Gretebeck, Randall J.
High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) accounts for as much as 40% of caloric sweeteners used in the United States. Some studies have shown that short-term access to HFCS can cause increased bodyweight, but the findings are mixed. The current study examined both short- and long-term effects of HFCS on bodyweight, body fat, and circulating triglycerides. In Experiment 1, male
Miriam E. Bocarsly; Elyse S. Powell; Nicole M. Avena; Bartley G. Hoebel
Summary 1.Seasonal adjustments in wild-caughtPeromyscus leucopus include autumn increases in basal metabolic, nonshivering thermogenesis, and interscapular brown fat and decreases in weights of gonads, liver, adrenal glands, and total lipid. Bodyweight and nonextractable dry weight do not change.2.Basal metabolic rate, nonshivering thermogenesis, and interscapular brown fat increase following initial cold exposure in mid-September and are maintained at similar levels
Height and weight at menarche were found for each subject in three longitudinal growth studies. Early and late maturing girls have menarche at the same mean weight, but late maturers are taller at menarche. Two other major events of adolescence, initiation of the weight growth spurt and maximum rate of weight gain, also occur at an invariant mean weight. The
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology which describes a 47 year old white postmenopausal female who presented with "progressive headaches and visual blurring, as well as increased thirst, fatigue, lethargy and a fifty pound weight gain." Visitors are provided with patient history along with laboratory work-up and histology, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical chemistry.
Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions worldwide, and is associated with chronic illnesses such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and dyslipidemias (metabolic syndrome). Commonly held causes of obesity are overeating coupled with a sedentary lifestyle. However, it has also been postulated that exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may be related to the significant increase in the prevalence of obesity and associated diseases. In the present study, developmental and reproductive effects of lifelong exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of two natural mixtures of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were investigated using classical and molecular methods in a controlled zebrafish model. The mixtures used were extracted from burbot (Lota lota) liver originating from freshwater systems in Norway (Lake Mjřsa and Lake Losna). The concentration of POPs in the zebrafish ranged from levels detected in wild fish (Lake Mjřsa and Lake Losna), to concentrations reported in human and wildlife populations. Phenotypic effects observed in both exposure groups included (1) earlier onset of puberty, (2) elevated male/female sex ratio, and (3) increased bodyweight at 5 months of age. Interestingly, genome-wide transcription profiling identified functional networks of genes, in which key regulators of weight homeostasis (PPARs, glucocoricoids, CEBPs, estradiol), steroid hormone functions (glucocoricoids, estradiol, NCOA3) and insulin signaling (HNF4A, CEBPs, PPARG) occupied central positions. The increased weight and the regulation of genes associated with weight homeostasis and insulin signaling observed in the present study suggest that environmental pollution may affect the endocrine regulation of the metabolism, possibly leading to increased weight gain and obesity. PMID:21356182
Lyche, Jan L; Nourizadeh-Lillabadi, Rasoul; Karlsson, Camilla; Stavik, Benedicte; Berg, Vidar; Skĺre, Janneche Utne; Alestrřm, Peter; Ropstad, Erik
The goals of this study were to examine gender differences in body satisfaction, obesity status, and weight loss strategies among African Americans. A self-administered survey was completed by a convenient sample of 789 African Americans, but 763 provided weight and height information. Significantly more men than women were satisfied or very satisfied with their weight. Based on self-reported weights, the
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of low bodyweight/thinness, overweight and obesity in a representative sample of children and adolescents from a Brazilian region with low economic development. METHODS: A total of 982 girls and 986 boys, aged seven to 17 years old and assisted by Segundo Tempo Program, from Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were included in the study. Low bodyweight/thinness, overweight and obesity were defined based on body mass cut-off indexes recommended by the International Obesity Task Force. The prevalence of the nutritional status according to sex and age was compared by chi-square test. RESULTS: In girls, the frequency of low bodyweight/thinness, overweight and obesity was 4.1, 18.4 and 3.8%, respectively; in boys, these percentages were 6.3, 13.2 and 2.9%, respectively. The low bodyweight/thinness for girls raised from 2.7% (7-10 years old) to 5.5% (15-17 years old); the bodyweight excess (overweight and obesity) decreased from 30.1 to 16.2% for the same age groups. In boys, the corresponding trends were from 3.2 to 9.4% for low bodyweight/thinness, and from 23.4 to 9.2%, for bodyweight excess. CONCLUSIONS: The data indicate that, even in a region with low economic status, the bodyweight excess was the main problem associated with nutritional health. The high overweight and obesity prevalence rates indicate the need of public policies for promoting healthy feeding behaviors and physical activity. PMID:24473947
Guedes, Dartagnan Pinto; Almeida, Francisleia Nascimento; M., Jaime Tolentino; Maia, Maria de Fatima de M.; Tolentino, Thatiana Maia
Background: Worksites are potentially effective locations for obesity control because they provide opportunities for group intervention and social support. Studies are needed to identify effective interventions in these settings. Objective: We examined the effects of a multicomponent lifestyle intervention on weight loss and prevention of regain in 4 worksites (2 intervention and 2 control sites). Design: Overweight and obese employees (n = 133) enrolled in this pilot worksite-randomized controlled trial with a 0–6-mo weight-loss phase and a 6–12-mo structured weight-maintenance phase. The intervention combined recommendations to consume a reduced-energy, low–glycemic load, high-fiber diet with behavioral change education. Outcome measurements included changes in bodyweight and cardiometabolic risk factors. Results: The mean ± SEM weight loss was substantial in intervention participants, whereas control subjects gained weight (?8.0 ± 0.7 compared with +0.9 ± 0.5 kg, respectively; P < 0.001), and 89% of participants completed the weight-loss phase. Intervention effects were not significant at the 0.05 level but would have been at the 0.10 level (P = 0.08) in a mixed model in which the worksite nested within group was a random factor. There were also significant improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors in intervention compared with control subjects regarding fasting total cholesterol, glucose, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure (P ? 0.02 for each). No significant weight regain was observed in participants who enrolled in the structured weight-maintenance program (0.5 ± 0.7 kg; P = 0.65), and overweight and obese employees in intervention worksites who were not enrolled in the weight-loss program lost weight compared with subjects in control worksites (?1.3 ± 0.5 compared with +0.7 ± 0.2 kg, respectively; P = 0.02). Conclusion: Worksites can be effective for achieving clinically important reductions in bodyweight and improved cardiometabolic risk factors. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01470222. PMID:23426035
Salinardi, Taylor C; Batra, Payal; Roberts, Susan B; Urban, Lorien E; Robinson, Lisa M; Pittas, Anastassios G; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Deckersbach, Thilo; Saltzman, Edward
Prenatal risk ratios for Down syndrome adjust for maternal weight because maternal serum biomarker levels decrease with increasing maternal weight. This is accomplished by converting serum biomarker values into a multiple of the expected median (MoM) for women of the same gestational age. Weight is frequently not recorded, and the impact of using MoMs not adjusted for weight for calculating risk ratios is unknown. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of missing weight on first trimester Down syndrome risk ratios by comparing risk ratios calculated using weight-unadjusted-and-adjusted MoMs. Findings at the population level indicate that the impact of not adjusting for maternal weight on first trimester screening results for chromosomal anomalies would lead to under-identification of 84 per 10 000 pregnancies. PMID:25287568
The article describes a 20-year longitudinal study of bodyweight, dieting, and disordered eating in women and men. Bodyweight increased significantly over time in both women and men. However, women’s weight perception and dieting frequency decreased over time, whereas men’s weight perception and dieting frequency increased, and disordered eating declined more in women than in men from late adolescence
Pamela K. Keel; Mark G. Baxter; Todd F. Heatherton; Thomas E. Joiner
Fat distribution alterations and lipodystrophy occur as part of a broad spectrum of body alterations in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Recent advances in HIV therapies, including highly active antiretroviral therapy, contribute to these fat distribution alterations. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the relationships of weight change, body image, length of time with HIV/AIDS diagnosis, and quality of life in HIV disease. The sample consisted of 23 men with mean age of 42.2 years (SD = 8.2) and 17 women with mean age of 36.8 years (SD = 5.2). Participants reported a net increase in weight from 3 months prior (M = 2.4 lb, SD = 12.9 lb) and 12 months prior (M = 10.9 lb, SD = 19.1 lb). They also reported that their weight was greater than their ideal weight (M = 9.2 lb, SD = 22.9 lb). Body image scores (0-100 scale) were found to be significantly (F((1, 37)) = 5.41, p = .03) higher for women (73.1 +/- 17.0) compared with men (60.2 +/- 17.0). Although HIV-positive participants had slightly higher body image scores (M = 68.0, SD = 17.0) compared with participants with AIDS (M = 60.5, SD = 18.8), there was no significant difference (F((1, 37)) = 1.56, p = .22) in body image scores between those with HIV and those with AIDS. Finally, weight change was related to three scales of the Medical Outcomes Study-HIV: mental health (r = .42, p = .03), vitality (r = .53, p = .006), and quality of life (r = .45, p = .02) for men. There were no significant correlations between weight change and quality of life domains for women. Education of clinicians and individuals living with HIV/AIDS should focus on the assessment, management, and evaluation of weight change during the course of HIV disease. PMID:15573338
Examined parents' awareness of their daughters' attitudes, beliefs, and feelings about their bodies. Sixty-six adolescent daughters completed an eating disorder scale, a body figure rating scale, and made ratings of their shape and weight. Greater discrepancies between parents' estimates of daughters' body esteem and daughters' self-reported body…
Geller, Josie; Srikameswaran, Suja; Zaitsoff, Shannon L.; Cockell, Sarah J.; Poole, Gary D.
Television programs portray characters with idealized body types that for most viewers are unattainable. These body types have become a common source of comparison for many young viewers who evaluate their own self-worth and bodies based on the models they see on television. This study examines bodyweight, both in terms of frequency and portrayals, focusing on how preadolescent and
The use of dieting, rapid weight loss, and frequent weight fluctuation among athletes competing in weight-class and leanness sports have been considered a problem for years, but the extent of the problem and the health and performance consequences have yet to be fully examined. Most studies examining these issues have had weak methodology. However, results from this review indicate that
The use of dieting, rapid weight loss, and frequent weight fluctuation among athletes competing in weight-class and leanness sports have been considered a problem for years, but the extent of the problem and the health and performance consequences have yet to be fully examined. Most studies examining these issues have had weak methodology. However, results from this review indicate that
Effects of visual representations of the thin ideal in the media have been widely explored, but textual representations of the thin ideal in novels have received scant attention. The chick literature genre has been criticized for depicting characters who worry about their bodyweight and who have poor body esteem. Excerpts from two chick lit novels were used to examine the effect of a protagonist's bodyweight and body esteem on college women's (N=159) perceptions of their sexual attractiveness and weight concern. Two narratives were used to minimize the possibility that idiosyncratic characteristics of one excerpt might influence the study's results. Underweight (vs. healthy weight) protagonists predicted readers' lower perceived sexual attractiveness. Protagonists with low body esteem (vs. control) predicted readers' increased weight concern. Scholars and health officials should be concerned about the effect chick lit novels might have on women's body image. PMID:23219006
The study aimed to analyze the lifestyles, weight control behavior, dietary habits, and depression of female university students. The subjects were 532 students from 8 universities located in 4 provinces in Korea. According to percent ideal bodyweight, 33 (6.4%), 181 (34.0%), 283 (53.2%), 22 (4.1%) and 13 (2.5%) were severely underweight, underweight, normal, overweight and obese, respectively, based on self-reported height and weight. As much as 64.1% and only 2.4%, respectively, overestimated and underestimated their bodyweight status. Six overweight subjects were excluded from overestimation group for the purpose of this study, resulting in overestimation group consisting of only underweight and normal weight subjects. Compared to those from the normal perception group, significantly more subjects from the overestimation group were currently smoking (P = 0.017) and drank more often than once a week (P = 0.015), without any significant differences in dietary habits. Despite similar BMIs, subjects who overestimated their own weight statuses had significantly higher weight dissatisfaction (P = 0.000), obesity stress (P = 0.000), obsession to lose weight (P = 0.007) and depression (P = 0.018). Also, more of them wanted to lose weight (P = 0.000), checked their bodyweights more often than once a week (P = 0.025) and had dieting experiences using 'reducing meal size' (P = 0.012), 'reducing snacks' (P = 0.042) and 'taking prescribed pills' (P = 0.032), and presented 'for a wider range of clothes selection' as the reason for weight loss (P = 0.039), although none was actually overweight or obese. Unlike the case with overestimating one's own weight, being overweight was associated with less drinking (P = 0.035) and exercising more often (P = 0.001) and for longer (P = 0.001) and healthier reasons for weight control (P = 0.002), despite no differences in frequency of weighing and depression. The results showed that weight overestimation, independent of weight status, is associated with risky lifestyles, weight control behaviors, and mental conditions. Preventive interventions should focus not only on obesity, but also on bodyweight overestimation. PMID:21286408
Over the past three decades, the potential effects of lifestyle interventions targeting changes in bodyweight and composition (weight, body mass index, fat mass, waist circumference) among adults with an intellectual disability (ID) have been examined in various systematic reviews. Nevertheless, since the middle of the 1980s, the potential effects of these interventions for youth with an ID remain an open question. The purpose of this article is to review the effects of lifestyle interventions targeting changes in bodyweight and composition among youth with an ID. This review will focus on changes in bodyweight and composition, healthy lifestyle, and secondary health conditions. A systematic review of English- and French-language studies, published between 1981 and 2013, was performed on Academic Search Complete, PsycARTICLES, Medline and Scopus. The nine studies included in this review focused mainly on: a sample with a wide age range (e.g., 7-22 years); males; overweight-obese youth having a mild-to-moderate ID with Down or Prader-Willi syndrome; physical activity interventions; cohort pre- and post-test designs with/without a control group; and changes in bodyweight and composition. Taken together, results from these studies suggest successful changes in weight, body mass index and fat mass. However, intervention effects on healthy lifestyle and secondary health conditions are scarce and inconclusive. Given the weaknesses of the reviewed studies, the present findings should be considered preliminary and indicative of the need for future research. PMID:24830882
Maďano, Christophe; Normand, Claude L; Aimé, Annie; Bégarie, Jérôme
Objective?To evaluate the effect of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), energy and macronutrient intakes during pregnancy, and gestational weight gain (GWG) on the body composition of full-term appropriate-for-gestational age neonates. Study Design?This is a cross-sectional study of a systematically recruited convenience sample of mother-infant pairs. Food intake during pregnancy was assessed by food frequency questionnaire and its nutritional value by the Food Processor Plus (ESHA Research Inc, Salem, OR). Neonatal body composition was assessed both by anthropometry and air displacement plethysmography. Explanatory models for neonatal body composition were tested by multiple linear regression analysis. Results?A total of 100 mother-infant pairs were included. Prepregnancy overweight was positively associated with offspring weight, weight/length, BMI, and fat-free mass in the whole sample; in males, it was also positively associated with midarm circumference, ponderal index, and fat mass. Higher energy intake from carbohydrate was positively associated with midarm circumference and weight/length in the whole sample. Higher GWG was positively associated with weight, length, and midarm circumference in females. Conclusion?Positive adjusted associations were found between both prepregnancy BMI and energy intake from carbohydrate and offspring body size in the whole sample. Positive adjusted associations were also found between prepregnancy overweight and adiposity in males, and between GWG and body size in females. PMID:24347258
Lameness is a costly and widespread health and wel- fare problem in intensive dairy production, and reliable automated methods to detect lameness are needed. Lameness may be detected through the measurement of how cattle distribute their weight among their 4 legs, but this requires an understanding of how cattle redis- tribute their weight in response to pain in one or
S. Neveux; D. M. Weary; J. Rushen; M. A. G. von Keyserlingk; A. M. de Passillé
Human adipose tissue is not only a storage organ but also an active endocrine organ to release adipokines. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship among serum taurine and adipokine levels, and body composition during 8-week human bodyweight control program in obese female college students. The program consisted of diet therapy, exercise, and behavior modification. After the program, bodyweight, body fat mass, percent body fat, and body mass index (BMI) were significantly decreased. Serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were significantly decreased. Also serum adiponectin level was significantly increased and serum leptin level was significantly decreased. There were no differences in serum taurine and homocysteine levels. The change of serum adiponectin level was positively correlated with change of body fat mass and percent body fat. These results may suggest that body fat loss by human bodyweight control program is associated with an increase in serum adiponectin in obese female college students. Therefore, further study such as taurine intervention study is needed to know more exact correlation between dietary taurine intake and serum adipokines or body composition. PMID:23392876
You, Jeong Soon; Park, Ji Yeon; Zhao, Xu; Jeong, Jin Seok; Choi, Mi Ja; Chang, Kyung Ja
Background: Clinical studies have shown that consumption of medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCTs) leads to greater energy ex- penditure than does consumption of long-chain triacylglycerols. Such studies suggest that MCT consumption may be useful for weight management. Objective: We aimed to determine whether consumption of MCT oil improves bodyweight and fat loss compared with olive oil when consumed as part of
Background Ethnic minority adolescents and Hispanics in particular, are disproportionately affected by extreme obesity and its associated co-morbidities. Bariatric surgery is one of the few effective treatments for morbid obesity, yet little information about weight outcomes after surgery in this demographic are available. We determined the effectiveness of bariatric surgery in reducing weight and body mass index (BMI) in adolescents, a majority of whom were non-Mexican American Hispanic and originated from Central and/or South America and the Caribbean Basin region. Methods Adolescents (16-to-19 years old) who had undergone gastric bypass or adjustable gastric band surgery between 2001 and 2010 and who had complete follow up data available (91%) were included in the analysis. Mean weight and BMI before and 1-year after surgery were compared. Results Among 71 adolescents (80% Hispanic, 77% female), Mean BMI and weight, and z-scores and percentile transformations were all significantly lower after surgery for the entire sample (P<0.001). Gastric bypass surgery showed significantly better weight loss outcomes for all anthropometric measures versus adjustable gastric band surgery (P<0.05). The weight loss was similar among Hispanics and non-Hispanics. No perioperative complications were reported. Three patients who stopped taking supplements as prescribed experienced iron-deficiency anemia within the year following surgery. Conclusions Our results show that bariatric surgery can markedly reduce weight among a predominantly Hispanic adolescent patient sample, and gastric bypass procedure in particular. These findings indicate that bariatric surgery has the potential to be safe and effective in substantially reducing weight in a group of adolescents who are at particularly high risk for obesity-related health consequences. PMID:22918552
De La Cruz-Munoz, Nestor; Lopez-Mitnik, Gabriela; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Miller, Tracie L.; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Messiah, Sarah E.
The Relationship between BodyWeight and Homosexual Mounting in Palmacorixa nana Walley-5. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BODYWEIGHT AND HOMOSEXUAL MOUNTING IN PALMACORIXA NANA WALLEY (HETEROPTERA: CORIXIDAE) R L5L 1C6 ABSTRACT Homosexual mounting is common in insects. Half the mounting attempts of Palmacorixa
Examined whether body mass index (BMI) and perception of a bodyweight problem predict level of self esteem and depression in Korean female adolescents. Results showed that perception of a weight problem, but not BMI, contributed significantly to the prediction of level of self esteem and depression. (BF)
Bodyweight maintenance is required in a variety of behavioral and physiological studies. C-based animal weighing system is described which features automated data collection and allows for accurate control of bodyweight in test animals via manipulation of food intake. ajor syst...
This study explored rhythmic gymnasts’ perceptions of the influence of their retirement transition on body satisfaction and weight control behaviors. Eight retired elite female rhythmic gymnasts participated in semi-structured interviews. Findings were interpreted to suggest that these retired gymnasts experienced an increase in body dissatisfaction upon retirement and that they felt guilty about their weight gain, loss of muscle mass
Ashley E. Stirling; Lisanne C. Cruz; Gretchen A. Kerr
Despite the popular belief that the thinstandard of female attractiveness currently presented inthe media is a primary contributor to the high level ofconcern with bodyweight among women, experimental studies have not shown that exposure to mediaimages increases women's weight concern. Threeexperiments are reported demonstrating that exposure tomedia images does often result in increased weightconcern among women, but that body
Heidi D. Posavac; Steven S. Posavac; Emil J. Posavac
The aim of the study was to evaluate heterotic and combining ability effects for growth in nine chicken genotypes. A 3 × 3 complete diallel mating system involving two indigenous breeds named Venda (V) and Naked Neck (N) and one commercial broiler breed named Ross 308 (R) were used. The nine genetic groups of crosses were reared up from hatch to 13 weeks of age in deep litter open house. Bodyweights of 180 chicks (20 chicks per genetic group), recorded at 0, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, and 13 weeks of age, were used to estimate heterosis, general combining ability (GCA), and specific combining ability (SCA). Results showed that the Ross 308 had the heaviest bodyweight at all weeks of measurement except for hatch. With respect to crosses, the V × R and its reciprocal cross, R × V had the heaviest bodyweights at 13 weeks. Heterosis estimates for bodyweight were higher in the Venda male × Ross 308 female and Venda male and Naked Neck female crosses. GCA was significant (P ? 0.01) for bodyweight from hatch to 13 weeks of age while SCA and reciprocal effects were both significant (P ? 0.05) for bodyweight at all ages of measurement except for hatch. The Ross 308 gave the highest positive effect of GCA for bodyweight except for hatch. V × N gave the highest and positive effects of SCA for bodyweight. PMID:23151822
A method that uses passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags for the continuous recording of feeding behavior and bodyweight from multiple individual animals is described. We have used this method in the field and in semi-natural captive conditions with black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) to determine daily and seasonal patterns in bodyweight and to estimate the proportions of food cached
Objective: To examine diet, physical activity, and body-weight changes associated with relocation from home to university. Methods: Diet, fitness/physical activity, body-weight parameters and self-efficacy were assessed among 54 freshman women upon college entry and 5 months later. Results: Although caloric intake significantly decreased, a…
Butler, Scott M.; Black, David R.; Blue, Carolyn L.; Gretebeck, Randall J.
ObjectivesOxidative stress increases postmenopausally, an effect attributed to aging. Increase in bodyweight generally accompanies menopause. Obesity per se also seems to increase oxidative stress. The question is whether postmenopausal increase in oxidative stress is related to bodyweight, or is only a function of age.
Nutritional or pharmacological perturbations during perinatal growth can cause persistent effects on the function of white adipose tissue, altering susceptibility to obesity later in life. Previous studies have established that saccharin, a nonnutritive sweetener, inhibits lipolysis in mature adipocytes and stimulates adipogenesis. Thus, the current study tested whether neonatal exposure to saccharin via maternal lactation increased susceptibility of mice to diet-induced obesity. Saccharin decreased bodyweight of female mice beginning postnatal week 3. Decreased liver weights on week 14 corroborated this diminished bodyweight. Initially, saccharin also reduced male mouse bodyweight. By week 5, weights transiently rebounded above controls, and by week 14, male bodyweights did not differ. Body composition analysis revealed that saccharin increased lean and decreased fat mass of male mice, the latter due to decreased adipocyte size and epididymal, perirenal, and sc adipose weights. A mild improvement in glucose tolerance without a change in insulin sensitivity or secretion aligned with this leaner phenotype. Interestingly, microcomputed tomography analysis indicated that saccharin also increased cortical and trabecular bone mass of male mice and modified cortical bone alone in female mice. A modest increase in circulating testosterone may contribute to the leaner phenotype in male mice. Accordingly, the current study established a developmental period in which saccharin at high concentrations reduces adiposity and increases lean and bone mass in male mice while decreasing generalized growth in female mice. PMID:24456165
Parlee, Sebastian D; Simon, Becky R; Scheller, Erica L; Alejandro, Emilyn U; Learman, Brian S; Krishnan, Venkatesh; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto; MacDougald, Ormond A
Recently, a shift in obesity treatment away from emphasizing ideal weight loss goals to establishing realistic weight loss goals has been proposed; yet, what constitutes "realistic" weight loss for different populations is not clear. This study examined notions of realistic shape and weight as well as body size assessment in a large community-based sample of African-American, Asian, Hispanic, and white men and women. Participants were 1893 survey respondents who were all dieters and primarily overweight. Groups were compared on various variables of body image assessment using silhouette ratings. No significant race differences were found in silhouette ratings, nor in perceptions of realistic shape or reasonable weight loss. Realistic shape and weight ratings by both women and men were smaller than current shape and weight but larger than ideal shape and weight ratings. Compared with male dieters, female dieters considered greater weight loss to be realistic. Implications of the findings for the treatment of obesity are discussed. PMID:9526972
Objective. To investigate effects of weight loss on adipokines and health measures in obese older adults with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. Methods. Participants were randomly assigned to either weight loss (WL) (men: 12, women: 14) or weight stable (WS) group (men: 12, women: 13). WL intervention included meal replacements and structured exercise training. Measurements of leptin, adiponectin, soluble leptin receptor, lifestyle behaviors, and body composition were collected at baseline and 6 months. Univariate analysis of covariance was performed on 6 month variables, and Spearman and partial correlations were made between variables. Results. Weight loss was 13.0% and 6.7% in WL for men and women, respectively. Women in WL had lower whole body and trunk fat than WS. The leptin?:?adiponectin ratio was lower for women in WL than WS at 6 months, with no group differences in adipokines for men. Leptin and free leptin index correlated with body fat in both genders at baseline. Interestingly, only women showed reductions in leptin (P < 0.100) and correlations between the percentage change leptin and trunk fat and the percentage changes in free leptin index with total fat and trunk fat. Partial correlations between 6 month adipokines after adjustments for covariates and group/time period show potential multivariate influences. Conclusions. In the presence of an effective weight loss intervention in older obese adults, there are significant relationships between weight and fat loss and leptin in women, but not men, suggesting gender-specific features of adipokine metabolism in this age group. PMID:23326650
Miller, Gary D.; Jenks, Monica Z.; Vendela, Mandolyn; Norris, James L.; Muday, Gloria K.
