Sample records for include body weight

  1. Osteoarthritis and body weight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick M. Foye; Todd P. Stitik; Boqing Chen; Scott F. Nadler

    2000-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (degenerative joint disease) is the most common type of arthritis, and is a significant source of pain and disability. Osteoarthritis has multiple risk factors, including some that are potentially modifiable, such as body weight. Increased body weight is associated with an increased risk of developing osteoarthritis. Relatively minor weight loss can effectively decrease the risk of the onset of

  2. Prenatal Parental Separation and Body Weight, Including Development of Overweight and Obesity Later in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Hohwü, Lena; Zhu, Jin Liang; Graversen, Lise; Li, Jiong; Sřrensen, Thorkild I. A.; Obel, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Background Early parental separation may be a stress factor causing a long-term alteration in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis activity possibly impacting on the susceptibility to develop overweight and obesity in offspring. We aimed to examine the body mass index (BMI) and the risk of overweight and obesity in children whose parents lived separately before the child was born. Methods A follow-up study was conducted using data from the Aarhus Birth Cohort in Denmark and included 2876 children with measurements of height and weight at 9-11-years-of-age, and self-reported information on parental cohabitation status at child birth and at 9-11-years-of-age. Quantile regression was used to estimate the difference in median BMI between children whose parents lived separately (n = 124) or together (n = 2752) before the birth. We used multiple logistic regression to calculate odds ratio (OR) for overweight and obesity, adjusted for gender, parity, breast feeding status, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, weight gain during pregnancy, age and educational level at child birth; with and without possible intermediate factors birth weight and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Due to a limited number of obese children, OR for obesity was adjusted for the a priori confounder maternal pre-pregnancy BMI only. Results The difference in median BMI was 0.54 kg/m2 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.10; 0.98) between children whose parents lived separately before birth and children whose parents lived together. The risk of overweight and obesity was statistically significantly increased in children whose parents lived separately before the birth of the child; OR 2.29 (95% CI: 1.18; 4.45) and OR 2.81 (95% CI: 1.05; 7.51), respectively. Additional, adjustment for possible intermediate factors did not substantially change the estimates. Conclusion Parental separation before child birth was associated with higher BMI, and increased risk of overweight and obesity in 9-11-year-old children; this may suggest a fetal programming effect or unmeasured difference in psychosocial factors between separated and non-separated parents. PMID:25775129

  3. Body Weight and Body Image

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marion P. Olmsted; Traci McFarlane

    2004-01-01

    HEALTH ISSUE: Body weight is of physical and psychological importance to Canadian women; it is associated with health status, physical activity, body image, and self-esteem. Although the problems associated with overweight and obesity are indeed serious, there are also problems connected to being underweight. Weight prejudice and the dieting industry intensify body image concerns for Canadian women and can have

  4. Body weight and mortality.

    PubMed

    Kushner, R F

    1993-05-01

    Over the years ideal or desirable weights have been associated with the lowest mortality and defined in a number of ways. The widely used height-weight tables of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, developed in the 1940s, have been supplanted in the last decade by new weight standards based on findings of several population-based studies that compared body weight to mortality. The Quetelet or body mass index (BMI), now used as the de facto criterion for defining a desirable weight index, indicates relative fatness and is only minimally correlated with height. However, the optimal BMI or weight for longevity remains to be defined for a number of methodological reasons. This article reviews the strength of the evidence for increased mortality in adults who are overweight or underweight based on standard BMI ranges and in those who reported a change in body weight. Epidemiological studies show that excess body weight is associated with increased mortality, depending on fat patterning, gender, and age. A similar increase is shown for subjects with body weight below the relative weight range, although here associated life-style factors are greater contributors. Preliminary data suggest that change in body weight may also be associated with increased mortality. Overall, carefully measured weight and height remain the most easily performed and useful determinants of nutritional status and predictors of mortality for the general population. PMID:8332284

  5. Marijuana and Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2014-01-01

    Acute marijuana use is classically associated with snacking behavior (colloquially referred to as “the munchies”). In support of these acute appetite-enhancing effects, several authorities report that marijuana may increase body mass index in patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus and cancer. However, for these medical conditions, while appetite may be stimulated, some studies indicate that weight gain is not always clinically meaningful. In addition, in a study of cancer patients in which weight gain did occur, it was less than the comparator drug (megestrol). However, data generally suggest that acute marijuana use stimulates appetite, and that marijuana use may stimulate appetite in low-weight individuals. As for large epidemiological studies in the general population, findings consistently indicate that users of marijuana tend to have lower body mass indices than nonusers. While paradoxical and somewhat perplexing, these findings may be explained by various study confounds, such as potential differences between acute versus chronic marijuana use; the tendency for marijuana use to be associated with other types of drug use; and/or the possible competition between food and drugs for the same reward sites in the brain. Likewise, perhaps the effects of marijuana are a function of initial weight status—i.e., maybe marijuana is a metabolic regulatory substance that increases body weight in low-weight individuals but not in normal-weight or overweight individuals. Only further research will clarify the complex relationships between marijuana and body weight. PMID:25337447

  6. Body Weight Relationships in Early Marriage: Weight Relevance, Weight Comparisons, and Weight Talk

    PubMed Central

    Bove, Caron F.; Sobal, Jeffery

    2011-01-01

    This investigation uncovered processes underlying the dynamics of body weight and body image among individuals involved in nascent heterosexual marital relationships in Upstate New York. In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 34 informants, 20 women and 14 men, just prior to marriage and again one year later were used to explore continuity and change in cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors relating to body weight and body image at the time of marriage, an important transition in the life course. Three major conceptual themes operated in the process of developing and enacting informants’ body weight relationships with their partner: weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk. Weight relevance encompassed the changing significance of weight during early marriage and included attracting and capturing a mate, relaxing about weight, living healthily, and concentrating on weight. Weight comparisons between partners involved weight relativism, weight competition, weight envy, and weight role models. Weight talk employed pragmatic talk, active and passive reassurance, and complaining and critiquing criticism. Concepts emerging from this investigation may be useful in designing future studies of and approaches to managing body weight in adulthood. PMID:21864601

  7. Food, Energy and Body Weight

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ingrid Waldron

    This minds-on analysis and discussion activity helps students to understand the relationships between food molecules as a source of energy, cellular respiration, physical activity, and changes in body weight.

  8. Body weight contingency of self-worth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alison Clabaugh; Andrew Karpinski; Kelly Griffin

    2008-01-01

    The body weight contingency of self-worth (body weight CSW) is the tendency for people to base their self-esteem on body weight. In two studies, the body weight contingency was evaluated against a general appearance contingency of self-worth (appearance CSW) to investigate whether or not individuals may base self-esteem on body weight. Compared to the appearance CSW, the body weight CSW

  9. Genome-wide association mapping including phenotypes from relatives without genotypes in a single-step (ssGWAS) for 6-week body weight in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huiyu; Misztal, Ignacy; Aguilar, Ignacio; Legarra, Andres; Fernando, Rohan L; Vitezica, Zulma; Okimoto, Ron; Wing, Terry; Hawken, Rachel; Muir, William M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare results obtained from various methodologies for genome-wide association studies, when applied to real data, in terms of number and commonality of regions identified and their genetic variance explained, computational speed, and possible pitfalls in interpretations of results. Methodologies include: two iteratively reweighted single-step genomic BLUP procedures (ssGWAS1 and ssGWAS2), a single-marker model (CGWAS), and BayesB. The ssGWAS methods utilize genomic breeding values (GEBVs) based on combined pedigree, genomic and phenotypic information, while CGWAS and BayesB only utilize phenotypes from genotyped animals or pseudo-phenotypes. In this study, ssGWAS was performed by converting GEBVs to SNP marker effects. Unequal variances for markers were incorporated for calculating weights into a new genomic relationship matrix. SNP weights were refined iteratively. The data was body weight at 6 weeks on 274,776 broiler chickens, of which 4553 were genotyped using a 60 k SNP chip. Comparison of genomic regions was based on genetic variances explained by local SNP regions (20 SNPs). After 3 iterations, the noise was greatly reduced for ssGWAS1 and results are similar to that of CGWAS, with 4 out of the top 10 regions in common. In contrast, for BayesB, the plot was dominated by a single region explaining 23.1% of the genetic variance. This same region was found by ssGWAS1 with the same rank, but the amount of genetic variation attributed to the region was only 3%. These findings emphasize the need for caution when comparing and interpreting results from various methods, and highlight that detected associations, and strength of association, strongly depends on methodologies and details of implementations. BayesB appears to overly shrink regions to zero, while overestimating the amount of genetic variation attributed to the remaining SNP effects. The real world is most likely a compromise between methods and remains to be determined. PMID:24904635

  10. Changes in body weight, blood pressure and selected metabolic biomarkers with an energy-restricted diet including twice daily sweet snacks and once daily sugar-free beverage

    PubMed Central

    Piehowski, Kathryn E.; Metzgar, Catherine J.; Miller, Debra L.; Preston, Amy G.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The type of sweet snack incorporated into an energy-restricted diet (ERD) may produce differential effects on metabolic improvements associated with body weight (BW) loss. This study compared effects of incorporating either twice daily energy-controlled dark chocolate snacks plus once daily sugar-free cocoa beverage (DC) to non-chocolate snacks plus sugar-free non-cocoa beverage (NC) into an ERD on BW loss and metabolic outcomes. MATERIALS/METHODS In an 18-week randomized comparative trial, 60 overweight/obese premenopausal women were assigned to DC (n = 30) or NC group (n = 30). Dietary intake was measured at baseline and week 18, and BW, anthropometrics, blood pressure (BP) and serum glucose, insulin and lipid concentrations were measured at baseline, and weeks 6, 12 and 18. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. RESULTS Using intention-to-treat analysis, women in DC and NC groups reduced energy intake (both P < 0.001) and lost 4.4 ± 0.6 kg and 5.0 ± 0.9 kg (both P < 0.001), respectively. Both groups lowered systolic and diastolic BP [DC = 2.7 (P < 0.05), 2.7 (P < 0.01); NC = 3.4 (P < 0.01), 4.2 (P < 0.01) mmHg, respectively]. Glucose and insulin concentrations decreased by 0.72 mmol/L (P < 0.001) and 13.20 pmol/L (P < 0.01) in DC group and by 0.83 mmol/L (P < 0.001) and 13.20 pmol/L (P < 0.01), respectively, in NC group. Total cholesterol increased in NC group (P < 0.05), with no significant lipid changes in DC group. There were no significant differences in biomarker outcomes between groups. CONCLUSIONS Overweight/obese premenopausal women following an 18-week ERD that included either DC or NC sweet snack and sugar-free beverage lost equivalent amounts of BW and improved BP measurements and glucose and insulin concentrations. PMID:25489410

  11. Effect of clothing weight on body weight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: In clinical settings, it is common to measure weight of clothed patients and estimate a correction for the weight of clothing, but we can find no papers in the medical literature regarding the variability in clothing weight with weather, season, and gender. Methods: Fifty adults (35 wom...

  12. ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION AND BODY WEIGHT

    PubMed Central

    FRENCH, MICHAEL T.; NORTON, EDWARD C.; FANG, HAI; MACLEAN, JOHANNA CATHERINE

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The number of Americans who are overweight or obese has reached epidemic proportions. Elevated weight is associated with health problems and increased medical expenditures. This paper analyzes Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) to investigate the role of alcohol consumption in weight gain. Alcohol is not only an addictive substance but also a high-calorie beverage that can interfere with metabolic function and cognitive processes. Because men and women differ in the type and amount of alcohol they consume, in the biological effects they experience as a result of alcohol consumption, and in the consequences they face as a result of obesity, we expect our results to differ by gender. We use first-difference models of body mass index (BMI) and alcohol consumption (frequency and intensity) to control for time-invariant unobservable factors that may influence changes in both alcohol use and weight status. Increasing frequency and intensity of alcohol use is associated with statistically significant yet quantitatively small weight gain for men but not for women. Moreover, the first-difference results are much smaller in magnitude and sometimes different in sign compared to the benchmark pooled cross-sectional estimates. PMID:19548203

  13. The consequences of including non-additive effects on the genetic evaluation of harvest body weight in Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In this study, we used different animal models to estimate genetic and environmental variance components on harvest weight in two populations of Oncorhynchus kisutch, forming two classes i.e. odd- and even-year spawners. Methods The models used were: additive, with and without inbreeding as a covariable (A + F and A respectively); additive plus common environmental due to full-sib families and inbreeding (A + C + F); additive plus parental dominance and inbreeding (A + D + F); and a full model (A + C + D + F). Genetic parameters and breeding values obtained by different models were compared to evaluate the consequences of including non-additive effects on genetic evaluation. Results Including inbreeding as a covariable did not affect the estimation of genetic parameters, but heritability was reduced when dominance or common environmental effects were included. A high heritability for harvest weight was estimated in both populations (even = 0.46 and odd = 0.50) when simple additive models (A + F and A) were used. Heritabilities decreased to 0.21 (even) and 0.37 (odd) when the full model was used (A + C + D + F). In this full model, the magnitude of the dominance variance was 0.19 (even) and 0.06 (odd), while the magnitude of the common environmental effect was lower than 0.01 in both populations. The correlation between breeding values estimated with different models was very high in all cases (i.e. higher than 0.98). However, ranking of the 30 best males and the 100 best females per generation changed when a high dominance variance was estimated, as was the case in one of the two populations (even). Conclusions Dominance and common environmental variance may be important components of variance in harvest weight in O. kisutch, thus not including them may produce an overestimation of the predicted response; furthermore, genetic evaluation was seen to be partially affected, since the ranking of selected animals changed with the inclusion of non-additive effects in the animal model. PMID:20540752

  14. Gender Differences in Predictors of Body Weight and Body Weight Change in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chiriboga, David E.; Ma, Yunsheng; Li, Wenjun; Olendzki, Barbara C.; Pagoto, Sherry L.; Merriam, Philip A.; Matthews, Charles E.; Hebert, James R.; Ockene, Ira S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity are important predictors of a wide variety of health problems. Analysis of naturally occurring changes in body weight can provide valuable insights in improving our understanding of the influence of demographic, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors on weight gain in middle-age adults. Objective To identify gender-specific predictors of body weight using cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Methods and Procedures Anthropometric, lifestyle and psychosocial factors were measured at baseline and then quarterly for 1 year in 572 healthy adult volunteers from Central Massachusetts who were recruited between 1994 and 1998. Linear mixed models were used to analyze the relationship between body weight and potential predictors, including demographic (e.g., age, educational level), lifestyle (e.g., diet, physical activity, smoking), and psychosocial (e.g., anxiety, depression) factors. Results Over the 1-year study period, on average, men gained 0.3 kg and women lost 0.2 kg. Predictors of lower body weight at baseline in both men and women included current cigarette smoking, greater leisure-time physical activity, and lower depression and anxiety scores. Lower body weights were associated with a lower percentage of caloric intake from protein and greater occupational physical activity levels only among men; and with higher education level only among women. Longitudinal predictors of 1-year weight gain among women included increased total caloric intake and decreased leisure-time physical activity, and among men, greater anxiety scores. Discussion Demographic, lifestyle and psychosocial factors are independently related to naturally occurring changes in body weight and have marked differential gender effects. These effects should be taken into consideration when designing interventions for weight-loss and maintenance at the individual and population levels. PMID:18223626

  15. Body satisfaction and body weight: gender differences and sociodemographic determinants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Bryn Austin; Jess Haines; Paul J Veugelers

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Given the documented links between body satisfaction, weight-related behaviors, and weight change in adolescents, we sought to examine the prevalence of poor body satisfaction in prepubescent girls and boys and its associations with body weight, socioeconomic factors, and rural residence. METHODS: We obtained data from 4254 girls and boys participating in a population-based survey of grade five students in

  16. Misperception of body weight and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Boo, Sunjoo

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing. In Korea, this is especially true of men in general, and women of low socioeconomic status. Misperception of body weight poses a barrier to the prevention of obesity. In this study, the misperception of body weight in relation to actual body weight and associated factors in Korean adults was evaluated. Data from 7162 adults who participated in the 2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Misperception of body weight was substantial in Koreans, with 48.9% underestimating and 6.8% overestimating their weight status. More men than women underestimated their weight status. Weight perception in women was affected more by sociodemographic characteristics. Women's underestimation was positively associated with older age, marital status, and lower socioeconomic status. This suggests that increasing public awareness of healthy weight will be helpful to counteract the current obesity epidemic in Korea. PMID:24942091

  17. Body weight of hypersonic aircraft, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, Mark D.

    1988-01-01

    The load bearing body weight of wing-body and all-body hypersonic aircraft is estimated for a wide variety of structural materials and geometries. Variations of weight with key design and configuration parameters are presented and discussed. Both hot and cool structure approaches are considered in isotropic, organic composite, and metal matrix composite materials; structural shells are sandwich or skin-stringer. Conformal and pillow-tank designs are investigated for the all-body shape. The results identify the most promising hypersonic aircraft body structure design approaches and their weight trends. Geometric definition of vehicle shapes and structural analysis methods are presented in appendices.

  18. Maintaining ideal body weight counseling sessions

    SciTech Connect

    Brammer, S.H.

    1980-10-09

    The purpose of this program is to provide employees with the motivation, knowledge and skills necessary to maintain ideal body weight throughout life. The target audience for this program, which is conducted in an industrial setting, is the employee 40 years of age or younger who is at or near his/her ideal body weight.

  19. Body Weight Image and Gender Influence Emotional Response Patterns to Body Weight Related Cues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DelRosario, Marlene W.; And Others

    Young adult females' attitudes toward body weight regulation contain important emotional components. To study the effects of body weight cues on emotionality, 160 college students (75 females, 85 males) completed either a body weight related (Q1) or control (Q2) questionnaire prior to taking the California Test of Personality (CTP). An analysis of…

  20. Body weight: the male and female perception.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, I; Leitner, B; Bauer, R; Rieder, A

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between actual body weight, characterization of one's weight, and satisfaction with it. 246 students of medicine in the third (clinical) stage of their studies at the University of Vienna responded to a questionnaire asking about their weight and attitudes regarding their personal body weight. The results indicate that many young women and men are either unable to characterize their weight (as normal, underweight, overweight, or obese) or guess incorrectly. The results point to the fact that a lot of women and men do not estimate their body weight in correspondence to the valid definition of the BMI. Women in particular seem to model themselves more on the current beauty ideal than men. Women seem to be more influenced by the current ideal of slenderness than their male counterparts. Women are more frequently dissatisfied with their weight, and see themselves as considerably heavier than they actually are. Because of this perception, women attempt to reduce weight more often than men. This type of dissatisfaction with one's body weight and excessive attention paid to body image, particularly weight, are considered as risk factors for the development of eating disorders. Not surprisingly, women are significantly more prone to these conditions than are men. PMID:11210598

  1. Body weight and the initiation of puberty.

    PubMed

    Baker, E R

    1985-09-01

    The onset and progression through the various stages of puberty are influenced by a number of factors (Fig. 2). In both animals and humans, the age of puberty appears to be related more to body weight than to chronologic age. Undernutrition and low body fat, or an altered ratio of lean mass to body fat, seem to delay the adolescent spurt and to retard the onset of menarche. According to Frisch, a minimum level of fatness (17% of body weight) is associated with menarche; however, a heavier minimum weight for height, representing an increased amount of body fat (22%), appears necessary for the onset and maintenance of regular menstrual cycles in girls over 16 years of age. This critical amount of body fat implies that a particular body composition, in addition to other environmental and psychosocial factors, is important in triggering and maintaining the pubertal process. PMID:4053451

  2. Self-perception of body weight status and weight control practices among adolescents in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Zainuddin, Ahmad Ali; Manickam, Mala A; Baharudin, Azli; Omar, Azahadi; Cheong, Siew Man; Ambak, Rashidah; Ahmad, Mohamad Hasnan; Ghaffar, Suhaila Abdul

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents is rising rapidly in many countries, including Malaysia. This article aims to present the associations between body mass index-based body weight status, body weight perception, and weight control practices among adolescents in Malaysia. The Malaysia School Based Nutrition Survey 2012, which included a body weight perception questionnaire and anthropometric measurements, was conducted on a representative sample of 40 011 students from Standard 4 until Form 5, with a 90.5% response rate. Comparing actual and perceived body weight status, the findings show that 13.8% of adolescents underestimated their weight, 35.0% overestimated, and 51.2% correctly judged their own weight. Significantly more normal weight girls felt they were overweight, whereas significantly more overweight boys perceived themselves as underweight. The overall appropriateness of weight control practices to body weight was 72.6%. Adolescents attempting to lose or gain weight need to have better understanding toward desirable behavioral changes. PMID:25070695

  3. Marital status and body weight, weight perception, and weight management among U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Klos, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

    2013-12-01

    Married individuals often have higher body weights than unmarried individuals, but it is unclear how marital roles affect body weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. This study analyzed cross-sectional data for 4,089 adult men and 3,989 adult women using multinomial logistic regression to examine associations between marital status, perceived body weight, desired body weight, and weight management approach. Controlling for demographics and current weight, married or cohabiting women and divorced or separated women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired to weigh less than women who had never married. Marital status was unrelated to men's weight perception and desired weight change. Marital status was also generally unrelated to weight management approach, except that divorced or separated women were more likely to have intentionally lost weight within the past year compared to never married women. Additionally, never married men were more likely to be attempting to prevent weight gain than married or cohabiting men and widowed men. Overall, married and formerly married women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired a lower weight. Men's marital status was generally unassociated with weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. Women's but not men's marital roles appear to influence their perceived and desired weight, suggesting that weight management interventions should be sensitive to both marital status and gender differences. PMID:24183145

  4. Gender Differences in Predictors of Body Weight and Body Weight Change in Healthy Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David E. Chiriboga; Yunsheng Ma; Wenjun Li; Barbara C. Olendzki; Sherry L. Pagoto; Philip A. Merriam; Charles E. Matthews; James R. Hebert; Ira S. Ockene

    2008-01-01

    Background:Overweight and obesity are important predictors of a wide variety of health problems. Analysis of naturally occurring changes in body weight can provide valuable insights in improving our understanding of the influence of demographic, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors on weight gain in middle-age adults.Objective:To identify gender-specific predictors of body weight using cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses.Methods and Procedures:Anthropometric, lifestyle and psychosocial

  5. Body Weight and Body Composition Changes after Treatment of Hyperthyroidism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LARS LONN; KAJ STENLOF; MALIN OTTOSSON; ANNA-KARIN LINDROOS; ERNST NYSTROM; LARS SJOSTROM

    Body composition changes in nine adults with hyperthyroidism were determined with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and com- puted tomography at diagnosis and after 3 and 12 months of euthy- roidism achieved by surgery, antithyroid drugs, or treatment with radioiodine. Mean body weight was 67.6 kg at diagnosis and increased 2.7 kg (P 5 0.06) and 8.7 kg (P , 0.001)

  6. The Dynamics of Human Body Weight Change

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Carson C.; Hall, Kevin D.

    2008-01-01

    An imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure will lead to a change in body weight (mass) and body composition (fat and lean masses). A quantitative understanding of the processes involved, which currently remains lacking, will be useful in determining the etiology and treatment of obesity and other conditions resulting from prolonged energy imbalance. Here, we show that a mathematical model of the macronutrient flux balances can capture the long-term dynamics of human weight change; all previous models are special cases of this model. We show that the generic dynamic behavior of body composition for a clamped diet can be divided into two classes. In the first class, the body composition and mass are determined uniquely. In the second class, the body composition can exist at an infinite number of possible states. Surprisingly, perturbations of dietary energy intake or energy expenditure can give identical responses in both model classes, and existing data are insufficient to distinguish between these two possibilities. Nevertheless, this distinction has important implications for the efficacy of clinical interventions that alter body composition and mass. PMID:18369435

  7. The dynamics of human body weight change.

    PubMed

    Chow, Carson C; Hall, Kevin D

    2008-03-01

    An imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure will lead to a change in body weight (mass) and body composition (fat and lean masses). A quantitative understanding of the processes involved, which currently remains lacking, will be useful in determining the etiology and treatment of obesity and other conditions resulting from prolonged energy imbalance. Here, we show that a mathematical model of the macronutrient flux balances can capture the long-term dynamics of human weight change; all previous models are special cases of this model. We show that the generic dynamic behavior of body composition for a clamped diet can be divided into two classes. In the first class, the body composition and mass are determined uniquely. In the second class, the body composition can exist at an infinite number of possible states. Surprisingly, perturbations of dietary energy intake or energy expenditure can give identical responses in both model classes, and existing data are insufficient to distinguish between these two possibilities. Nevertheless, this distinction has important implications for the efficacy of clinical interventions that alter body composition and mass. PMID:18369435

  8. Has increased body weight made driving safer?

    PubMed

    Dunn, Richard A; Tefft, Nathan W

    2014-11-01

    We develop a model of alcohol consumption that incorporates the negative biological relationship between body mass and inebriation conditional on total alcohol consumption. Our model predicts that the elasticity of inebriation with respect to weight is equal to the own-price elasticity of alcohol, consistent with body mass increasing the effective price of inebriation. Given that alcohol is generally considered price inelastic, this result implies that as individuals gain weight, they consume more alcohol but become less inebriated. We test this prediction and find that driver blood alcohol content (BAC) is negatively associated with driver weight. In fatal accidents with driver BAC above 0.10, the driver was 7.8 percentage points less likely to be obese than drivers in fatal accidents that did not involve alcohol. This relationship is not explained by driver attributes (age and sex), driver behaviors (speed and seatbelt use), vehicle attributes (weight class, model year, and number of occupants), or accident context (county of accident, time of day, and day of week). PMID:24038409

  9. Measuring Outcomes in Adult Weight Loss Studies That Include Diet and Physical Activity: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Millstein, Rachel A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Measuring success of obesity interventions is critical. Several methods measure weight loss outcomes but there is no consensus on best practices. This systematic review evaluates relevant outcomes (weight loss, BMI, % body fat, and fat mass) to determine which might be the best indicator(s) of success. Methods. Eligible articles described adult weight loss interventions that included diet and physical activity and a measure of weight or BMI change and body composition change. Results. 28 full-text articles met inclusion criteria. Subjects, settings, intervention lengths, and intensities varied. All studies measured body weight (?2.9 to ?17.3?kg), 9 studies measured BMI (?1.1 to ?5.1?kg/m2), 20 studies measured % body fat (?0.7 to ?10.2%), and 22 studies measured fat mass (?0.9 to ?14.9?kg). All studies found agreement between weight or BMI and body fat mass or body fat % decreases, though there were discrepancies in degree of significance between measures. Conclusions. Nearly all weight or BMI and body composition measures agreed. Since body fat is the most metabolically harmful tissue type, it may be a more meaningful measure of health change. Future studies should consider primarily measuring % body fat, rather than or in addition to weight or BMI. PMID:25525513

  10. Weight and weddings. Engaged men's body weight ideals and wedding weight management behaviors.

    PubMed

    Klos, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

    2013-01-01

    Most adults marry at some point in life, and many invest substantial resources in a wedding ceremony. Previous research reports that brides often strive towards culturally-bound appearance norms and engage in weight management behaviors in preparation for their wedding. However, little is known about wedding weight ideals and behaviors among engaged men. A cross-sectional survey of 163 engaged men asked them to complete a questionnaire about their current height and weight, ideal wedding body weight, wedding weight importance, weight management behaviors, formality of their upcoming wedding ceremony, and demographics. Results indicated that the discrepancy between men's current weight and reported ideal wedding weight averaged 9.61 lb. Most men considered being at a certain weight at their wedding to be somewhat important. About 39% were attempting to lose weight for their wedding, and 37% were not trying to change their weight. Attempting weight loss was more frequent among men with higher BMI's, those planning more formal weddings, and those who considered being the right weight at their wedding as important. Overall, these findings suggest that weight-related appearance norms and weight loss behaviors are evident among engaged men. PMID:23063607

  11. Measured body mass index, body weight perception, dissatisfaction and control practices in urban, low-income African American adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Youfa Wang; Huifang Liang; Xiaoli Chen

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current understanding of the associations between actual body weight status, weight perception, body dissatisfaction, and weight control practices among low-income urban African American adolescents is limited. The knowledge can help direct future intervention efforts. METHODS: Cross-sectional data including measured weight and height and self-reported weight status collected from 448 adolescents in four Chicago Public Schools were used. RESULTS: The

  12. The role of whole grains in body weight regulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole grain (WG)-rich diets are purported to have a variety of health benefits including a favorable role in body weight regulation. Current dietary recommendations advocate substituting WG for refined grains (RG) as many of the beneficial bioactive components intrinsic to WG are lost during the re...

  13. Weight status and the perception of body image in men.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Rick M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the role of body size in relation to the accuracy of body image perception in men is an important topic because of the implications for avoiding and treating obesity, and it may serve as a potential diagnostic criterion for eating disorders. The early research on this topic produced mixed findings. About one-half of the early studies showed that obese men overestimated their body size, with the remaining half providing accurate estimates. Later, improvements in research technology and methodology provided a clearer indication of the role of weight status in body image perception. Research in our laboratory has also produced diverse findings, including that obese subjects sometimes overestimate their body size. However, when examining our findings across several studies, obese subjects had about the same level of accuracy in estimating their body size as normal-weight subjects. Studies in our laboratory also permitted the separation of sensory and nonsensory factors in body image perception. In all but one instance, no differences were found overall between the ability of obese and normal-weight subjects to detect overall changes in body size. Importantly, however, obese subjects are better at detecting changes in their body size when the image is distorted to be too thin as compared to too wide. Both obese and normal-weight men require about a 3%-7% change in the width of their body size in order to detect the change reliably. Correlations between a range of body mass index values and body size estimation accuracy indicated no relationship between these variables. Numerous studies in other laboratories asked men to place their body size into discrete categorizes, ranging from thin to obese. Researchers found that overweight and obese men underestimate their weight status, and that men are less accurate in their categorizations than are women. Cultural influences have been found to be important, with body size underestimations occurring in cultures where a larger body is found to be desirable. Methodological issues are reviewed with recommendations for future studies. PMID:25114606

  14. Weight status and the perception of body image in men

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Rick M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the role of body size in relation to the accuracy of body image perception in men is an important topic because of the implications for avoiding and treating obesity, and it may serve as a potential diagnostic criterion for eating disorders. The early research on this topic produced mixed findings. About one-half of the early studies showed that obese men overestimated their body size, with the remaining half providing accurate estimates. Later, improvements in research technology and methodology provided a clearer indication of the role of weight status in body image perception. Research in our laboratory has also produced diverse findings, including that obese subjects sometimes overestimate their body size. However, when examining our findings across several studies, obese subjects had about the same level of accuracy in estimating their body size as normal-weight subjects. Studies in our laboratory also permitted the separation of sensory and nonsensory factors in body image perception. In all but one instance, no differences were found overall between the ability of obese and normal-weight subjects to detect overall changes in body size. Importantly, however, obese subjects are better at detecting changes in their body size when the image is distorted to be too thin as compared to too wide. Both obese and normal-weight men require about a 3%–7% change in the width of their body size in order to detect the change reliably. Correlations between a range of body mass index values and body size estimation accuracy indicated no relationship between these variables. Numerous studies in other laboratories asked men to place their body size into discrete categorizes, ranging from thin to obese. Researchers found that overweight and obese men underestimate their weight status, and that men are less accurate in their categorizations than are women. Cultural influences have been found to be important, with body size underestimations occurring in cultures where a larger body is found to be desirable. Methodological issues are reviewed with recommendations for future studies. PMID:25114606

  15. Energy density, energy intake, and body weight regulation in adults.

    PubMed

    Karl, J Philip; Roberts, Susan B

    2014-11-01

    The role of dietary energy density (ED) in the regulation of energy intake (EI) is controversial. Methodologically, there is also debate about whether beverages should be included in dietary ED calculations. To address these issues, studies examining the effects of ED on EI or body weight in nonelderly adults were reviewed. Different approaches to calculating dietary ED do not appear to alter the direction of reported relations between ED and body weight. Evidence that lowering dietary ED reduces EI in short-term studies is convincing, but there are currently insufficient data to determine long-term effectiveness for weight loss. The review also identified key barriers to progress in understanding the role of ED in energy regulation, in particular the absence of a standard definition of ED, and the lack of data from multiple long-term clinical trials examining the effectiveness of low-ED diet recommendations for preventing both primary weight gain and weight regain in nonobese individuals. Long-term clinical trials designed to examine the impact of dietary ED on energy regulation, and including multiple ED calculation methods within the same study, are still needed to determine the importance of ED in the regulation of EI and body weight. PMID:25398750

  16. HERITABILITY OF THE DIFFERENCES IN BODY WEIGHT BETWEEN SEXES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    HERITABILITY OF THE DIFFERENCES IN BODY WEIGHT BETWEEN SEXES AT DIFFERENT AGES IN TWO STRAINS 4 and White Plyn:outh Rock. The estimates of heritabilities of sex differences in body weight from weight at market age. Regarding the fact, that males reach the suitable weight before females, due to sex-difference

  17. Body weight perception among adolescents in Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Musaiger, A O; bin Zaal, A A; D'Souza, R

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the body image perceptions among adolescents in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE). A cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst 661 adolescents (324 males; 337 females) aged 12-17 years selected from government schools using a multistage stratified random sampling technique. A pretested validated questionnaire was employed to determine the perception of adolescents toward their weight status. A nine figure silhouette illustration was used to measure perceptions of their ideal body image and how it compares with their current body weight. The results revealed that overweight (18.5%) and obesity (27.2%) were higher among males than in females (13.1% and 20.5% respectively). A high proportion of overweight males and females considered themselves as average (45.0% and 52.3%, respectively). Similarly, 56.9% of obese male and 46.4% of females considered themselves as average weight. Of non-overweight/obese males and females, 27.6% and 39.3% respectively, were pressured by parents to gain weight (p > 0.000). In general overweight and obese adolescents were more likely to face pressure from their parents and teased by friends than non-overweight/obese adolescents. Compared to their current body image, overweight and obese adolescents chose a significantly lighter figure as their ideal (p < 0.000). It is suggested that the current health education curriculum should include information related to healthy body weight and appropriate diet and lifestyle so as to minimize risk of developing distorted body image concerns in adolescence and beyond. PMID:23588446

  18. A novel mechatronic body weight support system.

    PubMed

    Frey, Martin; Colombo, Gery; Vaglio, Martino; Bucher, Rainer; Jörg, Matthias; Riener, Robert

    2006-09-01

    A novel mechatronic body weight support (BWS) system has been developed to provide precise body weight unloading for patients with neurological or other impairments during treadmill training. The system is composed of a passive elastic spring element to take over the main unloading force and an active closed-loop controlled electric drive to generate the exact desired force. Both force generating units, the passive spring and the active electric drive, act on the patient via a polyester rope connected to a harness worn by the patient. The length of the rope can be adjusted with an electric winch to adapt the system to different patient sizes. The system is fully computer controlled. At unloading loads of up to 60 kg and walking speeds of up to 3.2 km/h, the mean unloading error and the maximum unloading error of the presented BWS system was less than 1 and 3 kg, respectively. The performance was compared with those of two purely passive BWS systems currently being used by most other rehabilitation groups. This comprised counterweight systems and static BWS systems with fixed rope lengths. Counterweight systems reached mean and maximum unloading errors of up to 5.34 and 16.22 kg, respectively. The values for the static BWS were 11.02 kg and 27.67 kg, respectively. The novel mechatronic BWS system presented in this study adjusts desired unloading changes of up to 20 kg within less than 100 ms. Thus, not only constant BWS, but also gait cycle dependent or time variant oscillations of the desired force can be realized with high accuracy. Precise and constant unloading force is believed to be an important prerequisite for BWS gait therapy, where it is important to generate physiologically correct segmental dynamics and ground reaction forces. Thus, the novel BWS system presented in this paper is an important contribution to maximize the therapeutic outcome of human gait rehabilitation. PMID:17009491

  19. Weighing Weight: Trends in Body Weight Evaluation Among Young Adults, 1990 and 2005

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lori Neighbors; Jeffery Sobal; Claudia Liff; Dana Amiraian

    2008-01-01

    Given the rising prevalence of overweight and sociocultural portrayal of increasingly thin female body ideals and muscular\\/lean\\u000a male body ideals, we examined trends in body weight evaluation using two cross-sectional surveys of US undergraduates in 1990\\u000a (n?=?794) and 2005 (n?=?794). Trends in body weight evaluation variables were examined and compared to respondents’ current body mass index. Results\\u000a suggest men are

  20. Correlates of Body Mass Index, Weight Goals, and Weight-Management Practices among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxton, Raheem J.; Valois, Robert F.; Drane, J. Wanzer

    2004-01-01

    The study examined associations among physical activity, cigarette smoking, body mass index, perceptions of body weight, weight-management goals, and weight-management behaviors of public high school adolescents. The CDC Youth Risk Behavior Survey provided a cross-sectional sample (n = 3,089) of public high school students in South Carolina.…

  1. Perceptions of Body Weight, Weight Management Strategies, and Depressive Symptoms Among US College Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Holly Anne Harring; Kara Montgomery; James Hardin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine if inaccurate body weight perception predicts unhealthy weight management strategies and to determine the extent to which inaccurate body weight perception is associated with depressive symptoms among US college students. Participants: Randomly selected male and female college students in the United States (N = 97,357). Methods: Data were from the 2006 National College Health Assessment. Analyses were

  2. Human growth and body weight dynamics: an integrative systems model.

    PubMed

    Rahmandad, Hazhir

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying human weight and height dynamics due to growth, aging, and energy balance can inform clinical practice and policy analysis. This paper presents the first mechanism-based model spanning full individual life and capturing changes in body weight, composition and height. Integrating previous empirical and modeling findings and validated against several additional empirical studies, the model replicates key trends in human growth including A) Changes in energy requirements from birth to old ages. B) Short and long-term dynamics of body weight and composition. C) Stunted growth with chronic malnutrition and potential for catch up growth. From obesity policy analysis to treating malnutrition and tracking growth trajectories, the model can address diverse policy questions. For example I find that even without further rise in obesity, the gap between healthy and actual Body Mass Indexes (BMIs) has embedded, for different population groups, a surplus of 14%-24% in energy intake which will be a source of significant inertia in obesity trends. In another analysis, energy deficit percentage needed to reduce BMI by one unit is found to be relatively constant across ages. Accompanying documented and freely available simulation model facilitates diverse applications customized to different sub-populations. PMID:25479101

  3. Mechanisms of Body Weight Fluctuations in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kistner, Andrea; Lhommée, Eugénie; Krack, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Typical body weight changes are known to occur in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Weight loss has been reported in early stages as well as in advanced disease and malnutrition may worsen the clinical state of the patient. On the other hand, an increasing number of patients show weight gain under dopamine replacement therapy or after surgery. These weight changes are multifactorial and involve changes in energy expenditure, perturbation of homeostatic control, and eating behavior modulated by dopaminergic treatment. Comprehension of the different mechanisms contributing to body weight is a prerequisite for the management of body weight and nutritional state of an individual PD patient. This review summarizes the present knowledge and highlights the necessity of evaluation of body weight and related factors, as eating behavior, energy intake, and expenditure in PD. PMID:24917848

  4. Measured body mass index, body weight perception, dissatisfaction and control practices in urban, low-income African American adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Youfa; Liang, Huifang; Chen, Xiaoli

    2009-01-01

    Background Current understanding of the associations between actual body weight status, weight perception, body dissatisfaction, and weight control practices among low-income urban African American adolescents is limited. The knowledge can help direct future intervention efforts. Methods Cross-sectional data including measured weight and height and self-reported weight status collected from 448 adolescents in four Chicago Public Schools were used. Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity (BMI ? 85th percentile) was 39.8%, but only 27.2% considered themselves as obese, although 43.4% reported trying to lose weight. Girls were more likely to express weight dissatisfaction than boys, especially those with BMI ? 95th percentile (62.9% vs. 25.9%). BMI ? 85th percentile girls were more likely to try to lose weight than boys (84.6% vs. 66.7%). Among all adolescents, 27.2% underestimated and 67.2% correctly judged their own weight status. Multinomial logistic models show that those with BMI ? 85th percentile, self-perceived as obese, or expressed body dissatisfaction were more likely to try to lose weight; adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were 4.52 (2.53–8.08), 18.04 (7.19–45.30), 4.12 (1.64–10.37), respectively. No significant differences were found in diet and physical activity between those trying to lose weight and those not trying, but boys who reported trying to lose weight still spent more television time (P < 0.05). Conclusion Gender differences in weight perception, body dissatisfaction, and weight control practices exist among African American adolescents. One-third did not appropriately classify their weight status. Weight perception and body dissatisfaction are correlates of weight control practices. Adolescents attempting to lose weight need be empowered to make adequate desirable behavioral changes. PMID:19523206

  5. Body weight changes in elderly psychogeriatric nursing home residents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kim T. B. Knoops; Erika Slump; Groot de C. P. G. M; W. Wouters-Wesseling; M. L. Brouwer; Staveren van W. A

    2005-01-01

    Objective. This study was undertaken to identify predictors of body weight change in nursing home patients with possible to severe dementia. Methods. For 24 weeks, 108 elderly residents of a nursing home were followed. Body weight was measured every 2 weeks. Other anthropometric characteristics, dietary intake, food behavior restrictions, psychological characteristics, medical status, and use of medicines were measured at

  6. Complementary therapies for reducing body weight: a systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M H Pittler; E Ernst

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing at an alarming rate and a plethora of complementary therapies are on offer claiming effectiveness for reducing body weight. The aim of this systematic review is to critically assess the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews of complementary therapies for reducing body weight. Literature searches were conducted on Medline, Embase, Amed,

  7. Women's work. Maintaining a healthy body weight.

    PubMed

    Welch, Nicky; Hunter, Wendy; Butera, Karina; Willis, Karen; Cleland, Verity; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2009-08-01

    This study describes women's perceptions of the supports and barriers to maintaining a healthy weight among currently healthy weight women from urban and rural socio-economically disadvantaged areas. Using focus groups and interviews, we asked women about their experiences of maintaining a healthy weight. Overwhelmingly, women described their healthy weight practices in terms of concepts related to work and management. The theme of 'managing health' comprised issues of managing multiple responsibilities, time, and emotions associated with healthy practices. Rural women faced particular difficulties in accessing supports at a practical level (for example, lack of childcare) and due to the gendered roles they enacted in caring for others. Family background (in particular, mothers' attitudes to food and weight) also appeared to influence perceptions about healthy weight maintenance. In the context of global increases in the prevalence of obesity, the value of initiatives aimed at supporting healthy weight women to maintain their weight should not be under-estimated. Such initiatives need to work within the social and personal constraints that women face in maintaining good health. PMID:19446587

  8. SEASONAL BODY WEIGHT VARIATION IN FIVE SPECIES OF WOODPECKERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter D. Koenig; Eric L. Walters; Jeffrey R. Walters; James S. Kellam; Klaus G. Michalek; Matthew S. Schrader

    2005-01-01

    We investigated patterns of seasonal variation in body weight in six populations of five resident species of temperate-zone woodpeckers: Acorn Woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus), Red-bellied Woodpecker (M. carolinus), Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoi- des borealis), Downy Woodpecker (P. pubescens), and Great Spotted Woodpecker (Den- drocopos major). After controlling for time of day and overall body size, annual variation in body weight was small

  9. BODY WEIGHT AND COGNITIVE DECLINE IN MCI

    E-print Network

    Cronk, Ben B.

    2008-08-08

    Abstract Objective: To examine body mass index (BMI) and cognitive decline in subjects diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: Neuropsychological testing was conducted of 286 MCI subjects. General estimating equations (GEE) assessed...

  10. Morphine After Tubal Ligation With Bupivacaine: Dosage Versus Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Roehl, Bryan C.; Payton, Mark E.; Witter, LouAnn C.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: We investigated whether there was a statistically significant difference in patient need for postoperative analgesia based on adjusted body weight between heavier and lighter women who underwent laparoscopic tubal ligation with bupivacaine injection at the skin incision. Methods: We examined 49 records of women who underwent laparoscopic tubal ligation at Oklahoma State University Medical Center between 2000 and 2005 and received an injection of bupivacaine at the surgical site during the procedure. Postsurgical morphine was measured as doses per kilogram of body weight against total body weight and as total milligrams per kilogram of body weight against total body weight. A regression was performed for each measurement. Results: Heavier women required significantly fewer total milligrams of morphine per kilogram of body weight and fewer total doses of morphine per kilogram of body weight than lighter women (2-tailed P = .0035 and P = .0018, respectively). Conclusion: Our data may suggest that lipophilic bupivacaine injected at a surgical site is held in place better and works for a longer period when more fat is present. PMID:25408604

  11. Men and Body Image: Are Males Satisfied with Their Body Weight?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ADAM DREWNOWSKI; DORIS K. YEE

    Dissatisfaction with body image is thought to be a key factor in the etiology of eating disorders among women. In contrast, men are reported to be generally satisfied with their body weight and body shape. The present survey study examined the relative desire for thinness or weight gain among 226 male and female freshman students. Most 18-year-old women (85%) wished

  12. Sociocultural influences and body change strategies in Spanish adolescent boys of different weight status.

    PubMed

    Almenara, Carlos A; Fauquet, Jordi; López-Guimerŕ, Gemma; Pŕmias-Massana, Montserrat; Sánchez-Carracedo, David

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the association between sociocultural influences to attain an ideal body and body change strategies (BCS) in Spanish adolescent boys of different weight status. A total of 594 Spanish boys (M=13.94 years, SD=0.20) participated. Measures included in the study were weight status according to body mass index (BMI), sociocultural influences (perceived pressures to attain an ideal body, general internalization of an ideal body, internalization of an athletic-ideal body), BCS to lose/control weight (dieting, healthy and unhealthy weight-control behaviors), and BCS to gain weight and muscles. Underweight boys engaged more frequently in weight-gain behaviors. Overweight boys reported higher levels of perceived sociocultural pressures and general internalization compared to normal-weight boys, and were more likely to be engaged in BCS to lose/control weight compared with the other weight-status groups. There were no differences between groups in terms of internalization of an athletic-ideal body and BCS to increase muscles. Future research and prevention programs should consider male-specific behaviors and weight-status differences. PMID:25261810

  13. Body Weight Perception, Unhealthy Weight Control Behaviors, and Suicidal Ideation among Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dong-Sik; Cho, Youngtae; Cho, Sung-Il; Lim, In-Sook

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study examined the mediating function of body weight perception (BWP) in the relation between body mass index (BMI) and unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCBs; eg, fasting, using diet pills, or laxatives), and between BMI and suicidal ideation. It also explored the correlation between exposure to multiple UWCBs and suicidal…

  14. Gender differences, physical activity and body weight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven T. Yen

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the effect of physical activity on bodyweight and the gender differences in such effects, following the copula approach to endogenous switching regression. Using data from the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), we find differentiated effects of socio-demographic variables on exercise and on Body Mass Indexes (BMIs), and differentiated effects of exercise on BMI, between genders. Regular

  15. Gender differences, physical activity and body weight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven T. Yen

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the effect of physical activity on bodyweight and the gender differences in such effects, following the copula approach to endogenous switching regression. Using data from the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), we find differentiated effects of socio-demographic variables on exercise and on Body Mass Indexes (BMIs), and differentiated effects of exercise on BMI, between genders. Regular

  16. A prospective study of weight maintenance in obese subjects reduced to normal body weight without weight-loss

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald D Hensrud; Roland L Weinsier; Betty E Darnell; Gary R Hunter

    We examined the pattern of weight mainte- nance in 24 obese women (body mass index (BMI; in kg\\/m2) 27.6 ± 0.4 who were provided foods for a balanced deficit diet until each had lost ? 10 kg and attained normal body weight (BMI 22.9 ± 0.4). At 1 y subjects had regained a mean of 42% of their weight loss,

  17. Excess body weight during pregnancy and offspring obesity: potential mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Paliy, Oleg; Piyathilake, Chandrika J; Kozyrskyj, Anita; Celep, Gulcin; Marotta, Francesco; Rastmanesh, Reza

    2014-03-01

    The rates of child and adult obesity have increased in most developed countries over the past several decades. The health consequences of obesity affect both physical and mental health, and the excess body weight can be linked to an elevated risk for developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular problems, and depression. Among the factors that can influence the development of obesity are higher infant weights and increased weight gain, which are associated with higher risk for excess body weight later in life. In turn, mother's excess body weight during and after pregnancy can be linked to the risk for offspring overweight and obesity through dietary habits, mode of delivery and feeding, breast milk composition, and through the influence on infant gut microbiota. This review considers current knowledge of these potential mechanisms that threaten to create an intergenerational cycle of obesity. PMID:24103493

  18. Body Weight Gain during Altered Gravity: Spaceflight, Centrifugation and Transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, Charles E.; Harper, J. S.; Daunton, N. G.; Corcoran, M. L.; Morey-Holton, E.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Gravity is a force that influences all living systems, and is often disregarded in the study of environment on growth and development. To assess the effect of gravity exposure on growth, immature rats (130-200 g) were evaluated during chronic altered gravity exposure and during transition between gravity fields. The effects of 14 days of spaceflight on body weight gain were evaluated (n=12) and compared to controls. Spaceflight did not affect weight gain. In 6 rats, the transition from spaceflight to 1 G showed a significant (p less than 0.05) post flight weight loss over 48 hr of 13 g compared to controls. Over subsequent days this loss was compensated for with no difference noted after 5 days. Exposure to hypergravity, 2 G for 16 days, was evaluated in groups of n=6 (Control; On Center Control (OCC); Centrifuged). With centrifugation or OCC there was a reduction in body weight within 24 hr. The OCC regained control weights within 13 days. The weight difference, 26 +/- 1 g, persisted with 2 G with no subsequent difference in weight gain over days 3-16 compared to controls; 3.7 +/- 0.1 versus 3.9 +/- 0.1 g/day respectively. Transition from centrifugation to 1 G resulted in a weight increase within 48 hours. Over 16 days the rate of gain was increased 3.1 +/- 0.1 g/day for centrifuge compared to 2.1 +/- 0.1 g/day for controls between Day 3 to 16. However, differences from control were still noted on Day 16. Transition from one gravity field to another causes acute changes in body weight. Transition to microgravity or 1 G, following the acute changes, results in adjustments to attain a normal weight. In hypergravity the acute reduction in body weight persist, but weight gain is normal. Transitioning from hypergravity to 1G results in an increased weight gain to compensate for the persistent reduction during exposure.

  19. Changes in body weight, composition, and shape: a 4-year study of college students.

    PubMed

    Gropper, Sareen S; Simmons, Karla P; Connell, Lenda Jo; Ulrich, Pamela V

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI), body composition, and shape in a group of male and female students over the 4-year college period. Anthropometric assessments including height and weight (via standard techniques), body composition (via bioelectrical impedance analysis), and body shape (via 3-dimensional body scanning) were conducted at the beginning of the freshman year and end of the senior year in 131 college students. Four-year changes included significant (p < 0.0001) gains in weight (3.0 kg), BMI (1.0 kg·m(-2)), body fat (3.6%), and absolute fat mass (3.2 kg). Males gained significantly (p < 0.0001) greater amounts of weight, BMI, percent and absolute fat mass, and fat-free mass than females. Weight change ranged from (-)8.7 to (+)16.8 kg. About 70% of the participants gained weight, which averaged 5.3 kg; significant (p < 0.0001) gains in BMI, fat-free mass, absolute fat mass, and percent body fat and significant (p < 0.0005) increases in neck, chest-bust, waist, hips, seat, and biceps circumferences were also observed in this weight gain group. The percentage of participants classified as overweight-obese increased from 18% to 31%. The number of females and males with ?30% and 20% body fat, respectively, increased from n = 14 to n = 26 (with n = 4 exhibiting normal weight obesity) over the 4-year period. The waist circumference changes were significantly (p < 0.0001) correlated with both weight and percent body fat changes. In conclusion, the increasing prevalence of obesity and normal weight obesity among this college population suggests the need for additional health promotion strategies on college campuses. PMID:22978391

  20. Body Weights of Ohio Ruffed Grouse (Bonasa umbellus)1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROBERT J. STOLL; W. MCCLAIN

    1988-01-01

    Average annual winter (December-February) body weights of Ohio ruffed grouse (Bonasa um- bellus) from both the glaciated northeast and the more southern unglaciated hill country ranges showed only small deviations from the 4-year (1974-1977) mean. Hill country grouse were heavier (P < 0.05) than northeastern birds in winter, but not in fall (October-November). Year-around (1969-1982) body weights were obtained only

  1. Birth weight and body fat distribution in adolescent girls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Barker; S Robinson; C Osmond; D J P Barker

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVETo examine the association between birth weight and body fat distribution in a group of adolescent girls.DESIGNA total of 216 white girls who were born in Southampton had their heights, weights, waist and hip circumferences, and skinfold thicknesses measured when they were aged between 14 and 16 years.RESULTSThe girls who were smallest at birth, but who were fattest at time

  2. Body weight and composition dynamics of fall migrating canvasbacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Serie, J.R.; Sharp, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    We studied body weights and composition of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) during fall migration 1975-77 on stopover sites along the upper Mississippi River near La Crosse, Wisconsin (Navigational Pools 7 and 8) and Keokuk, Iowa (Navigational Pool 19). Body weights varied (P < 0.001) by age and sex without interaction. Weights varied by year (P < 0.001) on Pools 7 and 8. Mean weights increased (P < 0.01) within age and sex classes by date and averaged 3.6 and 2.7 g daily on Pools 7 and 8 and Pool 19, respectively. Percent fat was highly correlated (P < 0.001) with carcass weight for each age and sex. Live weight was a good predictor of total body fat. Mean estimated total body fat ranged from 200 to 300 g and comprised 15-20% of live weights among age and sex classes. Temporal weight patterns were less variable for adults than immatures, but generally increased during migration. Length of stopover varied inversely with fat reserves among color-marked adult males. Variation in fat condition of canvasbacks during fall may explain the mechanism regulating population ingress and egress on stopover sites. Fat reserves attained by canvasbacks during fall stopover may have adaptive significance in improving survival by conditioning for winter.

  3. Associations among eating regulation and body mass index, weight, and body fat in college students: the moderating role of gender.

    PubMed

    Gropper, Sareen S; Arsiwalla, Dilbur D; Lord, Denali C; Huggins, Kevin W; Simmons, Karla P; Ulrich, Pamela V

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated associations between eating regulation behaviors and body mass index (BMI), weight, and percent body fat in male and female students over the first two years of college. Subjects included 328 college students (215 females and 113 males). Height and weight (via standard techniques), body composition (via bioelectrical impedance analysis), and eating regulation behaviors (using the Regulation of Eating Behavior Scale) were conducted two to three times during both the freshman and sophomore years. Significant associations between eating regulation and BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were shown mostly in females. In females, higher BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat at the end of the second year of college were found in those with low levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and high levels of amotivation, while lower BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were associated with high levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and low levels of amotivation. The findings that specific eating behaviors in females during the first two years of college influence BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat may be useful for inclusion in university programs focused on college student health to help decrease the risk of obesity and disordered eating/eating disorders in female college students. PMID:24854827

  4. Weight And Body Composition Change In Male Freshman Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron Patrick Crombie

    2009-01-01

    Weight and body composition change in male freshman students. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if participation in mandatory physical training (PT) by Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) cadets would promote favorable body composition (BC) changes during the first year at university versus general population students with high and low levels of physical activity (PA). Methods: Thirty-seven

  5. Negotiating the Early Developing Body: Pubertal Timing, Body Weight, and Adolescent Girls' Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E.

    2010-01-01

    Despite knowledge that early pubertal timing predicts adolescent girls' substance use, it is still unclear whether this relationship persists beyond early adolescence and whether it is conditional on girls' body weight. This study examined the moderating role of body weight in the association between early pubertal timing and adolescent girls'…

  6. Relationships between Weight and Body Dissatisfaction, Body Esteem, and Teasing in African American Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Chermaine; Johnston, Craig A.; Dalton, William T., III; Foreyt, John P.

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the relation between weight and weight-related factors (i.e., body dissatisfaction, body esteem, teasing frequency, and the effects of teasing) in a community sample of prepubescent African American girls. African American girls (N = 97) in Grades 3 to 5 completed the McKnight Risk Factor Survey-Third Edition and had their…

  7. Bisphenol A: Perinatal exposure and body weight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beverly S. Rubin; Ana M. Soto

    2009-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a component of polycarbonate and other plastics including resins that line food and beverage containers. BPA is known to leach from products in contact with food and drink, and is therefore thought to be routinely ingested. In a recent cross sectional study, BPA was detected in urine samples from 92.6% of the US population examined. The

  8. SCALING RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BODY WEIGHT AND FERMENTATION GUT CAPACITY IN AXIS DEER

    E-print Network

    Aspbury, Andrea S. - Department of Biology, Texas State University

    SCALING RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BODY WEIGHT AND FERMENTATION GUT CAPACITY IN AXIS DEER DAWN M 78666, USA The scaling relationship between body weight and fermentation gut capacity presumably impacts dietary patterns of ruminants. Interspecific scaling relationships between body weight and fermentation

  9. Body Weight Reducing Effect of Oral Boric Acid Intake

    PubMed Central

    Aysan, Erhan; Sahin, Fikrettin; Telci, Dilek; Yalvac, Mehmet Emir; Emre, Sinem Hocaoglu; Karaca, Cetin; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut

    2011-01-01

    Background: Boric acid is widely used in biology, but its body weight reducing effect is not researched. Methods: Twenty mice were divided into two equal groups. Control group mice drank standard tap water, but study group mice drank 0.28mg/250ml boric acid added tap water over five days. Total body weight changes, major organ histopathology, blood biochemistry, urine and feces analyses were compared. Results: Study group mice lost body weight mean 28.1% but in control group no weight loss and also weight gained mean 0.09% (p<0.001). Total drinking water and urine outputs were not statistically different. Cholesterol, LDL, AST, ALT, LDH, amylase and urobilinogen levels were statistically significantly high in the study group. Other variables were not statistically different. No histopathologic differences were detected in evaluations of all resected major organs. Conclusion: Low dose oral boric acid intake cause serious body weight reduction. Blood and urine analyses support high glucose, lipid and middle protein catabolisms, but the mechanism is unclear. PMID:22135611

  10. Weight-related teasing and body dissatisfaction in adolescents: Moderated-mediation by self-perceived size and weight status

    E-print Network

    Elledge, Allison Renee

    2014-08-24

    dissatisfaction, defined as the negative self-evaluation of one’s shape and weight (Cash & Pruzinsky, 1990), is predictive of a number of poor mental health outcomes, including eating pathology, poor self-esteem, and depressive symptoms (e.g., Wertheim, Paxton..., & Blaney, 2004a). Body dissatisfaction is positively associated with attempts to alter body size (McCabe & Ricciardelli, 2001) and is recognized as the strongest predictor of future eating pathology (e.g., Phelps, Johnston, & Augustyniak, 1999; Polivy...

  11. [Rehabilitation features in the prevention of asthma exacerbations in patients with different body weight].

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    Bronchial asthma patients with excessive body weight compared to persons with normal weight had more severe course of the disease, associating with more pronounced inflammation (increased level of the proinflammatory interleukin-6, interferon-gamma, tumor necrosis factor alpha). After the rehabilitation treatment including speleotherapy we observed the improvement of clinical manifestation and reduction of the studied immune parameters. PMID:25796818

  12. Oral Administration of Lycopene Reverses Cadmium-suppressed Body Weight Loss and Lipid Peroxidation in Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nadir Rencuzogullari; Suat Erdogan

    2007-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) exposure has been recognized to result in a wide variety of cellular responses, including oxidative stress and\\u000a body weight loss. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of lycopene supplementation on the antioxidant defense\\u000a system, lipid peroxidation (LPO) level, nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) production, and body weight\\u000a in Cd-exposed rats.

  13. Relationship between body satisfaction with self esteemand unhealthy body weight management

    PubMed Central

    Daniali, Shahrbanoo; Azadbakht, Leila; Mostafavi, Firoozeh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: A favorable or unfavorable attitude about self was named self esteem. According to Maslow theory to achieve quality of life and happiness, one must reach the gradual fulfillment of human needs, including a high degree of own self-esteem. Body dissatisfaction is a negative distortion of one's body which is especially mentioned by the women. Many studies have shown links between self esteem, body dissatisfaction, health and behaviors. this study intends to determine relationship between body satisfaction, self esteem and unhealthy weight control behaviors between women. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 408 women employees in Isfahan University and Isfahan University of Medical Sciences during 1390. They were chosen according to the stratified random sampling method. Inclusion criteria were 1) willing to participate in the study and 2) lack of serious physical defect 3) not being in pregnancy or breastfeeding course. Exclusion criteria was filling out questionnaires incompletely. Data collection tool was a multidimensional questionnaire which comprised of 4 sections as following: demographic (5items), A self-administrative questionnaire for body Satisfaction (7 items), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (10 items) and a standard Weight Control Behavior Scale (18 items). Cranach's alpha was 0.9 or higher for the different sections. Finally, collected data was analyzed with SPSS18 using the independent T-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficient, regression, Spearman correlation. Results: Frequencies of participants by weight category were 14.1% for obese, 35.3% for overweight, 47.6% for normal weight. The mean body satisfaction score in the studied women was 63.26 ± 16.27 (from 100). Mean score of self esteem was 76.70 ± 10.45. 51.5% of women had medium self esteem, 47.5% had high self esteem. Pearson correlation showed that the variables of body Satisfaction (r = 0.3, P = 0.02), BMI (r = - 0.14, P < 0.003), education level (r = 0.22, P < 0.001), income (r = 0.14, P < 0.004), consumption of fruit (r = 0.13, P < 0.008) all correlated with self-esteem significantly. Women with higher self esteem used higher fruits had a good nutrition overall (r = 0.11, P = 0.02). 92.15%, 10.8% of women respectively participated in one of healthy and unhealthy weight control behavior. There was not any Relationship between self esteem and healthy weight control behavior while finding showed reverse relationship between self esteem and Unhealthy Dieting Behaviors. Conclusion: It seemed women identity in our society tied to social appreciations that formed and supported by body satisfaction. When they feel their current appearance is differ from ideal appearance, they feel down and have lower self esteem and used unhealthy dieting behavior and low fruits daily. Due to importance of precise self evaluation, self esteem can be used to design and conduct public health programs, especially for women. PMID:24083279

  14. Evaluation of new leptin fragments on food intake and body weight of normal rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. N. C. Martins; M. M. Telles; J. C. S. Zemdegs; I. S. Andrade; E. B. Ribeiro; A. Miranda

    2009-01-01

    Leptin, a protein hormone originating from adipose tissue, circulates in the plasma and affects the energy balance by interacting with the hypothalamus. Leptin plays an important role in the regulation of a variety of physiological functions, including food intake, body temperature and body weight maintenance. Tertiary structure of the leptin molecule reveals the existence of a four-helix bundle that is

  15. Adjustment for non-genetic effects on body weight and size in Angora goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenzhong Liu; Yuan Zhang; Zhongxiao Zhou

    2005-01-01

    Data on 864 Angora goats, collected from 1988 to 2000, were used to study non-genetic effects on body weight and daily gain from birth to 24 months of age and body size at different ages. Non-genetic factors included birth year, birth month, sex, age of kids, age of dam, type of birth and rearing. Birth year, sex and type of

  16. MOTHERS' BODY IMAGE PREFERENCES FOR CHILDREN VARY ACCORDING TO THEIR OWN CHILDREN'S WEIGHT STATUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to describe mothers’ body image preferences for children and to determine if mothers’ body image evaluations differed with respect to their own children’s weight status. The sample included 281 primarily African American mothers of children enrolled in Head Start. ...

