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1

Marijuana and Body Weight  

PubMed Central

Acute marijuana use is classically associated with snacking behavior (colloquially referred to as “the munchies”). In support of these acute appetite-enhancing effects, several authorities report that marijuana may increase body mass index in patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus and cancer. However, for these medical conditions, while appetite may be stimulated, some studies indicate that weight gain is not always clinically meaningful. In addition, in a study of cancer patients in which weight gain did occur, it was less than the comparator drug (megestrol). However, data generally suggest that acute marijuana use stimulates appetite, and that marijuana use may stimulate appetite in low-weight individuals. As for large epidemiological studies in the general population, findings consistently indicate that users of marijuana tend to have lower body mass indices than nonusers. While paradoxical and somewhat perplexing, these findings may be explained by various study confounds, such as potential differences between acute versus chronic marijuana use; the tendency for marijuana use to be associated with other types of drug use; and/or the possible competition between food and drugs for the same reward sites in the brain. Likewise, perhaps the effects of marijuana are a function of initial weight status—i.e., maybe marijuana is a metabolic regulatory substance that increases body weight in low-weight individuals but not in normal-weight or overweight individuals. Only further research will clarify the complex relationships between marijuana and body weight. PMID:25337447

Sansone, Lori A.

2014-01-01

2

Body Weight Relationships in Early Marriage: Weight Relevance, Weight Comparisons, and Weight Talk  

PubMed Central

This investigation uncovered processes underlying the dynamics of body weight and body image among individuals involved in nascent heterosexual marital relationships in Upstate New York. In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 34 informants, 20 women and 14 men, just prior to marriage and again one year later were used to explore continuity and change in cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors relating to body weight and body image at the time of marriage, an important transition in the life course. Three major conceptual themes operated in the process of developing and enacting informants’ body weight relationships with their partner: weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk. Weight relevance encompassed the changing significance of weight during early marriage and included attracting and capturing a mate, relaxing about weight, living healthily, and concentrating on weight. Weight comparisons between partners involved weight relativism, weight competition, weight envy, and weight role models. Weight talk employed pragmatic talk, active and passive reassurance, and complaining and critiquing criticism. Concepts emerging from this investigation may be useful in designing future studies of and approaches to managing body weight in adulthood. PMID:21864601

Bove, Caron F.; Sobal, Jeffery

2011-01-01

3

Normal Internal Organ Weight of Thai Adults Correlated to Body Length and Body Weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Examine the relationship between the internal organ weight with body weight and body length. Material and Method: Analysis of data from 250 autopsies from the Ramathibodi Hospital from August 2003 to February 2005. The cases were from sudden unnatural death including accident, homicide and suicide and excluded decomposed bodies, fire related deaths and cases where medical treatment had been

Thamrong Chirachariyavej; Kritsa Ouyswat BSN; Seetala Sanggarnjanavanich DDS; Montip Tiensuwan; Vichan Peonim; Vorachai Sirikulchayanonta

2006-01-01

4

Food, Energy and Body Weight  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This minds-on analysis and discussion activity helps students to understand the relationships between food molecules as a source of energy, cellular respiration, physical activity, and changes in body weight.

Waldron, Ingrid

5

Daptomycin dosing based on ideal body weight versus actual body weight: comparison of clinical outcomes.  

PubMed

Daptomycin use at our institution changed to ideal body weight dosing based on a published analysis of pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic efficacy target attainment, bacterial ecology, and a desire to reduce drug toxicity. The current study compared outcomes between actual body weight and ideal body weight dosing of daptomycin before and after this intervention. In the evaluable group, 69 patients received doses based on actual body weight and 48 patients received doses based on ideal body weight. Patients were treated for documented Enterococcus species, Staphylococcus aureus, or coagulase-negative Staphylococcus infections, including bloodstream, intraabdominal, skin and soft tissue, urinary, and bone. There was no statistically significant difference in clinical success between the groups (88.9% for actual body weight compared to 89.1% for ideal body weight, P = 0.97). After we adjusted for gender, age, body mass index, concomitant 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, infection type, and organism type, clinical success rates remained similar between groups (adjusted odds ratio of 0.68 in favor of actual body weight, 95% confidence interval [CI] of 0.13 to 3.55). Microbiological outcomes, length of stay, mortality, and adverse effects were also similar between groups. Further studies are warranted to confirm that ideal body weight dosing provides similar outcomes to actual body weight dosing for all patients and types of infections and organisms. PMID:24145531

Ng, Jennifer K; Schulz, Lucas T; Rose, Warren E; Fox, Barry C; Andes, David R; Buhr, Kevin A; Fish, Jeffrey T

2014-01-01

6

Genome-wide association mapping including phenotypes from relatives without genotypes in a single-step (ssGWAS) for 6-week body weight in broiler chickens  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to compare results obtained from various methodologies for genome-wide association studies, when applied to real data, in terms of number and commonality of regions identified and their genetic variance explained, computational speed, and possible pitfalls in interpretations of results. Methodologies include: two iteratively reweighted single-step genomic BLUP procedures (ssGWAS1 and ssGWAS2), a single-marker model (CGWAS), and BayesB. The ssGWAS methods utilize genomic breeding values (GEBVs) based on combined pedigree, genomic and phenotypic information, while CGWAS and BayesB only utilize phenotypes from genotyped animals or pseudo-phenotypes. In this study, ssGWAS was performed by converting GEBVs to SNP marker effects. Unequal variances for markers were incorporated for calculating weights into a new genomic relationship matrix. SNP weights were refined iteratively. The data was body weight at 6 weeks on 274,776 broiler chickens, of which 4553 were genotyped using a 60 k SNP chip. Comparison of genomic regions was based on genetic variances explained by local SNP regions (20 SNPs). After 3 iterations, the noise was greatly reduced for ssGWAS1 and results are similar to that of CGWAS, with 4 out of the top 10 regions in common. In contrast, for BayesB, the plot was dominated by a single region explaining 23.1% of the genetic variance. This same region was found by ssGWAS1 with the same rank, but the amount of genetic variation attributed to the region was only 3%. These findings emphasize the need for caution when comparing and interpreting results from various methods, and highlight that detected associations, and strength of association, strongly depends on methodologies and details of implementations. BayesB appears to overly shrink regions to zero, while overestimating the amount of genetic variation attributed to the remaining SNP effects. The real world is most likely a compromise between methods and remains to be determined. PMID:24904635

Wang, Huiyu; Misztal, Ignacy; Aguilar, Ignacio; Legarra, Andres; Fernando, Rohan L.; Vitezica, Zulma; Okimoto, Ron; Wing, Terry; Hawken, Rachel; Muir, William M.

2014-01-01

7

Body weight contingency of self-worth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The body weight contingency of self-worth (body weight CSW) is the tendency for people to base their self-esteem on body weight. In two studies, the body weight contingency was evaluated against a general appearance contingency of self-worth (appearance CSW) to investigate whether or not individuals may base self-esteem on body weight. Compared to the appearance CSW, the body weight CSW

Alison Clabaugh; Andrew Karpinski; Kelly Griffin

2008-01-01

8

Changes in body weight, blood pressure and selected metabolic biomarkers with an energy-restricted diet including twice daily sweet snacks and once daily sugar-free beverage  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The type of sweet snack incorporated into an energy-restricted diet (ERD) may produce differential effects on metabolic improvements associated with body weight (BW) loss. This study compared effects of incorporating either twice daily energy-controlled dark chocolate snacks plus once daily sugar-free cocoa beverage (DC) to non-chocolate snacks plus sugar-free non-cocoa beverage (NC) into an ERD on BW loss and metabolic outcomes. MATERIALS/METHODS In an 18-week randomized comparative trial, 60 overweight/obese premenopausal women were assigned to DC (n = 30) or NC group (n = 30). Dietary intake was measured at baseline and week 18, and BW, anthropometrics, blood pressure (BP) and serum glucose, insulin and lipid concentrations were measured at baseline, and weeks 6, 12 and 18. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. RESULTS Using intention-to-treat analysis, women in DC and NC groups reduced energy intake (both P < 0.001) and lost 4.4 ± 0.6 kg and 5.0 ± 0.9 kg (both P < 0.001), respectively. Both groups lowered systolic and diastolic BP [DC = 2.7 (P < 0.05), 2.7 (P < 0.01); NC = 3.4 (P < 0.01), 4.2 (P < 0.01) mmHg, respectively]. Glucose and insulin concentrations decreased by 0.72 mmol/L (P < 0.001) and 13.20 pmol/L (P < 0.01) in DC group and by 0.83 mmol/L (P < 0.001) and 13.20 pmol/L (P < 0.01), respectively, in NC group. Total cholesterol increased in NC group (P < 0.05), with no significant lipid changes in DC group. There were no significant differences in biomarker outcomes between groups. CONCLUSIONS Overweight/obese premenopausal women following an 18-week ERD that included either DC or NC sweet snack and sugar-free beverage lost equivalent amounts of BW and improved BP measurements and glucose and insulin concentrations. PMID:25489410

Piehowski, Kathryn E.; Metzgar, Catherine J.; Miller, Debra L.; Preston, Amy G.

2014-01-01

9

Effect of clothing weight on body weight  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: In clinical settings, it is common to measure weight of clothed patients and estimate a correction for the weight of clothing, but we can find no papers in the medical literature regarding the variability in clothing weight with weather, season, and gender. Methods: Fifty adults (35 wom...

10

Odour and taste sensitivity is associated with body weight and extent of misreporting of body weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Sensory factors are important determinants of appetite and food choices but little is known about the relationship between body weight and sensory capabilities.Objective:To investigate the relationship between measured body weights, misreporting of body weight and sensory capabilities.Design:In a cross-sectional sensory study, body weight was assessed by measured and self-reported body weight in healthy men (n=130) and women (n=181). Sensory capabilities

U Simchen; C Koebnick; S Hoyer; S Issanchou; H-JF Zunft

2006-01-01

11

The effect of holiday weight gain on body weight.  

PubMed

The topic of holiday weight gain has been a frequent subject of the lay media; however, scientific interest has only been recent. Multiple studies in Western societies have reported average weight gains among adults during the period between mid-November and mid-January that were about 0.5 kg. The range in individual weight changes was large, however, and the already overweight and obese gain more weight than those who are healthy weight. When the average gain across the year was also measured, the holiday weight was the major contributor to annual excess weight gain. Efforts patterned to increase awareness to energy balance and body weight have been shown to be successful at reducing such gain. An exception to holiday weight gain being a major contributor to annual excess gain has been children, in whom summer weight gains have been observed to be the major contributor to average excess weight gain. PMID:24662697

Schoeller, Dale A

2014-07-01

12

Body Weight Image and Gender Influence Emotional Response Patterns to Body Weight Related Cues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young adult females' attitudes toward body weight regulation contain important emotional components. To study the effects of body weight cues on emotionality, 160 college students (75 females, 85 males) completed either a body weight related (Q1) or control (Q2) questionnaire prior to taking the California Test of Personality (CTP). An analysis of…

DelRosario, Marlene W.; And Others

13

Echocardiographic measurements of cardiac dimensions correlate better with body length than with body weight or body surface area.  

PubMed

Looking after children means caring for very small infants up to adult-sized adolescents, with weights ranging from 500 g to more than 100 kg and heights ranging from 25 to more than 200 cm. The available echocardiographic reference data were drawn from a small sample, which did not include preterm infants. Most authors have used body weight or body surface area to predict left ventricular dimensions. The current authors had the impression that body length would be a better surrogate parameter than body weight or body surface area. They analyzed their echocardiographic database retrospectively. The analysis included all available echocardiographic data from 6 June 2001 to 15 December 2011 from their echocardiographic database. The authors included 12,086 of 26,325 subjects documented as patients with normal hearts in their analysis by the examining the pediatric cardiologist. For their analysis, they selected body weight, length, age, and aortic and pulmonary valve diameter in two-dimensional echocardiography and left ventricular dimension in M-mode. They found good correlation between echocardiographic dimensions and body surface area, body weight, and body length. The analysis showed a complex relationship between echocardiographic measurements and body weight and body surface area, whereas body length showed a linear relationship. This makes prediction of echo parameters more reliable. According to this retrospective analysis, body length is a better parameter for evaluating echocardiographic measurements than body weight or body surface area and should therefore be used in daily practice. PMID:24894894

Motz, R; Schumacher, M; Nürnberg, J; Viemann, M; Grafmüller, S; Fiedler, K; Claus, M; Kronberg, K

2014-12-01

14

Self-perception of body weight status and weight control practices among adolescents in Malaysia.  

PubMed

The prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents is rising rapidly in many countries, including Malaysia. This article aims to present the associations between body mass index-based body weight status, body weight perception, and weight control practices among adolescents in Malaysia. The Malaysia School Based Nutrition Survey 2012, which included a body weight perception questionnaire and anthropometric measurements, was conducted on a representative sample of 40 011 students from Standard 4 until Form 5, with a 90.5% response rate. Comparing actual and perceived body weight status, the findings show that 13.8% of adolescents underestimated their weight, 35.0% overestimated, and 51.2% correctly judged their own weight. Significantly more normal weight girls felt they were overweight, whereas significantly more overweight boys perceived themselves as underweight. The overall appropriateness of weight control practices to body weight was 72.6%. Adolescents attempting to lose or gain weight need to have better understanding toward desirable behavioral changes. PMID:25070695

Zainuddin, Ahmad Ali; Manickam, Mala A; Baharudin, Azli; Omar, Azahadi; Cheong, Siew Man; Ambak, Rashidah; Ahmad, Mohamad Hasnan; Ghaffar, Suhaila Abdul

2014-09-01

15

Low glycemic index diets and body weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

In their review (low-glycaemic index diets and body weight regulation (2006)), McMillan-Price and Brand-Miller argue that the low glycemic index (GI) diet is a simple and more popular diet that will successfully improve cardiovascular risk factors and reduce body weight. We do not find that there is convincing evidence in the existing literature to suggest that a low GI diet

B Sloth; A Astrup

2006-01-01

16

BODY WEIGHT AND COGNITIVE DECLINE IN MCI  

E-print Network

determined by the evaluating ADNI clinician, Table 2. The event indicator in these models was coded as a clinically significantly worsening of the ADAS-Cog, MMSE, and the CDR Sum of Boxes. We observed a protective effect of BMI in reducing the risk...: ______________ 2 The Thesis Committee for Benjamin B. Cronk certifies that this is the approved Version of the following thesis: BODY WEIGHT AND COGNITIVE DECLINE IN MCI ____________________ Chairperson: Won Choi Ph...

Cronk, Ben B.

2008-08-08

17

Has increased body weight made driving safer?  

PubMed

We develop a model of alcohol consumption that incorporates the negative biological relationship between body mass and inebriation conditional on total alcohol consumption. Our model predicts that the elasticity of inebriation with respect to weight is equal to the own-price elasticity of alcohol, consistent with body mass increasing the effective price of inebriation. Given that alcohol is generally considered price inelastic, this result implies that as individuals gain weight, they consume more alcohol but become less inebriated. We test this prediction and find that driver blood alcohol content (BAC) is negatively associated with driver weight. In fatal accidents with driver BAC above 0.10, the driver was 7.8 percentage points less likely to be obese than drivers in fatal accidents that did not involve alcohol. This relationship is not explained by driver attributes (age and sex), driver behaviors (speed and seatbelt use), vehicle attributes (weight class, model year, and number of occupants), or accident context (county of accident, time of day, and day of week). PMID:24038409

Dunn, Richard A; Tefft, Nathan W

2014-11-01

18

Measuring Outcomes in Adult Weight Loss Studies That Include Diet and Physical Activity: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background. Measuring success of obesity interventions is critical. Several methods measure weight loss outcomes but there is no consensus on best practices. This systematic review evaluates relevant outcomes (weight loss, BMI, % body fat, and fat mass) to determine which might be the best indicator(s) of success. Methods. Eligible articles described adult weight loss interventions that included diet and physical activity and a measure of weight or BMI change and body composition change. Results. 28 full-text articles met inclusion criteria. Subjects, settings, intervention lengths, and intensities varied. All studies measured body weight (?2.9 to ?17.3?kg), 9 studies measured BMI (?1.1 to ?5.1?kg/m2), 20 studies measured % body fat (?0.7 to ?10.2%), and 22 studies measured fat mass (?0.9 to ?14.9?kg). All studies found agreement between weight or BMI and body fat mass or body fat % decreases, though there were discrepancies in degree of significance between measures. Conclusions. Nearly all weight or BMI and body composition measures agreed. Since body fat is the most metabolically harmful tissue type, it may be a more meaningful measure of health change. Future studies should consider primarily measuring % body fat, rather than or in addition to weight or BMI.

Millstein, Rachel A.

2014-01-01

19

The role of whole grains in body weight regulation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Whole grain (WG)-rich diets are purported to have a variety of health benefits including a favorable role in body weight regulation. Current dietary recommendations advocate substituting WG for refined grains (RG) as many of the beneficial bioactive components intrinsic to WG are lost during the re...

20

Asians Need Type 2 Diabetes Screening at Lower Body Weight  

MedlinePLUS

... Asians Need Type 2 Diabetes Screening at Lower Body Weight: Experts ADA says this group tends to put ... ADA has now lowered the body-mass index (BMI) -- a standard measurement of weight versus height -- at ...

21

Genes May Determine Body Weight by Shaping Gut Bacteria  

MedlinePLUS

... Genes May Determine Body Weight by Shaping Gut Bacteria Study finds certain family of microbes more common ... person's body weight by determining the types of bacteria that live in the intestines, a new study ...

22

Critical weight in the development of insect body size  

Microsoft Academic Search

that the critical weight was lower on low quality diets but did not change with temperature. There was significant genetic variation for body size, for plasticity of body size, and for crit- ical weight, but not for plasticity of critical weight. Variation in the critical weight accounted for 73% of between-family vari- ance in peak larval size, whereas plasticity of

Goggy Davidowitz; Louis J. D'Amico; H. Frederik Nijhout

2003-01-01

23

Bone turnover and body weight relationships differ in normal-weight compared with heavier postmenopausal women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low body weight is associated with increased risk for fractures, whereas higher body weight has been shown to be protective against osteoporosis. This study evaluated whether body weight plays a role regulating bone turnover and mass in normal-weight (body mass index (BMI) 2), overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg\\/m2) and obese (BMI₊ kg\\/m2) postmenopausal women who were either receiving hormone replacement therapy

M. Cifuentes; M. A. Johnson; R. D. Lewis; S. B. Heymsfield; H. A. Chowdhury; C. M. Modlesky; S. A. Shapses

2003-01-01

24

Weight Loss Practices and Body Weight Perceptions among US College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors assessed associations between body weight perception and weight loss strategies. Participants: They randomly selected male and female college students (N = 38,204). Methods: The authors conducted a secondary data analysis of the rates of weight loss strategies and body weight perception among students who completed the…

Wharton, Christopher M.; Adams, Troy; Hampl, Jeffrey S.

2008-01-01

25

Lean body mass changes in cancer patients with weight loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Aims: Metabolic measurements (e.g. resting energy expenditure) are adjusted to lean body mass to account for body composition differences. Usually lean body mass is estimated from total body water. However, this may be compromised in weight-losing cancer patients owing to alterations in the degree of hydration of the lean body mass. This study examined the relationship between two

D. C. MCMILLAN; W. S. WATSON; T. PRESTON; C. S. MCARDLE

2000-01-01

26

Central nervous system control of food intake and body weight  

E-print Network

. In addition, normal-weight indi- viduals are protected against expansion of body fat stores inducedCentral nervous system control of food intake and body weight G. J. Morton1 , D. E. Cummings2 , D, at least in normal-weight individuals. Together, these findings indicate that obesity involves the defence

Bruno, John P.

27

The Role of Whole Grains in Body Weight Regulation12  

PubMed Central

Whole grain (WG)-rich diets are purported to have a variety of health benefits, including a favorable role in body weight regulation. Current dietary recommendations advocate substituting WG for refined grains (RG), because many of the beneficial bioactive components intrinsic to WG are lost during the refining process. Epidemiological studies consistently demonstrate that higher intakes of WG, but not RG, are associated with lower BMI and/or reduced risk of obesity. However, recent clinical trials have failed to support a role for WG in promoting weight loss or maintenance. Though the biochemical and structural characteristics of WG have been shown to modulate appetite, nutrient availability, and energy utilization, the capacity of WG foods to elicit these effects varies with the type and amount of grain consumed as well as the nature of its consumption. As such, WG foods differentially affect physiologic factors influencing body weight with the common practice of processing and reconstituting WG ingredients during food production likely mitigating the capacity for WG to benefit body weight regulation. PMID:22983848

Karl, J. Philip; Saltzman, Edward

2012-01-01

28

The Role of Body Weight in Menstrual Disturbances and Amenorrhea  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In normal weight women, a 10–15% reduction from ideal body weight (IBW) is associated with amenorrhea [1, 2]. There is considerable interindividual variation in the menstrual cycle manifestations that may occur in association with\\u000a low body weight. It is likely that the key element involved in eating disorders or low weight related amenorrhea is stress.\\u000a It appears that the adaptation

Alex J. Polotsky; Nanette Santoro

29

Body Weight, Body Image, and Perception of Fad Diets in Adolescent Girls.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined relationships among adolescent girls' (N=203) satisfaction with body weight, body image, and perception/use of fad diets. Subjects wanting to lose weight were placed into two groups based on amount of weight-loss desired and compared in terms of body image scores, ratings of fad diets, and frequency of using the diets. (JN)

Storz, Nancy S.; Greene, Walter H.

1983-01-01

30

Perceptions of Body Weight, Weight Management Strategies, and Depressive Symptoms among US College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To determine if inaccurate body weight perception predicts unhealthy weight management strategies and to determine the extent to which inaccurate body weight perception is associated with depressive symptoms among US college students. Participants: Randomly selected male and female college students in the United States (N = 97,357).…

Harring, Holly Anne; Montgomery, Kara; Hardin, James

2010-01-01

31

Perceptions of Body Weight, Weight Management Strategies, and Depressive Symptoms Among US College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine if inaccurate body weight perception predicts unhealthy weight management strategies and to determine the extent to which inaccurate body weight perception is associated with depressive symptoms among US college students. Participants: Randomly selected male and female college students in the United States (N = 97,357). Methods: Data were from the 2006 National College Health Assessment. Analyses were

Holly Anne Harring; Kara Montgomery; James Hardin

2011-01-01

32

Correlates of Body Mass Index, Weight Goals, and Weight-Management Practices among Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined associations among physical activity, cigarette smoking, body mass index, perceptions of body weight, weight-management goals, and weight-management behaviors of public high school adolescents. The CDC Youth Risk Behavior Survey provided a cross-sectional sample (n = 3,089) of public high school students in South Carolina.…

Paxton, Raheem J.; Valois, Robert F.; Drane, J. Wanzer

2004-01-01

33

Human growth and body weight dynamics: an integrative systems model.  

PubMed

Quantifying human weight and height dynamics due to growth, aging, and energy balance can inform clinical practice and policy analysis. This paper presents the first mechanism-based model spanning full individual life and capturing changes in body weight, composition and height. Integrating previous empirical and modeling findings and validated against several additional empirical studies, the model replicates key trends in human growth including A) Changes in energy requirements from birth to old ages. B) Short and long-term dynamics of body weight and composition. C) Stunted growth with chronic malnutrition and potential for catch up growth. From obesity policy analysis to treating malnutrition and tracking growth trajectories, the model can address diverse policy questions. For example I find that even without further rise in obesity, the gap between healthy and actual Body Mass Indexes (BMIs) has embedded, for different population groups, a surplus of 14%-24% in energy intake which will be a source of significant inertia in obesity trends. In another analysis, energy deficit percentage needed to reduce BMI by one unit is found to be relatively constant across ages. Accompanying documented and freely available simulation model facilitates diverse applications customized to different sub-populations. PMID:25479101

Rahmandad, Hazhir

2014-01-01

34

Human Growth and Body Weight Dynamics: An Integrative Systems Model  

PubMed Central

Quantifying human weight and height dynamics due to growth, aging, and energy balance can inform clinical practice and policy analysis. This paper presents the first mechanism-based model spanning full individual life and capturing changes in body weight, composition and height. Integrating previous empirical and modeling findings and validated against several additional empirical studies, the model replicates key trends in human growth including A) Changes in energy requirements from birth to old ages. B) Short and long-term dynamics of body weight and composition. C) Stunted growth with chronic malnutrition and potential for catch up growth. From obesity policy analysis to treating malnutrition and tracking growth trajectories, the model can address diverse policy questions. For example I find that even without further rise in obesity, the gap between healthy and actual Body Mass Indexes (BMIs) has embedded, for different population groups, a surplus of 14%–24% in energy intake which will be a source of significant inertia in obesity trends. In another analysis, energy deficit percentage needed to reduce BMI by one unit is found to be relatively constant across ages. Accompanying documented and freely available simulation model facilitates diverse applications customized to different sub-populations. PMID:25479101

Rahmandad, Hazhir

2014-01-01

35

Complementary therapies for reducing body weight: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of obesity is increasing at an alarming rate and a plethora of complementary therapies are on offer claiming effectiveness for reducing body weight. The aim of this systematic review is to critically assess the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews of complementary therapies for reducing body weight. Literature searches were conducted on Medline, Embase, Amed,

M H Pittler; E Ernst

2005-01-01

36

Aging and partial body weight support affects gait variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Aging leads to increases in gait variability which may explain the large incidence of falls in the elderly. Body weight support training may be utilized to improve gait in the elderly and minimize falls. However, before initiating rehabilitation protocols, baseline studies are needed to identify the effect of body weight support on elderly gait variability. Our purpose was to

Anastasia Kyvelidou; Max J Kurz; Julie L Ehlers; Nicholas Stergiou

2008-01-01

37

AGE, LENGTH, AND BODY WEIGHT OF SALMON CAUGHT  

E-print Network

AGE, LENGTH, AND BODY WEIGHT OF SALMON CAUGHT BY JAPANESE HIGH SEAS FLEETS IN NORTH PACIFIC Marine Fish and Wildlife Service, Amie J. Suomela, Commissioner AGE, LENGTH, AND BODY WEIGHT OF SALMON CAUGHT by the Japanese high-seas salmon fleets indicates the dominance of 2-year-in-ocean reds in the even years and 3

38

Weight Care Project: Health professionals' attitudes and ability to assess body weight status - Study protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Health professionals working in primary care and public health have opportunities to address body weight status issues with\\u000a their patients through face-to-face contact. The objectives of this all-Ireland project are: 1. to assess the attitudes, current\\u000a practices\\/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups on body weight status; 2. to assess the health professional\\u000a groups' ability to identify body weight

Anne Moorhead; Vivien Coates; Diane Hazlett; Alison Gallagher; Kathy Murphy; Geraldine Nolan; John Dinsmore

2011-01-01

39

Effects of Weight Loss on Body Composition and Pulmonary Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The relationship between obesity, impaired respiratory function and weight loss is established. Objective: Some aspects need further elucidation: the different impact of the pathological modifications of body compartments (total and regional fat mass and lean body mass) on respiratory function, the choice of a restricted diet, the relationship between the modifications of body compartments and the variations in respiratory

Antonino De Lorenzo; Patrizia Petrone-De Luca; Guido F. Sasso; Maria G. Carbonelli; Paolo Rossi; Aldo Brancati

1999-01-01

40

Adolescent Ballet School Students: Their Quest for Body Weight Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Body mass index (BMI) and body type of female and male adolescent ballet dancers (n = 90) and school students (n = 156) were determined. Participants were asked for the body weight she or he would prefer, and ballet students were administered the Eating Attitudes Test-40 (EAT-40). Results between age groups and with reference values were compared. Both in dancers

Norman Bettle; Oliver Bettle; Ursula Neumärker; Klaus-Jürgen Neumärker

1998-01-01

41

Gender differences in perceptions of normal body weights  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study employed an alternative methodology to assess perceptions of normal range body weight. Male and female undergraduates\\u000a were asked to give weight ranges for male and female targets, rather than use figure silhouettes. Male respondents felt that\\u000a lighter weights in men and women were more normal. Female participants believed that heavier weight ranges were normal, both\\u000a for themselves

Michael E. Oakes; Carole S. Slotterback; Erin K. Mecca

2003-01-01

42

Sociocultural influences and body change strategies in Spanish adolescent boys of different weight status.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to examine the association between sociocultural influences to attain an ideal body and body change strategies (BCS) in Spanish adolescent boys of different weight status. A total of 594 Spanish boys (M=13.94 years, SD=0.20) participated. Measures included in the study were weight status according to body mass index (BMI), sociocultural influences (perceived pressures to attain an ideal body, general internalization of an ideal body, internalization of an athletic-ideal body), BCS to lose/control weight (dieting, healthy and unhealthy weight-control behaviors), and BCS to gain weight and muscles. Underweight boys engaged more frequently in weight-gain behaviors. Overweight boys reported higher levels of perceived sociocultural pressures and general internalization compared to normal-weight boys, and were more likely to be engaged in BCS to lose/control weight compared with the other weight-status groups. There were no differences between groups in terms of internalization of an athletic-ideal body and BCS to increase muscles. Future research and prevention programs should consider male-specific behaviors and weight-status differences. PMID:25261810

Almenara, Carlos A; Fauquet, Jordi; López-Guimerà, Gemma; Pàmias-Massana, Montserrat; Sánchez-Carracedo, David

2014-12-01

43

Energy metabolism, fuel selection and body weight regulation  

PubMed Central

Energy homeostasis is critical for the survival of species. Therefore, multiple and complex mechanisms have evolved to regulate energy intake and expenditure to maintain body weight. For weight maintenance, not only does energy intake have to match energy expenditure, but also macronutrient intake must balance macronutrient oxidation. However, this equilibrium seems to be particularly difficult to achieve in individuals with low fat oxidation, low energy expenditure, low sympathetic activity or low levels of spontaneous physical activity, as in addition to excess energy intake, all of these factors explain the tendency of some people to gain weight. Additionally, large variability in weight change is observed when energy surplus is imposed experimentally or spontaneously. Clearly, the data suggest a strong genetic influence on body weight regulation implying a normal physiology in an ‘obesogenic’ environment. In this study, we also review evidence that carbohydrate balance may represent the potential signal that regulates energy homeostasis by impacting energy intake and body weight. Because of the small storage capacity for carbohydrate and its importance for metabolism in many tissues and organs, carbohydrate balance must be maintained at a given level. This drive for balance may in turn cause increased energy intake when consuming a diet high in fat and low in carbohydrate. If sustained over time, such an increase in energy intake cannot be detected by available methods, but may cause meaningful increases in body weight. The concept of metabolic flexibility and its impact on body weight regulation is also presented. PMID:19136979

Galgani, J; Ravussin, E

2010-01-01

44

Relationships Between Weight and Body Dissatisfaction, Body Esteem, and Teasing in African American Girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the relation between weight and weight-related factors (i.e., body dissatisfaction, body esteem, teasing frequency, and the effects of teasing) in a community sample of prepubescent African American girls. African American girls (N = 97) in Grades 3 to 5 completed the McKnight Risk Factor Survey—Third Edition and had their heights and weights taken to calculate body mass

Chermaine Tyler; Craig A. Johnston; William T. Dalton; John P. Foreyt

2009-01-01

45

A prospective study of weight maintenance in obese subjects reduced to normal body weight without weight-loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the pattern of weight mainte- nance in 24 obese women (body mass index (BMI; in kg\\/m2) 27.6 ± 0.4 who were provided foods for a balanced deficit diet until each had lost ? 10 kg and attained normal body weight (BMI 22.9 ± 0.4). At 1 y subjects had regained a mean of 42% of their weight loss,

Donald D Hensrud; Roland L Weinsier; Betty E Darnell; Gary R Hunter

46

Energy metabolism, fuel selection and body weight regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy homeostasis is critical for the survival of species. Therefore, multiple and complex mechanisms have evolved to regulate energy intake and expenditure to maintain body weight. For weight maintenance, not only does energy intake have to match energy expenditure, but also macronutrient intake must balance macronutrient oxidation. However, this equilibrium seems to be particularly difficult to achieve in individuals with

J Galgani; E Ravussin

2008-01-01

47

Body weight and composition dynamics of fall migrating canvasbacks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We studied body weights and composition of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) during fall migration 1975-77 on stopover sites along the upper Mississippi River near La Crosse, Wisconsin (Navigational Pools 7 and 8) and Keokuk, Iowa (Navigational Pool 19). Body weights varied (P < 0.001) by age and sex without interaction. Weights varied by year (P < 0.001) on Pools 7 and 8. Mean weights increased (P < 0.01) within age and sex classes by date and averaged 3.6 and 2.7 g daily on Pools 7 and 8 and Pool 19, respectively. Percent fat was highly correlated (P < 0.001) with carcass weight for each age and sex. Live weight was a good predictor of total body fat. Mean estimated total body fat ranged from 200 to 300 g and comprised 15-20% of live weights among age and sex classes. Temporal weight patterns were less variable for adults than immatures, but generally increased during migration. Length of stopover varied inversely with fat reserves among color-marked adult males. Variation in fat condition of canvasbacks during fall may explain the mechanism regulating population ingress and egress on stopover sites. Fat reserves attained by canvasbacks during fall stopover may have adaptive significance in improving survival by conditioning for winter.

Serie, J.R.; Sharp, D.E.

1989-01-01

48

Associations among eating regulation and body mass index, weight, and body fat in college students: the moderating role of gender.  

PubMed

This study investigated associations between eating regulation behaviors and body mass index (BMI), weight, and percent body fat in male and female students over the first two years of college. Subjects included 328 college students (215 females and 113 males). Height and weight (via standard techniques), body composition (via bioelectrical impedance analysis), and eating regulation behaviors (using the Regulation of Eating Behavior Scale) were conducted two to three times during both the freshman and sophomore years. Significant associations between eating regulation and BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were shown mostly in females. In females, higher BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat at the end of the second year of college were found in those with low levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and high levels of amotivation, while lower BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were associated with high levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and low levels of amotivation. The findings that specific eating behaviors in females during the first two years of college influence BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat may be useful for inclusion in university programs focused on college student health to help decrease the risk of obesity and disordered eating/eating disorders in female college students. PMID:24854827

Gropper, Sareen S; Arsiwalla, Dilbur D; Lord, Denali C; Huggins, Kevin W; Simmons, Karla P; Ulrich, Pamela V

2014-04-01

49

Body Dissatisfaction, Dietary Restraint, Depression, and Weight Status in Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Adolescence may be a crucial period for developing obesity and associated mental health problems. This study examined the relationship of weight status on body image, eating behavior, and depressive symptoms in youth. Methods: A survey was conducted on 1490 youth attending grades 7-12. Participants completed questionnaires on body

Goldfield, Gary S.; Moore, Ceri; Henderson, Katherine; Buchholz, Annick; Obeid, Nicole; Flament, Martine F.

2010-01-01

50

Relationships between Weight and Body Dissatisfaction, Body Esteem, and Teasing in African American Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed the relation between weight and weight-related factors (i.e., body dissatisfaction, body esteem, teasing frequency, and the effects of teasing) in a community sample of prepubescent African American girls. African American girls (N = 97) in Grades 3 to 5 completed the McKnight Risk Factor Survey-Third Edition and had their…

Tyler, Chermaine; Johnston, Craig A.; Dalton, William T., III; Foreyt, John P.

2009-01-01

51

Novel Method to Predict Body Weight in Children Based on Age and Morphological Facial Features.  

PubMed

Body weight is one of most important physiologic parameters in pediatric medicine given it's an essential factor for determining optimal drug dosages and intravenous fluid requirement, DC shock energy voltage needed for cardiorespiratory arrest, and correct equipment sizes in pediatric patients undergoing resuscitation.(1) Several methods exist for predicting body weight in the absence of scales, including age-base, length-based, and habitus-based methods.(1-4) In the investigation summarized herein, a novel method is proposed using age and morphological facial features from digital images to predict the body weight for children. PMID:25370186

Huang, Ziyin; Barrett, Jeffrey S; Barrett, Kyle; Barrett, Ryan; Ng, Chee M

2014-11-01

52

Body weight control practice as a cause of infertility.  

PubMed

Evidence concerning the relationship between the ratio of lean mass to body fat in the female body and the maintenance of female reproductive functions was examined, and the results of a US clinical study in which a weight gain regime was used to treat unexplained in fertility in 29 fashionabely slim women were presented. During the female pubertal process, there is an average increase in the lean body weight of 44% and a mean increase in the body fat of 120%. Apparently, the accummulation of fat is a necessary prerequisite for the onset of menarche and the establishment and maintenance of regular ovulatory cycles. A small change in body weight produces a relatively large shift in the body weight to fat ratio. As a result, weight loss is frequently followed by amenorrhea. Studies of the endocrine and central nervous system changes in patients with anorexia nervosa, an extreme form of overzealous weight control, provides clues for understanding the effects of less extreme weight control practices on reproductive functions. The gonadotropin secretory pattern of anorexia nervosa patients is similar to the prepubertal pattern. When gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is administered to patients with 53%-64% of their ideal body weight (IBW), they have a weak luteinizing hormone (LH) response and a normal follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) response. As their weight increases, the LH response becomes stronger, and at 90%-94% of their IBW, the LH response is frequently exaggerated. Other studies indicate that an exaggerated LH response also occurs when GnRH is administered to fashionably slim women. This finding suggests that gonadotropin secretory studies should be conducted when evaluating women with weight related menstrual dysfunctions. In the present study, 29 patients with unexplained infertility were identified as being overly, but not excessively, concerned with maintaining a slim body image. On the average, they were 91% below their IBW. The women were asked to increase their body weight until they reached their IBW. Serum LH/FSH ratios were monitored. Blood samples were taken during the midfollicular phase of the menstrual cycle and at random times among those patients with amenorrhea. 3 women withdrew from the study as they did not want to gain weight. The remaining 26 women attained at least 98% of their IBW. At 95% of their IBW, the women attained normal LH/FSH ratios, and at 98% of their IBW, the women attained normal ovulatory cycles. 19 of the women eventually conceived. Clinicians who wise to use this technique for treating infertility should first rule out other possible causes for infertility. If weight gain treatment appears to be appropriate, the physician should be sensitive to the woman's concerns about her body image. The patient will require considerable encouragement during the weight gaining process. Patients should be advised to expect changes in breast size and configuration and an increase in endocervical canal secretions. The increased body fat will be unevenly distributed in the body, and patients should be instructed not to undertake fat redistribution exercises. Physicians should refrain from administering clomiphene citrate as a supplement to the weight gain regime. PMID:3931948

Bates, G W

1985-09-01

53

Effects of independently altering body weight and body mass on the metabolic cost of running.  

PubMed

The metabolic cost of running is substantial, despite the savings from elastic energy storage and return. Previous studies suggest that generating vertical force to support body weight and horizontal forces to brake and propel body mass are the major determinants of the metabolic cost of running. In the present study, we investigated how independently altering body weight and body mass affects the metabolic cost of running. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that reducing body weight would decrease metabolic rate proportionally, and adding mass and weight would increase metabolic rate proportionally. Further, because previous studies show that adding mass alone does not affect the forces generated on the ground, we hypothesized that adding mass alone would have no substantial effect on metabolic rate. We manipulated the body weight and body mass of 10 recreational human runners and measured their metabolic rates while they ran at 3 m s(-1). We reduced weight using a harness system, increased mass and weight using lead worn about the waist, and increased mass alone using a combination of weight support and added load. We found that net metabolic rate decreased in less than direct proportion to reduced body weight, increased in slightly more than direct proportion to added load (added mass and weight), and was not substantially different from normal running with added mass alone. Adding mass alone was not an effective method for determining the metabolic cost attributable to braking/propelling body mass. Runners loaded with mass alone did not generate greater vertical or horizontal impulses and their metabolic costs did not substantially differ from those of normal running. Our results show that generating force to support body weight is the primary determinant of the metabolic cost of running. Extrapolating our reduced weight data to zero weight suggests that supporting body weight comprises at most 74% of the net cost of running. However, 74% is probably an overestimate of the metabolic demand of body weight to support itself because in reduced gravity conditions decrements in horizontal impulse accompanied decrements in vertical impulse. PMID:18055630

Teunissen, Lennart P J; Grabowski, Alena; Kram, Rodger

2007-12-01

54

SCALING RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BODY WEIGHT AND FERMENTATION GUT CAPACITY IN AXIS DEER  

E-print Network

SCALING RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BODY WEIGHT AND FERMENTATION GUT CAPACITY IN AXIS DEER DAWN M 78666, USA The scaling relationship between body weight and fermentation gut capacity presumably impacts dietary patterns of ruminants. Interspecific scaling relationships between body weight and fermentation

Aspbury, Andrea S. - Department of Biology, Texas State University

55

Neural Growth Hormone Implicated in Body Weight Sex Differences  

PubMed Central

As for many human diseases, the incidence of obesity and its associated health risks are sexually dimorphic: worldwide the rate of obesity is higher in women. Sex differences in metabolism, appetite, body composition, and fat deposition are contributing biological factors. Gonadal hormones regulate the development of many sexually dimorphic traits in humans and animals, and, in addition, studies in mice indicate a role for direct genetic effects of sex chromosome dosage on body weight, deposition of fat, and circadian timing of feeding behavior. Specifically, mice of either sex with 2 X chromosomes, typical of normal females, have heavier body weights, gain more weight, and eat more food during the light portion of the day than mice of either sex with a single X chromosome. Here we test the effects of X chromosome dosage on body weight and report that gonadal females with 2 X chromosomes express higher levels of GH gene (Gh) mRNA in the preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus than females with 1 X chromosome and males. Furthermore, Gh expression in the POA of the hypothalamus of mice with 2 X chromosomes correlated with body weight; GH is known to have orexigenic properties. Acute infusion of GH into the POA increased immediate food intake in normal (XY) males. We propose that X inactivation–escaping genes modulate Gh expression and food intake, and this is part of the mechanism by which individuals with 2 X chromosomes are heavier than individuals with a single X chromosome. PMID:23861378

Bonthuis, Paul J.

2013-01-01

56

Neural growth hormone implicated in body weight sex differences.  

PubMed

As for many human diseases, the incidence of obesity and its associated health risks are sexually dimorphic: worldwide the rate of obesity is higher in women. Sex differences in metabolism, appetite, body composition, and fat deposition are contributing biological factors. Gonadal hormones regulate the development of many sexually dimorphic traits in humans and animals, and, in addition, studies in mice indicate a role for direct genetic effects of sex chromosome dosage on body weight, deposition of fat, and circadian timing of feeding behavior. Specifically, mice of either sex with 2 X chromosomes, typical of normal females, have heavier body weights, gain more weight, and eat more food during the light portion of the day than mice of either sex with a single X chromosome. Here we test the effects of X chromosome dosage on body weight and report that gonadal females with 2 X chromosomes express higher levels of GH gene (Gh) mRNA in the preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus than females with 1 X chromosome and males. Furthermore, Gh expression in the POA of the hypothalamus of mice with 2 X chromosomes correlated with body weight; GH is known to have orexigenic properties. Acute infusion of GH into the POA increased immediate food intake in normal (XY) males. We propose that X inactivation-escaping genes modulate Gh expression and food intake, and this is part of the mechanism by which individuals with 2 X chromosomes are heavier than individuals with a single X chromosome. PMID:23861378

Bonthuis, Paul J; Rissman, Emilie F

2013-10-01

57

The relation of total body potassium to height, weight, and age in normal adults  

PubMed Central

Total body potassium was measured in 103 healthy adults using a shadow-shield whole-body monitor of high sensitivity. The range of height was 147 to 192 cm, of weight 43 to 92 kg, and of age 18 to 77 years. The values obtained for total body potassium were correlated with height, with weight, and with height and weight. Age was then included as an additional variable. The standard deviation from regression was smaller when total body potassium was correlated with height than with weight and was further reduced, to about 9%, in a multiple regression using height and age. The advantages of this relationship over indices involving weight are discussed. The smallest standard deviation from regression, 7·5%, was obtained when total body potassium was correlated with height, weight, and age. The usefulness of this relationship is discussed with comment on its limitations. A regression equation was derived between lean body mass (derived from height and weight) and total body potassium with a standard deviation from regression of 5·5% in males and 7·3% in females. PMID:4625433

Boddy, K.; King, Priscilla C.; Hume, R.; Weyers, Elspeth

1972-01-01

58

Effect of body weight on the pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide in breast cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclophosphamide pharmacolinetics have been studied in 16 female patients with advanced breast cancer. The group included 7 patients who were >20%, =30% over ideal body weight and 5 patients who were >30% over ideal body weight. Cyclophosphamide plasma elimination half-lives ranged between 152 and 984 min (mean 457 min), the apparent volume of distribution between 19.1 and 62.31 (mean 36.11),

Garth Powis; Phillip Reece; David L. Ahmann; James N. Ingle

1987-01-01

59

Associations between body weight and depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem among Taiwanese adolescents.  

PubMed

The aims of this cross-sectional study were to examine the associations between body weight and mental health indicators including depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem among Taiwanese adolescents in Grades 7-12. The body mass index (BMI) of 5254 adolescents was calculated based on self-reported weight and height measurements. Body weight status was determined by the age- and gender-specific International Obesity Task Force reference tables. By using participants of average weight as the reference group, the association between body weight status (underweight, overweight, and obesity) and mental health indicators (depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem) were examined by using multiple regression analysis. The possible moderating effects of sociodemographic characteristics on the association were also examined. After controlling for the effects of sociodemographic characteristics, both overweight (p < 0.05) and obese adolescents (p < 0.001) had a lower level of self-esteem than did those of average weight; however, no significant differences in depression, social phobia, or insomnia were found between those who were overweight/obese and those of average weight. No significant differences in the four mental health indicators were found between those who were underweight and those of average weight. Sociodemographic characteristics had no moderating effect on the association between body weight and mental health indicators. In conclusion, mental health and school professionals must take the association between overweight/obesity and self-esteem into consideration when approaching the issue of mental health among adolescents. PMID:25476101

Lee, Jia-In; Yen, Cheng-Fang

2014-12-01

60

Relationship between body satisfaction with self esteemand unhealthy body weight management  

PubMed Central

Introduction: A favorable or unfavorable attitude about self was named self esteem. According to Maslow theory to achieve quality of life and happiness, one must reach the gradual fulfillment of human needs, including a high degree of own self-esteem. Body dissatisfaction is a negative distortion of one's body which is especially mentioned by the women. Many studies have shown links between self esteem, body dissatisfaction, health and behaviors. this study intends to determine relationship between body satisfaction, self esteem and unhealthy weight control behaviors between women. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 408 women employees in Isfahan University and Isfahan University of Medical Sciences during 1390. They were chosen according to the stratified random sampling method. Inclusion criteria were 1) willing to participate in the study and 2) lack of serious physical defect 3) not being in pregnancy or breastfeeding course. Exclusion criteria was filling out questionnaires incompletely. Data collection tool was a multidimensional questionnaire which comprised of 4 sections as following: demographic (5items), A self-administrative questionnaire for body Satisfaction (7 items), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (10 items) and a standard Weight Control Behavior Scale (18 items). Cranach's alpha was 0.9 or higher for the different sections. Finally, collected data was analyzed with SPSS18 using the independent T-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficient, regression, Spearman correlation. Results: Frequencies of participants by weight category were 14.1% for obese, 35.3% for overweight, 47.6% for normal weight. The mean body satisfaction score in the studied women was 63.26 ± 16.27 (from 100). Mean score of self esteem was 76.70 ± 10.45. 51.5% of women had medium self esteem, 47.5% had high self esteem. Pearson correlation showed that the variables of body Satisfaction (r = 0.3, P = 0.02), BMI (r = - 0.14, P < 0.003), education level (r = 0.22, P < 0.001), income (r = 0.14, P < 0.004), consumption of fruit (r = 0.13, P < 0.008) all correlated with self-esteem significantly. Women with higher self esteem used higher fruits had a good nutrition overall (r = 0.11, P = 0.02). 92.15%, 10.8% of women respectively participated in one of healthy and unhealthy weight control behavior. There was not any Relationship between self esteem and healthy weight control behavior while finding showed reverse relationship between self esteem and Unhealthy Dieting Behaviors. Conclusion: It seemed women identity in our society tied to social appreciations that formed and supported by body satisfaction. When they feel their current appearance is differ from ideal appearance, they feel down and have lower self esteem and used unhealthy dieting behavior and low fruits daily. Due to importance of precise self evaluation, self esteem can be used to design and conduct public health programs, especially for women. PMID:24083279

Daniali, Shahrbanoo; Azadbakht, Leila; Mostafavi, Firoozeh

2013-01-01

61

Diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS): features and potential applications in oncology  

PubMed Central

Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) provides functional information and can be used for the detection and characterization of pathologic processes, including malignant tumors. The recently introduced concept of “diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body signal suppression” (DWIBS) now allows acquisition of volumetric diffusion-weighted images of the entire body. This new concept has unique features different from conventional DWI and may play an important role in whole-body oncological imaging. This review describes and illustrates the basics of DWI, the features of DWIBS, and its potential applications in oncology. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00330-008-0968-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18446344

Takahara, Taro; Ochiai, Reiji; Nievelstein, Rutger A. J.; Luijten, Peter R.

2008-01-01

62

Evaluation of body weight of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus by computer vision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A postichopus japonicus (Holothuroidea, Echinodermata) is an ecological and economic species in East Asia. Conventional biometric monitoring method includes diving for samples and weighing above water, with highly variable in weight measurement due to variation in the quantity of water in the respiratory tree and intestinal content of this species. Recently, video survey method has been applied widely in biometric detection on underwater benthos. However, because of the high flexibility of A. japonicus body, video survey method of monitoring is less used in sea cucumber. In this study, we designed a model to evaluate the wet weight of A. japonicus, using machine vision technology combined with a support vector machine (SVM) that can be used in field surveys on the A. japonicus population. Continuous dorsal images of free-moving A. japonicus individuals in seawater were captured, which also allows for the development of images of the core body edge as well as thorn segmentation. Parameters that include body length, body breadth, perimeter and area, were extracted from the core body edge images and used in SVM regression, to predict the weight of A. japonicus and for comparison with a power model. Results indicate that the use of SVM for predicting the weight of 33 A. japonicus individuals is accurate (R 2=0.99) and compatible with the power model (R 2=0.96). The image-based analysis and size-weight regression models in this study may be useful in body weight evaluation of A. japonicus in lab and field study.

Liu, Hui; Xu, Qiang; Liu, Shilin; Zhang, Linbin; Yang, Hongsheng

2014-10-01

63

Evaluation of body weight of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus by computer vision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A postichopus japonicus (Holothuroidea, Echinodermata) is an ecological and economic species in East Asia. Conventional biometric monitoring method includes diving for samples and weighing above water, with highly variable in weight measurement due to variation in the quantity of water in the respiratory tree and intestinal content of this species. Recently, video survey method has been applied widely in biometric detection on underwater benthos. However, because of the high flexibility of A. japonicus body, video survey method of monitoring is less used in sea cucumber. In this study, we designed a model to evaluate the wet weight of A. japonicus, using machine vision technology combined with a support vector machine (SVM) that can be used in field surveys on the A. japonicus population. Continuous dorsal images of free-moving A. japonicus individuals in seawater were captured, which also allows for the development of images of the core body edge as well as thorn segmentation. Parameters that include body length, body breadth, perimeter and area, were extracted from the core body edge images and used in SVM regression, to predict the weight of A. japonicus and for comparison with a power model. Results indicate that the use of SVM for predicting the weight of 33 A. japonicus individuals is accurate ( R 2=0.99) and compatible with the power model ( R 2 =0.96). The image-based analysis and size-weight regression models in this study may be useful in body weight evaluation of A. japonicus in lab and field study.