Purpose: To examine the relationship between body mass index (BMI), bodyweight perception (BWP), and indicators of internalizing and externalizing distress and social, attention and thought problems in a large representative sample of Dutch youth. Methods: A total of 1826 pupils in the eighth grade of primary education and 5730 students in the first four years of secondary education gave
Bogt ter T. F. M; K. Monshouwer; J. E. E. Verdurmen; R. C. M. E. Engels; W. A. M. Vollebergh
This article is a summary of the symposium "Modifying Eating Behavior: Novel Approaches for Reducing BodyWeight, Preventing Weight Regain, and Reducing Chronic Disease Risk" held 29 April 2014 at the ASN Scientific Sessions and Annual Meeting at Experimental Biology 2014 in San Diego, CA. In this symposium, novel approaches to modifying eating behavior were highlighted, including 1) alteration of meal timing and macronutrient composition and 2) retraining and provision of feedback about eating behavior. Dr. Ciampolini discussed a method for teaching individuals to recognize a decrease in blood glucose concentration, and therefore the need for energy, by learning the associated physical sensations (signifying hunger). Dr. Madar and Sigal Sofer presented their work on reducing hunger during energy reduction by feeding carbohydrate only in the evening. Dr. Hamilton-Shield reviewed studies on the Mandometer (Mikrodidakt), a device for training individuals to slow eating rate. Finally, Dr. Sazonov presented information on a wearable device, the Automatic Ingestion Monitor, which senses jaw motion and/or hand-to-mouth gestures to detect and characterize food intake. His goal is to use the instrument to prevent overeating by providing feedback to the user to stop ingestion at a predetermined limit. PMID:25398742
Background Differences in biological changes from weight loss by energy restriction and/or exercise may be associated with differences in long-term weight loss/regain. Objective To assess the effect of weight loss method on long-term changes in weight, body composition and chronic disease risk factors. Data Sources PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990-October 2013) for studies with data on the effect of energy restriction, exercise (aerobic and resistance) on long-term weight loss. Twenty articles were included in this review. Study Eligibility Criteria Primary source, peer reviewed randomized trials published in English with an active weight loss period of >6 months, or active weight loss with a follow-up period of any duration, conducted in overweight or obese adults were included. Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods Considerable heterogeneity across trials existed for important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and grouped by comparisons (e.g. diet vs. aerobic exercise, diet vs. diet + aerobic exercise etc.) and study design (long-term or weight loss/follow-up). Results Forty percent of trials reported significantly greater long-term weight loss with diet compared with aerobic exercise, while results for differences in weight regain were inconclusive. Diet+aerobic exercise resulted in significantly greater weight loss than diet alone in 50% of trials. However, weight regain (?55% of loss) was similar in diet and diet+aerobic exercise groups. Fat-free mass tended to be preserved when interventions included exercise. PMID:25333384
Washburn, Richard A.; Szabo, Amanda N.; Lambourne, Kate; Willis, Erik A.; Ptomey, Lauren T.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Herrmann, Stephen D.; Donnelly, Joseph E.
Objective: To evaluate the effects of gestational weight gain on maternal and neonatal outcomes in different body mass index (BMI) classes. Methods: We compared maternal and neonatal outcomes based on gestational weight gain in underweight, normal weight, overweight, obese, and morbidly obese (BMI 40.00) women. The study group was a population-based cohort of women with singleton gestations who delivered between
Joan M. G. Crane; Joanne White; Phil Murphy; Lorraine Burrage; Donna Hutchens
Manipulation of bodyweight set point may be an effective weight loss and maintenance strategy as the homeostatic mechanism governing energy balance remains intact even in obese conditions and counters the effort to lose weight. However, how the set point is determined is not well understood. We show that a single injection of rapamycin (RAP), an mTOR inhibitor, is sufficient to shift the set point in rats. Intraperitoneal RAP decreased food intake and daily weight gain for several days, but surprisingly, there was also a long-term reduction in bodyweight which lasted at least 10 weeks without additional RAP injection. These effects were not due to malaise or glucose intolerance. Two RAP administrations with a two-week interval had additive effects on bodyweight without desensitization and significantly reduced the white adipose tissue weight. When challenged with food deprivation, vehicle and RAP-treated rats responded with rebound hyperphagia, suggesting that RAP was not inhibiting compensatory responses to weight loss. Instead, RAP animals defended a lower bodyweight achieved after RAP treatment. Decreased food intake and bodyweight were also seen with intracerebroventricular injection of RAP, indicating that the RAP effect is at least partially mediated by the brain. In summary, we found a novel effect of RAP that maintains lower bodyweight by shifting the set point long-term. Thus, RAP and related compounds may be unique tools to investigate the mechanisms by which the defended level of bodyweight is determined; such compounds may also be used to complement weight loss strategy. PMID:24787262
Objective:To investigate weight perception, dieting and emotional well being across the range of body mass index (BMI) in a population-based multiethnic sample of early adolescents.Design:Cross-sectional population-based survey.Subjects:In total, 2789 adolescents 11–14 years of age from three highly deprived regional authorities in East London, in 2001.Measurements:Data were collected by student-completed questionnaire on weight perception, dieting history, mental and physical health, health
R M Viner; M M Haines; S J C Taylor; J Head; R Booy; S Stansfeld
Background: Good nutrition, a balanced diet and regular physical activity are foundations of good health. Research has found that dietary patterns change dramatically following the arrival of students in a foreign country. However, nutritional status of Iranian students studying oversea has never been investigated. Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine factors associated with bodyweight status of Iranian postgraduate students in Universiti of Putra Malaysia (UPM). Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the bodyweight status of 210 Iranian postgraduate students aged between 22 and 55 years in University of Putra Malaysia. The associations between bodyweight status and socio demographics factors and also lifestyle factors (smoking and physical activity) were assessed. Anthropometric factors (height, weight, BMI and waist and hip circumferences) were measured. Chi-square, Spearman Rho and Pearson tests were used for data analysis. Results: From a total of 210 postgraduate students 110 were females, and 100 males. No significant correlation was observed between smoking and BMI (P = 0.4). However, statistically significant correlations were observed between gender (P = 0.007), physical activity (P = 0.02), using protein (P = 0.005), carbohydrate (P = 0.002), fat (P = 0.001), fiber (P = 0.003), vitamin C (P = 0.04), calcium (P = 0.005), waist circumference (P = 0.02), hip circumference (P = 0.001), Waist to Hip Ratio (P = 0.002), and BMI. Conclusions: The nutritional behavior of university students was poor. Therefore, it is essential to encourage young people, including university students to enrich their diets with milk, beans, fruit, and vegetables to decrease the risks of nutrition related disorders.
Zarei, Maryam; Mohd Taib, Mohd Nasir; Zarei, Fatemeh; Abu Saad, Hazizi
Aim of the given study was to elucidate special characteristics of mechanisms of development of atherosclerosis and supply of oxygen to the brain in overweight men and women. We included into this study 80 patients with multifocal atherosclerosis without history of myocardial infarction. We analyzed parameters of blood lipid composition, data of cerebral oxymetry, echocardiography, and central hemodynamics. We found gender linked differences in structural-functional parameters of myocardium and in mechanisms of progression of atherosclerosis which increased with increase of excess bodyweight. This was associated with differences in oxygen brain supply between men and women. PMID:23098399
Kamenskaia, O V; Levicheva, E N; Loginova, I Iu; Karpenko, A A; Starodubtsev, V B; Volkov, A M; Kliver, E E
To investigate associations of trimester-specific GWG with fetal birth size and BMI at age 5 years. We examined 3,015 singleton\\u000a births to women without pregnancy complications from the Child Health and Development Studies prospective cohort with measured\\u000a weights during pregnancy. We used multivariable regression to examine the associations between total and trimester gestational\\u000a weight gain (GWG) and birth weight for gestational
Claire E. Margerison-Zilko; Bina P. Shrimali; Brenda Eskenazi; Maureen Lahiff; Allison R. Lindquist; Barbara F. Abrams
Background Changes in body image and subjective well-being variables (e.g. self-esteem) are often reported as outcomes of obesity treatment. However, they may, in turn, also influence behavioral adherence and success in weight loss. The present study examined associations among obesity treatment-related variables, i.e., change in weight, quality of life, body image, and subjective well-being, exploring their role as both mediators and outcomes, during a behavioral obesity treatment. Methods Participants (BMI = 31.1 ± 4.1 kg/m2; age = 38.4 ± 6.7 y) were 144 women who attended a 12-month obesity treatment program and a comparison group (n = 49), who received a general health education program. The intervention included regular group meetings promoting lasting behavior changes in physical activity and dietary intake. Body image, quality of life, subjective well-being, and bodyweight were measured at baseline and treatment's end. Mediation was tested by multiple regression and a resampling approach to measure indirect effects. Treatment group assignment was the independent variable while changes in weight and in psychosocial variables were analyzed alternatively as mediators and as dependent variables. Results At 12 months, the intervention group had greater weight loss (-5.6 ± 6.8% vs. -1.2 ± 4.6%, p < .001) and larger decreases in body size dissatisfaction (effect size of 1.08 vs. .41, p < .001) than the comparison group. Significant improvements were observed in both groups for all other psychosocial variables (effect sizes ranging from .31–.75, p < .05). Mediation analysis showed that changes in body image and bodyweight were concurrently mediators and outcomes of treatment, suggesting reciprocal influences. Weight loss partially mediated the effect of treatment on quality of life and on self-esteem but the reciprocal effect was not observed. Conclusion Changes in weight and body image may reciprocally affect each other during the course of behavioral obesity treatment. No evidence of reciprocal relationships was found for the other models under analysis; however, weight changes partially explained the effects of treatment on quality of life and self-esteem. Weight and psychosocial changes co-occur during treatment and will probably influence each other dynamically, in ways not yet adequately understood. Results from this study support the inclusion of intervention contents aimed at improving body image in weight management programs. PMID:19203389
Palmeira, Antonio L; Markland, David A; Silva, Marlene N; Branco, Teresa L; Martins, Sandra C; Minderico, Claudia S; Vieira, Paulo N; Barata, Jose T; Serpa, Sidonio O; Sardinha, Luis B; Teixeira, Pedro J
A longitudinal study was used to examine age differences in the role of body mass index (BMI) and sociocultural pressures in predicting changes in body image and strategies to both lose weight and increase muscles among 443 children aged between 8 and 12 years (207 boys, 236 girls) over a 16-month period. The strongest predictors of body image and…
Letter to Editor Height, weight, body mass index and offspring sex at birth in contemporary Finnish in humans body size is heritable, taller and heavier parents should produce an excess of sons, because large body size is much more closely related to high fitness in men compared to women (Kanazawa, 2005
esteem. Results: Relative to the other two groups, competitive bodybuilders had greater body mass due to fat-free body mass. Although groups did not differ in their situational body image discomfort, competitive bodybuilders and weight trainers had a more positive global appearance evaluation and were more psychologically invested in their physical appearance. Compared with active controls, men in both weightlifting groups
Numerous physiological and molecular changes accompany dietary restriction (DR), which has been a major impediment to elucidating the causal basis underlying DR's many health benefits. Two major metabolic responses to DR that potentially underlie many of these changes are the body temperature (T(b)) and bodyweight (BW) responses. These responses also represent an especially difficult challenge to uncouple during DR. We demonstrate in this study, using two recombinant inbred (RI) panels of mice (the LXS and LSXSS) that naturally occurring genetic variation serves as a powerful tool for modulating T(b) and BW independently during DR. The correlation coefficient between the two responses was essentially zero, with R = -0.04 in the LXS and -0.03 in the LSXSS, the latter averaged across replicate cohorts. This study is also the first to report that there is highly significant (P = 10(-10)) strain variation in the T(b) response to DR in the LXS (51 strains tested), with strain means ranging from 2 to 4 degrees C below normal. The results suggest that the strain variation in the T(b) response to DR is largely due to differences in the rate of heat loss rather than heat production (i.e., metabolic rate). This variation can thus be used to assess the long-term effects of lower T(b) independent of BW or metabolic rate, as well as independent of food intake and motor activity as previously shown. These results also suggest that murine genetic variation may be useful for uncoupling many more responses to DR. PMID:17686887
Background: In 2009, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) released revised pregnancy weight gain guidelines. There are limited data regarding the effect of maternal weight gain on newborn adiposity. Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate neonatal fat mass, lean body mass, and percentage body fat according to current Institute of Medicine (IOM) pregnancy weight gain guidelines. Design: This is a secondary analysis of a prospective observational cohort study of neonates delivered at least 36 wk gestation and evaluated for fat mass, lean body mass, and percentage body fat. Women with abnormal glucose tolerance testing and other known medical disorders or pregnancies with known fetal anomalies were excluded. Pregravid body mass index (BMI) was categorized as normal weight (<25 kg/m2), overweight (25–30 kg/m2), or obese (>30 kg/m2). Maternal weight gain was quantified as less than, equal to, or greater than current IOM guidelines. Newborn body composition measurements were compared according to weight gain and BMI categories. Results: A total of 439 maternal-newborn pairs were evaluated; 19.8% (n = 87) of women gained less than IOM guidelines; 31.9% (n = 140), equal to IOM guidelines; and 48.3% (n = 212), greater than IOM guidelines. Significant differences for each component of body composition were found when evaluated by IOM weight gain categories (all ANOVA, P < 0.001). When controlling for pregravid BMI, only weight gain for women who were of normal weight before pregnancy remained significant. Conclusion: Maternal weight gain during pregnancy is a significant contributor to newborn body composition, particularly for women who are of normal weight before pregnancy. PMID:22821895
We obtained esophageal food samples from 311 mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and 94 wood ducks (Aix sponsa) and bodyweights from 2,118 mallards and 315 wood ducks in western Mississippi during December and January 1979-83. On average, mallards ingested 3.0% animal food, principally aquatic invertebrates, and 97.0% plant food. Rice, soybeans, and seeds of 'moist soil' plants provided 41.3, 41.6, and 10-11% of the total food intake. Wood ducks ingested nearly 100% plant food, of which 23.4% was soybeans and 74.3% was acorns from Nuttall (Quercus nuttallii), water (Q. nigra), and willow oaks (Q. phellos). Mallard food use varied with water conditions; the use of rice decreased and soybeans increased during 1980-81 when cumulative November-January precipitation was < 50% of normal. Wood duck food use varied with habitat; the diet included more acorns at sites having larger acreages of intact bottomland hardwood forest. Mallard and wood duck bodyweights varied within and among winters. Mallard weights decreased by about 2% from December to January each year. We considered this a regulated loss, whereas we attributed increases and decreases of 4-5% in average weights during wet and dry winters to changes in feeding opportunities associated with winter precipitation. Wood duck weights followed similar trends. We concluded that continued drainage in the Mississippi Delta will adversely affect waterfowl foraging opportunities, and that research on winter feeding ecology will progress more rapidly if we develop an understanding of the foraging efficiencies associated with alternate food resources.
Three hundred and seventy two horses of varying breeds, height and fatness were weighed and measured for height at the withers. They were assessed for condition score by adaptation of a previously published method. The heart girth and length of 281 of the horses were also measured. Weight of horses was highly correlated (P less than 0.001) with height (r2 = 0.62), condition score (r2 = 0.22) and girth2 x length (r2 = 0.90). Nomograms were constructed to predict weight from height and condition score, and girth and length measurements. Weight can also be accurately estimated from the formula: (formula, see text) The average value of 'Y' in this experiment was 11900 and this estimated weight with more accuracy than some previously published values of 'Y'. Racing Thoroughbred horses were found to be significantly lighter than non-racing Thoroughbreds of the same height and condition score. The method of assessment of condition score was shown to be repeatable between different operators with varying degrees of experience. PMID:3366105
Increased wheeze and asthma diagnosis in obesity may be due to reduced lung volume with subsequent airway narrowing. Asthma (wheeze and airway hyperresponsiveness), functional residual capacity (FRC) and airway conductance (Gaw) were measured in 276 randomly selected subjects aged 28-30 yrs. Data were initially adjusted for smoking and asthma before examining relationships between weight and FRC (after adjustment for height),
G. G. King; N. J. Brown; C. Diba; C. W. Thorpe; P. Munoz; G. B. Marks; B. Toelle; K. Ng; N. Berend; C. M. Salome
We investigate whether underweight, normal-weight, overweight, and obese Americans differ in their evaluations of positive and negative aspects of their interpersonal relationships. Analyses are based on data from the Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) study, a survey of more than 3,000 adults ages 25 to 74 in 1995. We find no…
Increases in regulatory oversight of animal research require verification of effects of standard practices. There are no formal guidelines for establishing free-feeding weights in adult pigeons. In the present study, pigeons were obtained from a commercial supplier, weighed upon arrival, and then held in quarantine for 7 days with free access to…
Matching and attribute trade are two perspectives used to explain mate selection. We investigated patterns of matching and trade, focusing on obesity, using Add Health Romantic Pair data (N = 1,405 couples). Obese individuals, relative to healthy weight individuals, were less likely to have physically attractive partners, with this disadvantage…
Behavioral and personality characteristics are factors that may jointly regulate bodyweight. This study explored the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and self-reported behavioral and personality measures. These measures included eating behavior (based on the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire; Stunkard and Messick, 1985), sensitivity to reward and punishment (based on the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) scales) (Carver and White, 1994) and self-reported impulsivity (based on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11; Patton et al., 1995). We found an inverted U-shaped relationship between restrained eating and BMI. This relationship was moderated by the level of disinhibited eating. Independent of eating behavior, BIS and BAS responsiveness were associated with BMI in a gender-specific manner with negative relationships for men and positive relationships for women. Together, eating behavior and BIS/BAS responsiveness accounted for a substantial proportion of BMI variance (men: ?25%, women: ?32%). A direct relationship between self-reported impulsivity and BMI was not observed. In summary, our results demonstrate a system of linear and non-linear relationships between the investigated factors and BMI. Moreover, bodyweight status was not only associated with eating behavior (cognitive restraint and disinhibition), but also with personality factors not inherently related to an eating context (BIS/BAS). Importantly, these relationships differ between men and women. PMID:25368586
Background The family environment offers several opportunities through which to improve adolescents' weight and weight-related behaviors. This study aims to examine the cross-sectional relationships between multiple factors in the family environment and physical activity (PA), television use (TV), soft drink intake, fruit and vegetable (FV) intake, body mass index (BMI), and body composition among a sample of sociodemographically-diverse adolescent girls. Methods Subjects included girls (mean age = 15.7), 71% of whom identified as a racial/ethnic minority, and one of their parents (dyad n = 253). Parents completed surveys assessing factors in the family environment including familial support for adolescents' PA, healthful dietary intake, and limiting TV use; parental modeling of behavior; and resources in the home such as availability of healthful food. Girls' PA and TV use were measured by 3-Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR) and dietary intake by survey measures. BMI was measured by study staff, and body fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Hierarchical linear regression models tested individual and mutually-adjusted relationships between family environment factors and girls' outcomes. Results In the individual models, positive associations were observed between family support for PA and girls' total PA (p = .011) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (p=.016), home food availability and girls' soft drink (p < .001) and FV (p < .001) intake, and family meal frequency and girls' FV intake (p = .023). Across the individual and mutually-adjusted models, parental modeling of PA, TV, and soft drink and FV intake was consistently associated with girls' behavior. Conclusions Helping parents improve their physical activity and dietary intake, as well as reduce time watching television, may be an effective way to promote healthful behaviors and weight among adolescent girls. PMID:21453516
Home Range and BodyWeight--A Reevaluation Author(s): A. S. Harestad and F. L. Bunnel Source, 60(2), 1979, pp. 389-402 ? 1979 by the Ecological Society of America HOME RANGE AND BODYWEIGHT of utilizable energy per unit area of habitat with increasing bodyweight. While trophic status and weight
The observations recorded were : i. Live bodyweight at 4, roand mweeks of age ; 2. Hot carcass weight at 11weeks of age ; 3. Shrinkage of carcass during 24 h storage at + 4Â°C ; 4. pH of biceps femoris), and on the other between live weight at 10, m weeks and hot carcass weight (table 3). A STUDY OF MUSCULAR GROWTH
Objective:Young women in the United States and Western Europe are notoriously concerned about weight but less is known about attitudes to weight in other regions of the world. This study explores the associations between body mass index (BMI), weight perceptions, and attempts to lose weight in male and female university students from 22 countries.Methods:Data were collected from 18 512 university
The capacity to adjust food intake in response to changing energy requirements is essential for survival. Recent progress has provided an insight into the molecular, cellular and behavioural mechanisms that link changes of body fat stores to adaptive adjustments of feeding behaviour. The physiological importance of this homeostatic control system is highlighted by the severe obesity that results from dysfunction
G. J. Morton; D. E. Cummings; D. G. Baskin; G. S. Barsh; M. W. Schwartz
Due to chronic dissatisfaction with bodyweight in youth, efforts to lose weight often lead to pathological dietary behaviours. Regular and heavy sports activity may contribute to the optimization of bodyweight, not only by elevating the energy utilization but also by increasing the health consciousness and the tendency to self-monitor. Research generally finds a beneficial role of extracurricular sports activity in bodyweight control. Therefore, we aim to analyze how regular, heavy sports activity (more precisely, competitive sports) may contribute to bodyweight control among two groups of youth: athletes and non-athletes. Our study was carried out using 347 adolescents; among them there were 91 athletes and 259 controls. The subjects completed self-administered questionnaires concerning their bodyweight control and dietary habits. We found that girls were less satisfied with their bodyweight and reported dieting more frequently with a greater emphasis on healthy dieting than boys. Sport influenced these strong gender differences only regarding healthy dieting, young male athletes laid a larger emphasis on healthy diets than their non-athlete counterparts, therefore their attitude became similar to that of female athletes and non-athletes. We conclude that despite the normal weight in high school students, episodes of dieting that might contribute to eating disorders were quite frequent. This was not influenced by the students' extracurricular sports activity. A greater monitoring of male athletes' and their friend's diet draw attention to the need for developing health education programs specific to boys. PMID:22816201
Self-perception of bodyweight and other weight-related factors were assessed among 2665 Taipei, Taiwan high school students. A high percent of the girls (70.7%) and boys (42.2%) reported that they were too fat and these percentages were much higher than those reported by U.S. students in a recent Youth Risk Behavior Survey. In addition, only 13.2% of girls and 22.0% of boys reported being completely satisfied with their weight and the level of dissatisfaction with weight appeared to be greater than among U.S. students. Yet, in comparison to U.S. students, the Taiwanese students were considerably less likely than their U.S. counterparts to engage in weight management practices (e.g., dieting, eating less food, using diet pills). Taiwanese students with a self-perception of being too fat were more likely than those with perceptions of being just right or too thin to engage in weight management practices, to be dissatisfied with their weight, feel that they were unattractive, estimate that their same-sex peers were trying to lose weight, and have a higher body mass index. The findings from this study showed a relationship between self-perception of body size and engaging in weight control behaviors was consistent with other research. It suggested that self-perception of bodyweight, more so than objective weight status, was predictive of weight loss behavior and also negative psychological outcomes associated with poor bodyweight image. As a result, self-perception of weight may be an important point of focus for the design and implementation of clinical and public health initiatives targeted at this adolescent population as well as others. PMID:15971733
Summary Bilateral ovariectomies or sham surgeries were performed in female Sprague Dawley rats that were 78 days of age and weighed\\u000a an average of 210 g. Food was available ad libitum to the control rats and to a group of ovariectomized rats (obese OVX).\\u000a The food consumption of a second group of ovariectomized rats (weight-matched OVX) was restricted to match their
T. J. Wronski; P. A. Schenck; M. Cintrón; C. C. Walsh
This study examined whether the association between adolescent weight status and body image varies by social engagement. A nationally representative sample of 6,909 students in grades 6 to 10 completed the 2006 HBSC survey. Separate linear regressions for boys and girls, controlling for age, race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status, were conducted with an interaction term (weight status x social engagement). Adolescents’ overweight/obese status was related to body dissatisfaction. Social engagement moderated the relationship between weight status and body image for girls but not for boys. Overweight/obese boys had more body dissatisfaction compared to their normal/underweight peers, regardless of their social engagement. However, overweight/obese girls with more social engagement were more likely to have body satisfaction compared to overweight/obese girls with less social engagement. Encouraging adolescent girls to develop healthy relationships with peers may prevent them from developing body dissatisfaction. PMID:22325852
Caccavale, Laura J.; Farhat, Tilda; Iannotti, Ronald J.
