Indandione VKAs have been widely used for decades, especially in Eastern Europe and France. Contrary to coumarin VKAs, the relative contribution of individual factors to the indandione-VKA response is poorly known. In the present multicentre study, we sought to develop and validate a model including genetic and non-genetic factors to predict the daily fluindione dose requirement in elderly patients in whom VKA dosing is challenging. We prospectively recorded clinical and therapeutic data in 230 Caucasian inpatients mean aged 85 ± 6 years, who had reached international normalized ratio stabilisation (range 2.0-3.0) on fluindione. In the derivation cohort (n=156), we analysed 13 polymorphisms in seven genes potentially involved in the pharmacological effect or vitamin-K cycle (VKORC1, CYP4F2, EPHX1) and fluindione metabolism/transport (CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A5, ABCB1). We built a regression model incorporating non-genetic and genetic data and evaluated the model performances in a separate cohort (n=74).Body-weight, amiodarone intake, VKORC1, CYP4F2, ABCB1 genotypes were retained in the final model, accounting for 31.5% of dose variability. None influence of CYP2C9 was observed. Our final model showed good performances: in 83.3% of the validation cohort patients, the dose was accurately predicted within 5 mg, i.e.the usual step used for adjusting fluindione dosage. In conclusion, in addition to body-weight and amiodarone-intake, pharmacogenetic factors (VKORC1, CYP4F2, ABCB1) related to the pharmacodynamic effect and transport of fluindione significantly influenced the dose requirement in elderly patients while CYP2C9 did not. Studies are required to know whether fluindione could be an alternative VKA in carriers of polymorphic CYP2C9 alleles, hypersensitive to coumarins. PMID:24337438
Moreau, Caroline; Pautas, Eric; Duverlie, Charlotte; Berndt, Celia; Andro, Marion; Mahé, Isabelle; Emmerich, Joseph; Lacut, Karine; Le Gal, Grégoire; Peyron, Isabelle; Gouin-Thibault, Isabelle; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Loriot, Marie-Anne; Siguret, Virginie
A nutrition and activity management system is disclosed that monitors energy expenditure of an individual through the use of a body-mounted sensing apparatus. The apparatus is particularly adapted for continuous wear. The system is also adaptable or applicable to measuring a number of other physiological parameters and reporting the same and derivations of such parameters. A weight management embodiment is directed to achieving an optimum or preselected energy balance between calories consumed and energy expended by the user. An adaptable computerized nutritional tracking system is utilized to obtain data regarding food consumed, Relevant and predictive feedback is provided to the user regarding the mutual effect of the user's energy expenditure, food consumption and other measured or derived or manually input physiological contextual parameters upon progress toward said goal.
This investigation uncovered processes underlying the dynamics of body weight and body image among individuals involved in nascent heterosexual marital relationships in Upstate New York. In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 34 informants, 20 women and 14 men, just prior to marriage and again one year later were used to explore continuity and change in cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors relating to body weight and body image at the time of marriage, an important transition in the life course. Three major conceptual themes operated in the process of developing and enacting informants’ body weight relationships with their partner: weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk. Weight relevance encompassed the changing significance of weight during early marriage and included attracting and capturing a mate, relaxing about weight, living healthily, and concentrating on weight. Weight comparisons between partners involved weight relativism, weight competition, weight envy, and weight role models. Weight talk employed pragmatic talk, active and passive reassurance, and complaining and critiquing criticism. Concepts emerging from this investigation may be useful in designing future studies of and approaches to managing body weight in adulthood.