Liu, Hui; Xu, Qiang; Liu, Shilin; Zhang, Libin; Yang, Hongsheng

2015-01-01

64

Preventing the Broad Spectrum of Weight-Related Problems: Working with Parents to Help Teens Achieve a Healthy Weight and a Positive Body Image  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spectrum of eating-, activity-, and weight-related concerns is presented that includes 5 dimensions (weight control practices, level of physical activity, body image, eating behaviors, and weight status) and different levels of severity within each of these dimensions. Multiple interacting factors contribute to the etiology of problems within each of these dimensions in adolescents at the individual, familial, peer, school,

Dlanne Neumark-Sztainer

2005-01-01

65

Misperceived pre-pregnancy body weight status predicts excessive gestational weight gain: findings from a US cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Excessive gestational weight gain promotes poor maternal and child health outcomes. Weight misperception is associated with weight gain in non-pregnant women, but no data exist during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of misperceived pre-pregnancy body weight status with excessive gestational weight gain. METHODS: At study enrollment, participants in Project Viva reported weight, height,

Sharon J Herring; Emily Oken; Jess Haines; Janet W Rich-Edwards; Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman; Ken P Kleinman ScD; Matthew W Gillman

2008-01-01

66

Religion and body weight in an underserved population  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Religions prominence in some underserved groups that bear a disproportionate burden of the obesity epidemic (e.g. rural, Southern, minority) may play an important role in body weight. Data (1662 African American and Caucasian adults aged 18+) from a representative U.S. sample of a predominately rura...

67

Robotic-Assisted, Body-Weight Supported Treadmill Training in  

E-print Network

. The use of robotic devices may assist physical therapists by providing task-specific practice of stepping Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury Background and Purpose. Performance of therapist-assisted, body- weight requirements placed on physical therapists. Recent development of motorized ("robotic") rehabilitative devices

68

Direct and indirect effects of body weight on adult wages.  

PubMed

Previous estimates of the association between body weight and wages in the literature have been conditional on education and occupation. In addition to the effect of current body weight status (body mass index (BMI) or obesity) on wages, this paper examines the indirect effect of body weight status in the late-teenage years on wages operating through education and occupation choice. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 data, for women, we find that a one-unit increase in BMI is directly associated with 1.83% lower hourly wages whereas the indirect BMI wage penalty is not statistically significant. Neither a direct nor an indirect BMI wage penalty is found for men. However, results based on clinical weight classification reveal that the indirect wage penalty occurs to a larger extent at the upper tail of the BMI distribution for both men and women via the pathways of education and occupation outcomes. Late-teen obesity is indirectly associated with 3.5% lower hourly wages for both women and men. These results are important because they imply that the total effect of obesity on wages is significantly larger than has been estimated in previous cross-sectional studies. PMID:21820369

Han, Euna; Norton, Edward C; Powell, Lisa M

2011-12-01

69

Control of body weight: a physiologic and transgenic perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overview In mammals, body weight is normally regulated around a set point by coordinated changes in food intake and energy expenditure. These changes are integrated under the influence of specific neural pathways and circulating signals. Almost 50 years ago it was first proposed that circulating signals generated in

G. Frühbeck; J. Gómez-Ambrosi

2003-01-01

70

The Pharmacodynamic Effects of Rocuronium When Dosed According to Real Body Weight or Ideal Body Weight in Morbidly Obese Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the pharmacodynamic effects of rocu- ronium on morbidly obese patients. Twelve morbidly obese female patients (body mass index 40 kg\\/m2) admitted for laparoscopic gastric banding were ran- domized into two groups. Group 1 (n 6) received 0.6 mg\\/kg of rocuronium based on real body weight, whereas Group 2 (n 6) received 0.6 mg\\/kg of rocuro- nium based on

Yigal Leykin; Tommaso Pellis; Mariella Lucca; Giacomina Lomangino; Bernardo Marzano; Antonino Gullo

2004-01-01

71

Gut microbiota composition is associated with body weight, weight gain and biochemical parameters in pregnant women.  

PubMed

Obesity is associated with complications during pregnancy and increased health risks in the newborn. The objective of the present study was to establish possible relationships between gut microbiota, body weight, weight gain and biochemical parameters in pregnant women. Fifty pregnant women were classified according to their BMI in normal-weight (n 34) and overweight (n 16) groups. Gut microbiota composition was analysed by quantitative real-time PCR in faeces and biochemical parameters in plasma at 24 weeks of pregnancy. Reduced numbers of Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides and increased numbers of Staphylococcus, Enterobacteriaceae and Escherichia coli were detected in overweight compared with normal-weight pregnant women. E. coli numbers were higher in women with excessive weight gain than in women with normal weight gain during pregnancy, while Bifidobacterium and Akkermansia muciniphila showed an opposite trend. In the whole population, increased total bacteria and Staphylococcus numbers were related to increased plasma cholesterol levels. Increased Bacteroides numbers were related to increased HDL-cholesterol and folic acid levels, and reduced TAG levels. Increased Bifidobacterium numbers were related to increased folic acid levels. Increased Enterobacteriaceae and E. coli numbers were related to increased ferritin and reduced transferrin, while Bifidobacterium levels showed the opposite trend. Therefore, gut microbiota composition is related to body weight, weight gain and metabolic biomarkers during pregnancy, which might be of relevance to the management of the health of women and infants. PMID:20205964

Santacruz, A; Collado, M C; García-Valdés, L; Segura, M T; Martín-Lagos, J A; Anjos, T; Martí-Romero, M; Lopez, R M; Florido, J; Campoy, C; Sanz, Y

2010-07-01

72

Genetic Contributions to Body Weight in Mice: Relationship of Exploratory Behavior to Weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The A\\/J and C57BL\\/6J mouse strains differ markedly in their exploratory behavior and their weight gain on a high-fat diet. We examined the genetic contributions of exploratory behavior to body weight and tested for shared, pleiotropic loci influencing energy homeostasis.Research Methods and Procedures: Segregating (A×B6)F2 intercross (n = 514) and (B6AF1×A\\/J)N2 backcross (N = 223) populations were studied, phenotyping

Shumin Zhang; Howard K. Gershenfeld

2003-01-01

73

Interpregnancy changes in maternal weight and body mass index.  

PubMed

Objective?This longitudinal study compared changes in maternal weight and body mass index (BMI) in early pregnancy in the time interval between when a woman first attended for antenatal care with her first child and when she next attended for antenatal care. Study Design?We studied women with a singleton pregnancy who delivered their first baby weighing???500?g in 2009 and who attended again for antenatal care with an ongoing pregnancy before January 1, 2012. Maternal weight and height were measured before 18 weeks' gestation in both pregnancies and BMI was calculated. Results?Of the 3,284 primigravidas, the mean weight at the first visit in 2009 was 66.4?kg (standard deviation [SD] 12.7). The mean BMI was 24.5 kg/m(2) (SD 4.6), and 11.3% (n?=?370) were obese. Of the 3,284 women, 1,220 (37.1%) re-attended for antenatal care before 2012 after sonographic confirmation of an ongoing pregnancy. Of the 1,220 women who re-attended, 788 (64.6%) had gained weight (mean 4.6?kg [SD 3.9]), 402 (33%) had lost weight (mean 3?kg [SD 2.9]), and 30 (2.4%) had maintained their weight. Conclusion?The birth of a first baby was associated with an increase in maternal weight in two-thirds of women when they next attended for antenatal care. PMID:24915555

Crosby, David A; Collins, Martha; O'Higgins, Amy; Mullaney, Laura; Farah, Nadine; Turner, Michael J

2015-02-01

74

Maternal perceptions of her child’s body weight in infancy and early childhood and their relation to body weight status at age 7  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Maternal perception of her child’s weight status has been hypothesised to affect a child’s weight development.Objective  The aim of this analysis was to determine in how far the maternal weight perception of her child’s weight at different ages is related to its future body weight status.Materials and methods  Longitudinal data on body weight, height and skinfolds from the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric

Anja Kroke; Stephanie Strathmann; Anke L. B. Günther

2006-01-01

75

Effect of Nesting Material on Body Weights of Mice Infected with Toxoplasma gondii  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasmosis, a disease caused by the parasitic protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, can cause a number of clinical signs in mice, including weight loss. This weight loss likely is related to the host immune response and is important to monitor in Toxoplasma studies. Several studies have demonstrated that nesting material can affect body weights of mice. We therefore sought to assess the effects of nesting material on body weights of mice infected with Toxoplasma. We housed mice with or without nesting material and weighed and clinically assessed them twice weekly for 30 days prior to and 5 wk after Toxoplasma inoculation. Nesting material did not significantly alter the weights of mice after Toxoplasma inoculation but did decrease rates of growth prior to inoculation. Nesting material did not affect the clinical outcome of Toxoplasma infections, supporting the provision of nesting material in mouse Toxoplasma experiments. PMID:24041206

Linkenhoker, Jan R; Linton, CG Garry

2013-01-01

76

IQP-GC-101 reduces body weight and body fat mass: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.  

PubMed

IQP-GC-101 is a patented blend of the standardized extracts of Garcinia cambogia, Camellia sinensis, unroasted Coffea arabica, and Lagerstroemia speciosa. These individual ingredients of IQP-GC-101 have each shown promise in promoting weight loss; however, the efficacy of the blend has not been established. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group study conducted over 14?weeks (including a 2-week run-in phase) aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of IQP-GC-101 in reducing body weight and body fat mass in overweight Caucasian adults. Subjects took three IQP-GC-101 or placebo tablets, twice a day, 30?min before main meals. All subjects also adhered to a 500?kcal/day energy deficit diet with 30% of energy from fat. Ninety-one overweight and mildly obese subjects (46 in the IQP-GC-101 group, 45 in the placebo group) completed the study. After 12-week intervention, IQP-GC-101 resulted in a mean (±SD) weight loss of 2.26?±?2.37?kg compared with 0.56?±?2.34?kg for placebo (pU ?=?0.002). There was also significantly more reduction in body fat mass, waist circumference, and hip circumference in the IQP-GC-101 group. No serious adverse events were reported. The use of IQP-GC-101 has been shown to result in body weight and body fat reduction in the current study, with good tolerability. PMID:24797657

Chong, Pee-Win; Beah, Zhi-Ming; Grube, Barbara; Riede, Linda

2014-10-01

77

Role of oxytocin signaling in the regulation of body weight  

PubMed Central

Obesity and its associated metabolic disorders are growing health concerns in the US and worldwide. In the US alone, more than two-thirds of the adult population is classified as either overweight or obese [1], highlighting the need to develop new, effective treatments for these conditions. Whereas the hormone oxytocin is well known for its peripheral effects on uterine contraction during parturition and milk ejection during lactation, release of oxytocin from somatodendrites and axonal terminals within the central nervous system (CNS) is implicated in both the formation of prosocial behaviors and in the control of energy balance. Recent findings demonstrate that chronic administration of oxytocin reduces food intake and body weight in diet-induced obese (DIO) and genetically obese rodents with impaired or defective leptin signaling. Importantly, chronic systemic administration of oxytocin out to 6 weeks recapitulates the effects of central administration on body weight loss in DIO rodents at doses that do not result in the development of tolerance. Furthermore, these effects are coupled with induction of Fos (a marker of neuronal activation) in hindbrain areas (e.g. dorsal vagal complex (DVC)) linked to the control of meal size and forebrain areas (e.g. hypothalamus, amygdala) linked to the regulation of food intake and body weight. This review assesses the potential central and peripheral targets by which oxytocin may inhibit body weight gain, its regulation by anorexigenic and orexigenic signals, and its potential use as a therapy that can circumvent leptin resistance and reverse the behavioral and metabolic abnormalities associated with DIO and genetically obese models. PMID:24065622

Blevins, James E.; Ho, Jacqueline M.

2014-01-01

78

Body size perception and weight control in youth: 9-year international trends from 24 countries  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine nine-year trends and relationships regarding misperceptions of body size and dieting for weight loss among adolescents from 24 countries, and explore the influence of country-level overweight prevalence. Methods Socio-demographic characteristics, body size perception, and dieting for weight loss were assessed in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey conducted in 24 countries cross-sectionally at three time points (2001/02, 2005/06, 2009/10). Logistic regression models examined change over time in overestimation of body size in non-overweight adolescents, underestimation of body size in overweight adolescents, dieting for weight loss in non-overweight and overweight adolescents, and relationships between body size perception and dieting. Analyses were stratified by weight status and sex. Covariates included country-level overweight prevalence, family affluence, and country level of development. Body mass index was only included in models examining dieting for weight loss. Results Country-level overweight prevalence increased over time (11.6% to 14.7%). Compared to Time 1, overweight adolescents had greater odds of body size underestimation at Time 3 (OR=1.68 for girls, OR=1.10 for boys), while non-overweight adolescents had lower odds of body size overestimation at Time 3 (OR=0.87 for girls, OR=0.89 for boys). Controlling for country-level overweight prevalence attenuated these relationships. Compared to Time 1, overweight and non-overweight boys were 10% more likely to diet at Time 3, while overweight and non-overweight girls were 19% and 16%, respectively, less likely to diet at Time 3. Controlling for country-level overweight prevalence did not impact trends in dieting for weight loss. Additionally, the association of self-perceived overweight with increased odds of dieting diminished over time. Conclusions Body size perceptions among adolescents may have changed over time concurrent with shifts in country-level body weight. However, controlling for country-level overweight prevalence did not impact trends in dieting for weight loss, suggesting a potentially stronger impact of social comparison on weight-related perceptions than on behavior. PMID:24722544

Quick, Virginia; Nansel, Tonja R.; Liu, Danping; Lipsky, Leah M.; Due, Pernille; Iannotti, Ronald J.

2014-01-01

79

Predicting Changes of Body Weight, Body Fat, Energy Expenditure and Metabolic Fuel Selection in C57BL/6 Mice  

PubMed Central

The mouse is an important model organism for investigating the molecular mechanisms of body weight regulation, but a quantitative understanding of mouse energy metabolism remains lacking. Therefore, we created a mathematical model of mouse energy metabolism to predict dynamic changes of body weight, body fat, energy expenditure, and metabolic fuel selection. Based on the principle of energy balance, we constructed ordinary differential equations representing the dynamics of body fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) as a function of dietary intake and energy expenditure (EE). The EE model included the cost of tissue deposition, physical activity, diet-induced thermogenesis, and the influence of FM and FFM on metabolic rate. The model was calibrated using previously published data and validated by comparing its predictions to measurements in five groups of male C57/BL6 mice (N?=?30) provided ad libitum access to either chow or high fat diets for varying time periods. The mathematical model accurately predicted the observed body weight and FM changes. Physical activity was predicted to decrease immediately upon switching from the chow to the high fat diet and the model coefficients relating EE to FM and FFM agreed with previous independent estimates. Metabolic fuel selection was predicted to depend on a complex interplay between diet composition, the degree of energy imbalance, and body composition. This is the first validated mathematical model of mouse energy metabolism and it provides a quantitative framework for investigating energy balance relationships in mouse models of obesity and diabetes. PMID:21246038

Guo, Juen; Hall, Kevin D.

2011-01-01

80

Genetic determination and correlation of body weight and body mass index (BMI) and cross-sectional geometric parameters of the femoral neck  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  This study aimed to examine the genetic determination of body weight, body mass index (BMI) and cross-sectional geometric parameters of the femoral neck including cross-sectional area (CSA), cortical thickness (CT), sectional modulus (Z), and buckling ratio (BR), and to test the genetic correlation between body weight\\/BMI and the femoral neck geometric parameters.Methods  A total of 929 healthy subjects from 292 Chinese

Hong Xu; Ji-Rong Long; Yan-Jun Yang; Fei-Yan Deng; Hong-Wen Deng

2006-01-01

81

Body weight, body-weight concerns and eating styles in habitual heavy users and non-users of artificially sweetened beverages  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated reported body weight, concerns about body weight and eating styles in habitual heavy users (consume>825ml\\/day) and habitual non-users of artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs). Groups of habitual heavy users (N=51) and non-users (N=69) were compared on measures of weight using self-reported body mass index (BMI), and measures of weight concern and eating style using the Dutch Eating Behaviors

K. M. Appleton; M. T. Conner

2001-01-01

82

Body weights of adult and juvenile Lesser Redpolls in central and southern England  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost 10000 body weights of adult and first?year Lesser Redpolls were obtained from a variety of sites in southern and central England, including an intensive study in Nottinghamshire during 1977–80. The mean weights of adult males were low (11.2–11.4 g) during May to July; this was the only time of year that adult females were heavier. During late May, 40%

Michael Boddy

1984-01-01

83

Increased lipid utilization in weight losing and weight stable cancer patients with normal body weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Cachexia and weight loss are frequently seen in cancer patients. We investigated lipid metabolism to elucidate a metabolic basis for adequate nutrition of cancer patients.Design: Lipid metabolism was assessed by indirect calorimetry and triglyceride clearance rates after randomised injection of a lipid bolus (long-chain triglycerides (LCT) or medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) during an euglycemic clamp protocol in cancer patients.Setting: Rudolf-Virchow

J Körber; S Pricelius; M Heidrich; MJ Müller

1999-01-01

84

Effects of long-term ad libitum feeding on the voluntary food intake, body weight, body composition  

E-print Network

. The total amounts of body water, mineral matter and protein remained stable but their relative amounts (inEffects of long-term ad libitum feeding on the voluntary food intake, body weight, body composition in body weight and food intake could be divided into three phases. In the first phase, a high food intake

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

85

Regulation of food intake and body weight by recombinant proghrelin  

PubMed Central

Ghrelin is a 28-amino-acid hormone derived from the endoproteolytic processing of its prehormone proghrelin. Although ghrelin has been reported to regulate food intake and body weight, it is still unknown whether proghrelin exercises any biological function. Here we show that recombinant proghrelin alters food intake and energy metabolism in mice. After intraperitoneal administration of recombinant proghrelin (100 nmol/kg body wt), cumulative food intake was significantly increased at days 1, 2, and 3 (6 ± 0.3, 13 ± 0.5, and 20 ± 0.8 g vs. 5 ± 0.2, 10 ± 0.2, and 16 ± 0.3 g of the control mice receiving normal saline, respectively, n = 6, P < 0.05). Twelve-hour cumulative food intake in the light photo period in mice treated with proghrelin increased significantly relative to the control (2.1 ± 0.04 vs. 1.3 ± 0.2 g, n = 6, P < 0.05). No change in 12-h cumulative food intake in the dark photo period was observed between mice treated with proghrelin and vehicle (4.2 ± 0.6 vs. 4.3 ± 0.6 g, n = 6, P > 0.05). This is associated with a decrease in body weight (0.42 ± 0.04 g) for mice treated with proghrelin, whereas control animals gained body weight (0.31 ± 0.04 g). Mice treated with proghrelin demonstrate a significant decrease in respiratory quotient, indicating an increase in fat consumption. Recombinant proghrelin is functionally active with effects on food intake and energy metabolism. PMID:19789292

Majumder, Arundhati; Wu, Xiaobin; Mulholland, Michael W.

2009-01-01

86

Body Mass Index Self-Perception and Weight Management Behaviors during Late Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study examined the relationship between actual body weight and self-perceived weight, and how perception of one's weight affects weight management behaviors among US adolescents. Methods: Adolescents ages 16-19 years with objectively-measured weight and height and self-reported perception of weight, weight-loss efforts, and…

Yang, Kyeongra; Turk, Melanie T.; Allison, Virginia L.; James, Khara A.; Chasens, Eileen

2014-01-01

87

Body Characteristics, Dietary Protein and Body Weight Regulation. Reconciling Conflicting Results from Intervention and Observational Studies?  

PubMed Central

Background/Objectives Physiological evidence indicates that high-protein diets reduce caloric intake and increase thermogenic response, which may prevent weight gain and regain after weight loss. Clinical trials have shown such effects, whereas observational cohort studies suggest an association between greater protein intake and weight gain. In both types of studies the results are based on average weight changes, and show considerable diversity in both directions. This study investigates whether the discrepancy in the evidence could be due to recruitment of overweight and obese individuals into clinical trials. Subjects/Methods Data were available from the European Diet, Obesity and Genes (DiOGenes) post-weight-loss weight-maintenance trial and the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health (DCH) cohort. Participants of the DCH cohort were matched with participants from the DiOGenes trial on gender, diet, and body characteristics. Different subsets of the DCH-participants, comparable with the trial participants, were analyzed for weight maintenance according to the randomization status (high or low protein) of the matched trial participants. Results Trial participants were generally heavier, had larger waist circumference and larger fat mass than the participants in the entire DCH cohort. A better weight maintenance in the high-protein group compared to the low protein group was observed in the subgroups of the DCH cohort matching body characteristics of the trial participants. Conclusion This modified observational study, minimized the differences between the RCT and observational data with regard to dietary intake, participant characteristics and statistical analysis. Compared with low protein diet the high protein diet was associated with better weight maintenance when individuals with greater body mass index and waist circumference were analyzed. Selecting subsets of large-scale observational cohort studies with similar characteristics as participants in clinical trials may reconcile the otherwise conflicting results. PMID:24992329

Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z.; Ängquist, Lars; Stocks, Tanja; Jakobsen, Marianne U.; Overvad, Kim; Halkjær, Jytte; Saris, Wim H. M.; Astrup, Arne; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.

2014-01-01

88

Successful maintenance of body weight reduction after individualized dietary counseling in obese subjects.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to describe the effectiveness of individualized dietary counseling in obese subjects based on narrative interview technique on the maintenance of body weight reduction, changes in dietary behaviors, including type of cooking and physical activity. One-hundred subjects out of four-hundred patients met the inclusion criteria. Individually, 45-minute educational program with motivation counseling was performed in 0, 6 and 12 weeks of the study. Patients were advised to follow individually well-balanced diet for 12 weeks. The individuals were asked about the changes in their dietary habits (Food Frequency Questionnaire). The mean percentage of body weight changes from the baseline were as follows: in 6th week- 5.9%, in 12th week - 10.9% and in 52th week - 9.7% (P < 0.0001), however there were no statistically significant changes while comparing body weight in 12th and 52th week. The maintenance of body weight reduction was connected with the dietary habits changes, mainly the type of cooking and increased consumption of vegetable oils. In conclusion, individualized dietary counseling, based on narrative interview technique is an effective intervention for obesity treatment that may help maintain body weight reduction and adapt the pro-healthy changes in type of cooking and sources of dietary fat. PMID:25311271

Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Mardas, Marcin; Warcho?, Wojciech; Jamka, Ma?gorzata; Walkowiak, Jaros?aw

2014-01-01

89

Phytochemicals in the Control of Human Appetite and Body Weight  

PubMed Central

Since obesity has grown to epidemic proportions, its effective management is a very important clinical issue. Despite the great amount of scientific effort that has been put into understanding the mechanisms that lead to overconsumption and overweight, at the moment very few approaches to weight management are effective in the long term. On the other hand, modern society is also affected by the growing incidence of eating disorders on the other side of the spectrum such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa which are equally difficult to treat. This review will try to summarise the main findings available in the literature regarding the effect of plants or plant extracts (phytochemicals) on human appetite and body weight. The majority of plant extracts are not single compounds but rather a mixture of different molecules, therefore their mechanism of action usually targets several systems. In addition, since some cellular receptors tend to be widely distributed, sometimes a single molecule can have a widespread effect. This review will attempt to describe the main phytochemicals that have been suggested to affect the homeostatic mechanisms that influence intake and body weight. Clinical data will be summarised and scientific evidence will be reviewed.

Tucci, Sonia A.

2010-01-01

90

Body image satisfaction, dieting beliefs, and weight loss behaviors in adolescent girls and boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Body image and weight loss beliefs and behaviors were assessed in 341 female and 221 male high school students. Estimates of body dissatisfaction varied depending on the measurement strategy used. Despite having similar weight distributions around the expected norm, girls were significantly more dissatisfied with their bodies than boys. Body Mass Index was positively related to body dissatisfaction in girls

Susan J. Paxton; Eleanor H. Wertheim; Kay Gibbons; George I. Szmukler; Lynne Hillier; Janice L. Petrovich

1991-01-01

91

Effects of Eucommia leaf extracts on autonomic nerves, body temperature, lipolysis, food intake, and body weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eucommia ulmoides Oliver leaf extracts (ELE) have been shown to exert a hypolipidemic effect in hamsters. Therefore, it was hypothesized that ELE might affect lipid metabolism via changes in autonomic nerve activities and causes changes in thermogenesis and body weight. We examined this hypothesis, and found that intraduodenal (ID) injection of ELE elevated epididymal white adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity

Yuko Horii; Mamoru Tanida; Jiao Shen; Tetsuya Hirata; Naomi Kawamura; Atsunori Wada; Katsuya Nagai

2010-01-01

92

Aging and partial body weight support affects gait variability  

PubMed Central

Background Aging leads to increases in gait variability which may explain the large incidence of falls in the elderly. Body weight support training may be utilized to improve gait in the elderly and minimize falls. However, before initiating rehabilitation protocols, baseline studies are needed to identify the effect of body weight support on elderly gait variability. Our purpose was to determine the kinematic variability of the lower extremities in young and elderly healthy females at changing levels of body weight support during walking. Methods Ten young and ten elderly females walked on a treadmill for two minutes with a body weight support (BWS) system under four different conditions: 1 g, 0.9 g, 0.8 g, and 0.7 g. Three-dimensional kinematics was captured at 60 Hz with a Peak Performance high speed video system. Magnitude and structure of variability of the sagittal plane angular kinematics of the right lower extremity was analyzed using both linear (magnitude; standard deviations and coefficient of variations) and nonlinear (structure; Lyapunov exponents) measures. A two way mixed ANOVA was used to evaluate the effect of age and BWS on variability. Results Linear analysis showed that the elderly presented significantly more variability at the hip and knee joint than the young females. Moreover, higher levels of BWS presented increased variability at all joints as found in both the linear and nonlinear measures utilized. Conclusion Increased levels of BWS increased lower extremity kinematic variability. If the intent of BWS training is to decrease variability in gait patterns, this did not occur based on our results. However, we did not perform a training study. Thus, it is possible that after several weeks of training and increased habituation, these initial increased variability values will decrease. This assumption needs to be addressed in future investigation with both "healthy" elderly and elderly fallers. In addition, it is possible that BWS training can have a positive transfer effect by bringing overground kinematic variability to healthy normative levels, which also needs to be explored in future studies. PMID:18803851

Kyvelidou, Anastasia; Kurz, Max J; Ehlers, Julie L; Stergiou, Nicholas

2008-01-01

93

Comparative Effect of Massage Therapy versus Kangaroo Mother Care on Body Weight and Length of Hospital Stay in Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants.  

PubMed

Background. Massage therapy (MT) and kangaroo mother care (KMC) are both effective in increasing the weight and reducing length of hospital stay in low birth weight preterm infants but they have not been compared. Aim. Comparison of effectiveness of MT and KMC on body weight and length of hospital stay in low birth weight preterm (LBWPT) infants. Method. 30 LBWPT infants using convenience sampling from Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, V.S. hospital, were randomly divided into 2 equal groups. Group 1 received MT and Group 2 received KMC for 15 minutes, thrice daily for 5 days. Medically stable babies with gestational age < 37 weeks and birth weight < 2500?g were included. Those on ventilators and with congenital, orthopedic, or genetic abnormality were excluded. Outcome measures, body weight and length of hospital stay, were taken before intervention day 1 and after intervention day 5. Level of significance was 5%. Result. Data was analyzed using SPSS16. Both MT and KMC were found to be effective in improving body weight (P = 0.001, P = 0.001). Both were found to be equally effective for improving body weight (P = 0.328) and reducing length of hospital stay (P = 0.868). Conclusion. MT and KMC were found to be equally effective in improving body weight and reducing length of hospital stay. Limitation. Long term follow-up was not taken. PMID:24976830

Rangey, Priya Singh; Sheth, Megha

2014-01-01

94

Comparative Effect of Massage Therapy versus Kangaroo Mother Care on Body Weight and Length of Hospital Stay in Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants  

PubMed Central

Background. Massage therapy (MT) and kangaroo mother care (KMC) are both effective in increasing the weight and reducing length of hospital stay in low birth weight preterm infants but they have not been compared. Aim. Comparison of effectiveness of MT and KMC on body weight and length of hospital stay in low birth weight preterm (LBWPT) infants. Method. 30 LBWPT infants using convenience sampling from Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, V.S. hospital, were randomly divided into 2 equal groups. Group 1 received MT and Group 2 received KMC for 15 minutes, thrice daily for 5 days. Medically stable babies with gestational age < 37 weeks and birth weight < 2500?g were included. Those on ventilators and with congenital, orthopedic, or genetic abnormality were excluded. Outcome measures, body weight and length of hospital stay, were taken before intervention day 1 and after intervention day 5. Level of significance was 5%. Result. Data was analyzed using SPSS16. Both MT and KMC were found to be effective in improving body weight (P = 0.001, P = 0.001). Both were found to be equally effective for improving body weight (P = 0.328) and reducing length of hospital stay (P = 0.868). Conclusion. MT and KMC were found to be equally effective in improving body weight and reducing length of hospital stay. Limitation. Long term follow-up was not taken. PMID:24976830

Rangey, Priya Singh

2014-01-01

95

Estimation of body weight and development of a body weight score for adult equids using morphometric measurements.  

PubMed

Excessive BW has become a major health issue in the equine (Equus caballus) industry. The objectives were to determine if the addition of neck circumference and height improved existing BW estimation equations, to develop an equation for estimation of ideal BW, and to develop a method for assessing the likelihood of being overweight in adult equids. Six hundred and twenty-nine adult horses and ponies who met the following criteria were measured and weighed at 2 horse shows in September 2011 in Minnesota: age ? 3 yr, height ? 112 cm, and nonpregnant. Personnel assessed BCS on a scale of 1 to 9 and measured wither height at the third thoracic vertebra, body length from the point of shoulder to the point of the buttock, neck and girth circumference, and weight using a portable livestock scale. Individuals were grouped into breed types on the basis of existing knowledge and were confirmed with multivariate ANOVA analysis of morphometric measurements. Equations for estimated and ideal BW were developed using linear regression modeling. For estimated BW, the model was fit using all individuals and all morphometric measurements. For ideal BW, the model was fit using individuals with a BCS of 5; breed type, height, and body length were considered as these measurements are not affected by adiposity. A BW score to assess the likelihood of being overweight was developed by fitting a proportional odds logistic regression model on BCS using the difference between ideal and estimated BW, the neck to height ratio, and the girth to height ratio as predictors; this score was then standardized using the data from individuals with a BCS of 5. Breed types included Arabian, stock, and pony. Mean (± SD) BCS was 5.6 ± 0.9. BW (kg) was estimated by taking [girth (cm)(1.48)6 × length (cm)(0.554) × height (cm)(0.599) × neck (cm)(0.173)]/3,596, 3,606, and 3,441 for Arabians, ponies, and stock horses, respectively (R(2) = 0.92; mean-squared error (MSE) = 22 kg). Ideal BW (kg) was estimated by taking [length (cm) × 2.8] + [height (cm) × 4.2] - 611, 606, and 577 for Arabians, ponies, and stock horses, respectively (R(2) = 0.86; MSE = 24). Equids with a BCS of ? 7 had a greater likelihood of being overweight, and the model suggested cutoffs at the 48th and 83rd percentiles for underweight and overweight individuals, respectively. Morphometric measurements were successfully used to develop equid BW-related equations. PMID:24663191

Martinson, K L; Coleman, R C; Rendahl, A K; Fang, Z; McCue, M E

2014-05-01

96

Dietary supplements for improving body composition and reducing body weight: where is the evidence?  

PubMed

Weight-loss supplements typically fall into 1 of 4 categories depending on their hypothesized mechanism of action: products that block the absorption of fat or carbohydrate, stimulants that increase thermogenesis, products that change metabolism and improve body composition, and products that suppress appetite or give a sense of fullness. Each category is reviewed, and an overview of the current science related to their effectiveness is presented. While some weight-loss supplements produce modest effects (<2 kg weight loss), many have either no or few randomized clinical trials examining their effectiveness. A number of factors confound research results associated with the efficacy of weight-loss supplements, such as small sample sizes, short intervention periods, little or no follow-up, and whether the supplement is given in combination with an energy-restricted diet or increased exercise expenditure. There is no strong research evidence indicating that a specific supplement will produce significant weight loss (>2 kg), especially in the long term. Some foods or supplements such as green tea, fiber, and calcium supplements or dairy products may complement a healthy lifestyle to produce small weight losses or prevent weight gain over time. Weight-loss supplements containing metabolic stimulants (e.g., caffeine, ephedra, synephrine) are most likely to produce adverse side effects and should be avoided. PMID:22465867

Manore, Melinda M

2012-04-01

97

Long-term effects of consumption of a novel fat emulsion in relation to body-weight management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To assess weight maintenance after weight loss by consumption of yoghurt with a novel fat emulsion (Olibra) including effects on body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE), fat oxidation, hunger feelings and satiety hormones.Design:A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel design. A 6-week weight loss period (2.1 MJ\\/day) was followed by 18 weeks weight maintenance with test (Olibra) or placebo yoghurt.Subjects:Fifty overweight women

K Diepvens; S Soenen; J Steijns; M Arnold; M Westerterp-Plantenga

2007-01-01

98

Endocannabinoids in the regulation of appetite and body weight.  

PubMed

The discovery of cannabinoid receptors, together with the development of selective cannabinoid receptor antagonists, has encouraged a resurgence of cannabinoid pharmacology. With the identification of endogenous agonists, such as anandamide, scientists have sought to uncover the biological role of endocannabinoid systems; initially guided by the long-established actions of cannabis and exogenous cannabinoids such as delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). In particular, considerable research has examined endocannabinoid involvement in appetite, eating behaviour and body weight regulation. It is now confirmed that endocannabinoids, acting at brain CB1 cannabinoid receptors, stimulate appetite and ingestive behaviours, partly through interactions with more established orexigenic and anorexigenic signals. Key structures such as the nucleus accumbens and hypothalamic nuclei are sensitive sites for the hyperphagic actions of these substances, and endocannabinoid activity in these regions varies in relation to nutritional status and feeding expression. Behavioural studies indicate that endocannabinoids increase eating motivation by enhancing the incentive salience and hedonic evaluation of ingesta. Moreover, there is strong evidence of an endocannabinoid role in energy metabolism and fuel storage. Recent developments point to potential clinical benefits of cannabinoid receptor antagonists in the management of obesity, and of agonists in the treatment of other disorders of eating and body weight regulation. PMID:16148436

Kirkham, T C

2005-09-01

99

The effect of body weight on dalteparin pharmacokineticsA preliminary study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To investigate whether there were significant differences in the volume of distribution (V) and clearance (CL) of dalteparin\\u000a in obese versus normal-weight patients, and thereby determine whether dosing of dalteparin should be based on total body weight,\\u000a lean body weight or an adjusted body weight in obese patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: Patients (ten obese and ten normal weight) treated with dalteparin

J. Y. V. Yee; S. B. Duffull

2000-01-01

100

PET imaging predicts future body weight and cocaine preference  

SciTech Connect

Deficits in dopamine D2/D3 receptor (D2R/D3R) binding availability using PET imaging have been reported in obese humans and rodents. Similar deficits have been reported in cocaine-addicts and cocaine-exposed primates. We found that D2R/D3R binding availability negatively correlated with measures of body weight at the time of scan (ventral striatum), at 1 (ventral striatum) and 2 months (dorsal and ventral striatum) post scan in rats. Cocaine preference was negatively correlated with D2R/D3R binding availability 2 months (ventral striatum) post scan. Our findings suggest that inherent deficits in striatal D2R/D3R signaling are related to obesity and drug addiction susceptibility and that ventral and dorsal striatum serve dissociable roles in maintaining weight gain and cocaine preference. Measuring D2R/D3R binding availability provides a way for assessing susceptibility to weight gain and cocaine abuse in rodents and given the translational nature of PET imaging, potentially primates and humans.

Michaelides M.; Wang G.; Michaelides M.; Thanos P.K. Kim R.; Cho J.; Ananth M.; Wang G.-J.; Volkow N.D.

2011-08-28

101

Accuracy of Body Weight Perception and Figure Satisfaction in Young Adults with Psychotic Disorders in Hong Kong ???????????????? ??????????? ??  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Satisfaction with body weight is more closely related to one's perception rather than one's actual body weight. It is important to understand the body weight perceptions of individuals with psychotic disorders to enhance appropriate weight management. Participants and Methods: Information regarding body mass index, attitude towards body weight and figure rating was gathered from 87 young adults with psychotic

MMC Wong; S Tso; SSY Lui

102

IQP-GC-101 Reduces Body Weight and Body Fat Mass: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study  

PubMed Central

IQP-GC-101 is a patented blend of the standardized extracts of Garcinia cambogia, Camellia sinensis, unroasted Coffea arabica, and Lagerstroemia speciosa. These individual ingredients of IQP-GC-101 have each shown promise in promoting weight loss; however, the efficacy of the blend has not been established. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group study conducted over 14 weeks (including a 2-week run-in phase) aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of IQP-GC-101 in reducing body weight and body fat mass in overweight Caucasian adults. Subjects took three IQP-GC-101 or placebo tablets, twice a day, 30 min before main meals. All subjects also adhered to a 500 kcal/day energy deficit diet with 30% of energy from fat. Ninety-one overweight and mildly obese subjects (46 in the IQP-GC-101 group, 45 in the placebo group) completed the study. After 12-week intervention, IQP-GC-101 resulted in a mean (±SD) weight loss of 2.26 ± 2.37 kg compared with 0.56 ± 2.34 kg for placebo (pU = 0.002). There was also significantly more reduction in body fat mass, waist circumference, and hip circumference in the IQP-GC-101 group. No serious adverse events were reported. The use of IQP-GC-101 has been shown to result in body weight and body fat reduction in the current study, with good tolerability. © 2014 InQpharm Group Sdn Bhd. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24797657

Chong, Pee-Win; Beah, Zhi-Ming; Grube, Barbara; Riede, Linda

2014-01-01

103

Fat talk among college students: how undergraduates communicate regarding food and body weight, shape & appearance.  

PubMed

This article is based on an empirical study designed to learn more about how college students communicate regarding food and body/weight/shape/appearance. Data from a survey of 272 randomly selected college students (82 males and 190 females) were collected and analyzed to explore the relationships of "fat talk," a behavior described by Nichter to refer to conversations about eating and body-related issues, to eating pathology and body dissatisfaction. Results indicate that the frequency of fat talk is positively related to eating pathology and body dissatisfaction in students with and without an eating-disorder diagnosis. Furthermore, results reveal that the most frequently reported topic of fat talk was other people's appearance. Suggestions for modifying conventional prevention and intervention efforts aimed at decreasing undergraduate eating pathology and body dissatisfaction by incorporating strategies to reduce the occurrence of "fat talk" are included. PMID:18175234

Ousley, Louise; Cordero, Elizabeth D; White, Sabina

2008-01-01

104

Body Image and Strategies to Lose Weight and Increase Muscle Among Boys and Girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined factors that influence body image and strategies to either lose weight or increase muscle among children. Participants were 237 boys and 270 girls. Body mass index (BMI), body dissatisfaction, cognitions and behaviors to both lose weight and increase muscles, as well as self-esteem and positive and negative affect, were evaluated. Self-esteem was associated with body satisfaction, positive

Marita P. McCabe; Lina A. Ricciardelli

2003-01-01

105

Dynamic modeling of methylprednisolone effects on body weight and glucose regulation in rats  

PubMed Central

Influences of methylprednisolone (MPL) and food consumption on body weight (BW), and the effects of MPL on glycemic control including food consumption and the dynamic interactions among glucose, insulin, and free fatty acids (FFA) were evaluated in normal male Wistar rats. Six groups of animals received either saline or MPL via subcutaneous infusions at the rate of 0.03, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 mg/kg/h for different treatment periods. BW and food consumption were measured twice a week. Plasma concentrations of MPL and corticosterone (CST) were determined at animal sacrifice. Plasma glucose, insulin, and FFA were measured at various times after infusion. Plasma MPL concentrations were simulated by a two-compartment model and used as the driving force in the pharmacodynamic (PD) analysis. All data were modeled using ADAPT 5. The MPL treatments caused reduction of food consumption and body weights in all dosing groups. The steroid also caused changes in plasma glucose, insulin, and FFA concentrations. Hyper-insulinemia was achieved rapidly at the first sampling time of 6 h; significant elevations of FFA were observed in all drug treatment groups; whereas only modest increases in plasma glucose were observed in the low dosing groups (0.03 and 0.1 mg/kg/h). Body weight changes were modeled by dual actions of MPL: inhibition of food consumption and stimulation of weight loss, with food consumption accounting for the input of energy for body weight. Dynamic models of glucose and insulin feedback interactions were extended to capture the major metabolic effects of FFA: stimulation of insulin secretion and inhibition of insulin-stimulated glucose utilization. These models of body weight and glucose regulation adequately captured the experimental data and reflect significant physiological interactions among glucose, insulin, and FFA. These mechanism-based PD models provide further insights into the multi-factor control of this essential metabolic system. PMID:21394487

Fang, Jing; DuBois, Debra C.; He, Yang; Almon, Richard R.

2012-01-01

106

Outcome of low body weight (<2.2 kg) infants undergoing cardiac surgery  

PubMed Central

Introduction Infants with low body weight (LBW) following cardiac surgery are a major challenge for the post cardiac surgery care unit. It has been observed that post surgery outcome for LBW infants is worse compared to the outcome of normal body weight infants. A study was conducted to compare post operative course and outcome of infants with body weight of 2.2 kg or less against infants with normal body weight who underwent similar cardiac surgeries. Methods A retrospective review was performed for all infants below 2.2 kg who underwent cardiac operations at King Abdulaziz Cardiac Center from January 2001 to October 2011. Cases with LBW (Group A) were compared with matching group (Group B) of normal body weight infants who had similar cardiac surgeries and matching surgical risk category. The demographic, ICU parameters, complications, and short-term outcome of both groups were analyzed. Results Two groups were formed, with 37 patients in Group A, and 39 patients in Group B. Except for weight (2.13 ± 0.08 kg in Group A vs 3.17 ± 0.2 kg in Group B), there was no statistical difference in demographic data between both groups. Cardiac procedures included coarctation repair, arterial switch, ventricular septal defect (VSD) repair, tetralogy of Fallot repair, systemic to pulmonary shunt and Norwood procedures. Patients in Group A had statistically significant difference from Group B in terms of bypass time (p = 0.01), duration of inotropes (p = 0.01), duration of mechanical ventilation (p = 0.004), number of re-intubations (p = 0.015), PCICU length of stay (p = 0.007), and hospital mortality: 13.5% in Group A vs 0% in Group B (p value 0.02). Conclusion Patients with LBW (<2.2 kg) underwent cardiac surgery with overall satisfactory results, but with increased risk of ICU morbidity and mortality. PMID:24954985

Mehmood, Akhter; Ismail, Sameh R.; Kabbani, Mohamed S.; Abu-Sulaiman, Riyadh M.; Najm, Hani K.

2014-01-01

107

When ignorance is bliss: weight perception, body mass index and quality of life in adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background/Objectives: Body weight is negatively associated with adolescent Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL). Despite this well-established relationship, some adolescents with obesity do not display the expected HRQoL decreases. This study hypothesised weight perception as a moderator of the association between weight status and adolescent HRQoL. Subjects/Methods: Subjects were secondary school students from an obesity prevention project in the Barwon South-West region of Victoria, Australia, entitled It's Your Move (N=3040). Measures included standardised body mass index (BMI-z; World Health Organization growth standards), weight perception and HRQoL, measured by the Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory. Linear regression and average marginal effect analyses were conducted on cross-sectional baseline data to determine the significance of any interaction between weight perception and measured weight status in shaping adolescent HRQoL. Results: The BMI-z/perceived weight status interaction was significantly associated with adolescent HRQoL outcomes. Adolescents with BMI z-scores in the overweight/obesity range who perceived themselves as overweight had lower HRQoL than those who perceived themselves as ‘about right.' Conversely, adolescents with BMI scores in the lower end of the normal range or in the thinness range who perceived themselves as underweight had lower HRQoL than those with ‘about right' perceptions. Conclusions: This was the first study to report third-variable impacts of a body-perception variable on the relationship between adolescent weight status and HRQoL. Adolescents' weight perceptions significantly moderated the relationship between overweight/obesity and reduced HRQoL. Adolescents who were outside the normal weight range and misperceived their objectively measured weight status enjoyed a higher HRQoL than adolescents whose weight perception was concordant with their actual weight status. These findings suggest that practitioners may need to exercise caution when educating adolescents about their weight status, as such ‘reality checks' may negatively impact on adolescent HRQoL. It is suggested that more research be conducted to examine this potential effect. PMID:24824556

Hayward, J; Millar, L; Petersen, S; Swinburn, B; Lewis, A J

2014-01-01

108

Patient Perception of Ideal Body Weight and the Effect of Body Mass Index  

PubMed Central

Objective. Despite much effort, obesity remains a significant public health problem. One of the main contributing factors is patients' perception of their target ideal body weight. This study aimed to assess this perception. Methods. The study took place in an urban area, with the majority of participants in the study being Hispanic (65.7%) or African-American (28.0%). Patients presented to an outpatient clinic were surveyed regarding their ideal body weight and their ideal BMI calculated. Subsequently they were classified into different categories based on their actual measured BMI. Their responses for ideal BMI were compared. Results. In 254 surveys, mean measured BMI was 31.71?±?8.01. Responses to ideal BMI had a range of 18.89–38.15 with a mean of 25.96?±?3.25. Mean (±SD) ideal BMI for patients with a measured BMI of <18.5, 18.5–24.9, 25–29.9, and ?30 was 20.14?±?1.46, 23.11?±?1.68, 25.69?±?2.19, and 27.22?±?3.31, respectively. These differences were highly significant (P < 0.001, ANOVA). Conclusions. Most patients had an inflated sense of their target ideal body weight. Patients with higher measured BMI had higher target numbers for their ideal BMI. Better education of patients is critical for obesity prevention programs.

Naghshizadian, Rozhin; Rahnemai-Azar, Amir A.; Kella, Kruthi; Weber, Michael M.; Calin, Marius L.; Bibi, Shahida; Farkas, Daniel T.

2014-01-01

109

Nutrigenomics of Body Weight Regulation: A Rationale for Careful Dissection of Individual Contributors  

PubMed Central

Body weight stability may imply active regulation towards a certain physiological condition, a body weight setpoint. This interpretation is ill at odds with the world-wide increase in overweight and obesity. Until now, a body weight setpoint has remained elusive and the setpoint theory did not provide practical clues for body weight reduction interventions. For this an alternative theoretical model is necessary, which is available as the settling point model. The settling point model postulates that there is little active regulation towards a predefined body weight, but that body weight settles based on the resultant of a number of contributors, represented by the individual’s genetic predisposition, in interaction with environmental and socioeconomic factors, such as diet and lifestyle. This review refines the settling point model and argues that by taking body weight regulation from a settling point perspective, the road will be opened to careful dissection of the various contributors to establishment of body weight and its regulation. This is both necessary and useful. Nutrigenomic technologies may help to delineate contributors to body weight settling. Understanding how and to which extent the different contributors influence body weight will allow the design of weight loss and weight maintenance interventions, which hopefully are more successful than those that are currently available. PMID:25338273

Keijer, Jaap; Hoevenaars, Femke P. M.; Nieuwenhuizen, Arie; van Schothorst, Evert M.

2014-01-01

110

Early adult body weight, body mass index, and premenopausal bilateral breast cancer: data from a case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies using current or recent adult body weight and body mass index are inconclusive as to a possible effect of increased body mass on premenopausal breast cancer incidence. Only five studies have presented data onearly adult body mass, and no study has reported these data for premenopausalbilateral breast cancer. Because premenopausal bilateral breast cancer is assumed to be partly

Giske Ursin; Annlia Paganini-Hill; Jack Siemiatycki; W. Douglas Thompson; Robert W. Haile

1995-01-01

111

Evidence for efficacy and effectiveness of changes in eating frequency for body weight management.  

PubMed

In self-reported diets of free living individuals, frequent eating is associated with higher energy intake, yet beliefs about the possible beneficial effect of higher eating frequency for managing body weight persist. Prospective cohort studies and controlled trials of manipulation of eating frequency published by 31 December 2012 were reviewed to assess whether variation in eating frequency may be an adjunct to weight management. Four prospective cohort studies were identified; 2 of these included adults followed for 10 y and 2 followed pre-adolescent/adolescent girls for 6 or 10 y. Within each age category, the findings of the 2 studies were contradictory. Six controlled trials with adult subjects serving as their own controls found no significant changes in body weight due to manipulation of eating frequency interventions lasting 6-8 wk. In 6 additional intervention trials of 8-52 wk duration, free-living adults were counseled to change the eating frequency of self-selected food intake with no significant differences in weight loss attributable to eating frequency. Overall, the consistency of the null findings from controlled trials of manipulation of eating frequency for promoting weight loss suggests that beliefs about the role of higher eating frequency in adult weight management are not supported by evidence. Interpretation of the evidence from published observational studies is complicated by differences in definition of eating frequency and limited knowledge of systematic and random errors in measurement of eating frequency. PMID:25398748

Kant, Ashima K

2014-11-01

112

Body Weight and ADHD: Examining the Role of Self-Regulation  

PubMed Central

Objective Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a complex and heterogeneous childhood disorder that often coexists with other psychiatric and somatic disorders. Recently, a link between ADHD and body weight dysregulation has been reported and often interpreted as impaired self-regulation that is shared between the two conditions. The objective of this study is to investigate the relation between body weight/BMI and cognitive, emotional and motor characteristics in children with ADHD. Methods 284 ADHD children were stratified by weight status/BMI according to WHO classification and compared with regard to their neurocognitive characteristics, motivational style, and motor profile as assessed by a comprehensive battery of tests. All comparisons were adjusted for demographic characteristics of relevance including, socioeconomic status (SES). Results Both Obese and overweight ADHD children exhibited significantly lower SES compared to normal weight ADHD children. No significant differences were observed between the three groups with regards to their neurocognitive, emotional and motor profile. Conclusions Our findings provide evidence that differences in weight/BMI are not accounted for by cognitive, motivational and motor profiles. Socio-economic characteristics are strongly associated with overweight and obesity in ADHD children and may inform strategies aimed at promoting healthier weight. PMID:23383165

Choudhry, Zia; Sengupta, Sarojini M.; Harvey, William J.; Fortier, Marie-Ève; Schmitz, Norbert

2013-01-01

113

Weight Status, Body Image and Bullying among Adolescents in the Seychelles  

PubMed Central

We investigated the relationship between being bullied and measured body weight and perceived body weight among adolescents of a middle-income sub Saharan African country. Our data originated from the Global School-based Health Survey, which targets adolescents aged 13–15 years. Student weights and heights were measured before administrating the questionnaire which included questions about personal data, health behaviors and being bullied. Standard criteria were used to assess thinness, overweight and obesity. Among 1,006 participants who had complete data, 16.5% (95%CI 13.3–20.2) reported being bullied ?3 days during the past 30 days; 13.4% were thin, 16.8% were overweight and 7.6% were obese. Categories of actual weight and of perceived weight correlated only moderately (Spearman correlation coefficient 0.37 for boys and 0.57 for girls; p < 0.001). In univariate analysis, both actual obesity (OR 1.76; p = 0.051) and perception of high weight (OR 1.63 for “slightly overweight”; OR 2.74 for “very overweight”, both p < 0.05) were associated with being bullied. In multivariate analysis, ORs for categories of perceived overweight were virtually unchanged while ORs for actual overweight and obesity were substantially attenuated, suggesting a substantial role of perceived weight in the association with being bullied. Actual underweight and perceived thinness also tended to be associated with being bullied, although not significantly. Our findings suggest that more research attention be given to disentangling the significant association between body image, overweight and bullying among adolescents. Further studies in diverse populations are warranted. PMID:23644826

Wilson, Michael L.; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Rousson, Valentin; Bovet, Pascal

2013-01-01

114

Effects of Auricular Acupressure on Body Weight Parameters in Patients with Chronic Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Auricular acupressure is widely used in complementary and alternative medicine to reduce body weight, but little is known about the effects of auricular acupressure on body weight parameters in patients with chronic schizophrenia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of auricular acupressure on body weight parameters in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Eighty-six inpatients with schizophrenia were recruited from chronic wards in a psychiatric center. The participants were randomly divided into experimental (acupressure at 4 acupuncture sites: hunger, stomach, shenmen and endocrine) and control groups, and body weight parameters were determined weekly for 8 weeks. There was no significant difference between the experimental and control groups in mean body weight, waist circumference, or body fat percentage at the pretest or during the entire 8-week study period. Therefore, auricular acupressure did not cause body weight reduction in patients with chronic schizophrenia. PMID:22997527

Ching, Han-Yi; Wu, Shang-Liang; Chen, Wen-Chi; Hsieh, Ching-Liang

2012-01-01

115

Seasonal changes in thermogenesis, organ weights, and body composition in the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1.Seasonal adjustments in wild-caughtPeromyscus leucopus include autumn increases in basal metabolic, nonshivering thermogenesis, and interscapular brown fat and decreases in weights of gonads, liver, adrenal glands, and total lipid. Body weight and nonextractable dry weight do not change.2.Basal metabolic rate, nonshivering thermogenesis, and interscapular brown fat increase following initial cold exposure in mid-September and are maintained at similar levels

G. Robert Lynch

1973-01-01

116

Effects of chronic leptin infusion on subsequent body weight and composition in mice: Can body weight set point be reset?aa  

PubMed Central

Circulating leptin concentrations correlate with fat mass and signal the status of somatic energy stores to the brain. Previous studies suggest that diet-induced elevations of body weight increase body weight “set-point”. To assess whether chronic hyperleptinemia is responsible for this shift in defended body weight, we elevated circulating leptin concentrations in lean mice to those comparable to diet-induced obese mice for eighteen weeks. We hypothesized that following cessation of leptin infusion, a higher body weight would be defended. Compared to saline-infused controls, leptin-infused mice had elevated circulating leptin concentrations, gained less weight, yet had similar metabolic rates. Following cessation of leptin administration, leptin-infused mice gained some weight yet plateaued at 5–10% below controls. These results suggest that, unlike mice rendered hyperleptinemic by diet-induced weight gain, leptin-infused mice do not subsequently “defend” a higher body weight, suggesting that hyperleptinemia per se does not mimic the CNS consequences of chronic weight gain. PMID:24944902

Ravussin, Y.; LeDuc, C.A.; Watanabe, K.; Mueller, B.R.; Skowronski, A.; Rosenbaum, M.; Leibel, R.L.

