Sample records for include body weight

  1. A model predicting fluindione dose requirement in elderly inpatients including genotypes, body weight, and amiodarone.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Caroline; Pautas, Eric; Duverlie, Charlotte; Berndt, Celia; Andro, Marion; Mahé, Isabelle; Emmerich, Joseph; Lacut, Karine; Le Gal, Grégoire; Peyron, Isabelle; Gouin-Thibault, Isabelle; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Loriot, Marie-Anne; Siguret, Virginie

    2014-04-01

    Indandione VKAs have been widely used for decades, especially in Eastern Europe and France. Contrary to coumarin VKAs, the relative contribution of individual factors to the indandione-VKA response is poorly known. In the present multicentre study, we sought to develop and validate a model including genetic and non-genetic factors to predict the daily fluindione dose requirement in elderly patients in whom VKA dosing is challenging. We prospectively recorded clinical and therapeutic data in 230 Caucasian inpatients mean aged 85 ± 6 years, who had reached international normalized ratio stabilisation (range 2.0-3.0) on fluindione. In the derivation cohort (n=156), we analysed 13 polymorphisms in seven genes potentially involved in the pharmacological effect or vitamin-K cycle (VKORC1, CYP4F2, EPHX1) and fluindione metabolism/transport (CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A5, ABCB1). We built a regression model incorporating non-genetic and genetic data and evaluated the model performances in a separate cohort (n=74).Body-weight, amiodarone intake, VKORC1, CYP4F2, ABCB1 genotypes were retained in the final model, accounting for 31.5% of dose variability. None influence of CYP2C9 was observed. Our final model showed good performances: in 83.3% of the validation cohort patients, the dose was accurately predicted within 5 mg, i.e.the usual step used for adjusting fluindione dosage. In conclusion, in addition to body-weight and amiodarone-intake, pharmacogenetic factors (VKORC1, CYP4F2, ABCB1) related to the pharmacodynamic effect and transport of fluindione significantly influenced the dose requirement in elderly patients while CYP2C9 did not. Studies are required to know whether fluindione could be an alternative VKA in carriers of polymorphic CYP2C9 alleles, hypersensitive to coumarins. PMID:24337438

  2. Prenatal Parental Separation and Body Weight, Including Development of Overweight and Obesity Later in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Hohwü, Lena; Zhu, Jin Liang; Graversen, Lise; Li, Jiong; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Obel, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Background Early parental separation may be a stress factor causing a long-term alteration in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis activity possibly impacting on the susceptibility to develop overweight and obesity in offspring. We aimed to examine the body mass index (BMI) and the risk of overweight and obesity in children whose parents lived separately before the child was born. Methods A follow-up study was conducted using data from the Aarhus Birth Cohort in Denmark and included 2876 children with measurements of height and weight at 9-11-years-of-age, and self-reported information on parental cohabitation status at child birth and at 9-11-years-of-age. Quantile regression was used to estimate the difference in median BMI between children whose parents lived separately (n = 124) or together (n = 2752) before the birth. We used multiple logistic regression to calculate odds ratio (OR) for overweight and obesity, adjusted for gender, parity, breast feeding status, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, weight gain during pregnancy, age and educational level at child birth; with and without possible intermediate factors birth weight and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Due to a limited number of obese children, OR for obesity was adjusted for the a priori confounder maternal pre-pregnancy BMI only. Results The difference in median BMI was 0.54 kg/m2 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.10; 0.98) between children whose parents lived separately before birth and children whose parents lived together. The risk of overweight and obesity was statistically significantly increased in children whose parents lived separately before the birth of the child; OR 2.29 (95% CI: 1.18; 4.45) and OR 2.81 (95% CI: 1.05; 7.51), respectively. Additional, adjustment for possible intermediate factors did not substantially change the estimates. Conclusion Parental separation before child birth was associated with higher BMI, and increased risk of overweight and obesity in 9-11-year-old children; this may suggest a fetal programming effect or unmeasured difference in psychosocial factors between separated and non-separated parents. PMID:25775129

  3. Nutrient intake and body weight in a large HIV cohort that includes women and minorities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARGO N. WOODS; DONNA SPIEGELMAN; TAMSIN A. Knox; JANET E. FORRESTER; JOAN L. CONNORS; SARAH C. SKINNER; MARISELA Silva; JEAN H. KIM; SHERWOOD L. GORBACH

    2002-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the baseline nutrient intake of an HIV positive population that includes significant representation from women and minorities, and determine the relationship between state of disease and nutritional intake.Design Baseline data from a prospective study (Nutrition for Healthy Living).Subjects Individuals with HIV in the Boston and Rhode Island area (n=516); 25% were women and 30% were minorities.Methods Nutrient intakes

  4. Whole-body MRI including diffusion-weighted imaging compared to CT for staging of malignant melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Ullenhag, Gustav; Ahlström, Håkan

    2013-01-01

    Background Whole-body (WB) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), has been increasingly used for the detection of metastatic disease. Purpose To assess the value of WB MRI including DWI compared to computed tomography (CT) for staging of malignant melanoma. A second aim was to assess the value of DWI in addition to conventional MR sequences for the detection of lesions. Material and methods WB MRI with DWI and CT chest, abdomen, and pelvis were performed in 23 patients with histologically confirmed malignant melanoma. CT before and after the MRI examinations and the clinical follow-up was utilized as the standard of reference. Results WB MRI and WB DWI detected 345 and 302 lesions, respectively, compared to 397 lesions with CT. The sensitivity of WB MRI and WB DWI varied considerably in different regions of the body. In the lungs, WB MRI and WB DWI showed 63% and 47% true-positive lesions, respectively. WB MRI and WB DWI detected 56 bone lesions in 12 patients compared to 42 lesions in 8 patients with CT. In addition, WB MRI and WB DWI could detect 68 lesions outside the field of view of CT in six patients. Conclusion WB MRI is still not ready to replace CT for staging of malignant melanoma, especially in the thorax region. However, WB MRI is advantageous for detection of bone lesions and lesions outside the investigated volume of the conventional CT. When WB MRI is evaluated, both DWI and conventional MRI sequences must be scrutinized. PMID:23570455

  5. Predicting Body Weight and Wither Height in Holstein Heifers Using Body Measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Heinrichs; G. W. Rogers; J. B. Cooper

    1992-01-01

    Relationships between body weight, wither height, and various other body traits, including heart girth, body length, and hip width, were studied using data from six experiments with 2625 observa- tions. Body weight and wither height were regressed on the other body traits. Regressions of body weight including the linear, quadratic, and cubic effects of a single independent variable (heart girth,

  6. Weight loss and body composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herbert P. Sarett; John B. Longenecker; Robert W. Harkins

    1966-01-01

    Body fat accounts for much of the excess weight in obese persons; but the amount of lean body tissue (muscle and other protein tissue) in the\\u000a obese individual is similar to that found in the normal individual. In weight loss primarily excess fat should be lost; not\\u000a essential protein tissue.\\u000a \\u000a Complete fasting has been proposed as a technique for losing

  7. Changes in body weight, blood pressure and selected metabolic biomarkers with an energy-restricted diet including twice daily sweet snacks and once daily sugar-free beverage

    PubMed Central

    Piehowski, Kathryn E.; Metzgar, Catherine J.; Miller, Debra L.; Preston, Amy G.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The type of sweet snack incorporated into an energy-restricted diet (ERD) may produce differential effects on metabolic improvements associated with body weight (BW) loss. This study compared effects of incorporating either twice daily energy-controlled dark chocolate snacks plus once daily sugar-free cocoa beverage (DC) to non-chocolate snacks plus sugar-free non-cocoa beverage (NC) into an ERD on BW loss and metabolic outcomes. MATERIALS/METHODS In an 18-week randomized comparative trial, 60 overweight/obese premenopausal women were assigned to DC (n = 30) or NC group (n = 30). Dietary intake was measured at baseline and week 18, and BW, anthropometrics, blood pressure (BP) and serum glucose, insulin and lipid concentrations were measured at baseline, and weeks 6, 12 and 18. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. RESULTS Using intention-to-treat analysis, women in DC and NC groups reduced energy intake (both P < 0.001) and lost 4.4 ± 0.6 kg and 5.0 ± 0.9 kg (both P < 0.001), respectively. Both groups lowered systolic and diastolic BP [DC = 2.7 (P < 0.05), 2.7 (P < 0.01); NC = 3.4 (P < 0.01), 4.2 (P < 0.01) mmHg, respectively]. Glucose and insulin concentrations decreased by 0.72 mmol/L (P < 0.001) and 13.20 pmol/L (P < 0.01) in DC group and by 0.83 mmol/L (P < 0.001) and 13.20 pmol/L (P < 0.01), respectively, in NC group. Total cholesterol increased in NC group (P < 0.05), with no significant lipid changes in DC group. There were no significant differences in biomarker outcomes between groups. CONCLUSIONS Overweight/obese premenopausal women following an 18-week ERD that included either DC or NC sweet snack and sugar-free beverage lost equivalent amounts of BW and improved BP measurements and glucose and insulin concentrations. PMID:25489410

  8. Body Weight Perception and Weight Control Practices among Teenagers.

    PubMed

    Bhurtun, Darshini Devi; Jeewon, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    Background. Weight-loss behaviours are highly prevalent among adolescents, and body weight perception motivates weight control practices. However, little is known about the association of body weight perception, and weight control practices among teenagers in Mauritius. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between actual body weight, body weight perception, and weight control practices among teenagers. Methods. A questionnaire-based survey was used to collect data on anthropometric measurements, weight perception and weight control practices from a sample of 180 male and female students (90 boys and 90 girls) aged between 13 and 18 years old. Results. Based on BMI, 11.7% of students were overweight. Overall, 43.3% of respondents reported trying to lose weight (61.1% girls and 25.6% boys). Weight-loss behaviours were more prevalent among girls. Among the weight-loss teens, 88.5% students perceived themselves as overweight even though only 19.2% were overweight. Reducing fat intake (84.6%), exercising (80.8%), and increasing intake of fruits and vegetables (73.1%) and decreasing intake of sugar (66.7%) were the most commonly reported methods to lose weight. Conclusion. Body weight perception was poorly associated with actual weight status. Gender difference was observed in body weight perception. PMID:24967256

  9. Odour and taste sensitivity is associated with body weight and extent of misreporting of body weight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U Simchen; C Koebnick; S Hoyer; S Issanchou; H-JF Zunft

    2006-01-01

    Background:Sensory factors are important determinants of appetite and food choices but little is known about the relationship between body weight and sensory capabilities.Objective:To investigate the relationship between measured body weights, misreporting of body weight and sensory capabilities.Design:In a cross-sectional sensory study, body weight was assessed by measured and self-reported body weight in healthy men (n=130) and women (n=181). Sensory capabilities

  10. Body weight of hypersonic aircraft, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, Mark D.

    1988-01-01

    The load bearing body weight of wing-body and all-body hypersonic aircraft is estimated for a wide variety of structural materials and geometries. Variations of weight with key design and configuration parameters are presented and discussed. Both hot and cool structure approaches are considered in isotropic, organic composite, and metal matrix composite materials; structural shells are sandwich or skin-stringer. Conformal and pillow-tank designs are investigated for the all-body shape. The results identify the most promising hypersonic aircraft body structure design approaches and their weight trends. Geometric definition of vehicle shapes and structural analysis methods are presented in appendices.

  11. A Novel Mechatronic Body Weight Support System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Frey; Gery Colombo; Martino Vaglio; Rainer Bucher; Matthias Jörg; Robert Riener

    2006-01-01

    A novel mechatronic body weight support (BWS) system has been developed to provide precise body weight unloading for patients with neurological or other impairments during treadmill training. The system is composed of a passive elastic spring element to take over the main unloading force and an active closed-loop controlled electric drive to generate the exact desired force. Both force generating

  12. Body Weight Image and Gender Influence Emotional Response Patterns to Body Weight Related Cues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DelRosario, Marlene W.; And Others

    Young adult females' attitudes toward body weight regulation contain important emotional components. To study the effects of body weight cues on emotionality, 160 college students (75 females, 85 males) completed either a body weight related (Q1) or control (Q2) questionnaire prior to taking the California Test of Personality (CTP). An analysis of…

  13. Original article Genetic parameters of body weight,

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    of age (NEGG40; NEGG52); eggshell strength at 30 and 40 weeks of age (ES30; ES40); egg weight at 30.203), FL20 (rg = -0.131) and EW40/BW40 (rg = -0.259). Egg weights, body weights and eggshell strength

  14. Self-perception of body weight status and weight control practices among adolescents in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Zainuddin, Ahmad Ali; Manickam, Mala A; Baharudin, Azli; Omar, Azahadi; Cheong, Siew Man; Ambak, Rashidah; Ahmad, Mohamad Hasnan; Ghaffar, Suhaila Abdul

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents is rising rapidly in many countries, including Malaysia. This article aims to present the associations between body mass index-based body weight status, body weight perception, and weight control practices among adolescents in Malaysia. The Malaysia School Based Nutrition Survey 2012, which included a body weight perception questionnaire and anthropometric measurements, was conducted on a representative sample of 40 011 students from Standard 4 until Form 5, with a 90.5% response rate. Comparing actual and perceived body weight status, the findings show that 13.8% of adolescents underestimated their weight, 35.0% overestimated, and 51.2% correctly judged their own weight. Significantly more normal weight girls felt they were overweight, whereas significantly more overweight boys perceived themselves as underweight. The overall appropriateness of weight control practices to body weight was 72.6%. Adolescents attempting to lose or gain weight need to have better understanding toward desirable behavioral changes. PMID:25070695

  15. Excessive Body Weight in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Porter Starr, Kathryn N; Bales, Connie W

    2015-08-01

    The health challenges prompted by obesity in the older adult population are poorly recognized and understudied. A defined treatment of geriatric obesity is difficult to establish, as it must take into account biological heterogeneity, age-related comorbidities, and functional limitations (sarcopenia/dynapenia). This retrospective article highlights the current understanding of the optimal body mass index (BMI) in later life, addressing appropriate recommendations based on BMI category, age, and health history. The findings of randomized control trials of weight loss/maintenance interventions help one to move closer to evidence-based and appropriately individualized recommendations for body weight management in older adults. PMID:26195092

  16. [Gut microbiota, responsible for our body weight?].

    PubMed

    Pataky, Zoltan; Bobbioni-Harsch, Elisabetta; Hadengue, Antoine; Carpentier, Anne; Golay, Alain

    2009-03-25

    Obesity is a multifactorial disease and often considered as an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. However, the gut microbiota could have an impact on the development of excess body weight. According to the type of diet, this black box of the bowel could contribute to modifications of both the caloric extraction and the energy expenditure. The gut microbiota is linked with intermediary metabolism and inflammation, and could be involved in physiopathogenesis of type 1 and 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity. Fiber enriched diet and Mediterranean type of diet could induce gut microbiota modifications with consecutive weight loss and improvement of both metabolic syndrome and diabetes. PMID:19462608

  17. Measuring Outcomes in Adult Weight Loss Studies That Include Diet and Physical Activity: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Millstein, Rachel A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Measuring success of obesity interventions is critical. Several methods measure weight loss outcomes but there is no consensus on best practices. This systematic review evaluates relevant outcomes (weight loss, BMI, % body fat, and fat mass) to determine which might be the best indicator(s) of success. Methods. Eligible articles described adult weight loss interventions that included diet and physical activity and a measure of weight or BMI change and body composition change. Results. 28 full-text articles met inclusion criteria. Subjects, settings, intervention lengths, and intensities varied. All studies measured body weight (?2.9 to ?17.3?kg), 9 studies measured BMI (?1.1 to ?5.1?kg/m2), 20 studies measured % body fat (?0.7 to ?10.2%), and 22 studies measured fat mass (?0.9 to ?14.9?kg). All studies found agreement between weight or BMI and body fat mass or body fat % decreases, though there were discrepancies in degree of significance between measures. Conclusions. Nearly all weight or BMI and body composition measures agreed. Since body fat is the most metabolically harmful tissue type, it may be a more meaningful measure of health change. Future studies should consider primarily measuring % body fat, rather than or in addition to weight or BMI. PMID:25525513

  18. Unexplained Disturbance in Body Weight Regulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KATHLEEN M BUHL; DYMPNA GALLAGHER; KATHERINE HOY; DWIGHT E MATTHEWS; STEVEN B HEYMSFIELD

    1995-01-01

    Subjects Ten patients who had long-term disturbances in body weight regulation, were referred over a 3-year period for obesity evaluation, and reported low energy intakes (

  19. Measured body mass index, body weight perception, dissatisfaction and control practices in urban, low-income African American adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Youfa Wang; Huifang Liang; Xiaoli Chen

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current understanding of the associations between actual body weight status, weight perception, body dissatisfaction, and weight control practices among low-income urban African American adolescents is limited. The knowledge can help direct future intervention efforts. METHODS: Cross-sectional data including measured weight and height and self-reported weight status collected from 448 adolescents in four Chicago Public Schools were used. RESULTS: The

  20. Mind over Body? The Combined Effect of Objective Body Weight, Perceived Body Weight, and Gender on Illness-Related Absenteeism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine K. Lam; Xu Huang; Warren C. K. Chiu

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the combined effect of objective and subjective body weight, as well as gender, on illness-related absenteeism.\\u000a A sample of 162 Hong Kong white-collar employees was surveyed. Using hierarchical regression analysis, we were able to confirm\\u000a our hypotheses, derived from the objectified body consciousness (OBC) theory, that the positive relationship between objective\\u000a body weight and illness-related absenteeism is

  1. Weight status and the perception of body image in men

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Rick M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the role of body size in relation to the accuracy of body image perception in men is an important topic because of the implications for avoiding and treating obesity, and it may serve as a potential diagnostic criterion for eating disorders. The early research on this topic produced mixed findings. About one-half of the early studies showed that obese men overestimated their body size, with the remaining half providing accurate estimates. Later, improvements in research technology and methodology provided a clearer indication of the role of weight status in body image perception. Research in our laboratory has also produced diverse findings, including that obese subjects sometimes overestimate their body size. However, when examining our findings across several studies, obese subjects had about the same level of accuracy in estimating their body size as normal-weight subjects. Studies in our laboratory also permitted the separation of sensory and nonsensory factors in body image perception. In all but one instance, no differences were found overall between the ability of obese and normal-weight subjects to detect overall changes in body size. Importantly, however, obese subjects are better at detecting changes in their body size when the image is distorted to be too thin as compared to too wide. Both obese and normal-weight men require about a 3%–7% change in the width of their body size in order to detect the change reliably. Correlations between a range of body mass index values and body size estimation accuracy indicated no relationship between these variables. Numerous studies in other laboratories asked men to place their body size into discrete categorizes, ranging from thin to obese. Researchers found that overweight and obese men underestimate their weight status, and that men are less accurate in their categorizations than are women. Cultural influences have been found to be important, with body size underestimations occurring in cultures where a larger body is found to be desirable. Methodological issues are reviewed with recommendations for future studies. PMID:25114606

  2. Anorexia nervosa at normal body weight!--The abnormal normal weight control syndrome.

    PubMed

    Crisp, A H

    1981-01-01

    Disgust with "fatness" and a consequent preoccupation with body weight, coupled with an inability to reduce it to or sustain it at the desired low level, characterizes the abnormal normal weight control syndrome. Individuals remain sexually active in a biological sense and often also socially. Indeed their sexual behaviour may be as impulse ridden as is their eating behaviour, which often comprises phases of massive bingeing coupled with vomiting and/or purgation. The syndrome is unlike frank anorexia nervosa in that the latter involves a regression to a position of phobic avoidance of normal body weight and consequent low body weight control with inhibition of both biological and social sexual activity. In abnormal normal weight control there is a strong and sometimes desperate hedonistic and extrovert element that will often not be denied so long as body weight does not get too low. Individuals nevertheless feel desperately "out of control" and insecure beneath their bravura. The syndrome is much more common in females than in males. There is a clinical overlap with anorexia nervosa and obesity in many cases as the disorder evolves. Depression, stealing, drug dependence (including alcohol) and acute self-poisoning and self-mutilation are common complications. Clinic cases probably only represent the tip of the iceberg of the much more widespread morbidity within the general population. Like anorexia nervosa and for the same reasons the disorder is probably more common than it used to be. PMID:7309391

  3. Body checking and avoidance among behavioral weight-loss participants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janet D. Latner

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the psychological and weight-related correlates of body checking and avoidance behaviors in individuals who have lost weight through obesity treatment. Among 185 individuals in behavioral weight-control treatment, the prevalence of body checking and avoidance behavior was assessed, as well as the relationship of checking and avoidance to attitudinal disturbances, weight loss, and perception of struggling in

  4. Bone turnover and body weight relationships differ in normal-weight compared with heavier postmenopausal women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Cifuentes; M. A. Johnson; R. D. Lewis; S. B. Heymsfield; H. A. Chowdhury; C. M. Modlesky; S. A. Shapses

    2003-01-01

    Low body weight is associated with increased risk for fractures, whereas higher body weight has been shown to be protective against osteoporosis. This study evaluated whether body weight plays a role regulating bone turnover and mass in normal-weight (body mass index (BMI) 2), overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg\\/m2) and obese (BMI₊ kg\\/m2) postmenopausal women who were either receiving hormone replacement therapy

  5. Effects of adrenalectomy on brain weight, body weight and weight of certain endocrine organs in rats.

    PubMed

    Abraham, M E; Sahakari, S D; Monteiro, F; Varde, M R; Mascarenhas, J F

    1991-10-01

    Albino rats, both males and females were adrenalectomized (Adx.), either on the eleventh or the twenty fifth day after birth and the body weights recorded daily until the sixtieth day when all the animals were sacrificed. Brain (cerebrum and cerebellum), pituitary, thyroid and gonads were weighed post mortem. Body weights decreased in all the Adx. animals, the decrease being statistically significant in the male rats Adx. on day 11 (p less than 0.05). Both cerebrum and cerebellum recorded a significant increase in weight in both the male Adx. groups, whereas pituitary, thyroid and gonads showed a significant decrease. Changes observed in 25 day Adx. female rats were not statistically significant. Thus, adrenalectomy in the young rats appears to have differential effects on the somatic, neural and endocrine growth. PMID:1812103

  6. HERITABILITY OF THE DIFFERENCES IN BODY WEIGHT BETWEEN SEXES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    HERITABILITY OF THE DIFFERENCES IN BODY WEIGHT BETWEEN SEXES AT DIFFERENT AGES IN TWO STRAINS 4 and White Plyn:outh Rock. The estimates of heritabilities of sex differences in body weight from importance. The published heritability of the difference in weight between males and females ranged from -1

  7. Longitudinal Study of Body Weight Changes in Children: Who Is Gaining and Who Is Losing Weight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald A. Williamson; Hongmei Han; William D. Johnson; Tiffany M. Stewart; David W. Harsha

    2011-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have reported significant temporal increases in prevalence of childhood obesity in both genders and various racial groups, but recently the rise has subsided. Childhood obesity prevention trials suggest that, on average, overweight\\/obese children lose body weight and nonoverweight children gain weight. This investigation tested the hypothesis that overweight children lose body weight\\/fat and nonoverweight children gain body weight\\/fat

  8. Neurohumoral regulation of body weight gain.

    PubMed

    Devaskar, S U

    2001-09-01

    The regulation of body weight is a complex process which relies on a balance between supply of nutrients and demand on these nutrients in the form of energy expenditure. Various central and peripheral mechanisms play a crucial role in maintaining this balance. While various neuropeptides in the central nervous system (CNS), particularly in the hypothalamus, maintain the necessary harmony between hyperphagia and anorexia, peripheral signals arising from the gastrointestinal tract (cholecystokinin-8 [CCK-8], amylin), pancreas (insulin) and adipose tissue (leptin) provide the necessary stimuli or a feedback inhibition for the synthesis and secretion of these hypothalamic neuropeptides. Various metabolites of the carbohydrate and fat metabolism are also involved in regulating the neuronal activity in the hypothalamus which ultimately leads to a release of key neuropeptides. In addition to the central mechanisms, peripheral mechanisms that regulate energy expenditure, particularly in the brown adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, are critical in maintaining the overall balance. Insight into these mechanisms sets the stage for developing novel strategies in the treatment of emerging childhood diseases such as obesity, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia. Further, delineation of these processes in the fetus and newborn sets the stage for investigating their role in molding the adult phenotype due to intrauterine adaptations. PMID:15016196

  9. Mechanisms of Body Weight Fluctuations in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kistner, Andrea; Lhommée, Eugénie; Krack, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Typical body weight changes are known to occur in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Weight loss has been reported in early stages as well as in advanced disease and malnutrition may worsen the clinical state of the patient. On the other hand, an increasing number of patients show weight gain under dopamine replacement therapy or after surgery. These weight changes are multifactorial and involve changes in energy expenditure, perturbation of homeostatic control, and eating behavior modulated by dopaminergic treatment. Comprehension of the different mechanisms contributing to body weight is a prerequisite for the management of body weight and nutritional state of an individual PD patient. This review summarizes the present knowledge and highlights the necessity of evaluation of body weight and related factors, as eating behavior, energy intake, and expenditure in PD. PMID:24917848

  10. Losses in weight and body water in sows after weaning.

    PubMed

    Zoiopoulos, P E; Topps, J H; English, P R

    1983-07-01

    The loss of body water of eight sows in the 7 d following weaning was determined using the deuterium oxide dilution technique. Four of the sows had received a concentrate diet in restricted amounts while the other four had been given the same diet mixed with two-thirds its weight of oat husks ad lib. during the whole of the preceding lactation. Certain blood and urine constituents were also measured. Loss of body water was significantly less (P less than 0.05) than weight loss of fasted animals, but body water losses were considerable in six of the eight animals. Excretion of urinary nitrogen, urea and creatinine and levels of plasma urea were higher, while levels of plasma non-esterified fatty acids and the hydroxyproline index were lower 1 week after weaning compared with values obtained on the day following weaning. These results indicate that in addition to water loss, depletion of body tissue, including protein, occurs in the newly-weaned sow. PMID:6882728

  11. Organ weight: Body weight ratios in the Mongolian gerbil, Meriones unguiculatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles G. Wilber; Richard D. Gilchrist

    1965-01-01

    The following were recorded for 17 Mongolian gerbils,Meriones unguiculatus, which varied in weight between weanling size and almost 100 grams: body lengths, body weights, organ weights of the thyroid,\\u000a kidney, adrenal, brain, pituitary, lung, testis, spleen, heart, eye, and liver. Results were analyzed graphically and statistically.\\u000a The thyroid, kidney, adrenal, brain, pituitary, lung, and eye weights vary with respect to

  12. Women's work. Maintaining a healthy body weight.

    PubMed

    Welch, Nicky; Hunter, Wendy; Butera, Karina; Willis, Karen; Cleland, Verity; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2009-08-01

    This study describes women's perceptions of the supports and barriers to maintaining a healthy weight among currently healthy weight women from urban and rural socio-economically disadvantaged areas. Using focus groups and interviews, we asked women about their experiences of maintaining a healthy weight. Overwhelmingly, women described their healthy weight practices in terms of concepts related to work and management. The theme of 'managing health' comprised issues of managing multiple responsibilities, time, and emotions associated with healthy practices. Rural women faced particular difficulties in accessing supports at a practical level (for example, lack of childcare) and due to the gendered roles they enacted in caring for others. Family background (in particular, mothers' attitudes to food and weight) also appeared to influence perceptions about healthy weight maintenance. In the context of global increases in the prevalence of obesity, the value of initiatives aimed at supporting healthy weight women to maintain their weight should not be under-estimated. Such initiatives need to work within the social and personal constraints that women face in maintaining good health. PMID:19446587

  13. SEASONAL BODY WEIGHT VARIATION IN FIVE SPECIES OF WOODPECKERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter D. Koenig; Eric L. Walters; Jeffrey R. Walters; James S. Kellam; Klaus G. Michalek; Matthew S. Schrader

    2005-01-01

    We investigated patterns of seasonal variation in body weight in six populations of five resident species of temperate-zone woodpeckers: Acorn Woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus), Red-bellied Woodpecker (M. carolinus), Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoi- des borealis), Downy Woodpecker (P. pubescens), and Great Spotted Woodpecker (Den- drocopos major). After controlling for time of day and overall body size, annual variation in body weight was small

  14. Effects of Weight Loss on Body Composition and Pulmonary Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonino De Lorenzo; Patrizia Petrone-De Luca; Guido F. Sasso; Maria G. Carbonelli; Paolo Rossi; Aldo Brancati

    1999-01-01

    Background: The relationship between obesity, impaired respiratory function and weight loss is established. Objective: Some aspects need further elucidation: the different impact of the pathological modifications of body compartments (total and regional fat mass and lean body mass) on respiratory function, the choice of a restricted diet, the relationship between the modifications of body compartments and the variations in respiratory

  15. BODY WEIGHT AND COGNITIVE DECLINE IN MCI

    E-print Network

    Cronk, Ben B.

    2008-08-08

    Abstract Objective: To examine body mass index (BMI) and cognitive decline in subjects diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: Neuropsychological testing was conducted of 286 MCI subjects. General estimating equations (GEE) assessed...

  16. Robotic-Assisted, Body-Weight Supported Treadmill Training in

    E-print Network

    , and locomotor disability were monitored weekly during robotic-assisted BWSTT and following transitionRobotic-Assisted, Body-Weight­ Supported Treadmill Training in Individuals Following Motor requirements placed on physical therapists. Recent development of motorized ("robotic") rehabilitative devices

  17. Excess body weight during pregnancy and offspring obesity: potential mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Paliy, Oleg; Piyathilake, Chandrika J; Kozyrskyj, Anita; Celep, Gulcin; Marotta, Francesco; Rastmanesh, Reza

    2014-03-01

    The rates of child and adult obesity have increased in most developed countries over the past several decades. The health consequences of obesity affect both physical and mental health, and the excess body weight can be linked to an elevated risk for developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular problems, and depression. Among the factors that can influence the development of obesity are higher infant weights and increased weight gain, which are associated with higher risk for excess body weight later in life. In turn, mother's excess body weight during and after pregnancy can be linked to the risk for offspring overweight and obesity through dietary habits, mode of delivery and feeding, breast milk composition, and through the influence on infant gut microbiota. This review considers current knowledge of these potential mechanisms that threaten to create an intergenerational cycle of obesity. PMID:24103493

  18. Caregivers' attitudes and practices: influence on childhood body weight.

    PubMed

    Costa, Fabiana Silva; Pino, Daisy Lopes Del; Friedman, Rogério

    2011-05-01

    Childhood excess weight is probably associated with, or reflected in, parental attitudes. The objective of this study was to study the relationships between childhood excess weight and parental attitudes. The study subjects were 53 boys and 56 girls, aged 6-10, regularly attending schools in Porto Alegre, south Brazil, and one of their parents or caregivers. Attitudes of the parents or caregivers were assessed by the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFD). Weight and height of the children were measured, parents self-reported their weight and height and body mass indexes were calculated for both. The WHO criteria for overweight and obesity were used for the adults. The CDC criteria for overweight and risk for overweight were used for the corresponding children. Boys presented excess weight more often than girls. The parents of children with excess weight showed higher scores for perceived child weight, concern about child weight, restriction and monitoring. In logistic regression, excess weight in children was associated with perceived child weight, restriction and male sex; pressure to eat was negatively associated with excess BMI. In Porto Alegre, south Brazil, excess body weight in children aged 6-10 is associated with parental perceived child weight and concern about it, monitoring and restriction; being a boy increases the odds of being overweight. PMID:21306663

  19. Body Weight Gain during Altered Gravity: Spaceflight, Centrifugation and Transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, Charles E.; Harper, J. S.; Daunton, N. G.; Corcoran, M. L.; Morey-Holton, E.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Gravity is a force that influences all living systems, and is often disregarded in the study of environment on growth and development. To assess the effect of gravity exposure on growth, immature rats (130-200 g) were evaluated during chronic altered gravity exposure and during transition between gravity fields. The effects of 14 days of spaceflight on body weight gain were evaluated (n=12) and compared to controls. Spaceflight did not affect weight gain. In 6 rats, the transition from spaceflight to 1 G showed a significant (p less than 0.05) post flight weight loss over 48 hr of 13 g compared to controls. Over subsequent days this loss was compensated for with no difference noted after 5 days. Exposure to hypergravity, 2 G for 16 days, was evaluated in groups of n=6 (Control; On Center Control (OCC); Centrifuged). With centrifugation or OCC there was a reduction in body weight within 24 hr. The OCC regained control weights within 13 days. The weight difference, 26 +/- 1 g, persisted with 2 G with no subsequent difference in weight gain over days 3-16 compared to controls; 3.7 +/- 0.1 versus 3.9 +/- 0.1 g/day respectively. Transition from centrifugation to 1 G resulted in a weight increase within 48 hours. Over 16 days the rate of gain was increased 3.1 +/- 0.1 g/day for centrifuge compared to 2.1 +/- 0.1 g/day for controls between Day 3 to 16. However, differences from control were still noted on Day 16. Transition from one gravity field to another causes acute changes in body weight. Transition to microgravity or 1 G, following the acute changes, results in adjustments to attain a normal weight. In hypergravity the acute reduction in body weight persist, but weight gain is normal. Transitioning from hypergravity to 1G results in an increased weight gain to compensate for the persistent reduction during exposure.

  20. Muscle distribution: Variations with body weight, gender, and age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dympna Gallagher; Steven B. Heymsfield

    1998-01-01

    Little is known about skeletal muscle distribution in healthy adults. Data were collected on 132 healthy, ambulatory, Caucasian women and men, aged 20–89 yr. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass multiple regression models were developed to assess the relationships between regional skeletal muscle and height, weight, age, ethnicity, and extremity lengths. Results: (1) with an increase in body weight there is a

  1. Bayesian estimates of genetic changes for body weight traits of Moghani sheep using Gibbs sampling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Navid Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh

    The objective of the present study was to estimate genetic changes of body weight at different ages in Moghani sheep. Traits\\u000a included were birth weight (BW, n?=?4,208), 3-month weight (3MW, n?=?4,175), 6-month weight (6MW, n?=?3,138), 9-month weight (9MW, n?=?2,244), and yearling weight (YW, n?=?1,342). Data and pedigree information used in this study were collected at the Breeding Station of Moghani

  2. Sugar intake and body weight in Cambodian and Japanese children.

    PubMed

    Shikanai, Saiko; Koung Ry, Ly; Takeichi, Hitomi; Emiko, Suzuki; San, Pann; Sarukura, Nobuko; Kamoshita, Sumiko; Yamamoto, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    Because of the tastiness of sugars, it is easy to consume more than an adequate amount. There are many research reports that excess sugar intake contributes to dental decay, obesity, diabetes etc. Continuing economic development in Cambodia has made it easier than before for people to consume sugars in their daily life. Currently, isomerized sugar (a mixture of glucose and fructose) made from starches is commonly used in commercial beverages because of its low price. However, in Cambodia and Japan, sugar composition tables that include not only sucrose but also glucose, fructose, lactose and maltose have not been available. Prior to the present nutrition surveys, we made sugar composition tables for both countries. In this study we tried to estimate the intakes of various sugars by children in Cambodia and Japan and to determine the relationship between intake and body weight. Nutrition surveys of children aged 7, 10 and 13 years old were conducted for 3 nonconsecutive days by the 24 h recall method in 89 Cambodian children living in the capital city of Cambodia, Phnom Penh, and 151 Japanese children living in 3 prefectures from north to south. Height and weight of children in Cambodia and Japan were similar until 10 years old but at 13 years old, the Cambodians were shorter and lighter than the Japanese. We could not observe any differences in BMI in either country. The sugar intakes from beverages and snacks were not different among the different gender and age. Thus we combined the mean total sugar intake for Cambodian and Japanese, 28.42 ± 25.28 g and 25.69 ± 16.16 g respectively. These were within the range of WHO recommendations (less than 10% of energy intakes). Cambodian children consumed about 46% of sugars from commercial beverages and snacks and Japanese children 26%. This means that for Cambodians half of the sugars came from isomerized sugar made from starches. Relationships between sugar intake and body weight were not observed in both countries. In conclusion, the Cambodian children consumed about 46% of sugar from glucose and fructose (probably in the form of isomerized sugar), while the Japanese children took 26%; however, the intakes in both countries met the WHO recommendation and there was no relationship to body weight. PMID:24705752

  3. True Believers? Religion, Physiology, and Perceived Body Weight in Texas.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Andrea L; Acevedo, Gabriel A

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines relationships between body weight, religion, and gender while controlling for relevant covariates and body mass index (BMI), a measure of physical/biological body type. Using data from the 2004 Survey of Texas Adults (n = 1,504), we present results of ordered logistic regression models which indicate that religious factors work distinctly for men and women when controlling for BMI. While church attendance is associated with lower odds of overweight perceptions among women, it is religious salience that is associated with lower odds of self-reported excess weight in men. Implications for research which associates religious and physiological factors are discussed. PMID:24687261

  4. SCALING RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BODY WEIGHT AND FERMENTATION GUT CAPACITY IN AXIS DEER

    E-print Network

    Aspbury, Andrea S. - Department of Biology, Texas State University

    SCALING RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BODY WEIGHT AND FERMENTATION GUT CAPACITY IN AXIS DEER DAWN M 78666, USA The scaling relationship between body weight and fermentation gut capacity presumably impacts dietary patterns of ruminants. Interspecific scaling relationships between body weight and fermentation

  5. Neural Growth Hormone Implicated in Body Weight Sex Differences

    PubMed Central

    Bonthuis, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    As for many human diseases, the incidence of obesity and its associated health risks are sexually dimorphic: worldwide the rate of obesity is higher in women. Sex differences in metabolism, appetite, body composition, and fat deposition are contributing biological factors. Gonadal hormones regulate the development of many sexually dimorphic traits in humans and animals, and, in addition, studies in mice indicate a role for direct genetic effects of sex chromosome dosage on body weight, deposition of fat, and circadian timing of feeding behavior. Specifically, mice of either sex with 2 X chromosomes, typical of normal females, have heavier body weights, gain more weight, and eat more food during the light portion of the day than mice of either sex with a single X chromosome. Here we test the effects of X chromosome dosage on body weight and report that gonadal females with 2 X chromosomes express higher levels of GH gene (Gh) mRNA in the preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus than females with 1 X chromosome and males. Furthermore, Gh expression in the POA of the hypothalamus of mice with 2 X chromosomes correlated with body weight; GH is known to have orexigenic properties. Acute infusion of GH into the POA increased immediate food intake in normal (XY) males. We propose that X inactivation–escaping genes modulate Gh expression and food intake, and this is part of the mechanism by which individuals with 2 X chromosomes are heavier than individuals with a single X chromosome. PMID:23861378

  6. Body Weight Reducing Effect of Oral Boric Acid Intake

    PubMed Central

    Aysan, Erhan; Sahin, Fikrettin; Telci, Dilek; Yalvac, Mehmet Emir; Emre, Sinem Hocaoglu; Karaca, Cetin; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut

    2011-01-01

    Background: Boric acid is widely used in biology, but its body weight reducing effect is not researched. Methods: Twenty mice were divided into two equal groups. Control group mice drank standard tap water, but study group mice drank 0.28mg/250ml boric acid added tap water over five days. Total body weight changes, major organ histopathology, blood biochemistry, urine and feces analyses were compared. Results: Study group mice lost body weight mean 28.1% but in control group no weight loss and also weight gained mean 0.09% (p<0.001). Total drinking water and urine outputs were not statistically different. Cholesterol, LDL, AST, ALT, LDH, amylase and urobilinogen levels were statistically significantly high in the study group. Other variables were not statistically different. No histopathologic differences were detected in evaluations of all resected major organs. Conclusion: Low dose oral boric acid intake cause serious body weight reduction. Blood and urine analyses support high glucose, lipid and middle protein catabolisms, but the mechanism is unclear. PMID:22135611

  7. The effect of variation in egg numbers, body weight and egg weight upon shell thickness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. H. Foster; E. L. Neil

    1972-01-01

    It is expected that when birds consume a diet with a fixed calcium content variation in the rate of egg production, in body weight or in egg weight will lead to variation in calcium consumption. This analysis investigated whether, in a particular experiment, this also led to variation in egg shell thickness. Data from 67 birds over ten consecutive 28?d

  8. Adjustment for non-genetic effects on body weight and size in Angora goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenzhong Liu; Yuan Zhang; Zhongxiao Zhou

    2005-01-01

    Data on 864 Angora goats, collected from 1988 to 2000, were used to study non-genetic effects on body weight and daily gain from birth to 24 months of age and body size at different ages. Non-genetic factors included birth year, birth month, sex, age of kids, age of dam, type of birth and rearing. Birth year, sex and type of

  9. MOTHERS' BODY IMAGE PREFERENCES FOR CHILDREN VARY ACCORDING TO THEIR OWN CHILDREN'S WEIGHT STATUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to describe mothers’ body image preferences for children and to determine if mothers’ body image evaluations differed with respect to their own children’s weight status. The sample included 281 primarily African American mothers of children enrolled in Head Start. ...

  10. The Weight-Conscious Adolescent: Body Image, Food Intake, and Weight-Related Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MADELEINE NOWAK

    Purpose: To explore how adolescents who try to lose weight differ from those who do not in relation to body image, food intake, knowledge about food, and sources of information about food, nutrition, and weight loss. Methods: Data were collected from 12-15-year-old school students in North Queensland, Australia by ques- tionnaire. Results: Boys who attempted weight loss reduced sweet foods

  11. Body Measurements and Body Weights of Special-Fed Holstein Veal Calves1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. L. Wilson; C. L. Egan; T. L. Terosky

    1997-01-01

    Changes in various body dimensions of special-fed veal calves were measured and correlated with body weight (BW) at three specific times during the growth period as contemporaries and over the entire feeding period as noncontemporaries. The calves (n = 826) were weighed and measured for body length, heart girth, wither height, and hip width at 2, 8, and 16 wk

  12. Diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS): features and potential applications in oncology

    PubMed Central

    Takahara, Taro; Ochiai, Reiji; Nievelstein, Rutger A. J.; Luijten, Peter R.

    2008-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) provides functional information and can be used for the detection and characterization of pathologic processes, including malignant tumors. The recently introduced concept of “diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body signal suppression” (DWIBS) now allows acquisition of volumetric diffusion-weighted images of the entire body. This new concept has unique features different from conventional DWI and may play an important role in whole-body oncological imaging. This review describes and illustrates the basics of DWI, the features of DWIBS, and its potential applications in oncology. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00330-008-0968-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18446344

  13. Body weight and smoking initiation: evidence from Add Health.

    PubMed

    Rees, Daniel I; Sabia, Joseph J

    2010-09-01

    In volume 23, issue 2 of this journal, Cawley, Markowitz and Tauras used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 Cohort to estimate the relationship between body weight and smoking initiation. Using maternal obesity status as an instrument, they found strong evidence that overweight females between the ages of 12 and 21 were more likely to initiate smoking. Drawing on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we reexamine the relationship between body weight and smoking initiation. Our results are generally consistent with those of Cawley, Markowitz and Tauras. PMID:20708283

  14. Physical Substantiation of an Opportunity of Artificial Change of Body Weight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, Alexander L.

    Evangelical legends about Çwalking on watersÈ though they are apparently a fruit of imagination, can have a natural physical substantiation. Change of weight of accelerated moving bodies, confirmed with laboratory measurements of temperature dependence of body weight, in combination with an assumption of non-stationary character of the gravitational field of the Earth, directly leads to the conclusion regarding an opportunity of appreciable artificial change of body weight. The simple phenomenological model is described, according to which at the certain phase ratio of vertical oscillations of a trial body and small (with a relative level of amplitude equal to the tenth - 100-th fractions of per cent) own periodic fluctuations of normal acceleration of free falling (AFF) there are possible both a significant increase and a reduction of average weight of such a body. It is shown that at frequencies of the vertical fluctuations essentially exceeding frequency of own fluctuations of AFF the effect of reduction of average body weight prevails. Results of an experiment with "instant" measurements of acceleration of free falling of a mechanical rotor with horizontal axis of rotations which have confirmed the periodic changes of rotor AFF followed from the specified model are given. A good outlook for development of physics of gravitation and development of new principles of movement, set-up of precision experiments with weighing of bodies moving with acceleration, including those oscillating vertically along trial bodies, is noted.

  15. Independent metabolic costs of supporting body weight and accelerating body mass during walking.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, Alena; Farley, Claire T; Kram, Rodger

    2005-02-01

    The metabolic cost of walking is determined by many mechanical tasks, but the individual contribution of each task remains unclear. We hypothesized that the force generated to support body weight and the work performed to redirect and accelerate body mass each individually incur a significant metabolic cost during normal walking. To test our hypothesis, we measured changes in metabolic rate in response to combinations of simulated reduced gravity and added loading. We found that reducing body weight by simulating reduced gravity modestly decreased net metabolic rate. By calculating the metabolic cost per Newton of reduced body weight, we deduced that generating force to support body weight comprises approximately 28% of the metabolic cost of normal walking. Similar to previous loading studies, we found that adding both weight and mass increased net metabolic rate in more than direct proportion to load. However, when we added mass alone by using a combination of simulated reduced gravity and added load, net metabolic rate increased about one-half as much as when we added both weight and mass. By calculating the cost per kilogram of added mass, we deduced that the work performed on the center of mass comprises approximately 45% of the metabolic cost of normal walking. Our findings support the hypothesis that force and work each incur a significant metabolic cost. Specifically, the cost of performing work to redirect and accelerate the center of mass is almost twice as great as the cost of generating force to support body weight. PMID:15649878

  16. Misperceived pre-pregnancy body weight status predicts excessive gestational weight gain: findings from a US cohort study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon J Herring; Emily Oken; Jess Haines; Janet W Rich-Edwards; Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman; Ken P Kleinman ScD; Matthew W Gillman

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Excessive gestational weight gain promotes poor maternal and child health outcomes. Weight misperception is associated with weight gain in non-pregnant women, but no data exist during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of misperceived pre-pregnancy body weight status with excessive gestational weight gain. METHODS: At study enrollment, participants in Project Viva reported weight, height,

  17. Marital Status, Marital History, Body Weight, and Obesity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffery Sobal; Karla L. Hanson

    2011-01-01

    Marital status and marital history are associated with health. Marital history can be represented by the marital trajectory components of timing, transitions, sequence, and duration. We examined whether marital trajectory components add insights beyond marital status in predicting body weight in a retrospective analysis of 3,011 adults. Marital status findings revealed that married men were heavier than separated\\/divorced men, and

  18. Dietary effects on body weight of predatory mites (Acari, Phytoseiidae).

    PubMed

    Goleva, Irina; Rubio Cadena, Esteban C; Ranabhat, Nar B; Beckereit, Caroline; Zebitz, Claus P W

    2015-08-01

    Pollen is offered as alternative or supplementary food for predacious mites; however, it may vary in its nutritional value. Body weight appears a representative parameter to describe food quality. Thus, we assessed the body weight for adults of the generalist mites Amblyseius swirskii, Amblydromalus limonicus, and Neoseiulus cucumeris reared on 22, 12, and 6 pollen species, respectively. In addition, A. swirskii and A. limonicus was reared on codling moth eggs. In all mite species, female body weight was higher than that of males, ranging between 4.33 and 8.18 µg for A. swirskii, 2.56-6.53 µg for A. limonicus, and 4.66-5.92 µg for N. cucumeris. Male body weight ranged between 1.78 and 3.28 µg, 1.37-3.06 µg, and 2.73-3.03 µg, respectively. Nutritional quality of pollen was neither consistent among the mite species nor among sex, revealing superior quality of Quercus macranthera pollen for females of A. swirskii and Tulipa gesneriana pollen for males, Alnus incana pollen for females of A. limonicus and Aesculus hippocastanum pollen for males, and Ae. hippocastanum pollen for both sexes of N. cucumeris. The results are discussed against the background of known or putative pollen chemistry and mite's nutritional physiology. PMID:26014648

  19. Body Percept Change in Obese Females after Weight Reduction Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, John K.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Measured video-image representations of body size for 68 females undergoing weight reduction counseling. All judged themselves significantly more obese than they actually were. After therapy, more realistic estimates of their physiques ensued. Dropouts saw themselves as significantly more obese than those who graduated from the program. (JAC)

  20. Estrogen receptor-? in medial amygdala neurons regulates body weight.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pingwen; Cao, Xuehong; He, Yanlin; Zhu, Liangru; Yang, Yongjie; Saito, Kenji; Wang, Chunmei; Yan, Xiaofeng; Hinton, Antentor Othrell; Zou, Fang; Ding, Hongfang; Xia, Yan; Yan, Chunling; Shu, Gang; Wu, San-Pin; Yang, Bin; Feng, Yuxin; Clegg, Deborah J; DeMarchi, Richard; Khan, Sohaib A; Tsai, Sophia Y; DeMayo, Francesco J; Wu, Qi; Tong, Qingchun; Xu, Yong

    2015-07-01

    Estrogen receptor-? (ER?) activity in the brain prevents obesity in both males and females. However, the ER?-expressing neural populations that regulate body weight remain to be fully elucidated. Here we showed that single-minded-1 (SIM1) neurons in the medial amygdala (MeA) express abundant levels of ER?. Specific deletion of the gene encoding ER? (Esr1) from SIM1 neurons, which are mostly within the MeA, caused hypoactivity and obesity in both male and female mice fed with regular chow, increased susceptibility to diet-induced obesity (DIO) in males but not in females, and blunted the body weight-lowering effects of a glucagon-like peptide-1-estrogen (GLP-1-estrogen) conjugate. Furthermore, selective adeno-associated virus-mediated deletion of Esr1 in the MeA of adult male mice produced a rapid body weight gain that was associated with remarkable reductions in physical activity but did not alter food intake. Conversely, overexpression of ER? in the MeA markedly reduced the severity of DIO in male mice. Finally, an ER? agonist depolarized MeA SIM1 neurons and increased their firing rate, and designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drug-mediated (DREADD-mediated) activation of these neurons increased physical activity in mice. Collectively, our results support a model where ER? signals activate MeA neurons to stimulate physical activity, which in turn prevents body weight gain. PMID:26098212

  1. Control of body weight: a physiologic and transgenic perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Frühbeck; J. Gómez-Ambrosi

    2003-01-01

    Overview In mammals, body weight is normally regulated around a set point by coordinated changes in food intake and energy expenditure. These changes are integrated under the influence of specific neural pathways and circulating signals. Almost 50 years ago it was first proposed that circulating signals generated in

  2. The Relationship Between Body Weight, Frailty, and the Disablement Process

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To prospectively examine the relationship between body weight, frailty, and the disablement process. Method. Longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study (1998–2006) were used to examine the relationship between being underweight, overweight, or obese (compared with normal weight) and the onset and progression of functional limitations and disabilities in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and activities of daily living (ADL) among a nationally representative sample of community-dwelling older adults (aged 50 and older) with characteristics of frailty (n = 11,491). Nonlinear multilevel models additionally adjusted for demographic characteristics and intra-individual changes in body weight, socioeconomic status, health behaviors, and health conditions over the course of 8 years. Results. Compared with their nonfrail normal weight counterparts, prefrail obese respondents have a 16% (p ? 0.001) reduction in the expected functional limitations rate and frail overweight and obese respondents have a 10% (p ? 0.01) and 36% (p ? 0.001) reduction in the expected functional limitations rate, respectively. In addition, frail obese respondents have a 27% (p ? 0.05) reduction in the expected ADL disability rate. Discussion. This study’s findings suggest that underweight, overweight, and obese status differentially affect the risk for functional limitations and disabilities in IADL and ADL. Among prefrail and frail adults, some excess body weight in later life may be beneficial, reducing the rate of functional limitations and disability. PMID:22967933

  3. Food shopping and weight concern. Balancing consumer and body normality.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Annemette; Holm, Lotte

    2014-11-01

    The desire to achieve a normal, culturally acceptable body is often seen as the main driver of food-consumption practices adopted by individuals who are concerned about their body weight. In social research into weight management self-control is therefore often a central theme. Turning the focus towards practices and values related to food shopping, this study adds to our understanding of central features in perceptions of normality among people with weight concerns. In a qualitative study 25 people who participated in a dietary intervention trial in Denmark were interviewed and five people were observed. The study shows that the aim of achieving a normal body does not eclipse the importance of enacting values linked to ideas of the 'normal consumer'. Using empirical examples, the study illuminates how consumer freedom is attained in ways that are both complementary to, and in conflict with, practices and experiences of controlling food intake. The paper suggests that freedom and control are composite and complementary ideals of normality for people with weight concerns. On the basis of this insight, the authors discuss the contribution the paper makes to existing studies of weight management and food consumption. PMID:25086208

  4. Negotiating the Early Developing Body: Pubertal Timing, Body Weight, and Adolescent Girls’ Substance Use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emily E. Tanner-Smith

    2010-01-01

    Despite knowledge that early pubertal timing predicts adolescent girls’ substance use, it is still unclear whether this relationship\\u000a persists beyond early adolescence and whether it is conditional on girls’ body weight. This study examined the moderating\\u000a role of body weight in the association between early pubertal timing and adolescent girls’ substance use using three waves\\u000a of data from the National

  5. Prediction of Body Weight from Body Size Measurements in Brown Swiss Feedlot Cattle Fed under Small-scale Farming Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Bozkurt

    2006-01-01

    Bozkurt, Y. 2006. Prediction of body weight from body size measurements in brown swiss feedlot cattle fed under small-scale farming conditions. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 29: 29–32.To evaluate the use of some body measurements in predicting body weight of Brown Swiss cattle grown under small-scale farming conditions, relationships between body weight (BW) and body measurements such as heart girth (HG),

  6. Stability of Pigeon Body Weight Under Free-Feeding Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kangas, Brian D; Branch, Marc N

    2006-01-01

    Increases in regulatory oversight of animal research require verification of effects of standard practices. There are no formal guidelines for establishing free-feeding weights in adult pigeons. In the present study, pigeons were obtained from a commercial supplier, weighed upon arrival, and then held in quarantine for 7?days with free access to food. Subsequently, still with continuous access to food, they were weighed daily for 30?days. No significant changes in weights occurred over the 30-day period for male pigeons, indicating that seven days is sufficient for establishing a baseline body weight. A secondary finding of higher day-to-day variability in the weights of female pigeons may serve as a method of sexing pigeons. PMID:17191762

  7. Overall Type I Error Rate and Power of Multiple Dunnett's Tests on Rodent Body Weights in Toxicology Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wherly P. Hoffman; Justin Recknor; Cindy Lee

    2008-01-01

    Body weight data are routinely collected in in vivo general toxicology studies, including 2-year carcinogenicity studies, to help assess the overall health of animals. The effect of the compound on body weight is statistically evaluated for each sex separately using a linear trend test or a many-to-one test by Dunnett. These tests are performed either in the framework of a

  8. Body image perception, dietary practices and physical activity of overweight and normal weight Malaysian female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pon, Lai Wan; Kandiah, Mirnalini; Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib

    2004-09-01

    Body image plays an important role in the management of body weight, especially among female adolescents. This study examined the differences in body image perception, weight management knowledge, eating behaviour and physical activity between overweight and normal weight Malaysian female adolescents. Body mass index screening was done on 588 secondary school students to identify overweight (OW) and normal weight (NW) subjects. A BMI-for-age of => 85th percentile and between => 5th and <85th percentile were used as cut-offs for identifying suitable subjects of overweight and normal weight, respectively. Fifty girls identified as being OW were matched for age and ethnicity with 50 NW students. Subjects completed a self-administered questionnaire on demographics, eating behaviour and physical activity, a weight management knowledge inventory (WMKI) and the Body Silhouette Chart. The study sample comprised Malays (40%), Chinese (30%) and Indians (30%) with a mean age of 14.76 ± 1.15 years. The majority of them were from families with a monthly household income of less than RM1,000. Significantly more NW subjects (?2=6.112, p=0.013) than OW subjects had incorrect perception of their current body weight status. The WMKI revealed that more OW subjects (64%) than NW subjects (52%) had a low level of weight management knowledge. Eating behaviour patterns were not significantly different between OW and NW subjects, but more OW subjects skipped one or more daily meals as compared to their NW counterparts (?2=0.174, p=0.010). Physical activity patterns were similar in both groups. Healthy eating and physical activity promotion programmes in schools should include sound weight management practices. PMID:22691735

  9. Body image, body dissatisfaction and weight status in south asian children: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is a continuing problem in the UK and South Asian children represent a group that are particularly vulnerable to its health consequences. The relationship between body dissatisfaction and obesity is well documented in older children and adults, but is less clear in young children, particularly South Asians. A better understanding of this relationship in young South Asian children will inform the design and delivery of obesity intervention programmes. The aim of this study is to describe body image size perception and dissatisfaction, and their relationship to weight status in primary school aged UK South Asian children. Methods Objective measures of height and weight were undertaken on 574 predominantly South Asian children aged 5-7 (296 boys and 278 girls). BMI z-scores, and weight status (underweight, healthy weight, overweight or obese) were calculated based on the UK 1990 BMI reference charts. Figure rating scales were used to assess perceived body image size (asking children to identify their perceived body size) and dissatisfaction (difference between perceived current and ideal body size). The relationship between these and weight status were examined using multivariate analyses. Results Perceived body image size was positively associated with weight status (partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 0.63 (95% CI 0.26-0.99) and for BMI z-score was 0.21 (95% CI 0.10-0.31), adjusted for sex, age and ethnicity). Body dissatisfaction was also associated with weight status, with overweight and obese children more likely to select thinner ideal body size than healthy weight children (adjusted partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 1.47 (95% CI 0.99-1.96) and for BMI z-score was 0.54 (95% CI 0.40-0.67)). Conclusions Awareness of body image size and increasing body dissatisfaction with higher weight status is established at a young age in this population. This needs to be considered when designing interventions to reduce obesity in young children, in terms of both benefits and harms. PMID:21214956

  10. Sexual maturation in male Belding's ground squirrels: influence of body weight.

    PubMed

    Bushberg, D M; Holmes, W G

    1985-09-01

    The relation between body weight and sexual maturation was examined in a hibernator, Belding's ground squirrel, by manipulating the availability of food to weaned juvenile males. Following body weight manipulation in the summer, testicular growth, serum testosterone, and spermatogenesis were monitored during the subsequent year, which included 7 mo when males were in the coldroom (ca. 8 degrees C), followed by 5 mo in the laboratory (ca. 20 degrees C). Juveniles (less than 1 yr old) maintained on a restricted diet entered the coldroom at normal body weights for their age class in nature and had immature gonads throughout the year, which is characteristic of this group in the field. In contrast, juveniles given abundant food during the summer entered the coldroom at body weights typical for free-living yearlings and exhibited mature gonads shortly after males were removed from the cold (high relative testis weights, high serum testosterone levels, and all stages of spermatogenesis). The high level of gonadal activity in overfed males was confined to a period of a few weeks in the spring, which coincided with the time when mating occurs in nature. The ability of male Belding's ground squirrels to accumulate body weight prior to hibernation seems important to sexual maturation in this seasonally breeding rodent. PMID:4041521

  11. Watching reality weight loss TV. The effects on body satisfaction, mood, and snack food consumption.

    PubMed

    Bourn, Rebecca; Prichard, Ivanka; Hutchinson, Amanda D; Wilson, Carlene

    2015-08-01

    The present study investigated the influence of a weight loss reality TV show on body satisfaction, mood and food consumption. Young Australian women (N?=?99) first completed baseline measures of state body satisfaction and mood. They were then randomly allocated to either a weight loss or a home renovation programme and were provided with snack foods during viewing. Post-measures included state body satisfaction, state mood and trait dietary restraint and snack food consumption. BMI moderated the relationship between condition and body satisfaction and mood. Larger women experienced less body satisfaction and less positive mood in response to the weight loss programme. Dietary restraint moderated the relationship between condition and food consumption. A greater percentage of women with lower dietary restraint ate in the control condition; whilst a greater percentage of women with higher dietary restraint ate food whilst watching the weight loss programme. These findings highlight the potential negative impact of weight-focused reality TV on mood, body satisfaction and snack food consumption among some women. PMID:25936290

  12. Weight perception in overweight adolescents: Associations with body change intentions, diet and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Fredrickson, Julia; Kremer, Peter; Swinburn, Boyd; de Silva, Andrea; McCabe, Marita

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the association of weight perception and weight satisfaction with body change intentions and weight-related behaviours in 928 overweight adolescents (aged 11-18?years, 44% female). Accurate perception of weight was associated with trying to lose weight and inaccurate perception was associated with trying to gain muscle. Weight dissatisfaction was associated with trying to lose weight and gain muscle. Accurate weight perception and weight dissatisfaction were not associated with healthy weight-related behaviours. Awareness of overweight and body dissatisfaction may be detrimental to the adoption of healthy weight-control behaviours. Interventions with overweight adolescents should encourage body satisfaction, rather than promoting awareness of overweight. PMID:26032794

  13. IQP-GC-101 reduces body weight and body fat mass: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Chong, Pee-Win; Beah, Zhi-Ming; Grube, Barbara; Riede, Linda

    2014-10-01

    IQP-GC-101 is a patented blend of the standardized extracts of Garcinia cambogia, Camellia sinensis, unroasted Coffea arabica, and Lagerstroemia speciosa. These individual ingredients of IQP-GC-101 have each shown promise in promoting weight loss; however, the efficacy of the blend has not been established. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group study conducted over 14?weeks (including a 2-week run-in phase) aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of IQP-GC-101 in reducing body weight and body fat mass in overweight Caucasian adults. Subjects took three IQP-GC-101 or placebo tablets, twice a day, 30?min before main meals. All subjects also adhered to a 500?kcal/day energy deficit diet with 30% of energy from fat. Ninety-one overweight and mildly obese subjects (46 in the IQP-GC-101 group, 45 in the placebo group) completed the study. After 12-week intervention, IQP-GC-101 resulted in a mean (±SD) weight loss of 2.26?±?2.37?kg compared with 0.56?±?2.34?kg for placebo (pU ?=?0.002). There was also significantly more reduction in body fat mass, waist circumference, and hip circumference in the IQP-GC-101 group. No serious adverse events were reported. The use of IQP-GC-101 has been shown to result in body weight and body fat reduction in the current study, with good tolerability. PMID:24797657

  14. Body Weight Concerns and Antifat Attitude in Iranian Children

    PubMed Central

    Garousi, Saideh

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is increasing evidence that children are showing body image issues in recent years. Body image disturbances in childhood must be taken seriously. The thin ideal is becoming more prominent in Asian countries; however, there is little research examining how this issue affects Iranian children. This study explores body weight concerns and associated factors among children in Iranian elementary schools. Methods: This study was conducted in 500 elementary schools. An assessment of body image and antifat attitudes was undertaken using the figure rating scale. In addition, body mass index (BMI) and demographic variables were assessed. Results: Nearly, 27.4% of children were underweight, and 13.3% were obese. There was a significant difference between the mean score of body dissatisfaction (BD) between boys and girls (P < 0.05). There were no differences between BD and education of parents, age, and academic grades. In girls, antifat attitudes were significantly related to BMI. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate the paramount importance of undertaking further research in order to identify the predictive factors of body concerns and its consequences among Iranian children. In addition, researchers must plan prevention and educational program for these children. PMID:25709795

  15. Body size perception and weight control in youth: 9-year international trends from 24 countries

    PubMed Central

    Quick, Virginia; Nansel, Tonja R.; Liu, Danping; Lipsky, Leah M.; Due, Pernille; Iannotti, Ronald J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine nine-year trends and relationships regarding misperceptions of body size and dieting for weight loss among adolescents from 24 countries, and explore the influence of country-level overweight prevalence. Methods Socio-demographic characteristics, body size perception, and dieting for weight loss were assessed in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey conducted in 24 countries cross-sectionally at three time points (2001/02, 2005/06, 2009/10). Logistic regression models examined change over time in overestimation of body size in non-overweight adolescents, underestimation of body size in overweight adolescents, dieting for weight loss in non-overweight and overweight adolescents, and relationships between body size perception and dieting. Analyses were stratified by weight status and sex. Covariates included country-level overweight prevalence, family affluence, and country level of development. Body mass index was only included in models examining dieting for weight loss. Results Country-level overweight prevalence increased over time (11.6% to 14.7%). Compared to Time 1, overweight adolescents had greater odds of body size underestimation at Time 3 (OR=1.68 for girls, OR=1.10 for boys), while non-overweight adolescents had lower odds of body size overestimation at Time 3 (OR=0.87 for girls, OR=0.89 for boys). Controlling for country-level overweight prevalence attenuated these relationships. Compared to Time 1, overweight and non-overweight boys were 10% more likely to diet at Time 3, while overweight and non-overweight girls were 19% and 16%, respectively, less likely to diet at Time 3. Controlling for country-level overweight prevalence did not impact trends in dieting for weight loss. Additionally, the association of self-perceived overweight with increased odds of dieting diminished over time. Conclusions Body size perceptions among adolescents may have changed over time concurrent with shifts in country-level body weight. However, controlling for country-level overweight prevalence did not impact trends in dieting for weight loss, suggesting a potentially stronger impact of social comparison on weight-related perceptions than on behavior. PMID:24722544

  16. Role of oxytocin signaling in the regulation of body weight

    PubMed Central

    Blevins, James E.; Ho, Jacqueline M.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and its associated metabolic disorders are growing health concerns in the US and worldwide. In the US alone, more than two-thirds of the adult population is classified as either overweight or obese [1], highlighting the need to develop new, effective treatments for these conditions. Whereas the hormone oxytocin is well known for its peripheral effects on uterine contraction during parturition and milk ejection during lactation, release of oxytocin from somatodendrites and axonal terminals within the central nervous system (CNS) is implicated in both the formation of prosocial behaviors and in the control of energy balance. Recent findings demonstrate that chronic administration of oxytocin reduces food intake and body weight in diet-induced obese (DIO) and genetically obese rodents with impaired or defective leptin signaling. Importantly, chronic systemic administration of oxytocin out to 6 weeks recapitulates the effects of central administration on body weight loss in DIO rodents at doses that do not result in the development of tolerance. Furthermore, these effects are coupled with induction of Fos (a marker of neuronal activation) in hindbrain areas (e.g. dorsal vagal complex (DVC)) linked to the control of meal size and forebrain areas (e.g. hypothalamus, amygdala) linked to the regulation of food intake and body weight. This review assesses the potential central and peripheral targets by which oxytocin may inhibit body weight gain, its regulation by anorexigenic and orexigenic signals, and its potential use as a therapy that can circumvent leptin resistance and reverse the behavioral and metabolic abnormalities associated with DIO and genetically obese models. PMID:24065622

  17. Erythropoietin effects on blood pressure, hematocrit and body weight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary S. Lee; John S. Lee; Jong Y. Lee; Franz Halberg

    2002-01-01

    Erythropoietin (Epo), an angiogenic factor, stimulates increases blood viscosity and raises blood pressure (BP). We examined any circadian stage-dependence of Epo effects on BP, hematocrit (Hct) and body weight (BW) on 5 weeks old male Sprague-Dawley rats kept on a daily light cycle from 04:00 to 18:00, with Purina Chow and tap water freely available. To seek an effective treatment

  18. Whole-body diffusion-weighted imaging in lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Itti, E.; Luciani, A.; Haioun, C.; Meignan, M.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The current evidence regarding the usefulness of whole-body diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) in lymphoma is reviewed. DWI is capable of combining anatomical and functional information and is becoming a valuable tool in oncology, in particular for staging purposes. DWI may prove to be a useful biomarker in clinical decision making for patients with lymphoma. Large-scaled prospective studies are needed to confirm these preliminary results. PMID:20880782

  19. The relationship of parameters of body measures and body weight by using digital image analysis in pre-slaughter cattle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SERKAN OZKAYA; YALCIN BOZKURT

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to predict body weight (BW) of pre-slaughtering beef cattle using digital image analysis. Data used in this study were collected from slaughterhouses in Isparta and nearby provinces from 140 animals. Selected body measurements such as body weight (BW), wither height (WH), body length (BL), chest depth (CD), hip width (HW), hip height (HH) and

  20. Body Mass Index Self-Perception and Weight Management Behaviors during Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Kyeongra; Turk, Melanie T.; Allison, Virginia L.; James, Khara A.; Chasens, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study examined the relationship between actual body weight and self-perceived weight, and how perception of one's weight affects weight management behaviors among US adolescents. Methods: Adolescents ages 16-19 years with objectively-measured weight and height and self-reported perception of weight, weight-loss efforts, and…

  1. Successful maintenance of body weight reduction after individualized dietary counseling in obese subjects

    PubMed Central

    Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Mardas, Marcin; Warcho?, Wojciech; Jamka, Ma?gorzata; Walkowiak, Jaros?aw

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the effectiveness of individualized dietary counseling in obese subjects based on narrative interview technique on the maintenance of body weight reduction, changes in dietary behaviors, including type of cooking and physical activity. One-hundred subjects out of four-hundred patients met the inclusion criteria. Individually, 45-minute educational program with motivation counseling was performed in 0, 6 and 12 weeks of the study. Patients were advised to follow individually well-balanced diet for 12 weeks. The individuals were asked about the changes in their dietary habits (Food Frequency Questionnaire). The mean percentage of body weight changes from the baseline were as follows: in 6th week- 5.9%, in 12th week - 10.9% and in 52th week - 9.7% (P < 0.0001), however there were no statistically significant changes while comparing body weight in 12th and 52th week. The maintenance of body weight reduction was connected with the dietary habits changes, mainly the type of cooking and increased consumption of vegetable oils. In conclusion, individualized dietary counseling, based on narrative interview technique is an effective intervention for obesity treatment that may help maintain body weight reduction and adapt the pro-healthy changes in type of cooking and sources of dietary fat. PMID:25311271

  2. Relationships Between Body Composition and Shrunk Body Weight and Urea Space in Growing Goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Wuliji; A. L. Goetsch; R. Puchala; T. Sahlu; R. C. Merkel; G. Detweiler; S. Soto-Navarro; J. Luo; T. Shenkoru

    2003-01-01

    Wuliji, T., Goetsch, A.L., Puchala, R., Sahlu, T., Merkel, R.C, Detweiler, G., Soto-Navarro, S., Luo, J. and Shenkoru, T. 2003. Relationships between body composition and shrunk body weight and urea space in growing goats. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 23: 1–24.Growing Spanish wethers and doelings (31; 3.5 mo) consumed ad libitum diets differing in quality continuously for 18 wk or with

  3. Phytochemicals in the Control of Human Appetite and Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Tucci, Sonia A.