Bove, Caron F.; Sobal, Jeffery
This investigation uncovered processes underlying the dynamics of body weight and body image among individuals involved in nascent heterosexual marital relationships in Upstate New York. In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 34 informants, 20 women and 14 men, just prior to marriage and again one year later were used to explore continuity and change in cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors relating to body weight and body image at the time of marriage, an important transition in the life course. Three major conceptual themes operated in the process of developing and enacting informants' body weight relationships with their partner: weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk. Weight relevance encompassed the changing significance of weight during early marriage and included attracting and capturing a mate, relaxing about weight, living healthily, and concentrating on weight. Weight comparisons between partners involved weight relativism, weight competition, weight envy, and weight role models. Weight talk employed pragmatic talk, active and passive reassurance, and complaining and critiquing criticism. Concepts emerging from this investigation may be useful in designing future studies of and approaches to managing body weight in adulthood. PMID:21864601
Bove, Caron F; Sobal, Jeffery
Reduced-calorie diets are difficult to follow because they often require elimination of certain foods, leading to poor compliance and limited success. However, a low-calorie, nutrient-dense diet has the potential to accommodate a daily snack without exceeding energy requirements, even during weight loss. This pilot study evaluated the effects of a reduced-calorie diet including either a daily dark chocolate snack or a non-chocolate snack on anthropometric and body composition measurements. In a randomized clinical trial, 26 overweight and obese (body mass index ?25 to ?43) premenopausal women were assigned to a reduced-calorie diet that included either a daily dark chocolate snack or non-chocolate snack (n=13 per group) for 18 weeks. At baseline and end of study, body weight and waist and hip circumferences were measured along with fat mass, lean mass, and body fat percentage by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Energy and macronutrient intakes were estimated from 4-day food records. Within- and between-group changes from baseline were analyzed using paired t tests and independent t tests, respectively. Women in both snack groups reduced estimated daily energy intake (P<0.001). Women in both the dark chocolate snack and non-chocolate snack groups, respectively, experienced decreases (P<0.001) in body weight (-5.1 vs -5.1 kg), hip circumference (-5.8 vs -5.4 cm), waist circumference (-5.7 vs -3.5 cm), fat mass (-3.9 vs -3.6 kg), and body fat percentage (-3.4% vs -3.1%), with no change in lean mass. Improvements in anthropometric and body composition measurements among overweight and obese premenopausal women can be achieved with a reduced-calorie diet including either a daily dark chocolate snack or non-chocolate snack. PMID:21802567
Piehowski, Kathryn E; Preston, Amy G; Miller, Debra L; Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M
Anthropometric measurements, e.g., body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), as well as serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and percent-free PSA (%fPSA) have been shown to have positive correlations with total prostate volume (TPV). We developed an equation and nomogram for estimating TPV, incorporating these predictors in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). A total of 1852 men, including 1113 at Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) Hospital as a training set and 739 at Cancer Institute Hospital (CIH) as a validation set, with PSA levels of up to 20 ng ml?1, who underwent extended prostate biopsy and were proved to have BPH, were enrolled in this study. We developed an equation for continuously coded TPV and a logistic regression-based nomogram for estimating a TPV greater than 40 ml. Predictive accuracy and performance characteristics were assessed using an area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) and calibration plots. The final linear regression model indicated age, PSA, %fPSA and BW as independent predictors of continuously coded TPV. For predictions in the training set, the multiple correlation coefficient was increased from 0.38 for PSA alone to 0.60 in the final model. We developed a novel nomogram incorporating age, PSA, %fPSA and BW for estimating TPV greater than 40 ml. External validation confirmed its predictive accuracy, with AUC value of 0.764. Calibration plots showed good agreement between predicted probability and observed proportion. In conclusion, TPV can be easily estimated using these four independent predictors.
Nakanishi, Yasukazu; Masuda, Hitoshi; Kawakami, Satoru; Sakura, Mizuaki; Fujii, Yasuhisa; Saito, Kazutaka; Koga, Fumitaka; Ito, Masaya; Yonese, Junji; Fukui, Iwao; Kihara, Kazunori
The purpose of this study was to compare results obtained from various methodologies for genome-wide association studies, when applied to real data, in terms of number and commonality of regions identified and their genetic variance explained, computational speed, and possible pitfalls in interpretations of results. Methodologies include: two iteratively reweighted single-step genomic BLUP procedures (ssGWAS1 and ssGWAS2), a single-marker model (CGWAS), and BayesB. The ssGWAS methods utilize genomic breeding values (GEBVs) based on combined pedigree, genomic and phenotypic information, while CGWAS and BayesB only utilize phenotypes from genotyped animals or pseudo-phenotypes. In this study, ssGWAS was performed by converting GEBVs to SNP marker effects. Unequal variances for markers were incorporated for calculating weights into a new genomic relationship matrix. SNP weights were refined iteratively. The data was body weight at 6 weeks on 274,776 broiler chickens, of which 4553 were genotyped using a 60 k SNP chip. Comparison of genomic regions was based on genetic variances explained by local SNP regions (20 SNPs). After 3 iterations, the noise was greatly reduced for ssGWAS1 and results are similar to that of CGWAS, with 4 out of the top 10 regions in common. In contrast, for BayesB, the plot was dominated by a single region explaining 23.1% of the genetic variance. This same region was found by ssGWAS1 with the same rank, but the amount of genetic variation attributed to the region was only 3%. These findings emphasize the need for caution when comparing and interpreting results from various methods, and highlight that detected associations, and strength of association, strongly depends on methodologies and details of implementations. BayesB appears to overly shrink regions to zero, while overestimating the amount of genetic variation attributed to the remaining SNP effects. The real world is most likely a compromise between methods and remains to be determined.