2014-01-01

117

Estimates of Genetic Parameters of Body Weight in Descendants of X-Irradiated Rat Spermatogonia  

PubMed Central

Effects of nine generations of 450r per generation of ancestral spermatogonial X irradiation of inbred rats on genetic parameters of body weight at 3, 6 and 10 weeks of age and of weight gains between these periods were studied. Covariances among relatives were estimated by mixed model and regression techniques in randomly selected lines with (R) and without (C) radiation history. Analyses of the data were based on five linear genetic models combining additive direct, additive indirect (maternal), dominance and environmental effects. Parameters in these models were estimated by generalized least-squares. A model including direct and indirect genetic effects fit more closely to the data in both R and C lines. Overdominance of induced mutations did not seem to be present. Ancestral irradiation increased maternal additive genetic variances of body weights and gains but not direct genetic variances. Theoretically, due to a negative direct-maternal genetic correlation, within full-sib family selection would be ineffective in increasing body weight at six weeks in both R and C lines. However, progress from mass selection would be expected to be faster in the R lines. PMID:924136

Gianola, Daniel; Chapman, A. B.; Rutledge, J. J.

1977-01-01

118

Association of Smoking with Body Weight in US High School Students, 1999-2005  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To investigate the association of current smoking with body mass index (BMI) and perceived body weight among high school students in the United States. Methods: We analyzed data from the 1999-2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Results: Perceived body weight and BMI were associated with adolescents' current smoking. Adjusted odds ratios…

Seo, Dong-Chul; Jiang, Nan; Kolbe, Lloyd J.

2009-01-01

119

Do weight-preoccupied women misinterpret ambiguous stimuli related to body size?  

Microsoft Academic Search

High and low weight-preoccupied women were instructed to imagine themselves in situations described by ambiguous sentences related to body size. These ambiguous sentences could be interpreted in either a positive or negative manner. In a subsequent recognition memory test, subjects highly preoccupied with body weight were found to recall their imagery of the body-related situations with a negative interpretation. The

Lori P. Jackman; Donald A. Williamson; Richard G. Netemeyer; Drew A. Anderson

1995-01-01

120

High-fructose corn syrup causes characteristics of obesity in rats: Increased body weight, body fat and triglyceride levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) accounts for as much as 40% of caloric sweeteners used in the United States. Some studies have shown that short-term access to HFCS can cause increased body weight, but the findings are mixed. The current study examined both short- and long-term effects of HFCS on body weight, body fat, and circulating triglycerides. In Experiment 1, male

Miriam E. Bocarsly; Elyse S. Powell; Nicole M. Avena; Bartley G. Hoebel

2010-01-01

121

Effects of long-term calcium intake on body weight, body fat and bone in growing rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased calcium intake may reduce body weight and fat in non-growing individuals. This study explored the long-term effects of high versus low calcium intake on body weight, body fat, BMC, BMD and bone size in growing male and female rats. Ninety male and 90 female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned either to a high calcium (1%) or low calcium (0.25%)

Anne-Marie Bollen; Xian-Qin Bai

2005-01-01

122

Shuttle-food consumption, body composition and body weight in women  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experiment is conducted to determine whether the NASA Space Shuttle food system can provide the food and fluid required to mitigate weight loss and physical decomposition in 12 female subjects for 28 days. Subjects receive only foods from the Space Shuttle system for four weeks within an 11-wk monitoring period. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is employed throughout the trial period to study lean body mass, percent body fat, and energy-intake levels with attention given to differences the experimental diet and the subjects' typical diet. Percent body fat is found to change significantly with losses of less than 0.05 percent, whereas energy intake based on autonomous diet choices by the participants does not vary significantly. Lean body mass remains unchanged throughout the study in which the subjects receive a relatively low-fat and low-protein menu. The 100 items on the space shuttle list of approved food items are shown to provide a palatable dietary framework for maintaining the health of female astronauts.

Lane, Helen W.; Frye, Sherrie; Kloeris, Vickie; Rice, Barbara; Siconolfi, Steven F.; Spector, Elisabeth; Gretebeck, Randall J.

1992-01-01

123

Lifestyle intervention reduces body weight and improves cardiometabolic risk factors in worksites123  

PubMed Central

Background: Worksites are potentially effective locations for obesity control because they provide opportunities for group intervention and social support. Studies are needed to identify effective interventions in these settings. Objective: We examined the effects of a multicomponent lifestyle intervention on weight loss and prevention of regain in 4 worksites (2 intervention and 2 control sites). Design: Overweight and obese employees (n = 133) enrolled in this pilot worksite-randomized controlled trial with a 0–6-mo weight-loss phase and a 6–12-mo structured weight-maintenance phase. The intervention combined recommendations to consume a reduced-energy, low–glycemic load, high-fiber diet with behavioral change education. Outcome measurements included changes in body weight and cardiometabolic risk factors. Results: The mean ± SEM weight loss was substantial in intervention participants, whereas control subjects gained weight (?8.0 ± 0.7 compared with +0.9 ± 0.5 kg, respectively; P < 0.001), and 89% of participants completed the weight-loss phase. Intervention effects were not significant at the 0.05 level but would have been at the 0.10 level (P = 0.08) in a mixed model in which the worksite nested within group was a random factor. There were also significant improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors in intervention compared with control subjects regarding fasting total cholesterol, glucose, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure (P ? 0.02 for each). No significant weight regain was observed in participants who enrolled in the structured weight-maintenance program (0.5 ± 0.7 kg; P = 0.65), and overweight and obese employees in intervention worksites who were not enrolled in the weight-loss program lost weight compared with subjects in control worksites (?1.3 ± 0.5 compared with +0.7 ± 0.2 kg, respectively; P = 0.02). Conclusion: Worksites can be effective for achieving clinically important reductions in body weight and improved cardiometabolic risk factors. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01470222. PMID:23426035

Salinardi, Taylor C; Batra, Payal; Roberts, Susan B; Urban, Lorien E; Robinson, Lisa M; Pittas, Anastassios G; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Deckersbach, Thilo; Saltzman, Edward

2013-01-01

124

Optimal body weight for the prevention of coronary heart disease in normal-weight physically active men.  

PubMed

Although 36% of US men are normal weight (BMI <25 kg/m(2)), the health benefits of greater leanness in normal-weight individuals are seldom acknowledged. To assess the optimal body weight with respect to minimizing coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, we applied Cox proportional hazard analyses of 20,525 nonsmoking, nondiabetic, normal-weight men followed prospectively for 7.7 years, including 20,301 who provided follow-up questionnaires. Two-hundred and forty two men reported coronary artery bypass graph (CABG) or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) and 82 reported physician-diagnosed incident myocardial infarction (267 total). The National Death Index identified 40 additional ischemic heart disease deaths. In these normal-weight men, each kg/m(2) decrement in baseline BMI was associated with 11.2% lower risk for total CHD (P = 0.005), 13.2% lower risk for nonfatal CHD (P = 0.002), 19.0% lower risk for nonfatal myocardial infarction (P = 0.01), and 12.2% lower risk for PTCA or CABG (P = 0.007). Compared to men with BMI between 22.5 and 25 kg/m(2), those <22.5 kg/m(2) had 24.1% lower total CHD risk (P = 0.01), 27.9% lower nonfatal CHD risk (P = 0.01), 37.8% lower nonfatal myocardial infarction risk (P = 0.05), and 27.8% lower PTCA or CABG risk (P = 0.02). In nonabdominally obese men (waist circumference <102 cm), CHD risk declined linearly with declining waist circumference. CHD risk was unrelated to change in waist circumference between 18 years old and baseline except as it contributed to baseline circumference. These results suggest that the optimal BMI for minimizing CHD risk lies somewhere <22.5 kg/m(2), as suggested from our previous analyses of incident diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia in these men. PMID:19553927

Williams, Paul T; Hoffman, Kathryn M

2009-07-01

125

Natural mixtures of POPs affected body weight gain and induced transcription of genes involved in weight regulation and insulin signaling.  

PubMed

Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions worldwide, and is associated with chronic illnesses such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and dyslipidemias (metabolic syndrome). Commonly held causes of obesity are overeating coupled with a sedentary lifestyle. However, it has also been postulated that exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may be related to the significant increase in the prevalence of obesity and associated diseases. In the present study, developmental and reproductive effects of lifelong exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of two natural mixtures of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were investigated using classical and molecular methods in a controlled zebrafish model. The mixtures used were extracted from burbot (Lota lota) liver originating from freshwater systems in Norway (Lake Mjøsa and Lake Losna). The concentration of POPs in the zebrafish ranged from levels detected in wild fish (Lake Mjøsa and Lake Losna), to concentrations reported in human and wildlife populations. Phenotypic effects observed in both exposure groups included (1) earlier onset of puberty, (2) elevated male/female sex ratio, and (3) increased body weight at 5 months of age. Interestingly, genome-wide transcription profiling identified functional networks of genes, in which key regulators of weight homeostasis (PPARs, glucocoricoids, CEBPs, estradiol), steroid hormone functions (glucocoricoids, estradiol, NCOA3) and insulin signaling (HNF4A, CEBPs, PPARG) occupied central positions. The increased weight and the regulation of genes associated with weight homeostasis and insulin signaling observed in the present study suggest that environmental pollution may affect the endocrine regulation of the metabolism, possibly leading to increased weight gain and obesity. PMID:21356182

Lyche, Jan L; Nourizadeh-Lillabadi, Rasoul; Karlsson, Camilla; Stavik, Benedicte; Berg, Vidar; Skåre, Janneche Utne; Alestrøm, Peter; Ropstad, Erik

2011-04-01

126

Height and Weight at Menarche and a Hypothesis of Critical Body Weights and Adolescent Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Height and weight at menarche were found for each subject in three longitudinal growth studies. Early and late maturing girls have menarche at the same mean weight, but late maturers are taller at menarche. Two other major events of adolescence, initiation of the weight growth spurt and maximum rate of weight gain, also occur at an invariant mean weight. The

Rose E. Frisch; Roger Revelle

1970-01-01

127

Weight gain model in prepubertal rats: prediction and phenotyping of obesity-prone animals at normal body weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Male Sprague–Dawley rats maintained from birth on a high-fat diet were examined to determine whether a specific measure before puberty can identify and allow one to characterize prepubertal rats at normal weight with high vs low risk for adult obesity.Materials and methods:Measures from weaning (day 21) to around puberty (day 45) were taken of weight gain, absolute body weight and

K L Leibowitz; G-Q Chang; P S Pamy; J O Hill; E C Gayles; S F Leibowitz

2007-01-01

128

Effects of bilateral auricular acupuncture stimulation on body weight in healthy volunteers and mildly obese patients.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of auricular acupuncture stimulation on non-obese healthy volunteers and mildly obese patients. Subjects (n = 55 and 5, respectively) averaged 34.5 years old, and BMI was 24.3 and less than 27.5 kg/m2, respectively. We also studied the effects of single-blind sham treatment in approximately 500 age-, sex-, and BMI-matched subjects. Small (0.15 x 2.0 mm) auricular needles were placed intracutaneously into the bilateral cavum conchae identified by having a resistance of less than 100 kOmega/cm2. In the 2-week pretreatment the period, in which body weight was measured without auricular acupuncture stimulation, 57.1% of the subjects showed a reduction in body weight. This indicates that charting one's own body weight might itself be a useful method of weight control. In the auricular acupuncture treatment period, 35 healthy subjects of 55 (63.6%) showed a decreased body weight, 11 (20%) showed an increased body weight, and 9 (16.4%) showed no change in body weight. The obese patients showed individual variation, but all achieved weight reduction, with a highly significant correlation between body weight and fat volume. The CT/MRI cross-sectional pictures supported these findings. Sham treatment had no statistically significant effect on body weight. These results suggest that success in achieving weight reduction can be partly attributed to the act of charting of one's own weight pattern. Bilateral auricular acupuncture stimulation can help reduce body weight both in mildly obese patients and in healthy non-obese subjects. In conclusion, this is in accord with the bilateral auricular acupuncture stimulation that it may be useful in the treatment of the obesity. We propose a possible mechanism for the weight-reducing effects of bilateral auricular acupuncture stimulation. PMID:14610261

Shiraishi, Takemasa; Onoe, Mariko; Kojima, Taka-Aki; Kageyama, Teruo; Sawatsugawa, Shoichi; Sakurai, Kohji; Yoshimatsu, Hironobu; Sakata, Toshiie

2003-11-01

129

Is there evidence for a set point that regulates human body weight?  

PubMed Central

There is evidence for the idea that there is biological (active) control of body weight at a given set point. Body weight is the product of genetic effects (DNA), epigenetic effects (heritable traits that do not involve changes in DNA), and the environment. Regulation of body weight is asymmetric, being more effective in response to weight loss than to weight gain. However, regulation may be lost or camouflaged by Western diets, suggesting that the failure of biological control is due mainly to external factors. In this situation, the body’s ‘set point’ (i.e., a constant ‘body-inherent’ weight regulated by a proportional feedback control system) is replaced by various ‘settling points’ that are influenced by energy and macronutrient intake in order for the body to achieve a zero energy balance. In a world of abundance, a prudent lifestyle and thus cognitive control are preconditions of effective biological control and a stable body weight. This idea also impacts future genetic research on body weight regulation. Searching for the genetic background of excess weight gain in a world of abundance is misleading since the possible biological control is widely overshadowed by the effect of the environment. In regard to clinical practice, dietary approaches to both weight loss and weight gain have to be reconsidered. In underweight patients (e.g., patients with anorexia nervosa), weight gain is supported by biological mechanisms that may or may not be suppressed by hyperalimentation. To overcome weight loss-induced counter-regulation in the overweight, biological signals have to be taken into account. Computational modeling of weight changes based on metabolic flux and its regulation will provide future strategies for clinical nutrition. PMID:21173874

Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Heymsfield, Steven B

2010-01-01

130

Lifestyle interventions targeting changes in body weight and composition among youth with an intellectual disability: A systematic review.  

PubMed

Over the past three decades, the potential effects of lifestyle interventions targeting changes in body weight and composition (weight, body mass index, fat mass, waist circumference) among adults with an intellectual disability (ID) have been examined in various systematic reviews. Nevertheless, since the middle of the 1980s, the potential effects of these interventions for youth with an ID remain an open question. The purpose of this article is to review the effects of lifestyle interventions targeting changes in body weight and composition among youth with an ID. This review will focus on changes in body weight and composition, healthy lifestyle, and secondary health conditions. A systematic review of English- and French-language studies, published between 1981 and 2013, was performed on Academic Search Complete, PsycARTICLES, Medline and Scopus. The nine studies included in this review focused mainly on: a sample with a wide age range (e.g., 7-22 years); males; overweight-obese youth having a mild-to-moderate ID with Down or Prader-Willi syndrome; physical activity interventions; cohort pre- and post-test designs with/without a control group; and changes in body weight and composition. Taken together, results from these studies suggest successful changes in weight, body mass index and fat mass. However, intervention effects on healthy lifestyle and secondary health conditions are scarce and inconclusive. Given the weaknesses of the reviewed studies, the present findings should be considered preliminary and indicative of the need for future research. PMID:24830882

Maïano, Christophe; Normand, Claude L; Aimé, Annie; Bégarie, Jérôme

2014-08-01

131

Antiepileptic drugs influences on body weight in people with epilepsy.  

PubMed

Data from clinical trials, retrospective and cross-sectional studies have quantified the metabolic changes associated with long-term use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). AEDs can be associated with weight gain or weight loss, although most are weight neutral. Weight gain is not only a cosmetic problem but also a risk for obesity-related vascular disorders. Weight loss may compromise growth in children/adolescents. This review discusses the possible contribution of peripheral and central hormones/neuropeptides (as leptin, insulin, adiponectin, neuropeptide-Y, ghrelin and galanin) and pathways that influence energy balance in the pathogenesis of weight changes with AEDs. As AEDs may influence weight, physicians have to properly select and characterize the suitable AED as an initial step or modify the existing AED if it compromises patient's health. PMID:25487080

Hamed, Sherifa Ahmed

2015-01-01

132

The effect of dietary and exercise interventions on body weight in prostate cancer patients: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Prostate cancer prognosis may therefore be improved by maintaining healthy weight through diet and physical activity. This systematic review looked at the effect of diet and exercise interventions on body weight among men treated for prostate cancer. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library databases were searched from the earliest record to August 2013. Randomized controlled trials of diet and exercise interventions in prostate cancer patients that reported body weight or body composition changes were included. A total of 20 trials were included in the review. Because of the heterogeneity of intervention components, a narrative review was conducted. Interventions were categorized as diet (n = 6), exercise (n = 8), or a combination of both diet and exercise (n = 6). The sample size ranged from 8 to 155 and the duration from 3 wk to 4 yr. Four diet interventions and 1 combined diet and exercise intervention achieved significant weight loss with mean values ranging from 0.8 kg to 6.1 kg (median 4.5 kg). Exercise alone did not lead to weight loss, though most of these trials aimed to increase fitness and quality of life rather than decrease body weight. Diet intervention, alone or in combination with exercise, can lead to weight loss in men treated for prostate cancer. PMID:25425328

Mohamad, Hamdan; McNeill, Geraldine; Haseen, Farhana; N'Dow, James; Craig, Leone C A; Heys, Steven D

2015-01-01

133

Development of body weight support gait training system using antagonistic bi-articular muscle model.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to develop a body weight support gait training system for stroke and spinal cord injury. This system consists of a powered orthosis, treadmill and equipment of body weight support. Attachment of the powered orthosis is able to fit subject who has difference of body size. This powered orthosis is driven by pneumatic McKibben actuator. Actuators are arranged as pair of antagonistic bi-articular muscle model and two pairs of antagonistic mono-articular muscle model like human musculoskeletal system. Part of the equipment of body weight support suspend subject by wire harness, and body weight of subject is supported continuously by counter weight. The powered orthosis is attached equipment of body weight support by parallel linkage, and movement of the powered orthosis is limited at sagittal plane. Weight of the powered orthosis is compensated by parallel linkage with gas-spring. In this study, we developed system that has orthosis powered by pneumatic McKibben actuators and equipment of body weight support. We report detail of our developed body weight support gait training system. PMID:21095773

Shibata, Yoshiyuki; Imai, Shingo; Nobutomo, Tatsuya; Miyoshi, Tasuku; Yamamoto, Shin-Ichiroh

2010-01-01

134

Relationship of Weight and Body Mass Index with Bone Mineral Density in Adult Men from Kosovo  

PubMed Central

Background and objective: Body weight and body mass index (BMI) are considered strong predictors of osteoporotic fractures, though optimal BMI levels remain unsettled. There are several studies conducted on women about the relationship between BMI and bone mineral density (BMD), and just a few so far on men. Therefore, the objective of current study was to analyze the relationship between weight and BMI and BMD measured in lumbar spine (L1-L4), femur neck and total hip in 64 men from Kosovo. Methods: This cross-sectional study included a population of 64 men divided into three BMI groups. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) measurements were done in all the study participants. Results: Pearson's correlation analysis showed a significant positive correlation between weight and BMI and BMD in femur neck and in total hip, and a significant negative correlation between age and femur neck BMD. Age-adjusted linear regression analysis showed that weight and BMI had a significant positive association with BMD levels. Conclusion: Although the results show significant relationship between BMI and BMD, the negative relationship between age and femur neck BMD may serve as guidance to initiate early assessment of the BMD in this region as well as preventive measures of osteoporosis and fractures among ageing men population PMID:25568627

Hoxha, Rexhep; Islami, Hilmi; Qorraj-Bytyqi, Hasime; Thaçi, Shpetim; Bahtiri, Elton

2014-01-01

135

Effects of NUTRIOSE® dietary fiber supplementation on body weight, body composition, energy intake, and hunger in overweight men.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of a soluble dietary fiber, NUTRIOSE(®), on body weight, body composition, energy intake and hunger in overweight Chinese men. The volunteers were randomized in double-blind fashion to 250 ml fruit juice supplemented with NUTRIOSE(®) (Test, n = 60) or a maltodextrin (Control, n = 60) at a dosage of 17 g twice daily for 12 weeks. Body weight, body composition were performed at 0, 4, 8 and 12 weeks while daily energy intake and hunger were assessed every 3 days. Test subjects had reductions in body weight (1.5 kg, P < 0.001), body mass index (0.5 kg/m(2), P < 0.001) and body fat percentage (0.3%, P < 0.001) versus Controls. NUTRIOSE(®) supplementation resulted in a lower daily energy intake (3,079 kJ/day, P < 0.001) with group differences noted as early as 3 days. Test subjects reported less hunger across the study period versus Controls (P < 0.01). NUTRIOSE(®) supplementation for 12 weeks results in body composition improvements and reduces body weight, energy intake and hunger in overweight men. PMID:21591985

Guerin-Deremaux, Laetitia; Li, Shuguang; Pochat, Marine; Wils, Daniel; Mubasher, Mohamed; Reifer, Cheryl; Miller, Larry E

2011-09-01

136

Change in Diet, Physical Activity, and Body Weight in Female College Freshman  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine diet, physical activity, and body-weight changes associated with relocation from home to university. Methods: Diet, fitness/physical activity, body-weight parameters and self-efficacy were assessed among 54 freshman women upon college entry and 5 months later. Results: Although caloric intake significantly decreased, a…

Butler, Scott M.; Black, David R.; Blue, Carolyn L.; Gretebeck, Randall J.

2004-01-01

137

Comparison of Methods for Assessing Body Composition Changes during Weight Loss.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated whether dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and air displacement plethysmography (ADP) would detect similar changes in body composition after moderate weight loss. Twenty adults had their body composition measured using DXA and ADP before and after an 8-week weight loss program. Overall, both DXA and ADP detected similar changes in…

Weyers, Anna M.; Mazzetti, Scott A.; Love, Dawn M.; Gomez, Ana L.; Kraemer, William J.; Volek, Jeff S.

2002-01-01

138

A system for the automated recording of feeding behavior and body weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method that uses passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags for the continuous recording of feeding behavior and body weight from multiple individual animals is described. We have used this method in the field and in semi-natural captive conditions with black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) to determine daily and seasonal patterns in body weight and to estimate the proportions of food cached

Michael J. Boisvert; David F. Sherry

2000-01-01

139

LOTUS 1-2-3-BASED SYSTEM FOR RECORDING AND MAINTAINING BODY WEIGHT OF LABORATORY ANIMALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Body weight maintenance is required in a variety of behavioral and physiological studies. C-based animal weighing system is described which features automated data collection and allows for accurate control of body weight in test animals via manipulation of food intake. ajor syst...

140

Modulatory role of food, feeding regime and physical exercise on body weight and insulin resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy intake and expenditure is a highly conserved and well-controlled system with a bias toward energy intake. In times of abundant food supply, individuals tend to overeat and in consequence to increase body weight, sometimes to the point of clinical obesity. Obesity is a disease that is not only characterized by enormous body weight but also by rising morbidity for

Beate D. Kretschmer; Pierre Schelling; Norbert Beier; Christiane Liebscher; Sabine Treutel; Nicole Krüger; Hans-Peter Scholz; Anke Haus

2005-01-01

141

Secular changes in height, body weight, body mass index and pubertal development in male children and adolescents in Krakow, Poland.  

PubMed

This study examined the secular changes in height, body weight, body mass index and pubertal development in male children and adolescents in Krakow (Poland) over the past 80 years, with an emphasis on the last decade (2000-2010). The survey of the population of Krakow is a continuation of observations conducted in that area for many years. The analysis aims to determine whether in the last decade Krakow still witnessed the secular trend, and what form the trend took. The body height and weight, and body mass index (BMI), of 1862 boys aged 3.5-18.5 years were analysed, against the background of a survey series from the years 1938 (N = 1801), 1971 (N = 2045), 1983 (N = 3124) and 2000 (N = 2328). The mean body height, in almost all age categories, was greater than in the past; however the final height over the last decade remained the same. The mean values of body weight and BMI increased, especially in the last decade. Also, an acceleration of puberty in boys was observed. The last 10 years saw an over 3-month decrease in the age of initial appearance of pubic hair in boys. In conclusion, the last decade saw cessation of the growing taller trend: maximum body height stabilized at approximately 179 cm, but weight and BMI increased. Also, a distinct acceleration of puberty was noticed. Lack of height increase, at the same time as weight gain and puberty acceleration, indicate a progressing developmental disharmony. PMID:22225553

Kryst, ?ukasz; Kowal, Ma?gorzata; Woronkowicz, Agnieszka; Sobiecki, Jan; Cichocka, Barbara Anna

2012-07-01

142

Anthropometry and Body Composition Status during Ramadan among Higher Institution Learning Centre Staffs with Different Body Weight Status  

PubMed Central

This study was done to observe the anthropometry and body composition changes before, during, and after the holy month of Ramadan. This study was carried out on 46 staff from one of the local universities, which comprised of 14 males and 32 females ranging in age from 25 to 40 years old. There were four sessions done to complete this study, namely, a week before Ramadan (T1), 1st week of Ramadan (T2), 3rd week of Ramadan (T3), and a month after Ramadan (T4). All subjects were assessed according to weight, body circumference, and body composition status. It was found that subjects with different weight status showed a significant reduction in weight (P < 0.01) but no significant reduction in body fat percentage (P < 0.05). The findings suggest that weight reduction does not promise a reduction in body fat. Changes in neck circumference were only found in normal subjects. Hence, it can be said that overweight and obese subjects showed no changes in anthropometry status during Ramadan. No changes in body composition were reported in all three weight groups except for trunk body fat. In conclusion, normal subjects showed significant changes in various anthropometry parameters, but overweight and obese subjects showed no obvious difference. PMID:24311975

Rozano, Nurismalina; Abd Hadi, Norhayati; Mat Nor, Mohd Nasir; Dandinasivara Venkateshaiah, Muralidhara

2013-01-01

143

Influence of Body Weight Support on Normal Human Gait: Development of a Gait Retraining Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recovq of locomotion, following interactive training with graded weight support, in the adult spinal cat has led to the proposal that removal of body weight may be a therapeutic tool in human gait retraining. There would be bene- fits, however, in knowing normal responses of humans to partial weight bearing before applying this strategy to patients. In this study,

Barbeau B Arsenault; Hugues Barbeau; Bertrand Arsenault

1991-01-01

144

Letter to Editor Height, weight, body mass index and offspring sex at birth in  

E-print Network

Letter to Editor Height, weight, body mass index and offspring sex at birth in contemporary Finnish deliver more sons. I examined how height and weight affected the birth sex ratio of offspring­177), mean weight was 71.1 kg (713.2 SD, range 46­135). Mean offspring sex ratio at birth was 0.53 (70.39 SD

Helle, Samuli

145

Single rapamycin administration induces prolonged downward shift in defended body weight in rats.  

PubMed

Manipulation of body weight set point may be an effective weight loss and maintenance strategy as the homeostatic mechanism governing energy balance remains intact even in obese conditions and counters the effort to lose weight. However, how the set point is determined is not well understood. We show that a single injection of rapamycin (RAP), an mTOR inhibitor, is sufficient to shift the set point in rats. Intraperitoneal RAP decreased food intake and daily weight gain for several days, but surprisingly, there was also a long-term reduction in body weight which lasted at least 10 weeks without additional RAP injection. These effects were not due to malaise or glucose intolerance. Two RAP administrations with a two-week interval had additive effects on body weight without desensitization and significantly reduced the white adipose tissue weight. When challenged with food deprivation, vehicle and RAP-treated rats responded with rebound hyperphagia, suggesting that RAP was not inhibiting compensatory responses to weight loss. Instead, RAP animals defended a lower body weight achieved after RAP treatment. Decreased food intake and body weight were also seen with intracerebroventricular injection of RAP, indicating that the RAP effect is at least partially mediated by the brain. In summary, we found a novel effect of RAP that maintains lower body weight by shifting the set point long-term. Thus, RAP and related compounds may be unique tools to investigate the mechanisms by which the defended level of body weight is determined; such compounds may also be used to complement weight loss strategy. PMID:24787262

Hebert, Mark; Licursi, Maria; Jensen, Brittany; Baker, Ashley; Milway, Steve; Malsbury, Charles; Grant, Virginia L; Adamec, Robert; Hirasawa, Michiru; Blundell, Jacqueline

2014-01-01

146

Factors Associated With Body Weight Status of Iranian Postgraduate Students in University of Putra Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Background: Good nutrition, a balanced diet and regular physical activity are foundations of good health. Research has found that dietary patterns change dramatically following the arrival of students in a foreign country. However, nutritional status of Iranian students studying oversea has never been investigated. Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine factors associated with body weight status of Iranian postgraduate students in Universiti of Putra Malaysia (UPM). Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the body weight status of 210 Iranian postgraduate students aged between 22 and 55 years in University of Putra Malaysia. The associations between body weight status and socio demographics factors and also lifestyle factors (smoking and physical activity) were assessed. Anthropometric factors (height, weight, BMI and waist and hip circumferences) were measured. Chi-square, Spearman Rho and Pearson tests were used for data analysis. Results: From a total of 210 postgraduate students 110 were females, and 100 males. No significant correlation was observed between smoking and BMI (P = 0.4). However, statistically significant correlations were observed between gender (P = 0.007), physical activity (P = 0.02), using protein (P = 0.005), carbohydrate (P = 0.002), fat (P = 0.001), fiber (P = 0.003), vitamin C (P = 0.04), calcium (P = 0.005), waist circumference (P = 0.02), hip circumference (P = 0.001), Waist to Hip Ratio (P = 0.002), and BMI. Conclusions: The nutritional behavior of university students was poor. Therefore, it is essential to encourage young people, including university students to enrich their diets with milk, beans, fruit, and vegetables to decrease the risks of nutrition related disorders. PMID:25414886

Zarei, Maryam; Mohd Taib, Mohd Nasir; Zarei, Fatemeh; Abu Saad, Hazizi

2013-01-01

147

Human Growth and Body Weight Dynamics: An Integrative Systems Model  

E-print Network

Quantifying human weight and height dynamics due to growth, aging, and energy balance can inform clinical practice and policy analysis. This paper presents the first mechanism-based model spanning full individual life and ...

Rahmandad, Hazhir

148

Mid-winter food use and body weights of mallards and wood ducks in Mississippi  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We obtained esophageal food samples from 311 mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and 94 wood ducks (Aix sponsa) and body weights from 2,118 mallards and 315 wood ducks in western Mississippi during December and January 1979-83. On average, mallards ingested 3.0% animal food, principally aquatic invertebrates, and 97.0% plant food. Rice, soybeans, and seeds of 'moist soil' plants provided 41.3, 41.6, and 10-11% of the total food intake. Wood ducks ingested nearly 100% plant food, of which 23.4% was soybeans and 74.3% was acorns from Nuttall (Quercus nuttallii), water (Q. nigra), and willow oaks (Q. phellos). Mallard food use varied with water conditions; the use of rice decreased and soybeans increased during 1980-81 when cumulative November-January precipitation was < 50% of normal. Wood duck food use varied with habitat; the diet included more acorns at sites having larger acreages of intact bottomland hardwood forest. Mallard and wood duck body weights varied within and among winters. Mallard weights decreased by about 2% from December to January each year. We considered this a regulated loss, whereas we attributed increases and decreases of 4-5% in average weights during wet and dry winters to changes in feeding opportunities associated with winter precipitation. Wood duck weights followed similar trends. We concluded that continued drainage in the Mississippi Delta will adversely affect waterfowl foraging opportunities, and that research on winter feeding ecology will progress more rapidly if we develop an understanding of the foraging efficiencies associated with alternate food resources.

Delnicki, D.; Reinecke, K.J.

1986-01-01

149

Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components among Chinese Professional Athletes of Strength Sports with Different Body Weight Categories  

PubMed Central

Background There is an increasing concern on cardiometabolic health in young professional athletes at heavy-weight class. Objective Our cross-sectional survey aimed to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and clustering of metabolic risk factors in a population of young and active professional athletes of strength sports in China. Methods From July 2006 to December 2008, a total of 131 male and 130 female athletes of strength sports were enrolled. We used two criteria provided by the Chinese Diabetes Society (2004) and the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III (2002) to define the metabolic syndrome and its individual components, respectively. Results Regardless of their similar ages (mean: 21 years) and exercise levels, athletes in the heaviest-weight-class with unlimited maximum body weight (UBW) boundaries (mean weight and BMI: 130 kg and 38 kg/m2 for men, 110 kg and 37 kg/m2 for women) had significantly higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome than did those in all other body-weight-class with limited body weight (LBW) boundaries (mean weight and BMI: 105 kg and 32 kg/m2 for men, 70 kg and 26 kg/m2 for women). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome using CDS criteria (UBW vs. LBW: 89% vs. 18% for men, 47% vs. 0% for women) and its individual components, including central obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, and impaired fasting glucose, were all significantly higher in athletes at the heaviest weight group with UBW than all other weight groups with LBW. Conclusions Our study suggests that professional athletes of strength sports at the heaviest-weight-class are at a significant increased risk of cardiometabolic disease compared with those at all other weight categories. The findings support the importance of developing and implementing the strategy of early screening, awareness, and interventions for weight-related health among young athletes. PMID:24255714

Guo, Jianjun; Zhang, Xi; Wang, Ling; Guo, Yan; Xie, Minhao

2013-01-01

150

Relationships Between Body Size Satisfaction and Weight Control Practices Among US Adults  

PubMed Central

Context Few studies of US adults have specifically examined body size satisfaction Objectives Describe correlates of body size satisfaction and examine whether satisfaction was associated with trying to lose weight or specific weight control practices among US adults using a national sample of women and men. Design, Setting & Participants The National Physical Activity and Weight Loss Survey (NPAWLS) was a population-based, cross-sectional telephone survey of US adults (n = 9740). Main Outcome Measures Participants reported their weight, height, body size satisfaction, and weight loss practices. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for each dependent variable. Results Among women and men, higher body mass index (BMI) was significantly associated with body size dissatisfaction. Dissatisfaction, compared with being very satisfied, was positively associated with trying to lose weight among women and men. This association was modified by BMI for women (OR normal weight = 19.69, overweight = 8.79, obese = 4.05; P < .01 for interaction) but not men (OR normal weight = 8.72, overweight = 10.50, obese = 7.86; P = 0.93 for interaction). Compared with women who were very satisfied, dissatisfied women used diet more (OR = 2.03), but not physical activity/exercise (OR = 0.55) or both strategies (OR = 0.63), to try to lose weight. Men who were somewhat satisfied, compared with those who were very satisfied, were more likely to use physical activity/exercise (OR = 1.64) and both diet and physical activity/exercise (OR = 1.54) to try to lose weight. Conclusion These findings highlight the sex differences in body size satisfaction, actions taken to try to lose weight, and the importance of considering body size satisfaction when designing weight-management programs. PMID:18596944

Millstein, Rachel A.; Carlson, Susan A.; Fulton, Janet E.; Galuska, Deborah A.; Zhang, Jian; Blanck, Heidi M.; Ainsworth, Barbara E.

2008-01-01

151

Linking cellular zinc status to body weight and fat mass: mapping quantitative trait loci in Znt7 knockout mice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Zinc transporter 7 (Znt7, Slc30a7) knockout (KO) mice display abnormalities in body weight gain and body adiposity. Regulation of body weight and fatness is complex, involving multiple genetic and environmental factors. To understand how zinc homeostasis influences body weight gain and fat deposit a...

152

Cocaine's appetite for fat and the consequences on body weight.  

PubMed

Abstract For many individuals in treatment for cocaine dependence, weight gain is a substantial problem during recovery. This weight gain causes significant distress and seems to increase the risk of relapse. The mechanisms underlying cocaine's effects on weight remain elusive. It is widely assumed that this weight gain reflects a metabolic or behavioural compensatory response to the cessation of cocaine use. Here we challenge this assumption and outline potential mechanisms by which chronic cocaine use produces disturbances in the regulation of fat intake and storage, through its effects on the central and peripheral nervous systems, specifically the sympathetic nervous system. We hypothesize that the cocaine-induced alteration in fat regulation results in cocaine users developing a pronounced appetite for fatty food but keeps their fat mass low. This altered fat appetite subsequently leads to excessive weight gain when individuals enter treatment and stop using cocaine. Our aim is to shed light on the neurobiological mechanisms that may underlie the alterations in eating and fat regulation in cocaine-dependent individuals, to open up potential new avenues to support these individuals in recovery. PMID:25321424

Billing, Lawrence; Ersche, Karen D

2014-10-16

153

Health Perceptions and Demographic Characteristics Associated With Underassessment of Body Weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:To describe the relationship between BMI and perceived weight status and to determine how underassessment of weight status is associated with demographic characteristics, self-reported general health, and perceived health risk in relation to one's body weight.Methods and Procedures:In the 2004 Styles surveys, 3,888 US adult participants described their current weight status (underweight, about right, slightly overweight, very overweight), which we

Cria O. Gregory; Heidi M. Blanck; Cathleen Gillespie; L. Michele Maynard; Mary K. Serdula

2008-01-01

154

Weight-loss diet that includes consumption of medium-chain triacylglycerol oil leads to a greater rate of weight and fat mass loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Clinical studies have shown that consumption of medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCTs) leads to greater energy ex- penditure than does consumption of long-chain triacylglycerols. Such studies suggest that MCT consumption may be useful for weight management. Objective: We aimed to determine whether consumption of MCT oil improves body weight and fat loss compared with olive oil when consumed as part of

Marie-Pierre St-Onge; Aubrey Bosarge

155

A common variant in the adiponectin gene on weight loss and body composition under sibutramine therapy in obesity  

PubMed Central

In this study, we aimed to explore whether a common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs266729 (?11,377C > G), in the adiponectin C1Q and collagen domain containing (ADIPOQ) gene could influence weight reduction and fat change under sibutramine therapy in an obese population. There were 131 obese Taiwanese patients, including 44 in the placebo group and 87 in the sibutramine (10 mg daily) group. We assessed the measures of weight loss and body fat reduction at the end of the 12-week treatment period by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) models using gender, baseline weight, and baseline percent body fat as covariates. By comparing the placebo and sibutramine groups with ANCOVA, our data revealed a strong effect of sibutramine on percent body fat loss (1.9 ± 0.3 vs 4.6 ± 0.5%; P < 0.001) and on weight reduction (2.8 ± 2.0 vs 7.9 ± 1.6 kg; P < 0.001) for subjects with the CC genotype. On the contrary, sibutramine had no significant effect on percent body fat loss or on weight loss in the GG and GC individuals. The results suggest that the SNP rs266729 of the ADIPOQ gene may contribute to weight reduction and fat loss in response to sibutramine therapy in Taiwanese obese patients. PMID:22291493

Hsiao, Tun-Jen; Wu, Lawrence Shih-Hsin; Huang, Shih-Yi; Lin, Eugene

2010-01-01

156

Assessment of residual body weight gain and residual intake and body weight gain as feed efficiency traits in the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo)  

PubMed Central

Background Since feed represents 70% of the total cost in poultry production systems, an animal’s ability to convert feed is an important trait. In this study, residual feed intake (RFI) and residual body weight gain (RG), and their linear combination into residual feed intake and body weight gain (RIG) were studied to estimate their genetic parameters and analyze the potential differences in feed intake between the top ranked birds based on the criteria for each trait. Methods Phenotypic and genetic analyses were completed on 8340 growing tom turkeys that were measured for feed intake and body weight gain over a four-week period from 16 to 20 weeks of age. Results The heritabilities of RG and RIG were 0.19?±?0.03 and 0.23?±?0.03, respectively. Residual body weight gain had moderate genetic correlations with feed intake (?0.41) and body weight gain (0.43). All three linear combinations to form the RIG traits had genetic correlations ranging from ?0.62 to ?0.52 with feed intake, and slightly weaker, 0.22 to 0.34, with body weight gain. Sorted into three equal groups (low, medium, high) based on RG, the most efficient group (high) gained 0.62 and 1.70 kg more (P?body weight than that of the medium and low groups, yet the feed intake for the high group was less (P?body weight gain (7.41 vs. 7.03 and 6.43 kg) relative to the medium and low groups, respectively. Conclusions The difference in feed intake between the top ranked birds based on different residual feed efficiency traits may be small when looking at the average individual, however, when extrapolated to the production level, the lower feed intake values could lead to significant savings in feed costs over time. PMID:23865507

2013-01-01

157

A mathematical model of murine metabolic regulation by leptin: energy balance and defense of a stable body weight  

PubMed Central

Summary We have developed a physiologically-based mathematical model, with parameters derived from published experimental data, to simulate the regulatory effects of the leptin pathway on murine energy homeostasis. Model outcomes are consistent with data reported in the literature, and reproduce key characteristics of the energy regulatory system, including compensatory responses that counteract changes in body weight, and the failure of this ability when the leptin pathway is disrupted. Our model revealed the possibility of multiple steady states for body weight. It also provided a unified theoretical framework for two historically antagonistic hypotheses regarding body weight regulation (“set-point” vs. “settling point”). Finally, our model has identified potential avenues for future investigations. PMID:19117546

Tam, Joshua; Fukumura, Dai; Jain, Rakesh K.

2009-01-01

158

Comparison of the acute metabolic responses to traditional resistance, body-weight, and battling rope exercises.  

PubMed

Ratamess, NA, Rosenberg, JG, Klei, S, Dougherty, BM, Kang, J, Smith, CR, Ross, RE, and Faigenbaum, AD. Comparison of the acute metabolic responses to traditional resistance, body-weight, and battling rope exercises. J Strength Cond Res 29(1): 47-57, 2015-The purpose of this study was to quantify and compare the acute metabolic responses to resistance exercise protocols comprising free-weight, body-weight, and battling rope (BR) exercises. Ten resistance-trained men (age = 20.6 ± 1.3 years) performed 13 resistance exercise protocols on separate days in random order consisting of only one exercise per session. For free-weight exercise protocols, subjects performed 3 sets of up to 10 repetitions with 75% of their 1 repetition maximum. For the push-up (PU) and push-up on a BOSU ball protocols, subjects performed 3 sets of 20 repetitions. For the burpee and PU with lateral crawl protocols, subjects performed 3 sets of 10 repetitions. For the plank and BR circuit protocols, subjects performed 3 sets of 30-second bouts. A standard 2-minute rest interval (RI) was used in between all sets for each exercise. Data were averaged for the entire protocol including work and RIs. Mean oxygen consumption was significantly greatest during the BR (24.6 ± 2.6 ml·kg·min) and burpee (22.9 ± 2.1 ml·kg·min) protocols. For the free-weight exercises, highest mean values were seen in the squat (19.6 ± 1.8 ml·kg·min), deadlift (18.9 ± 3.0 ml·kg·min), and lunge (17.3 ± 2.6 ml·kg·min). No differences were observed between PUs performed on the floor vs. on a BOSU ball. However, adding a lateral crawl to the PU significantly increased mean oxygen consumption (19.5 ± 2.9 ml·kg·min). The lowest mean value was seen during the plank exercise (7.9 ± 0.7 ml·kg·min). These data indicate performance of exercises with BRs and a body-weight burpee exercise elicit relatively higher acute metabolic demands than traditional resistance exercises performed with moderately heavy loading. PMID:24942174

Ratamess, Nicholas A; Rosenberg, Joseph G; Klei, Samantha; Dougherty, Brian M; Kang, Jie; Smith, Charles R; Ross, Ryan E; Faigenbaum, Avery D

2015-01-01

159

Body composition and power performance improved after weight reduction in male athletes without hampering hormonal balance.  

PubMed

Huovinen, HT, Hulmi, JJ, Isolehto, J, Kyröläinen, H, Puurtinen, R, Karila, T, Mackala, K, and Mero, AA. Body composition and power performance improved after weight reduction in male athletes without hampering hormonal balance. J Strength Cond Res 29(1): 29-36, 2015-The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a 4-week weight reduction period with high protein and reduced carbohydrate intake on body composition, explosive power, speed, serum hormones, and acid-base balance in male track and field jumpers and sprinters. Eight participants were assigned to a high weight reduction group (HWR; energy restriction 750 kcal·d) and 7 to a low weight reduction group (LWR; energy restriction 300 kcal·d). Energy and carbohydrate intake decreased significantly (p ? 0.05) only in HWR by 740 ± 330 kcal·d and 130 ± 29 g·d, respectively. Furthermore, total body mass and fat mass decreased (p ? 0.05) only in HWR by 2.2 ± 1.0 kg and 1.7 ± 1.6 kg, respectively. Fat-free mass (FFM), serum testosterone, cortisol, and sex hormone-binding globulin did not change significantly. Ca ion and pH decreased (p ? 0.05) only in HWR (3.1 ± 2.8% and 0.8 ± 0.8%, respectively), whereas (Equation is included in full-text article.)declined (p ? 0.05) in both groups by 19.3 ± 6.2% in HWR and by 13.1 ± 8.5% in LWR. The countermovement jump and 20-m sprint time improved consistently (p ? 0.05) only in HWR, by 2.6 ± 2.5 cm and 0.04 ± 0.04 seconds, respectively. Finally, athletes with a fat percentage of 10% or more at the baseline were able to preserve FFM. In conclusion, altered acid-base balance but improved weight-bearing power performance was observed without negative consequences on serum hormones and FFM after a 4-week weight reduction of 0.5 kg·wk achieved by reduced carbohydrate but maintained high protein intake. PMID:25028999

Huovinen, Heikki T; Hulmi, Juha J; Isolehto, Juha; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Puurtinen, Risto; Karila, Tuomo; Mackala, Krzysztof; Mero, Antti A

2015-01-01

160

Body Weight and Matching with a Physically Attractive Romantic Partner  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Matching and attribute trade are two perspectives used to explain mate selection. We investigated patterns of matching and trade, focusing on obesity, using Add Health Romantic Pair data (N = 1,405 couples). Obese individuals, relative to healthy weight individuals, were less likely to have physically attractive partners, with this disadvantage…

Carmalt, Julie H.; Cawley, John; Joyner, Kara; Sobal, Jeffery

2008-01-01

161

Stability of Pigeon Body Weight under Free-Feeding Conditions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increases in regulatory oversight of animal research require verification of effects of standard practices. There are no formal guidelines for establishing free-feeding weights in adult pigeons. In the present study, pigeons were obtained from a commercial supplier, weighed upon arrival, and then held in quarantine for 7 days with free access to…

Kangas, Brian D.; Branch, Marc N.

2006-01-01

162

Longitudinal Trajectories of Perceived Body Weight: Adolescence to Early Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine longitudinal trajectories of perceived weight from adolescence to early adulthood by gender. Methods: We analyzed 9 waves (1997-2005) of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 8302) using Mplus. Results: Perceived overweight increased over time among girls and did not level off until 23 years of age. Blacks…

Seo, Dong-Chul; Li, Kaigang

2012-01-01

163

Adolescent-parent interactions and communication preferences regarding body weight and weight management: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to canvass the nature of adolescent-parent interactions about weight, particularly overweight, and to explore ideas of how to foster supportive discussions regarding weight, both in the home and with family doctors. METHODS: A market research company was contracted to recruit and conduct a series of separate focus groups with adolescents and unrelated parents of adolescents from

Vanessa A Shrewsbury; Lesley A King; Libby A Hattersley; Sarah A Howlett; Louise L Hardy; Louise A Baur

2010-01-01

164

Social Engagement in Adolescence Moderates the Association between Weight Status and Body Image  

PubMed Central

This study examined whether the association between adolescent weight status and body image varies by social engagement. A nationally representative sample of 6,909 students in grades 6 to 10 completed the 2006 HBSC survey. Separate linear regressions for boys and girls, controlling for age, race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status, were conducted with an interaction term (weight status x social engagement). Adolescents’ overweight/obese status was related to body dissatisfaction. Social engagement moderated the relationship between weight status and body image for girls but not for boys. Overweight/obese boys had more body dissatisfaction compared to their normal/underweight peers, regardless of their social engagement. However, overweight/obese girls with more social engagement were more likely to have body satisfaction compared to overweight/obese girls with less social engagement. Encouraging adolescent girls to develop healthy relationships with peers may prevent them from developing body dissatisfaction. PMID:22325852

Caccavale, Laura J.; Farhat, Tilda; Iannotti, Ronald J.

2012-01-01

165

Effects of the Obese Gene Product on Body Weight Regulation in Ob\\/Ob Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

C57BL\\/6J-mice with a mutation in the obese (ob) gene are obese, diabetic, and exhibit reduced activity, metabolism, and body temperature. Daily intraperitoneal injection of these mice with recombinant OB protein lowered their body weight, percent body fat, food intake, and serum concentrations of glucose and insulin. In addition, metabolic rate, body temperature, and activity levels were increased by this treatment.