    2010-01-01

    Since obesity has grown to epidemic proportions, its effective management is a very important clinical issue. Despite the great amount of scientific effort that has been put into understanding the mechanisms that lead to overconsumption and overweight, at the moment very few approaches to weight management are effective in the long term. On the other hand, modern society is also affected by the growing incidence of eating disorders on the other side of the spectrum such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa which are equally difficult to treat. This review will try to summarise the main findings available in the literature regarding the effect of plants or plant extracts (phytochemicals) on human appetite and body weight. The majority of plant extracts are not single compounds but rather a mixture of different molecules, therefore their mechanism of action usually targets several systems. In addition, since some cellular receptors tend to be widely distributed, sometimes a single molecule can have a widespread effect. This review will attempt to describe the main phytochemicals that have been suggested to affect the homeostatic mechanisms that influence intake and body weight. Clinical data will be summarised and scientific evidence will be reviewed.

  4. Body image satisfaction, dieting beliefs, and weight loss behaviors in adolescent girls and boys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan J. Paxton; Eleanor H. Wertheim; Kay Gibbons; George I. Szmukler; Lynne Hillier; Janice L. Petrovich

    1991-01-01

    Body image and weight loss beliefs and behaviors were assessed in 341 female and 221 male high school students. Estimates of body dissatisfaction varied depending on the measurement strategy used. Despite having similar weight distributions around the expected norm, girls were significantly more dissatisfied with their bodies than boys. Body Mass Index was positively related to body dissatisfaction in girls

  5. Thyroid Function and Body Weight: A Community-Based Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Bjergved, Lena; Jørgensen, Torben; Perrild, Hans; Laurberg, Peter; Krejbjerg, Anne; Ovesen, Lars; Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Knudsen, Nils

    2014-01-01

    Objective Body weight and overt thyroid dysfunction are associated. Cross-sectional population-based studies have repeatedly found that thyroid hormone levels, even within the normal reference range, might be associated with body weight. However, for longitudinal data, the association is less clear. Thus, we tested the association between serum thyrotropin (TSH) and body weight in a community-based sample of adult persons followed for 11 years. Methods A random sample of 4,649 persons aged 18–65 years from a general population participated in the DanThyr study in 1997–8. We included 2,102 individuals who participated at 11-year follow-up, without current or former treatment for thyroid disease and with measurements of TSH and weight at both examinations. Multiple linear regression models were used, stratified by sex and adjusted for age, smoking status, and leisure time physical activity. Results Baseline TSH concentration was not associated with change in weight (women, P?=?0.17; men, P?=?0.72), and baseline body mass index (BMI) was not associated with change in TSH (women, P?=?0.21; men, P?=?0.85). Change in serum TSH and change in weight were significantly associated in both sexes. Weight increased by 0.3 kg (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.1, 0.4, P?=?0.005) in women and 0.8 kg (95% CI 0.1, 1.4, P?=?0.02) in men for every one unit TSH (mU/L) increase. Conclusions TSH levels were not a determinant of future weight changes, and BMI was not a determinant for TSH changes, but an association between weight change and TSH change was present. PMID:24728291

  6. A systematic review and meta-analysis of changes in body weight in clinical trials of vegetarian diets.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Neal D; Levin, Susan M; Yokoyama, Yoko

    2015-06-01

    In observational studies, vegetarians generally have lower body weights compared with omnivores. However, weight changes that occur when vegetarian diets are prescribed have not been well quantified. We estimated the effect on body weight when vegetarian diets are prescribed. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for articles through December 31, 2013. Additional articles were identified from reference lists. We included intervention trials in which participants were adults, interventions included vegetarian diets of ?4 weeks' duration without energy intake limitations, and effects on body weight were reported. Two investigators independently extracted data using predetermined fields. Estimates of body weight change, comparing intervention groups to untreated control groups, were derived using a random effects model to estimate the weighted mean difference. To quantify effects on body weight of baseline weight, sex, age, study duration, study goals, type of diet, and study authorship, additional analyses examined within-group changes for all studies reporting variance data. We identified 15 trials (17 intervention groups), of which 4 included untreated controls. Prescription of vegetarian diets was associated with a mean weight change of -3.4 kg (95% CI -4.4 to -2.4; P<0.001) in an intention-to-treat analysis and -4.6 kg (95% CI -5.4 to -3.8; P<0.001) in a completer analysis (omitting missing post-intervention values). Greater weight loss was reported in studies with higher baseline weights, smaller proportions of female participants, older participants, or longer durations, and in studies in which weight loss was a goal. Using baseline data for missing values, I(2) equaled 52.3 (P=0.10), indicating moderate heterogeneity. When missing data were omitted, I(2) equaled 0 (P=0.65), indicating low heterogeneity. Studies are relatively few, with variable quality. The prescription of vegetarian diets reduces mean body weight, suggesting potential value for prevention and management of weight-related conditions. PMID:25620754

  7. Weight-Related Sport Motives and Girls’ Body Image, Weight Control Behaviors, and Self-Esteem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liesbeth Woertman; Frank C. Bakker; Raôul R. D. Oudejans

    2009-01-01

    Research has shown that exercise for weight control is associated with disordered eating indices in older adolescent or adult\\u000a exercisers in fitness centers. This study examined whether these relationships could be replicated in a more general sample\\u000a of 140 Dutch adolescent girls between 13 and 18 years old. Questions about sport participation, items from the Multidimensional\\u000a Body Image Questionnaire and BULIT-R,

  8. Plasma BDNF Levels Vary in Relation to Body Weight in Females

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, Anilkumar; Bruno, Davide; Sarreal, Antero S.; Hernando, Raymundo T.; Saint-Louis, Leslie A.; Nierenberg, Jay; Ginsberg, Stephen D.; Pomara, Nunzio; Mehta, Pankaj D.; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Buckley, Peter F.

    2012-01-01

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression as well as neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Recent studies show a role of BDNF in energy metabolism and body weight regulation. We examined BDNF levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from age matched elderly depressed and control subjects. Also, the association of BDNF levels with age, gender, body weight, body mass index (BMI), and cognitive performance was evaluated. We did not find any significant differences in plasma and CSF BDNF levels between depressed and control subjects. Plasma BDNF levels were negatively correlated with age (but not with BMI and body weight), when analyses were performed including both depressed and control subjects. A significant reduction in plasma BDNF levels was observed in females as compared to male subjects, and the change in BDNF levels were significantly and positively related to body weight in females. Furthermore, significant increases in Total Recall and Delayed Recall values were found in females as compared to males. In conclusion, the lower BDNF levels observed in females suggest that changes in peripheral BDNF levels are likely secondary to an altered energy balance. However, further studies using larger sample size are warranted. PMID:22768299

  9. Risk of Thromboembolism Following Body-Contouring Surgery After Massive Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, M.; Akhavani, M. A.; Muirhead, N.; Fleming, A. N. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: “Postbariatric” patients are at significant risk for increased postoperative complications. This study aimed to define the risk of venous thromboembolism following body-contouring surgery after massive weight loss. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on all patients who had undergone all forms of body-contouring procedures after massive weight loss between January 2005 and August 2012 at St George's Hospital, South West London, United Kingdom. Data were collected on patient demographics, comorbidities, risks factors for thromboembolism, preoperative and postoperative body mass index, and type of surgery. Results: A total of 135 operations were performed on 53 patients (43 females, 10 male), with an average age of 44.8 years (range, 26–56 years). Most had staged procedures including 55 abdominoplasties, 23 brachioplasties, 31 thigh lifts, 14 lower-body lifts, and 12 mastopexies. All patients received venous thromboembolism prophylaxis postoperatively including low-molecular-weight heparin (dalteparin) within an average of 22.5 hours after surgery and the application of intraoperative graduated compression stockings. Patients received dalteparin for an average of 4 days (range, 2–14 days), which correlated to their length of stay. One patient had a deep venous thrombosis 14 days postoperatively and then 2 days later developed a nonfatal pulmonary embolus, giving a venous thromboembolism prevalence of 0.74% (1/135). Conclusions: The clinically apparent venous thromboembolism prevalence was low among patients undergoing body-contouring procedures after massive weight loss in this study. We provide evidence of a successful algorithm to prevent venous thromboembolism for patients undergoing body-contouring procedures after massive weight loss. PMID:26171089

  10. Adolescent satisfaction with postpartum contraception and body weight concerns.

    PubMed

    Hellerstedt, W L; Story, M

    1998-06-01

    Factors having a potential effect on adolescents' use of and satisfaction with postpartum contraceptive methods were assessed in three focus groups involving 22 adolescent mothers of an infant under 12 months of age recruited from a Minnesota (US) clinic specializing in the prenatal and postpartum care of adolescent women. The average age of study participants was 17 years (range, 13-19 years). All adolescents chose to use contraception after delivery. 16 (73%) were using Depo-Provera, 3 were using oral contraceptives, and 3 were using condoms/foam. Most Depo-Provera users made their decision to accept this method with their prenatal care provider during pregnancy. Many had taken the pill at some point, but reported it was hard for them to take it every day. Despite concerns about side effects (especially increased hunger/weight gain and irregular menstrual bleeding), adolescent Depo-Provera acceptors preferred this method because it did not require daily compliance. 16 women (73%) considered themselves overweight, and they attributed this to both their pregnancy weight gain and their contraceptive method. Skepticism regarding their ability to lose weight through healthy eating and exercise was widespread. However, the desire to prevent another pregnancy through use of an effective method such as Depo-Provera was stronger than the desire to return to one's pre-pregnancy body weight. Overall, these adolescent mothers seemed resigned about their inability as a result of the demands of motherhood to resolve their malaise, fatigue, and sense of not being physically fit. These findings suggest a need for effective weight management and health-promoting programs for adolescent mothers that take into account their multiple role demands and generally limited financial resources. PMID:9627814

  11. Effects of nicotine on body weight in rats with access to “Junk” foods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil E. Grunberg; Kathryn A. Popp; Suzan E. Winders

    1988-01-01

    The present experiment examined effects of nicotine on body weight of male and female rats when Oreo cookies, potato chips, laboratory chow, and water were available. Body weight and eating behavior were measured for 17-day periods before, during, and after nicotine or saline administration. There was an inverse relationship between nicotine and body weight. These effects were paralleled by changes

  12. Body Image Changes Associated with Participation in an Intensive Lifestyle Weight Loss Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, T. M.; Bachand, A. R.; Han, H.; Ryan, D. H.; Bray, G. A.; Williamson, D. A.

    2010-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to test for changes in body image in men and women enrolled in the Look AHEAD trial. Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) is a multi-center, randomized controlled trial designed to test whether intentional weight loss reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in overweight individuals with type 2 diabetes. Participants included 157 adults at one site (Pennington Biomedical Research Center) of the Look AHEAD study. At baseline, the mean body mass index (BMI) of the female participants was 36.4, and the mean BMI for males was 33.5. Following baseline assessment, participants were randomly assigned to the Intensive Lifestyle intervention (ILI, n = 81) or Diabetes Support and Education (DSE, n = 76). The Body Morph Assessment version 2.0 (BMA 2.0) was used to assess estimates of perceived current body size, ideal body size, acceptable body size, and body image dissatisfaction at baseline and one year. Over the 1 year, participants in the ILI group had significantly greater reductions in weight (10.1% for men and 8.9% for women) than those in the DSE group (+ 0.8% for men and ?0.2%, for women). Perceived current body size was reduced significantly more in both men and women in the ILI group, relative to DSE. There were also significantly greater reductions in body image dissatisfaction in the ILI group, relative to the DSE group for men and women. The results of this study indicate that body image dissatisfaction improved following participation in an intensive behavioral weight loss program. PMID:21151020

  13. Endocannabinoids in the regulation of appetite and body weight.

    PubMed

    Kirkham, T C

    2005-09-01

    The discovery of cannabinoid receptors, together with the development of selective cannabinoid receptor antagonists, has encouraged a resurgence of cannabinoid pharmacology. With the identification of endogenous agonists, such as anandamide, scientists have sought to uncover the biological role of endocannabinoid systems; initially guided by the long-established actions of cannabis and exogenous cannabinoids such as delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). In particular, considerable research has examined endocannabinoid involvement in appetite, eating behaviour and body weight regulation. It is now confirmed that endocannabinoids, acting at brain CB1 cannabinoid receptors, stimulate appetite and ingestive behaviours, partly through interactions with more established orexigenic and anorexigenic signals. Key structures such as the nucleus accumbens and hypothalamic nuclei are sensitive sites for the hyperphagic actions of these substances, and endocannabinoid activity in these regions varies in relation to nutritional status and feeding expression. Behavioural studies indicate that endocannabinoids increase eating motivation by enhancing the incentive salience and hedonic evaluation of ingesta. Moreover, there is strong evidence of an endocannabinoid role in energy metabolism and fuel storage. Recent developments point to potential clinical benefits of cannabinoid receptor antagonists in the management of obesity, and of agonists in the treatment of other disorders of eating and body weight regulation. PMID:16148436

  14. Birth weight, body mass index and asthma in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Shaheen, S.; Sterne, J.; Montgomery, S.; Azima, H.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Impaired fetal growth may be a risk factor for asthma although evidence in children is conflicting and there are few data in adults. Little is known about risk factors which may influence asthma in late childhood or early adult life. Whilst there are clues that fatness may be important, this has been little studied in young adults. The relations between birth weight and childhood and adult anthropometry and asthma, wheeze, hayfever, and eczema were investigated in a nationally representative sample of young British adults.?METHODS—A total of 8960 individuals from the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70) were studied. They had recently responded to a questionnaire at 26 years of age in which they were asked whether they had suffered from asthma, wheeze, hayfever, and eczema in the previous 12 months. Adult body mass index (BMI) was calculated from reported height and weight.?RESULTS—The prevalence of asthma at 26 years fell with increasing birth weight. After controlling for potential confounding factors, the odds ratio comparing the lowest birth weight group (<2 kg) with the modal group (3-3.5 kg) was 1.99 (95% CI 0.96 to 4.12). The prevalence of asthma increased with increasing adult BMI. After controlling for birth weight and other confounders, the odds ratio comparing highest with lowest quintile was 1.72 (95% CI 1.29 to 2.29). The association between fatness and asthma was stronger in women; odds ratios comparing overweight women (BMI 25-29.99) and obese women (BMI ?30) with those of normal weight (BMI <25) were 1.51 (95% CI 1.11 to 2.06) and 1.84 (95% CI 1.19to 2.84), respectively. The BMI at 10 years was not related to adult asthma. Similar associations with birth weight and adult BMI were present for wheeze but not for hayfever or eczema.?CONCLUSIONS—Impaired fetal growth and adult fatness are risk factors for adult asthma.?? PMID:10212102

  15. Intense sweeteners, energy intake and the control of body weight.

    PubMed

    Bellisle, F; Drewnowski, A

    2007-06-01

    Replacing sugar with low-calorie sweeteners is a common strategy for facilitating weight control. By providing sweet taste without calories, intense sweeteners help lower energy density of beverages and some foods. Reduced dietary energy density should result in lower energy intakes--but are the energy reduction goals, in fact, achieved? The uncoupling of sweetness and energy, afforded by intense sweeteners, has been the focus of numerous studies over the past two decades. There are recurring arguments that intense sweeteners increase appetite for sweet foods, promote overeating, and may even lead to weight gain. Does reducing energy density of sweet beverages and foods have a measurable impact on appetite and energy intakes, as examined both in short-term studies and over a longer period? Can reductions in dietary energy density achieved with intense sweeteners really affect body weight control? This paper reviews evidence from laboratory, clinical and epidemiological studies in the context of current research on energy density, satiety and the control of food intake. PMID:17299484

  16. [Promoting sustainable behavior change in body weight control].

    PubMed

    Camolas, José; Santos, Osvaldo; Moreira, Pedro; do Carmo, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    There is a wide acknowledgement of obesity as a relevant clinical entity. Such relevance can be inferred by the huge worldwide amount of research and related health promotion and clinical efforts. Though the evidence sustains some cues for the therapeutic success, the overall long-term effectiveness of obesity treatment tends to be not so satisfactory. Scientific literature is not unequivocal in key areas of nutritional intervention, such as the magnitude of caloric restriction, proportion of macronutrients, meal frequency, among others. The same applies to the area of physical activity recommendation for weight control. As a correlate of this scenario of incertitude, there is a proliferation of interventions and there is a clear need to integrate the scientific and clinical evidence. This paper presents a narrative literature review of key issues of clinical practice in obesity, regarding a set of actions that, in the overall, have as main purpose the promotion of reduction and/or control of body weight. The role of the health professional is highlighted as a facilitator of acquisition of habits that favor weight control, by integrating the professional's scientific knowledge with the patient's readiness for and capacity to change. PMID:24581200

  17. The relation of body weight, egg weight, rate of production and breeding to feed efficiency for egg production 

    E-print Network

    McCracken, Don Frederick

    1955-01-01

    "" (2) Change in Body Wt. . 4273a? (3) Final Body Weight . 6363?" . 7158ee . 5577ea (4) Egg Production . 5351ee (5) Av. Egg Weight . 4081ee ~ 5375ae (6) Total Wt ~ of Bggs, 4655ke ~ 5793"" " Significant at the . 05 level of probability...

  18. Efficacy of ?-Lactalbumin and Milk Protein on Weight Loss and Body Composition During Energy Restriction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stijn Soenen; Ananda Hochstenbach-Waelen; Margriet S. Westerterp-Plantenga

    2011-01-01

    Our objective was to examine whether elevated ?-lactalbumin (?lac) protein intake compared to elevated supra sustained milk protein (SSP) and sustained milk protein (SP) intake results into a difference in body weight and body composition over a 6-month energy-restriction intervention. Body weight, body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE), satiety and blood- and urine-parameters of 87 subjects (BMI 31 ± 5

  19. When ignorance is bliss: weight perception, body mass index and quality of life in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, J; Millar, L; Petersen, S; Swinburn, B; Lewis, A J

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Body weight is negatively associated with adolescent Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL). Despite this well-established relationship, some adolescents with obesity do not display the expected HRQoL decreases. This study hypothesised weight perception as a moderator of the association between weight status and adolescent HRQoL. Subjects/Methods: Subjects were secondary school students from an obesity prevention project in the Barwon South-West region of Victoria, Australia, entitled It's Your Move (N=3040). Measures included standardised body mass index (BMI-z; World Health Organization growth standards), weight perception and HRQoL, measured by the Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory. Linear regression and average marginal effect analyses were conducted on cross-sectional baseline data to determine the significance of any interaction between weight perception and measured weight status in shaping adolescent HRQoL. Results: The BMI-z/perceived weight status interaction was significantly associated with adolescent HRQoL outcomes. Adolescents with BMI z-scores in the overweight/obesity range who perceived themselves as overweight had lower HRQoL than those who perceived themselves as ‘about right.' Conversely, adolescents with BMI scores in the lower end of the normal range or in the thinness range who perceived themselves as underweight had lower HRQoL than those with ‘about right' perceptions. Conclusions: This was the first study to report third-variable impacts of a body-perception variable on the relationship between adolescent weight status and HRQoL. Adolescents' weight perceptions significantly moderated the relationship between overweight/obesity and reduced HRQoL. Adolescents who were outside the normal weight range and misperceived their objectively measured weight status enjoyed a higher HRQoL than adolescents whose weight perception was concordant with their actual weight status. These findings suggest that practitioners may need to exercise caution when educating adolescents about their weight status, as such ‘reality checks' may negatively impact on adolescent HRQoL. It is suggested that more research be conducted to examine this potential effect. PMID:24824556

  20. Novel method to predict body weight in children based on age and morphological facial features.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ziyin; Barrett, Jeffrey S; Barrett, Kyle; Barrett, Ryan; Ng, Chee M

    2015-04-01

    A new and novel approach of predicting the body weight of children based on age and morphological facial features using a three-layer feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN) model is reported. The model takes in four parameters, including age-based CDC-inferred median body weight and three facial feature distances measured from digital facial images. In this study, thirty-nine volunteer subjects with age ranging from 6-18 years old and BW ranging from 18.6-96.4 kg were used for model development and validation. The final model has a mean prediction error of 0.48, a mean squared error of 18.43, and a coefficient of correlation of 0.94. The model shows significant improvement in prediction accuracy over several age-based body weight prediction methods. Combining with a facial recognition algorithm that can detect, extract and measure the facial features used in this study, mobile applications that incorporate this body weight prediction method may be developed for clinical investigations where access to scales is limited. PMID:25370186

  1. Effects of Royal Jelly Supplementation on Body Weight and Dietary Intake in Type 2 Diabetic Females

    PubMed Central

    Pourmoradian, Samira; Mahdavi, Reza; Mobasseri, Majid; Faramarzi, Elnaz; Mobasseri, Mehrnoosh

    2012-01-01

    Background: The objective of the current study was to assess the effects of royal jelly supple-mentation on body weight, total daily energy and macronutrients intakes in type2 diabetic fe-males. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, fifty female volunteers with type2 diabetes were as-signed into the supplemented (n=25) and placebo (n=25) groups, given a daily dose of 1000 mg royal jelly soft gel or placebo, for 8 weeks, respectively. Before and after the intervention, body weight and height of subjects were measured and body mass index was calculated. Dietary intake of patients was assessed using 24-hour food recall questionnaire for three non consecutive days (including 1 weekend day) and analyzed with Nutritionist IV software. The normally distributed data were compared using paired and independent t-tests, where appropriate. Results: Royal jelly supplementation significantly (P<0.01) decreased the mean body weight (72.45±4.42 vs. 71.00±6.44 kg) while it increased insignificantly in placebo group (73.02±6.44 vs 73.52±6.80 kg). Royal jelly supplementation resulted in significant decrease of mean daily total energy (P<0.01) and carbohydrate (P<0.01) intakes, while in placebo group the mean daily total energy and fat intakes were increased significantly (P<0.05). Conclusion: Supplementation with royal jelly may be beneficial in weight management of di-abetic patients. PMID:24688939

  2. Nutrigenomics of Body Weight Regulation: A Rationale for Careful Dissection of Individual Contributors

    PubMed Central

    Keijer, Jaap; Hoevenaars, Femke P. M.; Nieuwenhuizen, Arie; van Schothorst, Evert M.

    2014-01-01

    Body weight stability may imply active regulation towards a certain physiological condition, a body weight setpoint. This interpretation is ill at odds with the world-wide increase in overweight and obesity. Until now, a body weight setpoint has remained elusive and the setpoint theory did not provide practical clues for body weight reduction interventions. For this an alternative theoretical model is necessary, which is available as the settling point model. The settling point model postulates that there is little active regulation towards a predefined body weight, but that body weight settles based on the resultant of a number of contributors, represented by the individual’s genetic predisposition, in interaction with environmental and socioeconomic factors, such as diet and lifestyle. This review refines the settling point model and argues that by taking body weight regulation from a settling point perspective, the road will be opened to careful dissection of the various contributors to establishment of body weight and its regulation. This is both necessary and useful. Nutrigenomic technologies may help to delineate contributors to body weight settling. Understanding how and to which extent the different contributors influence body weight will allow the design of weight loss and weight maintenance interventions, which hopefully are more successful than those that are currently available. PMID:25338273

  3. Rapid body weight gain increases the risk of UV radiation–induced skin carcinogenesis in SKH-1 hairless mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albena T. Dinkova-Kostova; Jed W. Fahey; Stephanie N. Jenkins; Scott L. Wehage; Paul Talalay

    2008-01-01

    Although it is well known that caloric restriction reduces the risk of chronic diseases including cancer, the role of weight gain in the development of UV light–induced tumors has not, to our knowledge, been investigated. In view of the increase in obesity worldwide, we asked the question whether there is any relationship between body weight gain and skin tumor development.

  4. Determination of body measurements on the Holstein cows using digital image analysis and estimation of live weight with regression analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sakir Tasdemir; Abdullah Urkmez; Seref Inal

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the body measurements (BMs) of Holstein cows were determined using digital image analysis (IA) and these were used to estimate the live weight (LW) of each cow. For this purpose, an image capture arrangement was established in a dairy cattle farm. BMs including wither height (WH), hip height (HH), body length (BL), hip width (HW), plus the

  5. The impact of excess body weight at the hospital frontline

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Quantification of disease burden by deaths or years lived with disability is a useful indicator as it informs prevention by accounting for health loss but it does not reflect the needs for health services. An alternative indicator is to quantify the impact of a risk factor on health care utilization. In an article published in BMC Medicine, Reeves and colleagues describe the relationship between body mass index in 1.2 million women (England) and hospital admission rates. The main finding was that around one in eight hospital admissions was attributable to overweight or obesity, translating to around 420,000 extra hospital admissions, and two million extra days spent in hospital, annually. These findings reinforce the evidence that excess body weight is associated with extensive healthcare utilization and emphasize the need to scale-up and speed-up research if global problems, such as obesity, are to be tackled with due alacrity. Please see related research: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/12/45. PMID:24742301

  6. The impact of excess body weight at the hospital frontline.

    PubMed

    Renehan, Andrew G; Buchan, Iain E

    2014-01-01

    Quantification of disease burden by deaths or years lived with disability is a useful indicator as it informs prevention by accounting for health loss but it does not reflect the needs for health services. An alternative indicator is to quantify the impact of a risk factor on health care utilization. In an article published in BMC Medicine, Reeves and colleagues describe the relationship between body mass index in 1.2 million women (England) and hospital admission rates. The main finding was that around one in eight hospital admissions was attributable to overweight or obesity, translating to around 420,000 extra hospital admissions, and two million extra days spent in hospital, annually. These findings reinforce the evidence that excess body weight is associated with extensive healthcare utilization and emphasize the need to scale-up and speed-up research if global problems, such as obesity, are to be tackled with due alacrity.Please see related research: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/12/45. PMID:24742301

  7. Body Weight, Body Condition Score, and Wither Height of Prepartum Holstein Cows and Birth Weight and Sex of Calves by Parity: A Database and Summary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. F. Kertz; L. F. Reutzel; B. A. Barton; R. L. Ely

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of body weight (BW), body condi- tion score, wither height, calf birth weight, and calf sex were recorded by parity from 728 Holstein cows and heifers at the Purina Research Center during the 8-wk prepartum period. Data were compiled over 5 yr. Mean daily BW gain was 0.93 kg. Loss of BW at parturition was 11.1%. Mean body condition

  8. Infant Body Composition and Adipokine Concentrations in Relation to Maternal Gestational Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Estampador, Angela C.; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Renström, Frida; Nelson, Scott M.; Mogren, Ingrid; Persson, Margareta; Sattar, Naveed; Domellöf, Magnus; Franks, Paul W.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate associations of maternal gestational weight gain and body composition and their impact on offspring body composition and adipocytokine, glucose, and insulin concentrations at age 4 months. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a prospective study including 31 mother-infant pairs (N = 62). Maternal body composition was assessed using doubly labeled water. Infant body composition was assessed at 4 months using air displacement plethysmography, and venous blood was assayed for glucose, insulin, adiponectin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and leptin concentrations. RESULTS Rate of gestational weight gain in midpregnancy was significantly associated with infant fat mass (r = 0.41, P = 0.03); rate of gestational weight in late pregnancy was significantly associated with infant fat-free mass (r = 0.37, P = 0.04). Infant birth weight was also strongly correlated with infant fat-free mass at 4 months (r = 0.63, P = 0.0002). Maternal BMI and maternal fat mass were strongly inversely associated with infant IL-6 concentrations (r = ?0.60, P = 0.002 and r = ?0.52, P = 0.01, respectively). Infant fat-free mass was inversely related to infant adiponectin concentrations (r = ?0.48, P = 0.008) and positively correlated with infant blood glucose adjusted for insulin concentrations (r = 0.42, P = 0.04). No significant associations for leptin were observed. CONCLUSIONS Timing of maternal weight gain differentially impacts body composition of the 4-month-old infant, which in turn appears to affect the infant’s glucose and adipokine concentrations. PMID:24623025

  9. Relationship between perceived body weight and body mass index based on self- reported height and weight among university students: a cross-sectional study in seven European countries

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite low rates of obesity, many university students perceive themselves as overweight, especially women. This is of concern, because inappropriate weight perceptions can lead to unhealthy behaviours including eating disorders. Methods We used the database from the Cross National Student Health Survey (CNSHS), consisting of 5,900 records of university students from Bulgaria, Denmark, Germany, Lithuania, Poland, Spain and Turkey to analyse differences in perceived weight status based on the question: "Do you consider yourself much too thin, a little too thin, just right, a little too fat or much too fat?". The association between perceived weight and body mass index (BMI) calculated from self-reported weight and height was assessed with generalized non-parametric regression in R library gam. Results Although the majority of students reported a normal BMI (72-84% of males, 65-83% of females), only 32% to 68% of students considered their weight "just right". Around 20% of females with BMI of 20 kg/m2 considered themselves "a little too fat" or "too fat", and the percentages increased to 60% for a BMI of 22.5 kg/m2. Male students rarely felt "a little too fat" or "too fat" below BMI of 22.5 kg/m2, but most felt too thin with a BMI of 20 kg/m2. Conclusions Weight ideals are rather uniform across the European countries, with female students being more likely to perceive themselves as "too fat" at a normal BMI, while male students being more likely to perceive themselves as "too thin". Programs to prevent unhealthy behaviours to achieve ill-advised weight ideals may benefit students. PMID:20105333

  10. Height, weight, body mass index and learning achievement in Kumi district, East of Uganda

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hedwig Acham; Joyce K. Kikafunda; Silas Oluka; Marian K. Malde; Thorkild Tylleskar

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to determine the relationship between nutritional status as measured by height-for- age, weight-for-age, body mass index for age (BMI for-age) and learning achievement. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used. The study was conducted in 34 elementary schools in the district of Kumi, east of Uganda. The subjects included a random selection of 1003 children (457 boys and

  11. Effects of dairy intake on body weight and fat: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials1234

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mu; Pan, An; Malik, Vasanti S; Hu, Frank B

    2012-01-01

    Background: Some intervention studies have suggested that dairy products may influence body weight, but the results remain controversial. Objective: We identified and quantified the effects of dairy consumption on body weight and fat mass from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Design: We conducted a comprehensive search of PubMed and EMBASE databases (to April 2012) of English reports of RCTs regarding dairy consumption on body weight, body fat, or body weight and body fat in adults. The results across studies were pooled by using a random-effects meta-analysis. Results: Twenty-nine RCTs were included with a total of 2101 participants. Overall, consumption of dairy products did not result in a significant reduction in weight (?0.14 kg; 95% CI: ?0.66, 0.38 kg; I2 = 86.3%). In subgroup analysis, consumption of dairy products reduced body weight in the context of energy restriction or short-term intervention (<1 y) trials but had the opposite effect in ad libitum dietary interventions or long-term trials (?1 y). Twenty-two RCTs that reported results on body fat showed a modest reduction in the dairy group (?0.45 kg; 95% CI: ?0.79, ?0.11 kg; I2 = 70.9%), and further stratified analysis indicated significant beneficial effects of dairy intervention on body fat in energy-restricted or short-term trials but not in long-term or ad libitum studies. Conclusions: This meta-analysis does not support the beneficial effect of increasing dairy consumption on body weight and fat loss in long-term studies or studies without energy restriction. However, dairy products may have modest benefits in facilitating weight loss in short-term or energy-restricted RCTs. PMID:22932282

  12. Seasonal changes in thermogenesis, organ weights, and body composition in the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Robert Lynch

    1973-01-01

    Summary 1.Seasonal adjustments in wild-caughtPeromyscus leucopus include autumn increases in basal metabolic, nonshivering thermogenesis, and interscapular brown fat and decreases in weights of gonads, liver, adrenal glands, and total lipid. Body weight and nonextractable dry weight do not change.2.Basal metabolic rate, nonshivering thermogenesis, and interscapular brown fat increase following initial cold exposure in mid-September and are maintained at similar levels

  13. Body Weight and Percent Body Fat Increase during the Transition from High School to University in Females

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melinda J. Edmonds; Kelly J. Ferreira; Erica A. Nikiforuk; Alida K. Finnie; Sarah H. Leavey; Alison M. Duncan; Janis A. Randall Simpson

    2008-01-01

    A critical period for weight gain may occur during the transition from high school to university. This descriptive, noncontrolled cohort study of 116 healthy females examined the effect of this transition over three study visits in first year university. The main outcome measure was body weight; others were height, body composition, waist circumference, dietary intake, and participation in physical and

  14. CORRELATIONS OF WEIGHT, LENGTH, AND OTHER BODY MEASUREMENTS IN THE WEAKFISH, CYNOSCION RECALlS

    E-print Network

    occupying more than five minutes. The possi- bility of shrinkage and of loss of weight through evaporationCORRELATIONS OF WEIGHT, LENGTH, AND OTHER BODY MEASUREMENTS IN THE WEAKFISH, CYNOSCION RECALl for pagination #12;CORRELATIONS OF WEIGHT, LENGTH, AND OTHER BODY MEASUREMENTS IN THE WEAKFISH, CYNOSCION REGALIS

  15. Mood and Body Weight in a Woman with Rapid Cycling Bipolar Disorder: A Case Report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LORETTA DIPIETRO; LASZLO GYULAI; ALBERT J. STUNKARD; PETER C. WHYBROW

    To describe the relationship between mood and body weight, we analyzed 122 consecutive days of data from a 52-year-old woman with rapid cycling bipolar disorder, type II. The patient completed a daily log of self- reported mood, and weighed and recorded her weight daily. Mood and body weight were highly correlated (r = 0.60), and a decrease in mood preceded

  16. Rapid Changes of Body Weight after a Headstand: A Metrological Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Acuña-Espinoza, Alejandro; Aragón-Vargas, Luis Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent rules from amateur wrestling sport-governing bodies intended to discourage extreme weight loss measures, wrestling culture still includes varied methods to make weight, including holding a headstand position immediately before stepping on the scale. The procedure, according to the notion, will reduce reported mass anywhere between 250 and 500g (weight between 2.45 and 4.89 N). The aim of this study was to compare any possible differences between the headstand procedure (HS) and a normal (CON) weight measure, using a metrological approach defined by the European Association of National Metrology Institutes. Seventeen adult men were weighed on a force plate before and after doing a headstand or standing normally for 30s. The order of treatment application was assigned randomly. Post-test weight was significantly larger than pre-test (mean±s.d.) (640.7±62.8 N and 640.3±62.7 N, respectively, p<0.0001) under both treatments. No treatment vs. time of test interaction was found. No significant difference was found between CON and HS weight (640.6±62.8 N and 640.9±62.9 N, respectively, p=0.3815). The metrological tests suggest that the statistical differences found are related to the force plate measuring errors in every pre-established time interval. The 45g (0.44 N) difference found between pretest and post-test lies within the uncertainty range identified for the equipment (±110 g or 1.08 N). In conclusion, a 30-second headstand has no significant effect on registered body weight. The small variations obtained were due to equipment-associated measuring errors. This experiment offers systematic empirical evidence to aid in the elimination of this unjustified practice among the wrestling community. PMID:25993631

  17. [Effect of a low-energy diet on body weight and body composition after one year treatment].

    PubMed

    Grzybek, Agnieszka; Pachocka, Lucyna; Targosz, Urszula; K?osiewicz-Latoszek, Longina

    2006-01-01

    Implementation of a lowenergy diet is recommended for overweight and obesity treatment. However, some patients gain weight after successful body weight reduction achieved at the beginning. This study was aimed to evaluate body weight and body composition changes in subjects with BMI > or = 25 after 1 year of a low-energy diet. The study group consisted of 70 women, aged 47.3, BMI 37.5 kg/m2 and 25 men, aged 42.4, BMI 37.1 kg/m2. 1000 kcal diet was recommended for women and 1500 kcal diet for men. Body weight measurement and body composition assessment by BIA were performed at entry and every 2 months of the study. Subjects were divided in 2 groups: I--patients with body weight reduction achieved after 6 and 12 months of treatment (38 women, 16 men), II--subjects who lost weight in first 6 months and gained weight in the next 6 months (32 women, 9 men). After 1 year treatment averaged body weight reduction in women was 11.9% +/- 8.6, in men 13.9% +/- 8.3. In women from group I body weight decrement was 16.4 +/- 11.2 kg (15 +/- 9%), and in women from group II 7.5 +/- 7.7 kg, (8.1 +/- 6.7%), respectively. Men in group I lost 22 +/- 14.3 kg (16.7 +/- 8.7%), men in group II 8.8 +/- 5.3 kg (9 +/- 5.3%). 10% body weight reduction after 1 year was achieved in 29 women (41.4%) and in 16 men (64%). In group I changes of body weight in 6-12 months were related to body weight decrement in the first 6 months, in group II this correlation was not stated. Effect of treatment achieved in 6-12 months was not related to age. Implementation of a low energy diet resulted in body weight reduction, the goal of treatment--10% body weight decrement, was achieved in 41.4% women and in 64% men. PMID:17479857

  18. Low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity of children and adolescents from a Brazilian region of low economic status

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Dartagnan Pinto; Almeida, Francisléia Nascimento; M., Jaime Tolentino; Maia, Maria de Fátima de M.; Tolentino, Thatiana Maia

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity in a representative sample of children and adolescents from a Brazilian region with low economic development. METHODS: A total of 982 girls and 986 boys, aged seven to 17 years old and assisted by Segundo Tempo Program, from Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were included in the study. Low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity were defined based on body mass cut-off indexes recommended by the International Obesity Task Force. The prevalence of the nutritional status according to sex and age was compared by chi-square test. RESULTS: In girls, the frequency of low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity was 4.1, 18.4 and 3.8%, respectively; in boys, these percentages were 6.3, 13.2 and 2.9%, respectively. The low body weight/thinness for girls raised from 2.7% (7-10 years old) to 5.5% (15-17 years old); the body weight excess (overweight and obesity) decreased from 30.1 to 16.2% for the same age groups. In boys, the corresponding trends were from 3.2 to 9.4% for low body weight/thinness, and from 23.4 to 9.2%, for body weight excess. CONCLUSIONS: The data indicate that, even in a region with low economic status, the body weight excess was the main problem associated with nutritional health. The high overweight and obesity prevalence rates indicate the need of public policies for promoting healthy feeding behaviors and physical activity. PMID:24473947

  19. Central nervous system control of food intake and body weight

    E-print Network

    Bruno, John P.

    is that in response to weight loss, both the motivation to find food and the size of individual meals tend to increase to weight loss induced by voluntary caloric restriction are robust in both lean and obese individuals by overfeeding1,2 , indicating that biological mechanisms protect against weight gain as well as weight loss

  20. Self-perception of body weight, weight management practices and goals, and other weight-related factors in central and eastern European adolescents.

    PubMed

    Page, Randy M; Ihász, Ferenc; Uvacsek, Martina; Kalabiska, Irén; Johnson, Erin; Hantiu, Iacob; Klarova, Renata; Simonek, Jaromir

    Self-perception of body weight, management practices and goals, and other weight-related factors were assessed among a sample of 2,566 adolescents from 30 high schools in Hungary, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Romania, Ukraine, and Poland. Students who perceived themselves as much too fat were more likely than those with other weight perceptions to engage in weight management practices to lose weight, have higher body mass index, rate themselves lower on physical attractiveness, and estimate higher percentages of their same-sex friends as trying to lose weight. Similar to other research, boys and girls differed on self-perception of weight and other weight-related factors. Cross-cultural comparisons between central and eastern European adolescents and U.S. adolescents, as well as east and southeast Asian youth are made. Implications for health education practice are discussed. PMID:18039628

  1. Effects of long-term calcium intake on body weight, body fat and bone in growing rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne-Marie Bollen; Xian-Qin Bai

    2005-01-01

    Increased calcium intake may reduce body weight and fat in non-growing individuals. This study explored the long-term effects of high versus low calcium intake on body weight, body fat, BMC, BMD and bone size in growing male and female rats. Ninety male and 90 female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned either to a high calcium (1%) or low calcium (0.25%)

  2. Associations between dairy protein intake and body weight and risk markers of diabetes and CVD during weight maintenance.

    PubMed

    Bendtsen, Line Q; Lorenzen, Janne K; Larsen, Thomas M; van Baak, Marleen; Papadaki, Angeliki; Martinez, J Alfredo; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Jebb, Susan A; Kunešová, Marie; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Saris, Wim H M; Astrup, Arne; Raben, Anne

    2014-03-14

    Dairy products have previously been reported to be associated with beneficial effects on body weight and metabolic risk markers. Moreover, primary data from the Diet, Obesity and Genes (DiOGenes) study indicate a weight-maintaining effect of a high-protein-low-glycaemic index diet. The objective of the present study was to examine putative associations between consumption of dairy proteins and changes in body weight and metabolic risk markers after weight loss in obese and overweight adults. Results were based on secondary analyses of data obtained from overweight and obese adults who completed the DiOGenes study. The study consisted of an 8-week weight-loss phase and a 6-month weight-maintenance (WM) phase, where the subjects were given five different diets varying in protein content and glycaemic index. In the present study, data obtained from all the subjects were pooled. Dairy protein intake was estimated from 3 d dietary records at two time points (week 4 and week 26) during the WM phase. Body weight and metabolic risk markers were determined at baseline (week -9 to -11) and before and at the end of the WM phase (week 0 and week 26). Overall, no significant associations were found between consumption of dairy proteins and changes in body weight and metabolic risk markers. However, dairy protein intake tended to be negatively associated with body weight gain (P=0·08; ?=-0·17), but this was not persistent when controlled for total protein intake, which indicates that dairy protein adds no additional effect to the effect of total protein. Therefore, the present study does not report that dairy proteins are more favourable than other proteins for body weight regulation. PMID:24168904

  3. Associations between body weight perception and weight control behaviour in South Indian children: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Swaminathan, Sumathi; Selvam, Sumithra; Pauline, Maria; Vaz, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the patterns of weight loss behaviour and the association between weight loss attempts with actual weight status and children's and parental perceptions of weight status. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting Karnataka, South India. Participants 1874 girls and boys aged 8–14?years from seven schools in Karnataka, South India. Main outcome measures The association between weight loss attempts and sociodemographic factors, weight status and the child's or the parent's perception of weight status. Results Approximately 73% of overweight and obese, 35% of normal weight and 22% of underweight children attempted to lose weight. Children of lower socioeconomic groups studying in schools in the local vernacular and overweight/obese children were more likely to attempt to lose weight (adjusted OR ie, AOR=1.57, 95% CI 1.11 to 2.25; AOR=4.38, 95% CI 2.64 to 7.28, respectively). Perception of weight status was associated with weight loss attempts. Thus, children who were of normal weight but perceived themselves to be overweight/obese were three times more likely to attempt weight loss compared with those who accurately perceived themselves as being of normal weight, while the odds of attempting weight loss were the highest for those who were overweight and perceived themselves to be so (AOR?18). Conclusions Children are likely to attempt weight loss in India irrespective of their weight status, age and gender. Children who were actually overweight as well as those who were perceived by themselves or by their parents to be overweight or obese were highly likely to try to lose weight. It is necessary to understand body weight perceptions in communities with a dual burden of being overweight and undernourished, if intervention programmes for either are to be successful. PMID:23474789

  4. Prospect theory and body mass: characterizing psychological parameters for weight-related risk attitudes and weight-gain aversion.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S

    2015-01-01

    We developed a novel decision-making paradigm that allows us to apply prospect theory in behavioral economics to body mass. 67 healthy young adults completed self-report measures and two decision-making tasks for weight-loss, as well as for monetary rewards. We estimated risk-related preference and loss aversion parameters for each individual, separately for weight-loss and monetary rewards choice data. Risk-seeking tendency for weight-loss was positively correlated with body mass index in individuals who desired to lose body weight, whereas the risk-seeking for momentary rewards was not. Risk-seeking for weight-loss was correlated to excessive body shape preoccupations, while aversion to weight-gain was correlated with self-reports of behavioral involvement for successful weight-loss. We demonstrated that prospect theory can be useful in explaining the decision-making process related to body mass. Applying prospect theory is expected to advance our understanding of decision-making mechanisms in obesity, which might prove helpful for improving healthy choices. PMID:25852628

  5. Prospect theory and body mass: characterizing psychological parameters for weight-related risk attitudes and weight-gain aversion

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S.

    2015-01-01

    We developed a novel decision-making paradigm that allows us to apply prospect theory in behavioral economics to body mass. 67 healthy young adults completed self-report measures and two decision-making tasks for weight-loss, as well as for monetary rewards. We estimated risk-related preference and loss aversion parameters for each individual, separately for weight-loss and monetary rewards choice data. Risk-seeking tendency for weight-loss was positively correlated with body mass index in individuals who desired to lose body weight, whereas the risk-seeking for momentary rewards was not. Risk-seeking for weight-loss was correlated to excessive body shape preoccupations, while aversion to weight-gain was correlated with self-reports of behavioral involvement for successful weight-loss. We demonstrated that prospect theory can be useful in explaining the decision-making process related to body mass. Applying prospect theory is expected to advance our understanding of decision-making mechanisms in obesity, which might prove helpful for improving healthy choices. PMID:25852628

  6. Natural mixtures of POPs affected body weight gain and induced transcription of genes involved in weight regulation and insulin signaling.

    PubMed

    Lyche, Jan L; Nourizadeh-Lillabadi, Rasoul; Karlsson, Camilla; Stavik, Benedicte; Berg, Vidar; Skåre, Janneche Utne; Alestrøm, Peter; Ropstad, Erik

    2011-04-01

    Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions worldwide, and is associated with chronic illnesses such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and dyslipidemias (metabolic syndrome). Commonly held causes of obesity are overeating coupled with a sedentary lifestyle. However, it has also been postulated that exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may be related to the significant increase in the prevalence of obesity and associated diseases. In the present study, developmental and reproductive effects of lifelong exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of two natural mixtures of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were investigated using classical and molecular methods in a controlled zebrafish model. The mixtures used were extracted from burbot (Lota lota) liver originating from freshwater systems in Norway (Lake Mjøsa and Lake Losna). The concentration of POPs in the zebrafish ranged from levels detected in wild fish (Lake Mjøsa and Lake Losna), to concentrations reported in human and wildlife populations. Phenotypic effects observed in both exposure groups included (1) earlier onset of puberty, (2) elevated male/female sex ratio, and (3) increased body weight at 5 months of age. Interestingly, genome-wide transcription profiling identified functional networks of genes, in which key regulators of weight homeostasis (PPARs, glucocoricoids, CEBPs, estradiol), steroid hormone functions (glucocoricoids, estradiol, NCOA3) and insulin signaling (HNF4A, CEBPs, PPARG) occupied central positions. The increased weight and the regulation of genes associated with weight homeostasis and insulin signaling observed in the present study suggest that environmental pollution may affect the endocrine regulation of the metabolism, possibly leading to increased weight gain and obesity. PMID:21356182

  7. Baseline Anandamide Levels and Body Weight Impact the Weight Loss Effect of CB1 Receptor Antagonism in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Cecilia; Hjorth, Stephan; Karpefors, Martin; Hansson, Göran I.

    2015-01-01

    The individual weight loss response to obesity treatment is diverse. Here we test the hypothesis that the weight loss response to the CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant is influenced by endogenous levels of receptor agonists. We show that baseline anandamide levels and body weight independently contribute to predict the treatment response to rimonabant in rodents, demonstrating that addition of biomarkers related to mode of action is relevant for a personalized health care approach to obesity treatment. PMID:25549047

  8. Effects of nicotine on body weight in rats with access to "junk" foods.

    PubMed

    Grunberg, N E; Popp, K A; Winders, S E

    1988-01-01

    The present experiment examined effects of nicotine on body weight of male and female rats when Oreo cookies, potato chips, laboratory chow, and water were available. Body weight and eating behavior were measured for 17-day periods before, during, and after nicotine or saline administration. There was an inverse relationship between nicotine and body weight. These effects were paralleled by changes in consumption of sweet foods. There were no effects of nicotine on salty or bland food consumption. Excessive gains in body weight after cessation of nicotine administration were greater for females than for males. PMID:3131800

  9. Height and Weight at Menarche and a Hypothesis of Critical Body Weights and Adolescent Events

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rose E. Frisch; Roger Revelle

    1970-01-01

    Height and weight at menarche were found for each subject in three longitudinal growth studies. Early and late maturing girls have menarche at the same mean weight, but late maturers are taller at menarche. Two other major events of adolescence, initiation of the weight growth spurt and maximum rate of weight gain, also occur at an invariant mean weight. The

  10. Family weight talk and dieting: How much do they matter for body dissatisfaction and disordered eating behaviors in adolescent girls?

    PubMed Central

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Bauer, Katherine W.; Friend, Sarah; Hannan, Peter J.; Story, Mary; Berge, Jerica M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To learn about parent weight talk, parent dieting, and family weight-teasing in the homes of adolescent girls at risk for obesity and weight-related problems. To examine associations between these family variables and girls’ weight status, body satisfaction, and disordered eating behaviors. Methods Data were collected at baseline from girls participating in a school-based intervention to prevent weight-related problems. Participants included 365 adolescent girls from 12 high schools. The girls’ mean age was 15.8 years; 46% were overweight or obese; and over 75% were racial/ethnic minorities. Results A high percentage of girls reported parent weight talk (i.e., comments about one’s own weight and encouragement of daughter to diet), parent dieting, and family weight-teasing. For example, 45% of the girls reported that their mothers encouraged them to diet and 58% reported weight-teasing by family members. Weight-teasing was strongly associated with higher BMI, body dissatisfaction, unhealthy and extreme weight control behaviors, and binge eating with loss of control in the girls. Parent weight talk, particularly by mothers, was associated with a number of disordered eating behaviors. Mother dieting was associated with girls’ unhealthy and extreme weight control behaviors. In no instances were family weight talk and dieting variables associated with better outcomes in the girls. Conclusions Parent weight-related comments and dieting behaviors, and family weight-teasing, may contribute to disordered eating behaviors in adolescent girls. Health care providers can help parents provide a supportive home environment by discouraging weight-based comments, which may be intended to be helpful, but can have unintentional harmful consequences. PMID:20708566

  11. Pathology Case Study: Increased Thirst, Lethargy and Body Weight Gain

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Graur, Octavia

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology which describes a 47 year old white postmenopausal female who presented with "progressive headaches and visual blurring, as well as increased thirst, fatigue, lethargy and a fifty pound weight gain." Visitors are provided with patient history along with laboratory work-up and histology, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical chemistry.

  12. Mothers' and Fathers' Perceptions of Their Adolescent Daughters' Shape, Weight, and Body Esteem: Are They Accurate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geller, Josie; Srikameswaran, Suja; Zaitsoff, Shannon L.; Cockell, Sarah J.; Poole, Gary D.

    2003-01-01

    Examined parents' awareness of their daughters' attitudes, beliefs, and feelings about their bodies. Sixty-six adolescent daughters completed an eating disorder scale, a body figure rating scale, and made ratings of their shape and weight. Greater discrepancies between parents' estimates of daughters' body esteem and daughters' self-reported body

  13. Composite materials and bodies including silicon carbide and titanium diboride and methods of forming same

    DOEpatents

    Lillo, Thomas M.; Chu, Henry S.; Harrison, William M.; Bailey, Derek

    2013-01-22

    Methods of forming composite materials include coating particles of titanium dioxide with a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon, and reacting the titanium dioxide with the substance including boron and the substance including carbon to form titanium diboride. The methods may be used to form ceramic composite bodies and materials, such as, for example, a ceramic composite body or material including silicon carbide and titanium diboride. Such bodies and materials may be used as armor bodies and armor materials. Such methods may include forming a green body and sintering the green body to a desirable final density. Green bodies formed in accordance with such methods may include particles comprising titanium dioxide and a coating at least partially covering exterior surfaces thereof, the coating comprising a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon.

  14. Adverse events of herbal food supplements for body weight reduction: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pittler, M H; Schmidt, K; Ernst, E

    2005-05-01

    Herbal weight-loss supplements are marketed with claims of effectiveness. Our earlier systematic review identified data from double-blind, randomized controlled trials for a number of herbal supplements. The aim of this systematic review was to assess all clinical evidence of adverse events of herbal food supplements for body weight reduction for which effectiveness data from rigorous clinical trials exist. We assessed Ephedra sinica, Garcinia cambogia, Paullinia cupana, guar gum, Plantago psyllium, Ilex paraguariensis and Pausinystalia yohimbe. Literature searches were conducted on Medline, Embase, Amed and The Cochrane Library. Data were also requested from the spontaneous reporting scheme of the World Health Organization. We hand-searched relevant medical journals and our own files. There were no restrictions regarding the language of publication. The results show that adverse events including hepatic injury and death have been reported with the use of some herbal food supplements. For herbal ephedra and ephedrine-containing food supplements an increased risk of psychiatric, autonomic or gastrointestinal adverse events and heart palpitations has been reported. In conclusion, adverse events are reported for a number of herbal food supplements, which are used for reducing body weight. Although the quality of the data does not justify definitive attribution of causality in most cases, the reported risks are sufficient to shift the risk-benefit balance against the use of most of the reviewed herbal weight-loss supplements. Exceptions are Garcinia cambogia and yerba mate, which merit further investigation. PMID:15836459

  15. The impact of migration on body weight: a review.

    PubMed

    Goulão, Beatriz; Santos, Osvaldo; Carmo, Isabel do

    2015-02-01

    Immigrants may be more vulnerable to obesity as a result of the immigration process. The aim of this article is to summarize current knowledge about the impact of immigration on body mass index (BMI). A systematic review was performed in accordance with PRISMA guidelines through a database search of scientific articles (last updated in August 2014). Thirty-nine articles were included and assessed. Results varied according to ethnic background, country of origin and host country. A consistent positive association between BMI and time since immigration was found among Hispanic, European and African immigrants. Less than half of the studies observed a positive association among Asian immigrants. The quality of the majority of the studies assessed was poor, reflecting a need to improve methodology and concept definition. Immigration appears to have a deteriorative effect on BMI. Underlying causes may include changes in nutrition and physical activity, psychological and social factors, and genetic susceptibility and these aspects should be included as moderator variables in future studies. PMID:25760158

  16. Body composition analyses by air displacement plethysmography in adults ranging from normal weight to extremely obese

    PubMed Central

    Hames, Kazanna C.; Anthony, Steven J.; Thornton, John C.; Gallagher, Dympna; Goodpaster, Bret H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare body composition parameters estimated by air displacement plethysmography (ADP) to dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in body mass index (BMI) classifications that include extremely obese (BMI?40.0kg/m2), and to examine if differences between analyses were influenced by BMI. Design and Methods Fat free mass (FFM,kg), fat mass (FM,kg) and body fat (BF,%) were analyzed with both technologies. Results All outcome measures of ADP and DXA were highly correlated (r?0.95,P<0.001 for FFM, FM and BF), but Bland-Altman analyses revealed significant bias (P<0.01 for all). ADP estimated greater FFM and lower FM and BF (P<0.01 for all). BMI explained 27% of the variance in differences between FFM measurements (P<0.001), and 37% and 33% of the variances in differences between FM and BF measurements, respectively (P<0.001 for both). Within normal weight and overweight classifications, ADP estimated greater FFM and lower FM and BF (P<0.001 for all), but the opposite occurred within the extremely obese classification; ADP estimated lower FFM and greater FM and BF (P<0.05 for all). Conclusions Body composition analyses by the two technologies were strongly congruent, but systematically different and influenced by BMI. Caution should be taken when utilizing ADP to estimate body composition parameters over a wide range of BMI classifications that include extremely obese. PMID:24170704

  17. Basal Metabolic Rate, Body Weight and Diet in Primates: An Evaluation of the Evidence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline Ross

    1992-01-01

    The relationship between basal metabolic rate (BMR), body weight and diet is examined for primates. Contrary to the results reported in several recent works, there is no strong evidence that diet is directly linked to BMR, although a low BMR, relative to body weight, may be found in species with folivorous diets. There is some evidence that nocturnal haplorhine species

  18. A system for the automated recording of feeding behavior and body weight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Boisvert; David F. Sherry

    2000-01-01

    A method that uses passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags for the continuous recording of feeding behavior and body weight from multiple individual animals is described. We have used this method in the field and in semi-natural captive conditions with black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) to determine daily and seasonal patterns in body weight and to estimate the proportions of food cached

  19. LOTUS 1-2-3-BASED SYSTEM FOR RECORDING AND MAINTAINING BODY WEIGHT OF LABORATORY ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Body weight maintenance is required in a variety of behavioral and physiological studies. C-based animal weighing system is described which features automated data collection and allows for accurate control of body weight in test animals via manipulation of food intake. ajor syst...