Wang, Huiyu; Misztal, Ignacy; Aguilar, Ignacio; Legarra, Andres; Fernando, Rohan L.; Vitezica, Zulma; Okimoto, Ron; Wing, Terry; Hawken, Rachel; Muir, William M.
Parotid fluid samples (1,145) were collected from 403 healthy young adult males to ascertain the correlation between body weight and parotid flow rate. In four experiments samples were collected without exogenous stimulants and under the gustatory stimula...
I. L. Shannon V. A. Segreto
Daptomycin use at our institution changed to ideal body weight dosing based on a published analysis of pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic efficacy target attainment, bacterial ecology, and a desire to reduce drug toxicity. The current study compared outcomes between actual body weight and ideal body weight dosing of daptomycin before and after this intervention. In the evaluable group, 69 patients received doses based on actual body weight and 48 patients received doses based on ideal body weight. Patients were treated for documented Enterococcus species, Staphylococcus aureus, or coagulase-negative Staphylococcus infections, including bloodstream, intraabdominal, skin and soft tissue, urinary, and bone. There was no statistically significant difference in clinical success between the groups (88.9% for actual body weight compared to 89.1% for ideal body weight, P = 0.97). After we adjusted for gender, age, body mass index, concomitant 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, infection type, and organism type, clinical success rates remained similar between groups (adjusted odds ratio of 0.68 in favor of actual body weight, 95% confidence interval [CI] of 0.13 to 3.55). Microbiological outcomes, length of stay, mortality, and adverse effects were also similar between groups. Further studies are warranted to confirm that ideal body weight dosing provides similar outcomes to actual body weight dosing for all patients and types of infections and organisms. PMID:24145531
Ng, Jennifer K; Schulz, Lucas T; Rose, Warren E; Fox, Barry C; Andes, David R; Buhr, Kevin A; Fish, Jeffrey T
Daptomycin use at our institution changed to ideal body weight dosing based on a published analysis of pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic efficacy target attainment, bacterial ecology, and a desire to reduce drug toxicity. The current study compared outcomes between actual body weight and ideal body weight dosing of daptomycin before and after this intervention. In the evaluable group, 69 patients received doses based on actual body weight and 48 patients received doses based on ideal body weight. Patients were treated for documented Enterococcus species, Staphylococcus aureus, or coagulase-negative Staphylococcus infections, including bloodstream, intraabdominal, skin and soft tissue, urinary, and bone. There was no statistically significant difference in clinical success between the groups (88.9% for actual body weight compared to 89.1% for ideal body weight, P = 0.97). After we adjusted for gender, age, body mass index, concomitant 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl–coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, infection type, and organism type, clinical success rates remained similar between groups (adjusted odds ratio of 0.68 in favor of actual body weight, 95% confidence interval [CI] of 0.13 to 3.55). Microbiological outcomes, length of stay, mortality, and adverse effects were also similar between groups. Further studies are warranted to confirm that ideal body weight dosing provides similar outcomes to actual body weight dosing for all patients and types of infections and organisms.
Rose, Warren E.; Fox, Barry C.; Andes, David R.; Buhr, Kevin A.; Fish, Jeffrey T.
SUMMARY The number of Americans who are overweight or obese has reached epidemic proportions. Elevated weight is associated with health problems and increased medical expenditures. This paper analyzes Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) to investigate the role of alcohol consumption in weight gain. Alcohol is not only an addictive substance but also a high-calorie beverage that can interfere with metabolic function and cognitive processes. Because men and women differ in the type and amount of alcohol they consume, in the biological effects they experience as a result of alcohol consumption, and in the consequences they face as a result of obesity, we expect our results to differ by gender. We use first-difference models of body mass index (BMI) and alcohol consumption (frequency and intensity) to control for time-invariant unobservable factors that may influence changes in both alcohol use and weight status. Increasing frequency and intensity of alcohol use is associated with statistically significant yet quantitatively small weight gain for men but not for women. Moreover, the first-difference results are much smaller in magnitude and sometimes different in sign compared to the benchmark pooled cross-sectional estimates.