Few studies have investigated a cultural group's corporeal experiences in both its country of origin and a host, Western country using the same methodology. To overcome this dearth in the literature, the present study examined body image among 140 women in Harare, Zimbabwe, and an age-matched sample of 138 Zimbabwean migrants in Britain. Participants completed measures of actual-ideal weight discrepancy, body appreciation, and lifetime exposure to Western and Zimbabwean media. Preliminary analyses showed that there were no significant differences in body mass index between the two groups. Further analyses showed that Zimbabwean women in Britain had significantly greater weight discrepancy and lower body appreciation than their counterparts in Zimbabwe. In addition, weight discrepancy and body appreciation among both samples were significantly associated with exposure to Western media, but not Zimbabwean media. These findings support the contention that transcultural migration may place individuals at risk for symptoms of negative body image. PMID:22717762
C57BL\\/6J-mice with a mutation in the obese (ob) gene are obese, diabetic, and exhibit reduced activity, metabolism, and body temperature. Daily intraperitoneal injection of these mice with recombinant OB protein lowered their bodyweight, percent body fat, food intake, and serum concentrations of glucose and insulin. In addition, metabolic rate, body temperature, and activity levels were increased by this treatment.
Mary Ann Pelleymounter; Mary Jane Cullen; Mary Beth Baker; Randy Hecht; Dwight Winters; Thomas Boone; Frank Collins
.11-4.40]) or no cues (% = 3.72, 95% CI [3.05-4.40]). Males had reported higher current body image when they received specific weight cues &M = 4.46, 95% CI [3.84-5.08]), when compared to those who received general weight cues (M = 4.07, 95% CI [3.48¬ 4... of body dissatisfaction in groups that received weight-cues, as opposed to those who did not receive any cues. There are conclusions regarding today's media that suggests women may be geared towards more dynamic self- perceptions of body image...
In a 12-year prospective study, the authors examined the relation between body mass index (BMI) and mortality among the 20,346 middle-aged (25-54 years) and older (55-84 years) non-Hispanic white cohort members of the Adventist Health Study (California, 1976-1988) who had never smoked cigarettes and had no history of coronary heart disease, cancer, or stroke. In analyses that accounted for putative
Pramil N. Singh; Kristian D. Lindsted; Gary E. Fraser
Obesity contributes to increased risk for several chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Xanthohumol, a prenylated flavonoid from hops (Humulus lupulus), was tested for efficacy on biomarkers of metabolic syndrome in 4 week old Zucker fa/fa rats, a rodent model of obesity. Rats received daily oral doses of xanthohumol at 0, 1.86, 5.64, and 16.9 mg/kg BW for 6 weeks. All rats were maintained on a high fat (60% kcal) AIN-93G diet for 3 weeks to induce severe obesity followed by a normal AIN-93G (15% kcal fat) diet for the last 3 weeks of the study. Weekly food intake and bodyweight were recorded. Plasma cholesterol, glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels were assessed using commercial assay kits. Plasma and liver tissue levels of XN and its metabolites were determined by liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Plasma and liver tissue levels of xanthohumol were similar between low and medium dose groups and significantly (p<0.05) elevated in the highest dose group. There was a dose-dependent effect on bodyweight and plasma glucose levels. The highest dose group (n=6) had significantly lower plasma glucose levels compared to the control group (n=6) in male but not female rats. There was also a significant decrease in bodyweight for male rats in the highest dose group (16.9 mg/kg BW) compared to rats that received no xanthohumol, which was also not seen for female rats. Plasma cholesterol, insulin, triglycerides, and MCP-1 as well as food intake were not affected by treatment. The findings suggest that xanthohumol has beneficial effects on markers of metabolic syndrome. PMID:22640929
Legette, Leecole L; Luna, Arlyn Y Moreno; Reed, Ralph L; Miranda, Cristobal L; Bobe, Gerd; Proteau, Rosita R; Stevens, Jan F
In the Western society where obesity is a less desired condition it is natural that individuals may tend to report values of weight and height that they believe conform with current norms. Although several previous studies have shown that for the individual the difference between reported and controlled data may be small, such differences may affect body mass index distributions in various populations. The predictive validity of self-reported weight and height and of body mass index (BMI) calculated from these measures was analysed by using data from a random sample including 182 women with a mean age of 62 years (20-84 years) and 119 men with a mean age of 56 years (16-84 years) from a health care centre. Multiple multivariate linear regression analysis was used to study the relationship between self-reported (subjective) and controlled (objective) values. The regression lines of subjective parameters on controlled ones were significantly different from the line of identity for both sexes for weight, height and BMI (P less than 0.001). These lines demonstrate a 'flat slope syndrome', i.e. there is a systematic tendency for high values to be underestimated and for low ones to be overestimated. There was one exception for height in women, which was always overestimated, even for tall subjects. A systematic tendency for overweight and obese subjects to underestimate their body size and conversely for underweight subjects to overestimate it resulted in an incorrect BMI category distribution of 30 per cent of these subjects. This fact may invalidate data and conclusions of population surveys based on self-reported measures. PMID:2793299
Kuskowska-Wolk, A; Karlsson, P; Stolt, M; Rössner, S
Summary Background and objectives Among patients receiving maintenance dialysis, weight loss at any body mass index is associated with mortality. However, it is not known whether weight changes before dialysis initiation are associated with mortality and if so, what risks are associated with weight gain or loss. Design, setting, participants, and measurements Linking data from the US Renal Data System to a national registry of nursing home residents, this study identified 11,090 patients who started dialysis between January of 2000 and December of 2006. Patients were categorized according to weight measured between 3 and 6 months before dialysis initiation and the percentage change in bodyweight before dialysis initiation (divided into quintiles). The outcome was mortality within 1 year of starting dialysis. Results There were 361 patients (3.3%) who were underweight (Quételet’s [body mass] index<18.5 kg/m2) and 4046 patients (36.5%) who were obese (body mass index?30 kg/m2) before dialysis initiation. The median percentage change in bodyweight before dialysis initiation was ?6% (interquartile range=?13% to 1%). There were 6063 deaths (54.7%) over 1 year of follow-up. Compared with patients with minimal weight changes (?3% to 3%, quintile 4), patients with weight loss ?15% (quintile 1) had 35% higher risk for mortality (95% confidence interval, 1.25 to 1.47), whereas those patients with weight gain?4% (quintile 5) had a 24% higher risk for mortality (95% confidence interval, 1.14 to 1.35) adjusted for baseline body mass index and other confounders. Conclusions Among nursing home residents, changes in bodyweight in advance of dialysis initiation are associated with significantly higher 1-year mortality. PMID:24009221
Stack, Shobha; Chertow, Glenn M.; Johansen, Kirsten L.; Si, Yan
To understand the tail-suspension model to simulate weightlessness better, this study was to investigate the relationship of the amount of bodyweight supported by forelimbs between the tilt angles of rat in the model. Normal rat had at least two basic postures. One was standing or walking, in which the forelimbs bear 44.6% of the bodyweight; the other one was resting, in which 23.9% of bodyweight was placed on the forelimbs. As for tail-suspended rat, body-weight distribution on forelimbs was linearly related to tilt angle. The linear relationship was y = -0.7423x + 70.849, R2 = 0.9269. The tilt angle should be approximately 35 degrees if normal standing load of 44.6% bodyweight was placed on the forelimbs. On the other hand, it should be approximately 63 degrees if normal resting load of 23.9% of bodyweight was placed on forelimbs. Furthermore, the body load on forelimbs in tail-suspension model became much larger if the period of different postures was considered. Therefore, it should be careful if forelimbs are used to be as convenient internal control in tail-suspended rats. PMID:20803996
Failure to consume an adequate diet or over consumption during adolescence can disrupt normal growth and development, resulting in undesirable weight change. This leads to an increase in unhealthy weight control practices related to eating and exercise among both adolescent girls and boys to meet the societal ‘ideal’ body shape. This study therefore aims to examine the longitudinal changes in eating attitudes, body-esteem and weight control behaviours among adolescents between 13 and 17 years; and, to describe perceptions around body shape at age 17 years. A total of 1435 urban South African black and mixed ancestry boys and girls, who had data at both age 13 and 17 years from the Birth to Twenty cohort were included. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires on eating attitudes (EAT-26), body esteem and weight control behaviours for either weight loss or muscle gain attempts. Height and weight were measured at both time points and BMI was calculated. Black females had a higher BMI (p<0.001) and an increased risk of developing eating disorders as well as significant increase in the prevalence of weight loss practices between the ages 13 and 17 years. At age 17 years both Mixed ancestry adolescents had lower body-esteem compared to black adolescents. The prevalence of possible eating disorders was 11% and 13.1% in early and late adolescents respectively. Males and females shared similar opinions on normal silhouettes being the ‘best’, ‘getting respect’ and being the ‘happiest’, while the obese silhouette was associated with the ‘worst’ and the ‘unhappiest’, and the underweight silhouette with the “weakest”. Black females had a higher BMI and an increased risk of developing eating disorders. Adolescent females engaged more in weight loss practices whereas, males in muscle gain practices indicating that Western norms of thinness as the ideal are becoming more common in South Africa. PMID:25310343
Gitau, Tabither M.; Micklesfield, Lisa K.; Pettifor, John M.; Norris, Shane A.
Background: Obesity has become epidemic worldwide and 31.0% of Korean adults are obese. Obesity is the main cause of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, cardiac disease, and cancer. The purpose of the study was to examine obesity, body image, depression, and weight-control behaviour among Korean female university students and investigate the differences in body image, depression, and weight-control behaviour with respect to obesity. Methods: This study examined obesity, body image, depression, and weight control in 700 female university students from 4 universities in South Korea. To evaluate obesity, both objective obesity (body mass index [BMI]) and subjective obesity (subjectively perceived) were measured. Results: There was a significant difference between objective and subjective obesity (?2 = 231.280, P < 0.001). In addition, the objective obesity group had the lowest body image score (F = 19.867, P < 0.001) and difference in weight-control behaviour (F = 3.145, P = 0.045). Further, the subjective obesity group had the lowest body image score (F = 58.281, P < 0.001). The results revealed a statistically significant difference in body image and weight-control behaviour with respect to objective obesity. Conclusion: Objective and subjective obesity was negatively associated with body image, and no relationships between objective or subjective obesity and depression. PMID:25337594
Italians in Britain have low rates of coronary heart disease while South Asians have high rates, which correspond to a tendency to central abdominal fat deposition and overweight. World variations in attitudes to body size are thought to be related to economic security. This cross-sectional study employed a range of measures including photographic silhouettes of known BMI to investigate the attitudes of 259 South Asian, Italian and general population women (aged 20-42 years) towards body size. Migrants are compared with British-born minority members. Our results indicate that although migrant South Asians were less happy with their weight than migrant Italians, fewer had tried to lose weight in the past or had experienced external pressures to change their bodies. More migrant South Asians than Italians or general population women equated one of the four largest shapes (BMI 28-38) with health and successful reproduction. All groups wanted to resemble one of the two thinnest shapes, equating them with longevity, likelihood of marriage and job success. British-born South Asians generally showed a considerable degree of convergence towards general population women's negative attitudes to large body size, but British-born Italians' attitudes were significantly more negative even than general population women. The study's conclusions were that South Asian health beliefs are an important focus of resistance to slimness. The tendency of migrant South Asians to equate large size with health contrasts with the opposing views of Italian and general population women. British-born South Asians' views are modifying from those of migrants, but significant differences remain when compared with general population women and British-born Italians. Present differences in economic security offer only a partial explanation; South Asian attitudes may be explained by economic insecurity in the past. PMID:11895321
Bush, H M; Williams, R G; Lean, M E; Anderson, A S
A robust body of literature spanning several countries indicates a positive association between maternal employment and child body mass index (BMI). Fewer studies have examined the role of paternal employment. More importantly, little empirical work examines the mechanisms that might explain the relationships between parental employment and children’s BMI. Our paper tests the relationship between the cumulative experience of maternal and spouse employment over a child’s lifetime and that child’s BMI, overweight, and obesity at age 13 or 14. We further examine several mechanisms that may explain these associations. We use data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) merged mother-child file on cohorts of children who were born during a period of dramatic increase in both childhood obesity and maternal employment. We find that the number of hours that highly-educated mothers work over her child’s lifetime is positively and statistically significantly associated with her child’s BMI and risk of overweight at ages 13 or 14. The work hours of mothers’ spouses and partners, on the other hand, are not significantly associated with these outcomes. Results suggest that, for children of highly-educated mothers, the association between maternal work hours and child BMI is partially mediated by television viewing time. PMID:23031605
Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.; Dunifon, Rachel E.; Kalil, Ariel
A robust body of literature spanning several countries indicates a positive association between maternal employment and child body mass index (BMI). Fewer studies have examined the role of paternal employment. More importantly, little empirical work examines the mechanisms that might explain the relationships between parental employment and children's BMI. Our paper tests the relationship between the cumulative experience of maternal and spouse employment over a child's lifetime and that child's BMI, overweight, and obesity at age 13 or 14. We further examine several mechanisms that may explain these associations. We use data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) merged mother-child file on cohorts of children who were born during a period of dramatic increase in both childhood obesity and maternal employment. We find that the number of hours that highly-educated mothers work over her child's lifetime is positively and statistically significantly associated with her child's BMI and risk of overweight at ages 13 or 14. The work hours of mothers' spouses and partners, on the other hand, are not significantly associated with these outcomes. Results suggest that, for children of highly-educated mothers, the association between maternal work hours and child BMI is partially mediated by television viewing time. PMID:23031605
Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M; Dunifon, Rachel E; Kalil, Ariel
A study was conducted to investigate associations between ethnicity and acculturation status and risk factors for eating disorders among young adult women. A community sample of 14,779 women aged 18-23 completed a comprehensive mail-out survey, which incorporated questions on country of birth, length of time spent in Australia, bodyweight, weight dissatisfaction, dieting, binge eating, and compensatory disordered eating behaviours. Results showed that risk factors for eating disorders were present across a range of ethnic groups. Further, a strong acculturation effect was observed, such that the longer the time spent in Australia, the more women reported weight-related values and behaviours similar to those of Australian-born women. Results challenge claims that risk factors for disordered eating are restricted to Caucasian females in Western societies. Implications for understanding ethnic and sociocultural influences on bodyweight, dieting, and disordered eating are considered. PMID:15000999
criticism, peer victimization) can lead to lower levels of physical activity. In this study a community sample of 376 5th and 6th grade students completed measures of physical activity, weight criticism during physical activity, and body dissatisfaction...
PYY (3-36) is postulated to act as a satiety factor in the gut–hypothalamic pathway to inhibit food intake and bodyweight gain in humans and rodent models. We determined the effect of 14-day continuous intravenous infusion of PYY (3-36) (175 ?g\\/kg\\/day) on food intake and bodyweight gain in colectomized male Wistar rats. Colectomy caused an increase in plasma PYY
M. Babu; A. K. Purhonen; T. Bansiewicz; K. Mäkelä; J. Walkowiak; P. Miettinen; K. H. Herzig
Body-weight management requires a multifactorial approach. Recent findings suggest that an elevated protein intake seems to play a key role herein, through (i) increased satiety related to increased diet-induced thermogenesis; (ii) its effect on thermogenesis; (iii) body composition; and (iv) decreased energy-efficiency, all of which are related to protein metabolism. Supported by these mechanisms, relatively larger weight loss and subsequent
M S Westerterp-Plantenga; N Luscombe-Marsh; M P G M Lejeune; K Diepvens; A Nieuwenhuizen; M P K J Engelen; N E P Deutz; D Azzout-Marniche; D Tome; K R Westerterp; Westerterp-Plantenga
Marital terminations are life transitions that may lead to changes in diet, activity, and bodyweight. This investigation\\u000a examined how marital status was associated with relative bodyweight, underweight, overweight, and obesity among men and women\\u000a in the United States using cross-sectional nationally representative data from the 1992 HRS cohort age 51–61 and the 1993\\u000a AHEAD cohort age 70 and
Dietary, activity, and bodyweight differences in high- and low-restrained eaters and the independent impact of dietary restraint on bodyweight change were evaluated in 287 adults (141 men, 146 women) followed over a 1-year period. Analyses of measures of energy intake, physical activity, and dietary restraint indicated that high-restrained eaters did not differ in physical activity compared to low-restrained
Robert C. Klesges; Terry R. Isbell; Lisa M. Klesges
Cheng P-T, Wu S-H, Liaw M-Y, Wong AMK, Tang F-T. Symmetrical body-weight distribution training in stroke patients and its effect on fall prevention. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82:1650-4. Objective: To determine the role of symmetrical body-weight distribution training in preventing falls among patients with hemiplegic stroke. Design: A prospective study using a standing biofeedback trainer. Setting: Hospital-based rehabilitation units. Patients:
Pao-Tsai Cheng; Shu-Hsia Wu; Mei-Yun Liaw; Alice M. K. Wong; Fuk-Tan Tang
reared during the summer months, with which a reduction in laying house performance is usually associated. This study was designed to determine the effects of antibiotics during the growing period upon bodyweight at sexual maturity and on subsequent... performance. Whether the bodyweight at maturity might be affected by the use of antibiotics in the diet during the growing period has not been determined spe- cifically for spring-hatched birds. This study was designed to determine the effects...
A method that uses passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags for the continuous recording of feeding behavior and bodyweight from multiple individual animals is described. We have used this method in the field and in semi-natural captive conditions with black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) to determine daily and seasonal patterns in bodyweight and to estimate the proportions of food cached and consumed. PMID:11134696
Measurements of the bodyweight of monkeys in the Japanese monkey troop on Koshima islet in southern Japan have been made\\u000a since 1970. Population changes in the troop have been recorded since 1952. The population changes were further analyzed on\\u000a the basis of the bodyweight changes of the troop members. The recent history of the Koshima troop can be
Bodyweight-for-height relationships predict mortality in maintenance hemodialysis patients.BackgroundProtein-energy malnutrition is a strong predictor of mortality in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. This association has generally been described for serum chemistry measures of protein-energy malnutrition. We hypothesized that bodyweight-for-height relationships also predict survival in MHD patients.MethodsDuring the last three months of 1993, data were obtained on 12,965 men and women
Joel D. Kopple; Xiaofei Zhu; Nancy L. Lew; Edmund G. Lowrie
Excess bodyweight and genetics play important roles in cancer susceptibility. Although several studies have reported on obesity and genetic variants as separate risk factors for cancer, very few studies have investigated the interaction between excess bodyweight and genetic variants in cancer susceptibility. In this review, we focus on the interplay between these 2 risk factors, which are a major determinant of the individual risk of cancer onset. PMID:25291134
A new technique for establishing dry weight in hemodialysis patients via whole body bioimpedance.BackgroundQuantitative techniques are necessary to achieve dry weight (DW) in patients with kidney failure. Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) is a non-invasive method that determines the volume of body fluid compartments. The current work evaluates the use of BIS data in hemodialysis patients for the prediction of DW.MethodsA new
Paul W. Chamney; Matthias Krämer; Christiane Rode; Wolfgang Kleinekofort; Volker Wizemann
Small changes of diet may reduce CVD risk. One example is the inclusion of nuts. They are rich in fibre, unsaturated fatty acids and phytonutrients. However, their fat content and energy density raise concerns that chronic consumption will promote weight gain. Randomised intervention studies are required to evaluate whether this concern is well founded. This study's aim was to determine if the inclusion of a 1440 kJ serving of almonds in the daily diet results in positive energy balance, and body composition change. During a 23-week cross-over design study, participants were required to consume almonds for 10 weeks and were provided no advice on how to include them in their diet. For another 10 weeks (order counter-balanced), participants followed their customary diet and there was a 3-week washout between. The study group consisted of twenty women. Potential mechanisms of energy dissipation were measured. Ten weeks of daily almond consumption did not cause a change in bodyweight. This was predominantly due to compensation for the energy contained in the almonds through reduced food intake from other sources. Moreover, inefficiency in the absorption of energy from almonds was documented (P < 0.05). No changes in resting metabolic rate, thermic effect of food or total energy expenditure were noted. A daily 1440 kJ serving of almonds, sufficient to provide beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors, may be included in the diet with limited risk of weight gain. Whether this can be generalised to other high-fat energy dense foods warrants evaluation. PMID:17445351
Estrogen is an important protective factor against obesity in females. Therefore, postmenopausal women have a higher rate of obesity than premenopausal women, which is associated with age-related loss of ovary function. It has been reported that a diet containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduced bodyweight and body fat mass in the animal model as well as in human trials. We hypothesized that ingestion of CLA would reduce bodyweight gain in ovariectomized (OVX) female C57BL/6J mice which is a model for postmenopaual women. We further hypothesized that bodyweight reduction may improve obesity-related complication. To test this hypothesis, the OVX mice fed with a high fat diet containing CLA for 3 months. Mice had significantly reduced bodyweight gain compared to OVX mice fed with a high fat diet without CLA. While CLA was effective in slowing down of bodyweight gain of both Sham and OVX mice, analysis of adipocyte size and number suggested different mechanisms for loss of fat tissue in these two groups of mice. CLA treatment did not increase liver weight and accumulation of fat in the livers of OVX mice. Furthermore, CLA intake did not change insulin resistance. Our results indicate that CLA is functional as an anti-obesity supplement in the mouse model for postmenopausal women, and the anti-obesity effect of CLA is not estrogen-related. PMID:21056287
This is the first phenotypic analysis of 75 new recombinant inbred (RI) strains derived from ILS and ISS progenitors. We analyzed bodyweight in two independent cohorts of female mice at various ages and in males at 60 days. Bodyweight is a complex trait which has been mapped in numerous crosses in rodents. The LXS RI strains displayed a large range of weights, transgressing those of the inbred progenitors, supporting the utility of this large panel for mapping traits not selected in the progenitors. Numerous QTLs for bodyweight mapped in singleand multilocus scans. We assessed replication between these and previously reported QTLs based on overlapping confidence intervals of published QTLs for bodyweight at 60 days and used meta-analyses to determine combined p values for three QTL regions located on Chromosomes 4, 5, and 11. Strain distribution patterns of microsatellite marker genotypes, weight, and other phenotypes are available on Web- QTL (http://www.webqtl.org/search.html) and allow genetic mapping of any heritable quantitative phenotype measured in these strains. We report one such analysis, correlating brain and bodyweights. Large reference panels of RI strains, such as the LXS, are invaluable for identifying genetic correlations, GXE (Gene X Environment) interactions, and replicating previously identified QTLs.