  20. The relation of weight suppression and body mass index to symptomatology and treatment response in anorexia nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Berner, Laura A.; Shaw, Jena A.; Witt, Ashley A.; Lowe, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Weight suppression, the difference between highest past weight and current weight, is a robust predictor of clinical characteristics of bulimia nervosa; however, the influence of weight suppression in anorexia nervosa (AN) has been little studied, and no study to date has investigated the ways in which the relevance of weight suppression in AN may depend upon an individual’s current body mass index (BMI). The present study investigated weight suppression, BMI, and their interaction as cross-sectional and prospective predictors of psychological symptoms and weight in AN. Women with AN completed depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II) and eating disorder symptomatology measures (Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire and Eating Disorders Inventory-3) at residential treatment admission (N = 350) and discharge (N = 238). Weight suppression and BMI were weakly correlated (r = ?.22). At admission, BMI was positively correlated with all symptom measures except Restraint and depression scores. Weight suppression was also independently positively correlated with all measures except Weight Concern and Body Dissatisfaction subscale scores. In analyses examining discharge scores (including admission values as covariates), the admission weight suppression X BMI interaction consistently predicted post-treatment psychopathology. Controlling for weight gain in treatment and age, higher admission weight suppression predicted lower discharge scores (less symptom endorsement) among those with lower BMIs; among those with higher BMIs, higher weight suppression predicted higher discharge scores. These results are the first to demonstrate that absolute and relative weight status are joint indicators of AN severity and prognosis. These findings may have major implications for conceptualization and treatment of AN. PMID:24016010

  1. Body ideals in women after viewing images of typical and healthy weight models.

    PubMed

    Owen, Rebecca; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2013-09-01

    Viewing thin models, pervasive in popular culture, is correlated with body dissatisfaction and anxiety in women. Whether or not the same is true when viewing healthy weight models is unknown. In this study we tested whether viewing healthy weight models increases the ideal female body size. Body image, anxiety, happiness and depression were measured in 44 female participants following viewing of images of thin or healthy weight models (within-subject separated by two weeks). We found that after viewing images of healthy weight models, women's body ideals (as measured by a participant-adjusted virtual model) were significantly larger than when the same women viewed images of very thin models. This effect was greatest in those women with the highest levels of baseline anxiety (as measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). These results suggest that viewing healthy weight models results in more healthy body ideals than those typically promoted through media. PMID:23722050

  2. Body Dissatisfaction and Weight-Related Teasing: A Model of Cognitive Vulnerability to Depression Among Women

    PubMed Central

    Benas, Jessica S.; Uhrlass, Dorothy J.; Gibb, Brandon E.

    2015-01-01

    Although a number of studies have linked body dissatisfaction to depressive symptoms, few have done so within the framework of a vulnerability-stress model. We hypothesized that women’s levels of body dissatisfaction would interact with recent experiences of vulnerability-congruent negative life events (i.e., weight-related teasing) to predict prospective changes in depressive symptoms. Consistent with these hypotheses, experiences of weight-related teasing were more strongly related to depressive symptom increases among women with high, compared to low, levels of body dissatisfaction. These results support the hypothesis that body dissatisfaction moderates the impact of weight-related teasing on depressive symptom changes. PMID:20382374

  3. Overconcern with weight and shape is not the same as body dissatisfaction: evidence from a prospective study of pre-adolescent boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Allen, Karina L; Byrne, Susan M; McLean, Neil J; Davis, Elizabeth A

    2008-09-01

    Overconcern with weight and shape and body dissatisfaction have both emerged as significant predictors of disordered eating. However, it is unclear how these constructs relate to each other, and if each has different antecedents and consequences. This study aimed to identify prospective predictors of each construct and to determine their relative importance in predicting dietary restraint and binge eating. Eight- to 13-year-old boys and girls (N=259) were assessed at baseline and one-year follow-up, using a range of measures that included the Child Eating Disorder Examination. Psychosocial variables predicted overconcern with weight and shape whilst objective weight predicted body dissatisfaction. Body dissatisfaction and weight and shape concern predicted restraint, and weight and shape concern and restraint predicted binge eating. Findings provide support for the theoretical differences between body dissatisfaction and overconcern with weight and shape, and highlight the importance of focusing on specific body image variables. PMID:18585990

  4. ZResponse to selection, heritability and genetic correlations between body weight and body size in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriantahina, Farafidy; Liu, Xiaolin; Huang, Hao; Xiang, Jianhai

    2012-03-01

    To quantify the response to selection, heritability and genetic correlations between weight and size of Litopenaeus vannamei, the body weight (BW), total length (TL), body length (BL), first abdominal segment depth (FASD), third abdominal segment depth (TASD), first abdominal segment width (FASW), and partial carapace length (PCL) of 5-month-old parents and of offspnng were measured by calculating seven body measunngs of offspnng produced by a nested mating design. Seventeen half-sib families and 42 full-sib families of L. vannamei were produced using artificial fertilization from 2-4 dams by each sire, and measured at around five months post-metamorphosis. The results show that hentabilities among vanous traits were high: 0.515±0.030 for body weight and 0.394±0.030 for total length. After one generation of selection. the selection response was 10.70% for offspring growth. In the 5th month, the realized heritability for weight was 0.296 for the offspnng generation. Genetic correlations between body weight and body size were highly variable. The results indicate that external morphological parameters can be applied dunng breeder selection for enhancing the growth without sacrificing animals for determining the body size and breed ability; and selective breeding can be improved significantly, simultaneously with increased production.

  5. Anthropometry and body composition status during Ramadan among higher institution learning centre staffs with different body weight status.

    PubMed

    Rohin, Mohd Adzim Khalili; Rozano, Nurismalina; Abd Hadi, Norhayati; Mat Nor, Mohd Nasir; Abdullah, Shaharudin; Dandinasivara Venkateshaiah, Muralidhara

    2013-01-01

    This study was done to observe the anthropometry and body composition changes before, during, and after the holy month of Ramadan. This study was carried out on 46 staff from one of the local universities, which comprised of 14 males and 32 females ranging in age from 25 to 40 years old. There were four sessions done to complete this study, namely, a week before Ramadan (T1), 1st week of Ramadan (T2), 3rd week of Ramadan (T3), and a month after Ramadan (T4). All subjects were assessed according to weight, body circumference, and body composition status. It was found that subjects with different weight status showed a significant reduction in weight (P < 0.01) but no significant reduction in body fat percentage (P < 0.05). The findings suggest that weight reduction does not promise a reduction in body fat. Changes in neck circumference were only found in normal subjects. Hence, it can be said that overweight and obese subjects showed no changes in anthropometry status during Ramadan. No changes in body composition were reported in all three weight groups except for trunk body fat. In conclusion, normal subjects showed significant changes in various anthropometry parameters, but overweight and obese subjects showed no obvious difference. PMID:24311975

  6. Slender body theory programmed for bodies with arbitrary cross section. [including fuselages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, J.; Krenkel, A. R.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program developed for determining the subsonic pressure, force, and moment coefficients for a fuselage-type body using slender body theory is described. The program is suitable for determining the angle of attack and sideslipping characteristics of such bodies in the linear range where viscous effects are not predominant. Procedures developed which are capable of treating cross sections with corners or regions of large curvature are outlined.

  7. Factors Associated With Body Weight Status of Iranian Postgraduate Students in University of Putra Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Zarei, Maryam; Mohd Taib, Mohd Nasir; Zarei, Fatemeh; Abu Saad, Hazizi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Good nutrition, a balanced diet and regular physical activity are foundations of good health. Research has found that dietary patterns change dramatically following the arrival of students in a foreign country. However, nutritional status of Iranian students studying oversea has never been investigated. Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine factors associated with body weight status of Iranian postgraduate students in Universiti of Putra Malaysia (UPM). Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the body weight status of 210 Iranian postgraduate students aged between 22 and 55 years in University of Putra Malaysia. The associations between body weight status and socio demographics factors and also lifestyle factors (smoking and physical activity) were assessed. Anthropometric factors (height, weight, BMI and waist and hip circumferences) were measured. Chi-square, Spearman Rho and Pearson tests were used for data analysis. Results: From a total of 210 postgraduate students 110 were females, and 100 males. No significant correlation was observed between smoking and BMI (P = 0.4). However, statistically significant correlations were observed between gender (P = 0.007), physical activity (P = 0.02), using protein (P = 0.005), carbohydrate (P = 0.002), fat (P = 0.001), fiber (P = 0.003), vitamin C (P = 0.04), calcium (P = 0.005), waist circumference (P = 0.02), hip circumference (P = 0.001), Waist to Hip Ratio (P = 0.002), and BMI. Conclusions: The nutritional behavior of university students was poor. Therefore, it is essential to encourage young people, including university students to enrich their diets with milk, beans, fruit, and vegetables to decrease the risks of nutrition related disorders. PMID:25414886

  8. Body fat deposition in adult obese women. II Changes in fat distribution accompanying weight reduction13

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas A Wadden; Albert J Stunkard; Francis E Johnston; Jack Wang; Richard N Pierson; Theodore B Van Itallie; Ellen Costello

    This study examined changes in body fat distribution in 68 women who lost an average of 12.3 kg from an initial weight of 103.6 kg. Weight reduction was accompanied by a small but statistically significant reduction of 1.2% in the waist-to-hip ratio, suggestive of a reduction in upper-body obesity. Subjects with greater upper-body obesity tended to achieve greater reductions in

  9. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components among Chinese Professional Athletes of Strength Sports with Different Body Weight Categories

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jianjun; Zhang, Xi; Wang, Ling; Guo, Yan; Xie, Minhao

    2013-01-01

    Background There is an increasing concern on cardiometabolic health in young professional athletes at heavy-weight class. Objective Our cross-sectional survey aimed to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and clustering of metabolic risk factors in a population of young and active professional athletes of strength sports in China. Methods From July 2006 to December 2008, a total of 131 male and 130 female athletes of strength sports were enrolled. We used two criteria provided by the Chinese Diabetes Society (2004) and the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III (2002) to define the metabolic syndrome and its individual components, respectively. Results Regardless of their similar ages (mean: 21 years) and exercise levels, athletes in the heaviest-weight-class with unlimited maximum body weight (UBW) boundaries (mean weight and BMI: 130 kg and 38 kg/m2 for men, 110 kg and 37 kg/m2 for women) had significantly higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome than did those in all other body-weight-class with limited body weight (LBW) boundaries (mean weight and BMI: 105 kg and 32 kg/m2 for men, 70 kg and 26 kg/m2 for women). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome using CDS criteria (UBW vs. LBW: 89% vs. 18% for men, 47% vs. 0% for women) and its individual components, including central obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, and impaired fasting glucose, were all significantly higher in athletes at the heaviest weight group with UBW than all other weight groups with LBW. Conclusions Our study suggests that professional athletes of strength sports at the heaviest-weight-class are at a significant increased risk of cardiometabolic disease compared with those at all other weight categories. The findings support the importance of developing and implementing the strategy of early screening, awareness, and interventions for weight-related health among young athletes. PMID:24255714

  10. Body Condition Score and Body Weight Effects on Dystocia and Stillbirths and Consequent Effects on Postcalving Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. P. Berry; J. M. Lee; K. A. Macdonald; J. R. Roche

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of periparturient body condition score (BCS) and body weight (BW) related traits on the incidence of calving dystocia and stillbirths, and to determine any conse- quent effect of dystocia and stillbirths on BCS, BW, milk production, udder health, and fertility in grazing Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. Up to 2,384 lactation re-

  11. Effects of dietary protein concentration and specific amino acids on body weight, body composition and feather growth in young turkeys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M. Wylie; G. W. Robertson; P. M. Hocking

    2003-01-01

    1. Two randomised block factorial experiments were conducted to investigate the relationships between the effects of dietary crude protein and specific amino acid concentrations on the relative growth of the body and feathers of young turkeys. 2. Decreasing dietary crude protein concentration from 300 to 180 g \\/kg in experiment 1 reduced the body and breast muscle weights of a

  12. A role for olestra in body weight management.

    PubMed

    Eldridge, A L; Cooper, D A; Peters, J C

    2002-02-01

    Olestra is a fat substitute made from fatty acids esterified to sucrose and can be used in the preparation of virtually any food made with fat. Foods made with olestra retain the mouthfeel, palatability and satiating effects of their full-fat counterparts without providing any digestible energy. Because olestra provides no energy, it has the potential to be a useful tool in weight loss and weight maintenance. Short-term studies of olestra replacement in foods demonstrate that fat replacement leads to a net reduction in fat intake. When excess total energy is available, fat replacement also reduces total energy intake in lean and obese men and women. In longer-term studies in which olestra is incorporated into the daily diet, there is an incomplete compensation for the fat energy replaced by olestra. When overweight men consumed olestra as part of a varied diet over nine months, weight loss continued for the duration of the study, whereas individuals receiving a typical low-fat diet regained most of the initial weight lost. Other studies are underway to examine the usefulness of olestra in long-term weight maintenance following weight loss. Post-marketing surveillance of olestra foods in the United States indicates that substitution of olestra for only 1-2 g of fat d-1 may be sufficient to prevent the average weight gain reported in adults of 0.5-1.0 kg year-1. PMID:12119656

  13. Body composition and power performance improved after weight reduction in male athletes without hampering hormonal balance.

    PubMed

    Huovinen, Heikki T; Hulmi, Juha J; Isolehto, Juha; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Puurtinen, Risto; Karila, Tuomo; Mackala, Krzysztof; Mero, Antti A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a 4-week weight reduction period with high protein and reduced carbohydrate intake on body composition, explosive power, speed, serum hormones, and acid-base balance in male track and field jumpers and sprinters. Eight participants were assigned to a high weight reduction group (HWR; energy restriction 750 kcal·d) and 7 to a low weight reduction group (LWR; energy restriction 300 kcal·d). Energy and carbohydrate intake decreased significantly (p ? 0.05) only in HWR by 740 ± 330 kcal·d and 130 ± 29 g·d, respectively. Furthermore, total body mass and fat mass decreased (p ? 0.05) only in HWR by 2.2 ± 1.0 kg and 1.7 ± 1.6 kg, respectively. Fat-free mass (FFM), serum testosterone, cortisol, and sex hormone-binding globulin did not change significantly. Ca ion and pH decreased (p ? 0.05) only in HWR (3.1 ± 2.8% and 0.8 ± 0.8%, respectively), whereas (Equation is included in full-text article.)declined (p ? 0.05) in both groups by 19.3 ± 6.2% in HWR and by 13.1 ± 8.5% in LWR. The countermovement jump and 20-m sprint time improved consistently (p ? 0.05) only in HWR, by 2.6 ± 2.5 cm and 0.04 ± 0.04 seconds, respectively. Finally, athletes with a fat percentage of 10% or more at the baseline were able to preserve FFM. In conclusion, altered acid-base balance but improved weight-bearing power performance was observed without negative consequences on serum hormones and FFM after a 4-week weight reduction of 0.5 kg·wk achieved by reduced carbohydrate but maintained high protein intake. PMID:25028999

  14. Men, muscles, and body image: comparisons of competitive bodybuilders, weight trainers, and athletically active controls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T C Pickett; R J Lewis; T F Cash

    esteem. Results: Relative to the other two groups, competitive bodybuilders had greater body mass due to fat-free body mass. Although groups did not differ in their situational body image discomfort, competitive bodybuilders and weight trainers had a more positive global appearance evaluation and were more psychologically invested in their physical appearance. Compared with active controls, men in both weightlifting groups

  15. Effects of weight cycling and aging on body protein content in female wistar rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. L. Catherine Jen; Elizabeth S. LeClair; Anne Buison; Michael A. Pellizzon

    1999-01-01

    The effects of body weight cycling (WC) on body protein content are inconclusive. This study was designed to investigate the interactive effects of WC and aging on body protein content in female Wistar rats. Young (2.5 months old at the beginning of the study) and old rats (11 months at the beginning of the study) were divided, within each age

  16. Relationships Between Body Size Satisfaction and Weight Control Practices Among US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Millstein, Rachel A.; Carlson, Susan A.; Fulton, Janet E.; Galuska, Deborah A.; Zhang, Jian; Blanck, Heidi M.; Ainsworth, Barbara E.

    2008-01-01

    Context Few studies of US adults have specifically examined body size satisfaction Objectives Describe correlates of body size satisfaction and examine whether satisfaction was associated with trying to lose weight or specific weight control practices among US adults using a national sample of women and men. Design, Setting & Participants The National Physical Activity and Weight Loss Survey (NPAWLS) was a population-based, cross-sectional telephone survey of US adults (n = 9740). Main Outcome Measures Participants reported their weight, height, body size satisfaction, and weight loss practices. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for each dependent variable. Results Among women and men, higher body mass index (BMI) was significantly associated with body size dissatisfaction. Dissatisfaction, compared with being very satisfied, was positively associated with trying to lose weight among women and men. This association was modified by BMI for women (OR normal weight = 19.69, overweight = 8.79, obese = 4.05; P < .01 for interaction) but not men (OR normal weight = 8.72, overweight = 10.50, obese = 7.86; P = 0.93 for interaction). Compared with women who were very satisfied, dissatisfied women used diet more (OR = 2.03), but not physical activity/exercise (OR = 0.55) or both strategies (OR = 0.63), to try to lose weight. Men who were somewhat satisfied, compared with those who were very satisfied, were more likely to use physical activity/exercise (OR = 1.64) and both diet and physical activity/exercise (OR = 1.54) to try to lose weight. Conclusion These findings highlight the sex differences in body size satisfaction, actions taken to try to lose weight, and the importance of considering body size satisfaction when designing weight-management programs. PMID:18596944

  17. Body image and weight control in young adults: international comparisons in university students from 22 countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Wardle; A M Haase; A Steptoe

    2006-01-01

    Objective:Young women in the United States and Western Europe are notoriously concerned about weight but less is known about attitudes to weight in other regions of the world. This study explores the associations between body mass index (BMI), weight perceptions, and attempts to lose weight in male and female university students from 22 countries.Methods:Data were collected from 18 512 university

  18. Factors Affecting Body Weight of Aardi Goat Kids in Saudi Arabia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Al-Shaikh; H. H. Mogawer

    2001-01-01

    Al-Shaikh, M.A. and Mogawer, H.H. 2001. Factors affecting body weight of Aardi goat kids in Saudi Arabia. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 20: 233–238.To study the effects of dam weight, litter size and kid sex on birth weight and weight gain from birth to weaning, 31 male and 3G female Aardi goat, kids, from 40 dams were reared under identical conditions.

  19. High school students' body weight control: differences between athletes and non-athletes.

    PubMed

    Mikulan, Rita; Piko, Bettina E

    2012-03-01

    Due to chronic dissatisfaction with body weight in youth, efforts to lose weight often lead to pathological dietary behaviours. Regular and heavy sports activity may contribute to the optimization of body weight, not only by elevating the energy utilization but also by increasing the health consciousness and the tendency to self-monitor. Research generally finds a beneficial role of extracurricular sports activity in body weight control. Therefore, we aim to analyze how regular, heavy sports activity (more precisely, competitive sports) may contribute to body weight control among two groups of youth: athletes and non-athletes. Our study was carried out using 347 adolescents; among them there were 91 athletes and 259 controls. The subjects completed self-administered questionnaires concerning their body weight control and dietary habits. We found that girls were less satisfied with their body weight and reported dieting more frequently with a greater emphasis on healthy dieting than boys. Sport influenced these strong gender differences only regarding healthy dieting, young male athletes laid a larger emphasis on healthy diets than their non-athlete counterparts, therefore their attitude became similar to that of female athletes and non-athletes. We conclude that despite the normal weight in high school students, episodes of dieting that might contribute to eating disorders were quite frequent. This was not influenced by the students' extracurricular sports activity. A greater monitoring of male athletes' and their friend's diet draw attention to the need for developing health education programs specific to boys. PMID:22816201

  20. Massage-like stroking influences plasma levels of gastrointestinal hormones, including insulin, and increases weight gain in male rats.

    PubMed

    Holst, Sarah; Lund, Irene; Petersson, Maria; Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin

    2005-06-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of repeated massage-like stroking on plasma levels of some gastrointestinal hormones, insulin included, glucose and weight gain. For this purpose, male rats were exposed to stroking on the ventral side of the abdomen for 3 or 14 times. The treatments were given every second day. Control rats were picked up at the same time but received no stroking. Body weight was measured regularly. Rats were decapitated 10 min after the last treatment. Hormone levels were radioimmunoassayed and glucose was measured by spectrophotometry. In rats exposed to 3 sessions of massage-like stroking plasma levels of insulin (p<0.05) and somatostatin (p<0.01) were significantly decreased 10 min after the last treatment. After 14 treatments of massage-like stroking, decreased plasma levels of insulin (p<0.01) and gastrin (p<0.01) as well as increased glucose levels (p<0.01) were observed 10 min after the last treatment. In addition, weight gain was significantly increased (ANOVA p<0.0001) in rats exposed to 14 treatments. In conclusion, repeated massage-like stroking decreased plasma levels of gastrin, insulin and somatostatin, increased plasma levels of glucose and promoted weight gain. The effects were influenced by the number of treatments. PMID:15925549

  1. Changes in Eating Attitudes, Body Esteem and Weight Control Behaviours during Adolescence in a South African Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Gitau, Tabither M.; Micklesfield, Lisa K.; Pettifor, John M.; Norris, Shane A.

    2014-01-01

    Failure to consume an adequate diet or over consumption during adolescence can disrupt normal growth and development, resulting in undesirable weight change. This leads to an increase in unhealthy weight control practices related to eating and exercise among both adolescent girls and boys to meet the societal ‘ideal’ body shape. This study therefore aims to examine the longitudinal changes in eating attitudes, body-esteem and weight control behaviours among adolescents between 13 and 17 years; and, to describe perceptions around body shape at age 17 years. A total of 1435 urban South African black and mixed ancestry boys and girls, who had data at both age 13 and 17 years from the Birth to Twenty cohort were included. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires on eating attitudes (EAT-26), body esteem and weight control behaviours for either weight loss or muscle gain attempts. Height and weight were measured at both time points and BMI was calculated. Black females had a higher BMI (p<0.001) and an increased risk of developing eating disorders as well as significant increase in the prevalence of weight loss practices between the ages 13 and 17 years. At age 17 years both Mixed ancestry adolescents had lower body-esteem compared to black adolescents. The prevalence of possible eating disorders was 11% and 13.1% in early and late adolescents respectively. Males and females shared similar opinions on normal silhouettes being the ‘best’, ‘getting respect’ and being the ‘happiest’, while the obese silhouette was associated with the ‘worst’ and the ‘unhappiest’, and the underweight silhouette with the “weakest”. Black females had a higher BMI and an increased risk of developing eating disorders. Adolescent females engaged more in weight loss practices whereas, males in muscle gain practices indicating that Western norms of thinness as the ideal are becoming more common in South Africa. PMID:25310343

  2. The relationship of body weight of summer grown pullets to subsequent laying house performance 

    E-print Network

    Mabry, Michael Dixon

    1970-01-01

    bird during the rearing phase and feed per unit of body weight Treatment No. Diet Body weight at twenty weeks (gm. ) Feed consumed/bird (kg. ) Feed/unit of body weight (kg. ) 1 Sq, Pen, Bac (Control) 1307 b 7. 04 5. 39 2 Ni, Pen, Bac, Ep... 3 Sq, Ty, Ep Ni, Ty, Ep 5 Ni, Hyg, Bac, Ep 1353 a 1346 a 1375 a 1359 a 7. 27 7. 06 7. 22 6. 78 5. 38 5. 28 5. 24 5. 01 6 Sq, Hyg, Bac, Ty, Ep 1351 a 7. 05 5. 76 Bac ? Bacitracin 10 gm. /ton Ep ? Extra protein Hyg ? Hygromycin 10 gm...

  3. Social Engagement in Adolescence Moderates the Association between Weight Status and Body Image

    PubMed Central

    Caccavale, Laura J.; Farhat, Tilda; Iannotti, Ronald J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether the association between adolescent weight status and body image varies by social engagement. A nationally representative sample of 6,909 students in grades 6 to 10 completed the 2006 HBSC survey. Separate linear regressions for boys and girls, controlling for age, race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status, were conducted with an interaction term (weight status x social engagement). Adolescents’ overweight/obese status was related to body dissatisfaction. Social engagement moderated the relationship between weight status and body image for girls but not for boys. Overweight/obese boys had more body dissatisfaction compared to their normal/underweight peers, regardless of their social engagement. However, overweight/obese girls with more social engagement were more likely to have body satisfaction compared to overweight/obese girls with less social engagement. Encouraging adolescent girls to develop healthy relationships with peers may prevent them from developing body dissatisfaction. PMID:22325852

  4. Weight discrepancy and body appreciation of Zimbabwean women in Zimbabwe and Britain.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Mada, Rujeko; Tovée, Martin J

    2012-09-01

    Few studies have investigated a cultural group's corporeal experiences in both its country of origin and a host, Western country using the same methodology. To overcome this dearth in the literature, the present study examined body image among 140 women in Harare, Zimbabwe, and an age-matched sample of 138 Zimbabwean migrants in Britain. Participants completed measures of actual-ideal weight discrepancy, body appreciation, and lifetime exposure to Western and Zimbabwean media. Preliminary analyses showed that there were no significant differences in body mass index between the two groups. Further analyses showed that Zimbabwean women in Britain had significantly greater weight discrepancy and lower body appreciation than their counterparts in Zimbabwe. In addition, weight discrepancy and body appreciation among both samples were significantly associated with exposure to Western media, but not Zimbabwean media. These findings support the contention that transcultural migration may place individuals at risk for symptoms of negative body image. PMID:22717762

  5. Relationships between Neonatal Weight, Limb Lengths, Skinfold Thicknesses, Body Breadths and Circumferences in an Australian Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Pomeroy, Emma; Stock, Jay T.; Cole, Tim J.; O'Callaghan, Michael; Wells, Jonathan C. K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Low birth weight has been consistently associated with adult chronic disease risk. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis assumes that reduced fetal growth impacts some organs more than others. However, it remains unclear how birth weight relates to different body components, such as circumferences, adiposity, body segment lengths and limb proportions. We hypothesized that these components vary in their relationship to birth weight. Methods We analysed the relationship between birth weight and detailed anthropometry in 1270 singleton live-born neonates (668 male) from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (Brisbane, Australia). We tested adjusted anthropometry for correlations with birth weight. We then performed stepwise multiple regression on birth weight of: body lengths, breadths and circumferences; relative limb to neck-rump proportions; or skinfold thicknesses. All analyses were adjusted for sex and gestational age, and used logged data. Results Circumferences, especially chest, were most strongly related to birth weight, while segment lengths (neck-rump, thigh, upper arm, and especially lower arm and lower leg) were relatively weakly related to birth weight, and limb lengths relative to neck-rump length showed no relationship. Skinfolds accounted for 36% of birth weight variance, but adjusting for size (neck-rump, thigh and upper arm lengths, and head circumference), this decreased to 10%. There was no evidence that heavier babies had proportionally thicker skinfolds. Conclusions Neonatal body measurements vary in their association with birth weight: head and chest circumferences showed the strongest associations while limb segment lengths did not relate strongly to birth weight. After adjusting for body size, subcutaneous fatness accounted for a smaller proportion of birth weight variance than previously reported. While heavier babies had absolutely thicker skinfolds, this was proportional to their size. Relative limb to trunk length was unrelated to birth weight, suggesting that limb proportions at birth do not index factors relevant to prenatal life. PMID:25162658

  6. Associations between body mass index, weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms among non-clinical Chinese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous research with adolescents has shown associations of body weight, weight control concerns and behaviors with eating disorder symptoms, but it is unclear whether these associations are direct or whether a mediating effect exists. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of overweight and obesity, weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms and to examine the mediating function of weight control concerns and behaviors on the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and eating disorder symptoms among non-clinical adolescents in China. Methods A cross-sectional survey among 2019 adolescent girls and 1525 adolescent boys in the 7th, 8th, 10th and 11th grades from seven cities in China was conducted. Information on weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms (Eating Disorder Inventory-3) were collected from the adolescents using a self-administrated questionnaire. Results Weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms were prevalent among the study population. A high proportion of adolescents scored at or above the threshold on the eating disorder inventory (EDI) subscale such as bulimia, interoceptive deficits, perfectionism, and maturity fears, which indicated eating disorder symptoms. High BMI was significantly associated with high score of drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, bulimia, low self-esteem, interceptive deficits and maturity fears, so do perceived body weight status. Almost all weight control concerns and behaviors we investigated were significantly associated with high EDI subscale scores. When weight control concerns were added to the model, as shown in the model, the association between BMI and tendency of drive to thinness and bulimia was attenuated but still kept significant. The association between BMI and body dissatisfaction were no further significant. The association of BMI and drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction and bulimia was considerably weaker than when weight control behaviors were not included. Conclusions Weight control concerns and behaviors may be mediators of the association between BMI and eating disorder symptoms. Interpretation of these weight control problems is crucial to develop culturally appropriate educational and intervention programs for adolescents. PMID:20525394

  7. Relationships of cow age and initial cow body weight with calf and cow grazing season weight changes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary objective in a study implemented during 1975-2001 on northern mixed-grass prairie at the High Plains Grassland Research Station (HPGRS) near Cheyenne, Wyoming, was to evaluate long-term calf and cow grazing season body weight gain responses under 14 different management practices (e.g. t...

  8. Weight and muscularity concerns as longitudinal predictors of body image among early adolescent boys: a test of the dual pathways model.

    PubMed

    Jones, Diane Carlson; Bain, Nicole; King, Stephanie

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the longitudinal contributions of weight loss and muscularity concerns as dual pathways to body image dissatisfaction among early adolescent boys. Study 1 included 67 boys who reported on weight loss concerns, internalized muscular ideal, BMI, and body dissatisfaction during 7th grade and 1 year later. In Study 2, 87 7th and 8th grade boys were assessed in the fall and spring of a school year. The results confirmed that although both weight and muscularity concerns were related to body dissatisfaction, concern with weight loss more strongly detracted from a positive body image than did muscularity concern. The findings are discussed in terms of potential developmental variations in the relative contribution of weight and muscularity to body dissatisfaction among adolescent boys. PMID:18458006

  9. Smaller weight changes in standarized body mass index in response to treatment as weight classification increases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to compare the differential efficacy of a weight loss program for Mexican-American children who are overweight, obese, and severely obese. Study participants were enrolled in an intensive weight loss intervention aimed at improving eating and physical activity behaviors with behavi...

  10. Exercise Minimizes Weight Regain By Reducing Appetite, Burning Fat, And Lowering 'Defended' Body Weight

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)

    2009-09-02

    APS Press Release of Journal Article "Regular exercise attenuates the metabolic drive to regain weight after long term weight loss" by Paul S. MacLean, Janine A. Higgins, Holly R. Wyatt, Edward L. Melanson, Ginger C. Johnson, Matthew R. Jackman, Erin D. Giles, Ian E. Brown and James O. Hill, found in American Journal of Physiology Â? Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology

  11. Xanthohumol lowers body weight and fasting plasma glucose in obese male Zucker fa/fa rats.

    PubMed

    Legette, Leecole L; Luna, Arlyn Y Moreno; Reed, Ralph L; Miranda, Cristobal L; Bobe, Gerd; Proteau, Rosita R; Stevens, Jan F

    2013-07-01

    Obesity contributes to increased risk for several chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Xanthohumol, a prenylated flavonoid from hops (Humulus lupulus), was tested for efficacy on biomarkers of metabolic syndrome in 4 week old Zucker fa/fa rats, a rodent model of obesity. Rats received daily oral doses of xanthohumol at 0, 1.86, 5.64, and 16.9 mg/kg BW for 6 weeks. All rats were maintained on a high fat (60% kcal) AIN-93G diet for 3 weeks to induce severe obesity followed by a normal AIN-93G (15% kcal fat) diet for the last 3 weeks of the study. Weekly food intake and body weight were recorded. Plasma cholesterol, glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels were assessed using commercial assay kits. Plasma and liver tissue levels of XN and its metabolites were determined by liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Plasma and liver tissue levels of xanthohumol were similar between low and medium dose groups and significantly (p<0.05) elevated in the highest dose group. There was a dose-dependent effect on body weight and plasma glucose levels. The highest dose group (n=6) had significantly lower plasma glucose levels compared to the control group (n=6) in male but not female rats. There was also a significant decrease in body weight for male rats in the highest dose group (16.9 mg/kg BW) compared to rats that received no xanthohumol, which was also not seen for female rats. Plasma cholesterol, insulin, triglycerides, and MCP-1 as well as food intake were not affected by treatment. The findings suggest that xanthohumol has beneficial effects on markers of metabolic syndrome. PMID:22640929

  12. Body Weight and the Quality of Interpersonal Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Deborah; Friedman, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate whether underweight, normal-weight, overweight, and obese Americans differ in their evaluations of positive and negative aspects of their interpersonal relationships. Analyses are based on data from the Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) study, a survey of more than 3,000 adults ages 25 to 74 in 1995. We find no…

  13. Longitudinal Trajectories of Perceived Body Weight: Adolescence to Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Li, Kaigang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine longitudinal trajectories of perceived weight from adolescence to early adulthood by gender. Methods: We analyzed 9 waves (1997-2005) of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 8302) using Mplus. Results: Perceived overweight increased over time among girls and did not level off until 23 years of age. Blacks…

  14. Stability of Pigeon Body Weight under Free-Feeding Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kangas, Brian D.; Branch, Marc N.

    2006-01-01

    Increases in regulatory oversight of animal research require verification of effects of standard practices. There are no formal guidelines for establishing free-feeding weights in adult pigeons. In the present study, pigeons were obtained from a commercial supplier, weighed upon arrival, and then held in quarantine for 7 days with free access to…

  15. Body Weight and Matching with a Physically Attractive Romantic Partner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmalt, Julie H.; Cawley, John; Joyner, Kara; Sobal, Jeffery

    2008-01-01

    Matching and attribute trade are two perspectives used to explain mate selection. We investigated patterns of matching and trade, focusing on obesity, using Add Health Romantic Pair data (N = 1,405 couples). Obese individuals, relative to healthy weight individuals, were less likely to have physically attractive partners, with this disadvantage…

  16. GLP-1 receptor signaling is not required for reduced body weight after RYGB in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Jianping; Hao, Zheng; Mumphrey, Michael B.; Townsend, R. Leigh; Patterson, Laurel M.; Stylopoulos, Nicholas; Münzberg, Heike; Morrison, Christopher D.; Drucker, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Exaggerated GLP-1 and PYY secretion is thought to be a major mechanism in the reduced food intake and body weight after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Here, we use complementary pharmacological and genetic loss-of-function approaches to test the role of increased signaling by these gut hormones in high-fat diet-induced obese rodents. Chronic brain infusion of a supramaximal dose of the selective GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin-9–39 into the lateral cerebral ventricle significantly increased food intake and body weight in both RYGB and sham-operated rats, suggesting that, while contributing to the physiological control of food intake and body weight, central GLP-1 receptor signaling tone is not the critical mechanism uniquely responsible for the body weight-lowering effects of RYGB. Central infusion of the selective Y2R-antagonist BIIE0246 had no effect in either group, suggesting that it is not critical for the effects of RYGB on body weight under the conditions tested. In a recently established mouse model of RYGB that closely mimics surgery and weight loss dynamics in humans, obese GLP-1R-deficient mice lost the same amount of body weight and fat mass and maintained similarly lower body weight compared with wild-type mice. Together, the results surprisingly provide no support for important individual roles of either gut hormone in the specific mechanisms by which RYGB rats settle at a lower body weight. It is likely that the beneficial effects of bariatric surgeries are expressed through complex mechanisms that require combination approaches for their identification. PMID:24430883

  17. GLP-1 receptor signaling is not required for reduced body weight after RYGB in rodents.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jianping; Hao, Zheng; Mumphrey, Michael B; Townsend, R Leigh; Patterson, Laurel M; Stylopoulos, Nicholas; Münzberg, Heike; Morrison, Christopher D; Drucker, Daniel J; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf

    2014-03-01

    Exaggerated GLP-1 and PYY secretion is thought to be a major mechanism in the reduced food intake and body weight after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Here, we use complementary pharmacological and genetic loss-of-function approaches to test the role of increased signaling by these gut hormones in high-fat diet-induced obese rodents. Chronic brain infusion of a supramaximal dose of the selective GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin-9-39 into the lateral cerebral ventricle significantly increased food intake and body weight in both RYGB and sham-operated rats, suggesting that, while contributing to the physiological control of food intake and body weight, central GLP-1 receptor signaling tone is not the critical mechanism uniquely responsible for the body weight-lowering effects of RYGB. Central infusion of the selective Y2R-antagonist BIIE0246 had no effect in either group, suggesting that it is not critical for the effects of RYGB on body weight under the conditions tested. In a recently established mouse model of RYGB that closely mimics surgery and weight loss dynamics in humans, obese GLP-1R-deficient mice lost the same amount of body weight and fat mass and maintained similarly lower body weight compared with wild-type mice. Together, the results surprisingly provide no support for important individual roles of either gut hormone in the specific mechanisms by which RYGB rats settle at a lower body weight. It is likely that the beneficial effects of bariatric surgeries are expressed through complex mechanisms that require combination approaches for their identification. PMID:24430883

  18. Perceived stress and freshman weight change: the moderating role of baseline body mass index.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Jessica A; Kuijer, Roeline G

    2015-02-01

    The transition from high-school to university is a critical period of weight change. Popular media suggest that freshman students gain 15 lb (6.80 kg) of body weight during their first year at university (i.e., the freshman 15). In contrast, a recent meta-analysis calculated freshman weight gain to be 1.75 kg, with statistics suggesting that only a proportion of freshman students are prone to gain weight. Researchers are beginning to investigate how certain variables and interactions between such variables predict freshman weight status. The current study focused on body mass index (BMI) and psychological stress. In isolation, previous research has tested how these two variables predict freshman student's weight status. However, because BMI and stress interact to predict weight gain and weight loss in adult samples, the current study tested the interaction between student's baseline BMI and baseline stress levels to predict weight change in a New Zealand sample of freshman students (N=65). Participants completed two separate online surveys in March and October 2012 (i.e., New Zealand's academic year). Although only three students gained over 6.80 kg (i.e., the freshman 15), participants did gain a statistically significant 1.10 kg of body weight during the year. Consistent with previous research, students with a higher baseline BMI gained a higher amount of body weight. However, this main effect was qualified by an interaction between stress and BMI. Students who entered university with high levels of stress gained weight if they also had high BMIs; if they had lower BMIs then they lost weight. In order to reduce unhealthy levels of freshman weight change, vulnerable students need to be taught stress-reduction techniques and coping strategies early in the academic year. PMID:25484356

  19. Obesity, Body Image, Depression, and Weight-control Behaviour Among Female University Students in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Eun Mi; Choi, Seung Bae

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity has become epidemic worldwide and 31.0% of Korean adults are obese. Obesity is the main cause of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, cardiac disease, and cancer. The purpose of the study was to examine obesity, body image, depression, and weight-control behaviour among Korean female university students and investigate the differences in body image, depression, and weight-control behaviour with respect to obesity. Methods: This study examined obesity, body image, depression, and weight control in 700 female university students from 4 universities in South Korea. To evaluate obesity, both objective obesity (body mass index [BMI]) and subjective obesity (subjectively perceived) were measured. Results: There was a significant difference between objective and subjective obesity (?2 = 231.280, P < 0.001). In addition, the objective obesity group had the lowest body image score (F = 19.867, P < 0.001) and difference in weight-control behaviour (F = 3.145, P = 0.045). Further, the subjective obesity group had the lowest body image score (F = 58.281, P < 0.001). The results revealed a statistically significant difference in body image and weight-control behaviour with respect to objective obesity. Conclusion: Objective and subjective obesity was negatively associated with body image, and no relationships between objective or subjective obesity and depression. PMID:25337594

  20. Depressed Mood and Body Weight: Exploring Race Differences in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Christie-Mizell, C. Andre

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the 1994-1998 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth merged Mother and Young Adult file, this article examines the relationship between depressive symptoms and body mass index (BMI) in adolescence. The authors also examine whether this relationship varies by race and gender. Their findings indicate that over a 4-year…

  1. Dietary quinine reduces body weight and food intake independent of aversive taste.

    PubMed

    Heybach, J P; Boyle, P C

    1982-12-01

    Separate groups of rats were chronically fed diets adulterated with either bitter tasting quinine sulfate (QSO4), equal amounts of quinine in the less bitter form of quinine tannate (QT), or an amount of sucrose octaacetate (SOA) determined to have aversive taste properties equal to the QSO4 diet. Dietary adulteration with SOA did not affect food intake or body weight. Dietary adulteration with quinine resulted in an initial reduction in food intake that showed a relative recovery but remained depressed compared to the intake of a group eating a quinine-free diet. Ingestion of diets containing equal amounts of quinine base resulted in equivalent chronic body weight reductions, despite different aversive diet characteristics. These results suggest that bitter taste is not the significant variable underlying the body weight effects of quinine but that quinine exerts some postingestive effect on body weight mediated by a slight but sustained decrease in the level of energy intake. PMID:7163397

  2. Chiasma frequency in strains of mice selected for litter size and for high body weight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Gorlov; L. Schuler; L. Bunger; P. Borodin

    1992-01-01

    Chiasma frequency was measured in male mice of three outbred lines: FZt:DU (control); DU:6, selected for increased body weight; and DU:C, selected for high fertility. Chiasma frequency was seen to increase in the high body weight line, but decrease in the high fertility line. In both selected lines the intragroup variance in chiasma frequency increased while in DU:C the intracell

  3. Chiasma frequency in strains of mice selected for litter size and for high body weight.

    PubMed

    Gorlov, I; Schuler, L; Bunger, L; Borodin, P

    1992-08-01

    Chiasma frequency was measured in male mice of three outbred lines: FZt:DU (control); DU:6, selected for increased body weight; and DU:C, selected for high fertility. Chiasma frequency was seen to increase in the high body weight line, but decrease in the high fertility line. In both selected lines the intragroup variance in chiasma frequency increased while in DU:C the intracell variance was lower than in the control. PMID:24201352

  4. Body Weight Prediction Using Digital Image Analysis for Slaughtered Beef Cattle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Bozkurt; S. Aktan; S. Ozkaya

    2007-01-01

    Bozkurt, Y., Aktan, S. and Ozkaya, S. 2007. Body weight prediction using digital image analysis for slaughtered beef cattle. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 32: 195–198.To predict body weight of beef cattle using traditional methods and digital image analysis system, 140 animals were used and prediction models were developed. The R values of prediction equations were 52.1, 63.6, 53.2, 47.1, 43.1

  5. A system for the automated recording of feeding behavior and body weight.

    PubMed

    Boisvert, M J; Sherry, D F

    A method that uses passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags for the continuous recording of feeding behavior and body weight from multiple individual animals is described. We have used this method in the field and in semi-natural captive conditions with black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) to determine daily and seasonal patterns in body weight and to estimate the proportions of food cached and consumed. PMID:11134696

  6. The influence of empty body weight and mature weight of the genotype on energy density of empty body gain in growing lambs.

    PubMed

    Rompala, R E; Johnson, D E

    1985-10-01

    From data reported by authors who had serially determined the chemical composition of the empty body of growing lambs of a wide range of genotypes, the energy density of empty body gains (E/G) at intervals from 20 to 50 kg empty body weight (EBW) were estimated. Energy density of empty body gain was related to the EBW of these lambs and to an approximation of the mature weight for the genotype (MW) obtained from a separate data set. The addition of MW to the function relating E/G to EBW increased the r2 from .793 to .940 and reduced the residual standard deviation from .550 to .300 Mcal/kg. Combining EBW and MW as predictors of E/G provided the following function: E/G = 5.718 + .093 (EBW) - .036 (MW). Energy density of empty body gain was approximately constant across all genotypes when comparisons were made at a constant EBW/MW. Thus, both EBW and mature weight of the genotype are closely related to E/G and should be considered important for accurately predicting net energy of gain requirements for growing lambs. PMID:4066539

  7. Effect of repeated stress on body weight and body composition of rats fed low- and high-fat diets.

    PubMed

    Harris, R B; Zhou, J; Youngblood, B D; Rybkin, I I; Smagin, G N; Ryan, D H

    1998-12-01

    Exposure to the moderate stressor of 3-h restraint for 3 consecutive days causes a temporary drop in food intake but a permanent reduction in body weight in adult rats. Young rats did not show the same response. Food intake of adult rats exposed to repeated restraint was significantly lower than that of controls for 4 days after the end of stress, and there was no rebound hyperphagia. Body weight remained significantly lower for at least 40 days after stress. When the rats were fed a high-fat diet of 80% chow and 20% vegetable shortening (48% kcal fat, 16% protein), lean body mass accounted for all of the weight loss in stressed rats. When the experiment was repeated with a purified high-fat diet containing corn oil and coconut oil as the source of fat (41% kcal fat, 16% protein), weight loss consisted of both lean and fat tissue. There were no sustained changes in single time point measures of corticosterone, insulin, or leptin that could account for the reduced body weight in these rats. PMID:9843882

  8. Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index, Gestational Weight Gain, and Birth Weight: A Cohort Study in China

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Sheng; Wu, Jing; Zhao, Jinzhu; Zhang, Yiming; Wang, Jing; Lu, Yuan; Yu, Yuzhen; Zhang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess whether pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) modify the relationship between gestational weight gain (GWG) and child birth weight (specifically, presence or absence of low birth weight (LBW) or presence of absence of macrosomia), and estimates of the relative risk of macrosomia and LBW based on pre-pregnancy BMI were controlled in Wuhan, China. Methods From June 30, 2011 to June 30, 2013. All data was collected and available from the perinatal health care system. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the independent association among pregnancy weight gain, LBW, normal birth weight, and macrosomia within different pre-pregnancy BMI groups. We built different logistic models for the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) Guidelines and Chinese-recommended GWG which was made from this sample. The Chinese-recommended GWG was derived from the quartile values (25th-75th percentiles) of weight gain at the time of delivery in the subjects which comprised our sample. Results For LBW children, using the recommended weight gain of the IOM and Chinese women as a reference, the OR for a pregnancy weight gain below recommendations resulted in a positive relationship for lean and normal weight women, but not for overweight and obese women. For macrosomia, considering the IOM’s recommended weight gain as a reference, the OR magnitude for pregnancy weight gain above recommendations resulted in a positive correlation for all women. The OR for a pregnancy weight gain below recommendations resulted in a negative relationship for normal BMI and lean women, but not for overweight and obese women based on the IOM recommendations, significant based on the recommended pregnancy weight gain for Chinese women. Of normal weight children, 56.6% were above the GWG based on IOM recommendations, but 26.97% of normal weight children were above the GWG based on Chinese recommendations. Conclusions A GWG above IOM recommendations might not be helpful for Chinese women. We need unified criteria to classify adult BMI and to expand the sample size to improve representation and to elucidate the relationship between GWG and related outcomes for developing a Chinese GWG recommendation. PMID:26115015

  9. The skinny on cocaine: Insights into eating behavior and body weight in cocaine-dependent men????

    PubMed Central

    Ersche, Karen D.; Stochl, Jan; Woodward, Jeremy M.; Fletcher, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    There is a general assumption that weight loss associated with cocaine use reflects its appetite suppressing properties. We sought to determine whether this was justified by characterizing, in detail, alterations in dietary food intake and body composition in actively using cocaine-dependent individuals. We conducted a cross-sectional case-control comparison of 65 male volunteers from the local community, half of whom satisfied the DSM-IV-TR criteria for cocaine dependence (n = 35) while the other half had no personal or family history of a psychiatric disorder, including substance abuse (n = 30). Assessments were made of eating behavior and dietary food intake, estimation of body composition, and measurement of plasma leptin. Although cocaine users reported significantly higher levels of dietary fat and carbohydrates as well as patterns of uncontrolled eating, their fat mass was significantly reduced compared with their non-drug using peers. Levels of leptin were associated with fat mass, and with the duration of stimulant use. Tobacco smoking status or concomitant use of medication did not affect the significance of the results. Weight changes in cocaine users reflect fundamental perturbations in fat regulation. These are likely to be overlooked in clinical practice but may produce significant health problems when cocaine use is discontinued during recovery. PMID:23920064

  10. The skinny on cocaine: insights into eating behavior and body weight in cocaine-dependent men.

    PubMed

    Ersche, Karen D; Stochl, Jan; Woodward, Jeremy M; Fletcher, Paul C

    2013-12-01

    There is a general assumption that weight loss associated with cocaine use reflects its appetite suppressing properties. We sought to determine whether this was justified by characterizing, in detail, alterations in dietary food intake and body composition in actively using cocaine-dependent individuals. We conducted a cross-sectional case-control comparison of 65 male volunteers from the local community, half of whom satisfied the DSM-IV-TR criteria for cocaine dependence (n=35) while the other half had no personal or family history of a psychiatric disorder, including substance abuse (n=30). Assessments were made of eating behavior and dietary food intake, estimation of body composition, and measurement of plasma leptin. Although cocaine users reported significantly higher levels of dietary fat and carbohydrates as well as patterns of uncontrolled eating, their fat mass was significantly reduced compared with their non-drug using peers. Levels of leptin were associated with fat mass, and with the duration of stimulant use. Tobacco smoking status or concomitant use of medication did not affect the significance of the results. Weight changes in cocaine users reflect fundamental perturbations in fat regulation. These are likely to be overlooked in clinical practice but may produce significant health problems when cocaine use is discontinued during recovery. PMID:23920064

  11. Body Satisfaction, Weight Gain, and Binge Eating Among Overweight Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Sonneville, Kendrin R.; Calzo, Jerel P.; Horton, Nicholas J.; Haines, Jess; Austin, S. Bryn; Field, Alison E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine if body satisfaction is associated with body mass index (BMI) change and whether it protects against the development of frequent binge eating among overweight and obese adolescent girls. Methods We used prospective data from 9 waves of an ongoing cohort study of adolescents, the Growing Up Today Study. At enrollment in 1996, participants were 9 to 14 years old. Questionnaires were mailed to participants annually until 2001, then biennially through 2007. Girls who were overweight or obese in 1996 were included in the analysis (n=1 559). Our outcomes were annual change in BMI and incident frequent binge eating, defined as binge eating at least weekly and no use of compensatory behaviors. Results At baseline, 57.2% of the overweight and obese girls were at least somewhat satisfied with their bodies. During 11 years of follow-up, 9.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) [7.8, 10.8]) of the girls started to binge eat frequently. Controlling for BMI and other confounders, overweight and obese girls who reported being at least somewhat satisfied with their bodies made smaller BMI gains (?=?0.10 kg/m2, 95% CI [?0.19, ?0.02]) and had 61% lower odds of starting to binge eat frequently (odds ratio (OR)=0.39, 95% CI [0.24, 0.64]) than their less satisfied peers. Compared to girls who were the least satisfied with their bodies, girls who were the most satisfied had 85% lower odds of starting to binge eat frequently (OR=0.15, 95% CI [0.06, 0.37]). The association between body satisfaction and starting to binge eat frequently was stronger for younger adolescents than older adolescents. Conclusions While body dissatisfaction is common among overweight and obese girls, body satisfaction may protect against excessive weight gain and binge eating. Prevention of body dissatisfaction must begin early and should be considered as a component of both obesity and eating disorder prevention programs. PMID:22565419

  12. A Randomized Trial of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Adolescent Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Ebbeling, Cara B.; Feldman, Henry A.; Chomitz, Virginia R.; Antonelli, Tracy A.; Gortmaker, Steven L.; Osganian, Stavroula K.; Ludwig, David S.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may cause excessive weight gain. We aimed to assess the effect on weight gain of an intervention that included the provision of noncaloric beverages at home for overweight and obese adolescents. METHODS We randomly assigned 224 overweight and obese adolescents who regularly consumed sugar-sweetened beverages to experimental and control groups. The experimental group received a 1-year intervention designed to decrease consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, with follow-up for an additional year without intervention. We hypothesized that the experimental group would gain weight at a slower rate than the control group. RESULTS Retention rates were 97% at 1 year and 93% at 2 years. Reported consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages was similar at baseline in the experimental and control groups (1.7 servings per day), declined to nearly 0 in the experimental group at 1 year, and remained lower in the experimental group than in the control group at 2 years. The primary outcome, the change in mean body-mass index (BMI, the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) at 2 years, did not differ significantly between the two groups (change in experimental group minus change in control group, ?0.3; P = 0.46). At 1 year, however, there were significant between-group differences for changes in BMI (?0.57, P = 0.045) and weight (?1.9 kg, P = 0.04). We found evidence of effect modification according to ethnic group at 1 year (P = 0.04) and 2 years (P = 0.01). In a prespecified analysis according to ethnic group, among Hispanic participants (27 in the experimental group and 19 in the control group), there was a significant between-group difference in the change in BMI at 1 year (?1.79, P = 0.007) and 2 years (?2.35, P = 0.01), but not among non-Hispanic participants (P>0.35 at years 1 and 2). The change in body fat as a percentage of total weight did not differ significantly between groups at 2 years (?0.5%, P = 0.40). There were no adverse events related to study participation. CONCLUSIONS Among overweight and obese adolescents, the increase in BMI was smaller in the experimental group than in the control group after a 1-year intervention designed to reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, but not at the 2-year follow-up (the prespecified primary outcome). (Funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00381160.) PMID:22998339

  13. Living donor liver transplantation with body-weight more or less than 10 kilograms

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sheng-Chun; Huang, Chia-Jung; Chen, Chao-Long; Wang, Chih-Hsien; Wu, Shao-Chun; Shih, Tsung-Hsiao; Juang, Sin-Ei; Lee, Ying-En; Jawan, Bruno; Cheng, Yu-Feng; Cheng, Kwok-Wai

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare the outcomes of pediatric patients weighing less than or more than 10 kg who underwent liver transplantation. METHODS: Data for 196 pediatric patients who underwent living donor liver transplantation between June 1994 and February 2011 were reviewed retrospectively. The information for each patient was anonymized and de-identified before analysis. The data included information regarding the pre-transplant conditions, intraoperative fluid replacement and outcomes for each patient. The 196 patients were divided into two groups: those with body weights of less than 10 kg were included in group 1 (G1; n = 101), while those with body weights of more than 10 kg were included in group 2 (G2; n = 95). For each group, the patients’ ages, body weights, heights, pediatric end stage liver disease scores, anesthesia times, and warm and cold ischemic times were analyzed. In addition, between-group comparisons were also made. Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare all the variables except for complications and survival rates, which were analyzed using ?2 tests and Kaplan-Meier tests, respectively. RESULTS: The general medical conditions of the G1 patients were worse than those of the G2 patients, as shown by the higher pediatric end stage liver disease scores and poorer Z-scores. In addition, the pre-operative Hb and serum albumin levels were all lower for the G1 patients than for the G2 patients. The G1 patients also had significantly more intraoperative blood loss than the G2 patients. In addition, the intraoperative fluid requirements for the G1 patients, including leukocyte poor red blood cell transfusions, 5% albumin infusions and crystalloid infusions, were significantly higher than those for the G2 patients. The risk of intraoperative portal vein thrombosis was higher for the patients in G1 than for those in G2. However, the one-year survival rates (95.9% and 96.8% for G1 and G2, respectively) and three-year survival rates (94.9% and 94.6% for G1 and G2, respectively) for both groups were similar. CONCLUSION: Patients weighing less than 10 kg typically have poorer conditions, but their survival rates are comparable to those of children weighing more than 10 kg.

  14. BODY WEIGHT GAIN AND DRY MATTER CONSUMPTION OF STEERS FOLLOWING GRAZING OF TOXIC TALL FESCUE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stocker cattle grazed on toxic tall fescue during the spring and summer can exhibit symptoms of toxicosis resulting in poor weight gains and extended times of adjustment to feedyard rations. A 2-yr experiment (2004 and 2005) monitored body weight (BW) change and dry matter (DM) consumption for 36 be...