  17. Energy saver sliding door closer including a valved weight

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsey, K.M.; Talton, T.E.; Lay, R.L.

    1987-03-17

    An energy saver door closer is described comprising: an elongated housing; a weight having a bore extending from the top of the weight and a passage from the lower end of the bore to the exterior thereof; a valve seat in the bore above the passage; sealing means for sealing the interior of the housing and the exterior of the weight above the passage; a valve means for completely closing the upper end of the bore; biasing means urging the valve means to an open position; a cable connected to the valve means and extending upwardly therefrom; port means in the lower end of the housing permitting air to flow in or out of the housing below the weight.

  18. Evaluation of body weight of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus by computer vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui; Xu, Qiang; Liu, Shilin; Zhang, Libin; Yang, Hongsheng

    2015-01-01

    A postichopus japonicus (Holothuroidea, Echinodermata) is an ecological and economic species in East Asia. Conventional biometric monitoring method includes diving for samples and weighing above water, with highly variable in weight measurement due to variation in the quantity of water in the respiratory tree and intestinal content of this species. Recently, video survey method has been applied widely in biometric detection on underwater benthos. However, because of the high flexibility of A. japonicus body, video survey method of monitoring is less used in sea cucumber. In this study, we designed a model to evaluate the wet weight of A. japonicus, using machine vision technology combined with a support vector machine (SVM) that can be used in field surveys on the A. japonicus population. Continuous dorsal images of free-moving A. japonicus individuals in seawater were captured, which also allows for the development of images of the core body edge as well as thorn segmentation. Parameters that include body length, body breadth, perimeter and area, were extracted from the core body edge images and used in SVM regression, to predict the weight of A. japonicus and for comparison with a power model. Results indicate that the use of SVM for predicting the weight of 33 A. japonicus individuals is accurate ( R 2=0.99) and compatible with the power model ( R 2 =0.96). The image-based analysis and size-weight regression models in this study may be useful in body weight evaluation of A. japonicus in lab and field study.

  19. Control of body weight: a physiologic and transgenic perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Frühbeck; J. Gómez-Ambrosi

    2003-01-01

    Overview In mammals, body weight is normally regulated around a set point by coordinated changes in food intake and energy expenditure. These changes are integrated under the influence of specific neural pathways and circulating signals. Almost 50 years ago it was first proposed that circulating signals generated in

  20. Religion and body weight in an underserved population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Religions prominence in some underserved groups that bear a disproportionate burden of the obesity epidemic (e.g. rural, Southern, minority) may play an important role in body weight. Data (1662 African American and Caucasian adults aged 18+) from a representative U.S. sample of a predominately rura...

  1. Body Mass Index and perceived weight status in young adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John P. Sciacca; Christopher L. Melby; Gerald C. Hyner; Amy C. Brown; Paul L. Femea

    1991-01-01

    Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated from self-reported height and weight for 1,123 university students who returned a questionnaire mailed to a 10 percent random sample of the entire undergraduate population of a large midwestern university. Seventeen percent of the females and 20 percent of the males were determined to be in excess of normal BMI standards. However, significantly more

  2. Asians Need Type 2 Diabetes Screening at Lower Body Weight

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Asians Need Type 2 Diabetes Screening at Lower Body Weight: Experts ADA says ... HealthDay News) -- Obesity is a big contributor to type 2 diabetes, but Asian-Americans may need to pile on ...

  3. Evaluating patterns of weight and body composition change among college women.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Mackenzie C; Latner, Janet D

    2015-04-01

    The prevalence of obesity increases as women move from adolescence to young adulthood, and college women have been identified as a population at risk for unhealthy weight gain. Studies of weight gain in college populations have revealed that significant, variable weight change occurs in as few as eight weeks, but few have included participants beyond their freshman year of college or assessed body composition. The aims of the study were to use a repeated measures design to identify patterns of weight change among college women at all grade levels and to evaluate factors that may predict weight change over a one-year period. Undergraduate college women (N=131) completed measures of physical activity, dietary restraint, living conditions, and body dissatisfaction at baseline, 6-months, and 12-months. Height, weight, and body composition were collected at all assessment periods. Forty-four percent of participants gained at least 3lb, 23% lost at least 3lb, and 33% maintained weight over one year. Weight change was associated with changes in body fat and was not related to baseline BMI or age. There were no significant differences between grade levels, suggesting that future studies should include women at all grade levels. Baseline physical activity, dietary restraint, living conditions, and body dissatisfaction did not predict weight change at one year, nor did they differentiate between individuals in the three weight change categories. Further research is needed to identify the factors associated with weight gain in young adult women, and such studies should not be limited to college freshmen. PMID:25796066

  4. The gut sensor as regulator of body weight.

    PubMed

    Reinehr, Thomas; Roth, Christian L

    2015-05-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract comprises a large endocrine organ that regulates not only nutrient sensing and metabolising but also satiety and energy homeostasis. More than 20 hormones secreted from the stomach, intestine, and pancreas as well as signaling mediators of the gut microbiome are involved in this process. A better understanding of how related pathways affect body weight and food intake will help us to find new strategies and drugs to treat obesity. For example, weight loss secondary to lifestyle intervention is often accompanied by unfavorable changes in multiple GI hormones, which may cause difficulties in maintaining a lower body weight status. Conversely, bariatric surgery favorably changes the hormone profile to support improved satiety and metabolic function. This partially explains stronger sustained body weight reduction resulting in better long-term results of improved metabolic functions. This review focuses on GI hormones and signaling mediators of the microbiome involved in satiety regulation and energy homeostasis and summarizes their changes following weight loss. Furthermore, the potential role of GI hormones as anti-obesity drugs is discussed. PMID:25548085

  5. Food shopping and weight concern. Balancing consumer and body normality.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Annemette; Holm, Lotte

    2014-11-01

    The desire to achieve a normal, culturally acceptable body is often seen as the main driver of food-consumption practices adopted by individuals who are concerned about their body weight. In social research into weight management self-control is therefore often a central theme. Turning the focus towards practices and values related to food shopping, this study adds to our understanding of central features in perceptions of normality among people with weight concerns. In a qualitative study 25 people who participated in a dietary intervention trial in Denmark were interviewed and five people were observed. The study shows that the aim of achieving a normal body does not eclipse the importance of enacting values linked to ideas of the 'normal consumer'. Using empirical examples, the study illuminates how consumer freedom is attained in ways that are both complementary to, and in conflict with, practices and experiences of controlling food intake. The paper suggests that freedom and control are composite and complementary ideals of normality for people with weight concerns. On the basis of this insight, the authors discuss the contribution the paper makes to existing studies of weight management and food consumption. PMID:25086208

  6. The Pharmacodynamic Effects of Rocuronium When Dosed According to Real Body Weight or Ideal Body Weight in Morbidly Obese Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yigal Leykin; Tommaso Pellis; Mariella Lucca; Giacomina Lomangino; Bernardo Marzano; Antonino Gullo

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the pharmacodynamic effects of rocu- ronium on morbidly obese patients. Twelve morbidly obese female patients (body mass index 40 kg\\/m2) admitted for laparoscopic gastric banding were ran- domized into two groups. Group 1 (n 6) received 0.6 mg\\/kg of rocuronium based on real body weight, whereas Group 2 (n 6) received 0.6 mg\\/kg of rocuro- nium based on

  7. Negotiating the Early Developing Body: Pubertal Timing, Body Weight, and Adolescent Girls’ Substance Use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emily E. Tanner-Smith

    2010-01-01

    Despite knowledge that early pubertal timing predicts adolescent girls’ substance use, it is still unclear whether this relationship\\u000a persists beyond early adolescence and whether it is conditional on girls’ body weight. This study examined the moderating\\u000a role of body weight in the association between early pubertal timing and adolescent girls’ substance use using three waves\\u000a of data from the National

  8. Body image perception, dietary practices and physical activity of overweight and normal weight Malaysian female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pon, Lai Wan; Kandiah, Mirnalini; Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib

    2004-09-01

    Body image plays an important role in the management of body weight, especially among female adolescents. This study examined the differences in body image perception, weight management knowledge, eating behaviour and physical activity between overweight and normal weight Malaysian female adolescents. Body mass index screening was done on 588 secondary school students to identify overweight (OW) and normal weight (NW) subjects. A BMI-for-age of => 85th percentile and between => 5th and <85th percentile were used as cut-offs for identifying suitable subjects of overweight and normal weight, respectively. Fifty girls identified as being OW were matched for age and ethnicity with 50 NW students. Subjects completed a self-administered questionnaire on demographics, eating behaviour and physical activity, a weight management knowledge inventory (WMKI) and the Body Silhouette Chart. The study sample comprised Malays (40%), Chinese (30%) and Indians (30%) with a mean age of 14.76 ± 1.15 years. The majority of them were from families with a monthly household income of less than RM1,000. Significantly more NW subjects (?2=6.112, p=0.013) than OW subjects had incorrect perception of their current body weight status. The WMKI revealed that more OW subjects (64%) than NW subjects (52%) had a low level of weight management knowledge. Eating behaviour patterns were not significantly different between OW and NW subjects, but more OW subjects skipped one or more daily meals as compared to their NW counterparts (?2=0.174, p=0.010). Physical activity patterns were similar in both groups. Healthy eating and physical activity promotion programmes in schools should include sound weight management practices. PMID:22691735

  9. Body Weight Concerns and Antifat Attitude in Iranian Children

    PubMed Central

    Garousi, Saideh

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is increasing evidence that children are showing body image issues in recent years. Body image disturbances in childhood must be taken seriously. The thin ideal is becoming more prominent in Asian countries; however, there is little research examining how this issue affects Iranian children. This study explores body weight concerns and associated factors among children in Iranian elementary schools. Methods: This study was conducted in 500 elementary schools. An assessment of body image and antifat attitudes was undertaken using the figure rating scale. In addition, body mass index (BMI) and demographic variables were assessed. Results: Nearly, 27.4% of children were underweight, and 13.3% were obese. There was a significant difference between the mean score of body dissatisfaction (BD) between boys and girls (P < 0.05). There were no differences between BD and education of parents, age, and academic grades. In girls, antifat attitudes were significantly related to BMI. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate the paramount importance of undertaking further research in order to identify the predictive factors of body concerns and its consequences among Iranian children. In addition, researchers must plan prevention and educational program for these children. PMID:25709795

  10. Eating and body image concerns among obese and average-weight children.

    PubMed

    Vander Wal, J S; Thelen, M H

    2000-01-01

    Research compared obese and average-weight children with regard to concerns about being or becoming overweight, history of dieting, concerns about the effects of eating food, and perceived discrepancy between real and ideal body image. Participants included 526 obese and average-weight elementary-age school children to whom questionnaires were administered. Gender (male/female), obesity status (obese/average-weight), and grade level (lower elementary/upper elementary) were considered. Obese children were significantly more likely to engage in dieting behaviors, to express concern about their weight, to restrain their eating, and to exhibit more dissatisfaction with their body image than average-weight children. Girls were more likely to exhibit these behaviors than were boys. These findings suggest the importance of studying the emergence of disordered eating habits in childhood. PMID:11023018

  11. Economic weights for maternal traits of sows, including sow longevity.

    PubMed

    Amer, P R; Ludemann, C I; Hermesch, S

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a transparent, comprehensive, and flexible model for each trait for the formulation of breeding objectives for sow traits in swine breeding programs. Economic values were derived from submodels considering a typical Australian pig production system. Differences in timing and expressions of traits were accounted for to derive economic weights that were compared on the basis of their relative size after multiplication by their corresponding genetic standard deviation to account for differences in scale and genetic variability present for each trait. The number of piglets born alive had the greatest contribution (27.1%) to a subindex containing only maternal traits, followed by daily gain (maternal; 22.0%) and sow mature weight (15.0%). Other traits considered in the maternal breeding objective were preweaning survival (11.8%), sow longevity (12.5%), gilt age at puberty (8.7%), and piglet survival at birth (3.1%). The economic weights for number of piglets born alive and preweaning piglet survival were found to be highly dependent on the definition of scale of enterprise, with each economic value increasing by approximately 100% when it was assumed that the value of extra output per sow could be captured, rather than assuming a consequent reduction in the number of sows to maintain a constant level of output from a farm enterprise. In the context of a full maternal line index that must account also for the expression of direct genetic traits by the growing piglet progeny of sows, the maternal traits contributed approximately half of the variation in the overall breeding objective. Deployment of more comprehensive maternal line indexes incorporating the new maternal traits described would lead to more balanced selection outcomes and improved survival of pigs. Future work could facilitate evaluation of the economic impacts of desired-gains indexes, which could further improve animal welfare through improved sow and piglet survival. The results justify further development of selection criteria and breeding value prediction systems for a wider range of maternal traits relevant to pig production systems. PMID:25367527

  12. Lifestyle Interventions Targeting Body Weight Changes during the Menopause Transition: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Jull, Janet; Stacey, Dawn; Beach, Sarah; Dumas, Alex; Strychar, Irene; Ufholz, Lee-Anne; Prince, Stephanie; Abdulnour, Joseph; Prud'homme, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine the effectiveness of exercise and/or nutrition interventions and to address body weight changes during the menopause transition. Methods. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using electronic databases, grey literature, and hand searching. Two independent researchers screened for studies using experimental designs to evaluate the impact of exercise and/or nutrition interventions on body weight and/or central weight gain performed during the menopausal transition. Studies were quality appraised using Cochrane risk of bias. Included studies were analyzed descriptively. Results. Of 3,564 unique citations screened, 3 studies were eligible (2 randomized controlled trials, and 1 pre/post study). Study quality ranged from low to high risk of bias. One randomized controlled trial with lower risk of bias concluded that participation in an exercise program combined with dietary interventions might mitigate body adiposity increases, which is normally observed during the menopause transition. The other two studies with higher risk of bias suggested that exercise might attenuate weight loss or weight gain and change abdominal adiposity patterns. Conclusions. High quality studies evaluating the effectiveness of interventions targeting body weight changes in women during their menopause transition are needed. Evidence from one higher quality study indicates an effective multifaceted intervention for women to minimize changes in body adiposity. PMID:24971172

  13. IQP-GC-101 reduces body weight and body fat mass: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Chong, Pee-Win; Beah, Zhi-Ming; Grube, Barbara; Riede, Linda

    2014-10-01

    IQP-GC-101 is a patented blend of the standardized extracts of Garcinia cambogia, Camellia sinensis, unroasted Coffea arabica, and Lagerstroemia speciosa. These individual ingredients of IQP-GC-101 have each shown promise in promoting weight loss; however, the efficacy of the blend has not been established. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group study conducted over 14?weeks (including a 2-week run-in phase) aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of IQP-GC-101 in reducing body weight and body fat mass in overweight Caucasian adults. Subjects took three IQP-GC-101 or placebo tablets, twice a day, 30?min before main meals. All subjects also adhered to a 500?kcal/day energy deficit diet with 30% of energy from fat. Ninety-one overweight and mildly obese subjects (46 in the IQP-GC-101 group, 45 in the placebo group) completed the study. After 12-week intervention, IQP-GC-101 resulted in a mean (±SD) weight loss of 2.26?±?2.37?kg compared with 0.56?±?2.34?kg for placebo (pU ?=?0.002). There was also significantly more reduction in body fat mass, waist circumference, and hip circumference in the IQP-GC-101 group. No serious adverse events were reported. The use of IQP-GC-101 has been shown to result in body weight and body fat reduction in the current study, with good tolerability. PMID:24797657

  14. Role of oxytocin signaling in the regulation of body weight.

    PubMed

    Blevins, James E; Ho, Jacqueline M

    2013-12-01

    Obesity and its associated metabolic disorders are growing health concerns in the US and worldwide. In the US alone, more than two-thirds of the adult population is classified as either overweight or obese [1], highlighting the need to develop new, effective treatments for these conditions. Whereas the hormone oxytocin is well known for its peripheral effects on uterine contraction during parturition and milk ejection during lactation, release of oxytocin from somatodendrites and axonal terminals within the central nervous system (CNS) is implicated in both the formation of prosocial behaviors and in the control of energy balance. Recent findings demonstrate that chronic administration of oxytocin reduces food intake and body weight in diet-induced obese (DIO) and genetically obese rodents with impaired or defective leptin signaling. Importantly, chronic systemic administration of oxytocin out to 6 weeks recapitulates the effects of central administration on body weight loss in DIO rodents at doses that do not result in the development of tolerance. Furthermore, these effects are coupled with induction of Fos (a marker of neuronal activation) in hindbrain areas (e.g. dorsal vagal complex (DVC)) linked to the control of meal size and forebrain areas (e.g. hypothalamus, amygdala) linked to the regulation of food intake and body weight. This review assesses the potential central and peripheral targets by which oxytocin may inhibit body weight gain, its regulation by anorexigenic and orexigenic signals, and its potential use as a therapy that can circumvent leptin resistance and reverse the behavioral and metabolic abnormalities associated with DIO and genetically obese models. PMID:24065622

  15. Role of oxytocin signaling in the regulation of body weight

    PubMed Central

    Blevins, James E.; Ho, Jacqueline M.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and its associated metabolic disorders are growing health concerns in the US and worldwide. In the US alone, more than two-thirds of the adult population is classified as either overweight or obese [1], highlighting the need to develop new, effective treatments for these conditions. Whereas the hormone oxytocin is well known for its peripheral effects on uterine contraction during parturition and milk ejection during lactation, release of oxytocin from somatodendrites and axonal terminals within the central nervous system (CNS) is implicated in both the formation of prosocial behaviors and in the control of energy balance. Recent findings demonstrate that chronic administration of oxytocin reduces food intake and body weight in diet-induced obese (DIO) and genetically obese rodents with impaired or defective leptin signaling. Importantly, chronic systemic administration of oxytocin out to 6 weeks recapitulates the effects of central administration on body weight loss in DIO rodents at doses that do not result in the development of tolerance. Furthermore, these effects are coupled with induction of Fos (a marker of neuronal activation) in hindbrain areas (e.g. dorsal vagal complex (DVC)) linked to the control of meal size and forebrain areas (e.g. hypothalamus, amygdala) linked to the regulation of food intake and body weight. This review assesses the potential central and peripheral targets by which oxytocin may inhibit body weight gain, its regulation by anorexigenic and orexigenic signals, and its potential use as a therapy that can circumvent leptin resistance and reverse the behavioral and metabolic abnormalities associated with DIO and genetically obese models. PMID:24065622

  16. Hedonic and incentive signals for body weight control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emil Egecioglu; Karolina P. Skibicka; Caroline Hansson; Mayte Alvarez-Crespo; P. Anders Friberg; Elisabet Jerlhag; Jörgen A. Engel; Suzanne L. Dickson

    2011-01-01

    Here we review the emerging neurobiological understanding of the role of the brain’s reward system in the regulation of body\\u000a weight in health and in disease. Common obesity is characterized by the over-consumption of palatable\\/rewarding foods, reflecting\\u000a an imbalance in the relative importance of hedonic versus homeostatic signals. The popular ‘incentive salience theory’ of\\u000a food reward recognises not only a

  17. Body size perception and weight control in youth: 9-year international trends from 24 countries

    PubMed Central

    Quick, Virginia; Nansel, Tonja R.; Liu, Danping; Lipsky, Leah M.; Due, Pernille; Iannotti, Ronald J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine nine-year trends and relationships regarding misperceptions of body size and dieting for weight loss among adolescents from 24 countries, and explore the influence of country-level overweight prevalence. Methods Socio-demographic characteristics, body size perception, and dieting for weight loss were assessed in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey conducted in 24 countries cross-sectionally at three time points (2001/02, 2005/06, 2009/10). Logistic regression models examined change over time in overestimation of body size in non-overweight adolescents, underestimation of body size in overweight adolescents, dieting for weight loss in non-overweight and overweight adolescents, and relationships between body size perception and dieting. Analyses were stratified by weight status and sex. Covariates included country-level overweight prevalence, family affluence, and country level of development. Body mass index was only included in models examining dieting for weight loss. Results Country-level overweight prevalence increased over time (11.6% to 14.7%). Compared to Time 1, overweight adolescents had greater odds of body size underestimation at Time 3 (OR=1.68 for girls, OR=1.10 for boys), while non-overweight adolescents had lower odds of body size overestimation at Time 3 (OR=0.87 for girls, OR=0.89 for boys). Controlling for country-level overweight prevalence attenuated these relationships. Compared to Time 1, overweight and non-overweight boys were 10% more likely to diet at Time 3, while overweight and non-overweight girls were 19% and 16%, respectively, less likely to diet at Time 3. Controlling for country-level overweight prevalence did not impact trends in dieting for weight loss. Additionally, the association of self-perceived overweight with increased odds of dieting diminished over time. Conclusions Body size perceptions among adolescents may have changed over time concurrent with shifts in country-level body weight. However, controlling for country-level overweight prevalence did not impact trends in dieting for weight loss, suggesting a potentially stronger impact of social comparison on weight-related perceptions than on behavior. PMID:24722544

  18. Predicting pediatric age-matched weight and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Sy, Sherwin K B; Asin-Prieto, Eduardo; Derendorf, Hartmut; Samara, Emil

    2014-11-01

    The empirical scaling from adult to pediatric using allometric size adjustments based on body weight continued to be the mainstream method for pediatric dose selection. Due to the flexibility of a polynomial function to conform to the data trend, an empirical function for simulating age-matched weight and body mass index by gender in the pediatric population is developed by using a polynomial function and a constant coefficient to describe the interindividual variability in weight. A polynomial of up to fifth order sufficiently described the pediatric data from the Center for Disease Control (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO). The coefficients of variation to describe the variability were within 17%. The percentages of the CDC simulated weights for pediatrics between 0 and 5 years that fell outside the WHO 90% and 95% confidence boundaries were well within the expected percentage values, indicating that the CDC dataset can be used to substitute for the WHO dataset for the purpose of pediatric drug development. To illustrate the utility of this empirical function, the CDC-based age-matched weights were simulated and were used in the prediction of the concentration-time profiles of tenofovir in children based on a population pharmacokinetic model whose parameters were allometrically scaled. We have shown that the resulting 95% prediction interval of tenofovir in newborn to 5 years of age was almost identical whether the weights were simulated based on WHO or CDC dataset. The approach is simple and is broadly applicable in adjusting for pediatric dosages using allometry. PMID:25155824

  19. Excess body weight and obesity—the link with gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prashant Kant; Mark A. Hull

    2011-01-01

    Excess body weight (EBW) is an independent risk factor for many human malignancies, including cancers throughout the gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary tract from the esophagus to the colorectum. The relative risk of gastrointestinal cancer in obese individuals is approximately 1.5–2.0 times that for normal weight individuals, with organ-specific and gender-specific differences for specific cancers. The association between EBW and risk of

  20. The Weight of a Guilty Conscience: Subjective Body Weight as an Embodiment of Guilt

    PubMed Central

    Day, Martin V.; Bobocel, D. Ramona

    2013-01-01

    Guilt is an important social and moral emotion. In addition to feeling unpleasant, guilt is metaphorically described as a “weight on one's conscience.” Evidence from the field of embodied cognition suggests that abstract metaphors may be grounded in bodily experiences, but no prior research has examined the embodiment of guilt. Across four studies we examine whether i) unethical acts increase subjective experiences of weight, ii) feelings of guilt explain this effect, and iii) whether there are consequences of the weight of guilt. Studies 1–3 demonstrated that unethical acts led to more subjective body weight compared to control conditions. Studies 2 and 3 indicated that heightened feelings of guilt mediated the effect, whereas other negative emotions did not. Study 4 demonstrated a perceptual consequence. Specifically, an induction of guilt affected the perceived effort necessary to complete tasks that were physical in nature, compared to minimally physical tasks. PMID:23936041

  1. Perceptions and Beliefs About Body Size, Weight, and Weight Loss Among Obese African American Women: A Qualitative Inquiry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christie A. Befort; Janet L. Thomas; Christine M. Daley; Paula C. Rhode; Jasjit S. Ahluwalia

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore perceptions and beliefs about body size, weight, and weight loss among obese African American women in order to form a design of weight loss intervention with this target population. Six focus groups were conducted at a community health clinic. Participants were predominantly middle-aged with a mean Body Mass Index of 40.3

  2. The Relationship of Body Image Perception and Weight Status to Recent Change in Weight Status of the Adolescent Female.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Barbara Ann

    1989-01-01

    Investigated relationship of body image perception and weight status to recent change in weight status of adolescent females. Nonobese, overweight, and obese girls (N=90) aged 13 through 17 completed Body-Cathexis Scale and self-report recent change in weight status and demographic questionnaire. Results revealed significant positive correlation…

  3. Body Mass Index Self-Perception and Weight Management Behaviors during Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Kyeongra; Turk, Melanie T.; Allison, Virginia L.; James, Khara A.; Chasens, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study examined the relationship between actual body weight and self-perceived weight, and how perception of one's weight affects weight management behaviors among US adolescents. Methods: Adolescents ages 16-19 years with objectively-measured weight and height and self-reported perception of weight, weight-loss efforts, and…

  4. Perception of body weight and body mass at twice earth-gravity acceleration levels.

    PubMed

    Lackner, J R; Graybiel, A

    1984-03-01

    On Earth, when standing on two feet, we experience particular patterns of force and pressure on the soles of our feet. As we lift one foot and balance on the other, little or no increase in force or pressure is perceived on the sole of the stance foot even though the contact forces of support on that foot have doubled. The failure to perceive this increase is actually an illusion resulting from the operation of spatial constancy mechanisms serving to preserve feelings of near constant force and pressure on the support surface(s) of the body. On Earth, body weight and body mass are perceived as remaining constant regardless as to whether we are standing on two feet or one and whether we are carrying large objects. In the high force phase(2 g acceleration) of parabolic flight, body weight is perceived as doubling, and a great increase in force is perceived on the soles of our feet if we are standing. When shifting balance from two feet to one, an increase in force of approximately 0.5 mg is felt on the sole of the stance foot. The actual increase in force is 1.0 mg but perceptual compensation is only being made for a 0.5 mg increase such as would be characteristic of shifting balance on Earth; accordingly an additional 0.5 mg (1.0-0.5 mg) residue is perceived. These findings indicate that body weight is dependent on the magnitude of the gravitoinertial forces acting on the body. Variations in the contact forces supporting the body due to passive or active locomotion of the body or to objects that are being carried are monitored and disregarded in computing apparent body weight. When stepping up and down from a low platform during the high force phases of parabolic flight, aberrant motion of the body and the aircraft is experienced. These illusory motions result because the doubling of body weight in a 2 g force background alters the normal relationship between patterns of alpha and gamma activation of antigravity muscles, muscle spindle activity, and the movements of the body. Accordingly, sensory-motor control and perceptual and postural stability on Earth are dependent on an active calibration to a 1 g background force level. PMID:6697150

  5. Estimation of body composition in channel catfish utilizing relative weight and total body electrical conductivity

    E-print Network

    Jaramillo, Francisco

    1993-01-01

    OF CONTENTS. Y1 1 1 LIST OF TABLES. . . . LIST OF FIGURES. CHAPTER X11 I INTRODUCTION: ASSESSMENT OF BODY COMPOSITION IN FISH, II DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A STANDARD WEIGHT (Ws) EQUATION FOR CHANNEL CATFISH, Ictalurus punctatus Introduction.... Methods. . Results and Discussion. 6 7 12 III APPLICATION OF ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY FOR NONDESTRUCTIVE MEASUREMENT OF CHANNEL CAT- FISH, Ictalurus punctatus, BODY COMPOSITION, . . . . ?. . . . . . . . . . . 23 Introduction. . 23 CHAPTLR...

  6. Successful maintenance of body weight reduction after individualized dietary counseling in obese subjects

    PubMed Central

    Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Mardas, Marcin; Warcho?, Wojciech; Jamka, Ma?gorzata; Walkowiak, Jaros?aw

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the effectiveness of individualized dietary counseling in obese subjects based on narrative interview technique on the maintenance of body weight reduction, changes in dietary behaviors, including type of cooking and physical activity. One-hundred subjects out of four-hundred patients met the inclusion criteria. Individually, 45-minute educational program with motivation counseling was performed in 0, 6 and 12 weeks of the study. Patients were advised to follow individually well-balanced diet for 12 weeks. The individuals were asked about the changes in their dietary habits (Food Frequency Questionnaire). The mean percentage of body weight changes from the baseline were as follows: in 6th week- 5.9%, in 12th week - 10.9% and in 52th week - 9.7% (P < 0.0001), however there were no statistically significant changes while comparing body weight in 12th and 52th week. The maintenance of body weight reduction was connected with the dietary habits changes, mainly the type of cooking and increased consumption of vegetable oils. In conclusion, individualized dietary counseling, based on narrative interview technique is an effective intervention for obesity treatment that may help maintain body weight reduction and adapt the pro-healthy changes in type of cooking and sources of dietary fat. PMID:25311271

  7. Successful maintenance of body weight reduction after individualized dietary counseling in obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Mardas, Marcin; Warcho?, Wojciech; Jamka, Ma?gorzata; Walkowiak, Jaros?aw

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the effectiveness of individualized dietary counseling in obese subjects based on narrative interview technique on the maintenance of body weight reduction, changes in dietary behaviors, including type of cooking and physical activity. One-hundred subjects out of four-hundred patients met the inclusion criteria. Individually, 45-minute educational program with motivation counseling was performed in 0, 6 and 12 weeks of the study. Patients were advised to follow individually well-balanced diet for 12 weeks. The individuals were asked about the changes in their dietary habits (Food Frequency Questionnaire). The mean percentage of body weight changes from the baseline were as follows: in 6th week- 5.9%, in 12th week - 10.9% and in 52th week - 9.7% (P < 0.0001), however there were no statistically significant changes while comparing body weight in 12th and 52th week. The maintenance of body weight reduction was connected with the dietary habits changes, mainly the type of cooking and increased consumption of vegetable oils. In conclusion, individualized dietary counseling, based on narrative interview technique is an effective intervention for obesity treatment that may help maintain body weight reduction and adapt the pro-healthy changes in type of cooking and sources of dietary fat. PMID:25311271

  8. Prenatal Centrifugation: A Mode1 for Fetal Programming of Body Weight?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer, Lisa A.; Rushing, Linda; Wade, Charles E.; Ronca, April E.

    2005-01-01

    'Fetal programming' is a newly emerging field that is revealing astounding insights into the prenatal origins of adult disease, including metabolic, endocrine, and cardiovascular pathophysiology. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that rat pups conceived, gestated and born at 2-g have significantly reduced birth weights and increased adult body weights as compared to 1-g controls. Offspring were produced by mating young adult male and female rats that were adapted to 2-g centrifugation. Female rats underwent conception, pregnancy and birth at 2-g. Newborn pups in the 2-g condition were removed from the centrifuge and fostered to non-manipulated, newly parturient dams maintained at 1 -g. Comparisons were made with 1-g stationary controls, also crossfostered at birth. As compared to 1-g controls, birth weights of pups gestated and born at 2-g were significantly reduced. Pup body weights were significantly reduced until Postnatal day (P) 12. Beginning on P63, body weights of 2-g-gestated offspring exceeded those of 1-g controls by 7-10%. Thus, prenatal rearing at 2-g restricts neonatal growth and increases adult body weight. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that 2-g centrifugation alters the intrauterine milieu, thereby inducing persistent changes in adult phenotype.

  9. Effect of drinking pattern on plasma lipoproteins and body weight.

    PubMed

    Hojnacki, J L; Deschenes, R N; Cluette-Brown, J E; Mulligan, J J; Osmolski, T V; Rencricca, N J; Barboriak, J J

    1991-05-01

    The effect of drinking pattern on plasma lipoproteins and body weight was examined in three groups of squirrel monkeys: (1) controls fed isocaloric liquid diet; (2) regular drinkers given liquid diet containing ethanol (EtOH) substituted isocalorically for carbohydrate at 12% of calories daily; and (3) binge drinkers fed 6% EtOH calories daily for a four-day period followed by three days of 20% EtOH to mimic a weekend bout drinking cycle. The number of calories offered per day was the same for all groups, and the average weekly EtOH consumption (12% calories) was identical for the two alcohol treatments. The entire study lasted six months. There were no significant differences in plasma cholesterol, triglyceride or liver function tests. Regular drinkers had the highest high density lipoprotein2/high density lipoprotein3 (HDL2/HDL3) protein and apolipoprotein A-I/B ratios of any group and exhibited a significant elevation in the molar plasma lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) rate (nmol/min/ml). Binge drinking produced a selective increase in low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and apolipoprotein B, and a depression in the fractional LCAT rate (% esterified/min). During the course of the study, controls ate 92% of their diet while the alcohol groups each consumed 95% of the liquid diet. Despite this difference, body weight and Quetelet index (weight/height2) decreased progressively in the order controls greater than regular drinkers greater than binge drinkers. Results from our study indicate that moderate, regular daily consumption of EtOH at 12% of calories causes a modest reduction in body weight and produces a coronary protective lipoprotein profile (increases HDL2/HDL3, increases apolipoprotein A-I/B, low LDL cholesterol). By contrast, when this same average weekly dose is concentrated in a binge cycle, unfavorable alterations in lipoprotein composition (increases LDL cholesterol, increases apolipoprotein B) and metabolism (decreases LCAT activity) occur along with weight loss and depletion of body fat. These studies point to the value of the squirrel monkey model in evaluating both favorable and pathophysiological effects of chronic EtOH intake. PMID:1878009

  10. Body image change and improved eating self-regulation in a weight management intervention in women

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Successful weight management involves the regulation of eating behavior. However, the specific mechanisms underlying its successful regulation remain unclear. This study examined one potential mechanism by testing a model in which improved body image mediated the effects of obesity treatment on eating self-regulation. Further, this study explored the role of different body image components. Methods Participants were 239 overweight women (age: 37.6 ± 7.1 yr; BMI: 31.5 ± 4.1 kg/m2) engaged in a 12-month behavioral weight management program, which included a body image module. Self-reported measures were used to assess evaluative and investment body image, and eating behavior. Measurements occurred at baseline and at 12 months. Baseline-residualized scores were calculated to report change in the dependent variables. The model was tested using partial least squares analysis. Results The model explained 18-44% of the variance in the dependent variables. Treatment significantly improved both body image components, particularly by decreasing its investment component (f2 = .32 vs. f2 = .22). Eating behavior was positively predicted by investment body image change (p < .001) and to a lesser extent by evaluative body image (p < .05). Treatment had significant effects on 12-month eating behavior change, which were fully mediated by investment and partially mediated by evaluative body image (effect ratios: .68 and .22, respectively). Conclusions Results suggest that improving body image, particularly by reducing its salience in one's personal life, might play a role in enhancing eating self-regulation during weight control. Accordingly, future weight loss interventions could benefit from proactively addressing body image-related issues as part of their protocols. PMID:21767360

  11. Genetics of Microenvironmental Sensitivity of Body Weight in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Selected for Improved Growth

    PubMed Central

    Janhunen, Matti; Kause, Antti; Vehviläinen, Harri; Järvisalo, Otso

    2012-01-01

    Microenvironmental sensitivity of a genotype refers to the ability to buffer against non-specific environmental factors, and it can be quantified by the amount of residual variation in a trait expressed by the genotype’s offspring within a (macro)environment. Due to the high degree of polymorphism in behavioral, growth and life-history traits, both farmed and wild salmonids are highly susceptible to microenvironmental variation, yet the heritable basis of this characteristic remains unknown. We estimated the genetic (co)variance of body weight and its residual variation in 2-year-old rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) using a multigenerational data of 45,900 individuals from the Finnish national breeding programme. We also tested whether or not microenvironmental sensitivity has been changed as a correlated genetic response when genetic improvement for growth has been practiced over five generations. The animal model analysis revealed the presence of genetic heterogeneity both in body weight and its residual variation. Heritability of residual variation was remarkably lower (0.02) than that for body weight (0.35). However, genetic coefficient of variation was notable in both body weight (14%) and its residual variation (37%), suggesting a substantial potential for selection responses in both traits. Furthermore, a significant negative genetic correlation (?0.16) was found between body weight and its residual variation, i.e., rapidly growing genotypes are also more tolerant to perturbations in microenvironment. The genetic trends showed that fish growth was successfully increased by selective breeding (an average of 6% per generation), whereas no genetic change occurred in residual variation during the same period. The results imply that genetic improvement for body weight does not cause a concomitant increase in microenvironmental sensitivity. For commercial production, however, there may be high potential to simultaneously improve weight gain and increase its uniformity if both criteria are included in a selection index. PMID:22701708

  12. Body image satisfaction, dieting beliefs, and weight loss behaviors in adolescent girls and boys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan J. Paxton; Eleanor H. Wertheim; Kay Gibbons; George I. Szmukler; Lynne Hillier; Janice L. Petrovich

    1991-01-01

    Body image and weight loss beliefs and behaviors were assessed in 341 female and 221 male high school students. Estimates of body dissatisfaction varied depending on the measurement strategy used. Despite having similar weight distributions around the expected norm, girls were significantly more dissatisfied with their bodies than boys. Body Mass Index was positively related to body dissatisfaction in girls

  13. Standardized Uptake Values of FDG: Body Surface Area Correction is Preferable to Body Weight Correction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chun K. Kim; Naresh C. Gupta; B. Chandramouli; Abass Alavi

    Standardized uptake values(SUVs) arewidelyusedto measure 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)uptake in venoustumors.ft has beenreported thatnormalization ofFDGuptake forpatient body weight(SUV@) overestimates FDGuptake inheavypatients, as theirfraclionof bodyfat (wfthlow FDGuptake)is oftenin creased. The objecth,eofthusstudywas to determineif“normal izalionof FDGuptake for the body surface area” (SUV@)is independentofthe patient'sbodysize and is morereliablethan SUVbW.Methods: FDG-PET images were acquired on 44 pa tients (body walght range: 45â€\\

  14. Comparative Effect of Massage Therapy versus Kangaroo Mother Care on Body Weight and Length of Hospital Stay in Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Rangey, Priya Singh

    2014-01-01

    Background. Massage therapy (MT) and kangaroo mother care (KMC) are both effective in increasing the weight and reducing length of hospital stay in low birth weight preterm infants but they have not been compared. Aim. Comparison of effectiveness of MT and KMC on body weight and length of hospital stay in low birth weight preterm (LBWPT) infants. Method. 30 LBWPT infants using convenience sampling from Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, V.S. hospital, were randomly divided into 2 equal groups. Group 1 received MT and Group 2 received KMC for 15 minutes, thrice daily for 5 days. Medically stable babies with gestational age < 37 weeks and birth weight < 2500?g were included. Those on ventilators and with congenital, orthopedic, or genetic abnormality were excluded. Outcome measures, body weight and length of hospital stay, were taken before intervention day 1 and after intervention day 5. Level of significance was 5%. Result. Data was analyzed using SPSS16. Both MT and KMC were found to be effective in improving body weight (P = 0.001, P = 0.001). Both were found to be equally effective for improving body weight (P = 0.328) and reducing length of hospital stay (P = 0.868). Conclusion. MT and KMC were found to be equally effective in improving body weight and reducing length of hospital stay. Limitation. Long term follow-up was not taken. PMID:24976830

  15. Including many-body effects in models for ionic liquids

    E-print Network

    Salanne, Mathieu; Jahn, Sandro; Vuilleumier, Rodolphe; Simon, Christian; Madden, Paul A; 10.1007/s00214-012-1143-9

    2012-01-01

    Realistic modeling of ionic systems necessitates taking explicitly account of many-body effects. In molecular dynamics simulations, it is possible to introduce explicitly these effects through the use of additional degrees of freedom. Here we present two models: The first one only includes dipole polarization effect, while the second also accounts for quadrupole polarization as well as the effects of compression and deformation of an ion by its immediate coordination environment. All the parameters involved in these models are extracted from first-principles density functional theory calculations. This step is routinely done through an extended force-matching procedure, which has proven to be very succesfull for molten oxides and molten fluorides. Recent developments based on the use of localized orbitals can be used to complement the force-matching procedure by allowing for the direct calculations of several parameters such as the individual polarizabilities.

  16. The Relationship of Diabetes Mellitus and Body Weight to Osteoporosis in Elderly Females

    PubMed Central

    Meema, H. Erik; Meema, Silvia

    1967-01-01

    Assessment of roentgenographic measurements of cortical bone of the radius in 196 elderly females, including 63 diabetics, revealed that: (1) in the non-diabetic group there was a significant loss of cortical bone relative to the number of years after the menopause and to body weight; (2) although there was a significant loss of cortical bone relative to years postmenopausal in a group of diabetic patients the cortex in the diabetic group was better preserved than in those non-diabetic controls in whom no vertebral compressions were diagnosed in the roentgenograms; no correlation between bone loss and body weight was found among the diabetics; (3) the thinnest cortical bone and the lowest average body weight was found in the 34 non-diabetics with vertebral compression deformities. It thus appears that involutional osteoporosis will be less prevalent among old women suffering from diabetes mellitus than in comparable non-diabetic subjects, and more prevalent among non-diabetics of low body weight than in old women who are obese or of normal weight. ImagesFig. 2 PMID:6017698

  17. Effect of Shilianhua extract and its fractions on body weight of obese mice.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun; Zuberi, Aamir; Gao, Zhanguo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Zhijun; Cefalu, William T; Ye, Jianping

    2008-07-01

    Five commercial botanical products (Shilianhua [SLH] tablets, Shiu Huo pills, Fenulyn, Bitter Melon, and Glucose Metabolic Support), available in the US market, with reported claims for regulation of metabolism were screened for their effect on body weight gain in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Pilot results suggested that SLH tablets attenuated body weight gain, whereas Shiu Huo pills and Fenulyn tended to promote weight gain in the mice on the high-fat diet. To investigate the bioactive components in the SLH tablet, the wild SLH plant (Sinocrassula indica Berge) was collected from China and used to make a variety of extracts including aqueous extract, ethanol extract (SLH-E), and subfraction F100. In the study of metabolic activities, the extracts were administrated through food intake by incorporating them into the diet. A rigorous evaluation of the extracts on body weight was conducted in 2 animal models. The aqueous extract and SLH-E were tested in dietary obese mice, while F100 together with SLH-E was tested in KK-Ay mice, a genetic diabetic model. In the 12- to 16-week study, body weight was not significantly altered by the SLH extracts in the 2 animal models. The results suggest that neither the total extract nor the purified components from the SLH plant have a clear effect in the regulation of body weight. The weight reduction observed with the over-the-counter SLH tablet in the pilot studies may be secondary to other components in the tablet, but not from the SLH extract. PMID:18555854

  18. Plasma BDNF Levels Vary in Relation to Body Weight in Females

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, Anilkumar; Bruno, Davide; Sarreal, Antero S.; Hernando, Raymundo T.; Saint-Louis, Leslie A.; Nierenberg, Jay; Ginsberg, Stephen D.; Pomara, Nunzio; Mehta, Pankaj D.; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Buckley, Peter F.

    2012-01-01

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression as well as neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Recent studies show a role of BDNF in energy metabolism and body weight regulation. We examined BDNF levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from age matched elderly depressed and control subjects. Also, the association of BDNF levels with age, gender, body weight, body mass index (BMI), and cognitive performance was evaluated. We did not find any significant differences in plasma and CSF BDNF levels between depressed and control subjects. Plasma BDNF levels were negatively correlated with age (but not with BMI and body weight), when analyses were performed including both depressed and control subjects. A significant reduction in plasma BDNF levels was observed in females as compared to male subjects, and the change in BDNF levels were significantly and positively related to body weight in females. Furthermore, significant increases in Total Recall and Delayed Recall values were found in females as compared to males. In conclusion, the lower BDNF levels observed in females suggest that changes in peripheral BDNF levels are likely secondary to an altered energy balance. However, further studies using larger sample size are warranted. PMID:22768299

  19. PET imaging predicts future body weight and cocaine preference

    SciTech Connect

    Michaelides M.; Wang G.; Michaelides M.; Thanos P.K. Kim R.; Cho J.; Ananth M.; Wang G.-J.; Volkow N.D.

    2011-08-28

    Deficits in dopamine D2/D3 receptor (D2R/D3R) binding availability using PET imaging have been reported in obese humans and rodents. Similar deficits have been reported in cocaine-addicts and cocaine-exposed primates. We found that D2R/D3R binding availability negatively correlated with measures of body weight at the time of scan (ventral striatum), at 1 (ventral striatum) and 2 months (dorsal and ventral striatum) post scan in rats. Cocaine preference was negatively correlated with D2R/D3R binding availability 2 months (ventral striatum) post scan. Our findings suggest that inherent deficits in striatal D2R/D3R signaling are related to obesity and drug addiction susceptibility and that ventral and dorsal striatum serve dissociable roles in maintaining weight gain and cocaine preference. Measuring D2R/D3R binding availability provides a way for assessing susceptibility to weight gain and cocaine abuse in rodents and given the translational nature of PET imaging, potentially primates and humans.

  20. Methods for determining healthy body weight in end stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Kathy Schiro

    2006-07-01

    Several formulas for calculating desirable body weight are used in chronic kidney failure patients. Ideal body weight (IBW) derived from Metropolitan Life Insurance tables has been available since the 1950s. The Hamwi formula was proposed in the 1960s as a simple tool for quickly estimating desirable body weight, especially in people with diabetes. Since the 1970s, National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Surveys I, II, and III have provided an in-depth evaluation of the average body weights of Americans. These standard body weights (SBW) are often interpreted to be normal and healthy weight goals. Body mass index (BMI) has also been studied for decades and is used internationally as the standard for determining healthy weight, especially in relationship to obesity. These 4 methods are discussed and compared along with a brief review of the history of using the adjusted body weight (ABW) formulas, followed by recommendations for clinical practice. PMID:16825033

  1. IQP-GC-101 Reduces Body Weight and Body Fat Mass: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Pee-Win; Beah, Zhi-Ming; Grube, Barbara; Riede, Linda

    2014-01-01

    IQP-GC-101 is a patented blend of the standardized extracts of Garcinia cambogia, Camellia sinensis, unroasted Coffea arabica, and Lagerstroemia speciosa. These individual ingredients of IQP-GC-101 have each shown promise in promoting weight loss; however, the efficacy of the blend has not been established. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group study conducted over 14 weeks (including a 2-week run-in phase) aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of IQP-GC-101 in reducing body weight and body fat mass in overweight Caucasian adults. Subjects took three IQP-GC-101 or placebo tablets, twice a day, 30 min before main meals. All subjects also adhered to a 500 kcal/day energy deficit diet with 30% of energy from fat. Ninety-one overweight and mildly obese subjects (46 in the IQP-GC-101 group, 45 in the placebo group) completed the study. After 12-week intervention, IQP-GC-101 resulted in a mean (±SD) weight loss of 2.26 ± 2.37 kg compared with 0.56 ± 2.34 kg for placebo (pU = 0.002). There was also significantly more reduction in body fat mass, waist circumference, and hip circumference in the IQP-GC-101 group. No serious adverse events were reported. The use of IQP-GC-101 has been shown to result in body weight and body fat reduction in the current study, with good tolerability. © 2014 InQpharm Group Sdn Bhd. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24797657

  2. Critical periods for the effects of alcohol exposure on brain weight, body weight, activity and investigation.

    PubMed

    Tran, T D; Cronise, K; Marino, M D; Jenkins, W J; Kelly, S J

    2000-11-15

    Using an animal model of fetal alcohol syndrome - which equates peak blood alcohol concentrations across different developmental periods - critical periods for the effect of alcohol on brain weight, activity and investigative behavior were examined. The periods of alcohol exposure were from gestational day (GD) 1 through 10, GD 11 through 22, postnatal day (PD) 2 through 10, or all three periods combined. The critical period of alcohol exposure for an increase in activity in juveniles was GD 11 through 22. This pattern was not seen in the same animals in adulthood; instead, increases in both activity and investigation were seen in animals exposed from PD 2 through 10 and not seen in animals exposed during all three periods combined. Brain weight was reduced by alcohol exposure from GD 11 through 22, PD 2 through 10 and all three periods combined. The period from PD 2 through 10 was the only period when the brain weight to body weight ratio was reduced. In conclusion, exposure to alcohol during the periods in the latter half of gestation or early postnatal period seem to have the most deleterious effects on the brain, activity and investigation in the rat. In addition, the effects of alcohol exposure over both the prenatal and postnatal period cannot be easily predicted from the effects of shorter periods of exposure. PMID:11090889

  3. Weight and weddings: expectations about wedding-specific body weight and shape ideals and dieting and exercise behavior among university students.

    PubMed

    Neighbors, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

    2008-12-01

    Weddings are significant life events when brides and grooms often seek a culturally-defined ideal appearance. A cross-sectional survey of 275 unmarried university students assessed current weight and shape, general ideal weight and shape, desired wedding weight and shape, and expectations to diet and/or exercise when contemplating their future wedding. Results indicated that men and women conceptualize the size and scope of their wedding similarly, but wedding appearance (including weight) was more important among women than men. Few men and women idealized a wedding-specific weight and shape that differed from their general ideal weight and shape. When contemplating their future wedding day, expectations about engaging in weight control behaviors were more common among women, and exercise was preferred over dieting among both genders. These findings suggest that although weddings focus attention on body weight and shape, young adults do not have overly unrealistic body weight and shape expectations when contemplating their future wedding and generally do not construct a specific body weight and shape for their future wedding. These relationships may change as marriage becomes more salient. PMID:18928906

  4. WHOLE BODY NONRIGID CT-PET REGISTRATION USING WEIGHTED DEMONS

    PubMed Central

    Suh, J.W.; Kwon, Oh -K.; Scheinost, D.; Sinusas, A.J.; Cline, Gary W.; Papademetris, X.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new registration method for whole-body rat computed tomography (CT) image and positron emission tomography (PET) images using a weighted demons algorithm. The CT and PET images are acquired in separate scanners at different times and the inherent differences in the imaging protocols produced significant nonrigid changes between the two acquisitions in addition to heterogeneous image characteristics. In this situation, we utilized both the transmission-PET and the emission-PET images in the deformable registration process emphasizing particular regions of the moving transmission-PET image using the emission-PET image. We validated our results with nine rat image sets using M-Hausdorff distance similarity measure. We demonstrate improved performance compared to standard methods such as Demons and normalized mutual information-based non-rigid FFD registration. PMID:23377533

  5. Novel method to predict body weight in children based on age and morphological facial features.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ziyin; Barrett, Jeffrey S; Barrett, Kyle; Barrett, Ryan; Ng, Chee M

    2015-04-01

    A new and novel approach of predicting the body weight of children based on age and morphological facial features using a three-layer feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN) model is reported. The model takes in four parameters, including age-based CDC-inferred median body weight and three facial feature distances measured from digital facial images. In this study, thirty-nine volunteer subjects with age ranging from 6-18 years old and BW ranging from 18.6-96.4 kg were used for model development and validation. The final model has a mean prediction error of 0.48, a mean squared error of 18.43, and a coefficient of correlation of 0.94. The model shows significant improvement in prediction accuracy over several age-based body weight prediction methods. Combining with a facial recognition algorithm that can detect, extract and measure the facial features used in this study, mobile applications that incorporate this body weight prediction method may be developed for clinical investigations where access to scales is limited. PMID:25370186

  6. Nutrigenomics of Body Weight Regulation: A Rationale for Careful Dissection of Individual Contributors

    PubMed Central

    Keijer, Jaap; Hoevenaars, Femke P. M.; Nieuwenhuizen, Arie; van Schothorst, Evert M.

    2014-01-01

    Body weight stability may imply active regulation towards a certain physiological condition, a body weight setpoint. This interpretation is ill at odds with the world-wide increase in overweight and obesity. Until now, a body weight setpoint has remained elusive and the setpoint theory did not provide practical clues for body weight reduction interventions. For this an alternative theoretical model is necessary, which is available as the settling point model. The settling point model postulates that there is little active regulation towards a predefined body weight, but that body weight settles based on the resultant of a number of contributors, represented by the individual’s genetic predisposition, in interaction with environmental and socioeconomic factors, such as diet and lifestyle. This review refines the settling point model and argues that by taking body weight regulation from a settling point perspective, the road will be opened to careful dissection of the various contributors to establishment of body weight and its regulation. This is both necessary and useful. Nutrigenomic technologies may help to delineate contributors to body weight settling. Understanding how and to which extent the different contributors influence body weight will allow the design of weight loss and weight maintenance interventions, which hopefully are more successful than those that are currently available. PMID:25338273

  7. Olfactory and gustatory functions and its relation to body weight.

    PubMed

    Skrandies, Wolfgang; Zschieschang, Romy

    2015-04-01

    In the present study we investigated the influence of body weight as defined by BMI on gustatory and olfactory perception. A total of 66 healthy adults (41 females; 25 males) participated in psychophysical measurements using the "Sniffin' Sticks" test and "Taste Strips" test. Odor thresholds as well as discrimination and identification performance were determined. Tests of gustatory function involved the identification and thresholds of sweet, sour, salty, or bitter taste. In this study, all subjects were healthy participants in a middle age range (between 20 and 56years of age). Persons with an extreme BMI value were excluded. Subjects were classified according to their BMI in four groups: (1) 15-19.9kg/m, (2) 20-24.9kg/m, (3) 25-29.9kg/m, and (4) >30kg/m. We did not observe an overall effect of BMI on general sensory sensitivity. There was a significant influence of BMI on olfactory thresholds (F(3,62)=2.79; p<0.047) which increased with increasing BMI. In a similar line, the gustatory thresholds for "salty" were significantly higher with higher BMI (F(3,62)=3.06; p<0.035). Olfactory discrimination and identification was not affected by BMI. Thresholds for odor and sweet or salty taste were also correlated. Our data show that body weight influences gustatory and olfactory perception in healthy adults. Increasing BMI is associated with a decrease in olfactory and taste sensitivity. These findings may have implications for the understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms in patients. PMID:25619950

  8. Modeling the relationship between body weight and energy intake: A molecular diffusion-based approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Body weight is at least partly controlled by the choices made by a human in response to external stimuli. Changes in body weight are mainly caused by energy intake. By analyzing the mechanisms involved in food intake, we considered that molecular diffusion plays an important role in body weight changes. We propose a model based on Fick's second law of diffusion to simulate the relationship between energy intake and body weight. Results This model was applied to food intake and body weight data recorded in humans; the model showed a good fit to the experimental data. This model was also effective in predicting future body weight. Conclusions In conclusion, this model based on molecular diffusion provides a new insight into the body weight mechanisms. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Dr. Cabral Balreira (nominated by Dr. Peter Olofsson), Prof. Yang Kuang and Dr. Chao Chen. PMID:22742862

  9. The impact of excess body weight at the hospital frontline

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Quantification of disease burden by deaths or years lived with disability is a useful indicator as it informs prevention by accounting for health loss but it does not reflect the needs for health services. An alternative indicator is to quantify the impact of a risk factor on health care utilization. In an article published in BMC Medicine, Reeves and colleagues describe the relationship between body mass index in 1.2 million women (England) and hospital admission rates. The main finding was that around one in eight hospital admissions was attributable to overweight or obesity, translating to around 420,000 extra hospital admissions, and two million extra days spent in hospital, annually. These findings reinforce the evidence that excess body weight is associated with extensive healthcare utilization and emphasize the need to scale-up and speed-up research if global problems, such as obesity, are to be tackled with due alacrity. Please see related research: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/12/45. PMID:24742301

  10. High weight or body mass index increase the risk of vertebral fractures in postmenopausal osteoporotic women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matteo Pirro; Gianluigi Fabbriciani; Christian Leli; Laura Callarelli; Maria Rosaria Manfredelli; Claudio Fioroni; Massimo Raffaele Mannarino; Anna Maria Scarponi; Elmo Mannarino

    2010-01-01

    In the general population, low body weight and body mass index (BMI) are significant risk factors for any fracture, but the\\u000a specific association between body weight, BMI, and prevalence of vertebral fractures in osteoporotic women is not fully recognized.\\u000a Hence, the association between body weight, BMI, and prevalent vertebral fractures was investigated in 362 women with never-treated\\u000a postmenopausal osteoporosis. All

  11. Evidence for efficacy and effectiveness of changes in eating frequency for body weight management.

    PubMed

    Kant, Ashima K

    2014-11-01

    In self-reported diets of free living individuals, frequent eating is associated with higher energy intake, yet beliefs about the possible beneficial effect of higher eating frequency for managing body weight persist. Prospective cohort studies and controlled trials of manipulation of eating frequency published by 31 December 2012 were reviewed to assess whether variation in eating frequency may be an adjunct to weight management. Four prospective cohort studies were identified; 2 of these included adults followed for 10 y and 2 followed pre-adolescent/adolescent girls for 6 or 10 y. Within each age category, the findings of the 2 studies were contradictory. Six controlled trials with adult subjects serving as their own controls found no significant changes in body weight due to manipulation of eating frequency interventions lasting 6-8 wk. In 6 additional intervention trials of 8-52 wk duration, free-living adults were counseled to change the eating frequency of self-selected food intake with no significant differences in weight loss attributable to eating frequency. Overall, the consistency of the null findings from controlled trials of manipulation of eating frequency for promoting weight loss suggests that beliefs about the role of higher eating frequency in adult weight management are not supported by evidence. Interpretation of the evidence from published observational studies is complicated by differences in definition of eating frequency and limited knowledge of systematic and random errors in measurement of eating frequency. PMID:25398748

  12. Restricted selection index in mice designed to change body fat without changing body weight: correlated responses.

    PubMed

    Eisen, E J

    1992-07-01

    Correlated responses were studied in lines of mice selected for eight generations based on the criterion of a restricted selection index. Two replicate lines were selected in each treatment as follows: HE, high epididymal fat pad weight (EF) with zero change in body weight (BW) at 12 weeks of age; LE; low EF with zero change in BW; and RS, randomly. Correlated responses showed considerable variation between replicates, suggesting that genetic drift was important. Further, correlated responses for most traits were relatively small, probably because of low selection intensity. The HE line responded as expected in component traits of the restricted index. Associated compositional traits in HE responded as predicted since traits correlated with adiposity increased and hind carcass weight did not change significantly. Feed intake increased and feed efficiency (weight gain/feed intake) decreased in HE, as predicted. In contrast, the LE line did not respond in component traits as predicted since EF did not decrease and BW increased. Consequently, LE exhibited little change in traits associated with adiposity, but hind carcass weight, feed intake and feed efficiency increased. Of the correlated responses scored for fitness traits (littering rate, number of days from pairing of mate to littering, litter size and preweaning pup survival rate), significant effects were found for decreased littering rate in LE and increased prenatal survival rate in HE. In summary, correlated responses to restricted index selection generally agreed with expectation when responses in component traits of the index were considered. PMID:24203189

  13. The Association between Marital Transitions, Body Mass Index, and Weight: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Dinour, Lauren; Leung, May May; Tripicchio, Gina; Khan, Sahar; Yeh, Ming-Chin

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To examine the association between different marital transitions and changes in body mass index (BMI) and body weight. Methods. A systematic literature search was conducted for peer-reviewed articles published between January 1990 and December 2011. Longitudinal studies were included if they compared dependent variables, such as BMI or weight, before and after a change in marital status. Results. Twenty articles were included: 4 articles described only transitions into marriage and/or cohabitation, 2 articles described only transitions out of marriage and/or cohabitation, and 14 articles described both. Overall, transitions into marriage were associated with weight gain, whereas transitions out of marriage were associated with weight loss. No major differences were observed between genders or across specific marital transition states. Conclusions. Additional research is warranted to better understand this phenomenon and the impact of marital transitions on obesity and obesity-related behaviors. This paper highlights potential opportunities to incorporate programs, practices, and policies that aim to promote and support healthy weights and lifestyles upon entering or leaving a marriage or cohabiting relationship. PMID:23050125

  14. Dynamic modeling of methylprednisolone effects on body weight and glucose regulation in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing Fang; Debra C. DuBois; Yang He; Richard R. Almon; William J. Jusko

    2011-01-01

    Influences of methylprednisolone (MPL) and food consumption on body weight (BW), and the effects of MPL on glycemic control\\u000a including food consumption and the dynamic interactions among glucose, insulin, and free fatty acids (FFA) were evaluated\\u000a in normal male Wistar rats. Six groups of animals received either saline or MPL via subcutaneous infusions at the rate of\\u000a 0.03, 0.1, 0.2,

  15. Body Weight and Percent Body Fat Increase during the Transition from High School to University in Females

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melinda J. Edmonds; Kelly J. Ferreira; Erica A. Nikiforuk; Alida K. Finnie; Sarah H. Leavey; Alison M. Duncan; Janis A. Randall Simpson

    2008-01-01

    A critical period for weight gain may occur during the transition from high school to university. This descriptive, noncontrolled cohort study of 116 healthy females examined the effect of this transition over three study visits in first year university. The main outcome measure was body weight; others were height, body composition, waist circumference, dietary intake, and participation in physical and

  16. Effects of dairy intake on body weight and fat: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials1234

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mu; Pan, An; Malik, Vasanti S; Hu, Frank B

    2012-01-01

    Background: Some intervention studies have suggested that dairy products may influence body weight, but the results remain controversial. Objective: We identified and quantified the effects of dairy consumption on body weight and fat mass from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Design: We conducted a comprehensive search of PubMed and EMBASE databases (to April 2012) of English reports of RCTs regarding dairy consumption on body weight, body fat, or body weight and body fat in adults. The results across studies were pooled by using a random-effects meta-analysis. Results: Twenty-nine RCTs were included with a total of 2101 participants. Overall, consumption of dairy products did not result in a significant reduction in weight (?0.14 kg; 95% CI: ?0.66, 0.38 kg; I2 = 86.3%). In subgroup analysis, consumption of dairy products reduced body weight in the context of energy restriction or short-term intervention (<1 y) trials but had the opposite effect in ad libitum dietary interventions or long-term trials (?1 y). Twenty-two RCTs that reported results on body fat showed a modest reduction in the dairy group (?0.45 kg; 95% CI: ?0.79, ?0.11 kg; I2 = 70.9%), and further stratified analysis indicated significant beneficial effects of dairy intervention on body fat in energy-restricted or short-term trials but not in long-term or ad libitum studies. Conclusions: This meta-analysis does not support the beneficial effect of increasing dairy consumption on body weight and fat loss in long-term studies or studies without energy restriction. However, dairy products may have modest benefits in facilitating weight loss in short-term or energy-restricted RCTs. PMID:22932282

  17. Association of Smoking with Body Weight in US High School Students, 1999-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Jiang, Nan; Kolbe, Lloyd J.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the association of current smoking with body mass index (BMI) and perceived body weight among high school students in the United States. Methods: We analyzed data from the 1999-2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Results: Perceived body weight and BMI were associated with adolescents' current smoking. Adjusted odds ratios…

  18. I can't stop looking at them: interactive effects of body mass index and weight dissatisfaction on attention towards body shape photographs.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiao; Li, Xiaojing; Yang, Xiaoying; Wang, Yang; Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong

    2013-03-01

    Although attentional biases toward body-related information contribute to the etiology and maintenance of body dissatisfaction (BD) and eating disorders (EDs), attentional disengagement in women with BD and EDs is not clear. The present study investigated the association between weight dissatisfaction and attentional disengagement from body-related pictures and the possible moderating effect of body mass index (BMI) on this relation. Two hundred and four undergraduate women engaged in an experiment using a pictorial spatial cueing paradigm including fat/thin bodies and neutral household photos. Partial correlations and simple slopes regression analyses were conducted with attentional disengagement index scores of each category of cues. Findings suggested that independent of BMI, weight dissatisfaction was directly associated with attentional disengagement from both fat and thin pictures. In addition, among women with low and medium BMIs, the more they were dissatisfied with their bodyweight, the more difficulty they had disengaging their attention from fat body pictures. PMID:23352761

  19. High-fructose corn syrup causes characteristics of obesity in rats: Increased body weight, body fat and triglyceride levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miriam E. Bocarsly; Elyse S. Powell; Nicole M. Avena; Bartley G. Hoebel

    2010-01-01

    High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) accounts for as much as 40% of caloric sweeteners used in the United States. Some studies have shown that short-term access to HFCS can cause increased body weight, but the findings are mixed. The current study examined both short- and long-term effects of HFCS on body weight, body fat, and circulating triglycerides. In Experiment 1, male

  20. Seasonally Inappropriate Body Weight Induced by Food Restriction: Effect on Hypothalamic Gene Expression in Male Siberian Hamsters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JULIAN G. MERCER; KIM M. MOAR; TRACY J. LOGIE; PATRICIA A. FINDLAY; CLARE L. ADAM; PETER J. MORGAN

    2010-01-01

    Male Siberian hamsters undergo physiological weight change in changing photoperiod. Weight loss was induced by food restriction in long days to mimic short-day weight loss, or by food restriction superimposed on short-day weight loss, to test the hypothesis that the hypothalamus differentiates between weight change induced by imposed negative energy balance (inappropriate body weight) and seasonal, appropriate, body weight change,

  1. Low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity of children and adolescents from a Brazilian region of low economic status

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Dartagnan Pinto; Almeida, Francisléia Nascimento; M., Jaime Tolentino; Maia, Maria de Fátima de M.; Tolentino, Thatiana Maia

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity in a representative sample of children and adolescents from a Brazilian region with low economic development. METHODS: A total of 982 girls and 986 boys, aged seven to 17 years old and assisted by Segundo Tempo Program, from Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were included in the study. Low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity were defined based on body mass cut-off indexes recommended by the International Obesity Task Force. The prevalence of the nutritional status according to sex and age was compared by chi-square test. RESULTS: In girls, the frequency of low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity was 4.1, 18.4 and 3.8%, respectively; in boys, these percentages were 6.3, 13.2 and 2.9%, respectively. The low body weight/thinness for girls raised from 2.7% (7-10 years old) to 5.5% (15-17 years old); the body weight excess (overweight and obesity) decreased from 30.1 to 16.2% for the same age groups. In boys, the corresponding trends were from 3.2 to 9.4% for low body weight/thinness, and from 23.4 to 9.2%, for body weight excess. CONCLUSIONS: The data indicate that, even in a region with low economic status, the body weight excess was the main problem associated with nutritional health. The high overweight and obesity prevalence rates indicate the need of public policies for promoting healthy feeding behaviors and physical activity. PMID:24473947

  2. Shuttle-food consumption, body composition and body weight in women

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Frye, Sherrie; Kloeris, Vickie; Rice, Barbara; Siconolfi, Steven F.; Spector, Elisabeth; Gretebeck, Randall J.