Mary Ann Pelleymounter; Mary Jane Cullen; Mary Beth Baker; Randy Hecht; Dwight Winters; Thomas Boone; Frank Collins

1995-01-01

166

Body weight and food intake in Parkinson's disease. A review of the association to non-motor symptoms.  

PubMed

Research on eating behaviours has extensively highlighted that cognitive systems interact with the metabolic system in driving food intake and in influencing body weight regulation. Parkinson's disease is a good model for studying these complex interactions since alterations in both body weight and cognitive domains have been frequently reported among these patients. Interestingly, even if different non-motor symptoms may characterize the course of the disease, their contribution to weight and food preference has been poorly investigated. This review describes body weight alterations and eating habits in patients with Parkinson's disease, including those who underwent deep brain stimulation surgery. In particular, the review considers the link between non-motor symptoms, affecting sensory perception, cognition, mood and motivation, and food intake and weight alterations. The take home message is twofold. First, we recommend a comprehensive approach in order to develop effective strategies in the management of patients' weight. Second, we also suggest that investigating this issue in patients with Parkinson's disease may provide some useful information about the mechanisms underlying food and weight regulation in healthy subjects. PMID:25453591

Aiello, Marilena; Eleopra, Roberto; Rumiati, Raffella I

2015-01-01

167

Changes in eating attitudes, body esteem and weight control behaviours during adolescence in a South African cohort.  

PubMed

Failure to consume an adequate diet or over consumption during adolescence can disrupt normal growth and development, resulting in undesirable weight change. This leads to an increase in unhealthy weight control practices related to eating and exercise among both adolescent girls and boys to meet the societal 'ideal' body shape. This study therefore aims to examine the longitudinal changes in eating attitudes, body-esteem and weight control behaviours among adolescents between 13 and 17 years; and, to describe perceptions around body shape at age 17 years. A total of 1435 urban South African black and mixed ancestry boys and girls, who had data at both age 13 and 17 years from the Birth to Twenty cohort were included. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires on eating attitudes (EAT-26), body esteem and weight control behaviours for either weight loss or muscle gain attempts. Height and weight were measured at both time points and BMI was calculated. Black females had a higher BMI (p<0.001) and an increased risk of developing eating disorders as well as significant increase in the prevalence of weight loss practices between the ages 13 and 17 years. At age 17 years both Mixed ancestry adolescents had lower body-esteem compared to black adolescents. The prevalence of possible eating disorders was 11% and 13.1% in early and late adolescents respectively. Males and females shared similar opinions on normal silhouettes being the 'best', 'getting respect' and being the 'happiest', while the obese silhouette was associated with the 'worst' and the 'unhappiest', and the underweight silhouette with the "weakest". Black females had a higher BMI and an increased risk of developing eating disorders. Adolescent females engaged more in weight loss practices whereas, males in muscle gain practices indicating that Western norms of thinness as the ideal are becoming more common in South Africa. PMID:25310343

Gitau, Tabither M; Micklesfield, Lisa K; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A

2014-01-01

168

Changes in Eating Attitudes, Body Esteem and Weight Control Behaviours during Adolescence in a South African Cohort  

PubMed Central

Failure to consume an adequate diet or over consumption during adolescence can disrupt normal growth and development, resulting in undesirable weight change. This leads to an increase in unhealthy weight control practices related to eating and exercise among both adolescent girls and boys to meet the societal ‘ideal’ body shape. This study therefore aims to examine the longitudinal changes in eating attitudes, body-esteem and weight control behaviours among adolescents between 13 and 17 years; and, to describe perceptions around body shape at age 17 years. A total of 1435 urban South African black and mixed ancestry boys and girls, who had data at both age 13 and 17 years from the Birth to Twenty cohort were included. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires on eating attitudes (EAT-26), body esteem and weight control behaviours for either weight loss or muscle gain attempts. Height and weight were measured at both time points and BMI was calculated. Black females had a higher BMI (p<0.001) and an increased risk of developing eating disorders as well as significant increase in the prevalence of weight loss practices between the ages 13 and 17 years. At age 17 years both Mixed ancestry adolescents had lower body-esteem compared to black adolescents. The prevalence of possible eating disorders was 11% and 13.1% in early and late adolescents respectively. Males and females shared similar opinions on normal silhouettes being the ‘best’, ‘getting respect’ and being the ‘happiest’, while the obese silhouette was associated with the ‘worst’ and the ‘unhappiest’, and the underweight silhouette with the “weakest”. Black females had a higher BMI and an increased risk of developing eating disorders. Adolescent females engaged more in weight loss practices whereas, males in muscle gain practices indicating that Western norms of thinness as the ideal are becoming more common in South Africa. PMID:25310343

Gitau, Tabither M.; Micklesfield, Lisa K.; Pettifor, John M.; Norris, Shane A.

2014-01-01

169

Connecting theory to fat talk: body dissatisfaction mediates the relationships between weight discrepancy, upward comparison, body surveillance, and fat talk.  

PubMed

The fat talk literature is meager in terms of offering theoretical explanations for women's self-disparaging communication. The research presented here sought to establish a relationship between three prominent body image theories - self-discrepancy theory, social comparison theory, and objectification theory - and fat talk by proposing body dissatisfaction as a potential mediating mechanism. Young adult women (N=201) completed an online questionnaire. As predicted, results revealed that body dissatisfaction significantly mediated the relationships between weight discrepancy, upward comparison, body surveillance and fat talk. Effect size estimates indicated that the size of each indirect effect was medium in magnitude. PMID:24958666

Arroyo, Analisa

2014-06-01

170

The Vulnerability of Female Body Image to Weight Related Feedback.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A central component of anorexia nervosa is a body image disturbance (BID). BID, as it is experienced in anorexia nervosa, is defined as an inability to recognize how thin one really is and is exhibited by a sense of feeling overweight in spite of severe emaciation. Several researchers have recognized a relationship between depressive personality…

Mori, DeAnna L.; Morey, Leslie

171

Body weight and the prevalence of chronic diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation between body mass index and prevalence of 17 chronic diseases or groups of diseases was analysed using data from the 1983 Italian National Health Survey, based on a sample of 72,284 individuals aged 15 or over randomly selected within strata of geographical area, size of place of residence and of household in order to be representative of the

E Negri; R Pagano; A Decarli; C La Vecchia

1988-01-01

172

Depressed Mood and Body Weight: Exploring Race Differences in Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from the 1994-1998 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth merged Mother and Young Adult file, this article examines the relationship between depressive symptoms and body mass index (BMI) in adolescence. The authors also examine whether this relationship varies by race and gender. Their findings indicate that over a 4-year…

Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Christie-Mizell, C. Andre

2010-01-01

173

Variation in genes related to hepatic lipid metabolism and changes in waist circumference and body weight.  

PubMed

We analysed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tagging the genetic variability of six candidate genes (ATF6, FABP1, LPIN2, LPIN3, MLXIPL and MTTP) involved in the regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism, an important regulatory site of energy balance for associations with body mass index (BMI) and changes in weight and waist circumference. We also investigated effect modification by sex and dietary intake. Data of 6,287 individuals participating in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition were included in the analyses. Data on weight and waist circumference were followed up for 6.9 ± 2.5 years. Association of 69 tagSNPs with baseline BMI and annual changes in weight as well as waist circumference were investigated using linear regression analysis. Interactions with sex, GI and intake of carbohydrates, fat as well as saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids were examined by including multiplicative SNP-covariate terms into the regression model. Neither baseline BMI nor annual weight or waist circumference changes were significantly associated with variation in the selected genes in the entire study population after correction for multiple testing. One SNP (rs1164) in LPIN2 appeared to be significantly interacting with sex (p = 0.0003) and was associated with greater annual weight gain in men (56.8 ± 23.7 g/year per allele, p = 0.02) than in women (-25.5 ± 19.8 g/year per allele, p = 0.2). With respect to gene-nutrient interaction, we could not detect any significant interactions when accounting for multiple testing. Therefore, out of our six candidate genes, LPIN2 may be considered as a candidate for further studies. PMID:24496996

Meidtner, Karina; Fisher, Eva; Angquist, Lars; Holst, Claus; Vimaleswaran, Karani S; Boer, Jolanda M A; Halkjær, Jytte; Masala, Giovanna; Ostergaard, Jane N; Mortensen, Lotte M; van der A, Daphne L; Tjønneland, Anne; Palli, Domenico; Overvad, Kim; Wareham, Nicholas J; Loos, Ruth J F; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Boeing, Heiner

2014-03-01

174

GLP-1 receptor signaling is not required for reduced body weight after RYGB in rodents.  

PubMed

Exaggerated GLP-1 and PYY secretion is thought to be a major mechanism in the reduced food intake and body weight after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Here, we use complementary pharmacological and genetic loss-of-function approaches to test the role of increased signaling by these gut hormones in high-fat diet-induced obese rodents. Chronic brain infusion of a supramaximal dose of the selective GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin-9-39 into the lateral cerebral ventricle significantly increased food intake and body weight in both RYGB and sham-operated rats, suggesting that, while contributing to the physiological control of food intake and body weight, central GLP-1 receptor signaling tone is not the critical mechanism uniquely responsible for the body weight-lowering effects of RYGB. Central infusion of the selective Y2R-antagonist BIIE0246 had no effect in either group, suggesting that it is not critical for the effects of RYGB on body weight under the conditions tested. In a recently established mouse model of RYGB that closely mimics surgery and weight loss dynamics in humans, obese GLP-1R-deficient mice lost the same amount of body weight and fat mass and maintained similarly lower body weight compared with wild-type mice. Together, the results surprisingly provide no support for important individual roles of either gut hormone in the specific mechanisms by which RYGB rats settle at a lower body weight. It is likely that the beneficial effects of bariatric surgeries are expressed through complex mechanisms that require combination approaches for their identification. PMID:24430883

Ye, Jianping; Hao, Zheng; Mumphrey, Michael B; Townsend, R Leigh; Patterson, Laurel M; Stylopoulos, Nicholas; Münzberg, Heike; Morrison, Christopher D; Drucker, Daniel J; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf

2014-03-01

175

Long-Lasting Improvements in Liver Fat and Metabolism Despite Body Weight Regain After Dietary Weight Loss  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Weight loss reduces abdominal and intrahepatic fat, thereby improving metabolic and cardiovascular risk. Yet, many patients regain weight after successful diet-induced weight loss. Long-term changes in abdominal and liver fat, along with liver test results and insulin resistance, are not known. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed 50 overweight to obese subjects (46 ± 9 years of age; BMI, 32.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2; women, 77%) who had participated in a 6-month hypocaloric diet and were randomized to either reduced carbohydrates or reduced fat content. Before, directly after diet, and at an average of 24 (range, 17–36) months follow-up, we assessed body fat distribution by magnetic resonance imaging and markers of liver function and insulin resistance. RESULTS Body weight decreased with diet but had increased again at follow-up. Subjects also partially regained abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. In contrast, intrahepatic fat decreased with diet and remained reduced at follow-up (7.8 ± 9.8% [baseline], 4.5 ± 5.9% [6 months], and 4.7 ± 5.9% [follow-up]). Similar patterns were observed for markers of liver function, whole-body insulin sensitivity, and hepatic insulin resistance. Changes in intrahepatic fat und intrahepatic function were independent of macronutrient composition during intervention and were most effective in subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease at baseline. CONCLUSIONS A 6-month hypocaloric diet induced improvements in hepatic fat, liver test results, and insulin resistance despite regaining of weight up to 2 years after the active intervention. Body weight and adiposity measurements may underestimate beneficial long-term effects of dietary interventions. PMID:23963894

Haufe, Sven; Haas, Verena; Utz, Wolfgang; Birkenfeld, Andreas L.; Jeran, Stephanie; Böhnke, Jana; Mähler, Anja; Luft, Friedrich C.; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Boschmann, Michael; Jordan, Jens; Engeli, Stefan

2013-01-01

176

Perceived stress and freshman weight change: The moderating role of baseline body mass index.  

PubMed

The transition from high-school to university is a critical period of weight change. Popular media suggest that freshman students gain 15lb (6.80kg) of body weight during their first year at university (i.e., the freshman 15). In contrast, a recent meta-analysis calculated freshman weight gain to be 1.75kg, with statistics suggesting that only a proportion of freshman students are prone to gain weight. Researchers are beginning to investigate how certain variables and interactions between such variables predict freshman weight status. The current study focused on body mass index (BMI) and psychological stress. In isolation, previous research has tested how these two variables predict freshman student's weight status. However, because BMI and stress interact to predict weight gain and weight loss in adult samples, the current study tested the interaction between student's baseline BMI and baseline stress levels to predict weight change in a New Zealand sample of freshman students (N=65). Participants completed two separate online surveys in March and October 2012 (i.e., New Zealand's academic year). Although only three students gained over 6.80kg (i.e., the freshman 15), participants did gain a statistically significant 1.10kg of body weight during the year. Consistent with previous research, students with a higher baseline BMI gained a higher amount of body weight. However, this main effect was qualified by an interaction between stress and BMI. Students who entered university with high levels of stress gained weight if they also had high BMIs; if they had lower BMIs then they lost weight. In order to reduce unhealthy levels of freshman weight change, vulnerable students need to be taught stress-reduction techniques and coping strategies early in the academic year. PMID:25484356

Boyce, Jessica A; Kuijer, Roeline G

2015-02-01

177

Influence of latent `asymptomatic' toxoplasmosis on body weight of pregnant women  

E-print Network

199 Influence of latent `asymptomatic' toxoplasmosis on body weight of pregnant women Jaroslav 44 Prague, Czech Republic; 2 National Reference Laboratory for Toxoplasmosis, National Institute toxoplasmosis, pathology, permutation test, gravidity Abstract. The latent toxoplasmosis is usually considered

Flegr, Jaroslav

178

Recent changes in body weight and wing length among some British passerine birds  

E-print Network

the unusual increase in blackbird body weight, possibly as a result of improving food (earthworm) availability. SYT also at Clare Hall, Cambridge, UK, CB3 9AL. JW also at: Inst. of Biology, NTNU, NO-7491 Trondheim

Yom-Tov, Yoram

179

Report on childhood obesity in China (5) Body weight, body dissatisfaction, and depression symptoms of Chinese children aged 9-10 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the relationship between body weight, body dissatisfaction and depression symptoms among Chinese children. METHODS: The fasting body weight and height of the third and fourth grade students (n = 3886, aged 9 or 10 years) from 20 schools in Beijing, China, were measured, and the students were asked to choose the figures of body image and to complete

Y. P. Li; G. S. Ma; E. G. Schouten; X. Q. Hu; Z. H. Cui; D. Wang; F. J. Kok

2007-01-01

180

Assessing stability of body weight in the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula).  

PubMed

When conducting controlled laboratory studies with non-traditional laboratory animals it is important that methods for determining body weight stability are reliable. This helps ensure the health and welfare of animals when they are maintained during periods of free feeding or food restriction. This study compared different methods for determining body weight stability in six common brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) maintained on a free-feeding diet under laboratory conditions. A criterion of five consecutive weighings with less than ±2.5% change across days and no more than two consecutive days of weight loss or weight gain was judged to be the most suitable criteria for determining stability. It is important to study non-traditional animals, especially endangered or pest species, under controlled laboratory conditions and to have robust methods for establishing body weight stability. PMID:24958547

Cameron, Kristie E; Bizo, Lewis A; Starkey, Nicola J

2015-01-01

181

Validity of weight loss to estimate improvement in body composition in individuals attending a wellness center.  

PubMed

The accuracy of weight loss in estimating successful changes in body composition (BC), namely fat mass (FM) loss, is not known and was addressed in our study. To assess the correlation between change in body weight and change in FM, fat% and fat-free mass (FFM), 465 participants (41% male; 41 ± 13 years), who met the criteria for weight change assessment at a wellness center, underwent air-displacement plethysmography (ADP). Body weight and BC were measured at the same time. We categorized the change in body weight, FM and FFM as an increase if there was >1 kg gain, a decrease if there was >1 kg loss and no change if the difference was ?1 kg. We estimated the diagnostic performance of weight change to identify improvement in BC. After a median time of 132 days, there was a mean weight change was 2.4 kg. From the 255 people who lost >1 kg of weight, 216 (84.7%) had lost >1 kg of FM, but 69 (27.1%) had lost >1 kg of FFM. Of the 143 people with no weight change, 42 (29.4%) had actually lost >1 kg of FM. Of the 67 who gained >1 kg of weight at follow-up, in 23 (34.3%) this was due to an increase in FFM but not in FM. Weight change had a NPV of 73%. Our results indicate that favorable improvements in BC may go undetected in almost one-third of people whose weight remains the same and in one-third of people who gain weight after attending a wellness center. These results underscore the potential role of BC measurements in people attempting lifestyle changes. PMID:21566566

Cruz, Paulina; Johnson, Bruce D; Karpinski, Susan C; Limoges, Katherine A; Warren, Beth A; Olsen, Kerry D; Somers, Virend K; Jensen, Michael D; Clark, Matthew M; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco

2011-11-01

182

Intracerebroventricular Administration of Soy Protein Hydrolysates Reduces Body Weight without Affecting Food Intake in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some studies suggest that increased consumption of soy protein hydrolysates may cause body weight loss but the mechanism of\\u000a action is unknown. The objective of this investigation was to determine whether intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion\\u000a of soy protein hydrolysates decrease food intake and body weight. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats (n?=?24) received i.c.v. injections of soy hydrolysate I (SH I) or

Nerissa Vaughn; Anthony Rizzo; Dolores Doane; J. Lee Beverly; Elvira Gonzalez de Mejia

2008-01-01

183

EFFECTS OF FEEDING AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS ON BODY WEIGHT AND REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF BALOCHI EWES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to assess the performance of Balochi ewes under three management systems i.e. T1-Extensive (grazing only), T2-Semi-extensive (grazing plus daily feed supplementation for nine months @ 0.625 kg\\/ewe\\/day) and T3-Intensive (experimental ration only @ 1.5625 kg\\/ewe\\/day). Animals under T1 lost as high as 7.9 kg body weight during winter. T2 flock maintained their body weights and T3

M. MUNIR; A. W. JASRA; M. A. MIRZA

184

A new technique for establishing dry weight in hemodialysis patients via whole body bioimpedance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new technique for establishing dry weight in hemodialysis patients via whole body bioimpedance.BackgroundQuantitative techniques are necessary to achieve dry weight (DW) in patients with kidney failure. Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) is a non-invasive method that determines the volume of body fluid compartments. The current work evaluates the use of BIS data in hemodialysis patients for the prediction of DW.MethodsA new

Paul W. Chamney; Matthias Krämer; Christiane Rode; Wolfgang Kleinekofort; Volker Wizemann

2002-01-01

185

A system for the automated recording of feeding behavior and body weight.  

PubMed

A method that uses passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags for the continuous recording of feeding behavior and body weight from multiple individual animals is described. We have used this method in the field and in semi-natural captive conditions with black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) to determine daily and seasonal patterns in body weight and to estimate the proportions of food cached and consumed. PMID:11134696

Boisvert, M J; Sherry, D F

186

Correlations between plasma insulin and body weight in obesity, anorexia nervosa and diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Determinations of plasma insulin levels (IRI) were performed in 79 patients before and after a quick intravenous glucose load (0.33 g\\/kg body weight). The patients were divided in normals (N), underweight patients (M), obese (O), latent diabetics (D1) and overt diabetics (D2), obese latent diabetics (OD1) and obese diabetics (OD2). The body weight varied from 59 to 290 per cent

F. Stephan; Ph. Reville; R. Thierry; J. L. Schlienger

1972-01-01

187

Excessive body weight is associated with additional loss of quality of life in children with asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Asthma and excessive body weight frequently coexist, whereas the exact relationship between the 2 diseases is unknown. Objective: To study whether asthma combined with excessive bodyweighthasagreatereffectonqualityoflifeinchildrenthan the separate effects of asthma or excessive body weight alone. Methods: In a cross-sectional design, 1758 school children (age 7-10 years) participated: 4 study groups were composed of children with asthma and with\\/without

Renevan Gent; Cornelis K. van der Ent; Maroeska M. Rovers

188

Appetite and body weight regulation after bariatric surgery.  

PubMed

Bariatric surgery continues to be remarkably efficient in treating obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus and a debate has started whether it should remain the last resort only or also be used for the prevention of metabolic diseases. Intense research efforts in humans and rodent models are underway to identify the critical mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects with a view towards non-surgical treatment options. This non-systematic review summarizes and interprets some of this literature, with an emphasis on changes in the controls of appetite. Contrary to earlier views, surgery-induced reduction of energy intake and subsequent weight loss appear to be the main drivers for rapid improvements of glycaemic control. The mechanisms responsible for suppression of appetite, particularly in the face of the large weight loss, are not well understood. Although a number of changes in food choice, taste functions, hedonic evaluation, motivation and self-control have been documented in both humans and rodents after surgery, their importance and relative contribution to diminished appetite has not yet been demonstrated. Furthermore, none of the major candidate mechanisms postulated in mediating surgery-induced changes from the gut and other organs to the brain, such as gut hormones and sensory neuronal pathways, have been confirmed yet. Future research efforts should focus on interventional rather than descriptive approaches in both humans and rodent models. PMID:25614206

Münzberg, H; Laque, A; Yu, S; Rezai-Zadeh, K; Berthoud, H-R

2015-02-01

189

The skinny on cocaine: insights into eating behavior and body weight in cocaine-dependent men.  

PubMed

There is a general assumption that weight loss associated with cocaine use reflects its appetite suppressing properties. We sought to determine whether this was justified by characterizing, in detail, alterations in dietary food intake and body composition in actively using cocaine-dependent individuals. We conducted a cross-sectional case-control comparison of 65 male volunteers from the local community, half of whom satisfied the DSM-IV-TR criteria for cocaine dependence (n=35) while the other half had no personal or family history of a psychiatric disorder, including substance abuse (n=30). Assessments were made of eating behavior and dietary food intake, estimation of body composition, and measurement of plasma leptin. Although cocaine users reported significantly higher levels of dietary fat and carbohydrates as well as patterns of uncontrolled eating, their fat mass was significantly reduced compared with their non-drug using peers. Levels of leptin were associated with fat mass, and with the duration of stimulant use. Tobacco smoking status or concomitant use of medication did not affect the significance of the results. Weight changes in cocaine users reflect fundamental perturbations in fat regulation. These are likely to be overlooked in clinical practice but may produce significant health problems when cocaine use is discontinued during recovery. PMID:23920064

Ersche, Karen D; Stochl, Jan; Woodward, Jeremy M; Fletcher, Paul C

2013-12-01

190

Expression of TRPV1 in rabbits and consuming hot pepper affects its body weight.  

PubMed

The capsaicin receptor, known as transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1), is an important membrane receptor that has been implicated in obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. The rabbit model is considered excellent for studying cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, however, the tissue expression of TRPV1 and physiological functions of its ligand capsaicin on diet-induced obesity have not been fully defined in this model. In the current study, we investigated the tissue expression of TRPV1 in normal rabbits using real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Rabbit TRPV1 mRNA was highly expressed in a variety of organs, including the kidneys, adrenal gland, spleen and brain. A phylogenetic analysis showed that the amino acid sequence of rabbit TRPV1 was closer to human TRPV1 than rodent TRPV1. To examine the effect of capsaicin (a pungent compound in hot pepper) on body weight, rabbits were fed with either a high fat diet (as control) or high fat diet containing 1% hot pepper. We found that the body weight of the hot pepper-fed rabbits was significantly lower than the control group. We conclude that the intake of capsaicin can prevent diet-induced obesity and rabbit model is useful for the study of TRPV1 function in cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. PMID:22327653

Yu, Qi; Wang, Yanli; Yu, Ying; Li, Yafeng; Zhao, Sihai; Chen, Yulong; Waqar, Ahmed Bilal; Fan, Jianglin; Liu, Enqi

2012-07-01

191

Glutamate Mediates the Function of Melanocortin Receptors 4 on Sim1 Neurons in Body Weight Regulation  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) is a well-established mediator of body weight homeostasis. However, the neurotransmitter(s) that mediate MC4R function remain largely unknown and as a result, little is known about the second-order neurons of the MC4R neural pathway. Single minded 1 (Sim1)-expressing brain regions, which include the paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus (PVH), represent key brain sites that mediate melanocortin action. We conditionally restored MC4R expression in Sim1 neurons in the background of Mc4r-null mice. The restoration dramatically reduced obesity in Mc4r-null mice. The anti-obesity effect was completely reversed by selective disruption of glutamate release from those same Sim1 neurons. The reversal was caused by lower energy expenditure and hyperphagia. Corroboratively, disruption of glutamate release selectively from adult PVH neurons led to rapid obesity development via reduced energy expenditure and hyperphagia. Thus, this study establishes glutamate as the primary neurotransmitter that mediates MC4Rs on Sim1 neurons in body weight regulation. PMID:24315371

Xu, Yuanzhong; Wu, Zhaofei; Sun, Hao; Zhu, Yaming; Kim, Eun Ran; Lowell, Bradford B.; Arenkiel, Benjamin R.; Xu, Yong; Tong, Qingchun

2013-01-01

192

The effect of job loss on body weight during an economic collapse.  

PubMed

Studies on the relationship between unemployment and body weight show a positive relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and unemployment at the individual level, while aggregate unemployment is negatively related to a population's average BMI. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between job loss and changes in body weight following the Icelandic economic collapse of 2008. The analysis relies on a health and lifestyle survey "Heilsa og líðan", carried out by The Public Health Institute of Iceland in the years 2007 and 2009. The sample is a stratified random sample of 9,807 Icelanders between the ages of 18 and 79, with a net response rate of 42.1% for individuals responding in both waves. A linear regression model was used when estimating the relationship between job loss following the economic collapse and changes in body weight. Family income and mental health were explored as mediators. Point estimates indicated that both men and women gain less weight in the event of a job loss relative to those who retained their employment. The coefficients of job loss were only statistically significant for females, but not in the male population. The results from all three models were inconsistent with results from other studies where job loss has been found to increase body weight. However, body weight has been shown to be procyclical, and the fact that the data used were gathered during a severe economic downturn might separate these results from earlier findings. PMID:23757095

Jónsdóttir, Sif; Ásgeirsdóttir, Tinna Laufey

2014-07-01

193

A Randomized Trial of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Adolescent Body Weight  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may cause excessive weight gain. We aimed to assess the effect on weight gain of an intervention that included the provision of noncaloric beverages at home for overweight and obese adolescents. METHODS We randomly assigned 224 overweight and obese adolescents who regularly consumed sugar-sweetened beverages to experimental and control groups. The experimental group received a 1-year intervention designed to decrease consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, with follow-up for an additional year without intervention. We hypothesized that the experimental group would gain weight at a slower rate than the control group. RESULTS Retention rates were 97% at 1 year and 93% at 2 years. Reported consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages was similar at baseline in the experimental and control groups (1.7 servings per day), declined to nearly 0 in the experimental group at 1 year, and remained lower in the experimental group than in the control group at 2 years. The primary outcome, the change in mean body-mass index (BMI, the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) at 2 years, did not differ significantly between the two groups (change in experimental group minus change in control group, ?0.3; P = 0.46). At 1 year, however, there were significant between-group differences for changes in BMI (?0.57, P = 0.045) and weight (?1.9 kg, P = 0.04). We found evidence of effect modification according to ethnic group at 1 year (P = 0.04) and 2 years (P = 0.01). In a prespecified analysis according to ethnic group, among Hispanic participants (27 in the experimental group and 19 in the control group), there was a significant between-group difference in the change in BMI at 1 year (?1.79, P = 0.007) and 2 years (?2.35, P = 0.01), but not among non-Hispanic participants (P>0.35 at years 1 and 2). The change in body fat as a percentage of total weight did not differ significantly between groups at 2 years (?0.5%, P = 0.40). There were no adverse events related to study participation. CONCLUSIONS Among overweight and obese adolescents, the increase in BMI was smaller in the experimental group than in the control group after a 1-year intervention designed to reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, but not at the 2-year follow-up (the prespecified primary outcome). (Funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00381160.) PMID:22998339

Ebbeling, Cara B.; Feldman, Henry A.; Chomitz, Virginia R.; Antonelli, Tracy A.; Gortmaker, Steven L.; Osganian, Stavroula K.; Ludwig, David S.

2012-01-01

194

Adverse events of herbal food supplements for body weight reduction: systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Herbal weight-loss supplements are marketed with claims of effectiveness. Our earlier systematic review identified data from double-blind, randomized controlled trials for a number of herbal supplements. The aim of this systematic review was to assess all clinical evidence of adverse events of herbal food supplements for body weight reduction for which effectiveness data from rigorous clinical trials exist. We

M. H. Pittler; K. Schmidt; E. Ernst

2005-01-01

195

The effect of the holiday season on body weight and composition in college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: With the rapid increase in obesity rates, determining critical periods for weight gain and the effects of changes in fat mass is imperative. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in body weight and composition over the holiday season (Thanksgiving through New Year's) in male and female college students. METHODS: Subjects completed three visits: the first occurred

Holly R Hull; Casey N Hester; David A Fields

2006-01-01

196

Mass Selection For 70Day Body Weight in Rabbits1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five generations of phenotypic mass selection for increased 70-d body weight (market age, MW) were conducted in an experimental population of rabbits. Market-age weight was recorded for 1,616 rabbits from 336 litters (sired by 121 bucks and reared by 321 does). Additional growth and carcass traits measured in control ( C ) and select ( S ) lines were 28-d

S. D. Lukefahr; H. B. Odi; J. K. A. Atakora

2009-01-01

197

A Weight-Loss Diet Including Coffee-Derived Mannooligosaccharides Enhances Adipose Tissue Loss in Overweight Men but Not Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mannooligosaccharides (MOS), extracted from coffee, have been shown to promote a decrease in body fat when consumed as part of free-living, weight-maintaining diets. Our objective was to determine if MOS consumption (4 g\\/day), in conjunction with a weight-loss diet, would lead to greater reductions in adipose tissue compartments than placebo. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled weight-loss study in which 60

Marie-Pierre St-Onge; Taylor Salinardi; Kristin Herron-Rubin; Richard M. Black

2012-01-01

198

Body weight dissatisfaction and communication with parents among adolescents in 24 countries: international cross-sectional survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Parents have significant influence on behaviors and perceptions surrounding eating, body image and weight in adolescents. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of body weight dissatisfaction, difficulty in communication with the parents and the relationship between communication with parents and adolescents' dissatisfaction with their body weight (dieting or perceived need to diet). METHODS: Survey data

Haleama Al Sabbah; Carine A Vereecken; Frank J Elgar; Tonja Nansel; Katrin Aasvee; Ziad Abdeen; Kristiina Ojala; Namanjeet Ahluwalia; Lea Maes

2009-01-01

199

Body Salience, Weight-Role Knowledge-Flexibility and Peer Affiliations between the Ages of Three and Eight Years.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies were made of (1) young children's use of body-weight type for processing information about peers, and (2) the development of children's stereotypical knowledge about characteristics associated with body-weight type. For the first study, a measure was developed to assess "body salience," or the degree to which children use weight type as a…

White, Donna

200

Associations of Candidate SNP on Age, Leptin Concentration, Backfat, and Body Weight at Puberty in Gilts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Body weight (BW), backfat thickness (BF), and leptin play important roles in livestock reproduction. The objective of this study was to determine whether polymorphisms in the leptin (LEP), leptin receptor (LEPR), PAX5, and POMC genes were associated with age, leptin concentration, body condition as ...

201

A Longitudinal Analysis of Adolescent Smoking: Using Smoking Status to Differentiate the Influence of Body Weight Measures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Previous research has reported mixed results on the association between body weight measures (ie, perception of weight and weight loss goal) and cigarette smoking prevalence--and how these associations vary by sex and race. This longitudinal study assessed the relationship between these 2 body weight measures and smoking prevalence by…

Hong, Traci; Johnson, Carolyn

2013-01-01

202

Critical periods for the effects of alcohol exposure on brain weight, body weight, activity and investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using an animal model of fetal alcohol syndrome — which equates peak blood alcohol concentrations across different developmental periods — critical periods for the effect of alcohol on brain weight, activity and investigative behavior were examined. The periods of alcohol exposure were from gestational day (GD) 1 through 10, GD 11 through 22, postnatal day (PD) 2 through 10, or

Tuan D. Tran; Kim Cronise; Melissa D. Marino; William J. Jenkins; Sandra J. Kelly

2000-01-01

203

Systems genetics analysis of body weight and energy metabolism traits in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity and phenotypic traits associated with this condition exhibit significant heritability in natural populations of most organisms. While a number of genes and genetic pathways have been implicated to play a role in obesity associated traits, the genetic architecture that underlies the natural variation in these traits is largely unknown. Here, we used 40 wild-derived inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster to quantify genetic variation in body weight, the content of three major metabolites (glycogen, triacylglycerol, and glycerol) associated with obesity, and metabolic rate in young flies. We chose these lines because they were previously screened for variation in whole-genome transcript abundance and in several adult life-history traits, including longevity, resistance to starvation stress, chill-coma recovery, mating behavior, and competitive fitness. This enabled us not only to identify candidate genes and transcriptional networks that might explain variation for energy metabolism traits, but also to investigate the genetic interrelationships among energy metabolism, behavioral, and life-history traits that have evolved in natural populations. Results We found significant genetically based variation in all traits. Using a genome-wide association screen for single feature polymorphisms and quantitative trait transcripts, we identified 337, 211, 237, 553, and 152 novel candidate genes associated with body weight, glycogen content, triacylglycerol storage, glycerol levels, and metabolic rate, respectively. Weighted gene co-expression analyses grouped transcripts associated with each trait in significant modules of co-expressed genes and we interpreted these modules in terms of their gene enrichment based on Gene Ontology analysis. Comparison of gene co-expression modules for traits in this study with previously determined modules for life-history traits identified significant modular pleiotropy between glycogen content, body weight, competitive fitness, and starvation resistance. Conclusions Combining a large phenotypic dataset with information on variation in genome wide transcriptional profiles has provided insight into the complex genetic architecture underlying natural variation in traits that have been associated with obesity. Our findings suggest that understanding the maintenance of genetic variation in metabolic traits in natural populations may require that we understand more fully the degree to which these traits are genetically correlated with other traits, especially those directly affecting fitness. PMID:20459830

2010-01-01

204

Body weight and some biometrical traits of ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) at different ages.  

PubMed

Although the growth of pheasants is an important issue, there are few publications providing information on body weight and morphometrics of pheasants at different ages. The aim of this study was to investigate body weight, tarsus length, wing length and wingspan in farmed pheasants aged 3-16 weeks. The study was carried out on 50 pheasants (31 females and 19 males). All one-day old birds were marked and kept until the 16th week of life. In the 3rd 8 h 12th and 16th weeks of life all pheasants were weighted and tarsus length, wing length and wingspan were measured. Male chicks appeared to be significantly heavier than females (P< or = 0.01) already in the third week of life. Also their wings were longer and their wingspan attained higher values (P < or = 0.05). Absolute gains of the majority of traits also differed between sexes (being larger in males) in all studied periods. Values of body weight, tarsus length and wingspan noted in the third week of life were significantly correlated with all later measurements. Thus body weight and some biometrical traits of pheasant chicks measured already at the 3rd week of life could be applied as predictors of future body weight and size. PMID:22428312

Górecki, Marcin T; Nowaczewski, Sebastian; Kontecka, Helena

2012-01-01

205

Ground reaction forces during level ground walking with body weight unloading  

PubMed Central

Background: Partial body weight support (BWS) systems have been broadly used with treadmills as a strategy for gait training of individuals with gait impairments. Considering that we usually walk on level ground and that BWS is achieved by altering the load on the plantar surface of the foot, it would be important to investigate some ground reaction force (GRF) parameters in healthy individuals walking on level ground with BWS to better implement rehabilitation protocols for individuals with gait impairments. Objective: To describe the effects of body weight unloading on GRF parameters as healthy young adults walked with BWS on level ground. Method: Eighteen healthy young adults (27±4 years old) walked on a walkway, with two force plates embedded in the middle of it, wearing a harness connected to a BWS system, with 0%, 15%, and 30% BWS. Vertical and horizontal peaks and vertical valley of GRF, weight acceptance and push-off rates, and impulse were calculated and compared across the three experimental conditions. Results: Overall, participants walked more slowly with the BWS system on level ground compared to their normal walking speed. As body weight unloading increased, the magnitude of the GRF forces decreased. Conversely, weight acceptance rate was similar among conditions. Conclusions: Different amounts of body weight unloading promote different outputs of GRF parameters, even with the same mean walk speed. The only parameter that was similar among the three experimental conditions was the weight acceptance rate. PMID:25590450

Barela, Ana M. F.; de Freitas, Paulo B.; Celestino, Melissa L.; Camargo, Marcela R.; Barela, José A.

2014-01-01

206

Quinine controls body weight gain without affecting food intake in male C57BL6 mice  

PubMed Central

Background Quinine is a natural molecule commonly used as a flavouring agent in tonic water. Diet supplementation with quinine leads to decreased body weight and food intake in rats. Quinine is an in vitro inhibitor of Trpm5, a cation channel expressed in taste bud cells, the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. The objective of this work is to determine the effect of diet supplementation with quinine on body weight and body composition in male mice, to investigate its mechanism of action, and whether the effect is mediated through Trpm5. Results Compared with mice consuming AIN, a regular balanced diet, mice consuming AIN diet supplemented with 0.1% quinine gained less weight (2.89?±?0.30?g vs 5.39?±?0.50?g) and less fat mass (2.22?±?0.26?g vs 4.33?±?0.43?g) after 13?weeks of diet, and had lower blood glucose and plasma triglycerides. There was no difference in food intake between the mice consuming quinine supplemented diet and those consuming control diet. Trpm5 knockout mice gained less fat mass than wild-type mice. There was a trend for a diet-genotype interaction for body weight and body weight gain, with the effect of quinine less pronounced in the Trpm5 KO than in the WT background. Faecal weight, energy and lipid contents were higher in quinine fed mice compared to regular AIN fed mice and in Trpm5 KO mice compared to wild type mice. Conclusion Quinine contributes to weight control in male C57BL6 mice without affecting food intake. A partial contribution of Trpm5 to quinine dependent body weight control is suggested. PMID:23394313

2013-01-01

207

Body weight, body composition, and bone turnover changes in patients with spondyloarthropathy receiving anti-tumour necrosis factor ? treatment  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To determine the changes in body weight, body composition, and bone turnover in patients with spondyloarthropathy (SpA) treated with anti-tumour necrosis factor ? (TNF?). Patients and methods: 19 patients with SpA (2 women, 17 men), aged 21–71 years, were studied in a 1 year prospective open study. 17 patients received infliximab: 3 or 5 mg/kg/infusion at weeks 0, 2, 6 and infusions in the case of a relapse (n = 14) or systematically (n = 3); 2 patients received etanercept (25 mg twice a week). Body weight, body composition (lean mass, fat mass), and bone mineral density (BMD; using dual energy x ray absorptiometry) were measured at baseline and at months 6 and 12. Serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), bone markers (carboxy terminal telopeptide of collagen I (CTX) and procollagen type I N terminal propeptide (PINP)) were measured at baseline and months 3, 6, and 12. Results: In 1 year there was a significant increase in body weight (mean (SD) 2.24 (3.1) kg, p = 0.0004), and in lean mass (1.4 (1.69) kg, p = 0.005), but no changes in fat mass. BMD increased at the spine (5.6%, p = 0.0005) and total femur (2.6%, p = 0.01). CTX decreased from the third month (–50%, p = 0.005) up to 1 year (–30%, p = 0.012), and a trend for an increase in PINP (10%, p = 0.06) and in IGF-I (15%, p = 0.04) was seen at month 3. Conclusion: These data confirm that treatment with anti-TNF? in SpA is associated with an increase of BMD, which results from a decrease of bone resorption. Increase in body weight and lean mass is observed in parallel with an increase in IGF-1. PMID:15642695

Briot, K; Garnero, P; Le Henanff, A; Dougados, M; Roux, C

2005-01-01

208

Brazilian adolescents' body weight misperception and the Human Development Index of the cities where they live.  

PubMed

This study investigated the relationship between adolescents' body weight misperception and the Human Development Index (HDI) of the cities in which they live in Brazil. Data from a large national survey that included 60,973 boys and girls between 13 and 15 yr. (M = 14.2, SD = 1.1; 47.5% boys, 52.5% girls) were analyzed. Regression analyses were adjusted for potential confounding factors such as population density, income inequality, nutritional status (BMI), and mothers' education. In both sexes, the relationship between perceived underweight showed an inverse relationship with HDI. The highest prevalences of participants who perceived themselves as overweight for girls were found in cities with high HDI. PMID:24897886

Silva, Diego A S; Gonçalves, Eliane C A

2014-04-01

209

THE RELATION OF BODY WEIGHT TO BODY SURFACE AREA IN MARINE FISHES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of attempting to establish a satisfactory basis for comparison of gill areas of certain marine fishes, considerable information about the body surface area has accumulated. Much has been written on the value of knowing the area of the body surface in metabolism studies and the difficulties in obtaining it. The formula most commonly used for determining surface

I. E. GRAY

210

A randomised pilot and feasibility study examining body weight tracking frequency and psychosocial health indicators.  

PubMed

Daily weight tracking may enhance weight loss, but experimental data are scarce. This study tested feasibility of delivering varying weight tracking instructions, assessed adherence, and monitored psychosocial changes. Thirty adults were enrolled and randomised to daily or weekly tracking for 6 months. Study retention was 100%. Adherence averaged 97.5% with no group differences (p=.15). There were no group differences and minimal changes for depression, anxiety, and body image (p=.41-.82). Daily trackers reported fewer barriers (p<.01) at 3 months. The study was highly successful at delivering weight tracking instructions without adverse effects or diminished adherence. PMID:25081808

Linde, Jennifer A

2014-01-01

211

Social class and body management. A qualitative exploration of differences in perceptions and practices related to health and personal body weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

To deepen our understanding of the relationship between social class and obesity, the study compares the ways in which conceptions of health and personal body weight are enmeshed in the everyday lives of people with disparate socio-cultural backgrounds and weight status. We ask how perceptions and enactments of health and personal body weight are related to social structures and practices

Louise H. Smith; Lotte Holm

2010-01-01

212

Consumption of High-Polyphenol Dark Chocolate Improves Endothelial Function in Individuals with Stage 1 Hypertension and Excess Body Weight  

PubMed Central

Background. Hypertension and excess body weight are important risk factors for endothelial dysfunction. Recent evidence suggests that high-polyphenol dark chocolate improves endothelial function and lowers blood pressure. This study aimed to evaluate the association of chocolate 70% cocoa intake with metabolic profile, oxidative stress, inflammation, blood pressure, and endothelial function in stage 1 hypertensives with excess body weight. Methods. Intervention clinical trial includes 22 stage 1 hypertensives without previous antihypertensive treatment, aged 18 to 60 years and presents a body mass index between 25.0 and 34.9?kg/m2. All participants were instructed to consume 50?g of chocolate 70% cocoa/day (2135?mg polyphenols) for 4 weeks. Endothelial function was evaluated by peripheral artery tonometry using Endo-PAT 2000 (Itamar Medical). Results. Twenty participants (10 men) completed the study. Comparison of pre-post intervention revealed that (1) there were no significant changes in anthropometric parameters, percentage body fat, glucose metabolism, lipid profile, biomarkers of inflammation, adhesion molecules, oxidized LDL, and blood pressure; (2) the assessment of endothelial function through the reactive hyperemia index showed a significant increase: 1.94 ± 0.18 to 2.22 ± 0.08, P = 0.01. Conclusion.In individuals with stage 1 hypertension and excess body weight, high-polyphenol dark chocolate improves endothelial function. PMID:23209885

Nogueira, Lívia de Paula; Knibel, Marcela Paranhos; Torres, Márcia Regina Simas Gonçalves; Nogueira Neto, José Firmino; Sanjuliani, Antonio Felipe

2012-01-01

213

Blood lead level association with lower body weight in NHANES 1999–2006  

SciTech Connect

Background: Lead exposure is associated with low birth-weight. The objective of this study is to determine whether lead exposure is associated with lower body weight in children, adolescents and adults. Methods: We analyzed data from NHANES 1999–2006 for participants aged ? 3 using multiple logistic and multivariate linear regression. Using age- and sex-standardized BMI Z-scores, overweight and obese children (ages 3–19) were classified by BMI ? 85th and ? 95th percentiles, respectively. The adult population (age ? 20) was classified as overweight and obese with BMI measures of 25–29.9 and ? 30, respectively. Blood lead level (BLL) was categorized by weighted quartiles. Results: Multivariate linear regressions revealed a lower BMI Z-score in children and adolescents when the highest lead quartile was compared to the lowest lead quartile (? (SE) = ? 0.33 (0.07), p < 0.001), and a decreased BMI in adults (? (SE) = ? 2.58 (0.25), p < 0.001). Multiple logistic analyses in children and adolescents found a negative association between BLL and the percentage of obese and overweight with BLL in the highest quartile compared to the lowest quartile (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.30–0.59; and OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.52–0.88, respectively). Adults in the highest lead quartile were less likely to be obese (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.35–0.50) compared to those in the lowest lead quartile. Further analyses with blood lead as restricted cubic splines, confirmed the dose-relationship between blood lead and body weight outcomes. Conclusions: BLLs are associated with lower body mass index and obesity in children, adolescents and adults. - Highlights: • NHANES analysis of BLL and body weight outcomes • Increased BLL associated with decreased body weight in children and adolescent • Increased BLL associated with decreased body weight in adults.

Scinicariello, Franco, E-mail: fes6@cdc.gov [Division of Toxicology and Human Health Sciences, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Buser, Melanie C. [Division of Toxicology and Human Health Sciences, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Mevissen, Meike [Division of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Portier, Christopher J. [National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH)/ATSDR, CDC, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States)

2013-12-15

214

Effect of growth hormone on height, weight, and body composition in Prader-Willi syndrome  

PubMed Central

AIMS—To evaluate the effect of the administration of growth hormone on stature, body weight, and body composition in children aged between 4 and 10 years with Prader-Willi syndrome.?METHODS—Height, weight, and skinfold thickness were recorded in 25 children using standard anthropometric techniques at recruitment, and six months later, shortly before the start of daily subcutaneous injections of growth hormone. Body composition was assessed via a measurement of total body water using stable isotopes. Measurements were repeated at the end of the six months of growth hormone administration. Measurements of height, weight, and skinfold thickness were expressed as standard deviation scores (SDSs).?RESULTS—There was a significant reduction in the percentage of body fat after growth hormone treatment; height velocity doubled during treatment; body weight did not change significantly when expressed as an SDS. Skinfold thickness at both the triceps and subscapular site decreased in absolute terms and when expressed as an SDS.?CONCLUSIONS—These results indicate sufficient potential benefit to justify a more prolonged trial of growth hormone treatment and an exploration of different dosage regimens in children with Prader-Willi syndrome.?? PMID:9659098

Davies, P; Evans, S; Broomhead, S; Clough, H; Day, J; Laidlaw, A; Barnes, N

1998-01-01

215

Changes in Body Weight and Fat Mass of Men and Women in the First Year of College: A Study of the "Freshman 15"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students entering their first year of college are faced with many stresses and changes, including changes in eating and exercise behavior. A common but often undocumented myth among college students is that there is a high risk of gaining 15 pounds of weight during freshman year. The objective of this study was to measure changes in body weight

Hoffman, Daniel J.; Policastro, Peggy; Quick, Virginia; Lee, Soo-Kyung

2006-01-01

216

VOLUNTARY CONSUMPTION OF ETHYL OLEATE REDUCES FOOD INTAKE AND BODY WEIGHT IN RATS  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have shown that administration of the fatty acids, linoleic and oleic acid, either by intragastric or intraintestinal infusion, suppresses food intake and body weight in rats. While still not fully understood, gut-mediated satiety mechanisms likely are potential effectors of this robust response to gastrointestinal fatty acid infusions. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of voluntary access to an oleic acid derivative, ethyl oleate (EO), on subsequent food intake and body weight in rats. Animals were randomized either to a 12.5% EO diet or a soybean oil diet as a “breakfast,” followed either by two one-hour or one five-hour access periods to standard rodent diet, and food intake and body weights were collected. Across 14 days access, rats consuming EO on both feeding schedules gained less weight and consumed less total kilocalories than rats consuming the SO diet. Further, plasma levels of glucose and insulin were comparable in both EO and SO diet groups. In summary, EO was found to increase weight loss in rats maintained on a 75% food-restriction regimen, and attenuate weight-gain upon resumption of an ad-libitum feeding regimen. These data indicate that voluntary access to EO promoted short-term satiety, compared to SO diet, and that these effects contributed to a important and novel attenuated weight gain in EO-fed animals. PMID:18234242

Kemp, Christopher J.; D’Alessio, David A.; Scott, Robert O.; Kelm, Gary R.; Meller, Stephen T.; Barerra, Jason G.; Seeley, Randy J.; Clegg, Deborah J; Benoit., Stephen C.

2008-01-01

217

Percentage of Body Fat and Weight Gain in Participants in the Tehran High School Wrestling Championship  

PubMed Central

Purpose Weight loss in wrestling has been found to be an interesting issue for researchers. In this regard, complications of weight loss in wrestlers before the competitions and their weight gain in course of competitions have been debated in previous studies. The objective of this study was to investigate the extent of weight gain and to estimate the percentage of body fat in participants in the Tehran high school male wrestling championship. Methods This study was a cross sectional survey. Subjects were participants of the Tehran high school male wrestling championship (n = 365). Weight gain in course of competitions and body fat levels (based on skin fold measurements) of subjects were measured. Results Between the first weigh-in of the wrestlers which was done one day before the competitions and the second weigh-in which was conducted immediately before the first round of their first competition (20 hours), 69% of subjects gained on average 1.3±0.9 kg (range: 0.1 to 6.10 kg) or 2.2±1.7% of the wrestler’s weight (range: 0.1 to 9.3). Among the subjects, the mean of fat body percentage was found to be 15.2%. Conclusions Rapid weight loss for matches was prevalent among subjects. It was also found that Iranian wrestlers have a relatively higher body fat percentage in comparison to American wrestlers. Therefore, it can be concluded that weight loss behavior of these wrestlers should be changed from using dehydration methods to using gradual methods of weight loss such as fat reduction methods. PMID:22942998

Kordi, Ramin; Nourian, Ruhollah; Rostami, Mohsen; Wallace, W. Angus

2012-01-01

218

The attractive female body weight and female body dissatisfaction in 26 countries across 10 world regions: results of the international body project I.  