  15. Adverse events of herbal food supplements for body weight reduction: systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Pittler; K. Schmidt; E. Ernst

    2005-01-01

    Summary Herbal weight-loss supplements are marketed with claims of effectiveness. Our earlier systematic review identified data from double-blind, randomized controlled trials for a number of herbal supplements. The aim of this systematic review was to assess all clinical evidence of adverse events of herbal food supplements for body weight reduction for which effectiveness data from rigorous clinical trials exist. We

  16. Who wants a slimmer body? The relationship between body weight status, education level and body shape dissatisfaction among young adults in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Body shape dissatisfaction has been thought to have an indispensable impact on weight control behaviors. We investigated the prevalence of body shape dissatisfaction (BSD) and explored its association with weight status, education level and other determinants among young adults in Hong Kong. Methods Information on anthropometry, BSD, and socio-demographics was collected from a random sample of 1205 young adults (611 men and 594 women) aged 18-27 in a community-based household survey. BSD was defined as a discrepancy between current and ideal body shape based on a figure rating scale. Cross-tabulations, homogeneity tests and logistic regression models were applied. Results The percentages of underweight men and women were 16.5% and 34.9% respectively, and the corresponding percentages of being overweight or obese were 26.7% and 13.2% for men and women respectively. Three-quarters of young adults had BSD. Among women, 30.9% of those underweight and 75.5% of those with normal weight desired a slimmer body shape. Overweight men and underweight women with lower education level were more likely to have a mismatch between weight status and BSD than those with higher education level. After controlling for other determinants, underweight women were found to have a higher likelihood to maintain their current body shapes than other women. Men were found to be less likely to have a mismatch between weight status and BSD than women. Conclusions Overweight and obesity in men and underweight in women were prevalent among Hong Kong young adults. Inappropriate body shape desire might predispose individuals to unhealthy weight loss or gain behaviors. Careful consideration of actual weight status in body shape desire is needed in health promotion and education, especially for underweight and normal weight women and those with a low education level. PMID:22039977

  17. Patient weight more than body mass index influences total hip arthroplasty long term survival.

    PubMed

    Traina, Francesco; Bordini, Barbara; De Fine, Marcello; Toni, Aldo

    2011-01-01

    The effect of obesity on the long-term survival of total hip arthroplasty remains under discussion. Reviewing meta-analyses of large cohort studies a high body mass index has been correlated with a higher incidence of complications but not univocally with a lower implant survival rate. It has been suggested that body weight rather than body mass index might be a better parameter to evaluate prosthesis outcome. We reviewed 27,571 patients retrospectively with primary arthritis as a preoperative diagnosis. Patients were divided into 4 categories based on their body mass index, or into two groups based on the body weight (<80 kg and =80 kg). Implant survivorship was estimated with use of the Cox proportional hazards model with revision for aseptic loosening as the end point. Results were stratified for sex and implant tribology. When body mass index was used the 10 years implant survival in obese versus non-obese patients was not statistically different (p=0.058), but when body weight was used a statistically different implant survivorship was found for men (p=0.009). Therefore, weight rather than than body mass index influences survival of hip prostheses, and should be used as the discriminant parameter for further studies. PMID:22144336

  18. Body Image, Self-Esteem, and Weight-Related Criticism from Romantic Partners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Befort, Christie; Kurpius, Sharon E. Robinson; Hull-Blanks, Elva; Nicpon, Megan Foley; Huser, Laura; Sollenberger, Sonja

    2001-01-01

    Examines weight-related criticism from romantic partners and the importance of the romantic relationship in relation to the body image and self esteem for college freshmen women. Results reveal that self esteem and body image were positively related. Partner importance also predicted self esteem, whereas criticism did not. (Contains 55 references…

  19. Association of polymorphisms of leptin gene with body weight and body sizes indexes in Chinese indigenous cattle.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dongying; Chen, Hong; Wang, Xinzhuang; Tian, Zhihuan; Tang, Ligang; Zhang, Zhengfeng; Lei, Chuzhao; Zhang, Liangzhi; Wang, Yimin

    2007-05-01

    PCR-SSCP was used to analyze the polymorphism of leptin gene in 539 samples of six cattle breeds, namely Nanyang (NY), Qinchuan (QC), Jiaxianred (JXR), Xizhen (XZ), Luxi (LX), and Holstein cow (HOL) breeds. PCR products with a 330 bp were amplified and sequenced. The results showed that the frequencies of alleles A/B of NY, QC, JXR, XZ, LX, and HOL breeds were 0.558/0.442, 0.492/0.508, 0.571/0.429, 0.658/0.342, 0.591/0.409, and 0.615/0.385, respectively. The association of variations of leptin gene with growth traits in NY, QC, JXR breeds was analyzed. Some indexes of the individuals with genotype BB were higher than that with genotype AA and AB in NY breed, such as the indexes of body length, heart length, body weight, hucklebone width, body height, and average day gain. The height at hip cross of the individuals with genotype BB was higher than that of those with genotype AA and AB in QC breed (P < 0.05). So leptin gene may be one of the candidate genes for growth traits with height at hip cross, but not for body weight, heart length, and body length trait. However, the height at hip cross and hucklebone width of the individuals with genotype AB and BB were higher than that of those with genotype AA in JXR breed (P < 0.05), but the difference was not statistically significant in body weight and body sizes (body height, body length, and heart length). And the polymorphisms in leptin gene were caused by G --> T transversion at the 66th bp position, A --> C transversion at the 67th bp position and G --> T transversion at the 299th bp position. These results may be applied to marker-assisted selection of Chinese cattle breeds. PMID:17560525

  20. Changes in body weight and frame and its genetic variation during the productive life of dairy cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Sloniewski; I. L. Mao; Just Jensen; Per Madsen

    2005-01-01

    Data used were body weights and physical measures on hip height, body depth, chest girth, hip width, and body length taken at an experimental dairy herd of three breeds (Holstein, Jersey and Danish Red). Random regression mixed models were used to evaluate changes in variances through the productive life of dairy cows in body weight and in each of the

  1. A critique of the effects of snacking on body weight status.

    PubMed

    Drummond, S; Crombie, N; Kirk, T

    1996-12-01

    Increasingly Western populations appear to be moving away from the 'gorging' to the 'nibbling' pattern of eating, probably as a direct result of the increased availability of snack foods and snacks. There have been many individual suggestions for the definition of a 'snack', each one based on different parameters of measurement (Rotenburg, 1981; Bernstein et al, 1981; De Castro, 1993). However, no one definition has been universally accepted in the scientific literature due to the problems inherent in individual perception of what constitutes a 'snack' as opposed to a 'meal'. For the purposes of this review, however, a snack is defined as 'any food taken outwith a regular mealtime (namely breakfast, lunch and dinner) or snack item taken in place of such meal.' Snacking is commonly regarded by the general public as predisposing to overweight and obesity, believing that it is more beneficial to adhere to an eating pattern of three meals a day. Thus, in this context, many weight reduction programmes include avoidance of snacks, reducing the frequency of eating occasions to two to three times a day. Indeed one hypothesis, the Booth hypothesis (Booth, 1988), suggests that this growing trend for snacking is a major factor in the aetiology of obesity. However, there is evidence to suggest that snacking, per se, may not necessarily predispose to overweight and that those individuals who snack throughout the day may have positive advantages, in terms of body weight control, over those conforming to a rigid pattern of three meals a day. This paper reviews the literature in the area of eating frequency with respect to energy balance and body weight control and suggests some directions for further research. PMID:8968697

  2. Body weight-associated differences in ovarian morphology in captive common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Scheerer-Bernhard, J U; Tkachenko, O Y; Heistermann, M; Gründker, C; Nayudu, P L

    2015-06-01

    In captivity, Callithrix jacchus (common marmoset) is on average heavier than their wild-living counterparts, and has a tendency to produce triplet litters rather than the normal twins. To provide initial basic information about possible weight-related differences among the ovaries, a morphometric study of follicular phase ovaries from 48 young adult marmosets has been carried out. Nearly 90% of these ovaries were found to contain some degree of luteal tissue composed of large and/or small cells. The luteal structures, follicles of all stages, and stroma were subjected to morphometric analysis, and these results were compared with body weight, circulating triglyceride, androstenedione, and total estrogens. Where only large luteal cells were present, the median body weight was the highest (only this group included animals over 500g) compared with mixed, or only small luteal cells, or absence of luteal cells. Furthermore, in this group plasma triglycerides were significantly higher compared to other groups, suggesting possible role of triglycerides in promoting luteinisation. Plasma androstenedione was also a critical discriminating factor, and was elevated where large luteal cells were present even as a mixture with small cells suggesting the large luteal cells to be the likely major ovarian source of this hormone and its metabolites. Additionally, the ovaries with large luteal cells compared to those containing only small or no luteal cells, had lower primordial follicle reserve associated with high levels of atresia and luteinisation among growing non-ovulatory follicles, indicating an accelerated activation, but at the same time a suboptimal environment for follicular growth. PMID:25842250

  3. Body weight support by virtual model control of an impedance controlled exoskeleton (LOPES) for gait training.

    PubMed

    van der Kooij, Herman; Koopman, Bram; van Asseldonk, Edwin H F

    2008-01-01

    The feasibility of an alternative method to support body weight in a powered exoskeleton is demonstrated. Instead of using an overhead suspension system, body weight is supported by augmenting the joint moments through virtual model control. The advantages of this novel method is that it allows for independent support of the left and right leg, and does not interfere with the excitation of cutanous afferents and balance of the body or trunk. Results show that after a short familiarization period the activity of muscles during initial stance reduces and kinematics become close to normal. PMID:19163077

  4. Body weight and some biometrical traits of ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) at different ages.

    PubMed

    Górecki, Marcin T; Nowaczewski, Sebastian; Kontecka, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Although the growth of pheasants is an important issue, there are few publications providing information on body weight and morphometrics of pheasants at different ages. The aim of this study was to investigate body weight, tarsus length, wing length and wingspan in farmed pheasants aged 3-16 weeks. The study was carried out on 50 pheasants (31 females and 19 males). All one-day old birds were marked and kept until the 16th week of life. In the 3rd 8 h 12th and 16th weeks of life all pheasants were weighted and tarsus length, wing length and wingspan were measured. Male chicks appeared to be significantly heavier than females (P< or = 0.01) already in the third week of life. Also their wings were longer and their wingspan attained higher values (P < or = 0.05). Absolute gains of the majority of traits also differed between sexes (being larger in males) in all studied periods. Values of body weight, tarsus length and wingspan noted in the third week of life were significantly correlated with all later measurements. Thus body weight and some biometrical traits of pheasant chicks measured already at the 3rd week of life could be applied as predictors of future body weight and size. PMID:22428312

  5. Feasibility of a lifestyle intervention on body weight and serum biomarkers in breast cancer survivors with overweight and obesity.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Kristin L; Van Patten, Cheri L; Neil, Sarah E; Kirkham, Amy A; Gotay, Carolyn C; Gelmon, Karen A; McKenzie, Donald C

    2012-04-01

    Physical inactivity and being overweight or obese are lifestyle factors that put breast cancer survivors at a higher risk for a cancer recurrence and/or development of other chronic diseases. Despite this, there is limited research that has identified effective lifestyle interventions aimed specifically at weight loss in breast cancer survivors. This pilot study is a single-arm experimental pre-post test design, conducted from November 2009 to July 2010, that tested the efficacy of a 24-week group-based lifestyle intervention modeled on the Diabetes Prevention Program in early stage breast cancer survivors (N=14). The intervention included 16 diet sessions led by a registered dietitian and 150 min/wk of moderate-to-vigorous exercise. Study outcome measures were completed at baseline, 24, and 36 weeks (nonintervention follow-up). The primary outcome was change in body weight, and secondary outcomes were change in body composition, aerobic fitness, dietary intake, and blood biomarkers. Overall, participants were postmenopausal women aged 54.6±8.3 years with obesity (body mass index 30.1±3.6), and had completed adjuvant cancer treatment 2 years prior. Results showed an average weight loss of 3.8±5.0 kg and a decrease in body mass index, percent body fat, and waist and hip circumferences at 24 weeks and an additional mean weight loss of 0.8±1.2 kg at 36 weeks. In exploratory analysis, participants who lost >7% body weight were older and attended a greater percentage of diet and supervised exercise sessions. There were no significant changes in any of the blood biomarkers at 24 and 36 weeks; however, the results provide a measure of expected effect size for future research studies. This pilot study demonstrated the efficacy of a lifestyle intervention based on the Diabetes Prevention Program in early stage breast cancer survivors and represents an innovative clinical intervention for dietetics practitioners to address the unmet need for programs. PMID:22709706

  6. The impact of weight, sex, and race/ethnicity on body dissatisfaction among urban children.

    PubMed

    Xanthopoulos, Melissa S; Borradaile, Kelley E; Hayes, Sharon; Sherman, Sandy; Vander Veur, Stephanie; Grundy, Karen M; Nachmani, Joan; Foster, Gary D

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the relative contributions of weight status, race/ethnicity, sex, and age on body dissatisfaction in a large group of diverse children. Participants were 4th-6th graders (N=1212) in ten inner-city schools who participated in an obesity prevention study previously published. Children completed the body dissatisfaction subscale of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2), and weight status was assessed by measured weights and heights. Multiple regression analyses were conducted. Relative weight status was the strongest predictor of body dissatisfaction, followed by race/ethnicity, and sex. Body dissatisfaction was greatest in obese, Asian, and female children. Overall, results indicated that children's body dissatisfaction varies based on relative weight status, as well as race/ethnicity and sex among urban children. Results highlight the strong need for additional research so that more definitive conclusions may be drawn regarding the development of body image among diverse groups of children. PMID:21664202

  7. Middle-aged women’s decisions about body weight management: needs assessment and testing of a knowledge translation tool

    PubMed Central

    Stacey, Dawn; Jull, Janet; Beach, Sarah; Dumas, Alex; Strychar, Irene; Adamo, Kristi; Brochu, Martin; Prud’homme, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective This study aims to assess middle-aged women’s needs when making body weight management decisions and to evaluate a knowledge translation tool for addressing their needs. Methods A mixed-methods study used an interview-guided theory-based survey of professional women aged 40 to 65 years. The tool summarized evidence to address their needs and enabled women to monitor actions taken. Acceptability and usability were reported descriptively. Results Sixty female participants had a mean body mass index of 28.0 kg/m2 (range, 17.0-44.9 kg/m2), and half were premenopausal. Common options for losing (82%) or maintaining (18%) weight included increasing physical activity (60%), eating healthier (57%), and getting support (40%). Decision-making involved getting information on options (52%), soliciting others’ decisions/advice (20%), and being self-motivated (20%). Preferred information sources included written information (97%), counseling (90%), and social networking websites (43%). Five professionals (dietitian, personal trainer, occupational therapist, and two physicians) had similar responses. Of 53 women sent the tool, 27 provided acceptability feedback. They rated it as good to excellent for information on menopause (96%), body weight changes (85%), and managing body weight (85%). Most would tell others about it (81%). After 4 weeks of use, 25 women reported that the wording made sense (96%) and that the tool had clear instructions (92%) and was easy to use across time (88%). The amount of information was rated as just right (64%), but the tool had limited space for responding (72%). Conclusions When making decisions about body weight management, women’s needs were “getting information” and “getting support.” The knowledge translation tool was acceptable and usable, but further evaluation is required. PMID:25816120

  8. Quinine controls body weight gain without affecting food intake in male C57BL6 mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Quinine is a natural molecule commonly used as a flavouring agent in tonic water. Diet supplementation with quinine leads to decreased body weight and food intake in rats. Quinine is an in vitro inhibitor of Trpm5, a cation channel expressed in taste bud cells, the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. The objective of this work is to determine the effect of diet supplementation with quinine on body weight and body composition in male mice, to investigate its mechanism of action, and whether the effect is mediated through Trpm5. Results Compared with mice consuming AIN, a regular balanced diet, mice consuming AIN diet supplemented with 0.1% quinine gained less weight (2.89?±?0.30?g vs 5.39?±?0.50?g) and less fat mass (2.22?±?0.26?g vs 4.33?±?0.43?g) after 13?weeks of diet, and had lower blood glucose and plasma triglycerides. There was no difference in food intake between the mice consuming quinine supplemented diet and those consuming control diet. Trpm5 knockout mice gained less fat mass than wild-type mice. There was a trend for a diet-genotype interaction for body weight and body weight gain, with the effect of quinine less pronounced in the Trpm5 KO than in the WT background. Faecal weight, energy and lipid contents were higher in quinine fed mice compared to regular AIN fed mice and in Trpm5 KO mice compared to wild type mice. Conclusion Quinine contributes to weight control in male C57BL6 mice without affecting food intake. A partial contribution of Trpm5 to quinine dependent body weight control is suggested. PMID:23394313

  9. Targeted leptin receptor blockade: Role of VTA and NTS leptin receptors in body weight homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Matheny, M.; Strehler, K.Y.E.; King, M.; Tümer, N.; Scarpace, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation examined whether leptin stimulation of ventral tegmental area (VTA) or nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) has a role in body weight homeostasis independent of the medial basal hypothalamus (MBH). To this end, recombinant adeno-associated viral techniques were employed to target leptin overexpression or overexpression of a dominant negative leptin mutant (Leptin Antagonist). Leptin Antagonist overexpression in MBH or VTA increased food intake and body weight to similar extents over 14 days in rats. Simultaneous overexpression of leptin in VTA with antagonist in MBH resulted in food intake and body weight gain that were less than with control treatment but greater than with leptin alone in VTA. Notably, leptin overexpression in VTA increased P-STAT3 in MBH along with VTA, and Leptin Antagonist overexpression in the VTA partially attenuated P-STAT3 levels in MBH. Interestingly, leptin antagonist overexpression elevated body weight gain, but leptin overexpression in the NTS failed to modulate either food intake or body weight despite increased P-STAT3. These data suggest that leptin function in the VTA participates in the chronic regulation of food consumption and body weight in response to stimulation or blockade of VTA leptin receptors. Moreover, one component of VTA-leptin action appears to be independent of the MBH, and another component appears to be related to leptin receptor-mediated P-STAT3 activation in the MBH. Finally, leptin receptors in the NTS are necessary for normal energy homeostasis, but appear to have mostly a permissive role. Direct leptin activation of NTS slightly increases UCP1, but has little effect on food consumption or body weight. PMID:24920667

  10. The impact of seasonality on changes in body weight and physical activity in Mexican-American women.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Lisa; Miller, Brian

    2013-01-01

    This 12-month, longitudinal panel study examined seasonal variability in body weight and physical activity in Mexican-American women. Fifty-nine women (20 to 63 years of age) were measured five times at intervals of three months between March 2010 and March 2011. Complete data were collected for all measures at all times on 36 women. Repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance with follow-up univariate repeated measures analysis of variance revealed that body weight increased on average by 1.36 kg (p < .01), with the greatest increase occurring during the fall (+0.80 kg). Changes in vigorous-intensity aerobic activity were statistically significant, with the greatest increase occurring in the spring (+51.99 min/week) and the greatest decline occurring in the fall (-30.11 min/week). Significant changes were observed in muscle-strengthening activity during the summer (-32.38 min/week). Moderate-intensity aerobic activity remained relatively stable. The decline in muscle-strengthening activity during the summer and subsequent decline in vigorous-intensity aerobic activity in the fall likely led to the observed increase in body weight during the fall. Thus, weight management interventions should consider the time of year when Mexican-American women's physical activity declines and include strategies specifically designed to prevent weight gain during the fall season. PMID:23705758

  11. Adaptive thermogenesis can make a difference in the ability of obese individuals to lose body weight.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, A; Royer, M-M; Chaput, J-P; Doucet, E

    2013-06-01

    The decrease in energy expenditure that occurs during weight loss is a process that attenuates over time the impact of a restrictive diet on energy balance up to a point beyond which no further weight loss seems to be possible. For some health professionals, such a diminished energy expenditure is the normal consequence of a progressive decrease in the motivation to exercise over the course of a weight-reducing program. Another explanation of decreased energy needs during weight loss is the decrease in body energy stores (that is, fat mass and muscle mass) and its related obligatory costs of living. Many studies have also documented the existence of adaptive thermogenesis in the context of weight loss, which represents a greater-than-predicted decrease in energy expenditure. In this paper, we pursue the analysis of this phenomenon by demonstrating that an adaptive decrease in thermogenesis can have a major role in the occurrence of resistance to further lose fat in weight-reduced obese individuals. Evidence is also presented to support the idea of greater hunger sensations in individuals displaying more pronounced thermogenic changes. Finally, as the decrease in thermogenesis persists over time, it is also likely associated with a greater predisposition to body-weight regain after weight loss. Globally, these observations suggest that the adaptive reduction in thermogenesis that accompanies a prolonged negative energy balance is a major determinant of the ability to spontaneously lose body fat. PMID:22846776

  12. Food intake, energy balance and body weight control.

    PubMed

    Doucet, E; Tremblay, A

    1997-12-01

    Obesity is a multifactorial and complex affectation that is characterized by a long-term excess energy intake (EI) above energy expenditure (EE). Since fat oxidation seems to be dependent on SNS activation and also seems to remain acutely unaffected by fat intake, this macronutrient is certainly partly responsible for this situation. In addition, high-fat intake does not induce as potent satiety signals or a compensation effect on subsequent EI as do diets rich in carbohydrates or proteins. Moreover, since alcohol intake acutely inhibits fat oxidation and does not promote subsequent compensation for its energy content, it should consequently be regarded as a substrate which can induce a positive energy balance under free-living conditions. Thus, in a weight reducing context, each energy substrate should be manipulated while taking into account its specific characteristics. Obesity has also often been associated to a decreased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity, hence sympathomimetic agents have been proposed as a possible way to partially correct this situation. Two of these agents are the widely consumed caffeine (CAF) and the pungent principle of hot red pepper, capsaicin (CAP), which acutely increase EE and reduce EI under some circumstances. Furthermore, other factors like dietary fibers, that have been shown to increase satiety and fullness, and reduce EI in some cases, should also be considered. PMID:9426360

  13. Ghrelin in the regulation of body weight and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, T R; Tong, J; Datta, R; Culler, M; Tschöp, M H

    2010-01-01

    Ghrelin, a peptide hormone predominantly produced by the stomach, was isolated as the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor. Ghrelin is a potent stimulator of growth hormone (GH) secretion and is the only circulatory hormone known to potently enhance feeding and weight gain and to regulate energy homeostasis following central and systemic administration. Therapeutic intervention with ghrelin in catabolic situations may induce a combination of enhanced food intake, increased gastric emptying and nutrient storage, coupled with an increase in GH thereby linking nutrient partitioning with growth and repair processes. These qualities have fostered the idea that ghrelin-based compounds may have therapeutic utility in treating malnutrition and wasting induced by various sub-acute and chronic disorders. Conversely, compounds that inhibit ghrelin action may be useful for the prevention or treatment of metabolic syndrome components such as obesity, impaired lipid metabolism or insulin resistance. In recent years, the effects of ghrelin on glucose homeostasis, memory function and gastrointestinal motility have attracted considerable amount of attention and revealed novel therapeutic targets in treating a wide range of pathologic conditions. Furthermore, discovery of ghrelin O-acyltransferase has also opened new research opportunities that could lead to major understanding of ghrelin physiology. This review summarizes the current knowledge on ghrelin synthesis, secretion, mechanism of action and biological functions with an additional focus on potential for ghrelin-based pharmacotherapies. PMID:19896496

  14. Simulation of dynamics of interacting rigid bodies including friction II: Software system design and implementation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suresh Goyal; Elliot N. Pinson; Frank W. Sinden

    1994-01-01

    This is the second of two papers that deal with the problem of modeling contact (impact, sliding, rolling) between unconstrained rigid bodies, including friction. In a companion paper [1] we showed that the main underlying problem concerns the ability to do efficient contact mechanics when bodies interact through impact and\\/or sustained contact. Contact mechanics involves two aspects: detection of contact

  15. Effects of Previous Feeding of a High Carbohydrate or a High Fat Diet on Changes in Body Weight and Body Composition of Fasted Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HIROO SUZUKI

    b- ABSTRACT The effects of previous feeding either a high fat or a high carbohydrate diet on changes in body weight and body composition of rats during fasting were investigated. Body weight loss of the high fat group during fasting was greater than that of the high carbohydrate group. After 72 hours of food deprivation, a significant difference in relative

  16. Role of obesity and media in body weight concern among female university students in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Al-Mannai, Mariam

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the association of media and obesity status with body weight concern among female university students in Kuwait. 228 female students, aged 19-25 years, were selected at convenience from the Women's College in Kuwait. A previously validated questionnaire was used to collect information on the role of media in body concern and how parents, peers and the girls themselves perceived girls' body shapes. Weight and height were gathered by self-reporting. Use of internet and reading women's magazines had a significant impact on dieting by the girls to lose weight (P<0.0007 and P<0.0114, respectively). The mass media had two to three times more influence on obese girls than non-obese girls. Only watching television had a significant impact on girls' body shape concern (P<0.053). About 30% of non-obese and 81% of obese girls were dissatisfied with their current weight. There were significant differences between obese and non-obese girls regarding the girls' views and the views of their peers and parents about the body weight of the girls (P<0.000 for all). The pressure from peers and parents, in addition to the mass media, may lead to disturbed attitudes towards eating among Kuwaiti girls. PMID:23557827

  17. Does reading keep you thin? Leisure activities, cultural tastes, and body weight in comparative perspective

    PubMed Central

    Pampel, Fred C.

    2011-01-01

    While sedentary leisure-time activities such as reading, going to movies, attending cultural events, attending sporting events, watching TV, listening to music, and socializing with friends would seem to contribute to excess weight, a perspective focusing on SES differences in cultural tastes suggests the opposite, that some sedentary activities are associated with lower rather than higher body weight. This study aims to test theories of cultural distinction by examining relationships between leisure-time activities and body weight. Using 2007 data on 17 nations from the International Social Survey Program, the analysis estimates relationships between the body mass index and varied leisure-time activities while controlling for SES, physical activities, and sociodemographic variables. Net of controls for SES and physical activities, participation time in cultural activities is associated with lower rather than higher body weight, particularly in high-income nations. The results suggest that both cultural activities and body weight reflect forms of distinction that separate SES-based lifestyles. PMID:21707664

  18. Blood lead level association with lower body weight in NHANES 1999–2006

    SciTech Connect

    Scinicariello, Franco, E-mail: fes6@cdc.gov [Division of Toxicology and Human Health Sciences, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Buser, Melanie C. [Division of Toxicology and Human Health Sciences, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Mevissen, Meike [Division of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Portier, Christopher J. [National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH)/ATSDR, CDC, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Background: Lead exposure is associated with low birth-weight. The objective of this study is to determine whether lead exposure is associated with lower body weight in children, adolescents and adults. Methods: We analyzed data from NHANES 1999–2006 for participants aged ? 3 using multiple logistic and multivariate linear regression. Using age- and sex-standardized BMI Z-scores, overweight and obese children (ages 3–19) were classified by BMI ? 85th and ? 95th percentiles, respectively. The adult population (age ? 20) was classified as overweight and obese with BMI measures of 25–29.9 and ? 30, respectively. Blood lead level (BLL) was categorized by weighted quartiles. Results: Multivariate linear regressions revealed a lower BMI Z-score in children and adolescents when the highest lead quartile was compared to the lowest lead quartile (? (SE) = ? 0.33 (0.07), p < 0.001), and a decreased BMI in adults (? (SE) = ? 2.58 (0.25), p < 0.001). Multiple logistic analyses in children and adolescents found a negative association between BLL and the percentage of obese and overweight with BLL in the highest quartile compared to the lowest quartile (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.30–0.59; and OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.52–0.88, respectively). Adults in the highest lead quartile were less likely to be obese (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.35–0.50) compared to those in the lowest lead quartile. Further analyses with blood lead as restricted cubic splines, confirmed the dose-relationship between blood lead and body weight outcomes. Conclusions: BLLs are associated with lower body mass index and obesity in children, adolescents and adults. - Highlights: • NHANES analysis of BLL and body weight outcomes • Increased BLL associated with decreased body weight in children and adolescent • Increased BLL associated with decreased body weight in adults.

  19. Men, muscles, and body image: comparisons of competitive bodybuilders, weight trainers, and athletically active controls

    PubMed Central

    Pickett, T; Lewis, R; Cash, T; Pope, H

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate body image and psychosocial adjustment among competitive bodybuilders, non-competitive weight trainers, and athletically active men. Methods: Participants were 40 men in each of the three groups who were assessed on body composition and multiple facets of body image evaluation, investment and anxiety, eating attitudes, and social self esteem. Results: Relative to the other two groups, competitive bodybuilders had greater body mass due to fat-free body mass. Although groups did not differ in their situational body image discomfort, competitive bodybuilders and weight trainers had a more positive global appearance evaluation and were more psychologically invested in their physical appearance. Compared with active controls, men in both weightlifting groups were more satisfied with their upper torso and muscle tone. Competitive bodybuilders reported more mid torso satisfaction than the other two groups. Competitive bodybuilders also wished to be significantly heavier than controls did and reported higher social self esteem but greater eating disturbance. Conclusions: The findings suggest that competitive bodybuilders as a group are not more "muscle dysmorphic" than either non-competitive weight trainers or physically active men who do not train with weights. PMID:15793091

  20. Relationship of Body Satisfaction, with Nutrition and Weight Control Behaviors in Women

    PubMed Central

    Mostafavi-Darani, Firoozeh; Daniali, Seyede-Shahrbanoo; Azadbakht, Leila

    2013-01-01

    Background: Considering the importance and prevalence of obesity and the desire to lose weight, especially among women, this study intended to investigate the relationship between Body Mass Index, body satisfaction, and weight control behavior among women employees in Isfahan. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted among 408 women who were selected by stratified random sampling method among employees at Isfahan University and Isfahan University of Medical Sciences during 2012. The data collection tool was a multidimensional questionnaire which comprised two sections: Demographic Tool and Body Satisfaction Tool (7 items), Weight Control Behavior Scale (18 items). Results: Age, marital status, educational level, and multiparity were significantly correlated with body size satisfaction. Seventy-five participants were dissatisfied with their weight and 60.5% reported a desire to lose weight; 92.15% of women studied had participated in a healthy dieting behavior and 10.8% of them had participated in an unhealthy one during the past six months. There was an inverse correlation between body satisfaction and Body Mass Index (BMI) (r = –0.64, P = 0.001). Ninety percent of participants had at least one of the dieting behaviors. There was an inverse significant relationship between body satisfaction and dieting behaviors (r = –0.19, P = 0.001). Conclusions: Due to the importance of the prevention of obesity and the necessity of having a normal BMI in order to prevent subsequent complications, precise self-evaluation of body size can be used to focus on designing and conducting public health programs, especially for women. PMID:23671780

  1. Effects of diet macronutrient composition on body composition and fat distribution during weight maintenance and weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Goss, Amy M.; Goree, Laura Lee; Ellis, Amy C.; Chandler-Laney, Paula C.; Casazza, Krista; Lockhart, Mark E.; Gower, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative aspects of diet may affect body composition and propensity for weight gain or loss. We tested the hypothesis that consumption of a relatively low glycemic load (GL) diet would reduce total and visceral adipose tissue under both eucaloric and hypocaloric conditions. Participants were 69 healthy overweight men and women. Body composition was assessed by DXA and fat distribution by CT scan at baseline, after 8 weeks of a eucaloric diet intervention, and after 8 weeks of a hypocaloric (1000 kcal/d deficit) diet intervention. Participants were provided all food for both phases, and randomized to either a low GL diet (?45 points per 1000 kcal; n=40) or high GL diet (>75 points per 1000 kcal, n=29). After the eucaloric phase, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 11% less intra-abdominal fat (IAAT) than those who consumed the high GL diet (P<0.05, adjusted for total fat mass and baseline IAAT). Participants lost an average of 5.8 kg during the hypocaloric phase, with no differences in the amount of weight loss with diet assignment (P=0.39). Following weight loss, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 4.4% less total fat mass than those who consumed the high GL diet (P<0.05, adjusted for lean mass and baseline fat mass). Consumption of a relatively low GL diet may affect energy partitioning, both inducing reduction in IAAT independent of weight change, and enhancing loss of fat relative to lean mass during weight loss. PMID:23671029

  2. Consequences of smoking for body weight, body fat distribution, and insulin resistance1,2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnaud Chiolero; David Faeh; Fred Paccaud; Jacques Cornuz

    Our aim was to critically evaluate the relations among smoking, bodyweight,bodyfatdistribution,andinsulinresistanceasreported in the literature. In the short term, nicotine increases energy expen- diture and could reduce appetite, which may explain why smokers tendtohavelowerbodyweightthandononsmokersandwhysmok- ing cessation is frequently followed by weight gain. In contrast, heavysmokerstendtohavegreaterbodyweightthandolightsmok- ers or nonsmokers, which likely reflects a clustering of risky behav- iors(eg,lowdegreeofphysicalactivity,poordiet,andsmoking)that is conducive to weight

  3. Body size and longitudinal body weight changes do not increase mortality in incident peritoneal dialysis patients of the Brazilian peritoneal dialysis multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Fernandes, Natália Maria; Bastos, Marcus Gomes; Franco, Márcia Regina Gianotti; Chaoubah, Alfredo; da Glória Lima, Maria; Divino-Filho, José Carolino; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the roles of body size and longitudinal body weight changes in the survival of incident peritoneal dialysis patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients (n?=?1911) older than 18 years of age recruited from 114 dialysis centers (Dec/2004-Oct/2007) and participating in the Brazilian Peritoneal Dialysis Multicenter Cohort Study were included. Clinical and laboratory data were collected monthly (except if the patient received a transplant, recovered renal function, was transferred to hemodialysis, or died). RESULTS: Survival analyses were performed using Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional hazards. Total follow-up was 34 months. The mean age was 59 years (54% female). The weight category percentages were as follows: underweight: 8%; normal: 51%; overweight: 29%; and obese 12%. The multivariate model showed a higher risk of death for a body mass index <18.5 kg/m2, a neutral risk between 25 and 29.9 kg/m2 and a protective effect for an index >30 kg/m2. Patients were divided into five categories according to quintiles of body weight changes during the first year of dialysis: +7.1%. Patients in the lowest quintile had significantly higher mortality, whereas no negative impact was observed in the other quintiles. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that overweight/obesity and a positive body weight variation during the first year of peritoneal dialysis therapy do not increase mortality in incident dialysis patients in Brazil. PMID:23420157

  4. Nuts Improve Diet Quality Compared to Other Energy-Dense Snacks While Maintaining Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Tey, Siew Ling; Brown, Rachel; Gray, Andrew; Chisholm, Alexandra; Delahunty, Conor

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that regular nut consumption reduces cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and does not promote weight gain despite the fact that nuts are energy-dense. However, no studies have investigated the body composition of those regularly consuming nuts compared to similar intakes of other snacks of equal energy density. This parallel study (n = 118) examined the effects of providing daily portions (~1100?kJ/d) of hazelnuts, chocolate, or potato crisps compared to a control group receiving no snacks for twelve weeks. Effects on body weight and composition, blood lipids and lipoproteins, resting metabolic rate (RMR), appetite indices, and dietary quality were compared. At week 12, there was no significant difference in any of the outcome measurements between the groups except for dietary quality, which improved significantly in the nut group. Nuts can be incorporated into the diet without adversely affecting body weight and can improve diet quality. PMID:21845219

  5. Unhealthy Body Weight, Illness Absence, Presenteeism, Medical Payments, and Disability Leave: A Longitudinal View.

    PubMed

    Gifford, Brian

    2014-11-01

    Abstract The objective of this study is to examine how much of the relationships between unhealthy body weight, and health and productivity outcomes are attributable to health status, and how much can be ameliorated by weight loss or improvements in health. Cross-sectional and first-difference regressions were conducted of employees' body mass index (BMI) category, illness absences, presenteeism, medical spending, and disability leaves. Employees in the obese BMI category have significantly worse outcomes than employees in the healthy and overweight BMI categories. Controlling for physical and emotional health status mediates much of the observed relationships. Improved health, stress, and psychological distress are associated with reduced illness absence and presenteeism among overweight and obese employees. Obese employees who lost weight experienced reduced presenteeism. The findings suggest that overweight and obese employees can realize improved productivity without weight loss. (Population Health Management 2014;xx:xxx-xxx). PMID:25375972

  6. Changes in childhood food consumption patterns: a cause for concern in light of increasing body weights.

    PubMed

    St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Keller, Kathleen L; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2003-12-01

    Childhood obesity is currently at its highest: recent statistics show that 16% of children between the ages of 6 and 11 y are overweight [> or =95th percentile of body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) for age] and that an additional 14.3% are at risk of becoming overweight (> or =85th percentile but < 95th percentile of BMI for age). As children's body weights have increased, so has their consumption of fast foods and soft drinks. The proportion of foods that children consumed from restaurants and fast food outlets increased by nearly 300% between 1977 and 1996. Children's soft drink consumption has also increased during those years, and now soft drinks provide soft drink consumers 188 kcal/d beyond the energy intake of nonconsumers. These changes in food intakes among children may partly explain the rise in childhood obesity observed in the past few years. Although the mechanism of appetite regulation will not be explored in this report, it is hypothesized that the greater energy intakes in children who consume large amounts of soft drinks and fast foods are not compensated for by increased physical activity or decreased energy intakes. Furthermore, overweight and obesity in childhood may predispose persons to morbidity in adulthood. Blood pressure and fasting insulin and cholesterol concentrations are higher in overweight children than in normal-weight children. This review focuses on current food patterns and eating habits of children, in an attempt to explain their increasing BMI. In addition, a critical review of food service and political practices regarding food choices for children at school is included. PMID:14668265

  7. A multilevel approach for minimum weight structural design including local and system buckling constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmit, L. A., Jr.; Ramanathan, R. K.

    1977-01-01

    A rational multilevel approach for minimum weight structural design of truss and wing structures including local and system buckling constraints is presented. Overall proportioning of the structure is achieved at the system level subject to strength, displacement and system buckling constraints, while the detailed component designs are carried out separately at the component level satisfying local buckling constraints. Total structural weight is taken to be the objective function at the system level while employing the change in the equivalent system stiffness of the component as the component level objective function. Finite element analysis is used to predict static response while system buckling behavior is handled by incorporating a geometric stiffness matrix capability. Buckling load factors and the corresponding mode shapes are obtained by solving the eigenvalue problem associated with the assembled elastic stiffness and geometric stiffness matrices for the structural system. At the component level various local buckling failure modes are guarded against using semi-empirical formulas. Mathematical programming techniques are employed at both the system and component level.

  8. Effects of Age on Validity of Self-Reported Height, Weight, and Body Mass Index

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARIE FANELLI KUCZMARSKI; ROBERT J KUCZMARSKI; MATTHEW NAJJAR

    2001-01-01

    Objective To compare self-reported to measured heights and weights of adults examined in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), and to determine to what extent body mass index (BMI) calculated from self-reported heights and weights affects estimates of overweight prevalence compared with BMI calculated from measured values.Design A complex sample design was used in NHANES III

  9. Gender, ethnicity, marital status, and body weight in the United States.

    PubMed

    Sobal, Jeffery; Hanson, Karla L; Frongillo, Edward A

    2009-12-01

    Married individuals tend to be heavier than those who are unmarried, particularly men, and individuals in different ethnic categories vary in their involvement in marriage and in their body weights. We examined gender and ethnic differences in relationships between marital status and body weight using cross-sectional data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for 3,947 women and 4,019 men. The findings revealed that compared to married men in the same ethnic category, white divorced men, black never-married men, and all Hispanic men except for widows had lower odds of being overweight. Compared to married women in the same ethnic category, white women's weights did not significantly differ by marital status, black separated women had greater odds of being overweight, and Hispanic never-married women had lower odds of being overweight. Associations of marriage with body weight appear to be at least partly contingent upon gender and ethnicity, which may reflect larger societal patterns of involvement in marriage, commitment to family, and body-weight norms and expectations. PMID:19300431

  10. Comparison of dermatoscopic images of acral lentiginous melanoma and acral melanocytic nevus occurring on body weight-bearing areas

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Soko; Sawada, Mizuki; Ishizaki, Sumiko; Kobayashi, Ken; Tanaka, Masaru

    2014-01-01

    Background: Because body weight-bearing produces a shift in the horny layer, acral melanocytic nevus on the body weight-bearing area of the sole showed a regular fibrillar pattern (FP) due to slanting of the melanin columns in the horny layer. On the other hand, acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) on the body weight-bearing area of the sole tended to show irregular fibrillar pattern showing rather structureless pigmentation instead of a parallel ridge pattern, which is due to the shift of the horny layer. Objective: To elucidate the subtle difference between the regular FP of nevus and irregular FP in ALM. Methods: In this study, the dermatoscopic features of five cases of ALM and five cases of acral melanocytic nevus on the weight-bearing area of the sole were compared. Results: All the cases with nevi showed regular FP showing regular distribution of fibrils, whereas all the melanomas showed irregular distribution of fibrils and colors. Fibrils in nevi tended to be clear at the furrows and dim at the ridges. White fibrils corresponding to the eccrine ducts in the horny layer were more often present on the ridges in ALM, which showed negative FP. Conclusion: Differentiating between the regular and irregular FP, including negative FP, might be helpful for the discrimination of melanoma from nevus. PMID:25396085

  11. Higher infant body fat with excessive gestational weight gain in overweight women

    PubMed Central

    HULL, Holly R.; THORNTON, John C; JI, Ying; PALEY, Charles; ROSENN, Barak; MATHEWS, Premila; NAVDER, Khursheed; YU, Amy; DORSEY, Karen; GALLEGHER, Dympna

    2011-01-01

    Objective Gestational weight gain (GWG) is positively associated with birth weight and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI is directly related to infant fat mass (FM). This study examined whether differences exist in infant body composition based on 2009 GWG recommendations. Study Design Body composition was measured in 306 infants and GWG was categorized as appropriate or excessive. Analysis of covariance was used to investigate the effects of GWG and pre-pregnancy BMI and their interaction on infant body composition. Results Within the appropriate group, infants from obese mothers had greater percent fat (%fat) and FM than offspring from normal and overweight mothers. Within the excessive group, infants from normal mothers had less %fat and FM than infants from overweight and obese mothers. A difference was found for %fat and FM within the overweight group between GWG categories. Conclusions Excessive GWG is associated with greater infant body fat and the effect is greatest in overweight women. PMID:21621185

  12. Complex association between body weight and fracture risk in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Mpalaris, V; Anagnostis, P; Goulis, D G; Iakovou, I

    2015-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a common disease, characterized by low bone mass with micro-architectural disruption and skeletal fragility, resulting in an increased risk of fracture. A substantial number of studies has examined the possible relationship between body weight, bone mineral density and fracture risk in post-menopausal women, with the majority of them concluding that low body weight correlates with increased risk of fracture, especially hip fracture. Controversies about the potential protective effect of obesity on osteoporosis and consequent fracture risk still exist. Several recent studies question the concept that obesity exerts a protective effect against fractures, suggesting that it stands as a risk factor for fractures at specific skeletal sites, such as upper arm. The association between body weight and fracture risk is complex, differs across skeletal sites and body mass index, and is modified by the interaction between body weight and bone mineral density. Some potential explanations that link obesity with increased fracture risk may be the pattern of falls and impaired mobility in obese individuals, comorbidities, such as asthma, diabetes and early menopause, as well as, increased parathyroid hormone and reduced 25-hydroxy-vitamin D concentrations. PMID:25586664

  13. Whole-body diffusion-weighted imaging for staging malignant lymphoma in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas C. Kwee; Taro Takahara; Malou A. Vermoolen; Marc B. Bierings; Willem P. Mali; Rutger A. J. Nievelstein

    2010-01-01

    CT is currently the mainstay in staging malignant lymphoma in children, but the risk of second neoplasms due to ionizing radiation\\u000a associated with CT is not negligible. Whole-body MRI techniques and whole-body diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in particular,\\u000a may be a good radiation-free alternative to CT. DWI is characterized by high sensitivity for the detection of lesions and\\u000a allows quantitative assessment

  14. The effects of triple therapy (acupuncture, diet and exercise) on body weight: a randomized, clinical trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Nourshahi; S Ahmadizad; H Nikbakht; M A Heidarnia; E Ernst

    2009-01-01

    Objectives:The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of diet and exercise vs acupuncture, diet and exercise on the body weight and related parameters of adult women.Methods:Twenty-seven obese women with a body fat percentage of more than 30% were randomized into three groups. The first experimental group had diet and exercise, whereas the second experimental group had diet,

  15. Pharmacological stimulation of brain carnitine palmitoyl-transferase-1 decreases food intake and body weight.

    PubMed

    Aja, Susan; Landree, Leslie E; Kleman, Amy M; Medghalchi, Susan M; Vadlamudi, Aravinda; McFadden, Jill M; Aplasca, Andrea; Hyun, Jayson; Plummer, Erica; Daniels, Khadija; Kemm, Matthew; Townsend, Craig A; Thupari, Jagan N; Kuhajda, Francis P; Moran, Timothy H; Ronnett, Gabriele V

    2008-02-01

    Inhibition of brain carnitine palmitoyl-transferase-1 (CPT-1) is reported to decrease food intake and body weight in rats. Yet, the fatty acid synthase (FAS) inhibitor and CPT-1 stimulator C75 produces hypophagia and weight loss when given to rodents intracerebroventricularly (icv). Thus roles and relative contributions of altered brain CPT-1 activity and fatty acid oxidation in these phenomena remain unclarified. We administered compounds that target FAS or CPT-1 to mice by single icv bolus and examined acute and prolonged effects on feeding and body weight. C75 decreased food intake rapidly and potently at all doses (1-56 nmol) and dose dependently inhibited intake on day 1. Dose-dependent weight loss on day 1 persisted through 4 days of postinjection monitoring. The FAS inhibitor cerulenin produced dose-dependent (560 nmol) hypophagia for 1 day, weight loss for 2 days, and weight regain to vehicle control by day 3. The CPT-1 inhibitor etomoxir (32, 320 nmol) did not alter overall day 1 feeding. However, etomoxir attenuated the hypophagia produced by C75, indicating that CPT-1 stimulation is important for C75's effect. A novel compound, C89b, was characterized in vitro as a selective stimulator of CPT-1 that does not affect fatty acid synthesis. C89b (100, 320 nmol) decreased feeding in mice for 3 days and produced persistent weight loss for 6 days without producing conditioned taste aversion. Similarly, intraperitoneal administration decreased feeding and body weight without producing conditioned taste aversion. These results suggest a role for brain CPT-1 in the regulation of energy balance and implicate CPT-1 stimulation as a pharmacological approach to weight loss. PMID:18056987

  16. Multicenter evaluation of an interdisciplinary 52-week weight loss program for obesity with regard to body weight, comorbidities and quality of life—a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Bischoff, S C; Damms-Machado, A; Betz, C; Herpertz, S; Legenbauer, T; Löw, T; Wechsler, J G; Bischoff, G; Austel, A; Ellrott, T

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of a structured multidisciplinary non-surgical obesity therapy program on the basis of a temporary low-calorie-diet for 12 weeks, and additional intervention modules to enhance nutritional education, to increase physical activity and to modify eating behavior. Design: Prospective multicenter observational study in obese individuals undergoing a medically supervised outpatient-based 52-week treatment in 37 centers in Germany. Subjects: A total of 8296 participants with a body mass index (BMI) of >30?kg?m?2 included within 8.5 years. Measurements: Main outcome measures were body weight loss, waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, quality of life and adverse events. Results: In females, initial body weight was reduced after the 1-year-intervention by 19.6?kg (95% confidence intervals 19.2–19.9?kg) and in males by 26.0?kg (25.2–26.8) according to per protocol analysis of 4850 individuals. Intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis revealed a weight reduction of 15.2?kg (14.9–15.6) in females and 19.4?kg (18.7–20.1) in males. Overall, the intervention resulted in mean reduction in WC of 11?cm; it reduced the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome by 50% and the frequency of hypertension from 47 to 29% of all participants (ITT, all P<0.001). The beneficial effects could be documented for up to 3 years and comprised significant improvement of health-related quality of life. The incidence of adverse effects was low; the only event repeatedly observed and possibly related to either the intervention or the underlying disease was biliary disorders. Conclusion: The present non-surgical intervention program is a highly effective treatment of obesity grades I–III and obesity-related diseases, and therefore, could be a valuable basis for future weight maintenance strategies required for sustained success. PMID:21673653

  17. A controlled trial of protein enrichment of meal replacements for weight reduction with retention of lean body mass

    PubMed Central

    Treyzon, Leo; Chen, Steve; Hong, Kurt; Yan, Eric; Carpenter, Catherine L; Thames, Gail; Bowerman, Susan; Wang, He-Jing; Elashoff, Robert; Li, Zhaoping

    2008-01-01

    Background While high protein diets have been shown to improve satiety and retention of lean body mass (LBM), this study was designed to determine effects of a protein-enriched meal replacement (MR) on weight loss and LBM retention by comparison to an isocaloric carbohydrate-enriched MR within customized diet plans utilizing MR to achieve high protein or standard protein intakes. Methods Single blind, placebo-controlled, randomized outpatient weight loss trial in 100 obese men and women comparing two isocaloric meal plans utilizing a standard MR to which was added supplementary protein or carbohydrate powder. MR was used twice daily (one meal, one snack). One additional meal was included in the meal plan designed to achieve individualized protein intakes of either 1) 2.2 g protein/kg of LBM per day [high protein diet (HP)] or 2) 1.1 g protein/kg LBM/day standard protein diet (SP). LBM was determined using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Body weight, body composition, and lipid profiles were measured at baseline and 12 weeks. Results Eighty-five subjects completed the study. Both HP and SP MR were well tolerated, with no adverse effects. There were no differences in weight loss at 12 weeks (-4.19 ± 0.5 kg for HP group and -3.72 ± 0.7 kg for SP group, p > 0.1). Subjects in the HP group lost significantly more fat weight than the SP group (HP = -1.65 ± 0.63 kg; SP = -0.64 ± 0.79 kg, P = 0.05) as estimated by BIA. There were no significant differences in lipids nor fasting blood glucose between groups, but within the HP group a significant decrease in cholesterol and LDL cholesterol was noted at 12 weeks. This was not seen in the SP group. Conclusion Higher protein MR within a higher protein diet resulted in similar overall weight loss as the standard protein MR plan over 12 weeks. However, there was significantly more fat loss in the HP group but no significant difference in lean body mass. In this trial, subject compliance with both the standard and protein-enriched MR strategy for weight loss may have obscured any effect of increased protein on weight loss demonstrated in prior weight loss studies using whole food diets. PMID:18752682

  18. Seasonal Variation in Pigeon Body Weight and Delayed Matching-to-sample Performance

    PubMed Central

    Sargisson, Rebecca J; McLean, Ian G; Brown, Glenn S; White, K Geoffrey

    2007-01-01

    The weights of 5 pigeons with free access to food, monitored over 3 calendar years in the laboratory, were found to fluctuate with season. All pigeons were at their heaviest in the winter and were lightest in the summer. Five different pigeons performed a standard delayed matching-to-sample task for 44 weeks from January to November. Their weights were held at 85% of their summer free-feeding weights, making their predicted deprivation level higher in the winter relative to predicted winter free-feeding weights. Slopes of forgetting functions fit to weekly response totals for each pigeon were shallower in winter, showing an improvement in accuracy with longer delays. Thus, delayed matching-to-sample performance may have been affected by the practice of maintaining the pigeons at a constant body weight throughout the calendar year. PMID:18047229

  19. A Longitudinal Examination of Patterns in Girls’ Weight Concerns and Body Dissatisfaction from Ages 5 to 9 Years

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Markey, Charlotte N.; Birch, Leann L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the development of girls’ weight concerns and body dissatisfaction from ages 5 to 9 years and how change and continuity in these constructs from age 5 to 7 years is associated with girls’ eating attitudes, dietary restraint, and dieting status at age 9. Methods Weight concerns, body dissatisfaction, and weight status were assessed for 182 girls when they were 5, 7, and 9 years old, and their eating attitudes, dietary restraint, and dieting status were assessed when they were 9. Results Girls tended to maintain their rank in weight concerns and body dissatisfaction across ages 5 to 9 years, and associations among girls’ weight concerns, body dissatisfaction, and weight status increased with age. In addition, positive associations were found between changes in girls’ weight concerns, body dissatisfaction, and weight status across ages 7 to 9. Finally, girls’ who reported high weight concerns or high body dissatisfaction across ages 5 to 7 reported higher dietary restraint, more maladaptive eating attitudes, and a greater likelihood of dieting at age 9, independent of their weight status. Conclusion Girls’ reported weight concerns and body dissatisfaction across middle childhood showed consistency over time, were systematically related to their weight status, and predicted their dietary restraint, eating attitudes, and the likelihood of dieting at age 9. These results reflect patterns identified among adolescent girls and women. PMID:12655629

  20. Incidence of dental lesions in musk shrews (Suncus murinus) and their association with sex, age, body weight and diet.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Emily S; Grunden, Beverly K; Crocker, Conan; Boivin, Gregory P

    2013-10-22

    Both wild and laboratory strains of the musk shrew (Suncus murinus) have a high incidence of periodontitis. The authors completed necropsy examinations in 51 shrews to identify dental lesions including tooth loss, mobility and fractures. Dental lesions were identified in significantly more females than males, and older animals were more likely to have lesions present. Shrews with one or more dental lesions weighed significantly less than those without lesions present. Dietary supplementation with mealworms did not significantly affect the incidence of dental lesions or the body weight of male or female shrews. The authors recommend routine body weight measurement as a simple, noninvasive method of detecting shrews with an increased likelihood of having dental lesions. PMID:24150169

  1. Efficacy of orlistat 60 mg on weight loss and body fat mass in US Army soldiers.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tracey J; Crombie, Aaron; Sanders, Leslee Funderburk; Sigrist, Lori D; Bathalon, Gaston P; McGraw, Susan; Young, Andrew J

    2012-04-01

    A higher body mass index is associated with exercise-related injuries and increased risk for musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders, which are relevant to military personnel. Studies show the efficacy of orlistat 60 mg for promoting weight and body fat loss in civilians; however, its efficacy among predominantly young, male soldiers is unknown. This study's objective was to examine the effect of a 6-month, standard education-based weight-management program with and without orlistat 60 mg on changes in weight and body fat in overweight soldiers. Data were collected for this randomized, controlled trial from March 2008 to November 2010 at Fort Bragg, NC. Participants were enrolled in an education-based weight management program (n=435; 75% men) and were randomized to placebo or orlistat 60 mg, three capsules daily with meals. All participants were recommended to maintain a reduced-energy, low-fat diet. Among study completers (14% retention rate; placebo n=22, orlistat n=35) members of both groups lost significant weight from baseline (placebo -3.0±5.2 kg; orlistat -3.2±4.7 kg; P<0.01), but only the orlistat group lost fat mass (-2.5±3.9 kg; P<0.001), whereas the placebo group lost lean mass (-1.4±2.7 kg; P <0.01). An intent-to-treat analysis (?1 follow-up body weight measure) demonstrated that the orlistat group lost more fat mass vs the placebo group (-1.3±2.9 kg vs ?0.6±1.8 kg, respectively; P<0.05), but less lean mass (-0.2±2.0 kg vs -0.8±1.8 kg, respectively; P<0.01). Orlistat 60 mg may be an effective adjunct to an education-based weight management program in a mostly young, male soldier population. PMID:22717217

  2. Weight Misperceptions and Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Adolescent Female Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, Ramona C.; Powell, Lisa M.; Wada, Roy

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigated weight misperceptions as determinants of racial/ethnic disparities in body mass index (BMI) among adolescent females using data from the National Survey of Youth 1997. Compared to their white counterparts, higher proportions of black and Hispanic adolescent females underperceived their weight status; that is, they misperceived themselves to have lower weight status compared to their clinically defined weight status. Compared to their black counterparts, higher proportions of white and Hispanic adolescent females misperceived themselves to be heavier than their clinical weight status. Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition analysis showed that accounting for weight misperceptions, in addition to individual and contextual factors, increased the total explained portion of the black-white female BMI gap from 44.7% to 54.3% but only slightly increased the total explained portion of the Hispanic-white gap from 62.8% to 63.1%. Weight misperceptions explained 13.0% of the black-white female BMI gap and 3.3% of the Hispanic-white female BMI gap. The regression estimates showed that weight underperceptions were important determinants of adolescent female BMI, particularly among black and Hispanic adolescents. Education regarding identification and interpretation of weight status may play an important role to help reduce the incidence and racial disparity of female adolescent obesity. PMID:22701166

  3. Effect of Dietary Protein Content on Weight Gain, Energy Expenditure, and Body Composition During Overeating

    PubMed Central

    Bray, George A.; Smith, Steven R.; de Jonge, Lilian; Xie, Hui; Rood, Jennifer; Martin, Corby K.; Most, Marlene; Brock, Courtney; Mancuso, Susan; Redman, Leanne M.

    2013-01-01

    Context The role of diet composition in response to overeating and energy dissipation in humans is unclear. Objective To evaluate the effects of overconsumption of low, normal, and high protein diets on weight gain, energy expenditure, and body composition. Design, Setting, and Participants A single-blind, randomized controlled trial of 25 US healthy, weight-stable male and female volunteers, aged 18 to 35 years with a body mass index between 19 and 30. The first participant was admitted to the inpatient metabolic unit in June 2005 and the last in October 2007. Intervention After consuming a weight-stabilizing diet for 13 to 25 days, participants were randomized to diets containing 5% of energy from protein (low protein), 15% (normal protein), or 25% (high protein), which they were overfed during the last 8 weeks of their 10- to 12-week stay in the inpatient metabolic unit. Compared with energy intake during the weight stabilization period, the protein diets provided approximately 40% more energy intake, which corresponds to 954 kcal/d (95% CI, 884–1022 kcal/d). Main Outcome Measures Body composition was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry biweekly, resting energy expenditure was measured weekly by ventilated hood, and total energy expenditure by doubly labeled water prior to the overeating and weight stabilization periods and at weeks 7 to 8. Results Overeating produced significantly less weight gain in the low protein diet group (3.16 kg; 95% CI, 1.88–4.44 kg) compared with the normal protein diet group (6.05 kg; 95% CI, 4.84–7.26 kg) or the high protein diet group (6.51 kg; 95% CI, 5.23–7.79 kg) (P=.002). Body fat increased similarly in all 3 protein diet groups and represented 50% to more than 90% of the excess stored calories. Resting energy expenditure, total energy expenditure, and body protein did not increase during overfeeding with the low protein diet. In contrast, resting energy expenditure (normal protein diet: 160 kcal/d [95% CI, 102–218 kcal/d]; high protein diet: 227 kcal/d [95% CI, 165–289 kcal/d]) and body protein (lean body mass) (normal protein diet: 2.87 kg [95% CI, 2.11–3.62 kg]; high protein diet: 3.18 kg [95% CI, 2.37–3.98 kg]) increased significantly with the normal and high protein diets. Conclusions Among persons living in a controlled setting, calories alone account for the increase in fat; protein affected energy expenditure and storage of lean body mass, but not body fat storage. PMID:22215165

  4. Effects of protein intake and gender on body composition changes: a randomized clinical weight loss trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Limited data on sex differences in body composition changes in response to higher protein diets (PRO) compared to higher carbohydrate diets (CARB) suggest that a PRO diet helps preserve lean mass (LM) in women more so than in men. Objective To compare male and female body composition responses to weight loss diets differing in macronutrient content. Design Twelve month randomized clinical trial with 4mo of weight loss and 8mo weight maintenance. Subjects Overweight (N?=?130; 58 male (M), 72 female (F); BMI?=?32.5?±?0.5?kg/m2) middle-aged subjects were randomized to energy-restricted (deficit ~500?kcal/d) diets providing protein at 1.6?g.kg-1.d-1 (PRO) or 0.8?g.kg-1.d-1 (CARB). LM and fat mass (FM) were measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Body composition outcomes were tested in a repeated measures ANOVA controlling for sex, diet, time and their two- and three-way interactions at 0, 4, 8 and 12mo. Results When expressed as percent change from baseline, males and females lost similar amounts of weight at 12mo (M:-11.2?±?7.1?%, F:-9.9?±?6.0?%), as did diet groups (PRO:-10.7?±?6.8?%, CARB:-10.1?±?6.2?%), with no interaction of gender and diet. A similar pattern emerged for fat mass and lean mass, however percent body fat was significantly influenced by both gender (M:-18.0?±?12.8?%, F:-7.3?±?8.1?%, p?body fat in the trunk (P?weight loss more than women (M:-3.0?±?0.5?%, F:-1.8?±?0.3?%, p?body fat in the legs, but loss of total body fat in legs was similar in men and women. Conclusion PRO was more effective in reducing percent body fat vs. CARB over 12mo weight loss and maintenance. Men lost percent total body fat and trunk fat more effectively than women. No interactive effects of protein intake and gender are evident. PMID:22691622

  5. Interactions of hormone replacement therapy, body weight and bilateral oophorectomy in breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yong; Deming-Halverson, Sandra L.; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Lipworth, Loren; Shrubsole, Martha J.; Fair, Alecia M.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Zheng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine potential modifying effects of body weight and bilateral oophorectomy on the association of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) with risk of breast cancer, overall and by subtypes according to status of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human-epidermal-growth-factor receptor 2 (Her2) among postmenopausal women. Experimental Design This analysis included 2,510 postmenopausal white women recruited in the Nashville Breast Health Study, a population-based case-control study of breast cancer. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between HRT use and risk of breast cancer overall and by subtypes, adjusted for age and education. Results Among women with natural menopause and body-mass-index (BMI) <25 kg/m2, ever-use of HRT was associated with increased breast-cancer risk (OR=1.95, 95% CI=1.32-2.88). Risk was elevated with duration of HRT use (p-for-trend=0.002). Similar association patterns were found for ER+, ER+PR+, and luminal-A cancer subtypes but not ER-, ER-PR-, and triple-negative cancer. In contrast, ever-HRT-use in overweight women (BMI?25 kg/m2) showed no association with risk of breast cancer overall or by subtypes; interaction tests for modifying effect of BMI were statistically significant. Ever-HRT-use was associated with decreased breast-cancer risk (OR=0.70, 95% CI=0.38-1.31) among women with prior bilateral oophorectomy but elevated risk (OR=1.45, 95% CI=0.92-2.29) among those with hysterectomy without bilateral oophorectomy (p-for-interaction=0.057). Similar associations were seen for virtually all breast-cancer subtypes, although interaction tests were statistically significant for ER+ and luminal A only. Conclusion Body weight and bilateral oophorectomy modify associations between HRT use and breast-cancer risk, especially the risk of hormone-receptor-positive tumors. PMID:24423614

  6. High Blood Pressure in Adults with Disabilities: Influence of Gender, Body Weight and Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lan-Ping; Liu, Chien-Ting; Liou, Shih-Wen; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to explore the mean and distribution of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and to examine the influence of gender, body weight and health behaviors on hypertension in adults with disabilities. We analyzed the 2010 annual community health examination chart of adults with disabilities in east Taiwan. The study samples…

  7. NO EFFECT OF CHROMIUM PICOLINATE SUPPLEMENTATION ON BODY WEIGHT/COMPOSITION OF WOMEN FED CONTROLLED DIETS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Supplementation of chromium (+3) as chromium picolinate (CrPic) in amounts of 200 µg Cr/d is purported to promote weight loss and propitiously affect body composition. Different study designs and lack of control of energy intake prompt questions about the validity of these claims. PURPOSE: To test ...

  8. Food Consumption Patterns of Nigerian Adolescents and Effect on Body Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olumakaiye, M. F.; Atinmo, Tola; Olubayo-Fatiregun, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Association between nutritional status of adolescents and food consumption pattern. Design: Data on number of meals and snacks consumed daily were collected using structured questionnaires. Nutritional status was assessed as weight-for-age body mass index score less than fifth percentile of the National Center for Health…

  9. Caloric restriction and body weight independently affect longevity in Wistar rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Wang; R Weindruch; J R Fernández; C S Coffey; P Patel; D B Allison

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the independent effects of caloric restriction (CR) and body weight (BW) on mortality rate (MR) and the extent to which BW may mediate the effect of CR on MR.DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: Data were from the Biosure Study, a randomized, controlled, prospective intervention study of diet regimens in 1200 Wistar rats. Animals were followed until they died spontaneously,

  10. Height, weight and body mass index values of mid-19th century New York legislative officers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Howard Bodenhorn

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies of mid-19th century American heights and body mass index values have used potentially unrepresentative groups—students in military academies, prisoners, and African Americans. This paper uses an alternative source with heights and weights of ordinary people employed in a wide variety of occupations. The results reveal the operation of the antebellum paradox in that average heights declined between men

  11. Body Weight Status among Adults with Intellectual Disability in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaki, Kiyoshi

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of obese, overweight, and healthy weight adults with intellectual disability in the community was estimated using data from the National Health Interview Survey from 1985 to 2000. Using the Body Mass Index (BMI) as a measure, the percentage of adults with intellectual disability in the obese category was higher than that for the…

  12. Genetic correlation between length of wattles and female body weight at sexual maturity in the foul

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Genetic correlation between length of wattles and female body weight at sexual maturity in the foul of wattles at sexual maturity. Heritability estimates showed that both cha- racters are highly influenced Secondary sexual characters were proved to be correlated with egg produc- tions and age at sexual maturity

  13. Critical Comments About Body Shape and Weight: Disordered Eating of Female Athletes and Sport Participants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne C. Muscat; Bonita C. Long

    2008-01-01

    This investigation explored the role of critical comments about weight and body shape and disordered eating symptoms of female athletes (N = 157) and sport participants (N = 63). Results revealed that both athletes and sport participants who recalled critical comments, compared with those who did not, and those who recalled more severe critical comments, reported greater disordered eating (controlling

  14. Feed intake, body weight gain and growth efficiency in growing sheep after a feed quality restriction

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Feed intake, body weight gain and growth efficiency in growing sheep after a feed quality lands. Feed availability fluctuates throughout the season and as a consequence, animals have to cope with a periodical restriction in quality and quantity of feed. Lambs are born in spring, while weaning is towards

  15. Silver nanoparticles decrease body weight and locomotor activity in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongbin; Ferguson, Sherry A; Watanabe, Fumiya; Jones, Yvonne; Xu, Yang; Biris, Alexandru S; Hussain, Saber; Ali, Syed F

    2013-05-27

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are widely used in FDA regulated products. The physical-chemical properties of Ag-NPs are characterized using various instruments. The dose-dependent activity and body weight alterations are evaluated after rats were exposed to Ag nanoparticles, suggesting a major human health risk, given the wide application of silver nanomaterials. PMID:23335405

  16. Effects of transportation and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge on body weight and feed intake of crossbred heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted to examine the effects of transportation and LPS challenge on feed intake (FI) and body weight (BW) of calves. Brahman x British heifers (n=44) from Raymond, MS, were weaned and acclimated to a high roughage diet fed in GrowSafe® bunks for 25 d. Heifers were blocked by BW...

  17. CHROMIUM PICOLINATE SUPPLEMENTATION IN WOMEN: EFFECTS ON BODY WEIGHT, COMPOSITION AND IRON STATUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Supplementation of chromium as chromium picolinate (CrPic), 200 µg Cr/d, is claimed to promote weight loss and propitiously affect body composition; it may adversely affect iron status. This study tested the hypothesis that supplementation of CrPic, compared to an equivalent amount of pi...

  18. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BODY WEIGHT AND BEAK CHARACTERISTICS IN 1 D OLD LAYER CHICKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this work was to determine if any relationship exists between body weight and beak characteristics in day old chicks for developing an automated system to standardize infrared beak treatment. At the hatchery, 1-day-old W-36 chicks (n=344) were weighed and digital pictures were taken of th...

  19. The Role of Low-Fat Diets and Fat Substitutes in Body Weight Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ARNE ASTRUP; SøREN TOUBRO; ANNE RABEN; ANNEBETH R. SKOV

    1997-01-01

    The introduction of low-fat, high-complex carbohydrate diets for the prevention and treatment of obesity was based on the causal link established between dietary fat and body fatness. Observational and mechanistic studies show that because fat possesses a lower satiating power than carbohydrate and protein, a diet rich in fat can increase energy intake. The propensity to gain weight is enhanced

  20. Ultrasonographic evaluation of adrenal gland size compared to body weight in normal dogs.

    PubMed

    Soulsby, Stacy N; Holland, Merrilee; Hudson, Judith A; Behrend, Ellen N

    2015-05-01

    The accepted cut-off value for adrenal gland maximum diameter of 0.74 cm to distinguish adrenal gland enlargement in dogs regardless of body weight may not be appropriate for small to medium breed dogs. The purpose of the current retrospective study was to examine adrenal gland dimensions as a function of body weight in healthy dogs in three weight categories (< 10 kg, 10-30 kg, and > 30 kg) representing small, medium, and large breeds, respectively, to establish greater confidence in determining if adrenal gland size is abnormal. The measurements of length (sagittal plane), cranial and caudal pole thickness (sagittal and transverse planes), and caudal pole width (transverse plane) of both adrenal glands were obtained ultrasonographically in clinically healthy dogs (n = 45) with 15 dogs in each weight group. Findings support our hypothesis that adrenal gland size correlates with body weight in normal dogs, and more precise reference intervals should be created for adrenal gland size by categorizing dogs as small, medium, or large breed. The caudal pole thickness of either adrenal gland in a sagittal plane was the best dimension for evaluating adrenal gland size based on low variability, ease, and reliability in measurement. PMID:25496665

  1. The effect of body weight and posture on acceleration of platform vibrating plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koz?owska, Roksana; Niewiadomski, Wiktor; Leonarcik, Rafa?; ?yli?ski, Marek; Cybulski, Gerard

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect the body weight and position on the mechanical output of vibration platform measured as maximal acceleration of vertical sinusoidal oscillations of vibrating plate. We examined five subjects applying the frequencies 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 Hz and different amplifier's voltage output fed to mechanical vibration generator. We found that at given frequency and voltage the greatest vibration of vibrating plate has been observed when subject stood on the forefoot; this effect was more distinctly pronounced at lower frequencies. The effect of body mass was less consistently evident. The effect of foot placement on the oscillations of vibration platform may be caused by different absorption of the mechanical energy by the body. We believe that in order to explain effect observed a mathematical model which accounts for body position on absorption of vibration along the trunk and mechanical properties of the platform should be constructed by combining already existing models of human body.

  2. Whole-body diffusion-weighted imaging for staging malignant lymphoma in children

    PubMed Central

    Takahara, Taro; Vermoolen, Malou A.; Bierings, Marc B.; Mali, Willem P.; Nievelstein, Rutger A. J.

    2010-01-01

    CT is currently the mainstay in staging malignant lymphoma in children, but the risk of second neoplasms due to ionizing radiation associated with CT is not negligible. Whole-body MRI techniques and whole-body diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in particular, may be a good radiation-free alternative to CT. DWI is characterized by high sensitivity for the detection of lesions and allows quantitative assessment of diffusion that may aid in the evaluation of malignant lymphomas. This article will review whole-body MRI techniques for staging malignant lymphoma with emphasis on whole-body DWI. Furthermore, future considerations and challenges in whole-body DWI will be discussed. PMID:20676622

  3. COMPARISONS OF ANGUS-, BRAUNVIEH-, CHIANINA-, HEREFORD-, GELBVIEH-, MAINE ANJOU-, AND RED POLL-SIRED COWS FOR WEIGHT, WEIGHT ADJUSTED FOR BODY CONDITION SCORE, HEIGHT AND BODY CONDITION SCORE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data from Angus, Hereford and topcross cows (n = 641) from 2 to 8 yr-old daughters of seven breeds of sires included in Cycle II of the Germplasm Evaluation program at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center comprising cow weight (CW, n= 15,698), height (CH, n = 15,676) and condition score (CS, n = 15,...