    1992-01-01

    An experiment is conducted to determine whether the NASA Space Shuttle food system can provide the food and fluid required to mitigate weight loss and physical decomposition in 12 female subjects for 28 days. Subjects receive only foods from the Space Shuttle system for four weeks within an 11-wk monitoring period. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is employed throughout the trial period to study lean body mass, percent body fat, and energy-intake levels with attention given to differences the experimental diet and the subjects' typical diet. Percent body fat is found to change significantly with losses of less than 0.05 percent, whereas energy intake based on autonomous diet choices by the participants does not vary significantly. Lean body mass remains unchanged throughout the study in which the subjects receive a relatively low-fat and low-protein menu. The 100 items on the space shuttle list of approved food items are shown to provide a palatable dietary framework for maintaining the health of female astronauts.

  3. Gender differences in body mass index and weight loss strategies among African Americans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Delores C. S. James

    2003-01-01

    The goals of this study were to examine gender differences in body satisfaction, obesity status, and weight loss strategies among African Americans. A self-administered survey was completed by a convenient sample of 789 African Americans, but 763 provided weight and height information. Significantly more men than women were satisfied or very satisfied with their weight. Based on self-reported weights, the

  4. Prospect theory and body mass: characterizing psychological parameters for weight-related risk attitudes and weight-gain aversion

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S.

    2015-01-01

    We developed a novel decision-making paradigm that allows us to apply prospect theory in behavioral economics to body mass. 67 healthy young adults completed self-report measures and two decision-making tasks for weight-loss, as well as for monetary rewards. We estimated risk-related preference and loss aversion parameters for each individual, separately for weight-loss and monetary rewards choice data. Risk-seeking tendency for weight-loss was positively correlated with body mass index in individuals who desired to lose body weight, whereas the risk-seeking for momentary rewards was not. Risk-seeking for weight-loss was correlated to excessive body shape preoccupations, while aversion to weight-gain was correlated with self-reports of behavioral involvement for successful weight-loss. We demonstrated that prospect theory can be useful in explaining the decision-making process related to body mass. Applying prospect theory is expected to advance our understanding of decision-making mechanisms in obesity, which might prove helpful for improving healthy choices. PMID:25852628

  5. Body checking and avoidance in low weight and weight restored individuals with anorexia nervosa and non-clinical females.

    PubMed

    Bamford, Bryony H; Attoe, Chris; Mountford, Victoria A; Morgan, John F; Sly, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Body dissatisfaction (BD) is central to the development, maintenance and relapse of anorexia nervosa (AN). BD has been conceptualized as a multi-dimensional construct incorporating behaviours, cognitions and affect, yet little is known about the impact of weight and disordered eating on these aspects. 56 'below DSM-IV weight criteria for AN' (weight criteria for AN' (>BMI 17.5 kg/m(2)) individuals currently receiving treatment for an eating disorder, and 60 non-eating disordered females completed the Body Checking Scale, Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire and the Body Image Anxiety Questionnaire. As expected, females diagnosed with AN showed significantly more behavioural and affective body dissatisfaction than the control group. Patients at lower weights showed significantly more avoidance behaviours and less body image anxiety than those with anorexia at higher weights. No difference was seen in checking behaviours between these groups. Weight based differences in avoidance behaviours continued to exist even when the effects of anxiety were controlled for. Affective and behavioural aspects of BD should be considered in clinical practice at all stages of treatment. PMID:24411741

  6. Lifestyle intervention reduces body weight and improves cardiometabolic risk factors in worksites123

    PubMed Central

    Salinardi, Taylor C; Batra, Payal; Roberts, Susan B; Urban, Lorien E; Robinson, Lisa M; Pittas, Anastassios G; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Deckersbach, Thilo; Saltzman, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Background: Worksites are potentially effective locations for obesity control because they provide opportunities for group intervention and social support. Studies are needed to identify effective interventions in these settings. Objective: We examined the effects of a multicomponent lifestyle intervention on weight loss and prevention of regain in 4 worksites (2 intervention and 2 control sites). Design: Overweight and obese employees (n = 133) enrolled in this pilot worksite-randomized controlled trial with a 0–6-mo weight-loss phase and a 6–12-mo structured weight-maintenance phase. The intervention combined recommendations to consume a reduced-energy, low–glycemic load, high-fiber diet with behavioral change education. Outcome measurements included changes in body weight and cardiometabolic risk factors. Results: The mean ± SEM weight loss was substantial in intervention participants, whereas control subjects gained weight (?8.0 ± 0.7 compared with +0.9 ± 0.5 kg, respectively; P < 0.001), and 89% of participants completed the weight-loss phase. Intervention effects were not significant at the 0.05 level but would have been at the 0.10 level (P = 0.08) in a mixed model in which the worksite nested within group was a random factor. There were also significant improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors in intervention compared with control subjects regarding fasting total cholesterol, glucose, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure (P ? 0.02 for each). No significant weight regain was observed in participants who enrolled in the structured weight-maintenance program (0.5 ± 0.7 kg; P = 0.65), and overweight and obese employees in intervention worksites who were not enrolled in the weight-loss program lost weight compared with subjects in control worksites (?1.3 ± 0.5 compared with +0.7 ± 0.2 kg, respectively; P = 0.02). Conclusion: Worksites can be effective for achieving clinically important reductions in body weight and improved cardiometabolic risk factors. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01470222. PMID:23426035

  7. Height and Weight at Menarche and a Hypothesis of Critical Body Weights and Adolescent Events

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rose E. Frisch; Roger Revelle

    1970-01-01

    Height and weight at menarche were found for each subject in three longitudinal growth studies. Early and late maturing girls have menarche at the same mean weight, but late maturers are taller at menarche. Two other major events of adolescence, initiation of the weight growth spurt and maximum rate of weight gain, also occur at an invariant mean weight. The

  8. Daily Self-Monitoring of Body Weight, Step Count, Fruit/Vegetable Intake and Water Consumption: A Feasible and Effective Long-Term Weight Loss Maintenance Approach

    PubMed Central

    Akers, Jeremy D.; Cornett, Rachel A.; Savla, Jyoti S.; Davy, Kevin P.; Davy, Brenda M.

    2012-01-01

    Maintenance of weight loss remains a challenge for most individuals, thus practical and effective weight loss maintenance (WTLM) strategies are needed. A two-group (WEV versus WEV+) 12-month WTLM intervention trial was conducted (June 2007–February 2010) to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of weight loss maintenance intervention for older adults using daily self-monitoring of body weight, step count, fruit/vegetable intake and water consumption. Forty weight-reduced (mean weight lost = 6.7 ± 0.6 kg; BMI 29.2 ± 1.1 kg/m2) individuals aged 63 ± 1 yrs, who had previously participated in a 12-week randomized controlled weight loss intervention trial, were instructed to record daily body weight (Weight), step count (Exercise), and fruit/vegetable intake (Vegetable). Experimental group (WEV+) participants were also instructed to consume 16 floz of water before each main meal (i.e., three times daily), and to record daily water intake. Outcome measures included weight change, diet/physical activity behaviors, theoretical constructs related to health behaviors, and other clinical measures. Statistical analyses included growth curve analyses and repeated measures ANOVA. Over 12 months, there was a linear decline in weight (? = ?0.32, P < 0.001) and a quadratic trend (? = 0.02, P < 0.01) over time, but no group difference (? = ?0.23, P = 0.08). Analysis of the 365 days of self-reported body weight for each participant determined that weight loss was greater over the study period in WEV+ than WEV, corresponding to weight changes of ?0.67 kg and 1.00 kg respectively, and an 87% greater weight loss (? = ?0.01, P < 0.01). Overall compliance to daily tracking was 76 ± 5%. Daily self-monitoring of weight, physical activity, and fruit/vegetable consumption is a feasible and effective approach for maintaining weight loss for 12 months, and daily self-monitoring of increased water consumption may provide additional WTLM benefits. PMID:22709772

  9. A 20Year Longitudinal Study of Body Weight, Dieting, and Eating Disorder Symptoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pamela K. Keel; Mark G. Baxter; Todd F. Heatherton; Thomas E. Joiner

    2007-01-01

    The article describes a 20-year longitudinal study of body weight, dieting, and disordered eating in women and men. Body weight increased significantly over time in both women and men. However, women’s weight perception and dieting frequency decreased over time, whereas men’s weight perception and dieting frequency increased, and disordered eating declined more in women than in men from late adolescence

  10. Baseline Anandamide Levels and Body Weight Impact the Weight Loss Effect of CB1 Receptor Antagonism in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Cecilia; Hjorth, Stephan; Karpefors, Martin; Hansson, Göran I.

    2015-01-01

    The individual weight loss response to obesity treatment is diverse. Here we test the hypothesis that the weight loss response to the CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant is influenced by endogenous levels of receptor agonists. We show that baseline anandamide levels and body weight independently contribute to predict the treatment response to rimonabant in rodents, demonstrating that addition of biomarkers related to mode of action is relevant for a personalized health care approach to obesity treatment. PMID:25549047

  11. Pathology Case Study: Increased Thirst, Lethargy and Body Weight Gain

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Graur, Octavia

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology which describes a 47 year old white postmenopausal female who presented with "progressive headaches and visual blurring, as well as increased thirst, fatigue, lethargy and a fifty pound weight gain." Visitors are provided with patient history along with laboratory work-up and histology, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical chemistry.

  12. Body weight changes and voluntary fluid intakes during training and competition sessions in team sports.

    PubMed

    Broad, E M; Burke, L M; Cox, G R; Heeley, P; Riley, M

    1996-09-01

    Fluid losses (measured by body weight changes) and voluntary fluid intakes were measured in elite basketball, netball, and soccer teams during typical summer and winter exercise sessions to determine fluid requirements and the degree of fluid replacement. Each subject was weighed in minimal clothing before and immediately after training, weights, and competition sessions; fluid intake, duration of exercise, temperature and humidity, and opportunity to drink were recorded. Sweat rates were greatest during competition sessions and significantly lower during weights sessions for all sports. Seasonal variation in dehydration (%DH) was not as great as may have been expected, particularly in sports played indoors. Factors influencing fluid replacement during exercise included provision of an individual water bottle, proximity to water bottles during sessions, encouragement to drink, rules of the game, duration and number of breaks or substitutions, and awareness of personal sweat rates. Guidelines for optimizing fluid intakes in these three sports are provided. PMID:8876350

  13. Is there evidence for a set point that regulates human body weight?

    PubMed Central

    Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2010-01-01

    There is evidence for the idea that there is biological (active) control of body weight at a given set point. Body weight is the product of genetic effects (DNA), epigenetic effects (heritable traits that do not involve changes in DNA), and the environment. Regulation of body weight is asymmetric, being more effective in response to weight loss than to weight gain. However, regulation may be lost or camouflaged by Western diets, suggesting that the failure of biological control is due mainly to external factors. In this situation, the body’s ‘set point’ (i.e., a constant ‘body-inherent’ weight regulated by a proportional feedback control system) is replaced by various ‘settling points’ that are influenced by energy and macronutrient intake in order for the body to achieve a zero energy balance. In a world of abundance, a prudent lifestyle and thus cognitive control are preconditions of effective biological control and a stable body weight. This idea also impacts future genetic research on body weight regulation. Searching for the genetic background of excess weight gain in a world of abundance is misleading since the possible biological control is widely overshadowed by the effect of the environment. In regard to clinical practice, dietary approaches to both weight loss and weight gain have to be reconsidered. In underweight patients (e.g., patients with anorexia nervosa), weight gain is supported by biological mechanisms that may or may not be suppressed by hyperalimentation. To overcome weight loss-induced counter-regulation in the overweight, biological signals have to be taken into account. Computational modeling of weight changes based on metabolic flux and its regulation will provide future strategies for clinical nutrition. PMID:21173874

  14. Lifestyle interventions targeting changes in body weight and composition among youth with an intellectual disability: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Maďano, Christophe; Normand, Claude L; Aimé, Annie; Bégarie, Jérôme

    2014-08-01

    Over the past three decades, the potential effects of lifestyle interventions targeting changes in body weight and composition (weight, body mass index, fat mass, waist circumference) among adults with an intellectual disability (ID) have been examined in various systematic reviews. Nevertheless, since the middle of the 1980s, the potential effects of these interventions for youth with an ID remain an open question. The purpose of this article is to review the effects of lifestyle interventions targeting changes in body weight and composition among youth with an ID. This review will focus on changes in body weight and composition, healthy lifestyle, and secondary health conditions. A systematic review of English- and French-language studies, published between 1981 and 2013, was performed on Academic Search Complete, PsycARTICLES, Medline and Scopus. The nine studies included in this review focused mainly on: a sample with a wide age range (e.g., 7-22 years); males; overweight-obese youth having a mild-to-moderate ID with Down or Prader-Willi syndrome; physical activity interventions; cohort pre- and post-test designs with/without a control group; and changes in body weight and composition. Taken together, results from these studies suggest successful changes in weight, body mass index and fat mass. However, intervention effects on healthy lifestyle and secondary health conditions are scarce and inconclusive. Given the weaknesses of the reviewed studies, the present findings should be considered preliminary and indicative of the need for future research. PMID:24830882

  15. Prevalence and magnitude of body weight and shape dissatisfaction among university students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lori A. Neighbors; Jeffery Sobal

    2007-01-01

    Although prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing, prevailing sociocultural influences lead females to desire a thin body and males a muscular body, often resulting in body dissatisfaction (BD) because many cannot achieve the cultural ideal. This study examined the magnitude of BD in university undergraduates (n=310). Body weight dissatisfaction (BWD) was measured as the difference between current and idealized

  16. Does this book make me look fat? The effect of protagonist body weight and body esteem on female readers' body esteem.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, Melissa J; Magee, Robert G

    2013-03-01

    Effects of visual representations of the thin ideal in the media have been widely explored, but textual representations of the thin ideal in novels have received scant attention. The chick literature genre has been criticized for depicting characters who worry about their body weight and who have poor body esteem. Excerpts from two chick lit novels were used to examine the effect of a protagonist's body weight and body esteem on college women's (N=159) perceptions of their sexual attractiveness and weight concern. Two narratives were used to minimize the possibility that idiosyncratic characteristics of one excerpt might influence the study's results. Underweight (vs. healthy weight) protagonists predicted readers' lower perceived sexual attractiveness. Protagonists with low body esteem (vs. control) predicted readers' increased weight concern. Scholars and health officials should be concerned about the effect chick lit novels might have on women's body image. PMID:23219006

  17. Composite materials and bodies including silicon carbide and titanium diboride and methods of forming same

    DOEpatents

    Lillo, Thomas M.; Chu, Henry S.; Harrison, William M.; Bailey, Derek

    2013-01-22

    Methods of forming composite materials include coating particles of titanium dioxide with a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon, and reacting the titanium dioxide with the substance including boron and the substance including carbon to form titanium diboride. The methods may be used to form ceramic composite bodies and materials, such as, for example, a ceramic composite body or material including silicon carbide and titanium diboride. Such bodies and materials may be used as armor bodies and armor materials. Such methods may include forming a green body and sintering the green body to a desirable final density. Green bodies formed in accordance with such methods may include particles comprising titanium dioxide and a coating at least partially covering exterior surfaces thereof, the coating comprising a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon.

  18. Relationship of Weight and Body Mass Index with Bone Mineral Density in Adult Men from Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    Hoxha, Rexhep; Islami, Hilmi; Qorraj-Bytyqi, Hasime; Thaçi, Shpetim; Bahtiri, Elton

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective: Body weight and body mass index (BMI) are considered strong predictors of osteoporotic fractures, though optimal BMI levels remain unsettled. There are several studies conducted on women about the relationship between BMI and bone mineral density (BMD), and just a few so far on men. Therefore, the objective of current study was to analyze the relationship between weight and BMI and BMD measured in lumbar spine (L1-L4), femur neck and total hip in 64 men from Kosovo. Methods: This cross-sectional study included a population of 64 men divided into three BMI groups. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) measurements were done in all the study participants. Results: Pearson's correlation analysis showed a significant positive correlation between weight and BMI and BMD in femur neck and in total hip, and a significant negative correlation between age and femur neck BMD. Age-adjusted linear regression analysis showed that weight and BMI had a significant positive association with BMD levels. Conclusion: Although the results show significant relationship between BMI and BMD, the negative relationship between age and femur neck BMD may serve as guidance to initiate early assessment of the BMD in this region as well as preventive measures of osteoporosis and fractures among ageing men population PMID:25568627

  19. Elite athletes in aesthetic and Olympic weight-class sports and the challenge of body weight and body compositions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen; Ina Garthe

    2011-01-01

    The use of dieting, rapid weight loss, and frequent weight fluctuation among athletes competing in weight-class and leanness sports have been considered a problem for years, but the extent of the problem and the health and performance consequences have yet to be fully examined. Most studies examining these issues have had weak methodology. However, results from this review indicate that

  20. Elite athletes in aesthetic and Olympic weight-class sports and the challenge of body weight and body composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen; Ina Garthe

    2011-01-01

    The use of dieting, rapid weight loss, and frequent weight fluctuation among athletes competing in weight-class and leanness sports have been considered a problem for years, but the extent of the problem and the health and performance consequences have yet to be fully examined. Most studies examining these issues have had weak methodology. However, results from this review indicate that

  1. Relationship among serum taurine, serum adipokines, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program.

    PubMed

    You, Jeong Soon; Park, Ji Yeon; Zhao, Xu; Jeong, Jin Seok; Choi, Mi Ja; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2013-01-01

    Human adipose tissue is not only a storage organ but also an active endocrine organ to release adipokines. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship among serum taurine and adipokine levels, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program in obese female college students. The program consisted of diet therapy, exercise, and behavior modification. After the program, body weight, body fat mass, percent body fat, and body mass index (BMI) were significantly decreased. Serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were significantly decreased. Also serum adiponectin level was significantly increased and serum leptin level was significantly decreased. There were no differences in serum taurine and homocysteine levels. The change of serum adiponectin level was positively correlated with change of body fat mass and percent body fat. These results may suggest that body fat loss by human body weight control program is associated with an increase in serum adiponectin in obese female college students. Therefore, further study such as taurine intervention study is needed to know more exact correlation between dietary taurine intake and serum adipokines or body composition. PMID:23392876

  2. LOTUS 1-2-3-BASED SYSTEM FOR RECORDING AND MAINTAINING BODY WEIGHT OF LABORATORY ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Body weight maintenance is required in a variety of behavioral and physiological studies. C-based animal weighing system is described which features automated data collection and allows for accurate control of body weight in test animals via manipulation of food intake. ajor syst...

  3. Cholesterol Metabolism and Body Composition in Women: The Effects of Moderate Weight Loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to determine how moderate weight loss protocol through diet and exercise may affect changes in body composition, to determine the effects of weight loss on cholesterol metabolism, and to examine the relationship between cholesterol metabolism and changes in body composition. Thirt...

  4. A system for the automated recording of feeding behavior and body weight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Boisvert; David F. Sherry

    2000-01-01

    A method that uses passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags for the continuous recording of feeding behavior and body weight from multiple individual animals is described. We have used this method in the field and in semi-natural captive conditions with black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) to determine daily and seasonal patterns in body weight and to estimate the proportions of food cached

  5. Recent changes in body weight and wing length among some British passerine birds

    E-print Network

    Yom-Tov, Yoram

    in residual body weight in blackbirds. Residual wing lengths increased linearly, as predicted, in six of seven species at Wicken Fen. Whereas there were non-linear long-term increases in wrens, dunnocks and blackbirds the unusual increase in blackbird body weight, possibly as a result of improving food (earthworm) availability

  6. Influence of Retirement on Body Satisfaction and Weight Control Behaviors: Perceptions of Elite Rhythmic Gymnasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashley E. Stirling; Lisanne C. Cruz; Gretchen A. Kerr

    2012-01-01

    This study explored rhythmic gymnasts’ perceptions of the influence of their retirement transition on body satisfaction and weight control behaviors. Eight retired elite female rhythmic gymnasts participated in semi-structured interviews. Findings were interpreted to suggest that these retired gymnasts experienced an increase in body dissatisfaction upon retirement and that they felt guilty about their weight gain, loss of muscle mass

  7. Development of hormonal control over food intake and body weight in female rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George N. Wade; Irving Zucker

    1970-01-01

    Found ovariectomy on the day of birth or at weaning to have no effect on body weight until after puberty when spayed females weighed significantly more than intact controls. Treatment with estradiol benzoate (EB) did not decrease food intake or body weight until Ss were approximately 40 days old. Onset of responsiveness to estrogens was independent of puberty. Hypophysectomy greatly

  8. Does the Method of Weight Loss Effect Long-Term Changes in Weight, Body Composition or Chronic Disease Risk Factors in Overweight or Obese Adults? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Washburn, Richard A.; Szabo, Amanda N.; Lambourne, Kate; Willis, Erik A.; Ptomey, Lauren T.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Herrmann, Stephen D.; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Differences in biological changes from weight loss by energy restriction and/or exercise may be associated with differences in long-term weight loss/regain. Objective To assess the effect of weight loss method on long-term changes in weight, body composition and chronic disease risk factors. Data Sources PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990-October 2013) for studies with data on the effect of energy restriction, exercise (aerobic and resistance) on long-term weight loss. Twenty articles were included in this review. Study Eligibility Criteria Primary source, peer reviewed randomized trials published in English with an active weight loss period of >6 months, or active weight loss with a follow-up period of any duration, conducted in overweight or obese adults were included. Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods Considerable heterogeneity across trials existed for important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and grouped by comparisons (e.g. diet vs. aerobic exercise, diet vs. diet + aerobic exercise etc.) and study design (long-term or weight loss/follow-up). Results Forty percent of trials reported significantly greater long-term weight loss with diet compared with aerobic exercise, while results for differences in weight regain were inconclusive. Diet+aerobic exercise resulted in significantly greater weight loss than diet alone in 50% of trials. However, weight regain (?55% of loss) was similar in diet and diet+aerobic exercise groups. Fat-free mass tended to be preserved when interventions included exercise. PMID:25333384

  9. Administration of saccharin to neonatal mice influences body composition of adult males and reduces body weight of females.

    PubMed

    Parlee, Sebastian D; Simon, Becky R; Scheller, Erica L; Alejandro, Emilyn U; Learman, Brian S; Krishnan, Venkatesh; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto; MacDougald, Ormond A

    2014-04-01

    Nutritional or pharmacological perturbations during perinatal growth can cause persistent effects on the function of white adipose tissue, altering susceptibility to obesity later in life. Previous studies have established that saccharin, a nonnutritive sweetener, inhibits lipolysis in mature adipocytes and stimulates adipogenesis. Thus, the current study tested whether neonatal exposure to saccharin via maternal lactation increased susceptibility of mice to diet-induced obesity. Saccharin decreased body weight of female mice beginning postnatal week 3. Decreased liver weights on week 14 corroborated this diminished body weight. Initially, saccharin also reduced male mouse body weight. By week 5, weights transiently rebounded above controls, and by week 14, male body weights did not differ. Body composition analysis revealed that saccharin increased lean and decreased fat mass of male mice, the latter due to decreased adipocyte size and epididymal, perirenal, and sc adipose weights. A mild improvement in glucose tolerance without a change in insulin sensitivity or secretion aligned with this leaner phenotype. Interestingly, microcomputed tomography analysis indicated that saccharin also increased cortical and trabecular bone mass of male mice and modified cortical bone alone in female mice. A modest increase in circulating testosterone may contribute to the leaner phenotype in male mice. Accordingly, the current study established a developmental period in which saccharin at high concentrations reduces adiposity and increases lean and bone mass in male mice while decreasing generalized growth in female mice. PMID:24456165

  10. Body ideals in women after viewing images of typical and healthy weight models.

    PubMed

    Owen, Rebecca; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2013-09-01

    Viewing thin models, pervasive in popular culture, is correlated with body dissatisfaction and anxiety in women. Whether or not the same is true when viewing healthy weight models is unknown. In this study we tested whether viewing healthy weight models increases the ideal female body size. Body image, anxiety, happiness and depression were measured in 44 female participants following viewing of images of thin or healthy weight models (within-subject separated by two weeks). We found that after viewing images of healthy weight models, women's body ideals (as measured by a participant-adjusted virtual model) were significantly larger than when the same women viewed images of very thin models. This effect was greatest in those women with the highest levels of baseline anxiety (as measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). These results suggest that viewing healthy weight models results in more healthy body ideals than those typically promoted through media. PMID:23722050

  11. Slender body theory programmed for bodies with arbitrary cross section. [including fuselages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, J.; Krenkel, A. R.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program developed for determining the subsonic pressure, force, and moment coefficients for a fuselage-type body using slender body theory is described. The program is suitable for determining the angle of attack and sideslipping characteristics of such bodies in the linear range where viscous effects are not predominant. Procedures developed which are capable of treating cross sections with corners or regions of large curvature are outlined.

  12. The relation of weight suppression and body mass index to symptomatology and treatment response in anorexia nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Berner, Laura A.; Shaw, Jena A.; Witt, Ashley A.; Lowe, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Weight suppression, the difference between highest past weight and current weight, is a robust predictor of clinical characteristics of bulimia nervosa; however, the influence of weight suppression in anorexia nervosa (AN) has been little studied, and no study to date has investigated the ways in which the relevance of weight suppression in AN may depend upon an individual’s current body mass index (BMI). The present study investigated weight suppression, BMI, and their interaction as cross-sectional and prospective predictors of psychological symptoms and weight in AN. Women with AN completed depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II) and eating disorder symptomatology measures (Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire and Eating Disorders Inventory-3) at residential treatment admission (N = 350) and discharge (N = 238). Weight suppression and BMI were weakly correlated (r = ?.22). At admission, BMI was positively correlated with all symptom measures except Restraint and depression scores. Weight suppression was also independently positively correlated with all measures except Weight Concern and Body Dissatisfaction subscale scores. In analyses examining discharge scores (including admission values as covariates), the admission weight suppression X BMI interaction consistently predicted post-treatment psychopathology. Controlling for weight gain in treatment and age, higher admission weight suppression predicted lower discharge scores (less symptom endorsement) among those with lower BMIs; among those with higher BMIs, higher weight suppression predicted higher discharge scores. These results are the first to demonstrate that absolute and relative weight status are joint indicators of AN severity and prognosis. These findings may have major implications for conceptualization and treatment of AN. PMID:24016010

  13. Anthropometry and body composition status during Ramadan among higher institution learning centre staffs with different body weight status.

    PubMed

    Rohin, Mohd Adzim Khalili; Rozano, Nurismalina; Abd Hadi, Norhayati; Mat Nor, Mohd Nasir; Abdullah, Shaharudin; Dandinasivara Venkateshaiah, Muralidhara

    2013-01-01

    This study was done to observe the anthropometry and body composition changes before, during, and after the holy month of Ramadan. This study was carried out on 46 staff from one of the local universities, which comprised of 14 males and 32 females ranging in age from 25 to 40 years old. There were four sessions done to complete this study, namely, a week before Ramadan (T1), 1st week of Ramadan (T2), 3rd week of Ramadan (T3), and a month after Ramadan (T4). All subjects were assessed according to weight, body circumference, and body composition status. It was found that subjects with different weight status showed a significant reduction in weight (P < 0.01) but no significant reduction in body fat percentage (P < 0.05). The findings suggest that weight reduction does not promise a reduction in body fat. Changes in neck circumference were only found in normal subjects. Hence, it can be said that overweight and obese subjects showed no changes in anthropometry status during Ramadan. No changes in body composition were reported in all three weight groups except for trunk body fat. In conclusion, normal subjects showed significant changes in various anthropometry parameters, but overweight and obese subjects showed no obvious difference. PMID:24311975

  14. ZResponse to selection, heritability and genetic correlations between body weight and body size in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriantahina, Farafidy; Liu, Xiaolin; Huang, Hao; Xiang, Jianhai

    2012-03-01

    To quantify the response to selection, heritability and genetic correlations between weight and size of Litopenaeus vannamei, the body weight (BW), total length (TL), body length (BL), first abdominal segment depth (FASD), third abdominal segment depth (TASD), first abdominal segment width (FASW), and partial carapace length (PCL) of 5-month-old parents and of offspnng were measured by calculating seven body measunngs of offspnng produced by a nested mating design. Seventeen half-sib families and 42 full-sib families of L. vannamei were produced using artificial fertilization from 2-4 dams by each sire, and measured at around five months post-metamorphosis. The results show that hentabilities among vanous traits were high: 0.515±0.030 for body weight and 0.394±0.030 for total length. After one generation of selection. the selection response was 10.70% for offspring growth. In the 5th month, the realized heritability for weight was 0.296 for the offspnng generation. Genetic correlations between body weight and body size were highly variable. The results indicate that external morphological parameters can be applied dunng breeder selection for enhancing the growth without sacrificing animals for determining the body size and breed ability; and selective breeding can be improved significantly, simultaneously with increased production.

  15. Achieving Body Weight Adjustments for Feeding Status and Pregnant or Non-Pregnant Condition in Beef Cows

    PubMed Central

    Gionbelli, Mateus P.; Duarte, Marcio S.; Valadares Filho, Sebastiăo C.; Detmann, Edenio; Chizzotti, Mario L.; Rodrigues, Felipe C.; Zanetti, Diego; Gionbelli, Tathyane R. S.; Machado, Marcelo G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Beef cows herd accounts for 70% of the total energy used in the beef production system. However, there are still limited studies regarding improvement of production efficiency in this category, mainly in developing countries and in tropical areas. One of the limiting factors is the difficulty to obtain reliable estimates of weight variation in mature cows. This occurs due to the interaction of weight of maternal tissues with specific physiological stages such as pregnancy. Moreover, variation in gastrointestinal contents due to feeding status in ruminant animals is a major source of error in body weight measurements. Objectives Develop approaches to estimate the individual proportion of weight from maternal tissues and from gestation in pregnant cows, adjusting for feeding status and stage of gestation. Methods and Findings Dataset of 49 multiparous non-lactating Nellore cows (32 pregnant and 17 non-pregnant) were used. To establish the relationships between the body weight, depending on the feeding status of pregnant and non-pregnant cows as a function of days of pregnancy, a set of general equations was tested, based on theoretical suppositions. We proposed the concept of pregnant compound (PREG), which represents the weight that is genuinely related to pregnancy. The PREG includes the gravid uterus minus the non-pregnant uterus plus the accretion in udder related to pregnancy. There was no accretion in udder weight up to 238 days of pregnancy. By subtracting the PREG from live weight of a pregnant cow, we obtained estimates of the weight of only maternal tissues in pregnant cows. Non-linear functions were adjusted to estimate the relationship between fasted, non-fasted and empty body weight, for pregnant and non-pregnant cows. Conclusions Our results allow for estimating the actual live weight of pregnant cows and their body constituents, and subsequent comparison as a function of days of gestation and feeding status. PMID:25793770

  16. Reciprocal effects among changes in weight, body image, and other psychological factors during behavioral obesity treatment: a mediation analysis

    PubMed Central

    Palmeira, António L; Markland, David A; Silva, Marlene N; Branco, Teresa L; Martins, Sandra C; Minderico, Cláudia S; Vieira, Paulo N; Barata, José T; Serpa, Sidónio O; Sardinha, Luis B; Teixeira, Pedro J

    2009-01-01

    Background Changes in body image and subjective well-being variables (e.g. self-esteem) are often reported as outcomes of obesity treatment. However, they may, in turn, also influence behavioral adherence and success in weight loss. The present study examined associations among obesity treatment-related variables, i.e., change in weight, quality of life, body image, and subjective well-being, exploring their role as both mediators and outcomes, during a behavioral obesity treatment. Methods Participants (BMI = 31.1 ± 4.1 kg/m2; age = 38.4 ± 6.7 y) were 144 women who attended a 12-month obesity treatment program and a comparison group (n = 49), who received a general health education program. The intervention included regular group meetings promoting lasting behavior changes in physical activity and dietary intake. Body image, quality of life, subjective well-being, and body weight were measured at baseline and treatment's end. Mediation was tested by multiple regression and a resampling approach to measure indirect effects. Treatment group assignment was the independent variable while changes in weight and in psychosocial variables were analyzed alternatively as mediators and as dependent variables. Results At 12 months, the intervention group had greater weight loss (-5.6 ± 6.8% vs. -1.2 ± 4.6%, p < .001) and larger decreases in body size dissatisfaction (effect size of 1.08 vs. .41, p < .001) than the comparison group. Significant improvements were observed in both groups for all other psychosocial variables (effect sizes ranging from .31–.75, p < .05). Mediation analysis showed that changes in body image and body weight were concurrently mediators and outcomes of treatment, suggesting reciprocal influences. Weight loss partially mediated the effect of treatment on quality of life and on self-esteem but the reciprocal effect was not observed. Conclusion Changes in weight and body image may reciprocally affect each other during the course of behavioral obesity treatment. No evidence of reciprocal relationships was found for the other models under analysis; however, weight changes partially explained the effects of treatment on quality of life and self-esteem. Weight and psychosocial changes co-occur during treatment and will probably influence each other dynamically, in ways not yet adequately understood. Results from this study support the inclusion of intervention contents aimed at improving body image in weight management programs. PMID:19203389

  17. Body weight loss increases plasma and adipose tissue concentrations of potentially toxic pollutants in obese individuals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Chevrier; É Dewailly; P Ayotte; P Mauričge; J-P Després; A Tremblay

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: While there appears to be a consensus among scientists and clinicians that body weight loss reduces the risk of several chronic diseases, these apparently favourable effects should be balanced against any potentially harmful side effect of weight loss. In this regard, weight loss has been shown to produce an increase in blood concentration of potentially toxic organochlorine pollutants in

  18. Letter to Editor Height, weight, body mass index and offspring sex at birth in

    E-print Network

    Helle, Samuli

    Letter to Editor Height, weight, body mass index and offspring sex at birth in contemporary Finnish deliver more sons. I examined how height and weight affected the birth sex ratio of offspring­177), mean weight was 71.1 kg (713.2 SD, range 46­135). Mean offspring sex ratio at birth was 0.53 (70.39 SD

  19. Sex differences in the regulation of body weight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Shi; D. J. Clegg

    2009-01-01

    Obesity and its associated health disorders and costs are increasing. Males and females differ in terms of how and where body fat is stored, the hormones they secrete in proportion to their fat, and the way their brains respond to signals that regulate body fat. Fat accumulation in the intra-abdominal adipose depot is associated with the risk for developing cardiovascular

  20. Factors Associated With Body Weight Status of Iranian Postgraduate Students in University of Putra Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Zarei, Maryam; Mohd Taib, Mohd Nasir; Zarei, Fatemeh; Abu Saad, Hazizi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Good nutrition, a balanced diet and regular physical activity are foundations of good health. Research has found that dietary patterns change dramatically following the arrival of students in a foreign country. However, nutritional status of Iranian students studying oversea has never been investigated. Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine factors associated with body weight status of Iranian postgraduate students in Universiti of Putra Malaysia (UPM). Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the body weight status of 210 Iranian postgraduate students aged between 22 and 55 years in University of Putra Malaysia. The associations between body weight status and socio demographics factors and also lifestyle factors (smoking and physical activity) were assessed. Anthropometric factors (height, weight, BMI and waist and hip circumferences) were measured. Chi-square, Spearman Rho and Pearson tests were used for data analysis. Results: From a total of 210 postgraduate students 110 were females, and 100 males. No significant correlation was observed between smoking and BMI (P = 0.4). However, statistically significant correlations were observed between gender (P = 0.007), physical activity (P = 0.02), using protein (P = 0.005), carbohydrate (P = 0.002), fat (P = 0.001), fiber (P = 0.003), vitamin C (P = 0.04), calcium (P = 0.005), waist circumference (P = 0.02), hip circumference (P = 0.001), Waist to Hip Ratio (P = 0.002), and BMI. Conclusions: The nutritional behavior of university students was poor. Therefore, it is essential to encourage young people, including university students to enrich their diets with milk, beans, fruit, and vegetables to decrease the risks of nutrition related disorders. PMID:25414886

  1. Overconcern with weight and shape is not the same as body dissatisfaction: evidence from a prospective study of pre-adolescent boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Allen, Karina L; Byrne, Susan M; McLean, Neil J; Davis, Elizabeth A

    2008-09-01

    Overconcern with weight and shape and body dissatisfaction have both emerged as significant predictors of disordered eating. However, it is unclear how these constructs relate to each other, and if each has different antecedents and consequences. This study aimed to identify prospective predictors of each construct and to determine their relative importance in predicting dietary restraint and binge eating. Eight- to 13-year-old boys and girls (N=259) were assessed at baseline and one-year follow-up, using a range of measures that included the Child Eating Disorder Examination. Psychosocial variables predicted overconcern with weight and shape whilst objective weight predicted body dissatisfaction. Body dissatisfaction and weight and shape concern predicted restraint, and weight and shape concern and restraint predicted binge eating. Findings provide support for the theoretical differences between body dissatisfaction and overconcern with weight and shape, and highlight the importance of focusing on specific body image variables. PMID:18585990

  2. Human Growth and Body Weight Dynamics: An Integrative Systems Model

    E-print Network

    Rahmandad, Hazhir

    Quantifying human weight and height dynamics due to growth, aging, and energy balance can inform clinical practice and policy analysis. This paper presents the first mechanism-based model spanning full individual life and ...

  3. Effects of an 8-week weight-loss program on cardiovascular disease risk factors and regional body composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JS Volek; AL Gómez; DM Love; AM Weyers; R Hesslink; JA Wise; WJ Kraemer

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine the influence of weight loss on multiple cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors.Design: Overweight women (n=12; mean 44.2% fat) and men (n=10; mean 30.7% fat) participated in an 8 week weight-loss program that included dietary, exercise, multi-vitamin\\/mineral supplementation, and behavior modification components. Measurement of total and regional body composition assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), circumferences and

  4. Comparison of the acute metabolic responses to traditional resistance, body-weight, and battling rope exercises.

    PubMed

    Ratamess, Nicholas A; Rosenberg, Joseph G; Klei, Samantha; Dougherty, Brian M; Kang, Jie; Smith, Charles R; Ross, Ryan E; Faigenbaum, Avery D

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify and compare the acute metabolic responses to resistance exercise protocols comprising free-weight, body-weight, and battling rope (BR) exercises. Ten resistance-trained men (age = 20.6 ± 1.3 years) performed 13 resistance exercise protocols on separate days in random order consisting of only one exercise per session. For free-weight exercise protocols, subjects performed 3 sets of up to 10 repetitions with 75% of their 1 repetition maximum. For the push-up (PU) and push-up on a BOSU ball protocols, subjects performed 3 sets of 20 repetitions. For the burpee and PU with lateral crawl protocols, subjects performed 3 sets of 10 repetitions. For the plank and BR circuit protocols, subjects performed 3 sets of 30-second bouts. A standard 2-minute rest interval (RI) was used in between all sets for each exercise. Data were averaged for the entire protocol including work and RIs. Mean oxygen consumption was significantly greatest during the BR (24.6 ± 2.6 ml·kg·min) and burpee (22.9 ± 2.1 ml·kg·min) protocols. For the free-weight exercises, highest mean values were seen in the squat (19.6 ± 1.8 ml·kg·min), deadlift (18.9 ± 3.0 ml·kg·min), and lunge (17.3 ± 2.6 ml·kg·min). No differences were observed between PUs performed on the floor vs. on a BOSU ball. However, adding a lateral crawl to the PU significantly increased mean oxygen consumption (19.5 ± 2.9 ml·kg·min). The lowest mean value was seen during the plank exercise (7.9 ± 0.7 ml·kg·min). These data indicate performance of exercises with BRs and a body-weight burpee exercise elicit relatively higher acute metabolic demands than traditional resistance exercises performed with moderately heavy loading. PMID:24942174

  5. Body composition and power performance improved after weight reduction in male athletes without hampering hormonal balance.

    PubMed

    Huovinen, Heikki T; Hulmi, Juha J; Isolehto, Juha; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Puurtinen, Risto; Karila, Tuomo; Mackala, Krzysztof; Mero, Antti A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a 4-week weight reduction period with high protein and reduced carbohydrate intake on body composition, explosive power, speed, serum hormones, and acid-base balance in male track and field jumpers and sprinters. Eight participants were assigned to a high weight reduction group (HWR; energy restriction 750 kcal·d) and 7 to a low weight reduction group (LWR; energy restriction 300 kcal·d). Energy and carbohydrate intake decreased significantly (p ? 0.05) only in HWR by 740 ± 330 kcal·d and 130 ± 29 g·d, respectively. Furthermore, total body mass and fat mass decreased (p ? 0.05) only in HWR by 2.2 ± 1.0 kg and 1.7 ± 1.6 kg, respectively. Fat-free mass (FFM), serum testosterone, cortisol, and sex hormone-binding globulin did not change significantly. Ca ion and pH decreased (p ? 0.05) only in HWR (3.1 ± 2.8% and 0.8 ± 0.8%, respectively), whereas (Equation is included in full-text article.)declined (p ? 0.05) in both groups by 19.3 ± 6.2% in HWR and by 13.1 ± 8.5% in LWR. The countermovement jump and 20-m sprint time improved consistently (p ? 0.05) only in HWR, by 2.6 ± 2.5 cm and 0.04 ± 0.04 seconds, respectively. Finally, athletes with a fat percentage of 10% or more at the baseline were able to preserve FFM. In conclusion, altered acid-base balance but improved weight-bearing power performance was observed without negative consequences on serum hormones and FFM after a 4-week weight reduction of 0.5 kg·wk achieved by reduced carbohydrate but maintained high protein intake. PMID:25028999

  6. Mid-winter food use and body weights of mallards and wood ducks in Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delnicki, D.; Reinecke, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    We obtained esophageal food samples from 311 mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and 94 wood ducks (Aix sponsa) and body weights from 2,118 mallards and 315 wood ducks in western Mississippi during December and January 1979-83. On average, mallards ingested 3.0% animal food, principally aquatic invertebrates, and 97.0% plant food. Rice, soybeans, and seeds of 'moist soil' plants provided 41.3, 41.6, and 10-11% of the total food intake. Wood ducks ingested nearly 100% plant food, of which 23.4% was soybeans and 74.3% was acorns from Nuttall (Quercus nuttallii), water (Q. nigra), and willow oaks (Q. phellos). Mallard food use varied with water conditions; the use of rice decreased and soybeans increased during 1980-81 when cumulative November-January precipitation was < 50% of normal. Wood duck food use varied with habitat; the diet included more acorns at sites having larger acreages of intact bottomland hardwood forest. Mallard and wood duck body weights varied within and among winters. Mallard weights decreased by about 2% from December to January each year. We considered this a regulated loss, whereas we attributed increases and decreases of 4-5% in average weights during wet and dry winters to changes in feeding opportunities associated with winter precipitation. Wood duck weights followed similar trends. We concluded that continued drainage in the Mississippi Delta will adversely affect waterfowl foraging opportunities, and that research on winter feeding ecology will progress more rapidly if we develop an understanding of the foraging efficiencies associated with alternate food resources.

  7. A Longitudinal Study of Body Image and Strategies to Lose Weight and Increase Muscles among Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, M. P.; Ricciardelli, L. A.

    2005-01-01

    A longitudinal study was used to examine age differences in the role of body mass index (BMI) and sociocultural pressures in predicting changes in body image and strategies to both lose weight and increase muscles among 443 children aged between 8 and 12 years (207 boys, 236 girls) over a 16-month period. The strongest predictors of body image and…

  8. Linking cellular zinc status to body weight and fat mass: mapping quantitative trait loci in Znt7 knockout mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zinc transporter 7 (Znt7, Slc30a7) knockout (KO) mice display abnormalities in body weight gain and body adiposity. Regulation of body weight and fatness is complex, involving multiple genetic and environmental factors. To understand how zinc homeostasis influences body weight gain and fat deposit a...

  9. Body weight status, eating behavior, sensitivity to reward/punishment, and gender: relationships and interdependencies

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Anja; Federbusch, Martin; Grellmann, Claudia; Villringer, Arno; Horstmann, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and personality characteristics are factors that may jointly regulate body weight. This study explored the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and self-reported behavioral and personality measures. These measures included eating behavior (based on the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire; Stunkard and Messick, 1985), sensitivity to reward and punishment (based on the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) scales) (Carver and White, 1994) and self-reported impulsivity (based on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11; Patton et al., 1995). We found an inverted U-shaped relationship between restrained eating and BMI. This relationship was moderated by the level of disinhibited eating. Independent of eating behavior, BIS and BAS responsiveness were associated with BMI in a gender-specific manner with negative relationships for men and positive relationships for women. Together, eating behavior and BIS/BAS responsiveness accounted for a substantial proportion of BMI variance (men: ?25%, women: ?32%). A direct relationship between self-reported impulsivity and BMI was not observed. In summary, our results demonstrate a system of linear and non-linear relationships between the investigated factors and BMI. Moreover, body weight status was not only associated with eating behavior (cognitive restraint and disinhibition), but also with personality factors not inherently related to an eating context (BIS/BAS). Importantly, these relationships differ between men and women. PMID:25368586

  10. Body weight status, eating behavior, sensitivity to reward/punishment, and gender: relationships and interdependencies.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Anja; Federbusch, Martin; Grellmann, Claudia; Villringer, Arno; Horstmann, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and personality characteristics are factors that may jointly regulate body weight. This study explored the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and self-reported behavioral and personality measures. These measures included eating behavior (based on the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire; Stunkard and Messick, 1985), sensitivity to reward and punishment (based on the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) scales) (Carver and White, 1994) and self-reported impulsivity (based on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11; Patton et al., 1995). We found an inverted U-shaped relationship between restrained eating and BMI. This relationship was moderated by the level of disinhibited eating. Independent of eating behavior, BIS and BAS responsiveness were associated with BMI in a gender-specific manner with negative relationships for men and positive relationships for women. Together, eating behavior and BIS/BAS responsiveness accounted for a substantial proportion of BMI variance (men: ?25%, women: ?32%). A direct relationship between self-reported impulsivity and BMI was not observed. In summary, our results demonstrate a system of linear and non-linear relationships between the investigated factors and BMI. Moreover, body weight status was not only associated with eating behavior (cognitive restraint and disinhibition), but also with personality factors not inherently related to an eating context (BIS/BAS). Importantly, these relationships differ between men and women. PMID:25368586

  11. Factors Affecting Body Weight of Aardi Goat Kids in Saudi Arabia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Al-Shaikh; H. H. Mogawer

    2001-01-01

    Al-Shaikh, M.A. and Mogawer, H.H. 2001. Factors affecting body weight of Aardi goat kids in Saudi Arabia. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 20: 233–238.To study the effects of dam weight, litter size and kid sex on birth weight and weight gain from birth to weaning, 31 male and 3G female Aardi goat, kids, from 40 dams were reared under identical conditions.

  12. Relationship between maternal nutritional status and infant’s weight and body proportions at birth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Thame; RJ Wilks; N McFarlane-Anderson; FI Bennett; TE Forrester

    1997-01-01

    Objectives: To examine maternal nutritional status and its relationship to infant weight and body proportions.Design: Retrospective study of births from January–December 1990.Setting: University Hospital of the West Indies, Jamaica.Subjects: Records for 2394 live, singleton births, between 200–305 d gestation.Main outcome measures: Birth weight, crown heel length, head circumference, ponderal index, head circumference:length ratio, placental weight, placental:birth weight ratio.Results: Mothers who

  13. Cocaine's appetite for fat and the consequences on body weight.

    PubMed

    Billing, Lawrence; Ersche, Karen D

    2015-03-01

    Abstract For many individuals in treatment for cocaine dependence, weight gain is a substantial problem during recovery. This weight gain causes significant distress and seems to increase the risk of relapse. The mechanisms underlying cocaine's effects on weight remain elusive. It is widely assumed that this weight gain reflects a metabolic or behavioural compensatory response to the cessation of cocaine use. Here we challenge this assumption and outline potential mechanisms by which chronic cocaine use produces disturbances in the regulation of fat intake and storage, through its effects on the central and peripheral nervous systems, specifically the sympathetic nervous system. We hypothesize that the cocaine-induced alteration in fat regulation results in cocaine users developing a pronounced appetite for fatty food but keeps their fat mass low. This altered fat appetite subsequently leads to excessive weight gain when individuals enter treatment and stop using cocaine. Our aim is to shed light on the neurobiological mechanisms that may underlie the alterations in eating and fat regulation in cocaine-dependent individuals, to open up potential new avenues to support these individuals in recovery. PMID:25321424

  14. Self-perception of body weight among high school students in Taipei, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Page, Randy M; Lee, Ching-Mei; Miao, Nae-Fang

    2005-01-01

    Self-perception of body weight and other weight-related factors were assessed among 2665 Taipei, Taiwan high school students. A high percent of the girls (70.7%) and boys (42.2%) reported that they were too fat and these percentages were much higher than those reported by U.S. students in a recent Youth Risk Behavior Survey. In addition, only 13.2% of girls and 22.0% of boys reported being completely satisfied with their weight and the level of dissatisfaction with weight appeared to be greater than among U.S. students. Yet, in comparison to U.S. students, the Taiwanese students were considerably less likely than their U.S. counterparts to engage in weight management practices (e.g., dieting, eating less food, using diet pills). Taiwanese students with a self-perception of being too fat were more likely than those with perceptions of being just right or too thin to engage in weight management practices, to be dissatisfied with their weight, feel that they were unattractive, estimate that their same-sex peers were trying to lose weight, and have a higher body mass index. The findings from this study showed a relationship between self-perception of body size and engaging in weight control behaviors was consistent with other research. It suggested that self-perception of body weight, more so than objective weight status, was predictive of weight loss behavior and also negative psychological outcomes associated with poor body weight image. As a result, self-perception of weight may be an important point of focus for the design and implementation of clinical and public health initiatives targeted at this adolescent population as well as others. PMID:15971733

  15. Assessment of residual body weight gain and residual intake and body weight gain as feed efficiency traits in the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Since feed represents 70% of the total cost in poultry production systems, an animal’s ability to convert feed is an important trait. In this study, residual feed intake (RFI) and residual body weight gain (RG), and their linear combination into residual feed intake and body weight gain (RIG) were studied to estimate their genetic parameters and analyze the potential differences in feed intake between the top ranked birds based on the criteria for each trait. Methods Phenotypic and genetic analyses were completed on 8340 growing tom turkeys that were measured for feed intake and body weight gain over a four-week period from 16 to 20 weeks of age. Results The heritabilities of RG and RIG were 0.19?±?0.03 and 0.23?±?0.03, respectively. Residual body weight gain had moderate genetic correlations with feed intake (?0.41) and body weight gain (0.43). All three linear combinations to form the RIG traits had genetic correlations ranging from ?0.62 to ?0.52 with feed intake, and slightly weaker, 0.22 to 0.34, with body weight gain. Sorted into three equal groups (low, medium, high) based on RG, the most efficient group (high) gained 0.62 and 1.70 kg more (P?body weight than that of the medium and low groups, yet the feed intake for the high group was less (P?body weight gain (7.41 vs. 7.03 and 6.43 kg) relative to the medium and low groups, respectively. Conclusions The difference in feed intake between the top ranked birds based on different residual feed efficiency traits may be small when looking at the average individual, however, when extrapolated to the production level, the lower feed intake values could lead to significant savings in feed costs over time. PMID:23865507

  16. Effects of oxygen concentration and body weight on maximum feed intake, growth and hematological parameters of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    An Tran-Duy; Johan W. Schrama; Anne A. van Dam; Johan A. J. Verreth

    2008-01-01

    Feed intake and satiation in fish are regulated by a number of factors, of which dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) is important. Since fish take up oxygen through the limited gill surface area, all processes that need energy, including food processing, depend on their maximum oxygen uptake capacity. Maximum oxygen uptake capacity relative to body weight in bigger fish is smaller

  17. Stability of Pigeon Body Weight under Free-Feeding Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kangas, Brian D.; Branch, Marc N.

    2006-01-01

    Increases in regulatory oversight of animal research require verification of effects of standard practices. There are no formal guidelines for establishing free-feeding weights in adult pigeons. In the present study, pigeons were obtained from a commercial supplier, weighed upon arrival, and then held in quarantine for 7 days with free access to…

  18. Smoking, body weight, and CHD mortality in diverse populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2004-01-01

    Background. It is well documented that smokers tend to be leaner than nonsmokers. It is also clearly established that smoking is detrimental to health. The question that immediately comes to mind, therefore, is whether the possible weight-controlling aspects of the smoking habit offset the harm induced by smoking.Methods. In this report, we present an analysis of 21 observational studies that

  19. Longitudinal Trajectories of Perceived Body Weight: Adolescence to Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Li, Kaigang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine longitudinal trajectories of perceived weight from adolescence to early adulthood by gender. Methods: We analyzed 9 waves (1997-2005) of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 8302) using Mplus. Results: Perceived overweight increased over time among girls and did not level off until 23 years of age. Blacks…

  20. Body Weight and the Quality of Interpersonal Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Deborah; Friedman, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate whether underweight, normal-weight, overweight, and obese Americans differ in their evaluations of positive and negative aspects of their interpersonal relationships. Analyses are based on data from the Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) study, a survey of more than 3,000 adults ages 25 to 74 in 1995. We find no…

  1. Body Weight and Matching with a Physically Attractive Romantic Partner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmalt, Julie H.; Cawley, John; Joyner, Kara; Sobal, Jeffery

    2008-01-01

    Matching and attribute trade are two perspectives used to explain mate selection. We investigated patterns of matching and trade, focusing on obesity, using Add Health Romantic Pair data (N = 1,405 couples). Obese individuals, relative to healthy weight individuals, were less likely to have physically attractive partners, with this disadvantage…

  2. Physical activity: an important adaptative mechanism for body-weight control.

    PubMed

    Finelli, Carmine; Gioia, Saverio; La Sala, Nicolina

    2012-01-01

    We review the current concepts about energy expenditure and evaluate the physical activity (PhA) in the context of this knowledge and the available literature. Regular PhA is correlated with low body weight and low body fat mass. The negative fat balance is probably secondary to this negative energy balance. Nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) and physical activity, that is crucial for weight control, may be important in the physiology of weight change. An intriguing doubt that remains unresolved is whether changes in nutrient intake or body composition secondarily affect the spontaneous physical activity. PMID:24533208

  3. Physical Activity: An Important Adaptative Mechanism for Body-Weight Control

    PubMed Central

    Finelli, Carmine; Gioia, Saverio; La Sala, Nicolina

    2012-01-01

    We review the current concepts about energy expenditure and evaluate the physical activity (PhA) in the context of this knowledge and the available literature. Regular PhA is correlated with low body weight and low body fat mass. The negative fat balance is probably secondary to this negative energy balance. Nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) and physical activity, that is crucial for weight control, may be important in the physiology of weight change. An intriguing doubt that remains unresolved is whether changes in nutrient intake or body composition secondarily affect the spontaneous physical activity. PMID:24533208

  4. Smaller weight changes in standarized body mass index in response to treatment as weight classification increases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to compare the differential efficacy of a weight loss program for Mexican-American children who are overweight, obese, and severely obese. Study participants were enrolled in an intensive weight loss intervention aimed at improving eating and physical activity behaviors with behavi...

  5. Exercise Minimizes Weight Regain By Reducing Appetite, Burning Fat, And Lowering 'Defended' Body Weight

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)

    2009-09-02

    APS Press Release of Journal Article "Regular exercise attenuates the metabolic drive to regain weight after long term weight loss" by Paul S. MacLean, Janine A. Higgins, Holly R. Wyatt, Edward L. Melanson, Ginger C. Johnson, Matthew R. Jackman, Erin D. Giles, Ian E. Brown and James O. Hill, found in American Journal of Physiology Â? Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology

  6. Effects of the Obese Gene Product on Body Weight Regulation in Ob\\/Ob Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Ann Pelleymounter; Mary Jane Cullen; Mary Beth Baker; Randy Hecht; Dwight Winters; Thomas Boone; Frank Collins

    1995-01-01

    C57BL\\/6J-mice with a mutation in the obese (ob) gene are obese, diabetic, and exhibit reduced activity, metabolism, and body temperature. Daily intraperitoneal injection of these mice with recombinant OB protein lowered their body weight, percent body fat, food intake, and serum concentrations of glucose and insulin. In addition, metabolic rate, body temperature, and activity levels were increased by this treatment.

  7. Relationships of cow age and initial cow body weight with calf and cow grazing season weight changes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary objective in a study implemented during 1975-2001 on northern mixed-grass prairie at the High Plains Grassland Research Station (HPGRS) near Cheyenne, Wyoming, was to evaluate long-term calf and cow grazing season body weight gain responses under 14 different management practices (e.g. t...

  8. The Skinny on Body Weight Regulation: The Role of Retinoid Signaling in Photoperiod-Mediated Weight Loss

    E-print Network

    Silver, Rae

    is becoming a growing public concern. Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus sungorus) represent an excellent, or following extended exposure to short-day lengths or mela- tonin, Siberian hamsters exhibit a pronounced winter conditions (7). In Siberian hamsters, the decrease in body weight precedes a decrease in food

  9. Changes in Eating Attitudes, Body Esteem and Weight Control Behaviours during Adolescence in a South African Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Gitau, Tabither M.; Micklesfield, Lisa K.; Pettifor, John M.; Norris, Shane A.