Bennett, Beth [University of Colorado, Boulder; Carosone-Line, Phyllis [University of Colorado, Boulder; Lu, Lu [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL; Johnson, Thomas [University of Colorado, Boulder
This study examined the relationship between desire for thinness and psychological distress and life satisfaction in male and female adolescents across racial groups and weight categories (i.e., underweight, normal weight, or overweight individuals). The study targeted adolescents since it is during this time of development that body dissatisfaction levels are at their highest, and as a result, these individuals are
BACKGROUND: With the rapid increase in obesity rates, determining critical periods for weight gain and the effects of changes in fat mass is imperative. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in bodyweight and composition over the holiday season (Thanksgiving through New Year's) in male and female college students. METHODS: Subjects completed three visits: the first occurred
Serotonin (5-HT) has been implicated in the control of eating behavior and bodyweight. Stimulants of this monoamine reduce food intake and weight gain and increase energy expenditure, both in animals and in humans. This article reviews evidence that supports a role for hypothalamic serotonergic receptor mechanisms in the mediation of these effects. A variety of studies in rodents indicate
The endocannabinoid system elicits multiple physiologic functions that are not fully understood. Antagonism of cannabinoid type 1 (CB(1)) receptors has been the only successful new pharmacologic treatment approach in Phase III studies in obesity in the last 8 years. Whereas antagonism of (CB(1)) receptors acutely reduces food intake, the long-term effects on weight reduction and metabolic regulation appear to be mediated by stimulation of energy expenditure and by peripheral effects related to liver, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and pancreas physiology. For example, in the liver, lipogenic enzymes and fatty acid synthesis are upregulated by endocannabinoids, and in adipose tissue, antagonism of (CB(1)) receptors increases secretion of adiponectin. Some studies suggest that endocannabinoid formation is increased in obesity, perhaps because endocannabinoid degradation is decreased. Although many questions remain unanswered at present, the emerging concept of endocannabinoids as metabolic regulators helps to explain the success of rimonabant (SR141716), an antagonist of (CB(1)) receptors, currently in Phase III studies. PMID:17208664
Background Body shape dissatisfaction has been thought to have an indispensable impact on weight control behaviors. We investigated the prevalence of body shape dissatisfaction (BSD) and explored its association with weight status, education level and other determinants among young adults in Hong Kong. Methods Information on anthropometry, BSD, and socio-demographics was collected from a random sample of 1205 young adults (611 men and 594 women) aged 18-27 in a community-based household survey. BSD was defined as a discrepancy between current and ideal body shape based on a figure rating scale. Cross-tabulations, homogeneity tests and logistic regression models were applied. Results The percentages of underweight men and women were 16.5% and 34.9% respectively, and the corresponding percentages of being overweight or obese were 26.7% and 13.2% for men and women respectively. Three-quarters of young adults had BSD. Among women, 30.9% of those underweight and 75.5% of those with normal weight desired a slimmer body shape. Overweight men and underweight women with lower education level were more likely to have a mismatch between weight status and BSD than those with higher education level. After controlling for other determinants, underweight women were found to have a higher likelihood to maintain their current body shapes than other women. Men were found to be less likely to have a mismatch between weight status and BSD than women. Conclusions Overweight and obesity in men and underweight in women were prevalent among Hong Kong young adults. Inappropriate body shape desire might predispose individuals to unhealthy weight loss or gain behaviors. Careful consideration of actual weight status in body shape desire is needed in health promotion and education, especially for underweight and normal weight women and those with a low education level. PMID:22039977
While a positive wage effect of Body Mass Index (BMI) is widely observed in low-income developing countries, a negative wage effect of BMI is often observed in high-income developed countries. To fill the gap between these previous findings, we investigate the relationship between bodyweight and wages in transition economies. We focus on China, whose rapid economic growth of the
Seasonal changes in an animal's morphology, physiology, and behavior are considered to be an adaptive strategy for survival and reproductive success. In the present study, we examined bodyweight and several behavioral, physiological, hormonal, and biochemical markers in seasonally acclimatized Brandt's voles (Microtus brandti) to test our hypothesis that Brandt's voles can decrease energy intake associated with decrease in body
Examines weight-related criticism from romantic partners and the importance of the romantic relationship in relation to the body image and self esteem for college freshmen women. Results reveal that self esteem and body image were positively related. Partner importance also predicted self esteem, whereas criticism did not. (Contains 55 references…
A decade ago the World Health Organization declared obesity to be a ‘global epidemic’. Rapidly climbing rates of excess bodyweight resulted in Health Canada declaring obesity as one of three major health concerns facing children today. Accordingly, there is a growing body of research examining how 'obesogenic environments' contribute to increasing prevalence. To date, multiple studies have found rates
Community and gender differences in body image were examined in a randomly selected sample of 284 young adolescent boys and girls from 2 middle-class communities. Data gathered from interviews and questionnaires supported hypothesized Community × Sex interactions and sex differences. Specifically, girls' body image and weight satisfaction were higher in 1 community and lower in the other. Demonstrating no community
Maryse H. Richards; Andrew M. Boxer; Anne C. Petersen; Rachel Albrecht
Obesity prevalence has increased dramatically in parallel with rapid economic development and rising standards of living around the world. There is growing recognition that this 'epidemic' of overweight is being driven by environmental factors that affect our eating and physical activity behaviours. In effect, the environment overwhelms our biological capacity to maintain a healthy weight. There is little scientific evidence to quantify the relative contributions of various environmental factors to risk of overweight and obesity. However, it is easy to characterize the environment as one in which food is readily available, convenient, inexpensive and great tasting. Likewise, the modern environment discourages physical activity at work, at home and in the community, and attractive sedentary pursuits compete with activity for leisure time. In fact, the causes of obesity in our society are so manifold as to be inseparable from the way we live. Many of the forces that drive individuals to eat too much and move too little are coupled to a desire for self-efficacy and increased productivity. It can be argued therefore that obesity is an unintended consequence of the emphasis we collectively place on productivity and a desire to achieve 'the good life'. In this sense, obesity is not really a biological problem, but a social problem that requires a multifactorial social solution. In order to create demand for environmental change to promote healthy lifestyle behaviours, we will need to create a greater sense of crisis among average citizens. We will need to explore solutions that make economic sense for everyone. We will need to create a new social norm for healthy eating and active living. The magnitude of the challenge is daunting, but we can begin by engaging broad scale public private partnerships. After all, we are all part of the global community that is affected by this emerging crisis. PMID:12534696
Inheritance of bodyweight and breast length at 8 weeks of age in meat type strains of chickens H in a cross breeding programme. Heterotic effect on bodyweight was present and confirmed the theory of homogenetic heterosis. Performances and heritabilities of bodyweight at 8 weeks of age and breast length
THE UTILIZATION OF ENERGY IN DIFFERENT LINES OF MICE SELECTED FOR BODYWEIGHT J. C. Mc CARTHY H bodyweight at five and ten weeks of age. Differences in gross efficiency occurred at young ages because the rate of food consumption differed in proportion to bodyweight, while differences
Effects of underfeeding Awassi ewes in late pregnancy and early lactation on bodyweight changes that farmers tend to employ : (F1) feeding for maternal bodyweight loss in the last 3 weeks of pregnancy ; (F2 lactation (F2) was equivalent to feeding 330 g less barley daily. It resulted in a smaller bodyweight loss
Reduction of bodyweight during growing and holding periods and subsequent semen production an effect on bodyweight. In this instance, however, there was no diffe- rence in fertility between. 100 reduction in bodyweight at 30 weeks of age. Restricted males maintained on 15 hrs of light
BACKGROUND: Parents have significant influence on behaviors and perceptions surrounding eating, body image and weight in adolescents. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of bodyweight dissatisfaction, difficulty in communication with the parents and the relationship between communication with parents and adolescents' dissatisfaction with their bodyweight (dieting or perceived need to diet). METHODS: Survey data
Haleama Al Sabbah; Carine A Vereecken; Frank J Elgar; Tonja Nansel; Katrin Aasvee; Ziad Abdeen; Kristiina Ojala; Namanjeet Ahluwalia; Lea Maes
) is taken as the endpoint and recorded. Premature testing of an animal without full neuromuscular to be tested include bodily appearance, both eyes open and bright, head up and moving, steady on feet, un test paradigm that allowed for maximal survival of cyanide- treated animals with greatly reduced
1. The present study was conducted on quails to evaluate the effects of line and sex on bodyweight, carcase characteristics and organ weights and also to evaluate the effect of line on sex organs, and on carcase and liver lipid content of male quails.2. Chicks of both sexes were weighed weekly until 6 weeks when they were slaughtered. Carcase
Background: Previous research has reported mixed results on the association between bodyweight measures (ie, perception of weight and weight loss goal) and cigarette smoking prevalence--and how these associations vary by sex and race. This longitudinal study assessed the relationship between these 2 bodyweight measures and smoking prevalence by…
Although the growth of pheasants is an important issue, there are few publications providing information on bodyweight and morphometrics of pheasants at different ages. The aim of this study was to investigate bodyweight, tarsus length, wing length and wingspan in farmed pheasants aged 3-16 weeks. The study was carried out on 50 pheasants (31 females and 19 males). All one-day old birds were marked and kept until the 16th week of life. In the 3rd 8 h 12th and 16th weeks of life all pheasants were weighted and tarsus length, wing length and wingspan were measured. Male chicks appeared to be significantly heavier than females (P< or = 0.01) already in the third week of life. Also their wings were longer and their wingspan attained higher values (P < or = 0.05). Absolute gains of the majority of traits also differed between sexes (being larger in males) in all studied periods. Values of bodyweight, tarsus length and wingspan noted in the third week of life were significantly correlated with all later measurements. Thus bodyweight and some biometrical traits of pheasant chicks measured already at the 3rd week of life could be applied as predictors of future bodyweight and size. PMID:22428312
Górecki, Marcin T; Nowaczewski, Sebastian; Kontecka, Helena
Purpose The aim of the present conventional observational study was to compare the clinical outcomes of initial non-weight-bearing therapy and conventional relative rest therapy among elderly patients with clinical vertebral fractures. Methods In total, 196 consecutive patients with clinical vertebral fractures (mean age: 78 years) who were hospitalized for treatment between January 1999 and March 2007 were analyzed. Initial non-weight-bearing therapy consisted of complete bed rest allowing rolling on the bed without any weight-bearing to the spine for 2 weeks, followed by rehabilitation wearing a soft brace. The indications for initial non-weight-bearing therapy were vertebral fracture involving the posterior portion of the vertebral body at the thoraco-lumbar spine, mild neurological deficit, instability of the fracture site, severe pain, multiple vertebral fractures arising from trauma, malalignment at the fracture site, and mild spinal canal stenosis caused by the fracture. Patients who met the indication criteria were treated with initial non-weight-bearing therapy (n = 103), while the other patients were treated with conventional relative rest (n = 93). All the patients were uniformly treated with intramuscular elcatonin to relieve pain. The primary endpoint was progression of the vertebral fracture. The secondary endpoints included bony union and subjective back pain. The follow-up period was 12 weeks. Results Compared with the conventional relative rest group, the collapse rate of the anterior and posterior portions of the vertebral body was significantly smaller in the initial non-weight-bearing group. The bony union rate was 100% in the initial non-weight-bearing group and 97% in the conventional relative rest group. The number of patients who experienced back pain was significantly lower in the initial non-weight-bearing group than in the conventional relative rest group. Conclusion These results suggest that initial non-weight-bearing therapy is important for preventing vertebral body collapse and for relieving pain among elderly patients with clinical vertebral fractures. PMID:22573944
Nalmefene is an orally available opioid receptor antagonist that has been shown to suppress appetite in humans, but its effects on chronic food intake and bodyweight remain unclear. Here, we report that chronic (21-day) oral administration of nalmefene at 2 or 10 mg/kg/day in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice led to significant increases (9-11%) in cumulative food intake. Mice in the nalmefene-treated groups also gained bodyweight at a rate faster than the control. Body composition analysis showed that the extra bodyweight gains in the treated animals were mostly due to increased fat accumulation. Since acute nalmefene treatment showed a trend toward a decrease rather than an increase in food intake, it is possible that the orexigenic effect of chronic oral administration of nalmefene was caused by pharmacologically active metabolites rather than the drug itself. Our results argue against the potential use of nalmefene for treating human obesity. PMID:15219821
Chen, Richard Z; Huang, Ruey-Ruey C; Shen, Chun-Pyn; MacNeil, Douglas J; Fong, Tung M
The goals of this study were to examine gender differences in body satisfaction, obesity status, and weight loss strategies among African Americans. A self-administered survey was completed by a convenient sample of 789 African Americans, but 763 provided weight and height information. Significantly more men than women were satisfied or very satisfied with their weight. Based on self-reported weights, the mean body mass index for both men (26.61+/-4.23) and women (26.44+/-5.80) was greater than 25, thus classifying them as being overweight. Sixty-two percent of respondents had tried to lose weight in the last 12 months, with significantly more women trying to lose weight than men (P<.0001). Of those who tried to lose weight, most tried to lose weight by decreasing fried foods, decreasing sweets, and increasing exercise levels. Women were significantly more likely than men to use liquid meals, to use diet pills, to join a weight loss program, and to increase exercise levels to lose weight (P<.05). PMID:14520259
Background Quinine is a natural molecule commonly used as a flavouring agent in tonic water. Diet supplementation with quinine leads to decreased bodyweight and food intake in rats. Quinine is an in vitro inhibitor of Trpm5, a cation channel expressed in taste bud cells, the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. The objective of this work is to determine the effect of diet supplementation with quinine on bodyweight and body composition in male mice, to investigate its mechanism of action, and whether the effect is mediated through Trpm5. Results Compared with mice consuming AIN, a regular balanced diet, mice consuming AIN diet supplemented with 0.1% quinine gained less weight (2.89?±?0.30?g vs 5.39?±?0.50?g) and less fat mass (2.22?±?0.26?g vs 4.33?±?0.43?g) after 13?weeks of diet, and had lower blood glucose and plasma triglycerides. There was no difference in food intake between the mice consuming quinine supplemented diet and those consuming control diet. Trpm5 knockout mice gained less fat mass than wild-type mice. There was a trend for a diet-genotype interaction for bodyweight and bodyweight gain, with the effect of quinine less pronounced in the Trpm5 KO than in the WT background. Faecal weight, energy and lipid contents were higher in quinine fed mice compared to regular AIN fed mice and in Trpm5 KO mice compared to wild type mice. Conclusion Quinine contributes to weight control in male C57BL6 mice without affecting food intake. A partial contribution of Trpm5 to quinine dependent bodyweight control is suggested. PMID:23394313
Body dissatisfaction has been extensively studied but, recently, the importance of body satisfaction and its attributing factors has received significant recognition. Also, there is an increasing awareness of the need for research examining body dissatisfaction and satisfaction in youth other than North American females. Thus, the current research examined the prevalence of, and the individual, social, and familial factors associated with, body-weight satisfaction among New Zealand male and female adolescents (n=9107). Data were analysed from Youth '07, a nationally representative survey of New Zealand secondary school students. Overall, half of students were happy with their weight, with significantly more males than females reporting body-weight satisfaction. Students happiest with their weight were most likely to report healthy and supportive social and family environments, as well as higher levels of well-being. These findings are consistent with a growing body of research that suggests creating positive peer and family environments may lead to better developmental outcomes, such as body satisfaction, and also higher levels of well-being. PMID:22909926
Beneficial effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP) against obesity have been reported, however, the mechanism of this protection is not clear. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify GTP-targeted genes in obesity using the high-fat-diet-induced obese rat model. A total of three groups (n?=?12/group) of Sprague Dawley (SD) female rats were tested, including the control group (rats fed with low-fat diet), the HF group (rats fed with high-fat diet), and the HF+GTP group (rats fed with high-fat diet and GTP in drinking water). The HF group increased bodyweight as compared to the control group. Supplementation of GTP in the drinking water in the HF+GTP group reduced bodyweight as compared to the HF group. RNA from liver samples was extracted for gene expression analysis. A total of eighty-four genes related to obesity were analyzed using PCR array. Compared to the rats in the control group, the rats in the HF group had the expression levels of 12 genes with significant changes, including 3 orexigenic genes (Agrp, Ghrl, and Nr3c1); 7 anorectic genes (Apoa4, Cntf, Ghr, IL-1?, Ins1, Lepr, and Sort); and 2 genes that relate to energy expenditure (Adcyap1r1 and Adrb1). Intriguingly, the HF+GTP group restored the expression levels of these genes in the high-fat-induced obese rats. The protein expression levels of IL-1? and IL-6 in the serum samples from the control, HF, and HF+GTP groups confirmed the results of gene expression. Furthermore, the protein expression levels of superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) also showed GTP-regulated protective changes in this obese rat model. Collectively, this study revealed the beneficial effects of GTP on bodyweight via regulating obesity-related genes, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidant capacity, and estrogen-related actions in high-fat-induced obese rats. PMID:22715380
While sedentary leisure-time activities such as reading, going to movies, attending cultural events, attending sporting events, watching TV, listening to music, and socializing with friends would seem to contribute to excess weight, a perspective focusing on SES differences in cultural tastes suggests the opposite, that some sedentary activities are associated with lower rather than higher bodyweight. This study aims to test theories of cultural distinction by examining relationships between leisure-time activities and bodyweight. Using 2007 data on 17 nations from the International Social Survey Program, the analysis estimates relationships between the body mass index and varied leisure-time activities while controlling for SES, physical activities, and sociodemographic variables. Net of controls for SES and physical activities, participation time in cultural activities is associated with lower rather than higher bodyweight, particularly in high-income nations. The results suggest that both cultural activities and bodyweight reflect forms of distinction that separate SES-based lifestyles. PMID:21707664
The aim of this study was to find out the association of media and obesity status with bodyweight concern among female university students in Kuwait. 228 female students, aged 19-25 years, were selected at convenience from the Women's College in Kuwait. A previously validated questionnaire was used to collect information on the role of media in body concern and how parents, peers and the girls themselves perceived girls' body shapes. Weight and height were gathered by self-reporting. Use of internet and reading women's magazines had a significant impact on dieting by the girls to lose weight (P<0.0007 and P<0.0114, respectively). The mass media had two to three times more influence on obese girls than non-obese girls. Only watching television had a significant impact on girls' body shape concern (P<0.053). About 30% of non-obese and 81% of obese girls were dissatisfied with their current weight. There were significant differences between obese and non-obese girls regarding the girls' views and the views of their peers and parents about the bodyweight of the girls (P<0.000 for all). The pressure from peers and parents, in addition to the mass media, may lead to disturbed attitudes towards eating among Kuwaiti girls. PMID:23557827
Objective. The effect of oral boric acid intake on reducing bodyweight has been previously demonstrated although the mechanism has been unclear. This research study reveals the mechanism. Subjects. Twelve mice were used, in groups of six each in the control and study groups. For five days, control group mice drank standard tap water while during the same time period the study group mice drank tap water which contains 0.28?mg/250?mL boric acid. After a 5-day period, gene expression levels for uncoupling proteins (UCPs) in the white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT), and skeletal muscle tissue (SMT) and total bodyweight changes were analyzed. Results. Real time PCR analysis revealed no significant change in UCP3 expressions, but UCP2 in WAT (P: 0.0317), BAT (P: 0.014), and SMT (P: 0.0159) and UCP1 in BAT (P: 0.026) were overexpressed in the boric acid group. In addition, mice in the boric acid group lost bodyweight (mean 28.1%) while mice in the control group experienced no weight loss but a slight weight gain (mean 0.09%, P < 0.001). Conclusion. Oral boric acid intake causes overexpression of thermogenic proteins in the adipose and skeletal muscle tissues. Increasing thermogenesis through UCP protein pathway results in the accelerated lipolysis and bodyweight loss. PMID:23861682
Vibration in modern structural and mechanical systems can be reduced in amplitude by increasing stiffness, redistributing stiffness and mass, and/or adding damping if design techniques are available to do so. Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) theory in modern multivariable control design, attacks the general dissipative elastic system design problem in a global formulation. The optimal design, however, allows electronic connections and phase relations which are not physically practical or possible in passive structural-mechanical devices. The restriction of LQR solutions (to the Algebraic Riccati Equation) to design spaces which can be implemented as passive structural members and/or dampers is addressed. A general closed-form solution to the optimal free-decay control problem is presented which is tailored for structural-mechanical system. The solution includes, as subsets, special cases such as the Rayleigh Dissipation Function and total energy. Weighting matrix selection is a constrained choice among several parameters to obtain desired physical relationships. The closed-form solution is also applicable to active control design for systems where perfect, collocated actuator-sensor pairs exist.
Qualitative aspects of diet may affect body composition and propensity for weight gain or loss. We tested the hypothesis that consumption of a relatively low glycemic load (GL) diet would reduce total and visceral adipose tissue under both eucaloric and hypocaloric conditions. Participants were 69 healthy overweight men and women. Body composition was assessed by DXA and fat distribution by CT scan at baseline, after 8 weeks of a eucaloric diet intervention, and after 8 weeks of a hypocaloric (1000 kcal/d deficit) diet intervention. Participants were provided all food for both phases, and randomized to either a low GL diet (?45 points per 1000 kcal; n=40) or high GL diet (>75 points per 1000 kcal, n=29). After the eucaloric phase, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 11% less intra-abdominal fat (IAAT) than those who consumed the high GL diet (P<0.05, adjusted for total fat mass and baseline IAAT). Participants lost an average of 5.8 kg during the hypocaloric phase, with no differences in the amount of weight loss with diet assignment (P=0.39). Following weight loss, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 4.4% less total fat mass than those who consumed the high GL diet (P<0.05, adjusted for lean mass and baseline fat mass). Consumption of a relatively low GL diet may affect energy partitioning, both inducing reduction in IAAT independent of weight change, and enhancing loss of fat relative to lean mass during weight loss. PMID:23671029
Goss, Amy M.; Goree, Laura Lee; Ellis, Amy C.; Chandler-Laney, Paula C.; Casazza, Krista; Lockhart, Mark E.; Gower, Barbara A.
Background: Considering the importance and prevalence of obesity and the desire to lose weight, especially among women, this study intended to investigate the relationship between Body Mass Index, body satisfaction, and weight control behavior among women employees in Isfahan. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted among 408 women who were selected by stratified random sampling method among employees at Isfahan University and Isfahan University of Medical Sciences during 2012. The data collection tool was a multidimensional questionnaire which comprised two sections: Demographic Tool and Body Satisfaction Tool (7 items), Weight Control Behavior Scale (18 items). Results: Age, marital status, educational level, and multiparity were significantly correlated with body size satisfaction. Seventy-five participants were dissatisfied with their weight and 60.5% reported a desire to lose weight; 92.15% of women studied had participated in a healthy dieting behavior and 10.8% of them had participated in an unhealthy one during the past six months. There was an inverse correlation between body satisfaction and Body Mass Index (BMI) (r = –0.64, P = 0.001). Ninety percent of participants had at least one of the dieting behaviors. There was an inverse significant relationship between body satisfaction and dieting behaviors (r = –0.19, P = 0.001). Conclusions: Due to the importance of the prevention of obesity and the necessity of having a normal BMI in order to prevent subsequent complications, precise self-evaluation of body size can be used to focus on designing and conducting public health programs, especially for women. PMID:23671780
Light exposure can influence sleep and circadian timing, both of which have been shown to influence weight regulation. The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between ambient light, sleep and body mass index. Participants included 54 individuals (26 males, mean age 30.6, SD?=?11.7 years). Light levels, sleep midpoint and duration were measured with wrist actigraphy (Actiwatch-L) for 7 days. BMI was derived from self-reported height and weight. Caloric intake was determined from 7 days of food logs. For each participant, light and activity data were output in 2 minute epochs, smoothed using a 5 point (10 minute) moving average and then aggregated over 24 hours. The mean light timing above 500 lux (MLiT500) was defined as the average clock time of all aggregated data points above 500 lux. MLiT500 was positively correlated with BMI (r?=?0.51, p<0.001), and midpoint of sleep (r?=?0.47, p<0.01). In a multivariable linear regression model including MLiT500 and midpoint of sleep, MLiT500 was a significant predictor of BMI (B?=?1.26 SE?=?0.34, ??=?0.53 p?=?0.001, r2??=?0.22). Adjusting for covariates, MLiT500 remained an independent predictor of BMI (B?=?1.28 SE?=?0.36, ??=?0.54, p?=?0.002, r2??=?0.20). The full model accounted for 34.7% of the variance in BMI (p?=?0.01). Exposure to moderate levels of light at biologically appropriate times can influence weight, independent of sleep timing and duration. PMID:24694994
Baron, Kelly G.; Wilson, John; Kang, Joseph; Zee, Phyllis C.