  4. Heritabilities and genetic correlations of body weights and feather length in growing Muscovy selected in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hu, Y H; Poivey, J P; Rouvier, R; Wang, C T; Tai, C

    1999-12-01

    1. Heritabilities and genetic correlations in the base population of a closed strain of Muscovy duck, moderately selected for body weight at 10 weeks of age, have been estimated from the data of 9 successive generations for the following traits: male and female body weight at 10 and 18 weeks of age (BW10m, BW18m, BW10f, BW18f) and length of the 8th primary feather at 10 weeks of age (F110m, F110f). 2. Multivariate REML with an animal model was used, pooling data from the 9 generations (3283 and 3289 male and female offspring respectively). The same trait expressed in male and female was considered as 2 different traits. 3. The 8th primary feather was longer in females than in males by 6% to 22% at 10 weeks of age. Body weight was heavier in males than in females by 42% to 58% at 10 weeks of age and by 57% to 75% at 18 weeks of age. 3. The heritability estimates for body weight traits showed moderate values, being a little higher for females than for males at the same age, increasing with age from h2=0.24 at BW10m to h2=0.43 at BW18f. 4. The heritability estimates for feather length showed that a greater response would be obtained in selection for male feather length (h2=0.37) than for female length (h2=0.14). Both have high genetic correlations with body weight so they could be indirectly improved. 5. Heritabilities of the difference in body weights between males and females at 10 weeks (h2=0.07) and 18 weeks of age (h2=0.10) were small, as well as for feather length (h2=0.10). It would probably be difficult to modify sexual dimorphism in body weight through selection. 6. Genetic correlations between BW10m, BW18m and BW10f, BW18f were respectively r(g)=0.77 and r(g)=0.80. They were larger for body weight at the same ages between males and females, r(g)=0.90 (r(g)=0.88 between F110m and F110f). Body weight in males and females at the same age should be better considered as 2 different traits in a selection programme. 7. The cumulated predicted genetic gains expressed per unity of the genetic standard deviation (sigma(g)) over the 8 generations of selection were 1.3 sigma(g) and 1.4 sigma(g) respectively for the BW10m and BW10f. The predicted correlated responses were 1.2 sigma(g) for body weights at 18 weeks of age, 0.9 sigma(g) and 0.7 sigma(g) for F110f and F110m respectively. PMID:10670671

  5. Veteran Status and Body Weight: A Longitudinal Fixed-Effects Approach

    PubMed Central

    Teachman, Jay

    2014-01-01

    About 10–12 % of young men (and increasingly, women) have served a term in the military. Yet, we know relatively little about the consequences of military service for the lives of those who serve. In this article, we provide estimates of the relationship between men’s peacetime military service during the all-volunteer era (AVE) and body weight using longitudinal data on 6,304 men taken from the National Longitudinal Survey of 1979 (NLSY-79). Using fixed-effects estimators on up to 13 years of data and numerous controls for time-varying life-course characteristics linked to body weight, we find that veterans of active-duty military service have higher levels of BMI and obesity. We argue that eating habits learned during service, coupled with patterns of physical activity, lead to a situation whereby veterans making the transition to less active civilian lifestyles gain weight that is not lost over time. PMID:25580045

  6. Effect of body weight gain on insulin sensitivity after retirement from exercise training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolkas, Constantine B.; Rodnick, Kenneth J.; Mondon, Carl E.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of the body-weight gain after retirement from an exercise-training program on the retained increase in insulin sensitivity elicited by the training was investigated in exercise-trained (ET) rats. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by oral glucose tolerance and insulin suppression tests immediately after training and during retirement. Results show that, compared with sedentary controls, exercise training enhanced insulin-induced glucose uptake, but the enhanced sensitivity was gradually lost with the end of running activity until after seven days of retirement, when it became equal to that of controls. This loss of enhanced sensitivity to insulin was associated with an accelerated gain in body weight beginning one day after the start of retirement. However, those animals that gained weight only at rates similar to those of control rats, retained their enhanced sensitivity to insulin.

  7. CENTRAL AMYLIN ACTS AS AN ADIPOSITY SIGNAL TO CONTROL BODY WEIGHT AND ENERGY EXPENDITURE

    PubMed Central

    WIELINGA, Peter Y.; LÖWENSTEIN, Christian; MUFF, Sabine; MUNZ, Manuela; WOODS, Stephen C.; LUTZ, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    The pancreatic B-cell hormone amylin has been proposed to be both a satiation signal and an adiposity signal. The effects of peripheral amylin on energy balance are well investigated, but the effects of central amylin are less clear. We determined the effects of low doses of amylin administered into the 3rd cerebral ventricle (i3vt) on food intake, body weight and other indices of energy balance. Amylin (2 pmol/h) significantly lowered body weight compared to saline after 2 weeks of infusion, independent of whether prior body weight was decreased by fasting, increased by voluntary overfeeding or unmanipulated. A bolus injection of amylin (10 pmol, i3vt) increased energy expenditure and body temperature, whereas chronic i3vt amylin infusion had no effect on energy expenditure above that of control rats even though body temperature was increased. Chronic amylin also reduced RQ, implying a preferential oxidation of fat. Overall, the data provide new evidence that amylin is an adiposity signal that acts within the brain, and informing the brain about the status of peripheral energy stores. PMID:20416330

  8. Influence of Weight Gain Rate on Early Life Nutritional Status and Body Composition of Children

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Taís Cristina Araújo; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira da Rocha

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the influence of the weight gain rate at 4–6 months on nutritional status and body composition in children between 4 and 7 years of age. Methods. Retrospective cohort study, sample of 257 children. Data collection was performed in two stages, with the first relating to retrospective data of weight gain from birth to the first 4–6 months of life in the patient records. Measurements of weight, height, waist circumference, and body composition in children between ages 4 and 7 years were obtained. Nutritional status was assessed by the BMI/age. Control variables, such as pregnancy, breastfeeding, lifestyle, and sociodemographics, were studied. Descriptive analysis and multiple linear regression were performed. Results. In the nutritional status assessment, the prevalence of overweight observed was 24.9%. After adjusting for control variables, it was found that the increase of the WGR at 4–6 months of age explained the occurrence of higher BMI/age, percentage of total body fat, body fat percentage in the android region, and waist circumference in children between 4 and 7 years of age. Conclusion. The increase of the WGR in the first months of life can lead to the occurrence of higher values of parameters of nutritional status and body composition in later life. PMID:25538953

  9. Normal-weight and overweight female adolescents with and without extreme weight-control behaviours: Emotional distress and body image concerns.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Sáez, Soledad; Pascual, Aitziber; Salaberria, Karmele; Echeburúa, Enrique

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse emotional distress and concerns related to body image in 712 normal-weight and overweight adolescent girls. A total of 12.3?per cent of the normal-weight girls and 25?per cent of the overweight girls showed extreme weight-control behaviours. In normal-weight adolescents, their engagement in extreme weight-control behaviours was associated with high levels of somatic symptoms, a drive for thinness and control over eating. In overweight girls, high levels of drive for thinness and anxiety were associated with extreme weight-control behaviours. Finally, the implications for preventive and therapeutic programmes are discussed. PMID:26032790

  10. Six new loci associated with body mass index highlight a neuronal influence on body weight regulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cristen J Willer; Elizabeth K Speliotes; Ruth J F Loos; Shengxu Li; Cecilia M Lindgren; Iris M Heid; Sonja I Berndt; Amanda L Elliott; Anne U Jackson; Claudia Lamina; Guillaume Lettre; Noha Lim; Helen N Lyon; Steven A McCarroll; Konstantinos Papadakis; Lu Qi; Rosa Maria Roccasecca; Serena Sanna; Paul Scheet; Michael N Weedon; Eleanor Wheeler; Jing Hua Zhao; Leonie C Jacobs; Inga Prokopenko; Nicole Soranzo; Toshiko Tanaka; Nicholas J Timpson; Peter Almgren; Amanda Bennett; Richard N Bergman; Sheila A Bingham; Lori L Bonnycastle; Morris Brown; Noël P Burtt; Peter Chines; Lachlan Coin; Francis S Collins; John M Connell; Cyrus Cooper; Elaine M Dennison; Parimal Deodhar; Paul Elliott; Michael R Erdos; Karol Estrada; David M Evans; Lauren Gianniny; Christian Gieger; Christopher J Gillson; Candace Guiducci; Rachel Hackett; David Hadley; Alistair S Hall; Aki S Havulinna; Johannes Hebebrand; Albert Hofman; Bo Isomaa; Kevin B Jacobs; Toby Johnson; Pekka Jousilahti; Zorica Jovanovic; Kay-Tee Khaw; Peter Kraft; Mikko Kuokkanen; Johanna Kuusisto; Jaana Laitinen; Edward G Lakatta; Jian'an Luan; Robert N Luben; Massimo Mangino; Wendy L McArdle; Thomas Meitinger; Antonella Mulas; Patricia B Munroe; Narisu Narisu; Andrew R Ness; Kate Northstone; Stephen O'Rahilly; Carolin Purmann; Matthew G Rees; Martin Ridderstråle; Susan M Ring; Fernando Rivadeneira; Aimo Ruokonen; Manjinder S Sandhu; Jouko Saramies; Laura J Scott; Angelo Scuteri; Kaisa Silander; Matthew A Sims; Kijoung Song; Jonathan Stephens; Suzanne Stevens; Heather M Stringham; Y C Loraine Tung; Timo T Valle; Cornelia M Van Duijn; Karani S Vimaleswaran; Peter Vollenweider; Gerard Waeber; Chris Wallace; Richard M Watanabe; Dawn M Waterworth; Nicholas Watkins; Jacqueline C M Witteman; Eleftheria Zeggini; Guangju Zhai; M Carola Zillikens; David Altshuler; Mark J Caulfield; Stephen J Chanock; I Sadaf Farooqi; Luigi Ferrucci; Jack M Guralnik; Andrew T Hattersley; Frank B Hu; Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin; Markku Laakso; Vincent Mooser; Ken K Ong; Willem H Ouwehand; Veikko Salomaa; Nilesh J Samani; Timothy D Spector; Tiinamaija Tuomi; Jaakko Tuomilehto; Manuela Uda; André G Uitterlinden; Nicholas J Wareham; Panagiotis Deloukas; Timothy M Frayling; Leif C Groop; Richard B Hayes; David J Hunter; Karen L Mohlke; Leena Peltonen; David Schlessinger; David P Strachan; H-Erich Wichmann; Mark I McCarthy; Michael Boehnke; Inês Barroso; Gonçalo R Abecasis; Joel N Hirschhorn

    2009-01-01

    Common variants at only two loci, FTO and MC4R, have been reproducibly associated with body mass index (BMI) in humans. To identify additional loci, we conducted meta-analysis of 15 genome-wide association studies for BMI (n > 32,000) and followed up top signals in 14 additional cohorts (n > 59,000). We strongly confirm FTO and MC4R and identify six additional loci

  11. Weight gain in pregnancy and childhood body composition: findings from the Southampton Women’s Survey

    PubMed Central

    Crozier, Sarah R; Inskip, Hazel M; Godfrey, Keith M; Cooper, Cyrus; Harvey, Nicolas C; Cole, Zoë A; Robinson, Siân M

    2011-01-01

    Background Intrauterine life may be a critical period for the programming of later obesity, but there is conflicting evidence about whether pregnancy weight gain is an important determinant of offspring adiposity. Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of pregnancy weight gain with neonatal and childhood body composition. Design The participants (n=948) were children born to women in the Southampton Women’s Survey who had dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry measurements of body composition at birth, 4 or 6 years. Pregnancy weight gain was derived from the mothers’ measured weights before pregnancy and at 34 weeks gestation, analyzed using 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) categories (inadequate, adequate or excessive), and as a continuous measure. Results Almost half (49%) the children were born to women who gained excessive weight in pregnancy. In comparison with children born to women with adequate weight gain, they had a greater fat mass in the neonatal period (0.17 SD (95% CI 0.02, 0.32), P=0.03), at 4 years (0.17 SD (0.00, 0.34), P=0.05) and at 6 years (0.30 SD (0.11, 0.49), P=0.002). Greater pregnancy weight gain, as a continuous measure, was associated with greater neonatal fat mass (0.10 SD per 5kg weight gain (0.04, 0.15), P=0.0004) and, weakly, with fat mass at 6 years (0.07 SD per 5kg (0.00, 0.14), P=0.05), but not at 4 years (0.02 SD per 5kg (?0.04, 0.08), P=0.55). Conclusions Appropriate pregnancy weight gain, as defined by 2009 IOM recommendations, is linked to lower levels of adiposity in the offspring. PMID:20375187

  12. Ethylnitrosourea induces a high frequency of dominant mutations that decrease body weight of mice

    SciTech Connect

    Selby, P.B.; Earhart, V.S.; Raymer, G.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1997-10-01

    In numerous laboratories, ethylnitrosourea (ENU) has been shown to be highly effective in inducing mutations. Assessment of Dominant Damage (ADD) experiments are designed to detect primarily dominant mutations that cause effects in first-generation progeny of male or female mice exposed to mutagens, with emphasis on damage affecting the skeleton, the eyes (cataracts primarily), or body weight. Adult male mice were injected intraperitoneally with ENU in a phosphate buffer in two different exposure regimens: one of 4 weekly injections of 77.5 mg/kg, the other of 3 weekly injections of 60 mg/kg. After sufficient time had elapsed to ensure that only mutations induced in spermatogonial stem cells could be detected, the males were paired with untreated females. Offspring were weighed at 4, 5, 7, 9, and 11 weeks of age (the growth curve mostly levels off by 11 weeks of age). Comparisons of relative body weights were made within litters. The same method of comparison was applied to the combined concurrent control, for which the fathers had been untreated or injected with buffer. Nominal estimates of the frequencies of induced (i.e., experimental minus control) dominant mutations affecting body weight at the lower and higher doses were 10% and 20% respectively. The differences from the control were highly statistically significant. In most cases, the changes in body weight were relatively small (i.e., less than 15%). The great majority of the induced mutations decrease body weight, and it is likely that the actual induced mutation frequencies are slightly higher than the nominal frequencies. These findings, together with other results from the ADD experiments, are enlightening concerning the actual physical effects in heterozygotes of the vast numbers of mutations induced by ENU.

  13. Dieting and unhealthy weight control behaviors during adolescence: Associations with 10-year changes in body mass index

    PubMed Central

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Wall, Melanie; Story, Mary; Standish, Amber R

    2011-01-01

    Background Dieting and unhealthy weight control behaviors are common among adolescents and questions exist regarding their long-term effect on weight status. Objective To examine 10-year longitudinal associations between dieting and unhealthy weight control behaviors and changes in body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods and Procedures A diverse population-based sample of middle school and high school adolescents was followed for 10 years. Participants (N=1,902) completed surveys in 1998–99 (Project EAT-I), 2003–04 (Project EAT-II), and 2008–09 (Project EAT-III). Dieting and unhealthy weight control behaviors at Time 1 and Time 2 were used to predict 10-year changes in BMI at Time 3, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and Time 1 BMI. Results Dieting and unhealthy weight control behaviors at both Time 1 and Time 2 predicted greater BMI increases at Time 3 in males and females, as compared to no use of these behaviors. For example, females using unhealthy weight control behaviors at both Time 1 and Time 2 increased their BMI by 4.63 units as compared to 2.29 units in females not using these behaviors (p<.001). Associations were found in both overweight and non-overweight respondents. Specific weight control behaviors at Time 1 that predicted larger BMI increases at Time 3 included skipping meals and reporting eating very little (females and males), use of food substitutes (males), and diet pill use (females). Conclusions Findings clearly indicate that dieting and unhealthy weight control behaviors, as reported by adolescents, predict significant weight gain over time. PMID:22188838

  14. Body weight misperception in adolescence and incident obesity in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Misperceptions of one's weight are common in adolescence. Adolescents of normal weight who misperceive themselves as being overweight tend to engage in unhealthy dieting practices and behaviors that are conducive to obesity. To examine whether this misperception is associated with a risk of obesity during early adulthood, we analyzed data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 6,523; mean age at baseline = 16 years; 58% female). Adolescents who misperceived themselves as being overweight had greater odds of becoming obese over the 12-year follow-up period than adolescents who perceived their weight accurately (odds ratio = 1.41, 95% confidence interval = [1.22, 1.64]). Although the increase in the odds associated with misperception of weight was apparent for both sexes, it was significantly stronger among boys (1.89 greater odds) than among girls (1.29 greater odds). The present research indicates that weight-based self-stigmatization, much like weight-based social stigmatization, is a powerful risk factor for incident obesity. This finding underscores the importance of addressing inaccurate body weight perceptions, even among adolescents of normal weight. PMID:25749701

  15. Ablation of the GNB3 gene in mice does not affect body weight, metabolism or blood pressure, but causes bradycardia.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yuanchao; Sun, Zhizeng; Guo, Ang; Song, Long-Sheng; Grobe, Justin L; Chen, Songhai

    2014-11-01

    G protein ?3 (G?3) is an isoform of heterotrimeric G protein ? subunits involved in transducing G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling. Polymorphisms in G?3 (GNB3) are associated with many human disorders (e.g. hypertension, diabetes and obesity) but the role of GNB3 in these pathogeneses remains unclear. Here, G?3-null mice (GNB3(-/-)) were characterized to determine how G?3 functions to regulate blood pressure, body weight and metabolism. We found G?3 expression restricted to limited types of tissues, including the retina, several regions of the brain and heart ventricles. G?3-deficient mice were normal as judged by body weight gain by age or by feeding with high-fat diet (HFD); glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity; baseline blood pressure and angiotensin II infusion-induced hypertension. During tail-cuff blood pressure measurements, however, G?3-null mice had slower heart rates (~450 vs ~500 beats/min). This bradycardia was not observed in isolated and perfused G?3-null mouse hearts. Moreover, mouse hearts isolated from GNB3(-/-) and controls responded equivalently to muscarinic receptor- and ?-adrenergic receptor-stimulated bradycardia and tachycardia, respectively. Since no difference was seen in isolated hearts, G?3 is unlikely to be involved directly in the GPCR signaling activity that controls heart pacemaker activity. These results demonstrate that although G?3 appears dispensable in mice for the regulation of blood pressure, body weight and metabolic features associated with obesity and diabetes, G?3 may regulate heart rate. PMID:25093805

  16. Increased Body Weight Reduces Voluntary Movement to Maintain Energy Expenditure of Rats Exposed to Increases in Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, C. E.; Moran, M. M.; Stein, T. P.; Sin, Sidney (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    With the increase in obesity related diseases there is heightened interest in mechanisms regulating body weight. To assess the influence of increases in body weight on energy expenditure and intake in rats we employed variable levels of gravity. Our approach afforded the means to measure interactions of energy expenditure and intake in response to increases in body weight (body mass x gravity level). We found a dose relationship between rapid elevation of body weight and reduction of voluntary movement, such that the energy requirements for activity are unchanged, and total energy expenditure and intake maintained. Reduction of movement appears to be a response to increased body weight, rather than a contributing factor, suggesting a new regulatory pathway.

  17. Healthy food consumption in young women. The influence of others' eating behavior and body weight appearance.

    PubMed

    Stel, Mariëlle; van Koningsbruggen, Guido M

    2015-07-01

    People's eating behaviors tend to be influenced by the behaviors of others. In the present studies, we investigated the effect of another person's eating behavior and body weight appearance on healthy food consumption of young women. In Study 1, participants watched a short film fragment together with a confederate who appeared normal weight or overweight and consumed either 3 or 10 cucumber slices. In Study 2, a confederate who appeared underweight, normal weight, or overweight consumed no or 4 cucumber slices. The number of cucumber slices eaten by participants was registered. Results showed that participants' healthy eating behavior was influenced by the confederate's eating behavior when the confederate was underweight, normal weight, and overweight. Participants ate more cucumber slices when the confederate ate a higher amount of cucumber slices compared with a lower (or no) amount of cucumber slices (Studies 1 and 2). The food intake effect was stronger for the underweight compared with the overweight model (Study 2). PMID:25794685

  18. Increasing metabolic rate despite declining body weight in an adult parasitoid wasp.

    PubMed

    Casas, Jérôme; Body, Mélanie; Gutzwiller, Florence; Giron, David; Lazzari, Claudio R; Pincebourde, Sylvain; Richard, Romain; Llandres, Ana L

    2015-08-01

    Metabolic rate is a positive function of body weight, a rule valid for most organisms and the basis of several theories of metabolic ecology. For adult insects, however, the diversity of relationships between body mass and respiration remains unexplained. The aim of this study is to relate the respiratory metabolism of a parasitoid with body weight and foraging activity. We compared the metabolic rate of groups of starving and host-fed females of the parasitoid Eupelmus vuilleti recorded with respirometry for 7days, corresponding to the mean lifetime of starving females and over half of the lifetime of foraging females. The dynamics of carbohydrate, lipid and protein in the body of foraging females were quantified with biochemical techniques. Body mass and all body nutrients declined sharply from the first day onwards. By contrast, the CO2 produced and the O2 consumed increased steadily. Starving females showed the opposite trend, identifying foraging as the reason for the respiration increase of feeding females. Two complementary physiological processes explain the unexpected relationship between increasing metabolic rate and declining body weight. First, host hemolymph is a highly unbalanced food, and the excess nutrients (protein and carbohydrate) need to be voided, partially through excretion and partially through respiration. Second, a foraging young female produces eggs at an increasing rate during the first half of its lifetime, a process that also increases respiration. We posit that the time-varying metabolic rate contributions of the feeding and reproductive processes supplements the contribution of the structural mass and lead to the observed trend. We extend our explanations to other insect groups and discuss the potential for unification using Dynamic Energy Budget theory. PMID:26025197

  19. Smoking for weight control: effect of priming for body image in female restrained eaters.

    PubMed

    McKee, Sherry A; Nhean, Siphannay; Hinson, Riley E; Mase, Tricia

    2006-12-01

    Women are more likely than men to believe that smoking helps to control their weight, and this relationship may be more pronounced in those with eating disturbances, such as eating restraint. Restrained eaters have been shown to be more susceptible to media portrayals of idealized body image, like those used in tobacco advertising. The primary aim of this study was to examine the effect of an implicit prime for body image on expectations that smoking can control weight in restrained and non-restrained eaters. Participants were 40 females, who smoked an average of 7.65 (S.D.=4.38) cigarettes per day. Participants were presented with a bogus task of rating slides; either participants viewed 30 slides of nature scenes (neutral prime); or viewed 30 slides depicting fashion models (body image prime). Participants then completed questionnaires that assessed smoking expectancies, smoking history, and eating restraint. As hypothesized, restrained eaters who viewed the slides depicting models had greater likelihood ratings that smoking helps to control appetite and manage weight, in comparison to restrained eaters who viewed the control slides and non-restrained eaters who viewed either type of slides. There were no other group differences across the remaining smoking expectancy factors. Images similar to those used in tobacco advertising targeting women had the ability to elicit stronger beliefs that smoking is beneficial for weight control in a group of women who are at heightened risk for such beliefs. PMID:16567057

  20. Effect of swimming activity on relative weight and body composition of juvenile rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpkins, D.G.; Hubert, W.A.; Del Rio, C.M.; Rule, D.C.

    2003-01-01

    Fisheries managers often assess body condition using relative weight (Wr) because it provides a comparative measure of fish plumpness among individuals and populations. However, it is not known whether the morphological information that Wr summarizes reflects physiological measures, such as relative lipid reserves, in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. The purpose of this study was to determine whether swimming activity affects either the Wr or proximate body composition of juvenile (total length, 170-260 mm) rainbow trout. When rainbow trout from a hatchery were fed ad libitum for 147 d, inactive (no current) and active (15 cm/s current velocity) fish did not differ in Wr However, inactive rainbow trout maintained relatively constant lipid levels, whereas active fish declined in lipid content. Relative weight may provide a comparable measure of body form, but it is not an accurate index of lipid content between active and inactive rainbow trout fed an excess ration. For assessing the physiological condition of rainbow trout, measurement of proximate body composition appears to be more accurate than indices based on length and weight.

  1. Comparisons of Angus-, Braunvieh-, Chianina-, Hereford-, Gelbvieh-, Maine Anjou-, and Red Poll-sired cows for weight, weight adjusted for body condition score, height, and body condition score.

    PubMed

    Arango, J A; Cundiff, L V; Van Vleck, L D

    2002-12-01

    Data from Angus, Hereford, and top-cross cows (n = 641) from 2- to 8-yr-old daughters of seven breeds of sires included in Cycle II of the Germplasm Evaluation Program at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center, comprising cow weight (CW, n = 15,698), height (CH, n = 15,676), and condition score (CS, n = 15,667), were used to estimate breed-group differences. Data were recorded in four seasons of each year (1975 to 1982). The mixed model included cow age, season of measurement, and their interactions, year of birth, pregnancy-lactation code (PL), and breed-group as fixed effects for CW and CS. Analyses of weight adjusted for condition score included CS as covariate. The model for CH excluded PL. Random effects were additive genetic and permanent environmental effects. Differences among breed-groups were significant for all traits at different ages and were maintained across ages, with few interchanges in ranking through maturity. Cows were ranked (by breed of sire) in the following order for weight: Red Poll (lightest), Hereford-Angus (reciprocal), Braunvieh, Gelbvieh, Maine Anjou, and Chianina (heaviest). In general, cows sired by breeds of British origin were lighter and shorter than those of continental origin. Differences in weight due to differences in condition seemed to be of small magnitude because making an adjustment for condition score did not affect rankings of breed groups across ages. Differences among breed groups for height were consistent with differences for weight. Cows from Chianina sires were taller than Hereford-Angus cows by 14 to 15 cm across ages. In this study, breed of sire effects were significantly different for the mature size of their daughters. PMID:12542153

  2. Effects of Chitosan on Body Weight Gain, Growth Hormone and Intestinal Morphology in Weaned Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yuanqing; Shi, Binlin; Yan, Sumei; Li, Tiyu; Guo, Yiwei; Li, Junliang

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effects of chitosan on the concentrations of GH and IGF-I in serum and small intestinal morphological structure of piglets, in order to evaluate the regulating action of chitosan on weaned pig growth through endocrine and intestinal morphological approaches. A total of 180 weaned pigs (35 d of age; 11.56±1.61 kg of body weight) were selected and assigned randomly to 5 dietary treatments, including 1 basal diet (control) and 4 diets with chitosan supplementation (100, 500, 1,000 and 2,000 mg/kg, respectively). Each treatment contained six replicate pens with six pigs per pen. The experiment lasted for 28 d. The results showed that the average body weight gain (BWG) of pigs was improved quadratically by dietary chitosan during the former 14 d and the later 14 d after weaned (p<0.05). Furthermore, dietary supplementation of chitosan tended to quadratically increase the concentration of serum GH on d 14 (p = 0.082) and 28 (p = 0.087). Diets supplemented with increasing levels of chitosan increased quadratically the villus height of jejunum and ileum on d 14 (p = 0.089, p<0.01) and 28 (p = 0.074, p<0.01), meanwhile, chitosan increased quadratically the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in duodenum, jejunum and ileum on d 14 (p<0.05, p = 0.055, p<0.01) and 28 (p<0.01, p<0.01, p<0.01), however, it decreased quadratically crypt depth in ileum on d 14 (p<0.05) and that in duodenum, jejunum and ileum on d 28 (p<0.01, p<0.05, p<0.05). In conclusion, these results indicated that chitosan could quadratically improve growth in weaned pigs, and the underlying mechanism may due to the increase of the serum GH concentration and improvement of the small intestines morphological structure. PMID:25049731

  3. Re-induction of obese body weight occurs more rapidly and at lower caloric intake in beagles.

    PubMed

    Nagaoka, D; Mitsuhashi, Y; Angell, R; Bigley, K E; Bauer, J E

    2010-06-01

    For the purpose of investigating the mechanism of obesity-induction/re-induction including weight-cycling in beagles, a study was conducted using commercially available dog food combined with human food to mimic at home-snacking and diet-supplementation behaviours. Adult female beagles, which had free access to water and exercise, were used (n = 9). All dogs were initially offered two times their daily calculated number of calories using a dry extruded diet plus blend of canola and soybean oils and allowed to eat ad libitum. After 3 weeks, Pecan shortbread cookies were added to the diet mixture. Obesity was induced during a 19-week period with 1875-2250 kcal/day consumed, on average, during this period. The dogs were then subjected to a weight-loss regimen while consuming 490-730 kcal/day. After weight loss, a similar degree of obesity was re-induced for 17 weeks even though dogs consumed only 1125-1250 kcal/day. Body weight, body condition scores, kcal consumption and food efficiency were recorded. Results indicated that less time and fewer kcal were required to re-induce the same degree of obesity compared with the initial obesity induction. Human snack foods appeared to stimulate appetite and thus contribute to the obese state. Food efficiency was also increased during the obesity-reinduction period compared with the induction period. This information may help pet owners better understand the need to limit table scraps and human-type food snacks in dogs prone to obesity as well as weight maintenance after weight loss. PMID:19364373

  4. Therapeutic immunoglobulin should be dosed by clinical outcome rather than by body weight in obese patients.

    PubMed

    Hodkinson, J P; Lucas, M; Lee, M; Harrison, M; Lunn, M P; Chapel, H

    2015-07-01

    There are currently no data to support the suggestion that the dose of therapeutic immunoglobulin (Ig) should be capped in obese patients for pharmacokinetic (PK), safety and economic reasons. We compared IgG trough levels, increment and efficiency in matched pairs of obese and lean patients receiving either replacement or immunomodulatory immunoglobulin therapy. Thirty-one obese patients were matched with a clinically equivalent lean patient across a range of indications, including primary antibody deficiency or autoimmune peripheral neuropathy. Comprehensive matching was carried out using ongoing research databases at two centres in which the dose of Ig was based on clinical outcome, whether infection prevention or documented clinical neurological stability. The IgG trough or steady state levels, IgG increments and Ig efficiencies at times of clinical stability were compared between the obese and lean cohorts and within the matched pairs. This study shows that, at a population level, obese patients achieved a higher trough and increment (but not efficiency) for a given weight-adjusted dose compared with the lean patients. However at an individual patient level there were significant exceptions to this correlation, and upon sub-group analysis no significant difference was found between obese and lean patients receiving replacement therapy. Across all dose regimens a high body mass index (BMI) cannot be used to predict reliably the patients in whom dose restriction is clinically appropriate. PMID:25731216

  5. Body and organ weights and hematology of young rats born at moderate altitude

    E-print Network

    Ziegler, Ralph Fred

    1963-01-01

    as altitude and control groups to distinguish them from other rats in each of the respective colonies. Litters were examined on the day of birth, or within 24 hours after birth. A count of both live-born and deadborn young was made, and the total weight... less at birth. As a result of a retarded growth rate, the body weight of these young remained significantly lower than that of the control young throughout the period of observation. The packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration, and reticulocyte...

  6. Effects of Weight Cue Reactivity on Self-Report Measures of Body Dissatisfaction

    E-print Network

    Beauchamp, Marshall

    2012-04-01

    : Thompson Brookes/Cole. Hilbert, A., Tuschen-Caffier, B., A Vogele, C. (2002). Effects of prolonged and repeated body image exposure in binge-eating disorder. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 52(3), 137-144. Jansen, A. (1998). A learning model... of binge eating: Cue reactivity and cue exposure. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36(3), 257-272. Larsen, J. K., Ouwens, M., Engels, R. C., Eisinga, R., Strien, T. (2008). Validity of self-reported weight and height and predictors of weight bias...

  7. Evidence that Self-Affirmation Reduces Body Dissatisfaction by Basing Self-Esteem on Domains Other than Body Weight and Shape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armitage, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Body satisfaction interventions have typically been multifaceted and targeted at clinical populations. The aim of the present research was to isolate the effects of self-affirmation on body satisfaction in a community sample and to see whether self-affirmation works by basing one's self-esteem on domains other than body weight and…

  8. Maternal and Adolescent Report of Mothers’ Weight-Related Concerns and Behaviors: Longitudinal Associations with Adolescent Body Dissatisfaction and Weight Control Practices

    PubMed Central

    Keery, Helene; Eisenberg, Marla; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2010-01-01

    Objective?This population-based study examined mothers’ weight-related concerns and behaviors (weight status, weight dissatisfaction, dieting, and encouraging child to diet) at baseline, as assessed by both mothers and adolescents, and associations with adolescents’ body dissatisfaction and weight control practices 5 years later.?Methods?Adolescents and their mothers (n = 443 pairs) were surveyed in 1998–1999; adolescents were resurveyed in 2003–2004.?Results?Baseline maternal report of higher levels of her weight-related concerns/behaviors was associated with greater body dissatisfaction in girls 5 years later, controlling for adolescent weight status and other covariates. Baseline maternal report of weight-related concerns/behaviors was also associated with greater prevalence of trying to lose weight in both boys and girls 5 years later. Baseline adolescent report of higher maternal weight-related concerns/behaviors was associated with a higher prevalence of trying to lose weight 5 years later in girls.?Conclusions?These findings highlight the importance of mothers’ weight-related concerns and behaviors for adolescents’ weight-related outcomes. PMID:20498008

  9. The relationship between voluntary water intake, body weight loss, and number of hours of water privation in the rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul S. Siegel

    1947-01-01

    Using 4 groups of albino rats of ages ranging from 85-105 days and matched for body weight, water consumption was recorded during a 5-minute drinking period following respectively 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours of water deprivation. Body weights were recorded for each group following its deprivation period. The results indicate a slightly sigmoid relationship between hours of water privation

  10. Dietary Calcium Had No Reducing Effect on Body Fat and Weight Gain in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Malekzadeh; S. A. Keshavarz; F. Siassi; M. Eshraghian; M. Kadkhodaee; A. R. Dorosty; A. Aliehpour; M. Chamari

    2007-01-01

    4 Abstract: Recently, studies have focused on the effects of dietary calcium on the weight and fatness. Some of these studies have indicated that there is negative relationship between dietary calcium and body fat, while others have reported no such effects. There are also controversies over serum parathyroid hormone, as its mechanism, on body fat and weight. The objective of

  11. Matern Child Health J . Author manuscript Pre-pregnancy body mass index and weight gain during pregnancy

    E-print Network

    Matern Child Health J . Author manuscript Page /1 9 Pre-pregnancy body mass index and weight gain during pregnancy: relations with gestational diabetes and hypertension, and birth outcomes Barbara Heude pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and weight gain during pregnancy with pregnancy and birth outcomes

  12. Relation between biomass and body weight of plankton in a steady state oceanic ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, J.; Mullin, M.M.

    1986-03-01

    In the size range from 10/sup -4/ to 10/sup 3/ ..mu..g (carbon) body weight, the biomass of plankton in the euphotic layer of the North Pacific Central Gyre decreases as an allometric function of body weight. Even in a steady state ecosystem such as that analyzed here, there is variability in space and time; this suggests that one must be careful in extrapolating the relation to less predictable marine areas. In obtaining dynamic information from biomass spectra, one must distinguish changes due to the flow of energy within the spectrum (growth, predation, reproduction) from changes due to emigration from or immigration into the spectrum of the particular area sampled, such as those due to the diel vertical migration of macrozooplankton in the largest size classes.

  13. Perceptions of sexual assault victims/survivors: the influence of sexual history and body weight.

    PubMed

    Gotovac, Sandra; Towson, Shelagh

    2015-01-01

    The intersection between a woman's body weight and sexual history and the victim blaming attitudes of future health care providers was investigated. University undergraduate students (N = 91) enrolled in programs associated with the provision of health care read 1 of 4 patient files of a woman reporting a rape as well as 2 distracter files. Results showed that, for overweight rape victims/survivors, study participants' antifat attitudes were correlated with victim blaming attitudes. Male participants held the attacker significantly less responsible than did female participants if the victim/survivor had several previous sexual partners. Findings suggest that body weight should be considered as a contributing factor in attitudes toward rape victims/survivors, and the gender of the health care provider can be a factor in the post-assault treatment of overweight rape victims/survivors. PMID:25774415

  14. [Relationship between sleep disordered breathing and body weight loss in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Ito, Eiki; Murata, Akira; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Kudo, Shoji

    2003-04-01

    We evaluated body weight loss and growth hormone secretion in patients with sleep-disordered breathing associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Of 11 patients hospitalized for pulmonary rehabilitation, five (WL group) had a history of body weight loss within two years before their interviews, while the other 6 patients (NWL group) had no changes in body weight. All patients underwent body index measurements, pulmonary function tests, blood gas analyses, assessments of nutritional status, and full night polysomnography for two consecutive days. Growth hormone levels were measured in the first 3-hour period following falling asleep. There were no significant inter-group differences between the results of pulmonary function tests, blood gas analyses, or nutritional status assessment. The WL group had a significantly higher percentage loss of body weight than the NWL group (mean +/- S.D. 11.5 +/- 4.7% in the WL group versus 2.7 +/- 1.8% in the NWL group, p < 0.01). The WL group had a significantly higher sleep apnea/hypopnea index than the NWL group (42.4 +/- 9.5/hr in the WL group versus 7.8 +/- 2.9/hr in the NWL group, p < 0.01). The WL group showed a higher rate of stage I + II sleep than the NWL group (84.9 +/- 7.0% versus 64.5 +/- 8.7%), with lower rates of slow wave sleep (2.2 +/- 2.1% versus 15.0 +/- 8.7%) and rapid eye movement sleep (12.9 +/- 6.3% versus 20.6 +/- 1.0%). The WL group showed a low level of growth hormone secretion with no peak in the sequential curve, but had a higher level of insulin growth factor-1 than the NWL group (148 +/- 36 ng/ml versus 90 +/- 22 ng/ml, p < 0.01). These results suggest that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients undergoing weight loss are likely to have an increase of growth hormone secretions in the daytime, possibly induced by underlying psychiatric disorders such as depression. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may lose weight regardless of nutritional status because of a disturbance of growth hormone secretion resulting of sleep-disordered breathing. PMID:12795181

  15. Body weight and health-related quality of life in Catalonia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Oliva-Moreno, Juan; Gil-Lacruz, Ana

    2013-02-01

    Obesity poses important burdens not only on the individuals whose quality of life is reduced but on national welfare systems that have to face growing premature mortality rates, increase healthcare expenditures to treat obesity-related diseases, and earmark vast amounts of healthcare resources for prevention. The main goal of this paper is to analyze the relationship between excess body weight and different dimensions of health-related quality of life for people 16 years and older and to identify the health dimensions most affected by excess weight. We have drawn data from the Catalonia Health Survey (2006). Our results reveal a relationship between excess weight and health-related quality of life. Even after controlling for socio-economic status and objective health variables, excess weight is shown to have a significant negative effect on health-related quality of life. Subjects responses revealed that the negative effect of excess weight was felt the strongest in the health-related quality of life dimensions of mobility and pain/discomfort. Our results indicate there are important differences among gender and age groups. Women and older people are more likely to suffer from the negative consequences of excess weight. PMID:21853339

  16. Independent effects of weight change and attained body weight on prevalence of arterial hypertension in obese and non-obese men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Sonne-Holm; T. I. Sørensen; G. Jensen; P. Schnohr

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the relations among prevalence of arterial hypertension, history of weight change, and current body weight in the range from normal weight to severe obesity. DESIGN--Retrospective analysis of medical records of men registered with Danish military authorities from 1943 to 1977 and followed up four to 40 years later. SETTING--Draft board of Copenhagen and surrounding counties and the rest

  17. Effect of Lycopene Administration on Plasma Glucose, Oxidative Stress and Body Weight in Streptozotocin Diabetic Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vesile Duzguner; Altug Kucukgul; Suat Erdogan; Sefa Celik; Kazim Sahin

    2008-01-01

    Duzguner, V., Kucukgul, A., Erdogan, S., Celik, S. and Sahin, K. 2008. Effect of lycopene administration on plasma glucose, oxidative stress and body weight in streptozotocin diabetic rats. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 33: 17–20.To evaluate the role of lycopene, a carotenoid antioxidant, on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats, 12 female rats received a single intraperitonial injection of STZ at a dose

  18. Determining the impact of food price and income changes on body weight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christiane Schroeter

    2005-01-01

    During recent decades the number of obese adult Americans increased from 15% to 31%. The objective of this dissertation is to investigate the effects of food price and income changes on body weight in an effort to determine how a high-calorie food tax, a low-calorie food subsidy, and\\/or income changes could influence obesity. ^ The Law of Demand states that

  19. Weight loss and body composition changes following three sequential cycles of ketogenic enteral nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Cappello, Gianfranco; Franceschelli, Antonella; Cappello, Annalisa; De Luca, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Background: Ketogenic enteral nutrition (KEN) is a modification of the protein sparing modified fast in which a protein solution is introduced with a continuous infusion through a nasogastric tube over 10-days cycles. The aim of the study was to perform a retrospective analysis of the safety, compliance, weight loss and body composition changes after 3 sequential 10-days cycles of KEN therapy. Materials and Methods: From a large number of patients who underwent KEN therapy in our department over a 5-year period, we selected 188 patients who participated in 3 KEN cycles with 10-13 days of break between them. Before and after the treatment cycles, body composition was analyzed by bioelectric impedance; a final assessment was made 10 days after the end of last cycle. During each rest period all the patients were on a low-carbohydrate, normal caloric diet. Results: Most patients (97%) successfully tolerated the nasogastric treatment and lost an average of 14.4 kg of body weight, 10.6 kg of fat mass and 3.4 kg of body cell mass. Adverse effects were recorded as mild gastric hypersecretion (2%) and constipation (5%). Patients continued to lose fat during the 10-day follow up period after the end of each KEN Cycle. This effect may be explained by abnormality of water distribution during the rapid weight loss inducing the observed change in fat mass. Conclusion: Ten-days KEN treatment cycles can induce rapid weight loss and reduction of fat mass in obese patients. Furthermore, preservation of lean mass can be achieved by infusing 1.9 g of protein/kg of BCM. PMID:23853627

  20. Oleoylethanolamide, an endogenous PPAR-? agonist, lowers body weight and hyperlipidemia in obese rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin Fu; Fariba Oveisi; Silvana Gaetani; Edward Lin; Daniele Piomelli

    2005-01-01

    The fatty-acid ethanolamide, oleoylethanolamide (OEA), is a naturally occurring lipid that regulates feeding and body weight [Rodríguez de Fonseca, F., Navarro, M., Gómez, R., Escuredo, L., Nava, F., Fu, J., Murillo-Rodríguez, E., Giuffrida, A., LoVerme, J., Gaetani, S., Kathuria, S., Gall, C., Piomelli, D., 2001. An anorexic lipid mediator regulated by feeding. Nature 414, 209–212], and serves as an endogenous

  1. Approximate Closed from Weight Function for an Elliptical Crack in an Infinite Body

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Krasowsky; I. V. Orynyak; A. Yu. Gienko

    1999-01-01

    It have been reported that in literature there exists some number of approximate closed form weight functions for elliptical\\u000a crack in an infinite body. The general procedure for refining them by Rice's integral formula is suggested. A tentative formula\\u000a obtained in this way has been numerically verified by a carefully elaborated procedure. For uniform loading the accuracy of\\u000a suggested formula

  2. Chronic administration of nalmefene leads to increased food intake and body weight gain in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Z Chen; Ruey-Ruey C Huang; Chun-Pyn Shen; Douglas J MacNeil; Tung M Fong

    2004-01-01

    Nalmefene is an orally available opioid receptor antagonist that has been shown to suppress appetite in humans, but its effects on chronic food intake and body weight remain unclear. Here, we report that chronic (21-day) oral administration of nalmefene at 2 or 10 mg\\/kg\\/day in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice led to significant increases (9–11%) in cumulative food intake. Mice in

  3. Subcutaneous oxyntomodulin analogue administration reduces body weight in lean and obese rodents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y-L Liu; H E Ford; M R Druce; J S Minnion; B C T Field; J C Shillito; J Baxter; K G Murphy; M A Ghatei; S R Bloom

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To determine the efficacy of a long-acting oxyntomodulin (OXM) analogue, OXM6421, in inhibiting food intake and decreasing body weight in lean and diet-induced obese (DIO) rodents.Research design and methods:The glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor binding affinity and efficacy, sensitivity to enzymatic degradation in vitro and persistence in the circulation after peripheral administration were investigated for OXM6421 and compared with native OXM.

  4. Oleylethanolamide regulates feeding and body weight through activation of the nuclear receptor PPAR-alpha

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin Fu; Silvana Gaetani; Fariba Oveisi; Jesse Lo Verme; Antonia Serrano; Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca; Anja Rosengarth; Hartmut Luecke; Barbara Di Giacomo; Giorgio Tarzia; Daniele Piomelli

    2003-01-01

    Oleylethanolamide (OEA) is a naturally occurring lipid that regulates satiety and body weight. Although structurally related to the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide, OEA does not bind to cannabinoid receptors and its molecular targets have not been defined. Here we show that OEA binds with high affinity to the peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-alpha), a nuclear receptor that regulates several aspects of lipid metabolism.

  5. Long-term persistence of adaptive thermogenesis in subjects who have maintained a reduced body weight1-3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Rosenbaum; Jules Hirsch; Dympna A Gallagher; Rudolph L Leibel

    Background: After weight loss, total energy expenditure—in par- ticular, energy expenditure at low levels of physical activity—is lower than predicted by actual changes in body weight and compo- sition. An important clinical issue is whether this reduction, which predisposes to weight regain, persists over time. Objective: We aimed to determine whether this disproportionate reduction in energy expenditure persists in persons

  6. Associations between body mass index, weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms among non-clinical Chinese adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yiou Fan; Yanping Li; Ailing Liu; Xiaoqi Hu; Guansheng Ma; Guifa Xu

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous research with adolescents has shown associations of body weight, weight control concerns and behaviors with eating disorder symptoms, but it is unclear whether these associations are direct or whether a mediating effect exists. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of overweight and obesity, weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms and to examine the

  7. Perception of Others’ Body Size Influences Weight Loss and Regain for European American but Not African American Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paula C. Chandler-Laney; Gary R. Hunter; Jamy D. Ard; Jane L. Roy; David W. Brock; Barbara A. Gower

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigated whether European American (EA) and African American (AA) women took longer to lose weight, and were less likely to maintain weight loss if they perceived others to be overweight. Design: Overweight EA and AA women completed a Figure Rating Scale and the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire prior to a weight loss intervention. Body composition was assessed by

  8. Smoking Cessation and Body Weight: Evidence from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kasteridis, Panagiotis; Yen, Steven T

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of smoking cessation in body weight. Data Sources 2004–2005 and 2009–2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Surveys (BRFSS) (N = 349,000), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Tax Burden on Tobacco (Orzechowski and Walker 2010). Study Design The Gaussian treatment effect model is estimated for three age categories by gender. Treatment effects of quitting smoking on body mass index (BMI) by quit length are calculated. Principal Findings Quitting is found to be endogenous. Differentiated effects of quitting smoking on BMI are found among quitters by gender, between age groups, and by length of time since quitting smoking, and positive association between smoking cessation and body weight confirmed. Declining smoking rates have only a modest effect in the overweight population. The effects of quitting on BMI are considerably lower among younger men and women. Conclusion The price that must be paid, in terms of weight gain, to enjoy the health benefits of smoking cessation is trivial even for the obese population. PMID:22356600

  9. Autonomic Nervous System in the Control of Energy Balance and Body Weight: Personal Contributions

    PubMed Central

    Messina, G.; De Luca, V.; Viggiano, An.; Ascione, A.; Iannaccone, T.; Chieffi, S.; Monda, M.

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing in the industrialized world, so that the World Health Organization considers obesity as a “pandemia” in rich populations. The autonomic nervous system plays a crucial role in the control of energy balance and body weight. This review summarizes our own data and perspectives, emphasizing the influence exerted by autonomic nervous system on energy expenditure and food intake, which are able to determine the body weight. Activation of the sympathetic discharge causes an increase in energy expenditure and a decrease in food intake, while reduction of food intake and body weight loss determines a reduction of the sympathetic activity. On the other hand, pathophysiological mechanisms of the obesity involve alterations of the sympathetic nervous system in accordance with the “Mona Lisa Hypothesis,” an acronym for “most obesities known are low in sympathetic activity.” Furthermore, the parasympathetic influences on the energy expenditure are analyzed in this review, showing that an increase in parasympathetic activity can induce a paradoxical enhancement of energy consumption. PMID:23691314

  10. Characterization of genetic diversity in Dermacentor andersoni (Acari: Ixodidae) with body size and weight polymorphism.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, José; Almazán, Consuelo; Van Den Bussche, Ronald A; Bowman, Jerry; Yoshioka, Joy H; Kocan, Katherine M

    2005-01-01

    Morphological and discrete genetic differences are found between geographically isolated, allopatric, tick populations. However, we have found differences in sympatric tick populations. Notable differences were found in the body size and weight of Dermacentor andersoni collected from a single location in Montana, USA. These ticks were separated in groups consisting of big (B) and small (S) individuals. The objectives of this study were: (a) to characterize genetic diversity in B and S D. andersoni individuals, (b) to evaluate transmissibility of the character associated with body size and weight, and (c) to correlate morphological differences with biological, physiological, and behavioral characteristics. We found extensive genetic variation in 16S rDNA and ITS2 loci in B and S ticks and demonstrated genetic differentiation between B and S individuals. We further provide some support for Mendelian autosomal dominant transmission of characters associated with tick body size and weight. The results reported herein show that B ticks have a better reproductive success than S ticks and suggest partial reproductive isolation of S ticks. PMID:15639135

  11. Why bodies? Twelve reasons for including bodily expressions in affective neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    de Gelder, Beatrice

    2009-01-01

    Why bodies? It is rather puzzling that given the massive interest in affective neuroscience in the last decade, it still seems to make sense to raise the question ‘Why bodies’ and to try to provide an answer to it, as is the goal of this article. There are now hundreds of articles on human emotion perception ranging from behavioural studies to brain imaging experiments. These experimental studies complement decades of reports on affective disorders in neurological patients and clinical studies of psychiatric populations. The most cursory glance at the literature on emotion in humans, now referred to by the umbrella term of social and affective neuroscience, shows that over 95 per cent of them have used faces as stimuli. Of the remaining 5 per cent, a few have used scenes or auditory information including human voices, music or environmental sounds. But by far the smallest number has looked into whole-body expressions. As a rough estimate, a search on PubMed today, 1 May 2009, yields 3521 hits for emotion × faces, 1003 hits for emotion × music and 339 hits for emotion × bodies. When looking in more detail, the body × emotion category in fact yields a majority of papers on well-being, nursing, sexual violence or organ donation. But the number of cognitive and affective neuroscience studies of emotional body perception as of today is lower than 20. Why then have whole bodies and bodily expressions not attracted the attention of researchers so far? The goal of this article is to contribute some elements for an answer to this question. I believe that there is something to learn from the historical neglect of bodies and bodily expressions. I will next address some historical misconceptions about whole-body perception, and in the process I intend not only to provide an impetus for this kind of work but also to contribute to a better understanding of the significance of the affective dimension of behaviour, mind and brain as seen from the vantage point of bodily communication. Subsequent sections discuss available evidence for the neurofunctional basis of facial and bodily expressions as well as neuropsychological and clinical studies of bodily expressions. PMID:19884142

  12. Plasma progesterone and body weight in the pregnant and non-pregnant kowari, Dasyuroides byrnei (Marsupialia:Dasyuridae).

    PubMed

    Fletcher, T P

    1989-01-01

    Female kowaris are seasonal breeders (May-November) with a gestation of 32.5 +/- 1.8 days (mean +/- s.d., n = 35). The oestrus cycle including pregnancy is 59.0 +/- 6.7 days in duration (mean +/- s.d., n = 12) and is not significantly different from the non-pregnant cycle of 60.3 +/- 7.1 days (mean +/- s.d., n = 15) (P greater than 0.1). Animals maintained on a fixed diet show an increase and fall in body weight before oestrus and again at the end of the oestrous cycle or a pregnancy; these changes correlate closely with progesterone concentration. Plasma progesterone concentration and body weight were measured in six kowaris undergoing an oestrous cycle then a pregnancy in the breeding season of 1981. The basal concentration (mean +/- s.d.) of progesterone prior to the breeding season was 0.35 +/- 0.21 ng mL-1. There were mean rises of 1.84 +/- 1.1 and 2.47 +/- 1.5 ng mL-1, respectively, before the first and second oestrous periods which had declined to near basal levels by the day of oestrus. Peak values of 9.9-11.5 ng mL-1 were measured between days 23 and 30 of oestrous cycle and pregnancy. The pattern of changes in body weight and plasma progesterone concentration was similar in pregnant and non-pregnant animals but the decline in weight and progesterone occurred earlier in pregnant kowaris. PMID:2710961

  13. Development of a body motion interactive system with a weight voting mechanism and computer vision technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chern-Sheng; Chen, Chia-Tse; Shei, Hung-Jung; Lay, Yun-Long; Chiu, Chuang-Chien

    2012-09-01

    This study develops a body motion interactive system with computer vision technology. This application combines interactive games, art performing, and exercise training system. Multiple image processing and computer vision technologies are used in this study. The system can calculate the characteristics of an object color, and then perform color segmentation. When there is a wrong action judgment, the system will avoid the error with a weight voting mechanism, which can set the condition score and weight value for the action judgment, and choose the best action judgment from the weight voting mechanism. Finally, this study estimated the reliability of the system in order to make improvements. The results showed that, this method has good effect on accuracy and stability during operations of the human-machine interface of the sports training system.

  14. Body Image Distortions, Weight, and Depression in Adolescent Boys: Longitudinal Trajectories into Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Blashill, Aaron J.; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Depressive symptoms are common among the U.S. population, yet research into prospective risk factors of depression among men is limited. Distorted body image is also prevalent among adolescent boys, and may be linked with elevated depression; however, longitudinal associations have rarely been measured. Thus, the aim of the current study was to assess the prospective relationship between forms of body image distortion and depressive symptoms among adolescent boys, into adulthood. Data were extracted from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Participants were 2,139 U.S. adolescent boys (M age = 16) who were followed prospectively over 13-years (1996 to 2009), into adulthood. Longitudinal mixed-level modeling was employed to assess the temporal prediction of body image distortion on symptoms of depression. Results revealed that boys who were average weight and viewed themselves as either very underweight (very underweight distorted; Cohen's d = .47) or overweight (overweight distorted; Cohen's d = .29) reported significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms compared to boys who accurately viewed their weight as average; this effect remained constant over the 13-year study period. These findings indicated that distortions in body image, particularly extreme distortions, are risk factors for elevated depressive symptoms among adolescent boys, and persist into early adulthood. PMID:25383047

  15. A novel antioxidant beverage for body weight control based on coffee silverskin.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Saez, Nuria; Ullate, Mónica; Martin-Cabrejas, María A; Martorell, Patricia; Genovés, Salvador; Ramon, Daniel; del Castillo, María Dolores

    2014-05-01

    The present research aimed to add value to coffee silverskin by looking for new innovative applications. Formulation of novel beverages based on coffee silverskin for body fat reduction and body weight control was proposed. Conditions for beverage preparation were optimised. Data on chemical composition and sensorial quality of the new drink were acquired. Health benefits were evaluated in vitro and in vivo employing as animal model Caenorhabditis elegans. An antioxidant beverage containing physiological active concentrations of caffeine and chlorogenic acid for prevention body fat accumulation and possessing acceptable sensorial properties was obtained. Our findings support that the use of coffee silverskin for obtaining bioactive extract is an innovative way for revalorisation of coffee by-product. PMID:24360444

  16. Effect of an individualised training programme during weight reduction on body composition: a randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Schwingshandl, J.; Sudi, K.; Eibl, B.; Wallner, S.; Borkenstein, M.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To study the effect of a standardised training programme focusing on maintenance of fat free mass during weight reduction by energy reduction in obese children.?DESIGN—Randomised trial of physical training programme and dietary advice (group A) versus dietary advice alone (group B).?SUBJECTS—Thirty obese children and adolescents (14 group A, 16 group B) participated in the 12 week long programme; 20 children (10group A, 10 group B) were also reassessed after one year.?MEASUREMENTS—Fat free mass was estimated from the resistance index, obtained by bioelectrical impedance analysis at baseline, after four, eight, and 12 weeks in all subjects, and after one year in 20subjects.?RESULTS—The mean (SD) change in fat free mass was significantly different between the two groups after 12 weeks (group A, 2.68 (3.74) kg; group B, 0.43 (1.65) kg). The change in body weight after one year was inversely correlated with the change in fat free mass after 12 weeks (r = ?0.44), as assessed in the 20subjects.?CONCLUSIONS—A standardised training programme as used in this study can prevent reduction in fat free mass during weight loss in obese children. Reduction in fat free mass during weight reduction might be a risk factor for regain of weight.?? PMID:10519718

  17. The bacterial communities associated with fecal types and body weight of rex rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Bo; Han, Shushu; Wang, Ping; Wen, Bin; Jian, Wensu; Guo, Wei; Yu, Zhiju; Du, Dan; Fu, Xiangchao; Kong, Fanli; Yang, Mingyao; Si, Xiaohui; Zhao, Jiangchao; Li, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Rex rabbit is an important small herbivore for fur and meat production. However, little is known about the gut microbiota in rex rabbit, especially regarding their relationship with different fecal types and growth of the hosts. We characterized the microbiota of both hard and soft feces from rex rabbits with high and low body weight by using the Illumina MiSeq platform targeting the V4 region of the 16S rDNA. High weight rex rabbits possess distinctive microbiota in hard feces, but not in soft feces, from the low weight group. We detected the overrepresentation of several genera such as YS2/Cyanobacteria, and Bacteroidales and underrepresentation of genera such as Anaeroplasma spp. and Clostridiaceae in high weight hard feces. Between fecal types, several bacterial taxa such as Ruminococcaceae, and Akkermansia spp. were enriched in soft feces. PICRUSt analysis revealed that metabolic pathways such as “stilbenoid, diarylheptanoid, gingerol biosynthesis” were enriched in high weight rabbits, and pathways related to “xenobiotics biodegradation” and “various types of N-glycan biosynthesis” were overrepresented in rabbit soft feces. Our study provides foundation to generate hypothesis aiming to test the roles that different bacterial taxa play in the growth and caecotrophy of rex rabbits. PMID:25791609

  18. Body composition in normal weight, overweight and obese children: matched case–control analyses of total and regional tissue masses, and body composition trends in relation to relative weight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J C K Wells; M S Fewtrell; J E Williams; D Haroun; M S Lawson; T J Cole; JCK Wells

    2006-01-01

    Background:Childhood obesity is defined on the basis of weight and height, using body mass index (BMI). There is little detailed information on the body composition characteristic of overweight and obesity.Objective:To evaluate total and regional body composition in overweight, obese and control children aged 7–14 years.Design:Body composition was measured by the four-component model and dual X-ray absorptiometry in 38 age- and

  19. VGF-derived peptide, TLQP-21, regulates food intake and body weight in Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Jethwa, Preeti H; Warner, Amy; Nilaweera, Kanishka N; Brameld, John M; Keyte, John W; Carter, Wayne G; Bolton, Neil; Bruggraber, Michael; Morgan, Peter J; Barrett, Perry; Ebling, Francis J P

    2007-08-01

    The Siberian hamster survives winter by decreasing food intake and catabolizing abdominal fat reserves, resulting in a sustained, profound loss of body weight. VGF gene expression is photoperiodically regulated in the hypothalamus with significantly higher expression in lean Siberian hamsters. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of VGF in regulating these seasonal cycles by determining the effects of a VGF-derived peptide (TLQP-21) on food intake and body weight. Acute intracerebroventricular administration of TLQP-21 decreased food intake, and chronic treatment caused a sustained reduction in food intake and body weight and decreased abdominal fat depots. Behavioral analysis revealed that TLQP-21 reduced meal size but not the frequency of feeding bouts, suggesting a primary action on satiety. Hamsters treated with TLQP-21 lost a similar amount of weight as a pair-fed group in which food intake was matched to that of the TLQP-21-treated group. Central or peripheral treatment with TLQP-21 did not produce a significant effect on resting metabolic rate. We conclude that the primary action of TLQP-21 is to decrease food intake rather than increase energy expenditure. TLQP-21 treatment caused a decrease in UCP-1 mRNA in brown adipose tissue, but hypothalamic expression of orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptide genes remained unchanged after TLQP-21 treatment, although compensatory increases in NPY and AgRP mRNA were observed in the pair-fed hamsters. The effects of TLQP-21 administration are similar to those in hamsters in short days, suggesting that increased VGF activity may contribute to the hypophagia that underlies the seasonal catabolic state. PMID:17463057

  20. Targeting impulsive processes of eating behavior via the internet. Effects on body weight.

    PubMed

    Veling, Harm; van Koningsbruggen, Guido M; Aarts, Henk; Stroebe, Wolfgang

    2014-07-01

    Because eating behavior can take on an impulsive nature many people experience difficulty with dieting to lose weight. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the effectiveness of two interventions targeting impulsive processes of eating behavior to facilitate weight loss: Implementation intentions to remind people about dieting versus a go/no-go task to change impulses toward palatable foods. Dieters performed an online training program (four times in 4 weeks) in which they were randomly assigned to a 2 (implementation intention condition: dieting versus control) × 2 (go/no-go task condition: food versus control) design. They formed either dieting implementation intentions (e.g., If I open the fridge I will think of dieting!) or control implementation intentions. Furthermore, they received either a go/no-go task in which behavioral stop signals were presented upon presentation of palatable foods (food go/no-go task), or upon control stimuli. Participants' weight was measured in the laboratory before and after the intervention. Strength of participants' dieting goal and their Body Mass Index (BMI; as a proxy for impulsiveness toward food) were examined as moderators. Results showed that both dieting implementation intentions and the food go/no-go task facilitated weight loss. Moreover, dieting implementation intentions facilitated weight loss particularly among people with a strong current dieting goal, whereas the food go/no-go task facilitated weight loss independent of this factor. Instead, the food go/no-go task, but not formation of dieting implementation intentions, was primarily effective among dieters with a relatively high BMI. These results provide the first preliminary evidence that interventions aimed at targeting impulsive eating-related processes via the internet can facilitate weight loss. PMID:24675683

  1. Web-Based Self-Reported Height, Weight, and Body Mass Index Among Swedish Adolescents: A Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Kull, Inger; Nilsson, Sara; Bergström, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Background Web-collected height and weight are increasingly used in epidemiological studies; however, the validity has rarely been evaluated. Objective The aim of the study was to validate self-reported height, weight, and corresponding body mass index (BMI) among Swedish adolescents aged approximately 16 years. A secondary aim was to investigate possible prediction factors for validity of self-reported BMI. Methods The study included 1698 adolescents from the population-based cohort BAMSE. Height and weight were collected through a Web-based questionnaire and subsequently measured using standard procedures. Differences between reported and measured height, weight, and corresponding BMI were compared by t tests and agreement was evaluated by Pearson correlation and Bland-Altman plots. Multivariable linear regression analysis was used to investigate whether lifestyle and demographic factors predicted validity of self-reported BMI. Results On average, weight was underestimated by 1.1 kg and height was overestimated by 0.5 cm, leading to an underestimation of BMI by 0.5 kg/m2. Correlation coefficients were .98 for height, .97 for weight, and .94 for BMI, and highly significant. Females underestimated weight to a higher extent than males and overweight and obese participants underestimated weight to a higher extent than normal-weight participants, which resulted in higher underestimation of BMI. Underweight participants, on the contrary, overestimated weight and correspondingly BMI. Overall, a high proportion of participants were classified into the correct BMI category; however, among overweight and obese participants, only 60.2% (139/231) and 46% (20/44) were correctly classified, respectively. In the multivariable prediction model, only gender and BMI status significantly predicted discrepancy between reported and measured BMI. Conclusions Web-collected BMI may be used as a valid, quick, and cost-effective alternative to measured BMI among Swedish adolescents. The accuracy of self-reported BMI declines with increasing BMI and self-reported BMI should not be used to estimate the prevalence of overweight or obesity. PMID:25791395

  2. Association of early postnatal growth trajectory with body composition in term low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, P; Jain, V; Gupta, A K; Kalaivani, M; Paul, V K

    2014-06-01

    Growth acceleration or catch-up growth (CUG) in early infancy is a plausible risk factor for later obesity and cardiovascular disease. We postulate that this risk may be mediated by an adverse programming of body composition by CUG in early infancy. The study was aimed at evaluating the association between the pattern of gain in weight and length of term low birth weight (LBW) infants from birth to 6 months, with fat mass percent (FM%) at 6 months. Term healthy singleton LBW infants were enrolled. Baby's weight and length z-scores were measured at birth and three follow-up visits. Body composition was measured by dual-energy absorptiometry at last visit. A total of 54 babies (28 boys) were enrolled. The mean birth weight and gestation were 2175±180 g and 37.6±0.6 weeks. Follow-up visits were at 1.4±0.0, 3.0±0.3 and 7.2±0.8 months. The proportion of babies who showed CUG [increase in weight for age z-score (?WAZ)>0.67] from birth to 1.4, 3.0 and 7.2 months was 29.6, 26.4 and 48.5%, respectively. The mean FM% at 7.2 months was 16.6±7.8%. Infants with greater ?WAZ from birth to 3 and 7.2 months had significantly greater FM% at 7.2 months after adjusting for current age, size and gender. Infants with early CUG (<1.4 months) had higher FM% than infants with no CUG. We conclude that earlier and greater increment in WAZ is positively associated with FM%. PMID:24901658

  3. Ept7 influences estrogen action in the pituitary gland and body weight of rats

    PubMed Central

    Kurz, Scott G.; Dennison, Kirsten L.; Samanas, Nyssa Becker; Hickman, Maureen Peters; Eckert, Quincy A.; Walker, Tiffany L.; Cupp, Andrea S.