    2014-01-01

    Failure to consume an adequate diet or over consumption during adolescence can disrupt normal growth and development, resulting in undesirable weight change. This leads to an increase in unhealthy weight control practices related to eating and exercise among both adolescent girls and boys to meet the societal ‘ideal’ body shape. This study therefore aims to examine the longitudinal changes in eating attitudes, body-esteem and weight control behaviours among adolescents between 13 and 17 years; and, to describe perceptions around body shape at age 17 years. A total of 1435 urban South African black and mixed ancestry boys and girls, who had data at both age 13 and 17 years from the Birth to Twenty cohort were included. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires on eating attitudes (EAT-26), body esteem and weight control behaviours for either weight loss or muscle gain attempts. Height and weight were measured at both time points and BMI was calculated. Black females had a higher BMI (p<0.001) and an increased risk of developing eating disorders as well as significant increase in the prevalence of weight loss practices between the ages 13 and 17 years. At age 17 years both Mixed ancestry adolescents had lower body-esteem compared to black adolescents. The prevalence of possible eating disorders was 11% and 13.1% in early and late adolescents respectively. Males and females shared similar opinions on normal silhouettes being the ‘best’, ‘getting respect’ and being the ‘happiest’, while the obese silhouette was associated with the ‘worst’ and the ‘unhappiest’, and the underweight silhouette with the “weakest”. Black females had a higher BMI and an increased risk of developing eating disorders. Adolescent females engaged more in weight loss practices whereas, males in muscle gain practices indicating that Western norms of thinness as the ideal are becoming more common in South Africa. PMID:25310343

  10. Relationships between Neonatal Weight, Limb Lengths, Skinfold Thicknesses, Body Breadths and Circumferences in an Australian Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Pomeroy, Emma; Stock, Jay T.; Cole, Tim J.; O'Callaghan, Michael; Wells, Jonathan C. K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Low birth weight has been consistently associated with adult chronic disease risk. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis assumes that reduced fetal growth impacts some organs more than others. However, it remains unclear how birth weight relates to different body components, such as circumferences, adiposity, body segment lengths and limb proportions. We hypothesized that these components vary in their relationship to birth weight. Methods We analysed the relationship between birth weight and detailed anthropometry in 1270 singleton live-born neonates (668 male) from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (Brisbane, Australia). We tested adjusted anthropometry for correlations with birth weight. We then performed stepwise multiple regression on birth weight of: body lengths, breadths and circumferences; relative limb to neck-rump proportions; or skinfold thicknesses. All analyses were adjusted for sex and gestational age, and used logged data. Results Circumferences, especially chest, were most strongly related to birth weight, while segment lengths (neck-rump, thigh, upper arm, and especially lower arm and lower leg) were relatively weakly related to birth weight, and limb lengths relative to neck-rump length showed no relationship. Skinfolds accounted for 36% of birth weight variance, but adjusting for size (neck-rump, thigh and upper arm lengths, and head circumference), this decreased to 10%. There was no evidence that heavier babies had proportionally thicker skinfolds. Conclusions Neonatal body measurements vary in their association with birth weight: head and chest circumferences showed the strongest associations while limb segment lengths did not relate strongly to birth weight. After adjusting for body size, subcutaneous fatness accounted for a smaller proportion of birth weight variance than previously reported. While heavier babies had absolutely thicker skinfolds, this was proportional to their size. Relative limb to trunk length was unrelated to birth weight, suggesting that limb proportions at birth do not index factors relevant to prenatal life. PMID:25162658

  11. Muscle-specific interleukin-6 deletion influences body weight and body fat in a sex-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Beatriz; Navia, Belén; Giralt, Mercedes; Comes, Gemma; Carrasco, Javier; Molinero, Amalia; Quintana, Albert; Seńarís, Rosa M; Hidalgo, Juan

    2014-08-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a major cytokine controlling not only the immune system but also basic physiological variables such as body weight and metabolism. While central IL-6 is clearly implicated in the latter, the putative role of peripheral IL-6 controlling body weight remains unclear. We herewith report results obtained in muscle-specific IL-6 KO (mIL-6 KO) mice. mIL-6 KO male mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD, 58.4% kcal from fat) or a control diet (18%) gained less weight and body fat than littermate floxed male mice, while the opposite pattern was observed in female mice. Food intake was not affected by muscle IL-6 deficiency, but male and female mIL-6 KO mice were more and less active, respectively, in the hole-board test. Moreover, female mIL-6 KO mice did not control adequately their body temperature upon exposure to 4°C, suggesting a role of muscle IL-6 in energy expenditure. At least part of this regulatory role of muscle IL-6 may be mediated by the hypothalamus, as IL-6 deficiency regulated the expression of critical hypothalamic neuropeptides (NPY, AgRP, POMC, CRH and preproOX). Leptin and insulin changes cannot explain the phenotype of these mice. In summary, the present results demonstrate that muscle IL-6 controls body weight and body fat in a sex-specific fashion, influencing the expression of the main neuropeptides involved in energy homeostasis. PMID:24632224

  12. Variation in genes related to hepatic lipid metabolism and changes in waist circumference and body weight.

    PubMed

    Meidtner, Karina; Fisher, Eva; Angquist, Lars; Holst, Claus; Vimaleswaran, Karani S; Boer, Jolanda M A; Halkjćr, Jytte; Masala, Giovanna; Ostergaard, Jane N; Mortensen, Lotte M; van der A, Daphne L; Tjřnneland, Anne; Palli, Domenico; Overvad, Kim; Wareham, Nicholas J; Loos, Ruth J F; Sřrensen, Thorkild I A; Boeing, Heiner

    2014-03-01

    We analysed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tagging the genetic variability of six candidate genes (ATF6, FABP1, LPIN2, LPIN3, MLXIPL and MTTP) involved in the regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism, an important regulatory site of energy balance for associations with body mass index (BMI) and changes in weight and waist circumference. We also investigated effect modification by sex and dietary intake. Data of 6,287 individuals participating in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition were included in the analyses. Data on weight and waist circumference were followed up for 6.9 ± 2.5 years. Association of 69 tagSNPs with baseline BMI and annual changes in weight as well as waist circumference were investigated using linear regression analysis. Interactions with sex, GI and intake of carbohydrates, fat as well as saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids were examined by including multiplicative SNP-covariate terms into the regression model. Neither baseline BMI nor annual weight or waist circumference changes were significantly associated with variation in the selected genes in the entire study population after correction for multiple testing. One SNP (rs1164) in LPIN2 appeared to be significantly interacting with sex (p = 0.0003) and was associated with greater annual weight gain in men (56.8 ± 23.7 g/year per allele, p = 0.02) than in women (-25.5 ± 19.8 g/year per allele, p = 0.2). With respect to gene-nutrient interaction, we could not detect any significant interactions when accounting for multiple testing. Therefore, out of our six candidate genes, LPIN2 may be considered as a candidate for further studies. PMID:24496996

  13. Xanthohumol lowers body weight and fasting plasma glucose in obese male Zucker fa/fa rats.

    PubMed

    Legette, Leecole L; Luna, Arlyn Y Moreno; Reed, Ralph L; Miranda, Cristobal L; Bobe, Gerd; Proteau, Rosita R; Stevens, Jan F

    2013-07-01

    Obesity contributes to increased risk for several chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Xanthohumol, a prenylated flavonoid from hops (Humulus lupulus), was tested for efficacy on biomarkers of metabolic syndrome in 4 week old Zucker fa/fa rats, a rodent model of obesity. Rats received daily oral doses of xanthohumol at 0, 1.86, 5.64, and 16.9 mg/kg BW for 6 weeks. All rats were maintained on a high fat (60% kcal) AIN-93G diet for 3 weeks to induce severe obesity followed by a normal AIN-93G (15% kcal fat) diet for the last 3 weeks of the study. Weekly food intake and body weight were recorded. Plasma cholesterol, glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels were assessed using commercial assay kits. Plasma and liver tissue levels of XN and its metabolites were determined by liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Plasma and liver tissue levels of xanthohumol were similar between low and medium dose groups and significantly (p<0.05) elevated in the highest dose group. There was a dose-dependent effect on body weight and plasma glucose levels. The highest dose group (n=6) had significantly lower plasma glucose levels compared to the control group (n=6) in male but not female rats. There was also a significant decrease in body weight for male rats in the highest dose group (16.9 mg/kg BW) compared to rats that received no xanthohumol, which was also not seen for female rats. Plasma cholesterol, insulin, triglycerides, and MCP-1 as well as food intake were not affected by treatment. The findings suggest that xanthohumol has beneficial effects on markers of metabolic syndrome. PMID:22640929

  14. GLP-1 receptor signaling is not required for reduced body weight after RYGB in rodents.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jianping; Hao, Zheng; Mumphrey, Michael B; Townsend, R Leigh; Patterson, Laurel M; Stylopoulos, Nicholas; Münzberg, Heike; Morrison, Christopher D; Drucker, Daniel J; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf

    2014-03-01

    Exaggerated GLP-1 and PYY secretion is thought to be a major mechanism in the reduced food intake and body weight after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Here, we use complementary pharmacological and genetic loss-of-function approaches to test the role of increased signaling by these gut hormones in high-fat diet-induced obese rodents. Chronic brain infusion of a supramaximal dose of the selective GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin-9-39 into the lateral cerebral ventricle significantly increased food intake and body weight in both RYGB and sham-operated rats, suggesting that, while contributing to the physiological control of food intake and body weight, central GLP-1 receptor signaling tone is not the critical mechanism uniquely responsible for the body weight-lowering effects of RYGB. Central infusion of the selective Y2R-antagonist BIIE0246 had no effect in either group, suggesting that it is not critical for the effects of RYGB on body weight under the conditions tested. In a recently established mouse model of RYGB that closely mimics surgery and weight loss dynamics in humans, obese GLP-1R-deficient mice lost the same amount of body weight and fat mass and maintained similarly lower body weight compared with wild-type mice. Together, the results surprisingly provide no support for important individual roles of either gut hormone in the specific mechanisms by which RYGB rats settle at a lower body weight. It is likely that the beneficial effects of bariatric surgeries are expressed through complex mechanisms that require combination approaches for their identification. PMID:24430883

  15. Evaluation of risk factors for body weight increment in psoriatic patients on infliximab: a multicentre, cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Mahé, E; Reguiai, Z; Barthelemy, H; Quiles-Tsimaratos, N; Chaby, G; Girard, C; Estčve, E; Maccari, F; Descamps, V; Schmutz, J-L; Begon, E; Bravard, P; Maillard, H; Boyé, T; Beauchet, A; Sigal, M-L

    2012-12-28

    Background? A significant weight gain has been reported in patients with psoriasis treated with anti-tumour necrosis factor-alpha agents. Among these patients, there are contradictory results about risk factors for weight gain. Objective? Assessing risk factors for weight increment in psoriatic patients on infliximab (IFX). Methods? This study was a 4-month, non-interventional, cross-sectional, multicentre study on adults with psoriasis performed in 19 French dermatological centres. All the patients who received IFX for at least 1?year were prospectively included, with retrospective analysis of data. Impact of sex, age, severity of the disease, cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities, and previous and simultaneous systemic treatments on weight changes, was analysed. Weight gain was defined as an increment of more than 2% of baseline weight. Results? Overall, 191 psoriatic patients (males: 68.6%; mean age: 46.9?years) were included. Mean weight gain was 1.6?kg (2.1%) after 1?year of IFX. Half (48.2%) suffered from a weight gain, and 9.9% from a weight increment of 10% or more. Baseline weight and Body Mass Index, and cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities did not influence weight. Men (P?=?0.007) and patients with severe psoriasis (BSA, P?=?0.005) had a tendency to put on weight. Patients with a hospital dietary follow-up (P?=?0.01; OR?=?0.36 [0.16-0.79]) and patients on methotrexate (P?=?0.03; OR?=?0.41 [0.18-0.93]) during IFX treatment are thinner, in a multivariate analysis. Conclusion? Severe weight increment is frequent on IFX treatment, mainly in men, and patients with severe psoriasis. Dietary follow-up or simultaneous use of methotrexate could limit this weight increment. PMID:23279264

  16. Pre-ESRD Changes in Body Weight and Survival in Nursing Home Residents Starting Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Stack, Shobha; Chertow, Glenn M.; Johansen, Kirsten L.; Si, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Among patients receiving maintenance dialysis, weight loss at any body mass index is associated with mortality. However, it is not known whether weight changes before dialysis initiation are associated with mortality and if so, what risks are associated with weight gain or loss. Design, setting, participants, and measurements Linking data from the US Renal Data System to a national registry of nursing home residents, this study identified 11,090 patients who started dialysis between January of 2000 and December of 2006. Patients were categorized according to weight measured between 3 and 6 months before dialysis initiation and the percentage change in body weight before dialysis initiation (divided into quintiles). The outcome was mortality within 1 year of starting dialysis. Results There were 361 patients (3.3%) who were underweight (Quételet’s [body mass] index<18.5 kg/m2) and 4046 patients (36.5%) who were obese (body mass index?30 kg/m2) before dialysis initiation. The median percentage change in body weight before dialysis initiation was ?6% (interquartile range=?13% to 1%). There were 6063 deaths (54.7%) over 1 year of follow-up. Compared with patients with minimal weight changes (?3% to 3%, quintile 4), patients with weight loss ?15% (quintile 1) had 35% higher risk for mortality (95% confidence interval, 1.25 to 1.47), whereas those patients with weight gain?4% (quintile 5) had a 24% higher risk for mortality (95% confidence interval, 1.14 to 1.35) adjusted for baseline body mass index and other confounders. Conclusions Among nursing home residents, changes in body weight in advance of dialysis initiation are associated with significantly higher 1-year mortality. PMID:24009221

  17. Effects of acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria on body weight in children in an endemic area.

    PubMed

    Sowunmi, Akintunde; Gbotosho, Grace O; Adedeji, Ahmed A; Fateye, Babasola A; Sabitu, Morenikeji F; Happi, Christian T; Fehintola, Fatai A

    2007-07-01

    The impacts of acute falciparum malaria on body weight and the host and parasite factors predictive of change in body weight were characterized in 465 prospectively studied children in an endemic area of southwest Nigeria. Pre-treatment weights were significantly lower than the 14 to 28-day post-treatment weights (P = 0.0001). In 187 children, fractional fall in body weight (FFBW) exceeded 4.9%. FFBW correlated negatively with age and body weight (P = 0.014 and 0.0001, respectively), but not with enrollment parasitaemia. In a multiple regression model, an age < or =5 years (AOR = 2.03, 95% CI 1.2-3.2, P = 0.003), a hematocrit < or =29% (AOR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.0-2.3, P = 0.037), and a body weight < or =9.6 kg (AOR = 5.4, 95% CI 1.7-20, P = 0.003) were independent predictors of FFBW > or =5% at presentation. Children who, after initial clearance, had recurrence of their parasitaemia within 28 days had a significantly higher propensity not to gain weight than children who were aparasitaemic after treatment (log-rank statistic 6.76, df = 1, P = 0.009). These results indicate that acute malaria contribute to sub-optimal growth in young children and may have implications for malaria control efforts in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:17323138

  18. The age of attaining highest body weight correlates with lifespan in a genetically obese mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Wagener, A; Müller, U; Brockmann, G A

    2013-01-01

    Obesity has been associated with a higher risk of mortality, whereas caloric restriction reduces the risk. In this study, we examined how body weight development during life affects lifespan in a mouse model for obesity. Therefore, mice of the Berlin Fat Mouse Inbred line were set on either a standard or a high-fat diet (HFD). Median lifespans of standard diet-fed mice were 525 and 539 days for males and female animals, respectively. HFD feeding further decreased lifespan by increasing the risk of mortality. Our data provide evidence that the highest body weight reached in lifetime has only a minor effect on lifespan. More important is the age when the highest body weight is reached, which was positively correlated with lifespan (r=0.77, P<0.0001). Likewise, the daily gain of body weight was negatively correlated with the age of death (r=?0.76, P<0.0001). These data indicate that rapid weight gain in early life followed by rapid weight loss affect lifespan more than the body weight itself. These data suggest that intervention strategies to prevent rapid weight gain are of high impact for a long lifespan. PMID:23507966

  19. Changes in body segment inertial parameters of obese individuals with weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Matrangola, Sara L.; Madigan, Michael L.; Nussbaum, Maury A.; Ross, Robert; Davy, Kevin P.

    2008-01-01

    Forward dynamic simulation of human movement has the potential to investigate the biomechanical effects of weight loss in obese individuals. However, guidelines for altering body segment inertial parameters (BSIPs) of a biomechanical model to approximate changes that occur with weight loss are currently unavailable. Therefore, the goal of this study was to quantify three-dimensional changes in BSIPs with weight loss. Nineteen Caucasian men of age 43.6 ± 7.5 years (mean ± standard deviation) were evaluated. Body mass and body mass index prior to weight loss were 102.7 ± 3.6 kg and 32.6 ± 3.2 kg/m2, respectively. Both before and after weight loss, magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired along the length of the body to discriminate muscle, bone, organ, and adipose tissues. Segment masses, center of mass (COM) positions, and radii of gyration were determined from these scans using published tissue densities and established methods. A number of significant changes in BSIPs occurred with the 13.8 ± 2.4 % average weight loss. Mass decreased in all segments. COM position moved distally for the thigh and upper arm, superiorly for the trunk, and inferiorly for the whole body. Radius of gyration, in general, decreased in all segments. The changes in BSIPs with weight loss reported here could be used in forward dynamic simulations investigating the biomechanical implications of weight loss. PMID:18930231

  20. Perceived stress and freshman weight change: the moderating role of baseline body mass index.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Jessica A; Kuijer, Roeline G

    2015-02-01

    The transition from high-school to university is a critical period of weight change. Popular media suggest that freshman students gain 15 lb (6.80 kg) of body weight during their first year at university (i.e., the freshman 15). In contrast, a recent meta-analysis calculated freshman weight gain to be 1.75 kg, with statistics suggesting that only a proportion of freshman students are prone to gain weight. Researchers are beginning to investigate how certain variables and interactions between such variables predict freshman weight status. The current study focused on body mass index (BMI) and psychological stress. In isolation, previous research has tested how these two variables predict freshman student's weight status. However, because BMI and stress interact to predict weight gain and weight loss in adult samples, the current study tested the interaction between student's baseline BMI and baseline stress levels to predict weight change in a New Zealand sample of freshman students (N=65). Participants completed two separate online surveys in March and October 2012 (i.e., New Zealand's academic year). Although only three students gained over 6.80 kg (i.e., the freshman 15), participants did gain a statistically significant 1.10 kg of body weight during the year. Consistent with previous research, students with a higher baseline BMI gained a higher amount of body weight. However, this main effect was qualified by an interaction between stress and BMI. Students who entered university with high levels of stress gained weight if they also had high BMIs; if they had lower BMIs then they lost weight. In order to reduce unhealthy levels of freshman weight change, vulnerable students need to be taught stress-reduction techniques and coping strategies early in the academic year. PMID:25484356

  1. Long-Lasting Improvements in Liver Fat and Metabolism Despite Body Weight Regain After Dietary Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Haufe, Sven; Haas, Verena; Utz, Wolfgang; Birkenfeld, Andreas L.; Jeran, Stephanie; Böhnke, Jana; Mähler, Anja; Luft, Friedrich C.; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Boschmann, Michael; Jordan, Jens; Engeli, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Weight loss reduces abdominal and intrahepatic fat, thereby improving metabolic and cardiovascular risk. Yet, many patients regain weight after successful diet-induced weight loss. Long-term changes in abdominal and liver fat, along with liver test results and insulin resistance, are not known. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed 50 overweight to obese subjects (46 ± 9 years of age; BMI, 32.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2; women, 77%) who had participated in a 6-month hypocaloric diet and were randomized to either reduced carbohydrates or reduced fat content. Before, directly after diet, and at an average of 24 (range, 17–36) months follow-up, we assessed body fat distribution by magnetic resonance imaging and markers of liver function and insulin resistance. RESULTS Body weight decreased with diet but had increased again at follow-up. Subjects also partially regained abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. In contrast, intrahepatic fat decreased with diet and remained reduced at follow-up (7.8 ± 9.8% [baseline], 4.5 ± 5.9% [6 months], and 4.7 ± 5.9% [follow-up]). Similar patterns were observed for markers of liver function, whole-body insulin sensitivity, and hepatic insulin resistance. Changes in intrahepatic fat und intrahepatic function were independent of macronutrient composition during intervention and were most effective in subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease at baseline. CONCLUSIONS A 6-month hypocaloric diet induced improvements in hepatic fat, liver test results, and insulin resistance despite regaining of weight up to 2 years after the active intervention. Body weight and adiposity measurements may underestimate beneficial long-term effects of dietary interventions. PMID:23963894

  2. Effect of laser acupoint treatment on blood pressure and body weight—a pilot study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Zhang; Nelson Marquina; George Oxinos; Amy Sau; Derek Ng

    2008-01-01

    ObjectiveThis study reports on the effects of laser acupuncture on blood pressure, body weight, and heart rate variability by stimulating acupuncture points and meridians on college students and faculty members.

  3. The effect of perceived body weight on suicidal ideation among a representative sample of US adolescents.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Lee, Chung Gun

    2013-10-01

    There is no published report on the sex differences in the prospective influence of perceived body weight on suicidal ideation in adolescents. To examine sex differences in the longitudinal relationship between perceived body weight and suicidal ideation among a representative sample of US middle and high school students. Two waves of longitudinal data from 7th-12th grade US adolescents (N = 4,717) in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were analyzed using hierarchical multivariable logistic regression for suicidal ideation 1 year after perceived body weight was measured. Overweight perception significantly increased the risk for suicidal ideation in girls (adjusted odds ratio in the full model = 1.41, p < .05) but not in boys after controlling for previously well-documented risk factors of suicidal ideation. Overweight perception appears to increase the risk for suicidal ideation in girls. It is important to address perceived body weight among girls in suicide prevention interventions. PMID:22760452

  4. Individual Effects of Estradiol and Progesterone on Food Intake and Body Weight in Ovariectomized Binge Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhiping; Geary, Nori; Corwin, Rebecca L.

    2011-01-01

    The individual roles of estradiol (E) and progesterone (P) in the control of food intake and body weight in ovariectomized (OVX) rats were investigated. Six groups of OVX Sprague-Dawley rats (n=9/group) were assigned to one of three 4-day cyclic hormone treatments: two groups were treated with E benzoate; two groups were treated with P; two groups were treated with both (EP). All rats had continuous access to chow and water throughout this 4-week study. One group of rats within each hormone treatment condition was fed chow ad libitum, and the second was subjected to a binge schedule: chow ad libitum plus 1-h access to an optional fat source on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. A seventh OVX group (n = 8) received the oil vehicle and chow. This group was included to monitor body weight and to verify hormone efficacy. The main findings were: (1) relative to rats receiving only P, E alone or EP attenuated 24-h chow intake tonically and cyclically, i.e. intake on Day 4, which models estrus, was lower in E and EP than in P, and also was lower than intake on Day 2, which models diestrus. In contrast, (2) neither E nor EP detectably affected optional fat intake during the 1-h fat access period relative to rats receiving only P when data were collapsed across the entire study. However, (3) E and EP had large effects on fat intake relative to P during the 1-h fat access period at the start of the study, but not at the end, when bingeing was fully established. (4) E and EP led to lower and apparently normal levels of body weight compared to rats receiving only the oil vehicle or only P. These results indicate that (1) administration of E alone has similar effects as co-administration of E and P on feeding and body weight in rats bingeing on fat, (2) with or without P, the inhibitory effects of E on meal size are compromised when bingeing on fat, and (3) the effects of E on binge size change dynamically as bingeing develops. PMID:21801735

  5. Body weight-for-height relationships predict mortality in maintenance hemodialysis patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel D. Kopple; Xiaofei Zhu; Nancy L. Lew; Edmund G. Lowrie

    1999-01-01

    Body weight-for-height relationships predict mortality in maintenance hemodialysis patients.BackgroundProtein-energy malnutrition is a strong predictor of mortality in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. This association has generally been described for serum chemistry measures of protein-energy malnutrition. We hypothesized that body weight-for-height relationships also predict survival in MHD patients.MethodsDuring the last three months of 1993, data were obtained on 12,965 men and women

  6. A system for the automated recording of feeding behavior and body weight.

    PubMed

    Boisvert, M J; Sherry, D F

    A method that uses passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags for the continuous recording of feeding behavior and body weight from multiple individual animals is described. We have used this method in the field and in semi-natural captive conditions with black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) to determine daily and seasonal patterns in body weight and to estimate the proportions of food cached and consumed. PMID:11134696

  7. Some effects of ovarian hormones on food intake and body weight in female rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George N. Wade

    1975-01-01

    Conducted 3 experiments with a total of 63 ovariectomized and 41 ovariectomized-adrenalectomized Sprague-Dawley rats in which ovarian steroids affected food intake and body weight. These effects were probably mediated by estradiol and progesterone, since these 2 hormones were more effective than their principal metabolites (estrone 5a-pregnane-3,20-dione, 5ai0regnane-3,20-dione, respectively) in altering the food intake and body weight of ovariectomized Ss. Estradiol

  8. Inherited Taste Sensitivity to 6-n-Propylthiouracil in Diet and Body Weight in Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathleen L. Keller; Beverly J. Tepper

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Negative associations between the inherited ability to taste the bitter compound 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) and preference for fat and body weight have been observed in adults. This study tested the relationships among the ability to taste PROP, reported food intake, and body weight in young children.Research Methods and Procedures: Fifty-three 4- to 5-year-old children were classified as tasters (N =

  9. Genetics of body weight in the LXS recombinant inbred mouse strains

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Beth [University of Colorado, Boulder; Carosone-Line, Phyllis [University of Colorado, Boulder; Lu, Lu [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL; Johnson, Thomas [University of Colorado, Boulder

    2005-01-01

    This is the first phenotypic analysis of 75 new recombinant inbred (RI) strains derived from ILS and ISS progenitors. We analyzed body weight in two independent cohorts of female mice at various ages and in males at 60 days. Body weight is a complex trait which has been mapped in numerous crosses in rodents. The LXS RI strains displayed a large range of weights, transgressing those of the inbred progenitors, supporting the utility of this large panel for mapping traits not selected in the progenitors. Numerous QTLs for body weight mapped in singleand multilocus scans. We assessed replication between these and previously reported QTLs based on overlapping confidence intervals of published QTLs for body weight at 60 days and used meta-analyses to determine combined p values for three QTL regions located on Chromosomes 4, 5, and 11. Strain distribution patterns of microsatellite marker genotypes, weight, and other phenotypes are available on Web- QTL (http://www.webqtl.org/search.html) and allow genetic mapping of any heritable quantitative phenotype measured in these strains. We report one such analysis, correlating brain and body weights. Large reference panels of RI strains, such as the LXS, are invaluable for identifying genetic correlations, GXE (Gene X Environment) interactions, and replicating previously identified QTLs.

  10. The skinny on cocaine: Insights into eating behavior and body weight in cocaine-dependent men????

    PubMed Central

    Ersche, Karen D.; Stochl, Jan; Woodward, Jeremy M.; Fletcher, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    There is a general assumption that weight loss associated with cocaine use reflects its appetite suppressing properties. We sought to determine whether this was justified by characterizing, in detail, alterations in dietary food intake and body composition in actively using cocaine-dependent individuals. We conducted a cross-sectional case-control comparison of 65 male volunteers from the local community, half of whom satisfied the DSM-IV-TR criteria for cocaine dependence (n = 35) while the other half had no personal or family history of a psychiatric disorder, including substance abuse (n = 30). Assessments were made of eating behavior and dietary food intake, estimation of body composition, and measurement of plasma leptin. Although cocaine users reported significantly higher levels of dietary fat and carbohydrates as well as patterns of uncontrolled eating, their fat mass was significantly reduced compared with their non-drug using peers. Levels of leptin were associated with fat mass, and with the duration of stimulant use. Tobacco smoking status or concomitant use of medication did not affect the significance of the results. Weight changes in cocaine users reflect fundamental perturbations in fat regulation. These are likely to be overlooked in clinical practice but may produce significant health problems when cocaine use is discontinued during recovery. PMID:23920064

  11. Appetite and body weight regulation after bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Münzberg, H; Laque, A; Yu, S; Rezai-Zadeh, K; Berthoud, H-R

    2015-02-01

    Bariatric surgery continues to be remarkably efficient in treating obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus and a debate has started whether it should remain the last resort only or also be used for the prevention of metabolic diseases. Intense research efforts in humans and rodent models are underway to identify the critical mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects with a view towards non-surgical treatment options. This non-systematic review summarizes and interprets some of this literature, with an emphasis on changes in the controls of appetite. Contrary to earlier views, surgery-induced reduction of energy intake and subsequent weight loss appear to be the main drivers for rapid improvements of glycaemic control. The mechanisms responsible for suppression of appetite, particularly in the face of the large weight loss, are not well understood. Although a number of changes in food choice, taste functions, hedonic evaluation, motivation and self-control have been documented in both humans and rodents after surgery, their importance and relative contribution to diminished appetite has not yet been demonstrated. Furthermore, none of the major candidate mechanisms postulated in mediating surgery-induced changes from the gut and other organs to the brain, such as gut hormones and sensory neuronal pathways, have been confirmed yet. Future research efforts should focus on interventional rather than descriptive approaches in both humans and rodent models. PMID:25614206

  12. A 20-year longitudinal study of body weight, dieting, and eating disorder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Keel, Pamela K; Baxter, Mark G; Heatherton, Todd F; Joiner, Thomas E

    2007-05-01

    The article describes a 20-year longitudinal study of body weight, dieting, and disordered eating in women and men. Body weight increased significantly over time in both women and men. However, women's weight perception and dieting frequency decreased over time, whereas men's weight perception and dieting frequency increased, and disordered eating declined more in women than in men from late adolescence to midlife. In both women and men, changes in weight perception and dieting frequency were associated with changes in disordered eating. In addition, adult roles such as marriage and parenthood were associated with significant decreases in disordered eating from late adolescence to midlife in women, whereas few associations were observed in men. Despite different developmental trajectories, women demonstrated more weight dissatisfaction, dieting, and disordered eating compared with men across the period of observation. PMID:17516772

  13. Predicting metabolic adaptation, body weight change, and energy intake in humans

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Complex interactions between carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism underlie the body's remarkable ability to adapt to a variety of diets. But any imbalances between the intake and utilization rates of these macronutrients will result in changes in body weight and composition. Here, I present the first computational model that simulates how diet perturbations result in adaptations of fuel selection and energy expenditure that predict body weight and composition changes in both obese and nonobese men and women. No model parameters were adjusted to fit these data other than the initial conditions for each subject group (e.g., initial body weight and body fat mass). The model provides the first realistic simulations of how diet perturbations result in adaptations of whole body energy expenditure, fuel selection, and various metabolic fluxes that ultimately give rise to body weight change. The validated model was used to estimate free-living energy intake during a long-term weight loss intervention, a variable that has never previously been measured accurately. PMID:19934407

  14. Meal Patterns and Frequencies: Do They Affect Body Weight in Children and Adolescents?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Berthold Koletzko; André Michael Toschke

    2010-01-01

    Some previous studies reported a higher meal frequency associated with a lower body weight both in obese and in normal weight adults. We review recent studies addressing the relation between meal frequency and obesity risk in children and adolescents. In a Medline search, we identified 5 observational studies published between 2004 and 2009 that reviewed data on a total of

  15. The effect of the holiday season on body weight and composition in college students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Holly R Hull; Casey N Hester; David A Fields

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With the rapid increase in obesity rates, determining critical periods for weight gain and the effects of changes in fat mass is imperative. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in body weight and composition over the holiday season (Thanksgiving through New Year's) in male and female college students. METHODS: Subjects completed three visits: the first occurred

  16. Low-Fat Dairy Intake and Body Weight and Composition Changes in College Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kavita H. Poddar; Kathy W. Hosig; Sharon M. Nickols-Richardson; Eileen S. Anderson; William G. Herbert; Susan E. Duncan

    2009-01-01

    Dairy calcium may help prevent excess weight gain and obesity when consumed in adequate amounts (three or more servings per day) and combined with energy balance. This prospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate dairy intake and examine the association between low-fat dairy intake and body weight and composition changes in college students. Seventy-six college students (65 women and 11

  17. Developmental Coordination Disorder, Gender, and Body Weight: Examining the Impact of Participation in Active Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cairney, John; Kwan, Matthew Y. W.; Hay, John A.; Faught, Brent E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To examine whether differences in participation in active play (PAP) can account for gender differences in the relationship between Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and body weight/fat (BMI and percentage fat) in youth. Methods: A cross-sectional investigation of students in grades four through eight (n = 590). Height, weight

  18. Adverse events of herbal food supplements for body weight reduction: systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Pittler; K. Schmidt; E. Ernst

    2005-01-01

    Summary Herbal weight-loss supplements are marketed with claims of effectiveness. Our earlier systematic review identified data from double-blind, randomized controlled trials for a number of herbal supplements. The aim of this systematic review was to assess all clinical evidence of adverse events of herbal food supplements for body weight reduction for which effectiveness data from rigorous clinical trials exist. We

  19. Body Salience, Weight-Role Knowledge-Flexibility and Peer Affiliations between the Ages of Three and Eight Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Donna

    Studies were made of (1) young children's use of body-weight type for processing information about peers, and (2) the development of children's stereotypical knowledge about characteristics associated with body-weight type. For the first study, a measure was developed to assess "body salience," or the degree to which children use weight type as a…

  20. Weaning weight inheritance in environments classified by maternal body weight change.

    PubMed

    Speidel, S E; Enns, R M; Garrick, D J

    2007-03-01

    In good environments, cow intake is sufficient for their own growth and for milk production to support their calf. In poor environments, cows lose BW or may reduce milk supply to maintain themselves. Heritability for direct genetic and maternal components of weaning weight as well as the correlations between these components might be expected to vary according to these circumstances. The purpose of this study was to estimate heritability and genetic correlations for the direct genetic and maternal components of weaning weight classified in 2 environments according to maternal BW gain and to identify whether a single heritability estimate is appropriate for the differing environments experienced by cows from year to year. Data used in this analysis was obtained from the Red Angus Association of America and consisted of 96,064 cow BW observations and 27,534 calf weaning weight observations. A dam's change in BW from one year to the next was used to classify each calf's weaning weight into 1 of 2 environmental groups, those being good or poor. Best linear unbiased estimates of the change in cow BW with age were obtained from analysis of cow BW using a repeatability model. If the phenotypic change in cow BW exceeded this average BW change, the calf's weaning weight associated with the end of this time frame was classified as having been observed in a good environment. If not, the calf's corresponding weaning weight was classified as having occurred in a poorer than average environment. Heritability estimates of 0.24 +/- 0.03, 0.24 +/- 0.03, 0.13 +/- 0.02, and 0.14 +/- 0.02 were obtained for weaning weight good direct, poor direct, good maternal, and poor maternal, respectively. Correlations between direct genetic and maternal weaning weight components in the good and poor environments were -0.47 +/- 0.08 and -0.20 +/- 0.09, respectively. These variance components are not sufficiently distinct to warrant accounting for dam nutritional environment in national cattle evaluation. PMID:17085734

  1. A Longitudinal Analysis of Adolescent Smoking: Using Smoking Status to Differentiate the Influence of Body Weight Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Traci; Johnson, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous research has reported mixed results on the association between body weight measures (ie, perception of weight and weight loss goal) and cigarette smoking prevalence--and how these associations vary by sex and race. This longitudinal study assessed the relationship between these 2 body weight measures and smoking prevalence by…

  2. Effect of body composition on oxygen uptake during treadmill exercise: body builders versus weight-matched men.

    PubMed

    McInnis, K J; Balady, G J

    1999-06-01

    Oxygen uptake (VO2) during treadmill exercise is directly related to the speed and grade, as well as the participant's body weight. To determine whether body composition also affects VO2 (ml.kg-1.min-1) during exercise, we studied 14 male body builders (M weight = 99 kg, SD = 7; M height = 180 cm, SD = 8; M body fat = 8%, SD = 3; M fat free mass = 91 kg, SD = 7) and 14 weight-matched men (M weight = 99 kg, SD = 9; M height = 179 cm, SD = 5; M body fat = 24%, SD = 5; M fat free mass = 73 kg, SD = 9). Percentage of body fat, t(13) = 8.185, p < .0001, and fat free mass, t(13) = 5.723, p < .0001, were significantly different between groups. VO2 was measured by respiratory gas analysis at rest and during three different submaximal workrates while walking on the treadmill without using the handrails for support. VO2 was significantly greater for the lean, highly muscular men at rest: 5.6 +/- 1 vs. 4.0 +/- 1 ml.kg-1.min-1, F(1, 26) = 21.185, p < .001; Stage 1: 1.7 mph/10%, 18.5 +/- 2 vs. 16.1 +/- 2 ml.kg-1.min-1, F(1, 26) = 6.002, p < .05; Stage 2: 2.5 mph/12%, 26.6 +/- 3 vs. 23.1 +/- 2 ml.kg-1.min-1, F(1, 26) = 7.991, p < .01; and Stage 3:3.4 mph/14%, 39.3 +/- 5 vs. 33.5 +/- 5 ml.kg-1.min-1, F(1, 26) = 7.682, p < .01, body builders versus weight-matched men, respectively. However, net VO2 (i.e., exercise VO2 - rest VO2) was not significantly different between the two groups at any of the matched exercise stages. The findings from this study indicate that VO2 during weight-bearing exercise performed at the same submaximal workrate is higher for male body builders compared to that measured in weight-matched men and that which is predicted by standard equations. These observed differences in exercise VO2 appear to be due to the higher resting VO2 in highly muscular participants. PMID:10380246

  3. Critical periods for the effects of alcohol exposure on brain weight, body weight, activity and investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tuan D. Tran; Kim Cronise; Melissa D. Marino; William J. Jenkins; Sandra J. Kelly

    2000-01-01

    Using an animal model of fetal alcohol syndrome — which equates peak blood alcohol concentrations across different developmental periods — critical periods for the effect of alcohol on brain weight, activity and investigative behavior were examined. The periods of alcohol exposure were from gestational day (GD) 1 through 10, GD 11 through 22, postnatal day (PD) 2 through 10, or

  4. A genetic investigation of body weight, market grade, breast width, fertility, and hatchability in broiler crosses

    E-print Network

    Williams, John Donald

    1957-01-01

    SPring on dam??? r ~ ? ~ Estimates of the genetio and environmental oorrelatioLLS between nine-week body woi, ght, market gradeL fertility, and hatehability, Tho phonotypio association of nine week erose progeny body weight of the males with Various... traits in tho F4 e ~ ? ~ ~ ??? ~ ~ The phonotypio assooiation of xdne weak erose progeny body ?eight of the femaloa. ?ith various traits in tho dam ~ ~ ~ ? ~ ? ~ ~ ~ The phenotypic association of nine week cross progeny market grade of the males...

  5. Calcium supplementation for 1 y does not reduce body weight or fat mass in young girls1-3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janne K Lorenzen; Christian Mřlgaard; Kim F Michaelsen; Arne Astrup

    Background: Accumulating evidence from observational studies indicates that a high calcium intake may reduce body weight and body fat. However, few randomized trials have been conducted. Objective: We examined whether calcium supplementation affects bodyweightandbodyfatinyounggirlsandwhetherarelationexists between habitual calcium intake and body weight and body fat. Design: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled interven- tion study was conducted in 110 young girls. The subjects

  6. Systems genetics analysis of body weight and energy metabolism traits in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Obesity and phenotypic traits associated with this condition exhibit significant heritability in natural populations of most organisms. While a number of genes and genetic pathways have been implicated to play a role in obesity associated traits, the genetic architecture that underlies the natural variation in these traits is largely unknown. Here, we used 40 wild-derived inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster to quantify genetic variation in body weight, the content of three major metabolites (glycogen, triacylglycerol, and glycerol) associated with obesity, and metabolic rate in young flies. We chose these lines because they were previously screened for variation in whole-genome transcript abundance and in several adult life-history traits, including longevity, resistance to starvation stress, chill-coma recovery, mating behavior, and competitive fitness. This enabled us not only to identify candidate genes and transcriptional networks that might explain variation for energy metabolism traits, but also to investigate the genetic interrelationships among energy metabolism, behavioral, and life-history traits that have evolved in natural populations. Results We found significant genetically based variation in all traits. Using a genome-wide association screen for single feature polymorphisms and quantitative trait transcripts, we identified 337, 211, 237, 553, and 152 novel candidate genes associated with body weight, glycogen content, triacylglycerol storage, glycerol levels, and metabolic rate, respectively. Weighted gene co-expression analyses grouped transcripts associated with each trait in significant modules of co-expressed genes and we interpreted these modules in terms of their gene enrichment based on Gene Ontology analysis. Comparison of gene co-expression modules for traits in this study with previously determined modules for life-history traits identified significant modular pleiotropy between glycogen content, body weight, competitive fitness, and starvation resistance. Conclusions Combining a large phenotypic dataset with information on variation in genome wide transcriptional profiles has provided insight into the complex genetic architecture underlying natural variation in traits that have been associated with obesity. Our findings suggest that understanding the maintenance of genetic variation in metabolic traits in natural populations may require that we understand more fully the degree to which these traits are genetically correlated with other traits, especially those directly affecting fitness. PMID:20459830

  7. Body weight and some biometrical traits of ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) at different ages.

    PubMed

    Górecki, Marcin T; Nowaczewski, Sebastian; Kontecka, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Although the growth of pheasants is an important issue, there are few publications providing information on body weight and morphometrics of pheasants at different ages. The aim of this study was to investigate body weight, tarsus length, wing length and wingspan in farmed pheasants aged 3-16 weeks. The study was carried out on 50 pheasants (31 females and 19 males). All one-day old birds were marked and kept until the 16th week of life. In the 3rd 8 h 12th and 16th weeks of life all pheasants were weighted and tarsus length, wing length and wingspan were measured. Male chicks appeared to be significantly heavier than females (P< or = 0.01) already in the third week of life. Also their wings were longer and their wingspan attained higher values (P < or = 0.05). Absolute gains of the majority of traits also differed between sexes (being larger in males) in all studied periods. Values of body weight, tarsus length and wingspan noted in the third week of life were significantly correlated with all later measurements. Thus body weight and some biometrical traits of pheasant chicks measured already at the 3rd week of life could be applied as predictors of future body weight and size. PMID:22428312

  8. Short and long-term energy intake patterns and their implications for human body weight regulation.

    PubMed

    Chow, Carson C; Hall, Kevin D

    2014-07-01

    Adults consume millions of kilocalories over the course of a few years, but the typical weight gain amounts to only a few thousand kilocalories of stored energy. Furthermore, food intake is highly variable from day to day and yet body weight is remarkably stable. These facts have been used as evidence to support the hypothesis that human body weight is regulated by active control of food intake operating on both short and long time scales. Here, we demonstrate that active control of human food intake on short time scales is not required for body weight stability and that the current evidence for long term control of food intake is equivocal. To provide more data on this issue, we emphasize the urgent need for developing new methods for accurately measuring energy intake changes over long time scales. We propose that repeated body weight measurements can be used along with mathematical modeling to calculate long-term changes in energy intake and thereby quantify adherence to a diet intervention and provide dynamic feedback to individuals that seek to control their body weight. PMID:24582679

  9. Quinine controls body weight gain without affecting food intake in male C57BL6 mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Quinine is a natural molecule commonly used as a flavouring agent in tonic water. Diet supplementation with quinine leads to decreased body weight and food intake in rats. Quinine is an in vitro inhibitor of Trpm5, a cation channel expressed in taste bud cells, the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. The objective of this work is to determine the effect of diet supplementation with quinine on body weight and body composition in male mice, to investigate its mechanism of action, and whether the effect is mediated through Trpm5. Results Compared with mice consuming AIN, a regular balanced diet, mice consuming AIN diet supplemented with 0.1% quinine gained less weight (2.89?±?0.30?g vs 5.39?±?0.50?g) and less fat mass (2.22?±?0.26?g vs 4.33?±?0.43?g) after 13?weeks of diet, and had lower blood glucose and plasma triglycerides. There was no difference in food intake between the mice consuming quinine supplemented diet and those consuming control diet. Trpm5 knockout mice gained less fat mass than wild-type mice. There was a trend for a diet-genotype interaction for body weight and body weight gain, with the effect of quinine less pronounced in the Trpm5 KO than in the WT background. Faecal weight, energy and lipid contents were higher in quinine fed mice compared to regular AIN fed mice and in Trpm5 KO mice compared to wild type mice. Conclusion Quinine contributes to weight control in male C57BL6 mice without affecting food intake. A partial contribution of Trpm5 to quinine dependent body weight control is suggested. PMID:23394313

  10. Targeted leptin receptor blockade: Role of VTA and NTS leptin receptors in body weight homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Matheny, M.; Strehler, K.Y.E.; King, M.; Tümer, N.; Scarpace, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation examined whether leptin stimulation of ventral tegmental area (VTA) or nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) has a role in body weight homeostasis independent of the medial basal hypothalamus (MBH). To this end, recombinant adeno-associated viral techniques were employed to target leptin overexpression or overexpression of a dominant negative leptin mutant (Leptin Antagonist). Leptin Antagonist overexpression in MBH or VTA increased food intake and body weight to similar extents over 14 days in rats. Simultaneous overexpression of leptin in VTA with antagonist in MBH resulted in food intake and body weight gain that were less than with control treatment but greater than with leptin alone in VTA. Notably, leptin overexpression in VTA increased P-STAT3 in MBH along with VTA, and Leptin Antagonist overexpression in the VTA partially attenuated P-STAT3 levels in MBH. Interestingly, leptin antagonist overexpression elevated body weight gain, but leptin overexpression in the NTS failed to modulate either food intake or body weight despite increased P-STAT3. These data suggest that leptin function in the VTA participates in the chronic regulation of food consumption and body weight in response to stimulation or blockade of VTA leptin receptors. Moreover, one component of VTA-leptin action appears to be independent of the MBH, and another component appears to be related to leptin receptor-mediated P-STAT3 activation in the MBH. Finally, leptin receptors in the NTS are necessary for normal energy homeostasis, but appear to have mostly a permissive role. Direct leptin activation of NTS slightly increases UCP1, but has little effect on food consumption or body weight. PMID:24920667

  11. Body image and weight preoccupation: a comparison between exercising and non-exercising women.

    PubMed

    Davis, C

    1990-08-01

    Relationships were examined among certain personality characteristics and variables which assess weight, diet, and appearance concerns for two groups of women--those who were avid exercisers (n = 86) and those who exercised only occasionally or not at all (n = 72). Multiple regression analyses indicated that emotional reactivity (measured by the N scale of the Eysenck Personality Inventory) was strongly related to weight preoccupation (measured by three subscales of the Eating Disorder Inventory) in both groups. Body Mass Index (BMI), but not a measure of subjective body shape, also predicted weight preoccupation for the non-exercisers while the opposite relationship was found for exercisers. In this group, subjective body shape and not BMI influenced weight preoccupation. It was also found that greater body dissatisfaction was related to poorer emotional well-being in the exercise group, and these women reported, to a significantly greater degree than non-exercisers, that their physical appearance was important to their self-esteem. It is possible that an excessive preoccupation with diet and body shape leads some women to take up a vigorous exercise program. However, the absence of differences in weight preoccupation between the groups argues against this. A possibility that has seldom been considered in the literature is that dedication to regular exercise fosters a heightened degree of body narcissism and a distorted impression of one's body size. A focus of attention in an exercise program on the relationship between body size and maximal performance may, in susceptible individuals, increase the likelihood of developing an obsessive attitude toward weight control. PMID:2241138

  12. The association of gut microbiota with body weight and body mass index in preschool children of Estonia

    PubMed Central

    Sepp, Epp; Lőivukene, Krista; Julge, Kaja; Voor, Tiia; Mikelsaar, Marika

    2013-01-01

    Background The gut microbiota has been shown to affect both fat storage and energy harvesting, suggesting that it plays a direct role in the development of obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether intestinal colonization by particular species/groups of the intestinal microbiota is related to body weight values in Estonian preschool children born in different years during the entire 1990s. Methods Body weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and quantitative composition of cultivable gut microbiota (staphylococci, enterococci, streptococci, enterobacteria, lactobacilli, anaerobic gram-positive cocci, bifidobacteria, eubacteria, bacteroides, clostridia, and candida) were studied in 51 healthy 5-year-old children (40 were born between 1993 and 94 and 11 were born between 1996 and 97). Results At the age of 5 years, median weight was 19.5 kg and median BMI was 15.3 kg/m2. Significantly higher BMI (p=0.006) was found in 5-year-old children born in late versus early 1990s during the development of socioeconomic situation of Estonia (2% rise in gross domestic product). The counts of the different gut bacteria did not show any association with weight and BMI in the 5-year-old children. However, the BMI values were in positive correlation with a relative share of anaerobic gram-positive bacteria, for example, bifidobacteria when adjusted for sex and year of birth (adj R2=0.459, p=0.026) and eubacteria (adj R2=0.484, p=0.014) in the community of cultured intestinal microbiota. The relative share of bacteroides showed a negative correlation with the childrens’ weight (adj R2=? 0.481, p=0.015). Conclusion The body weight indices of preschool children of the general population are associated with the proportion of anaerobic intestinal microbiota and can be predicted by sex and particular socioeconomic situation from birth to 5 years of age. PMID:24009544

  13. Online communication about genetics and body weight: implications for health behavior and internet-based education.

    PubMed

    Persky, Susan; Sanderson, Saskia C; Koehly, Laura M

    2013-01-01

    Social media, specifically online weight loss message board communities, may become an important conduit for information about genetics and body weight. This information has the capacity to influence individuals as it is naturally encountered online, or it could be strategically disseminated for public health purposes. However, little is known about how the public engages with information that they encounter related to genetic underpinnings of body weight, or how their interpretation of this information shapes health beliefs. The present study examined discussions about genetics and weight in message board communities devoted to discussion of weight loss. Fifty-four online discussions, comprising 505 individual posts from 3 weight-loss themed message boards, were coded using a closed-ended procedure. Individuals who discussed genetics and weight in online message board communities initiated these discussions mainly for personal reasons and primarily cited mass media-sourced information. Genetic causes of weight tended to be endorsed alongside behavioral causes. There was no association between cause endorsements and expressed frustration. These findings help elucidate the effects of naturally encountered information about genetics of weight. They may also have implications for the creation of online evidence-based tools to aid communication about genetic advances in ways that encourage positive dietary and physical activity behavior. PMID:23194059

  14. Association between maternal body mass index and the birth weight of neonates.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay; Upadhyay, S; Biccha, R P; Sherpa, M T; Shrestha, R; Shrestha, S; Panta, P P

    2011-03-01

    Birth weight (BW) is an important determinant of infant's well being. Several factors such as mothers' genetic characteristics, socio-cultural, demographic, behavioral factors, prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain (GWG) etc contribute to birth weight. This study assesses the anthropometric measurement of ethnic Nepalese women belonging to Sherpa/Tamang community and Brahmin/Chhetri community and the neonatal outcome in this population. A retrospective study was done in singleton pregnant women of Sherpa/Tamang and Brahmin/Chhetri community who delivered baby in Nepal Medical College and Teaching Hospital from April 2007 to March 2008 to examine the association between the maternal Body Mass Index (BMI) and the gestational weight gain among the two ethnic communities and the birth weight of newborns. Among 206 Sherpa women who met the eligibility criteria, the mean BMI of Sherpa/Tamang community was 23.53 +/- 2.28 which was statistically higher than the Brahmin/Chhetri community (21.6 +/- 2.32). Among Sherpa/Tamang community, the mean gestational weight gain was 12.8 +/- 3.4 kg and the mean birth weight was 3460 +/- 410 grams. Similarly among Brahmin/Chhetri community, mean gestation weight gain was 10.3 +/- 3.1 kg and the mean birth weight was 2960 +/- 340 gm. Maternal BMI, gestational weight gain and birth weight of the newborn was significantly higher in Sherpa/Tamang community and the Increasing BMI and the gestational weight gain was found to have strong association with the birth weight of the newborns among this ethnic community. PMID:21991701

  15. Role of obesity and media in body weight concern among female university students in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Al-Mannai, Mariam

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the association of media and obesity status with body weight concern among female university students in Kuwait. 228 female students, aged 19-25 years, were selected at convenience from the Women's College in Kuwait. A previously validated questionnaire was used to collect information on the role of media in body concern and how parents, peers and the girls themselves perceived girls' body shapes. Weight and height were gathered by self-reporting. Use of internet and reading women's magazines had a significant impact on dieting by the girls to lose weight (P<0.0007 and P<0.0114, respectively). The mass media had two to three times more influence on obese girls than non-obese girls. Only watching television had a significant impact on girls' body shape concern (P<0.053). About 30% of non-obese and 81% of obese girls were dissatisfied with their current weight. There were significant differences between obese and non-obese girls regarding the girls' views and the views of their peers and parents about the body weight of the girls (P<0.000 for all). The pressure from peers and parents, in addition to the mass media, may lead to disturbed attitudes towards eating among Kuwaiti girls. PMID:23557827

  16. Does reading keep you thin? Leisure activities, cultural tastes, and body weight in comparative perspective

    PubMed Central

    Pampel, Fred C.

    2011-01-01

    While sedentary leisure-time activities such as reading, going to movies, attending cultural events, attending sporting events, watching TV, listening to music, and socializing with friends would seem to contribute to excess weight, a perspective focusing on SES differences in cultural tastes suggests the opposite, that some sedentary activities are associated with lower rather than higher body weight. This study aims to test theories of cultural distinction by examining relationships between leisure-time activities and body weight. Using 2007 data on 17 nations from the International Social Survey Program, the analysis estimates relationships between the body mass index and varied leisure-time activities while controlling for SES, physical activities, and sociodemographic variables. Net of controls for SES and physical activities, participation time in cultural activities is associated with lower rather than higher body weight, particularly in high-income nations. The results suggest that both cultural activities and body weight reflect forms of distinction that separate SES-based lifestyles. PMID:21707664

  17. Metabolism of polychaete Neanthes japonica Izuka: relations to temperature, salinity and body weight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yong; Xian, Weiwei; Sun, Shichun

    2009-05-01

    Polychaete Neanthes japonica is a species geographically specific in China and Japan with important scientific implication and commercial value. In this study, the relations of body weight, salinity and temperature to oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion of N. japonica were determined. Three different groups in body weight (large: 2.34±0.36 g, middle: 1.50±0.21 g and small: 0.62±0.12 g) were set for all experiments. Results show that the body weight is negatively related to the rates of oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion; and the relationship is significant. The oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion at 24°C decreased at salinity from 5 to 30 and increased above 30, indicating that both lower and higher salinity are adverse and certain degree of salinity stress is necessary for enhancing the energy demand. At salinity 30, rising temperature from 18°C to 30°C, the oxygen consumption increased before 27°C and then decreased. However, the relation of ammonia excretion and temperature seems more complex. Two-way ANOVA shows that salinity, temperature and body weight all have a significant effect on the oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion of the worm. Moreover, interaction between salinity/temperature and body weight is also significant. O:N (oxygen/nitrogen) ratio varies greatly in this case from 5.97 to 463.22, indicating that N. japonica can regulate the type of metabolic substrate against environment changes.

  18. Mechanism of Body Weight Reducing Effect of Oral Boric Acid Intake

    PubMed Central

    Aysan, Erhan; Telci, Dilek; Erdem, Merve; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut; Yard?mc?, Erkan; Bektasoglu, Huseyin

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The effect of oral boric acid intake on reducing body weight has been previously demonstrated although the mechanism has been unclear. This research study reveals the mechanism. Subjects. Twelve mice were used, in groups of six each in the control and study groups. For five days, control group mice drank standard tap water while during the same time period the study group mice drank tap water which contains 0.28?mg/250?mL boric acid. After a 5-day period, gene expression levels for uncoupling proteins (UCPs) in the white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT), and skeletal muscle tissue (SMT) and total body weight changes were analyzed. Results. Real time PCR analysis revealed no significant change in UCP3 expressions, but UCP2 in WAT (P: 0.0317), BAT (P: 0.014), and SMT (P: 0.0159) and UCP1 in BAT (P: 0.026) were overexpressed in the boric acid group. In addition, mice in the boric acid group lost body weight (mean 28.1%) while mice in the control group experienced no weight loss but a slight weight gain (mean 0.09%, P < 0.001). Conclusion. Oral boric acid intake causes overexpression of thermogenic proteins in the adipose and skeletal muscle tissues. Increasing thermogenesis through UCP protein pathway results in the accelerated lipolysis and body weight loss. PMID:23861682

  19. Blood lead level association with lower body weight in NHANES 1999–2006

    SciTech Connect

    Scinicariello, Franco, E-mail: fes6@cdc.gov [Division of Toxicology and Human Health Sciences, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Buser, Melanie C. [Division of Toxicology and Human Health Sciences, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Mevissen, Meike [Division of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Portier, Christopher J. [National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH)/ATSDR, CDC, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Background: Lead exposure is associated with low birth-weight. The objective of this study is to determine whether lead exposure is associated with lower body weight in children, adolescents and adults. Methods: We analyzed data from NHANES 1999–2006 for participants aged ? 3 using multiple logistic and multivariate linear regression. Using age- and sex-standardized BMI Z-scores, overweight and obese children (ages 3–19) were classified by BMI ? 85th and ? 95th percentiles, respectively. The adult population (age ? 20) was classified as overweight and obese with BMI measures of 25–29.9 and ? 30, respectively. Blood lead level (BLL) was categorized by weighted quartiles. Results: Multivariate linear regressions revealed a lower BMI Z-score in children and adolescents when the highest lead quartile was compared to the lowest lead quartile (? (SE) = ? 0.33 (0.07), p < 0.001), and a decreased BMI in adults (? (SE) = ? 2.58 (0.25), p < 0.001). Multiple logistic analyses in children and adolescents found a negative association between BLL and the percentage of obese and overweight with BLL in the highest quartile compared to the lowest quartile (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.30–0.59; and OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.52–0.88, respectively). Adults in the highest lead quartile were less likely to be obese (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.35–0.50) compared to those in the lowest lead quartile. Further analyses with blood lead as restricted cubic splines, confirmed the dose-relationship between blood lead and body weight outcomes. Conclusions: BLLs are associated with lower body mass index and obesity in children, adolescents and adults. - Highlights: • NHANES analysis of BLL and body weight outcomes • Increased BLL associated with decreased body weight in children and adolescent • Increased BLL associated with decreased body weight in adults.

  20. Changes in Body Weight and Fat Mass of Men and Women in the First Year of College: A Study of the "Freshman 15"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Daniel J.; Policastro, Peggy; Quick, Virginia; Lee, Soo-Kyung

    2006-01-01

    Students entering their first year of college are faced with many stresses and changes, including changes in eating and exercise behavior. A common but often undocumented myth among college students is that there is a high risk of gaining 15 pounds of weight during freshman year. The objective of this study was to measure changes in body weight

  1. Effects of diet macronutrient composition on body composition and fat distribution during weight maintenance and weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Goss, Amy M.; Goree, Laura Lee; Ellis, Amy C.; Chandler-Laney, Paula C.; Casazza, Krista; Lockhart, Mark E.; Gower, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative aspects of diet may affect body composition and propensity for weight gain or loss. We tested the hypothesis that consumption of a relatively low glycemic load (GL) diet would reduce total and visceral adipose tissue under both eucaloric and hypocaloric conditions. Participants were 69 healthy overweight men and women. Body composition was assessed by DXA and fat distribution by CT scan at baseline, after 8 weeks of a eucaloric diet intervention, and after 8 weeks of a hypocaloric (1000 kcal/d deficit) diet intervention. Participants were provided all food for both phases, and randomized to either a low GL diet (?45 points per 1000 kcal; n=40) or high GL diet (>75 points per 1000 kcal, n=29). After the eucaloric phase, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 11% less intra-abdominal fat (IAAT) than those who consumed the high GL diet (P<0.05, adjusted for total fat mass and baseline IAAT). Participants lost an average of 5.8 kg during the hypocaloric phase, with no differences in the amount of weight loss with diet assignment (P=0.39). Following weight loss, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 4.4% less total fat mass than those who consumed the high GL diet (P<0.05, adjusted for lean mass and baseline fat mass). Consumption of a relatively low GL diet may affect energy partitioning, both inducing reduction in IAAT independent of weight change, and enhancing loss of fat relative to lean mass during weight loss. PMID:23671029

  2. The attractive female body weight and female body dissatisfaction in 26 countries across 10 world regions: results of the international body project I.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Frederick, David A; Aavik, Toivo; Alcalay, Lidia; Allik, Jüri; Anderson, Donna; Andrianto, Sonny; Arora, Arvind; Brännström, Ake; Cunningham, John; Danel, Dariusz; Doroszewicz, Krystyna; Forbes, Gordon B; Furnham, Adrian; Greven, Corina U; Halberstadt, Jamin; Hao, Shuang; Haubner, Tanja; Hwang, Choon Sup; Inman, Mary; Jaafar, Jas Laile; Johansson, Jacob; Jung, Jaehee; Keser, Askin; Kretzschmar, Uta; Lachenicht, Lance; Li, Norman P; Locke, Kenneth; Lönnqvist, Jan-Erik; Lopez, Christy; Loutzenhiser, Lynn; Maisel, Natalya C; McCabe, Marita P; McCreary, Donald R; McKibbin, William F; Mussap, Alex; Neto, Félix; Nowell, Carly; Alampay, Liane Peńa; Pillai, Subash K; Pokrajac-Bulian, Alessandra; Proyer, René T; Quintelier, Katinka; Ricciardelli, Lina A; Rozmus-Wrzesinska, Malgorzata; Ruch, Willibald; Russo, Timothy; Schütz, Astrid; Shackelford, Todd K; Shashidharan, Sheeba; Simonetti, Franco; Sinniah, Dhachayani; Swami, Mira; Vandermassen, Griet; van Duynslaeger, Marijke; Verkasalo, Markku; Voracek, Martin; Yee, Curtis K; Zhang, Echo Xian; Zhang, Xiaoying; Zivcic-Becirevic, Ivanka

    2010-03-01

    This study reports results from the first International Body Project (IBP-I), which surveyed 7,434 individuals in 10 major world regions about body weight ideals and body dissatisfaction. Participants completed the female Contour Drawing Figure Rating Scale (CDFRS) and self-reported their exposure to Western and local media. Results indicated there were significant cross-regional differences in the ideal female figure and body dissatisfaction, but effect sizes were small across high-socioeconomic-status (SES) sites. Within cultures, heavier bodies were preferred in low-SES sites compared to high-SES sites in Malaysia and South Africa (ds = 1.94-2.49) but not in Austria. Participant age, body mass index (BMI), and Western media exposure predicted body weight ideals. BMI and Western media exposure predicted body dissatisfaction among women. Our results show that body dissatisfaction and desire for thinness is commonplace in high-SES settings across world regions, highlighting the need for international attention to this problem. PMID:20179313

  3. The Value of Body Weight Measurement to Assess Dehydration in Children

    PubMed Central

    Pruvost, Isabelle; Dubos, François; Chazard, Emmanuel; Hue, Valérie; Duhamel, Alain; Martinot, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Dehydration secondary to gastroenteritis is one of the most common reasons for office visits and hospital admissions. The indicator most commonly used to estimate dehydration status is acute weight loss. Post-illness weight gain is considered as the gold-standard to determine the true level of dehydration and is widely used to estimate weight loss in research. To determine the value of post-illness weight gain as a gold standard for acute dehydration, we conducted a prospective cohort study in which 293 children, aged 1 month to 2 years, with acute diarrhea were followed for 7 days during a 3-year period. The main outcome measures were an accurate pre-illness weight (if available within 8 days before the diarrhea), post-illness weight, and theoretical weight (predicted from the child’s individual growth chart). Post-illness weight was measured for 231 (79%) and both theoretical and post-illness weights were obtained for 111 (39%). Only 62 (21%) had an accurate pre-illness weight. The correlation between post-illness and theoretical weight was excellent (0.978), but bootstrapped linear regression analysis showed that post-illness weight underestimated theoretical weight by 0.48 kg (95% CI: 0.06–0.79, p<0.02). The mean difference in the fluid deficit calculated was 4.0% of body weight (95% CI: 3.2–4.7, p<0.0001). Theoretical weight overestimated accurate pre-illness weight by 0.21 kg (95% CI: 0.08–0.34, p?=?0.002). Post-illness weight underestimated pre-illness weight by 0.19 kg (95% CI: 0.03–0.36, p?=?0.02). The prevalence of 5% dehydration according to post-illness weight (21%) was significantly lower than the prevalence estimated by either theoretical weight (60%) or clinical assessment (66%, p<0.0001).These data suggest that post-illness weight is of little value as a gold standard to determine the true level of dehydration. The performance of dehydration signs or scales determined by using post-illness weight as a gold standard has to be reconsidered. PMID:23383058

  4. Influence of dietary aflatoxin, zinc, and copper on bone size, organ weight, and body weight in hamsters and rats

    SciTech Connect

    Llewellyn, G.C.; Floyd, E.A.; Hoke, G.D.; Weekley, L.B.; Kimbrough, T.D.

    1985-08-01

    Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus have been shown to produce aflatoxins in stored foodstuffs such as peanuts, cottonseed meal, rice, and grains. Aflatoxin-treated animals, especially those that have not matured, fail to gain body weight as rapidly as controls and protein synthesis is reduced. Zinc is a necessary trace element in the diet. Slight deficiencies produce growth retardation, an inhibition of the animal's general well-being, and a reduction in feed efficiency. Many changes observed in bone of zinc deficient animals were similar to those observed with decreased feed intake. High levels of zinc are relatively non-toxic. Copper is required in the diet for prevention of anemia. It has been suggested to have a protective effect against several carcinogens, and is an essential component of many oxidative enzyme systems. In an effort to determine the potential effects of the interaction of metals and aflatoxins, these studies were initiated. Reported herein are body weights, organ weights, bone sizes and radiographic evaluations.