PubMed

This study reports results from the first International Body Project (IBP-I), which surveyed 7,434 individuals in 10 major world regions about body weight ideals and body dissatisfaction. Participants completed the female Contour Drawing Figure Rating Scale (CDFRS) and self-reported their exposure to Western and local media. Results indicated there were significant cross-regional differences in the ideal female figure and body dissatisfaction, but effect sizes were small across high-socioeconomic-status (SES) sites. Within cultures, heavier bodies were preferred in low-SES sites compared to high-SES sites in Malaysia and South Africa (ds = 1.94-2.49) but not in Austria. Participant age, body mass index (BMI), and Western media exposure predicted body weight ideals. BMI and Western media exposure predicted body dissatisfaction among women. Our results show that body dissatisfaction and desire for thinness is commonplace in high-SES settings across world regions, highlighting the need for international attention to this problem. PMID:20179313

Swami, Viren; Frederick, David A; Aavik, Toivo; Alcalay, Lidia; Allik, Jüri; Anderson, Donna; Andrianto, Sonny; Arora, Arvind; Brännström, Ake; Cunningham, John; Danel, Dariusz; Doroszewicz, Krystyna; Forbes, Gordon B; Furnham, Adrian; Greven, Corina U; Halberstadt, Jamin; Hao, Shuang; Haubner, Tanja; Hwang, Choon Sup; Inman, Mary; Jaafar, Jas Laile; Johansson, Jacob; Jung, Jaehee; Keser, Askin; Kretzschmar, Uta; Lachenicht, Lance; Li, Norman P; Locke, Kenneth; Lönnqvist, Jan-Erik; Lopez, Christy; Loutzenhiser, Lynn; Maisel, Natalya C; McCabe, Marita P; McCreary, Donald R; McKibbin, William F; Mussap, Alex; Neto, Félix; Nowell, Carly; Alampay, Liane Peña; Pillai, Subash K; Pokrajac-Bulian, Alessandra; Proyer, René T; Quintelier, Katinka; Ricciardelli, Lina A; Rozmus-Wrzesinska, Malgorzata; Ruch, Willibald; Russo, Timothy; Schütz, Astrid; Shackelford, Todd K; Shashidharan, Sheeba; Simonetti, Franco; Sinniah, Dhachayani; Swami, Mira; Vandermassen, Griet; van Duynslaeger, Marijke; Verkasalo, Markku; Voracek, Martin; Yee, Curtis K; Zhang, Echo Xian; Zhang, Xiaoying; Zivcic-Becirevic, Ivanka

2010-03-01

219

Nuts Improve Diet Quality Compared to Other Energy-Dense Snacks While Maintaining Body Weight  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have reported that regular nut consumption reduces cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and does not promote weight gain despite the fact that nuts are energy-dense. However, no studies have investigated the body composition of those regularly consuming nuts compared to similar intakes of other snacks of equal energy density. This parallel study (n = 118) examined the effects of providing daily portions (~1100?kJ/d) of hazelnuts, chocolate, or potato crisps compared to a control group receiving no snacks for twelve weeks. Effects on body weight and composition, blood lipids and lipoproteins, resting metabolic rate (RMR), appetite indices, and dietary quality were compared. At week 12, there was no significant difference in any of the outcome measurements between the groups except for dietary quality, which improved significantly in the nut group. Nuts can be incorporated into the diet without adversely affecting body weight and can improve diet quality. PMID:21845219

Tey, Siew Ling; Brown, Rachel; Gray, Andrew; Chisholm, Alexandra; Delahunty, Conor

2011-01-01

220

Molecular and neural bases underlying roles of BDNF in the control of body weight  

PubMed Central

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a potent regulator of neuronal development and synaptic plasticity that is fundamental to neural circuit formation and cognition. It is also involved in the control of appetite and body weight, with mutations in the genes for BDNF and its receptor, TrkB, resulting in remarkable hyperphagia and severe obesity in humans and mice. Recent studies have made significant progress in elucidating the source, action sites, and regulatory pathways of BDNF with regard to its role in the control of energy homeostasis, and have shed light on the relationships between BDNF and other molecules involved in the control of body weight. Here we provide a comprehensive review of evidence from pharmacological, genetic, and mechanistic studies, linking BDNF to the control of body weight. This review also aims to organize the main findings on this subject into a more refined framework and to discuss the future research directions necessary to advance the field. PMID:23519010

Vanevski, Filip; Xu, Baoji

2013-01-01

221

Different types of soluble fermentable dietary fibre decrease food intake, body weight gain and adiposity in young adult male rats  

PubMed Central

Background Dietary fibre-induced satiety offers a physiological approach to body weight regulation, yet there is lack of scientific evidence. This experiment quantified food intake, body weight and body composition responses to three different soluble fermentable dietary fibres in an animal model and explored underlying mechanisms of satiety signalling and hindgut fermentation. Methods Young adult male rats were fed ad libitum purified control diet (CONT) containing 5% w/w cellulose (insoluble fibre), or diet containing 10% w/w cellulose (CELL), fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS), oat beta-glucan (GLUC) or apple pectin (PECT) (4 weeks; n = 10/group). Food intake, body weight, and body composition (MRI) were recorded, final blood samples analysed for gut satiety hormones, hindgut contents for fermentation products (including short-chain fatty acids, SCFA) and intestinal tissues for SCFA receptor gene expression. Results GLUC, FOS and PECT groups had, respectively, 10% (P < 0.05), 17% (P < 0.001) and 19% (P < 0.001) lower food intake and 37% (P < 0.01), 37% (P < 0.01) and 45% (P < 0.001) lower body weight gain than CONT during the four-week experiment. At the end they had 26% (P < 0.05), 35% (P < 0.01) and 42% (P < 0.001) less total body fat, respectively, while plasma total glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) was 2.2-, 3.2- and 2.6-fold higher (P < 0.001) and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) was 2.3-, 3.1- and 3.0-fold higher (P < 0.001). There were no differences in these parameters between CONT and CELL. Compared with CONT and CELL, caecal concentrations of fermentation products increased 1.4- to 2.2-fold in GLUC, FOS and PECT (P < 0.05) and colonic concentrations increased 1.9- to 2.5-fold in GLUC and FOS (P < 0.05), with no consistent changes in SCFA receptor gene expression detected. Conclusions This provides animal model evidence that sustained intake of three different soluble dietary fibres decreases food intake, weight gain and adiposity, increases circulating satiety hormones GLP-1 and PYY, and increases hindgut fermentation. The presence of soluble fermentable fibre appears to be more important than its source. The results suggest that dietary fibre-induced satiety is worthy of further investigation towards natural body weight regulation in humans. PMID:25152765

2014-01-01

222

Salicylate as a partial inhibitor of emotional fever and body weight set-point in rats: behavioral and neuroendocrine study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we report findings from behavioral and neuroendocrine experiments in rats under pharmacologically induced antipyretic conditions. Endpoints included emotional fever, body weight setpoint, and in situ corticotropin-releasing hormone mRNA (CRHmRNA) expression. Nine male Wistar rats were treated with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) 0.04 g\\/kg ip in vehicle. On alternating days, all rats received saline (0.9% w\\/v) as a control.

C Michel; P Frankham; M Cabanac

2003-01-01

223

A multilevel approach for minimum weight structural design including local and system buckling constraints  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A rational multilevel approach for minimum weight structural design of truss and wing structures including local and system buckling constraints is presented. Overall proportioning of the structure is achieved at the system level subject to strength, displacement and system buckling constraints, while the detailed component designs are carried out separately at the component level satisfying local buckling constraints. Total structural weight is taken to be the objective function at the system level while employing the change in the equivalent system stiffness of the component as the component level objective function. Finite element analysis is used to predict static response while system buckling behavior is handled by incorporating a geometric stiffness matrix capability. Buckling load factors and the corresponding mode shapes are obtained by solving the eigenvalue problem associated with the assembled elastic stiffness and geometric stiffness matrices for the structural system. At the component level various local buckling failure modes are guarded against using semi-empirical formulas. Mathematical programming techniques are employed at both the system and component level.

Schmit, L. A., Jr.; Ramanathan, R. K.

1977-01-01

224

Unhealthy Body Weight, Illness Absence, Presenteeism, Medical Payments, and Disability Leave: A Longitudinal View.  

PubMed

Abstract The objective of this study is to examine how much of the relationships between unhealthy body weight, and health and productivity outcomes are attributable to health status, and how much can be ameliorated by weight loss or improvements in health. Cross-sectional and first-difference regressions were conducted of employees' body mass index (BMI) category, illness absences, presenteeism, medical spending, and disability leaves. Employees in the obese BMI category have significantly worse outcomes than employees in the healthy and overweight BMI categories. Controlling for physical and emotional health status mediates much of the observed relationships. Improved health, stress, and psychological distress are associated with reduced illness absence and presenteeism among overweight and obese employees. Obese employees who lost weight experienced reduced presenteeism. The findings suggest that overweight and obese employees can realize improved productivity without weight loss. (Population Health Management 2014;xx:xxx-xxx). PMID:25375972

Gifford, Brian

2014-11-01

225

From "overweight" to "about right": evidence of a generational shift in body weight norms.  

PubMed

In this article, we describe differences in the self-perception of weight status in the United States between the two most recent National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) periods (1988-1994 and 1999-2004), and test the hypothesis that secular increases in adult mean BMI, adult obesity, and childhood obesity contributed to changes over time in weight perceptions. We find that the probability of self-classifying as overweight is significantly lower on average in the more recent survey, for both women and men, controlling for objective weight status and other factors. Among women, the decline in the tendency to self-classify as overweight is concentrated in the 17-35 age range, and is more pronounced among women with normal BMI than those with overweight BMI. Among men, the shift away from feeling overweight is roughly equal across age groups. Overweight men exhibit a sharper decline in feeling overweight than normal weight men. Despite the declines in feeling overweight between surveys, weight misperception did not increase significantly for men and decreased by a sizable margin among women. We interpret the findings as evidence of a generational shift in social norms related to body weight. As a result, people may be less likely to desire weight loss than previously, limiting the effectiveness of public health campaigns aimed at weight reduction. On the other hand, there may be health benefits associated with improved body image. PMID:19875997

Burke, Mary A; Heiland, Frank W; Nadler, Carl M

2010-06-01

226

Cyclic Estradiol Treatment Normalizes Body Weight and Test Meal Size in Ovariectomized Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested whether cyclic estradiol treatment, like continuous estradiol treatment, is sufficient to normalize meal size and body weight in ovariectomized rats. In Experiment 1, adult Long–Evans rats were ovariectomized and subcutaneously injected with 0, 0.2, or 2.0 ?g estradiol benzoate (EB) in sesame oil each Tuesday and Wednesday. Oil-treated ovariectomized rats gained more weight during 4 weeks of ad

Nori Geary; Lori Asarian

1999-01-01

227

Associations between reproduction and maternal body weight: examining the component parts of a full reproductive cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Many transitional societies currently face both extremes of nutritional status, undernutrition and overnutrition. Women of reproductive age are at high risk of these conditions. The purpose of this review is to consider evidence for relationships between reproduction and nutritional status in women from societies of varying economic development, using body weight or weight-for-height as indicators of maternal nutritional status.Design:

A Winkvist; K M Rasmussen; L Lissner

2003-01-01

228

Dietary supplements for body-weight reduction: a systematic review 1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Compliance with conventional weight-management programs is notoriously poor, and a plethora of over-the-counter slimming aids are sold with claims of effectiveness. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the evidence from rigorous clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses on the effectiveness of dietary supplements in reducing body weight. Design: The study was a systematic review. Literature searches

Max H Pittler; Edzard Ernst

229

Effects of Age on Validity of Self-Reported Height, Weight, and Body Mass Index  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To compare self-reported to measured heights and weights of adults examined in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), and to determine to what extent body mass index (BMI) calculated from self-reported heights and weights affects estimates of overweight prevalence compared with BMI calculated from measured values.Design A complex sample design was used in NHANES III

MARIE FANELLI KUCZMARSKI; ROBERT J KUCZMARSKI; MATTHEW NAJJAR

2001-01-01

230

Literature review: perceptions and management of body size among normal weight and moderately overweight people.  

PubMed

Improved understanding of how normal weight and moderately overweight people manage their body weight and shape could be used to inform initiatives to prevent and treat obesity. This literature review offers a thorough appraisal of existing research into perceptions and management of own body size among normal weight and moderately overweight people. The studies reported in the 47 publications reviewed here address various themes based on different conceptualizations. The studies point out that normal weight and moderately overweight people are much concerned about their body size, but huge discrepancies are found between their own perceptions and study categorizations. The studies also indicate that normal weight and moderately overweight people are actively engaged in managing their body size through numerous managing strategies, and dieting is widespread. Together the studies do not form a unified and coherent research field, and there is a bias towards North American study populations. Methodological problems were identified in some publications, raising questions about generalizability of the findings. Moreover, only few studies give deeper insight into the specific perceptions and actions. Repeated studies are needed in broader and more differentiated geographical, social and cultural contexts, and longitudinal studies and more in-depth explorations are especially needed. PMID:25487846

Nissen, N K; Holm, L

2014-12-01

231

Familial correlates of adolescent girls' physical activity, television use, dietary intake, weight, and body composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The family environment offers several opportunities through which to improve adolescents' weight and weight-related behaviors.\\u000a This study aims to examine the cross-sectional relationships between multiple factors in the family environment and physical\\u000a activity (PA), television use (TV), soft drink intake, fruit and vegetable (FV) intake, body mass index (BMI), and body composition\\u000a among a sample of sociodemographically-diverse adolescent girls.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Subjects

Katherine W Bauer; Dianne Neumark-Sztainer; Jayne A Fulkerson; Peter J Hannan; Mary Story

2011-01-01

232

The relationship between obesity and seasonal variation in body weight among elementary school children in Tokyo.  

PubMed

Typical patterns of seasonal variation in body weight among Japanese children involve increases during the fall and/or winter and decreases during the summer. However, atypical variations, namely, increases in weight during the summer, have been reported for obese children. The present study examines whether weight gain during the summer (i.e., July through September) is a possible cause of obesity. We examined seasonal changes in weight for 446 elementary school children in Tokyo in six waves between 1972 and 2004. Weight was measured monthly for 6 years in each child and was evaluated by means of time-series analysis. Overall, significant seasonal variations in weight were found in 86% of the children, most of which were typical (i.e., decreases during the summer and increases during the fall, winter, and/or early spring). On the other hand, weight gain in the summer was observed exclusively among obese children. Children whose weight increased during the summer holiday spent most of their time comfortably indoors because of air conditioners, which became popular in 1970s. A possible explanation of the observed weight gain during the summer seems to be changes in life style associated with the use of air conditioning, concomitant with insufficient physical exercise and excessive consumption of food and drink, which could disturb the rhythms of seasonal weight changes and lead to obesity. PMID:16154393

Kobayashi, Masako; Kobayashi, Maiko

2006-06-01

233

Role of the hypothalamus in the neuroendocrine regulation of body weight and composition during energy deficit.  

PubMed

Energy deficit in lean or obese animals or humans stimulates appetite, reduces energy expenditure and possibly also decreases physical activity, thereby contributing to weight regain. Often overlooked in weight loss trials for obesity, however, is the effect of energy restriction on neuroendocrine status. Negative energy balance in lean animals and humans consistently inhibits activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid, -gonadotropic and -somatotropic axes (or reduces circulating insulin-like growth factor-1 levels), while concomitantly activating the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, with emerging evidence of similar changes in overweight and obese people during lifestyle interventions for weight loss. These neuroendocrine changes, which animal studies show may result in part from hypothalamic actions of orexigenic (e.g. neuropeptide Y, agouti-related peptide) and anorexigenic peptides (e.g. alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, and cocaine and amphetamine-related transcript), can adversely affect body composition by promoting the accumulation of adipose tissue (particularly central adiposity) and stimulating the loss of lean body mass and bone. As such, current efforts to maximize loss of excess body fat in obese people may inadvertently be promoting long-term complications such as central obesity and associated health risks, as well as sarcopenia and osteoporosis. Future weight loss trials would benefit from assessment of the effects on body composition and key hormonal regulators of body composition using sensitive techniques. PMID:22070225

Sainsbury, A; Zhang, L

2012-03-01

234

Sucrose compared with artificial sweeteners: different effects on ad libitum food intake and body weight after 10 wk of supplementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The role of artificial sweeteners in body-weight reg- ulation is still unclear. Objective: We investigated the effect of long-term supplementa- tion with drinks and foods containing either sucrose or artificial sweeteners on ad libitum food intake and body weight in over- weight subjects. Design: For 10 wk, overweight men and women consumed daily supplements of either sucrose (n =

Anne Raben; Tatjana H Vasilaras; A Christina Møller; Arne Astrup

235

Fat Talk among College Students: How Undergraduates Communicate Regarding Food and Body Weight, Shape & Appearance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is based on an empirical study designed to learn more about how college students communicate regarding food and body\\/weight\\/shape\\/appearance. Data from a survey of 272 randomly selected college students (82 males and 190 females) were collected and analyzed to explore the relationships of “fat talk,” a behavior described by Nichter to refer to conversations about eating and body-related

Louise Ousley; Elizabeth D. Cordero; Sabina White

2007-01-01

236

Prepregnancy Maternal Weight and Body Mass Index of Children with and without Congenital Heart Disease  

PubMed Central

Objective: Congenital heart diseases are among the most frequent major congenital anomalies. One of the suspected reasons for congenital heart defects is overweight and obesity of mother during prepregnancy and pregnancy. We studied the relationship between maternal overweight and obesity and the risk of congenital anomaly. Methods: All of children with congenital heart defect (164 infants with major nonsyndromic heart disease) referred to our pediatric cardiology clinic or admitted to our ward during 2011-2012 were included in this study. Controls were 158 live-born infants without any major malformations and their mothers. Mothers of these infants were studied for weight, height and body mass index (BMI). Findings : The most frequent congenital heart disease was ventricular septal defect (39%), patent ductus arteriosus (11%), complete atrioventricular septal defect (10%), pulmonary stenosis (9.1%), and atrial septal defect (8.5%). There was no significant difference between maternal age (P=0.1), weight (P=0.8) and height (P=0.3) in the two groups. The mothers had not significantly higher BMI than that of the control mothers. Compared with underweight (BMI <18.5) and normal weight women (OR: 1.24, 95%CI: 0.40-3.89), overweight (OR: 0.98, 95%CI: 0.31-3.10) and obese women (OR: 1.16, 95%CI: 0.34-4.00) were not more likely to have an infant with a congenital heart defect. Conclusion: This study suggests that there may not be a relation between maternal BMI and having a child with congenital heart defect.

Ghaderian, Mehdi; Emami-Moghadam, Abdol-Rahman; Khalilian, Mohammad-Reza; Riahi, Kourosh; Ghaedi, Fatemeh

2014-01-01

237

Comparison of dermatoscopic images of acral lentiginous melanoma and acral melanocytic nevus occurring on body weight-bearing areas  

PubMed Central

Background: Because body weight-bearing produces a shift in the horny layer, acral melanocytic nevus on the body weight-bearing area of the sole showed a regular fibrillar pattern (FP) due to slanting of the melanin columns in the horny layer. On the other hand, acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) on the body weight-bearing area of the sole tended to show irregular fibrillar pattern showing rather structureless pigmentation instead of a parallel ridge pattern, which is due to the shift of the horny layer. Objective: To elucidate the subtle difference between the regular FP of nevus and irregular FP in ALM. Methods: In this study, the dermatoscopic features of five cases of ALM and five cases of acral melanocytic nevus on the weight-bearing area of the sole were compared. Results: All the cases with nevi showed regular FP showing regular distribution of fibrils, whereas all the melanomas showed irregular distribution of fibrils and colors. Fibrils in nevi tended to be clear at the furrows and dim at the ridges. White fibrils corresponding to the eccrine ducts in the horny layer were more often present on the ridges in ALM, which showed negative FP. Conclusion: Differentiating between the regular and irregular FP, including negative FP, might be helpful for the discrimination of melanoma from nevus. PMID:25396085

Watanabe, Soko; Sawada, Mizuki; Ishizaki, Sumiko; Kobayashi, Ken; Tanaka, Masaru

2014-01-01

238

Tissue weights and body composition of two genetic lines of barrows and gilts from twenty to one hundred twenty-five kilograms of body weight.  

PubMed

Barrows and gilts of 2 genetic lines with differing lean gain potentials (high-lean = 375 g of fat-free lean/d; low-lean = 280 g of fat-free lean/d) were used to determine tissue and organ weights and compositions from 20 to 125 kg of BW. The experiment was a 2 (genetic line) x 2 (sex) x 5 (BW) factorial arrangement of treatments in a completely randomized design conducted with 2 groups of pigs in 6 replicates (n = 120 pigs). Six pigs from each sex and genetic line were slaughtered at 20 kg of BW and at 25 kg of BW intervals to 125 kg of BW. At slaughter, the internal tissues and organs were weighed. Loin and ham muscles were dissected from the carcass and trimmed of skin and external fat, and the ham was deboned. Residuals from the loin and ham were combined with the remaining carcass. Body components were ground, and their compositions were determined. The results demonstrated that tissue weights increased (P < 0.01) as BW increased. Loin and ham muscle weights increased but at a greater rate in the high-lean line and in gilts resulting in genetic line x BW and sex x BW interactions (P < 0.01). Liver and heart expressed on a BW or a percentage of empty BW basis increased at a greater rate in the high-lean line resulting in a genetic line x BW interaction (P < 0.01). Liver and intestinal tract weights were heavier in barrows than in gilts, significant only at 45 (P < 0.05), 75 (P < 0.01), and 100 (P < 0.05) kg of BW. Loin and ham muscles from the high-lean genetic line and gilts had greater (P < 0.01) water, protein, and ash contents compared with the low-lean genetic line and barrows resulting in genetic line x BW and sex x BW interactions (P < 0.01). The remaining carcass (minus loin and ham muscles) had greater (P < 0.01) amounts of water and protein, and less (P < 0.01) fat in the high-lean genetic line and gilts. The high-lean genetic line and gilts had more total body water, protein, and ash, but less body fat, with these differences diverging as BW increased, resulting in a genetic line x BW interaction (P < 0.01). The results indicated that liver and heart weights were greater in high-lean pigs, reflecting the greater amino acid metabolism, whereas the liver and intestinal tract weights were greater in barrow than gilts, reflecting their greater feed intakes and metabolism of total nutrients consumed. PMID:17400965

Wiseman, T G; Mahan, D C; Peters, J C; Fastinger, N D; Ching, S; Kim, Y Y

2007-07-01

239

Effect of Dietary Protein Content on Weight Gain, Energy Expenditure, and Body Composition During Overeating  

PubMed Central

Context The role of diet composition in response to overeating and energy dissipation in humans is unclear. Objective To evaluate the effects of overconsumption of low, normal, and high protein diets on weight gain, energy expenditure, and body composition. Design, Setting, and Participants A single-blind, randomized controlled trial of 25 US healthy, weight-stable male and female volunteers, aged 18 to 35 years with a body mass index between 19 and 30. The first participant was admitted to the inpatient metabolic unit in June 2005 and the last in October 2007. Intervention After consuming a weight-stabilizing diet for 13 to 25 days, participants were randomized to diets containing 5% of energy from protein (low protein), 15% (normal protein), or 25% (high protein), which they were overfed during the last 8 weeks of their 10- to 12-week stay in the inpatient metabolic unit. Compared with energy intake during the weight stabilization period, the protein diets provided approximately 40% more energy intake, which corresponds to 954 kcal/d (95% CI, 884–1022 kcal/d). Main Outcome Measures Body composition was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry biweekly, resting energy expenditure was measured weekly by ventilated hood, and total energy expenditure by doubly labeled water prior to the overeating and weight stabilization periods and at weeks 7 to 8. Results Overeating produced significantly less weight gain in the low protein diet group (3.16 kg; 95% CI, 1.88–4.44 kg) compared with the normal protein diet group (6.05 kg; 95% CI, 4.84–7.26 kg) or the high protein diet group (6.51 kg; 95% CI, 5.23–7.79 kg) (P=.002). Body fat increased similarly in all 3 protein diet groups and represented 50% to more than 90% of the excess stored calories. Resting energy expenditure, total energy expenditure, and body protein did not increase during overfeeding with the low protein diet. In contrast, resting energy expenditure (normal protein diet: 160 kcal/d [95% CI, 102–218 kcal/d]; high protein diet: 227 kcal/d [95% CI, 165–289 kcal/d]) and body protein (lean body mass) (normal protein diet: 2.87 kg [95% CI, 2.11–3.62 kg]; high protein diet: 3.18 kg [95% CI, 2.37–3.98 kg]) increased significantly with the normal and high protein diets. Conclusions Among persons living in a controlled setting, calories alone account for the increase in fat; protein affected energy expenditure and storage of lean body mass, but not body fat storage. PMID:22215165

Bray, George A.; Smith, Steven R.; de Jonge, Lilian; Xie, Hui; Rood, Jennifer; Martin, Corby K.; Most, Marlene; Brock, Courtney; Mancuso, Susan; Redman, Leanne M.

2013-01-01

240

A controlled trial of protein enrichment of meal replacements for weight reduction with retention of lean body mass  

PubMed Central

Background While high protein diets have been shown to improve satiety and retention of lean body mass (LBM), this study was designed to determine effects of a protein-enriched meal replacement (MR) on weight loss and LBM retention by comparison to an isocaloric carbohydrate-enriched MR within customized diet plans utilizing MR to achieve high protein or standard protein intakes. Methods Single blind, placebo-controlled, randomized outpatient weight loss trial in 100 obese men and women comparing two isocaloric meal plans utilizing a standard MR to which was added supplementary protein or carbohydrate powder. MR was used twice daily (one meal, one snack). One additional meal was included in the meal plan designed to achieve individualized protein intakes of either 1) 2.2 g protein/kg of LBM per day [high protein diet (HP)] or 2) 1.1 g protein/kg LBM/day standard protein diet (SP). LBM was determined using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Body weight, body composition, and lipid profiles were measured at baseline and 12 weeks. Results Eighty-five subjects completed the study. Both HP and SP MR were well tolerated, with no adverse effects. There were no differences in weight loss at 12 weeks (-4.19 ± 0.5 kg for HP group and -3.72 ± 0.7 kg for SP group, p > 0.1). Subjects in the HP group lost significantly more fat weight than the SP group (HP = -1.65 ± 0.63 kg; SP = -0.64 ± 0.79 kg, P = 0.05) as estimated by BIA. There were no significant differences in lipids nor fasting blood glucose between groups, but within the HP group a significant decrease in cholesterol and LDL cholesterol was noted at 12 weeks. This was not seen in the SP group. Conclusion Higher protein MR within a higher protein diet resulted in similar overall weight loss as the standard protein MR plan over 12 weeks. However, there was significantly more fat loss in the HP group but no significant difference in lean body mass. In this trial, subject compliance with both the standard and protein-enriched MR strategy for weight loss may have obscured any effect of increased protein on weight loss demonstrated in prior weight loss studies using whole food diets. PMID:18752682

Treyzon, Leo; Chen, Steve; Hong, Kurt; Yan, Eric; Carpenter, Catherine L; Thames, Gail; Bowerman, Susan; Wang, He-Jing; Elashoff, Robert; Li, Zhaoping

2008-01-01

241

The relationship between smoking, body weight, body mass index, and dietary intake among Thai adults: results of the national Thai Food Consumption Survey.  

PubMed

This study examined the relationship between dietary intake, body weight, and body mass index (BMI) in adult Thais as a function of smoking status. A cross-sectional, nationally representative survey using health and dietary questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were used. Participants were 7858 Thai adults aged 18 years and older recruited from 17 provinces in Thailand. Results demonstrated that smoking is associated with lower weights and BMI. However, when smokers were stratified by smoking intensity, there was no dose-response relationship between smoking and body weight. There is no conclusive explanation for weight differences across smoking groups in this sample, and the results of the present study did not clearly support any of the purported mechanisms for the differences in body weight or BMI. In addition, because the substantial negative health consequences of smoking are far stronger than those associated with modest weight differences, smoking cannot be viewed as an appropriate weight management strategy. PMID:22186385

Jitnarin, Nattinee; Kosulwat, Vongsvat; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Boonpraderm, Atitada; Haddock, Christopher K; Poston, Walker S C

2014-09-01

242

Incidence of dental lesions in musk shrews (Suncus murinus) and their association with sex, age, body weight and diet.  

PubMed

Both wild and laboratory strains of the musk shrew (Suncus murinus) have a high incidence of periodontitis. The authors completed necropsy examinations in 51 shrews to identify dental lesions including tooth loss, mobility and fractures. Dental lesions were identified in significantly more females than males, and older animals were more likely to have lesions present. Shrews with one or more dental lesions weighed significantly less than those without lesions present. Dietary supplementation with mealworms did not significantly affect the incidence of dental lesions or the body weight of male or female shrews. The authors recommend routine body weight measurement as a simple, noninvasive method of detecting shrews with an increased likelihood of having dental lesions. PMID:24150169

Dudley, Emily S; Grunden, Beverly K; Crocker, Conan; Boivin, Gregory P

2013-10-22

243

Six new loci associated with body mass index highlight a neuronal influence on body weight regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common variants at only two loci, FTO and MC4R, have been reproducibly associated with body mass index (BMI) in humans. To identify additional loci, we conducted meta-analysis of 15 genome-wide association studies for BMI (n > 32,000) and followed up top signals in 14 additional cohorts (n > 59,000). We strongly confirm FTO and MC4R and identify six additional loci

Cristen J Willer; Elizabeth K Speliotes; Ruth J F Loos; Shengxu Li; Cecilia M Lindgren; Iris M Heid; Sonja I Berndt; Amanda L Elliott; Anne U Jackson; Claudia Lamina; Guillaume Lettre; Noha Lim; Helen N Lyon; Steven A McCarroll; Konstantinos Papadakis; Lu Qi; Rosa Maria Roccasecca; Serena Sanna; Paul Scheet; Michael N Weedon; Eleanor Wheeler; Jing Hua Zhao; Leonie C Jacobs; Inga Prokopenko; Nicole Soranzo; Toshiko Tanaka; Nicholas J Timpson; Peter Almgren; Amanda Bennett; Richard N Bergman; Sheila A Bingham; Lori L Bonnycastle; Morris Brown; Noël P Burtt; Peter Chines; Lachlan Coin; Francis S Collins; John M Connell; Cyrus Cooper; Elaine M Dennison; Parimal Deodhar; Paul Elliott; Michael R Erdos; Karol Estrada; David M Evans; Lauren Gianniny; Christian Gieger; Christopher J Gillson; Candace Guiducci; Rachel Hackett; David Hadley; Alistair S Hall; Aki S Havulinna; Johannes Hebebrand; Albert Hofman; Bo Isomaa; Kevin B Jacobs; Toby Johnson; Pekka Jousilahti; Zorica Jovanovic; Kay-Tee Khaw; Peter Kraft; Mikko Kuokkanen; Johanna Kuusisto; Jaana Laitinen; Edward G Lakatta; Jian'an Luan; Robert N Luben; Massimo Mangino; Wendy L McArdle; Thomas Meitinger; Antonella Mulas; Patricia B Munroe; Narisu Narisu; Andrew R Ness; Kate Northstone; Stephen O'Rahilly; Carolin Purmann; Matthew G Rees; Martin Ridderstråle; Susan M Ring; Fernando Rivadeneira; Aimo Ruokonen; Manjinder S Sandhu; Jouko Saramies; Laura J Scott; Angelo Scuteri; Kaisa Silander; Matthew A Sims; Kijoung Song; Jonathan Stephens; Suzanne Stevens; Heather M Stringham; Y C Loraine Tung; Timo T Valle; Cornelia M Van Duijn; Karani S Vimaleswaran; Peter Vollenweider; Gerard Waeber; Chris Wallace; Richard M Watanabe; Dawn M Waterworth; Nicholas Watkins; Jacqueline C M Witteman; Eleftheria Zeggini; Guangju Zhai; M Carola Zillikens; David Altshuler; Mark J Caulfield; Stephen J Chanock; I Sadaf Farooqi; Luigi Ferrucci; Jack M Guralnik; Andrew T Hattersley; Frank B Hu; Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin; Markku Laakso; Vincent Mooser; Ken K Ong; Willem H Ouwehand; Veikko Salomaa; Nilesh J Samani; Timothy D Spector; Tiinamaija Tuomi; Jaakko Tuomilehto; Manuela Uda; André G Uitterlinden; Nicholas J Wareham; Panagiotis Deloukas; Timothy M Frayling; Leif C Groop; Richard B Hayes; David J Hunter; Karen L Mohlke; Leena Peltonen; David Schlessinger; David P Strachan; H-Erich Wichmann; Mark I McCarthy; Michael Boehnke; Inês Barroso; Gonçalo R Abecasis; Joel N Hirschhorn

2009-01-01

244

Feed intake, body weight gain and growth efficiency in growing sheep after a feed quality restriction  

E-print Network

lands. Feed availability fluctuates throughout the season and as a consequence, animals have to copeFeed intake, body weight gain and growth efficiency in growing sheep after a feed quality restriction period of 3 months A Kamalzadeh WJ Koops, J van Bruchem S Tamminga Wageningen Institute of Animal

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

245

Glutamate mediates the function of melanocortin receptor 4 on sim1 neurons in body weight regulation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) is a well-established mediator of body weight homeostasis. However, the neurotransmitter(s) that mediate MC4R function remain largely unknown; as a result, little is known about the second-order neurons of the MC4R neural pathway. Single-minded 1 (Sim1)-expressing ...

246

Variation in body weight and total length among families of fingerling white bass after communal rearing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Variation in body weight and total length among 15 families of Phase I white bass Morone chrysops was evaluated in a communal pond. Family pedigrees were determined a posteriori using microsatellite molecular markers and trait heritabilities (h2) were estimated. Fingerlings averaged 36.7 (+ or - 2...

247

Direct and Indirect Effects of Teenage Body Weight on Adult Wages. NBER Working Paper No. 15027  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous estimates on the association between body weight and wages in the literature have been contingent on education and occupation. This paper examines the direct effect of BMI on wages and the indirect effects operating through education and occupation choice, particularly for late-teen BMI and adult wages. Using the National Longitudinal…

Han, Euna; Norton, Edward C.; Powell, Lisa M.

2009-01-01

248

Vagotomy Suppresses Body Weight Gain in a Rat Model of Gastric Banding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vagotomy on body weight changes after gastric banding. Methods: Rats were divided into a sham-operated group (n = 10), a vagotomy alone group (n = 10), a gastric banding alone group (n = 10) and a gastric banding + vagotomy group (n = 10). All groups were given

Hitoshi Kanno; Teruo Kiyama; Itsuo Fujita; Shunji Kato; Eiji Uchida; Takashi Tajiri

2010-01-01

249

Brainstem Application of Melanocortin Receptor Ligands Produces Long-Lasting Effects on Feeding and Body Weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent evidence suggests that the central melanocortin (MC) system is a prominent contributor to food intake and body weight control. MC receptor (MC-R) populations in the arcuate and paraventricular nuclei are considered probable sites of action mediating the orexigenic effects of systemically or intrac- erebroventricularly administered ligands. Yet, the highest MC4-R density in the brain is found in the dorsal

Harvey J. Grill; Abigail B. Ginsberg; Randy J. Seeley; Joel M. Kaplan

250

Problem eating behaviors related to social factors and body weight in preschool children: A longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Despite the increasing prevalence of overweight\\/obesity and its association to eating patterns in adolescents and adults, little is known about the relationship between problematic eating behaviours and body weight in the preschool years within the context of various social factors. This research aims to analyze the relationship between social factors, mothers' perceptions of their child's eating behaviour (picky eating

Lise Dubois; Anna Farmer; Manon Girard; Kelly Peterson; Fabiola Tatone-Tokuda

2007-01-01

251

Effects of Photoperiod and Melatonin Infusions on Body Weight in Pinealectomized Juvenile Siberian Hamsters (Phodopus sungorus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effects of daily melatonin (Mel) infusions in pinealectomized prepubertal male Siberian hamsters in three different conditions. In one study we investigated the body weight maturation response to one hour daily infusions of 10 ng, 25 ng, or 50 ng of Mel in pinealectomized hamsters. Animals received, at day 15 of life, programmed subcutaneous infusions of Mel or

Bülent GÜNDÜZ

252

Regulation of Food Intake and Body Weight by Cobalt Porphyrins in Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cobalt-substituted protoporphyrin administered subcutaneously to normal adult rats elicited prompt decreases in food intake and sustained decreases in body weight. Repetitive parenteral administration of small doses of this synthetic heme analogue resulted in dose-related diminutions of carcass fat content without changes in carcass protein content. Direct injection of the compound into the third ventricle of the brain produced changes in

Richard A. Galbraith; Attallah Kappas

1989-01-01

253

Effects of postural disturbances with fatigued triceps surae muscles or with 20% additional body weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main issues for balance control is the ability to generate enough forces to execute motions and uphold stability. This study aimed to investigate whether induced fatigue of the triceps surae muscles and decreased muscle force due to temporary additional body weight affected the ability to withstand balance perturbations. Another aim was to examine whether postural control adaptation

Torbjörn Ledin; P. A. Fransson; M. Magnusson

2004-01-01

254

Influence of body weight on response to subcutaneous vitamin K administration in over-anticoagulated patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To determine the influence of body weight on the international normalized ratio (INR) response to a fixed dose of vitamin K in overanticoagulated patients.METHODS: Retrospective review of records of patients who received 1 mg of vitamin K subcutaneously to correct excessive INR. Dose of vitamin K in milligrams per kilograms plotted against change in INR in 24 hours.RESULTS: Fifteen

Kevin C Kelly; Guna Raj; Rick A Weideman

2001-01-01

255

High Blood Pressure in Adults with Disabilities: Influence of Gender, Body Weight and Health Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aims of this study were to explore the mean and distribution of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and to examine the influence of gender, body weight and health behaviors on hypertension in adults with disabilities. We analyzed the 2010 annual community health examination chart of adults with disabilities in east Taiwan. The study samples…

Lin, Lan-Ping; Liu, Chien-Ting; Liou, Shih-Wen; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Lin, Jin-Ding

2012-01-01

256

Treadmill Training with Partial Body-Weight Support in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

OKAim: The aim of this systematic review was to examine the literature on the effects of partial body-weight support treadmill training (PBWSTT) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) on functional outcomes and attainment of ambulation. Method: We searched the relevant literature from 1950 to July 2007. We found eight studies on the use of PWSBTT on…

Mutlu, Akmer; Krosschell, Kristin; Spira, Deborah Gaebler

2009-01-01

257

Heritability of sudden death syndrome and its associated correlations to ascites and body weight in broilers.  

PubMed

(1) Genetic parameters for the sudden death syndrome (SDS) were estimated in meat-type chickens. Data were collected over 11 generations of selection for body weight within two distinct breeds (Cornish and White Rock). (2) The animal model was used exclusively with linear methods (LM) to estimate genetic parameters. Heritability (h2) of SDS on the liability scale was 0.30 +/- 0.002 and 0.25 +/- 0.002 in the Cornish and White Rock breeds, respectively. (3) A positive genetic correlation (r(g)) with ascites (AS) was determined (approximately 0.3 +/- 0.006). However, it was not possible to estimate the rg of SDS with body weight because of the low prevalence of the defect trait studied (1.8% in the Cornish and 1-5% in the White Rock). (4) Heritability of SDS calculated using male records only was 0.45 +/- 0.009 and 0.35 +/- 0.009, and r(g) with body weight was 0.30 +/- 0.010 and 0.27 +/- 0.009, in the Cornish and White Rock breeds, respectively. (5) In conclusion, the heart defect investigated was heritable with a positive genetic correlation with AS and body weight. PMID:15835252

Moghadam, H K; McMillan, I; Chambers, J R; Julian, R J; Tranchant, C C

2005-02-01

258

Body Weight Status, Inflammation, and Prognostic Markers in Early-Stage Prostate Cancer  

E-print Network

Body Weight Status, Inflammation, and Prognostic Markers in Early-Stage Prostate Cancer Brown Bag (UICCC) IHRP Fellow #12;Outline Relative risk of cancer mortality in obese men Pathophysiologic basis for excess risk The case for inflammation/immunity in prostate cancer Preliminary results from

Illinois at Chicago, University of

259

Harvard study finds body weight, diet may be risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma:  

Cancer.gov

Body weight in young adulthood and diet appeared to be associated with the risk for non-Hodgkin lymphoma, according to results presented at the 10th AACR International Conference on Frontiers in Cancer Prevention Research, held Oct. 22-25, 2011.

260

Effects of Body Weight and Nutrition on Histological Mammary Development in Holstein Heifers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our objective was to determine effects of rate of gain and body weight (BW) on mammary parenchymal tissue development. Mammary tissue samples were available from heifers (n = 54) reared on one of two dietary treatments, restricted (R) 650 g/d or elevated (E) 950 g/d of daily gain), and slaughtered ...

261

Is Gastrin Partially Responsible for Body Weight Reduction after Gastric Bypass?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The rationale for bariatric surgery is to reduce food intake by gastric restriction and\\/or malabsorption by intestinal bypass. Unlike ghrelin, gastrin is released in response to food intake. Here we studied the possible role of gastrin in the reduction of body weight after gastric bypass surgery. Methods: Rats were divided into four experimental groups and were subjected to different

Björn Stenström; Chun-Mei Zhao; Karin Tømmerås; Carl-Jørgen Arum; Duan Chen

2006-01-01

262

Food Consumption Patterns of Nigerian Adolescents and Effect on Body Weight  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Association between nutritional status of adolescents and food consumption pattern. Design: Data on number of meals and snacks consumed daily were collected using structured questionnaires. Nutritional status was assessed as weight-for-age body mass index score less than fifth percentile of the National Center for Health…

Olumakaiye, M. F.; Atinmo, Tola; Olubayo-Fatiregun, M. A.

2010-01-01

263

Heritabilities and genetic correlations of body weights and feather length in growing Muscovy selected in Taiwan.  

PubMed

1. Heritabilities and genetic correlations in the base population of a closed strain of Muscovy duck, moderately selected for body weight at 10 weeks of age, have been estimated from the data of 9 successive generations for the following traits: male and female body weight at 10 and 18 weeks of age (BW10m, BW18m, BW10f, BW18f) and length of the 8th primary feather at 10 weeks of age (F110m, F110f). 2. Multivariate REML with an animal model was used, pooling data from the 9 generations (3283 and 3289 male and female offspring respectively). The same trait expressed in male and female was considered as 2 different traits. 3. The 8th primary feather was longer in females than in males by 6% to 22% at 10 weeks of age. Body weight was heavier in males than in females by 42% to 58% at 10 weeks of age and by 57% to 75% at 18 weeks of age. 3. The heritability estimates for body weight traits showed moderate values, being a little higher for females than for males at the same age, increasing with age from h2=0.24 at BW10m to h2=0.43 at BW18f. 4. The heritability estimates for feather length showed that a greater response would be obtained in selection for male feather length (h2=0.37) than for female length (h2=0.14). Both have high genetic correlations with body weight so they could be indirectly improved. 5. Heritabilities of the difference in body weights between males and females at 10 weeks (h2=0.07) and 18 weeks of age (h2=0.10) were small, as well as for feather length (h2=0.10). It would probably be difficult to modify sexual dimorphism in body weight through selection. 6. Genetic correlations between BW10m, BW18m and BW10f, BW18f were respectively r(g)=0.77 and r(g)=0.80. They were larger for body weight at the same ages between males and females, r(g)=0.90 (r(g)=0.88 between F110m and F110f). Body weight in males and females at the same age should be better considered as 2 different traits in a selection programme. 7. The cumulated predicted genetic gains expressed per unity of the genetic standard deviation (sigma(g)) over the 8 generations of selection were 1.3 sigma(g) and 1.4 sigma(g) respectively for the BW10m and BW10f. The predicted correlated responses were 1.2 sigma(g) for body weights at 18 weeks of age, 0.9 sigma(g) and 0.7 sigma(g) for F110f and F110m respectively. PMID:10670671

Hu, Y H; Poivey, J P; Rouvier, R; Wang, C T; Tai, C

1999-12-01

264

Influence of Weight Gain Rate on Early Life Nutritional Status and Body Composition of Children  

PubMed Central

Objective. To evaluate the influence of the weight gain rate at 4–6 months on nutritional status and body composition in children between 4 and 7 years of age. Methods. Retrospective cohort study, sample of 257 children. Data collection was performed in two stages, with the first relating to retrospective data of weight gain from birth to the first 4–6 months of life in the patient records. Measurements of weight, height, waist circumference, and body composition in children between ages 4 and 7 years were obtained. Nutritional status was assessed by the BMI/age. Control variables, such as pregnancy, breastfeeding, lifestyle, and sociodemographics, were studied. Descriptive analysis and multiple linear regression were performed. Results. In the nutritional status assessment, the prevalence of overweight observed was 24.9%. After adjusting for control variables, it was found that the increase of the WGR at 4–6 months of age explained the occurrence of higher BMI/age, percentage of total body fat, body fat percentage in the android region, and waist circumference in children between 4 and 7 years of age. Conclusion. The increase of the WGR in the first months of life can lead to the occurrence of higher values of parameters of nutritional status and body composition in later life.

Magalhães, Taís Cristina Araújo; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira da Rocha

2014-01-01

265

Effect of body weight gain on insulin sensitivity after retirement from exercise training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of the body-weight gain after retirement from an exercise-training program on the retained increase in insulin sensitivity elicited by the training was investigated in exercise-trained (ET) rats. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by oral glucose tolerance and insulin suppression tests immediately after training and during retirement. Results show that, compared with sedentary controls, exercise training enhanced insulin-induced glucose uptake, but the enhanced sensitivity was gradually lost with the end of running activity until after seven days of retirement, when it became equal to that of controls. This loss of enhanced sensitivity to insulin was associated with an accelerated gain in body weight beginning one day after the start of retirement. However, those animals that gained weight only at rates similar to those of control rats, retained their enhanced sensitivity to insulin.

Dolkas, Constantine B.; Rodnick, Kenneth J.; Mondon, Carl E.

1990-01-01

266

Veteran Status and Body Weight: A Longitudinal Fixed-Effects Approach  

PubMed Central

About 10–12 % of young men (and increasingly, women) have served a term in the military. Yet, we know relatively little about the consequences of military service for the lives of those who serve. In this article, we provide estimates of the relationship between men’s peacetime military service during the all-volunteer era (AVE) and body weight using longitudinal data on 6,304 men taken from the National Longitudinal Survey of 1979 (NLSY-79). Using fixed-effects estimators on up to 13 years of data and numerous controls for time-varying life-course characteristics linked to body weight, we find that veterans of active-duty military service have higher levels of BMI and obesity. We argue that eating habits learned during service, coupled with patterns of physical activity, lead to a situation whereby veterans making the transition to less active civilian lifestyles gain weight that is not lost over time.

Teachman, Jay

2014-01-01

267

Repeatability and phenotypic correlations for body weight and reproduction in commercial ostrich breeding pairs.  

PubMed

1. Reproduction is an important aspect of ostrich farming, where income is mainly derived from hides and meat. No estimates of repeatability or phenotypic correlations for reproduction and body weight are currently available for commercial ostriches. 2. Means, standard deviations, repeatability coefficients and phenotypic correlations for and among reproductive traits and body weight were computed for the average yearly production of 42 to 67 mixed age ostrich breeding pairs maintained on the Klein Karoo Agricultural Development Centre from 1990 to 1994. The among-breeding-pair variance component was used in the repeatability estimations, as the pairing off of the same male:female combinations repeatedly resulted in the confounding of these effects. 3. Phenotypic correlations of male body weight with egg production performance (-0.20) and female body weight with hatchability percentage (-0.16) were negative. Correlations of egg production performance with infertility (-0.20) and hatchability (0.23) percentages were favourable. 4. The repeatability of annual adult body weight was 0.68 +/- 0.05 in male ostriches and 0.61 +/- 0.05 in females. 5. Ostrich reproduction traits were extremely variable. An appreciable portion of this variation could be attributed to the repeatable nature of breeding pair performance from year to year. All the reproduction traits analysed were moderately repeatable, ranging from 0.38 +/- 0.07 (hatchability percentage) to 0.51 +/- 0.06 (percentage of embryonic deaths). Egg production performance during the first breeding season of 17 breeding pairs for which data were available predicted subsequent performance satisfactorily, suggesting that selection decisions can be made at quite an early age. PMID:9034585

van Schalkwyk, S J; Cloete, S W; de Kock, J A

1996-12-01

268

Smoking and its effects on body weight and the systems of caloric regulation.  

PubMed

Cigarette smoking and excess body weight, each of which contributes to poor health and risk of death, appear themselves to be inversely related. Data indicate that smokers weigh less than nonsmokers and that weight gain occurs after the cessation of smoking. The popular wisdom is that this is due to differences in caloric intake: smokers weigh less because they consume less and they gain weight upon stopping smoking as a consequence of consuming more. Cross-sectional data on this point are conflicting, however, with some studies of daily caloric intake suggesting that smokers may, in fact, consume more calories per day than nonsmokers. In addition to affecting ingestive behavior, however, cigarette smoking has a variety of physiological effects that may play a more important role than amount of calories consumed per se in accounting for lower body weights among smokers and weight gain after cessation. Evidence regarding the effects of cigarette smoking and nicotine upon the behavioral, sensory and metabolic components of the processes of caloric regulation and nutrition is reviewed in order to suggest mechanisms by which smoking may affect weight. Longitudinal within-subject designs investigating changes associated with the cessation and initiation of smoking are recommended. PMID:7039293

Wack, J T; Rodin, J

1982-02-01

269

ON THE STANDARD METABOLIC RATES OF TROPICAL TUNAS, INCLUDING THE EFFECf OF BODY SIZE AND  

E-print Network

ON THE STANDARD METABOLIC RATES OF TROPICAL TUNAS, INCLUDING THE EFFECf OF BODY SIZE AND ACUTE. This study was undertaken to obtain these data for the tropical tuna species, yellowfin tuna, Tkunnl tuna, KatsltWOO1t8 pelamis, previously published. The effect of acute temperature change on the SMR

270

Closed-form solutions for linear regulator design of mechanical systems including optimal weighting matrix selection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vibration in modern structural and mechanical systems can be reduced in amplitude by increasing stiffness, redistributing stiffness and mass, and/or adding damping if design techniques are available to do so. Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) theory in modern multivariable control design, attacks the general dissipative elastic system design problem in a global formulation. The optimal design, however, allows electronic connections and phase relations which are not physically practical or possible in passive structural-mechanical devices. The restriction of LQR solutions (to the Algebraic Riccati Equation) to design spaces which can be implemented as passive structural members and/or dampers is addressed. A general closed-form solution to the optimal free-decay control problem is presented which is tailored for structural-mechanical system. The solution includes, as subsets, special cases such as the Rayleigh Dissipation Function and total energy. Weighting matrix selection is a constrained choice among several parameters to obtain desired physical relationships. The closed-form solution is also applicable to active control design for systems where perfect, collocated actuator-sensor pairs exist.

Hanks, Brantley R.; Skelton, Robert E.

1991-01-01

271

Yogurt consumption is associated with longitudinal changes of body weight and waist circumference: the framingham study  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Yogurt, as a low-fat, nutrient-dense dairy product, may be beneficial in preventing weight gain. We aimed to examine the longitudinal association between yogurt consumption and annualized change in weight and waist circumference (WC) among adults. We included 3,285 adults (11,169 observations) parti...

272

Ablation of the GNB3 gene in mice does not affect body weight, metabolism or blood pressure, but causes bradycardia.  