    2014-01-01

    Estrogens control many aspects of pituitary gland biology, including regulation of lactotroph homeostasis and synthesis and secretion of prolactin. In rat models, these actions are strain specific and heritable, and multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been mapped that impact the responsiveness of the lactotroph to estrogens. One such QTL, Ept7, was mapped to RNO7 in female progeny generated in an intercross between BN rats, in which the lactotroph population is insensitive to estrogens, and ACI rats, which develop lactotroph hyperplasia/adenoma and associated hyperprolactinemia in response to estrogen treatment. The primary objective of this study was to confirm the existence of Ept7 and to quantify the impact of this QTL on responsiveness of the pituitary gland of female and male rats to 17?-estradiol (E2) and diethylstilbestrol (DES), respectively. Secondary objectives were to determine if Ept7 influences the responsiveness of the male reproductive tract to DES and to identify other discernible phenotypes influenced by Ept7. To achieve these objectives, a congenic rat strain that harbors BN alleles across the Ept7 interval on the genetic background of the ACI strain was generated and characterized to define the effect of administered estrogens on the anterior pituitary gland and male reproductive tissues. Data presented herein indicate Ept7 exerts a marked effect on development of lactotroph hyperplasia in response to estrogen treatment, but does not affect atrophy of the male reproductive tissues in response to hormone treatment. Ept7 was also observed to exert gender specific effects on body weight in young adult rats. PMID:24448715

  4. Gallic acid regulates body weight and glucose homeostasis through AMPK activation.

    PubMed

    Doan, Khanh V; Ko, Chang Mann; Kinyua, Ann W; Yang, Dong Joo; Choi, Yun-Hee; Oh, In Young; Nguyen, Nguyen Minh; Ko, Ara; Choi, Jae Won; Jeong, Yangsik; Jung, Min Ho; Cho, Won Gil; Xu, Shanhua; Park, Kyu Sang; Park, Woo Jin; Choi, Soo Yong; Kim, Hyoung Shik; Moh, Sang Hyun; Kim, Ki Woo

    2015-01-01

    Gallic acid [3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid (GA)], a natural phytochemical, is known to have a variety of cellular functions including beneficial effects on metabolic syndromes. However, the molecular mechanism by which GA exerts its beneficial effects is not known. Here we report that GA plays its role through the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and by regulating mitochondrial function via the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator1? (PGC1?). Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) knockdown significantly blunted GA's effect on PGC1? activation and downstream genes, suggesting a critical role of the AMPK/Sirt1/PGC1? pathway in GA's action. Moreover, diet-induced obese mice treated with GA showed significantly improved glucose and insulin homeostasis. In addition, the administration of GA protected diet-induced body weight gain without a change in food intake. Biochemical analyses revealed a marked activation of AMPK in the liver, muscle, and interscapular brown adipose tissue of the GA-treated mice. Moreover, uncoupling protein 1 together with other genes related to energy expenditure was significantly elevated in the interscapular brown adipose tissue. Taken together, these results indicate that GA plays its beneficial metabolic roles by activating the AMPK/Sirt1/PGC1? pathway and by changing the interscapular brown adipose tissue genes related to thermogenesis. Our study points out that targeting the activation of the AMPK/Sirt1/PGC1? pathway by GA or its derivatives might be a potential therapeutic intervention for insulin resistance in metabolic diseases. PMID:25356824

  5. Body weight dissatisfaction by socioeconomic status among obese, preobese and normal weight women and men: results of the cross-sectional KORA Augsburg S4 population survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Body weight dissatisfaction is an important factor in preventing weight gain and promoting weight loss or maintenance. This study focuses on differences in the rates of body weight dissatisfaction among obese, preobese and normal weight women and men by socioeconomic status within a general adult population in Germany. Methods Data were analyzed from 4186 adults aged 25 to 74 who participated in a cross-sectional, representative population-based health survey (KORA S4, 1999–2001, Augsburg region/Germany). Body mass was measured anthropometrically and indexed following international standards. Among the 2123 women participating in the survey, 40.3% had a normal weight, 34.9% were preobese, and 24.8% were obese (compared to 25.9%, 51.4% and 22.6% among men, respectively). Body weight dissatisfaction, educational level, household income and occupational status were assessed by computer-aided personal interviewing. An index for socioeconomic status was calculated and categorized into quintiles. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to test for differences in the odds of body weight dissatisfaction across socioeconomic strata in normal weight, preobese and obese groups. Body mass index, age, family status, place of residence and health behaviors were adjusted for. Results Overall, being dissatisfied with one’s body weight was more prevalent in women (48.3%) than in men (33.2%). In the normal weight group, no significant differences in the odds of being dissatisfied were found across socioeconomic groups among women or men. Among preobese men, compared to the lowest socioeconomic stratum, increased odds of being dissatisfied with one’s body weight were associated with the highest socioeconomic index group (OR?=?2.3, 95% CI: 1.4–3.8), middle and high educational level (OR?=?1.6, 95% CI: 1.1–2.3, and OR?=?1.9, 95% CI: 1.3–3.7), high income (OR?=?1.8, 95% CI: 1.2–2.7), and middle and high occupational status (both OR?=?1.8, 95% CI: 1.2–2.6). Among preobese women, the odds of being dissatisfied were only significantly elevated in those with a middle educational level (OR?=?1.6, 95% CI: 1.1–2.3). Among obese men, elevated odds were found in the highest socioeconomic index group (OR?=?3.7, 95% CI: 1.8–7.5) and in those with a high educational level (OR?=?2.3, 95% CI: 1.3–4.1), high income (OR?=?2.6, 95% CI: 1.4–4.7), and middle and high occupational status (both OR?=?2.2, 95% CI: 1.3–3.6). The odds of dissatisfaction among obese women were not associated with socioeconomic status as a whole, but were associated with a high educational level, albeit with a comparatively large confidence interval (OR?=?3.6, 95% CI: 1.0–12.8). Conclusions In Germany, body weight dissatisfaction is more prevalent among obese and preobese men in high socioeconomic status groups, a pattern not found in women. The exception to this is a greater prevalence of dissatisfaction among obese and preobese women with a high educational level (albeit inconsistently). Moreover, there is a social gradient in body weight dissatisfaction, especially in obese men, which may partly explain why obesity is more prevalent in men with low socioeconomic status. It also suggests that they are a target group for obesity care in which body weight satisfaction is an important topic. PMID:22571239

  6. Modulation of adipose tissue lipolysis and body weight by high-density lipoproteins in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wei, H; Averill, M M; McMillen, T S; Dastvan, F; Mitra, P; Subramanian, S; Tang, C; Chait, A; LeBoeuf, R C

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity is associated with reduced levels of circulating high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) and its major protein, apolipoprotein (apo) A-I. As a result of the role of HDL and apoA-I in cellular lipid transport, low HDL and apoA-I may contribute directly to establishing or maintaining the obese condition. Methods: To test this, male C57BL/6 wild-type (WT), apoA-I deficient (apoA-I?/?) and apoA-I transgenic (apoA-Itg/tg) mice were fed obesogenic diets (ODs) and monitored for several clinical parameters. We also performed cell culture studies. Results: ApoA-I?/? mice gained significantly more body weight and body fat than WT mice over 20 weeks despite their reduced food intake. During a caloric restriction regime imposed on OD-fed mice, apoA-I deficiency significantly inhibited the loss of body fat as compared with WT mice. Reduced body fat loss with caloric restriction in apoA-I?/? mice was associated with blunted stimulated adipose tissue lipolysis as verified by decreased levels of phosphorylated hormone-sensitive lipase (p-HSL) and lipolytic enzyme mRNA. In contrast to apoA-I?/? mice, apoA-Itg/tg mice gained relatively less weight than WT mice, consistent with other reports. ApoA-Itg/tg mice showed increased adipose tissue lipolysis, verified by increased levels of p-HSL and lipolytic enzyme mRNA. In cell culture studies, HDL and apoA-I specifically increased catecholamine-induced lipolysis possibly through modulating the adipocyte plasma membrane cholesterol content. Conclusions: Thus, apoA-I and HDL contribute to modulating body fat content by controlling the extent of lipolysis. ApoA-I and HDL are key components of lipid metabolism in adipose tissue and constitute new therapeutic targets in obesity. PMID:24567123

  7. Optimal body weight for health and longevity: bridging basic, clinical, and population research

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Luigi; Hu, Frank B

    2014-01-01

    Excess body weight and adiposity cause insulin resistance, inflammation, and numerous other alterations in metabolic and hormonal factors that promote atherosclerosis, tumorigenesis, neurodegeneration, and aging. Studies in both animals and humans have demonstrated a beneficial role of dietary restriction and leanness in promoting health and longevity. Epidemiological studies have found strong direct associations between increasing body mass index (BMI) and risks of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and several types of cancer, beginning from BMI of 20–21 kg m?2. Although a recent meta-analysis suggests that overweight individuals have significantly lower overall mortality than normal-weight individuals, these data are likely to be an artifact produced by serious methodological problems, especially confounding by smoking, reverse causation due to existing chronic disease, and nonspecific loss of lean mass and function in the frail elderly. From a clinical and public health point of view, maintaining a healthy weight through diet and physical activity should remain the cornerstone in the prevention of chronic diseases and the promotion of healthy aging. PMID:24628815

  8. Generation and acculturation status are associated with dietary intake and body weight in Mexican American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ji-Hong; Chu, Yong H; Frongillo, Edward A; Probst, Janice C

    2012-02-01

    Mexican American children are disproportionately affected by obesity. Data on how the acculturation process influences diet and body weight among adolescents are limited. We used the data from the 1999-2004 NHANES, restricting to 2286 Mexican American children between 12 and 19 y old. Acculturation was measured by generation status and language preference. Diet was assessed using 24-h diet recall. Multiple linear, Tobit, logistic, and quantile regression models were used. We found, after adjusting for socio-demographic factors, health, dietary intake, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors compared to the first generation, second and third generations had greater odds of overweight and obesity. Adolescents in the second generation had higher BMI Z-scores than adolescents in the first and third generations. Both second and third generation adolescents consumed less fruit, whole fruit, vegetables, grains, and meats but more sweetened beverages, whole grains, saturated fat, sodium, oil, and energy from discretionary foods. Higher language acculturation was associated with poorer diet and greater body weight. Our findings suggest that Mexican American adolescents face challenges in terms of poorer diet and excessive weight gain associated with their immigration experience. PMID:22223572

  9. Optimal body weight for health and longevity: bridging basic, clinical, and population research.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Luigi; Hu, Frank B

    2014-06-01

    Excess body weight and adiposity cause insulin resistance, inflammation, and numerous other alterations in metabolic and hormonal factors that promote atherosclerosis, tumorigenesis, neurodegeneration, and aging. Studies in both animals and humans have demonstrated a beneficial role of dietary restriction and leanness in promoting health and longevity. Epidemiological studies have found strong direct associations between increasing body mass index (BMI) and risks of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and several types of cancer, beginning from BMI of 20-21 kg m(-2). Although a recent meta-analysis suggests that overweight individuals have significantly lower overall mortality than normal-weight individuals, these data are likely to be an artifact produced by serious methodological problems, especially confounding by smoking, reverse causation due to existing chronic disease, and nonspecific loss of lean mass and function in the frail elderly. From a clinical and public health point of view, maintaining a healthy weight through diet and physical activity should remain the cornerstone in the prevention of chronic diseases and the promotion of healthy aging. PMID:24628815

  10. Validity of anthropometric measurements to assess body composition, including muscle mass, in 3-year-old children from the SKOT cohort.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Signe M; Mølgaard, Christian; Ejlerskov, Katrine T; Christensen, Line B; Michaelsen, Kim F; Briend, André

    2015-07-01

    Nutritional status of children is commonly assessed by anthropometry both in under and overnutrition. The link between anthropometry and body fat, the body compartment most affected by overnutrition, is well known, but the link with muscle mass, the body compartment most depleted in undernutrition, associated with infections, remains unknown. In this study, we examined the relationship between common anthropometric indices and body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in a sample of 121 healthy 3-year-old Danish children. Appendicular (arms and legs) lean mass was used to estimate muscle mass. Overall, anthropometric measures were more effective to measure absolute size of fat, lean and muscle mass than their relative sizes. Proportion of the variance explained by anthropometry was 79% for lean mass, 76% for fat mass and 74% for muscle mass. For fat mass and lean mass expressed as percentage of total body mass, this proportion was 51% and 66%, respectively; and for muscle mass as percentage of lean mass it was 34%. All the best reduced multivariate models included weight, skinfold and gender except the model estimating the proportion of muscle mass in lean body mass, which included only mid-upper arm circumference and subscapular skinfold. The power of height in the weight-to-height ratio to determine fat mass proportion was 1.71 with a 95% confidence interval (0.83-2.60) including the value of 2 used in body mass index (BMI). Limitations of anthropometry to assess body composition, and especially for muscle mass as a proportion of lean mass, should be acknowledged. PMID:23167700

  11. Marker Genotypes and Population Admixture and Their Association With Body Weight, Height and Relative Body Mass in United States Federal Bison Herds

    PubMed Central

    Musani, Solomon K.; Halbert, Natalie D.; Redden, David T.; Allison, David B.; Derr, James N.

    2006-01-01

    Elucidating genetic influences on bison growth and body composition is of interest, not only because bison are important for historical, cultural, and agricultural reasons, but also because their unusual population history makes them valuable models for finding influential loci in both domestic cattle and humans. We tested for trait loci associated with body weight, height, and bison mass index (BMI) while controlling for estimated ancestry to reduce potential confounding effects due to population admixture in 1316 bison sampled from four U.S. herds. We used 60 microsatellite markers to model each phenotype as a function of herd, sex, age, marker genotypes, and individual ancestry estimates. Statistical significance for genotype and its interaction with ancestry was evaluated using the adaptive false discovery rate. Of the four herds, two appeared to be admixed and two were nonadmixed. Although none of the main effects of the loci were significant, estimated ancestry and its interaction with marker loci were significantly associated with the phenotypes, illustrating the importance of including ancestry in the models and the dependence of genotype–phenotype associations on background ancestry. Individual loci contributed ?2.0% of variation in weight, height, and BMI, which confirms the utility and potential importance of adjusting for population stratification. PMID:16888339

  12. Indirect detection of gravitino dark matter including its three-body decays

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Ki-Young [Department of Physics, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Restrepo, Diego [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, A.A.1226, Medellin (Colombia); Yaguna, Carlos E. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica and Instituto de Fisica Teorica UAM-CSIC, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Zapata, Oscar, E-mail: kiyoung.choi@pusan.ac.kr, E-mail: restrepo@udea.edu.co, E-mail: carlos.yaguna@uam.es, E-mail: pfozapata@eia.edu.co [Escuela de Ingenieria de Antioquia, A.A.7516, Medellin (Colombia)

    2010-10-01

    It was recently pointed out that in supersymmetric scenarios with gravitino dark matter and bilinear R-parity violation, gravitinos with masses below M{sub W} typically decay with a sizable branching ratio into the 3-body final states W*l and Z*?. In this paper we study the indirect detection signatures of gravitino dark matter including such final states. First, we obtain the gamma ray spectrum from gravitino decays, which features a monochromatic contribution from the decay into ?? and a continuum contribution from the three-body decays. After studying its dependence on supersymmetric parameters, we compute the expected gamma ray fluxes and derive new constraints, from recent FERMI data, on the R-parity breaking parameter and on the gravitino lifetime. Indirect detection via antimatter searches, a new possibility brought about by the three-body final states, is also analyzed. For models compatible with the gamma ray observations, the positron signal is found to be negligible whereas the antiproton one can be significant.

  13. Differences in body esteem by weight status, gender, and physical activity among young elementary school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Shriver, Lenka H; Harrist, Amanda W; Page, Melanie; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Moulton, Michelle; Topham, Glade

    2013-01-01

    Body satisfaction is important for the prevention of disordered eating and body image disturbances. Yet, little is known about body esteem and what influences it among younger children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate body esteem and the relationships between body esteem, weight, gender, and physical activity in elementary school children. A total of 214 third graders in a U.S. Midwestern state participated in this correlational study. The Body Mass Index-for-age, the Body Esteem Scale (BES), BE-Weight, BE-Appearance, and a Physical Activity Checklist were used to examine the relationships between the variables using bivariate correlations and analysis of variance. While children's body esteem did not differ by physical activity, important interactions were identified between weight status and gender in global body esteem and BE-Appearance. It is critical to examine attitudes about weight and appearance and the relationship between body esteem and self-esteem further among middle childhood-aged children. PMID:23228485

  14. Insulin Therapy and Body Weight, Body Composition and Muscular Strength in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Gin, H.; Rigalleau, V.; Perlemoine, C.

    2010-01-01

    Aims. To determine the progression of body weight (BW) and body composition (BC) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) on insulin therapy and the consequences on muscle strength (MS) as a reflect of free fat mass increases. Research design and methods. We analysed BC using air displacement plethysmography and MS by hand grip dynamometry in 40 T2D before and after three (M3) and six months (M6) of insulin therapy. Results. at baseline HbA1c was 9.76 ±1.6% and BW was stable with fat mass (FM) 28 ± 10.7?kg; and fat free mass (FFM) 52.4 ± 11?kg; at M6, HbA1c improved to 7.56 ± 0.8%; insulin doses tended to increase. BW gain at M6 was + 3.2 ± 4.2?kg and with an increase of only 25% by M3; it was composed of FM, whereas FFM was unchanged. MS did not increase on insulin therapy. Conclusions. In T2D, BW gain was composed exclusively of FM with no improvement in MS. PMID:20721344

  15. Hybrid Wing-Body (HWB) Pressurized Fuselage Modeling, Analysis, and Design for Weight Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the interim progress for an in-house study that is directed toward innovative structural analysis and design of next-generation advanced aircraft concepts, such as the Hybrid Wing-Body (HWB) and the Advanced Mobility Concept-X flight vehicles, for structural weight reduction and associated performance enhancement. Unlike the conventional, skin-stringer-frame construction for a cylindrical fuselage, the box-type pressurized fuselage panels in the HWB undergo significant deformation of the outer aerodynamic surfaces, which must be minimized without significant structural weight penalty. Simple beam and orthotropic plate theory is first considered for sizing, analytical verification, and possible equivalent-plate analysis with appropriate simplification. By designing advanced composite stiffened-shell configurations, significant weight reduction may be possible compared with the sandwich and ribbed-shell structural concepts that have been studied previously. The study involves independent analysis of the advanced composite structural concepts that are presently being developed by The Boeing Company for pressurized HWB flight vehicles. High-fidelity parametric finite-element models of test coupons, panels, and multibay fuselage sections, were developed for conducting design studies and identifying critical areas of potential failure. Interim results are discussed to assess the overall weight/strength advantages.

  16. Body weight changes and corresponding changes in pain and function in persons with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. A cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Riddle, Daniel L.; Stratford, Paul W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine if a dose-response relationship exists between percentage body weight changes in persons with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) and self reported pain and function. Methods Data from persons in the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) and the Multicenter Osteoarthritis (MOST) datasets (n=1,410) with symptomatic function limiting knee OA were studied. For the OAI, we used baseline and 3-year follow-up data while for the MOST, baseline and 30-month data were used. Key outcome variables were WOMAC Physical Function and Pain change scores. In addition to covariates, the predictor variable of interest was the extent of weight change over the study period and divided into 5 categories representing different percentages of body weight change. Results A significant dose-response relationship (p< 0.003) was found between the extent of percentage change in body weight and the extent of change in WOMAC Physical Function and WOMAC Pain. For example, persons who gained ?10% of body weight had WOMAC Physical Function score changes of ?5.4 (95%CI, ?8.7, ?2.00) points indicating worsening relative to the reference group of persons with weight changes of between <5% weight gain and <5% weight reduction. Conclusion Our data suggest a dose-response relationship exists between changes in body weight and corresponding changes in pain and function. The threshold for this response gradient appears to be ?10% body weight shifts. Weight changes of ?10% have potential to lead to important changes in pain and function for patient groups as well as individual patients. PMID:22505346

  17. Stimulation of body weight increase and epiphyseal cartilage growth by insulin like growth factor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, S.

    1981-01-01

    The ability of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) to induce growth in hypophysectomized immature rats was tested by continuous infusion of the partially purified factor at daily doses of 6, 21, and 46 mU for an 8-day period. A dose-dependent growth of the proximal epiphyseal cartilage of the tibia and an associated stimulation of the primary spongiosa were produced by these amounts of IGF. The two highest doses of IGF also resulted in dose-dependent increases of body weight. Gel permeation of the sera at neutrality showed that the large-molecular-weight IGF binding protein was not induced by the infusion of IGF, whereas it ws generated in the sera of hypophysectomized rats that were infused with daily doses of 86 mU of human growth hormone.

  18. Ethnic differences in discrepancies between self-reported and measured weight, height and body mass index.

    PubMed

    van Valkengoed, Irene G M; Nicolaou, Mary; Stronks, Karien

    2011-08-01

    We investigated the association between Hindustani-Surinamese (South Asian), African-Surinamese (African) or Dutch (European) ethnicity and discrepancies in self-reported versus measured weight, height and derived body mass index (BMI). Using data from the population-based SUNSET study among 35- to 60-year-old subjects in The Netherlands, we found that discrepancies among Hindustani-Surinamese men, African-Surinamese women and Hindustani-Surinamese women for weight and BMI, but not height were smaller than their Dutch counterparts. Ethnic differences observed imply that self-reported anthropometric measures may be unsuitable for surveillance and for studies that seek to quantify the role of obesity in health outcomes in ethnic groups. PMID:20884661

  19. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation had no effect on body weight but reduced energy intake in overweight and obese women.

    PubMed

    Harden, Charlotte J; Dible, Victoria A; Russell, Jean M; Garaiova, Iveta; Plummer, Sue F; Barker, Margo E; Corfe, Bernard M

    2014-01-01

    Longer-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids may have greater appetite-suppressing effects than shorter-chain, monosaturated, and saturated fatty acids. Because fish oils are predominantly composed of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid and may assist in the treatment of obesity comorbidities, their effect on body weight and body mass index is of interest. We hypothesized that daily supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich oil would reduce energy intake and body weight in overweight and obese women compared with supplementation with oleic acid (OA) rich oil. A double-blinded, randomized, parallel intervention was conducted. Body mass index (in kilograms per meter squared), body weight (in kilograms), body fat (in percent), and lean tissue (in kilograms) were measured at baseline and 12 weeks after intervention with DHA or OA. Diet diaries were also completed at these time points for estimation of energy and macronutrient intake. Subjects reported significantly lower energy (P = .020), carbohydrate (g) (P = .037), and fat (g) (P = .045) intake after DHA compared with OA. Body mass or composition was not affected by treatment, although a fall in body weight in the DHA group approached statistical significance (P = .089). Daily ingestion of DHA over a 12-week period may reduce energy intake in overweight and obese females, but longer-term and adequately powered studies using subjects of both sexes are needed. Other factors that should be considered include the following: the choice of control, the body mass index category of subjects, and ways of improving the compliancy and accuracy of dietary assessment. PMID:24418242

  20. ?-hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate (HMB) attenuates muscle and body weight loss in experimental cancer cachexia.

    PubMed

    Aversa, Zaira; Bonetto, Andrea; Costelli, Paola; Minero, Valerio Giacomo; Penna, Fabio; Baccino, Francesco Maria; Lucia, Simone; Rossi Fanelli, Filippo; Muscaritoli, Maurizio

    2011-03-01

    ?-hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate (HMB), a leucine metabolite, improves muscle mass and function. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of HMB administration in an experimental in vivo model of cancer cachexia (CC). Wistar rats were randomized to receive standard or 4% HMB-enriched chow. Rats from both groups were randomized to receive an i.p. inoculum of AH-130 cells (TB). All rats were weighed and sacrificed at day 24. Liver, heart and muscles were dissected and weighed. The protein levels of p-p70S6k, p-eIf2?, p-mTOR and p-4-EB-P1 were evaluated by Western blotting on gastrocnemius muscle (GSN). As expected, the growth of the AH-130 ascites hepatoma induced significant carcass weight and GSN muscle loss. HMB treatment significantly increased GSN and heart weight in controls (p=0.002 and p<0.001, respectively). In HMB-treated TB, body weight was not lost but significantly (p=0.003) increased, and GSN loss was significantly (p=0.04) attenuated with respect to TB. Phosphorylated eIF2? markedly decreased in TB-rats vs. C. Feeding the HMB-enriched diet resulted in decreased p-eIF2? levels in control animals, while no changes could be observed in the TB group. Phosphorylated p70S6K and phosphorylated mTOR were markedly increased by HMB treatment in controls and further increased in TB. Phosphorylated 4-EB-P1 was markedly increased in TB but substantially unaffected by HMB treatment. Administration of HMB attenuates body weight and muscle loss in experimental CC. Increased phosphorylation of key anabolic molecules suggests that these actions are mediated by improved protein anabolism in muscle. PMID:21184031

  1. Plasma thyroxine concentrations in farmed ostriches in relation to age, body weight, and growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Dawson, A; Deeming, D C; Dick, A C; Sharp, P J

    1996-09-01

    Thyroid hormones are of interest in ostriches because, in common with other ratites, ostriches are believed to have evolved through neoteny, a process which, in amphibia, is related to thyroid function. Farmed ostriches show marked differences in growth rates, a problem which also could be related to abnormal thyroid function. In adult farmed ostriches (more than 3 years old), mean plasma thyroxine concentration was 1.8 nmol middle dot liter-1 (range 0.2 to 6.5 nmol middle dot liter-1). This is a lower mean and a much greater range than those in adult starlings or Japanese quail measured at the same time. No sex differences were observed. In 5-month-old ostriches (approximately half grown) mean levels were again low (3.1 nmol x liter-1, range 0.2 to 9.9 nmol x liter-1). There was a correlation (P < 0.0005) between thyroxine and body weight, which ranged from 10.8 to 51.5 kg. Growth hormone in this group ranged from 0.7 to 45.6 microg x liter-1, but there was no correlation with body weight or with thyroxine. In the same group of birds at 10 months of age, plasma thyroxine concentrations were similar, but were not correlated with body weight. In young birds sampled between hatch and 13 weeks, mean thyroxine decreased from 7.6 nmol x liter-1 soon after hatching to less than 2 nmol x liter-1 at 2 weeks and remained less than 2 nmol x liter-1 for the following 3 months. Thyroxine was highly variable within and between individuals. There was no correlation with body weight or growth rate. There were no significant differences between values at 13 weeks, 5 months, 10 months, or in adults. The results do not suggest that slow growth is directly related to low thyroxine. However, the low means and wide range of values do suggest that thyroid function in the ostrich is abnormal compared to other birds. PMID:8812401

  2. Effect of Ochratoxin A on Body Weight, Feed Intake and Feed Conversion in Broiler Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Sakthivelan, Sigamani Masilamani; Sudhakar Rao, Ganne Venkata

    2010-01-01

    The effect of ochratoxin A (OA) on the body weight, feed intake, and feed conversion was investigated in broiler chicken fed dietary levels of OA at 0, 1, and 2?ppm for 28 days from hatch. Feeding OA significantly reduced the growth rate of broiler chicken. The reduction was observed from the first week onwards in OA-treated groups. Feed consumption and feed conversion also showed a diminishing trend from the first week of feeding toxin. Its implication on the performance of broiler chicken is discussed. PMID:21234366

  3. Effects of calcium supplementation on body weight reduction in overweight calcium stone formers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Viviane Barcellos Menon; Alessandra Calábria Baxmann; Leila Froeder; Lígia Araújo Martini; Ita Pfeferman Heilberg

    2009-01-01

    A randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in overweight calcium stone-forming (CSF) patients, to evaluate the effect\\u000a of calcium supplementation associated with a calorie-restricted diet on body weight (BW) and fat reduction and its potential\\u000a changes upon serum and urinary parameters. Fifteen patients were placed on a hypocaloric diet for 3 months, supplemented with\\u000a either calcium carbonate (CaCO3, n = 8) or placebo (n = 7),

  4. Sarcolemmal ATP-sensitive K+ channels control energy expenditure determining body weight

    PubMed Central

    Alekseev, Alexey E.; Reyes, Santiago; Yamada, Satsuki; Hodgson-Zingman, Denice M.; Sattiraju, Srinivasan; Zhu, Zhiyong; Sierra, Ana; Gerbin, Marina; Coetzee, William A.; Goldhamer, David J.; Terzic, Andre; Zingman, Leonid V.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Metabolic processes that regulate muscle energy use are major determinants of bodily energy balance. Here we find that sarcolemmal ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels, which couple membrane excitability with cellular metabolic pathways, set muscle energy expenditure under physiological stimuli. Disruption of KATP channel function provoked, in conditions of unaltered locomotor activity and blood substrate availability, an extra energy cost of cardiac and skeletal muscle performance. Inefficient fuel metabolism in KATP channel-deficient striated muscles reduced glycogen and fat body depots promoting a lean phenotype. The propensity to lesser body weight imposed by KATP channel deficit persisted under a high-fat diet, yet obesity restriction was achieved at the cost of compromised physical endurance. Thus, sarcolemmal KATP channels govern muscle energy economy, and their down-regulation in a tissue-specific manner could present an anti-obesity strategy by rendering muscle increasingly thermogenic at rest and less fuel efficient during exercise. PMID:20074528

  5. A Predictive Model of the Dynamics of Body Weight and Food Intake in Rats Submitted to Caloric Restrictions

    PubMed Central

    Jacquier, Marine; Crauste, Fabien; Soulage, Christophe O.; Soula, Hédi A.

    2014-01-01

    Dynamics of body weight and food intake can be studied by temporally perturbing food availability. This perturbation can be obtained by modifying the amount of available food over time while keeping the overall food quantity constant. To describe food intake dynamics, we developed a mathematical model that describes body weight, fat mass, fat-free mass, energy expenditure and food intake dynamics in rats. In addition, the model considers regulation of food intake by leptin, ghrelin and glucose. We tested our model on rats experiencing temporally variable food availability. Our model is able to predict body weight and food intake variations by taking into account energy expenditure dynamics based on a memory of the previous food intake. This model allowed us to estimate this memory lag to approximately 8 days. It also explains how important variations in food availability during periods longer than these 8 days can induce body weight gains. PMID:24932616

  6. Identification of G Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) in Primary Cilia and Their Possible Involvement in Body Weight Control

    PubMed Central

    Omori, Yoshihiro; Chaya, Taro; Yoshida, Satoyo; Irie, Shoichi; Tsujii, Toshinori; Furukawa, Takahisa

    2015-01-01

    Primary cilia are sensory organelles that harbor various receptors such as G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). We analyzed subcellular localization of 138 non-odorant GPCRs. We transfected GPCR expression vectors into NIH3T3 cells, induced ciliogenesis by serum starvation, and observed subcellular localization of GPCRs by immunofluorescent staining. We found that several GPCRs whose ligands are involved in feeding behavior, including prolactin-releasing hormone receptor (PRLHR), neuropeptide FF receptor 1 (NPFFR1), and neuromedin U receptor 1 (NMUR1), localized to the primary cilia. In addition, we found that a short form of dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2S) is efficiently transported to the primary cilia, while a long form of dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2L) is rarely transported to the primary cilia. Using an anti-Prlhr antibody, we found that Prlhr localized to the cilia on the surface of the third ventricle in the vicinity of the hypothalamic periventricular nucleus. We generated the Npy2r-Cre transgenic mouse line in which Cre-recombinase is expressed under the control of the promoter of Npy2r encoding a ciliary GPCR. By mating Npy2r-Cre mice with Ift80 flox mice, we generated Ift80 conditional knockout (CKO) mice in which Npy2r-positive cilia were diminished in number. We found that Ift80 CKO mice exhibited a body weight increase. Our results suggest that Npy2r-positive cilia are important for body weight control. PMID:26053317

  7. The Development of Associations Among BMI, Body Dissatisfaction, and Weight and Shape Concern in Adolescent Boys and Girls

    PubMed Central

    Calzo, Jerel P.; Sonneville, Kendrin R.; Haines, Jess; Blood, Emily A.; Field, Alison E.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To examine how the associations among BMI and body dissatisfaction and weight and shape concern evolve from late childhood through late adolescence in boys and girls. Methods We analyze data from 9–18-year-olds from the Growing Up Today Study, a national prospective cohort of U.S. Youth (n= 16,882, yielding 59,750 repeated measures observations during five waves of data collection). Generalized additive models produced curves of association for body dissatisfaction and weight concern across BMI percentiles. Generalized estimating equations (adjusting for correlated within-subject repeated measures, sibling clusters, pubertal maturation, and region of residence) tested main and interactive effects of BMI, age, and gender. Results Girls above the 50th BMI percentile reported greater body dissatisfaction than girls below the 50th percentile. By contrast, boys who reported the most body dissatisfaction were either above the 75th BMI percentile (approaching overweight) or below the 10th percentile (approaching underweight). Body dissatisfaction increased with age for both girls and boys, but the gender-specific patterns of BMI effects remained constant. Male and female participants in the overweight/obese BMI range reported the greatest weight concern, but among older adolescents (particularly girls), healthy weight became increasingly associated with greater weight and shape concern. Conclusions Body dissatisfaction and weight and shape concern intensify across adolescence, but associations between the constructs and BMI remain gender-specific. Findings have important implications for eating disorder risk assessment and prevention. PMID:23084175

  8. Efficacy of Garcinia Cambogia on Body Weight, Inflammation and Glucose Tolerance in High Fat Fed Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sripradha, Ramalingam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Obesity leads to derangements in lipid and glucose homeostasis resulting in various metabolic complications. Plants containing vital phytochemicals are known to posses anti obesity properties and have proved to exert beneficial effects in obesity. Objectives: The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of Garcinia Cambogia on body weight, glucose tolerance and inflammation in high fat diet fed male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Five month old male wistar rats (n=40) were divided into four groups. Two groups were fed with standard rodent diet and the remaining two with 30% high fat diet. One group in each of the two sets received the crude ethanolic extract of Garcinia Cambogia at a dose of 400mg/kg body weight/day for ten weeks. Body weight, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, leptin, tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and renal function (urea, creatinine, uric acid) were studied. Results: High fat diet fed rats showed increased body weight gain, glucose intolerance, elevated levels of plasma leptin and TNF-?. Supplementation of Garcinia Cambogia extract (GE) along with high fat diet significantly decreased body weight gain, glucose intolerance, plasma leptin and TNF-? level. No significant changes were observed in the renal function parameters in any of the groups. Conclusion: Supplementation of the Garcinia Cambogia extract with high fat diet reduced body weight gain, inflammation and glucose intolerance. PMID:25859449

  9. Response of food intake and body weight to estradiol in old female rats.

    PubMed

    Peng, M T; Chiang, H L; Lee, L R

    1986-01-01

    Changes in food intake and body weight were studied in old ovariectomized prolonged vaginal cornification female rats (27.6 +/- 3.3 (SD) months of age) implanted subcutaneously with 100%, 50% and 33% estradiol benzoate (E2)-cholestrol mixture-filled silastic capsules and were compared with similarly treated young ovariectomized female rats (4.7 +/- 0.8 months of age). Serum E2 concentration was higher in old rats than young rats in the 100% E2-filled capsule implanted group. In this group, food intake suppression by E2 was larger in old rats than in young rats. However, no age-related difference was observed, when food intake decrease was adjusted for serum E2 level by analysis of covariance. Therefore a high food intake suppression in old rats than in young rats is caused by high serum E2 concentration in old rats. Suppression of body weight increase did not show any age-related difference when adjusted for serum E2 level either. PMID:3757614

  10. Medical officers, bodies, gender and weight fluctuation in irish convict prisons, 1877-95.

    PubMed

    Breathnach, Ciara

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the function of the convict prison infirmary and views it as a site of arbitration, resistance and 'contested power'. In accordance with the rules and regulations periods of incarceration in convict prisons began and ended with an obligatory medical examination. While the primary function of the initial test was to measure the convict body in order ascertain physical ability to conduct hard labour it also provided a thorough bio-metrical description for future identification purposes. The final examination was not as comprehensively undertaken but also concerned itself with anthropometrical observations. It would be reasonable to assume that the balance of power was weighted in the authority's favour but this research has found evidence to the contrary. For instance, that there was a fair degree of physiological knowledge within the convict population and that some convicts used the infirmary for dietary gains and reprieve from hard labour. Using body mass index (BMI) as an instrument to measure physical wellbeing this article views the doctor-convict interface as a crucial component of the penal experience. It analyses 251 convict medical records to show that the balance of diet and work led to what might be considered a counterintuitive outcome - a preponderance of weight gain, particularly for males in Irish prisons. PMID:24331215

  11. Genetic basis of response to 50 generations of selection on body weight in inbred mice.

    PubMed

    Keightley, P D

    1998-04-01

    A long-established inbred strain of mice was divergently selected for body weight for 50 generations. Selection of new mutations affecting the trait eventually led to a divergence of approximately three phenotypic standard deviations between the high and low lines. Heritability for body weight increased at a rate between 0.23% and 0.57% per generation from new mutations, depending on the genetic model assumed. About two-thirds of the selection response was in the upward direction. The response was episodic, suggesting a substantial contribution from the selection of mutations with large effects on the trait. A maximum likelihood procedure was used to estimate the number of factors contributing to the response using data from line crosses, with models of n equivalent gene effects (i.e., to estimate the Wright-Castle index), or n genes with variable effects. The results of the analysis of data from a cross between the selected high line and an unselected control line indicated that two major factors were involved, with the suggestion of an additional minor factor. PMID:9560406

  12. CALHM1 Deletion in Mice Affects Glossopharyngeal Taste Responses, Food Intake, Body Weight, and Life Span.

    PubMed

    Hellekant, Göran; Schmolling, Jared; Marambaud, Philippe; Rose-Hellekant, Teresa A

    2015-07-01

    Stimulation of Type II taste receptor cells (TRCs) with T1R taste receptors causes sweet or umami taste, whereas T2Rs elicit bitter taste. Type II TRCs contain the calcium channel, calcium homeostasis modulator protein 1 (CALHM1), which releases adenosine triphosphate (ATP) transmitter to taste fibers. We have previously demonstrated with chorda tympani nerve recordings and two-bottle preference (TBP) tests that mice with genetically deleted Calhm1 (knockout [KO]) have severely impaired perception of sweet, bitter, and umami compounds, whereas their sour and salty tasting ability is unaltered. Here, we present data from KO mice of effects on glossopharyngeal (NG) nerve responses, TBP, food intake, body weight, and life span. KO mice have no NG response to sweet and a suppressed response to bitter compared with control (wild-type [WT]) mice. KO mice showed some NG response to umami, suggesting that umami taste involves both CALHM1- and non-CALHM1-modulated signals. NG responses to sour and salty were not significantly different between KO and WT mice. Behavioral data conformed in general with the NG data. Adult KO mice consumed less food, weighed significantly less, and lived almost a year longer than WT mice. Taken together, these data demonstrate that sweet taste majorly influences food intake, body weight, and life span. PMID:25855639

  13. Study of relationship between volume of distribution and body weight application to amikacin.

    PubMed

    Rughoo, L; Bourguignon, L; Maire, P; Ducher, M

    2014-06-01

    Amikacin use is difficult because of its narrow therapeutic and its pharmacokinetic variability. This variability of amikacin is not well known. To adapt amikacin the physician assumes that there is a linear and continuous relation between the volume of distribution and the body weight. The objective of our study was to evaluate the relationship between the volume of distribution (Vd) and the body weight (BW) using a non parametric statistical analysis of dependence so called Z method. Retrospective pharmacokinetic population study and statistic analysis. 872 patients receiving intravenous amikacin. The volume of distribution was modelled using the Non Parametric Adaptive Grid algorithm (NPAG) for a two-compartment model with intravenous infusion. Z coefficient was performed to evaluate the relationships between Vd and BW. For the 872 patients (mean age of 73 ± 17 years) dispatched as follow 53 % female and 47 % male, the analysis of the statistical relationships by the non parametric Z analysis showed a scattered linkage between Vd and BW. For the whole population, the relationship between Vd and BW was not linear (regression analysis). Z analysis demonstrated that only for 80 % of patients there is a relationship between Vd and BW. For these patients, regression analysis give a significant adjustment of a linear model (r = 0.47, p < 0.001). In the whole studied population there is not a continuous and linear relationship between Vd estimated by NPAG and the BW. These results underline the difficulties to adapt doses of amikacin with only BW information. PMID:24599705

  14. Home Range and Body Weight--A Reevaluation Author(s): A. S. Harestad and F. L. Bunnel

    E-print Network

    Hansen, Andrew J.

    of utilizable energy per unit area of habitat with increasing body weight. While trophic status and weight concerning potential differences between trophic groups and whether they differ from 0.75 (the value expected are in the direction suggested for birds and mammals. Criticisms regarding inter-class and inter-trophic comparisons

  15. INFLUENCE OF THE STATE OF HYDRATION OF THE BODY ON THE INSENSIBLE LOSS OF WEIGHT IN CHILDREN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. MANCHESTER

    IN THE course of investigations on the total mineral and water ex changes in epileptic children on various regimens, it was observed that the insensible loss of body weight varied to a considerable degree with dif ferent levels of water intake and with diets which were isocaloric but of different composition. The insensible weight loss consists almost entirely of water

  16. Is Frequent Self-Weighing Associated with Poorer Body Satisfaction? Findings from a Phone-Based Weight Loss Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Ericka M.; Sherwood, Nancy E.; VanWormer, Jeffrey J.; Hotop, Anne Marie; Jeffery, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of self-weighing frequency on weight change and body satisfaction. Design: Observational study based on findings from a 6-month randomized controlled telephone-based weight loss trial. Data collected at baseline and 6 months. Setting: Metropolitan community-based sample. Participants: Sixty-three obese adults. Mean…

  17. Genetic and phenotypic parameter estimates for body weights and egg production in Horro chicken of Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    vander Waaij, E. H.; van Arendonk, Johan A. M.

    2010-01-01

    A breeding program has been established in 2008 to improve productivity of Horro chicken, an indigenous population in the western highlands of Ethiopia. The pedigree descended from 26 sires and 260 dams. Body weights were measured every 2 weeks from hatch to 8 weeks then every 4 weeks for the next 8 weeks. Egg production was recorded to 44 weeks of age for one generation. Genetic parameters were estimated using animal model fitted with common environmental effects for growth traits and ignoring common environment for egg production traits. Direct heritabilities ranged from low (0.15?±?0.08), for body weight at 6 weeks, to moderate (0.40?±?0.23), for hatch weight. Heritabilities of common environmental effects on growth were high at hatch (0.39?±?0.10) and remained low afterwards. Age at first egg showed a very low heritability (0.06?±?0.15). Heritabilities of egg numbers in the first, second, third, and fourth months of laying were 0.32 (±0.13), 0.20 (±0.16), 0.56 (±0.15), and 0.25 (±0.14), respectively. Heritabilities of cumulative of monthly records of egg numbers were from 0.24?±?0.16 (for the first 2 months, EP12) to 0.35?±?0.16 (over the 6 months, EP16). Body weight at 16 weeks of age (BW16) has a strong genetic correlation with the cumulative of monthly records: 0.92 (with EP12), 0.69 (with EP36), and 0.73 (with EP16). Besides their strong association, BW16 and EP16 showed higher heritability, relative to their respective trait categories. These two traits seemed to have common genes and utilizing them as selection traits would be expected to improve both egg production and growth performance of local chicken. However, the standard errors of estimates in this study were mostly high indicating that the estimates have low precision. Parameter estimations based on more data are needed before applying the current results in breeding programs. PMID:20625931

  18. Catechin- and caffeine-rich teas for control of body weight in humans.

    PubMed

    Hursel, Rick; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2013-12-01

    Maintaining the level of daily energy expenditure during weight loss and weight maintenance is as important as maintaining satiety while decreasing energy intake. In this context, different catechin- and caffeine-rich teas (CCRTs), such as green, oolong, and white teas, as well as caffeine have been proposed as tools for maintaining or enhancing energy expenditure and for increasing fat oxidation. Tea polyphenols have been proposed to counteract the decrease in metabolic rate that is usually present during weight loss. Their effects may be of particular importance during weight maintenance after weight loss. Although the thermogenic effect of CCRT has the potential to produce significant effects on these metabolic targets as well as on fat absorption and energy intake, possibly via its impact on the gut microbiota and gene expression, a clinically meaningful outcome also depends on compliance by the subjects. Limitations to this approach require further examination, including moderating factors such as genetic predisposition, habitual caffeine intake, and catechin composition and dose. Nevertheless, CCRTs may be useful agents that could help in preventing a positive energy balance and obesity. PMID:24172301

  19. Effect of an herbal extract Number Ten (NT) on body weight in rats

    PubMed Central

    York, David A; Thomas, Sonyja; Greenway, Frank L; Liu, Zhijun; Rood, Jennifer C

    2007-01-01

    Background Chinese herbal extract Number Ten (NT) is a dietary herbal formulation prepared from rhubarb, ginger, astragalus, red sage and tumeric. This study tested the effectiveness of NT in reducing body weight gain in rats. Methods Sixty female Wistar rats were fed a high fat diet and acclimated to gavage feeding. The rats were divided into five treatment groups: (1) Control (n = 15); (2) NT-H (n = 15), 1.5 g/day; (3) NT-L (n = 10), 0.75 g/day; (4) Pr-fed (n = 10), pair fed to NT-H; (5) d-FF (n = 10), d-fenfluramine 2 mg/kg. Ten rats per group were sacrificed on day 56. Weight, food intake, clinical chemistry and body composition were evaluated. Five animals in the control and 1.5 g/day NT groups were left untreated during a two week recovery period. Results The 0.75 g/day NT, 1.5 g/day NT, d-fenfluramine and pair fed groups gained 24.6%, 33.3%, 12.3% and 33.3% less than the control respectively (P < 0.0006). Leptin decreased 27.5% to 46.2% in the treatment groups vs. control (P < 0.009). Parametrial fat decreased 14.1% to 55.5% in the NT and pair fed groups vs. control (P < 0.006). The NT groups had soft stools, loss of hair around the mouth and coloration to the urine and stool without evidence of blood or bilirubin (attributed to chromogens in NT). There were no differences between groups in the clinical chemistry. Conclusion This study demonstrated the efficacy of NT in reducing weight gain in rodents. PMID:17868447

  20. Nutrition and lifestyle in relation to bone health and body weight in Croatian postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ilich, Jasminka Z; Cvijetic, Selma; Baric, Irena Colic; Cecic, Ivana; Saric, Marija; Crncevic-Orlic, Zeljka; Blanusa, Maja; Korsic, Mirko

    2009-06-01

    The objective was to investigate the association of nutrients and lifestyle modifiers with bone mineral density (BMD) and weight and/or body mass index (BMI) in 120 healthy Croatian postmenopausal women. The hip and spine BMD was assessed by Lunar Prodigy (GE Medical Systems). Nutrient assessment from 3-day records was analyzed using the US Department of Agriculture Food Composition Tables and the Croatian National Institute of Public Health database. Subjects were asked to record the consumption of alcohol, coffee, tea and mineral waters, the amount of salt added to foods and smoking habits, as well as involvement in recreational activities, walking and heavy housework. Spot urine samples were analyzed for calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and zinc and were normalized by creatinine. Alcohol showed statistically significant positive association with femur and spine BMD and its consumption was higher in subjects without osteoporosis. Urinary sodium/creatinine was significantly positively associated with femoral neck and trochanter BMD, while urinary calcium/creatinine was significantly negatively associated with trochanter, total femur and spine BMD. Consumption of mineral waters was inversely associated with weight/BMI and so were dietary fiber and magnesium. In conclusion, moderate alcohol consumption and urinary sodium were positively associated while urinary calcium was negatively associated with either hip and/or spine BMD. Mineral waters, higher fiber and magnesium intake were beneficial for weight/BMI in this population of apparently healthy Croatian women. PMID:18651293

  1. Effect of extremes of body weight on the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, safety and tolerability of apixaban in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Upreti, Vijay V; Wang, Jessie; Barrett, Yu Chen; Byon, Wonkyung; Boyd, Rebecca A; Pursley, Janice; LaCreta, Frank P; Frost, Charles E

    2013-01-01

    Aim Apixaban is an oral, direct, factor-Xa inhibitor approved for thromboprophylaxis in patients who have undergone elective hip or knee replacement surgery and for prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. This open label, parallel group study investigated effects of extremes of body weight on apixaban pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, safety and tolerability. Method Fifty-four healthy subjects were enrolled [18 each into low (?50 kg), reference (65–85 kg) and high (?120 kg) body weight groups]. Following administration of a single oral dose of 10 mg apixaban, plasma and urine samples were collected for determination of apixaban pharmacokinetics and anti-factor Xa activity. Adverse events, vital signs and laboratory assessments were monitored. Results Compared with the reference body weight group, low body weight had approximately 27% [90% confidence interval (CI): 8–51%] and 20% (90% CI: 11–42%) higher apixaban maximum observed plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the concentration–time curve extrapolated to infinity (AUC(0,?)), respectively, and high body weight had approximately 31% (90% CI: 18–41%) and 23% (90% CI: 9–35%) lower apixaban Cmax and AUC(0,?), respectively. Apixaban renal clearance was similar across the weight groups. Plasma anti-factor Xa activity showed a direct, linear relationship with apixaban plasma concentration, regardless of body weight group. Apixaban was well tolerated in this study. Conclusion The modest change in apixaban exposure is unlikely to require dose adjustment for apixaban based on body weight alone. However, caution is warranted in the presence of additional factors (such as severe renal impairment) that could increase apixaban exposure. PMID:23488672

  2. Influence of Serum Leptin on Weight and Body Fat Growth in Children at High Risk for Adult Obesity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abby F. Fleisch; Neha Agarwal; Mary D. Roberts; Joan C. Han; Kelly R. Theim; Albert Vexler; James Troendle; Susan Z. Yanovski; Jack A. Yanovski

    Objective: Our objective was to examine serum leptin prospectively as a predictor of weight and body fat growth in children at high risk for adult obesity. We hypothesized that leptin measurements would be positively associated with increased growth of adipose tissue be- cause children with high baseline leptin for their body fat mass have greater leptin resistance and thus would

  3. Effects of underfeeding Awassi ewes in late pregnancy and early lactation on body weight changes and milk production

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effects of underfeeding Awassi ewes in late pregnancy and early lactation on body weight changes of the year, and lambing is spread throughout the winter. Late pregnancy and early lactation occur when. It is difficult to feed according to requirements during pregnancy, and sheep often have to mobilize body reserves

  4. Effects of genetic strain on stress-induced weight and body fat loss in rats: Application to air pollution research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to some air pollutants is suspected of contributing to obesity. Hazelton chambers are commonly used in air pollution studies but we found unexpected reductions in body weight and body fat of rats housed in Hazelton chambers under control conditions. We suspect that stres...

  5. Ginseng berry reduces blood glucose and body weight in db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Xie, J T; Zhou, Y P; Dey, L; Attele, A S; Wu, J A; Gu, M; Polonsky, K S; Yuan, C S

    2002-04-01

    In this study, we observed anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effects of Panax ginseng berry in adult C57BL/Ks db/db mice and their lean littermates. Animals received daily intraperitoneal injections of Panax ginseng berry extract at 150 mg/kg body wt. for 12 consecutive days. On Day 5, the extract-treated db/db mice had significantly lower fasting blood glucose levels as compared to vehicle-treated mice (180.5+/-10.2 mg/dl vs. 226.0+/-15.3 mg/dl, P < 0.01). On day 12, the extract-treated db/db mice were normoglycemic (134.3+/-7.3 mg/dl) as compared to vehicle-treated mice (254.8+/-24.1 mg/dl; P < 0.01). Fasting blood glucose levels of lean mice did not decrease significantly after treatment with extract. After 12 days of treatment with the extract, glucose tolerance increased significantly, and overall blood glucose exposure calculated as area under the curve (AUC) decreased 53.4% (P < 0.01) in db/db mice. Furthermore, db/db mice treated with extract (150 mg/kg body wt.) showed weight loss from 51.0+/-1.9 g on Day 0, to 46.6+/-1.7 g on Day 5, and to 45.2+/-1.4 g on Day 12 (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 compared to Day 0, respectively). The body weight of lean littermates also decreased at the same dose of extract. These data suggest that Panax ginseng berry extract may have therapeutic value in treating diabetic and obese patients. PMID:12046868

  6. Aerodynamic heating on 3-D bodies including the effects of entropy-layer swallowing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejarnette, F. R.; Hamilton, H. H.

    1974-01-01

    A relatively simple method was developed previously (authors, 1973) for calculating laminar, transitional, and turbulent heating rates on three-dimensional bodies in hypersonic flows. This method was shown to yield reasonably accurate results for laminar heating on blunted circular and elliptical cones and an earlier version of the space shuttle vehicle. As the boundary layer along the surface grows, more and more of the inviscid-flow mass is entrained into the boundary layer, and the streamlines which passed through the nearly normal portion of the bow shock wave are 'swallowed' by the boundary layer. This phenomenon is often referred to as entropy-layer or streamline swallowing, and it can have a significant effect on the calculated heating rates. An approximate, yet simple, method for including the effects of entropy-layer swallowing in the heating-rate calculations is given.

  7. Effects of meal frequency on weight loss and body composition: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Jon Schoenfeld, Brad; Albert Aragon, Alan; Krieger, James W

    2015-02-01

    It has been hypothesized that eating small, frequent meals enhances fat loss and helps to achieve better weight maintenance. Several observational studies lend support to this hypothesis, with an inverse relationship noted between the frequency of eating and adiposity. The purpose of this narrative review is to present and discuss a meta-analysis with regression that evaluated experimental research on meal frequency with respect to changes in fat mass and lean mass. A total of 15 studies were identified that investigated meal frequency in accordance with the criteria outlined. Feeding frequency was positively associated with reductions in fat mass and body fat percentage as well as an increase in fat-free mass. However, sensitivity analysis of the data showed that the positive findings were the product of a single study, casting doubt as to whether more frequent meals confer beneficial effects on body composition. In conclusion, although the initial results of this meta-analysis suggest a potential benefit of increased feeding frequencies for enhancing body composition, these findings need to be interpreted with circumspection. PMID:26024494

  8. Manipulating central nervous mechanisms of food intake and body weight regulation by intranasal administration of neuropeptides in man

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manfred Hallschmid; Christian Benedict; Jan Born; Horst-Lorenz Fehm; Werner Kern

    2004-01-01

    Maintaining a stable body weight set-point is assumed to rely on a homeostatic central nervous system (CNS) regulation of body fat with the particular involvement of hypothalamic pathways. The peripheral adiposity signals insulin and leptin convey information on the amount of energy stored as body fat to the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, where anabolic\\/orexigenic and catabolic\\/anorexigenic pathways interact to

  9. Improved Glucose Control and Reduced Body Weight in Rodents with Dual Mechanism of Action Peptide Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Trevaskis, James L.; Mack, Christine M.; Sun, Chengzao; Soares, Christopher J.; D’Souza, Lawrence J.; Levy, Odile E.; Lewis, Diane Y.; Jodka, Carolyn M.; Tatarkiewicz, Krystyna; Gedulin, Bronislava; Gupta, Swati; Wittmer, Carrie; Hanley, Michael; Forood, Bruce; Parkes, David G.; Ghosh, Soumitra S.

    2013-01-01

    Combination therapy is being increasingly used as a treatment paradigm for metabolic diseases such as diabetes and obesity. In the peptide therapeutics realm, recent work has highlighted the therapeutic potential of chimeric peptides that act on two distinct receptors, thereby harnessing parallel complementary mechanisms to induce additive or synergistic benefit compared to monotherapy. Here, we extend this hypothesis by linking a known anti-diabetic peptide with an anti-obesity peptide into a novel peptide hybrid, which we termed a phybrid. We report on the synthesis and biological activity of two such phybrids (AC164204 and AC164209), comprised of a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP1-R) agonist, and exenatide analog, AC3082, covalently linked to a second generation amylin analog, davalintide. Both molecules acted as full agonists at their cognate receptors in vitro, albeit with reduced potency at the calcitonin receptor indicating slightly perturbed amylin agonism. In obese diabetic Lepob/Lepob mice sustained infusion of AC164204 and AC164209 reduced glucose and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) equivalently but induced greater weight loss relative to exenatide administration alone. Weight loss was similar to that induced by combined administration of exenatide and davalintide. In diet-induced obese rats, both phybrids dose-dependently reduced food intake and body weight to a greater extent than exenatide or davalintide alone, and equal to co-infusion of exenatide and davalintide. Phybrid-mediated and exenatide + davalintide-mediated weight loss was associated with reduced adiposity and preservation of lean mass. These data are the first to provide in vivo proof-of-concept for multi-pathway targeting in metabolic disease via a peptide hybrid, demonstrating that this approach is as effective as co-administration of individual peptides. PMID:24167604

  10. Weight Loss and Reduced Body Temperature Determine Humane Endpoints in a Mouse Model of Ocular Herpesvirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hankenson, F Claire; Ruskoski, Nicholas; van Saun, Marjorie; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Oh, Jaewook; Fraser, Nigel W

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) has been studied in well-established mouse models to generate latently infected animals for investigations into viral pathogenesis, latency mechanisms, and reactivation. Mice exhibit clinical signs of debilitating infection, during which time they may become severely ill before recovery or die spontaneously. Because the cohort of mice that does survive provides valuable data on latency, there is keen interest in developing methodologies for earlier detection and treatment of severe disease to ultimately increase survival rates. Here, BALB/c mice were inoculated ocularly with either a wildtype (LAT+) or mutant (LAT–) strain of HSV1. Mice were monitored daily through day 30 after infection; trigeminal ganglia were harvested at day 60 to assess viral DNA load. Cages were provided with nesting material, and fluid supplementation was administered to mice with body temperatures of 35 °C or lower, as measured by subcutaneous microchip thermometry. The results showed that infected mice with temperatures less than 34.5 °C did not recover to normothermia and were euthanized or spontaneously died, regardless of infective viral strain. By using a combination of criteria including body temperature (less than 34.5 °C) and weight loss (more than 0.05 g daily) for removal of animals from the study, approximately 98% of mice that died spontaneously could have been euthanized prior to death, without concern of potential recovery to the experimental endpoint (100% specificity). Frequent monitoring of alterations to general wellbeing, body temperature, and weight was crucial for establishing humane endpoints in this ocular HSV model. PMID:23849410

  11. Intra-individual comparison of PET/CT with different body weight-adapted FDG dosage regimens

    PubMed Central

    Geismar, Jan H; Sah, Bert-Ram; Burger, Irene A; Seifert, Burkhardt; Delso, Gaspar; von Schulthess, Gustav K; Veit-Haibach, Patrick; Husmann, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Background 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/ computed tomography (CT) imaging demands guidelines to safeguard sufficient image quality at low radiation exposure. Various FDG dose regimes have been investigated; however, body weight-adapted dose regimens and related image quality (IQ) have not yet been compared in the same patient. Purpose To investigate the relationship between FDG dosage and image quality in PET/CT in the same patient and determine prerequisites for low dosage scanning. Material and Methods This study included 61 patients undergoing a clinically indicated PET/CT imaging study and follow-up with a normal (NDS, 5 MBq/kg body weight [BW]) and low dosage scanning protocol (LDS, 4 MBq/kg BW), respectively, using a Discovery VCT64 scanner. Two blinded and independent readers randomly assessed IQ of PET using a 5-point Likert scale and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the liver. Results Body mass index (BMI) was significantly lower at LDS (P?=?0.021) and represented a significant predictor of SNR at both NDS (P??22?kg/m2. Conclusion FDG dosage significantly predicts IQ and SNR in PET/CT imaging as demonstrated in the same patient with optimal IQ achieved at 5 MBq/kg BM. PET/CT imaging at 4 MBq/kg BW may only be recommended in patients with a BMI???22?kg/m2 to maintain diagnostic IQ. PMID:25793109

  12. [Birth weight and measurements of various body parts of stillborn calves of a large dairy cattle herd].

    PubMed

    Steinhardt, M; Bünger, U; Langanke, M; Fiebig, U; Gollnast, I

    1992-11-01

    Stillborn calves (80 animals) originating from one dairy herd were used for studies on allometric measures in newborn calves. In the first approach some factors were neglected and only the effect of the calves' sex was considered. Differences in mean birthweight between male and female calves were reflected in organ and other body constituent weights too, but with different relations between them. Enlarged thyroid glands could be observed in both sexes but more often in female calves meaning that there is no correlation between thyroid size and body weight. Strong correlations of bones, muscles and outer body measures and looser ones of internal organs (thymus, liver, lung, kidneys, spleen) and endocrine glands (adrenal glands) with body weight were found especially in male calves. In some calves the sometimes enlarged liver looked like a fatty liver with its pale yellowish appearance and crumbly consistency. PMID:1459035

  13. [Effect of a low-energy diet on body weight and dietary intake in women after one year treatment].