Background. Hypertension and excess bodyweight are important risk factors for endothelial dysfunction. Recent evidence suggests that high-polyphenol dark chocolate improves endothelial function and lowers blood pressure. This study aimed to evaluate the association of chocolate 70% cocoa intake with metabolic profile, oxidative stress, inflammation, blood pressure, and endothelial function in stage 1 hypertensives with excess bodyweight. Methods. Intervention clinical trial includes 22 stage 1 hypertensives without previous antihypertensive treatment, aged 18 to 60 years and presents a body mass index between 25.0 and 34.9?kg/m(2). All participants were instructed to consume 50?g of chocolate 70% cocoa/day (2135?mg polyphenols) for 4 weeks. Endothelial function was evaluated by peripheral artery tonometry using Endo-PAT 2000 (Itamar Medical). Results. Twenty participants (10 men) completed the study. Comparison of pre-post intervention revealed that (1) there were no significant changes in anthropometric parameters, percentage body fat, glucose metabolism, lipid profile, biomarkers of inflammation, adhesion molecules, oxidized LDL, and blood pressure; (2) the assessment of endothelial function through the reactive hyperemia index showed a significant increase: 1.94 ± 0.18 to 2.22 ± 0.08, P = 0.01. Conclusion.In individuals with stage 1 hypertension and excess bodyweight, high-polyphenol dark chocolate improves endothelial function. PMID:23209885
Nogueira, Lívia de Paula; Knibel, Marcela Paranhos; Torres, Márcia Regina Simas Gonçalves; Nogueira Neto, José Firmino; Sanjuliani, Antonio Felipe
Background. Hypertension and excess bodyweight are important risk factors for endothelial dysfunction. Recent evidence suggests that high-polyphenol dark chocolate improves endothelial function and lowers blood pressure. This study aimed to evaluate the association of chocolate 70% cocoa intake with metabolic profile, oxidative stress, inflammation, blood pressure, and endothelial function in stage 1 hypertensives with excess bodyweight. Methods. Intervention clinical trial includes 22 stage 1 hypertensives without previous antihypertensive treatment, aged 18 to 60 years and presents a body mass index between 25.0 and 34.9?kg/m2. All participants were instructed to consume 50?g of chocolate 70% cocoa/day (2135?mg polyphenols) for 4 weeks. Endothelial function was evaluated by peripheral artery tonometry using Endo-PAT 2000 (Itamar Medical). Results. Twenty participants (10 men) completed the study. Comparison of pre-post intervention revealed that (1) there were no significant changes in anthropometric parameters, percentage body fat, glucose metabolism, lipid profile, biomarkers of inflammation, adhesion molecules, oxidized LDL, and blood pressure; (2) the assessment of endothelial function through the reactive hyperemia index showed a significant increase: 1.94 ± 0.18 to 2.22 ± 0.08, P = 0.01. Conclusion.In individuals with stage 1 hypertension and excess bodyweight, high-polyphenol dark chocolate improves endothelial function. PMID:23209885
Nogueira, Livia de Paula; Knibel, Marcela Paranhos; Torres, Marcia Regina Simas Goncalves; Nogueira Neto, Jose Firmino; Sanjuliani, Antonio Felipe
This study reports results from the first International Body Project (IBP-I), which surveyed 7,434 individuals in 10 major world regions about bodyweight ideals and body dissatisfaction. Participants completed the female Contour Drawing Figure Rating Scale (CDFRS) and self-reported their exposure to Western and local media. Results indicated there were significant cross-regional differences in the ideal female figure and body dissatisfaction, but effect sizes were small across high-socioeconomic-status (SES) sites. Within cultures, heavier bodies were preferred in low-SES sites compared to high-SES sites in Malaysia and South Africa (ds = 1.94-2.49) but not in Austria. Participant age, body mass index (BMI), and Western media exposure predicted bodyweight ideals. BMI and Western media exposure predicted body dissatisfaction among women. Our results show that body dissatisfaction and desire for thinness is commonplace in high-SES settings across world regions, highlighting the need for international attention to this problem. PMID:20179313
Previous studies have reported that regular nut consumption reduces cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and does not promote weight gain despite the fact that nuts are energy-dense. However, no studies have investigated the body composition of those regularly consuming nuts compared to similar intakes of other snacks of equal energy density. This parallel study (n = 118) examined the effects of providing daily portions (~1100?kJ/d) of hazelnuts, chocolate, or potato crisps compared to a control group receiving no snacks for twelve weeks. Effects on bodyweight and composition, blood lipids and lipoproteins, resting metabolic rate (RMR), appetite indices, and dietary quality were compared. At week 12, there was no significant difference in any of the outcome measurements between the groups except for dietary quality, which improved significantly in the nut group. Nuts can be incorporated into the diet without adversely affecting bodyweight and can improve diet quality. PMID:21845219
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a potent regulator of neuronal development and synaptic plasticity that is fundamental to neural circuit formation and cognition. It is also involved in the control of appetite and bodyweight, with mutations in the genes for BDNF and its receptor, TrkB, resulting in remarkable hyperphagia and severe obesity in humans and mice. Recent studies have made significant progress in elucidating the source, action sites, and regulatory pathways of BDNF with regard to its role in the control of energy homeostasis, and have shed light on the relationships between BDNF and other molecules involved in the control of bodyweight. Here we provide a comprehensive review of evidence from pharmacological, genetic, and mechanistic studies, linking BDNF to the control of bodyweight. This review also aims to organize the main findings on this subject into a more refined framework and to discuss the future research directions necessary to advance the field. PMID:23519010
Abstract Buffalo are an economically important source for meat and milk production, especially in Brazil. However, important aspects of their biology remain unknown thus far. Herein, we describe the reproductive characteristics of male Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) raised under extensive management conditions by applying biometrics associated with testicular weight. We analyzed seven males, divided into two groups: G1, which consisted of four 18-month-old animals, and G2, which consisted of three 24-month-old animals. Testicular development occurs slowly in Murrah buffalo, suggesting a delay of sexual maturity. The biometric testicular parameters analyzed were scrotal circumference, testicular weight, testicular length, testicular width, testicular thickness and testicular circumference. Our data indicate strong correlations between SC, age and bodyweight, and additional significant relationships were identified between bodyweight, age and other testicular parameters. Thus, these parameters are suitable indicators when selecting bulls for breeding purposes. PMID:22986925
da LUZ, Patricia Aparecida Cardoso; SANTOS, Paulo Ramos da Silva; ANDRIGHETTO, Cristiana; JORGE, Andre Mendes; de ASSIS NETO, Antonio Chaves
We analyze the influence of bodyweight in early adulthood, and changes in weight over time, on self rated health (SRH) as people age into mid-adulthood. While prior research focused on cross-sectional samples of older adults, we use longitudinal data from the NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study (NHEFS) and double-trajectory latent growth models to study the association between body mass index (BMI) and SRH trajectories over twenty years. Results indicate that high BMI in early adulthood and gaining more weight over time are both associated with a faster decline in health ratings. Among white women only, those with a higher BMI at the baseline also report lower initial SRH. A small part of the weight-health associations is due to sociodemographic factors, but not baseline health behaviors or medical conditions. The findings provide new support for the cumulative disadvantage perspective, documenting the increasing health inequalities in a cohort of young adults. PMID:20420297
Purpose: To determine whether overweight female adolescents differ from normal and underweight female adolescents with respect to a set of psychosocial factors, while controlling for body image.Methods: Female participants of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 3197) were selected for analysis. Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was used to test whether overweight subjects differed from normal and
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is a continuing problem in the UK and South Asian children represent a group that are particularly vulnerable to its health consequences. The relationship between body dissatisfaction and obesity is well documented in older children and adults, but is less clear in young children, particularly South Asians. A better understanding of this relationship in young South Asian
Miranda J Pallan; Lucinda C Hiam; Joan L Duda; Peymane Adab
The impact of weight change in adulthood on cardiovascular disease is controversial. This study examined the association of change in bodyweight, from young adulthood to middle age, with average carotid artery intimal-medial wall thickness by B-mode ultrasound measured in middle age. Participants were 13,282 men and women aged 45-64 years from the baseline examination of the Atherosclerosis Risk in
June Stevens; H. A. Tyroler; Jianwen Cai; Catherine C. Paton; Aaron R. Folsom; Grethe S. Tell; Pamela J. Schreiner; LJoyd E. Chambless
Different weight classes (25, 50, 100 and 160 mg) of the dragonfly nymph Mesogomphus lineatus were allowed to predate on constant density (15 larvae\\/aquarium of 500 ml capacity) of healthy fourth instar larvae of Culex fatigans at 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 ±0.5°C to study the interactions of bodyweight and temperature on satiation time, maximum food
Objective: Many transitional societies currently face both extremes of nutritional status, undernutrition and overnutrition. Women of reproductive age are at high risk of these conditions. The purpose of this review is to consider evidence for relationships between reproduction and nutritional status in women from societies of varying economic development, using bodyweight or weight-for-height as indicators of maternal nutritional status.Design:
Objective: Discrimination can have a negative impact on psychological well-being, attitudes and behaviour. This research evaluates the impact of experiences of weight-based discrimination upon emotional eating and body dissatisfaction, and also explores whether people's beliefs about an ingroup's social consensus concerning how favourably overweight people are regarded can moderate the relationship between experiences of discrimination and negative eating and weight-related
Background:Exercise is widely promoted as a method of weight management, while the other health benefits are often ignored. The purpose of this study was to examine whether exercise-induced improvements in health are influenced by changes in bodyweight.Methods:Fifty-eight sedentary overweight\\/obese men and women (BMI 31.8 (SD 4.5) kg\\/m2) participated in a 12-week supervised aerobic exercise intervention (70% heart rate max,
N A King; M Hopkins; P Caudwell; R J Stubbs; J E Blundell
Aims: Peak oxygen uptake adjusted to bodyweight (peak VO2) and ventilatory efficiency (VE\\/VCO2-slope) are important prognostic parameters in chronic heart failure. Our study prospectively examined changes in these parameters over 24 months following heart transplantation (HTx) and evaluated the potentially confounding effects of weight gain. Methods and results: One hundred patients with chronic heart failure (16 female, mean age
Dirk Habedank; Ralf Ewert; Manfred Hummel; Roland Wensel; Roland Hetzer; Stefan D. Anker
Objective To compare self-reported to measured heights and weights of adults examined in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), and to determine to what extent body mass index (BMI) calculated from self-reported heights and weights affects estimates of overweight prevalence compared with BMI calculated from measured values.Design A complex sample design was used in NHANES III
MARIE FANELLI KUCZMARSKI; ROBERT J KUCZMARSKI; MATTHEW NAJJAR
Objective: To characterize a model of atypical antipsychotic drug-induced obesity and evaluate its mechanism.Research Methods and Procedures: Chronically, olanzapine or clozapine was self-administered via cookie dough to rodents (Sprague-Dawley or Wistar rats; C57Bl\\/6J or A\\/J mice). Chronic studies measured food intake, bodyweight, adiponectin, active ghrelin, leptin, insulin, tissue wet weights, glucose, clinical chemistry endpoints, and brain dopaminergic D2 receptor
Vance L. Albaugh; Cathy R. Henry; Nicholas T. Bello; Andras Hajnal; Susan L. Lynch; Beth Halle; Christopher J. Lynch
The purpose of this study was to assess how body image may be affected by HIV-related weight loss. Qualitative methodology was used: eight gay men with weight loss of at least 10% self-completed a brief, tailor-made questionnaire and then participated singly in semi-structured audiotaped interviews. Questionnaire analysis showed all but one had avoided social activities in the last two months
Background The family environment offers several opportunities through which to improve adolescents' weight and weight-related behaviors.\\u000a This study aims to examine the cross-sectional relationships between multiple factors in the family environment and physical\\u000a activity (PA), television use (TV), soft drink intake, fruit and vegetable (FV) intake, body mass index (BMI), and body composition\\u000a among a sample of sociodemographically-diverse adolescent girls.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Subjects
Katherine W Bauer; Dianne Neumark-Sztainer; Jayne A Fulkerson; Peter J Hannan; Mary Story
Students entering their first year of college are faced with many stresses and changes, including changes in eating and exercise behavior. A common but often undocumented myth among college students is that there is a high risk of gaining 15 pounds of weight during freshman year. The objective of this study was to measure changes in bodyweight…
Hoffman, Daniel J.; Policastro, Peggy; Quick, Virginia; Lee, Soo-Kyung
Students entering their first year of college are faced with many stresses and changes, including changes in eating and exercise behavior. A common but often undocumented myth among college students is that there is a high risk of gaining 15 pounds of weight during freshman year. The objective of this study was to measure changes in bodyweight and percentage
Daniel J. Hoffman; Peggy Policastro; Virginia Quick; Soo-Kyung Lee
Purpose Smoking during pregnancy is strongly associated with increased risk of small for gestational age (SGA) and low birth weight, while elevated prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) is associated with a decreased risk of SGA and higher birth weight. We investigated the combined effect of prenatal smoking and prepregnancy BMI on risk of SGA and on birth weight. Methods A total of 34,928 singleton, term pregnancies in residents of New York City between 1995 and 2003 were evaluated in multivariable regression models of birth weight and risk of SGA. Results Increasing prepregnancy BMI reduced the risk of SGA and increased birth weight. The effect of prenatal smoking on birth weight and SGA diminished in women as their prepregnancy BMI increased, such that prenatal smoking did not significantly impact the risk of SGA among women who were overweight or obese prior to pregnancy. Prenatal smoking decreased mean birth weight by 187 grams (95% confidence interval (CI): -337, -37) among underweight women, by 129 grams (95% CI: -170, -87) among normal weight women, by 46 grams (95% CI: -113, +20) among overweight women, and by 75 grams (95% CI: -162, +11) among obese women. Conclusions This study suggests that the effect of smoking during pregnancy on SGA and birth weight is present in underweight and normal weight women but markedly reduced among obese and overweight women. PMID:21421328
La Merrill, Michele A.; Stein, Cheryl R.; Landrigan, Philip; Engel, Stephanie M.; Savitz, David A.
The overall purpose of this study is to investigate the physical performance of early postmenopausal Caucasian women during a 12-month weight reduction program. Additionally, the relationships between body composition (bone, fat and lean mass) and physical performance during that period is explored. A total of 97 participants aged 56.0(±4.3) years old with an average BMI of 30.3(±3.8) kg\\/m2 were included
An experiment was carried out to study the effects of hematinics (CuSO4, FeSO4, CoSO4) on general body condition and certain hematological parameters in sheep and goats. The results revealed that the bodyweight gain, total erythrocyte count, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were increased significantly (p<0.01 and p<0.05) in
R. ISLAM; S. M. H. RASHID; M. K. HOSSAIN; M. RAHMAN
The associations between bodyweight, raised blood pressure, and mortality remain controversial. The authors examined these relations by considering all degrees of obesity in the Düsseldorf Obesity Mortality Study (1961- 1994). Among 6,193 obese German patients aged 18-75 years and having a body mass index (BMI) of ?25 kg\\/m2, 1,059 deaths were observed after a median follow-up of 14.8 years.
Ralf Bender; Karl-Heinz Jöckel; Bernd Richter; Maximilian Spraul; Michael Berger
Objectives:The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of diet and exercise vs acupuncture, diet and exercise on the bodyweight and related parameters of adult women.Methods:Twenty-seven obese women with a body fat percentage of more than 30% were randomized into three groups. The first experimental group had diet and exercise, whereas the second experimental group had diet,
M Nourshahi; S Ahmadizad; H Nikbakht; M A Heidarnia; E Ernst
Summary Objectives: Despite evidence of poor health outcomes associated with excessive weight gain or loss, longitudinal patterns of bodyweight over the adult life course have not been fully described. This article seeks to address this by examining bodyweight patterns for middle-aged and older adults. Methods: Panel data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) original cohort and the
Kristi R. Jenkins; Nancy H. Fultz; Stephanie J. Fonda; Linda A. Wray
The present study determined the effect of chronic PPA infusion and withdrawal on weight regulation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received PPA (0, 90 or 180 mg\\/kg) via miniosmotic pumps for 2 weeks. Bodyweight and food and water consumption were measured daily before, during, and for 2 weeks after PPA infusion. Additionally, bodyweight was measured once 6 weeks after the
Suzan E. Winders; John C. Amos; Mary R. Wilson; Paul A. Rushing; Thane Dykstra; Mace C. Coday
Common variants at only two loci, FTO and MC4R, have been reproducibly associated with body mass index (BMI) in humans. To identify additional loci, we conducted meta-analysis of 15 genome-wide association studies for BMI (n > 32,000) and followed up top signals in 14 additional cohorts (n > 59,000). We strongly confirm FTO and MC4R and identify six additional loci
Cristen J Willer; Elizabeth K Speliotes; Ruth J F Loos; Shengxu Li; Cecilia M Lindgren; Iris M Heid; Sonja I Berndt; Amanda L Elliott; Anne U Jackson; Claudia Lamina; Guillaume Lettre; Noha Lim; Helen N Lyon; Steven A McCarroll; Konstantinos Papadakis; Lu Qi; Rosa Maria Roccasecca; Serena Sanna; Paul Scheet; Michael N Weedon; Eleanor Wheeler; Jing Hua Zhao; Leonie C Jacobs; Inga Prokopenko; Nicole Soranzo; Toshiko Tanaka; Nicholas J Timpson; Peter Almgren; Amanda Bennett; Richard N Bergman; Sheila A Bingham; Lori L Bonnycastle; Morris Brown; Noël P Burtt; Peter Chines; Lachlan Coin; Francis S Collins; John M Connell; Cyrus Cooper; Elaine M Dennison; Parimal Deodhar; Paul Elliott; Michael R Erdos; Karol Estrada; David M Evans; Lauren Gianniny; Christian Gieger; Christopher J Gillson; Candace Guiducci; Rachel Hackett; David Hadley; Alistair S Hall; Aki S Havulinna; Johannes Hebebrand; Albert Hofman; Bo Isomaa; Kevin B Jacobs; Toby Johnson; Pekka Jousilahti; Zorica Jovanovic; Kay-Tee Khaw; Peter Kraft; Mikko Kuokkanen; Johanna Kuusisto; Jaana Laitinen; Edward G Lakatta; Jian'an Luan; Robert N Luben; Massimo Mangino; Wendy L McArdle; Thomas Meitinger; Antonella Mulas; Patricia B Munroe; Narisu Narisu; Andrew R Ness; Kate Northstone; Stephen O'Rahilly; Carolin Purmann; Matthew G Rees; Martin Ridderstrĺle; Susan M Ring; Fernando Rivadeneira; Aimo Ruokonen; Manjinder S Sandhu; Jouko Saramies; Laura J Scott; Angelo Scuteri; Kaisa Silander; Matthew A Sims; Kijoung Song; Jonathan Stephens; Suzanne Stevens; Heather M Stringham; Y C Loraine Tung; Timo T Valle; Cornelia M Van Duijn; Karani S Vimaleswaran; Peter Vollenweider; Gerard Waeber; Chris Wallace; Richard M Watanabe; Dawn M Waterworth; Nicholas Watkins; Jacqueline C M Witteman; Eleftheria Zeggini; Guangju Zhai; M Carola Zillikens; David Altshuler; Mark J Caulfield; Stephen J Chanock; I Sadaf Farooqi; Luigi Ferrucci; Jack M Guralnik; Andrew T Hattersley; Frank B Hu; Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin; Markku Laakso; Vincent Mooser; Ken K Ong; Willem H Ouwehand; Veikko Salomaa; Nilesh J Samani; Timothy D Spector; Tiinamaija Tuomi; Jaakko Tuomilehto; Manuela Uda; André G Uitterlinden; Nicholas J Wareham; Panagiotis Deloukas; Timothy M Frayling; Leif C Groop; Richard B Hayes; David J Hunter; Karen L Mohlke; Leena Peltonen; David Schlessinger; David P Strachan; H-Erich Wichmann; Mark I McCarthy; Michael Boehnke; Inęs Barroso; Gonçalo R Abecasis; Joel N Hirschhorn
Childhood obesity is an issue of public health concern globally. This review reports on levels of overweight and obesity in Irish children and examines some aspects of their diet and lifestyle proposed to promote or protect against increasing body fatness in children. While there is still some debate with regard to the most appropriate cut-off points to use when assessing body fatness in children, approximately one in five Irish children (aged 2-17 years) have been classified as overweight (including obese) according to two generally accepted approaches. Furthermore, comparison with previous data has shown an increase in mean bodyweight and BMI over time. On examining dietary patterns for Irish children, there was a noticeable transition from a less energy dense diet in pre-school children to a more energy dense diet in older children and teenagers, associated with a change to less favourable dietary intakes for fibre, fat, fruit and vegetables, confectionery and snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages as children got older. A significant proportion of school-aged children and teenagers reported watching more than 2 h television per day (35% on school-days and 65% on week-ends) compared with 13% of pre-school children. For children aged 5-12 years, eating out of the home contributed just 9% of energy intake but food eaten from outside the home was shown to contribute a higher proportion of energy from fat and to be less fibre-dense than food prepared at home. Improvements in dietary lifestyle are needed to control increasing levels of overweight and obesity in children in Ireland. PMID:24598015
Walton, Janette; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J; Flynn, Albert
Background Studies addressing the influence of early sexual maturation on the excess of bodyweight and height of children and adolescents are scarce. The aim of the study was to analyze the association of sexual maturation with excess bodyweight and height in children and adolescents. Methods This was a cross-sectional study performed in Florianópolis city, Brazil, in 2007, with 2339 school children, aged 8–14 years (1107 males). Selection was based on a probabilistic, cluster-stratified sampling technique. School children were classified according to the presence of excess bodyweight, using sex- and age-specific body mass index (BMI) cutoff points. Z-scores were calculated from height and BMI data. Sexual maturation was self-assessed according to Tanner stages of development. Subjects were ranked based on tertiles of sexual maturation (early, normal and late) for each stage of development. Poisson and linear regression models were used. Results Compared to the reference group (normal sexual maturation), early maturing females had higher prevalence of excess weight (adjusted prevalence ratio: 1.70; 95% CI: 1.24 to 2.33) and increased height-for-age (adjusted ?: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.14 to 0.59), while late maturing females had lower prevalence of excess weight (adjusted prevalence ratio: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.37 to 0.87) and decreased height-for-age (adjusted ?: ?0.38; 95% CI: ?0.56 to ?0.20). In males, early and late sexual maturation were associated with increased (adjusted ?: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.14 to 0.59) and decreased (adjusted ?: ?0.38; 95% CI: ?0.56 to ?0.20) height-for-age, respectively. Conclusion Early sexual maturation is associated with excess bodyweight in females and with greater height-for-age in both sexes. PMID:24625111
The peptide hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) enhances glucose-induced insulin secretion and inhibits both gastric emptying and glucagon secretion. GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists control glycemia via glucose-dependent mechanisms of action and promote weight loss in obese and diabetic individuals. Nevertheless, the mechanisms and cellular targets transducing the weight loss effects remain unclear. Two recent studies in the JCI provide insight into the neurons responsible for this effect. Sisley et al. reveal that GLP-1R agonist-induced weight loss requires GLP-1Rs in the CNS, while Secher et al. reveal that a small peptide GLP-1R agonist penetrates the brain and activates a subset of GLP-1R-expressing neurons in the arcuate nucleus to produce weight loss. Together, these two studies elucidate pathways that inform strategies coupling GLP-1R signaling to control of bodyweight in patients with diabetes or obesity. PMID:25202976
Why bodies? It is rather puzzling that given the massive interest in affective neuroscience in the last decade, it still seems to make sense to raise the question ‘Why bodies’ and to try to provide an answer to it, as is the goal of this article. There are now hundreds of articles on human emotion perception ranging from behavioural studies to brain imaging experiments. These experimental studies complement decades of reports on affective disorders in neurological patients and clinical studies of psychiatric populations. The most cursory glance at the literature on emotion in humans, now referred to by the umbrella term of social and affective neuroscience, shows that over 95 per cent of them have used faces as stimuli. Of the remaining 5 per cent, a few have used scenes or auditory information including human voices, music or environmental sounds. But by far the smallest number has looked into whole-body expressions. As a rough estimate, a search on PubMed today, 1 May 2009, yields 3521 hits for emotion × faces, 1003 hits for emotion × music and 339 hits for emotion × bodies. When looking in more detail, the body × emotion category in fact yields a majority of papers on well-being, nursing, sexual violence or organ donation. But the number of cognitive and affective neuroscience studies of emotional body perception as of today is lower than 20. Why then have whole bodies and bodily expressions not attracted the attention of researchers so far? The goal of this article is to contribute some elements for an answer to this question. I believe that there is something to learn from the historical neglect of bodies and bodily expressions. I will next address some historical misconceptions about whole-body perception, and in the process I intend not only to provide an impetus for this kind of work but also to contribute to a better understanding of the significance of the affective dimension of behaviour, mind and brain as seen from the vantage point of bodily communication. Subsequent sections discuss available evidence for the neurofunctional basis of facial and bodily expressions as well as neuropsychological and clinical studies of bodily expressions. PMID:19884142
The aim of the study was to examine the effect of socioeconomic status (SES), age, weight and gender on the body image and weight control practices of children and adolescents, and to investigate whether health education about weight issues should target low socioeconomic groups. The study participants were a randomly selected group of school children who completed a questionnaire, and
Background: Because bodyweight-bearing produces a shift in the horny layer, acral melanocytic nevus on the bodyweight-bearing area of the sole showed a regular fibrillar pattern (FP) due to slanting of the melanin columns in the horny layer. On the other hand, acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) on the bodyweight-bearing area of the sole tended to show irregular fibrillar pattern showing rather structureless pigmentation instead of a parallel ridge pattern, which is due to the shift of the horny layer. Objective: To elucidate the subtle difference between the regular FP of nevus and irregular FP in ALM. Methods: In this study, the dermatoscopic features of five cases of ALM and five cases of acral melanocytic nevus on the weight-bearing area of the sole were compared. Results: All the cases with nevi showed regular FP showing regular distribution of fibrils, whereas all the melanomas showed irregular distribution of fibrils and colors. Fibrils in nevi tended to be clear at the furrows and dim at the ridges. White fibrils corresponding to the eccrine ducts in the horny layer were more often present on the ridges in ALM, which showed negative FP. Conclusion: Differentiating between the regular and irregular FP, including negative FP, might be helpful for the discrimination of melanoma from nevus. PMID:25396085
Abstract Limited data on sex differences in body composition changes in response to higher protein diets (PRO) compared to higher carbohydrate diets (CARB) suggest that a PRO diet helps preserve lean mass (LM) in women more so than in men. Objective To compare male and female body composition responses to weight loss diets differing in macronutrient content. Design Twelve month randomized clinical trial with 4mo of weight loss and 8mo weight maintenance. Subjects Overweight (N?=?130; 58 male (M), 72 female (F); BMI?=?32.5?±?0.5?kg/m2) middle-aged subjects were randomized to energy-restricted (deficit ~500?kcal/d) diets providing protein at 1.6?g.kg-1.d-1 (PRO) or 0.8?g.kg-1.d-1 (CARB). LM and fat mass (FM) were measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Body composition outcomes were tested in a repeated measures ANOVA controlling for sex, diet, time and their two- and three-way interactions at 0, 4, 8 and 12mo. Results When expressed as percent change from baseline, males and females lost similar amounts of weight at 12mo (M:-11.2?±?7.1?%, F:-9.9?±?6.0?%), as did diet groups (PRO:-10.7?±?6.8?%, CARB:-10.1?±?6.2?%), with no interaction of gender and diet. A similar pattern emerged for fat mass and lean mass, however percent body fat was significantly influenced by both gender (M:-18.0?±?12.8?%, F:-7.3?±?8.1?%, p?0.05) and diet (PRO:-14.3?±?11.8?%, CARB:-9.3?±?11.1?%, p?0.05), with no gender-diet interaction. Compared to women, men carried an extra 7.0?±?0.9?% of their total body fat in the trunk (P?0.01) at baseline, and reduced trunk fat during weight loss more than women (M:-3.0?±?0.5?%, F:-1.8?±?0.3?%, p?0.05). Conversely, women carried 7.2?±?0.9?% more total body fat in the legs, but loss of total body fat in legs was similar in men and women. Conclusion PRO was more effective in reducing percent body fat vs. CARB over 12mo weight loss and maintenance. Men lost percent total body fat and trunk fat more effectively than women. No interactive effects of protein intake and gender are evident. PMID:22691622
Context The role of diet composition in response to overeating and energy dissipation in humans is unclear. Objective To evaluate the effects of overconsumption of low, normal, and high protein diets on weight gain, energy expenditure, and body composition. Design, Setting, and Participants A single-blind, randomized controlled trial of 25 US healthy, weight-stable male and female volunteers, aged 18 to 35 years with a body mass index between 19 and 30. The first participant was admitted to the inpatient metabolic unit in June 2005 and the last in October 2007. Intervention After consuming a weight-stabilizing diet for 13 to 25 days, participants were randomized to diets containing 5% of energy from protein (low protein), 15% (normal protein), or 25% (high protein), which they were overfed during the last 8 weeks of their 10- to 12-week stay in the inpatient metabolic unit. Compared with energy intake during the weight stabilization period, the protein diets provided approximately 40% more energy intake, which corresponds to 954 kcal/d (95% CI, 884–1022 kcal/d). Main Outcome Measures Body composition was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry biweekly, resting energy expenditure was measured weekly by ventilated hood, and total energy expenditure by doubly labeled water prior to the overeating and weight stabilization periods and at weeks 7 to 8. Results Overeating produced significantly less weight gain in the low protein diet group (3.16 kg; 95% CI, 1.88–4.44 kg) compared with the normal protein diet group (6.05 kg; 95% CI, 4.84–7.26 kg) or the high protein diet group (6.51 kg; 95% CI, 5.23–7.79 kg) (P=.002). Body fat increased similarly in all 3 protein diet groups and represented 50% to more than 90% of the excess stored calories. Resting energy expenditure, total energy expenditure, and body protein did not increase during overfeeding with the low protein diet. In contrast, resting energy expenditure (normal protein diet: 160 kcal/d [95% CI, 102–218 kcal/d]; high protein diet: 227 kcal/d [95% CI, 165–289 kcal/d]) and body protein (lean body mass) (normal protein diet: 2.87 kg [95% CI, 2.11–3.62 kg]; high protein diet: 3.18 kg [95% CI, 2.37–3.98 kg]) increased significantly with the normal and high protein diets. Conclusions Among persons living in a controlled setting, calories alone account for the increase in fat; protein affected energy expenditure and storage of lean body mass, but not body fat storage. PMID:22215165
Bray, George A.; Smith, Steven R.; de Jonge, Lilian; Xie, Hui; Rood, Jennifer; Martin, Corby K.; Most, Marlene; Brock, Courtney; Mancuso, Susan; Redman, Leanne M.