  5. Body size and longitudinal body weight changes do not increase mortality in incident peritoneal dialysis patients of the Brazilian peritoneal dialysis multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Fernandes, Natália Maria; Bastos, Marcus Gomes; Franco, Márcia Regina Gianotti; Chaoubah, Alfredo; da Glória Lima, Maria; Divino-Filho, José Carolino; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the roles of body size and longitudinal body weight changes in the survival of incident peritoneal dialysis patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients (n?=?1911) older than 18 years of age recruited from 114 dialysis centers (Dec/2004-Oct/2007) and participating in the Brazilian Peritoneal Dialysis Multicenter Cohort Study were included. Clinical and laboratory data were collected monthly (except if the patient received a transplant, recovered renal function, was transferred to hemodialysis, or died). RESULTS: Survival analyses were performed using Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional hazards. Total follow-up was 34 months. The mean age was 59 years (54% female). The weight category percentages were as follows: underweight: 8%; normal: 51%; overweight: 29%; and obese 12%. The multivariate model showed a higher risk of death for a body mass index <18.5 kg/m2, a neutral risk between 25 and 29.9 kg/m2 and a protective effect for an index >30 kg/m2. Patients were divided into five categories according to quintiles of body weight changes during the first year of dialysis: +7.1%. Patients in the lowest quintile had significantly higher mortality, whereas no negative impact was observed in the other quintiles. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that overweight/obesity and a positive body weight variation during the first year of peritoneal dialysis therapy do not increase mortality in incident dialysis patients in Brazil. PMID:23420157

  6. Different types of soluble fermentable dietary fibre decrease food intake, body weight gain and adiposity in young adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dietary fibre-induced satiety offers a physiological approach to body weight regulation, yet there is lack of scientific evidence. This experiment quantified food intake, body weight and body composition responses to three different soluble fermentable dietary fibres in an animal model and explored underlying mechanisms of satiety signalling and hindgut fermentation. Methods Young adult male rats were fed ad libitum purified control diet (CONT) containing 5% w/w cellulose (insoluble fibre), or diet containing 10% w/w cellulose (CELL), fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS), oat beta-glucan (GLUC) or apple pectin (PECT) (4 weeks; n = 10/group). Food intake, body weight, and body composition (MRI) were recorded, final blood samples analysed for gut satiety hormones, hindgut contents for fermentation products (including short-chain fatty acids, SCFA) and intestinal tissues for SCFA receptor gene expression. Results GLUC, FOS and PECT groups had, respectively, 10% (P < 0.05), 17% (P < 0.001) and 19% (P < 0.001) lower food intake and 37% (P < 0.01), 37% (P < 0.01) and 45% (P < 0.001) lower body weight gain than CONT during the four-week experiment. At the end they had 26% (P < 0.05), 35% (P < 0.01) and 42% (P < 0.001) less total body fat, respectively, while plasma total glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) was 2.2-, 3.2- and 2.6-fold higher (P < 0.001) and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) was 2.3-, 3.1- and 3.0-fold higher (P < 0.001). There were no differences in these parameters between CONT and CELL. Compared with CONT and CELL, caecal concentrations of fermentation products increased 1.4- to 2.2-fold in GLUC, FOS and PECT (P < 0.05) and colonic concentrations increased 1.9- to 2.5-fold in GLUC and FOS (P < 0.05), with no consistent changes in SCFA receptor gene expression detected. Conclusions This provides animal model evidence that sustained intake of three different soluble dietary fibres decreases food intake, weight gain and adiposity, increases circulating satiety hormones GLP-1 and PYY, and increases hindgut fermentation. The presence of soluble fermentable fibre appears to be more important than its source. The results suggest that dietary fibre-induced satiety is worthy of further investigation towards natural body weight regulation in humans. PMID:25152765

  7. Unhealthy Body Weight, Illness Absence, Presenteeism, Medical Payments, and Disability Leave: A Longitudinal View.

    PubMed

    Gifford, Brian

    2014-11-01

    Abstract The objective of this study is to examine how much of the relationships between unhealthy body weight, and health and productivity outcomes are attributable to health status, and how much can be ameliorated by weight loss or improvements in health. Cross-sectional and first-difference regressions were conducted of employees' body mass index (BMI) category, illness absences, presenteeism, medical spending, and disability leaves. Employees in the obese BMI category have significantly worse outcomes than employees in the healthy and overweight BMI categories. Controlling for physical and emotional health status mediates much of the observed relationships. Improved health, stress, and psychological distress are associated with reduced illness absence and presenteeism among overweight and obese employees. Obese employees who lost weight experienced reduced presenteeism. The findings suggest that overweight and obese employees can realize improved productivity without weight loss. (Population Health Management 2014;xx:xxx-xxx). PMID:25375972

  8. Efficacy of ?-lactalbumin and milk protein on weight loss and body composition during energy restriction.

    PubMed

    Soenen, Stijn; Hochstenbach-Waelen, Ananda; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2011-02-01

    Our objective was to examine whether elevated ?-lactalbumin (?lac) protein intake compared to elevated supra sustained milk protein (SSP) and sustained milk protein (SP) intake results into a difference in body weight and body composition over a 6-month energy-restriction intervention. Body weight, body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE), satiety and blood- and urine-parameters of 87 subjects (BMI 31 ± 5 kg/m(2) and fat percentage 40 ± 8%) were assessed before and after daily energy intakes of 100, 33, and 67% for 1, 1, and 2 months respectively (periods 1, 2, and 3), with protein intake from meal replacements and 2 months of 67% with ad libitum protein intake additional to the meal replacements (period 4). The diets resulted in 0.8 ± 0.3 g/kg body mass (BM) for SP and significant higher protein intake (24-h nitrogen) of 1.2 ± 0.3 and 1.0 ± 0.3 g/kgBM for SSP and ?lac (P < 0.05). Body weight and fat percentage was decreased in all groups after 6 months (SP -7 ± 5 kg and -5 ± 3%; SSP -6 ± 3 kg and -5 ± 3%; ?lac -6 ± 4 kg and -4 ± 4%, P < 0.001; there was no significant group by time difference). Furthermore, sparing of fat-free mass (FFM) and preservation of REE in function of FFM during weight loss was not significantly different between the ?lac-group and the SSP- and SP-groups. In conclusion, the efficacy of ?lac in reduction of body weight and fat mass (FM), and preservation of FFM does not differ from the efficacy of similar daily intakes of milk protein during 6 months of energy restriction. PMID:20577225

  9. Comparison of Methods to Assess Body Composition Changes during a Period of Weight Loss

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Madlyn I. Frisard; Frank L. Greenway; James P. DeLany

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the accuracy of body composition measurements by air displacement plethysmography and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) compared with DXA during weight loss.Research Methods and Procedures: Fifty-six healthy but overweight participants, 34 women and 22 men (age, 52 ± 8.6 years; weight, 92.2 ± 11.6 kg; BMI, 33.3 ± 2.9 kg\\/m2) were studied in an outpatient setting before and

  10. Influence of temperature and body weight on mosquito predation by the dragonfly nymph Mesogomphus lineatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. J. Pandian; S. Mathavan; C. P. Jeyagopal

    1979-01-01

    Different weight classes (25, 50, 100 and 160 mg) of the dragonfly nymph Mesogomphus lineatus were allowed to predate on constant density (15 larvae\\/aquarium of 500 ml capacity) of healthy fourth instar larvae of Culex fatigans at 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 ±0.5°C to study the interactions of body weight and temperature on satiation time, maximum food

  11. Nutrient intake and body composition in relation to making weight in young male Taekwondo players

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Fleming; Vassiliki Costarelli

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of the current study was to investigate the nutritional intake and body composition of Taekwondo (TKD) athletes during a two-week period of weight management as they prepare to make weight classification for an international competition. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Seven male, 17-28 years old, international TKD athletes were recruited from a known World Taekwondo Federation TKD Club in

  12. Dietary supplements for body-weight reduction: a systematic review 1,2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Max H Pittler; Edzard Ernst

    Background: Compliance with conventional weight-management programs is notoriously poor, and a plethora of over-the-counter slimming aids are sold with claims of effectiveness. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the evidence from rigorous clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses on the effectiveness of dietary supplements in reducing body weight. Design: The study was a systematic review. Literature searches

  13. Excess body weight in children may increase the length of hospital stay

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Maria Teresa Bechere; Danti, Gabriel Vecchi; Garcia, Denise Maximo Lellis; Ferraro, Alexandre A

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of excess body weight in the pediatric ward of University Hospital and to test both the association between initial nutritional diagnosis and the length of stay and the in-hospital variation in nutritional status. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study based on information entered in clinical records from University Hospital. The data were collected from a convenience sample of 91 cases among children aged one to 10 years admitted to the hospital in 2009. The data that characterize the sample are presented in a descriptive manner. Additionally, we performed a multivariate linear regression analysis adjusted for age and gender. RESULTS: Nutritional classification at baseline showed that 87.8% of the children had a normal weight and that 8.9% had excess weight. The linear regression models showed that the average weight loss z-score of the children with excess weight compared with the group with normal weight was ?0.48 (p?=?0.018) and that their length of stay was 2.37 days longer on average compared with that of the normal-weight group (p?=?0.047). CONCLUSIONS: The length of stay and loss of weight at the hospital may be greater among children with excess weight than among children with normal weight. PMID:25789515

  14. [The effect of cage type and population density on the body weight development of laboratory mice].

    PubMed

    Renne, U

    1989-01-01

    The effect of different keeping conditions on body weight gain was studied in 200 male Fzt:DU mice between days 21 and 70 of life. The animals were divided in four different housing groups: DU-B (housing in stress cages), DU-B+HI (housing in stress cages and afterwards in standard cages type HI), DU-HI (housing in standard cages type HI) and DU-S+AP (housing in standard group cages). Housing in stress cages resulted in lower body weight gain at every age; subsequent housing in standard cages type HI for one week failed to compensate this effects. Likewise, keeping of four mice in standard cages type I (DU-HI) between days 42 and 70 of life also resulted in delayed body weight gain. It is possible that the chosen population density was not an optimum for normal weight gain during the adult life. Animals kept in standard stocking cages (DU-S+AP) had the highest body weight gain. PMID:2626880

  15. Literature review: perceptions and management of body size among normal weight and moderately overweight people.

    PubMed

    Nissen, N K; Holm, L

    2015-02-01

    Improved understanding of how normal weight and moderately overweight people manage their body weight and shape could be used to inform initiatives to prevent and treat obesity. This literature review offers a thorough appraisal of existing research into perceptions and management of own body size among normal weight and moderately overweight people. The studies reported in the 47 publications reviewed here address various themes based on different conceptualizations. The studies point out that normal weight and moderately overweight people are much concerned about their body size, but huge discrepancies are found between their own perceptions and study categorizations. The studies also indicate that normal weight and moderately overweight people are actively engaged in managing their body size through numerous managing strategies, and dieting is widespread. Together the studies do not form a unified and coherent research field, and there is a bias towards North American study populations. Methodological problems were identified in some publications, raising questions about generalizability of the findings. Moreover, only few studies give deeper insight into the specific perceptions and actions. Repeated studies are needed in broader and more differentiated geographical, social and cultural contexts, and longitudinal studies and more in-depth explorations are especially needed. PMID:25487846

  16. Familial correlates of adolescent girls' physical activity, television use, dietary intake, weight, and body composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine W Bauer; Dianne Neumark-Sztainer; Jayne A Fulkerson; Peter J Hannan; Mary Story

    2011-01-01

    Background  The family environment offers several opportunities through which to improve adolescents' weight and weight-related behaviors.\\u000a This study aims to examine the cross-sectional relationships between multiple factors in the family environment and physical\\u000a activity (PA), television use (TV), soft drink intake, fruit and vegetable (FV) intake, body mass index (BMI), and body composition\\u000a among a sample of sociodemographically-diverse adolescent girls.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Subjects

  17. Body and organ weights and hematology of young rats born at moderate altitude

    E-print Network

    Ziegler, Ralph Fred

    1963-01-01

    BODY AND ORGAN WEIGHTS AND HEMATOLOGY OF YOUNG RATS BORN AT MODERATE ALT1TUDE A Thesis By RALPH FRED ZIEGLER Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OP SCIENCE August 1963 Ma)or Sublect: Laboratory Animal Medicine BODY AND ORGAN WEIGHTS AND HEMATOLOGY OF YOUNG RATS BORN AT MODERATE ALTITUDE A Thesis RALPH FRED ZIEGLER App to tyl 1 one nt by: pQ~. , Q &4 Cha man of C it ( er...

  18. 5HT2C receptor activation decreases appetite and body weight in obese subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Sargent; A. L. Sharpley; C. Williams; E. M. Goodall; P. J. Cowen

    1997-01-01

    We studied the effect of 2 weeks administration of the 5-HT2C receptor agonist, m-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP), on appetite and body weight in 18 moderately obese subjects in a double-blind, placebo-controlled\\u000a trial. mCPP caused a small but significant (0.75?kg) reduction in body weight and in subjective ratings of hunger. Plasma\\u000a prolactin was significantly elevated by the final dose of mCPP. Our data

  19. Complex association between body weight and fracture risk in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Mpalaris, V; Anagnostis, P; Goulis, D G; Iakovou, I

    2015-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a common disease, characterized by low bone mass with micro-architectural disruption and skeletal fragility, resulting in an increased risk of fracture. A substantial number of studies has examined the possible relationship between body weight, bone mineral density and fracture risk in post-menopausal women, with the majority of them concluding that low body weight correlates with increased risk of fracture, especially hip fracture. Controversies about the potential protective effect of obesity on osteoporosis and consequent fracture risk still exist. Several recent studies question the concept that obesity exerts a protective effect against fractures, suggesting that it stands as a risk factor for fractures at specific skeletal sites, such as upper arm. The association between body weight and fracture risk is complex, differs across skeletal sites and body mass index, and is modified by the interaction between body weight and bone mineral density. Some potential explanations that link obesity with increased fracture risk may be the pattern of falls and impaired mobility in obese individuals, comorbidities, such as asthma, diabetes and early menopause, as well as, increased parathyroid hormone and reduced 25-hydroxy-vitamin D concentrations. PMID:25586664

  20. A multilevel approach for minimum weight structural design including local and system buckling constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmit, L. A., Jr.; Ramanathan, R. K.

    1977-01-01

    A rational multilevel approach for minimum weight structural design of truss and wing structures including local and system buckling constraints is presented. Overall proportioning of the structure is achieved at the system level subject to strength, displacement and system buckling constraints, while the detailed component designs are carried out separately at the component level satisfying local buckling constraints. Total structural weight is taken to be the objective function at the system level while employing the change in the equivalent system stiffness of the component as the component level objective function. Finite element analysis is used to predict static response while system buckling behavior is handled by incorporating a geometric stiffness matrix capability. Buckling load factors and the corresponding mode shapes are obtained by solving the eigenvalue problem associated with the assembled elastic stiffness and geometric stiffness matrices for the structural system. At the component level various local buckling failure modes are guarded against using semi-empirical formulas. Mathematical programming techniques are employed at both the system and component level.

  1. The impact of weight, sex, and race\\/ethnicity on body dissatisfaction among urban children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melissa S. Xanthopoulos; Kelley E. Borradaile; Sharon Hayes; Sandy Sherman; Stephanie Vander Veur; Karen M. Grundy; Joan Nachmani; Gary D. Foster

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the relative contributions of weight status, race\\/ethnicity, sex, and age on body dissatisfaction in a large group of diverse children. Participants were 4th–6th graders (N=1212) in ten inner-city schools who participated in an obesity prevention study previously published. Children completed the body dissatisfaction subscale of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2), and

  2. Comparison of dermatoscopic images of acral lentiginous melanoma and acral melanocytic nevus occurring on body weight-bearing areas

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Soko; Sawada, Mizuki; Ishizaki, Sumiko; Kobayashi, Ken; Tanaka, Masaru

    2014-01-01

    Background: Because body weight-bearing produces a shift in the horny layer, acral melanocytic nevus on the body weight-bearing area of the sole showed a regular fibrillar pattern (FP) due to slanting of the melanin columns in the horny layer. On the other hand, acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) on the body weight-bearing area of the sole tended to show irregular fibrillar pattern showing rather structureless pigmentation instead of a parallel ridge pattern, which is due to the shift of the horny layer. Objective: To elucidate the subtle difference between the regular FP of nevus and irregular FP in ALM. Methods: In this study, the dermatoscopic features of five cases of ALM and five cases of acral melanocytic nevus on the weight-bearing area of the sole were compared. Results: All the cases with nevi showed regular FP showing regular distribution of fibrils, whereas all the melanomas showed irregular distribution of fibrils and colors. Fibrils in nevi tended to be clear at the furrows and dim at the ridges. White fibrils corresponding to the eccrine ducts in the horny layer were more often present on the ridges in ALM, which showed negative FP. Conclusion: Differentiating between the regular and irregular FP, including negative FP, might be helpful for the discrimination of melanoma from nevus. PMID:25396085

  3. Coactivation of lower leg muscles during body weight-supported treadmill walking decreases with age in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Deffeyes, Joan E; Karst, Gregory M; Stuberg, Wayne A; Kurz, Max J

    2012-08-01

    The kinematics of children's walking are nearly adult-like by about age 3-4 years, but metabolic efficiency of walking does not reach adult values until late in adolescence or early adulthood, perhaps due to higher coactivation of agonist/antagonist muscle pairs in adolescents. Additionally, it is unknown how use of a body weight-supported treadmill device affects coactivation, but because unloading will alter the activity of anti-gravity muscles, it was hypothesized that muscle coactivation will be altered as well. Muscle coactivation during treadmill walking was evaluated for adolescents (ages 10 to 17 years, M = 13.2, SD = 2.2) and adults (ages 22 to 35 years, M = 25.2, SD = 4.3), for thigh muscles (vastus lateralis/biceps femoris) and lower leg muscles (tibialis anterior/gastrocnemius). Conditions included body weight unloadings from nearly 0% to 80% of body weight, while walking at a preferred speed (self-selected, overground speed) or a reduced speed. Unloading was accomplished using a lower body positive pressure support system. Coactivation was found to be higher in adolescents than in adults, but only for the lower leg muscles. PMID:23033760

  4. Determining the impact of food price and income changes on body weight.

    PubMed

    Schroeter, Christiane; Lusk, Jayson; Tyner, Wallace

    2008-01-01

    We develop a theoretical model to identify conditions under which price and income changes are most likely to change weight. Although it is intuitive that raising the price of high-calorie food will decrease consumption of such goods; it is not clear that such an outcome will actually reduce weight. Our empirical analysis demonstrates a case where a tax on food away from home, a food intake category blamed for much of the rise in obesity, could lead to an increase in body weight; a finding which emphasizes the need to employ economic modeling when developing public policy to reduce obesity. PMID:17521754

  5. Psychosocial differences associated with body weight among female adolescents: the importance of body image

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacqueline A Pesa; Thomas R Syre; Elizabeth Jones

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether overweight female adolescents differ from normal and underweight female adolescents with respect to a set of psychosocial factors, while controlling for body image.Methods: Female participants of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 3197) were selected for analysis. Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was used to test whether overweight subjects differed from normal and

  6. Six new loci associated with body mass index highlight a neuronal influence on body weight regulation

    E-print Network

    Abecasis, Goncalo

    ,78,79, Gonc¸alo R Abecasis18,78,79 & Joel N Hirschhorn3,11,75,78,79 for the GIANT Consortium80 Common variants at only two loci, FTO and MC4R, have been reproducibly associated with body mass index (BMI) in humans

  7. Body and organ weights of rats exposed to carbon monoxide at high altitude

    SciTech Connect

    McGrath, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    Male, laboratory rats were exposed for 6 wk in steel barometric chambers to (1) 100 ppm CO, (2) 15,000 ft simulated high altitude (SHA), and (3) CO at SHA. Altitude was simulated by a system of gate valves and a vacuum pump, and measured by an altimeter. CO, from high-pressure cylinders, was introduced into the air supplying each chamber through a mass flow controller and measured by a nondispersive infrared (NDIR) analyzer. Although SHA had no affect on left ventricle plus septum (LV + S), adrenal, spleen, or kidney weights, SHA decreased body weights, and increased hematocrit ratios, as well as right ventricle (RV), total heart (HT), and pituitary weights. CO had no affect on body weights, RV, HT, adrenal, spleen, or kidney weights, but CO increased hematocrit ratios and LV + S weights. There was no significant interaction between SHA and CO on any parameter except kidney weight. These results indicate that, in general, the effects produced by 15,000 ft SHA are not intensified by exposure to 100 ppm CO.

  8. Effects of body weight and age on the time and pairing of American black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hepp, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    I used captive young and adult American Black Ducks (Anas rubripes) during October-February 1984-1985 to test whether body weight and age affected time of pair-bond formation. Eighty ducks were marked individually, and 10 ducks (6 males and 4 females, half of each age class) were assigned to each of 8 experimental pens. Ducks in 4 pens received an ad libitum diet of commercial duck food, and ducks in the other 4 pens received a restricted ration of the same food. During early winter ducks in both groups gained weight, but ducks on the restricted diet gained less than birds on the ad libitum diet; peak winter weight of ducks on the ad libitum diet averaged 22% greater than initial body weight compared with 6.5% for ducks on the restricted diet. In late winter ducks on the restricted diet lost 28.7% of peak winter weight, and ducks on the ad libitum diet lost 19.3%. Weight loss of ducks on the ad libitum diet began before weather conditions became severe and coincided with a reduction in food consumption. This result supports the idea that weight loss of waterfowl in late winter is controlled endogenously. Individuals on the ad libitum diet paired earlier than those on the restricted diet, and pair bonds were stronger. Adults of both sexes paired earlier than young ducks, but differences for females were not significant statistically. Age and energy constraints are factors that can affect intraspecific variation in pairing chronology.

  9. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors in the brain: controlling food intake and body weight.

    PubMed

    Baggio, Laurie L; Drucker, Daniel J

    2014-10-01

    The peptide hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) enhances glucose-induced insulin secretion and inhibits both gastric emptying and glucagon secretion. GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists control glycemia via glucose-dependent mechanisms of action and promote weight loss in obese and diabetic individuals. Nevertheless, the mechanisms and cellular targets transducing the weight loss effects remain unclear. Two recent studies in the JCI provide insight into the neurons responsible for this effect. Sisley et al. reveal that GLP-1R agonist-induced weight loss requires GLP-1Rs in the CNS, while Secher et al. reveal that a small peptide GLP-1R agonist penetrates the brain and activates a subset of GLP-1R-expressing neurons in the arcuate nucleus to produce weight loss. Together, these two studies elucidate pathways that inform strategies coupling GLP-1R signaling to control of body weight in patients with diabetes or obesity. PMID:25202976

  10. Association of sexual maturation with excess body weight and height in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies addressing the influence of early sexual maturation on the excess of body weight and height of children and adolescents are scarce. The aim of the study was to analyze the association of sexual maturation with excess body weight and height in children and adolescents. Methods This was a cross-sectional study performed in Florianópolis city, Brazil, in 2007, with 2339 school children, aged 8–14 years (1107 males). Selection was based on a probabilistic, cluster-stratified sampling technique. School children were classified according to the presence of excess body weight, using sex- and age-specific body mass index (BMI) cutoff points. Z-scores were calculated from height and BMI data. Sexual maturation was self-assessed according to Tanner stages of development. Subjects were ranked based on tertiles of sexual maturation (early, normal and late) for each stage of development. Poisson and linear regression models were used. Results Compared to the reference group (normal sexual maturation), early maturing females had higher prevalence of excess weight (adjusted prevalence ratio: 1.70; 95% CI: 1.24 to 2.33) and increased height-for-age (adjusted ?: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.14 to 0.59), while late maturing females had lower prevalence of excess weight (adjusted prevalence ratio: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.37 to 0.87) and decreased height-for-age (adjusted ?: ?0.38; 95% CI: ?0.56 to ?0.20). In males, early and late sexual maturation were associated with increased (adjusted ?: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.14 to 0.59) and decreased (adjusted ?: ?0.38; 95% CI: ?0.56 to ?0.20) height-for-age, respectively. Conclusion Early sexual maturation is associated with excess body weight in females and with greater height-for-age in both sexes. PMID:24625111

  11. Dynamic changes of orexin A and leptin in obese children during body weight reduction.

    PubMed

    Bronský, J; Nedvídková, J; Zamrazilová, H; Pechová, M; Chada, M; Kotaska, K; Nevoral, J; Pr?sa, R

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we describe changes of plasma levels of the hypothalamic neuropeptide orexin A in obese children during the reduction of body weight and its relationship to other biochemical and anthropometrical parameters. We measured orexin A fasting plasma levels by the RIA method in 58 obese children--33 girls and 25 boys; mean age 13.1+/-0.38 years (range 7-18.5) before and after 5 weeks of weight-reduction therapy. Leptin, IGF-1, and IGFBP-3 levels were measured in all the subjects and were compared to orexin A levels and anthropometrical data. Average weight in subjects before weight-reduction was 74.2+/-2.79 kg and after weight-loss 67.4+/-2.60 kg (p<0.0001). Orexin A levels before the therapy were 33.3+/-1.97 pg/ml and after the therapy 51.7+/-3.07 pg/ml (p<0.0001). Levels of orexin A were not significantly different between girls and boys (p=0.7842). We found negative correlation between orexin A and age (r = -0.5395; p<0.0001), body height (r = -0.4751; p=0.0002), body weight (r = -0.4030; p=0.0017) and BMI (r = -0.2607; p=0.0481). No correlation was found between orexin A and IGF-1, IGFBP-3 or leptin. Orexin A plasma levels increased during body weight loss, whereas the reverse was true for leptin levels. These findings support the hypothesis that orexin A may be involved in regulation of nutritional status in children. PMID:16497092

  12. Weight Misperceptions and Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Adolescent Female Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, Ramona C.; Powell, Lisa M.; Wada, Roy

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigated weight misperceptions as determinants of racial/ethnic disparities in body mass index (BMI) among adolescent females using data from the National Survey of Youth 1997. Compared to their white counterparts, higher proportions of black and Hispanic adolescent females underperceived their weight status; that is, they misperceived themselves to have lower weight status compared to their clinically defined weight status. Compared to their black counterparts, higher proportions of white and Hispanic adolescent females misperceived themselves to be heavier than their clinical weight status. Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition analysis showed that accounting for weight misperceptions, in addition to individual and contextual factors, increased the total explained portion of the black-white female BMI gap from 44.7% to 54.3% but only slightly increased the total explained portion of the Hispanic-white gap from 62.8% to 63.1%. Weight misperceptions explained 13.0% of the black-white female BMI gap and 3.3% of the Hispanic-white female BMI gap. The regression estimates showed that weight underperceptions were important determinants of adolescent female BMI, particularly among black and Hispanic adolescents. Education regarding identification and interpretation of weight status may play an important role to help reduce the incidence and racial disparity of female adolescent obesity. PMID:22701166

  13. A controlled trial of protein enrichment of meal replacements for weight reduction with retention of lean body mass

    PubMed Central

    Treyzon, Leo; Chen, Steve; Hong, Kurt; Yan, Eric; Carpenter, Catherine L; Thames, Gail; Bowerman, Susan; Wang, He-Jing; Elashoff, Robert; Li, Zhaoping

    2008-01-01

    Background While high protein diets have been shown to improve satiety and retention of lean body mass (LBM), this study was designed to determine effects of a protein-enriched meal replacement (MR) on weight loss and LBM retention by comparison to an isocaloric carbohydrate-enriched MR within customized diet plans utilizing MR to achieve high protein or standard protein intakes. Methods Single blind, placebo-controlled, randomized outpatient weight loss trial in 100 obese men and women comparing two isocaloric meal plans utilizing a standard MR to which was added supplementary protein or carbohydrate powder. MR was used twice daily (one meal, one snack). One additional meal was included in the meal plan designed to achieve individualized protein intakes of either 1) 2.2 g protein/kg of LBM per day [high protein diet (HP)] or 2) 1.1 g protein/kg LBM/day standard protein diet (SP). LBM was determined using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Body weight, body composition, and lipid profiles were measured at baseline and 12 weeks. Results Eighty-five subjects completed the study. Both HP and SP MR were well tolerated, with no adverse effects. There were no differences in weight loss at 12 weeks (-4.19 ± 0.5 kg for HP group and -3.72 ± 0.7 kg for SP group, p > 0.1). Subjects in the HP group lost significantly more fat weight than the SP group (HP = -1.65 ± 0.63 kg; SP = -0.64 ± 0.79 kg, P = 0.05) as estimated by BIA. There were no significant differences in lipids nor fasting blood glucose between groups, but within the HP group a significant decrease in cholesterol and LDL cholesterol was noted at 12 weeks. This was not seen in the SP group. Conclusion Higher protein MR within a higher protein diet resulted in similar overall weight loss as the standard protein MR plan over 12 weeks. However, there was significantly more fat loss in the HP group but no significant difference in lean body mass. In this trial, subject compliance with both the standard and protein-enriched MR strategy for weight loss may have obscured any effect of increased protein on weight loss demonstrated in prior weight loss studies using whole food diets. PMID:18752682

  14. Effect of Dietary Protein Content on Weight Gain, Energy Expenditure, and Body Composition During Overeating

    PubMed Central

    Bray, George A.; Smith, Steven R.; de Jonge, Lilian; Xie, Hui; Rood, Jennifer; Martin, Corby K.; Most, Marlene; Brock, Courtney; Mancuso, Susan; Redman, Leanne M.

    2013-01-01

    Context The role of diet composition in response to overeating and energy dissipation in humans is unclear. Objective To evaluate the effects of overconsumption of low, normal, and high protein diets on weight gain, energy expenditure, and body composition. Design, Setting, and Participants A single-blind, randomized controlled trial of 25 US healthy, weight-stable male and female volunteers, aged 18 to 35 years with a body mass index between 19 and 30. The first participant was admitted to the inpatient metabolic unit in June 2005 and the last in October 2007. Intervention After consuming a weight-stabilizing diet for 13 to 25 days, participants were randomized to diets containing 5% of energy from protein (low protein), 15% (normal protein), or 25% (high protein), which they were overfed during the last 8 weeks of their 10- to 12-week stay in the inpatient metabolic unit. Compared with energy intake during the weight stabilization period, the protein diets provided approximately 40% more energy intake, which corresponds to 954 kcal/d (95% CI, 884–1022 kcal/d). Main Outcome Measures Body composition was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry biweekly, resting energy expenditure was measured weekly by ventilated hood, and total energy expenditure by doubly labeled water prior to the overeating and weight stabilization periods and at weeks 7 to 8. Results Overeating produced significantly less weight gain in the low protein diet group (3.16 kg; 95% CI, 1.88–4.44 kg) compared with the normal protein diet group (6.05 kg; 95% CI, 4.84–7.26 kg) or the high protein diet group (6.51 kg; 95% CI, 5.23–7.79 kg) (P=.002). Body fat increased similarly in all 3 protein diet groups and represented 50% to more than 90% of the excess stored calories. Resting energy expenditure, total energy expenditure, and body protein did not increase during overfeeding with the low protein diet. In contrast, resting energy expenditure (normal protein diet: 160 kcal/d [95% CI, 102–218 kcal/d]; high protein diet: 227 kcal/d [95% CI, 165–289 kcal/d]) and body protein (lean body mass) (normal protein diet: 2.87 kg [95% CI, 2.11–3.62 kg]; high protein diet: 3.18 kg [95% CI, 2.37–3.98 kg]) increased significantly with the normal and high protein diets. Conclusions Among persons living in a controlled setting, calories alone account for the increase in fat; protein affected energy expenditure and storage of lean body mass, but not body fat storage. PMID:22215165

  15. Effects of protein intake and gender on body composition changes: a randomized clinical weight loss trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Limited data on sex differences in body composition changes in response to higher protein diets (PRO) compared to higher carbohydrate diets (CARB) suggest that a PRO diet helps preserve lean mass (LM) in women more so than in men. Objective To compare male and female body composition responses to weight loss diets differing in macronutrient content. Design Twelve month randomized clinical trial with 4mo of weight loss and 8mo weight maintenance. Subjects Overweight (N?=?130; 58 male (M), 72 female (F); BMI?=?32.5?±?0.5?kg/m2) middle-aged subjects were randomized to energy-restricted (deficit ~500?kcal/d) diets providing protein at 1.6?g.kg-1.d-1 (PRO) or 0.8?g.kg-1.d-1 (CARB). LM and fat mass (FM) were measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Body composition outcomes were tested in a repeated measures ANOVA controlling for sex, diet, time and their two- and three-way interactions at 0, 4, 8 and 12mo. Results When expressed as percent change from baseline, males and females lost similar amounts of weight at 12mo (M:-11.2?±?7.1?%, F:-9.9?±?6.0?%), as did diet groups (PRO:-10.7?±?6.8?%, CARB:-10.1?±?6.2?%), with no interaction of gender and diet. A similar pattern emerged for fat mass and lean mass, however percent body fat was significantly influenced by both gender (M:-18.0?±?12.8?%, F:-7.3?±?8.1?%, p?body fat in the trunk (P?weight loss more than women (M:-3.0?±?0.5?%, F:-1.8?±?0.3?%, p?body fat in the legs, but loss of total body fat in legs was similar in men and women. Conclusion PRO was more effective in reducing percent body fat vs. CARB over 12mo weight loss and maintenance. Men lost percent total body fat and trunk fat more effectively than women. No interactive effects of protein intake and gender are evident. PMID:22691622

  16. Interactions of hormone replacement therapy, body weight and bilateral oophorectomy in breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yong; Deming-Halverson, Sandra L.; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Lipworth, Loren; Shrubsole, Martha J.; Fair, Alecia M.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Zheng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine potential modifying effects of body weight and bilateral oophorectomy on the association of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) with risk of breast cancer, overall and by subtypes according to status of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human-epidermal-growth-factor receptor 2 (Her2) among postmenopausal women. Experimental Design This analysis included 2,510 postmenopausal white women recruited in the Nashville Breast Health Study, a population-based case-control study of breast cancer. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between HRT use and risk of breast cancer overall and by subtypes, adjusted for age and education. Results Among women with natural menopause and body-mass-index (BMI) <25 kg/m2, ever-use of HRT was associated with increased breast-cancer risk (OR=1.95, 95% CI=1.32-2.88). Risk was elevated with duration of HRT use (p-for-trend=0.002). Similar association patterns were found for ER+, ER+PR+, and luminal-A cancer subtypes but not ER-, ER-PR-, and triple-negative cancer. In contrast, ever-HRT-use in overweight women (BMI?25 kg/m2) showed no association with risk of breast cancer overall or by subtypes; interaction tests for modifying effect of BMI were statistically significant. Ever-HRT-use was associated with decreased breast-cancer risk (OR=0.70, 95% CI=0.38-1.31) among women with prior bilateral oophorectomy but elevated risk (OR=1.45, 95% CI=0.92-2.29) among those with hysterectomy without bilateral oophorectomy (p-for-interaction=0.057). Similar associations were seen for virtually all breast-cancer subtypes, although interaction tests were statistically significant for ER+ and luminal A only. Conclusion Body weight and bilateral oophorectomy modify associations between HRT use and breast-cancer risk, especially the risk of hormone-receptor-positive tumors. PMID:24423614

  17. Sexual Dimorphic Regulation of Body Weight Dynamics and Adipose Tissue Lipolysis

    PubMed Central

    Benz, Verena; Bloch, Mandy; Wardat, Sami; Böhm, Christian; Maurer, Lukas; Mahmoodzadeh, Shokoufeh; Wiedmer, Petra; Spranger, Joachim; Foryst-Ludwig, Anna; Kintscher, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Background Successful reduction of body weight (BW) is often followed by recidivism to obesity. BW-changes including BW-loss and -regain is associated with marked alterations in energy expenditure (EE) and adipose tissue (AT) metabolism. Since these processes are sex-specifically controlled, we investigated sexual dimorphisms in metabolic processes during BW-dynamics (gain-loss-regain). Research Design Obesity was induced in C57BL/6J male (m) and female (f) mice by 15 weeks high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. Subsequently BW was reduced (-20%) by caloric restriction (CR) followed by adaptive feeding, and a regain-phase. Measurement of EE, body composition, blood/organ sampling were performed after each feeding period. Lipolysis was analyzed ex-vivo in gonadal AT. Results Male mice exhibited accelerated BW-gain compared to females (relative BW-gain m:140.5±3.2%; f:103.7±6.5%; p<0.001). In consonance, lean mass-specific EE was significantly higher in females compared to males during BW-gain. Under CR female mice reached their target-BW significantly faster than male mice (m:12.2 days; f:7.6 days; p<0.001) accompanied by a sustained sex-difference in EE. In addition, female mice predominantly downsized gonadal AT whereas the relation between gonadal and total body fat was not altered in males. Accordingly, only females exhibited an increased rate of forskolin-stimulated lipolysis in AT associated with significantly higher glycerol concentrations, lower RER-values, and increased AT expression of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone sensitive lipase (HSL). Analysis of AT lipolysis in estrogen receptor alpha (ER?)–deficient mice revealed a reduced lipolytic rate in the absence of ER? exclusively in females. Finally, re-feeding caused BW-regain faster in males than in females. Conclusion The present study shows sex-specific dynamics during BW-gain-loss-regain. Female mice responded to CR with an increase in lipolytic activity, and augmented lipid-oxidation leading to more efficient weight loss. These processes likely involve ER?-dependent signaling in AT and sexual dimorphic regulation of genes involved in lipid metabolism. PMID:22662224

  18. Six new loci associated with body mass index highlight a neuronal influence on body weight regulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cristen J Willer; Elizabeth K Speliotes; Ruth J F Loos; Shengxu Li; Cecilia M Lindgren; Iris M Heid; Sonja I Berndt; Amanda L Elliott; Anne U Jackson; Claudia Lamina; Guillaume Lettre; Noha Lim; Helen N Lyon; Steven A McCarroll; Konstantinos Papadakis; Lu Qi; Rosa Maria Roccasecca; Serena Sanna; Paul Scheet; Michael N Weedon; Eleanor Wheeler; Jing Hua Zhao; Leonie C Jacobs; Inga Prokopenko; Nicole Soranzo; Toshiko Tanaka; Nicholas J Timpson; Peter Almgren; Amanda Bennett; Richard N Bergman; Sheila A Bingham; Lori L Bonnycastle; Morris Brown; Noël P Burtt; Peter Chines; Lachlan Coin; Francis S Collins; John M Connell; Cyrus Cooper; Elaine M Dennison; Parimal Deodhar; Paul Elliott; Michael R Erdos; Karol Estrada; David M Evans; Lauren Gianniny; Christian Gieger; Christopher J Gillson; Candace Guiducci; Rachel Hackett; David Hadley; Alistair S Hall; Aki S Havulinna; Johannes Hebebrand; Albert Hofman; Bo Isomaa; Kevin B Jacobs; Toby Johnson; Pekka Jousilahti; Zorica Jovanovic; Kay-Tee Khaw; Peter Kraft; Mikko Kuokkanen; Johanna Kuusisto; Jaana Laitinen; Edward G Lakatta; Jian'an Luan; Robert N Luben; Massimo Mangino; Wendy L McArdle; Thomas Meitinger; Antonella Mulas; Patricia B Munroe; Narisu Narisu; Andrew R Ness; Kate Northstone; Stephen O'Rahilly; Carolin Purmann; Matthew G Rees; Martin Ridderstrĺle; Susan M Ring; Fernando Rivadeneira; Aimo Ruokonen; Manjinder S Sandhu; Jouko Saramies; Laura J Scott; Angelo Scuteri; Kaisa Silander; Matthew A Sims; Kijoung Song; Jonathan Stephens; Suzanne Stevens; Heather M Stringham; Y C Loraine Tung; Timo T Valle; Cornelia M Van Duijn; Karani S Vimaleswaran; Peter Vollenweider; Gerard Waeber; Chris Wallace; Richard M Watanabe; Dawn M Waterworth; Nicholas Watkins; Jacqueline C M Witteman; Eleftheria Zeggini; Guangju Zhai; M Carola Zillikens; David Altshuler; Mark J Caulfield; Stephen J Chanock; I Sadaf Farooqi; Luigi Ferrucci; Jack M Guralnik; Andrew T Hattersley; Frank B Hu; Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin; Markku Laakso; Vincent Mooser; Ken K Ong; Willem H Ouwehand; Veikko Salomaa; Nilesh J Samani; Timothy D Spector; Tiinamaija Tuomi; Jaakko Tuomilehto; Manuela Uda; André G Uitterlinden; Nicholas J Wareham; Panagiotis Deloukas; Timothy M Frayling; Leif C Groop; Richard B Hayes; David J Hunter; Karen L Mohlke; Leena Peltonen; David Schlessinger; David P Strachan; H-Erich Wichmann; Mark I McCarthy; Michael Boehnke; Inęs Barroso; Gonçalo R Abecasis; Joel N Hirschhorn

    2009-01-01

    Common variants at only two loci, FTO and MC4R, have been reproducibly associated with body mass index (BMI) in humans. To identify additional loci, we conducted meta-analysis of 15 genome-wide association studies for BMI (n > 32,000) and followed up top signals in 14 additional cohorts (n > 59,000). We strongly confirm FTO and MC4R and identify six additional loci

  19. Effects of Body Weight and Nutrition on Histological Mammary Development in Holstein Heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to determine effects of rate of gain and body weight (BW) on mammary parenchymal tissue development. Mammary tissue samples were available from heifers (n = 54) reared on one of two dietary treatments, restricted (R) 650 g/d or elevated (E) 950 g/d of daily gain), and slaughtered ...

  20. Harvard study finds body weight, diet may be risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma:

    Cancer.gov

    Body weight in young adulthood and diet appeared to be associated with the risk for non-Hodgkin lymphoma, according to results presented at the 10th AACR International Conference on Frontiers in Cancer Prevention Research, held Oct. 22-25, 2011.

  1. Small molecule insulin mimetics reduce food intake and body weight and prevent development of obesity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen L. Air; Mathias Z. Strowski; Stephen C. Benoit; Stacey L. Conarello; Gino M. Salituro; Xiao-Ming Guan; Kun Liu; Stephen C. Woods; Bei B. Zhang

    2002-01-01

    Obesity and insulin resistance are major risk factors for a number of metabolic disorders, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. Insulin has been suggested to function as one of the adiposity signals to the brain for modulation of energy balance. Administration of insulin into the brain reduces food intake and body weight, and mice with a genetic deletion of neuronal

  2. IMPACT OF BODY WEIGHT CHANGE ON THE EDSTAC TIER 1 MALE AND FEMALE PUBERTAL PROTOCOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    IMPACT OF BODY WEIGHT CHANGE ON THE EDSTAC TIER I MALE AND FEMALE PUBERTAL PROTOCOLS. R.L. Cooper, T.E. Stoker, K. McElroy, J. Ferrell, K. Leffler, K. Bremser and S.C. Laws. Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, USEPA, RTP, NC. Sponsor: R.J. Kavl...

  3. Effect of dietary fructose on lipid metabolism, body weight and glucose tolerance in humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tommi J Vasankari; Tuula M Vasankari

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide. Increasing body weight together with decreasing physical activity is expected to increase the incidence of several diseases related to lifestyle, such as adult type diabetes and vascular atherosclerotic diseases. It has been postulated that increasing consumption of fructose may be a contributory factor in the development of obesity and the accompanying metabolic abnormalities.

  4. High Blood Pressure in Adults with Disabilities: Influence of Gender, Body Weight and Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lan-Ping; Liu, Chien-Ting; Liou, Shih-Wen; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to explore the mean and distribution of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and to examine the influence of gender, body weight and health behaviors on hypertension in adults with disabilities. We analyzed the 2010 annual community health examination chart of adults with disabilities in east Taiwan. The study samples…

  5. NO EFFECT OF CHROMIUM PICOLINATE SUPPLEMENTATION ON BODY WEIGHT/COMPOSITION OF WOMEN FED CONTROLLED DIETS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Supplementation of chromium (+3) as chromium picolinate (CrPic) in amounts of 200 µg Cr/d is purported to promote weight loss and propitiously affect body composition. Different study designs and lack of control of energy intake prompt questions about the validity of these claims. PURPOSE: To test ...

  6. Food Consumption Patterns of Nigerian Adolescents and Effect on Body Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olumakaiye, M. F.; Atinmo, Tola; Olubayo-Fatiregun, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Association between nutritional status of adolescents and food consumption pattern. Design: Data on number of meals and snacks consumed daily were collected using structured questionnaires. Nutritional status was assessed as weight-for-age body mass index score less than fifth percentile of the National Center for Health…

  7. The Role of Low-Fat Diets and Fat Substitutes in Body Weight Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ARNE ASTRUP; SřREN TOUBRO; ANNE RABEN; ANNEBETH R. SKOV

    1997-01-01

    The introduction of low-fat, high-complex carbohydrate diets for the prevention and treatment of obesity was based on the causal link established between dietary fat and body fatness. Observational and mechanistic studies show that because fat possesses a lower satiating power than carbohydrate and protein, a diet rich in fat can increase energy intake. The propensity to gain weight is enhanced

  8. Effect of an herbal extract Number Ten (NT) on body weight in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A York; Sonyja Thomas; Frank L Greenway; Zhijun Liu; Jennifer C Rood

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chinese herbal extract Number Ten (NT) is a dietary herbal formulation prepared from rhubarb, ginger, astragalus, red sage and tumeric. This study tested the effectiveness of NT in reducing body weight gain in rats. METHODS: Sixty female Wistar rats were fed a high fat diet and acclimated to gavage feeding. The rats were divided into five treatment groups: (1)

  9. Body Weight Status, Inflammation, and Prognostic Markers in Early-Stage Prostate Cancer

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    Body Weight Status, Inflammation, and Prognostic Markers in Early-Stage Prostate Cancer Brown Bag (UICCC) IHRP Fellow #12;Outline Relative risk of cancer mortality in obese men Pathophysiologic basis for excess risk The case for inflammation/immunity in prostate cancer Preliminary results from

  10. Anthocyanins attenuate body weight gain via modulating neuropeptide Y and GABAB1 receptor in rats hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Badshah, Haroon; Ullah, Ikram; Kim, So Eun; Kim, Tae-hyun; Lee, Hae Young; Kim, Myeong Ok

    2013-10-01

    Anthocyanins in a variety of plant species have been identified and are known for its hypolipidemic and anti-obesity effects. The effect of anthocyanins extracted from black soybean on body weight and daily food intake in adult rats raised on normal diet were studied. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were daily intra-gastric administered water or anthocyanins 6 mg/kg and 24 mg/kg for 40 days. During this period daily food intake and body weight were measured prior to anthocyanins treatment. These findings showed that anthocyanins treatment resulted in significantly lowered body weight and food intake compared with water treated rats. In addition, anthocyanins dose dependently reduced the adipose tissue size compared with control group. Western blot analysis showed that high dose of anthocyanins treatment significantly reduced the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and increased ?-amino butyric acid receptor (GABAB1R) in hypothalamus. Furthermore, these events were followed by a decreased in expression of GABAB1R downstream signaling molecules protein kinase A-? (PKA) and phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein (p-CREB) in hypothalamus. These data support the concept that anthocyanins even in normal circumstances have the capability to reduce body weight and food intake through its modulatory effect on NPY and GABAB1R in hypothalamus. These results suggest that anthocyanins from black soybean seed coat might have a novel role in preventing obesity in rats on normal diet. PMID:23830691

  11. Television, physical activity, diet, and body weight status: the ARIC cohort

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne-Marie Meyer; Kelly R Evenson; David J Couper; June Stevens; Mark A Pereria; Gerardo Heiss

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Television (TV) watching is the most common leisure activity in the United States. Few studies of adults have described the relationship between TV and health behaviors such as physical activity, diet, and body weight status. METHODS: Extant data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study were analyzed to assess the association of TV with physical activity, diet, and

  12. CHROMIUM PICOLINATE SUPPLEMENTATION IN WOMEN: EFFECTS ON BODY WEIGHT, COMPOSITION AND IRON STATUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Supplementation of chromium as chromium picolinate (CrPic), 200 µg Cr/d, is claimed to promote weight loss and propitiously affect body composition; it may adversely affect iron status. This study tested the hypothesis that supplementation of CrPic, compared to an equivalent amount of pi...

  13. Associations between inhibitory control and body weight in German primary school children.

    PubMed

    Wirt, Tamara; Hundsdörfer, Verena; Schreiber, Anja; Kesztyüs, Dorothea; Steinacker, Jürgen M

    2014-01-01

    Deficits in inhibitory control are supposed to be a risk factor for overweight but literature concerning childhood and beyond the clinical setting is scarce. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of inhibitory control in regards to body weight in a large non-clinical sample of primary school children. Baseline data of 498 children (1st and 2nd grade; 7.0 ± 0.6 years; 49.8% boys) participating in a school-based intervention study in Germany were used. Children performed a Go-Nogo-task to assess inhibitory control. Height and weight were collected and converted to BMI percentiles based on national standards. Relevant influencing factors (sociodemographic data, health characteristics of parents, children's health behaviour) were assessed via parental questionnaire. Inhibitory control was significantly associated with body weight and contributed to the statistical prediction of body weight above and beyond parent education, migration background, parent weight, TV consumption and breakfast habits. Moreover, obese children displayed significantly lower inhibitory control compared to non-overweight and overweight children. The findings suggest that deficits in inhibitory control constitute a risk factor for paediatric obesity. PMID:24411742

  14. COMPARISONS OF ANGUS-, BRAUNVIEH-, CHIANINA-, HEREFORD-, GELBVIEH-, MAINE ANJOU-, AND RED POLL-SIRED COWS FOR WEIGHT, WEIGHT ADJUSTED FOR BODY CONDITION SCORE, HEIGHT AND BODY CONDITION SCORE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data from Angus, Hereford and topcross cows (n = 641) from 2 to 8 yr-old daughters of seven breeds of sires included in Cycle II of the Germplasm Evaluation program at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center comprising cow weight (CW, n= 15,698), height (CH, n = 15,676) and condition score (CS, n = 15,...

  15. Effect of body weight gain on insulin sensitivity after retirement from exercise training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolkas, Constantine B.; Rodnick, Kenneth J.; Mondon, Carl E.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of the body-weight gain after retirement from an exercise-training program on the retained increase in insulin sensitivity elicited by the training was investigated in exercise-trained (ET) rats. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by oral glucose tolerance and insulin suppression tests immediately after training and during retirement. Results show that, compared with sedentary controls, exercise training enhanced insulin-induced glucose uptake, but the enhanced sensitivity was gradually lost with the end of running activity until after seven days of retirement, when it became equal to that of controls. This loss of enhanced sensitivity to insulin was associated with an accelerated gain in body weight beginning one day after the start of retirement. However, those animals that gained weight only at rates similar to those of control rats, retained their enhanced sensitivity to insulin.

  16. Body composition, not body weight, is related to cardiovascular disease risk factors and sex hormone levels in men.

    PubMed Central

    Segal, K R; Dunaif, A; Gutin, B; Albu, J; Nyman, A; Pi-Sunyer, F X

    1987-01-01

    To clarify the independent relationships of obesity and overweight to cardiovascular disease risk factors and sex steroid levels, three age-matched groups of men were studied: (i) 8 normal weight men, less than 15% body fat, by hydrostatic weighing; (ii) 16 overweight, obese men, greater than 25% body fat and 135-160% of ideal body weight (IBW); and (iii) 8 overweight, lean men, 135-160% IBW, but less than 15% fat. Diastolic blood pressure was significantly greater for the obese (mean +/- SEM, 82 +/- 2 mmHg) than the normal (71 +/- 2) and overweight lean (72 +/- 2) groups, as were low density lipoprotein levels (131 +/- 9 vs. 98 + 11 and 98 + 14 mg/dl), the ratio of high density lipoprotein to total cholesterol (0.207 +/- 0.01 vs. 0.308 +/- 0.03 and 0.302 +/- 0.03), fasting plasma insulin (22 +/- 3 vs. 12 +/- 1 and 13 +/- 2 microU/ml), and the estradiol/testosterone ratio (0.076 +/- 0.01 vs. 0.042 +/- 0.02 and 0.052 +/- 0.02); P less than 0.05. Estradiol was 25% greater for the overweight lean group (40 +/- 5 pg/ml) than the obese (30 +/- 3 pg/ml) and normal groups (29 +/- 2 pg/ml), P = 0.08, whereas total testosterone was significantly lower in the obese (499 +/- 33 ng/dl) compared with the normal and overweight, lean groups (759 +/- 98 and 797 +/- 82 ng/dl). Estradiol was uncorrelated with risk factors and the estradiol/testosterone ratio appeared to be a function of the reduced testosterone levels in obesity, not independently correlated with lipid levels after adjustment for body fat content. Furthermore, no risk factors were significantly different between the normal and overweight lean groups. We conclude that (a) body composition, rather than body weight per se, is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk factors; and (b) sex steroid alterations are related to body composition and are not an independent cardiovascular disease risk factor. PMID:3654969

  17. Effect of Nutritional Supplements on Immune Function and Body Weight in Malnourished Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cheskin, Lawrence J.; Margolick, Joseph; Kahan, Scott; Mitola, Andrea H.; Poddar, Kavita H.; Nilles, Tricia; Kolge, Sanjivani; Menendez, Frederick; Ridoré, Michelande; Wang, Shing-Jung; Chou, Jacob; Carlson, Eve

    2010-01-01

    In the United States, approximately 5% of the population is malnourished or has low body weight, which can adversely affect immune function. Malnutrition is more prevalent in older adults and is often a result of energy imbalance from various causes. Dietary supplementation to promote positive energy balance can reverse malnutrition, but has not been assessed for its effect on immune parameters. This 8-week clinical feeding trial evaluated the effect of a commercially available, high-protein, high-energy formula on body weight and immune parameters in 30 adult volunteers with body-mass indices (BMI) <21 kg/m2. After the intervention, participants gained a mean of 3.74 lbs and increased BMI by 0.58 kg/m2. The intervention improved lean body mass and limited body fat accumulation. However, no clinically significant improvements in immune measures were observed. These results support the use of high-protein, high-energy supplements in the treatment of underweight/malnutrition. Further investigation utilizing feeding studies of longer duration, and/or studying severely malnourished individuals may be needed to detect an effect on immune parameters of weight gain promoted by nutritional supplements. PMID:23966789

  18. Influence of Weight Gain Rate on Early Life Nutritional Status and Body Composition of Children

    PubMed Central

    Magalhăes, Taís Cristina Araújo; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira da Rocha

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the influence of the weight gain rate at 4–6 months on nutritional status and body composition in children between 4 and 7 years of age. Methods. Retrospective cohort study, sample of 257 children. Data collection was performed in two stages, with the first relating to retrospective data of weight gain from birth to the first 4–6 months of life in the patient records. Measurements of weight, height, waist circumference, and body composition in children between ages 4 and 7 years were obtained. Nutritional status was assessed by the BMI/age. Control variables, such as pregnancy, breastfeeding, lifestyle, and sociodemographics, were studied. Descriptive analysis and multiple linear regression were performed. Results. In the nutritional status assessment, the prevalence of overweight observed was 24.9%. After adjusting for control variables, it was found that the increase of the WGR at 4–6 months of age explained the occurrence of higher BMI/age, percentage of total body fat, body fat percentage in the android region, and waist circumference in children between 4 and 7 years of age. Conclusion. The increase of the WGR in the first months of life can lead to the occurrence of higher values of parameters of nutritional status and body composition in later life. PMID:25538953

  19. A 10-year longitudinal study of body weight, dieting, and eating disorder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Heatherton, T F; Mahamedi, F; Striepe, M; Field, A E; Keel, P

    1997-02-01

    This article describes a 10-year longitudinal study of eating attitudes and behaviors. A sample of 509 women and 206 men completed a detailed survey in 1982 while they were in college. The authors contacted participants 10 years later and administered a 2nd questionnaire to assess stability and change in eating behaviors that occurred during the transition to early adulthood. Women in the study had substantial declines in disordered eating behavior as well as increased body satisfaction. However, body dissatisfaction and desires to lose weight remained at relatively high levels. Men, who rarely dieted or had eating problems in college, were prone to weight gain following college, and many of them reported increased dieting or disordered eating. The authors conclude that disordered eating generally tends to decline during the transition to early adulthood. However, body dissatisfaction remains a problem for a substantial segment of the adult population. PMID:9103723

  20. The Scintigraphic Findings of Gastroesophageal Reflux in Children is Related to Body Weight?

    PubMed Central

    Erkan, Melih Engin; Ozkan, Aybars; Yilmaz, Ayse; Asik, Muhammet; Gunes, Cemalettin; Yilmaztekin, Mehmet Zeki; Dogan, Ahmet Semih

    2014-01-01

    Background Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is the most common cause of children admissions to pediatric gastroenterology unit and affects about 30% of pediatric population. Body weight and height percentiles of children with GERD and their relationship between presence and the severity of reflux on scintigraphic images were studied. Methods Patients who underwent reflux scintigraphy between 2005 - 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Among 200 patients, 49 patients were involved that their ages were ranging from 0 to 18 years old and body weight and height percentiles were recorded. Accurately 37 MBq (1 mCi) 99mTc-MAA in 100 - 150 mL of milk was ingested by the patient. Presence, number, duration and level of reflux were evaluated on the dynamic images. Presences of reflux within last ten minute were also recorded. Region-of-interests were drawn on esophagus and stomach and reflux ratio (RR) was calculated. Results The ratio of the presence of reflux which occurred within the last ten minutes was significantly higher in children with low body weight percentile. High-level reflux frequency was higher in these children than in normal’s. Presence of reflux which occurred within the last ten minutes was related with low body weight percentile. Conclusions If reflux is shown within the last ten minutes and there is high level of reflux, the clinician should be warned about possible low body weight percentile in the future and scintigraphic study should be a guide or a reference for the assessment of more effective treatment methods. PMID:24400026

  1. Gestational Weight Gain and Body Mass Index in Children: Results from Three German Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Beyerlein, Andreas; Nehring, Ina; Rzehak, Peter; Heinrich, Joachim; Müller, Manfred J.; Plachta-Danielzik, Sandra; Wabitsch, Martin; Weck, Melanie; Brenner, Hermann; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; von Kries, Rüdiger

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies suggested potential priming effects of gestational weight gain (GWG) on offspring’s body composition in later life. However, consistency of these effects in normal weight, overweight and obese mothers is less clear. Methods We combined the individual data of three German cohorts and assessed associations of total and excessive GWG (as defined by criteria of the Institute of Medicine) with offspring’s mean body mass index (BMI) standard deviation scores (SDS) and overweight at the age of 5–6 years (total: n?=?6,254). Quantile regression was used to examine potentially different effects on different parts of the BMI SDS distribution. All models were adjusted for birth weight, maternal age and maternal smoking during pregnancy and stratified by maternal pre-pregnancy weight status. Results In adjusted models, positive associations of total and excessive GWG with mean BMI SDS and overweight were observed only in children of non- overweight mothers. For example, excessive GWG was associated with a mean increase of 0.08 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.15) units of BMI SDS (0.13 (0.02, 0.24) kg/m2 of ‘real’ BMI) in children of normal-weight mothers. The effects of total and excessive GWG on BMI SDS increased for higher- BMI children of normal-weight mothers. Discussion Increased GWG is likely to be associated with overweight in offspring of non-overweight mothers. PMID:22457745

  2. Body weight misperception in adolescence and incident obesity in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Misperceptions of one's weight are common in adolescence. Adolescents of normal weight who misperceive themselves as being overweight tend to engage in unhealthy dieting practices and behaviors that are conducive to obesity. To examine whether this misperception is associated with a risk of obesity during early adulthood, we analyzed data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 6,523; mean age at baseline = 16 years; 58% female). Adolescents who misperceived themselves as being overweight had greater odds of becoming obese over the 12-year follow-up period than adolescents who perceived their weight accurately (odds ratio = 1.41, 95% confidence interval = [1.22, 1.64]). Although the increase in the odds associated with misperception of weight was apparent for both sexes, it was significantly stronger among boys (1.89 greater odds) than among girls (1.29 greater odds). The present research indicates that weight-based self-stigmatization, much like weight-based social stigmatization, is a powerful risk factor for incident obesity. This finding underscores the importance of addressing inaccurate body weight perceptions, even among adolescents of normal weight. PMID:25749701

  3. How do consumers react to physically larger models? Effects of model body size, weight control beliefs and product type on evaluations and body perceptions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brett A. S. Martin; Robina Xavier

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine how a consumer's weight control beliefs (WCB), a female advertising model's body size (slim or large) and product type influence consumer evaluations and consumer body perceptions. The study uses an experiment of 371 consumers. The design of the experiment was a 2 (weight control belief: internal, external) X 2 (model size: larger

  4. Social Stress at Work and Change in Women’s Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    KOTTWITZ, Maria U.; GREBNER, Simone; SEMMER, Norbert K.; TSCHAN, Franziska; ELFERING, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Social stressors at work (such as conflict or animosities) imply disrespect or a lack of appreciation and thus a threat to self. Stress induced by this offence to self might result, over time, in a change in body weight. The current study investigated the impact of changing working conditions —specifically social stressors, demands, and control at work— on women’s change in weighted Body-Mass-Index over the course of a year. Fifty-seven women in their first year of occupational life participated at baseline and thirty-eight at follow-up. Working conditions were assessed by self-reports and observer-ratings. Body-Mass-Index at baseline and change in Body-Mass-Index one year later were regressed on self-reported social stressors as well as observed work stressors, observed job control, and their interaction. Seen individually, social stressors at work predicted Body-Mass-Index. Moreover, increase in social stressors and decrease of job control during the first year of occupational life predicted increase in Body-Mass-Index. Work redesign that reduces social stressors at work and increases job control could help to prevent obesity epidemic. PMID:24429516

  5. Yogurt consumption is associated with longitudinal changes of body weight and waist circumference: the framingham study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yogurt, as a low-fat, nutrient-dense dairy product, may be beneficial in preventing weight gain. We aimed to examine the longitudinal association between yogurt consumption and annualized change in weight and waist circumference (WC) among adults. We included 3,285 adults (11,169 observations) parti...

  6. The relationships among body weight, body composition, and intramuscular fat content in steers.

    PubMed

    Bruns, K W; Pritchard, R H; Boggs, D L

    2004-05-01

    Angus steers of known age (265 +/- 17 d) and parentage were used in a 2-yr study (yr 1, n = 40; yr 2, n = 45) to evaluate the relationship between percentage of i.m. fat content of the longissimus dorsi at the 12th rib and carcass characteristics during growth of nonimplanted steers. Steers were sorted by age and EPD of paternal grandsire for marbling into high- and low-marbling groups so that steers with varying degrees of genetic potential for marbling were evenly distributed across slaughter groups. All steers were fed a 90% concentrate corn-based diet. Steers were allotted to five slaughter groups targeted to achieve hot carcass weights (HCW) of 204, 250, 295, 340, and 386 kg over the course of the feeding period. Data were analyzed as a completely random design with a factorial arrangement of treatments (year, marbling group, and slaughter group). Marbling group did not affect backfat, LM area, yield grade (YG), or marbling score. Regression equations were developed to quantify the change in carcass characteristics and composition over slaughter groups. Hot carcass weight increased in a linear fashion and differed (P < 0.01) among the slaughter groups as anticipated by design. Yield grade followed a quadratic upward pattern (P < 0.01) as HCW increased. Slaughter group affected the degree of marbling linearly (P < 0.01). There were no slaughter group x marbling group interactions, indicating that no differences occurred in the pattern of marbling attributable to paternal grandsire EPD. Carcasses expressed small degrees of marbling at 266 kg of HCW and obtained a YG of 3.0 at 291 kg of HCW. Fractional growth rates decelerated with increasing HCW. Greater advances in marbling relative to total carcass fatness occurred at HCW less than 300 kg. Management practices early in growth may influence final quality grade if compensatory i.m. fat content development does not occur. PMID:15144070

  7. Closed-form solutions for linear regulator design of mechanical systems including optimal weighting matrix selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanks, Brantley R.; Skelton, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    Vibration in modern structural and mechanical systems can be reduced in amplitude by increasing stiffness, redistributing stiffness and mass, and/or adding damping if design techniques are available to do so. Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) theory in modern multivariable control design, attacks the general dissipative elastic system design problem in a global formulation. The optimal design, however, allows electronic connections and phase relations which are not physically practical or possible in passive structural-mechanical devices. The restriction of LQR solutions (to the Algebraic Riccati Equation) to design spaces which can be implemented as passive structural members and/or dampers is addressed. A general closed-form solution to the optimal free-decay control problem is presented which is tailored for structural-mechanical system. The solution includes, as subsets, special cases such as the Rayleigh Dissipation Function and total energy. Weighting matrix selection is a constrained choice among several parameters to obtain desired physical relationships. The closed-form solution is also applicable to active control design for systems where perfect, collocated actuator-sensor pairs exist.