    PubMed

    Nowak, Agnieszka; Pachocka, Lucyna; Targosz, Urszula; K?osiewicz-Latoszek, Longina

    2008-01-01

    Low-energy diet is highly recommended for obesity treatment. However, after success at the beginning some in some patients weight gain occurs. This study was aimed to evaluate changes in body weight and dietary intake in overweight and obese women during 1 year of a balanced low-energy diet. The study group comprised 70 women, aged 47.3, BMI 37.5 kg/m2. The balanced 1000 kcal diet was recommended. Body weight measurement, body composition assessment by BIA and dietary assessment were performed at entry and every 2 months of the study. Women were divided in 2 groups: I--women with body weight reduction achieved after 6 and 12 months of treatment (n=38), II--women who lost weight in first 6 months and gained weight in the next 6 months (n=32). After 1 year treatment averaged body weight reduction in women was 11.9+/-8.6%. In women from group I body weight decrement was 16.4+/-11.2 kg (15+/-9%), and in women from group II 7.5+/-7.7 kg, (8.1+/-6.7%), respectively. Body fat mass decrease in group I after 6 and 12 months was 7.8+/-6.0 kg and 11.1+/-7.9 kg, in group II 6.4+/-5.3 kg and 5.2+/-5.5 kg, respectively. Women from group II consume more energy, carbohydrates and sucrose in months 6-12 than in first 6 months and more than women in group I (p<0.05). During 1 year in group I calcium intake and Ca/protein index increased statistically significant, and in group II decreased. Changes in energy and nutrients intake do not correlate with achieved results. After 1 year of a low-energy diet statistically significant reduction of body weight and body fat mass were stated. Increase in energy, carbohydrates, sucrose intake and decrease in calcium intake could contribute to weight gain in studied women. PMID:18724545

  14. Maternal low-dose estradiol-17? exposure during pregnancy impairs postnatal progeny weight development and body composition

    SciTech Connect

    Werner Fürst, Rainer [Physiology Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany) [Physiology Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); ZIEL PhD Graduate school ‘Epigenetics, Imprinting and Nutrition’, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Pistek, Veronika Leopoldine; Kliem, Heike [Physiology Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany)] [Physiology Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Skurk, Thomas; Hauner, Hans [ZIEL Dep. Nutritional Medicine, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany) [ZIEL Dep. Nutritional Medicine, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, 81675 München (Germany); Meyer, Heinrich Herman Dietrich [Physiology Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany)] [Physiology Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Ulbrich, Susanne Ernestine, E-mail: ulbrich@wzw.tum.de [Physiology Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals with estrogenic activity play an important role as obesogens. However, studies investigating the most potent natural estrogen, estradiol-17? (E2), at low dose are lacking. We examined endocrine and physiological parameters in gilts receiving distinct concentrations of E2 during pregnancy. We then investigated whether adverse effects prevail in progeny due to a potential endocrine disruption. E2 was orally applied to gilts during the entire period of pregnancy. The concentrations represented a daily consumption at the recommended ADI level (0.05 ?g/kg body weight/day), at the NOEL (10 ?g/kg body weight/day) and at a high dosage (1000 ?g/kg body weight/day). Plasma hormone concentrations were determined using enzyme immuno assays. Offspring body fat was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning. In treated gilts receiving 1000 ?g E2/kg body weight/day we found significantly elevated plasma E2 levels during pregnancy, paralleled by an increased weight gain. While offspring showed similar weight at birth, piglets exhibited a significant reduction in weight at weaning even though their mothers had only received 0.05 ?g E2/kg body weight/day. At 8 weeks of age, specifically males showed a significant increase in overall body fat percentage. In conclusion, prenatal exposure to low doses of E2 affected pig offspring development in terms of body weight and composition. In line with findings from other obesogens, our data suggest a programming effect during pregnancy for E2 causative for the depicted phenotypes. Therefore, E2 exposure may imply a possible contribution to childhood obesity. -- Highlights: ? We investigate the potential role of estradiol-17? (E2) as an obesogen. ? We orally apply E2 at the ADI, NOEL and a high dose to gilts during pregnancy. ? Offspring weight is similar at birth but reduced at weaning even after ADI treatment. ? Male offspring only exhibit an increase in overall body fat percentage prepubertally. ? E2 appears as an endocrine disruptor that might contribute to childhood obesity.

  15. Prolificacy and Its Relationship with Age, Body Weight, Parity, Previous Litter Size and Body Linear Type Traits in Meat-type Goats.

    PubMed

    Haldar, Avijit; Pal, Prasenjit; Datta, M; Paul, Rajesh; Pal, Saumen K; Majumdar, Debasis; Biswas, Chanchal K; Pan, Subhransu

    2014-05-01

    Data on age and body weight at breeding, parity, previous litter size, days open and some descriptive body linear traits from 389 meat-type, prolific Black Bengal goats in Tripura State of India, were collected for 3 and 1/2 years (2007 to 2010) and analyzed using logistic regression model. The objectives of the study were i) to evaluate the effect of age and body weight at breeding, parity, previous litter size and days open on litter size of does; and ii) to investigate if body linear type traits influenced litter size in meat-type, prolific goats. The incidence of 68.39% multiple births with a prolificacy rate of 175.07% was recorded. Higher age (>2.69 year), higher parity order (>2.31), more body weight at breeding (>20.5 kg) and larger previous litter size (>1.65) showed an increase likelihood of multiple litter size when compared to single litter size. There was a strong, positive relationship between litter size and various body linear type traits like neck length (>22.78 cm), body length (>54.86 cm), withers height (>48.85 cm), croup height (>50.67 cm), distance between tuber coxae bones (>11.38 cm) and distance between tuber ischii bones (>4.56 cm) for discriminating the goats bearing multiple fetuses from those bearing a single fetus. PMID:25049997

  16. Prolificacy and Its Relationship with Age, Body Weight, Parity, Previous Litter Size and Body Linear Type Traits in Meat-type Goats

    PubMed Central

    Haldar, Avijit; Pal, Prasenjit; Datta, M.; Paul, Rajesh; Pal, Saumen K.; Majumdar, Debasis; Biswas, Chanchal K.; Pan, Subhransu

    2014-01-01

    Data on age and body weight at breeding, parity, previous litter size, days open and some descriptive body linear traits from 389 meat-type, prolific Black Bengal goats in Tripura State of India, were collected for 3 and 1/2 years (2007 to 2010) and analyzed using logistic regression model. The objectives of the study were i) to evaluate the effect of age and body weight at breeding, parity, previous litter size and days open on litter size of does; and ii) to investigate if body linear type traits influenced litter size in meat-type, prolific goats. The incidence of 68.39% multiple births with a prolificacy rate of 175.07% was recorded. Higher age (>2.69 year), higher parity order (>2.31), more body weight at breeding (>20.5 kg) and larger previous litter size (>1.65) showed an increase likelihood of multiple litter size when compared to single litter size. There was a strong, positive relationship between litter size and various body linear type traits like neck length (>22.78 cm), body length (>54.86 cm), withers height (>48.85 cm), croup height (>50.67 cm), distance between tuber coxae bones (>11.38 cm) and distance between tuber ischii bones (>4.56 cm) for discriminating the goats bearing multiple fetuses from those bearing a single fetus. PMID:25049997

  17. Adiposity and growth: relationship of stature at fourteen years with relative body weight at different ages and several measures of adiposity and body bulk.

    PubMed

    Amador, M; Bacallao, J; Hermelo, M

    1992-03-01

    A non-probabilistic sample of 354 healthy adolescents (182 boys and 172 girls) with ages ranging from 13.6 to 14.5 years was studied. Measurements of mid-arm muscle, thigh and leg circumferences, triceps and subscapular skinfolds, and records of body weight and height at one, four, six and twelve years of age were available. The sexual maturation stage of all subjects was also determined. Height at fourteen years was found to be significantly associated with relative body weight at different ages in both sexes, and particularly with the relative weight at twelve months. Height is more strongly related with indicators of lean body mass than with indicators of adiposity, especially in boys. The stage of sexual development is also an important determinant of stature at fourteen years of age. The results seem to support the hypothesis that the same factors which increase fat deposition, contribute to increase lean tissues and linear growth. PMID:1559526

  18. Supplementation of cottonseed, linseed, and noug seed cakes on feed intake, digestibility, body weight, and carcass parameters of Sidama goats.

    PubMed

    Alemu, Wondwosen; Melaku, Solomon; Tolera, Adugna

    2010-04-01

    A digestibility, feed intake, and carcass evaluation experiment using 20 yearling intact male Sidama goats weighing 16.4 +/- 0.63 kg (mean +/- SD) was conducted in Ethiopia with the objectives to determine feed intake, digestibility, body weight (BW) gain, and carcass parameters. The treatments included feeding natural pasture hay (T1, control) and supplementation with cottonseed cake (284 g-T2), linseed cake (250 g-T3), and noug seed cake (296 g-T4) on dry matter (DM) basis to supply 85 g crude protein (CP) per head per day. Randomized complete block design for feed intake and BW parameters and complete randomized design for digestibility and carcass parameters were used. Hay DM intake was higher (P < 0.01) for T1 than for the other treatments. T3 promoted higher (P < 0.01) DM (29.3 g/kg W(0.75)/day) and CP (14.1 g/kg W(0.75)/day) intake than T4 (8.9 g/kg W(0.75)/day DM and 4.1 g/kg W(0.75)/day CP). T3 showed better (P < 0.05) organic matter and CP digestibility than T2. Goats in T3 had higher nitrogen intake (P < 0.01) and retention (P < 0.05) than those in T1. Goats in T2 and T3 showed higher (P < 0.05) daily BW gain and final BW than those in T4 and T1. Goats in T2 and T3 had higher (P < 0.05) slaughter weight, empty BW, hot carcass weight, rib-eye muscle area, and dressing percentage on slaughter weight basis than those in T1. The results showed that T2 and T3 had similar effect on CP intake, daily BW gain, and carcass parameters for growing Sidama goats fed natural pasture hay. PMID:19809885

  19. Vitamin E attenuates silver nanoparticle-induced effects on body weight and neurotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Yin, Nuoya; Yao, Xinglei; Zhou, Qunfang; Faiola, Francesco; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-03-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the most commonly used nanomaterials; however, it remains unclear whether AgNPs induce neurotoxicity. Here, we investigated the potential neurological effects of AgNPs and the neuroprotective effect of vitamin E (VE). We found that intranasal instillation of AgNPs in neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats caused significant body weight loss. Moreover, histological examinations revealed activation of neuroglial cells with concomitant destruction of the granular layer of the cerebellum. Furthermore, western blot analyses showed an increase in the levels of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a marker of astrocyte activation. These observations suggest that AgNPs have significant neurotoxic effects on the rat cerebellum. Strikingly, oral administration of VE counterbalanced the toxic effects triggered by AgNPs. Taken together, our findings suggest that nasal administration of AgNPs may produce neurotoxicity in rats, and that VE supplementation attenuates these effects. PMID:25661000

  20. Chronic restraint or variable stresses differently affect the behavior, corticosterone secretion and body weight in rats.

    PubMed

    Marin, Marcelo T; Cruz, Fabio C; Planeta, Cleopatra S

    2007-01-30

    Organisms are constantly subjected to stressful stimuli that affect numerous physiological processes and activate the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, increasing the release of glucocorticoids. Exposure to chronic stress is known to alter basic mechanisms of the stress response. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effect of two different stress paradigms (chronic restraint or variable stress) on behavioral and corticosterone release to a subsequent exposure to stressors. Considering that the HPA axis might respond differently when it is challenged with a novel or a familiar stressor we investigated the changes in the corticosterone levels following the exposure to two stressors: restraint (familiar stress) or forced novelty (novel stress). The changes in the behavioral response were evaluated by measuring the locomotor response to a novel environment. In addition, we examined changes in body, adrenals, and thymus weights in response to the chronic paradigms. Our results showed that exposure to chronic variable stress increased basal plasma corticosterone levels and that both, chronic restraint and variable stresses, promote higher corticosterone levels in response to a novel environment, but not to a challenge restraint stress, as compared to the control (non-stressed) group. Exposure to chronic restraint leads to increased novelty-induced locomotor activity. Furthermore, only the exposure to variable stress reduced body weights. In conclusion, the present results provide additional evidence on how chronic stress affects the organism physiology and point to the importance of the chronic paradigm and challenge stress on the behavioral and hormonal adaptations induced by chronic stress. PMID:17023009

  1. Selection for food conversion in broilers: Body composition of birds selected for increased body?weight gain, food consumption and food conversion ratio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. E. Pym; A. J. Solvyns

    1979-01-01

    1. Body composition was determined in 9?week?old chickens sampled from four lines selected either for increased body?weight gain (line W), for increased food consumption (line F), for decreased food conversion ratio (line E), or at random (line C), after three, four and five generations of selection.2. After five generations of selection the proportions of carcass water (678 g\\/kg) and protein

  2. Differences in the body composition and biochemistry in women grouped as normal-weight, overweight and obese according to body mass index and their relation with cardiometabolic risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aliye Ozenoglu; Serdal Ugurlu; Gunay Can; Cihat Sarkis; Yeltekin Demirel

    2010-01-01

    Morbidity of obesity-related diseases tends to increase due to a rise in the body mass index (BMI). We aimed to investigate\\u000a how the body composition and biochemical parameters change while BMI increases in adult women were categorized as so: as normal\\u000a weight, overweight and obese. Our objectives are to study the effects of those changes in the development of metabolic

  3. Body weight and nonfatal myocardial infarction in a case-control study from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Schargrodsky, H; Rozlosnik, J; Ciruzzi, M; Ruffa, R; Paterno, C; Ardariz, M; Caccavo, A; D'Avanzo, B; Negri, E; La Vecchia, C

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between overweight and obesity and the risk of acute nonfatal myocardial infarction was analyzed, using data from a case-control study from Buenos Aires, Argentina. The study included 1000 patients with acute myocardial infarction and 1000 controls, who had been admitted to the same hospitals in which the cases had been identified, for acute conditions unrelated to known or potential risk factors for coronary heart disease. Only 32% of the cases and 41% of the controls had a Quetelet's index (body mass index, BMI, kg m-2) under 25% of the cases and 51% of the controls were overweight (BMI 25 to 30), and 15% of the cases and 8% of the controls severely obese (BMI > 30). After allowance for age and sex, the relative risks (RR) were 1.4 (95% confidence interval, CI, 1.1 to 1.7) for subjects with a body mass index of 25 to 30 and 2.2 (95% CI 1.7 to 3.1) for those with a body mass index more than 30. When additional adjustment was made for hypertension, diabetes, smoking and a family history of coronary heart disease, the RR was 1.2 (95% CI 1.0 to 1.6) among subjects with a body mass index of 25 to 30 and 1.7 (95% CI 1.3 to 2.4) for those with a body mass index more than 30. The trend in risk was significant. In the stratified analysis, the RR in younger people (30-44 years) with a body mass index more than 30 was 4.7 (95% CI 2.0 to 10.8), and the association was less strong in middle and older age.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8048272

  4. Effect of chronic treatment with clomipramine on food intake, macronutrient selection and body weight gain in rats.

    PubMed

    Calegari, Leonardo; Gorenstein, Clarice; Gentil, Valentim; Planeta, Cleopatra Silva; Nunes-de-Souza, Ricardo Luiz

    2007-08-01

    Long-term treatment with clomipramine (CMI), a tricyclic antidepressant, induces food craving and body weight gain in patients. The present study investigated the effects of chronic treatment with CMI on total food intake, macronutrient selection, and body weight gain in rats. Male Wistar rats were maintained on a dietary self-selection regime with separate sources of protein, fat and carbohydrate. Animals received i.p. injections of CMI (0, 3, 10, 30 mg/kg) during 27 consecutive days. Food consumption and body weight were recorded daily and results were calculated as average of three consecutive days, namely during pre-treatment (3 d before pharmacological treatment), treatment (7th-9th; 16th-18th and 25th-27th days), and post-treatment (28th-33rd days). Results showed that CMI (30 mg/kg) significantly decreased energy intake during all treatment period, an effect that was related to a decrease in both carbohydrate-rich diet intake and body weight gain. At dose of 3 mg/kg CMI increased the total energy intake in the 16th-18th days, suggesting an apparent biphasic effect of chronic treatment with CMI on caloric intake. Chronic administration with CMI (27 d) did not alter protein-rich or fat-rich diet consumption. The main result of this study indicated that chronic treatment with CMI decreases rather than increase food consumption and body weight gain in rats exposed to a macronutrient self-selection procedure. PMID:17666817

  5. Association between change in body weight after midlife and risk of hip fracture—the Singapore Chinese Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Ang, L.-W.; Yuan, J.-M.; Koh, W.-P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The relationship between change in body weight and risk of fractures is inconsistent in epidemiologic studies. In this cohort of middle-aged to elderly Chinese in Singapore, compared to stable weight, weight loss ?10%over an average of 6 years is associated with nearly 40%increase in risk of hip fracture. Introduction Findings on the relationship between change in body weight and risk of hip fracture are inconsistent. In this study, we examined this association among middle-aged and elderly Chinese in Singapore. Methods We used prospective data from the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a population-based cohort of 63,257 Chinese men and women aged 45–74 years at recruitment in 1993–1998. Body weight and height were self-reported at recruitment and reassessed during follow-up interview in 1999–2004. Percent in weight change was computed based on the weight difference over an average of 6 years, and categorized as loss ?10 %, loss 5 to <10 %, loss or gain <5 % (stable weight), gain 5 to <10 %, and gain ?10 %. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model was applied with adjustment for risk factors for hip fracture and body mass index (BMI) reported at follow-up interview. Results About 12 % experienced weight loss ?10 %, and another 12% had weight gain ?10 %. After a mean follow-up of 9.0 years, we identified 775 incident hip fractures among 42,149 eligible participants. Compared to stable weight, weight loss ?10 % was associated with 39 % increased risk (hazard ratio 1.39; 95%confidence interval 1.14, 1.69). Such elevated risk with weight loss ?10%was observed in both genders and age groups at follow-up (?65 and >65 years) and in those with baseline BMI ?20 kg/m2. There was no significant association with weight gain. Conclusions Our findings provide evidence that substantial weight loss is an important risk factor for osteoporotic hip fractures among the middle-aged to elderly Chinese. PMID:25868509

  6. Fottea 9(1): 9399, 2009 93 Silica-scaled chrysophytes of Southern Bohemian water bodies, including

    E-print Network

    Novohradské Hory was founded in 2000. Investigated water bodies (so called "klauza", from Latin clausura) wereFottea 9(1): 93­99, 2009 93 Silica-scaled chrysophytes of Southern Bohemian water bodies, including, Mallomonas conspersa, M. retifera and M. kalinae were found. This study also represent only the third time

  7. Family dinner frequency, settings and sources, and body weight in US adults.

    PubMed

    Sobal, Jeffery; Hanson, Karla

    2014-07-01

    Contemporary families and food systems are both becoming more dynamic and complex, and current associations between adult family meals and body mass index (BMI) are not well understood. This investigation took a new approach by examining diverse settings and sources of food for family dinners in relationship to BMI in a cross-sectional nationally representative survey of 360 US adults age 18-85 living with family members. In this sample, 89% of adults ate family dinners at least 5 days per week and almost all ate family dinners cooked and eaten at home. About half of these adults also ate family dinners at restaurants, fast food places, or ate takeout food at home, and less common were family dinners at homes of relatives or friends. Family dinners eaten at fast food places, but not other settings or sources, were significantly associated with higher BMI. Overall, adult family dinners were commonplace, usually involved home cooking, and when at fast food places may be related with higher adult body weights. PMID:24681105

  8. Food preferences, body weight, and platelet-poor plasma serotonin and catecholamines.

    PubMed

    Blum, I; Nessiel, L; Graff, E; Harsat, A; Gabbay, U; Sulkes, J; Raz, O; Vered, Y

    1993-04-01

    The possible relationship between body weight, food preferences, and plasma neurotransmitters was investigated in 96 healthy volunteers. The volunteers were divided into groups according to sex, body mass index, and food preferences. In all groups fasting platelet-poor plasma (PPP) norepinephrine and serotonin (5-HT) were examined. PPP-5-HT was low in obese individuals (mean +/- SD: 51.7 +/- 34.6 nmol/L) in comparison with lean individuals (94.31 +/- 85.2 nmol/L; P < 0.01), in lean male carbohydrate cravers (22.7 +/- 16.4 nmol/L) in comparison with protein cravers (132.9 +/- 80.6 nmol/L; P < 0.005) and noncravers (64.7 +/- 51.7 nmol/L; P < 0.05), and in obese male carbohydrate cravers (34 +/- 22.7 nmol/L) in comparison with obese male protein cravers (98.8 +/- 28.4 nmol/L; P < 0.001). In conclusion, PPP-5-HT might be seen as a peripheral indicator of processes linked with food consumption and food preferences. PMID:8460602

  9. Whole body MRI: improved lesion detection and characterization with diffusion weighted techniques.

    PubMed

    Attariwala, Rajpaul; Picker, Wayne

    2013-08-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is an established functional imaging technique that interrogates the delicate balance of water movement at the cellular level. Technological advances enable this technique to be applied to whole-body MRI. Theory, b-value selection, common artifacts and target to background for optimized viewing will be reviewed for applications in the neck, chest, abdomen, and pelvis. Whole-body imaging with DWI allows novel applications of MRI to aid in evaluation of conditions such as multiple myeloma, lymphoma, and skeletal metastases, while the quantitative nature of this technique permits evaluation of response to therapy. Persisting signal at high b-values from restricted hypercellular tissue and viscous fluid also permits applications of DWI beyond oncologic imaging. DWI, when used in conjunction with routine imaging, can assist in detecting hemorrhagic degradation products, infection/abscess, and inflammation in colitis, while aiding with discrimination of free fluid and empyema, while limiting the need for intravenous contrast. DWI in conjunction with routine anatomic images provides a platform to improve lesion detection and characterization with findings rivaling other combined anatomic and functional imaging techniques, with the added benefit of no ionizing radiation. PMID:23960006

  10. Whole body MRI: Improved Lesion Detection and Characterization With Diffusion Weighted Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Attariwala, Rajpaul; Picker, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is an established functional imaging technique that interrogates the delicate balance of water movement at the cellular level. Technological advances enable this technique to be applied to whole-body MRI. Theory, b-value selection, common artifacts and target to background for optimized viewing will be reviewed for applications in the neck, chest, abdomen, and pelvis. Whole-body imaging with DWI allows novel applications of MRI to aid in evaluation of conditions such as multiple myeloma, lymphoma, and skeletal metastases, while the quantitative nature of this technique permits evaluation of response to therapy. Persisting signal at high b-values from restricted hypercellular tissue and viscous fluid also permits applications of DWI beyond oncologic imaging. DWI, when used in conjunction with routine imaging, can assist in detecting hemorrhagic degradation products, infection/abscess, and inflammation in colitis, while aiding with discrimination of free fluid and empyema, while limiting the need for intravenous contrast. DWI in conjunction with routine anatomic images provides a platform to improve lesion detection and characterization with findings rivaling other combined anatomic and functional imaging techniques, with the added benefit of no ionizing radiation. PMID:23960006

  11. Effect of chronic infusion of olanzapine and clozapine on food intake and body weight gain in male and female rats

    PubMed Central

    Choi, SuJean; DiSilvio, Briana; Unangst, JayLynn; Fernstrom, John D.

    2007-01-01

    Many antipsychotics cause weight gain in humans, but usually not in rats, when injected once or twice daily. Since blood antipsychotic half-lives are short in rats, compared to humans, chronic administration by constant infusion may be necessary to see consistent weight gain in rats. Male and female rats were implanted with minipumps for constant infusion of olanzapine (5 mg/kg/day), clozapine (10 mg/kg/day) or vehicle for 11 days. Food intake and body weight were measured; blood drug levels were measured by HPLC. Olanzapine increased food intake and body weight in female, but not male rats. Serum olanzapine concentrations were 30-35 ng/ml. Clozapine had no effect on food intake or body weight in female or male rats. Serum clozapine concentrations were about 75 ng/ml. Single-dose pharmacokinetic analysis revealed a serum terminal half-life of 1.2-1.5 hr for each drug, with no sex differences. Despite the fact that olanzapine and clozapine promote weight gain in humans, these drugs appear to have minimal effects on body weight and food intake in rats, except for a modest effect of olanzapine in female rats, even though therapeutic levels of olanzapine are achieved in serum during chronic infusion. Hence, the rapid clearance of drug following single administration in previous studies cannot explain the weak or absent effects of antipsychotics on weight gain in this species. The rat thus appears to be an inadequate model of weight gain produced by some antipsychotics in humans. PMID:17822717

  12. Weight and Lean Body Mass Change with Antiretroviral Initiation and Impact on Bone Mineral Density: AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study A5224s

    PubMed Central

    Erlandson, Kristine Mace; Kitch, Douglas; Tierney, Camlin; Sax, Paul E.; Daar, Eric S.; Tebas, Pablo; Melbourne, Kathleen; Ha, Belinda; Jahed, Nasreen C.; Mccomsey, Grace A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the effect initiating different antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens have on weight, body mass index (BMI), and lean body mass (LBM) and explore how changes in body composition are associated with bone mineral density (BMD). Methods A5224s was a substudy of A5202, a prospective trial of 1857 ART-naïve participants randomized to blinded abacavir-lamivudine (ABC/3TC) or tenofovir DF-emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) with open-label efavirenz (EFV) or atazanavir-ritonavir (ATV/r). All subjects underwent dual-energy absorptiometry (DXA) and abdominal CT for body composition. Analyses used 2-sample t-tests and linear regression. Results A5224s included 269 subjects: 85% male, 47% white non-Hispanic, median age 38 years, HIV-1 RNA 4.6 log10 copies/mL, and CD4 233 cells/µL. Overall, significant gains occurred in weight, BMI, and LBM at 96 weeks post randomization (all p<0.001). Assignment to ATV/r (vs EFV) resulted in significantly greater weight (mean difference 3.35 kg) and BMI gain (0.88 kg/m2; both p=0.02), but not LBM (0.67 kg; p=0.15), while ABC/3TC and TDF/FTC were not significantly different (p?0.10). In multivariable analysis, only lower baseline CD4 count and higher HIV-1 RNA were associated with greater increase in weight, BMI, or LBM. In multivariable analyses, increased LBM was associated with an increased hip BMD. Conclusions ABC/3TC vs. TDF/FTC did not differ in change in weight, BMI, or LBM; ATV/r vs. EFV resulted in greater weight and BMI gain but not LBM. A positive association between increased LBM and increased hip BMD should be further investigated through prospective interventional studies to verify the impact of increased LBM on hip BMD. PMID:24384588

  13. Blended-Wing-Body (BWB) Fuselage Structural Design for Weight Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, V.

    2005-01-01

    Structural analysis and design of efficient pressurized fuselage configurations for the advanced Blended-Wing-Body (BWB) flight vehicle is a challenging problem. Unlike a conventional cylindrical pressurized fuselage, stress level in a box type BWB fuselage is an order of magnitude higher, because internal pressure primarily results in bending stress instead of skin-membrane stress. In addition, resulting deformation of aerodynamic surface could significantly affect performance advantages provided by lifting body. The pressurized composite conformal multi-lobe tanks of X-33 type space vehicle also suffered from similar problem. In the earlier BWB design studies, Vaulted Ribbed Shell (VLRS), Flat Ribbed Shell (FRS); Vaulted shell Honeycomb Core (VLHC) and Flat sandwich shell Honeycomb Core (FLHC) concepts were studied. The flat and vaulted ribbed shell concepts were found most efficient. In a recent study, a set of composite sandwich panel and cross-ribbed panel were analyzed. Optimal values of rib and skin thickness, rib spacing, and panel depth were obtained for minimal weight under stress and buckling constraints. In addition, a set of efficient multi-bubble fuselage (MBF) configuration concept was developed. The special geometric configuration of this concept allows for balancing internal cabin pressure load efficiently, through membrane stress in inner-stiffened shell and inter-cabin walls, while the outer-ribbed shell prevents buckling due to external resultant compressive loads. The initial results from these approximate finite element analyses indicate progressively lower maximum stresses and deflections compared to the earlier study. However, a relative comparison of the FEM weight per unit floor area of the segment unit indicates that the unit weights are still relatively higher that the conventional B777 type cylindrical or A380 type elliptic fuselage design. Due to the manufacturing concern associated with multi-bubble fuselage, a Y braced box-type fuselage alternative with special resin-film injected (RFI) stitched carbon composite with foam-core was designed by Boeing under a NASA research contract for the 480 passenger version. It is shown that this configuration can be improved to a modified multi-bubble fuselage which has better stress distribution, for same material and dimension.

  14. Persistent Correlation of Ghrelin Plasma Levels with Body Mass Index Both in Stable Weight Conditions and during Gastric-bypass-induced Weight Loss

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Ybarra; E. Bobbioni-Harsch; G. Chassot; O. Huber; Ph. Morel; F. Assimacopoulos-Jeannet; A. Golay

    2009-01-01

    Background  Studies done on serial changes in plasma ghrelin levels after gastric bypass (GBP) have yielded contrasting results since\\u000a decreased, unchanged, or increased levels have been reported in the literature. This study investigates whether or not GBP\\u000a has an inhibitory effect on fasting ghrelin levels independently of weight loss.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Fasting ghrelin levels were measured in 115 stable body weight females, classified

  15. Breakdown of the Equivalence between Energy Content and Weight in a Weak Gravitational Field for a Quantum Body

    E-print Network

    Andrei Lebed

    2012-05-14

    It is shown that weight operator of a composite quantum body in a weak external gravitational field in the post-Newtonian approximation of the General Relativity does not commute with its energy operator, taken in the absence of the field. Nevertheless, the weak equivalence between the expectations values of weight and energy is shown to survive at a macroscopic level for stationary quantum states for the simplest composite quantum body - a hydrogen atom. Breakdown of the weak equivalence between weight and energy at a microscopic level for stationary quantum states can be experimentally detected by studying unusual electromagnetic radiation, emitted by the atoms, supported and moved in the Earth gravitational field with constant velocity, using spacecraft or satellite. For superpositions of stationary quantum states, a breakdown of the above mentioned equivalence at a macroscopic level leads to time dependent oscillations of the expectation values of weight, where the equivalence restores after averaging over time procedure.

  16. Green Tea Improves Metabolic Biomarkers, not Weight or Body Composition: A Pilot Study in Overweight Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Stendell-Hollis, Nicole R; Thomson, Cynthia A; Thompson, Patricia A; Bea, Jennifer W; Cussler, Ellen C; Hakim, Iman A

    2010-01-01

    Background Overweight status after breast cancer treatment may increase a woman’s risk for recurrent disease and/or early onset cardiovascular disease. Green tea has been proposed to promote weight loss and favourably modify glucose, insulin and blood lipids. This pilot study tested the effect of daily decaffeinated green tea consumption for 6 months on weight and body composition, select metabolic parameters, and lipid profiles in overweight breast cancer survivors. Methods The effect of daily decaffeinated green tea intake on weight, body composition and changes in resting metabolic rate, energy intake, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, and lipids was evaluated in overweight breast cancer survivors. Participants had a mean weight of 80.2 kg; BMI 30.1 kg/m2; and body fat 46.4%. Participants (N=54) were randomised to 960 mL decaffeinated green or placebo tea daily for 6 months. Results Average tea intake among study completers (N=39) was 5952 ± 1176 mL/week and was associated with a significant reduction in energy intake (P =0.02). Change in body weight of ?1.2 kg (green tea) versus + 0.2 kg (placebo) suggests a weight change effect, but was not statistically significant. Decaffeinated green tea intake was associated with elevated HDL levels (P=0.003) and non-significant improvements in the HOMA-IR (?1.1±5.9: green tea; +3.2±7.2: herbal) and the HDL/LDL ratio. Conclusions Intake of decaffeinated green tea for 6 months was associated with a slight reduction in body weight and improved HDL and glucose homeostasis in overweight breast cancer survivors. PMID:20807303

  17. Longitudinal changes in body weight and body composition among women previously treated for breast cancer consuming a high-vegetable, fruit and fiber, low-fat diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia A. Thomson; Cheryl L. Rock; Anna R. Giuliano; Tara R. Newton; Haiyan Cui; Phyllis M. Reid; Tina L. Green; David S. Alberts

    2005-01-01

    Summary Background Excess adiposity has been shown to be associated with increased risk for breast cancer recurrence, and a plant-based eating pattern has been hypothesized to be protective. Whether a plant-based diet without specific energy goals will result in weight loss or changes in body composition in women who have been diagnosed with breast cancer has not been fully explored.

  18. Effect of very high-fat diets on body weight, lipoproteins, and glycemic status in the obese

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederick F. Samaha

    2005-01-01

    Given the increased prevalence of obesity in the United States, despite reduced fat intake, there has been increasing interest\\u000a in the effect of dietary fat on body weight, lipoproteins, and glycemic status. Despite predictions from epidemiologic and\\u000a physiologic studies, recent prospective trials have demonstrated equivalent weight loss on high-fat versus low-fat diets.\\u000a Nevertheless, the type of dietary fat consumed has

  19. Genistein Decreases Food Intake, Body Weight, and Fat Pad Weight and Causes Adipose Tissue Apoptosis in Ovariectomized Female Mice1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hye-Kyeong Kim; Cassandra Nelson-Dooley; Mary Anne Della-Fera; Jeong-Yeh Yang; Wei Zhang; Jiuhua Duan; Diane L. Hartzell; Mark W. Hamrick; Clifton A. Baile

    Genistein, an isoflavone in soybean products, has estrogenic activity and is used as a natural sub- stitute for estrogen replacement therapy in postmenopausal women. Genistein was also shown to decrease fat pad weight in female mice. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of genistein on adipose tissue apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes

  20. The Relationship between Body Weight and Perceived Weight-Related Employment Discrimination: The Role of Sex and Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roehling, Mark V.; Roehling, Patricia V.; Pichler, Shaun

    2007-01-01

    This study provides unique empirical evidence regarding a growing concern internationally: weight discrimination in the workplace. Using survey data from a national sample of 2838 American adults, it responds to Puhl and Brownell's [Puhl, R., & Brownell, K. D. (2001). Bias, discrimination, and obesity. "Obesity Research, 9", 788-805] call for…

  1. Predicting anti-fat attitudes: individual differences based on actual and perceived body size, weight importance, entity mindset, and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Scott, Shannon Rich; Rosen, Lisa H

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the relative impact of actual and perceived weight, weight importance, entity mindset, and ethnicity on anti-fat attitudes as well as to examine whether certain variables play the role of mediator. Participants included a multiethnic U.S. sample of 923 female undergraduates who completed a series of measures online. Lower BMI, higher perceived weight, higher importance of weight, endorsement of an entity mindset, and identification as White as compared to Black, Hispanic, or Asian predicted higher overall anti-fat attitudes. Examination of the individual Antifat Attitudes Questionnaire subscales (i.e. dislike, fear of fat, and willpower) using Relative Weight Analysis suggested that weight importance is an important predictor of multiple aspects of anti-fat attitudes. In addition, weight importance mediated the relationship between perceived weight and fear of fat as well as the relationship between ethnicity and dislike. Implications of findings and future research directions are discussed. PMID:25326878

  2. Predictors of women's concern with body weight: the roles of perceived self-media ideal discrepancies and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Posavac, Steven S; Posavac, Heidi D

    2002-01-01

    Researchers have expended significant effort trying to delineate determinants of body image disturbance in young women, in part because of the potential of body image disturbance to precipitate eating disordered behavior. In this research we demonstrate that the extent of the discrepancy women perceive between their own attractiveness and body shape and images representative of ideal feminine attractiveness presented in advertising and the broader media (i.e., self-media ideal discrepancy) predicts how concerned they are with their weight (a measure of body image disturbance). Perhaps more importantly, we also show that perceived self-media ideal discrepancy is a construct independent of global self-esteem. Specifically, our results demonstrate that perceived self-media ideal discrepancy is related to women's weight concern even when self-esteem is statistically controlled. Implications for theory and clinical intervention are discussed. PMID:16864255

  3. Resistance to cold stress in the newborn lamb 2. Role of body weight, birth rank, and some birth coat characters as determinants of resistance to cold stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. N. McCutcheon; C. W. Holmes; M. F. McDonald; A. L. Rae

    1983-01-01

    The effects of body weight and birth rank on resistance to cold stress were examined in Romneytype and N-type lambs. Twins exhibited lower coat depths than singles and they also appeared to have a lower summit metabolic rate per kg body weight. These effects were, however, small and the greater rate of body cooling experienced by twin lambs was principally

  4. Little impact of resting energy expenditure on childhood weight and body composition: a longitudinal study (EarlyBird 47).

    PubMed

    Hosking, Joanne; Metcalf, Brad S; Jeffery, Alison N; Voss, Linda D; Wilkin, Terence J

    2011-01-01

    The role of resting energy expenditure (REE) in the development of obesity in children is controversial. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that REE has a meaningful impact on change in weight or body composition in healthy children. Resting energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry and body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry were measured in 236 children (131 boys) on 7 annual occasions (7-13 years). The effect of REE at 7 years on change in weight and body composition was analyzed using linear mixed effects models. In neither sex was there an interaction between REE at 7 years and change in weight (P > .9). There were weak associations between REE at 7 years and change in body composition in boys but not in girls: for a 418 kJ (100 kcal) lower REE at 7 years, an increase in rate of change in fat mass of approximately 0.1 kg/y and in percentage of fat of 0.2% per year and a decrease in fat-free mass of 0.1 kg/y. Change in REE during follow-up was not significantly associated with body composition changes in either sex (P > .06). Thus, REE has little impact on the wide variation in weight gain at this age; although in boys, some fat was simply exchanged for lean, the effect was small. Resting energy expenditure does not appear to provide an explanation for childhood obesity. PMID:21310300

  5. The effects of physical activity interventions on preventing weight gain and the effects on body composition in young adults with intellectual disabilities: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Harris, L; Hankey, C; Murray, H; Melville, C

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the literature on randomized controlled trials examining the efficacy of physical activity interventions to prevent weight gain and the effects on body composition in young adults with intellectual disabilities.A systematic search of Medline, Emabse, CINHAL, PsychINFO, Cochrane library and ERIC was conducted from 1946 to September 2014. Eligibility criteria included; randomized controlled trials of a physical activity intervention: objective measure of body weight and body composition; young adults (age range 16-24 years) with intellectual disabilities. Six studies met the eligibility criteria. The interventions varied in their prescription of physical activity including aerobic and strength-based activities. The mean duration of the interventions was 15.3 (range 10-21 weeks). There was no significant effect of physical activity interventions on body weight (weighted mean difference: -0.17?kg, 95% confidence interval, -1.04?kg to 0.72?kg) and body composition outcomes. The meta-analysis showed that physical activity interventions did not prevent weight gain in young adults with intellectual disabilities. Published studies are inadequate to form firm conclusions. Future longer term studies of interventions specifically designed for this population group are required to elucidate the effects of physical activity interventions on body composition and the prevention of weight gain in young adults with intellectual disabilities. PMID:26126951

  6. Body image, perceived and actual physical abilities in normal-weight and overweight boys involved in individual and team sports

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milena Morano; Dario Colella; Laura Capranica

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationships among body image, perception of physical abilities, and motor performance in boys involved in organized individual (i.e. tennis, fencing, judo) and team (i.e. soccer, handball, volleyball) sports. Altogether, 162 children (12.6 ± 1.0 years) were categorized as normal-weight (n = 85) or overweight (n = 77). Body image was measured using Collins' Child Figure Drawings, while

  7. Age and sex-dependent regression models for predicting the live weight of West African Dwarf goat from body measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. S. Sowande; B. F. Oyewale; O. S. Iyasere

    2010-01-01

    The relationships between live weight and eight body measurements of West African Dwarf (WAD) goats were studied using 211\\u000a animals under farm condition. The animals were categorized based on age and sex. Data obtained on height at withers (HW),\\u000a heart girth (HG), body length (BL), head length (HL), and length of hindquarter (LHQ) were fitted into simple linear, allometric,\\u000a and

  8. Effects of Body Fat on Weight Concerns, Dating, and Sexual Activity: A Longitudinal Analysis of Black and White Adolescent Girls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolyn Tucker Halpern; J. Richard Udry; Benjamin Campbell; Chirayath Suchindran

    1999-01-01

    Using data from a 2-year longitudinal study of 200 Black and White adolescent girls (mean age was 13.8 years at study entry), the authors investigated the implications of differences in body fat for dating and sexual activity and the implications of heterosexual activity for dieting and weight concerns. Among White girls, and Black girls with college-educated mothers, more body fat

  9. Genetic parameters for feed intake, litter weight, body condition and rebreeding success in primiparous Norwegian Landrace sows.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, H; Fikse, W F; Grandinson, K; Lundeheim, N; Canario, L; Vangen, O; Olsen, D; Rydhmer, L

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for feed intake recorded as farmers' perception of young sows' appetite for the first 3 weeks of lactation (APP) and feed intake recorded for one day in the 3rd week of lactation (FEED), litter weight (LW) at 3 weeks, sow body condition at weaning (BC) and the following five reproduction traits: weaning-to-service interval of 1 to 7 days (WSI7), weaning-to-service interval of 1 to 50 days (WSI50), delayed service or not (DELAYED), pregnant on first service or not (PREGNANT) and litter size in 2nd parity (NBT2). The analyses included data on 4606 Norwegian Landrace 1st-parity sows and their litters. The Gibbs sampling method was used. The traits DELAYED and PREGNANT were analysed as threshold traits and APP, FEED, LW, BC, WSI7, WSI50 and NBT2 were analysed as linear traits. The heritability estimates for APP and FEED were low (<0.1), whereas the estimates for DELAYED and PREGNANT were rather high (0.4 and 0.3). The heritability estimate for BC was 0.2. The genetic correlations confirmed the complexity of breeding for sow performance; selection for heavy 1st litters may lead to lower body condition at weaning, which in turn leads to lower reproductive performance and smaller litters in 2nd parity. Selection for higher sow feed intake would improve body condition, but the simple way of measuring feed intake tested in this study (APP and FEED) cannot be recommended because of the low heritability obtained for these traits. PMID:24246308

  10. Association of Body Weight and Female Sexual Dysfunction: A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Mozafari, Mosayeb; Khajavikhan, Javaher; Jaafarpour, Molouk; Khani, Ali; Direkvand-Moghadam, Ashraf; Najafi, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity is rapidly increasing worldwide with negative effects on women’s health, psychosocial factors and quality of life. Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a major public health problem that is worrying for many women physically, emotionally and socially. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of body weight with FSD and sexual satisfaction, in Ilam, western Iran, in 2010 to 2011. Patients and Methods: This was a case-control study on 120 women aged 18–50 years [64 with FSD (case), 64 without FSD (control)] married, from Ilam-IR, who were interviewed as per the Iranian version of Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were recorded by researchers. The subjects were randomly selected from primary health centers. Results: FSFI score was significantly lower in overweight women (P < 0.05). FSFI strongly correlated with body mass index (BMI) (r = -0.68, P < 0.001) and waist-to-hip ratio (r = -0.29, P < 0.05) in women with FSD. Of sexual function parameters, there was a strong and inverse correlation between BMI and arousal (r = -0.71, P < 0.001), lubrication (r = -0.61, P < 0.001), orgasm (r = -0.52, P < 0.001) and satisfaction (r = -0.54, P < 0.001), while pain (r = -0.12, P > 0.05) and desire (r = -0.17, P > 0.05) did not correlate with BMI. There was an association between BMI and extreme satisfaction (r = -0.28, P < 0.05). Extreme physical pleasure (r = -0.19, P > 0.05) and extreme emotional satisfaction (r = -0.16, P > 0.05) were not correlated with BMI. Conclusions: Overweight and obesity negative affect sexuality in women with sexual dysfunction. A systematic evaluation of sexual function to disclose a cause and effect relationship between obesity and FSD is suggested. PMID:25763278

  11. Intake of Milk with Added Micronutrients Increases the Effectiveness of an Energy-Restricted Diet to Reduce Body Weight: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial in Mexican Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge L. Rosado; Olga P. Garcia; Dolores Ronquillo; Deisy Hervert-Hernández; Maria del C. Caamaño; Guadalupe Martínez; Jessica Gutiérrez; Sandra García

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundMicronutrient deficiencies have been associated with an increase in fat deposition and body weight; thus, adding them to low-fat milk may facilitate weight loss when accompanied by an energy-restricted diet.

  12. American ginseng berry juice intake reduces blood glucose and body weight in ob/ob mice.

    PubMed

    Xie, J T; Wang, C Z; Ni, M; Wu, J A; Mehendale, S R; Aung, H H; Foo, A; Yuan, C S

    2007-10-01

    Diabetes is a serious chronic metabolic disease and has a significant impact on patients' lives and the health care system. We previously observed that the organic solvent extract of American ginseng berry possessed significant antidiabetic effects in obese diabetic ob/ob mice after intraperitoneal injection. If American ginseng berry is useful as a dietary supplement, simple preparation and oral intake would be a convenient, safe, and practical means for consumers. In this study, the simply prepared berry juice was first analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography, and then administered orally in the ob/ob mice. The animals received daily berry juice 0.6 mL/kg or vehicle for 10 consecutive days. The results indicated that oral juice administration significantly lowered fasting blood glucose levels, and this effect continued for at least 10 d after cessation of the treatment. Data from intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test demonstrated that there was a notable improvement in glucose tolerance in the juice treated group. In addition, the berry juice significantly reduced body weight. Our data suggest that ginseng berry juice, as a dietary supplement, may have functional efficacy in consumers with diabetes. PMID:17995625

  13. Corifollitropin alfa for ovarian stimulation in IVF: a randomized trial in lower-body-weight women.

    PubMed

    2010-07-01

    In this double-blind, double-dummy, randomized, equivalence trial (Ensure), 396 women weighing 60kg or less who underwent controlled ovarian stimulation prior to IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection were randomized in a 2:1 ratio to a single dose of 100mug corifollitropin alfa or daily 150IU recombinant FSH (rFSH) for the first 7days of stimulation in a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone antagonist protocol. The mean +/- SD number of oocytes retrieved per started cycle was 13.3 +/- 7.3 for corifollitropin alfa versus 10.6 +/- 5.9 for rFSH. The estimated treatment difference of +2.5 oocytes (95% CI 1.2-3.9) in favour of corifollitropin alfa (P<0.001) was well within the predefined equivalence margin. The median (range) duration of stimulation was 9 (6-15) days in both groups. In 32.8% of the patients, one injection of corifollitropin alfa was sufficient to reach the human chorionic gonadotrophin criterion. The incidence of moderate and severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome was 3.4% for corifollitropin alfa and 1.6% for rFSH. A dose of 100mug corifollitropin alfa offers a simplified treatment option for potential normal responder patients with a lower body weight. PMID:20483664

  14. Family history of cancer, body weight, and p53 nuclear overexpression in Duke's C colorectal cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Z. F.; Zeng, Z. S.; Sarkis, A. S.; Klimstra, D. S.; Charytonowicz, E.; Pollack, D.; Vena, J.; Guillem, J.; Marshall, J. R.; Cordon-Cardo, C.

    1995-01-01

    To examine the hypothesis that colorectal carcinomas with and without TP53 mutations may be characterised by aetiological heterogeneity, we analysed a group of 107 patients with primary Dukes' C colorectal cancer seen at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) from 1986 to 1990. We assessed p53 overexpression using the monoclonal antibody PAb 1801, and identified 42 (39%) patients displaying p53-positive phenotype, defined as > or = 25% of positive cells. Patients with two or more first-degree relatives with cancer had an odds ratio (OR) of 2.9 (95% CI 1.0-8.3) for p53 overexpression in comparison with those without a family history of cancer (trend test, P = 0.11). A possible association between body weight and p53 overexpression was observed. The ORs were 1.9 for the second quartile, 1.9 for the third quartile and 3.4 for the highest quartile in comparison with the lowest quartile (trend test, P = 0.06). No association between occupational physical activity, smoking, drinking, parity and p53 overexpression was identified. The results suggest that p53 overexpression may be related to genetic predisposition to colorectal cancer, and p53-positive and p53-negative colorectal cancers may be controlled by different aetiological pathways. Images Figure 1 PMID:7710960

  15. The income body weight gradients in the developing economy of China.

    PubMed

    Tafreschi, Darjusch

    2015-01-01

    Existing theories predict the income gradient of individual body weight to change sign from positive to negative in process of economic development. However, there are only few empirical studies which test this hypothesis. This paper adds to the literature on that topic by investigating the case of China. Using individual and community data from 1991 to 2009 waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey regression analyses suggest that after controlling for important confounding factors (1) higher income is positively related to future growth of individuals' BMI in less developed areas (i.e. BMI growth is 0.7-1.5 percentage points higher when comparing the richest with the poorest individuals), but negatively related to BMI growth in more developed areas (i.e. BMI growth is 0.8-1.6 percentage points lower for the richest individuals), and (2) that concentrations of overweight are "trickling down" to lower income ranks as regions become more developed. Moreover, the reversal of the income gradient appears to happen at earlier stages of development for females. PMID:24680912

  16. Treadmill training with partial body weight support after stroke: a review.

    PubMed

    Hesse, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Restoration and improvement of gait after stroke are major aspects of neurorehabilitation. Mobilization out of the bed into the wheelchair and verticalisation with the help of a standing frame are first steps. With the patient cardiovascular stable, gait restoration is put on the agenda. Instead of tone-inhibiting and gait preparatory maneuvers, patients should practice complex gait cycles repetitively. Treadmill training with partial body weight support enables the harness-secured patients to practice numerous steps assisted by two or three therapists. In controlled studies, it proved equally effective as walking on the floor. Gait machines, as the Lokomat or the Gait Trainer GTI, intend to relieve the strenuous effort for the therapists. For the GTI, several controlled trials showed a superior effect in acute stroke patients with respect to walking ability and velocity. For the ambulatory patient, aerobic treadmill training is effective to improve speed and endurance without worsening gait quality. Belt velocity and inclination are gradually increased so that the patients reach a predefined target heart rate. On the belt, patients walk more symmetrically, and higher velocities result in a facilitation of paretic muscles and render gait more efficient. In summary, gait rehabilitation has seen dramatic changes over the last years. More is to be expected. PMID:18356589

  17. Body weight misperception patterns and their association with health-related factors among adolescents in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyunjung; Wang, Youfa

    2013-01-01

    Objective Examine body weight misperception and its association with health-related factors among South Korean adolescents. Design and Methods The 2009 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey data from 72,399 adolescents aged 12–18 years were used. Based on agreements between weight status assessed according to self-reported BMI and self-perceived weight status, adolescents were classified as weight underestimate, accurate, and overestimate. Logistic regression models examined the associations controlling for covariates. Results Over 50% adolescents misclassified their own weight status: underestimation(23.4%) and overestimation(26.8%). Boys had a higher underestimation rate than girls(30.3% vs. 15.6%) and a lower overestimation rate(21.3% vs. 33.0%). In girls, overestimation was higher in high-income families and well-educated parents(41.0%). Compared to those with accurate weight perception, participants who underestimated their weight were more likely to have an unhealthy diet as indicated by higher daily consumption(? once/day) of fast food[OR=1.18(1.00,1.39)] and unhealthy snacks[OR=1.11(1.03,1.19)]. Girls who overestimated their weight had more screen time[?2 hours/day, OR=1.12(1.03,1.22)]. Participants who overestimated their weight were more likely to be stressed[OR=1.24(1.18,1.31)] and depressed[OR=1.18(1.21,1.25)]. Conclusions Over half of Korean adolescents had misperception on own weight status, the rates varied by gender and socio-economic status. Weight misperception is associated with health-related outcomes compared to peers with accurate perceptions about own weight status. PMID:23512737

  18. Lack of association between body weight, bone mineral density and vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism in normal and osteoporotic women.

    PubMed

    Poggi, M; Aterini, S; Nicastro, L; Chiarugi, V; Ruggiero, M; Pacini, S; Gulisano, M

    1999-12-01

    In an ethnically homogeneous population of women living in Tuscany, Italy, the relationships between age, body weight, bone mineral density and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphism were studied, with the objective of recognizing patients at risk for osteoporosis. In 275 women bone mineral density was measured by Dual Energy X-rays Absorptiometry (DEXA). In 50 of them the individual genetic pattern for VDR was evaluated by DNA extraction followed by PCR amplification of the VDR gene, and digestion with the restriction enzyme BsmI. Age and bone mineral density were inversely related (R2 = 0.298). Body weight was associated with bone mineral density (R2 = 0.059), but not with age. In osteoporotic women, mean (+/- SD) body weight was 59.9 +/- 6.5 Kg, lower than that recorded in non osteoporotic women (64.2 +/- 9.4 Kg), even though not significantly different (p = 0.18). No association was found between VDR gene polymorphism, bone density or body weight. The performance of anthropometric and genetic components appear to be poor, and, at least for the time being, bone mineral density measurement by means of MOC-DEXA represents the optimal method to detect women at risk for postmenopausal osteoporosis. PMID:10689545

  19. Lack of Association between Body Weight, Bone Mineral Density and Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphism in Normal and Osteoporotic Women

    PubMed Central

    Poggi, Massimo; Aterini, Stefano; Nicastro, Laura; Chiarugi, Vincenzo; Ruggiero, Marco; Pacini, Stefania; Gulisano, Massimo

    1999-01-01

    In an ethnically homogeneous population of women living in Tuscany, Italy, the relationships between age, body weight, bone mineral density and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphism were studied, with the objective of recognizing patients at risk for osteoporosis. In 275 women bone mineral density was measured by Dual Energy X-rays Absorptiometry (DEXA). In 50 of them the individual genetic pattern for VDR was evaluated by DNA extraction followed by PCR amplification of the VDR gene, and digestion with the restriction enzyme BsmI. Age and bone mineral density were inversely related (R2 = 0.298). Body weight was associated with bone mineral density (R2 = 0.059), but not with age. In osteoporotic women, mean (± SD) body weight was 59.9 ± 6.5 Kg, lower than that recorded in non osteoporotic women (64.2 ± 9.4 Kg), even though not significantly different (p = 0.18). No association was found between VDR gene polymorphism, bone density or body weight. The performance of anthropometric and genetic components appear to be poor, and, at least for the time being, bone mineral density measurement by means of MOC-DEXA represents the optimal method to detect women at risk for postmenopausal osteoporosis. PMID:10689545

  20. Handling effects on body weight and behaviour of group-housed male rabbits in a laboratory setting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia M. Verwer; Geert van Amerongen; Ruud van den Bos; Coenraad F. M. Hendriksen

    2009-01-01

    In the study described in this paper we focus on the behaviour of male rabbits under modified housing conditions. We investigated whether handling has an effect on the behavioural stress response and whether this response is related to the coping strategy of the rabbits. Furthermore we studied the effect of handling from birth onwards on body weight and dominance.To assess

  1. Relationship between religiosity and body weight in a rural, underserved population in the Southern region of the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poor nutrition and physical inactivity contribute to excess body weight, which has become an epidemic in the United States and world-wide. Combating this epidemic is essential, particularly in underserved populations that bear a disproportionate burden of obesity, poor nutrition, and physical inacti...

  2. The relationship between body weight, length of stay, medical expenses, and type of illness in the hospital population 

    E-print Network

    Morat, Michelle Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    January 16 to January 30, 1995 at Scott & White Memorial Hospital in Temple, TX. Patients who were under the age of 18 and either pregnant or lactating were excluded. In total, there were 526 patients: 259 men and 267 women. Percent optimal body weight...

  3. Digestive enzyme activity and food ingesta in juvenile shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) as a function of body weight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julian Gamboa-delgado; Cesar Molina-poveda; Chantal Cahu

    2003-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate variations of digestive enzyme activities in Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) reared in commercial ponds under semi-intensive conditions. Shrimp were collected at each body weight increase of 2 g. As the shrimp grew (2-12 g), significant increases in the activities of lipase and chymotrypsin were observed. The total protease activity decreased from 6 g onwards. Trypsin

  4. Combined effects of temperature and body weight on growth and protein utilization of the common octopus, Octopus vulgaris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen Miliou; Myrsini Fintikaki; Triantaphyllos Kountouris; George Verriopoulos

    2005-01-01

    Octopus vulgaris is considered a serious candidate for rearing, in terms of its biological and market potential: easy adaptation to captivity conditions, high growth rate and high market price. The aim of this study was to examine the combined effects of temperature and body weight on specific growth rate (SGR, % day?1), absolute growth rate (AGR, g day?1), absolute feeding

  5. Growth and food intake models in Octopus vulgaris Cuvier (1797): influence of body weight, temperature, sex and diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Aguado Giménez; B. García García

    2002-01-01

    Multiple regression analysis was used to develop mathematical models applicable to the growth and food intake of Octopus vulgaris. The variables considered were: body weight (Bw: 175–3,500 g), temperature (T: 13–28 °C), sex (S: male = 0, female = 1) and diet (D: bogue fish = 0, crabs = 1). Growth and food intake may be succesfully expressed by means

  6. Relationship between whole grain and fiber consumption and body weight measures among 6 to 18 year-olds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between whole grain and fiber consumption, and body weight measures in children 6 to 12 (n equals 3868) and adolescents 13 to 18 (n equals 4931) years old. A combined 1999 to 2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data were a...

  7. Self-Reported Eating Disorders of Black, Low-Income Adolescents: Behavior, Body Weight Perceptions, and Methods of Dieting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balentine, Margaret; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Study identified African-American low-income adolescents who thought they had bulimia or anorexia nervosa, identified common behaviors, and compared actual and perceived body weight and dieting methods. About 12 percent suspected an eating disorder and perceived themselves as heavier more often than their peers. Fasting was the most common dieting…

  8. Development of the laser remote caliper as a method to estimate surface area and body weight in beef ca ttle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Core; Stephen Miller; Matthew Kelly

    Linear measurements combined with surface area and volume calculations were used to develop formulas t o estimate body weight (BW) in beef cattle. These measurements were evaluated directly or estimated using a lase r remote caliper (LRC) and digital imaging software. Seventy-two dry, late gestation beef cows aged 3-13 years were measured and weighed Six measurements for each cow were

  9. The effects of intravenous protein—calorie supplementation on the tissue composition of postoperative body weight loss

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. A. Elebute

    1974-01-01

    The components of postoperative body weight loss were analysed in eleven adult male patients who had uncomplicated abdominal surgery of moderate severity namely vagotomy and a drainage procedure for chronic duodenal ulceration. Four patients (Group I) had the routine postoperative regimen which consisted of intravenous isotonic dextrose and dextrose-saline solutions. Another group of four patients (Group IIa) had supplementation of

  10. Height, weight and body mass index of girls and boys in a rural school in Punjab India

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All the students at this Bhagat Puran Singh Memorial School in Punjab, India were educated about the importance of caloric intake and physical activity. Body weight and height were recorded once a month for 12 consecutive months for 632 students, age 8-23 years (7584 observations). For US and Euro...

  11. Effects of fasting on blood composition and nitrogen losses in the adult sheep depending on previous diet and body weight

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effects of fasting on blood composition and nitrogen losses in the adult sheep depending on previous diet and body weight J. CI. BOUCHAT Françoise DOIZÉ, R. PAQUAY Marie-Antoinette BOUCKOMS D, Belgium. Summary. In order to study the profiles of blood composition and nitrogen losses during fasting

  12. Effects of Diseases on Test Day Milk Yield and Body Weight of Dairy Cows from Danish Research Herds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Østergaard; Y. T. Gröhn

    1999-01-01

    The pre- and postdisease interrelationships of energy corrected test day milk yield and body weight of dairy cows caused by mastitis, three reproductive disorders (retained placenta, metritis, cystic ovaries), and seven metabolic disorders (milk fever, ketosis, decreased rumen motility, enteritis, left displaced abomasum, right displaced abomasum, and off feed) were quantified by using mixed models analysis with repeated measures of

  13. Effect of Dietary Calcium Soaps on Milk Yield, Body Weight, Reproductive Hormones, and Fertility in First Parity and Older Cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Sklan; M. Kaim; U. Moallem; Y. Folman

    1994-01-01

    ABSTRACT The effects were,determined,of die- tary Ca soaps of fatty acids fed to cows to 120 DIM on milk yield, BW, peripheral concentrations of reproductive hormones, and fertility in primiparous and multiparous,cows. Milk yield was increased in primiparous and multiparous cows fed Ca soaps, and milk fat and protein,yields were,enhanced.,Body weight losses wefmt AI,

  14. "Yes, I worry about my weight... but for the most part I'm content with my body": older women's body dissatisfaction alongside contentment.

    PubMed

    Liechty, Toni

    2012-01-01

    The majority of body image research has studied younger women and girls, ignoring older age groups. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore body image among retirement-age women. The sample included 13 women aged 60 to 69. Data collection occurred in two phases. Participants completed individual in-depth interviews and attended follow-up focus groups. Transcripts from both phases of data collection were analyzed thematically using the constant comparison method. Themes emerged regarding the participants' definitions of body image, their attitudes about appearance, and their current perceptions of their bodies. Findings highlighted the complexity of older women's body image as characterized by the dual existence of contentment and desire for physical change. Participants offered explanations for this seeming contradiction, including consideration of age, prioritization of preferred aspects of the body or the self, and focus on aspects of appearance that are perceived to be within the individual's control. PMID:22256879

  15. The role of low-fat diets in body weight control: a meta-analysis of ad libitum dietary intervention studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Astrup; GK Grunwald; EL Melanson; WHM Saris; JO Hill

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Low-fat high-carbohydrate diets are recommended to prevent weight gain in normal weight subjects and reduce body weight in overweight and obese. However, their efficacy is controversial. We evaluated the efficacy of ad libitum low-fat diets in reducing body weight in non-diabetic individuals from the results of intervention trials.DESIGN: Studies were identified from a computerized search of the Medline database

  16. Body Awareness and Movement for Students with Multiple Disabilities Including Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePountis, Vicki; Cady, Deborah; Hallak, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    This conference presentation examines concept development for congenitally blind students. It presents current research on best-practice for teaching this population. Examples of strategies to reinforce understanding of body concepts, spatial awareness, and positional language, while promoting mirroring, self regulation, and purposeful movement to…

  17. Relationship of sex, strain, and body weight to carcass yield and offal production in turkeys.

    PubMed

    Brake, J; Havenstein, G B; Ferket, P R; Rives, D V; Giesbrecht, F G

    1995-01-01

    Three strains of male and female market turkeys (British United Turkeys, Hybrid, and Nicholas) were grown under commercial contract production conditions and slaughtered at a range of BW (4,200 to 17,640 g) and age (13 to 22 wk) that covers the range of commercial market weights in use at the time of the study. During processing, the weight of blood, feathers, head, neck, feet plus shanks, heart, liver, gizzard, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, water uptake, hot and chilled carcass with fat pad, fat pad alone, tail, wings, drumsticks, thigh meat, Pectoralis major, Pectoralis minor, scapula meat, lower back, upper back with ribs, breast skin, thigh skin, thigh bone, and hind half (legs, thighs, and saddle) were determined. The data were subjected to least squares analyses using models that included strain and sex effects relative to live BW. Significant differences in yield between the sexes but not among strains were found for feet plus shanks, gizzard, hot and chilled carcass with fat pad, and scapula meat. Similarly, significant differences in yield among strains but not between sexes alone were found for blood, feathers, heart, and hind half. The relationships of live BW with all other variables showed both strain and sex differences in yield. Whereas whole carcass yield as a function of BW was affected by sex alone, most other components varied by both sex and strain. Thus, choice of strain, sex, and age at slaughter affect the projected production of edible carcass and offal components. PMID:7899205

  18. The Link Between Body Dissatisfaction and Self-Esteem in Adolescents: Similarities Across Gender, Age, Weight Status, Race\\/Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia A. van den Berg; Jonathan Mond; Marla Eisenberg; Diann Ackard; Dianne Neumark-Sztainer

    2010-01-01

    PurposeThe present study examined whether the cross-sectional association between body dissatisfaction and low self-esteem varies across gender, age, body weight status, race\\/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status (SES). We also examined the association longitudinally.