Obesity later in adulthood is associated with increased risks of many cancers. However, the effect of body fatness in early adulthood, and change in weight from early to later adulthood on cancer risk later in life is less clear. We used data from 13,901 people aged 45-64 in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities cohort who at baseline (1987-1989) self-reported their weight at the age of 25 and had weight and height measured. Incident cancers were identified through 2006 and cancer deaths were ascertained through 2009. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to relate body mass index (BMI) at age 25 and percent weight change from age 25 to baseline to cancer incidence and mortality. After adjusting for weight change from age 25 until baseline, a 5 kg/m(2) increment in BMI at age 25 was associated with a greater risk of incidence of all cancers in women [hazard ratio (95% confidence interval): 1.10 (1.02-1.20)], but not in men. Associations with incident endometrial cancer were strong [1.83 (1.47-2.26)]. After adjusting for BMI at age 25, a 5% increment in weight from age 25 to baseline was associated with a greater risk of incident postmenopausal breast cancer [1.05 (1.02-1.07)] and endometrial cancer [1.09 (1.04-1.14)] in women and incident colorectal cancer [1.05 (1.00-1.10)] in men. Excess weight during young adulthood and weight gain from young to older adulthood may be independently associated with subsequent cancer risk. Excess weight and weight gain in early adulthood should be avoided. PMID:24771654
Han, Xuesong; Stevens, June; Truesdale, Kimberly P; Bradshaw, Patrick T; Kucharska-Newton, Anna; Prizment, Anna E; Platz, Elizabeth A; Joshu, Corinne E
Laboratory animals are crucial in the study of energy homeostasis. In particular, rats are used to study alterations in food intake and bodyweight. To accurately record food intake or energy expenditure it is necessary to house rats individually, which can be stressful for social animals. Environmental enrichment may reduce stress and improve welfare in laboratory rodents. However, the effect
Kylie E. L. Beale; Kevin G. Murphy; Eleanor K. Harrison; Angela J. Kerton; Mohammad A. Ghatei; Stephen R. Bloom; Kirsty L. Smith
The aims of this study were to explore the mean and distribution of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and to examine the influence of gender, bodyweight and health behaviors on hypertension in adults with disabilities. We analyzed the 2010 annual community health examination chart of adults with disabilities in east Taiwan. The study samples…
Prior research shows that food insecurity is associated with being overweight in women, with few and ambiguous results in men. Little is known about the characteristics and roles of individuals who are most likely to be both food insecure and overweight or obese. This study analyzed associations between food insecurity and bodyweight, and whether gender and marital status are
Karla L. Hanson; Jeffery Sobal; Edward A. Frongillo
BACKGROUND: Despite the increasing prevalence of overweight\\/obesity and its association to eating patterns in adolescents and adults, little is known about the relationship between problematic eating behaviours and bodyweight in the preschool years within the context of various social factors. This research aims to analyze the relationship between social factors, mothers' perceptions of their child's eating behaviour (picky eating
Lise Dubois; Anna Farmer; Manon Girard; Kelly Peterson; Fabiola Tatone-Tokuda
The use of bodyweight support (BWS) systems during locomotor retraining has become routine in clinical settings. BWS alters load receptor feedback, however, and may alter the biomechanical role of the ankle plantarflexors, influencing gait. The purpose of this study was to characterize the biomechanical adaptations that occur as a result of a change in limb load (controlled indirectly through
This investigation explored the role of critical comments about weight and body shape and disordered eating symptoms of female athletes (N = 157) and sport participants (N = 63). Results revealed that both athletes and sport participants who recalled critical comments, compared with those who did not, and those who recalled more severe critical comments, reported greater disordered eating (controlling
Fisheries managers often assess body condition using relative weight (Wr) because it provides a comparative measure of fish plumpness among individuals and populations. However, it is not known whether the morphological information that Wr summarizes reflects physiological measures, such as relative lipid reserves, in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. The purpose of this study was to determine whether swimming activity affects
Darin G. Simpkins; Wayne A. Hubert; Carlos Martinez del Rio; Daniel C. Rule
Objective: Association between nutritional status of adolescents and food consumption pattern. Design: Data on number of meals and snacks consumed daily were collected using structured questionnaires. Nutritional status was assessed as weight-for-age body mass index score less than fifth percentile of the National Center for Health…
Olumakaiye, M. F.; Atinmo, Tola; Olubayo-Fatiregun, M. A.
The study objective was to assess the number and type of the consumed meals during the day and to make a comparison between their energetic and nutritional value in the diets of women with normal and excessive bodyweight. A questionnaire study was conducted in a group of 346 women aged 18-79 years (mean 41.1 +/- 13.1 years). Normal bodyweight was noted in 145 women (42%), whereas overweight or obesity in 201 women (58%). The study questionnaire contained questions concerning eating habits, e.g., the number of routinely consumed meals and snacks between them. A 24 h dietary recall was taken of the day preceding the examination in order to perform a quantitative evaluation of daily food rations. Taking into consideration the division into meals, the evaluation referred to the energetic value and the content of basic dietary nutrients (proteins, fats and carbohydrates) as well as cholesterol and cellulose, using the computer program Diet 2.0 designed in the Institute of Food and Feeding in Warsaw In the two compared groups, a three-meal model predominated and the afternoon snack was most frequently missed. As many as 56% of women with normal bodyweight and 71% of women with excessive bodyweight admitted irregular eating between meals. The proportion in energy delivery from the respective meals was disturbed and nutritional abnormalities were found, especially in overweight and obese women. PMID:20839470
Stefa?ska, Ewa; Ostrowska, Lucyna; Czapska, Danuta; Karczewski, Jan
The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide. Increasing bodyweight together with decreasing physical activity is expected to increase the incidence of several diseases related to lifestyle, such as adult type diabetes and vascular atherosclerotic diseases. It has been postulated that increasing consumption of fructose may be a contributory factor in the development of obesity and the accompanying metabolic abnormalities.
The prevalence of obese, overweight, and healthy weight adults with intellectual disability in the community was estimated using data from the National Health Interview Survey from 1985 to 2000. Using the Body Mass Index (BMI) as a measure, the percentage of adults with intellectual disability in the obese category was higher than that for the general population and increased over
Neuropeptides are essential for the regulation of appetite and bodyweight within the hypothalamus. The understanding of the neuropeptide regulation of energy homeostasis has been greatly advanced by the recent discovery of leptin, the protein product of the obese gene (ob). Significant new insights into the relationship between peripheral adiposity signals and their impact on the hypothalamic neuropeptide signaling circuitry
Previous estimates on the association between bodyweight and wages in the literature have been contingent on education and occupation. This paper examines the direct effect of BMI on wages and the indirect effects operating through education and occupation choice, particularly for late-teen BMI and adult wages. Using the National Longitudinal…
OKAim: The aim of this systematic review was to examine the literature on the effects of partial body-weight support treadmill training (PBWSTT) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) on functional outcomes and attainment of ambulation. Method: We searched the relevant literature from 1950 to July 2007. We found eight studies on the use of PWSBTT on…
Overweight and obesity are major public health concerns with approximately 32% and 17% of U.S. children aged 2 – 19 being classified as overweight or obese, respectively. While the cause of overweight and obesity is multi-factorial, changes in eating habits and physical activity patterns have been proposed as contributing factors to the obesity epidemic. For example, the displacement of nutrient rich foods and beverages with non-nutrient dense items may be influencing childhood obesity. Many children do not consume the recommended servings of the Food Groups to Encourage, i.e. low-fat and fat-free dairy foods, fruits, vegetables, and whole grains identified by the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans which results in low intakes of calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E. While attention has focused primarily on reducing energy intake and/or increasing energy expenditure for weight maintenance, a promising beneficial role for dairy products in weight management has emerged. Most research has focused on adults, but there is evidence in children and adolescents indicating either a beneficial or neutral effect of dairy food consumption on bodyweight or body composition. The current review provides and assessment of the scientific evidence on the effects of dairy food consumption on bodyweight and body composition in children and adolescents. PMID:22299005
Spence, Lisa A; Cifelli, Christopher J; Miller, Gregory D
Overweight and obesity are major public health concerns with approximately 32% and 17% of U.S. children aged 2 - 19 being classified as overweight or obese, respectively. While the cause of overweight and obesity is multi-factorial, changes in eating habits and physical activity patterns have been proposed as contributing factors to the obesity epidemic. For example, the displacement of nutrient rich foods and beverages with non-nutrient dense items may be influencing childhood obesity. Many children do not consume the recommended servings of the Food Groups to Encourage, i.e. low-fat and fat-free dairy foods, fruits, vegetables, and whole grains identified by the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans which results in low intakes of calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E. While attention has focused primarily on reducing energy intake and/or increasing energy expenditure for weight maintenance, a promising beneficial role for dairy products in weight management has emerged. Most research has focused on adults, but there is evidence in children and adolescents indicating either a beneficial or neutral effect of dairy food consumption on bodyweight or body composition. The current review provides and assessment of the scientific evidence on the effects of dairy food consumption on bodyweight and body composition in children and adolescents. PMID:22299005
Spence, Lisa A; Cifelli, Christopher J; Miller, Gregory D
Four groups comprising 16 broiler birds each were given benzalkonium chloride (BC) at 100, 300, 500 and 700 ppm in drinking water for 40 days and one group of 16 birds (control) was kept on plain water. Clinical signs in higher dose groups were respiratory distress, drooling of saliva, difficulty in deglutition, inappetence, apathy, lethargy and loss of bodyweight. Better bodyweight gain was recorded in 100 ppm dose rate. At 300 ppm, no significant bodyweight variation was recorded, whereas, at 500 and 700 ppm dose rates, significantly poor bodyweight gain was recorded. Major pathological changes were seen in 500 and 700 ppm groups, which exhibited formation of yellow diphtheritic plaques in the buccal cavity, swollen and pale commissures of beak and shortening of tongue. Minute necrotic and ulcerative foci were seen in oesophagus and crop. Hyperplastic and hypertrophic alterations were seen in mucosa of the upper digestive tract. Crop of 300 ppm group revealed formation of well developed epithelial nest with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia at the margin of the lesion. Serum alanine transaminase, urea and uric acid in 500 and 700 ppm groups were elevated whereas no significant variations were observed in the 100 and 300 ppm groups. BC could enhance performance of broiler birds at 100 ppm dose rate. It should not be used beyond 300 ppm. PMID:15587118
Bodyweight in young adulthood and diet appeared to be associated with the risk for non-Hodgkin lymphoma, according to results presented at the 10th AACR International Conference on Frontiers in Cancer Prevention Research, held Oct. 22-25, 2011.
The Siberian hamster survives winter by decreasing food in- take and catabolizing abdominal fat reserves, resulting in a sustained, profound loss of bodyweight. VGF gene expression is photoperiodically regulated in the hypothalamus with sig- nificantly higher expression in lean Siberian hamsters. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of VGF in regu- lating these seasonal cycles
Preeti H. Jethwa; Amy Warner; Kanishka N. Nilaweera; John M. Brameld; John W. Keyte; Wayne G. Carter; Neil Bolton; Michael Bruggraber; Peter J. Morgan; Perry Barrett; Francis J. P. Ebling
One hallmark of chronic stress is a decrease in bodyweight that rebounds once chronic stress is alleviated. We applied chronic psychological stress by exposing European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) to a previously validated chronic stress protocol (CSP) consisting of 4 different randomly applied stressors per day. Experimental design consisted of a 21day CSP (CSP1), a 60day recovery (R1), a second
CT is currently the mainstay in staging malignant lymphoma in children, but the risk of second neoplasms due to ionizing radiation associated with CT is not negligible. Whole-body MRI techniques and whole-body diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in particular, may be a good radiation-free alternative to CT. DWI is characterized by high sensitivity for the detection of lesions and allows quantitative assessment of diffusion that may aid in the evaluation of malignant lymphomas. This article will review whole-body MRI techniques for staging malignant lymphoma with emphasis on whole-body DWI. Furthermore, future considerations and challenges in whole-body DWI will be discussed. PMID:20676622
Takahara, Taro; Vermoolen, Malou A.; Bierings, Marc B.; Mali, Willem P.; Nievelstein, Rutger A. J.
Background While high protein diets have been shown to improve satiety and retention of lean body mass (LBM), this study was designed to determine effects of a protein-enriched meal replacement (MR) on weight loss and LBM retention by comparison to an isocaloric carbohydrate-enriched MR within customized diet plans utilizing MR to achieve high protein or standard protein intakes. Methods Single blind, placebo-controlled, randomized outpatient weight loss trial in 100 obese men and women comparing two isocaloric meal plans utilizing a standard MR to which was added supplementary protein or carbohydrate powder. MR was used twice daily (one meal, one snack). One additional meal was included in the meal plan designed to achieve individualized protein intakes of either 1) 2.2 g protein/kg of LBM per day [high protein diet (HP)] or 2) 1.1 g protein/kg LBM/day standard protein diet (SP). LBM was determined using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Bodyweight, body composition, and lipid profiles were measured at baseline and 12 weeks. Results Eighty-five subjects completed the study. Both HP and SP MR were well tolerated, with no adverse effects. There were no differences in weight loss at 12 weeks (-4.19 ± 0.5 kg for HP group and -3.72 ± 0.7 kg for SP group, p > 0.1). Subjects in the HP group lost significantly more fat weight than the SP group (HP = -1.65 ± 0.63 kg; SP = -0.64 ± 0.79 kg, P = 0.05) as estimated by BIA. There were no significant differences in lipids nor fasting blood glucose between groups, but within the HP group a significant decrease in cholesterol and LDL cholesterol was noted at 12 weeks. This was not seen in the SP group. Conclusion Higher protein MR within a higher protein diet resulted in similar overall weight loss as the standard protein MR plan over 12 weeks. However, there was significantly more fat loss in the HP group but no significant difference in lean body mass. In this trial, subject compliance with both the standard and protein-enriched MR strategy for weight loss may have obscured any effect of increased protein on weight loss demonstrated in prior weight loss studies using whole food diets. PMID:18752682
BACKGROUND: Despite low rates of obesity, many university students perceive themselves as overweight, especially women. This is of concern, because inappropriate weight perceptions can lead to unhealthy behaviours including eating disorders. METHODS: We used the database from the Cross National Student Health Survey (CNSHS), consisting of 5,900 records of university students from Bulgaria, Denmark, Germany, Lithuania, Poland, Spain and Turkey
Rafael T Mikolajczyk; Annette E Maxwell; Walid El Ansari; Christiane Stock; Janina Petkeviciene; Francisco Guillen-Grima
1. Heritabilities and genetic correlations in the base population of a closed strain of Muscovy duck, moderately selected for bodyweight at 10 weeks of age, have been estimated from the data of 9 successive generations for the following traits: male and female bodyweight at 10 and 18 weeks of age (BW10m, BW18m, BW10f, BW18f) and length of the 8th primary feather at 10 weeks of age (F110m, F110f). 2. Multivariate REML with an animal model was used, pooling data from the 9 generations (3283 and 3289 male and female offspring respectively). The same trait expressed in male and female was considered as 2 different traits. 3. The 8th primary feather was longer in females than in males by 6% to 22% at 10 weeks of age. Bodyweight was heavier in males than in females by 42% to 58% at 10 weeks of age and by 57% to 75% at 18 weeks of age. 3. The heritability estimates for bodyweight traits showed moderate values, being a little higher for females than for males at the same age, increasing with age from h2=0.24 at BW10m to h2=0.43 at BW18f. 4. The heritability estimates for feather length showed that a greater response would be obtained in selection for male feather length (h2=0.37) than for female length (h2=0.14). Both have high genetic correlations with bodyweight so they could be indirectly improved. 5. Heritabilities of the difference in bodyweights between males and females at 10 weeks (h2=0.07) and 18 weeks of age (h2=0.10) were small, as well as for feather length (h2=0.10). It would probably be difficult to modify sexual dimorphism in bodyweight through selection. 6. Genetic correlations between BW10m, BW18m and BW10f, BW18f were respectively r(g)=0.77 and r(g)=0.80. They were larger for bodyweight at the same ages between males and females, r(g)=0.90 (r(g)=0.88 between F110m and F110f). Bodyweight in males and females at the same age should be better considered as 2 different traits in a selection programme. 7. The cumulated predicted genetic gains expressed per unity of the genetic standard deviation (sigma(g)) over the 8 generations of selection were 1.3 sigma(g) and 1.4 sigma(g) respectively for the BW10m and BW10f. The predicted correlated responses were 1.2 sigma(g) for bodyweights at 18 weeks of age, 0.9 sigma(g) and 0.7 sigma(g) for F110f and F110m respectively. PMID:10670671
Hu, Y H; Poivey, J P; Rouvier, R; Wang, C T; Tai, C
In the United States, approximately 5% of the population is malnourished or has low bodyweight, which can adversely affect immune function. Malnutrition is more prevalent in older adults and is often a result of energy imbalance from various causes. Dietary supplementation to promote positive energy balance can reverse malnutrition, but has not been assessed for its effect on immune parameters. This 8-week clinical feeding trial evaluated the effect of a commercially available, high-protein, high-energy formula on bodyweight and immune parameters in 30 adult volunteers with body-mass indices (BMI) <21 kg/m2. After the intervention, participants gained a mean of 3.74 lbs and increased BMI by 0.58 kg/m2. The intervention improved lean body mass and limited body fat accumulation. However, no clinically significant improvements in immune measures were observed. These results support the use of high-protein, high-energy supplements in the treatment of underweight/malnutrition. Further investigation utilizing feeding studies of longer duration, and/or studying severely malnourished individuals may be needed to detect an effect on immune parameters of weight gain promoted by nutritional supplements. PMID:23966789
Cheskin, Lawrence J.; Margolick, Joseph; Kahan, Scott; Mitola, Andrea H.; Poddar, Kavita H.; Nilles, Tricia; Kolge, Sanjivani; Menendez, Frederick; Ridore, Michelande; Wang, Shing-Jung; Chou, Jacob; Carlson, Eve
In the United States, approximately 5% of the population is malnourished or has low bodyweight, which can adversely affect immune function. Malnutrition is more prevalent in older adults and is often a result of energy imbalance from various causes. Dietary supplementation to promote positive energy balance can reverse malnutrition, but has not been assessed for its effect on immune parameters. This 8-week clinical feeding trial evaluated the effect of a commercially available, high-protein, high-energy formula on bodyweight and immune parameters in 30 adult volunteers with body-mass indices (BMI) <21 kg/m(2). After the intervention, participants gained a mean of 3.74 lbs and increased BMI by 0.58 kg/m(2). The intervention improved lean body mass and limited body fat accumulation. However, no clinically significant improvements in immune measures were observed. These results support the use of high-protein, high-energy supplements in the treatment of underweight/malnutrition. Further investigation utilizing feeding studies of longer duration, and/or studying severely malnourished individuals may be needed to detect an effect on immune parameters of weight gain promoted by nutritional supplements. PMID:23966789
Cheskin, Lawrence J; Margolick, Joseph; Kahan, Scott; Mitola, Andrea H; Poddar, Kavita H; Nilles, Tricia; Kolge, Sanjivani; Menendez, Frederick; Ridoré, Michelande; Wang, Shing-Jung; Chou, Jacob; Carlson, Eve
A double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study has been carried out in order to evaluate the effect of orally self-administered Slim339, a proprietary fixed combination of Garcinia cambogia extract with calcium pantothenate (standardized for the content of hydroxycitric acid and pantothenic acid) and extracts of Matricaria chamomilla, Rosa damascena, Lavandula officinalis and Cananga odorata, on bodyweight in overweight and obese volunteers. During a 60-day treatment period, the average reduction in bodyweight for the group receiving Slim339 (n = 30) was 4.67% compared with 0.63% for the placebo group (n = 28) (p < 0.0001). Weight losses of >or=3 kg were recorded for 23 subjects in the treatment group and only one in the placebo group. It is concluded that Slim339 represents a potential therapy for obesity. PMID:17639559
Toromanyan, Edward; Aslanyan, Gayane; Amroyan, Elmira; Gabrielyan, Emil; Panossian, Alexander
The effect of the body-weight gain after retirement from an exercise-training program on the retained increase in insulin sensitivity elicited by the training was investigated in exercise-trained (ET) rats. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by oral glucose tolerance and insulin suppression tests immediately after training and during retirement. Results show that, compared with sedentary controls, exercise training enhanced insulin-induced glucose uptake, but the enhanced sensitivity was gradually lost with the end of running activity until after seven days of retirement, when it became equal to that of controls. This loss of enhanced sensitivity to insulin was associated with an accelerated gain in bodyweight beginning one day after the start of retirement. However, those animals that gained weight only at rates similar to those of control rats, retained their enhanced sensitivity to insulin.
Dolkas, Constantine B.; Rodnick, Kenneth J.; Mondon, Carl E.