PubMed

G protein ?3 (G?3) is an isoform of heterotrimeric G protein ? subunits involved in transducing G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling. Polymorphisms in G?3 (GNB3) are associated with many human disorders (e.g. hypertension, diabetes and obesity) but the role of GNB3 in these pathogeneses remains unclear. Here, G?3-null mice (GNB3(-/-)) were characterized to determine how G?3 functions to regulate blood pressure, body weight and metabolism. We found G?3 expression restricted to limited types of tissues, including the retina, several regions of the brain and heart ventricles. G?3-deficient mice were normal as judged by body weight gain by age or by feeding with high-fat diet (HFD); glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity; baseline blood pressure and angiotensin II infusion-induced hypertension. During tail-cuff blood pressure measurements, however, G?3-null mice had slower heart rates (~450 vs ~500 beats/min). This bradycardia was not observed in isolated and perfused G?3-null mouse hearts. Moreover, mouse hearts isolated from GNB3(-/-) and controls responded equivalently to muscarinic receptor- and ?-adrenergic receptor-stimulated bradycardia and tachycardia, respectively. Since no difference was seen in isolated hearts, G?3 is unlikely to be involved directly in the GPCR signaling activity that controls heart pacemaker activity. These results demonstrate that although G?3 appears dispensable in mice for the regulation of blood pressure, body weight and metabolic features associated with obesity and diabetes, G?3 may regulate heart rate. PMID:25093805

Ye, Yuanchao; Sun, Zhizeng; Guo, Ang; Song, Long-Sheng; Grobe, Justin L; Chen, Songhai

2014-11-01

273

Increased Body Weight Reduces Voluntary Movement to Maintain Energy Expenditure of Rats Exposed to Increases in Gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the increase in obesity related diseases there is heightened interest in mechanisms regulating body weight. To assess the influence of increases in body weight on energy expenditure and intake in rats we employed variable levels of gravity. Our approach afforded the means to measure interactions of energy expenditure and intake in response to increases in body weight (body mass x gravity level). We found a dose relationship between rapid elevation of body weight and reduction of voluntary movement, such that the energy requirements for activity are unchanged, and total energy expenditure and intake maintained. Reduction of movement appears to be a response to increased body weight, rather than a contributing factor, suggesting a new regulatory pathway.

Wade, C. E.; Moran, M. M.; Stein, T. P.; Sin, Sidney (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

274

Parental Characteristics Have a Larger Effect on Children's Health Behaviour than Their Body Weight.  

PubMed

Objective: Parents take an important role in a child's development, but there is currently limited information on parental correlates with children's health behaviour. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to examine whether parental characteristics, such as body weight, TV consumption and sport participation, affect children's body weight and health behaviour. Methods: To examine the effects of parental characteristics on children's body weight and health behaviour, baseline data of 1,118 elementary school children (7.6 ± 0.4 years) participating in a school-based intervention in southwest Germany was used. Children's height and weight were measured and parent as well as child behaviour was assessed via questionnaire. Results: BMI percentiles of children were positively associated with parental BMI (r = 0.2, p < 0.01). Further, high parental TV time increased the odds for high TV time in children (ORmother = 2.2, ORfather = 2.3) and parental club sport participation increased the odds for club sport participation in children (ORmother = 1.9, ORfather = 1.7). The relationship between parental and child behaviour was stronger than the relationship between parental BMI and BMI percentiles of the child. Conclusion: These results suggest that parental behaviour and role modelling provide an important contribution to childrens' health behaviour, especially at younger ages. © 2014 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg. PMID:25434370

Drenowatz, Clemens; Erkelenz, Nanette; Wartha, Olivia; Brandstetter, Susanne; Steinacker, Jürgen M

2014-11-26

275

Low-calorie sweeteners and body weight and composition: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies123  

PubMed Central

Background: Replacement of caloric sweeteners with lower- or no-calorie alternatives may facilitate weight loss or weight maintenance by helping to reduce energy intake; however, past research examining low-calorie sweeteners (LCSs) and body weight has produced mixed results. Objective: The objective was to systematically review and quantitatively evaluate randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and prospective cohort studies, separately, that examined the relation between LCSs and body weight and composition. Design: A systematic literature search identified 15 RCTs and 9 prospective cohort studies that examined LCSs from foods or beverages or LCSs consumed as tabletop sweeteners. Meta-analyses generated weighted mean differences in body weight and composition values between the LCS and control groups among RCTs and weighted mean correlations for LCS intake and these parameters among prospective cohort studies. Results: In RCTs, LCSs modestly but significantly reduced all outcomes examined, including body weight (?0.80 kg; 95% CI: ?1.17, ?0.43), body mass index [BMI (in kg/m2): ?0.24; 95% CI: ?0.41, ?0.07], fat mass (?1.10 kg; 95% CI: ?1.77, ?0.44), and waist circumference (?0.83 cm; 95% CI: ?1.29, ?0.37). Among prospective cohort studies, LCS intake was not associated with body weight or fat mass, but was significantly associated with slightly higher BMI (0.03; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.06). Conclusions: The current meta-analysis provides a rigorous evaluation of the scientific evidence on LCSs and body weight and composition. Findings from observational studies showed no association between LCS intake and body weight or fat mass and a small positive association with BMI; however, data from RCTs, which provide the highest quality of evidence for examining the potentially causal effects of LCS intake, indicate that substituting LCS options for their regular-calorie versions results in a modest weight loss and may be a useful dietary tool to improve compliance with weight loss or weight maintenance plans. PMID:24944060

Miller, Paige E; Perez, Vanessa

2014-01-01

276

Effect of swimming activity on relative weight and body composition of juvenile rainbow trout  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fisheries managers often assess body condition using relative weight (Wr) because it provides a comparative measure of fish plumpness among individuals and populations. However, it is not known whether the morphological information that Wr summarizes reflects physiological measures, such as relative lipid reserves, in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. The purpose of this study was to determine whether swimming activity affects either the Wr or proximate body composition of juvenile (total length, 170-260 mm) rainbow trout. When rainbow trout from a hatchery were fed ad libitum for 147 d, inactive (no current) and active (15 cm/s current velocity) fish did not differ in Wr However, inactive rainbow trout maintained relatively constant lipid levels, whereas active fish declined in lipid content. Relative weight may provide a comparable measure of body form, but it is not an accurate index of lipid content between active and inactive rainbow trout fed an excess ration. For assessing the physiological condition of rainbow trout, measurement of proximate body composition appears to be more accurate than indices based on length and weight.

Simpkins, D.G.; Hubert, W.A.; Del Rio, C.M.; Rule, D.C.

2003-01-01

277

Effects of Chitosan on Body Weight Gain, Growth Hormone and Intestinal Morphology in Weaned Pigs  

PubMed Central

The study was conducted to determine the effects of chitosan on the concentrations of GH and IGF-I in serum and small intestinal morphological structure of piglets, in order to evaluate the regulating action of chitosan on weaned pig growth through endocrine and intestinal morphological approaches. A total of 180 weaned pigs (35 d of age; 11.56±1.61 kg of body weight) were selected and assigned randomly to 5 dietary treatments, including 1 basal diet (control) and 4 diets with chitosan supplementation (100, 500, 1,000 and 2,000 mg/kg, respectively). Each treatment contained six replicate pens with six pigs per pen. The experiment lasted for 28 d. The results showed that the average body weight gain (BWG) of pigs was improved quadratically by dietary chitosan during the former 14 d and the later 14 d after weaned (p<0.05). Furthermore, dietary supplementation of chitosan tended to quadratically increase the concentration of serum GH on d 14 (p = 0.082) and 28 (p = 0.087). Diets supplemented with increasing levels of chitosan increased quadratically the villus height of jejunum and ileum on d 14 (p = 0.089, p<0.01) and 28 (p = 0.074, p<0.01), meanwhile, chitosan increased quadratically the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in duodenum, jejunum and ileum on d 14 (p<0.05, p = 0.055, p<0.01) and 28 (p<0.01, p<0.01, p<0.01), however, it decreased quadratically crypt depth in ileum on d 14 (p<0.05) and that in duodenum, jejunum and ileum on d 28 (p<0.01, p<0.05, p<0.05). In conclusion, these results indicated that chitosan could quadratically improve growth in weaned pigs, and the underlying mechanism may due to the increase of the serum GH concentration and improvement of the small intestines morphological structure. PMID:25049731

Xu, Yuanqing; Shi, Binlin; Yan, Sumei; Li, Tiyu; Guo, Yiwei; Li, Junliang

2013-01-01

278

Effects of chitosan on body weight gain, growth hormone and intestinal morphology in weaned pigs.  

PubMed

The study was conducted to determine the effects of chitosan on the concentrations of GH and IGF-I in serum and small intestinal morphological structure of piglets, in order to evaluate the regulating action of chitosan on weaned pig growth through endocrine and intestinal morphological approaches. A total of 180 weaned pigs (35 d of age; 11.56±1.61 kg of body weight) were selected and assigned randomly to 5 dietary treatments, including 1 basal diet (control) and 4 diets with chitosan supplementation (100, 500, 1,000 and 2,000 mg/kg, respectively). Each treatment contained six replicate pens with six pigs per pen. The experiment lasted for 28 d. The results showed that the average body weight gain (BWG) of pigs was improved quadratically by dietary chitosan during the former 14 d and the later 14 d after weaned (p<0.05). Furthermore, dietary supplementation of chitosan tended to quadratically increase the concentration of serum GH on d 14 (p = 0.082) and 28 (p = 0.087). Diets supplemented with increasing levels of chitosan increased quadratically the villus height of jejunum and ileum on d 14 (p = 0.089, p<0.01) and 28 (p = 0.074, p<0.01), meanwhile, chitosan increased quadratically the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in duodenum, jejunum and ileum on d 14 (p<0.05, p = 0.055, p<0.01) and 28 (p<0.01, p<0.01, p<0.01), however, it decreased quadratically crypt depth in ileum on d 14 (p<0.05) and that in duodenum, jejunum and ileum on d 28 (p<0.01, p<0.05, p<0.05). In conclusion, these results indicated that chitosan could quadratically improve growth in weaned pigs, and the underlying mechanism may due to the increase of the serum GH concentration and improvement of the small intestines morphological structure. PMID:25049731

Xu, Yuanqing; Shi, Binlin; Yan, Sumei; Li, Tiyu; Guo, Yiwei; Li, Junliang

2013-10-01

279

Genetic parameters for feed efficiency and body weight traits in Japanese quail.  

PubMed

1. The objectives of the present study were to estimate heritability and genetic correlations for feed efficiency and body weight (BW) in Japanese quail. 2. Recorded traits during different weeks of the growing period were BW from hatch to 35 d, feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and residual feed intake (RFI) from hatch to 28 d of age. 3. Genetic parameters were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood method using ASREML software. The results showed that heritability estimates for BW ranged from 0.11 to 0.22, and maternal permanent environmental effect was the highest at hatch (0.45). FCR, RFI and FI showed moderate heritabilities ranging from 0.13 to 0.40. 4.Genetic correlations of BW28 with FI0-28 (0.88) and RFI0-28 (0.1) and genetic correlation of FI0-28 with FCR0-28 (0.13) and RFI0-28 (0.52) were positive. A negative genetic correlation was found between BW28 and FCR0-28 (-0.49). There was a high positive genetic correlation (0.67) between RFI0-28 and FCR0-28. 5. In conclusion, selection for increased BW and reduced FI in a selection index could be recommended to improve feed efficiency traits including FCR and RFI in Japanese quail. PMID:24851993

Nasiri Foomani, N; Zerehdaran, S; Ahani Azari, M; Lotfi, E

2014-01-01

280

Height, weight and body mass index values of mid-19th century New York legislative officers.  

PubMed

Previous studies of mid-19th century American heights and body mass index values have used potentially unrepresentative groups-students in military academies, prisoners, and African Americans. This paper uses an alternative source with heights and weights of ordinary people employed in a wide variety of occupations. The results reveal the operation of the antebellum paradox in that average heights declined between men born circa 1820 and those born circa 1840. Average weights also declined for adult males, suggesting a decline in mid-19th century nutritional status. PMID:20061195

Bodenhorn, Howard

2010-07-01

281

Body contouring surgery in a massive weight loss patient: An overview  

PubMed Central

The number of patients with history of extreme overweight and massive weight loss (MWL) has risen significantly. Majority of patients are left with loose, ptotic skin envelopes, and oddly shaped protuberances, subsequent to weight loss. Redundant skin and fat can be seen anywhere on the body following MWL. This group of population presents many unique problems and challenges. Body contouring surgery after MWL is a new and exciting field in plastic surgery that is still evolving. Conventional approaches do not adequately cater to the needs of these patients. Complete history, detailed physical examination, clinical photographs and lab investigations help to plan the most appropriate procedure for the individual patient. Proper counseling and comprehensive informed consent for each procedure are mandatory. The meticulous and precise markings based on the procedure selected are the cornerstones to achieve the successful outcome. Lower body contouring should be performed first followed six months later by breast, lateral chest and arm procedures. Thighplasty is usually undertaken at the end. Body contouring operations are staged at few months' intervals and often result in long scars. Staging is important as each procedure can have positive impact on adjacent areas of the body. Secondary procedures are often required. However, proper planning should lead to fewer complications and improved aesthetic outcome and patient satisfaction. PMID:20174535

Shrivastava, Prabhat; Aggarwal, Aditya; Khazanchi, Rakesh Kumar

2008-01-01

282

Body weight and rumen-reticulum capacity in tule elk and mule deer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The relationship between body size and rumen-reticulum capacity among conspecific individuals is predicted to be isometric. We examined whether the relationship between body weight and rumen-reticulum capacity was isometric in adult male and female rule elk (Cervus elaphus nannodes) and in adult female mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). We detected no effect of sex on this relationship in elk, and the slope of the regression was 1.0 for one measure of rumen-reticulum capacity and <1.0 for another. Among deer, the slope of the relationship was <1.0 in one measure of rumen-reticulum capacity, and we detected no relationship with the other.

Weckerly, F.W.; Bleich, V.C.; Chetkiewicz, C.-L.B.; Ricca, M.A.

2003-01-01

283

Body image change and improved eating self-regulation in a weight management intervention in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Successful weight management involves the regulation of eating behavior. However, the specific mechanisms underlying its successful\\u000a regulation remain unclear. This study examined one potential mechanism by testing a model in which improved body image mediated\\u000a the effects of obesity treatment on eating self-regulation. Further, this study explored the role of different body image\\u000a components.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Participants were 239 overweight women (age:

Eliana V Carraça; Marlene N Silva; David Markland; Paulo N Vieira; Cláudia S Minderico; Luís B Sardinha; Pedro J Teixeira

2011-01-01

284

A real-time automated system for monitoring individual feed intake and body weight of group housed turkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feed conversion is an important production trait in turkey breeding; the measurement of an individual bird's feed efficiency is important in identifying the most genetically superior individual. The development of a real-time automated feed intake and body weight monitoring system is described in this paper. The system integrated multiple feed and body weight weighing stations consisting of electronic scales, radio

Xuyong Tu; Shuxin Du; Lie Tang; Hongwei Xin; Ben Wood

2011-01-01

285

Bingeing, Self-restriction, and Increased Body Weight in Rats With Limited Access to a Sweet-fat Diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Prior research has shown that fasting alternated with a diet of standard rodent chow and a 10% sucrose solution produces bingeing on the sucrose, but animals remain at normal body weight. The present study investigated whether restricted access to a highly palatable combination of sugar and fat, without food deprivation, would instigate binge eating and also increase body weight.Methods and

Laura A. Berner; Nicole M. Avena; Bartley G. Hoebel; Bart G. Hoebel

2008-01-01

286

Crime and Body Weight in the Nineteenth Century: Was there a Relationship between Brawn, Employment Opportunities and Crime?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the extent to which crime in the 19th century was conditioned on body weight. With data on inmates incarcerated in the Tennessee and Illinois state penitentiaries between 1831 and 1892, we estimate the parameters of Wiebull proportional hazard specifications of the individual crime hazard. Our results reveal that consistent with a theory in which body weight can

Howard Bodenhorn; Gregory Price

2009-01-01

287

Association between Self-Concept and Body Weight, Gender, and Pubertal Development among Male and Female Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the effects and interactions of gender, pubertal status, and body weight on the self-concept of young adolescent Australian students. The mean self-concept score was significantly related to students' standard body weight, and there was an interaction between gender and puberty, with postpubertal males having the highest and…

O'Dea, Jennifer A.; Abraham, Suzanne

1999-01-01

288

Microsatellite DNA polymorphisms and the relation with body weight in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between microsatellite polymorphism and body weight of captive bred Chinese sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus was investigated in two local populations in Dalian. Among ten loci discovered, nine show changes except for AJ07 loci. Seven loci were found highly polymorphic in both populations. For each locus in two populations, the average number of alleles is 6.428 6 and 6.285 7, the average observed heterozygosity at 0.225 7 and 0.245 9, the expected heterozygosity at 0.776 8 and 0.748 8, the polymorphism information content (PIC) at 0.709 2 and 0.674 6, respectively. Further analysis show significant correlation between A. japonicus body weight and occurrence markers AJ02 and AJ04. The findings of the relation may be helpful for molecular breeding, as well as the marker-assisted selection of sea cucumbers.

Wang, Xiuli; Shan, Xue; Qiu, Xuemei; Meng, Xiangying; Chang, Yaqing

2009-05-01

289

Control of body weight versus tumorigenesis by concerted action of leptin and estrogen.  

PubMed

Improper body weight control is most critical to the development of morbid obesity, which is often associated with alternation in leptin (Ob) signaling in the central nervous system. Leptin acts to control fat mass through the regulation of both food intake and energy expenditure. In addition to the primary action in metabolic signaling, leptin has also been found to play a role in reproduction and even in breast tumorigenesis in obese patients. Interestingly, estrogen, a sex hormone, has also been recognized as another crucial factor for energy balance and breast tumorigenesis in obese subjects. Obesity in postmenopausal women has been associated with higher risk of breast cancer. There are substantial data in the literature on the connection of estrogen and leptin pathways in development of obesity and breast cancer. In this review, we discuss the cross-talk of leptin and estrogen signaling pathways in body weight control and breast cancer development. PMID:24142297

He, Zhao; Feng, Gen-Sheng

2013-12-01

290

No compelling evidence that sibutramine prolongs life in rodents despite providing a dose-dependent reduction in body weight  

PubMed Central

Objective The health and longevity effects of body weight reduction resulting from exercise and caloric restriction in rodents are well known, but less is known about whether similar effects occur with weight reduction from the use of a pharmaceutical agent such as sibutramine, a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. Results & Conclusion Using data from a two-year toxicology study of sibutramine in CD rats and CD-1 mice, despite a dose-dependent reduction in food intake and body weight in rats compared to controls, and a body weight reduction in mice at the highest dose, there was no compelling evidence for reductions in mortality rate. PMID:21079617

Smith, Daniel L.; Robertson, Henry; Desmond, Renee; Nagy, Tim R.; Allison, David B.

2010-01-01

291

Habitual Chocolate Consumption May Increase Body Weight in a Dose-Response Manner  

PubMed Central

Objective Habitual chocolate intake was recently found to be associated with lower body weight in three cross-sectional epidemiological studies. Our objective was to assess whether these cross-sectional results hold up in a more rigorous prospective analysis. Methods We used data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities cohort. Usual dietary intake was assessed by questionnaire at baseline (1987–98), and after six years. Participants reported usual chocolate intake as the frequency of eating a 1-oz (?28 g) serving. Body weight and height were measured at the two visits. Missing data were replaced by multiple imputation. Linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate cross-sectional and prospective associations between chocolate intake and adiposity. Results Data were from 15,732 and 12,830 participants at the first and second visit, respectively. More frequent chocolate consumption was associated with a significantly greater prospective weight gain over time, in a dose-response manner. For instance, compared to participants who ate a chocolate serving less often than monthly, those who ate it 1–4 times a month and at least weekly experienced an increase in Body Mass Index (kg/m2) of 0.26 (95% CI 0.08, 0.44) and 0.39 (0.23, 0.55), respectively, during the six-year study period. In cross-sectional analyses the frequency of chocolate consumption was inversely associated with body weight. This inverse association was attenuated after excluding participants with preexisting obesity-related illness. Compared to participants without such illness, those with it had higher BMI and reported less frequent chocolate intake, lower caloric intake, and diets richer in fruits and vegetables. They tended to make these dietary changes after becoming ill. Conclusions Our prospective analysis found that a chocolate habit was associated with long-term weight gain, in a dose-response manner. Our cross-sectional finding that chocolate intake was associated with lower body weight did not apply to participants without preexisting serious illness. PMID:23950919

Greenberg, James A.; Buijsse, Brian

2013-01-01

292

Racial Differences in Perception of Healthy Body Weight in Mid-Life Women: Results from Do Stage Transitions Result in Detectable Effects (STRIDE) Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Perception of a healthy body weight may influence health behaviors including physical activity level, nutritional habits, and health outcomes, and these perceptions may vary importantly by race. Midlife is a critical period for women, which typically includes weight gain. We assessed the associations between perception of healthy body weight and body mass index (BMI) and whether they vary by race. Methods In the Do Stage Transitions Result in Detectable Effects (STRIDE) study, body mass index (BMI) and perception of body weight (healthy, underweight, or overweight) were measured at the baseline examination. Multinomial logistic regression models examined the associations, with race (White vs. Black) as a moderator variable. Results Of 729 women enrolled, 689 women (95%, N=145 Black, N=544 White) were included in these analyses. Even though the average BMI was higher for Black women compared to White women (33.1 vs. 29.2, respectively, p<.0001), Black women were less likely to report that they weighed too much (RRR (Relative Risk Ratio) [95% CI]: 0.4 [0.2, 0.9], p 0.022) and more likely to think that they did not weigh enough (RRR [95% CI]: 14.2 [1.8, 110], p 0.011). Conclusion Although Black women in general face a greater threat of morbidity from weight-related chronic diseases, they are more likely to be accepting of their weight at higher BMI’s, relative to Whites. Weight-loss interventions and counseling about healthy body size may influence healthy behavior and reduce chronic disease risk. PMID:23435023

Thomas, Semara; Ness, Roberta B.; Thurston, Rebecca C.; Matthews, Karen; Chang, Chung-Chou; Hess, Rachel

2012-01-01

293

Raw vegetable food containing high cyclo (his-pro) improved insulin sensitivity and body weight control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclo (his-pro), controlled-energy diet, soy protein hydrolysate (SPH), and raw vegetable food (RVF) are known to improve insulin sensitivity and body weight (BW) control. Enhancement of high cyclo (his-pro) content in SPH (HCS) was performed by refluxing SPH with 1 N KH2CO3 dissolved in 70% ethanol for 2 weeks at room temperature. Using this material, we examined the effects of

Moon K. Song; Mark J. Rosenthal; Albert M. Song; Hong Yang; Yan Ao; Dean T. Yamaguchi

2005-01-01

294

Body weight selection affects quantitative genetic correlated responses in gut microbiota.  

PubMed

The abundance of gut microbiota can be viewed as a quantitative trait, which is affected by the genetics and environment of the host. To quantify the effects of host genetics, we calculated the heritability of abundance of specific microorganisms and genetic correlations among them in the gut microbiota of two lines of chickens maintained under the same husbandry and dietary regimes. The lines, which originated from a common founder population, had undergone >50 generations of selection for high (HW) or low (LW) 56-day body weight and now differ by more than 10-fold in body weight at selection age. We identified families of Paenibacillaceae, Streptococcaceae, Helicobacteraceae, and Burkholderiaceae that had moderate heritabilities. Although there were no obvious phenotypic correlations among gut microbiota, significant genetic correlations were observed. Moreover, the effects were modified by genetic selection for body weight, which altered the quantitative genetic background of the host. Heritabilities for Bacillaceae, Flavobacteriaceae, Helicobacteraceae, Comamonadaceae, Enterococcaceae, and Streptococcaceae were moderate in LW line and little to zero in the HW line. These results suggest that loci associated with these microbiota families, while exhibiting genetic variation in LW, have been fixed in HW line. Also, long term selection for body weight has altered the genetic correlations among gut microbiota. No microbiota families had significant heritabilities in both the LW and HW lines suggesting that the presence and/or absence of a particular microbiota family either has a strong growth promoting or inhibiting effect, but not both. These results demonstrate that the quantitative genetics of the host have considerable influence on the gut microbiota. PMID:24608294

Meng, He; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Lele; Zhao, Wenjing; He, Chuan; Honaker, Christa F; Zhai, Zhengxiao; Sun, Zikui; Siegel, Paul B

2014-01-01

295

Effect of profenofos feeding on food consumption, body weight and tissue residues in chickens.  

PubMed

Feeding chickens on profenofos contaminated food at levels of 50, 100 and 200 ppm resulted in significant decrease in food consumption and body weight with some mortalities in the third week of feeding. profenofos and its metabolites were found to distribute rapidly in the different tissues with a positive relationship between tissue residue levels and the corresponding feeding level tested. On return to normal food free from pesticide these residues dissipated rapidly from the different tissues. PMID:17212013

Eglal; Salem, A G; Abdel-Azize, T; Azza; Aboul el Wafa, M; Hesham; El-Derea, B

1994-01-01

296

Cocaine’s Appetite for Fat and the Consequences on Body Weight  

E-print Network

intake and storage. As outlined in Figure 1, cocaine promotes the production and the release of the neuropeptide cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) (18), which is implicated in the regulation of feeding, satiety and body weight (19... -uptake increases the availability of monoamines in the synaptic cleft, as indicated by squared brackets. The excitatory effects of cocaine on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) pathways...

Billing, L.; Ersche, K. D.

2014-01-01

297

Is adiposity at normal body weight relevant for cardiovascular disease risk?  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between adiposity and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in normal weight (NW) individuals.METHODS: Cross-sectional study using the sample of white people, aged from 17 to 60 y from the Québec Family Study and the Heritage Family Study. NW subjects with a body mass index (BMI) between 18.5 and 25 kg\\/m2 (181 males and 265

S Tanaka; K Togashi; T Rankinen; L Pérusse; AS Leon; DC Rao; JS Skinner; JH Wilmore; C Bouchard; C Bouchard

2002-01-01

298

Body weight is modulated by levels of full-length Huntingtin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Huntington disease is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder that is caused by the expansion of a polyglutamine tract within the Huntingtin (htt) protein. Wild-type htt has been shown to be involved in tran- scription, transport and cell survival. Here, we demonstrate that increased expression of full-length wild-type htt in mice is associated with a dose-dependent increase in body weight which results

Jeremy M. Van Raamsdonk; William T. Gibson; Jacqueline Pearson; Zoe Murphy; Ge Lu; Blair R. Leavitt; Michael R. Hayden

2006-01-01

299

Rats define different body weights depending on palatability and accessibility of their food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normal adult Long-Evans rats lived on powdered diets adulterated to contain as much as 1.6% quinine sulfate, on a palatable high-fat diet, or in Skinner boxes with 45-mg Noyes pellets available on FR schedules as high as FR-256. They maintained lower body weights over periods of months in proportion to the percentage of quinine adulteration or the FR. Ss on

Jeffrey W. Peck

1978-01-01

300

Effects of snack consumption for 8 weeks on energy intake and body weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Consumption of snacks might contribute to the obesity epidemic. It is not clear how the moment of consumption and energy density of snacks can influence the compensatory response to consumption of snacks in the long term.Objective:To investigate the effects of snack consumption for 8 weeks on changes in body weight, emphasizing on moment of consumption and energy density.Design:In total, 16

M. Viskaal-van Dongen; F. J. Kok; C de Graaf

2010-01-01

301

Heritability of sudden death syndrome and its associated correlations to ascites and body weight in broilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Genetic parameters for the sudden death syndrome (SDS) were estimated in meat-type chickens. Data were collected over 11 generations of selection for body weight within two distinct breeds (Cornish and White Rock).2. The animal model was used exclusively with linear methods (LM) to estimate genetic parameters. Heritability (h ) of SDS on the liability scale was 0·30?±?0·002 and 0·25?±?0·002

H. K. Moghadam; I. Mcmillan; J. R. Chambers; R. J. Julian; C. C. Tranchant

2005-01-01

302

Carbohydrate versus Energy Restriction: Effects on Weight Loss, Body Composition and Metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: To compare weight loss, body composition, and metabolic changes in response to carbohydrate versus dietary energy restriction (DER) in obese mice. Methods: One hundred C57BL\\/6 mice were randomized into five groups of 20. The group of high-carbohydrate (HC) mice consumed an HC diet ad libitum and the group of high-fat (HF) mice consumed an HF diet ad libitum for

Elizabeth A. Williams; Susan N. Perkins; Nicole C. P. Smith; Stephen D. Hursting

2007-01-01

303

Correlates of Body Image Dissatisfaction Among Overweight Women Seeking Weight Loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predictors of body image dissatisfaction (BID) among obese people are poorly understood. In 79 obese women seeking weight reduction, associations with BID of self-esteem, youth teasing, adult teasing, and internalization of sociocultural appearance standards (ISAS) were studied. Analyses revealed that only self- esteem, adult teasing, and ISAS predicted BID. Results highlight the importance of adulthood self-esteem and interpersonal-cultural context—rather than

Patty E. Matz; Gary D. Foster; Myles S. Faith; Thomas A. Wadden

2002-01-01

304

Subcutaneous oxyntomodulin analogue administration reduces body weight in lean and obese rodents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To determine the efficacy of a long-acting oxyntomodulin (OXM) analogue, OXM6421, in inhibiting food intake and decreasing body weight in lean and diet-induced obese (DIO) rodents.Research design and methods:The glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor binding affinity and efficacy, sensitivity to enzymatic degradation in vitro and persistence in the circulation after peripheral administration were investigated for OXM6421 and compared with native OXM.

Y-L Liu; H E Ford; M R Druce; J S Minnion; B C T Field; J C Shillito; J Baxter; K G Murphy; M A Ghatei; S R Bloom

2010-01-01

305

Development of a body motion interactive system with a weight voting mechanism and computer vision technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study develops a body motion interactive system with computer vision technology. This application combines interactive games, art performing, and exercise training system. Multiple image processing and computer vision technologies are used in this study. The system can calculate the characteristics of an object color, and then perform color segmentation. When there is a wrong action judgment, the system will avoid the error with a weight voting mechanism, which can set the condition score and weight value for the action judgment, and choose the best action judgment from the weight voting mechanism. Finally, this study estimated the reliability of the system in order to make improvements. The results showed that, this method has good effect on accuracy and stability during operations of the human-machine interface of the sports training system.

Lin, Chern-Sheng; Chen, Chia-Tse; Shei, Hung-Jung; Lay, Yun-Long; Chiu, Chuang-Chien

2012-09-01

306

The relationship of excess body weight and health-related quality of life: evidence from a population study in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Excess body weight is related to significant morbidity and mortality. However, less is known about the relationship of body weight to health-related quality of life (HRQOL), especially for Asian populations. We examined the relationship of excess weight and HRQOL in a general population sample from Taiwan.Research methods and procedures:This cross-sectional study used a national representative sample (n=14 221) from the

I-C Huang; C Frangakis; A W Wu; AW Wu

2006-01-01

307

Does Body Weight Influence the Response to Intravenous Tissue Plasminogen Activator in Stroke Patients?  

PubMed Central

Background The recommended dose of IV tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) for ischemic stroke patients weighing >100 kg (ISPW >100 kg) is fixed at 90 mg. Elevated levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and impaired fibrinolysis have been reported in heavy patients, suggesting that ISPW >100 kg may require higher doses of t-PA. We hypothesized that ISPW >100 kg are less likely to benefit from IV t-PA compared to patients who weigh ?100 kg and receive a weight-based dose. Methods We queried the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke t-PA study database, and performed multivariate logistic regression analyses to analyze the effects of weight (>100 vs. ?100 kg) and t-PA dose on functional outcomes at 3 months. Results Six percent of the t-PA and 10% of the placebo cohorts had an actual body weight >100 kg. Weight >100 kg emerged as a predictor of worse outcome (OR = 5.76; p = 0.017) and neurological deterioration (OR = 3.4; p = 0.07) after t-PA. This negative impact of body weight on outcome was not seen among placebo-treated patients. We also found a trend for an association between lower doses of t-PA and unfavorable 3-month outcomes in t-PA-treated patients (OR = 1.9; p = 0.05). Conclusions ISPW >100 kg seem to derive less benefit from IV t-PA than their lighter counterparts. This may be partly attributed to the use of fixed non-weight-adjusted dosing in heavier patients. The mechanism(s) underlying this observation and its potential therapeutic implications require further investigations. PMID:19033683

Lou, Min; Selim, Magdy

2009-01-01

308

Low-carbohydrate High-fat Diets: Regulation of Energy Balance and Body Weight Regain in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the current investigations was to examine the effects of a low-carbohydrate high-fat diet (LC-HFD) on body weight, body composition, growth hormone (GH), IGF-I, and body weight regain after stopping the dietary intervention and returning the diet back to standard laboratory chow (CH). In study one, both adolescent and mature male Wistar rats were maintained on either an

Samantha J. Caton; Bai Yinglong; Lukas Burget; Lothar J. Spangler; Matthias H. Tschöp; Martin Bidlingmaier

2009-01-01

309

Zinc-?2-glycoprotein is involved in regulation of body weight through inhibition of lipogenic enzymes in adipose tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context:Zinc-?2-glycoprotein (ZAG) was found to influence lipolysis in adipose tissue and has recently been proposed as a candidate factor in the regulation of body weight.Objective:To elucidate the association of serum ZAG level with body weight and percentage of body fat in normal, obese subjects and high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice.Design:The relationship between serum ZAG and obesity-related parameters was studied in

F-Y Gong; S-J Zhang; J-Y Deng; H-J Zhu; H Pan; N-S Li; Y-F Shi

2009-01-01

310

Nutritively Sweetened Beverage Consumption and Body Weight: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Experiments  

PubMed Central

Nutritively sweetened beverages (NSBs) may play a role in the obesity epidemic. We abstracted data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and evidence-based reviews through January 2009 concerning effects of consumption of NSBs on changes in body weight and adiposity. Studies included were those 1) conducted in humans; 2) lasting at least 3 weeks; 3) incorporating random assignment of subjects to conditions that differed only in the consumption of NSBs; and 4) including an adiposity indicator as an outcome. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis of 6 studies that added NSBs to persons’ diets showed dose-dependent increases in weight. Contrarily, meta-analysis of studies that attempted to reduce NSB consumption consistently showed no effect on BMI when all subjects were considered. Meta-analysis of studies providing access to results separately for subjects overweight at baseline showed a significant effect of a roughly 0.35 standard deviations lesser BMI change (i.e., more weight loss or less weight gain) relative to controls. The current evidence does not demonstrate conclusively that NSB consumption has uniquely contributed to obesity or that reducing NSB consumption will reduce BMI levels in general. We recommend an adequately powered RCT among overweight persons, among whom there is suggestive evidence of an effect. PMID:20524996

Mattes, Richard D; Shikany, James M; Kaiser, Kathryn A; Allison, David B

2010-01-01

311

Body Image Distortions, Weight, and Depression in Adolescent Boys: Longitudinal Trajectories into Adulthood  

PubMed Central

Depressive symptoms are common among the U.S. population, yet research into prospective risk factors of depression among men is limited. Distorted body image is also prevalent among adolescent boys, and may be linked with elevated depression; however, longitudinal associations have rarely been measured. Thus, the aim of the current study was to assess the prospective relationship between forms of body image distortion and depressive symptoms among adolescent boys, into adulthood. Data were extracted from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Participants were 2,139 U.S. adolescent boys (M age = 16) who were followed prospectively over 13-years (1996 to 2009), into adulthood. Longitudinal mixed-level modeling was employed to assess the temporal prediction of body image distortion on symptoms of depression. Results revealed that boys who were average weight and viewed themselves as either very underweight (very underweight distorted; Cohen's d = .47) or overweight (overweight distorted; Cohen's d = .29) reported significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms compared to boys who accurately viewed their weight as average; this effect remained constant over the 13-year study period. These findings indicated that distortions in body image, particularly extreme distortions, are risk factors for elevated depressive symptoms among adolescent boys, and persist into early adulthood. PMID:25383047

Blashill, Aaron J.; Wilhelm, Sabine

2014-01-01

312

A novel antioxidant beverage for body weight control based on coffee silverskin.  

PubMed

The present research aimed to add value to coffee silverskin by looking for new innovative applications. Formulation of novel beverages based on coffee silverskin for body fat reduction and body weight control was proposed. Conditions for beverage preparation were optimised. Data on chemical composition and sensorial quality of the new drink were acquired. Health benefits were evaluated in vitro and in vivo employing as animal model Caenorhabditis elegans. An antioxidant beverage containing physiological active concentrations of caffeine and chlorogenic acid for prevention body fat accumulation and possessing acceptable sensorial properties was obtained. Our findings support that the use of coffee silverskin for obtaining bioactive extract is an innovative way for revalorisation of coffee by-product. PMID:24360444

Martinez-Saez, Nuria; Ullate, Mónica; Martin-Cabrejas, María A; Martorell, Patricia; Genovés, Salvador; Ramon, Daniel; del Castillo, María Dolores

2014-05-01

313

Betamethasone in Pregnancy: Influence of maternal body weight and multiple gestation on pharmacokinetics  

PubMed Central

Objective Goals of the study are to estimate the pharmacokinetic(PK) parameters of standard dose betamethasone in a large obstetrical population and evaluate the effect of maternal body size and multiple gestation on the PK parameters and their observed variability. Study Design Prospective PK study. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry was used to measure betamethasone plasma concentrations. PK parameters and significant clinical covariates were estimated using mixed effect modeling. Bootstrap analysis confirmed validity of the model. Results Two hundred and seventy four blood samples from 77 patients were obtained. Greatest effect on PK variability was observed with maternal lean body weight(LBW). The relationship between the PK parameters and LBW remained linear over a wide range of maternal body sizes. Multiple gestations did not affect the PK parameters. Conclusion Individualization of betamethasone dosing by maternal LBWreduces variability in drug exposure. Mutiple gestations do not require betamethasone dosing adjustment, because PK are the same as singleton gestations. PMID:20816148

Della Torre, Micaela; Hibbard, Judith U.; Jeong, Hyunyoung; Fischer, James H

2015-01-01

314

TRANSIENT RESPONSE OF ABLATING AXISYMMETRIC BODIES INCLUDING THE EFFECTS OF SHAPE CHANGE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program has been developed to analyze the transient response of an ablating axisymmetric body, including the effect of shape change. The governing differential equation, the boundary conditions for the analysis on which the computer program is based, and the method of solution of the resulting finite-difference equations are discussed in the documentation. Some of the features of the analysis and the associated program are (1) the ablation material is considered to be orthotropic with temperature-dependent thermal properties; (2) the thermal response of the entire body is considered simultaneously; (3) the heat transfer and pressure distribution over the body are adjusted to the new geometry as ablation occurs; (4) the governing equations and several boundary-condition options are formulated in terms of generalized orthogonal coordinates for fixed points in a moving coordinate system; (5) the finite-difference equations are solved implicitly; and (6) other instantaneous body shapes can be displayed with a user-supplied plotting routine. The physical problem to be modeled with the analysis is described by FORTRAN input variables. For example, the external body geometry is described in the W, Z coordinates; material density is given; and the stagnation cold-wall heating rate is given in a time-dependent array. Other input variables are required which control the solution, specify boundary conditions, and determine output from the program. The equations have been programmed so that either the International System of Units or the U. S. Customary Units may be used. This program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on a CDC 6000 Series computer. This program was developed in 1972.

Howser, L. M.

1994-01-01

315

ASSOCIATION BETWEEN BODY IMAGE DISPARITY AND CULTURALLY SPECIFIC FACTORS THAT AFFECT WEIGHT IN BLACK AND WHITE WOMEN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design: Sixty women participated in highly structured focus groups that used the nominal group technique. We asked, ''How does being a Black (White) woman affect your weight?'' Body image disparity (BID) was determined with the Stunkard Figure Rating scale by comparing the women's current body image perception to their ideal body image. Results: Food preparation and selection were major factors

Jamy D. Ard; Lori F. Greene; Christie Z. Malpede; Wendy K. Jefferson

2007-01-01

316

Effects of Body Fat on Weight Concerns, Dating, and Sexual Activity: A Longitudinal Analysis of Black and White Adolescent Girls.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated implications of body-fat differences for dating and sexual activity and implications of heterosexual activity for dieting and weight concerns in adolescent girls. Found that among white girls, and blacks with college-educated mothers, more body fat was associated with lower dating probability, even among non-obese girls. Body fat was…

Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Udry, J. Richard; Suchindran, Chirayath; Campbell, Benjamin

1999-01-01

317

Very low birth weight infants who are fed human milk have decreased body fat as assessed by air displacement plethysmography  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Methods to evaluate body composition in infants have recently been enhanced. There are few data regarding body composition in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Our objective was to evaluate body composition in VLBW infants consuming human milk or formula using novel techniques. Using air-displac...

318

Effects of aflatoxin B1 and fumonisin B1 on body weight, antibody titres and histology of broiler chicks.  

PubMed

1. Our objective was to evaluate the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1), administered singly or in combination to broilers. 2. Feeds were prepared with concentrations equal to 0, 50 and 200 microg AFB1/kg, and/or 0, 50 and 200 mg FB1/kg, and offered to broiler chicks from 8 to 41 d of age. The experimental design was totally randomised, in a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement with 9 treatments and 12 birds per treatment. Animals were vaccinated against Newcastle disease on d 14 of life and killed at 41 d. 3. Compared with controls, all mycotoxin-treated groups at 41 d had lower body weight and weight gain, and higher relative heart weight. The relative weight of the liver increased only in birds fed diets containing 200 mg FB1, singly or in combination with AFB1. 4. At 35 d, all groups receiving mycotoxin-treated rations had reduced geometrical mean antibody titres, with birds from groups fed combinations of AFB1 and FB1/kg having even lower values, when compared to the other groups. 5. Histological changes were observed only in liver from birds fed mycotoxin-contaminated rations, and in kidneys of birds fed the diet containing 200 microg AFB1 and 200 mg FB1/kg. Main alterations included vacuolar degeneration and cell proliferation of bile ducts in the liver, and hydropic degeneration in renal tubules in the kidneys. 6. We concluded that AFB1 and FB1 in combination have primarily additive effects on body weight, liver structure and immunological response of broilers at the concentrations used. PMID:16787861

Tessari, E N C; Oliveira, C A F; Cardoso, A L S P; Ledoux, D R; Rottinghaus, G E

2006-06-01

319

Is body weight-support treadmill training effective in increasing muscle trophism after traumatic spinal cord injury? A systematic review.  

PubMed

Study design:Systematic review.Objective:To determine the effectiveness of body weight-support treadmill training (BWSTT) for muscle atrophy management in people with spinal cord injury (SCI).Setting:Studies from multiple countries were included.Methods:The following databases were consulted from January to October 2013: PubMed, Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), Science Direct and Lilacs. The methodological quality of the articles included was classified according to Jovell and Navarro-Rubio.Results:A total of five studies were included. These studies reported a significant association between BWSTT and increased trophism of the lower limb muscles of humans with SCI, which was observed as an increase in the cross-sectional area. Moreover, improvements in the ability to generate peak torque, contract the knee extensors and ankle plantarflexors with reduction of body weight support were observed after BWSTT.Conclusion:The results were considered inconclusive because of the low methodological quality of the articles, which was because of the absence of sample homogeneity, thereby providing a low level of evidence for clinical practice.Spinal Cord advance online publication, 18 November 2014; doi:10.1038/sc.2014.198. PMID:25403505

do Espírito Santo, C C; Swarowsky, A; Recchia, T L; Lopes, A P F; Ilha, J

2014-11-18

320

Energy balance through age-related diurnal body weight variations in genetic obese and nonobese rats.  

PubMed

Indirect evidence of energy balance in laboratory rats is provided through the study of diurnal body weight variations in two inbred lines: obese beta and nonobese alpha, from birth to 200-300 days of age, with different feeding patterns from 25 to 75 days of age. Nocturnal weight gain (NWG) was the gain recorded after the dark phase, in direct relation to the acquisition of exogenous calories in excess of the current metabolic expenditure at nighttime. Daytime weight variation was either weight gain during lactation (DWG) or weight loss from weaning onwards (DWL), recorded after the light phase. DWL is in direct relation to daytime energy output, when metabolic expenditure exceeds the low rate of acquisition of exogenous calories. The correlation between averaged individual DWL and NWG absolute values was highly significant at every age studied. An increase in absolute DWL values with age was observed and at adulthood DWL was compensated for equivalent NWG. This increasing energy output with age during daytime, is most likely related to the maintenance of increasing biomass and consequently, to progressive reduced growth energy availability. The existence of energy homeostasis and ponderostat with set points genetically prescribed in adults, is suggested. Significant differences between lines found before adulthood give indirect evidence of higher fat accretion in the obese line in those periods of intense growth, known as the active phase of obesity. PMID:9348473

Calderari, S A; Gayol, M C; Labourdette, V B; Torriggino, A A

1997-01-01

321

Height, weight and body mass index (BMI) in psychiatrically ill US Armed Forces personnel  

PubMed Central

Background In both psychiatrically ill and psychiatrically healthy adults, the connection between health and individuals’ height and weight has long been examined. Specifically, research on the idea that individuals with certain body types were prone to particular psychiatric diseases has been explored sporadically for centuries. The hypothesis that psychiatrically ill individuals were shorter and weighed less than psychiatrically healthy counterparts would correspond with the neurodevelopmental model of psychiatric disease. Method To evaluate possible links between psychiatric illness and physique, the height, weight and BMI of 7514 patients and 85 940 controls were compared. All subjects were part of the National Collaborative Study of Early Psychosis and Suicide (NCSEPS). Patients were US military active duty personnel hospitalized for either bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, or schizophrenia and controls were psychiatrically-healthy US military active duty personnel matched for date of entry into the service. Results No consistent differences in height, weight or BMI were found between patients and controls, or between patient groups. Some weak ANOVA differences were found between age at the time of entering active duty and weight, as well as BMI, but not height. Conclusions Unlike most previous studies that have looked at the links between height and psychiatric illness, this study of the NCSEPS cohort found that, at entry into the US Armed Forces, there were no consistent decreases in height for patients with bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder or schizophrenia compared with a large control group. Furthermore, there were no consistent differences for weight or BMI. PMID:12622316

WYATT, R. J.; HENTER, I. D.; MOJTABAI, R.; BARTKO, J. J.

2015-01-01

322

Variability of height, weight, and body mass index in a Swiss armed forces 2005 census.  

PubMed

The influence of the environment and genetics on individual biological characteristics, such as body mass and stature is well known. Many studies of these relationships have been based on conscript data. These studies often suffer from the fact that their data cover only a part of the population. Characterized by prosperity, democratic stability and enormous micro-regional cultural diversity, Switzerland is in the unique situation of offering data covering more than 80% of annual male birth cohorts. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of socioeconomic success, cultural differences, month of birth, and altitude (among other factors) on individual anthropometric characteristics of conscripts (N approximately 28,000) in the 2005 census. Our result highlights in such a large male sample the relationship between economic environment, regional cultural diversity, climate, and other factors, such as individual month of birth on stature and weight. Socioeconomic status, culture (as reflected by mother tongue), and month of birth were found to have significant effects on height and weight, while altitude did not show such effects. In general, weight is more affected by all these variables than height. Taking weight-dependent mortality and morbidity into account, it is of foremost public interest to know more about paired effects of living conditions on stature and weight in a highly developed society. PMID:18668685

Rühli, Frank; Henneberg, Maciej; Woitek, Ulrich

2008-12-01

323

VGF-derived peptide, TLQP-21, regulates food intake and body weight in Siberian hamsters.  

PubMed

The Siberian hamster survives winter by decreasing food intake and catabolizing abdominal fat reserves, resulting in a sustained, profound loss of body weight. VGF gene expression is photoperiodically regulated in the hypothalamus with significantly higher expression in lean Siberian hamsters. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of VGF in regulating these seasonal cycles by determining the effects of a VGF-derived peptide (TLQP-21) on food intake and body weight. Acute intracerebroventricular administration of TLQP-21 decreased food intake, and chronic treatment caused a sustained reduction in food intake and body weight and decreased abdominal fat depots. Behavioral analysis revealed that TLQP-21 reduced meal size but not the frequency of feeding bouts, suggesting a primary action on satiety. Hamsters treated with TLQP-21 lost a similar amount of weight as a pair-fed group in which food intake was matched to that of the TLQP-21-treated group. Central or peripheral treatment with TLQP-21 did not produce a significant effect on resting metabolic rate. We conclude that the primary action of TLQP-21 is to decrease food intake rather than increase energy expenditure. TLQP-21 treatment caused a decrease in UCP-1 mRNA in brown adipose tissue, but hypothalamic expression of orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptide genes remained unchanged after TLQP-21 treatment, although compensatory increases in NPY and AgRP mRNA were observed in the pair-fed hamsters. The effects of TLQP-21 administration are similar to those in hamsters in short days, suggesting that increased VGF activity may contribute to the hypophagia that underlies the seasonal catabolic state. PMID:17463057

Jethwa, Preeti H; Warner, Amy; Nilaweera, Kanishka N; Brameld, John M; Keyte, John W; Carter, Wayne G; Bolton, Neil; Bruggraber, Michael; Morgan, Peter J; Barrett, Perry; Ebling, Francis J P

2007-08-01

324

Vagus Nerve Stimulation Reduces Body Weight and Fat Mass in Rats  

PubMed Central

Among the manifold effects of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) delivered as an add-on treatment to patients with drug-resistant epilepsy, a moderate loss of body weight has been observed in some individuals. We have now investigated this effect in rats. Exposure of rats to VNS for 4 weeks reduced feed conversion efficiency as well as body weight gain (by ?25%) and the amount of mesenteric adipose tissue (by ?45%) in comparison with those in sham-operated control animals. A pair-fed experiment showed that both lower dietary intake and increase energy expenditure independently contributed to the reduction of body weight and mesenteric adipose tissue. Moreover, VNS increased the level of non-esterified fatty acids in plasma and mesenteric adipose tissue by ?50 and 80%, respectively, without affecting that in the liver. In addition, VNS reduced the amounts of endocannabinoids and increased N-palmitoylethanolamide, an endogenous ligand of the transcription factor PPAR? (peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor ?) in mesenteric adipose tissue but not in the hypothalamus. These effects were accompanied by increased expression of the gene for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hypothalamus and up-regulation of the abundance of PPAR? in the liver. Our results suggest that the reduction in body fat induced by VNS in rats may result from the action of both central and peripheral mediators. The reduced feed conversion efficiency associated with VNS may be mediated by hypothalamic BDNF, down-regulation of endocannabinoid tone in mesenteric adipose tissue and a PPAR?-dependent increase in fatty acid oxidation in the liver, which in concerted action may account for the anorexic effect and increased energy expenditure. PMID:23028630

Banni, Sebastiano; Carta, Gianfranca; Murru, Elisabetta; Cordeddu, Lina; Giordano, Elena; Marrosu, Francesco; Puligheddu, Monica; Floris, Gabriele; Asuni, Gino Paolo; Cappai, Angela Letizia; Deriu, Silvia; Follesa, Paolo

2012-01-01

325

Targeting impulsive processes of eating behavior via the internet. Effects on body weight.  