  8. Increased Body Weight Reduces Voluntary Movement to Maintain Energy Expenditure of Rats Exposed to Increases in Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, C. E.; Moran, M. M.; Stein, T. P.; Sin, Sidney (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    With the increase in obesity related diseases there is heightened interest in mechanisms regulating body weight. To assess the influence of increases in body weight on energy expenditure and intake in rats we employed variable levels of gravity. Our approach afforded the means to measure interactions of energy expenditure and intake in response to increases in body weight (body mass x gravity level). We found a dose relationship between rapid elevation of body weight and reduction of voluntary movement, such that the energy requirements for activity are unchanged, and total energy expenditure and intake maintained. Reduction of movement appears to be a response to increased body weight, rather than a contributing factor, suggesting a new regulatory pathway.

  9. Low-calorie sweeteners and body weight and composition: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies123

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Paige E; Perez, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Replacement of caloric sweeteners with lower- or no-calorie alternatives may facilitate weight loss or weight maintenance by helping to reduce energy intake; however, past research examining low-calorie sweeteners (LCSs) and body weight has produced mixed results. Objective: The objective was to systematically review and quantitatively evaluate randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and prospective cohort studies, separately, that examined the relation between LCSs and body weight and composition. Design: A systematic literature search identified 15 RCTs and 9 prospective cohort studies that examined LCSs from foods or beverages or LCSs consumed as tabletop sweeteners. Meta-analyses generated weighted mean differences in body weight and composition values between the LCS and control groups among RCTs and weighted mean correlations for LCS intake and these parameters among prospective cohort studies. Results: In RCTs, LCSs modestly but significantly reduced all outcomes examined, including body weight (?0.80 kg; 95% CI: ?1.17, ?0.43), body mass index [BMI (in kg/m2): ?0.24; 95% CI: ?0.41, ?0.07], fat mass (?1.10 kg; 95% CI: ?1.77, ?0.44), and waist circumference (?0.83 cm; 95% CI: ?1.29, ?0.37). Among prospective cohort studies, LCS intake was not associated with body weight or fat mass, but was significantly associated with slightly higher BMI (0.03; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.06). Conclusions: The current meta-analysis provides a rigorous evaluation of the scientific evidence on LCSs and body weight and composition. Findings from observational studies showed no association between LCS intake and body weight or fat mass and a small positive association with BMI; however, data from RCTs, which provide the highest quality of evidence for examining the potentially causal effects of LCS intake, indicate that substituting LCS options for their regular-calorie versions results in a modest weight loss and may be a useful dietary tool to improve compliance with weight loss or weight maintenance plans. PMID:24944060

  10. ON THE STANDARD METABOLIC RATES OF TROPICAL TUNAS, INCLUDING THE EFFECf OF BODY SIZE AND

    E-print Network

    ON THE STANDARD METABOLIC RATES OF TROPICAL TUNAS, INCLUDING THE EFFECf OF BODY SIZE AND ACUTE. This study was undertaken to obtain these data for the tropical tuna species, yellowfin tuna, Tkunnl tuna, KatsltWOO1t8 pelamis, previously published. The effect of acute temperature change on the SMR

  11. Standardization and validation of the body weight adjustment regression equations in Olympic weightlifting.

    PubMed

    Kauhanen, Heikki; Komi, Paavo V; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2002-02-01

    The problems in comparing the performances of Olympic weightlifters arise from the fact that the relationship between body weight and weightlifting results is not linear. In the present study, this relationship was examined by using a nonparametric curve fitting technique of robust locally weighted regression (LOWESS) on relatively large data sets of the weightlifting results made in top international competitions. Power function formulas were derived from the fitted LOWESS values to represent the relationship between the 2 variables in a way that directly compares the snatch, clean-and-jerk, and total weightlifting results of a given athlete with those of the world-class weightlifters (golden standards). A residual analysis of several other parametric models derived from the initial results showed that they all experience inconsistencies, yielding either underestimation or overestimation of certain body weights. In addition, the existing handicapping formulas commonly used in normalizing the performances of Olympic weightlifters did not yield satisfactory results when applied to the present data. It was concluded that the devised formulas may provide objective means for the evaluation of the performances of male weightlifters, regardless of their body weights, ages, or performance levels. PMID:11834108

  12. Eating Behavior Dimensions: Associations With Energy Intake And Body Weight: A Review

    PubMed Central

    French, Simone A.; Epstein, Leonard H; Jeffery, Robert W.; Blundell, John E.; Wardle, Jane

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to spark integrative thinking in the area of eating behaviors by critically examining research on exemplary constructs in this area. The eating behaviors food responsiveness, enjoyment of eating, satiety responsiveness, eating in the absence of hunger, reinforcing value of food, eating disinhibition and impulsivity/self-control are reviewed in relation to energy intake, body mass index and weight gain over time. Each of these constructs has been developed independently, and little research has explored the extent to which they overlap or whether they differentially predict food choices, energy intake and weight gain in the naturalistic environment. Most available data show positive cross-sectional associations with body mass index, but fewer studies report associations with energy intake or food choices. Little prospective data are available to link measures of eating behaviors with weight gain. Disinhibition has the largest and most consistent body of empirical data that link it prospectively with weight gain. An overarching conceptual model to integrate the conceptual and empirical research base for the role of eating behavior dimensions in the field of obesity research would highlight potential patterns of interaction between individual differences in eating behaviors, specific aspects of the individual’s food environment and individual variation in state levels of hunger and satiety. PMID:22796186

  13. Rapid Weight Loss and the Body Fluid Balance and Hemoglobin Mass of Elite Amateur Boxers

    PubMed Central

    Reljic, Dejan; Hässler, Eike; Jost, Joachim; Friedmann-Bette, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    Context Dehydration is assumed to be a major adverse effect associated with rapid loss of body mass for competing in a lower weight class in combat sports. However, the effects of such weight cutting on body fluid balance in a real-life setting are unknown. Objective To examine the effects of 5% or greater loss of body mass within a few days before competition on body water, blood volume, and plasma volume in elite amateur boxers. Design Case-control study. Setting Sports medicine laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Seventeen male boxers (age = 19.2 ± 2.9 years, height = 175.1 ± 7.0 cm, mass = 65.6 ± 9.2 kg) were assigned to the weight-loss group (WLG; n = 10) or the control group (CON; n = 7). Intervention(s) The WLG reduced body mass by restricting fluid and food and inducing excessive sweat loss by adhering to individual methods. The CON participated in their usual precompetition training. Main Outcome Measure(s) During an ordinary training period (t-1), 2 days before competition (t-2), and 1 week after competition (t-3), we performed bioelectrical impedance measurements; calculated total body water, intracellular water, and extracellular water; and estimated total hemoglobin mass (tHbmass), blood volume, and plasma volume by the CO-rebreathing method. Results In the WLG, the loss of body mass (5.6% ± 1.7%) led to decreases in total body water (6.0% ± 0.9%), extracellular water (12.4% ± 7.6%), tHbmass (5.3% ± 3.8%), blood volume (7.6% ± 2.1%; P < .001), and plasma volume (8.6% ± 3.9%). The intracellular water did not change (P > .05). At t-3, total body water, extracellular water, and plasma volume had returned to near baseline values, but tHbmass and blood volume still were less than baseline values (P < .05). In CON, we found no changes (P > .05). Conclusions In a real-life setting, the loss of approximately 6% body mass within 5 days induced hypohydration, which became evident by the decreases in body water and plasma volume. The reduction in tHbmass was a surprising observation that needs further investigation. PMID:23672332

  14. Effect of swimming activity on relative weight and body composition of juvenile rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpkins, D.G.; Hubert, W.A.; Del Rio, C.M.; Rule, D.C.

    2003-01-01

    Fisheries managers often assess body condition using relative weight (Wr) because it provides a comparative measure of fish plumpness among individuals and populations. However, it is not known whether the morphological information that Wr summarizes reflects physiological measures, such as relative lipid reserves, in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. The purpose of this study was to determine whether swimming activity affects either the Wr or proximate body composition of juvenile (total length, 170-260 mm) rainbow trout. When rainbow trout from a hatchery were fed ad libitum for 147 d, inactive (no current) and active (15 cm/s current velocity) fish did not differ in Wr However, inactive rainbow trout maintained relatively constant lipid levels, whereas active fish declined in lipid content. Relative weight may provide a comparable measure of body form, but it is not an accurate index of lipid content between active and inactive rainbow trout fed an excess ration. For assessing the physiological condition of rainbow trout, measurement of proximate body composition appears to be more accurate than indices based on length and weight.

  15. Secular trend in body height and weight of Australian children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Loesch, D Z; Stokes, K; Huggins, R M

    2000-04-01

    Secular changes in growth and maturation have been well documented in various world populations, with secular increase especially noticeable in the developed countries. To assess the trend in both adult size and tempo of growth we compared the data on stature and body weight obtained in 1992-1993 from 1,804 Melbourne school students aged 5 to 17 with historical data collected from white Australians during the last 100 years. We illustrate the age-dependent trend in stature and body weight by means of regression surfaces. These were constructed by fitting local regression models to historical data and by simple plots showing the overall, and per decade, secular increase in both these measures at peripubertal and adult ages. Because of limited information on sample sizes and variability provided by the historical data, statistical comparisons have been performed only between the present 1992-1993 survey and two earlier independent surveys conducted in 1985 and 1970. The results have shown secular increase in adult stature over the last century, with the rate of increase varying between 0.4 and 2.1 cm/decade in males and 0.01 and 1.6 cm/decade in females. While secular increase in stature has significantly slowed down during the last two decades, the increase in body weight is still continuing at a high rate, and this increase is more pronounced in females. The period of strong secular increase, especially in the tempo of growth, coincided both with the shift toward earlier menarche and the improvement of socioeconomic conditions of the Australian population. The need for further studies to identify factors determining the continuing increase in body weight is emphasized, and caution in using the existing national growth standards for stature and weight is recommended. PMID:10727972

  16. Five-Factor Model Personality Traits and the Objective and Subjective Experience of Body Weight.

    PubMed

    Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio

    2014-10-20

    Research on personality and adiposity has focused primarily on middle-aged and older adults. The present research sought to (a) replicate these associations in a young adult sample, (b) examine whether sex, race, or ethnicity moderate these associations, and (c) test whether personality is associated with the subjective experience of body weight and discrepancies between perceived and actual weight. Participants (N?=?15,669; Mage ?=?29; 53% female; ?40% ethnic/racial minority) from Wave 4 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health completed a Five-Factor Model personality measure and reported their weight, height, and perception of weight category (e.g., overweight); trained staff measured participants' height, weight, and waist circumference. Conscientiousness was associated with healthier weight, with a nearly 5?kg difference between the top and bottom quartiles. Neuroticism among women and Extraversion among men were associated with higher adiposity. Neuroticism was also associated with misperceived heavier weight, whereas Extraversion was associated with misperceived taller and leaner. The associations were similar across race/ethnic groups. Personality is associated with objective and subjective adiposity in young adulthood. Although modest, the effects are consistent with life span theories of personality, and the misperceptions are consistent with the conceptual worldviews associated with the traits. PMID:25329238

  17. Comparisons of Angus-, Braunvieh-, Chianina-, Hereford-, Gelbvieh-, Maine Anjou-, and Red Poll-sired cows for weight, weight adjusted for body condition score, height, and body condition score.

    PubMed

    Arango, J A; Cundiff, L V; Van Vleck, L D

    2002-12-01

    Data from Angus, Hereford, and top-cross cows (n = 641) from 2- to 8-yr-old daughters of seven breeds of sires included in Cycle II of the Germplasm Evaluation Program at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center, comprising cow weight (CW, n = 15,698), height (CH, n = 15,676), and condition score (CS, n = 15,667), were used to estimate breed-group differences. Data were recorded in four seasons of each year (1975 to 1982). The mixed model included cow age, season of measurement, and their interactions, year of birth, pregnancy-lactation code (PL), and breed-group as fixed effects for CW and CS. Analyses of weight adjusted for condition score included CS as covariate. The model for CH excluded PL. Random effects were additive genetic and permanent environmental effects. Differences among breed-groups were significant for all traits at different ages and were maintained across ages, with few interchanges in ranking through maturity. Cows were ranked (by breed of sire) in the following order for weight: Red Poll (lightest), Hereford-Angus (reciprocal), Braunvieh, Gelbvieh, Maine Anjou, and Chianina (heaviest). In general, cows sired by breeds of British origin were lighter and shorter than those of continental origin. Differences in weight due to differences in condition seemed to be of small magnitude because making an adjustment for condition score did not affect rankings of breed groups across ages. Differences among breed groups for height were consistent with differences for weight. Cows from Chianina sires were taller than Hereford-Angus cows by 14 to 15 cm across ages. In this study, breed of sire effects were significantly different for the mature size of their daughters. PMID:12542153

  18. Diffusion Weighted Whole Body Imaging with Background Body Signal Suppression (DWIBS): Technical Improvement Using Free Breathing, STIR and High Resolution 3D Display

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taro Takahara; Yutaka Imai; Tomohiro Yamashita; Seiei Yasuda; Seiji Nasu; Marc Van Cauteren

    Purpose: To examine a new way of body diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) using the short TI inversion recovery-echo planar imaging (STIR-EPI) sequence and free breathing scanning (diffusion weighted whole body imaging with background body signal suppression; DWIBS) to obtain three-dimensional displays. Materials and Methods: 1) Apparent contrast-to-noise ratios (AppCNR) between lymph nodes and surrounding fat tissue were compared in three

  19. Effects of Chitosan on Body Weight Gain, Growth Hormone and Intestinal Morphology in Weaned Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yuanqing; Shi, Binlin; Yan, Sumei; Li, Tiyu; Guo, Yiwei; Li, Junliang

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effects of chitosan on the concentrations of GH and IGF-I in serum and small intestinal morphological structure of piglets, in order to evaluate the regulating action of chitosan on weaned pig growth through endocrine and intestinal morphological approaches. A total of 180 weaned pigs (35 d of age; 11.56±1.61 kg of body weight) were selected and assigned randomly to 5 dietary treatments, including 1 basal diet (control) and 4 diets with chitosan supplementation (100, 500, 1,000 and 2,000 mg/kg, respectively). Each treatment contained six replicate pens with six pigs per pen. The experiment lasted for 28 d. The results showed that the average body weight gain (BWG) of pigs was improved quadratically by dietary chitosan during the former 14 d and the later 14 d after weaned (p<0.05). Furthermore, dietary supplementation of chitosan tended to quadratically increase the concentration of serum GH on d 14 (p = 0.082) and 28 (p = 0.087). Diets supplemented with increasing levels of chitosan increased quadratically the villus height of jejunum and ileum on d 14 (p = 0.089, p<0.01) and 28 (p = 0.074, p<0.01), meanwhile, chitosan increased quadratically the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in duodenum, jejunum and ileum on d 14 (p<0.05, p = 0.055, p<0.01) and 28 (p<0.01, p<0.01, p<0.01), however, it decreased quadratically crypt depth in ileum on d 14 (p<0.05) and that in duodenum, jejunum and ileum on d 28 (p<0.01, p<0.05, p<0.05). In conclusion, these results indicated that chitosan could quadratically improve growth in weaned pigs, and the underlying mechanism may due to the increase of the serum GH concentration and improvement of the small intestines morphological structure. PMID:25049731

  20. Genetic parameters for feed efficiency and body weight traits in Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Nasiri Foomani, N; Zerehdaran, S; Ahani Azari, M; Lotfi, E

    2014-01-01

    1. The objectives of the present study were to estimate heritability and genetic correlations for feed efficiency and body weight (BW) in Japanese quail. 2. Recorded traits during different weeks of the growing period were BW from hatch to 35 d, feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and residual feed intake (RFI) from hatch to 28 d of age. 3. Genetic parameters were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood method using ASREML software. The results showed that heritability estimates for BW ranged from 0.11 to 0.22, and maternal permanent environmental effect was the highest at hatch (0.45). FCR, RFI and FI showed moderate heritabilities ranging from 0.13 to 0.40. 4.Genetic correlations of BW28 with FI0-28 (0.88) and RFI0-28 (0.1) and genetic correlation of FI0-28 with FCR0-28 (0.13) and RFI0-28 (0.52) were positive. A negative genetic correlation was found between BW28 and FCR0-28 (-0.49). There was a high positive genetic correlation (0.67) between RFI0-28 and FCR0-28. 5. In conclusion, selection for increased BW and reduced FI in a selection index could be recommended to improve feed efficiency traits including FCR and RFI in Japanese quail. PMID:24851993

  1. Parenting styles, feeding styles, and their influence on child obesogenic behaviors and body weight. A review.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Rachel L; Mobley, Amy R

    2013-12-01

    With recommendations to include parents as targets for childhood obesity interventions, there is a need to review the relationship of general parenting influences on childhood obesity. Therefore, the aim of this review is to examine the existing literature regarding the influence of parenting style and/or feeding styles on childhood obesogenic behaviors and body weight. Research articles related to parenting style (n=40) and parental feeding style (n=11) were identified and reviewed. An authoritative style appears to be the most protective parenting and feeding style while the indulgent feeding style is consistently associated with negative health outcomes. Overall, results for parenting style studies are inconsistent due to differences in conceptualization and measurement, while the results for feeding styles are much more cohesive. The literature is lacking in the ability to describe the interplay between parenting and feeding styles and child obesity risk. Recommendations for future research and interventions are discussed in regards to feeding style and influences on childhood obesity. PMID:24001395

  2. Factors affecting egg production, body weight, and feed efficiency, of selected strains of cage layers

    E-print Network

    Miller, Marshall Middleton

    1956-01-01

    throughout the experiment as shown in Tables I, and VII, and illustrated in Figure 3 ~ Ths 1 hits i. egl:orna had the lowest average sgg weight of the three production stocks involved, and the Inbred Hybrid No. 2's produced eggs of intermediate weight...FACTOHS AFF:'CTING HGG I H( DUCTION BODY HHIGHT, R(D F~D L'FFI C IHNCY, OF S"-LHCTHD S". 'H el HS OF C AGH LAYHHS By KAHSHALL MIDDLETON 1AILLsH A Thesi, s Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and hieohanlca1 College of Texas...

  3. Effects of Weight Cue Reactivity on Self-Report Measures of Body Dissatisfaction

    E-print Network

    Beauchamp, Marshall

    2012-04-01

    : Thompson Brookes/Cole. Hilbert, A., Tuschen-Caffier, B., A Vogele, C. (2002). Effects of prolonged and repeated body image exposure in binge-eating disorder. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 52(3), 137-144. Jansen, A. (1998). A learning model... of binge eating: Cue reactivity and cue exposure. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36(3), 257-272. Larsen, J. K., Ouwens, M., Engels, R. C., Eisinga, R., Strien, T. (2008). Validity of self-reported weight and height and predictors of weight bias...

  4. Height, weight and body mass index values of mid-19th century New York legislative officers.

    PubMed

    Bodenhorn, Howard

    2010-07-01

    Previous studies of mid-19th century American heights and body mass index values have used potentially unrepresentative groups-students in military academies, prisoners, and African Americans. This paper uses an alternative source with heights and weights of ordinary people employed in a wide variety of occupations. The results reveal the operation of the antebellum paradox in that average heights declined between men born circa 1820 and those born circa 1840. Average weights also declined for adult males, suggesting a decline in mid-19th century nutritional status. PMID:20061195

  5. Cocaine’s Appetite for Fat and the Consequences on Body Weight

    E-print Network

    Billing, L.; Ersche, K. D.

    2014-01-01

    Cocaine’s Appetite for Fat and the Consequences on Body Weight Billing L.1 and Ersche K.D.1,2? 1 University of Cambridge, Departments of Psychology and Psychiatry, Cambridge, U.K. 2 Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, University... (0)1223 336581, e-mail: ke220@cam.ac.uk Word count: 1,909 main body and legend (excluding references), 178 abstract Reference count: 21 Number of Figures: 1 2 Abstract For many individuals in treatment for cocaine dependence...

  6. Body weight and rumen-reticulum capacity in tule elk and mule deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weckerly, F.W.; Bleich, V.C.; Chetkiewicz, C.-L.B.; Ricca, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between body size and rumen-reticulum capacity among conspecific individuals is predicted to be isometric. We examined whether the relationship between body weight and rumen-reticulum capacity was isometric in adult male and female rule elk (Cervus elaphus nannodes) and in adult female mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). We detected no effect of sex on this relationship in elk, and the slope of the regression was 1.0 for one measure of rumen-reticulum capacity and <1.0 for another. Among deer, the slope of the relationship was <1.0 in one measure of rumen-reticulum capacity, and we detected no relationship with the other.

  7. Crossbreeding Dairy Cattle. II. Weights and Body Measurements of Purebred Holstein and Guernsey Females and Their Reciprocal Crossbreds1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Touchberry; Ben Bereskin

    1966-01-01

    Body weights and five linear body mea- surements of reciprocal crossbred and pure- bred Holstein and Guernsey females were analyzed and compared. Weights and measurements were taken at 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, and 48 months of age. Means of the crossbreds were larger than those of the purebreds at all ages for all variables. Effects of crossbreeding

  8. The influence of pasture distribution, and temperature on adult body weight of feral pigs in a semi-arid environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nick Dexter

    2003-01-01

    The influence of high temperature and the distribution and abundance of pasture on variation in adult body weight of feral pigs was examined at Nocoleche Nature Reserve, semi-arid New South Wales, over the course of a drought. The influence of the pig's sex, and the mean maximum environmental temperature and pasture biomass on the adult pig's body weight, were examined.

  9. Matern Child Health J . Author manuscript Pre-pregnancy body mass index and weight gain during pregnancy

    E-print Network

    Matern Child Health J . Author manuscript Page /1 9 Pre-pregnancy body mass index and weight gain during pregnancy: relations with gestational diabetes and hypertension, and birth outcomes Barbara Heude pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and weight gain during pregnancy with pregnancy and birth outcomes

  10. Parity and Body Weight in the United States: Differences by Race and Size of Place of Residence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soo-Kyung Lee; Jeffery Sobal; Edward A. Frongillo; Christine M. Olson; Wendy S. Wolfe

    2005-01-01

    Objective: In women, parity has been studied in relation to body weights. This study examined whether and how relationships between parity and body weight differ by race and size of place of residence, adjusting for sociodemographic factors (age, income, education, working status, and marital status) and health behaviors (alcohol consumption, birth control pills, diet, physical activity, and smoking).Research Methods and

  11. Bingeing, Self-restriction, and Increased Body Weight in Rats With Limited Access to a Sweet-fat Diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura A. Berner; Nicole M. Avena; Bartley G. Hoebel; Bart G. Hoebel

    2008-01-01

    Objective:Prior research has shown that fasting alternated with a diet of standard rodent chow and a 10% sucrose solution produces bingeing on the sucrose, but animals remain at normal body weight. The present study investigated whether restricted access to a highly palatable combination of sugar and fat, without food deprivation, would instigate binge eating and also increase body weight.Methods and

  12. Effects of maternal leptin treatment during lactation on the body weight and leptin resistance of adult offspring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Márcia Clements Lins; Egberto Gaspar de Moura; Patrícia Cristina Lisboa; Isabela Teixeira Bonomo; Magna Cottini Fonseca Passos

    2005-01-01

    We investigate whether leptin treatment to lactating rats affects food intake, body weight and leptin serum concentration and its anorectic effect on their adult offspring. Lactating rats were divided into 2 groups: Lep-single injected with recombinant rat leptin (8 ?g\\/100 g of body weight, daily for the last 3 consecutive days of lactation) and control group (C) that received the

  13. Whole-Body 3D T1-weighted MR Imaging in Patients with Prostate Cancer: Feasibility and Evaluation in Screening for Metastatic Disease.

    PubMed

    Pasoglou, Vasiliki; Michoux, Nicolas; Peeters, Frank; Larbi, Ahmed; Tombal, Bertrand; Selleslagh, Tom; Omoumi, Patrick; Vande Berg, Bruno C; Lecouvet, Frédéric E

    2015-04-01

    Purpose To develop and assess the diagnostic performance of a three-dimensional (3D) whole-body T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging pulse sequence at 3.0 T for bone and node staging in patients with prostate cancer. Materials and Methods This prospective study was approved by the institutional ethics committee; informed consent was obtained from all patients. Thirty patients with prostate cancer at high risk for metastases underwent whole-body 3D T1-weighted imaging in addition to the routine MR imaging protocol for node and/or bone metastasis screening, which included coronal two-dimensional (2D) whole-body T1-weighted MR imaging, sagittal proton-density fat-saturated (PDFS) imaging of the spine, and whole-body diffusion-weighted MR imaging. Two observers read the 2D and 3D images separately in a blinded manner for bone and node screening. Images were read in random order. The consensus review of MR images and the findings at prospective clinical and MR imaging follow-up at 6 months were used as the standard of reference. The interobserver agreement and diagnostic performance of each sequence were assessed on per-patient and per-lesion bases. Results The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were significantly higher with whole-body 3D T1-weighted imaging than with whole-body 2D T1-weighted imaging regardless of the reference region (bone or fat) and lesion location (bone or node) (P < .003 for all). For node metastasis, diagnostic performance (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve) was higher for whole-body 3D T1-weighted imaging (per-patient analysis; observer 1: P < .001 for 2D T1-weighted imaging vs 3D T1-weighted imaging, P = .006 for 2D T1-weighted imaging + PDFS imaging vs 3D T1-weighted imaging; observer 2: P = .006 for 2D T1-weighted imaging vs 3D T1-weighted imaging, P = .006 for 2D T1-weighted imaging + PDFS imaging vs 3D T1-weighted imaging), as was sensitivity (per-lesion analysis; observer 1: P < .001 for 2D T1-weighted imaging vs 3D T1-weighted imaging, P < .001 for 2D T1-weighted imaging + PDFS imaging vs 3D T1-weighted imaging; observer 2: P < .001 for 2D T1-weighted imaging vs 3D T1-weighted imaging, P < .001 for 2D T1-weighted imaging + PDFS imaging vs 3D T1-weighted imaging). Conclusion Whole-body MR imaging is feasible with a 3D T1-weighted sequence and provides better SNR and CNR compared with 2D sequences, with a diagnostic performance that is as good or better for the detection of bone metastases and better for the detection of lymph node metastases. PMID:25513855

  14. Effects of Diet and Weight Gain on Body Condition Scoring in Thoroughbred Geldings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica K. Suagee; Amy O. Burk; Rachael W. Quinn; Erin D. Petersen; Thomas G. Hartsock; Larry W. Douglass

    2008-01-01

    In the horse, the body condition score (BCS) system to assess subcutaneous fat deposition is a useful tool for making feeding management decisions. The system includes assessing fat deposition at six body areas (neck, withers, shoulders, ribs, loin, and tail head) and was developed in Quarter Horse mares. It has not been tested for use on other breeds or genders, possibly

  15. Body weight, body image and primary postpartum haemorrhage: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Gollop, N D; Childs, C A; Coupe, B; MacFarlane, S; Burrell, J; Kumar, B

    2014-07-01

    The prevalence of obesity during pregnancy is rising. Elevated BMI is a significant risk factor for adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, including primary postpartum haemorrhage (PPH). Addressing the issues surrounding obesity in pregnancy presents many biological, social and psychological challenges. BMI is an easily measured and modifiable anthropometrical risk factor and should be recorded in all pregnancies. BMI should be proactively managed prior to and during pregnancy. All women should be educated as to the risks of an elevated BMI during pregnancy and those at risk should have access to specialist medical and surgical support if required. Our aim was to investigate the associations between elevated BMI and adverse maternal and fetal outcomes including PPH, and to explore the psychological challenges of having an elevated BMI during pregnancy. PMID:24694033

  16. No compelling evidence that sibutramine prolongs life in rodents despite providing a dose-dependent reduction in body weight

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Daniel L.; Robertson, Henry; Desmond, Renee; Nagy, Tim R.; Allison, David B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The health and longevity effects of body weight reduction resulting from exercise and caloric restriction in rodents are well known, but less is known about whether similar effects occur with weight reduction from the use of a pharmaceutical agent such as sibutramine, a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. Results & Conclusion Using data from a two-year toxicology study of sibutramine in CD rats and CD-1 mice, despite a dose-dependent reduction in food intake and body weight in rats compared to controls, and a body weight reduction in mice at the highest dose, there was no compelling evidence for reductions in mortality rate. PMID:21079617

  17. Perceptions of sexual assault victims/survivors: the influence of sexual history and body weight.

    PubMed

    Gotovac, Sandra; Towson, Shelagh

    2015-01-01

    The intersection between a woman's body weight and sexual history and the victim blaming attitudes of future health care providers was investigated. University undergraduate students (N = 91) enrolled in programs associated with the provision of health care read 1 of 4 patient files of a woman reporting a rape as well as 2 distracter files. Results showed that, for overweight rape victims/survivors, study participants' antifat attitudes were correlated with victim blaming attitudes. Male participants held the attacker significantly less responsible than did female participants if the victim/survivor had several previous sexual partners. Findings suggest that body weight should be considered as a contributing factor in attitudes toward rape victims/survivors, and the gender of the health care provider can be a factor in the post-assault treatment of overweight rape victims/survivors. PMID:25774415

  18. Reconceptualizing the Association between Food Insufficiency and Body Weight: Distinguishing Hunger from Economic Hardship.

    PubMed

    Ross, Catherine E; Hill, Terrence D

    2013-01-01

    What is the association between food insufficiency and body weight? Although common sense would suggest a negative association, research often finds the opposite. We contrast commodity theories of material privation with stress theories, proposing that the seemingly counterintuitive association results from the confounding influence of economic hardship. Because it is a chronic stressor, economic hardship may contribute to overweight. Data from the WCF project of 2,402 disadvantaged women in Chicago, Boston, and San Antonio show that people who experience economic hardship weigh more; and that the true negative association between body weight and food insufficiency-especially going hungry because one cannot afford food-is revealed only after adjustment for economic hardship. PMID:24244066

  19. Reconceptualizing the Association between Food Insufficiency and Body Weight: Distinguishing Hunger from Economic Hardship

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Catherine E.; Hill, Terrence D.

    2013-01-01

    What is the association between food insufficiency and body weight? Although common sense would suggest a negative association, research often finds the opposite. We contrast commodity theories of material privation with stress theories, proposing that the seemingly counterintuitive association results from the confounding influence of economic hardship. Because it is a chronic stressor, economic hardship may contribute to overweight. Data from the WCF project of 2,402 disadvantaged women in Chicago, Boston, and San Antonio show that people who experience economic hardship weigh more; and that the true negative association between body weight and food insufficiency—especially going hungry because one cannot afford food—is revealed only after adjustment for economic hardship. PMID:24244066

  20. Differences in the nature of body image disturbances between female obese individuals with versus without a comorbid binge eating disorder: an exploratory study including static and dynamic aspects of body image.

    PubMed

    Legenbauer, Tanja; Vocks, Silja; Betz, Sabrina; Báguena Puigcerver, María José; Benecke, Andrea; Troje, Nikolaus F; Rüddel, Heinz

    2011-03-01

    Various components of body image were measured to assess body image disturbances in patients with obesity. To overcome limitations of previous studies, a photo distortion technique and a biological motion distortion device were included to assess static and dynamic aspects of body image. Questionnaires assessed cognitive-affective aspects, bodily attitudes, and eating behavior. Patients with obesity and a binge eating disorder (OBE, n = 15) were compared with patients with obesity only (ONB; n = 15), to determine the nature of any differences in body image disturbances. Both groups had high levels of body image disturbances with cognitive-affective deficits. Binge eating disorder (BED) participants also had perceptual difficulties (static only). Both groups reported high importance of weight and shape for self-esteem. There were some significant differences between the groups suggesting that a comorbid BED causes further aggravation. Body image interventions in obesity treatment may be warranted. PMID:21324945

  1. Alcohol consumption patterns, diet and body weight in 10 European countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Sieri; V Krogh; C Saieva; D E Grobbee; M Bergmann; S Rohrmann; A Tjřnneland; P Ferrari; Y Chloptsios; V Dilis; M Jenab; J Linseisen; P Wallström; I Johansson; M D Chirlaque; M J Sanchez; M Niravong; F Clavel-Chapelon; A A Welch; N E Allen; H B Bueno-de-Mesquita; Y T van der Schouw; C Sacerdote; S Panico; C L Parr; T Braaten; A Olsen; M K Jensen; S Bingham; E Riboli; N Slimani

    2009-01-01

    Background\\/objectives:Europe has the highest level of alcohol consumption in the world. As drinking patterns are important determinants of the beneficial and harmful effects of alcohol consumption, we investigated alcohol consumption in relation to nutrient intake, place of consumption, education and body weight in a sample of adults from 10 European countries.Methods:A 24-h dietary recall interview was conducted on 13 025

  2. Effects of Silage Based Diets on Feed Intake, Milk Production, and Body Weight of Dairy Cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Belyea; C. E. Coppock; W. G. Merrill; S. T. Slack

    1975-01-01

    Dairy cattle were assigned uniformly to three forage treatments by lactation number (mean -- 2.2) to compare intake, production, and body weight changes over three lactations. Forage treatments were corn silage ad libitum, corn silage restricted plus hay-crop silage, or hay ad libitum. Concentrate treatments, two pre- partum and two peak-lactation, were eval- uated also. Intakes for the three forage

  3. Body weight supported treadmill training in acute spinal cord injury: impact on muscle and bone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L M Giangregorio; A L Hicks; C E Webber; S M Phillips; B C Craven; J M Bugaresti; N McCartney

    2005-01-01

    Design:Longitudinal prospective case series.Objective:To evaluate the impact of early introduction postspinal cord injury (SCI) of twice-weekly body-weight supported treadmill training (BWSTT) on muscle and bone.Setting:Centre for Health Promotion and Rehabilitation, McMaster University, Canada.Methods:Five individuals who had sustained traumatic SCI within 2–6 months participated in the study. Bone mineral densities (BMD) of proximal femur, distal femur, proximal tibia and lumbar spine

  4. Body weight and obesity in adults and self-reported abuse in childhood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DF Williamson; TJ Thompson; RF Anda; WH Dietz; V Felitti

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about childhood factors and adult obesity. A previous study found a strong association between childhood neglect and obesity in young adults.OBJECTIVE: To estimate associations between self-reported abuse in childhood (sexual, verbal, fear of physical abuse and physical) adult body weight, and risk of obesity.DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study with surveys during 1995–1997.PATIENTS: A total of 13 177

  5. Nonadditive genetic effects and inbreeding depression for body weight in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Rye; I. L. Mao

    1998-01-01

    For four sub-populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Norway, additive, dominance and additive by additive genetic variances and inbreeding depression were estimated for body weight at slaughter after two years in sea-water. The data used were from a hierarchical mating design, in which each sire was mated with two to seven dams. In each generation, 104 to 206 full-sib

  6. Liquid versus solid carbohydrate: effects on food intake and body weight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DP DiMeglio

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Beverages are contributing an increased proportion of energy to the diet. Because they elicit a weak compensatory dietary response, they may increase risk of positive energy balance.OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to document the differential effects of matched liquid and solid carbohydrate loads on diet and body weight.DESIGN: In a cross-over design, seven males and eight females consumed dietary carbohydrate

  7. Body weight is modulated by levels of full-length Huntingtin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremy M. Van Raamsdonk; William T. Gibson; Jacqueline Pearson; Zoe Murphy; Ge Lu; Blair R. Leavitt; Michael R. Hayden

    2006-01-01

    Huntington disease is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder that is caused by the expansion of a polyglutamine tract within the Huntingtin (htt) protein. Wild-type htt has been shown to be involved in tran- scription, transport and cell survival. Here, we demonstrate that increased expression of full-length wild-type htt in mice is associated with a dose-dependent increase in body weight which results

  8. Body weights and fat deposition of Palaearctic passerine migrants in the central Sahara

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franz Bairlein

    1985-01-01

    1.Data on body weight, fat score and length of stopover of Palaearctic passerine migrants trapped at two sites in the central Algerian Sahara in autumn 1983 are presented.2.Birds found grounded in oases were in good condition. They were not critically short of fat reserves.3.Some of the migrant species found there have probably terminated their migration whereas other species do only

  9. A Physiological Role of Breast Milk Leptin in Body Weight Control in Developing Infants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olga Miralles; Juana Sánchez; Andreu Palou; Catalina Picó

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Leptin, a hormone that regulates food intake and energy metabolism, is present in breast milk. The aim of this study was to determine whether milk leptin concentration is correlated with maternal circulating leptin and BMI and with body weight gain of infants.Research Methods and Procedures: A group of 28 non-obese women (BMI between 16.3 and 27.3 kg\\/m2) who breast-fed

  10. Comparison of Moringa oleifera Leaves Extract with Atenolol on Serum triglyceride, Serum Cholesterol, Blood glucose, heart weight, body weight in Adrenaline Induced Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naznin Ara; Mamunur Rashid

    The research work was investigated to compare the effects of Moringa oleifera with atenolol on serum cholesterol level, serum triglyceride level, blood glucose level, heart weight and body weight of adrenaline induced rats (AIR) in a crossover design. The pharmacologically active components responsible for above-mentioned activities were isolated from plant using bioassay guided purification approach and the structures of the

  11. Effects of ambient temperature on adaptive thermogenesis during maintenance of reduced body weight in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ravussin, Yann; LeDuc, Charles A.; Watanabe, Kazuhisa

    2012-01-01

    We showed previously that, at ambient room temperature (22°C), mice maintained at 20% below their initial body weight by calorie restriction expend energy at a rate below that which can be accounted for by the decrease of fat and fat-free mass. Food-restricted rodents may become torpid at subthermoneutral temperatures, a possible confounding factor when using mice as human models in obesity research. We examined the bioenergetic, hormonal, and behavioral responses to maintenance of a 20% body weight reduction in singly housed C57BL/6J +/+ and Lepob mice housed at both 22°C and 30°C. Weight-reduced high-fat-fed diet mice (HFD-WR) showed similar quantitative reductions in energy expenditure—adjusted for body mass and composition—at both 22°C and 30°C: ?1.4 kcal/24 h and ?1.6 kcal/24 h below predicted, respectively, and neither group entered torpor. In contrast, weight-reduced Lepob mice (OB-WR) housed at 22°C became torpid in the late lights-off period (0200–0500) but did not when housed at 30°C. These studies indicate that mice with an intact leptin axis display similar decreases in “absolute” energy expenditure in response to weight reduction at both 22°C and 30°C ambient temperature. More importantly, the “percent” decrease in total energy expenditure observed in the HFD-WR compared with AL mice is much greater at 30°C (?19%) than at 22°C (?10%). Basal energy expenditure demands are ?45% lower in mice housed at 30°C vs. 22°C, since the mice housed at thermoneutrality do not allocate extra energy for heat production. The higher total energy expenditure of mice housed at 22°C due to these increased thermogenic demands may mask physiologically relevant changes in energy expenditure showing that ambient temperature must be carefully considered when quantifying energy metabolism in both rodents and humans. PMID:22761182

  12. Smoking Cessation and Body Weight: Evidence from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kasteridis, Panagiotis; Yen, Steven T

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of smoking cessation in body weight. Data Sources 2004–2005 and 2009–2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Surveys (BRFSS) (N = 349,000), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Tax Burden on Tobacco (Orzechowski and Walker 2010). Study Design The Gaussian treatment effect model is estimated for three age categories by gender. Treatment effects of quitting smoking on body mass index (BMI) by quit length are calculated. Principal Findings Quitting is found to be endogenous. Differentiated effects of quitting smoking on BMI are found among quitters by gender, between age groups, and by length of time since quitting smoking, and positive association between smoking cessation and body weight confirmed. Declining smoking rates have only a modest effect in the overweight population. The effects of quitting on BMI are considerably lower among younger men and women. Conclusion The price that must be paid, in terms of weight gain, to enjoy the health benefits of smoking cessation is trivial even for the obese population. PMID:22356600

  13. Autonomic Nervous System in the Control of Energy Balance and Body Weight: Personal Contributions

    PubMed Central

    Messina, G.; De Luca, V.; Viggiano, An.; Ascione, A.; Iannaccone, T.; Chieffi, S.; Monda, M.

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing in the industrialized world, so that the World Health Organization considers obesity as a “pandemia” in rich populations. The autonomic nervous system plays a crucial role in the control of energy balance and body weight. This review summarizes our own data and perspectives, emphasizing the influence exerted by autonomic nervous system on energy expenditure and food intake, which are able to determine the body weight. Activation of the sympathetic discharge causes an increase in energy expenditure and a decrease in food intake, while reduction of food intake and body weight loss determines a reduction of the sympathetic activity. On the other hand, pathophysiological mechanisms of the obesity involve alterations of the sympathetic nervous system in accordance with the “Mona Lisa Hypothesis,” an acronym for “most obesities known are low in sympathetic activity.” Furthermore, the parasympathetic influences on the energy expenditure are analyzed in this review, showing that an increase in parasympathetic activity can induce a paradoxical enhancement of energy consumption. PMID:23691314

  14. Weighted total least squares for rigid body transformation and comparative study on heteroscedastic points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yongjun; Deng, Caihua; Zhu, Jianjun

    2011-10-01

    Aligning two point clouds is the iterated closest point algorithm which starts with two point clouds to estimate three translates and rotations. Traditional registration are searching the optimal solutions at the cost function of the minimum residual squares without consideration of points covariance. Closed-form or iterative least squares methods are performed to search the solutions, and total least squares (TLS) methods are introduced in recent years. The ordinary least squares (OLS) and OTLS methods can not work on the heteroscedastic cases. So element-wise weighted TLS (EWTLS) and row-wise weighted TLS (RWTLS) methods are introduced to solve the rigid body transformation problem after the initial values obtained by Procrustes analysis method. Comparative studies are made with the weighted and unweighted estimators of OLS, TLS, mixed OLS and TLS, EWTLS and RWTLS. The results indicate that the RWTLS method is the highest accuracy estimator, and be much more accurate than the unweighted OLS and TLS methods.

  15. Why bodies? Twelve reasons for including bodily expressions in affective neuroscience.

    PubMed

    de Gelder, Beatrice

    2009-12-12

    Why bodies? It is rather puzzling that given the massive interest in affective neuroscience in the last decade, it still seems to make sense to raise the question 'Why bodies' and to try to provide an answer to it, as is the goal of this article. There are now hundreds of articles on human emotion perception ranging from behavioural studies to brain imaging experiments. These experimental studies complement decades of reports on affective disorders in neurological patients and clinical studies of psychiatric populations. The most cursory glance at the literature on emotion in humans, now referred to by the umbrella term of social and affective neuroscience, shows that over 95 per cent of them have used faces as stimuli. Of the remaining 5 per cent, a few have used scenes or auditory information including human voices, music or environmental sounds. But by far the smallest number has looked into whole-body expressions. As a rough estimate, a search on PubMed today, 1 May 2009, yields 3521 hits for emotion x faces, 1003 hits for emotion x music and 339 hits for emotion x bodies. When looking in more detail, the body x emotion category in fact yields a majority of papers on well-being, nursing, sexual violence or organ donation. But the number of cognitive and affective neuroscience studies of emotional body perception as of today is lower than 20. Why then have whole bodies and bodily expressions not attracted the attention of researchers so far? The goal of this article is to contribute some elements for an answer to this question. I believe that there is something to learn from the historical neglect of bodies and bodily expressions. I will next address some historical misconceptions about whole-body perception, and in the process I intend not only to provide an impetus for this kind of work but also to contribute to a better understanding of the significance of the affective dimension of behaviour, mind and brain as seen from the vantage point of bodily communication. Subsequent sections discuss available evidence for the neurofunctional basis of facial and bodily expressions as well as neuropsychological and clinical studies of bodily expressions. PMID:19884142

  16. Effect of age on body weight, heart rate and blood pressure in pair-caged, male, Fischer 344 rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven I. Baskin; Jay Roberts; Zebulon V. Kendrick

    1979-01-01

    Body weight, heart rate and systolic blood pressure were determined in pair-caged male, Fischer 344 rats (ages 1, 3, 6, 12,\\u000a 24 and 28 months). Body weight increased significantly until 6 months of age and remained stable between 6 and 12 months of\\u000a age with a slight increase in weight between 12 and 24 months of age. Heart rate significantly

  17. The glucagon receptor is involved in mediating the body weight-lowering effects of oxyntomodulin.

    PubMed

    Kosinski, Jennifer R; Hubert, James; Carrington, Paul E; Chicchi, Gary G; Mu, James; Miller, Corey; Cao, Jin; Bianchi, Elisabetta; Pessi, Antonello; Sinharoy, Ranabir; Marsh, Donald J; Pocai, Alessandro

    2012-08-01

    Oxyntomodulin (OXM) is a peptide secreted postprandially from the L-cells of the gut that has a weak affinity for both the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP1R) and the glucagon receptor (GCGR). Peripheral administration of OXM in humans and rodents causes weight loss reducing food intake and increasing energy expenditure. It has been suggested that OXM modulates energy intake solely through GLP1R agonism. Because glucagon decreases food intake in rodents and humans, we examined whether activation of the GCGR is involved in the body weight-lowering effects of OXM. We identified an equipotent GLP1R-selective peptide agonist that differs from OXM by only one residue (Q3?E, OXMQ3E), but has no significant GCGR agonist activity in vitro and ~100-fold reduced ability to stimulate liver glycogenolysis. Chronic treatment of obese mice with OXM and OXMQ3E demonstrated that OXM exhibits superior weight loss and lipid-lowering efficacy, and antihyperglycemic activity that is comparable to the corresponding GLP1R-selective agonist. Studies in Glp1r(-/-) mice and coadministration of OXM and a GCGR antagonist revealed that the antiobesity effect of OXM requires activation of both GLP1R and GCGR. Our data provide new insight into the mechanism of action of OXM and suggest that activation of GCGR is involved in the body weight-lowering action of OXM. PMID:22421924

  18. Sepsis-induced morbidity in mice: effects on body temperature, body weight, cage activity, social behavior and cytokines in brain

    PubMed Central

    Granger, Jill I.; Ratti, Pietro-Luca; Datta, Subhash C.; Raymond, Richard M.; Opp, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    Infection negatively impacts mental health, as evidenced by the lethargy, malaise, and cognitive deficits experienced during illness. These changes in central nervous system processes, collectively termed sickness behavior, have been shown in animal models to be mediated primarily by the actions of cytokines in brain. Most studies of sickness behavior to date have used bolus injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or selective administration of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1? (IL-1?) or IL-6 as the immune challenge. Such models, although useful for determining mechanisms responsible for acute changes in physiology and behavior, do not adequately represent the more complex effects on central nervous system (CNS) processes of a true infection with replicating pathogens. In the present study, we used the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model to quantify sepsis-induced alterations in several facets of physiology and behavior of mice. We determined the impact of sepsis on cage activity, body temperature, food and water consumption and body weights of mice. Because cytokines are critical mediators of changes in behavior and temperature regulation during immune challenge, we also quantified sepsis-induced alterations in cytokine mRNA and protein in brain during the acute period of sepsis onset. We now report that cage activity and temperature regulation in mice that survive are altered for up to 23 days after sepsis induction. Food and water consumption are transiently reduced, and body weight is lost during sepsis. Furthermore, sepsis decreases social interactions for 24 – 48 hours. Finally, mRNA and protein for IL-1?, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?) are upregulated in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and brain stem during sepsis onset, from 6–72 hour post sepsis induction. Collectively, these data indicate that sepsis not only acutely alters physiology, behavior and cytokine profiles in brain, but that some brain functions are impaired for long periods in animals that survive. PMID:23146654

  19. Sepsis-induced morbidity in mice: effects on body temperature, body weight, cage activity, social behavior and cytokines in brain.

    PubMed

    Granger, Jill I; Ratti, Pietro-Luca; Datta, Subhash C; Raymond, Richard M; Opp, Mark R

    2013-07-01

    Infection negatively impacts mental health, as evidenced by the lethargy, malaise, and cognitive deficits experienced during illness. These changes in central nervous system processes, collectively termed sickness behavior, have been shown in animal models to be mediated primarily by the actions of cytokines in brain. Most studies of sickness behavior to date have used bolus injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or selective administration of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1? (IL-1?) or IL-6 as the immune challenge. Such models, although useful for determining mechanisms responsible for acute changes in physiology and behavior, do not adequately represent the more complex effects on central nervous system (CNS) processes of a true infection with replicating pathogens. In the present study, we used the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model to quantify sepsis-induced alterations in several facets of physiology and behavior of mice. We determined the impact of sepsis on cage activity, body temperature, food and water consumption and body weights of mice. Because cytokines are critical mediators of changes in behavior and temperature regulation during immune challenge, we also quantified sepsis-induced alterations in cytokine mRNA and protein in brain during the acute period of sepsis onset. We now report that cage activity and temperature regulation in mice that survive are altered for up to 23 days after sepsis induction. Food and water consumption are transiently reduced, and body weight is lost during sepsis. Furthermore, sepsis decreases social interactions for 24-48 h. Finally, mRNA and protein for IL-1?, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?) are upregulated in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and brain stem during sepsis onset, from 6h to 72 h post sepsis induction. Collectively, these data indicate that sepsis not only acutely alters physiology, behavior and cytokine profiles in brain, but that some brain functions are impaired for long periods in animals that survive. PMID:23146654

  20. [Orthopaedic findings of the foot as related to age and body weight among women (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Brückner, L; Rösler, P

    1981-01-01

    In a cross-sectional evaluation of 103 women belonging to the material of the Leipzig Longitudinal Study of the GDR Gerontology Project, foot trouble and objective foot changes were studied in relation to body weight and age. The subjects were divided into four age classes and two weight groups. The following objective foot parameters were obtained from the podogram: the angle of the big toe, the isthmus value, and the length-breadth index. Further data such as the total foot angle, the height of the plantar arch and the instep height were derived from the lateral radiograph of the foot under load. In 36.89 per cent of the subjects foot trouble was established. Two frequency peaks (15.8 years and 51.5 years) were determined for the age at which the first symptoms manifested themselves. The investigations showed a growing influence of physiological changes due to ageing on foot trouble. The dependence of foot trouble on body weight is evidenced by the fact that overweight women are more prone to develop foot trouble than women with standard weight. The angle of the big toe, in particular, is clearly weight-related, i.e. the risk to develop hallux valgus is greater in overweight women over 55 years of age than it is in standard-weight females. This finding is corroborated by the fact that, on an average, the group of overweight subjects has lower length-breadth-index values, which is indicative of a broadening of the forefoot in the process of splay-foot development. PMID:7222751

  1. Nutritively Sweetened Beverage Consumption and Body Weight: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Mattes, Richard D; Shikany, James M; Kaiser, Kathryn A; Allison, David B

    2010-01-01

    Nutritively sweetened beverages (NSBs) may play a role in the obesity epidemic. We abstracted data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and evidence-based reviews through January 2009 concerning effects of consumption of NSBs on changes in body weight and adiposity. Studies included were those 1) conducted in humans; 2) lasting at least 3 weeks; 3) incorporating random assignment of subjects to conditions that differed only in the consumption of NSBs; and 4) including an adiposity indicator as an outcome. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis of 6 studies that added NSBs to persons’ diets showed dose-dependent increases in weight. Contrarily, meta-analysis of studies that attempted to reduce NSB consumption consistently showed no effect on BMI when all subjects were considered. Meta-analysis of studies providing access to results separately for subjects overweight at baseline showed a significant effect of a roughly 0.35 standard deviations lesser BMI change (i.e., more weight loss or less weight gain) relative to controls. The current evidence does not demonstrate conclusively that NSB consumption has uniquely contributed to obesity or that reducing NSB consumption will reduce BMI levels in general. We recommend an adequately powered RCT among overweight persons, among whom there is suggestive evidence of an effect. PMID:20524996

  2. Body Image Distortions, Weight, and Depression in Adolescent Boys: Longitudinal Trajectories into Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Blashill, Aaron J.; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Depressive symptoms are common among the U.S. population, yet research into prospective risk factors of depression among men is limited. Distorted body image is also prevalent among adolescent boys, and may be linked with elevated depression; however, longitudinal associations have rarely been measured. Thus, the aim of the current study was to assess the prospective relationship between forms of body image distortion and depressive symptoms among adolescent boys, into adulthood. Data were extracted from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Participants were 2,139 U.S. adolescent boys (M age = 16) who were followed prospectively over 13-years (1996 to 2009), into adulthood. Longitudinal mixed-level modeling was employed to assess the temporal prediction of body image distortion on symptoms of depression. Results revealed that boys who were average weight and viewed themselves as either very underweight (very underweight distorted; Cohen's d = .47) or overweight (overweight distorted; Cohen's d = .29) reported significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms compared to boys who accurately viewed their weight as average; this effect remained constant over the 13-year study period. These findings indicated that distortions in body image, particularly extreme distortions, are risk factors for elevated depressive symptoms among adolescent boys, and persist into early adulthood. PMID:25383047

  3. Betamethasone in Pregnancy: Influence of maternal body weight and multiple gestation on pharmacokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Della Torre, Micaela; Hibbard, Judith U.; Jeong, Hyunyoung; Fischer, James H

    2015-01-01

    Objective Goals of the study are to estimate the pharmacokinetic(PK) parameters of standard dose betamethasone in a large obstetrical population and evaluate the effect of maternal body size and multiple gestation on the PK parameters and their observed variability. Study Design Prospective PK study. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry was used to measure betamethasone plasma concentrations. PK parameters and significant clinical covariates were estimated using mixed effect modeling. Bootstrap analysis confirmed validity of the model. Results Two hundred and seventy four blood samples from 77 patients were obtained. Greatest effect on PK variability was observed with maternal lean body weight(LBW). The relationship between the PK parameters and LBW remained linear over a wide range of maternal body sizes. Multiple gestations did not affect the PK parameters. Conclusion Individualization of betamethasone dosing by maternal LBWreduces variability in drug exposure. Mutiple gestations do not require betamethasone dosing adjustment, because PK are the same as singleton gestations. PMID:20816148

  4. A novel antioxidant beverage for body weight control based on coffee silverskin.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Saez, Nuria; Ullate, Mónica; Martin-Cabrejas, María A; Martorell, Patricia; Genovés, Salvador; Ramon, Daniel; del Castillo, María Dolores

    2014-05-01

    The present research aimed to add value to coffee silverskin by looking for new innovative applications. Formulation of novel beverages based on coffee silverskin for body fat reduction and body weight control was proposed. Conditions for beverage preparation were optimised. Data on chemical composition and sensorial quality of the new drink were acquired. Health benefits were evaluated in vitro and in vivo employing as animal model Caenorhabditis elegans. An antioxidant beverage containing physiological active concentrations of caffeine and chlorogenic acid for prevention body fat accumulation and possessing acceptable sensorial properties was obtained. Our findings support that the use of coffee silverskin for obtaining bioactive extract is an innovative way for revalorisation of coffee by-product. PMID:24360444

  5. A simple implementation of Lyapunov Weighted Dynamics for the Standard #include

    E-print Network

    Loss, Daniel

    map double delta; // Parameter of the standard map double k; // Parameter of the standard map double eps; // Intensity of the noise double alpha; // determines the weight with which particles are cloned float eta; // random gaussian white noise inline double gauss() { // produces a random gaussian variable

  6. Parametrial Invasion in Cervical Cancer: Fused T2-weighted Imaging and High-b-Value Diffusion-weighted Imaging with Background Body Signal Suppression at 3 T.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung Jae; Kim, Chan Kyo; Park, Sung Yoon; Park, Byung Kwan

    2015-03-01

    Purpose To retrospectively investigate the value of fused T2-weighted and high-b-value diffusion-weighted imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS) at 3 T to evaluate parametrial invasion in cervical cancer. Materials and Methods In this institutional review board-approved study, 152 consecutive patients with biopsy-proven cervical cancer who underwent radical hysterectomies also underwent pretreatment magnetic resonance imaging (T2-weighted imaging and DWIBS) at 3 T. Two radiologists independently evaluated the presence of parametrial invasion at T2-weighted imaging, fused T2-weighted imaging and high-b-value DWIBS (ie, fused T2-weighted DWIBS), and combined T2-weighted imaging and fused T2-weighted DWIBS, and the results were compared with histopathologic findings. Results Parametrial invasion was identified by pathologic analysis in 37 of 152 patients (24.3%). For association with parametrial invasion, the specificity and accuracy of fused T2-weighted DWIBS (97.4% and 90.1%, respectively, for reader 1; 95.7% and 89.5%, respectively, for reader 2) and combined T2-weighted imaging and fused T2-weighted DWIBS (99.1% and 93.4%, respectively, for reader 1; 96.5% and 92.8%, respectively, for reader 2) were significantly better than those of T2-weighted imaging alone (88.7% and 85.5%, respectively, for reader 1; 85.2% and 83.6%, respectively, for reader 2) (all P < .05). The respective sensitivity of T2-weighted imaging, fused T2-weighted DWIBS, and combined T2-weighted imaging and fused T2-weighted DWIBS was 75.7%, 67.6%, and 75.7% for reader 1 and 78.4%, 70.3%, and 81.1% for reader 2, and did not show significant differences (P value, ?.375 to >.999). The respective area under the curve for association with parametrial invasion of T2-weighted imaging, fused T2-weighted DWIBS, and combined T2-weighted imaging and fused T2-weighted DWIBS was 0.912, 0.951, and 0.976 for reader 1 and 0.890, 0.932, and 0.968 for reader 2 (P < .05). Interreader agreements were excellent (? = 0.89, 0.9, and 0.86 for T2-weighted imaging, fused T2-weighted DWIBS, and combined T2-weighted imaging and fused T2-weighted DWIBS, respectively). Conclusion Fusion of high-b-value DWIBS with T2-weighted imaging can improve the diagnostic performance in association with parametrial invasion in cervical cancer compared with T2-weighted imaging alone. (©) RSNA, 2014. PMID:25299787

  7. Effects of Body Fat on Weight Concerns, Dating, and Sexual Activity: A Longitudinal Analysis of Black and White Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Udry, J. Richard; Suchindran, Chirayath; Campbell, Benjamin

    1999-01-01

    Investigated implications of body-fat differences for dating and sexual activity and implications of heterosexual activity for dieting and weight concerns in adolescent girls. Found that among white girls, and blacks with college-educated mothers, more body fat was associated with lower dating probability, even among non-obese girls. Body fat was…

  8. Very low birth weight infants who are fed human milk have decreased body fat as assessed by air displacement plethysmography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods to evaluate body composition in infants have recently been enhanced. There are few data regarding body composition in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Our objective was to evaluate body composition in VLBW infants consuming human milk or formula using novel techniques. Using air-displac...

  9. Is body weight-support treadmill training effective in increasing muscle trophism after traumatic spinal cord injury? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    do Espírito Santo, C C; Swarowsky, A; Recchia, T L; Lopes, A P F; Ilha, J

    2014-11-18

    Study design:Systematic review.Objective:To determine the effectiveness of body weight-support treadmill training (BWSTT) for muscle atrophy management in people with spinal cord injury (SCI).Setting:Studies from multiple countries were included.Methods:The following databases were consulted from January to October 2013: PubMed, Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), Science Direct and Lilacs. The methodological quality of the articles included was classified according to Jovell and Navarro-Rubio.Results:A total of five studies were included. These studies reported a significant association between BWSTT and increased trophism of the lower limb muscles of humans with SCI, which was observed as an increase in the cross-sectional area. Moreover, improvements in the ability to generate peak torque, contract the knee extensors and ankle plantarflexors with reduction of body weight support were observed after BWSTT.Conclusion:The results were considered inconclusive because of the low methodological quality of the articles, which was because of the absence of sample homogeneity, thereby providing a low level of evidence for clinical practice.Spinal Cord advance online publication, 18 November 2014; doi:10.1038/sc.2014.198. PMID:25403505

  10. Diet-Beverage Consumption and Caloric Intake Among US Adults, Overall and by Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Bleich, Sara N.; Wolfson, Julia A.; Vine, Seanna; Wang, Y. Claire

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined national patterns in adult diet-beverage consumption and caloric intake by body-weight status. Methods. We analyzed 24-hour dietary recall with National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2010 data (adults aged ??20 years; n?=?23?965). Results. Overall, 11% of healthy-weight, 19% of overweight, and 22% of obese adults drink diet beverages. Total caloric intake was higher among adults consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) compared with diet beverages (2351 kcal/day vs 2203 kcal/day; P?=?.005). However, the difference was only significant for healthy-weight adults (2302 kcal/day vs 2095 kcal/day; P?weight adults and consume significantly more solid-food calories and a comparable total calories than overweight and obese adults who drink SSBs. Heavier US adults who drink diet beverages will need to reduce solid-food calorie consumption to lose weight. PMID:24432876

  11. Implicit theories of body weight: entity beliefs can weigh you down.

    PubMed

    Burnette, Jeni L

    2010-03-01

    The current research extended the implicit theory approach to a weight management context and merged it with value expectancy theory. Three studies investigated the hypothesis that individuals are especially unlikely to self-regulate effectively after dieting setbacks when they believe body weight to be fixed (entity theory) rather than malleable (incremental theory). Study 1 examined avoidant coping after a hypothetical dieting setback. Study 2 examined the implicit theory-avoidant coping relation after naturally occurring challenges to participants' weight-loss goals. Across both studies, entity theorists, relative to incremental theorists, reported more avoidant coping after setbacks. In Study 2, avoidant coping, in turn, predicted difficulty achieving weight-loss success. Study 3 manipulated implicit theories of weight to test the causal effects of implicit theories on effortful regulation. Entity theorists, relative to incremental theorists, reported less persistence following setbacks. Across the three studies, expectations about the potential for future dieting success mediated the link between implicit theory and self-regulation. PMID:20179317

  12. The bacterial communities associated with fecal types and body weight of rex rabbits.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Bo; Han, Shushu; Wang, Ping; Wen, Bin; Jian, Wensu; Guo, Wei; Yu, Zhiju; Du, Dan; Fu, Xiangchao; Kong, Fanli; Yang, Mingyao; Si, Xiaohui; Zhao, Jiangchao; Li, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Rex rabbit is an important small herbivore for fur and meat production. However, little is known about the gut microbiota in rex rabbit, especially regarding their relationship with different fecal types and growth of the hosts. We characterized the microbiota of both hard and soft feces from rex rabbits with high and low body weight by using the Illumina MiSeq platform targeting the V4 region of the 16S rDNA. High weight rex rabbits possess distinctive microbiota in hard feces, but not in soft feces, from the low weight group. We detected the overrepresentation of several genera such as YS2/Cyanobacteria, and Bacteroidales and underrepresentation of genera such as Anaeroplasma spp. and Clostridiaceae in high weight hard feces. Between fecal types, several bacterial taxa such as Ruminococcaceae, and Akkermansia spp. were enriched in soft feces. PICRUSt analysis revealed that metabolic pathways such as "stilbenoid, diarylheptanoid, gingerol biosynthesis" were enriched in high weight rabbits, and pathways related to "xenobiotics biodegradation" and "various types of N-glycan biosynthesis" were overrepresented in rabbit soft feces. Our study provides foundation to generate hypothesis aiming to test the roles that different bacterial taxa play in the growth and caecotrophy of rex rabbits. PMID:25791609

  13. The bacterial communities associated with fecal types and body weight of rex rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Bo; Han, Shushu; Wang, Ping; Wen, Bin; Jian, Wensu; Guo, Wei; Yu, Zhiju; Du, Dan; Fu, Xiangchao; Kong, Fanli; Yang, Mingyao; Si, Xiaohui; Zhao, Jiangchao; Li, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Rex rabbit is an important small herbivore for fur and meat production. However, little is known about the gut microbiota in rex rabbit, especially regarding their relationship with different fecal types and growth of the hosts. We characterized the microbiota of both hard and soft feces from rex rabbits with high and low body weight by using the Illumina MiSeq platform targeting the V4 region of the 16S rDNA. High weight rex rabbits possess distinctive microbiota in hard feces, but not in soft feces, from the low weight group. We detected the overrepresentation of several genera such as YS2/Cyanobacteria, and Bacteroidales and underrepresentation of genera such as Anaeroplasma spp. and Clostridiaceae in high weight hard feces. Between fecal types, several bacterial taxa such as Ruminococcaceae, and Akkermansia spp. were enriched in soft feces. PICRUSt analysis revealed that metabolic pathways such as “stilbenoid, diarylheptanoid, gingerol biosynthesis” were enriched in high weight rabbits, and pathways related to “xenobiotics biodegradation” and “various types of N-glycan biosynthesis” were overrepresented in rabbit soft feces. Our study provides foundation to generate hypothesis aiming to test the roles that different bacterial taxa play in the growth and caecotrophy of rex rabbits. PMID:25791609

  14. Association of Body Mass Index of HIV-1-Infected Pregnant Women and Infant Weight, Body Mass Index, Length, and Head Circumference: The NISDI Perinatal Study

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Maria Letícia S.; Harris, D. Robert; Read, Jennifer S.; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa M.; Succi, Regina C.M.