Diet plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of major chronic diseases common in populations of US veterans. The role of nutrition-focused wellness coaching in improving dietary behavior and/or reducing weight in overweight and obese US veterans is not known. At the San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, US veterans aged 25 to 80 years were randomized to receive nutrition coaching on eating behaviors at baseline only (control group, n=22) or an additional eight times over the course of 6 months (intervention group, n=28) in 2010-2011. Multiple coaching contacts decreased intake of energy, fat, and carbohydrate by 31% (P?0.001) as evaluated by the 2005 Block food frequency questionnaire, which is composed of 111 food items. A weight loss of 5% from baseline (92.8 to 88.2 kg; P<0.01) was observed in the intervention group with mean body mass index decreasing from 30.4 to 28.9 (P<0.05). The control group showed a decrease in fat intake by 20% (P=0.01), but no statistically significant changes in intake of other nutrients or bodyweight (88.7 to 87.4 kg). Those in the intervention group reported diets at follow-up that were lower in cholesterol, saturated fat, sodium, sugar (P?0.01), calcium (P< 0.05), and vitamin D (P<0.01), although when adjusted for energy (ie, nutrient density) calcium intake increased and vitamin D remained unchanged. Veterans' readiness to change eating behavior for weight loss improved with nutrition coaching. This study demonstrates that intermittent nutrition coaching can be an effective strategy to promote reductions in energy intake, bodyweight, and body mass index in overweight US veterans. Further research is needed to determine whether nutrition coaching improves other clinical outcomes and sustains weight loss. PMID:23706353
for 2 human bodyweight regulation 3 Carson C.Q1 Chow, Kevin D. Hall 4Q2 Laboratory of Biological H I G H L I G H T S 7 8 Â· Bodyweight is relatively stable despite large daily variations in food Â· Mathematical models show that bodyweight regulation may not require precise control of day-to-day food intake
Background Artemisinin-based combination therapy, including artemether-lumefantrine (AL), is currently recommended for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The objectives of the current analysis were to compare the efficacy and safety of AL across different bodyweight ranges in African children, and to examine the age and bodyweight relationship in this population. Methods Efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetic data from a randomized, investigator-blinded, multicentre trial of AL for treatment of acute uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in infants and children in Africa were analysed according to bodyweight group. Results The trial included 899 patients (intent-to-treat population 886). The modified intent-to-treat (ITT) population (n = 812) comprised 143 children 5 to < 10 kg, 334 children 10 to < 15 kg, 277 children 15 to < 25 kg, and 58 children 25 to < 35 kg. The 28-day PCR cure rate, the primary endpoint, was comparable across all four bodyweight groups (97.2%, 98.9%, 97.8% and 98.3%, respectively). There were no clinically relevant differences in safety or tolerability between bodyweight groups. In the three AL bodyweight dosing groups (5 to < 15 kg, 15 to < 25 kg and 25 to < 35 kg), 80% of patients were aged 10-50 months, 46-100 months and 90-147 months, respectively. Conclusion Efficacy of AL in uncomplicated falciparum malaria is similar across bodyweight dosing groups as currently recommended in the label with no clinically relevant differences in safety or tolerability. AL dosing based on bodyweight remains advisable. PMID:22176931
Background: The frequency and short-term natural history of weight loss in community-dwelling older adults have not been de- scribed. Unintentional weight loss may be more likely to continue than intentional weight loss. Objectives:Thepresentsubstudydescribedthefrequencyofa5% lossorgaininbodyweightincommunity-dwellingolderadultsatan annual examination of the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study and 6 mo later. The weight-management prac- tices used by the participants were also
Jung Sun Lee; Stephen B Kritchevsky; Tamara B Harris; Frances Tylavsky; Susan M Rubin; Anne B Newman
Earlier investigations have assumed only "out-of-plane" vibrations of the plates of the violin. The violin body can, however, be described as a thin-walled, double-arched shell structure and as such it may very well elongate in one direction as it contracts in another. Therefore, at least two orthogonal vibration components have to be included to describe the vibrations. The operating deflection shapes (ODSs) of a good, professionally made and carefully selected violin were therefore measured in several directions by TV holography to determine both "in-plane" and out-of-plane vibration components of the ODSs. The observations were limited to the frequency range 400-600 Hz, as this interval includes two most-prominent resonance peaks of bridge mobility and sound radiation as well as a third poorly radiating resonance. These three peaks clearly showed orthogonal vibration components in the ODSs. The vibration behavior of the violin body, sectioned in the bridge plane, was interpreted as the vibrations of an "elliptical tube" with nodal diameters. The number of nodal diameters increases from two to three in the selected frequency range. The TV holography measurements were supported by electrodynamical point measurements of bridge mobility, of air volume resonances, and by reciprocity, of radiation properties. Furthermore, a fourth mode, the air mode, A1, is involved indirectly in the sound radiation via influence on the body vibrations. PMID:10875389
A computer program has been developed to analyze the transient response of an ablating axisymmetric body, including the effect of shape change. The governing differential equation, the boundary conditions for the analysis on which the computer program is based, and the method of solution of the resulting finite-difference equations are discussed in the documentation. Some of the features of the analysis and the associated program are (1) the ablation material is considered to be orthotropic with temperature-dependent thermal properties; (2) the thermal response of the entire body is considered simultaneously; (3) the heat transfer and pressure distribution over the body are adjusted to the new geometry as ablation occurs; (4) the governing equations and several boundary-condition options are formulated in terms of generalized orthogonal coordinates for fixed points in a moving coordinate system; (5) the finite-difference equations are solved implicitly; and (6) other instantaneous body shapes can be displayed with a user-supplied plotting routine. The physical problem to be modeled with the analysis is described by FORTRAN input variables. For example, the external body geometry is described in the W, Z coordinates; material density is given; and the stagnation cold-wall heating rate is given in a time-dependent array. Other input variables are required which control the solution, specify boundary conditions, and determine output from the program. The equations have been programmed so that either the International System of Units or the U. S. Customary Units may be used. This program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on a CDC 6000 Series computer. This program was developed in 1972.
The mechanistic relationship between increased food consumption, increased bodyweights, and increased incidence of tumors has been well established in 2-year rodent models. Bodyweight parameters such as initial bodyweights, terminal bodyweights, food consumption, and the bodyweight gains in grams and percentages were analyzed to determine whether such relationship exists between these parameters with the incidence of common spontaneous tumors in Tg.rasH2 mice. None of these bodyweight parameters had any statistically significant relationship with the incidence of common spontaneous tumors in Tg.rasH2 males, namely lung tumors, splenic hemangiosarcomas, nonsplenic hemangiosarcomas, combined incidence of all hemangiosarcomas, and Harderian gland tumors. These parameters also did not have any statistically significant relationship with the incidence of lung and Harderian gland tumors in females. However, in females, increased initial bodyweights did have a statistically significant relationship with the nonsplenic hemangiosarcomas, and increased terminal bodyweights did have a statistically significant relationship with the incidence of splenic hemangiosarcomas, nonsplenic hemangiosarcomas, and the combined incidence of all hemangiosarcomas. In addition, increased bodyweight gains in grams and percentages had a statistically significant relationship with the combined incidence of all hemangiosarcomas in females, but not separately with splenic and nonsplenic hemangiosarcomas. PMID:24292389
Paranjpe, Madhav G; Denton, Melissa D; Vidmar, Tom J; Elbekai, Reem H
Summary 2-Mercaptopropionylglycine administered during fetal growth period, protected significantly young mice against loss of bodyweight during postnatal development induced by 50 R gamma irradiation.
P. K. Dev; S. M. Gupta; P. K. Goyal; G. Mehta; B. P. Pareek
HIV has classically been a wasting disease. However, in the United States, obesity is increasingly common among HIV-infected individuals receiving effective antiviral treatment. The risks of obesity are unclear in HIV, although the increased prevalence of diabetes and cardiovascular disease in the presence or absence of obesity causes growing concern. This study aimed to assess the effects of weight loss (through energy restriction combined with aerobic and resistance exercise) on body composition, body fat distribution, resting energy expenditure, quality of life (QOL), strength and fitness, and metabolic risk factors in obese, HIV-infected women. Eighteen HIV-infected women with a body mass index of 30 or more completed a 12-week weight loss program. Before and after the intervention, body composition and fat distribution by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and whole-body magnetic resonance imaging, resting energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry, QOL, strength, and fitness were measured. Insulin sensitivity by intravenous glucose tolerance test and circulating cardiovascular risk factors (including lipids, tissue plasminogen activator, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1) were measured in a subset (n = 9). Daily food intake and total bodyweight decreased (mean +/- SD) by 3195 +/- 477 kJ and 6.7 +/- 4.2 kg, respectively. Weight lost was 95.5% fat by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry or 6.2 L of subcutaneous adipose tissue, 0.7 L visceral adipose tissue, and 0.8 L skeletal muscle by magnetic resonance imaging. Resting energy expenditure fell approximately 419 kJ, strength and fitness increased by 28.9% +/- 18.5% and 36.8% +/- 41.6%, respectively, and QOL improved in 11 of 13 dimensions. There was significant insulin resistance in the subset with metabolic measurements at baseline, and at follow-up there was no improvement in fasting glucose, insulin, or insulin sensitivity, nor was there any change in fasting lipids, tissue plasminogen activator, or plasminogen activator inhibitor 1. There was no significant change in CD4 count or HIV viral load. In conclusion, moderate weight loss achieved by a short-term program of diet and exercise in obese HIV-positive women appears safe and induces loss of adiposity in both the subcutaneous adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue regions. Despite reduced food intake, weight and fat loss, as well as improvements in strength, fitness, and QOL, the lack of improvement in metabolic parameters suggests that additional interventions may be necessary to reduce the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease in this population. PMID:16979403
Engelson, Ellen S; Agin, Denise; Kenya, Sonjia; Werber-Zion, Galila; Luty, Besa; Albu, Jeanine B; Kotler, Donald P
The purpose of this article is to examine how a consumer's weight control beliefs (WCB), a female advertising model's body size (slim or large) and product type influence consumer evaluations and consumer body perceptions. The study uses an experiment of 371 consumers. The design of the experiment was a 2 (weight control belief: internal, external) X 2 (model size: larger
Gonadal steroids regulate appetite and thus bodyweight. In addition, continuous exposure to stressors negatively influences appetite through circuits likely distinct from those of gonadal steroids. The occurrence of adverse metabolic consequences due to chronic exposure to psychosocial stressors is twice as frequent in women as men, implicating a role for ovarian hormones, estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4), in modulating stress-induced changes in appetite. Using social subordination in female macaques as a model of social stress, the current study tested the hypothesis that subordinate females would lose more weight during E2 treatment and gain less weight during P4 administration than dominant females. Because polymorphisms in the gene encoding the serotonin transporter (5HTT; SCL6A4) are known to alter responsivity to stress, we hypothesized that weight loss during E2 administration would be greatest in females with the short variant (s-variant) allele of 5HTT. Dominant females were significantly heavier than subordinate animals throughout the study, a result consistent with previous accounts of food intake when animals are fed a low-fat, high-fiber diet. Females with the s-variant 5HTT genotype weighed significantly less than l/l animals. Dominant animals lost significantly more weight than subordinate animals during E2 treatment. Administration of P4 blocked the weight-reducing effects of E2 in all females, regardless of social status. These data provide evidence that social subordination modulates the influence of ovarian steroid hormones on bodyweight in female rhesus monkeys independent of 5HTT genotype. Given the prosocial effects of these steroids, future studies are necessary to determine whether status differences in E2-induced weight loss are due to diminished food intake and or increases in energy expenditure and how the change in energy availability during E2 treatments relates to a female’s motivation to interact with conspecifics. PMID:21130792
Background Overweight and obese women are known to be at increased risk of caesarean birth. This study estimates the contribution of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) to caesarean births in Canada. Methods We analyzed data from women in the Canadian Maternity Experiences Survey who had a singleton term live birth in 2005-2006. Adjusted odds ratios for caesarean birth across BMI and GWG groups were derived, separately for nulliparous women and parous women with and without a prior caesarean. Population attributable fractions of caesarean births associated with above normal BMI and excess GWG were calculated. Results The overall caesarean birth rate was 25.7%. Among nulliparous and parous women without a previous caesarean birth, rates in obese women were 45.1% and 9.7% respectively, and rates in women who gained above their recommended GWG were 33.5% and 8.0% respectively. Caesarean birth was more strongly associated with BMI than with GWG. However, due to the high prevalence of excess GWG (48.8%), the proportion of caesareans associated with above normal BMI and excess GWG was similar [10.1% (95% CI: 9.9-10.2) and 10.9% (95% CI: 10.7-11.1) respectively]. Overall, one in five (20.2%, 95% CI: 20.0-20.4) caesarean births was associated with above normal BMI or excess GWG. Conclusions Overweight and obese BMI and above recommended GWG are significantly associated with caesarean birth in singleton term pregnancies in Canada. Strategies to reduce caesarean births must include measures to prevent overweight and obese BMI prior to conception and promote recommended weight gain throughout pregnancy. PMID:24641703
The purpose of this review is to spark integrative thinking in the area of eating behaviors by critically examining research on exemplary constructs in this area. The eating behaviors food responsiveness, enjoyment of eating, satiety responsiveness, eating in the absence of hunger, reinforcing value of food, eating disinhibition and impulsivity/self-control are reviewed in relation to energy intake, body mass index and weight gain over time. Each of these constructs has been developed independently, and little research has explored the extent to which they overlap or whether they differentially predict food choices, energy intake and weight gain in the naturalistic environment. Most available data show positive cross-sectional associations with body mass index, but fewer studies report associations with energy intake or food choices. Little prospective data are available to link measures of eating behaviors with weight gain. Disinhibition has the largest and most consistent body of empirical data that link it prospectively with weight gain. An overarching conceptual model to integrate the conceptual and empirical research base for the role of eating behavior dimensions in the field of obesity research would highlight potential patterns of interaction between individual differences in eating behaviors, specific aspects of the individual’s food environment and individual variation in state levels of hunger and satiety. PMID:22796186
French, Simone A.; Epstein, Leonard H; Jeffery, Robert W.; Blundell, John E.; Wardle, Jane
Women are more likely than men to believe that smoking helps to control their weight, and this relationship may be more pronounced in those with eating disturbances, such as eating restraint. Restrained eaters have been shown to be more susceptible to media portrayals of idealized body image, like those used in tobacco advertising. The primary aim of this study was to examine the effect of an implicit prime for body image on expectations that smoking can control weight in restrained and non-restrained eaters. Participants were 40 females, who smoked an average of 7.65 (S.D.=4.38) cigarettes per day. Participants were presented with a bogus task of rating slides; either participants viewed 30 slides of nature scenes (neutral prime); or viewed 30 slides depicting fashion models (body image prime). Participants then completed questionnaires that assessed smoking expectancies, smoking history, and eating restraint. As hypothesized, restrained eaters who viewed the slides depicting models had greater likelihood ratings that smoking helps to control appetite and manage weight, in comparison to restrained eaters who viewed the control slides and non-restrained eaters who viewed either type of slides. There were no other group differences across the remaining smoking expectancy factors. Images similar to those used in tobacco advertising targeting women had the ability to elicit stronger beliefs that smoking is beneficial for weight control in a group of women who are at heightened risk for such beliefs. PMID:16567057
Zingiber zerumbet contained the typically essential oils. The research aims to evaluate the effect Z. zerumbet essential oil and zerumbone inhlation on rats bodyweight, food consumption, parasympathetic nerve activity and brown adipose tissue temperature. The essential oils of Z. zerumbet was isolated from the rhizome of Z. zerumbet. The component in the oil and zerumbone structure was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. The structure of zerumbone crystal was determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The Sprague dawley male adult rats were divided into 4 groups namely Normal Diet (ND) group, High Fat Diet (HFD) group, HFD inhaled Z. zerumbet essential oils group and HFD inhaled zerumbone group. The results showed that inhalation of Z. zerumbet essential oils and zerumbone increased the food consumption as well as increased the bodyweight. The increasing bodyweight of rats which inhaled Z. zerumbet essential oils and zerumbone is by decreasing the sympathetic nerve activity. In conclusion, inhaling Z. zerumbet essential oils and zerumbone as the major component of the oils increased the weight gain. PMID:24502166
Batubara, I; Suparto, I H; Sadiah, S; Matsuoka, R; Mitsunaga, T
Fisheries managers often assess body condition using relative weight (Wr) because it provides a comparative measure of fish plumpness among individuals and populations. However, it is not known whether the morphological information that Wr summarizes reflects physiological measures, such as relative lipid reserves, in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. The purpose of this study was to determine whether swimming activity affects either the Wr or proximate body composition of juvenile (total length, 170-260 mm) rainbow trout. When rainbow trout from a hatchery were fed ad libitum for 147 d, inactive (no current) and active (15 cm/s current velocity) fish did not differ in Wr However, inactive rainbow trout maintained relatively constant lipid levels, whereas active fish declined in lipid content. Relative weight may provide a comparable measure of body form, but it is not an accurate index of lipid content between active and inactive rainbow trout fed an excess ration. For assessing the physiological condition of rainbow trout, measurement of proximate body composition appears to be more accurate than indices based on length and weight.
Simpkins, D.G.; Hubert, W.A.; Del Rio, C.M.; Rule, D.C.
Antipsychotic-induced bodyweight gain is becoming a major health concern since the increasing use of this medication in different mental disorders with a high prevalence in different populations. The percentage of patients gaining weight following antipsychotic medication can reach up to 80% according to the antipsychotic used, with around 30% developing obesity. The origins of this adverse effect of antipsychotics are probably multifactorial with the environment (food and exercise habits, medication) and the genetics coming into play. We have compiled the available genetic results on the antipsychotic-induced bodyweight gain and obesity. Candidate genes analysis showed that six genes have been associated with this adverse effect of antipsychotics. Among these, the associations with the serotonin receptor 2C and the leptin genes have been observed in more then one study. Thirteen other genes, mainly antipsychotic known receptors, have shown negative results. To find informative gene variations, we have also compared the effects of some polymorphisms of the serotonin receptor 2C and 2A in mental disorders, for antipsychotic therapeutic effect, for antipsychotic neuronal side effects, and for obesity. We have found results for six polymorphisms in each of the two genes. When association was observed for more then one phenotype, the same genotype or allele was generally involved identifying those sensitive to environmental pressures and to genetic background. Animal transgenic models of knockout or overexpressed genes of antipsychotic receptors have been evaluated for changes in obesity-related phenotypes. Seventeen out of the twenty-three antipsychotic receptors with transgenic models showed some effects on obesity-related phenotypes. Ten of these receptors have not been tested yet for antipsychotic-induced bodyweight gain, while the others have been tested only once with negative results, or is already associated to the effect such as the serotonin receptor 2C. Finally, pharmacogenomic approaches have allowed to detect more then 300 possible candidate genes for antipsychotic-induced bodyweight gain. PMID:17168843
Background There are high levels of concern about childhood obesity, with obese children being at higher risk of poorer health both in the short and longer terms. Children's attitudes to, and beliefs about, their bodies have also raised concern. Children themselves have a stake in this debate; their perspectives on this issue can inform the ways in which interventions aim to work. This systematic review of qualitative and quantitative research aimed to explore the views of UK children about the meanings of obesity and body size, shape or weight and their own experiences of these issues. Methods We conducted sensitive searches of electronic databases and specialist websites, and contacted experts. We included studies published from the start of 1997 which reported the perspectives of UK children aged 4-11 about obesity or body size, shape or weight, and which described key aspects of their methods. Included studies were coded and quality-assessed by two reviewers independently. Findings were synthesised in two analyses: i) an interpretive synthesis of findings from open-ended questions; and ii) an aggregative synthesis of findings from closed questions. We juxtaposed the findings from the two syntheses. The effect of excluding the lowest quality studies was explored. We also consulted young people to explore the credibility of a subset of findings. Results We included 28 studies. Instead of a focus on health, children emphasised the social impact of body size, describing experiences and awareness of abuse and isolation for children with a greater weight. Body size was seen as under the individual's control and children attributed negative characteristics to overweight people. Children actively assessed their own size; many wished their bodies were different and some were anxious about their shape. Reviewers judged that children's engagement and participation in discussion had only rarely been supported in the included studies, and few study findings had depth or breadth. Conclusions Initiatives need to consider the social aspects of obesity, in particular unhelpful beliefs, attitudes and discriminatory behaviours around body size. Researchers and policy-makers should involve children actively and seek their views on appropriate forms of support around this issue. PMID:21439062
With the increase in obesity related diseases there is heightened interest in mechanisms regulating bodyweight. To assess the influence of increases in bodyweight on energy expenditure and intake in rats we employed variable levels of gravity. Our approach afforded the means to measure interactions of energy expenditure and intake in response to increases in bodyweight (body mass x gravity level). We found a dose relationship between rapid elevation of bodyweight and reduction of voluntary movement, such that the energy requirements for activity are unchanged, and total energy expenditure and intake maintained. Reduction of movement appears to be a response to increased bodyweight, rather than a contributing factor, suggesting a new regulatory pathway.
Wade, C. E.; Moran, M. M.; Stein, T. P.; Sin, Sidney (Technical Monitor)
In Mexico, the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity among Mexican women increased from 64% in 2000 to 72% in 2006. In this paper, we report our findings on the relation of women's body mass index (BMI) with income and lifestyles choices using data from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2006. The two following approaches were executed. First, we estimated a two-stage least-squares regression to control for the potential endogeneity of income stratified by urban or rural residency. The second approach was aimed at exploring whether the determinants of weight varied among different weight levels using latent class models. Our findings from the two-stage least-squares regression show a positive non-significant association between income and BMI in the overall and urban samples but a significant positive relationship among rural women. Our results suggest that one unit increase in income is associated with 4.1% increase in bodyweight in rural areas. Estimates from the latent class model (LCM) show a positive but marginally significant association between income and BMI in the overall sample only in the class where there is a greater likelihood that women have normal weight or overweight compared to the class with a higher probability of being obese, but we also found a large association in rural areas for both classes. Lifestyle choices were associated with BMI. Results from the two-stage least-squares regressions reveal that more hours sitting per day and a higher percentage of expenditures in sugary beverages were associated with higher BMI levels. In the LCM, for women who eventually belong to the higher bodyweight class, lifestyles seem to matter more. Findings from this research suggest that policies to tackle the obesity epidemic among adult women should be different for women living in urban and rural areas and women with different weight levels. PMID:22551820
This study has three primary goals that make an important contribution to the literature on bodyweight and childbearing experiences among United States’ women. It sheds light on the physiological and social nature of this relationship by examining whether the consequences of early adult weight for lifetime childbearing are shaped by historical social context, women’s social characteristics, and their ability to marry. We analyze data from two female cohorts who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY79). Cohort 1 entered early adulthood before the U.S. obesity prevalence increased. Cohort 2 entered early adulthood after the obesity prevalence increased. We find that early adult weight is negatively related to the childbearing trajectories and marital status of Cohort 1 but not Cohort 2. Failing to account for race/ethnicity and women’s educational background as confounders masks some of these associations, which are evident for both White and Black women. Our results suggest that the health consequences of bodyweight do not fully drive its impact on childbearing. Rather, the lifetime fertility consequences of early adult weight are malleable, involve social processes, and are dependent on social context. PMID:21944717
Frisco, Michelle L.; Weden, Margaret M.; Lippert, Adam M.
Rationale: Academic success involves the ability to use cognitive skills in a school environment. Poor academic performance has been linked to disrupted sleep associated with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). In parallel, poor sleep is associated with increased risk for obesity, and weight management problems have been linked to executive dysfunction, suggesting that interactions may be operational between SDB and obesity to adversely affect neurocognitive outcomes. Objectives: To test whether mediator relationships exist between bodyweight, SDB, and cognition. Methods: Structural equation modeling was conducted on data from 351 children in a community-based cohort assessed with the core subtests of the Differential Abilities Scales after an overnight polysomnogram. Body mass index, apnea–hypopnea index, and cognitive abilities were modeled as latent constructs. Measurements and Main Results: In a sample of predominantly white children 6 to 10 years of age, SDB amplified the adverse cognitive and weight outcomes by 0.55- to 0.46-fold, respectively. Weight amplified the risk by 0.39- to 0.40-fold for SDB and cognitive outcomes, respectively. Poor ability to perform complex mental processing functions increased the risk of adverse weight and SDB outcomes by 2.9- and 7.9-fold, respectively. Conclusions: Cognitive functioning in children is adversely affected by frequent health-related problems, such as obesity and SDB. Furthermore, poorer integrative mental processing may place a child at a bigger risk for adverse health outcomes. PMID:22071385
The study was conducted to determine the effects of chitosan on the concentrations of GH and IGF-I in serum and small intestinal morphological structure of piglets, in order to evaluate the regulating action of chitosan on weaned pig growth through endocrine and intestinal morphological approaches. A total of 180 weaned pigs (35 d of age; 11.56±1.61 kg of bodyweight) were selected and assigned randomly to 5 dietary treatments, including 1 basal diet (control) and 4 diets with chitosan supplementation (100, 500, 1,000 and 2,000 mg/kg, respectively). Each treatment contained six replicate pens with six pigs per pen. The experiment lasted for 28 d. The results showed that the average bodyweight gain (BWG) of pigs was improved quadratically by dietary chitosan during the former 14 d and the later 14 d after weaned (p<0.05). Furthermore, dietary supplementation of chitosan tended to quadratically increase the concentration of serum GH on d 14 (p = 0.082) and 28 (p = 0.087). Diets supplemented with increasing levels of chitosan increased quadratically the villus height of jejunum and ileum on d 14 (p = 0.089, p<0.01) and 28 (p = 0.074, p<0.01), meanwhile, chitosan increased quadratically the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in duodenum, jejunum and ileum on d 14 (p<0.05, p = 0.055, p<0.01) and 28 (p<0.01, p<0.01, p<0.01), however, it decreased quadratically crypt depth in ileum on d 14 (p<0.05) and that in duodenum, jejunum and ileum on d 28 (p<0.01, p<0.05, p<0.05). In conclusion, these results indicated that chitosan could quadratically improve growth in weaned pigs, and the underlying mechanism may due to the increase of the serum GH concentration and improvement of the small intestines morphological structure. PMID:25049731
Ever since Edouard Van Beneden and Theodor Boveri first formally described the centrosome in the late 1800s, it has captivated cell biologists. The name clearly indicated its central importance to cell functioning, even to these early investigators. We now know of its role as a major microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) and of its dynamic roles in cell division, vesicle trafficking and for its relative, the basal body, ciliogenesis. While centrosomes are found in most animal cells, notably it is absent in most oocytes and higher plant cells. Nevertheless, it appears that critical components of the centrosome act as MTOCs in these cells as well. The zebrafish has emerged as an exciting and promising new model organism, primarily due to the pioneering efforts of George Streisinger to use zebrafish in genetic studies and due to Christiane Nusslein-Volhard, Wolfgang Driever and their teams of collaborators, who applied forward genetics to elicit a large number of mutant lines. The transparency and rapid external development of the embryo allow for experiments not easily done in other vertebrates. The ease of producing transgenic lines, often with the use of fluorescent reporters, and gene knockdowns with antisense morpholinos further contributes to the appeal of the model as an experimental system. The added advantage of high-throughput screening of small-molecule libraries, as well as the ease of mass rearing together with low cost, makes the zebrafish a true frontrunner as a model vertebrate organism. The zebrafish has a body plan shared by all vertebrates, including humans. This conservation of body plan provides added significance to the existing lines of zebrafish as human disease models and adds an impetus to the ongoing efforts to develop new models. In this review, the current state of knowledge about the centrosome in the zebrafish model is explored. Also, studies on the related basal body in zebrafish and their relationship to ciliogenesis are reviewed. PMID:23351173
Students entering their first year of college are faced with many stresses and changes, including changes in eating and exercise behavior. A common but often undocumented myth among college students is that there is a high risk of gaining 15 pounds of weight during freshman year. The objective of this study was to measure changes in bodyweight and percentage of body fat among first-year college students. Using a digital scale with bio-electrical impedance, the authors measured height, weight, and percentage of body fat for a sample of students who volunteered to be weighed during a health assessment in the university dining halls. The authors sent e-mails inviting those same students to complete a second measurement in February of the academic year. Sixty-seven of the 217 students who volunteered for the health assessment agreed to undergo a second set of measurements in the spring. The mean change in bodyweight was 2.86 pounds (1.3 kg, SD = 4.0 kg), and the mean change in percentage of body fat was 0.7% (SD = 4.0%). For those students who gained weight only, the mean increase in bodyweight (as measured by body mass index, weight divided by height in kg/m2) was 6.82 pounds (3.1 +/- 2.4 kg) and percentage of body fat was 0.9 +/- 3.8%. The authors found that the first year of college is a period in which weight and fat gain may occur. The exact causes behind these changes are unclear and warrant further research to plan or improve intervention and prevention. PMID:16889314
Hoffman, Daniel J; Policastro, Peggy; Quick, Virginia; Lee, Soo-Kyung
Various methods for far-field noise reduction of a tilt-rotor acoustic signature and the performance and weight tradeoffs which result from modification of the noise sources are considered in this report. In order to provide a realistic approach for the investigation, the Boeing tilt-rotor flight research aircraft (Model 222), was selected as the baseline. This aircraft has undergone considerable engineering development. Its rotor has been manufactured and tested in the Ames full-scale wind tunnel. The study reflects the current state-of-the-art of aircraft design for far-field acoustic signature reduction and is not based solely on an engineering feasibility aircraft. This report supplements a previous study investigating reduction of noise signature through the management of the terminal flight trajectory.