PubMed

Because eating behavior can take on an impulsive nature many people experience difficulty with dieting to lose weight. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the effectiveness of two interventions targeting impulsive processes of eating behavior to facilitate weight loss: Implementation intentions to remind people about dieting versus a go/no-go task to change impulses toward palatable foods. Dieters performed an online training program (four times in 4 weeks) in which they were randomly assigned to a 2 (implementation intention condition: dieting versus control) × 2 (go/no-go task condition: food versus control) design. They formed either dieting implementation intentions (e.g., If I open the fridge I will think of dieting!) or control implementation intentions. Furthermore, they received either a go/no-go task in which behavioral stop signals were presented upon presentation of palatable foods (food go/no-go task), or upon control stimuli. Participants' weight was measured in the laboratory before and after the intervention. Strength of participants' dieting goal and their Body Mass Index (BMI; as a proxy for impulsiveness toward food) were examined as moderators. Results showed that both dieting implementation intentions and the food go/no-go task facilitated weight loss. Moreover, dieting implementation intentions facilitated weight loss particularly among people with a strong current dieting goal, whereas the food go/no-go task facilitated weight loss independent of this factor. Instead, the food go/no-go task, but not formation of dieting implementation intentions, was primarily effective among dieters with a relatively high BMI. These results provide the first preliminary evidence that interventions aimed at targeting impulsive eating-related processes via the internet can facilitate weight loss. PMID:24675683

Veling, Harm; van Koningsbruggen, Guido M; Aarts, Henk; Stroebe, Wolfgang

2014-07-01

326

Gestational Weight Gain of Pregnant African American Adolescents Affects Body Mass Index 18 Years Later  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine if gestational weight gain (GWG) in adolescents is associated with long-term weight increases 12 years and 18 years after delivery of a first child and the differential effects of weight gain during pregnancy that is inadequate, the appropriate amount, and excessive based on the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations. Design Secondary data analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial. Setting Memphis, Tennessee. Participants Two hundred ninety eight (298) primiparous low-income Black women who were adolescents at the time of their first pregnancies. Methods Linear regression was used to examine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) at 12and 18 years postdelivery and GWG, parity, prepregnancy BMI, and smoking. Results The total sample experienced a significant BMI increase from prepregnancy to 12 years and 18 years postdelivery. More than 50% of the women had a BMI increase greater than 10 kg/m2. By 18 years postdelivery, 85% were overweight or obese. Prepregnancy BMI and GWG had a positive significant effect on BMI 12 and 18 years later, whereas smoking had a negative effect. Those who gained excessive weight based on the IOM recommendations had a significantly higher BMI compared with those who gained appropriately. Conclusion Gestational weight gain had long-term effects on BMI in a minority adolescent population. Excessive pregnancy weight gain is likely to contribute to long-term weight retention, especially if adolescents are overweight or obese when they become pregnant with their first children. Intervention during pregnancy to limit GWG has the potential of limiting long-term negative health consequences that result from overweight and obesity in minority women. PMID:24003870

Groth, Susan; Holland, Margaret L.; Kitzman, Harriet; Meng, Ying

2013-01-01

327

Faddeev-type calculation of three-body nuclear reactions including core excitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The core excitation, being an important reaction mechanism, so far is not properly included in most calculations of three-body nuclear reactions. We aim to include the excitation of the core nucleus using an exact Faddeev-type framework for nuclear reactions in the three-body (core+neutron+proton) system. We employ Alt, Grassberger, and Sandhas (AGS) integral equations for the three-particle transition operators and solve them in the momentum-space framework. The Coulomb interaction is included via the method of screening and renormalization. We calculate elastic, inelastic, and transfer reactions involving 10Be and 24Mg nuclear cores. Important effects of the core excitation are found, often improving the description of the experimental data. In the neutron transfer reactions the core excitation effect is by far not just a simple reduction of the cross section by the respective spectroscopic factor. This indicates that widely used extraction of the spectroscopic factors from the ratio of the experimental and theoretical transfer cross sections is an unreliable approach.

Deltuva, A.

2013-07-01

328

Ept7 influences estrogen action in the pituitary gland and body weight of rats.  

PubMed

Estrogens control many aspects of pituitary gland biology, including regulation of lactotroph homeostasis and synthesis and secretion of prolactin. In rat models, these actions are strain specific and heritable, and multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been mapped that impact the responsiveness of the lactotroph to estrogens. One such QTL, Ept7, was mapped to RNO7 in female progeny generated in an intercross between BN rats, in which the lactotroph population is insensitive to estrogens, and ACI rats, which develop lactotroph hyperplasia/adenoma and associated hyperprolactinemia in response to estrogen treatment. The primary objective of this study was to confirm the existence of Ept7 and to quantify the impact of this QTL on responsiveness of the pituitary gland of female and male rats to 17?-estradiol (E2) and diethylstilbestrol (DES), respectively. Secondary objectives were to determine if Ept7 influences the responsiveness of the male reproductive tract to DES and to identify other discernible phenotypes influenced by Ept7. To achieve these objectives, a congenic rat strain that harbors BN alleles across the Ept7 interval on the genetic background of the ACI strain was generated and characterized to define the effect of administered estrogens on the anterior pituitary gland and male reproductive tissues. Data presented herein indicate Ept7 exerts a marked effect on development of lactotroph hyperplasia in response to estrogen treatment, but does not affect atrophy of the male reproductive tissues in response to hormone treatment. Ept7 was also observed to exert gender specific effects on body weight in young adult rats. PMID:24448715

Kurz, Scott G; Dennison, Kirsten L; Samanas, Nyssa Becker; Hickman, Maureen Peters; Eckert, Quincy A; Walker, Tiffany L; Cupp, Andrea S; Shull, James D

2014-06-01

329

Gallic Acid Regulates Body Weight and Glucose Homeostasis Through AMPK Activation.  

PubMed

Gallic acid [3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid (GA)], a natural phytochemical, is known to have a variety of cellular functions including beneficial effects on metabolic syndromes. However, the molecular mechanism by which GA exerts its beneficial effects is not known. Here we report that GA plays its role through the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and by regulating mitochondrial function via the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator1? (PGC1?). Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) knockdown significantly blunted GA's effect on PGC1? activation and downstream genes, suggesting a critical role of the AMPK/Sirt1/PGC1? pathway in GA's action. Moreover, diet-induced obese mice treated with GA showed significantly improved glucose and insulin homeostasis. In addition, the administration of GA protected diet-induced body weight gain without a change in food intake. Biochemical analyses revealed a marked activation of AMPK in the liver, muscle, and interscapular brown adipose tissue of the GA-treated mice. Moreover, uncoupling protein 1 together with other genes related to energy expenditure was significantly elevated in the interscapular brown adipose tissue. Taken together, these results indicate that GA plays its beneficial metabolic roles by activating the AMPK/Sirt1/PGC1? pathway and by changing the interscapular brown adipose tissue genes related to thermogenesis. Our study points out that targeting the activation of the AMPK/Sirt1/PGC1? pathway by GA or its derivatives might be a potential therapeutic intervention for insulin resistance in metabolic diseases. PMID:25356824

Doan, Khanh V; Ko, Chang Mann; Kinyua, Ann W; Yang, Dong Joo; Choi, Yun-Hee; Oh, In Young; Nguyen, Nguyen Minh; Ko, Ara; Choi, Jae Won; Jeong, Yangsik; Jung, Min Ho; Cho, Won Gil; Xu, Shanhua; Park, Kyu Sang; Park, Woo Jin; Choi, Soo Yong; Kim, Hyoung Shik; Moh, Sang Hyun; Kim, Ki Woo

2015-01-01

330

Metabolic and nutritional needs to normalize body mass index by doubling the admission body weight in severe anorexia nervosa.  

PubMed

Anorexia nervosa exhibits one of the highest death rates among psychiatric patients and a relevant fraction of it is derived from undernutrition. Nutritional and medical treatment of extreme undernutrition present two very complex and conflicting tasks: (1) to avoid "refeeding syndrome" caused by a too fast correction of malnutrition; and (2) to avoid "underfeeding" caused by a too cautious refeeding. To obtain optimal treatment results, the caloric intake should be planned starting with indirect calorimetry measurements and electrolyte abnormalities accurately controlled and treated. This article reports the case of an anorexia nervosa young female affected by extreme undernutrition (BMI 9.6 kg/m(2)) who doubled her admission body weight (from 22.5 kg to 44 kg) in a reasonable time with the use of enteral tube feeding for gradual correction of undernutrition. Refeeding syndrome was avoided through a specialized and flexible program according to clinical, laboratory, and physiological findings. PMID:23645991

Gentile, Maria Gabriella; Lessa, Chiara; Cattaneo, Marina

2013-01-01

331

Metabolic and Nutritional Needs to Normalize Body Mass Index by Doubling the Admission Body Weight in Severe Anorexia Nervosa  

PubMed Central

Anorexia nervosa exhibits one of the highest death rates among psychiatric patients and a relevant fraction of it is derived from undernutrition. Nutritional and medical treatment of extreme undernutrition present two very complex and conflicting tasks: (1) to avoid “refeeding syndrome” caused by a too fast correction of malnutrition; and (2) to avoid “underfeeding” caused by a too cautious refeeding. To obtain optimal treatment results, the caloric intake should be planned starting with indirect calorimetry measurements and electrolyte abnormalities accurately controlled and treated. This article reports the case of an anorexia nervosa young female affected by extreme undernutrition (BMI 9.6 kg/m2) who doubled her admission body weight (from 22.5 kg to 44 kg) in a reasonable time with the use of enteral tube feeding for gradual correction of undernutrition. Refeeding syndrome was avoided through a specialized and flexible program according to clinical, laboratory, and physiological findings. PMID:23645991

Gentile, Maria Gabriella; Lessa, Chiara; Cattaneo, Marina

2013-01-01

332

Effect of body weight on the pharmacokinetics of flunixin meglumine in miniature horses and quarter horses.  

PubMed

In most species, large variations in body size necessitate dose adjustments based on an allometric function of body weight. Despite the substantial disparity in body size between miniature horses and light-breed horses, there are no studies investigating appropriate dosing of any veterinary drug in miniature horses. The purpose of this study was to determine whether miniature horses should receive a different dosage of flunixin meglumine than that used typically in light-breed horses. A standard dose of flunixin meglumine was administered intravenously to eight horses of each breed, and three-compartmental analysis was used to compare pharmacokinetic parameters between breed groups. The total body clearance of flunixin was 0.97 ± 0.30 mL/min/kg in miniature horses and 1.04 ± 0.27 mL/min/kg in quarter horses. There were no significant differences between miniature horses and quarter horses in total body clearance, the terminal elimination rate, area under the plasma concentration versus time curve, apparent volume of distribution at steady-state or the volume of the central compartment for flunixin (P > 0.05). Therefore, flunixin meglumine may be administered to miniature horses at the same dosage as is used in light-breed horses. PMID:23659780

Lee, C D; Maxwell, L K

2014-02-01

333

Indirect detection of gravitino dark matter including its three-body decays  

E-print Network

It was recently pointed out that in supersymmetric scenarios with gravitino dark matter and bilinear R-parity violation, gravitinos with masses below Mw typically decay with a sizable branching ratio into the 3-body final states W^*+lepton and Z^*+neutrino. In this paper we study the indirect detection signatures of gravitino dark matter including such final states. First, we obtain the gamma ray spectrum from gravitino decays, which features a monochromatic contribution from the decay into photon+neutrino and a continuum contribution from the three-body decays. After studying its dependence on supersymmetric parameters, we compute the expected gamma ray fluxes and derive new constraints, from recent FERMI data, on the R-parity breaking parameter and on the gravitino lifetime. Indirect detection via antimatter searches, a new possibility brought about by the three-body final states, is also analyzed. For models compatible with the gamma ray observations, the positron signal is found to be negligible whereas the antiproton one can be significant.

Ki-Young Choi; Diego Restrepo; Carlos E. Yaguna; Oscar Zapata

2010-07-10

334

Neuronal PTP1B regulates body weight, adiposity and leptin action.  

PubMed

Obesity is a major health problem and a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Leptin, an adipocyte-secreted hormone, acts on the hypothalamus to inhibit food intake and increase energy expenditure. Most obese individuals develop hyperleptinemia and leptin resistance, limiting the therapeutic efficacy of exogenously administered leptin. Mice lacking the tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B are protected from diet-induced obesity and are hypersensitive to leptin, but the site and mechanism for these effects remain controversial. We generated tissue-specific PTP1B knockout (Ptpn1(-/-)) mice. Neuronal Ptpn1(-/-) mice have reduced weight and adiposity, and increased activity and energy expenditure. In contrast, adipose PTP1B deficiency increases body weight, whereas PTP1B deletion in muscle or liver does not affect weight. Neuronal Ptpn1(-/-) mice are hypersensitive to leptin, despite paradoxically elevated leptin levels, and show improved glucose homeostasis. Thus, PTP1B regulates body mass and adiposity primarily through actions in the brain. Furthermore, neuronal PTP1B regulates adipocyte leptin production and probably is essential for the development of leptin resistance. PMID:16845389

Bence, Kendra K; Delibegovic, Mirela; Xue, Bingzhong; Gorgun, Cem Z; Hotamisligil, Gokhan S; Neel, Benjamin G; Kahn, Barbara B

2006-08-01

335

Optimal body weight for health and longevity: bridging basic, clinical, and population research  

PubMed Central

Excess body weight and adiposity cause insulin resistance, inflammation, and numerous other alterations in metabolic and hormonal factors that promote atherosclerosis, tumorigenesis, neurodegeneration, and aging. Studies in both animals and humans have demonstrated a beneficial role of dietary restriction and leanness in promoting health and longevity. Epidemiological studies have found strong direct associations between increasing body mass index (BMI) and risks of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and several types of cancer, beginning from BMI of 20–21 kg m?2. Although a recent meta-analysis suggests that overweight individuals have significantly lower overall mortality than normal-weight individuals, these data are likely to be an artifact produced by serious methodological problems, especially confounding by smoking, reverse causation due to existing chronic disease, and nonspecific loss of lean mass and function in the frail elderly. From a clinical and public health point of view, maintaining a healthy weight through diet and physical activity should remain the cornerstone in the prevention of chronic diseases and the promotion of healthy aging. PMID:24628815

Fontana, Luigi; Hu, Frank B

2014-01-01

336

Effects of soybean agglutinin on body composition and organ weights in rats.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to assess the effect of soybean agglutinin dosage level on growth, body composition, plasma lipids, glucose, urea nitrogen content and aminotransferase activities in rats. Male and female rats (n=60) weaned at 19 d were given a dose of 0, 3.5, 7.0, 10.5, or 14.0 mg soybean agglutinin by gastric infusion once daily for 10 days. With increasing doses of soybean agglutinin, body weight, lipid content of carcass, spleen and kidneys relative dry weights decreased, while small intestine and pancreatic weight, the contents of urea nitrogen and triglyceride, and the activities of aspartate aminotransferase linearly increased in plasma. Though soybean agglutinin decreased plasma insulin content, changes in plasma glucose content due to soybean agglutinin were not detected. It is suggested that dietary soybean agglutinin may affect the secretion of other hormones besides insulin, which modulate blood glucose reserves. In conclusion, consumption of soybean agglutinin resulted in a depletion of lipid and an overgrowth of small intestine and pancreas in rats. Meanwhile, poor growth of spleen and kidneys was observed in the soybean agglutinin-fed rats. PMID:16736858

Zang, Jianjun; Li, Defa; Piao, Xiangshu; Tang, Shusheng

2006-06-01

337

Body Weight Gain in Rats Consuming Sweetened Liquids: Effects of Caffeine and Diet Composition  

PubMed Central

Previous studies show that high-intensity sweeteners can stimulate weight gain in rats. The present studies examined whether caffeine, a stimulant commonly added to beverages consumed by humans, influences intake of saccharin- or glucose-sweetened solutions or body weight gain in rats and whether the nature of the maintenance diet influences the effects of caffeine. In two experiments, rats received glucose or saccharin solution mixed with 0.125 mg/g caffeine or no caffeine. Rats consumed significantly more caffeinated than noncaffeinated solutions when they were maintained on a low-fat chow diet (Experiment 1) and when maintained on a sweet, high-fat, high calorie chow diet (Experiment 2). Consumption of saccharin resulted in higher body weight gain in both experiments. Caffeine reversed this effect in Experiment 1 (low-fat diet) but not Experiment 2 (sweet, high-fat diet). The findings extend what is known about the conditions under which consumption of high intensity sweeteners promote energy dysregulation. PMID:20851725

Swithers, Susan E.; Martin, Ashley A.; Clark, Kiely M.; Laboy, Alycia F.; Davidson, T. L.

2010-01-01

338

Dynamics of Adaptive Alleles in Divergently Selected Body Weight Lines of Chickens  

PubMed Central

By studying genomic changes over time in populations subjected to strong artificial directional selection, we can gain insights to the dynamics of beneficial alleles originating from the founder population or emerging as novel mutations undergoing ongoing selection. The Virginia lines are a chicken resource population generated by long-term bi-directional, single-trait selection for juvenile body weight. We studied genome-wide allele frequency changes from generation 40 to 53 using genome-wide genotypes from directional and relaxed selection lines. Overall, there were small changes in allele frequencies at individual loci over the studied time period; but, on average, the changes were greater in lines with larger phenotypic changes. This is consistent with previous findings that much of the response to selection over the first 40 years of selection was attributable to utilization of standing genetic variation at many loci in the genome, indicating a mostly polygenic architecture for body weight. Over the course of the selection experiment, the largest phenotypic response to selection was observed in the high-weight selected line, and in this line we detected a single locus where the allele frequency changed rapidly during a late stage of the experiment. This locus likely contains a novel, beneficial mutation that appeared between generations 40 and 45 and was driven to fixation in 5 to 10 generations. This result illustrates the dependence of continued long-term selection response on standing genetic variation at many loci as well as strong, novel, beneficial mutations. PMID:24170737

Pettersson, Mats E.; Johansson, Anna M.; Siegel, Paul B.; Carlborg, Örjan

2013-01-01

339

Interoceptive sensitivity, body weight and eating behavior in children: a prospective study  

PubMed Central

Previous research indicates that interindividual differences in the ability to perceive one's own bodily signals (interoceptive sensitivity, IS) are associated with disordered eating behavior and weight problems. But representative and prospective data in children are lacking and therefore, the exact nature of these observed associations remains unclear. Data on IS measured by heartbeat perception ability in 1657 children between 6 and 11 years of age were collected on the basis of two measurement points with a year distance in time. Stability of the construct and its prospective association with different food approach behaviors [assessed via parent questionnaires (Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire and Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire)] as well as with weight status were analyzed via structural equation modeling. Main results were that only in overweight children external and emotional eating behavior were predictive for later IS, whereas no such relation was found in normal weight children. There was no direct relation between IS and body mass index. For the first time, we could show that eating behavior and IS in middle childhood are prospectively related to each other. But surprisingly, our data indicate that altered interoceptive processes rather follow than precede non-adaptive eating behavior patterns in overweight children. This suggests a possible crucial role of faulty learning mechanisms in eating behavior early in life, undermining the later confidence in one's body. PMID:25250006

Koch, Anne; Pollatos, Olga

2014-01-01

340

Measurement of Body Condition in a Common Carabid Beetle, Poecilus cupreus: A comparison of Fresh Weight, Dry Weight, and Fat Content  

PubMed Central

Because of its direct consequences on reproductive success, body condition is an often-studied individual trait in insects. Various studies on insects use disparate methods to assess “body condition.” However, it is doubtful that the results obtained by disparate methods are comparable. In this study, the body conditions of Poecilus cupreus (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera: Carabidae) from eight sites were compared based on the following commonly used variables: (i) fresh weight, (ii) dry weight, and (iii) fat content. All of these variables were corrected for structural body size. Moreover, the effects of using the following ways of assessing structural body size were examined: (a) one size measurement (length of elytron, which is commonly used in beetles), and (b) three size measurements (length of elytron, width of pronotum and length of hind femur). The results obtained using the various estimations of body condition (i, ii, iii) varied significantly. Therefore, studies employing distinct body measurements to assess body condition are not comparable to each other. Using multiple structural size measurements in body condition analyses is better than the common practice of using only one size measurement. However, in the present study, results provided by both methods differ only slightly. A recommendation on the use of terminology in studies on body condition is introduced. PMID:23879296

Knapp, Michal; Knappová, Jana

2013-01-01

341

Antibody-producing cells correlated to body weight in juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) acclimated to optimal and elevated temperatures  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The immune response of juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) ranging in weight from approximately 10 to 55 g was compared when the fish were acclimated to either 13 or 21?? C. A haemolytic plaque assay was conducted to determine differences in the number of antibody-producing cells (APC) among fish of a similar age but different body weights. Regression analyses revealed significant increases in the number of APC with increasing body weight when fish were acclimated to either water temperature. These results emphasise the importance of standardising fish weight in immunological studies of salmonids before exploring the possible effects of acclimation temperatures. ?? 2001 Academic Press.

Harrahy, L.N.M.; Schreck, C.B.; Maule, A.G.

2001-01-01

342

Noise reduction of a tilt-rotor aircraft including effects on weight and performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various methods for far-field noise reduction of a tilt-rotor acoustic signature and the performance and weight tradeoffs which result from modification of the noise sources are considered in this report. In order to provide a realistic approach for the investigation, the Boeing tilt-rotor flight research aircraft (Model 222), was selected as the baseline. This aircraft has undergone considerable engineering development. Its rotor has been manufactured and tested in the Ames full-scale wind tunnel. The study reflects the current state-of-the-art of aircraft design for far-field acoustic signature reduction and is not based solely on an engineering feasibility aircraft. This report supplements a previous study investigating reduction of noise signature through the management of the terminal flight trajectory.

Gibs, J.; Stepniewski, W. Z.; Spencer, R.; Kohler, G.

1973-01-01

343

Electrical Conductivity of Fermi Liquids. I. Many-Body Effect on the Drude Weight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the basis of the Fermi liquid theory,we investigate the many-body effect on the Drude weight.In a lattice system the Drude weight D is modified by electron-electron interaction, while it is not renormalized in a Galilean invariant system.This is explained by showing that the effective mass m' for D?n/m'is defined through the current, not velocity, of quasiparticle.It is shown that the inequality D>0 is required for the stability against the uniform shift of the Fermi surface.The result of perturbation theory applied for the Hubbard model indicates that D as a function of the density nis qualitatively modified around half filling n˜1by Umklapp processes.

Okabe, Takuya

1998-08-01

344

Stimulation of body weight increase and epiphyseal cartilage growth by insulin like growth factor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ability of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) to induce growth in hypophysectomized immature rats was tested by continuous infusion of the partially purified factor at daily doses of 6, 21, and 46 mU for an 8-day period. A dose-dependent growth of the proximal epiphyseal cartilage of the tibia and an associated stimulation of the primary spongiosa were produced by these amounts of IGF. The two highest doses of IGF also resulted in dose-dependent increases of body weight. Gel permeation of the sera at neutrality showed that the large-molecular-weight IGF binding protein was not induced by the infusion of IGF, whereas it ws generated in the sera of hypophysectomized rats that were infused with daily doses of 86 mU of human growth hormone.

Ellis, S.

1981-01-01

345

Hybrid Wing-Body (HWB) Pressurized Fuselage Modeling, Analysis, and Design for Weight Reduction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the interim progress for an in-house study that is directed toward innovative structural analysis and design of next-generation advanced aircraft concepts, such as the Hybrid Wing-Body (HWB) and the Advanced Mobility Concept-X flight vehicles, for structural weight reduction and associated performance enhancement. Unlike the conventional, skin-stringer-frame construction for a cylindrical fuselage, the box-type pressurized fuselage panels in the HWB undergo significant deformation of the outer aerodynamic surfaces, which must be minimized without significant structural weight penalty. Simple beam and orthotropic plate theory is first considered for sizing, analytical verification, and possible equivalent-plate analysis with appropriate simplification. By designing advanced composite stiffened-shell configurations, significant weight reduction may be possible compared with the sandwich and ribbed-shell structural concepts that have been studied previously. The study involves independent analysis of the advanced composite structural concepts that are presently being developed by The Boeing Company for pressurized HWB flight vehicles. High-fidelity parametric finite-element models of test coupons, panels, and multibay fuselage sections, were developed for conducting design studies and identifying critical areas of potential failure. Interim results are discussed to assess the overall weight/strength advantages.

Mukhopadhyay, Vivek

2012-01-01

346

Body Mass Index, Gestational Weight Gain, and Obstetric Complications in Moroccan Population  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To evaluate the impact of the body mass index (BMI) before pregnancy and the weight gain during pregnancy, on the occurrence of maternal and neonatal morbidity in the Moroccan population, as well as to analyze the quality of the weight gain depending on the BMI. Methods. A study was carried out over a period of one year from October 1, 2010 to October 1, 2011, using data collected from a descriptive-transversal study. We recruited nondiabetic women without several HTAs, delivering singletons from 37 completed weeks up to 42 weeks gestation. Results. Total of 1408 were analyzed. The risks of moderate hypertension, macrosomia, dystocia, and resort to cesarean section were higher among overweight or obese women, as well as among women whose weight gain was >16?kg. The differences were significant <0.05. Conclusion. This study demonstrates that overweight women before pregnancy and weight gain during pregnancy are associated with higher risks of maternal and neonatal complications. These data provide ideas on prevention opportunities. PMID:23936654

Mochhoury, Latifa; Razine, Rachid; Kasouati, Jalal; Kabiri, Mariam; Barkat, Amina

2013-01-01

347

Influence of Gestational Age and Body Weight on the Pharmacokinetics of Labetalol in Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Labetalol is frequently prescribed for treatment of hypertension during pregnancy. However, the influence of pregnancy on labetalol pharmacokinetics is uncertain, with inconsistent findings reported by previous studies. This study examined the population pharmacokinetics of oral labetalol during and after pregnancy in women receiving labetalol for hypertension. Methods Data were collected from 57 women receiving the drug for hypertension from the 12th week of pregnancy through 12 weeks postpartum using a prospective, longitudinal design. A sparse sampling strategy guided collection of plasma samples. Samples were assayed for labetalol by high performance liquid chromatography. Estimation of population pharmacokinetic parameters and covariate effects was performed by nonlinear mixed effects modeling using NONMEM. Final population model was validated by bootstrap analysis and visual predictive check. Simulations were performed with the final model to evaluate the appropriate body weight to guide labetalol dosing. Results Lean body weight (LBW) and gestational age, i.e., weeks of pregnancy, were identified as significantly influencing oral clearance (CL/F) of labetalol, with CL/F ranging from 1.4-fold greater than postpartum values at 12 weeks gestational age to 1.6-fold greater at 40 weeks. Doses adjusted for LBW provide more consistent drug exposure than doses adjusted for total body weight. The apparent volumes of distribution for the central compartment and at steady-state were 1.9-fold higher during pregnancy. Conclusions Gestational age and LBW impact the pharmacokinetics of labetalol during pregnancy and have clinical implications for adjusting labetalol doses in these women. PMID:24297680

Fischer, James H.; Sarto, Gloria E.; Hardman, Jennifer; Endres, Loraine; Jenkins, Thomas M.; Kilpatrick, Sarah J.; Jeong, Hyunyoung; Geller, Stacie; Deyo, Kelly; Fischer, Patricia A.; Rodvold, Keith A.

2015-01-01

348

A reexamination of age-related variation in body weight and morphometry of Maryland nutria  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Age-related variation in morphometry has been documented for many species. Knowledge of growth patterns can be useful for modeling energetics, detecting physiological influences on populations, and predicting age. These benefits have shown value in understanding population dynamics of invasive species, particularly in developing efficient control and eradication programs. However, development and evaluation of descriptive and predictive models is a critical initial step in this process. Accordingly, we used data from necropsies of 1,544 nutria (Myocastor coypus) collected in Maryland, USA, to evaluate the accuracy of previously published models for prediction of nutria age from body weight. Published models underestimated body weights of our animals, especially for ages <3. We used cross-validation procedures to develop and evaluate models for describing nutria growth patterns and for predicting nutria age. We derived models from a randomly selected model-building data set (n = 192-193 M, 217-222 F) and evaluated them with the remaining animals (n = 487-488 M, 642-647 F). We used nonlinear regression to develop Gompertz growth-curve models relating morphometric variables to age. Predicted values of morphometric variables fell within the 95% confidence limits of their true values for most age classes. We also developed predictive models for estimating nutria age from morphometry, using linear regression of log-transformed age on morphometric variables. The evaluation data set corresponded with 95% prediction intervals from the new models. Predictive models for body weight and length provided greater accuracy and less bias than models for foot length and axillary girth. Our growth models accurately described age-related variation in nutria morphometry, and our predictive models provided accurate estimates of ages from morphometry that will be useful for live-captured individuals. Our models offer better accuracy and precision than previously published models, providing a capacity for modeling energetics and growth patterns of Maryland nutria as well as an empirical basis for determining population age structure from live-captured animals.

Sherfy, M.H.; Mollett, T.A.; McGowan, K.R.; Daugherty, S.L.

2006-01-01

349

Betaine supplementation decreases plasma homocysteine concentrations but does not affect body weight, body composition, or resting energy expenditure in human subjects1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Betaine (trimethylglycine) is found in several tissues in humans. It is involved in homocysteine metabolism as an alter- native methyl donor and is used in the treatment of homocystinuria in humans. In pigs, betaine decreases the amount of adipose tissue. Objective: The aim of the study was to examine the effect of betaine supplementation on body weight, body composition,

Ursula Schwab; Anneli Törrönen; Leena Toppinen; Georg Alfthan; Markku Saarinen; Antti Aro; Matti Uusitupa

350

?-hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate (HMB) attenuates muscle and body weight loss in experimental cancer cachexia.  

PubMed

?-hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate (HMB), a leucine metabolite, improves muscle mass and function. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of HMB administration in an experimental in vivo model of cancer cachexia (CC). Wistar rats were randomized to receive standard or 4% HMB-enriched chow. Rats from both groups were randomized to receive an i.p. inoculum of AH-130 cells (TB). All rats were weighed and sacrificed at day 24. Liver, heart and muscles were dissected and weighed. The protein levels of p-p70S6k, p-eIf2?, p-mTOR and p-4-EB-P1 were evaluated by Western blotting on gastrocnemius muscle (GSN). As expected, the growth of the AH-130 ascites hepatoma induced significant carcass weight and GSN muscle loss. HMB treatment significantly increased GSN and heart weight in controls (p=0.002 and p<0.001, respectively). In HMB-treated TB, body weight was not lost but significantly (p=0.003) increased, and GSN loss was significantly (p=0.04) attenuated with respect to TB. Phosphorylated eIF2? markedly decreased in TB-rats vs. C. Feeding the HMB-enriched diet resulted in decreased p-eIF2? levels in control animals, while no changes could be observed in the TB group. Phosphorylated p70S6K and phosphorylated mTOR were markedly increased by HMB treatment in controls and further increased in TB. Phosphorylated 4-EB-P1 was markedly increased in TB but substantially unaffected by HMB treatment. Administration of HMB attenuates body weight and muscle loss in experimental CC. Increased phosphorylation of key anabolic molecules suggests that these actions are mediated by improved protein anabolism in muscle. PMID:21184031

Aversa, Zaira; Bonetto, Andrea; Costelli, Paola; Minero, Valerio Giacomo; Penna, Fabio; Baccino, Francesco Maria; Lucia, Simone; Rossi Fanelli, Filippo; Muscaritoli, Maurizio

2011-03-01

351

Body weight and fat-free mass changes in a cohort of patients receiving chemotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Malnutrition is prevalent in cancer patients and it can become even greater during its treatment. The purpose of the present\\u000a study is to verify changes in the fat-free mass (FFM) and body weight (BW) in cancer patients during chemotherapy treatment\\u000a and to identify their significant determinants.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In a longitudinal study of 174 patients starting a chemotherapy protocol, bioelectrical impedance analysis

Denise Halpern-Silveira; Lulie Rosane O. Susin; Lúcia R. Borges; Silvana I. Paiva; Maria Cecília F. Assunção; Maria Cristina Gonzalez

2010-01-01

352

Temporospatial and kinematic gait alterations during treadmill walking with body weight suspension.  

PubMed

Our purpose was to analyze the effects of selected levels of body weight support (BWS) on lower extremity kinematics of normal subjects at a predetermined treadmill speed. Seventeen non-disabled volunteers walked on a treadmill at 1.25 ms(-1). Temporospatial and kinematic data were collected while various support levels were applied (Minimal, 10, 30, 50 and 70% BWS). Compared to 10% BWS, significant temporospatial and kinematic changes were induced by 50 and 70% BWS. Fewer differences were induced by 30% BWS compared to 10% BWS. We concluded that gait patterns of unimpaired subjects are significantly changed by 50 and 70% BWS. PMID:12770637

Threlkeld, A Joseph; Cooper, Lance D; Monger, Brock P; Craven, Aric N; Haupt, Howard G

2003-06-01

353

Sarcolemmal ATP-sensitive K+ channels control energy expenditure determining body weight  

PubMed Central

Summary Metabolic processes that regulate muscle energy use are major determinants of bodily energy balance. Here we find that sarcolemmal ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels, which couple membrane excitability with cellular metabolic pathways, set muscle energy expenditure under physiological stimuli. Disruption of KATP channel function provoked, in conditions of unaltered locomotor activity and blood substrate availability, an extra energy cost of cardiac and skeletal muscle performance. Inefficient fuel metabolism in KATP channel-deficient striated muscles reduced glycogen and fat body depots promoting a lean phenotype. The propensity to lesser body weight imposed by KATP channel deficit persisted under a high-fat diet, yet obesity restriction was achieved at the cost of compromised physical endurance. Thus, sarcolemmal KATP channels govern muscle energy economy, and their down-regulation in a tissue-specific manner could present an anti-obesity strategy by rendering muscle increasingly thermogenic at rest and less fuel efficient during exercise. PMID:20074528

Alekseev, Alexey E.; Reyes, Santiago; Yamada, Satsuki; Hodgson-Zingman, Denice M.; Sattiraju, Srinivasan; Zhu, Zhiyong; Sierra, Ana; Gerbin, Marina; Coetzee, William A.; Goldhamer, David J.; Terzic, Andre; Zingman, Leonid V.

2009-01-01

354

Body weight changes and corresponding changes in pain and function in persons with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. A cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine if a dose-response relationship exists between percentage body weight changes in persons with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) and self reported pain and function. Methods Data from persons in the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) and the Multicenter Osteoarthritis (MOST) datasets (n=1,410) with symptomatic function limiting knee OA were studied. For the OAI, we used baseline and 3-year follow-up data while for the MOST, baseline and 30-month data were used. Key outcome variables were WOMAC Physical Function and Pain change scores. In addition to covariates, the predictor variable of interest was the extent of weight change over the study period and divided into 5 categories representing different percentages of body weight change. Results A significant dose-response relationship (p< 0.003) was found between the extent of percentage change in body weight and the extent of change in WOMAC Physical Function and WOMAC Pain. For example, persons who gained ?10% of body weight had WOMAC Physical Function score changes of ?5.4 (95%CI, ?8.7, ?2.00) points indicating worsening relative to the reference group of persons with weight changes of between <5% weight gain and <5% weight reduction. Conclusion Our data suggest a dose-response relationship exists between changes in body weight and corresponding changes in pain and function. The threshold for this response gradient appears to be ?10% body weight shifts. Weight changes of ?10% have potential to lead to important changes in pain and function for patient groups as well as individual patients. PMID:22505346

Riddle, Daniel L.; Stratford, Paul W.

2012-01-01

355

Reduced sympathetic nervous activity. A potential mechanism predisposing to body weight gain.  

PubMed Central

The sympathetic nervous system is recognized to play a role in the etiology of animal and possibly human obesity through its impact on energy expenditure and/or food intake. We, therefore, measured fasting muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in the peroneal nerve and its relationship with energy expenditure and body composition in 25 relatively lean Pima Indian males (means +/- SD; 26 +/- 6 yr, 82 +/- 19 kg, 28 +/- 10% body fat) and 19 Caucasian males (29 +/- 5 yr, 81 +/- 13 kg, 24 +/- 9% body fat). 24-h energy expenditure, sleeping metabolic rate, and resting metabolic rate were measured in a respiratory chamber, whereas body composition was estimated by hydrodensitometry. Pima Indians had lower MSNA than Caucasians (23 +/- 6 vs 33 +/- 10 bursts/min, P = 0.0007). MSNA was significantly related to percent body fat in Caucasians (r = 0.55, P = 0.01) but not in Pimas. MSNA also correlated with energy expenditure adjusted for fat-free mass, fat mass, and age in Caucasians (r = 0.51, P = 0.03; r = 0.54, P = 0.02; and r = 0.53, P = 0.02 for adjusted 24-h energy expenditure, sleeping metabolic rate, and resting metabolic rate, respectively) but not in Pima Indians. In conclusion, the activity of the sympathetic nervous system is a determinant of energy expenditure in Caucasians. Individuals with low resting MSNA may be at risk for body weight gain resulting from a lower metabolic rate. A low resting MSNA and the lack of impact of MSNA on metabolic rate might play a role in the etiology of obesity in Pima Indians. PMID:8408625

Spraul, M; Ravussin, E; Fontvieille, A M; Rising, R; Larson, D E; Anderson, E A

1993-01-01

356

Screening for body-weight disorders in Nigerian children using contrasting definitions.  

PubMed

Several indices for body-weight disorders exist in scientific literature, but it is inconclusive whether or not they can yield comparable results when applied to Nigerian children. The prevalence of weight disorders in Nigerian children was examined using the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) body mass index (BMI) for age charts and the International Obesity Task Force's (IOTF) age- and sex-specific BMI cut-off points. Participants were 2015 pupils (979 boys and 1036 girls) aged 9-12 years, attending 19 public primary schools in Makurdi, Nigeria. Stature and body mass were measured using standard techniques. Results were analysed using student t-test and Chi-squared statistics, with the probability level set at body mass-for-stature in the children. However, more disconcerting is the fact that CDC charts showed a high prevalence of underweight for the boys (87.1%) and girls (79.7%). Prevalent underweight conditions in our sample need urgent intervention. The IOTF method is limited in its utility to identify children who are underweight and may be at risk of growth faltering. PMID:19874528

Goon, D T; Toriola, A L; Shaw, B S

2010-07-01

357

Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation had no effect on body weight but reduced energy intake in overweight and obese women.  

PubMed

Longer-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids may have greater appetite-suppressing effects than shorter-chain, monosaturated, and saturated fatty acids. Because fish oils are predominantly composed of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid and may assist in the treatment of obesity comorbidities, their effect on body weight and body mass index is of interest. We hypothesized that daily supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich oil would reduce energy intake and body weight in overweight and obese women compared with supplementation with oleic acid (OA) rich oil. A double-blinded, randomized, parallel intervention was conducted. Body mass index (in kilograms per meter squared), body weight (in kilograms), body fat (in percent), and lean tissue (in kilograms) were measured at baseline and 12 weeks after intervention with DHA or OA. Diet diaries were also completed at these time points for estimation of energy and macronutrient intake. Subjects reported significantly lower energy (P = .020), carbohydrate (g) (P = .037), and fat (g) (P = .045) intake after DHA compared with OA. Body mass or composition was not affected by treatment, although a fall in body weight in the DHA group approached statistical significance (P = .089). Daily ingestion of DHA over a 12-week period may reduce energy intake in overweight and obese females, but longer-term and adequately powered studies using subjects of both sexes are needed. Other factors that should be considered include the following: the choice of control, the body mass index category of subjects, and ways of improving the compliancy and accuracy of dietary assessment. PMID:24418242

Harden, Charlotte J; Dible, Victoria A; Russell, Jean M; Garaiova, Iveta; Plummer, Sue F; Barker, Margo E; Corfe, Bernard M

2014-01-01

358

Genomic scan for quantitative trait loci of chemical and physical body composition and deposition on pig chromosome X including the pseudoautosomal region of males.  

PubMed

A QTL analysis of pig chromosome X (SSCX) was carried out using an approach that accurately takes into account the specific features of sex chromosomes i.e. their heterogeneity, the presence of a pseudoautosomal region and the dosage compensation phenomenon. A three-generation full-sib population of 386 animals was created by crossing Pietrain sires with a crossbred dam line. Phenotypic data on 72 traits were recorded for at least 292 and up to 315 F2 animals including chemical body composition measured on live animals at five target weights ranging from 30 to 140 kg, daily gain and feed intake measured throughout growth, and carcass characteristics obtained at slaughter weight (140 kg). Several significant and suggestive QTL were detected on pig chromosome X: (1) in the pseudoautosomal region of SSCX, a QTL for entire loin weight, which showed paternal imprinting, (2) closely linked to marker SW2456, a suggestive QTL for feed intake at which Pietrain alleles were found to be associated with higher feed intake, which is unexpected for a breed known for its low feed intake capacity, (3) at the telomeric end of the q arm of SSCX, QTL for jowl weight and lipid accretion and (4) suggestive QTL for chemical body composition at 30 kg. These results indicate that SSCX is important for physical and chemical body composition and accretion as well as feed intake regulation. PMID:19284590

Duthie, Carol-Anne; Simm, Geoff; Pérez-Enciso, Miguel; Doeschl-Wilson, Andrea; Kalm, Ernst; Knap, Pieter W; Roehe, Rainer

2009-01-01

359

Body Weight, Not Insulin Sensitivity or Secretion, May Predict Spontaneous Weight Changes in Nondiabetic and Prediabetic Subjects  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Previous studies have found that high insulin sensitivity predicts weight gain; this association has not been confirmed. Our aim was to systematically analyze metabolic predictors of spontaneous weight changes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In 561 women and 467 men from the Relationship Between Insulin Sensitivity and Cardiovascular Disease (RISC) cohort (mean age 44 years, BMI range 19–44 kg/m2, 9% impaired glucose tolerance) followed up for 3 years, we measured insulin sensitivity (by a euglycemic clamp) and ?-cell function (by modeling of the C-peptide response to oral glucose and by acute insulin response to intravenous glucose). RESULTS Insulin sensitivity was similar in weight gainers (top 20% of the distribution of BMI changes), weight losers (bottom 20%), and weight stable subjects across quartiles of baseline BMI. By multiple logistic or linear regression analyses controlling for center, age, sex, and baseline BMI, neither insulin sensitivity nor any ?-cell function parameter showed an independent association with weight gain; this was true in normal glucose tolerance, impaired glucose tolerance, and whether subjects progressed to dysglycemia or not. Baseline BMI was significantly higher in gainers (26.1 ± 4.1 kg/m2) and losers (26.6 ± 3.7 kg/m2) than in weight stable subjects (24.8 ± 3.8 kg/m2, P < 0.0001 for both gainers and losers). Baseline waist circumference (or equivalently, BMI or weight) was a positive, independent predictor of both weight gain and weight loss (odds ratio 1.48 [95% CI 1.12–1.97]) in men and (1.67 [1.28–2.12]) in women. In men only, better insulin sensitivity was an additional independent predictor of weight loss. CONCLUSIONS Neither insulin sensitivity nor insulin secretion predicts spontaneous weight gain. Individuals who have attained a higher weight are prone to either gaining or losing weight regardless of their glucose tolerance. PMID:21617179

Rebelos, Eleni; Muscelli, Elza; Natali, Andrea; Balkau, Beverley; Mingrone, Geltrude; Piatti, Piermarco; Konrad, Thomas; Mari, Andrea; Ferrannini, Ele

2011-01-01

360

Differential perceptions of body image and body weight among adults of different socioeconomic status in a sub-urban population.  

PubMed

This study explored the association of socioeconomic status with individuals' perception of their body image (BI) and body weight (BW) among adults in a sub-urban Nigerian population. The cross-sectional sample comprised 1521 residents (775 males and 746 females) of the town of Nnewi. Perceived BI was assessed using figural representations of different sizes for males and females. Perceived BW was determined by presenting participants with BW category options to choose from. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from objectively measured BW and height using standardized procedures. Actual BW categories were derived from participants' BMIs using WHO criteria. Perceived BI and BW differed from actual BW among unskilled and non-tertiary males (p<0.001) and female (p<0.001 to p<0.04) in all BW categories whereas these variables differed (p<0.001) among skilled and tertiary males and females in normal weight, overweight and obese categories. Perceived BW differed (p<0.001) from actual BW among unskilled and non-tertiary males in underweight, overweight and obese categories whereas these variables differed (p<0.001) among unskilled and non-tertiary females, skilled and tertiary males and females in overweight and obese categories. Underweight 'unskilled' and 'non-tertiary' males perceived their BI to be different from their actual BW (p<0.001). Overweight and obese 'skilled' and 'unskilled', and 'tertiary' and 'non-tertiary', males and females perceived their BI and BW to be different from their actual BW (p<0.001). Significant differences in perceived BI existed between 'skilled' and 'unskilled' (p<0.001), and 'tertiary' and 'non-tertiary' (p=0.005), overweight males, and between 'skilled' and 'unskilled' (p<0.001), and 'tertiary' and 'non-tertiary' (p=0.008), normal-weight females. The 'skilled' participants had a lower risk of perceiving a larger BI (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.41-0.64; p<0.001) and larger BW (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.53-0.96; p=0.03) than the 'unskilled' participants. The 'tertiary' participants had a lower risk of perceiving a larger BI (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.40-0.63; p<0.001) and larger BW (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.53-0.95; p=0.02) than the 'non-tertiary' participants. After adjusting for possible confounders, all the risks became insignificant except for perception of BI by the 'skilled' participants (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.50-0.99; p=0.04). Individuals in the different occupational and educational categories perceived their BI differently but their BW similarly. Given the same BMI, age, perceived ideal BI and sex, only occupation is found to be associated with perception of BI. PMID:23721833

Maruf, Fatai A; Akinpelu, Aderonke O; Udoji, Nwannedimma V

2014-05-01

361

Effect of feeding rate and frequency on weight gain, food conversion , and body composition of Tilapia aurea  

E-print Network

EFFECT OF FEEDING RATE AND FRE(}UENCY ON WEIGHT GAIN, FOOD CONVERSION, AND BODY COMPOSITION OF TILAPIA AUREA A Thesis by CHAROEN N IT ITHAMYONG Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ABM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement of the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1982 Major Subject: Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences EFFECT OF FEEDING RATE AND FREOUENCY ON WEIGHT GAIN, FOOD CONVERSION, AND BODY COMPOSITION OF TILAPIA AUREA A Thesis by CHAROEN NITITHAMYONG...

Nitithamyong, Charoen

2012-06-07

362

BODY WEIGHT AND FAT DEPOSITION IN CAPTIVE WHITE-THROATED SPARROWS IN RELATION TO THE MECHANICS OF MIGRATION1  

Microsoft Academic Search

N 1945 a study of body weight and fat deposition in transient birds was begun at Evanston, Illinois. The data for the White-throated Sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis) for the years 1945-1947 have been analyzed and are in press (Wolfson, 1954). I,t was found that White-throats captured in the spring at Evanston varied greatly in body weight and that these variations were

ALBERT WOLFSON

363

Cyclic Estradiol Treatment Normalizes Body Weight and Restores Physiological Patterns of Spontaneous Feeding and Sexual Receptivity in Ovariectomized Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis function strongly influences feeding and body weight in cycling females in many species. To test the sufficiency of cyclic variations in plasma estradiol to reproduce normal patterns of spontaneous feeding, food intake, and body weight, ovariectomized Long–Evans rats were subcutaneously injected every fourth day with 2 ?g estradiol benzoate or with the oil vehicle alone. Cyclic estradiol treatment

Lori Asarian; Nori Geary

2002-01-01

364

Excess body weight, clinical profile, management practices, and hospital prognosis in men and women after acute myocardial infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Excess body weight is increasingly being recognized as a major health problem in American men and women. It is unclear, however, whether body weight is associated with the demographic and clinical profile, treatment of, and hospital prognosis after acute myocardial infarction (AMI).\\u000aMETHODS: Nonconcurrent prospective epidemiologic investigation of Worcester (Massachusetts) metropolitan residents hospitalized at all 11 greater Worcester medical

Robert J. Goldberg; Jiang Cui; Barbara C. Olendzki; Frederick A. Spencer; Jorge L. Yarzebski; Darleen M. Lessard; Joel M. Gore

2006-01-01

365

The effect of ambient temperature on rectal temperature, food intake and short term body weight in the capsaicin desensitized rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Subcutaneous injections of capsaicin (mean cumulative dose: 80.1±3.6 mg·kg-1) permanently reduced the capacity of rats to withstand a hot environment when deprived of water. With water available, hyperthermia was discrete or absent in capsaicinized rats in hot environment.2.Desensitization was followed by a significant decrease in both food intake and body weight. Treated rats recovered normal body weight after 3 weeks.3.In

M. Cormarèche-Leydier; Claude Bernard

1981-01-01

366

Effects of Persea americana leaf extracts on body weight and liver lipids in rats fed hyperlipidaemic diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts of Persea americana on body weight and liver lipids in rats were studied. Male albino rats were fed a modified diet containing 0.5% cholesterol and 0.25% cholic acid to provoke hyperlipidaemia. The hyperlipidaemic rats were given 10 mg\\/kg body weight of either aqueous or methanolic extract of P. americana leaf daily for

B. I. C. Brai; A. A. Odetola; P. U. Agomo

2007-01-01

367

Sensitivity of joint moments to changes in walking speed and body-weight-support are interdependent and vary across joints  

PubMed Central

We investigated the effect of simultaneous changes in body-weight-support level and walking speed on mean peak internal joint moments at the ankle, knee and hip. We hypothesized that observed changes in these joint moments would be approximately linear with both body-weight-support and walking speed and would be similar across joints. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected from 8 unimpaired adult subjects walking on an instrumented treadmill while wearing a dynamically controlled overhead support harness. Subjects walked with four levels of body-weight-support (0%, 20%, 40%, and 60% of bodyweight) at three walking speeds (0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 statures/s, ranging on average from 0.7 to 1.4 m/s). Data were used to calculate mean peak joint moments across subjects for each condition. In general, subjects’ mean peak joint moments decreased linearly with decreasing walking speed and with increasing body-weight-support, except the knee extension moment, which showed a quadratic relationship with walking speed and no significant change with body-weight-support. All joint moments, with the exception of knee extension, showed a significant interaction effect between walking speed and body-weight-support, indicating that the sensitivity of these joint moments to changes in these variables was interdependent. In most cases, the ankle and hip extension moments showed the largest sensitivity to walking speed. The ankle moment was observed to have the greatest sensitivity to body-weight-support. This finding, that altering walking speed and body-weight-support level results in non-uniform changes in peak moments across joints, suggests that further research is warranted to establish the set of combined speed and support conditions that produce motor patterns supportive of normal gait retraining. PMID:23374276

Goldberg, Saryn R.; Stanhope, Steven J.

2013-01-01

368

Relationship of Smoking Status, Energy Balance, and Body Weight: Analysis of the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between smoking status and body mass index (weight\\/height2) was evaluated, controlling for demographics, dietary intake, and physical activity. Subjects were 10,778 adult respondents from the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II). Results indicate that never smokers and long-term quitters had similar relative body weights and that low-rate current smokers were not significantly different from never

Robert C. Klesges; Lisa M. Klesges; Andrew W. Meyers

1991-01-01

369

Viscous-inviscid interaction method including wake effects for three-dimensional wing-body configurations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A viscous-inviscid interaction method has been developed by using a three-dimensional integral boundary-layer method which produces results in good agreement with a finite-difference method in a fraction of the computer time. The integral method is stable and robust and incorporates a model for computation in a small region of streamwise separation. A locally two-dimensional wake model, accounting for thickness and curvature effects, is also included in the interaction procedure. Computation time spent in converging an interacted result is, many times, only slightly greater than that required to converge an inviscid calculation. Results are shown from the interaction method, run at experimental angle of attack, Reynolds number, and Mach number, on a wing-body test case for which viscous effects are large. Agreement with experiment is good; in particular, the present wake model improves prediction of the spanwise lift distribution and lower surface cove pressure.

Streett, C. L.

1981-01-01

370

Aerodynamic heating on 3-D bodies including the effects of entropy-layer swallowing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A relatively simple method was developed previously (authors, 1973) for calculating laminar, transitional, and turbulent heating rates on three-dimensional bodies in hypersonic flows. This method was shown to yield reasonably accurate results for laminar heating on blunted circular and elliptical cones and an earlier version of the space shuttle vehicle. As the boundary layer along the surface grows, more and more of the inviscid-flow mass is entrained into the boundary layer, and the streamlines which passed through the nearly normal portion of the bow shock wave are 'swallowed' by the boundary layer. This phenomenon is often referred to as entropy-layer or streamline swallowing, and it can have a significant effect on the calculated heating rates. An approximate, yet simple, method for including the effects of entropy-layer swallowing in the heating-rate calculations is given.