  19. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Dried Calyx Ethanol Extract on Fat Absorption-Excretion, and Body Weight Implication in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal-Zarrabal, O.; Hayward-Jones, P. M.; Orta-Flores, Z.; Nolasco-Hipólito, C.; Barradas-Dermitz, D. M.; Aguilar-Uscanga, M. G.; Pedroza-Hernández, M. F.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Hs) calyx extract on fat absorption-excretion and body weight in rats, was investigated. Rats were fed with either a basal diet (SDC = Control diet) or the same diet supplemented with Hs extracts at 5%, 10% and 15% (SD5, SD10 and SD15). Only SD5 did not show significant increases in weight, food consumption and efficiency compared to SDC. The opposite occurred in SD15 group which showed a significant decrease for these three parameters. The SD10 responses were similar to SD15, with the exception of food consumption. In both SDC and SD5 groups, no body weight loss was observed; however, only in the latter group was there a significantly greater amount of fatty acids found in feces. A collateral effect emerging from the study is that components of Hs extract at the intermediate and greater concentrations used in this experiment could be considered possible antiobesity agents. PMID:19756159

  20. Height, weight, body composition, and waist circumference references for 7- to 17-year-old children from rural Portugal.

    PubMed

    Chaves, R; Baxter-Jones, A; Souza, M; Santos, D; Maia, J

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was (1) to develop references of height, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and body fat for rural Portuguese children and adolescents and (2) to compare these results with other international references. The sample comprised 3094 children and adolescents aged 7-17 years from Vouzela, a central region in Portugal. Height, weight, BMI, waist circumference and body fat were measured. Centile curves were constructed using the LMS method. The Vouzela sample showed similar height median values compared to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and World Health Organization (WHO) percentile curves but greater values for weight and BMI. Percent body fat 50th percentile was greater in Vouzela children and adolescents compared to their international peers, except for boys aged 8-12 years. Boys' waist circumference median values were similar to those from the USA, whilst girls were similar until 12 years of age, after which the differences increased with age. The percentile curves constructed provide population specific references for growth and body composition of children and adolescents from rural Portugal. It is expected that they will be a useful tool for clinical and public health settings in rural Portugal. PMID:25986401

  1. Racial Differences of Pediatric Hypertension in Relation to Birth Weight and Body Size in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liwei; Simonsen, Neal; Liu, Li

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence of hypertension is known to differ by racial group in adults in the United States (US), but findings in children are scarce and inconsistent. The objective of this study was to assess the racial differences in pediatric hypertension and to explore whether these differences, if any, can be explained by low birth weight (LBW) and obesity. Methods Analyses were performed for participants aged 8–17 years (N = 9,250) included in the 1999–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Multivariate logistic regressions and weighted analysis were carried out considering the complex survey design. Results Compared to non-Hispanic White youth, the crude prevalence of hypertension was significantly higher in non-Hispanic Blacks (7.1% vs. 5.6%; P = 0.04), but not in Mexican Americans (5.4% vs. 5.6%; P = 0.77). Blacks also had higher rates of LBW (14.6% vs. 5.9%; P <0.001) and obesity (22.9% vs. 15.8%; P <0.001) than Whites. In stratified analysis by age-sex groups, the Black-White difference in hypertension prevalence was only significant in boys aged 13–17 (9.6% vs. 6.6%). After controlling for age, Black boys had a 51% higher odds of having hypertension (Odds ratio = 1.51; 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 3.43; P = 0.04) compared to White youth at ages 13–17. This racial difference persisted with additional adjustment for birth weight (odds ratio (OR) = 2.00; P = 0.02) and for current body mass index (OR = 1.50; P = 0.04). Mexican American youth had no difference in hypertension prevalence as compared to White youth after adjusting for age, sex, birth weight and obesity (Odds ratio = 0.82; P = 0.16) and in age-sex stratified subgroups. Conclusions Non-Hispanic Black adolescent boys have a significantly higher hypertension rate than their non-Hispanic White counterparts in the US. This racial difference cannot be explained by LBW and current obesity status within the Black population. PMID:26176843

  2. Body Image and Weight Control among Adolescents in Lithuania, Croatia, and the United States in the Context of Global Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Petronyte, Gintare; Sumskas, Linas; Kuzman, Marina; Iannotti, Ronald J.

    2008-01-01

    Aim To compare body image and weight control behavior among adolescents in Lithuania, Croatia, and the United States (US), the countries with striking contrasts in the prevalence of overweight among adolescents. Method The study was carried out according to the methodology of the Health Behavior in School-aged Children collaborative survey. Nationally-representative samples of students, aged 13 and 15, were surveyed in Lithuania (3778 respondents), Croatia (2946 respondents), and the US (3546 respondents) in the 2001/2002 school year. Results In all three countries, girls perceived themselves as being “too fat” more frequently than boys (37.0% vs 19.7%, P<0.001, z test). The prevalence of this perception increased with age among girls (32.7% vs 41.1%, P<0.001, z test) and decreased among boys (21.4% vs 17.9%, P?=?0.005, z test). Lithuanian adolescents were least likely to perceive themselves as “too fat;” this perception was significantly more frequent in Croatia and the US (24.2%, 27.5%, and 34.3%, respectively; P<0.001, ?2 test). With the exception of 15-year-old Lithuanian boys, in all respondents the proportion of adolescents with body mass index (BMI) ?85th percentile who perceived themselves as “too fat” was significantly higher (up to 3.13 times among 15-year-old US girls) than the proportion of adolescents with BMI ?15th percentile who perceived themselves as “too thin.” The highest proportion of overweight boys and girls on a diet or doing something else to lose weight was found in the US. Boys in Lithuania were most likely to be satisfied with their weight regardless of their weight status. Conclusion Perceived body image and weight control behavior differ among adolescents in Lithuania, Croatia, and the US. Cross-cultural, age, and sex influences moderate body image and weight control behavior in underweight and overweight adolescents. PMID:18461679

  3. The Impact of Body Mass Index and Weight Changes on Disability Transitions and Mortality in Brazilian Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Drumond Andrade, Flávia Cristina; Mohd Nazan, Ahmad Iqmer Nashriq; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; de Oliveira Duarte, Yeda Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between body mass index and weight changes on disability transitions and mortality among Brazilian older adults. Longitudinal data from the Health, Well-Being, and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean Study conducted in São Paulo, Brazil (2000 and 2006), were used to examine the impact of obesity on disability and mortality and of weight changes on health transitions related to disability. Logistic and multinomial regression models were used in the analyses. Individuals who were obese were more likely than those of normal weight to have limitations on activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activity of daily living (IADL), and Nagi's limitations. Obesity was associated with higher incidence of ADL and IADL limitations and with lower recovery from Nagi's limitations. Compared to those who maintained their weight, those who gained weight experienced higher incidence of ADL and Nagi's limitations, even after controlling for initial body mass index. Higher mortality among overweight individuals was only found when the reference category was “remaining free of Nagi limitations.” The findings of the study underline the importance of maintaining normal weight for preventing disability at older ages. PMID:23691319

  4. Weight Control Beliefs, Body Shape Attitudes, and Physical Activity among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Scott B.; Rhea, Deborah J.; Greenleaf, Christy A.; Judd, Doryce E.; Chambliss, Heather O.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Relatively little is known about how perceived weight controllability influences important psychological health factors among adolescents. Thus, the purpose of this study is to explore adolescents' weight controllability beliefs and how those beliefs influence weight-related attitudes and behaviors. Methods: Adolescents (N = 369, mean…

  5. Associations among Endocrine, Inflammatory, and Bone Markers, Body Composition and Physical Activity to Weight Loss Induced Bone Loss

    PubMed Central

    Labouesse, Marie A.; Gertz, Erik R.; Piccolo, Brian D.; Souza, Elaine C.; Schuster, Gertrud U.; Witbracht, Megan G.; Woodhouse, Leslie R.; Adams, Sean H.; Keim, Nancy L.; Van Loan, Marta D.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Weight loss reduces co-morbidities of obesity, but decreases bone mass. PURPOSE Our aims were to 1) determine if adequate dairy intake attenuates weight loss-induced bone loss; 2) evaluate the associations of endocrine, inflammatory and bone markers, anthropometric and other parameters to bone mineral density and content (BMD, BMC) pre- and post-weight loss; 3) model the contribution of these variables to post weight-loss BMD and BMC METHODS Overweight/obese women (BMI: 28–37 kg/m2) were enrolled in an energy reduced (?500 kcal/d; ?2092 kJ/d) diet with adequate dairy (AD: 3–4 servings/d; n=25, 32.2 ± 8.8y) or low dairy (LD: ? 1 serving/d; n=26, 31.7 ± 8.4 y). BMD, BMC and body composition were measured by DXA. Bone markers (CTX, PYD, BAP, OC), endocrine (PTH, vitamin D, leptin, adiponectin, ghrelin, amylin, insulin, GLP-1, PAI-1, HOMA) and inflammatory markers (CRP, IL1-?, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-?, cortisol) were measured in serum or plasma. PA was assessed by accelerometry. RESULTS Following weight loss, AD intake resulted in significantly greater (p= 0.004) lumbar spine BMD and serum osteocalcin (p=0.004) concentration compared to LD. Pre- and post- body fat were negatively associated with hip and lumbar spine BMC (r= ?0.28, p=0.04 to ?0.45, p=0.001). Of note were the significant negative associations among bone markers and IL-1?, TNF? and CRP ranging from r = ?0.29 (p=0.04) to r = ?0.34 (p=0.01); magnitude of associations did not change with weight loss. Adiponectin was negatively related to change in osteocalcin. Factor analysis resulted in 8 pre- and post-weight loss Factors. Pre-weight loss Factors accounted for 13.7% of the total variance in pre-weight loss hip BMD; post-weight loss Factors explained 19.6% of the total variance in post-weight loss hip BMD. None of the Factors contributed to the variance in lumbar spine BMD. CONCLUSION AD during weight loss resulted in higher lumbar spine BMD and osteocalcin compared to LD. Significant negative associations were observed between bone and inflammatory markers suggesting inflammation suppresses bone metabolism. Using Factor Analysis, 19.6% of total variance in post-weight loss hip BMD could be explained by endocrine, immune, and anthropometric variables, but not lumbar spine BMD. PMID:24709689

  6. Interpersonal rejection results in increased appearance satisfaction for women who rely on body weight for self-worth.

    PubMed

    O'Driscoll, Lauren M; Jarry, Josée L

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether body weight contingent self-worth (BWCSW), the tendency to base self-worth on body weight, moderates the effects of interpersonal rejection on self-esteem and body satisfaction. In an online survey, female undergraduates (N=148) completed measures of trait self-esteem, depression, and BWCSW. In a subsequent lab session, participants were assigned to either an interpersonal rejection or to a neutral control condition, after which they completed measures of state self-esteem and body satisfaction. Compared to women with lower BWCSW, women with higher BWCSW reported lower appearance self-esteem (p=.001) and body satisfaction (p=.004) across conditions. However, they reacted to rejection by reporting greater appearance self-esteem (p=.034) and body satisfaction (p=.021). Rejection had no effect on women with lower BWCSW. The reaction of women with higher BWCSW is interpreted as a compensatory self-enhancement response to interpersonal rejection within a self-important domain. PMID:25462880

  7. The body mass index in relation with the self-perception of weight and the body composition from different populational groups.

    PubMed

    Barzuca, D; Vlaicu, Brigitha; Mircioaga, Adriana; Mircioaga, Elena; Carabas, I

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the self-perception of weight in relation with the body mass index and the body composition of three working groups composed of physically untrained young students, young athletes and patients diagnosed with chronic diseases. The working groups consisted of 110 participants: untrained students, athletes and dialysed patients; 50.9% women and 49.1% men; with an average age of 26.03. The BMI of the patients is significantly higher than the BMI of the athletes and untrained students. No significant differences were found between groups in terms of self-perception of weight. Compared to the physically untrained students and patients, the athletes have a significantly higher level of muscle tissue. The athletes also have a significantly lower adipose tissue than that of the physically untrained students and patients. PMID:24502079

  8. Food intake affects state body image: impact of restrained eating patterns and concerns about eating, weight and shape.

    PubMed

    Vocks, Silja; Legenbauer, Tanja; Heil, Andrea

    2007-09-01

    Body image disturbances play a significant role in the development of eating disorders. Since body image can vary in diverse contexts, the aim of the present experiment was to investigate whether it is affected by recent food intake. Fifty-seven females without clinically relevant eating disorders were randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG, n=28) that consumed a milkshake while watching a neutral film and a control group (CG, n=29) that only viewed the movie. Before and after the tasks, participants filled in the "Body Image States Scale" and the "Mood Questionnaire" and indicated their own "actual", "felt" and "ideal" body dimensions with a digital distortion technique based on a photograph of themselves. It was shown that after milkshake consumption, state body dissatisfaction as well as the discrepancy between "actual-ideal" and "felt-ideal" body size estimations was higher in the EG than in the CG. Judgements of the "actual", "felt" and "ideal" body dimensions and of mood were not affected. Further analyses revealed that the effect of milkshake consumption on body image and mood was higher the more the participants displayed restrained eating or eating, weight and shape concerns in general. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:17459521

  9. Cross-cultural variation in blood pressure: a quantitative analysis of the relationships of blood pressure to cultural characteristics, salt consumption and body weight.

    PubMed

    Waldron, I; Nowotarski, M; Freimer, M; Henry, J P; Post, N; Witten, C

    1982-01-01

    This study has analyzed the relationships of cross-cultural variation in blood pressure to cultural characteristics, salt consumption and body weight. The data used were blood pressures for adults in 84 groups, ratings of cultural characteristics (based on anthropological data and made by raters who had no knowledge of the blood pressure data) and, where available, salt consumption and body mass index (weight/height2). Blood pressures were higher and the slopes of blood pressure with age were greater in groups which had greater involvement in a money economy, more economic competition, more contact with people of different culture or beliefs, and more unfulfilled aspirations for a return to traditional beliefs and values. Blood pressures were also higher in groups for which the predominant family type was a nuclear or father-absent family, as opposed to an extended family. For Negroes, groups who were descended from slaves had higher blood pressures than other groups. The correlations between blood pressures and involvement in a money economy were substantial and significant even after controlling for level of salt consumption and, for men, also after controlling for body mass index. For men there were also significant partial correlations between blood pressure and salt consumption, controlling for type of economy. For women there were significant partial correlations between blood pressure and body mass index, controlling for type of economy. In conclusion, cross-cultural variation in blood pressure appears to be due to multiple factors. One contributory factor appears to be psychosocial stress due to cultural disruption, including the disruption of cooperative relationships and traditional cultural patterns which frequently occurs during economic modernization. In addition, both the protective effects of very low salt consumption in some groups and differences in body weight appear to contribute to cross-cultural variation in blood pressure. PMID:7079796

  10. Impaired Nutrient Signaling and Body Weight Control in a Na+ Neutral Amino Acid Cotransporter (Slc6a19)-deficient Mouse*

    PubMed Central

    Bröer, Angelika; Juelich, Torsten; Vanslambrouck, Jessica M.; Tietze, Nadine; Solomon, Peter S.; Holst, Jeff; Bailey, Charles G.; Rasko, John E. J.; Bröer, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Amino acid uptake in the intestine and kidney is mediated by a variety of amino acid transporters. To understand the role of epithelial neutral amino acid uptake in whole body homeostasis, we analyzed mice lacking the apical broad-spectrum neutral (0) amino acid transporter B0AT1 (Slc6a19). A general neutral aminoaciduria was observed similar to human Hartnup disorder which is caused by mutations in SLC6A19. Na+-dependent uptake of neutral amino acids into the intestine and renal brush-border membrane vesicles was abolished. No compensatory increase of peptide transport or other neutral amino acid transporters was detected. Mice lacking B0AT1 showed a reduced body weight. When adapted to a standard 20% protein diet, B0AT1-deficient mice lost body weight rapidly on diets containing 6 or 40% protein. Secretion of insulin in response to food ingestion after fasting was blunted. In the intestine, amino acid signaling to the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway was reduced, whereas the GCN2/ATF4 stress response pathway was activated, indicating amino acid deprivation in epithelial cells. The results demonstrate that epithelial amino acid uptake is essential for optimal growth and body weight regulation. PMID:21636576

  11. Evaluation of An Upper Elementary School Program To Prevent Body Image, Eating, and Weight Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kater, Kathy J.; Rohwer, John; Londre, Karen

    2002-01-01

    Examined whether the 11-lesson "Healthy Body Image: Teaching Kids to Eat and Love Their Bodies Too!" curriculum would have a positive effect on upper elementary students. Pretest- posttest measures indicated that, compared to control children, children who completed the curriculum showed significant or notable improvement regarding body image,…

  12. Relationships of Record Keeping, Levels of Reported Physical Activity and Body Composition with Weight Loss

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Gentemann; J. M. Ashley; S. Pcrumean-Chaney; J. Schrage; S. T. St. Jeor

    1999-01-01

    Physical activity has been indicated for the reduction of body fat mass but its association with preservation of lean body mass has not been thoroughly examined. Thus, this study examined the relationships of different levels of physical activity measured by an activity monitor which counted steps (digiwalker) with record keeping on a monthly log and lean body mass (fat free

  13. Negative Affect as a Mediator between Body Dissatisfaction and Extreme Weight Loss and Muscle Gain Behaviors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Heywood; Marita P. McCabe

    2006-01-01

    Negative affect has been found to mediate the relationship between body dissatisfaction and bulimia. However, it is unknown if this relationship also applies to disordered eating, excessive exercise and strategies to increase muscle for men or women. The aim of this study was to investigate whether negative and positive affect mediate the relationship between body dissatisfaction, and these body change

  14. The Impact of a Long-Term Reduction in Dietary Energy Density on Body Weight Within a Randomized Diet Trial

    PubMed Central

    Saquib, Nazmus; Natarajan, Loki; Rock, Cheryl L.; Flatt, Shirley W.; Madlensky, Lisa; Kealey, Sheila; Pierce, John P.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the effect of dietary energy density change on body weight in participants of a randomized trial. Intervention participants markedly increased fruit and vegetable intake while reducing energy intake from fat. Participants were 2,718 breast cancer survivors, aged 26?74 yr, with baseline mean body mass index of 27.3 kg/m2 (SD = 6.3). We assessed dietary intake by sets of four 24-h dietary recalls and validated with plasma carotenoid concentrations. Weight and height were measured at baseline, 1 yr, and 4 yr. Dietary energy density was calculated using food but excluding beverages. Intervention participants significantly reduced dietary energy density compared to controls and maintained it over 4 yr—both in cross-sectional (P < 0.0001) and longitudinal (Group × Time interaction, P < 0.0001) analyses. Total energy intake or physical activity did not vary between groups. The intervention group had a small but significant weight loss at 1 yr (Group × Time interaction, P < 0.0001), but no between-group weight difference was observed at 4 yr. Our study showed that reducing dietary energy density did not result in a reduction in total energy intake and suggests that this strategy alone is not sufficient to promote long-term weight loss in a free-living population. PMID:18444133

  15. Pioglitazone Treatment Increases Survival and Prevents Body Weight Loss in Tumor–Bearing Animals: Possible Anti-Cachectic Effect

    PubMed Central

    Beluzi, Mércia; Peres, Sidney B.; Henriques, Felipe S.; Sertié, Rogério A. L.; Franco, Felipe O.; Santos, Kaltinaitis B.; Knobl, Pâmela; Andreotti, Sandra; Shida, Cláudio S.; Neves, Rodrigo X.; Farmer, Stephen R.; Seelaender, Marília; Lima, Fábio B.; Batista Jr., Miguel L.

    2015-01-01

    Cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome characterized by profound involuntary weight loss, fat depletion, skeletal muscle wasting, and asthenia; all symptoms are not entirely attributable to inadequate nutritional intake. Adipose tissue and skeletal muscle loss during cancer cachexia development has been described systematically. The former was proposed to precede and be more rapid than the latter, which presents a means for the early detection of cachexia in cancer patients. Recently, pioglitazone (PGZ) was proposed to exhibit anti-cancer properties, including a reduction in insulin resistance and adipose tissue loss; nevertheless, few studies have evaluated its effect on survival. For greater insight into a potential anti-cachectic effect due to PGZ, 8-week-old male Wistar rats were subcutaneously inoculated with 1 mL (2×107) of Walker 256 tumor cells. The animals were randomly assigned to two experimental groups: TC (tumor + saline-control) and TP5 (tumor + PGZ/5 mg). Body weight, food ingestion and tumor growth were measured at baseline and after removal of tumor on days 7, 14 and 26. Samples from different visceral adipose tissue (AT) depots were collected on days 7 and 14 and stored at -80o C (5 to 7 animals per day/group). The PGZ treatment showed an increase in the survival average of 27.3% (P< 0.01) when compared to TC. It was also associated with enhanced body mass preservation (40.7 and 56.3%, p< 0.01) on day 14 and 26 compared with the TC group. The treatment also reduced the final tumor mass (53.4%, p<0.05) and anorexia compared with the TC group during late-stage cachexia. The retroperitoneal AT (RPAT) mass was preserved on day 7 compared with the TC group during the same experimental period. Such effect also demonstrates inverse relationship with tumor growth, on day 14. Gene expression of PPAR-?, adiponectin, LPL and C/EBP-? from cachectic rats was upregulated after PGZ. Glucose uptake from adipocyte cells (RPAT) was entirely re-established due to PGZ treatment. Taken together, the results demonstrate beneficial effects of PGZ treatment at both the early and final stages of cachexia. PMID:25807446

  16. Cuts between the septum and preoptic area increase ultrasound production, lordosis, and body weight in female hamsters.

    PubMed

    Floody, O R

    1993-08-01

    Studies of the mechanisms for female-typical mating behavior have focused on the ventromedial hypothalamus, and on the decrements in lordosis caused by lesions of this structure. However, opposed changes of comparable size are produced, at least in rats, by horizontal cuts extending forward from the anterior commissure (anterior roof deafferentation, or ARD). This suggests the existence of a lordosis-inhibiting system of forebrain structures that may include the lateral septum and preoptic area. To test the generality of this system, ovariectomized hamsters in hormone-induced estrus were observed for levels of ultrasound production and lordosis during tests with male conspecifics. In addition, subjects were observed for lordosis responses to light manual stimulation. Upon the completion of these tests, subjects received control treatments or ARD prior to a second round of behavioral observations. These postoperative tests revealed clear ARD-stimulated increases in ultrasound production and body weight. In contrast, the facilitation of lordosis was more subtle, appearing in tests with manual stimulation, but not in response to males. These results, then, demonstrate some consistency across species in the effects of ARD. At the same time, however, they suggest species differences in the magnitude of these effects, in turn, suggesting species differences in the dependence of receptivity on forebrain lordosis-inhibiting mechanisms. PMID:8372136

  17. Identification of quantitative trait loci associated with bone traits and body weight in an F2 resource population of chickens*

    PubMed Central

    Schreiweis, Melissa A; Hester, Patricia Y; Moody, Diane E

    2005-01-01

    Bone fractures at the end of lay are a significant problem in egg-laying strains of hens. The objective of the current study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with bone mineralization and strength in a chicken resource population. Layer (White Leghorn hens) and broiler (Cobb-Cobb roosters) lines were crossed to generate an F2 population of 508 hens over seven hatches, and 26 traits related to bone integrity, including bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC), were measured. Genotypes of 120 microsatellite markers on 28 autosomal groups were determined, and interval mapping was conducted to identify QTL regions. Twenty-three tests representing three chromosomal regions (chromosomes 4, 10 and 27) contained significant QTL that surpassed the 5% genome-wise threshold, and 47 tests representing 15 chromosomes identified suggestive QTL that surpassed the 5% chromosome-wise threshold. Although no significant QTL influencing BMD and BMC were detected after adjusting for variation in body weight and egg production, multiple suggestive QTL were found. These results support previous experiments demonstrating an important genetic regulation of bone strength in chickens, but suggest the regulation may be due to the effects of multiple genes that each account for relatively small amounts of variation in bone strength. PMID:16277974

  18. Sibutramine Plus Meal Replacement Therapy for Body Weight Loss and Maintenance in Obese Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James L. Early; Caroline M. Apovian; Louis J. Aronne; Madelyn H. Fernstrom; Arthur Frank; Frank L. Greenway; David Heber; Robert F. Kushner; Kristine M. Cwik; Julia K. Walch; Ann C. Hewkin; Vicky Blakesley

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Our objective was to assess the efficacy and safety of sibutramine with a low-calorie diet (LCD) and commercial meal-replacement product in achieving weight loss and weight-loss maintenance in obese patients.Research Methods and Procedures: Eight U.S. centers recruited 148 obese patients for a 3-month comprehensive weight-loss therapy (Phase I) comprising daily sibutramine 10 mg + LCD (two Slim-Fast meal-replacement shakes,

  19. The relative contribution of profile body shape and weight to judgements of women's physical attractiveness in Britain and Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Tovée, Martin J

    2007-12-01

    Ninety-six Malaysian and British men rated for physical attractiveness a set of photographs of real women in profile, with known body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). Results showed that BMI accounted for the greater amount of variance in all settings. There were also significant differences in preferences for body weight, with low resource, low socioeconomic status (SES) raters preferring a significantly heavier partner than high resource, high SES raters. The disparity with previous findings using line drawings of women in profile was discussed in terms of the weaknesses of line-drawn stimuli. PMID:18089286

  20. Influence of Age, Type and Fertility in Rambouillet Ewes on Fineness of Fibers, Fleece Weight, Staple Length, and Body Weight

    E-print Network

    Patterson, R.E.; Warwick, B.L.; Davis, S. P; Dameron, W. H.; Jones, J. M. (John McKinley)

    1944-01-01

    ................ Totals** .......... Averages**. ............. **The records for the one year old ewes have not been included in these averages. - - Did Not Lamb During Lambed During Year Year - iZll Records C Type R Type C 'Type i R Type Ave. Ave. Ave... - All Records C, TYPC B *rype C Type B Type .\\KC in years ---- - -- --- - -- - -- - Ave. Ave. Ave. Ave. Ave. No. inches No. inches No. inches No. inches No. inches ___________---- ....................................... 1" 693 2.51 71 2.27 764 2...

  1. Differential two-body compound nuclear cross section, including the width-fluctuation corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). NNDC; Herman, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). NNDC

    2014-09-02

    We figure out the compound angular differential cross sections, following mainly Fröbrich and Lipperheide, but with the angular momentum couplings that make sense for optical model work. We include the width-fluctuation correction along with calculations.

  2. Effects of a weight loss program on body composition and the metabolic profile in obese postmenopausal women displaying various obesity phenotypes: a MONET group study.

    PubMed

    Normandin, Eve; Doucet, Eric; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Brochu, Martin

    2015-07-01

    Obesity is a heterogeneous condition, since the metabolic profile may differ greatly from one individual to another. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of a 6-month diet-induced weight loss program on body composition and the metabolic profile in obese individuals displaying different obesity phenotypes. Secondary analyses were done on 129 obese (% body fat: 46% ± 4%) postmenopausal women (age: 57 ± 4 years). Outcome measures included body composition, body fat distribution, glucose homeostasis, fasting lipids, and blood pressure. Obesity phenotypes were determined based on lean body mass (LBM) index (LBMI = LBM/height(2)) and visceral fat (VF) accumulation, as follows: 1, lower VF and lower LBMI (n = 35); 2, lower VF and higher LBMI (n = 19); 3, higher VF and lower LBMI (n = 14); and 4, higher VF and higher LBMI (n = 61). All groups had significantly improved measures of body composition after the intervention (P < 0.0001). Greater decreases in LBM and LBMI were observed in the higher LBMI groups than in the lower LBMI groups (P < 0.0001). Similarly, decreases in VF were greater in the higher VF groups than in the lower VF groups (P < 0.05). Overall, fasting insulin levels and glucose disposal improved following the intervention, with higher LBMI groups showing a trend for greater improvements (P = 0.06 and 0.07, respectively). Overall, no difference was observed among the different obesity phenotypes regarding improvements in the metabolic profile in response to weight loss. Individuals displaying higher VF or higher LBMI at baseline experienced significantly greater decreases for these variables after the intervention. PMID:26140414

  3. Deep body composition phenotyping during weight cycling: relevance to metabolic efficiency and metabolic risk.

    PubMed

    Bosy-Westphal, A; Kahlhöfer, J; Lagerpusch, M; Skurk, T; Müller, M J

    2015-02-01

    Weight cycling may lead to adverse effects on metabolic efficiency (i.e. adaptive thermogenesis or 'metabolic slowing') and metabolic risks (e.g. increased risk for insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome). In order to investigate these topics, the partitioning of fat and lean mass (i.e. the change in the proportion of both compartments) needs to be extended to the organ and tissue level because metabolic risk differs between adipose tissue depots and lean mass is metabolically heterogeneous being composed of organs and tissues differing in metabolic rate. Contrary to data obtained with severe weight loss and regain in lean people, weight cycling most likely has no adverse effects on fat distribution and metabolic risk in obese patients. There is even evidence for an increased ability of fat storage in subcutaneous fat depots (at the trunk in men and at the limbs in women) with weight cycling that may provide a certain protection from ectopic lipid deposition and thus explain the preservation of a favourable metabolic profile despite weight regain. On the other hand, the mass-specific metabolic rate of lean mass may increase with weight gain and decrease with weight loss mainly because of an increase and respective decrease in the proportion (and/or activity) of metabolically active organ mass. Obese people could therefore have a higher slope of the regression line between resting energy expenditure (REE) and fat-free mass that leads to an overestimation of metabolic efficiency when applied to normalize REE data after weight loss. Furthermore, in addressing the impact of macronutrient composition of the diet on partitioning of lean and fat mass, and the old controversy about whether a calorie is a calorie, we discuss recent evidence in support of a low glycaemic weight maintenance diet in countering weight regain and challenge this concept for weight loss by proposing the opposite. PMID:25614202

  4. Associations between repression, general maladjustment, body weight, and body shape in older males: The normative aging study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond S. Niaura; Laura R. Stroud; John Todaro; Kenneth D. Ward; Avron Spiro; Carolyn Aldwin; Lewis Landsberg; Scott T. Weiss

    2003-01-01

    We examined relationships between repression, general maladjustment, body mass index (BMI), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR).\\u000a The participants were 1,081 healthy older men from the Normative Aging Study. Repression and General Maladjustment Scales\\u000a of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory were composite measures of personality. Repression was associated with\\u000a lower BMI and WHR, and maladjustment with higher BMI and WHR. However, associations

  5. Application of a body-weight-supporting kite for sprint running.

    PubMed

    Kratky, Sascha; Müller, Erich

    2013-11-01

    Improvements in sprint performance at the top level require adaptations concerning force application because ground contact time diminishes with increasing velocity. Applied training methods and devices must provoke appropriate stimuli. A knowledge about positive and negative effects of these stimuli is vital for coaches. The purpose of this study was to determine the angle of attack and lifting and retarding forces of a novel sprint training device that supports the athlete's body weight (BW), thereby decreasing ground contact time during sprints. Three different kite sizes (1.10, 1.75, 2.25 m) were investigated. A bicycle was used to accelerate the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) parawings (NPW-120, NPW-150, and NPW-170) on an indoor track to acquire data at velocities between 6.5 and 10.5 m · s. During a 5-m interval of constant speed, the resultant force of the kite was recorded on a portable computer by a load cell. The angle of attack was determined by a high-speed camera, and the mean velocity in the 5-m sector was measured by a laser gauge. Lifting and retarding forces were derived from the resultant force and angle of attack. Quadratic regression equations for lifting and retarding forces, depending on the velocity, were calculated for all 3 NPWs. A clear difference (p < 0.001) depending on the kite size was revealed for lifting and retarding forces. These forces also indicated high correlation coefficients related to velocity (r > 0.98; p < 0.001), whereas the angle of attack remained almost constant across the entire velocity range in all NPWs, yielding a lift-to-drag ratio of 2.35. Because of the kite's small retarding forces, we recommend the application of the NPW during the high-speed phase of sprinting with lifting force probably counteracting adverse effects. By adding a towing system, the retarding force can be fine tuned, erased, or turned into overspeed assistance, thereby emphasizing BW support. PMID:23442285

  6. TGF-b Superfamily Cytokine MIC-1/GDF15 Is a Physiological Appetite and Body Weight Regulator

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Vicky Wang-Wei; Macia, Laurence; Johnen, Heiko; Kuffner, Tamara; Manadhar, Rakesh; Jørgensen, Sebastian Beck; Lee-Ng, Ka Ki Michelle; Zhang, Hong Ping; Wu, Liyun; Marquis, Christopher Peter; Jiang, Lele; Husaini, Yasmin; Lin, Shu; Herzog, Herbert

    2013-01-01

    The TGF-b superfamily cytokine MIC-1/GDF15 circulates in all humans and when overproduced in cancer leads to anorexia/cachexia, by direct action on brain feeding centres. In these studies we have examined the role of physiologically relevant levels of MIC-1/GDF15 in the regulation of appetite, body weight and basal metabolic rate. MIC-1/GDF15 gene knockout mice (MIC-1?/?) weighed more and had increased adiposity, which was associated with increased spontaneous food intake. Female MIC-1?/? mice exhibited some additional alterations in reduced basal energy expenditure and physical activity, possibly owing to the associated decrease in total lean mass. Further, infusion of human recombinant MIC-1/GDF15 sufficient to raise serum levels in MIC-1?/? mice to within the normal human range reduced body weight and food intake. Taken together, our findings suggest that MIC-1/GDF15 is involved in the physiological regulation of appetite and energy storage. PMID:23468844

  7. A Hybrid Cosmological Hydrodynamic/N-Body Code Based on a Weighted Essentially Nonoscillatory Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Long-Long; Shu, Chi-Wang; Zhang, Mengping

    2004-09-01

    We present a newly developed cosmological hydrodynamics code based on weighted essentially nonoscillatory (WENO) schemes for hyperbolic conservation laws. WENO is a higher order accurate finite difference scheme designed for problems with piecewise smooth solutions containing discontinuities and has been successfully applied for problems involving both shocks and complicated smooth solution structures. We couple hydrodynamics based on the WENO scheme with the standard Poisson solver-particle-mesh (PM) algorithm for evolving the self-gravitating system. The third-order low-storage total variation diminishing (TVD) Runge-Kutta scheme has been used for the time integration of the system. To test the accuracy and convergence rate of the code, we subject it to a number of typical tests, including the Sod shock tube in multiple dimensions, the Sedov blast wave, and formation of the Zel'dovich pancake. These tests validate the WENO hydrodynamics with a fast convergence rate and high accuracy. We also evolve a low-density flat cosmological model (?CDM) to explore the validity of the code in practical simulations.

  8. Determining the impact of food price and income changes on body weight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christiane Schroeter; Jayson Lusk; Wallace Tyner

    2008-01-01

    We develop a theoretical model to identify conditions under which price and income changes are most likely to change weight. Although it is intuitive that raising the price of high-calorie food will decrease consumption of such goods; it is not clear that such an outcome will actually reduce weight. Our empirical analysis demonstrates a case where a tax on food

  9. Effects of nicotine on body weight and food consumption in female rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil E. Grunberg; Deborah J. Bowen; Suzan E. Winders

    1986-01-01

    Women often report that they smoke cigarettes to avoid weight gains and that they relapse after abstaining from tobacco because of weight gains. Men also report these concerns but to a lesser extent. This gender difference may reflect sociological and cultural pressures about physical appearance, or it may reflect sex differences in the effects of nicotine. The present research was

  10. Self-Esteem and Body Dissatisfaction in Young Children: Associations with Weight and Perceived Parenting Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene; Slater, Amy; Mohr, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Background: Parenting style has been associated with weight-related outcomes in children, but relationships between parenting, weight, and overweight-related psychological outcomes remain largely unstudied. The aim of the present study was to determine whether parenting was a moderator of the relationship between overweight and psychological…

  11. Seasonal Variation in Pigeon Body Weight and Delayed Matching-to-Sample Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargisson, Rebecca J.; McLean, Ian G.; Brown, Glenn S.; White, K. Geoffrey

    2007-01-01

    The weights of 5 pigeons with free access to food, monitored over 3 calendar years in the laboratory, were found to fluctuate with season. All pigeons were at their heaviest in the winter and were lightest in the summer. Five different pigeons performed a standard delayed matching-to-sample task for 44 weeks from January to November. Their weights

  12. An Ecological Momentary Assessment of the Effects of Weight and Shape Social Comparisons on Women With Eating Pathology, High Body Dissatisfaction, and Low Body Dissatisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Leahey, Tricia M.; Crowther, Janis H.; Ciesla, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    This research examined the effects of naturally occurring appearance comparisons on women’s affect, body satisfaction, and compensatory cognitions and behaviors. Using ecological momentary assessment, women with high body dissatisfaction and eating pathology (EPHB), high body dissatisfaction (HB), or low body dissatisfaction (LB) recorded their reactions to appearance-focused social comparisons. EPHB and HB women made more upward appearance comparisons than LB women. All women experienced negative emotions and cognitions after upward comparisons, including increased guilt, body dissatisfaction, and thoughts of dieting. EPHB women were most negatively affected by comparisons; they experienced more intense negative emotions, more thoughts of dieting/exercising, and an increase in eating-disordered behavior after upward comparisons. HB women experienced more negative affective consequences and thoughts of dieting than LB women. Results are consistent with social comparison theory and provide important information that may be used to inform eating disorder treatment and prevention efforts. PMID:21496506

  13. The influence of photoperiod and melatonin on testis size, body weight, and pelage colour in the Djungarian hamster ( Phodopus sungorus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klaus Hoffmann

    1973-01-01

    Summary  The responses of testes, body weight, and pelage colour to short and long photoperiods in winter were determined in adult\\u000a male hamsters with and without the implantation of melatonin. Animals in winter condition, with involuted testes and winter\\u000a pelage, were kept at 20 °C under conditions of either long (16 h per day) or short (8 h per day) photoperiods

  14. The effect of ration size, temperature and body weight on specific dynamic action of the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Grigoriou; C. A. Richardson

    2008-01-01

    The effect of meal size (shrimp Crangon crangon) [0.83–18.82% dry body weight (Dw)] on specific dynamic action (SDA) was assessed in cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (1.03–6.25 g Dw) held at 15 and 20°C. Cuttlefish <2 g significantly expended less energy in feeding and digesting their meal\\u000a than cuttlefish >2 g when given the same quantity of food. Handling, eating and digesting

  15. Genetic variance and covariance patterns for body weight and energy balance characters in an advanced intercross population of mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry J Leamy; Kari Elo; Merlyn K Nielsen; L Dale Van Vleck; Daniel Pomp

    2005-01-01

    We estimated heritabilities and genetic correlations for a suite of 15 characters in five functional groups in an advanced intercross population of over 2000 mice derived from a cross of inbred lines selected for high and low heat loss. Heritabilities averaged 0.56 for three body weights, 0.23 for two energy balance characters, 0.48 for three bone characters, 0.35 for four

  16. Effect of Ramadan Fasting on Body Weight, (BP) and Biochemical Parameters in Middle Aged Hypertensive Subjects: An Observational Trial

    PubMed Central

    M, Salahuddin; AH, Sayed Ashfak; SR, Syed; KM, Badaam

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Ramadan fasting is a religious obligation which is practised by Muslim population all over the world. However, there is scarcity of scientific literature regarding its effects on health determinants in cardiovascular disturbances like hypertension. Objects:The present study was done to assess the (BP), body weight and serum cholesterol changes over the period of Ramadan fasting in patients with hypertension. Materails And Methods:This prospective observational trial was done on 15 hypertensive subjects who were in the age group of 35 to 65 years, who were determined to complete Ramadan fast. All subjects were on antihypertensive therapy. Outcome measures of (BP), body weight and serum cholesterol were assessed in all the subjects before and after Ramadan month. Results: Mean age of subjects was 44.6 ± 5.62 years. Systolic BP decreased from 148 ± 19.6 to 132.5 ± 17.9 mm of Hg. The decrease of 15.5 units (95% CI: 7.5 to 24.4) was statistically significant (p = 0.0009). Diastolic BP decreased from 90.4 ± 7.8 to 81.1 ± 6.3 mm of Hg. The decrease of 9.3 units (95% CI: 5.7 to 13) was statistically significant (p < 0.0001). There was statistically significant decrease in body weight from 66.6 ± 13 to 65.2 ± 12.7 kg (p < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in serum cholesterol from 187.3 ± 28.9 to 192.7 ± 31.3 mg% (p = 0.37). Conclusion: Hypertensive patients with continuation of their medicines showed a decrease in blood pressure and reduction in body weight at the end of Ramadan fasting duration. However there was no change found in serum cholesterol levels. PMID:24783068

  17. Prices of Unhealthy Foods, Food Stamp Program Participation, and Body Weight Status Among U.S. Low-Income Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qi ZhangZhuo; Zhuo Chen; Norou Diawara; Youfa Wang

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the interactive effect between the price of unhealthy foods and Food Stamp Program participation on body\\u000a weight status among low-income women in the United States. We merged the panel data of the National Longitudinal Survey of\\u000a Youth 1979 cohort in 1985–2002 and the Cost of Living Index data compiled by the American Chamber of Commerce Researchers\\u000a Association

  18. Body Weight Does Not Predict for Anti-Xa Levels after Fixed Dose Prophylaxis with Enoxaparin After Orthopedic Surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Kovacs; K. Weir; K. MacKinnon; M. Keeney; W. F. Brien; M. K. Cruickshank

    1998-01-01

    Enoxaparin after joint arthroplasty is effective prophylaxis against venous thromboembolism. This is usually given as a fixed dose without monitoring of anti-Xa levels. This study assesses the relationship between trough anti-Xa levels, body weight, and venous thromboembolism. Consenting patients at three institutions were treated with Enoxaparin 30 mg subcutaneously bis in die postoperatively until discharge. Chromogenic anti-Xa levels were measured

  19. Effect of a Dietary Herbal Supplement Containing Caffeine and Ephedra on Weight, Metabolic Rate, and Body Composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank L. Greenway; Lilian de Jonge; Damian Blanchard; Madlyn Frisard; Steven R. Smith

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of a dietary supplement containing herbal caffeine (70 mg\\/dose) and ephedra (24 mg\\/dose; C&E) on metabolic rate, weight loss, body composition, and safety parameters.Research Methods and Procedures: In phase I, 12 healthy subjects with a BMI of 25 to 35 kg\\/m2 had resting metabolic rate (RMR) measured for 2 hours after ingesting C&E or a

  20. The effect of body weight on some welfare indicators in feedlot cattle in a hot environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikmen, Serdal; Ustuner, Hakan; Orman, Abdulkadir

    2012-03-01

    Heat stress has important effects on the welfare of livestock. The effects of heat stress in cattle include changes in biological functions and behaviors. The aim of this study was to investigate the behavioral differences between light and heavy feedlot cattle reared in a hot environment. Sixteen male Holstein feedlot cattle were allocated to light (353.8 ± 15.5 kg, n = 8) and heavy (737.1 ± 15.8 kg, n = 8) groups according to their live weight and were kept in a semi-open feedlot barn. The individual behavioral response variables measured were standing, lying, feeding, drinking, ruminating, locomotor activity and elimination (urinating and defecating). The effects of group, day, observation time, replicate and all interactions were included in an explanatory statistical (GLM) model. The data were analyzed using the PROC GLM procedure of SAS. Overall, the heavy cattle spent more time standing ( P < 0.001), lying ( P < 0.001), and eliminating ( P < 0.05) compared to the light group. In contrast, the light group spent more time eating, drinking and ruminating ( P < 0.001). Locomotor activity did not differ significantly between groups ( P > 0.05). During the day, heavy cattle spent more time standing (at 1600 hours) and less time eating in comparison with the light cattle ( P < 0.001) (at 1300 and 1600 hours). Light and heavy feedlot cattle behaved differently in a hot environment. The findings of the study indicate that the welfare of the heavy Holstein feedlot cattle was impacted negatively when the ambient temperature was high (at 1300 hours).

  1. Attention to emotional scenes including whole-body expressions in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Kano, Fumihiro; Tomonaga, Masaki

    2010-08-01

    Real-life situations provide rich sets of cues that viewers evaluate in terms of their emotional significance. In this study, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) viewed a movie depicting naturalistic scenes involving the whole-body expressions of conspecifics to examine how nonhuman primates perceived the combination of these cues and how each cue contributed to the overall perception. Viewing time was measured while the chimpanzees watched movie clips without sound. Among scenes depicting neutrality, general excitement, agonism, and playfulness, chimpanzees looked longest at those depicting agonism. This bias toward agonistic scenes may indicate an attentional sensitivity toward threat/fear-related negative situations among chimpanzees. The effect disappeared when the images were scrambled, ruling out the possible effect of pixel-level properties on the results. In addition, the follow-up analyses revealed that the effect was independent of the presentation order and of the number of individuals in each clip. The manipulation of playback speeds had little effect on the looking times. The elimination of facial cues slightly influenced the looking times but did not change the strong bias toward agonistic scenes. This robustness of the main effect against image manipulations may indicate that the chimpanzees attended directly to the contextual information implied by the cues rather than to the cues per se (e.g., facial expressions, speed of movements). PMID:20695660

  2. OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and weight gain during pregnancy with pregnancy and birth outcomes, with a focus on gestational

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Abstract OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and weight gain during pregnancy with pregnancy and birth outcomes, with a focus on gestational diabetes and offspring from the Eden mother-child cohort. Weight before pregnancy (W1) and weight after delivery (W2

  3. Comparison of Body Weights, Organ Weights and Histological Features of Selected Organs of Gnotobiotic, Conventional and Isolator-reared Contaminated Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Waxler, G. L.; Drees, D. T.

    1972-01-01

    Twenty-seven pigs from three litters were used in a comparison of body weights, organ weights, and selected histological features of germfree, conventional and isolator-reared contaminated pigs. At three weeks of age conventional pigs were heavier than pigs of the other two groups. The mandibular lymphnodes, stomachs, and small intestines of contaminated pigs were significantly heavier than the same organs of germfree pigs. This difference was not found in superficial inguinal or prefemoral lymph nodes. Other statistically significant organ weight differences were found. Histologically, the lymph nodes of conventional and contaminated pigs were much more active than those of germfree pigs, although secondary nodules were occasionally found in lymph nodes of germfree pigs. Greater quantities of iron-containing pigment were found in the spleens of germfree pigs than in spleens of the other two groups. Hepatic interlobular septa were somewhat more developed in conventional pigs than in germfree or contaminated pigs. ImagesFig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8. PMID:4261841

  4. Assessment of Intraocular Measurements in Neonatal Foals and Association with Gender, Laterality, and Body Weight: A Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Valentini, Simona; Castagnetti, Carolina; Musella, Vincenzo; Spinella, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Objective of this study was to describe intraocular measurements in newly born foals (1–7 days of age) and assess the association between globe measurements and gender, laterality, and body weight. B-scan ultrasonographic biometry was performed on both eyes of 22 healthy foals (44 eyes) ages 1–7 days using a 10-MHz transducer. Intraocular measurements (anterior chamber depth, central lens thickness, vitreous chamber depth, axial globe length, longitudinal globe length, lens poles distance) were carried out using the ultrasound internal calipers. The influence of gender (male or female), laterality (right or left eye), and body weight (“light” <48 kg; “heavy” ?48 kg) on ocular measurements was analysed by the Student t test. Values of P<0.05 were accepted as significant for all analyses. Mean anterior chamber depth was 2.2±0.5 mm (Standard Deviation); central lens thickness was 9.9±0.8 mm; vitreous chamber depth was 15.5±1.1 mm; axial globe length was 27.6±1.6 mm; longitudinal globe length was 35.8±1.2 mm, and lens poles distance was 16.4±1.0 mm. Intraocular measurements were not influenced by gender, laterality nor body weight. This study provides reference values for intraocular measurements in neonatal foals and may be useful in the diagnosis and treatment of congenital and acquired pathologies involving the globe. PMID:25296286

  5. The Relationship of Body Weight and Clinical Foot and Ankle Measurements to the Heel Forces of Forward and Backward Walking

    PubMed Central

    Albensi, Raymond J.; Nyland, John; Caborn, David N.M.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To compare and contrast the relationships of selected static clinical measurements with the heel forces of forward and backward walking among healthy high school athletes. Design and Setting: Single-group, cross-order-controlled, repeated-measures design. All data were collected in a high school athletic training room. Subjects: Seventeen healthy high school student-athlete volunteers. Measurements: We performed static clinical measurements of the foot, ankle, and knee using handheld goniometers. We used a metric ruler to assess navicular drop and a beam balance platform scale to measure body weight. Mean peak heel forces were measured using F-scan insole force sensors. Data were sampled for 3 5-second trials (50-Hz sampling rate). Mean peak heel forces were determined from 3 to 5 consecutive right foot contacts during forward and backward walking at approximately 4.02 to 4.83 km/h (2.5 to 3.0 mph). Subjects wore their own athletic shoes and alternated their initial walking direction. Results: Forward stepwise multiple regression analyses revealed that body weight, navicular drop, and standing foot angle predicted mean peak heel forces during forward and backward walking. Conclusions: Heel forces during forward and backward walking increase as body weight and navicular drop magnitude increase, and they decrease as standing foot angle increases. Subtle differences in foot, ankle, and knee joint postures and kinematics can affect heel forces even among normal subjects. Injury and protective bracing or taping may further affect these heel forces. PMID:16558581

  6. A Newly Identified CG301269 Improves Lipid and Glucose Metabolism Without Body Weight Gain Through Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator–Activated Receptor ? and ?

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hyun Woo; Lee, Joo-Won; Kim, Woo Sik; Choe, Sung Sik; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Park, Ho Seon; Shin, Hyun Jung; Lee, Gha Young; Shin, Dongkyu; Lee, Hanjae; Lee, Jun Hee; Choi, Eun Bok; Lee, Hyeon Kyu; Chung, Heekyoung; Park, Seung Bum; Park, Kyong Soo; Kim, Hyo-Soo; Ro, Seonggu; Kim, Jae Bum

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor (PPAR)-?/? dual agonists have been developed to alleviate metabolic disorders. However, several PPAR?/? dual agonists are accompanied with unwanted side effects, including body weight gain, edema, and tissue failure. This study investigated the effects of a novel PPAR?/? dual agonist, CG301269, on metabolic disorders both in vitro and in vivo. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Function of CG301269 as a PPAR?/? dual agonist was assessed in vitro by luciferase reporter assay, mammalian one-hybrid assay, and analyses of PPAR target genes. In vitro profiles on fatty acid oxidation and inflammatory responses were acquired by fatty acid oxidation assay and quantitative (q)RT-PCR of proinflammatory genes. In vivo effect of CG301269 was examined in db/db mice. Total body weight and various tissue weights were measured, and hepatic lipid profiles were analyzed. Systemic glucose and insulin tolerance were measured, and the in vivo effect of CG301269 on metabolic genes and proinflammatory genes was examined by qRT-PCR. RESULTS CG301269 selectively stimulated the transcriptional activities of PPAR? and PPAR?. CG301269 enhanced fatty acid oxidation in vitro and ameliorated insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia in vivo. In db/db mice, CG301269 reduced inflammatory responses and fatty liver, without body weight gain. CONCLUSIONS We demonstrate that CG301269 exhibits beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism by simultaneous activation of both PPAR? and PPAR?. Our data suggest that CG301269 would be a potential lead compound against obesity and related metabolic disorders. PMID:21270261

  7. Lower body weight is associated with less negative emotions in sad autobiographical memories of patients with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Brockmeyer, Timo; Grosse Holtforth, Martin; Bents, Hinrich; Herzog, Wolfgang; Friederich, Hans-Christoph

    2013-12-15

    Food restriction and weight-loss have been proposed to represent pathogenic mechanisms of emotion regulation in anorexia nervosa (AN). However, there is a lack of studies empirically examining this hypothesis. Therefore, the present study compared 25 women with AN and 25 healthy control women (HC) regarding spontaneous emotional processing of autobiographic memories. Participants' idiographic memories of sad autobiographic events were analyzed using computerized, quantitative text analysis as an unobtrusive approach of nonreactive assessment. Compared to HC, AN patients retrieved more negative but a comparable number of positive emotions. Moreover, the lesser the body weight in AN patients, the lesser negative emotions they retrieved, irrespective of current levels of depressive symptoms and duration of illness. No such association was found in HC. These preliminary findings are in line with models of AN proposing that food restriction and weight-loss may be negatively reinforced by the alleviation of aversive emotional responses. PMID:23850436

  8. The role of gestational diabetes, pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain on the risk of newborn macrosomia: results from a prospective multicentre study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is crucial to identify in large population samples the most important determinants of excessive fetal growth. The aim of the study was to evaluate the independent role of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain and gestational diabetes on the risk of macrosomia. Methods A prospective study collected data on mode of delivery and maternal/neonatal outcomes in eleven Hospitals in Italy. Multiple pregnancies and preterm deliveries were excluded. The sample included 14109 women with complete records. Associations between exposure variables and newborn macrosomia were analyzed using Pearson’s chi squared test. Multiple logistic regression models were built to assess the independent association between potential predictors and macrosomia. Results Maternal obesity (adjusted OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.4-2.2), excessive gestational weight gain (adjusted OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.6-2.2) and diabetes (adjusted OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.5-3.0 for gestational; adjusted OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.2-7.6 for pre-gestational) resulted to be independent predictors of macrosomia, when adjusted for other recognized risk factors. Since no significant interaction was found between pre-gestational BMI and gestational weight gain, excessive weight gain should be considered an independent risk factor for macrosomia. In the sub-group of women affected by gestational or pre-gestational diabetes, pre-gestational BMI was not significantly associated to macrosomia, while excessive pregnancy weight gain, maternal height and gestational age at delivery were significantly associated. In this sub-population, pregnancy weight gain less than recommended was not significantly associated to a reduction in macrosomia. Conclusions Our findings indicate that maternal obesity, gestational weight gain excess and diabetes should be considered as independent risk factors for newborn macrosomia. To adequately evaluate the clinical evolution of pregnancy all three variables need to be carefully assessed and monitored. PMID:24428895

  9. The Effects of Extended Intravenous Nicotine Administration on Body Weight and Meal Patterns in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Grebenstein, Patricia E.; Thompson, Ian E.; Rowland, Neil E.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Increased appetite and weight gain after cessation is a deterrent for quitting smoking. Attempts to understand the mechanism for these effects using animals have been hampered by the difficulty or inconsistency of modeling the effects seen in humans. Objective To examine the effects of extended daily access to intravenous nicotine, via programmed infusions, on body weight and meal patterns in rats. Methods IV nicotine infusions (.06 mg/kg/inf) were administered noncontingently, every 30 min throughout the dark cycle and the last three hours of the light cycle, to emulate self-administration. The effect of these infusions on food intake, meal patterns, and weight change were examined relative to a control group during treatment and in a post-nicotine phase. Results Nicotine-treated rats gained half the weight that vehicle treated animals gained and ate approximately 20% less food overall than vehicle-treated rats. Whereas a compensatory increase in meal frequency occurred during the dark period to account for smaller meals, no compensation was observed throughout the light period. In a post-nicotine phase, the nicotine group maintained a lower weight for one week and then gained weight back to control levels. The rate of weight gain post-cessation was faster in animals that had received nicotine compared to controls. Conclusion Compared to previous studies examining the effects of minipump or i.p. injections of nicotine on food intake, the present study was able to detect previously unknown circadian differences in meal patterns which will be in the development of smoking cessation and weight gain prevention drugs. PMID:23494231

  10. Body weight and the reward system: the volume of the right amygdala may be associated with body mass index in young overweight men.

    PubMed

    Orsi, Gergely; Perlaki, Gabor; Kovacs, Norbert; Aradi, Mihaly; Papp, Zilia; Karadi, Kazmer; Szalay, Csaba; Karadi, Zoltan; Lenard, Laszlo; Tenyi, Tamas; Plozer, Eniko; Gabriel, Robert; Nagy, Ferenc; Doczi, Tamas; Komoly, Samuel; Jokeit, Hennric; Schwarcz, Attila; Janszky, József

    2011-06-01

    We aimed to investigate the relationship between BMI (body mass index) and the volumes of the structures of the reward system (hippocampus, amygdala, accumbens, caudatum, putamen, and orbitofrontal cortex). The right and left structures were examined separately. Their volumes were assessed using a 3-T MRI scanner and Freesurfer software. Ninety-two healthy subjects were involved (mean BMI: 22.3?±?3.4 kg/m(2), mean age: 23.2?±?2.7). We found that the volume of the right amygdala positively correlated with the BMI in men but not in women. Moreover, we could demonstrate this association only in the overweight male sub-population. We suggest that an association between body weight and the morphological variability of the reward system can be demonstrated by MRI. This may be further evidence for a different body-weight regulation in the two sexes. The potential relationship between the volume of the right amygdala and the BMI in heavier individuals requires further studies with larger samples. PMID:21523563

  11. Concerns and Education Regarding Issues of Weight Control and Female Athletes: Body Image and Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brylinsky, Jody

    An examination of the interaction of social and cultural influences on body image development may yield an explanation for the development of eating disorder behavior, especially in understanding the special problems facing women athletes. There appear to be two major sociocultural factors influencing the development of body image in the…

  12. Aquaculture and Filhniel Management 1992. 23. 24~251 Seasonal relationships of relative weight to body

    E-print Network

    to body composition in white crappie, Pomoxis annularis Rafinesque R. M. NEUMANN & B. R. MURPHY Department is available on the relationship between body composition and Wr of white crappie, Pomoxis annularis Rafinesque Abstract. White crappies. Pomoxis annuta,is Rafinesque. were collected from two Texas reservoirs during pre

  13. Weighing women down: messages on weight loss and body shaping in editorial content in popular women's health and fitness magazines.

    PubMed

    Willis, Laura E; Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to idealized body images has been shown to lower women's body satisfaction. Yet some studies found the opposite, possibly because real-life media (as opposed to image-only stimuli) often embed such imagery in messages that suggest thinness is attainable. Drawing on social cognitive theory, the current content analysis investigated editorial body-shaping and weight-loss messages in popular women's health and fitness magazines. About five thousand magazine pages published in top-selling U.S. women's health and fitness magazines in 2010 were examined. The findings suggest that body shaping and weight loss are a major topic in these magazines, contributing to roughly one-fifth of all editorial content. Assessing standards of motivation and conduct, as well as behaviors promoted by the messages, the findings reflect overemphasis on appearance over health and on exercise-related behaviors over caloric reduction behaviors and the combination of both behaviors. These accentuations are at odds with public health recommendations. PMID:23844558

  14. An alternate dietary strategy to make weight improves mood, decreases body fat and removes the necessity for dehydration: A case-study from a professional jockey.

    PubMed

    Wilson, George; Chester, Neil; Eubank, Martin; Crighton, Ben; Drust, B; Morton, James P; Close, Graeme L

    2012-06-15

    Professional jockeys are unique amongst weight-making athletes as they are often required to make weight daily and in many cases, all year round. Common methods employed by jockeys include dehydration, severe calorie restriction and sporadic eating, all of which have adverse health effects. In contrast, this paper outlines a structured diet and exercise plan employed by a 22 year old professional National Hunt jockey in an attempt to reduce weight from 70.3 to 62.6 kg that does not rely on any of the aforementioned techniques. Prior to the intervention, the client's typical daily energy intake was 8.2 MJ (42% CHO, 36% fats, 22% protein) consumed in two meals only. During the 9-week intervention, daily energy intake was approximately equivalent to resting metabolic rate and consumed as 6 meals per day (7.6 MJ, 46% CHO, 19% fats, 36% protein). This change in frequency and composition of energy intake combined with structured exercise, resulted in a total body mass loss of 8 kg, corresponding to reductions in percent body fat from 14.5 to 9%. No form of intentional dehydration occurred throughout this period and mean urine osmolality was 285 mOs·kg-1 (SD 115 mOs·kg-1). In addition, positive changes in mood scores (BRUMS scale) also occurred. The client was now able to ride light for the first time in his career thereby challenging the cultural practices inherent to the sport. PMID:22710736

  15. An alternative dietary strategy to make weight while improving mood, decreasing body fat, and not dehydrating: a case study of a professional jockey.

    PubMed

    Wilson, George; Chester, Neil; Eubank, Martin; Crighton, Ben; Drust, Barry; Morton, James P; Close, Graeme L

    2012-06-01

    Professional jockeys are unique among weight-making athletes, as they are often required to make weight daily and, in many cases, all year-round. Common methods employed by jockeys include dehydration, severe calorie restriction, and sporadic eating, all of which have adverse health effects. In contrast, this article outlines a structured diet and exercise plan, employed by a 22-yr-old professional National Hunt jockey in an attempt to reduce weight from 70.3 to 62.6 kg, that does not rely on any of the aforementioned techniques. Before the intervention, the client's typical daily energy intake was 8.2 MJ (42% carbohydrate [CHO], 36% fat, 22% protein) consumed in 2 meals only. During the 9-wk intervention, daily energy intake was approximately equivalent to resting metabolic rate, which the athlete consumed as 6 meals per day (7.6 MJ, 46% CHO, 19% fat, 36% protein). This change in frequency and composition of energy intake combined with structured exercise resulted in a total body-mass loss of 8 kg, corresponding to reductions in body fat from 14.5% to 9%. No form of intentional dehydration occurred throughout this period, and mean urine osmolality was 285 mOsm/kg (SD 115 mOsm/kg). In addition, positive changes in mood scores (BRUMS scale) also occurred. The client was now able to ride light for the first time in his career without dehydrating, thereby challenging the cultural practices inherent in the sport. PMID:22693243

  16. Weight set

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    N/A N/A (None; )

    2005-12-11

    Your skin covers and protects your body. Your skin can also detect pressure and weight. You can tell that a one gram weight feels lighter than a one kilogram weight because the receptors on your skin detect more pressure from a one kilogram weight compared to a one gram weight.

  17. A lifestyle intervention reduces body weight and improves cardiometabolic risk factors in worksites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Worksites are potentially effective locations for obesity control because they provide opportunities for group intervention and social support. Studies are needed to identify effective interventions in these settings. We examined the effects of a multicomponent lifestyle intervention on weight loss ...

  18. 9 CFR 381.480 - Label statements relating to usefulness in reducing or maintaining body weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...product is labeled “low calorie” or “reduced...any use of the term “diet” that clearly shows that...weight, e.g., “for low sodium diets.” (3) Paragraph...terms on foods. (f) “Sugar free” and “no added...

  19. 21 CFR 105.66 - Label statements relating to usefulness in reducing or maintaining body weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...the food is labeled “low calorie” or “reduced...any use of the term “diet” that clearly shows that...weight, e.g., “for low-sodium diets.” (3) Paragraph...terms on foods. (f) “Sugar free,” and “no...

  20. 9 CFR 317.380 - Label statements relating to usefulness in reducing or maintaining body weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...product is labeled “low calorie” or “reduced...any use of the term “diet” that clearly shows that...weight, e.g., “for low sodium diets.” (3) Paragraph...terms on foods. (f) “Sugar free” and “no added...