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between the body mass index (BMI) of HIV-1-infected women and their infants’ perinatal outcomes. The study population consisted of women enrolled in the NICHD International Site Development Initiative (NISDI) Perinatal Study with data allowing calculation of the BMI adjusted for length of gestation (adjBMI), who delivered singleton infants. Outcome variables included infant growth parameters at birth (weight, BMI, length and head circumference) and gestational age. Of 697 women from Argentina, the Bahamas, Brazil and Mexico who were included in the analysis, the adjBMI was classified as underweight for 109 (15.6%), normal for 418 (60.0%), overweight for 88 (12.6%) and obese for 82 (11.8%). Median infant birth weight, BMI, birth length and head circumference differed significantly according to maternal adjBMI (P?0.0002). Underweight mothers gave birth to infants with lower weight, lower BMI, shorter length and smaller head circumference, while infants born to normal, overweight and obese mothers were of similar size. PMID:19081829

  15. Aliskiren reduces body-weight gain, adiposity and plasma leptin during diet-induced obesity

    PubMed Central

    Stucchi, Paula; Cano, Victoria; Ruiz-Gayo, Mariano; Fernández-Alfonso, María S

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Overfeeding increases adipose tissue mass and leptin production and up-regulates the renin-angiotensin system in adipose tissue in rodents. Here, we determined the effect of chronic treatment with the renin inhibitor, aliskiren, in a model of diet-induced obesity in mice, on: (i) body weight, adipose tissue weight and plasma leptin; (ii) food intake and caloric efficiency; and (iii) angiotensin II (Ang II) in adipose tissue. Experimental approach: Four-week-old C57BL/6J mice (n= 40) received aliskiren (50 mg·kg?1·day?1; 6 weeks) by means of a subcutaneous osmotic Alzet minipump. Animals were given either a low-fat (10% kcal from fat) or a high-fat diet (45% kcal from fat) during this period. Food-intake and body-weight variation were monitored during treatment. Key results: In addition to a decrease of plasma renin activity, aliskiren reduced body-weight gain, adipose pads and plasma leptin concentration, independent of the diet. In adipose tissue, local concentrations of Ang II were also reduced by aliskiren. Conclusions and implications: Aliskiren limited the gain of adiposity in young mice. This effect was not due to changes in food intake or caloric efficiency and might be related to a down-regulation of the local renin-angiotensin system in adipose tissue. These effects were accompanied by reduced plasma leptin levels. As Ang II favours differentiation of adipocytes, it is possible that the decreased adipose tissue was linked to changes in adipocyte size and number. PMID:19694726

  16. Vagus nerve stimulation reduces body weight and fat mass in rats.

    PubMed

    Banni, Sebastiano; Carta, Gianfranca; Murru, Elisabetta; Cordeddu, Lina; Giordano, Elena; Marrosu, Francesco; Puligheddu, Monica; Floris, Gabriele; Asuni, Gino Paolo; Cappai, Angela Letizia; Deriu, Silvia; Follesa, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Among the manifold effects of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) delivered as an add-on treatment to patients with drug-resistant epilepsy, a moderate loss of body weight has been observed in some individuals. We have now investigated this effect in rats. Exposure of rats to VNS for 4 weeks reduced feed conversion efficiency as well as body weight gain (by ?25%) and the amount of mesenteric adipose tissue (by ?45%) in comparison with those in sham-operated control animals. A pair-fed experiment showed that both lower dietary intake and increase energy expenditure independently contributed to the reduction of body weight and mesenteric adipose tissue. Moreover, VNS increased the level of non-esterified fatty acids in plasma and mesenteric adipose tissue by ?50 and 80%, respectively, without affecting that in the liver. In addition, VNS reduced the amounts of endocannabinoids and increased N-palmitoylethanolamide, an endogenous ligand of the transcription factor PPAR? (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?) in mesenteric adipose tissue but not in the hypothalamus. These effects were accompanied by increased expression of the gene for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hypothalamus and up-regulation of the abundance of PPAR? in the liver. Our results suggest that the reduction in body fat induced by VNS in rats may result from the action of both central and peripheral mediators. The reduced feed conversion efficiency associated with VNS may be mediated by hypothalamic BDNF, down-regulation of endocannabinoid tone in mesenteric adipose tissue and a PPAR?-dependent increase in fatty acid oxidation in the liver, which in concerted action may account for the anorexic effect and increased energy expenditure. PMID:23028630

  17. Vagus Nerve Stimulation Reduces Body Weight and Fat Mass in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Banni, Sebastiano; Carta, Gianfranca; Murru, Elisabetta; Cordeddu, Lina; Giordano, Elena; Marrosu, Francesco; Puligheddu, Monica; Floris, Gabriele; Asuni, Gino Paolo; Cappai, Angela Letizia; Deriu, Silvia; Follesa, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Among the manifold effects of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) delivered as an add-on treatment to patients with drug-resistant epilepsy, a moderate loss of body weight has been observed in some individuals. We have now investigated this effect in rats. Exposure of rats to VNS for 4 weeks reduced feed conversion efficiency as well as body weight gain (by ?25%) and the amount of mesenteric adipose tissue (by ?45%) in comparison with those in sham-operated control animals. A pair-fed experiment showed that both lower dietary intake and increase energy expenditure independently contributed to the reduction of body weight and mesenteric adipose tissue. Moreover, VNS increased the level of non-esterified fatty acids in plasma and mesenteric adipose tissue by ?50 and 80%, respectively, without affecting that in the liver. In addition, VNS reduced the amounts of endocannabinoids and increased N-palmitoylethanolamide, an endogenous ligand of the transcription factor PPAR? (peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor ?) in mesenteric adipose tissue but not in the hypothalamus. These effects were accompanied by increased expression of the gene for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hypothalamus and up-regulation of the abundance of PPAR? in the liver. Our results suggest that the reduction in body fat induced by VNS in rats may result from the action of both central and peripheral mediators. The reduced feed conversion efficiency associated with VNS may be mediated by hypothalamic BDNF, down-regulation of endocannabinoid tone in mesenteric adipose tissue and a PPAR?-dependent increase in fatty acid oxidation in the liver, which in concerted action may account for the anorexic effect and increased energy expenditure. PMID:23028630

  18. Targeting impulsive processes of eating behavior via the internet. Effects on body weight.

    PubMed

    Veling, Harm; van Koningsbruggen, Guido M; Aarts, Henk; Stroebe, Wolfgang

    2014-07-01

    Because eating behavior can take on an impulsive nature many people experience difficulty with dieting to lose weight. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the effectiveness of two interventions targeting impulsive processes of eating behavior to facilitate weight loss: Implementation intentions to remind people about dieting versus a go/no-go task to change impulses toward palatable foods. Dieters performed an online training program (four times in 4 weeks) in which they were randomly assigned to a 2 (implementation intention condition: dieting versus control) × 2 (go/no-go task condition: food versus control) design. They formed either dieting implementation intentions (e.g., If I open the fridge I will think of dieting!) or control implementation intentions. Furthermore, they received either a go/no-go task in which behavioral stop signals were presented upon presentation of palatable foods (food go/no-go task), or upon control stimuli. Participants' weight was measured in the laboratory before and after the intervention. Strength of participants' dieting goal and their Body Mass Index (BMI; as a proxy for impulsiveness toward food) were examined as moderators. Results showed that both dieting implementation intentions and the food go/no-go task facilitated weight loss. Moreover, dieting implementation intentions facilitated weight loss particularly among people with a strong current dieting goal, whereas the food go/no-go task facilitated weight loss independent of this factor. Instead, the food go/no-go task, but not formation of dieting implementation intentions, was primarily effective among dieters with a relatively high BMI. These results provide the first preliminary evidence that interventions aimed at targeting impulsive eating-related processes via the internet can facilitate weight loss. PMID:24675683

  19. Change in Body Composition during a Weight Loss Trial in Obese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Elizabeth P.; Zemel, Babette; Moore, Reneé H.; Berkowitz, Robert I.

    2013-01-01

    Background Changes in body composition during weight loss among obese adolescents are poorly understood. This study characterized the composition of weight loss, and its association with changes in waist circumference (WC) in obese adolescents. Methods Total (Tot), trunk (Tr) and appendicular (Ap) fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 61 obese adolescents (40 girls) who participated in a randomized-controlled weight-loss trial. Changes in body composition were assessed at 0, 6, and 12 months using mixed-effects regression models. Correlation analysis of change in WC and total and regional compartments of FM and LM were also assessed. Results Weight-loss for adolescents was 90.3% FM and 15.9% LM at 0–6mo, and 98.2% FM and 7% LM at 0–12 mo. At 12mo, girls lost 2.67 kg more TotFM than boys in models adjusted for height, age, race, and baseline weight. Boys gained LM in all compartments in all models. At 12mo, girls lost TotLM (2.23 ±0.74, p<0.004) and ApLM (0.69 ±0.31, p=0.03), and gained TrLM (0.37±0.35, p=0.29). The percentage LM, increased for boys and girls in all models. TotFM was correlated with BMI change with TotFM (R=0.70–0.91, p=0.001) and WC change (R=0.53–0.55, p<0.001). Conclusions Weight loss in obese adolescents during a weight-loss trial using lifestyle management and sibutramine was primarily from trunk fat mass. Although absolute LM increased in boys and decreased in girls, the percentage of weight that is LM increased for both boys and girls. Changes in BMI were more reflective of changes in FM than changes in WC. PMID:23382092

  20. The effect of pedometer use on physical activity and body weight in obese women.

    PubMed

    Cayir, Yasemin; Aslan, Secil Menekse; Akturk, Zekeriya

    2015-06-01

    Physical activity and healthy eating are of the utmost importance in treatment of obesity. However obese generally tend to have a sedentary lifestyle. Walking is a form of physical activity that is both simple and can be performed by everyone, but it requires an objective measurement. Number of steps taken during tracking can be recorded with the pedometer, a device used to measure the level of physical activity. We aimed to investigate whether or not using pedometers as a motivational technique to increase the level of physical activity in obese women has an impact on weight loss. Eighty-four obese women who are similar age referring to Ataturk University Faculty of Medicine Healthy Living Clinic, Turkey were randomly divided into two groups. Intervention group were given pedometers, and control group were prescribed similar diet and physical activity with a three-month follow-up plan without pedometers. Mean weight in pedometer group initially was 88.9 ± 8.4 kg, which decreased to 80.2 ± 8.7 kg after the programme. Mean weight in control group was 86.1 ± 9.2 kg at the beginning, and it decreased to 84.7 ± 8.8 kg after three months. It was observed in pedometer group that the mean number of steps 8817 ± 2725 steps/day at the beginning increased to mean 9716 ± 2811 steps/day at the end of the study. Weight, body mass index, body fat percentage and waist circumference measurements decreased more greatly in the pedometer when compared to the control group (p < 0.001). Pedometers may be recommended to obese patients to monitor and increase the level of physical activity and to promote weight loss. PMID:25068676

  1. Web-Based Self-Reported Height, Weight, and Body Mass Index Among Swedish Adolescents: A Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Kull, Inger; Nilsson, Sara; Bergström, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Background Web-collected height and weight are increasingly used in epidemiological studies; however, the validity has rarely been evaluated. Objective The aim of the study was to validate self-reported height, weight, and corresponding body mass index (BMI) among Swedish adolescents aged approximately 16 years. A secondary aim was to investigate possible prediction factors for validity of self-reported BMI. Methods The study included 1698 adolescents from the population-based cohort BAMSE. Height and weight were collected through a Web-based questionnaire and subsequently measured using standard procedures. Differences between reported and measured height, weight, and corresponding BMI were compared by t tests and agreement was evaluated by Pearson correlation and Bland-Altman plots. Multivariable linear regression analysis was used to investigate whether lifestyle and demographic factors predicted validity of self-reported BMI. Results On average, weight was underestimated by 1.1 kg and height was overestimated by 0.5 cm, leading to an underestimation of BMI by 0.5 kg/m2. Correlation coefficients were .98 for height, .97 for weight, and .94 for BMI, and highly significant. Females underestimated weight to a higher extent than males and overweight and obese participants underestimated weight to a higher extent than normal-weight participants, which resulted in higher underestimation of BMI. Underweight participants, on the contrary, overestimated weight and correspondingly BMI. Overall, a high proportion of participants were classified into the correct BMI category; however, among overweight and obese participants, only 60.2% (139/231) and 46% (20/44) were correctly classified, respectively. In the multivariable prediction model, only gender and BMI status significantly predicted discrepancy between reported and measured BMI. Conclusions Web-collected BMI may be used as a valid, quick, and cost-effective alternative to measured BMI among Swedish adolescents. The accuracy of self-reported BMI declines with increasing BMI and self-reported BMI should not be used to estimate the prevalence of overweight or obesity. PMID:25791395

  2. Tail nerve electrical stimulation induces body weight-supported stepping in rats with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu-Xin; Huang, Fengfa; Gates, Mary; White, Jason; Holmberg, Eric G

    2010-03-30

    Walking or stepping has been considered the result from the activation of the central pattern generator (CPG). In most patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) the CPG is undamaged. To date, there are no noninvasive approaches for activating the CPG. Recently we developed a noninvasive technique, tail nerve electrical stimulation (TANES), which can induce positive hind limb movement of SCI rats. The purpose of this study is to introduce the novel technique and examine the effect of TANES on CPG activation. A 25 mm contusion injury was produced at spinal cord T10 of female, adult Long-Evans rats by using the NYU impactor device. Rats received TANES ( approximately 40 mA at 4 kHz) 7 weeks after injury. During TANES all injured rats demonstrated active body weight-supported stepping of hind limbs with left-right alternation and occasional front-hind coordination, resulting in significant, temporary increase in BBB scores (p<0.01). However, there is no response to TANES from rats with L2 transection, consistent with other reports that the CPG may be located at L1-2. S1 transection negatively implies the key role of TANES in CPG activation. The TANES not only renders paralyzed rats with a technique-induced ability to walk via activating CPG, but also is likely to be used for locomotor training. It has more beneficial effects for physical training over other training paradigms including treadmill training and invasive functional electrical stimulation. Therefore the TANES may have considerable potential for achieving improvement of functional recovery in animal models and a similar method may be suggested for human study. PMID:20079372

  3. Metabolic and Nutritional Needs to Normalize Body Mass Index by Doubling the Admission Body Weight in Severe Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Gentile, Maria Gabriella; Lessa, Chiara; Cattaneo, Marina

    2013-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa exhibits one of the highest death rates among psychiatric patients and a relevant fraction of it is derived from undernutrition. Nutritional and medical treatment of extreme undernutrition present two very complex and conflicting tasks: (1) to avoid “refeeding syndrome” caused by a too fast correction of malnutrition; and (2) to avoid “underfeeding” caused by a too cautious refeeding. To obtain optimal treatment results, the caloric intake should be planned starting with indirect calorimetry measurements and electrolyte abnormalities accurately controlled and treated. This article reports the case of an anorexia nervosa young female affected by extreme undernutrition (BMI 9.6 kg/m2) who doubled her admission body weight (from 22.5 kg to 44 kg) in a reasonable time with the use of enteral tube feeding for gradual correction of undernutrition. Refeeding syndrome was avoided through a specialized and flexible program according to clinical, laboratory, and physiological findings. PMID:23645991

  4. Child gender and weight status moderate the relation of maternal feeding practices to body esteem in 1st grade children.

    PubMed

    Shriver, Lenka H; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Harrist, Amanda W; Topham, Glade; Page, Melanie

    2015-06-01

    Prevention of body dissatisfaction development is critical for minimizing adverse effects of poor body esteem on eating behaviors, self-esteem, and overall health. Research has examined body esteem and its correlates largely in pre-adolescents and adolescents; however, important questions remain about factors influencing body esteem of younger children. The main purpose of this study was to test moderation by children's gender and weight status of the relation of maternal controlling feeding practices to 1st graders' body esteem. The Body Esteem Scale (BES) and anthropometric measurements were completed during one-on-one child interviews at school. Mothers completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire (restriction, monitoring, concern, self-assessed maternal weight). A total of 410 mother/child dyads (202 girls) participated. Percent of children classified as overweight (BMI-for-age??85th) was: girls - 29%; boys - 27%. Gender moderated the relation between restriction and body esteem (??=?-.140, p?=?.05), with maternal restriction predicting body esteem in girls but not boys. The hypothesized three-way interaction among gender, child weight status, and monitoring was confirmed. Monitoring was significantly inversely related to body esteem only for overweight/obese girls (b?=?-1.630). The moderating influence of gender or gender and weight status on the link between maternal feeding practices and body esteem suggests the importance of body esteem interventions for girls as early as first grade. PMID:25624022

  5. Interoceptive sensitivity, body weight and eating behavior in children: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Koch, Anne; Pollatos, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Previous research indicates that interindividual differences in the ability to perceive one's own bodily signals (interoceptive sensitivity, IS) are associated with disordered eating behavior and weight problems. But representative and prospective data in children are lacking and therefore, the exact nature of these observed associations remains unclear. Data on IS measured by heartbeat perception ability in 1657 children between 6 and 11 years of age were collected on the basis of two measurement points with a year distance in time. Stability of the construct and its prospective association with different food approach behaviors [assessed via parent questionnaires (Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire and Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire)] as well as with weight status were analyzed via structural equation modeling. Main results were that only in overweight children external and emotional eating behavior were predictive for later IS, whereas no such relation was found in normal weight children. There was no direct relation between IS and body mass index. For the first time, we could show that eating behavior and IS in middle childhood are prospectively related to each other. But surprisingly, our data indicate that altered interoceptive processes rather follow than precede non-adaptive eating behavior patterns in overweight children. This suggests a possible crucial role of faulty learning mechanisms in eating behavior early in life, undermining the later confidence in one's body. PMID:25250006

  6. Optimal body weight for health and longevity: bridging basic, clinical, and population research

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Luigi; Hu, Frank B

    2014-01-01

    Excess body weight and adiposity cause insulin resistance, inflammation, and numerous other alterations in metabolic and hormonal factors that promote atherosclerosis, tumorigenesis, neurodegeneration, and aging. Studies in both animals and humans have demonstrated a beneficial role of dietary restriction and leanness in promoting health and longevity. Epidemiological studies have found strong direct associations between increasing body mass index (BMI) and risks of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and several types of cancer, beginning from BMI of 20–21 kg m?2. Although a recent meta-analysis suggests that overweight individuals have significantly lower overall mortality than normal-weight individuals, these data are likely to be an artifact produced by serious methodological problems, especially confounding by smoking, reverse causation due to existing chronic disease, and nonspecific loss of lean mass and function in the frail elderly. From a clinical and public health point of view, maintaining a healthy weight through diet and physical activity should remain the cornerstone in the prevention of chronic diseases and the promotion of healthy aging. PMID:24628815

  7. Body Weight Gain in Rats Consuming Sweetened Liquids: Effects of Caffeine and Diet Composition

    PubMed Central

    Swithers, Susan E.; Martin, Ashley A.; Clark, Kiely M.; Laboy, Alycia F.; Davidson, T. L.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies show that high-intensity sweeteners can stimulate weight gain in rats. The present studies examined whether caffeine, a stimulant commonly added to beverages consumed by humans, influences intake of saccharin- or glucose-sweetened solutions or body weight gain in rats and whether the nature of the maintenance diet influences the effects of caffeine. In two experiments, rats received glucose or saccharin solution mixed with 0.125 mg/g caffeine or no caffeine. Rats consumed significantly more caffeinated than noncaffeinated solutions when they were maintained on a low-fat chow diet (Experiment 1) and when maintained on a sweet, high-fat, high calorie chow diet (Experiment 2). Consumption of saccharin resulted in higher body weight gain in both experiments. Caffeine reversed this effect in Experiment 1 (low-fat diet) but not Experiment 2 (sweet, high-fat diet). The findings extend what is known about the conditions under which consumption of high intensity sweeteners promote energy dysregulation. PMID:20851725

  8. The impact of different algorithms for ideal body weight on screening for hydroxychloroquine retinopathy in women

    PubMed Central

    Browning, David J; Lee, Chong; Rotberg, David

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine how algorithms for ideal body weight (IBW) affect hydroxychloroquine dosing in women. Methods This was a retrospective study of 520 patients screened for hydroxychloroquine retinopathy. Charts were reviewed for sex, height, weight, and daily dose. The outcome measures were ranges of IBW across algorithms; rates of potentially toxic dosing; height thresholds below which 400 mg/d dosing is potentially toxic; and rates for which actual body weight (ABW) was less than IBW. Results Women made up 474 (91%) of the patients. The IBWs for a height varied from 30–34 pounds (13.6–15.5 kg) across algorithms. The threshold heights below which toxic dosing occurred varied from 62–70 inches (157.5–177.8 cm). Different algorithms placed 16%–98% of women in the toxic dosing range. The proportion for whom dosing should have been based on ABW rather than IBW ranged from 5%–31% across algorithms. Conclusion Although hydroxychloroquine dosing should be based on the lesser of ABW and IBW, there is no consensus about the definition of IBW. The Michaelides algorithm is associated with the most frequent need to adjust dosing; the Metropolitan Life Insurance, large frame, mean value table with the least frequent need. No evidence indicates that one algorithm is superior to others. PMID:25092963

  9. Generation and acculturation status are associated with dietary intake and body weight in Mexican American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ji-Hong; Chu, Yong H; Frongillo, Edward A; Probst, Janice C

    2012-02-01

    Mexican American children are disproportionately affected by obesity. Data on how the acculturation process influences diet and body weight among adolescents are limited. We used the data from the 1999-2004 NHANES, restricting to 2286 Mexican American children between 12 and 19 y old. Acculturation was measured by generation status and language preference. Diet was assessed using 24-h diet recall. Multiple linear, Tobit, logistic, and quantile regression models were used. We found, after adjusting for socio-demographic factors, health, dietary intake, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors compared to the first generation, second and third generations had greater odds of overweight and obesity. Adolescents in the second generation had higher BMI Z-scores than adolescents in the first and third generations. Both second and third generation adolescents consumed less fruit, whole fruit, vegetables, grains, and meats but more sweetened beverages, whole grains, saturated fat, sodium, oil, and energy from discretionary foods. Higher language acculturation was associated with poorer diet and greater body weight. Our findings suggest that Mexican American adolescents face challenges in terms of poorer diet and excessive weight gain associated with their immigration experience. PMID:22223572

  10. Interoceptive sensitivity, body weight and eating behavior in children: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Anne; Pollatos, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Previous research indicates that interindividual differences in the ability to perceive one's own bodily signals (interoceptive sensitivity, IS) are associated with disordered eating behavior and weight problems. But representative and prospective data in children are lacking and therefore, the exact nature of these observed associations remains unclear. Data on IS measured by heartbeat perception ability in 1657 children between 6 and 11 years of age were collected on the basis of two measurement points with a year distance in time. Stability of the construct and its prospective association with different food approach behaviors [assessed via parent questionnaires (Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire and Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire)] as well as with weight status were analyzed via structural equation modeling. Main results were that only in overweight children external and emotional eating behavior were predictive for later IS, whereas no such relation was found in normal weight children. There was no direct relation between IS and body mass index. For the first time, we could show that eating behavior and IS in middle childhood are prospectively related to each other. But surprisingly, our data indicate that altered interoceptive processes rather follow than precede non-adaptive eating behavior patterns in overweight children. This suggests a possible crucial role of faulty learning mechanisms in eating behavior early in life, undermining the later confidence in one's body. PMID:25250006

  11. Phenobarbital effects on weight gain and circadian cycling of food intake and body temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Peraino, C.; Ehret, C.F.; Groh, K.R.; Meinert, J.C.; D'arcy-Gomez, G.

    1980-12-01

    Rats fed a diet supplemented with phenobarbital at a concentration of 0.25% gained less weight than rats fed the unsupplemented diet. The reduced weight gain in the phenobarbital-treated rats accompanied the induction of marked hepatomegaly. Circadian cycling of food consumption in control rats followed a biphasic pattern, with the first feeding episode occurring during the middle of the 12-h dark phase and the second occurring as the dark phase ended. In rats on phenobarbital, eating activity was confined to the first feeding episode, with the level of intake during this interval increasing to compensate for the absence of significant subsequent feeding, so that the daily levels of food consumption were similar in both groups. Measurements of circadian cycling of deep body temperature showed that ingestion of 0.25% dietary phenobarbital approximately doubled the amplitude of the temperature cycle and advanced the time at which peak temperature was attained by aproximately 2 h. It is suggested that the lower weight gain in rats chronically exposed to 0.25% dietary phenobarbital results primarily from alterations in hepatic metabolism, but phenobarbital-mediated changes in the circadian cycling of food intake and deep-body temperature may also contribute to the growth reduction.

  12. Body weight dissatisfaction by socioeconomic status among obese, preobese and normal weight women and men: results of the cross-sectional KORA Augsburg S4 population survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Body weight dissatisfaction is an important factor in preventing weight gain and promoting weight loss or maintenance. This study focuses on differences in the rates of body weight dissatisfaction among obese, preobese and normal weight women and men by socioeconomic status within a general adult population in Germany. Methods Data were analyzed from 4186 adults aged 25 to 74 who participated in a cross-sectional, representative population-based health survey (KORA S4, 1999–2001, Augsburg region/Germany). Body mass was measured anthropometrically and indexed following international standards. Among the 2123 women participating in the survey, 40.3% had a normal weight, 34.9% were preobese, and 24.8% were obese (compared to 25.9%, 51.4% and 22.6% among men, respectively). Body weight dissatisfaction, educational level, household income and occupational status were assessed by computer-aided personal interviewing. An index for socioeconomic status was calculated and categorized into quintiles. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to test for differences in the odds of body weight dissatisfaction across socioeconomic strata in normal weight, preobese and obese groups. Body mass index, age, family status, place of residence and health behaviors were adjusted for. Results Overall, being dissatisfied with one’s body weight was more prevalent in women (48.3%) than in men (33.2%). In the normal weight group, no significant differences in the odds of being dissatisfied were found across socioeconomic groups among women or men. Among preobese men, compared to the lowest socioeconomic stratum, increased odds of being dissatisfied with one’s body weight were associated with the highest socioeconomic index group (OR?=?2.3, 95% CI: 1.4–3.8), middle and high educational level (OR?=?1.6, 95% CI: 1.1–2.3, and OR?=?1.9, 95% CI: 1.3–3.7), high income (OR?=?1.8, 95% CI: 1.2–2.7), and middle and high occupational status (both OR?=?1.8, 95% CI: 1.2–2.6). Among preobese women, the odds of being dissatisfied were only significantly elevated in those with a middle educational level (OR?=?1.6, 95% CI: 1.1–2.3). Among obese men, elevated odds were found in the highest socioeconomic index group (OR?=?3.7, 95% CI: 1.8–7.5) and in those with a high educational level (OR?=?2.3, 95% CI: 1.3–4.1), high income (OR?=?2.6, 95% CI: 1.4–4.7), and middle and high occupational status (both OR?=?2.2, 95% CI: 1.3–3.6). The odds of dissatisfaction among obese women were not associated with socioeconomic status as a whole, but were associated with a high educational level, albeit with a comparatively large confidence interval (OR?=?3.6, 95% CI: 1.0–12.8). Conclusions In Germany, body weight dissatisfaction is more prevalent among obese and preobese men in high socioeconomic status groups, a pattern not found in women. The exception to this is a greater prevalence of dissatisfaction among obese and preobese women with a high educational level (albeit inconsistently). Moreover, there is a social gradient in body weight dissatisfaction, especially in obese men, which may partly explain why obesity is more prevalent in men with low socioeconomic status. It also suggests that they are a target group for obesity care in which body weight satisfaction is an important topic. PMID:22571239

  13. Marker Genotypes and Population Admixture and Their Association With Body Weight, Height and Relative Body Mass in United States Federal Bison Herds

    PubMed Central

    Musani, Solomon K.; Halbert, Natalie D.; Redden, David T.; Allison, David B.; Derr, James N.

    2006-01-01

    Elucidating genetic influences on bison growth and body composition is of interest, not only because bison are important for historical, cultural, and agricultural reasons, but also because their unusual population history makes them valuable models for finding influential loci in both domestic cattle and humans. We tested for trait loci associated with body weight, height, and bison mass index (BMI) while controlling for estimated ancestry to reduce potential confounding effects due to population admixture in 1316 bison sampled from four U.S. herds. We used 60 microsatellite markers to model each phenotype as a function of herd, sex, age, marker genotypes, and individual ancestry estimates. Statistical significance for genotype and its interaction with ancestry was evaluated using the adaptive false discovery rate. Of the four herds, two appeared to be admixed and two were nonadmixed. Although none of the main effects of the loci were significant, estimated ancestry and its interaction with marker loci were significantly associated with the phenotypes, illustrating the importance of including ancestry in the models and the dependence of genotype–phenotype associations on background ancestry. Individual loci contributed ?2.0% of variation in weight, height, and BMI, which confirms the utility and potential importance of adjusting for population stratification. PMID:16888339

  14. Insulin Therapy and Body Weight, Body Composition and Muscular Strength in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Gin, H.; Rigalleau, V.; Perlemoine, C.

    2010-01-01

    Aims. To determine the progression of body weight (BW) and body composition (BC) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) on insulin therapy and the consequences on muscle strength (MS) as a reflect of free fat mass increases. Research design and methods. We analysed BC using air displacement plethysmography and MS by hand grip dynamometry in 40 T2D before and after three (M3) and six months (M6) of insulin therapy. Results. at baseline HbA1c was 9.76 ±1.6% and BW was stable with fat mass (FM) 28 ± 10.7?kg; and fat free mass (FFM) 52.4 ± 11?kg; at M6, HbA1c improved to 7.56 ± 0.8%; insulin doses tended to increase. BW gain at M6 was + 3.2 ± 4.2?kg and with an increase of only 25% by M3; it was composed of FM, whereas FFM was unchanged. MS did not increase on insulin therapy. Conclusions. In T2D, BW gain was composed exclusively of FM with no improvement in MS. PMID:20721344

  15. Antibody-producing cells correlated to body weight in juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) acclimated to optimal and elevated temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrahy, L.N.M.; Schreck, C.B.; Maule, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    The immune response of juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) ranging in weight from approximately 10 to 55 g was compared when the fish were acclimated to either 13 or 21?? C. A haemolytic plaque assay was conducted to determine differences in the number of antibody-producing cells (APC) among fish of a similar age but different body weights. Regression analyses revealed significant increases in the number of APC with increasing body weight when fish were acclimated to either water temperature. These results emphasise the importance of standardising fish weight in immunological studies of salmonids before exploring the possible effects of acclimation temperatures. ?? 2001 Academic Press.

  16. Indirect detection of gravitino dark matter including its three-body decays

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Ki-Young [Department of Physics, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Restrepo, Diego [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, A.A.1226, Medellin (Colombia); Yaguna, Carlos E. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica and Instituto de Fisica Teorica UAM-CSIC, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Zapata, Oscar, E-mail: kiyoung.choi@pusan.ac.kr, E-mail: restrepo@udea.edu.co, E-mail: carlos.yaguna@uam.es, E-mail: pfozapata@eia.edu.co [Escuela de Ingenieria de Antioquia, A.A.7516, Medellin (Colombia)

    2010-10-01

    It was recently pointed out that in supersymmetric scenarios with gravitino dark matter and bilinear R-parity violation, gravitinos with masses below M{sub W} typically decay with a sizable branching ratio into the 3-body final states W*l and Z*?. In this paper we study the indirect detection signatures of gravitino dark matter including such final states. First, we obtain the gamma ray spectrum from gravitino decays, which features a monochromatic contribution from the decay into ?? and a continuum contribution from the three-body decays. After studying its dependence on supersymmetric parameters, we compute the expected gamma ray fluxes and derive new constraints, from recent FERMI data, on the R-parity breaking parameter and on the gravitino lifetime. Indirect detection via antimatter searches, a new possibility brought about by the three-body final states, is also analyzed. For models compatible with the gamma ray observations, the positron signal is found to be negligible whereas the antiproton one can be significant.

  17. The effect of circuit weight training on strength, cardiorespiratory function, and body composition of adult men.

    PubMed

    Gettman, L R; Ayres, J J; Pollock, M L; Jackson, A

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the changes elicited by circuit weight training (CWT) and running (RN) programs conducted 3 days/week for 20 weeks. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups: CWT (n = 11); RN (n = 16); and control (n = 14). CWT consisted of 10 exercises performed in 2 sets of 15 reps with 20 to 25 sec rest between exercises. CWT workout time decreased from 30 min to 23 min; exercise heart rate (HR) increased from 79% to 84% max; average weight increased from 42% to 56% of max 1 RM strength and total weight increased 81% (1506 to 2720 lbs/workout). The RN group exercised at 85% max HR for 23 to 27 min/workout. Multivariate and step-down analyses showed the CWT group to be significantly different from the control group at the end of 20 weeks in leg press strength, fat weight, and Vo2 max (1/min). The RN group was significantly different from the CWT group in Vo2 max and treadmill time. Univariate analyses revealed no differences between the CWT and control groups in Vo2 max expressed as ml/kg LBW.min but did show a significant superiority of the RN group over the other two groups in this variable. It was concluded that the CWT program was most specific in improving strength and changing body composition and produced only a small aerobic effect as measured on the treadmill running test. PMID:723506

  18. Stimulation of body weight increase and epiphyseal cartilage growth by insulin like growth factor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, S.

    1981-01-01

    The ability of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) to induce growth in hypophysectomized immature rats was tested by continuous infusion of the partially purified factor at daily doses of 6, 21, and 46 mU for an 8-day period. A dose-dependent growth of the proximal epiphyseal cartilage of the tibia and an associated stimulation of the primary spongiosa were produced by these amounts of IGF. The two highest doses of IGF also resulted in dose-dependent increases of body weight. Gel permeation of the sera at neutrality showed that the large-molecular-weight IGF binding protein was not induced by the infusion of IGF, whereas it ws generated in the sera of hypophysectomized rats that were infused with daily doses of 86 mU of human growth hormone.

  19. Influence of Gestational Age and Body Weight on the Pharmacokinetics of Labetalol in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, James H.; Sarto, Gloria E.; Hardman, Jennifer; Endres, Loraine; Jenkins, Thomas M.; Kilpatrick, Sarah J.; Jeong, Hyunyoung; Geller, Stacie; Deyo, Kelly; Fischer, Patricia A.; Rodvold, Keith A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Labetalol is frequently prescribed for treatment of hypertension during pregnancy. However, the influence of pregnancy on labetalol pharmacokinetics is uncertain, with inconsistent findings reported by previous studies. This study examined the population pharmacokinetics of oral labetalol during and after pregnancy in women receiving labetalol for hypertension. Methods Data were collected from 57 women receiving the drug for hypertension from the 12th week of pregnancy through 12 weeks postpartum using a prospective, longitudinal design. A sparse sampling strategy guided collection of plasma samples. Samples were assayed for labetalol by high performance liquid chromatography. Estimation of population pharmacokinetic parameters and covariate effects was performed by nonlinear mixed effects modeling using NONMEM. Final population model was validated by bootstrap analysis and visual predictive check. Simulations were performed with the final model to evaluate the appropriate body weight to guide labetalol dosing. Results Lean body weight (LBW) and gestational age, i.e., weeks of pregnancy, were identified as significantly influencing oral clearance (CL/F) of labetalol, with CL/F ranging from 1.4-fold greater than postpartum values at 12 weeks gestational age to 1.6-fold greater at 40 weeks. Doses adjusted for LBW provide more consistent drug exposure than doses adjusted for total body weight. The apparent volumes of distribution for the central compartment and at steady-state were 1.9-fold higher during pregnancy. Conclusions Gestational age and LBW impact the pharmacokinetics of labetalol during pregnancy and have clinical implications for adjusting labetalol doses in these women. PMID:24297680

  20. A reexamination of age-related variation in body weight and morphometry of Maryland nutria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherfy, M.H.; Mollett, T.A.; McGowan, K.R.; Daugherty, S.L.

    2006-01-01

    Age-related variation in morphometry has been documented for many species. Knowledge of growth patterns can be useful for modeling energetics, detecting physiological influences on populations, and predicting age. These benefits have shown value in understanding population dynamics of invasive species, particularly in developing efficient control and eradication programs. However, development and evaluation of descriptive and predictive models is a critical initial step in this process. Accordingly, we used data from necropsies of 1,544 nutria (Myocastor coypus) collected in Maryland, USA, to evaluate the accuracy of previously published models for prediction of nutria age from body weight. Published models underestimated body weights of our animals, especially for ages <3. We used cross-validation procedures to develop and evaluate models for describing nutria growth patterns and for predicting nutria age. We derived models from a randomly selected model-building data set (n = 192-193 M, 217-222 F) and evaluated them with the remaining animals (n = 487-488 M, 642-647 F). We used nonlinear regression to develop Gompertz growth-curve models relating morphometric variables to age. Predicted values of morphometric variables fell within the 95% confidence limits of their true values for most age classes. We also developed predictive models for estimating nutria age from morphometry, using linear regression of log-transformed age on morphometric variables. The evaluation data set corresponded with 95% prediction intervals from the new models. Predictive models for body weight and length provided greater accuracy and less bias than models for foot length and axillary girth. Our growth models accurately described age-related variation in nutria morphometry, and our predictive models provided accurate estimates of ages from morphometry that will be useful for live-captured individuals. Our models offer better accuracy and precision than previously published models, providing a capacity for modeling energetics and growth patterns of Maryland nutria as well as an empirical basis for determining population age structure from live-captured animals.

  1. Muscle hypertrophy in quadriplegics with combined electrical stimulation and body weight support training.

    PubMed

    Carvalho de Abreu, Daniela Cristina; Júnior, Alberto Cliquet; Rondina, Jane Maryan; Cendes, Fernando

    2008-06-01

    We describe the analysis of muscle hypertrophy in complete quadriplegics after 6 months of treadmill gait training with neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES). We aim to evaluate the effect of treadmill gait training using NMES, with 30-50% body weight relief, on muscle mass. Fifteen quadriplegics were divided into gait (n=8) and control (n=7) groups. The gait group (GG) performed training, associated to partial body weight support, for 6 months, twice a week, for 20 min. Control group (CG) individuals performed only conventional physiotherapy, but did not perform gait training using NMES. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed over quadriceps, at the beginning and after 6 months. The MRI was done to determine the average of cross-sectional area of the quadriceps. Moreover, a gray scale was used to separate the muscle from the conjunctive tissue (when the value is closer to 225, there is a higher amount of muscle tissue). After 6 months there was an increase of cross-sectional area in the gait group (from 49.81+/-9.36 to 57.33+/-10.32 cm2; P=0.01), but not in the control group (from 43.60+/-7.56 to 41.65 +/- 9.44 cm2; P=0.17). The gray scale did not show significant differences after 6 months; however, the mean value of the gray scale inside the quadriceps in the gait group increased by 7.7% and in the control group decreased by 11.4%. Treadmill gait associated with NMES was efficient to promove quadriceps muscle hypertrophy in quadriplegics with chronic lesions even when a partial body weight support was provided. PMID:18467933

  2. Effects of peanut processing on body weight and fasting plasma lipids.

    PubMed

    McKiernan, Fiona; Lokko, Phoebe; Kuevi, Anna; Sales, Regiane L; Costa, Neuza M B; Bressan, Josefina; Alfenas, Rita C G; Mattes, Richard D

    2010-08-01

    Peanuts and peanut butter are commonly consumed as a snack, meal component and ingredient in various commercial products. Their consumption is associated with reduced CVD risk and they pose little threat to positive energy balance. However, questions have arisen as to whether product form (e.g. whole nut v. butter) and processing properties (e.g. roasting and adding flavours) may compromise their positive health effects. The present study investigated the effects of peanut form and processing on two CVD risk factors: fasting plasma lipids and body weight. One hundred and eighteen adults (forty-seven males and seventy-one females; age 29.2 (sd 8.4) years; BMI 30.0 (sd 4.5) kg/m2) from Brazil, Ghana and the United States were randomised to consume 56 g of raw unsalted (n 23), roasted unsalted (n 24), roasted salted (n 23) or honey roasted (n 24) peanuts, or peanut butter (n 24) daily for 4 weeks. Peanut form and processing did not differentially affect body weight or fasting plasma lipid responses in the total sample. However, HDL-cholesterol increased significantly at the group level, and total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and TAG concentrations decreased significantly in individuals classified as having elevated fasting plasma lipids compared with those with normal fasting plasma lipids. These observations suggest that the processing attributes assessed in this trial do not compromise the lipid-lowering effects of peanuts, and do not negatively impact body weight. Further studies are warranted to determine the effects of form and processing on other health risk factors. PMID:20456815

  3. Centrosomes in the zebrafish (Danio rerio): a review including the related basal body

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Ever since Edouard Van Beneden and Theodor Boveri first formally described the centrosome in the late 1800s, it has captivated cell biologists. The name clearly indicated its central importance to cell functioning, even to these early investigators. We now know of its role as a major microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) and of its dynamic roles in cell division, vesicle trafficking and for its relative, the basal body, ciliogenesis. While centrosomes are found in most animal cells, notably it is absent in most oocytes and higher plant cells. Nevertheless, it appears that critical components of the centrosome act as MTOCs in these cells as well. The zebrafish has emerged as an exciting and promising new model organism, primarily due to the pioneering efforts of George Streisinger to use zebrafish in genetic studies and due to Christiane Nusslein-Volhard, Wolfgang Driever and their teams of collaborators, who applied forward genetics to elicit a large number of mutant lines. The transparency and rapid external development of the embryo allow for experiments not easily done in other vertebrates. The ease of producing transgenic lines, often with the use of fluorescent reporters, and gene knockdowns with antisense morpholinos further contributes to the appeal of the model as an experimental system. The added advantage of high-throughput screening of small-molecule libraries, as well as the ease of mass rearing together with low cost, makes the zebrafish a true frontrunner as a model vertebrate organism. The zebrafish has a body plan shared by all vertebrates, including humans. This conservation of body plan provides added significance to the existing lines of zebrafish as human disease models and adds an impetus to the ongoing efforts to develop new models. In this review, the current state of knowledge about the centrosome in the zebrafish model is explored. Also, studies on the related basal body in zebrafish and their relationship to ciliogenesis are reviewed. PMID:23351173

  4. Sarcolemmal ATP-sensitive K+ channels control energy expenditure determining body weight

    PubMed Central

    Alekseev, Alexey E.; Reyes, Santiago; Yamada, Satsuki; Hodgson-Zingman, Denice M.; Sattiraju, Srinivasan; Zhu, Zhiyong; Sierra, Ana; Gerbin, Marina; Coetzee, William A.; Goldhamer, David J.; Terzic, Andre; Zingman, Leonid V.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Metabolic processes that regulate muscle energy use are major determinants of bodily energy balance. Here we find that sarcolemmal ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels, which couple membrane excitability with cellular metabolic pathways, set muscle energy expenditure under physiological stimuli. Disruption of KATP channel function provoked, in conditions of unaltered locomotor activity and blood substrate availability, an extra energy cost of cardiac and skeletal muscle performance. Inefficient fuel metabolism in KATP channel-deficient striated muscles reduced glycogen and fat body depots promoting a lean phenotype. The propensity to lesser body weight imposed by KATP channel deficit persisted under a high-fat diet, yet obesity restriction was achieved at the cost of compromised physical endurance. Thus, sarcolemmal KATP channels govern muscle energy economy, and their down-regulation in a tissue-specific manner could present an anti-obesity strategy by rendering muscle increasingly thermogenic at rest and less fuel efficient during exercise. PMID:20074528

  5. 41 CFR 302-7.21 - If my HHG shipment includes an item for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier (e...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...shipment includes an item for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier (e...shipment includes an item for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier (e...shipping charges that result from a weight additive so long as the actual weight of...

  6. 41 CFR 302-7.21 - If my HHG shipment includes an item for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier (e...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...shipment includes an item for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier (e...shipment includes an item for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier (e...shipping charges that result from a weight additive so long as the actual weight of...

  7. 41 CFR 302-7.21 - If my HHG shipment includes an item for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier (e...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...shipment includes an item for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier (e...shipment includes an item for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier (e...shipping charges that result from a weight additive so long as the actual weight of...

  8. Noise reduction of a tilt-rotor aircraft including effects on weight and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibs, J.; Stepniewski, W. Z.; Spencer, R.; Kohler, G.

    1973-01-01

    Various methods for far-field noise reduction of a tilt-rotor acoustic signature and the performance and weight tradeoffs which result from modification of the noise sources are considered in this report. In order to provide a realistic approach for the investigation, the Boeing tilt-rotor flight research aircraft (Model 222), was selected as the baseline. This aircraft has undergone considerable engineering development. Its rotor has been manufactured and tested in the Ames full-scale wind tunnel. The study reflects the current state-of-the-art of aircraft design for far-field acoustic signature reduction and is not based solely on an engineering feasibility aircraft. This report supplements a previous study investigating reduction of noise signature through the management of the terminal flight trajectory.

  9. A Predictive Model of the Dynamics of Body Weight and Food Intake in Rats Submitted to Caloric Restrictions

    PubMed Central

    Jacquier, Marine; Crauste, Fabien; Soulage, Christophe O.; Soula, Hédi A.

    2014-01-01

    Dynamics of body weight and food intake can be studied by temporally perturbing food availability. This perturbation can be obtained by modifying the amount of available food over time while keeping the overall food quantity constant. To describe food intake dynamics, we developed a mathematical model that describes body weight, fat mass, fat-free mass, energy expenditure and food intake dynamics in rats. In addition, the model considers regulation of food intake by leptin, ghrelin and glucose. We tested our model on rats experiencing temporally variable food availability. Our model is able to predict body weight and food intake variations by taking into account energy expenditure dynamics based on a memory of the previous food intake. This model allowed us to estimate this memory lag to approximately 8 days. It also explains how important variations in food availability during periods longer than these 8 days can induce body weight gains. PMID:24932616

  10. Effects of beak trimming at different ages on the body weight and feed conversion of guinea fowl (Numida meleagris).

    PubMed

    Oguntona, T; Musa, R; Zubair, A K

    1988-01-01

    The effect of beak trimming at different ages on feed consumption and growth of meat-type guineas (Numida meleagris) up to 12 wk of age was investigated. In the first experiment, beaks of birds were trimmed at 7, 28, 49, and 70 days, respectively. In the second experiment, beak trimming was done at 42, 49, 56, and 63 days, respectively. Body weight, feed consumption, and mortality were measured first at 4 wk and weekly thereafter in both experiments. Beak trimming of keets at 7 days, significantly (P less than .05) reduced body weights at 4, 8, and 12 wk whereas beak trimming at 70 days significantly (P less than .05) reduced body weights at 12 wk. Beak trimming at other ages did not produce significant differences in body weights or feed conversions. Mortality was low (2 to 4%) throughout. PMID:3375169

  11. Body weight as a determinant of clinical evolution in hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Galindo, Angela María; Delgado-Murcia, Lucy Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    The clinical outcome of infection with Leishmania species of the subgenus Viannia in hamster model (Mesocricetus auratus) has shown to be different depending on experimental protocol. Body weight has been a relevant determinant of the clinical outcome of the infection in hamsters with visceral leishmaniasis but its importance as a clinical parameter in hamsters with cutaneous leishmaniasis is not known. In this study, the clinical evolution of infection with L. (V) panamensis was evaluated in juvenile and adult male hamsters during 11 weeks by comparing clinical parameters such as attitude, temperature, respiratory rate, appearance of the stool, and body weight between infected and non-infected groups. Results showed that body weight decreased in adult hamsters after infection by L. (V) panamensis; this observation supports the use of body weight as an additional parameter to define the management or treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in infected adult hamsters used as an animal experimental model for leishmaniasis. PMID:24037292

  12. [Quantity of foods, weight of anatomic structures and body weight in the muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus, L., 1766)].

    PubMed

    Piérard, J; Bisaillon, A

    1982-11-01

    Weights of skeletons, several viscera (heart, lungs, empty stomach and intestine, liver, spleen, kidneys) and muscles of 80 muskrats were taken. The data were analyzed and compared versus four classes of ages and sexes: adult males, adult females, sub-adult males and sub-adult females. The weight of the muscles is 47 to 50% of the live-weight in the four classes studied. The weight of the viscera is approximately 10 to 12% of the live-weight. Thus, the weight of edible matters varies, in the muskrat between 57 and 62% of the live-weight. The spleen of adult females is relatively heavier than that of adult males or sub-adult females. PMID:6758070

  13. Effect of feeding rate and frequency on weight gain, food conversion , and body composition of Tilapia aurea

    E-print Network

    Nitithamyong, Charoen

    1982-01-01

    EFFECT OF FEEDING RATE AND FRE(}UENCY ON WEIGHT GAIN, FOOD CONVERSION, AND BODY COMPOSITION OF TILAPIA AUREA A Thesis by CHAROEN N IT ITHAMYONG Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ABM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement of the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1982 Major Subject: Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences EFFECT OF FEEDING RATE AND FREOUENCY ON WEIGHT GAIN, FOOD CONVERSION, AND BODY COMPOSITION OF TILAPIA AUREA A Thesis by CHAROEN NITITHAMYONG...

  14. Further characterization of diabetes mellitus and body weight loss in males of the congenic mouse strain DDD.Cg-Ay

    PubMed Central

    SUTO, Jun-ichi; SATOU, Kunio

    2014-01-01

    The Ay allele at the agouti locus causes obesity and promotes linear growth in mice. However, body weight gain stops between 16 and 17 weeks after birth, and then, body weight decreases gradually in DDD.Cg-Ay male mice. Body weight loss is a consequence of diabetes mellitus, which is genetically controlled mainly by a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 4. This study aimed to further characterize diabetes mellitus and body weight loss in DDD.Cg-Ay males. The number of ?-cells was markedly reduced, and plasma insulin levels were very low in the DDD.Cg-Ay males. Using a backcross progeny of DDD × (B6 × DDD.Cg-Ay) F1-Ay, we identified one significant QTL for plasma insulin levels on distal chromosome 4, which was coincidental with QTL for hyperglycemia and lower body weight. The DDD allele was associated with decreased plasma insulin levels. When the DDD.Cg-Ay males were housed under three different housing conditions [group housing (4 or 5 DDD.Cg-Ay and DDD males), individual housing (single DDD.Cg-Ay male) and single male housing with females (single DDD.Cg-Ay male with DDD.Cg-Ay or DDD females)], diabetes mellitus and body weight loss were most severely expressed in individually housed mice. Thus, the severity of diabetes and body weight loss in the DDD.Cg-Ay males was strongly influenced by the housing conditions. These results demonstrate that both genetic and nongenetic environmental factors are involved in the development of diabetes mellitus and body weight loss in the DDD.Cg-Ay males. PMID:25373882

  15. BODY WEIGHT AND FAT DEPOSITION IN CAPTIVE WHITE-THROATED SPARROWS IN RELATION TO THE MECHANICS OF MIGRATION1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALBERT WOLFSON

    N 1945 a study of body weight and fat deposition in transient birds was begun at Evanston, Illinois. The data for the White-throated Sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis) for the years 1945-1947 have been analyzed and are in press (Wolfson, 1954). I,t was found that White-throats captured in the spring at Evanston varied greatly in body weight and that these variations were

  16. The impact of depression and ghrelin on body weight in migraineurs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Comorbidity of migraine with anxiety and depression may play a role in the link between migraine and obesity. We examined the moderating and mediating roles of ghrelin in the relationship between depression (and anxiety) and body weight in newly diagnosed migraineurs. Methods Participants were 63 newly diagnosed migraine patients (using the ICHD-II criteria) and 42 healthy volunteers. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated by measuring height and weight. Ghrelin was assessed at fasting. Depression was assessed with the Hamilton Depression scale, and anxiety with the Hamilton Anxiety scale. Results The data did not support the mediating role of ghrelin in the relationship between depression (or anxiety) and BMI for either the migraine or the control group. The interaction between ghrelin and depression as well as anxiety was significant for the migraine group, but not for the control group. Depressed (or anxious) migraineurs had a positive association between ghrelin and BMI, whereas for the non-depressed (or non-anxious) migraineurs this association was negative. Conclusions Depression and anxiety moderated the effect of ghrelin on BMI for migraineurs. Management of anxiety and depression might be regarded as part of migraine treatment. PMID:24762133

  17. Response to Ascaridia galli infection in growing chickens in relation to their body weight.

    PubMed

    Da?, Gürbüz; Gauly, Matthias

    2014-05-01

    It was hypothesized that chickens with extremely varying body weights (BW) from an otherwise homogeneous host sample cope differently with Ascaridia galli (Schrank 1788) infection. Small and large birds, falling into either the lower or the upper 5% quantiles of BW distribution of a parent stock flock, were selected at an age of 4 weeks, housed separately and fed restrictively with the same amount of feed. At week 5, all the small and large birds (635 and 1,297 g/bird, respectively; P?weight gains (P?=?0.004) but final BWs of larger birds were still higher (P??0.05). In conclusion, large birds resist A. galli infection more effectively than do small ones, possibly through different mechanisms acting on allocation of available nutrient and body reserves under the exposure of the infection. PMID:24585156

  18. Medical officers, bodies, gender and weight fluctuation in irish convict prisons, 1877-95.

    PubMed

    Breathnach, Ciara

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the function of the convict prison infirmary and views it as a site of arbitration, resistance and 'contested power'. In accordance with the rules and regulations periods of incarceration in convict prisons began and ended with an obligatory medical examination. While the primary function of the initial test was to measure the convict body in order ascertain physical ability to conduct hard labour it also provided a thorough bio-metrical description for future identification purposes. The final examination was not as comprehensively undertaken but also concerned itself with anthropometrical observations. It would be reasonable to assume that the balance of power was weighted in the authority's favour but this research has found evidence to the contrary. For instance, that there was a fair degree of physiological knowledge within the convict population and that some convicts used the infirmary for dietary gains and reprieve from hard labour. Using body mass index (BMI) as an instrument to measure physical wellbeing this article views the doctor-convict interface as a crucial component of the penal experience. It analyses 251 convict medical records to show that the balance of diet and work led to what might be considered a counterintuitive outcome - a preponderance of weight gain, particularly for males in Irish prisons. PMID:24331215

  19. Effect of exercise and feed restriction on body weight and lipogenesis in the male Wistar rat

    SciTech Connect

    Dellwo, M.; Wright, D.L.; Beauchene, R.E.

    1986-03-01

    Male Wistar rats were swum for either 1.5 or 3.0 hours per day from 6 through 32 weeks of age. At 32 weeks of age, the rats were injected intraperitoneally with /sup 3/H/sub 2/O and sacrificed 1 hour later. Liver activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and malic enzyme (MF) were also measured. Feed intakes of exercised rats were slightly higher, whereas their body weights were slightly lower when compared to those of non-exercised ad libitum-fed rats (controls). Liver ME and G6PD activities of exercised rats were 30% and 50% higher, respectively, than those of control rats. Non-exercised rats, whose body weights were controlled by feed restriction to match those of exercised rats, also showed increases in liver ME and G6PD activities (30%). The relationship between rates of incorporation of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O into liver fat and activities of liver ME and G6PD as affected by exercise and feed restriction will be discussed.

  20. Efficacy of Garcinia Cambogia on Body Weight, Inflammation and Glucose Tolerance in High Fat Fed Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sripradha, Ramalingam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Obesity leads to derangements in lipid and glucose homeostasis resulting in various metabolic complications. Plants containing vital phytochemicals are known to posses anti obesity properties and have proved to exert beneficial effects in obesity. Objectives: The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of Garcinia Cambogia on body weight, glucose tolerance and inflammation in high fat diet fed male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Five month old male wistar rats (n=40) were divided into four groups. Two groups were fed with standard rodent diet and the remaining two with 30% high fat diet. One group in each of the two sets received the crude ethanolic extract of Garcinia Cambogia at a dose of 400mg/kg body weight/day for ten weeks. Body weight, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, leptin, tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and renal function (urea, creatinine, uric acid) were studied. Results: High fat diet fed rats showed increased body weight gain, glucose intolerance, elevated levels of plasma leptin and TNF-?. Supplementation of Garcinia Cambogia extract (GE) along with high fat diet significantly decreased body weight gain, glucose intolerance, plasma leptin and TNF-? level. No significant changes were observed in the renal function parameters in any of the groups. Conclusion: Supplementation of the Garcinia Cambogia extract with high fat diet reduced body weight gain, inflammation and glucose intolerance.

  1. Sexual behavior and seminal characteristics of fertile mature New Zealand White male rabbits of different body weights.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-De Lara, R; Fallas-López, M; García-Muńiz, J G; Martínez-Hernández, P A; Rangel-Santos, R; Maldonado-Siman, E; Cadena-Meneses, J A

    2015-01-01

    Body weight in different mammalian species influences reproductive potential. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship of body weight at the time of semen collection with libido, seminal characteristics and number of semen doses for artificial insemination (AI) in New Zealand White mature fertile male rabbits. Data came from 728 semen collections of 14 rabbits, 15-months of age that were sexually experienced with proven semen quality and fertility. Semen collection was performed twice a week with two ejaculates at each collection time and lasted 14 weeks. A second ejaculation was collected at 1-2h after the first. Data from each male from first and second ejaculates from 1 day of semen collection throughout the trial were averaged (n=324) and partial correlation coefficients and regression equations were estimated to describe the relationship of male body weight to ejaculation reaction time and 12 semen and sperm characteristics. As body weight increased there was a linear (P<0.05) increase in reaction time, abnormal sperm with an intact membrane and abnormal sperm with a damaged membrane and a linear (P<0.05) decrease in semen volume, sperm concentration per ejaculate, normal sperm with an intact membrane, number of normal motile sperm with an intact membrane and suitable semen doses for AI. Body weight of the mature male rabbit at semen collection had some influence on libido, semen and sperm characteristics, with a general trend toward a lesser reproduction potential as body weight increases. PMID:25482591

  2. Role of body condition score and body weight in the control of seasonal reproduction in Blanca Andaluza goats.

    PubMed

    Gallego-Calvo, L; Gatica, M C; Guzmán, J L; Zarazaga, L A

    2014-12-30

    The reproductive activity of 84 female Blanca Andaluza goats was monitored over 17 months to determine the role of body condition score (BCS) and body weight (BW) in its control. Following a 3×2 factorial experimental design, the animals were allocated to three groups: low BCS (?2.50, n=24), medium BCS (BCS=2.75-3.00, n=31) and high BCS (?3.25, n=29). The same animals, irrespective of the BCS group categorization, were also divided into two groups depending on BW: low BW (?40kg, n=44) and high BW (>40kg, n=40). Oestrus was evaluated daily using vasectomised males. The ovulation rate was assessed by trans-rectal ultrasonography after the identification of oestrus. Ovulations were determined by monitoring the plasma progesterone concentration weekly. The BCS and BW were recorded once a week and nutritional status adjusted to maintain the initial differences in BW and BCS between the groups. Both BCS and BW had a significant (at least P<0.05) influence on the onset, the end, and the duration of the breeding season, with longer periods of reproductive activity recorded in does with a BCS of ?2.75 and BW of >40kg. No significant interaction between these variables was observed. Some (11.7%) of the does in the groups with animals of BCS?2.75 had ovulations during seasonal anoestrus. None of the does with a BCS of ?2.5 had ovulations during seasonal anoestrus. The ovulation rate of the first and last oestrus was influenced by BW (P<0.01). These results demonstrate that Blanca Andaluza goats show marked reproductive seasonality that is clearly and independently modulated by BCS and BW. PMID:25459077

  3. Is Frequent Self-Weighing Associated with Poorer Body Satisfaction? Findings from a Phone-Based Weight Loss Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Ericka M.; Sherwood, Nancy E.; VanWormer, Jeffrey J.; Hotop, Anne Marie; Jeffery, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of self-weighing frequency on weight change and body satisfaction. Design: Observational study based on findings from a 6-month randomized controlled telephone-based weight loss trial. Data collected at baseline and 6 months. Setting: Metropolitan community-based sample. Participants: Sixty-three obese adults. Mean…

  4. Maternal low protein diet causes body weight loss in male, neonate Sprague-Dawley rats involving UCP-1 mediated thermogenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in regulating body weight (BW) by modifying thermogenesis. Maternal low protein (LP) diets reduce offspring birth weight. Increased BAT thermogenesis in utero may be one mechanism for the lower BW. However, whether maternal LP nutrition alters BAT...