Gibs, J.; Stepniewski, W. Z.; Spencer, R.; Kohler, G.
Background Prior studies suggest individuals with body mass index (BMI) above vs. below 60 kg/m2 show lower percentage of excess bodyweight loss (%EBWL) following bariatric surgery. Objectives 1. Test whether conclusions drawn about the effect of preoperative BMI on postoperative weight loss depend on the outcome measure; 2. Test for evidence of a threshold effect at BMI=60 kg/m2 and; 3. Test the effect from surgery to 12-month, relative to 12- to 36-month, follow-up. Setting Large University-affiliated hospital in New York. Methods Retrospective analyses of participants grouped according to preoperative BMI: 35–39.9 (n=232); 40–49.9 (n=1166); 50–59.9 (n=429); ?60 (n=166). Results As anticipated, individuals with higher vs. lower preoperative BMI showed greater total bodyweight loss but lower %EBWL at all postoperative time points (all p’s<0.0005). However, these individuals also showed lower percentage of initial bodyweight loss (%IBWL) at all time points beyond 1 mo post-surgery (all p’s<0.0005). From 12- to 36-months, individuals with BMI: 35–39.9 showed 3.2±14.3 %IBWL (p<0.0001); 40–49.9 showed 1.0±8.9 %IBWL (p<0.0005); 50–59.9 showed ?2.4±10.0 %IBWL (p<0.0005) and; ?60 showed ?3.6±11.5 %IBWL (p<0.0005). Overall F3,1989=20.2, p<0.0005. Conclusions Conclusions drawn about the effect of preoperative BMI may depend on the outcome measure. A dosage effect of preoperative BMI was apparent, with heavier individuals showing lower percentages of initial and excess weight loss, regardless of BMI above or below 60kg/m2. Finally, this effect was particularly apparent following the initial 12-month rapid weight loss phase, when less obese (BMI<50) individuals continued losing weight, while heavier individuals (BMI?50) regained significant weight. PMID:23434275
Ochner, Christopher N.; Jochner, Magdalena; Caruso, Elizabeth A.; Teixeira, Julio; Pi-Sunyer, F. Xavier
With recommendations to include parents as targets for childhood obesity interventions, there is a need to review the relationship of general parenting influences on childhood obesity. Therefore, the aim of this review is to examine the existing literature regarding the influence of parenting style and/or feeding styles on childhood obesogenic behaviors and bodyweight. Research articles related to parenting style (n=40) and parental feeding style (n=11) were identified and reviewed. An authoritative style appears to be the most protective parenting and feeding style while the indulgent feeding style is consistently associated with negative health outcomes. Overall, results for parenting style studies are inconsistent due to differences in conceptualization and measurement, while the results for feeding styles are much more cohesive. The literature is lacking in the ability to describe the interplay between parenting and feeding styles and child obesity risk. Recommendations for future research and interventions are discussed in regards to feeding style and influences on childhood obesity. PMID:24001395
Purpose: To examine a new way of body diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) using the short TI inversion recovery-echo planar imaging (STIR-EPI) sequence and free breathing scanning (diffusion weighted whole body imaging with background body signal suppression; DWIBS) to obtain three-dimensional displays. Materials and Methods: 1) Apparent contrast-to-noise ratios (AppCNR) between lymph nodes and surrounding fat tissue were compared in three
Taro Takahara; Yutaka Imai; Tomohiro Yamashita; Seiei Yasuda; Seiji Nasu; Marc Van Cauteren
The number of patients with history of extreme overweight and massive weight loss (MWL) has risen significantly. Majority of patients are left with loose, ptotic skin envelopes, and oddly shaped protuberances, subsequent to weight loss. Redundant skin and fat can be seen anywhere on the body following MWL. This group of population presents many unique problems and challenges. Body contouring surgery after MWL is a new and exciting field in plastic surgery that is still evolving. Conventional approaches do not adequately cater to the needs of these patients. Complete history, detailed physical examination, clinical photographs and lab investigations help to plan the most appropriate procedure for the individual patient. Proper counseling and comprehensive informed consent for each procedure are mandatory. The meticulous and precise markings based on the procedure selected are the cornerstones to achieve the successful outcome. Lower body contouring should be performed first followed six months later by breast, lateral chest and arm procedures. Thighplasty is usually undertaken at the end. Body contouring operations are staged at few months' intervals and often result in long scars. Staging is important as each procedure can have positive impact on adjacent areas of the body. Secondary procedures are often required. However, proper planning should lead to fewer complications and improved aesthetic outcome and patient satisfaction. PMID:20174535
Although it is well known that caloric restriction reduces the risk of chronic diseases including cancer, the role of weight gain in the development of ultraviolet light-induced tumors has not, to our knowledge, been investigated. In view of the increase in obesity worldwide, we asked the question whether there is any relationship between bodyweight gain and skin tumor development. We subjected three groups, each comprising 30 SKH-1 hairless female mice, to UV radiation (30 mJ/cm2 twice weekly for 17 weeks) and observed tumor formation over the ensuing 8–13 weeks: Group 1 received pelleted diet; Group 2 received pellets during the irradiation period and was then switched to powder; and, Group 3 received powder exclusively. At the end of the experiment, the mean bodyweight of Group 1 was 32.1 ± 0.5 g, whereas that of Groups 2 and 3 was 39.0 ± 1.5 g and 39.5 ± 1.4 g, respectively. Tumor incidence reached 90% at 8 weeks after completion of irradiation for the animals in Group 3 and at 13 weeks for the animals in Group 2. Similarly, at 8 weeks after irradiation when all animals of Group 3 were euthanized, tumor multiplicity was 0.8, 1.2, and 3.2 for Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Thus, in comparison with the mice consuming pellets, the powder-fed mice gained weight more rapidly, and developed tumors much faster. Considering the escalating numbers of individuals worldwide who are overweight or obese, our findings provide further impetus for advocating healthier diets and maintenance of constant bodyweight in adults. PMID:19083457
Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T.; Fahey, Jed W.; Jenkins, Stephanie N.; Wehage, Scott L.; Talalay, Paul
The relationship between body size and rumen-reticulum capacity among conspecific individuals is predicted to be isometric. We examined whether the relationship between bodyweight and rumen-reticulum capacity was isometric in adult male and female rule elk (Cervus elaphus nannodes) and in adult female mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). We detected no effect of sex on this relationship in elk, and the slope of the regression was 1.0 for one measure of rumen-reticulum capacity and <1.0 for another. Among deer, the slope of the relationship was <1.0 in one measure of rumen-reticulum capacity, and we detected no relationship with the other.
Weckerly, F.W.; Bleich, V.C.; Chetkiewicz, C.-L.B.; Ricca, M.A.
Although previous research showed that the thin ideal provided by the media affects body image and eating behaviour in young children, less is known about specific media contents that are related to body image and eating behaviour. This study tested the associations between watching soaps and music television and body dissatisfaction and restrained eating directly, and indirectly through thin ideal internalisation. We conducted a survey in class, in which 245 girls (aged 7-9) completed scales on their television watching behaviour, thin ideal internalisation, body dissatisfaction and restrained eating. Additionally, height and weight were measured. Watching soaps and music television often was associated with higher thin ideal internalisation, which in turn was associated with higher body dissatisfaction and restrained eating. Furthermore, a direct association between watching soaps and music television and restrained eating was found. If watching other types of children's programmes or maternal encouragement to be thin were included in the models, watching soaps and music television remained an important factor, especially with regard to restrained eating. Therefore, our results suggest that if young girls watch soaps and music television often, this is related to higher restrained eating and body dissatisfaction, directly or indirectly, through higher thin ideal internalisation. PMID:20205044
Anschutz, Doeschka; Engels, Rutger; Leeuwe, Jan Van; Strien, Tatjana van
Background: Body satisfaction interventions have typically been multifaceted and targeted at clinical populations. The aim of the present research was to isolate the effects of self-affirmation on body satisfaction in a community sample and to see whether self-affirmation works by basing one's self-esteem on domains other than bodyweight and…
Abstract Background Socioeconomically disadvantaged women are at greater risk for gestational weight gain and postpartum weight retention compared to socioeconomically advantaged women. This study examines the effect of gestational weight gain on body mass index (BMI) transitions 5 years after pregnancy in socioeconomically disadvantaged women. Methods Gestational weight gain was assessed in 2136 postpartum women participating in the Fragile Families and Child Well-being study who experienced full-term, singleton gestations. Longitudinal BMI transitions were defined as a change or stability in BMI category between two time points: BMI before the index pregnancy and BMI 5 years after the index pregnancy. Logistic regression models estimated the association between gestational weight gain and longitudinal BMI transitions, controlling for health before the index pregnancy, pregnancy history, and sociodemographic characteristics. Results Excessive gestational weight gain was related to transitioning to a higher BMI category 5 years after the index pregnancy. Compared to white women, black and Hispanic women were more likely to transition or maintain a higher BMI category. Pregnancy history (i.e., parity at index pregnancy, interim pregnancy) and public assistance participation were associated with transitioning to a higher BMI category. Conclusions Among socioeconomically disadvantaged women, excessive gestational weight gain is related to transitioning to, but not maintaining, a higher weight category 5 years after the index pregnancy. Black and Hispanic women who are also socioeconomically disadvantaged and overweight or obese before conception may benefit from preconception or postpartum counseling about the long-term effect of gaining excessive weight during pregnancy and in the years immediately after childbirth. PMID:22694763
What is the association between food insufficiency and bodyweight? Although common sense would suggest a negative association, research often finds the opposite. We contrast commodity theories of material privation with stress theories, proposing that the seemingly counterintuitive association results from the confounding influence of economic hardship. Because it is a chronic stressor, economic hardship may contribute to overweight. Data from the WCF project of 2,402 disadvantaged women in Chicago, Boston, and San Antonio show that people who experience economic hardship weigh more; and that the true negative association between bodyweight and food insufficiency—especially going hungry because one cannot afford food—is revealed only after adjustment for economic hardship. PMID:24244066
In the size range from 10/sup -4/ to 10/sup 3/ ..mu..g (carbon) bodyweight, the biomass of plankton in the euphotic layer of the North Pacific Central Gyre decreases as an allometric function of bodyweight. Even in a steady state ecosystem such as that analyzed here, there is variability in space and time; this suggests that one must be careful in extrapolating the relation to less predictable marine areas. In obtaining dynamic information from biomass spectra, one must distinguish changes due to the flow of energy within the spectrum (growth, predation, reproduction) from changes due to emigration from or immigration into the spectrum of the particular area sampled, such as those due to the diel vertical migration of macrozooplankton in the largest size classes.
Objective Habitual chocolate intake was recently found to be associated with lower bodyweight in three cross-sectional epidemiological studies. Our objective was to assess whether these cross-sectional results hold up in a more rigorous prospective analysis. Methods We used data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities cohort. Usual dietary intake was assessed by questionnaire at baseline (1987–98), and after six years. Participants reported usual chocolate intake as the frequency of eating a 1-oz (?28 g) serving. Bodyweight and height were measured at the two visits. Missing data were replaced by multiple imputation. Linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate cross-sectional and prospective associations between chocolate intake and adiposity. Results Data were from 15,732 and 12,830 participants at the first and second visit, respectively. More frequent chocolate consumption was associated with a significantly greater prospective weight gain over time, in a dose-response manner. For instance, compared to participants who ate a chocolate serving less often than monthly, those who ate it 1–4 times a month and at least weekly experienced an increase in Body Mass Index (kg/m2) of 0.26 (95% CI 0.08, 0.44) and 0.39 (0.23, 0.55), respectively, during the six-year study period. In cross-sectional analyses the frequency of chocolate consumption was inversely associated with bodyweight. This inverse association was attenuated after excluding participants with preexisting obesity-related illness. Compared to participants without such illness, those with it had higher BMI and reported less frequent chocolate intake, lower caloric intake, and diets richer in fruits and vegetables. They tended to make these dietary changes after becoming ill. Conclusions Our prospective analysis found that a chocolate habit was associated with long-term weight gain, in a dose-response manner. Our cross-sectional finding that chocolate intake was associated with lower bodyweight did not apply to participants without preexisting serious illness. PMID:23950919
The aim of this study is to examine the development of bodyweight as well as the development of the subjective body image among German youth focusing on trends (2002-2006-2010). The analysis focuses on those children and adolescents who consider themselves as "a bit too fat" or "much too fat" in spite of the fact that they are "about the right size" (risk group). Based on the findings, recommendations for prevention and intervention measures will be derived, which can be applied in youth work.The trend analysis is based on german data from the international WHO study Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) from the survey years 2002, 2006 and 2010. In addition to the socio-demographic variables (sex, age, family affluence status), the analysis also included variables on weight status (BMI), body image, dieting and breakfast consumption (independent variables). Using binary logistic regression analyses, the relationship between the independent and dependent variable (distorted body image) was examined.For the 13- and as well as for the 15-year-old adolescents in the overall trend the fraction of those that are underweight decreases in contrast to the increasing fraction of the overweight subjects. The results show that in the year 2010, the risk for adolescents for being overweight is 1.3-times higher than in the reference year 2002. Furthermore it can be proven in the timeline that the risk to perceive the own body as "too fat" is slightly higher. A distorted perception regarding the body image (normal weight but perceiving themselves as "too fat") is primarily a problem of the girls: they have in the year 2006 and 2010 a 2-times higher chance to belong to the group of the distorted perceivers than in 2002. Dieting as a strategy in dealing with an alleged fat body has in a comparison still a major role, however in 2010 far fewer young people made use of it.The observed trends will be discussed against the background of gender-specific health promotion. PMID:22836887
BACKGROUND: Beverages are contributing an increased proportion of energy to the diet. Because they elicit a weak compensatory dietary response, they may increase risk of positive energy balance.OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to document the differential effects of matched liquid and solid carbohydrate loads on diet and bodyweight.DESIGN: In a cross-over design, seven males and eight females consumed dietary carbohydrate
It have been reported that in literature there exists some number of approximate closed form weight functions for elliptical\\u000a crack in an infinite body. The general procedure for refining them by Rice's integral formula is suggested. A tentative formula\\u000a obtained in this way has been numerically verified by a carefully elaborated procedure. For uniform loading the accuracy of\\u000a suggested formula
Objective:The aim of this paper is to analyse the relationships between eating behaviours (picky eating, irregular eating and overeating), and dietary adequacy in accordance with nutrition recommendations and bodyweight during the preschool years.Design and setting:Our analyses were performed using data from the Longitudinal Study of Child Development in Québec (1998–2002), a population-based birth cohort.Subjects:The study followed a representative sample
Twelve female Long-Evans rats were exposed to concurrent variable (VR) ratio schedules of sucrose and wheel-running reinforcement (Sucrose VR 10 Wheel VR 10; Sucrose VR 5 Wheel VR 20; Sucrose VR 20 Wheel VR 5) with predetermined budgets (number of responses). The allocation of lever pressing to the sucrose and wheel-running alternatives was assessed at high and low bodyweights.
Background: Ketogenic enteral nutrition (KEN) is a modification of the protein sparing modified fast in which a protein solution is introduced with a continuous infusion through a nasogastric tube over 10-days cycles. The aim of the study was to perform a retrospective analysis of the safety, compliance, weight loss and body composition changes after 3 sequential 10-days cycles of KEN therapy. Materials and Methods: From a large number of patients who underwent KEN therapy in our department over a 5-year period, we selected 188 patients who participated in 3 KEN cycles with 10-13 days of break between them. Before and after the treatment cycles, body composition was analyzed by bioelectric impedance; a final assessment was made 10 days after the end of last cycle. During each rest period all the patients were on a low-carbohydrate, normal caloric diet. Results: Most patients (97%) successfully tolerated the nasogastric treatment and lost an average of 14.4 kg of bodyweight, 10.6 kg of fat mass and 3.4 kg of body cell mass. Adverse effects were recorded as mild gastric hypersecretion (2%) and constipation (5%). Patients continued to lose fat during the 10-day follow up period after the end of each KEN Cycle. This effect may be explained by abnormality of water distribution during the rapid weight loss inducing the observed change in fat mass. Conclusion: Ten-days KEN treatment cycles can induce rapid weight loss and reduction of fat mass in obese patients. Furthermore, preservation of lean mass can be achieved by infusing 1.9 g of protein/kg of BCM. PMID:23853627
Cappello, Gianfranco; Franceschelli, Antonella; Cappello, Annalisa; De Luca, Paolo
BACKGROUND: Little is known about childhood factors and adult obesity. A previous study found a strong association between childhood neglect and obesity in young adults.OBJECTIVE: To estimate associations between self-reported abuse in childhood (sexual, verbal, fear of physical abuse and physical) adult bodyweight, and risk of obesity.DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study with surveys during 1995–1997.PATIENTS: A total of 13 177
DF Williamson; TJ Thompson; RF Anda; WH Dietz; V Felitti
Background: The severely obese experience discrimination and embarrassment regarding their appearance, causing psychosocial\\u000a distress. We assessed the importance of appearance, presentation and self-evaluation of appearance before and after weight\\u000a loss, in severely obese subjects (BMI >35 kg\\/m2). Methods: Appearance orientation (AO) and appearance evaluation (AE) sections of the Multidimentional Body Self Relations\\u000a Questionnaire were completed by preoperative patients and those
OBJECTIVES:Obesity is thought to be associated with colorectal cancer and adenoma. We aimed to investigate the effect of bodyweight on the risk of colorectal adenoma both in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses.METHODS:This is a retrospective cohort study in a large-scale health appraisal institution in Japan. A total of 7,963 asymptomatic, average-risk Japanese were enrolled at initial examinations, and 2,568 subjects
Objective: To examine the potential role of treadmill training with partial bodyweight support in nonambulatory children with cerebral palsy.Study Design: Open, nonrandomized, baseline-treatment study.Setting: An outpatient rehabilitation clinic.Subjects: Ten children with cerebral palsy. Six children (group A) were nonambulatory, and four children (group B) either required continuous physical help (two cases) or were able to walk short distances with
Martin R. Schindl; Claudia Forstner; Helmut Kern; Stefan Hesse
OBJECTIVE: This study examines the relation between bodyweight and the physical and mental components of health-related quality of life (HRQL) in the population aged 60 y and over in Spain.RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Cross-sectional study covering 3605 subjects, representative of the noninstitutionalised Spanish population aged 60 y and over. Information was collected through home-based personal interview and measurement of
E López-García; J R Banegas Banegas; J L Gutiérrez-Fisac; A Gzaciani Pérez-Regadera; L Díez-Gańán; F Rodríguez-Artalejo
AIMS: To explore men's and women's experiences of weight change in adulthood, body image preferences and beliefs about the health consequences of overweight and to inform the development of a primary care intervention to prevent obesity.SAMPLE: Seventy-two men and women aged 35–55, with a range of BMIs from 22 to 29.9, were identified from two UK general practice registers and
Background\\/objectives:Europe has the highest level of alcohol consumption in the world. As drinking patterns are important determinants of the beneficial and harmful effects of alcohol consumption, we investigated alcohol consumption in relation to nutrient intake, place of consumption, education and bodyweight in a sample of adults from 10 European countries.Methods:A 24-h dietary recall interview was conducted on 13 025
S Sieri; V Krogh; C Saieva; D E Grobbee; M Bergmann; S Rohrmann; A Tjřnneland; P Ferrari; Y Chloptsios; V Dilis; M Jenab; J Linseisen; P Wallström; I Johansson; M D Chirlaque; M J Sanchez; M Niravong; F Clavel-Chapelon; A A Welch; N E Allen; H B Bueno-de-Mesquita; Y T van der Schouw; C Sacerdote; S Panico; C L Parr; T Braaten; A Olsen; M K Jensen; S Bingham; E Riboli; N Slimani
Objective:To determine the efficacy of a long-acting oxyntomodulin (OXM) analogue, OXM6421, in inhibiting food intake and decreasing bodyweight in lean and diet-induced obese (DIO) rodents.Research design and methods:The glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor binding affinity and efficacy, sensitivity to enzymatic degradation in vitro and persistence in the circulation after peripheral administration were investigated for OXM6421 and compared with native OXM.
Y-L Liu; H E Ford; M R Druce; J S Minnion; B C T Field; J C Shillito; J Baxter; K G Murphy; M A Ghatei; S R Bloom
Objectives: The effect of national exercise recommendations on adiposity is unknown and may differ by sex. We examined long-term effects of aerobic exercise on adiposity in women and men.Research Methods and Procedures: This was a 12-month randomized, controlled clinical trial testing exercise effect on weight and body composition in men (N = 102) and women (N = 100). Sedentary\\/unfit persons,
Anne McTiernan; Bess Sorensen; Melinda L. Irwin; Angela Morgan; Yutaka Yasui; Rebecca E. Rudolph; Christina Surawicz; Johanna W. Lampe; Paul D. Lampe; Kamran Ayub; John D. Potter
Oleylethanolamide (OEA) is a naturally occurring lipid that regulates satiety and bodyweight. Although structurally related to the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide, OEA does not bind to cannabinoid receptors and its molecular targets have not been defined. Here we show that OEA binds with high affinity to the peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-alpha), a nuclear receptor that regulates several aspects of lipid metabolism.
Jin Fu; Silvana Gaetani; Fariba Oveisi; Jesse Lo Verme; Antonia Serrano; Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca; Anja Rosengarth; Hartmut Luecke; Barbara Di Giacomo; Giorgio Tarzia; Daniele Piomelli
Activators of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are effective drugs to improve the metabolic abnormalities linking hypertriglyceridemia to diabetes, hyperglycemia, insulin-resistance, and atherosclerosis. We compared the pharmacological profile of a PPAR? activator, fenofibrate, and a PPAR? activator, rosiglitazone, on serum parameters, target gene expression, and bodyweight gain in (fa\\/fa) fatty Zucker rats and db\\/db mice as well as their
Evelyne Chaput; Régis Saladin; Martine Silvestre; Alan D. Edgar
Duzguner, V., Kucukgul, A., Erdogan, S., Celik, S. and Sahin, K. 2008. Effect of lycopene administration on plasma glucose, oxidative stress and bodyweight in streptozotocin diabetic rats. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 33: 17–20.To evaluate the role of lycopene, a carotenoid antioxidant, on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats, 12 female rats received a single intraperitonial injection of STZ at a dose
BACKGROUND: The impact of unemployment on behaviours such as smoking, drinking and bodyweight has been extensively researched. However, little is known about the possible protective effects of social assistance programs on these behavioural changes. This study examines the impact of unemployment periods on smoking, drinking and bodyweight changes among re-employed individuals and investigates whether the receipt of unemployment
Objective To investigate the role of smoking cessation in bodyweight. Data Sources 2004–2005 and 2009–2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Surveys (BRFSS) (N = 349,000), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Tax Burden on Tobacco (Orzechowski and Walker 2010). Study Design The Gaussian treatment effect model is estimated for three age categories by gender. Treatment effects of quitting smoking on body mass index (BMI) by quit length are calculated. Principal Findings Quitting is found to be endogenous. Differentiated effects of quitting smoking on BMI are found among quitters by gender, between age groups, and by length of time since quitting smoking, and positive association between smoking cessation and bodyweight confirmed. Declining smoking rates have only a modest effect in the overweight population. The effects of quitting on BMI are considerably lower among younger men and women. Conclusion The price that must be paid, in terms of weight gain, to enjoy the health benefits of smoking cessation is trivial even for the obese population. PMID:22356600
This study develops a body motion interactive system with computer vision technology. This application combines interactive games, art performing, and exercise training system. Multiple image processing and computer vision technologies are used in this study. The system can calculate the characteristics of an object color, and then perform color segmentation. When there is a wrong action judgment, the system will avoid the error with a weight voting mechanism, which can set the condition score and weight value for the action judgment, and choose the best action judgment from the weight voting mechanism. Finally, this study estimated the reliability of the system in order to make improvements. The results showed that, this method has good effect on accuracy and stability du