Dejarnette, F. R.; Hamilton, H. H.

1974-01-01

371

Medical officers, bodies, gender and weight fluctuation in irish convict prisons, 1877-95.  

PubMed

This article focuses on the function of the convict prison infirmary and views it as a site of arbitration, resistance and 'contested power'. In accordance with the rules and regulations periods of incarceration in convict prisons began and ended with an obligatory medical examination. While the primary function of the initial test was to measure the convict body in order ascertain physical ability to conduct hard labour it also provided a thorough bio-metrical description for future identification purposes. The final examination was not as comprehensively undertaken but also concerned itself with anthropometrical observations. It would be reasonable to assume that the balance of power was weighted in the authority's favour but this research has found evidence to the contrary. For instance, that there was a fair degree of physiological knowledge within the convict population and that some convicts used the infirmary for dietary gains and reprieve from hard labour. Using body mass index (BMI) as an instrument to measure physical wellbeing this article views the doctor-convict interface as a crucial component of the penal experience. It analyses 251 convict medical records to show that the balance of diet and work led to what might be considered a counterintuitive outcome - a preponderance of weight gain, particularly for males in Irish prisons. PMID:24331215

Breathnach, Ciara

2014-01-01

372

The impact of depression and ghrelin on body weight in migraineurs  

PubMed Central

Background Comorbidity of migraine with anxiety and depression may play a role in the link between migraine and obesity. We examined the moderating and mediating roles of ghrelin in the relationship between depression (and anxiety) and body weight in newly diagnosed migraineurs. Methods Participants were 63 newly diagnosed migraine patients (using the ICHD-II criteria) and 42 healthy volunteers. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated by measuring height and weight. Ghrelin was assessed at fasting. Depression was assessed with the Hamilton Depression scale, and anxiety with the Hamilton Anxiety scale. Results The data did not support the mediating role of ghrelin in the relationship between depression (or anxiety) and BMI for either the migraine or the control group. The interaction between ghrelin and depression as well as anxiety was significant for the migraine group, but not for the control group. Depressed (or anxious) migraineurs had a positive association between ghrelin and BMI, whereas for the non-depressed (or non-anxious) migraineurs this association was negative. Conclusions Depression and anxiety moderated the effect of ghrelin on BMI for migraineurs. Management of anxiety and depression might be regarded as part of migraine treatment. PMID:24762133

2014-01-01

373

An investigation on body weights, blood glucose levels and pituitary-gonadal axis hormones in diabetic and metformin-treated diabetic female rats  

PubMed Central

Diabetes is a metabolic disorder which affects whole body systems including reproductive system. Diabetes is also a contributing factor to infertility. Metformin is one of the most common drugs to control hyperglycemia. In this study, 36 adult Sprague-Dawley female rats (170-210 g) were divided into 3 groups (control, diabetic and diabetic-treated by metformin). In second and third groups, diabetes was induced by streptozotocin injection (45 mg kg-1, IP) and the third group was treated by metformin hydrochloride (100 mg kg-1 day-1, PO) for 8 weeks. Body weights were compared and blood glucose, gonadotropins and sexual hormones were measured. In diabetic group the blood glucose level significantly (P < 0.05) increased in comparison with that of control and metformin-treated diabetic rats. The results also revealed that, in the untreated diabetic rats, the mean body weights and pituitary-gonadal axis hormones were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in comparison with the control. Although there were significant (P < 0.05) reduction in mean body weights in metformin-treated diabetic rats, reduction in pituitary-gonadal axis hormones was not as sharp as in untreated diabetic rats and only level of progesterone was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in comparison with the control. The results of this investigation revealed that there was a clear relationship between experimental diabetes with body weight and pituitary-gonadal axis hormones, and treatment with metformin relatively restored diabetic complications.

Pournaghi, Pouya; Sadrkhanlou, Rajab-Ali; Hasanzadeh, Shapour; Foroughi, Azadeh

2012-01-01

374

The Development of Associations Among BMI, Body Dissatisfaction, and Weight and Shape Concern in Adolescent Boys and Girls  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine how the associations among BMI and body dissatisfaction and weight and shape concern evolve from late childhood through late adolescence in boys and girls. Methods We analyze data from 9–18-year-olds from the Growing Up Today Study, a national prospective cohort of U.S. Youth (n= 16,882, yielding 59,750 repeated measures observations during five waves of data collection). Generalized additive models produced curves of association for body dissatisfaction and weight concern across BMI percentiles. Generalized estimating equations (adjusting for correlated within-subject repeated measures, sibling clusters, pubertal maturation, and region of residence) tested main and interactive effects of BMI, age, and gender. Results Girls above the 50th BMI percentile reported greater body dissatisfaction than girls below the 50th percentile. By contrast, boys who reported the most body dissatisfaction were either above the 75th BMI percentile (approaching overweight) or below the 10th percentile (approaching underweight). Body dissatisfaction increased with age for both girls and boys, but the gender-specific patterns of BMI effects remained constant. Male and female participants in the overweight/obese BMI range reported the greatest weight concern, but among older adolescents (particularly girls), healthy weight became increasingly associated with greater weight and shape concern. Conclusions Body dissatisfaction and weight and shape concern intensify across adolescence, but associations between the constructs and BMI remain gender-specific. Findings have important implications for eating disorder risk assessment and prevention. PMID:23084175

Calzo, Jerel P.; Sonneville, Kendrin R.; Haines, Jess; Blood, Emily A.; Field, Alison E.; Austin, S. Bryn

2012-01-01

375

Sexual behavior and seminal characteristics of fertile mature New Zealand White male rabbits of different body weights.  

PubMed

Body weight in different mammalian species influences reproductive potential. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship of body weight at the time of semen collection with libido, seminal characteristics and number of semen doses for artificial insemination (AI) in New Zealand White mature fertile male rabbits. Data came from 728 semen collections of 14 rabbits, 15-months of age that were sexually experienced with proven semen quality and fertility. Semen collection was performed twice a week with two ejaculates at each collection time and lasted 14 weeks. A second ejaculation was collected at 1-2h after the first. Data from each male from first and second ejaculates from 1 day of semen collection throughout the trial were averaged (n=324) and partial correlation coefficients and regression equations were estimated to describe the relationship of male body weight to ejaculation reaction time and 12 semen and sperm characteristics. As body weight increased there was a linear (P<0.05) increase in reaction time, abnormal sperm with an intact membrane and abnormal sperm with a damaged membrane and a linear (P<0.05) decrease in semen volume, sperm concentration per ejaculate, normal sperm with an intact membrane, number of normal motile sperm with an intact membrane and suitable semen doses for AI. Body weight of the mature male rabbit at semen collection had some influence on libido, semen and sperm characteristics, with a general trend toward a lesser reproduction potential as body weight increases. PMID:25482591

Rodríguez-De Lara, R; Fallas-López, M; García-Muñiz, J G; Martínez-Hernández, P A; Rangel-Santos, R; Maldonado-Siman, E; Cadena-Meneses, J A

2015-01-01

376

Body image and weight consciousness among South Asian, Italian and general population women in Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Italians in Britain have low rates of coronary heart disease while South Asians have high rates, which correspond to a tendency to central abdominal fat deposition and overweight. World variations in attitudes to body size are thought to be related to economic security. This cross-sectional study employed a range of measures including photographic silhouettes of known BMI to investigate the

H. M. Bush; R. G. A. Williams; M. E. J. Lean; A. S. Anderson

2001-01-01

377

Role of body condition score and body weight in the control of seasonal reproduction in Blanca Andaluza goats.  

PubMed

The reproductive activity of 84 female Blanca Andaluza goats was monitored over 17 months to determine the role of body condition score (BCS) and body weight (BW) in its control. Following a 3×2 factorial experimental design, the animals were allocated to three groups: low BCS (?2.50, n=24), medium BCS (BCS=2.75-3.00, n=31) and high BCS (?3.25, n=29). The same animals, irrespective of the BCS group categorization, were also divided into two groups depending on BW: low BW (?40kg, n=44) and high BW (>40kg, n=40). Oestrus was evaluated daily using vasectomised males. The ovulation rate was assessed by trans-rectal ultrasonography after the identification of oestrus. Ovulations were determined by monitoring the plasma progesterone concentration weekly. The BCS and BW were recorded once a week and nutritional status adjusted to maintain the initial differences in BW and BCS between the groups. Both BCS and BW had a significant (at least P<0.05) influence on the onset, the end, and the duration of the breeding season, with longer periods of reproductive activity recorded in does with a BCS of ?2.75 and BW of >40kg. No significant interaction between these variables was observed. Some (11.7%) of the does in the groups with animals of BCS?2.75 had ovulations during seasonal anoestrus. None of the does with a BCS of ?2.5 had ovulations during seasonal anoestrus. The ovulation rate of the first and last oestrus was influenced by BW (P<0.01). These results demonstrate that Blanca Andaluza goats show marked reproductive seasonality that is clearly and independently modulated by BCS and BW. PMID:25459077

Gallego-Calvo, L; Gatica, M C; Guzmán, J L; Zarazaga, L A

2014-12-30

378

Weighing the Evidence: Likability and Trait Attributions of a Peer as a Function of Behavioral Characteristics, Body Weight, and Sex.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used vignettes to investigate children's integration of information on behavior, body weight, and sex when forming peer impressions. Found that positively behaving peers were liked more and attributed more positive traits than negatively behaving peers. Also found that boys, but not girls, believed that peers would evaluate average weight,…

Cohen, Robert; And Others

1997-01-01

379

The Influence of Body Weight on Chosen Physiological Parameters in Wrestling  

PubMed Central

In this study, the authors attempted to determine whether the dynamics of blood lactate and glucose in wrestling depend on the weight class. Blood lactate and glucose curves during and after a wrestling match were determined. We also explained the dynamics of blood lactate and glucose in the context of recent glucose and lactate metabolism research. A sample of 60 youth wrestlers (15–20 years) were divided into three weight groups. Each athlete participated in one wrestling match. During the fight, the athletes’ heart rate, glucose, and blood lactate were measured. The differences in body mass between the athletes did not affect the dynamics of lactate and glucose in wrestling competition (Fisher LSD test). We established that lactate and glucose dynamics are the same for all weight groups (Fisher LSD-Lactate 1 < 2 < 3 = 4 > 5, Fisher LSD-Glucose 1 = 2 < 3 < 4 < 5). Understanding lactate and glucose metabolism in wrestling is important for wrestling coaches because they need to evaluate a wrestler’s anaerobic energy status. PMID:24146712

Karnin?i?, Hrvoje; Krstulovi?, Saša; Bai?, Mario

380

Catechin- and caffeine-rich teas for control of body weight in humans.  

PubMed

Maintaining the level of daily energy expenditure during weight loss and weight maintenance is as important as maintaining satiety while decreasing energy intake. In this context, different catechin- and caffeine-rich teas (CCRTs), such as green, oolong, and white teas, as well as caffeine have been proposed as tools for maintaining or enhancing energy expenditure and for increasing fat oxidation. Tea polyphenols have been proposed to counteract the decrease in metabolic rate that is usually present during weight loss. Their effects may be of particular importance during weight maintenance after weight loss. Although the thermogenic effect of CCRT has the potential to produce significant effects on these metabolic targets as well as on fat absorption and energy intake, possibly via its impact on the gut microbiota and gene expression, a clinically meaningful outcome also depends on compliance by the subjects. Limitations to this approach require further examination, including moderating factors such as genetic predisposition, habitual caffeine intake, and catechin composition and dose. Nevertheless, CCRTs may be useful agents that could help in preventing a positive energy balance and obesity. PMID:24172301

Hursel, Rick; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

2013-12-01

381

Healthy Eating Index-C is compromised among adolescents with body weight concerns, weight loss dieting, and meal skipping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective was to describe weight concerns, dieting, and meal skipping of adolescents and to determine associations with the Healthy Eating Index-C (HEI-C). Data, that were collected using the Food Behaviour Questionnaire, revealed that participants (male=810, female=1016) in grades 9\\/10 reported weight concerns (n=518), dieting (n=364), and skipping breakfast (n=498), lunch (n=252), and\\/or dinner (n=129). Of those dieting or weight

Sarah J. Woodruff; Rhona M. Hanning; Irene Lambraki; Kate E. Storey; Linda McCargar

2008-01-01

382

Body weight changes in child and adolescent athletes during a triathlon competition.  

PubMed

We examined young athletes during a triathlon performed in a hot climate. Complete or partial data were available for 95 athletes competing in the National Triathlon Championship in Costa Rica. Mean ± SD for age and body weight (BW) were 13.1 ± 2.5 years and 46.3 ± 11.5 kg, respectively. Race requirements included: 500 m swimming, 15 km cycling, 3.5 km running for juniors (9-13 years); 800 m swimming, 30 km cycling, 8 km running for seniors (14-17 years). WBGT on race day was >31 °C. BW recorded pre- and post-race was available for 92 athletes and performance data were available for 83 of these. Information regarding symptoms experienced during the race was available for 95 athletes. Change in BW (%?BW) was calculated and ranged from +0.6 to -2.4 % for junior boys (-1.2 ± 0.9 %), +0.7 to -2.5 % for junior girls (-1.3 ± 0.9 %), 0 to -2.8 % for senior girls (-1.3 ± 0.9 %), and +0.6 to -4.5 % for senior boys (-1.7 ± 1.1 %). Eighteen participants reported no medical symptoms. Of 77 participants who reported symptoms, 42.9 % reported exhaustion/fatigue, 36.4 % reported side stitch/cramp, and 23.4 % reported dizziness. Participants reporting no medical symptoms achieved almost identical (P = 0.99) %?BW as those reporting at least one symptom. %?BW was more negative (P = 0.005) in participants who reported dizziness (-1.9 %?BW) compared with those who did not (-1.4 %?BW). %?BW was associated with performance in junior girls (r = 0.47, P = 0.02) and senior boys (r = 0.51, P = 0.01), with a trend in junior boys (r = 0.41, P = 0.053) but not in senior girls (r = 0.004, P = 0.99). Young athletes participating in a triathlon in a hot climate can tolerate mild to moderate levels of dehydration, without detrimental effects to self-assessed health. PMID:22673864

Aragón-Vargas, Luis Fernando; Wilk, Boguslaw; Timmons, Brian W; Bar-Or, Oded

2013-01-01

383

Intracerebroventricular Metformin Decreases Body Weight But Has Pro-oxidant Effects and Decreases Survival.  

PubMed

Metformin (Met), which is an insulin-sensitizer, decreases insulin resistance and fasting insulin levels. The precise molecular target of Met is unknown; however, several reports have shown an inhibitory effect on mitochondrial complex I of the electron transport chain (ETC), which is a related site for reactive oxygen species production. In addition to peripheral effects, Met is capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier, thus regulating the central mechanism involved in appetite control. The present study explores the effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of Met on ROS production on brain, insulin sensitivity and metabolic and oxidative stress outcomes in CF1 mice. Metformin (Met 50 and 100 µg) was injected i.c.v. in mice daily for 7 days; the brain mitochondrial H2O2 production, food intake, body weight and fat pads were evaluated. The basal production of H2O2 of isolated mitochondria from the hippocampus and hypothalamus was significantly increased by Met (100 µg). There was increased peripheral sensitivity to insulin (Met 100 µg) and glucose tolerance tests (Met 50 and 100 µg). Moreover, Met decreased food intake, body weight, body temperature, fat pads and survival rates. Additionally, Met (1, 4 or 10 mM) decreased mitochondrial viability and increased the production of H2O2 in neuronal cell cultures. In summary, our data indicate that a high dose of Met injected directly into the brain has remarkable neurotoxic effects, as evidenced by hypothermia, hypoglycemia, disrupted mitochondrial ETC flux and decreased survival rate. PMID:25492133

Portela, Luis Valmor; Gnoatto, Jussania; Wigner Brochier, Andressa; Haas, Clarissa Branco; de Assis, Adriano Martimbianco; de Carvalho, Afonso Kopczynski; Hansel, Gisele; Rigon Zimmer, Eduardo; Oses, Jean Pierre; Muller, Alexandre Pastoris

2014-12-10

384

Self-reported pre-pregnancy weight versus weight measured at first prenatal visit: effects on categorization of pre-pregnancy body mass index.  

PubMed

To compare classification of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) using self-reported pre-pregnancy weight versus weight measured at the first prenatal visit. Retrospective cohort of 307 women receiving prenatal care at the faculty and resident obstetric clinics at a Massachusetts tertiary-care center. Eligible women initiated prenatal care prior to 14 weeks gestation and delivered singleton infants between April 2007 and March 2008. On average, self-reported weight was 4 pounds lighter than measured weight at the first prenatal visit (SD 7.2 pounds; range: 19 pounds lighter to 35 pounds heavier). Using self-reported pre-pregnancy weight to calculate pre-pregnancy BMI, 4.2 % of women were underweight, 48.9 % were normal weight, 25.4 % were overweight, and 21.5 % were obese. Using weight measured at first prenatal visit, these were 3.6, 45.3, 26.4, and 24.8 %, respectively. Classification of pre-pregnancy BMI was concordant for 87 % of women (weighted kappa = 0.86; 95 % CI 0.81-0.90). Women gained an average of 32.1 pounds (SD 18.0 pounds) during pregnancy. Of the 13 % of the sample with discrepant BMI classification, 74 % gained within the same adherence category when comparing weight gain to Institute of Medicine recommendations. For the vast majority of women, self-reported pre-pregnancy weight and measured weight at first prenatal visit resulted in identical classification of pre-pregnancy BMI. In absence of measured pre-pregnancy weight, we recommend that providers calculate both values and discuss discrepancies with their pregnant patients, as significant weight loss or gain during the first trimester may indicate a need for additional oversight with potential intervention. PMID:23247668

Holland, Erica; Moore Simas, Tiffany A; Doyle Curiale, Darrah K; Liao, Xun; Waring, Molly E

2013-12-01

385

Effects of genetic strain on stress-induced weight and body fat loss in rats: Application to air pollution research  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure to some air pollutants is suspected of contributing to obesity. Hazelton chambers are commonly used in air pollution studies but we found unexpected reductions in body weight and body fat of rats housed in Hazelton chambers under control conditions. We suspect that stres...

386

Lorcaserin, A 5-HT2C Receptor Agonist, Reduces Body Weight by Decreasing Energy Intake without Influencing Energy Expenditure  

PubMed Central

Context: Lorcaserin, a selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2C receptor agonist, reduces body weight. It is unclear whether weight loss is due to reduced energy intake (EI) or also to enhanced energy expenditure (EE). Objective: This study tested the effect of lorcaserin on EI and EE. Design, Participants, and Intervention: In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 57 (39 women) overweight and obese (body mass index, 27–45 kg/m2) adults were randomized to placebo (n = 28) or 10 mg twice daily lorcaserin (n = 29) for 56 d. Weight maintenance was imposed during d 1–7. Beginning on d 8, participants followed a diet and exercise plan targeting a 600 kcal/d deficit. Outcomes: At baseline and after 7 and 56 d of treatment, we measured body weight, body composition (dual x-ray absorptiometry), blood pressure, heart rate, EI at lunch and dinner, subjective appetite ratings, and 24-h EE and 24-h-respiratory quotient (RQ), measured by indirect calorimetry in a respiratory chamber. Results: After 7 d of weight maintenance, EI was significantly (P < 0.01) reduced with lorcaserin but not placebo (mean ± sem for lorcaserin, ?286 ± 86 kcal; placebo, ?147 ± 89 kcal). After 56 d, lorcaserin resulted in significantly larger reductions in body weight (lorcaserin, ?3.8 ± 0.4 kg; placebo, ?2.2 ± 0.5 kg; P < 0.01), EI (lorcaserin, ?470 ± 87 kcal; placebo, ?205 ± 91 kcal; P < .05), and appetite ratings than in placebo. Changes in 24-h EE and 24-h RQ did not differ between groups, even after 24-h EE was adjusted for body weight and composition. Compared with placebo, lorcaserin had no effect on systolic or diastolic blood pressure or heart rate after 56 d. Conclusions: Lorcaserin reduces body weight through reduced EI, not altered EE or RQ. PMID:21190985

Martin, Corby K.; Redman, Leanne M.; Zhang, Jinkun; Sanchez, Matilde; Anderson, Christen M.; Smith, Steven R.

2011-01-01

387

Improved Glucose Control and Reduced Body Weight in Rodents with Dual Mechanism of Action Peptide Hybrids  

PubMed Central

Combination therapy is being increasingly used as a treatment paradigm for metabolic diseases such as diabetes and obesity. In the peptide therapeutics realm, recent work has highlighted the therapeutic potential of chimeric peptides that act on two distinct receptors, thereby harnessing parallel complementary mechanisms to induce additive or synergistic benefit compared to monotherapy. Here, we extend this hypothesis by linking a known anti-diabetic peptide with an anti-obesity peptide into a novel peptide hybrid, which we termed a phybrid. We report on the synthesis and biological activity of two such phybrids (AC164204 and AC164209), comprised of a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP1-R) agonist, and exenatide analog, AC3082, covalently linked to a second generation amylin analog, davalintide. Both molecules acted as full agonists at their cognate receptors in vitro, albeit with reduced potency at the calcitonin receptor indicating slightly perturbed amylin agonism. In obese diabetic Lepob/Lepob mice sustained infusion of AC164204 and AC164209 reduced glucose and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) equivalently but induced greater weight loss relative to exenatide administration alone. Weight loss was similar to that induced by combined administration of exenatide and davalintide. In diet-induced obese rats, both phybrids dose-dependently reduced food intake and body weight to a greater extent than exenatide or davalintide alone, and equal to co-infusion of exenatide and davalintide. Phybrid-mediated and exenatide + davalintide-mediated weight loss was associated with reduced adiposity and preservation of lean mass. These data are the first to provide in vivo proof-of-concept for multi-pathway targeting in metabolic disease via a peptide hybrid, demonstrating that this approach is as effective as co-administration of individual peptides. PMID:24167604

Trevaskis, James L.; Mack, Christine M.; Sun, Chengzao; Soares, Christopher J.; D’Souza, Lawrence J.; Levy, Odile E.; Lewis, Diane Y.; Jodka, Carolyn M.; Tatarkiewicz, Krystyna; Gedulin, Bronislava; Gupta, Swati; Wittmer, Carrie; Hanley, Michael; Forood, Bruce; Parkes, David G.; Ghosh, Soumitra S.

2013-01-01

388

The effects of four arthropod diets on the body and organ weights of the leopard frog, Rana pipiens, during vitellogenesis.  

PubMed

Wild-caught adult Rana pipiens females were captured in midsummer and fed diets of crickets, flies sowbugs or wax moth larvae during a three-month period of active vitellogenesis. The cricket diet supported the most extensive body weight gain during this time and promoted a prolonged period of weight increase in an additional long-term study. Synchronous growth of the oocytes occurred in all four groups, but the ovaries and oviducts of cricket-fed animals were significantly larger than those of frogs on the other three diets. The significantly higher liver weights of frogs fed wax moth larvae may have reflected an augmentation of hepatic energy stores. Fat body weights were also highest in this group of animals. Frogs fed crickets and wax moth larvae possessed larger fat bodies than did the midsummer control animals killed immediately after their arrival in the laboratory. In contrast, frogs fed flies and sowbugs had smaller fat bodies than did the initial controls, suggesting that animals on these diets had utilized fat body lipid during vitellogenesis. Gastrocnemius and final body weights were lowest in frogs fed wax moth larvae. These findings may have reflected the nutritional content of the diet or the reduction in appetite frequently noted in these animals during observations of feeding behavior. PMID:312231

Lehman, G C

1978-12-01

389

Prolificacy and Its Relationship with Age, Body Weight, Parity, Previous Litter Size and Body Linear Type Traits in Meat-type Goats  

PubMed Central

Data on age and body weight at breeding, parity, previous litter size, days open and some descriptive body linear traits from 389 meat-type, prolific Black Bengal goats in Tripura State of India, were collected for 3 and 1/2 years (2007 to 2010) and analyzed using logistic regression model. The objectives of the study were i) to evaluate the effect of age and body weight at breeding, parity, previous litter size and days open on litter size of does; and ii) to investigate if body linear type traits influenced litter size in meat-type, prolific goats. The incidence of 68.39% multiple births with a prolificacy rate of 175.07% was recorded. Higher age (>2.69 year), higher parity order (>2.31), more body weight at breeding (>20.5 kg) and larger previous litter size (>1.65) showed an increase likelihood of multiple litter size when compared to single litter size. There was a strong, positive relationship between litter size and various body linear type traits like neck length (>22.78 cm), body length (>54.86 cm), withers height (>48.85 cm), croup height (>50.67 cm), distance between tuber coxae bones (>11.38 cm) and distance between tuber ischii bones (>4.56 cm) for discriminating the goats bearing multiple fetuses from those bearing a single fetus. PMID:25049997

Haldar, Avijit; Pal, Prasenjit; Datta, M.; Paul, Rajesh; Pal, Saumen K.; Majumdar, Debasis; Biswas, Chanchal K.; Pan, Subhransu

2014-01-01

390

Maternal low-dose estradiol-17? exposure during pregnancy impairs postnatal progeny weight development and body composition  

SciTech Connect

Endocrine disrupting chemicals with estrogenic activity play an important role as obesogens. However, studies investigating the most potent natural estrogen, estradiol-17? (E2), at low dose are lacking. We examined endocrine and physiological parameters in gilts receiving distinct concentrations of E2 during pregnancy. We then investigated whether adverse effects prevail in progeny due to a potential endocrine disruption. E2 was orally applied to gilts during the entire period of pregnancy. The concentrations represented a daily consumption at the recommended ADI level (0.05 ?g/kg body weight/day), at the NOEL (10 ?g/kg body weight/day) and at a high dosage (1000 ?g/kg body weight/day). Plasma hormone concentrations were determined using enzyme immuno assays. Offspring body fat was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning. In treated gilts receiving 1000 ?g E2/kg body weight/day we found significantly elevated plasma E2 levels during pregnancy, paralleled by an increased weight gain. While offspring showed similar weight at birth, piglets exhibited a significant reduction in weight at weaning even though their mothers had only received 0.05 ?g E2/kg body weight/day. At 8 weeks of age, specifically males showed a significant increase in overall body fat percentage. In conclusion, prenatal exposure to low doses of E2 affected pig offspring development in terms of body weight and composition. In line with findings from other obesogens, our data suggest a programming effect during pregnancy for E2 causative for the depicted phenotypes. Therefore, E2 exposure may imply a possible contribution to childhood obesity. -- Highlights: ? We investigate the potential role of estradiol-17? (E2) as an obesogen. ? We orally apply E2 at the ADI, NOEL and a high dose to gilts during pregnancy. ? Offspring weight is similar at birth but reduced at weaning even after ADI treatment. ? Male offspring only exhibit an increase in overall body fat percentage prepubertally. ? E2 appears as an endocrine disruptor that might contribute to childhood obesity.

Werner Fürst, Rainer [Physiology Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany) [Physiology Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); ZIEL PhD Graduate school ‘Epigenetics, Imprinting and Nutrition’, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Pistek, Veronika Leopoldine; Kliem, Heike [Physiology Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany)] [Physiology Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Skurk, Thomas; Hauner, Hans [ZIEL Dep. Nutritional Medicine, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany) [ZIEL Dep. Nutritional Medicine, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, 81675 München (Germany); Meyer, Heinrich Herman Dietrich [Physiology Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany)] [Physiology Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Ulbrich, Susanne Ernestine, E-mail: ulbrich@wzw.tum.de [Physiology Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany)

2012-09-15

391

Prenatal exposure of a novel antipsychotic aripiprazole: impact on maternal, fetal and postnatal body weight modulation in rats.  

PubMed

Nearly all atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPDs) of second- generation are associated with body weight gain in adults with prolonged exposure; but reports on third-generation AAPDs like Aripiprazole (ARI) and weight gain are scanty and ambiguous. This may be attributed to some unknown mechanism of action, the study of which is essential to investigate gestational exposure of equivalent therapeutic doses of ARI on maternal and fetal weight gain and its longlasting impact on postnatal development and growth of offspring in rodent model. 30 pregnant Wistar rats were exposed to selected doses (2mg, 3mg and 5mg/kg BW) of ARI from GD3-21 orally, with control subjects. Half of the pregnant subjects of each group were sacrificed at GD22 and rest dams were allowed to deliver normally and pups were reared postnatally up to 10 weeks of age. In ARI treated groups, there was no substantial alteration of body weight gain and food intake in pregnant subjects while significant reduction was found in fetal and postnatal (pre-and post weaning) body weight gain. ARI was found neutral for substantial weight gain in pregnant rats but may induce significant weight loss in fetuses, creating long-lasting negative impact on offspring growth (in weight) till PND70. Therefore, ARI could be a good alternative of second- generation AAPDs for adult females but may not be safe for developing fetuses and offspring. PMID:24138551

Singh, K P; Tripathi, Nidhi

2014-03-01

392

A missing link in body weight homeostasis: the catabolic signal of the overfed state.  

PubMed

Mammals regulate fat mass so that increases or reductions in adipose tissue mass activate responses that favor return to one's previous weight. A reduction in fat mass activates a system that increases food intake and reduces energy expenditure; conversely, overfeeding and rapid adipose tissue expansion reduces food intake and increases energy expenditure. With the identification of leptin nearly two decades ago, the central circuit that defends against reductions in body fat was revealed. However, the systems that defend against rapid expansion of fat mass remain largely unknown. Here we review the physiology of the overfed state and evidence for a distinct regulatory system, which unlike the leptin-mediated system, we propose primarily measures a functional aspect of adipose tissue and not total mass per se. PMID:25295786

Ravussin, Yann; Leibel, Rudolph L; Ferrante, Anthony W

2014-10-01

393

Public and health professionals’ misconceptions about the dynamics of body weight gain/loss  

PubMed Central

Human body energy storage operates as a stock-and-flow system with inflow (food intake) and outflow (energy expenditure). In spite of the ubiquity of stock-and-flow structures, evidence suggests that human beings fail to understand stock accumulation and rates of change, a difficulty called the stock–flow failure. This study examines the influence of health care training and cultural background in overcoming stock–flow failure. A standardized protocol assessed lay people’s and health care professionals’ ability to apply stock-and-flow reasoning to infer the dynamics of weight gain/loss during the holiday season (621 subjects from seven countries). Our results indicate that both types of subjects exhibited systematic errors indicative of use of erroneous heuristics. Stock–flow failure was found across cultures and was not improved by professional health training. The problem of stock–flow failure as a transcultural global issue with education and policy implications is discussed.

Abdel-Hamid, Tarek; Ankel, Felix; Battle-Fisher, Michele; Gibson, Bryan; Gonzalez-Parra, Gilberto; Jalali, Mohammad; Kaipainen, Kirsikka; Kalupahana, Nishan; Karanfil, Ozge; Marathe, Achla; Martinson, Brian; McKelvey, Karma; Sarbadhikari, Suptendra Nath; Pintauro, Stephen; Poucheret, Patrick; Pronk, Nicolaas; Qian, Ying; Sazonov, Edward; Van Oorschot, Kim; Venkitasubramanian, Akshay; Murphy, Philip

2014-01-01

394

Neuropeptide exocytosis involving synaptotagmin-4 and oxytocin in hypothalamic programming of body weight and energy balance.  

PubMed

Hypothalamic neuropeptides play essential roles in regulating energy and body weight balance. Energy imbalance and obesity have been linked to hypothalamic signaling defects in regulating neuropeptide genes; however, it is unknown whether dysregulation of neuropeptide exocytosis could be critically involved. This study discovered that synaptotagmin-4, an atypical modulator of synaptic exocytosis, is expressed most abundantly in oxytocin neurons of the hypothalamus. Synaptotagmin-4 negatively regulates oxytocin exocytosis, and dietary obesity is associated with increased vesicle binding of synaptotagmin-4 and thus enhanced negative regulation of oxytocin release. Overexpressing synaptotagmin-4 in hypothalamic oxytocin neurons and centrally antagonizing oxytocin in mice are similarly obesogenic. Synaptotagmin-4 inhibition prevents against dietary obesity by normalizing oxytocin release and energy balance under chronic nutritional excess. In conclusion, the negative regulation of synaptotagmin-4 on oxytocin release represents a hypothalamic basis of neuropeptide exocytosis in controlling obesity and related diseases. PMID:21315262

Zhang, Guo; Bai, Hua; Zhang, Hai; Dean, Camin; Wu, Qiang; Li, Juxue; Guariglia, Sara; Meng, Qingyuan; Cai, Dongsheng

2011-02-10

395

Fottea 9(1): 9399, 2009 93 Silica-scaled chrysophytes of Southern Bohemian water bodies, including  

E-print Network

Novohradské Hory was founded in 2000. Investigated water bodies (so called "klauza", from Latin clausura) wereFottea 9(1): 93­99, 2009 93 Silica-scaled chrysophytes of Southern Bohemian water bodies, including, Mallomonas conspersa, M. retifera and M. kalinae were found. This study also represent only the third time

396

Influence of Intensive Diabetes Treatment on Body Weight and Composition of Adults With Type 1 Diabetes in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To examine the differential effects of intensive and conventional diabetes therapy on weight gain and body composition in adults with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Between 1982 and 1989, 1,246 adults (aged 18–39 years) in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial were randomly assigned to either conventional therapy (1–2 injections of insulin per day) or intensive therapy (multiple daily injections or continuous subcutaneous infusion with frequent blood-glucose testing). Height and weight were measured at baseline and at annual visits for an average of 6 years (range 3–9). Body composition was assessed cross-sectionally with bioelectrical impedance analysis during 1992, at which time waist and hip circumferences were measured. RESULTS Intensively treated patients gained an average of 4.75 kg more than their conventionally treated counterparts (P < 0.0001). This represented excess increases in BMI of 1.5 kg/m2 among men and 1.8 kg/m2 among women. Growth-curve analysis showed that weight gain was most rapid during the first year of therapy. Intensive therapy patients were also more likely to become overweight (BMI ? 27.8 kg/m2 for men, ?27.3 kg/m2 for women) or experience major weight gain (BMI increased ?5 kg/m2). Waist-to-hip ratios, however, did not differ between treatment groups. Major weight gain was associated with higher percentages of body fat and greater fat-free mass, but among patients without major weight gain, those receiving intensive therapy had greater fat-free mass with no difference in adiposity. CONCLUSIONS Intensive therapy for type 1 diabetes produces substantial excess weight gain compared with conventional therapy. However, the additional weight appears to include lean tissue as well as fat. PMID:11574431

2009-01-01

397

Measurements of the Influence of Acceleration and Temperature of Bodies on their Weight  

SciTech Connect

A brief review of experimental research of the influence of acceleration and temperatures of test mass upon gravitation force, executed between the 1990s and the beginning of 2000 at the St.-Petersburg State University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics in cooperation with D. I. Mendeleev's Institute of Metrology is provided. According to a phenomenological notion, the acceleration of a test mass caused by external action, for example electromagnetic forces, results in changes of the gravitational properties of this mass. Consequences are a dependence upon gravity on the size and sign of test mass acceleration, and also on its absolute temperature. Results of weighing a rotor of a mechanical gyroscope with a horizontal axis, an anisotropic crystal with the big difference of the speed of longitudinal acoustic waves, measurements of temperature dependence of weight of metal bars of nonmagnetic materials, and also measurement of restitution coefficients at quasi-elastic impact of a steel ball about a massive plate are given. In particular, a reduction of apparent mass of a horizontal rotor with relative size 3.10{sup -6} at a speed of rotation of 18.6 thousand rev/min was observed. A negative temperature dependence of the weight of a brass core with relative size near 5.10{sup -4} K{sup -1} at room temperature was measured; this temperature factor was found to be a maximum for light and elastic metals. All observably experimental effects, have probably a general physical reason connected with the weight change dependent upon acceleration of a body or at thermal movement of its microparticles. The reduction of mass at high temperatures is of particular interest for propulsion applications.

Dmitriev, Alexander L. [St-Petersburg State University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics 49, Kronverksky Prospect, St. Petersburg, 97101 (Russian Federation)

2008-01-21

398

Genetic loci affecting body weight and fatness in a C57BL/6J × PWK/PhJ mouse intercross  

PubMed Central

To determine the genetic variation that contributes to body composition in the mouse, we interbred a wild-derived strain (PWK/PhJ; PWK) with a common laboratory strain (C57BL/6J; B6). The parental, F1, and F2 mice were phenotyped at 18 weeks old for body weight and composition using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). A total of 479 (244 male and 235 female) F2 mice were genotyped for 117 polymorphic markers spanning the autosomes. Twenty-eight suggestive or significant linkages for four traits (body weight, adjusted lean and fat weight, and percent fat) were detected. Of these, three QTLs were novel: one on the proximal portion of Chr 5 for body weight (Bwq8; LOD = 4.7), one on Chr 3 for lean weight (Bwtq13; LOD = 3.6), and one on Chr 11 for percent fat (Adip19; LOD = 5.8). The remaining QTLs overlapped previously identified linkages, e.g., Adip5 on Chr 9. One QTL was sex-specific (present in males only) and seven were sex-biased (more prominent in one sex than the other). Most alleles that increased body weight were contributed by the B6 strain, and most alleles that increased percent fat were contributed by the PWK strain. Eight pairs of interacting loci were identified, none of which exactly overlapped the main-effect QTLs. Many of the QTLs found in the B6 × PWK cross map to the location of previously reported linkages, suggesting that some QTLs are common to many strains (consensus QTLs), but three new QTLs appear to be particular to the PWK strain. The location and type of QTLs detected in this new cross will assist in future efforts to identify the genetic variation that determines the ratio of lean to fat weight as well as body size in mice. PMID:18008102

Shao, Hongguang; Reed, Danielle R.

2007-01-01

399

Blended-Wing-Body (BWB) Fuselage Structural Design for Weight Reduction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Structural analysis and design of efficient pressurized fuselage configurations for the advanced Blended-Wing-Body (BWB) flight vehicle is a challenging problem. Unlike a conventional cylindrical pressurized fuselage, stress level in a box type BWB fuselage is an order of magnitude higher, because internal pressure primarily results in bending stress instead of skin-membrane stress. In addition, resulting deformation of aerodynamic surface could significantly affect performance advantages provided by lifting body. The pressurized composite conformal multi-lobe tanks of X-33 type space vehicle also suffered from similar problem. In the earlier BWB design studies, Vaulted Ribbed Shell (VLRS), Flat Ribbed Shell (FRS); Vaulted shell Honeycomb Core (VLHC) and Flat sandwich shell Honeycomb Core (FLHC) concepts were studied. The flat and vaulted ribbed shell concepts were found most efficient. In a recent study, a set of composite sandwich panel and cross-ribbed panel were analyzed. Optimal values of rib and skin thickness, rib spacing, and panel depth were obtained for minimal weight under stress and buckling constraints. In addition, a set of efficient multi-bubble fuselage (MBF) configuration concept was developed. The special geometric configuration of this concept allows for balancing internal cabin pressure load efficiently, through membrane stress in inner-stiffened shell and inter-cabin walls, while the outer-ribbed shell prevents buckling due to external resultant compressive loads. The initial results from these approximate finite element analyses indicate progressively lower maximum stresses and deflections compared to the earlier study. However, a relative comparison of the FEM weight per unit floor area of the segment unit indicates that the unit weights are still relatively higher that the conventional B777 type cylindrical or A380 type elliptic fuselage design. Due to the manufacturing concern associated with multi-bubble fuselage, a Y braced box-type fuselage alternative with special resin-film injected (RFI) stitched carbon composite with foam-core was designed by Boeing under a NASA research contract for the 480 passenger version. It is shown that this configuration can be improved to a modified multi-bubble fuselage which has better stress distribution, for same material and dimension.

Mukhopadhyay, V.

2005-01-01

400

Weight and Lean Body Mass Change with Antiretroviral Initiation and Impact on Bone Mineral Density: AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study A5224s  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the effect initiating different antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens have on weight, body mass index (BMI), and lean body mass (LBM) and explore how changes in body composition are associated with bone mineral density (BMD). Methods A5224s was a substudy of A5202, a prospective trial of 1857 ART-naïve participants randomized to blinded abacavir-lamivudine (ABC/3TC) or tenofovir DF-emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) with open-label efavirenz (EFV) or atazanavir-ritonavir (ATV/r). All subjects underwent dual-energy absorptiometry (DXA) and abdominal CT for body composition. Analyses used 2-sample t-tests and linear regression. Results A5224s included 269 subjects: 85% male, 47% white non-Hispanic, median age 38 years, HIV-1 RNA 4.6 log10 copies/mL, and CD4 233 cells/µL. Overall, significant gains occurred in weight, BMI, and LBM at 96 weeks post randomization (all p<0.001). Assignment to ATV/r (vs EFV) resulted in significantly greater weight (mean difference 3.35 kg) and BMI gain (0.88 kg/m2; both p=0.02), but not LBM (0.67 kg; p=0.15), while ABC/3TC and TDF/FTC were not significantly different (p?0.10). In multivariable analysis, only lower baseline CD4 count and higher HIV-1 RNA were associated with greater increase in weight, BMI, or LBM. In multivariable analyses, increased LBM was associated with an increased hip BMD. Conclusions ABC/3TC vs. TDF/FTC did not differ in change in weight, BMI, or LBM; ATV/r vs. EFV resulted in greater weight and BMI gain but not LBM. A positive association between increased LBM and increased hip BMD should be further investigated through prospective interventional studies to verify the impact of increased LBM on hip BMD. PMID:24384588

Erlandson, Kristine Mace; Kitch, Douglas; Tierney, Camlin; Sax, Paul E.; Daar, Eric S.; Tebas, Pablo; Melbourne, Kathleen; Ha, Belinda; Jahed, Nasreen C.; Mccomsey, Grace A.

2014-01-01

401

No effect of a diet with a reduced glycaemic index on satiety, energy intake and body weight in overweight and obese women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To investigate whether a diet with a reduced glycaemic index (GI) has effects on appetite, energy intake, body weight and composition in overweight and obese female subjects.Design:Randomized crossover intervention study including two consecutive 12-week periods. Lower or higher GI versions of key carbohydrate-rich foods (breads, breakfast cereals, rice and pasta\\/potatoes) were provided to subjects to be incorporated into habitual diets

L M Aston; C S Stokes; S A Jebb

2008-01-01

402

The Relationship between Body Weight and Perceived Weight-Related Employment Discrimination: The Role of Sex and Race  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study provides unique empirical evidence regarding a growing concern internationally: weight discrimination in the workplace. Using survey data from a national sample of 2838 American adults, it responds to Puhl and Brownell's [Puhl, R., & Brownell, K. D. (2001). Bias, discrimination, and obesity. "Obesity Research, 9", 788-805] call for…

Roehling, Mark V.; Roehling, Patricia V.; Pichler, Shaun

2007-01-01

403

The Skinny on Body Weight Regulation: The Role of Retinoid Signaling in Photoperiod-Mediated Weight Loss  

E-print Network

, and respiratory disorders. Given these pro- nounced health problems in obese individuals and the grow- ing trend), a species that does not exhibit seasonal weight changes but does display seasonal pattern of repro- duction in Siberian hamsters are abolished by pinealectomy and are not affected by testosterone treatment, suggesting

Silver, Rae

404

Breakdown of the Equivalence between Energy Content and Weight in a Weak Gravitational Field for a Quantum Body  

E-print Network

It is shown that weight operator of a composite quantum body in a weak external gravitational field in the post-Newtonian approximation of the General Relativity does not commute with its energy operator, taken in the absence of the field. Nevertheless, the weak equivalence between the expectations values of weight and energy is shown to survive at a macroscopic level for stationary quantum states for the simplest composite quantum body - a hydrogen atom. Breakdown of the weak equivalence between weight and energy at a microscopic level for stationary quantum states can be experimentally detected by studying unusual electromagnetic radiation, emitted by the atoms, supported and moved in the Earth gravitational field with constant velocity, using spacecraft or satellite. For superpositions of stationary quantum states, a breakdown of the above mentioned equivalence at a macroscopic level leads to time dependent oscillations of the expectation values of weight, where the equivalence restores after averaging over time procedure.

Andrei Lebed

2012-05-14

405

Mechanism of oleoylethanolamide on fatty acid uptake in small intestine after food intake and body weight reduction.  

PubMed

The increase in the prevalence of human obesity highlights the need to identify molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in control of feeding and energy balance. Oleoylethanolamide (OEA), an endogenous lipid produced primarily in the small intestine, has been identified to play an important role in the regulation of animal food intake and body weight. Previous studies indicated that OEA activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha, which is required to mediate the effects of appetite suppression, reduces blood lipid levels, and enhances peripheral fatty acid catabolism. However, the effect of OEA on enterocyte function is unclear. In this study, we have examined the effect of OEA on intestinal fatty acid uptake and FAT/CD36 expression in vivo and in vitro. We intraperitoneally administered OEA to rats and examined FAT/CD36 mRNA level and fatty acid uptake in enterocytes isolated from the proximal small intestine, as well as in adipocytes. Our results indicate that OEA treatment significantly increased FAT/CD36 mRNA expression in intestinal mucosa and isolated jejunal enterocytes. In addition, we also found that OEA treatment significantly increases fatty acid uptake in isolated enterocytes in vitro. These results suggest that in addition to appetite regulation, OEA may regulate body weight by altered peripheral lipid metabolism, including increased lipolysis in adipocytes and enhanced fatty acid uptake in enterocytes, both in conjunction with increased expression of FAT/CD36. This study may have important implications in understanding the mechanism of OEA in the regulation of fatty acid absorption in human physiological and pathophysiological conditions. PMID:16902188

Yang, Yingkui; Chen, Min; Georgeson, Keith E; Harmon, Carroll M

2007-01-01

406

Computer programs for calculating pressure distributions including vortex effects on supersonic monoplane or cruciform wing-body-tail combinations with round or elliptical bodies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer programs are presented which are capable of calculating detailed aerodynamic loadings and pressure distributions acting on pitched and rolled supersonic missile configurations which utilize bodies of circular or elliptical cross sections. The applicable range of angle of attack is up to 20 deg, and the Mach number range is 1.3 to about 2.5. Effects of body and fin vortices are included in the methods, as well as arbitrary deflections of canard or fin panels.

Dillenius, M. F. E.; Nielsen, J. N.

1979-01-01

407

Genetic heterogeneity of within-family variance of body weight in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)  

PubMed Central

Background Canalization is defined as the stability of a genotype against minor variations in both environment and genetics. Genetic variation in degree of canalization causes heterogeneity of within-family variance. The aims of this study are twofold: (1) quantify genetic heterogeneity of (within-family) residual variance in Atlantic salmon and (2) test whether the observed heterogeneity of (within-family) residual variance can be explained by simple scaling effects. Results Analysis of body weight in Atlantic salmon using a double hierarchical generalized linear model (DHGLM) revealed substantial heterogeneity of within-family variance. The 95% prediction interval for within-family variance ranged from ~0.4 to 1.2 kg2, implying that the within-family variance of the most extreme high families is expected to be approximately three times larger than the extreme low families. For cross-sectional data, DHGLM with an animal mean sub-model resulted in severe bias, while a corresponding sire-dam model was appropriate. Heterogeneity of variance was not sensitive to Box-Cox transformations of phenotypes, which implies that heterogeneity of variance exists beyond what would be expected from simple scaling effects. Conclusions Substantial heterogeneity of within-family variance was found for body weight in Atlantic salmon. A tendency towards higher variance with higher means (scaling effects) was observed, but heterogeneity of within-family variance existed beyond what could be explained by simple scaling effects. For cross-sectional data, using the animal mean sub-model in the DHGLM resulted in biased estimates of variance components, which differed substantially both from a standard linear mean animal model and a sire-dam DHGLM model. Although genetic differences in canalization were observed, selection for increased canalization is difficult, because there is limited individual information for the variance sub-model, especially when based on cross-sectional data. Furthermore, potential macro-environmental changes (diet, climatic region, etc.) may make genetic heterogeneity of variance a less stable trait over time and space. PMID:24134557

2013-01-01

408

[Assessing various aspects of the motivation to eat that can affect food intake and body weight control].  

PubMed

Over the last 30 years, several questionnaires have been developed and validated in order to assess many aspects of the motivation to eat that might be susceptible to impair adequate food intake and body weight control. A few of such questionnaires are described here, in particular, the "Three Factor Eating Questionnaire" also called the "Eating Inventory", and the "Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire". Critical aspects of the motivation to eat assessed by these tools are presented, such as dietary restraint, disinhibition, hunger, vulnerability to eat in response to external cues or emotional states, etc. These questionnaires were developed for use in the general population with the aim to identify critical aspects of the motivation to eat that might predispose to weight gain. They have been widely used in many countries and have allowed an improved understanding of the individual characteristics that predispose to body weight gain or resistance to weight loss. Originally, poor body weight control was attributed to a high level of dietary "restraint", or in other words, the tendency to deliberately restrict one's food intake for body weight control purposes. Such dietary restraint was suspected to lead to a number of physical and psychological difficulties, among which poor self-esteem and a paradoxical tendency to gain weight, resulting from the incapacity to maintain strict restraint over time. More recent studies have established that a motivational trait called "Disinhibition" is a strong predictor of body weight gain over time and of poor outcome of dieting. "Disinhibition" corresponds to a tendency to lose control over one's eating behavior and ingest excessively large quantities of food substances, in response to a variety of cues and circumstances. In addition to its untoward effect on weight, disinhibition also predicts various risk factors and pathologies, such as hypertension and diabetes. Other potentially critical dimensions for adequate body weight control are "emotional eating" and "externality", which represent an individual's vulnerability to eat in response to emotional states or external cues, respectively. These questionnaires have been translated into French and validated for the French population. Average data are available for normal weight and obese French men and women. A gender difference is often reported: women, and even young girls, tend to have higher scores than males for most dimensions. These questionnaires have been extensively used in populations without psychiatric disorders, with the only exception of diagnosed eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa. The questionnaires have not been used until now in populations with other types of psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia or bipolar disease. Their relevance for such populations is now an important question, since last generation pharmaceutical treatments of such psychiatric disorders seem to adversely affect body weight control. It then becomes critical to know whether the psychological dimensions assessed by such questionnaires reflect the action of pharmacological agents that induce weight gain. A research project is now in progress at Sainte-Anne Hospital to investigate many dimensions of the motivation to eat, as assessed by the questionnaires, in psychiatric patients receiving various types of antipsychotic agents. The results of this original study might provide hints about the mechanisms that lead to body weight gain in patients receiving certain types of antipsychotic pharmacological agents and potentially help in preventing or reversing the weight gain associated with such treatments. PMID:19393389

Bellisle, F

2009-04-01

409

Aerodynamic characteristics, including effect of body shape, of a Mach 6 aircraft concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics for a hydrogen-fueled hypersonic transport concept at Mach 6 are presented. The model components consist of four bodies with identical longitudinal area distributions but different cross-sectional shapes and widths, a wing, horizontal and vertical tails, and a set of wing-mounted nacelles simulated by slid bodies on the wing upper surface. Lift-drag ratios were found to be only sightly affected by fuselage planform width or cross sectional shape. Relative distribution of fuselage volume above and below the wing was found to have an effect on the lift-drag ratio, with a higher lift drag ratio produced by the higher wing position.

Riebe, G. D.

1983-01-01

410

Effect of body weight on spinal loads in various activities: A personalized biomechanical modeling approach.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies are divided over the causative role of body weight (BW) in low back pain. Biomechanical modeling is a valuable a