  5. The U-shaped association between body mass index and mortality: Relationship with weight gain in a native American population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert L. Hanson; David R. McCance; Lennart T. H. Jacobsson; K. M. V. Narayan; Robert G. Nelson; David J. Pettitt; Peter H. Bennett; William C. Knowler

    1995-01-01

    In order to determine whether weight loss explains high mortality rates in those with a low body mass index (BMI), the relationships between BMI, rate of weight gain and mortality were examined in Pima Indians. Subjects were 814 diabetic and 1814 nondiabetic participants in a longitudinal survey who had at least two examinations after age 20. Median duration of follow-up

  6. Catechin- and caffeine-rich teas for control of body weight in humans.

    PubMed

    Hursel, Rick; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2013-12-01

    Maintaining the level of daily energy expenditure during weight loss and weight maintenance is as important as maintaining satiety while decreasing energy intake. In this context, different catechin- and caffeine-rich teas (CCRTs), such as green, oolong, and white teas, as well as caffeine have been proposed as tools for maintaining or enhancing energy expenditure and for increasing fat oxidation. Tea polyphenols have been proposed to counteract the decrease in metabolic rate that is usually present during weight loss. Their effects may be of particular importance during weight maintenance after weight loss. Although the thermogenic effect of CCRT has the potential to produce significant effects on these metabolic targets as well as on fat absorption and energy intake, possibly via its impact on the gut microbiota and gene expression, a clinically meaningful outcome also depends on compliance by the subjects. Limitations to this approach require further examination, including moderating factors such as genetic predisposition, habitual caffeine intake, and catechin composition and dose. Nevertheless, CCRTs may be useful agents that could help in preventing a positive energy balance and obesity. PMID:24172301

  7. The Influence of Body Weight on Chosen Physiological Parameters in Wrestling

    PubMed Central

    Karnin?i?, Hrvoje; Krstulovi?, Saša; Bai?, Mario

    In this study, the authors attempted to determine whether the dynamics of blood lactate and glucose in wrestling depend on the weight class. Blood lactate and glucose curves during and after a wrestling match were determined. We also explained the dynamics of blood lactate and glucose in the context of recent glucose and lactate metabolism research. A sample of 60 youth wrestlers (15–20 years) were divided into three weight groups. Each athlete participated in one wrestling match. During the fight, the athletes’ heart rate, glucose, and blood lactate were measured. The differences in body mass between the athletes did not affect the dynamics of lactate and glucose in wrestling competition (Fisher LSD test). We established that lactate and glucose dynamics are the same for all weight groups (Fisher LSD-Lactate 1 < 2 < 3 = 4 > 5, Fisher LSD-Glucose 1 = 2 < 3 < 4 < 5). Understanding lactate and glucose metabolism in wrestling is important for wrestling coaches because they need to evaluate a wrestler’s anaerobic energy status. PMID:24146712

  8. Comparison of Landim and Africander cattle in southern Mozambique: I. Body weights and growth.

    PubMed

    Carvalheira, J G; Blake, R W; Pollak, E J; Van Soest, P J

    1995-12-01

    The growth performance of Landim and Africander breeds was compared using data collected from 1968 to 1981 at the Chobela Research Station in Mozambique. Animals from both breeds were managed together in groups by age and sex, except when separated for breeding. Growth traits were body weights at birth, weaning at 7 mo, 18 mo, and first calving, and pre- and postweaning daily growth rates. These traits were analyzed using a mixed-effects least squares model containing breed, year-season of birth, sex, the nested effect of parity within breed, a linear regression on dam's age, and the random effect of sire within breed. Africander calves were 16, 9, and 7% heavier (P < .01) than Landim calves at birth, weaning, and 18 mo (18 +/- 6 kg heavier than the 237-kg Landim average). However, there was no detectable difference for age-adjusted weight at first calving and postweaning daily growth rate. Diminishing weight and growth differences with advancing age may indicate adaptation by the Landim to the prevailing environmental limitations in southern Mozambique, especially through younger ages at puberty and at first calving. PMID:8655424

  9. Independent effects of weight and mass on plantar flexor activity during walking: implications for their contributions to body support

    E-print Network

    .2008.--The ankle plantar flexor mus- cles, gastrocnemius (Gas) and soleus (Sol), have been shown to play this hypothesis by measuring muscle activity while experimentally manipulating body weight and mass by 1 and mass). The rationale for this study was that muscles that provide body support would be sensitive

  10. Eating habits and body weight profiles among undergraduate students in UiTM Puncak Alam, Selangor, Malaysia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhammad Anwar Nawab Khan; Nur Aimi Mohamad; Mohammed Abdul Hameed; Nahlah Elkudssiah Ismail

    2011-01-01

    Poor eating habits, smoking, alcohol consumption and physical inactivity may augment risk for developing obesity. Obesity, known as a condition of abnormal excess body fat, is associated with a large number of debilitating and life-threatening disorders, such as major increase in associated cardiovascular, metabolic and other non-communicable diseases. This study determined the body weight profiles based on World Health Organization

  11. Effects of underfeeding Awassi ewes in late pregnancy and early lactation on body weight changes and milk production

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effects of underfeeding Awassi ewes in late pregnancy and early lactation on body weight changes of the year, and lambing is spread throughout the winter. Late pregnancy and early lactation occur when. It is difficult to feed according to requirements during pregnancy, and sheep often have to mobilize body reserves

  12. Effects of genetic strain on stress-induced weight and body fat loss in rats: Application to air pollution research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to some air pollutants is suspected of contributing to obesity. Hazelton chambers are commonly used in air pollution studies but we found unexpected reductions in body weight and body fat of rats housed in Hazelton chambers under control conditions. We suspect that stres...

  13. Development of gender- and age group-specific equations for estimating body weight from anthropometric measurement in Thai adults

    PubMed Central

    Chittawatanarat, Kaweesak; Pruenglampoo, Sakda; Trakulhoon, Vibul; Ungpinitpong, Winai; Patumanond, Jayanton

    2012-01-01

    Background Many medical procedures routinely use body weight as a parameter for calculation. However, these measurements are not always available. In addition, the commonly used visual estimation has had high error rates. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a predictive equation for body weight using body circumferences. Methods A prospective study was performed in healthy volunteers. Body weight, height, and eight circumferential level parameters including neck, arm, chest, waist, umbilical level, hip, thigh, and calf were recorded. Linear regression equations were developed in a modeling sample group divided by sex and age (younger <60 years and older ?60 years). Original regression equations were modified to simple equations by coefficients and intercepts adjustment. These equations were tested in an independent validation sample. Results A total of 2000 volunteers were included in this study. These were randomly separated into two groups (1000 in each modeling and validation group). Equations using height and one covariate circumference were developed. After the covariate selection processes, covariate circumference of chest, waist, umbilical level, and hip were selected for single covariate equations (Sco). To reduce the body somatotype difference, the combination covariate circumferences were created by summation between the chest and one torso circumference of waist, umbilical level, or hip and used in the equation development as a combination covariate equation (Cco). Of these equations, Cco had significantly higher 10% threshold error tolerance compared with Sco (mean percentage error tolerance of Cco versus Sco [95% confidence interval; 95% CI]: 76.9 [74.2–79.6] versus 70.3 [68.4–72.3]; P < 0.01, respectively). Although simple covariate equations had more evidence errors than the original covariate equations, there was comparable error tolerance between the types of equations (original versus simple: 74.5 [71.9–77.1] versus 71.7 [69.2–74.3]; P = 0.12, respectively). The chest containing covariate (C) equation had the most appropriate performance for Sco equations (chest versus nonchest: 73.4 [69.7–77.1] versus 69.3 [67.0–71.6]; P = 0.03, respectively). For Cco equations, although there were no differences between covariates using summation of chest and hip (C+Hp) and other Cco but C+Hp had a slightly higher performance validity (C+Hp versus other Cco [95% CI]: 77.8 [73.2–82.3] versus 76.5 [72.7–80.2]; P = 0.65, respectively). Conclusion Body weight can be predicted by height and circumferential covariate equations. Cco had more Sco error tolerance. Original and simple equations had comparable validity. Chest- and C+Hp-containing covariate equations had more precision within the Sco and Cco equation types, respectively. PMID:22287849

  14. Long term exendin-4 treatment reduces food intake and body weight and alters expression of brain homeostatic and reward markers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Moghadam, Alexander A; Cordner, Zachary A; Liang, Nu-Chu; Moran, Timothy H

    2014-09-01

    Repeated administration of the long-acting glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist exendin-4 (EX-4) has been shown to reduce food intake and body weight and do so without a rebound increase in food intake after treatment termination. The current study examines the neural mechanisms underlying these actions. After 6 weeks of maintenance on a standard chow or a high-fat (HF) diet, male Sprague Dawley rats were treated with EX-4 (3.2 ?g/kg, i.p., twice a day) or vehicle for 9 consecutive days. Food intake and body weight (BW) were monitored daily. Expression of the genes for the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) peptides proopiomelanocortin (POMC), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and agouti gene-related protein was determined. Expression of the dopamine precursor tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene in the ventral tegmental area and genes for dopamine receptors 1 (D1R) and dopamine receptor 2 in the nucleus accumbens were also determined. Pair-fed groups were included to control for the effects of reduced food intake and BW. Treatment with EX-4 significantly decreased food intake and BW over the 9-day period in both the standard chow and HF groups. HF feeding decreased POMC without changing NPY/agouti gene-related protein gene expression in the ARC. Treatment with EX-4 increased POMC and decreased NPY expression independent of the reduction of food intake and BW. Mesolimbic TH and D1R gene expression were decreased significantly in chronic HF diet-fed rats, and these changes were reversed in both EX-4 and pair-fed conditions. These results suggest a role for increased POMC and decreased NPY expression in the ARC in the effects of EX-4 on food intake and BW. Our findings also suggest that EX-4 induced the recovery of mesolimbic TH and D1R expression in HF diet-fed rats may be secondary to HF intake reduction and/or weight loss. PMID:24949661

  15. Overground walking speed changes when subjected to body weight support conditions for nonimpaired and post stroke individuals

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous research has shown that body weight support (BWS) has the potential to improve gait speed for individuals post-stroke. However, body weight support also reduces the optimal walking speed at which energy use is minimized over the gait cycle indicating that BWS should reduce walking speed capability. Methods Nonimpaired subjects and subjects post-stroke walked at a self-selected speed over a 15 m walkway. Body weight support (BWS) was provided to subjects at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% of the subject's weight while they walked overground using a robotic body weight support system. Gait speed, cadence, and average step length were calculated for each subject using recorded data on their time to walk 10 m and the number of steps taken. Results When subjected to greater levels of BWS, self-selected walking speed decreased for the nonimpaired subjects. However, subjects post-stroke showed an average increase of 17% in self-selected walking speed when subjected to some level of BWS compared to the 0% BWS condition. Most subjects showed this increase at the 10% BWS level. Gait speed increases corresponded to an increase in step length, but not cadence. Conclusions The BWS training environment results in decreased self-selected walking speed in nonimpaired individuals, however self-selected overground walking speed is facilitated when provided with a small percentage of body weight support for people post-stroke. PMID:20149244

  16. Intra-individual comparison of PET/CT with different body weight-adapted FDG dosage regimens

    PubMed Central

    Geismar, Jan H; Sah, Bert-Ram; Burger, Irene A; Seifert, Burkhardt; Delso, Gaspar; von Schulthess, Gustav K; Veit-Haibach, Patrick; Husmann, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Background 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/ computed tomography (CT) imaging demands guidelines to safeguard sufficient image quality at low radiation exposure. Various FDG dose regimes have been investigated; however, body weight-adapted dose regimens and related image quality (IQ) have not yet been compared in the same patient. Purpose To investigate the relationship between FDG dosage and image quality in PET/CT in the same patient and determine prerequisites for low dosage scanning. Material and Methods This study included 61 patients undergoing a clinically indicated PET/CT imaging study and follow-up with a normal (NDS, 5 MBq/kg body weight [BW]) and low dosage scanning protocol (LDS, 4 MBq/kg BW), respectively, using a Discovery VCT64 scanner. Two blinded and independent readers randomly assessed IQ of PET using a 5-point Likert scale and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the liver. Results Body mass index (BMI) was significantly lower at LDS (P?=?0.021) and represented a significant predictor of SNR at both NDS (P??22?kg/m2. Conclusion FDG dosage significantly predicts IQ and SNR in PET/CT imaging as demonstrated in the same patient with optimal IQ achieved at 5 MBq/kg BM. PET/CT imaging at 4 MBq/kg BW may only be recommended in patients with a BMI???22?kg/m2 to maintain diagnostic IQ. PMID:25793109

  17. Positive fantasies or negative contrasts: the effect of media body ideals on restrained eaters' mood, weight satisfaction, and food intake.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Jessica A; Kuijer, Roeline G; Gleaves, David H

    2013-09-01

    Although viewing media body ideals promotes body dissatisfaction and problematic eating among women (e.g., extreme restraint/overeating), some argue that women only report such negative effects because they think that they are meant to (i.e., demand characteristics). Because restrained eaters are trying to lose weight, they might be vulnerable to such media exposure. However, because of demand characteristics, evidence is mixed. Therefore, we minimized demand characteristics and explored whether media body ideals would trigger restrained eaters to report negative (negative mood, weight dissatisfaction) or positive (positive mood, weight satisfaction) effects. We also hypothesized that this change (negative or positive) would encourage food intake. Restrained and unrestrained eaters (n=107) memorized media or control images. Restrained eaters exposed to media images reported decreased weight satisfaction and increased negative mood, but their food intake was not significantly affected. Perhaps paying advertent attention to the images caused goal-related negative affect, which triggered restraint. PMID:23954195

  18. Loss of body weight and fat and improved lipid profiles in obese rats fed apple pomace or apple juice concentrate.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyung-Dong; Han, Chan-Kyu; Lee, Bog-Hieu

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of apple pomace (AP) and apple juice concentrate (AC) supplementation on body weight and fat loss as well as lipid metabolism in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. Diet-induced obese rats were assigned to three groups (n=8 for each group): high fat diet (HFD) control, HFD containing 10% (w/w) AP, and HFD containing 10% (w/w) AC. There was also a normal diet group (n=8). After 5 weeks, body weight gain, adipose tissue weight, serum and hepatic lipid profiles, liver morphology, and adipocyte size were measured. Body weight gain, white adipose tissue (WAT) weight, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, epididymal adipocyte size, and lesion scores were significantly lower and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and brown adipose tissue weights were significantly higher in the AP and AC groups compared with the HFD group. In addition, atherogenic indices in the AP and AC groups were significantly lower than in the HFD group. These results indicate that supplementing apple products such as AP and AC may help suppress body weight and WAT gain, as well as improve lipid profiles in diet-induced obese rats. PMID:23909905

  19. Loss of Body Weight and Fat and Improved Lipid Profiles in Obese Rats Fed Apple Pomace or Apple Juice Concentrate

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kyung-Dong; Han, Chan-Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of apple pomace (AP) and apple juice concentrate (AC) supplementation on body weight and fat loss as well as lipid metabolism in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. Diet-induced obese rats were assigned to three groups (n=8 for each group): high fat diet (HFD) control, HFD containing 10% (w/w) AP, and HFD containing 10% (w/w) AC. There was also a normal diet group (n=8). After 5 weeks, body weight gain, adipose tissue weight, serum and hepatic lipid profiles, liver morphology, and adipocyte size were measured. Body weight gain, white adipose tissue (WAT) weight, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, epididymal adipocyte size, and lesion scores were significantly lower and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and brown adipose tissue weights were significantly higher in the AP and AC groups compared with the HFD group. In addition, atherogenic indices in the AP and AC groups were significantly lower than in the HFD group. These results indicate that supplementing apple products such as AP and AC may help suppress body weight and WAT gain, as well as improve lipid profiles in diet-induced obese rats. PMID:23909905

  20. Dietary and weight-related behaviors and body mass index among Hispanic, Hmong, Somali, and white adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Arcan, Chrisa; Larson, Nicole; Bauer, Kate; Berge, Jerica; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    Background The population of the United States is becoming increasingly ethnically and racially diverse, much of it due to immigration patterns. However little is known about dietary intake and weight-related concerns and behaviors of youth from some ethnic-minority groups, especially Hispanic, Hmong, and Somali adolescents. Objective To describe dietary intake and weight-related concerns and behaviors among Hispanic, Hmong, and Somali adolescents and compare them to white adolescents. Design Cross-sectional analysis of data from EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens), a population-based study in the Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area. Participants/Setting Current analysis includes 1,672 adolescents (Hispanic: n=562(33.6%); Hmong: n=477(28.5%); Somali: n=113(6.8%); White: n=520 (31.1%); mean age=15.0). Adolescents completed classroom surveys and had their height/weight measured during the 2009–2010 academic year. Statistical Analysis Multivariable regression models, adjusted for socioeconomic status, age, and school as a random effect were used to examine racial/ethnic differences for each outcome variable for boys and girls. Results There are numerous differences in the behaviors of Hispanic, Hmong, and Somali adolescents as compared to whites. Hispanic and Somali youth consumed fruit and fast food more frequently. Hmong adolescents consumed sugar-sweetened beverages less frequently, while Somali boys consumed energy and sports drinks more frequently than whites. Compared to white boys, overweight/obesity was higher among Hispanic and Hmong. A higher percentage of Hmong and Somali adolescents engaged in unhealthy weight control behaviors. Body satisfaction was lower for all Hmong adolescents compared to whites. Conclusions There were varying areas of concern in dietary intake, weight, and weight-related concerns and behaviors among adolescents in all ethnic groups. Future nutrition and physical activity interventions that include adolescents from these ethnic and cultural groups may benefit from, for example, modifying intervention strategies to the specific priority behaviors within the target population. PMID:24433949

  1. Maternal low-dose estradiol-17? exposure during pregnancy impairs postnatal progeny weight development and body composition

    SciTech Connect

    Werner Fürst, Rainer [Physiology Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany) [Physiology Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); ZIEL PhD Graduate school ‘Epigenetics, Imprinting and Nutrition’, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Pistek, Veronika Leopoldine; Kliem, Heike [Physiology Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany)] [Physiology Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Skurk, Thomas; Hauner, Hans [ZIEL Dep. Nutritional Medicine, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany) [ZIEL Dep. Nutritional Medicine, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, 81675 München (Germany); Meyer, Heinrich Herman Dietrich [Physiology Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany)] [Physiology Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Ulbrich, Susanne Ernestine, E-mail: ulbrich@wzw.tum.de [Physiology Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals with estrogenic activity play an important role as obesogens. However, studies investigating the most potent natural estrogen, estradiol-17? (E2), at low dose are lacking. We examined endocrine and physiological parameters in gilts receiving distinct concentrations of E2 during pregnancy. We then investigated whether adverse effects prevail in progeny due to a potential endocrine disruption. E2 was orally applied to gilts during the entire period of pregnancy. The concentrations represented a daily consumption at the recommended ADI level (0.05 ?g/kg body weight/day), at the NOEL (10 ?g/kg body weight/day) and at a high dosage (1000 ?g/kg body weight/day). Plasma hormone concentrations were determined using enzyme immuno assays. Offspring body fat was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning. In treated gilts receiving 1000 ?g E2/kg body weight/day we found significantly elevated plasma E2 levels during pregnancy, paralleled by an increased weight gain. While offspring showed similar weight at birth, piglets exhibited a significant reduction in weight at weaning even though their mothers had only received 0.05 ?g E2/kg body weight/day. At 8 weeks of age, specifically males showed a significant increase in overall body fat percentage. In conclusion, prenatal exposure to low doses of E2 affected pig offspring development in terms of body weight and composition. In line with findings from other obesogens, our data suggest a programming effect during pregnancy for E2 causative for the depicted phenotypes. Therefore, E2 exposure may imply a possible contribution to childhood obesity. -- Highlights: ? We investigate the potential role of estradiol-17? (E2) as an obesogen. ? We orally apply E2 at the ADI, NOEL and a high dose to gilts during pregnancy. ? Offspring weight is similar at birth but reduced at weaning even after ADI treatment. ? Male offspring only exhibit an increase in overall body fat percentage prepubertally. ? E2 appears as an endocrine disruptor that might contribute to childhood obesity.

  2. A Natural Fiber Complex Reduces Body Weight in the Overweight and Obese: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Grube, Barbara; Chong, Pee-Win; Lau, Kai-Zhia; Orzechowski, Hans-Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Objective A proprietary natural fiber complex (Litramine IQP G-002AS) derived from Opuntia ficus-indica, and standardized on lipophilic activity, was previously shown in preclinical and human studies to reduce dietary fat absorption through gastrointestinal (GI) fat binding. Here, we investigated the efficacy and safety of IQP G-002AS in body weight reduction. Design and Methods One hundred twenty-five overweight and obese adults participated in the study. Subjects were advised on physical activity, and received nutritional counseling, including hypocaloric diet plans (30% energy from fat and 500 kcal deficit/day). After a 2-week placebo run-in phase, subjects were randomized to receive either 3 g/day of IQP G-002AS (IQ) or a placebo. The primary endpoint was change in body weight from baseline; secondary endpoints included additional obesity measures and safety parameters. Results One hundred twenty-three subjects completed the 12-week treatment phase (intention-to-treat (ITT) population: 30 male and 93 female; mean BMI: 29.6 ± 2.8 kg/m2 and age: 45.4 ± 11.3 years). The mean body weight change from baseline was 3.8 ± 1.8 kg in IQ vs. 1.4 ± 2.6 kg in placebo (P < 0.001). More IQ subjects lost at least 5% of their initial body weight compared to placebo (P = 0.027). Compared with placebo, IQ also showed significantly greater reduction in BMI, body fat composition, and waist circumference. IQ was well tolerated with no adverse reactions reported. Conclusions These results suggest that the natural fiber complex Litramine IQP G-002AS is effective in promoting weight loss. PMID:23505169

  3. Neuropeptide Exocytosis Involving Synaptotagmin-4 and Oxytocin in Hypothalamic Programming of Body Weight and Energy Balance

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guo; Bai, Hua; Zhang, Hai; Dean, Camin; Wu, Qiang; Li, Juxue; Guariglia, Sara; Meng, Qingyuan; Cai, Dongsheng

    2015-01-01

    Hypothalamic neuropeptides play essential roles in regulating energy and body weight balance. Energy imbalance and obesity have been linked to hypothalamic signaling defects in regulating neuropeptide genes; however, it is unknown whether dysregulation of neuropeptide exocytosis could be critically involved. This study discovered that synaptotagmin-4, an atypical modulator of synaptic exocytosis, is expressed most abundantly in oxytocin neurons of the hypothalamus. Synaptotagmin-4 negatively regulates oxytocin exocytosis, and dietary obesity is associated with increased vesicle binding of synaptotagmin-4 and thus enhanced negative regulation of oxytocin release. Overexpressing synaptotagmin-4 in hypothalamic oxytocin neurons and centrally antagonizing oxytocin in mice are similarly obesogenic. Synaptotagmin-4 inhibition prevents against dietary obesity by normalizing oxytocin release and energy balance under chronic nutritional excess. In conclusion, the negative regulation of synaptotagmin-4 on oxytocin release represents a hypothalamic basis of neuropeptide exocytosis in controlling obesity and related diseases. PMID:21315262

  4. Measuring body mass index according to protocol: how are height and weight obtained?

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Jessica L J; Narus, Scott P; Leiser, Jennifer; Egger, Marlene J

    2011-01-01

    Previous investigation at our resident-teaching, family medicine clinics determined that >80% of adult patients have body mass index (BMI) recorded in the electronic medical record. The quality of this measure, however, is not known. The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of documented BMI. We used an observational study design to determine the means by which clinic staff obtain height and weight values from patients. We found that staff only obtained 35.4% of these measurements according to protocol. The major reason for noncompliance with protocol was that shoes were not removed for the measurements. Our investigation indicated that providers, quality improvement teams, and researchers should not assume the accuracy of the recorded BMI. Future investigation is warranted to improve the quality of these measurements in the outpatient setting. PMID:22414017

  5. Public and health professionals’ misconceptions about the dynamics of body weight gain/loss

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Hamid, Tarek; Ankel, Felix; Battle-Fisher, Michele; Gibson, Bryan; Gonzalez-Parra, Gilberto; Jalali, Mohammad; Kaipainen, Kirsikka; Kalupahana, Nishan; Karanfil, Ozge; Marathe, Achla; Martinson, Brian; McKelvey, Karma; Sarbadhikari, Suptendra Nath; Pintauro, Stephen; Poucheret, Patrick; Pronk, Nicolaas; Qian, Ying; Sazonov, Edward; Van Oorschot, Kim; Venkitasubramanian, Akshay; Murphy, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Human body energy storage operates as a stock-and-flow system with inflow (food intake) and outflow (energy expenditure). In spite of the ubiquity of stock-and-flow structures, evidence suggests that human beings fail to understand stock accumulation and rates of change, a difficulty called the stock–flow failure. This study examines the influence of health care training and cultural background in overcoming stock–flow failure. A standardized protocol assessed lay people’s and health care professionals’ ability to apply stock-and-flow reasoning to infer the dynamics of weight gain/loss during the holiday season (621 subjects from seven countries). Our results indicate that both types of subjects exhibited systematic errors indicative of use of erroneous heuristics. Stock–flow failure was found across cultures and was not improved by professional health training. The problem of stock–flow failure as a transcultural global issue with education and policy implications is discussed. PMID:25620843

  6. Education for healthy body weight: helping adolescents balance the cultural pressure for thinness.

    PubMed

    Collins, M E

    1988-08-01

    Though education for healthy body weight traditionally has focused on obesity, the increased incidence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia among young women suggests education also is needed to address the opposite end of the spectrum. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia are complex and multidimensional disorders associated with individual, family, and sociocultural factors. This article examines the cultural pressure for dieting and thinness currently experienced in America and its impact as a possible predisposing factor for developing eating disorders among adolescent females. Literature is reviewed related to the changing American standard of attractiveness for females reflected by 20th century mass media and its subsequent influence on adolescent concerns for dieting and thinness. Preventive strategies are recommended to help adolescents balance the cultural pressure for thinness and their own desires for attractiveness within the larger context of overall good health. PMID:3216626

  7. Animal models of sugar and fat bingeing: relationship to food addiction and increased body weight.

    PubMed

    Avena, Nicole M; Bocarsly, Miriam E; Hoebel, Bartley G

    2012-01-01

    Binge eating is a behavior that occurs in some eating disorders, as well as in obesity and in nonclinical populations. Both sugars and fats are readily consumed by human beings and are common components of binges. This chapter describes animal models of sugar and fat bingeing, which allow for a detailed analysis of these behaviors and their concomitant physiological effects. The model of sugar bingeing has been used successfully to elicit behavioral and neurochemical signs of dependence in rats; e.g., indices of opiate-like withdrawal, increased intake after abstinence, cross-sensitization with drugs of abuse, and the repeated release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens following repeated bingeing. Studies using the model of fat bingeing suggest that it can produce some, but not all, of the signs of dependence that are seen with sugar binge eating, as well as increase body weight, potentially leading to obesity. PMID:22231826

  8. CT-PET weighted image fusion for separately scanned whole body rat

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Jung W.; Kwon, Oh-Kyu; Scheinost, Dustin; Sinusas, Albert J.; Cline, Gary W.; Papademetris, Xenophon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The limited resolution and lack of spatial information in positron emission tomography (PET) images require the complementary anatomic information from the computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Therefore, multimodality image fusion techniques such as PET/CT are critical in mapping the functional images to structural images and thus facilitate the interpretation of PET studies. In our experimental situation, the CT and PET images are acquired in separate scanners at different times and the inherent differences in the imaging protocols produce significant nonrigid changes between the two acquisitions in addition to dissimilar image characteristics. The registration conditions are also poor because CT images have artifacts due to the limitation of current scanning settings, while PET images are very blurry (in transmission-PET) and have vague anatomical structure boundaries (in emission-PET). Methods: The authors present a new method for whole body small animal multimodal registration. In particular, the authors register whole body rat CT image and PET images using a weighted demons algorithm. The authors use both the transmission-PET and the emission-PET images in the registration process emphasizing particular regions of the moving transmission-PET image using the emission-PET image. After a rigid transformation and a histogram matching between the CT and the transmission-PET images, the authors deformably register the transmission-PET image to the CT image with weights based on the intensity-normalized emission-PET image. For the deformable registration process, the authors develop a weighted demons registration method that can give preferences to particular regions of the input image using a weight image. Results: The authors validate the results with nine rat image sets using the M-Hausdorff distance (M-HD) similarity measure with different outlier-suppression parameters (OSP). In comparison with standard methods such as the regular demons and the normalized mutual information (NMI)-based nonrigid free-form deformation (FFD) registration, the proposed weighted demons registration method shows average M-HD errors: 3.99?±?1.37 (OSP?=?10), 5.04?±?1.59 (OSP?=?20) and 5.92?±?1.61 (OSP?=??) with statistical significance (p?body multimodal registration between CT and PET images, the utilization of both the transmission-PET and the emission-PET images in the registration process by emphasizing particular regions of the transmission-PET image using an emission-PET image is effective. This method holds promise for other image fusion applications where multiple (more than two) input images should be registered into a single informative image. PMID:22225323

  9. Acculturation, meal frequency, eating-out, and body weight in Korean Americans

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Consuming regular meals has been studied in relation to better health, while higher regularity of eating-out has been linked to obesity. This study examined whether acculturation was associated with regularity of meals, eating-out, and overweight in Korean Americans. Pre-tested questionnaires were mailed to a U.S. national sample with Korean American surnames, and 55% of the deliverable sample responded, producing 356 usable questionnaires. Acculturation was measured using a two-culture matrix model and Gordon's theoretical work, and showed there were three distinct groups (acculturated, bicultural, and traditional). Only 36% reported that they regularly ate three meals a day. Breakfast was the least frequent meal of the day with 43% reporting eating breakfast everyday. More than half (58%) reported that they usually eat out or get take-out food at least once a week. After controlling for age, sex, income, education, and working status, higher acculturation was related to greater regularity of eating-out, but not meal regularity. A total of 28% of men and 6% of women were overweight (BMI>25), and there were significant and positive relationships between body weight status and acculturation in men but not women. However, no significant relationships between frequency of meals and eating-out and overweight status were present. This study did not find significant relationships of meal regularity and eating-out with body weight, however, given the positive relationship between acculturation and eating-out among the subjects and the well-established relationship between eating-out and obesity, nutrition education about skipping meals and eating-for Korean Americans may be useful to prevent such relationships from developing. PMID:20016729

  10. Associations of Weight, Weight Change, and Body Mass with Breast Cancer Risk in Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Madé Wenten; Frank D Gilliland; Kathy Baumgartner; Jonathan M Samet

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: A wealth of studies have examined the effects of weight, weight gain, and obesity on breast cancer risk; however, few have examined this relationship in Hispanic white women, a population with the highest rate of obesity in the U.S. METHODS: A population-based case-control study was conducted in New Mexico of Hispanic (n = 694) and non-Hispanic (n = 813)

  11. Diffusion-weighted whole-body MR imaging with background body signal suppression: a feasibility study at 3.0 Tesla

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petra Mürtz; Carsten Krautmacher; Frank Träber; Jürgen Gieseke; Hans H. Schild; Winfried A. Willinek

    2007-01-01

    The purpose was to provide a diffusion-weighted whole-body magnetic resonance (MR) imaging sequence with background body signal\\u000a suppression (DWIBS) at 3.0 Tesla. A diffusion-weighted spin-echo echo-planar imaging sequence was combined with the following\\u000a methods of fat suppression: short TI inversion recovery (STIR), spectral attenuated inversion recovery (SPAIR), and spectral\\u000a presaturation by inversion recovery (SPIR). Optimized sequences were implemented on a

  12. Prepregnancy body mass and weight gain during pregnancy in India and sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Diane

    2015-03-17

    Despite being wealthier, Indian children are significantly shorter and smaller than African children. These differences begin very early in life, suggesting that they may in part reflect differences in maternal health. By applying reweighting estimation strategies to the Demographic and Health Surveys, this paper reports, to my knowledge, the first representative estimates of prepregnancy body mass index and weight gain during pregnancy for India and sub-Saharan Africa. I find that 42.2% of prepregnant women in India are underweight compared with 16.5% of prepregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa. Levels of prepregnancy underweight for India are almost seven percentage points higher than the average fraction underweight among women 15-49 y old. This difference in part reflects a previously unquantified relationship among age, fertility, and underweight; childbearing is concentrated in the narrow age range in which Indian women are most likely to be underweight. Further, because weight gain during pregnancy is low, averaging about 7 kg for a full-term pregnancy in both regions, the average woman in India ends pregnancy weighing less than the average woman in sub-Saharan Africa begins pregnancy. Poor maternal health among Indian women is of global significance because India is home to one fifth of the world's births. PMID:25733859

  13. Interleukin-6 gene transfer reverses body weight gain and fatty liver in obese mice.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yongjie; Gao, Mingming; Sun, Hao; Liu, Dexi

    2015-05-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional protein and has a major influence on energy metabolism. The current study was designed to assess the therapeutic effect of overexpression of Il-6 gene through gene transfer on high fat diet-induced obese mice. Hydrodynamic delivery of 1?g pLIVE-IL6 plasmid per mouse into C57BL/6 obese mice resulted in peak level at 10ng/ml of circulating IL-6 1day after gene transfer and above 1ng/ml thereafter for a period of 6weeks. Persistent Il-6 gene expression did not affect food intake but induced a significant reduction in body weight and improved obesity-associated hepatic steatosis. Il-6 gene delivery enhanced thermogenic gene expression and elevated protein levels of phosphorylated STAT3, PGC1? and UCP1 in brown adipose tissue. Il-6 overexpression elevated mRNA levels of lipolysis genes, triggered phosphorylation of STAT3, AMPK, and ACC, and increased expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. IL-6 did not affect macrophage infiltration but maintained the M2 macrophage population in adipose tissue. Collectively, these results suggest that overexpression of the Il-6 gene by hydrodynamic gene delivery induces weight loss and alleviates obesity-induced fatty liver and insulin resistance, supporting the notion that gene transfer is a valid approach in managing obesity epidemics. PMID:25660446

  14. Prevalence, awareness and control of diabetes in the Seychelles and relationship with excess body weight

    PubMed Central

    Faeh, David; William, Julita; Tappy, Luc; Ravussin, Eric; Bovet, Pascal

    2007-01-01

    Background The evidence for a "diabesity" epidemic is accumulating worldwide but population-based data are still scarce in the African region. We assessed the prevalence, awareness and control of diabetes (DM) in the Seychelles, a rapidly developing country in the African region. We also examined the relationship between body mass index, fasting serum insulin and DM. Methods Examination survey in a sample representative of the entire population aged 25–64 of the Seychelles, attended by 1255 persons (participation rate of 80.2%). An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed in individuals with fasting blood glucose between 5.6 and 6.9 mmol/l. Diabetes mellitus (DM), impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) were defined along criteria of the ADA. Prevalence estimates were standardized for age. Results The prevalence of DM was 11.5% and 54% of persons with DM were aware of having DM. Less than a quarter of all diabetic persons under treatment were well controlled for glycemia (HbA1c), blood pressure or LDL-cholesterol. The prevalence of IGT and IFG were respectively 10.4% and 24.2%. The prevalence of excess weight (BMI ? 25 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI ? 30 kg/m2) was respectively 60.1% and 25.0%. Half of all DM cases in the population could be attributed to excess weight. Conclusion We found a high prevalence of DM and pre-diabetes in a rapidly developing country in the African region. The strong association between overweight and DM emphasizes the importance of weight control measures to reduce the incidence of DM in the population. High rates of diabetic persons not aware of having DM in the population and insufficient cardiometabolic control among persons treated for DM stress the need for intensifying health care for diabetes. PMID:17640380

  15. Measurements of the Influence of Acceleration and Temperature of Bodies on their Weight

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitriev, Alexander L. [St-Petersburg State University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics 49, Kronverksky Prospect, St. Petersburg, 97101 (Russian Federation)

    2008-01-21

    A brief review of experimental research of the influence of acceleration and temperatures of test mass upon gravitation force, executed between the 1990s and the beginning of 2000 at the St.-Petersburg State University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics in cooperation with D. I. Mendeleev's Institute of Metrology is provided. According to a phenomenological notion, the acceleration of a test mass caused by external action, for example electromagnetic forces, results in changes of the gravitational properties of this mass. Consequences are a dependence upon gravity on the size and sign of test mass acceleration, and also on its absolute temperature. Results of weighing a rotor of a mechanical gyroscope with a horizontal axis, an anisotropic crystal with the big difference of the speed of longitudinal acoustic waves, measurements of temperature dependence of weight of metal bars of nonmagnetic materials, and also measurement of restitution coefficients at quasi-elastic impact of a steel ball about a massive plate are given. In particular, a reduction of apparent mass of a horizontal rotor with relative size 3.10{sup -6} at a speed of rotation of 18.6 thousand rev/min was observed. A negative temperature dependence of the weight of a brass core with relative size near 5.10{sup -4} K{sup -1} at room temperature was measured; this temperature factor was found to be a maximum for light and elastic metals. All observably experimental effects, have probably a general physical reason connected with the weight change dependent upon acceleration of a body or at thermal movement of its microparticles. The reduction of mass at high temperatures is of particular interest for propulsion applications.

  16. Longitudinal changes in body composition in older men and women: role of body weight change and physical activity1-4

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Virginia A Hughes; Walter R Frontera; Ronenn Roubenoff; William J Evans; Maria A Fiatarone Singh

    Background: Estimates of body-composition change in older adults are mostly derived from cross-sectional data. Objective: We examined the natural longitudinal patterns of change in fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) in older adults and explored the effect of physical activity, weight change, and age on these changes. Design: The body composition measured by hydrodensitometry and the level of sports

  17. Internet use, videogame playing and cell phone use as predictors of children's body mass index (BMI), body weight, academic performance, and social and overall self-esteem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda A. Jackson; Alexander von Eye; Hiram E. Fitzgerald; Edward A. Witt; Yong Zhao

    2011-01-01

    In this research we examined the prediction of children’s body mass index (BMI), body weight, academic performance, social self-esteem and overall self-esteem from their IT (information technology) use, specifically, their Internet use, cell phone use and videogame playing, after controlling for the effects of gender, race, age and household income on these measures. Participants were 482 children whose average age

  18. Statistical methods for including two-body forces in large system calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Grimes, S.M.

    1980-07-01

    Large systems of interacting particles are often treated by assuming that the effect on any one particle of the remaining N-1 may be approximated by an average potential. This approach reduces the problem to that of finding the bound-state solutions for a particle in a potential; statistical mechanics is then used to obtain the properties of the many-body system. In some physical systems this approach may not be acceptable, because the two-body force component cannot be treated in this one-body limit. A technique for incorporating two-body forces in such calculations in a more realistic fashion is described. 1 figure.

  19. Weight suppression and risk of future increases in body mass: effects of suppressed resting metabolic rate and energy expenditure123

    PubMed Central

    Stice, Eric; Durant, Shelley; Burger, Kyle S; Schoeller, Dale A

    2011-01-01

    Background: Weight suppression, which reflects the difference between the highest previous weight and current weight, has predicted future increases in body mass index (BMI) and bulimic pathology; however, the mechanisms underlying these predictive effects are unclear. Objective: The current study sought to test whether weight suppression predicts future increases in BMI and bulimic symptoms and whether suppressed resting metabolic rate (RMR) and suppressed total energy expenditure (TEE) drive these relations. Design: A randomly selected subsample of 91 young women in their first year of college with body image concerns completed an RMR assessment—a doubly labeled water assessment of TEE—and provided data on weight suppression and change in BMI and bulimic symptoms over a 6-mo follow-up period. Results: Weight suppression predicted future increases in BMI and correlated inversely with suppressed RMR and TEE, yet this predictive effect did not decrease when suppressed RMR and TEE were controlled for. Weight suppression, however, did not predict future increases in bulimic symptoms. Conclusions: The results provide additional evidence that weight suppression predicts future increases in BMI but not in bulimic symptoms. Weight suppression showed moderate relations with suppressed RMR and TEE, but these variables do not appear to drive the predictive effect on future increases in BMI. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00433680. PMID:21525201

  20. Whole body MRI: Improved Lesion Detection and Characterization With Diffusion Weighted Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Attariwala, Rajpaul; Picker, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is an established functional imaging technique that interrogates the delicate balance of water movement at the cellular level. Technological advances enable this technique to be applied to whole-body MRI. Theory, b-value selection, common artifacts and target to background for optimized viewing will be reviewed for applications in the neck, chest, abdomen, and pelvis. Whole-body imaging with DWI allows novel applications of MRI to aid in evaluation of conditions such as multiple myeloma, lymphoma, and skeletal metastases, while the quantitative nature of this technique permits evaluation of response to therapy. Persisting signal at high b-values from restricted hypercellular tissue and viscous fluid also permits applications of DWI beyond oncologic imaging. DWI, when used in conjunction with routine imaging, can assist in detecting hemorrhagic degradation products, infection/abscess, and inflammation in colitis, while aiding with discrimination of free fluid and empyema, while limiting the need for intravenous contrast. DWI in conjunction with routine anatomic images provides a platform to improve lesion detection and characterization with findings rivaling other combined anatomic and functional imaging techniques, with the added benefit of no ionizing radiation. PMID:23960006

  1. Trend analysis of body weight parameters, mortality, and incidence of spontaneous tumors in Tg.rasH2 mice.

    PubMed

    Paranjpe, Madhav G; Denton, Melissa D; Vidmar, Tom; Elbekai, Reem H

    2014-01-01

    Carcinogenicity studies have been performed in conventional 2-year rodent studies for at least 3 decades, whereas the short-term carcinogenicity studies in transgenic mice, such as Tg.rasH2, have only been performed over the last decade. In the 2-year conventional rodent studies, interlinked problems, such as increasing trends in the initial body weights, increased body weight gains, high incidence of spontaneous tumors, and low survival, that complicate the interpretation of findings have been well established. However, these end points have not been evaluated in the short-term carcinogenicity studies involving the Tg.rasH2 mice. In this article, we present retrospective analysis of data obtained from control groups in 26-week carcinogenicity studies conducted in Tg.rasH2 mice since 2004. Our analysis showed statistically significant decreasing trends in initial body weights of both sexes. Although the terminal body weights did not show any significant trends, there was a statistically significant increasing trend toward body weight gains, more so in males than in females, which correlated with increasing trends in the food consumption. There were no statistically significant alterations in mortality trends. In addition, the incidence of all common spontaneous tumors remained fairly constant with no statistically significant differences in trends. PMID:25260361

  2. Exercise load index and changes in body weight during long-duration confinement in an isolated environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, Norbert O.; Lyons, Terence J.; Binder, Heidi; Inoue, Natsuhiko; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Chiharu

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: The objectives of this project were to investigate exercise load and body weight related to long-duration confinement in a closed environment simulating ISS flight conditions, and to evaluate subjects' motivation to continue the experiment and their adaptation to isolation. METHODS: Four Russian male subjects participated in a 240-d experiment (Group I), and four subjects (three male subjects and one female subject) from Austria, Canada, Japan, and Russia participated in a 110-d experiment (Group II). Exercise load was estimated during confinement using a modified Rating of Perceived Exertion scale. Free reports were used to determine subjects' motivation. Body weight was measured before, during, and after confinement. RESULTS: Group I achieved their lowest exercise loads during their first month of isolation; problems with adaptation to the isolation environment were also reported during this first month. Group II exercise load was significantly lower in the second month due to crewmember problems; loss of motivation could be noted from their free reports. The subject with the lowest exercise load retired from the isolation experiment earlier than scheduled. Exercise load was not correlated with prior exercise habits. Significant differences in body weight was observed between group I and II and between Russian and non-Russian subjects. One subject in Group I experienced a significant increase in his body weight. CONCLUSION: Exercise load may be a good indicator for adaptation problems and motivation changes in closed environments. Immobility, lack of space, and smoking cessation in general did not induce significant body weight changes.

  3. Leptin receptor neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus are key regulators of energy expenditure and body weight, but not food intake

    PubMed Central

    Rezai-Zadeh, Kavon; Yu, Sanghou; Jiang, Yanyan; Laque, Amanda; Schwartzenburg, Candice; Morrison, Christopher D.; Derbenev, Andrei V.; Zsombok, Andrea; Münzberg, Heike

    2014-01-01

    Objective Leptin responsive neurons play an important role in energy homeostasis, controlling specific autonomic, behavioral, and neuroendocrine functions. We have previously identified a population of leptin receptor (LepRb) expressing neurons within the dorsomedial hypothalamus/dorsal hypothalamic area (DMH/DHA) which are related to neuronal circuits that control brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis. Intra-DMH leptin injections also activate sympathetic outflow to BAT, but whether such effects are mediated directly via DMH/DHA LepRb neurons and whether this is physiologically relevant for whole body energy expenditure and body weight regulation has yet to be determined. Methods We used pharmacosynthetic receptors (DREADDs) to selectively activate DMH/DHA LepRb neurons. We further deleted LepRb with virally driven cre-recombinase from DMH/DHA neurons and determined the physiological importance of DMH/DHA LepRb neurons in whole body energy homeostasis. Results Neuronal activation of DMH/DHA LepRb neurons with DREADDs promoted BAT thermogenesis and locomotor activity, which robustly induced energy expenditure (p < 0.001) and decreases body weight (p < 0.001). Similarly, intra-DMH/DHA leptin injections normalized hypothermia and attenuated body weight gain in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. Conversely, ablation of LepRb from DMH/DHA neurons remarkably drives weight gain (p < 0.001) by reducing energy expenditure (p < 0.001) and locomotor activity (p < 0.001). The observed changes in body weight were largely independent of food intake. Conclusion Taken together, our data highlight that DMH/DHA LepRb neurons are sufficient and necessary to regulate energy expenditure and body weight. PMID:25352997

  4. 24h Urinary Sodium Excretion and Subsequent Change in Weight, Waist Circumference and Body Composition

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Sofus C.; Ängquist, Lars; Sřrensen, Thorkild I. A.; Heitmann, Berit L.

    2013-01-01

    Background In the same period as the increasing obesity epidemic, there has been an increased consumption of highly processed foods with a high salt content, and a few studies have suggested that a diet with a high salt content may be associated with obesity. Objective To investigate the association between 24 h urinary sodium excretion and subsequent change in body weight (BW), waist circumference (WC), body fat (BF) and fat free mass (FFM) among adults. Design A longitudinal population study based on the Danish part of the MONICA project, with examinations in 1987–1988 and 1993–1994. Complete information on 24 h urinary sodium excretion along with repeated measures of obesity, as well as on potential confounders, was obtained from 215 subjects. Linear regression was used to examine the association between sodium excretion, as a measure of salt consumption, and subsequent changes in BW, WC, BF and FFM, and further evaluated by restricted cubic splines. Stepwise adjustments were made for selected covariates. Results Neither the crude nor the adjusted models showed any statistically significant associations between sodium excretion and change in BW or WC. Likewise, we found no significant association between sodium excretion and change in BF and FFM in the unadjusted models. However, after adjusting for potential baseline confounders and the concurrent BW change, we found a significant increase in BF of 0.24 kg (P?=?0.015, CI: 0.05 to 0.43) per 100 mmol increase in 24 h urinary sodium excretion (equivalent to 6 g of salt), during the 6-year study period. Moreover, during the same period, we found a significant association with FFM of ?0.21 kg (P?=?0.041, CI: ?0.40 to ?0.01). Conclusions These results suggest that a diet with a high salt content may have a negative influence on development in body composition by expanding BF and reducing FFM. PMID:23936079

  5. Nonleptonic two-body B decays including axial-vector mesons in the final state

    SciTech Connect

    Calderon, G.; Munoz, J. H.; Vera, C. E. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Coahuila, CP 27000, Torreon, Coahuila (Mexico); Departamento de Fisica, Universidad del Tolima, Apartado Aereo 546, Ibague (Colombia)

    2007-11-01

    We present a systematic study of exclusive charmless nonleptonic two-body B decays including axial-vector mesons in the final state. We calculate branching ratios of B{yields}PA, VA, and AA decays, where A, V, and P denote an axial vector, a vector, and a pseudoscalar meson, respectively. We assume a naive factorization hypothesis and use the improved version of the nonrelativistic Isgur-Scora-Grinstein-Wise quark model for form factors in B{yields}A transitions. We include contributions that arise from the effective {delta}B=1 weak Hamiltonian H{sub eff}. The respective factorized amplitudes of these decays are explicitly shown and their penguin contributions are classified. We find that decays B{sup -}{yields}a{sub 1}{sup 0}{pi}{sup -}, B{sup 0}{yields}a{sub 1}{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup {+-}}, B{sup -}{yields}a{sub 1}{sup -}K{sup 0}, B{sup 0}{yields}a{sub 1}{sup +}K{sup -}, B{sup 0}{yields}f{sub 1}K{sup 0}, B{sup -}{yields}f{sub 1}K{sup -}, B{sup -}{yields}K{sub 1}{sup -}(1400){eta}{sup (')}, B{sup -}{yields}b{sub 1}{sup -}K{sup 0}, and B{sup 0}{yields}b{sub 1}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}(K{sup -}) have branching ratios of the order of 10{sup -5}. We also study the dependence of branching ratios for B{yields}K{sub 1}P(V,A) decays [K{sub 1}=K{sub 1}(1270), K{sub 1}(1400)] with respect to the mixing angle between K{sub 1A} and K{sub 1B}.

  6. Weight and Lean Body Mass Change with Antiretroviral Initiation and Impact on Bone Mineral Density: AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study A5224s

    PubMed Central

    Erlandson, Kristine Mace; Kitch, Douglas; Tierney, Camlin; Sax, Paul E.; Daar, Eric S.; Tebas, Pablo; Melbourne, Kathleen; Ha, Belinda; Jahed, Nasreen C.; Mccomsey, Grace A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the effect initiating different antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens have on weight, body mass index (BMI), and lean body mass (LBM) and explore how changes in body composition are associated with bone mineral density (BMD). Methods A5224s was a substudy of A5202, a prospective trial of 1857 ART-naďve participants randomized to blinded abacavir-lamivudine (ABC/3TC) or tenofovir DF-emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) with open-label efavirenz (EFV) or atazanavir-ritonavir (ATV/r). All subjects underwent dual-energy absorptiometry (DXA) and abdominal CT for body composition. Analyses used 2-sample t-tests and linear regression. Results A5224s included 269 subjects: 85% male, 47% white non-Hispanic, median age 38 years, HIV-1 RNA 4.6 log10 copies/mL, and CD4 233 cells/µL. Overall, significant gains occurred in weight, BMI, and LBM at 96 weeks post randomization (all p<0.001). Assignment to ATV/r (vs EFV) resulted in significantly greater weight (mean difference 3.35 kg) and BMI gain (0.88 kg/m2; both p=0.02), but not LBM (0.67 kg; p=0.15), while ABC/3TC and TDF/FTC were not significantly different (p?0.10). In multivariable analysis, only lower baseline CD4 count and higher HIV-1 RNA were associated with greater increase in weight, BMI, or LBM. In multivariable analyses, increased LBM was associated with an increased hip BMD. Conclusions ABC/3TC vs. TDF/FTC did not differ in change in weight, BMI, or LBM; ATV/r vs. EFV resulted in greater weight and BMI gain but not LBM. A positive association between increased LBM and increased hip BMD should be further investigated through prospective interventional studies to verify the impact of increased LBM on hip BMD. PMID:24384588

  7. Effects of sibutramine on body weight and serum lipids: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study in 322 overweight and obese patients with dyslipidemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos A. Dujovne; James H. Zavoral; Everton Rowe; Carl M. Mendel

    2001-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular risk factors associated with obesity, including dyslipidemia, can be improved by weight loss. The main dyslipidemia associated with obesity is elevated serum triglyceride and decreased serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Methods A total of 322 obese patients (body mass index ?27) with serum triglyceride levels ?250 mg\\/dL and ?1000 mg\\/dL and serum HDL-C levels ?45 mg\\/dL (women)

  8. Breakdown of the Equivalence between Energy Content and Weight in a Weak Gravitational Field for a Quantum Body

    E-print Network

    Andrei Lebed

    2012-05-14

    It is shown that weight operator of a composite quantum body in a weak external gravitational field in the post-Newtonian approximation of the General Relativity does not commute with its energy operator, taken in the absence of the field. Nevertheless, the weak equivalence between the expectations values of weight and energy is shown to survive at a macroscopic level for stationary quantum states for the simplest composite quantum body - a hydrogen atom. Breakdown of the weak equivalence between weight and energy at a microscopic level for stationary quantum states can be experimentally detected by studying unusual electromagnetic radiation, emitted by the atoms, supported and moved in the Earth gravitational field with constant velocity, using spacecraft or satellite. For superpositions of stationary quantum states, a breakdown of the above mentioned equivalence at a macroscopic level leads to time dependent oscillations of the expectation values of weight, where the equivalence restores after averaging over time procedure.

  9. The Relationship between Body Weight and Perceived Weight-Related Employment Discrimination: The Role of Sex and Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roehling, Mark V.; Roehling, Patricia V.; Pichler, Shaun

    2007-01-01

    This study provides unique empirical evidence regarding a growing concern internationally: weight discrimination in the workplace. Using survey data from a national sample of 2838 American adults, it responds to Puhl and Brownell's [Puhl, R., & Brownell, K. D. (2001). Bias, discrimination, and obesity. "Obesity Research, 9", 788-805] call for…

  10. Validity of air-displacement plethysmography in the assessment of body composition changes in a 16-month weight loss program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cláudia S Minderico; Analiza M Silva; Pedro J Teixeira; Luis B Sardinha; Holly R Hull; David A Fields

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the accuracy of air displacement plethysmography (ADP) and dual energy x-ray absorptionmetry (DXA) in tracking changes in body composition after a 16 month weight loss intervention in overweight and obese females. METHODS: 93 healthy female subjects (38.9 ± 5.7 yr, 159.8 ± 5.6 cm, 76.7 ± 9.9 kg, 30.0 ± 3.4 kg\\/m2) completed a 16 month weight

  11. Maternal Weight Gain during Pregnancy and Somatic Classification of Neonates According to Birth Weight and Duration of Pregnancy Taking Account of Maternal Body Weight and Height

    PubMed Central

    Voigt, M.; Schild, R. L.; Mewitz, M.; Schneider, K. T. M.; Schnabel, D.; Hesse, V.; Straube, S.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim: The classification of weight gain during pregnancy and the somatic classification of neonates according to birth weight and duration of pregnancy can be done using percentile values. We aimed to compare such classifications using percentiles of the overall study population with classifications using percentiles that were calculated taking account of maternal height and weight. Material and Methods: Using data from the German Perinatal Survey (1995–2000, over 2.2 million singleton pregnancies) we classified weight gain during pregnancy as low (?90th percentile), or medium (10th–90th percentile). Neonates were classified by birth weight as small for gestational age (SGA, ?90th percentile), or appropriate for gestational age (AGA, 10th–90th percentile). Classifications were performed for 12 groups of women and their neonates formed according to maternal height and weight, either with the percentiles calculated from the total study population or with group-specific percentiles. Results: Using percentiles of the total study population there was large variability between the 12 groups in the proportions with low and high weight gain and in the proportions of SGA and LGA neonates. The variability was much lower when group-specific percentiles were used. Conclusions: Classifications of maternal weight gain during pregnancy and birth weight differ substantially, depending on whether percentiles calculated from the total study population or group-specific percentiles are used. The impact of using percentiles that take account of maternal anthropometric parameters for the medical care and health of neonates needs to be elucidated in future research. PMID:24771917

  12. Ginseng panaxoside Rb1 reduces body weight in diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ning; Cai, Dong-Lian; Jin, Di; Chen, Yi; Shi, Jiao-Jiao

    2014-01-01

    Crude extracts from ginseng demonstrated anti-obesity properties. Ginsenoside Rb1 is the main component of ginseng, however, there are only few studies examining its effects in obesity. In the present study, we evaluated its potential anti-obesity effects in the murine model of diet-induced obesity. Seventy male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided to consume for 12 weeks either chow diet (N = 8) or high-fat (HF) diet (N = 62). The latter mice were then divided into four groups: diet-induced obesity group (DIO; N = 10), obesity-resistant group (OR; N = 10), HF group (N = 5), and the group whose diet was changed from HF to normal diet (DC; N = 5). Intraperitoneal injections of Rb-1 were administered daily to mice in the DIO and OR groups for 3 weeks. Body weight and energy intake were monitored, and fasting blood glucose, lipids, neuropeptide Y, Y2 receptor, and peptide YY were quantified. Compared with HF group, weight gain and food intake of DIO mice with Rb-1 injection was significantly decreased (p < 0.05). Further, levels of blood glucose and some lipids were also decreased in DIO-Rb1 group compared with HF group. Furthermore, Rb1 was also found to modulate serum levels of PYY and NPY, and mRNA expression of NPY, Y2 receptor and PYY in tissue samples of DIO mice. Taken together, ginsenoside Rb1 may be useful in the treatment of obesity via modifying the serum content and mRNA expression of NPY, Y2 receptor and PYY. PMID:23733675

  13. Age and sex-dependent regression models for predicting the live weight of West African Dwarf goat from body measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. S. Sowande; B. F. Oyewale; O. S. Iyasere

    2010-01-01

    The relationships between live weight and eight body measurements of West African Dwarf (WAD) goats were studied using 211\\u000a animals under farm condition. The animals were categorized based on age and sex. Data obtained on height at withers (HW),\\u000a heart girth (HG), body length (BL), head length (HL), and length of hindquarter (LHQ) were fitted into simple linear, allometric,\\u000a and

  14. Effects of dietary calcium intake on body weight and prevalence of osteoporosis in early postmenopausal women1,2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Massimo Varenna; Lucia Binelli; Silvia Casari; Francesca Zucchi; Luigi Sinigaglia

    Background:High calcium intakes seem to be ineffective at reduc- ingbonelossinearlypostmenopausalwomen.However,theinverse relation between calcium intake and body weight can attenuate the negative effect of a low dietary calcium intake. Objective: The objective was to assess the role of dietary calcium and body mass index (BMI) on osteoporosis, defined according to World Health Organization criteria as a lumbar bone density 2.5 SD

  15. Effect of body weight on spinal loads in various activities: a personalized biomechanical modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Hajihosseinali, M; Arjmand, N; Shirazi-Adl, A

    2015-01-21

    Epidemiological studies are divided over the causative role of body weight (BW) in low back pain. Biomechanical modeling is a valuable approach to examine the effect of changes in BW on spinal loads and risk of back pain. Changes in BW have not been properly simulated by previous models as associated alterations in model inputs on the musculature and moment arm of gravity loads have been neglected. A detailed, multi-joint, scalable model of the thoracolumbar spine is used to study the effect of BW (varying at five levels, i.e., 51, 68, 85, 102, and 119 kg) on the L5-S1 spinal loads during various static symmetric activities while scaling moment arms and physiological cross-sectional areas of muscles using in vivo imaging data. The L5-S1 loads substantially increased with BW especially in flexed postures. As BW increased from 51 to 119 kg, the L5-S1 compression increased in flexed postures by ~80-147% with no load in hands and by ~46-52% in load holding tasks. In obese individuals with body mass index>30 kg/m(2) spinal loads further increased by up to 15% as lever arms for gravity loading at the waistline (T12 through L5) increased by 2 cm (for BW=102 kg) and 4 cm (for BW=119 kg). With changes in BW, spinal loads would have moderately altered (<17%) had identical muscle parameters been considered. Since scaling muscle parameters demands additional efforts in modeling, one could opt for simulation of alterations only in BW while using some averaged musculature values. PMID:25498363

  16. Computer programs for calculating pressure distributions including vortex effects on supersonic monoplane or cruciform wing-body-tail combinations with round or elliptical bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillenius, M. F. E.; Nielsen, J. N.

    1979-01-01

    Computer programs are presented which are capable of calculating detailed aerodynamic loadings and pressure distributions acting on pitched and rolled supersonic missile configurations which utilize bodies of circular or elliptical cross sections. The applicable range of angle of attack is up to 20 deg, and the Mach number range is 1.3 to about 2.5. Effects of body and fin vortices are included in the methods, as well as arbitrary deflections of canard or fin panels.

  17. Body image, perceived and actual physical abilities in normal-weight and overweight boys involved in individual and team sports.

    PubMed

    Morano, Milena; Colella, Dario; Capranica, Laura

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationships among body image, perception of physical abilities, and motor performance in boys involved in organized individual (i.e. tennis, fencing, judo) and team (i.e. soccer, handball, volleyball) sports. Altogether, 162 children (12.6 ± 1.0 years) were categorized as normal-weight (n = 85) or overweight (n = 77). Body image was measured using Collins' Child Figure Drawings, while individuals' perceptions of strength, speed, and agility were assessed using the Perceived Physical Ability Scale. Fitness tests of the standing long jump, 20 m sprint, and 10 × 5 m shuttle-run were also administered. Overweight boys showed greater body dissatisfaction and lower actual physical abilities than normal-weight peers. Participants involved in team sports reported lower body dissatisfaction and better performances in the shuttle-run compared with those involved in individual sports. For boys participating in team sports, body dissatisfaction was a significant mediator of the effect of body mass index on perceived physical ability. Results may influence intervention efforts, suggesting that targeting personal, psychological, and physical factors may prove efficient across physical activity locations and weight groups. PMID:21184344

  18. Body weight status and cardiovascular risk factors in adults by frequency of candy consumption

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Limited information is available regarding the impact of candy consumption on health. The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between typical frequency of candy consumption and body weight status and select cardiovascular risk factors among adults in the United States. Methods Using data collected in the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), adults were categorized as infrequent (? 3 eating occasions [EO]/month), moderate (> 3 EO/month and ? 3.5 EO/week), or frequent (> 3.5 EO/week) candy consumers based on the combined frequency of chocolate and other candy consumption over the previous 12 months. Weight and adiposity status were analyzed using logistic regression models, and blood pressure, lipids, and insulin sensitivity were analyzed using linear regression models. Models were adjusted for age, sex and race/ethnicity, and also for additional covariates with potential associations with the outcomes. Appropriate statistical weights were used to yield results generalizable to the US population. Results Frequency of candy consumption was not associated with the risk of obesity, overweight/obesity, elevated waist circumference, elevated skinfold thickness, blood pressure, low density lipoprotein (LDL) or high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, or insulin resistance. Increased frequency of candy consumption was associated with higher energy intakes and higher energy adjusted intakes of carbohydrates, total sugars and added sugars, total fat, saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids (p?

  19. BREED COMPARISONS OF ANGUS, BRAHMAN, HEREFORD, PINZGAUER, SAHIWAL AND TARENTAISE FOR WEIGHT, WEIGHT ADJUSTED FOR BODY CONDITION SCORE, HEIGHT AND BODY CONDITION SCORE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data from topcross cows (N = 468) from 6 breeds of sire and two breeds of dam (Angus and Hereford) of Cycle III of the Germplasm Evaluation Program (GPE) at the US Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC) comprising cow weight (CW, n = 9,012), height (CH, n = 9,010) and condition score (CS, n = 8,991) r...

  20. BREED COMPARISONS OF ANGUS, CHAROLAIS, HEREFORD, JERSEY, LIMOUSIN, SIMMENTAL AND SOUTH DEVON FOR WEIGHT, WEIGHT ADJUSTED FOR BODY CONDITION SCORE, HEIGHT AND BODY CONDITION SCORE OF COWS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breed means and differences for weight (CW, n = 19,851, height (CH, n = 14,553) and condition scores (CS, n = 19,536) recorded in 4 seasons/year were evaluated for 881 cows at 2 through 7 yr of age from Cycle I of the Germplasm Evaluation Program at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center. Cows were H...