FRENCH, MICHAEL T.; NORTON, EDWARD C.; FANG, HAI; MACLEAN, JOHANNA CATHERINE
Background. Weight-loss behaviours are highly prevalent among adolescents, and body weight perception motivates weight control practices. However, little is known about the association of body weight perception, and weight control practices among teenagers in Mauritius. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between actual body weight, body weight perception, and weight control practices among teenagers. Methods. A questionnaire-based survey was used to collect data on anthropometric measurements, weight perception and weight control practices from a sample of 180 male and female students (90 boys and 90 girls) aged between 13 and 18 years old. Results. Based on BMI, 11.7% of students were overweight. Overall, 43.3% of respondents reported trying to lose weight (61.1% girls and 25.6% boys). Weight-loss behaviours were more prevalent among girls. Among the weight-loss teens, 88.5% students perceived themselves as overweight even though only 19.2% were overweight. Reducing fat intake (84.6%), exercising (80.8%), and increasing intake of fruits and vegetables (73.1%) and decreasing intake of sugar (66.7%) were the most commonly reported methods to lose weight. Conclusion. Body weight perception was poorly associated with actual weight status. Gender difference was observed in body weight perception.
The load bearing body weight of wing-body and all-body hypersonic aircraft is estimated for a wide variety of structural materials and geometries. Variations of weight with key design and configuration parameters are presented and discussed. Both hot and cool structure approaches are considered in isotropic, organic composite, and metal matrix composite materials; structural shells are sandwich or skin-stringer. Conformal and pillow-tank designs are investigated for the all-body shape. The results identify the most promising hypersonic aircraft body structure design approaches and their weight trends. Geometric definition of vehicle shapes and structural analysis methods are presented in appendices.
Ardema, Mark D.
The purpose of this program is to provide employees with the motivation, knowledge and skills necessary to maintain ideal body weight throughout life. The target audience for this program, which is conducted in an industrial setting, is the employee 40 years of age or younger who is at or near his/her ideal body weight.
A novel mechatronic body weight support (BWS) system has been developed to provide precise body weight unloading for patients with neurological or other impairments during treadmill training. The system is composed of a passive elastic spring element to take over the main unloading force and an active closed-loop controlled electric drive to generate the exact desired force. Both force generating
Martin Frey; Gery Colombo; Martino Vaglio; Rainer Bucher; Matthias Jörg; Robert Riener
Being able to exploit features of the human face to predict health and fitness can serve as an evolutionary advantage. Surface features such as facial symmetry, averageness, and skin colour are known to influence attractiveness. We sought to determine whether observers are able to extract more complex features, namely body weight. If possible, it could be used as a predictor for health and fitness. For instance, facial adiposity could be taken to indicate a cardiovascular challenge or proneness to infections. Observers seem to be able to glean body weight information from frontal views of a face. Is weight estimation robust across different viewing angles? We showed that participants strongly overestimated body weight for faces photographed from a lower vantage point while underestimating it for faces photographed from a higher vantage point. The perspective distortions of simple facial measures (e.g., width-to-height ratio) that accompany changes in vantage point do not suffice to predict body weight. Instead, more complex patterns must be involved in the height-weight illusion. PMID:22611670
Schneider, Tobias M; Hecht, Heiko; Carbon, Claus-Christian
The role of dietary carbohydrates in weight loss has received considerable attention in light of the current obesity epidemic. The authors investigated the association of body mass index (weight (kg)\\/height (m)(2)) with dietary intake of carbohydrates and with measures of the induced glycemic response, using data from an observational study of 572 healthy adults in central Massachusetts. Anthropometric measurements, 7-day
Yunsheng Ma; Barbara C. Olendzki; David E. Chiriboga; James R. Hebert; Youfu Li; Wenjun Li; MaryJane Campbell; Katherine Gendreau; Ira S. Ockene
An imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure will lead to a change in body weight (mass) and body composition (fat and lean masses). A quantitative understanding of the processes involved, which currently remains lacking, will be useful in determining the etiology and treatment of obesity and other conditions resulting from prolonged energy imbalance. Here, we show that the long-term
Carson C. Chow; Kevin D. Hall
Cajal bodies are nuclear sites of small ribonucleoprotein (RNP) remodeling and maturation. A recent study describes the discovery of the Drosophila Cajal body, revealing some interesting insights into the subnuclear organization of RNA processing machineries among different species.
Matera, A. Gregory
An imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure will lead to a change in body weight (mass) and body composition (fat and lean masses). A quantitative understanding of the processes involved, which currently remains lacking, will be useful in determining the etiology and treatment of obesity and other conditions resulting from prolonged energy imbalance. Here, we show that a mathematical model of the macronutrient flux balances can capture the long-term dynamics of human weight change; all previous models are special cases of this model. We show that the generic dynamic behavior of body composition for a clamped diet can be divided into two classes. In the first class, the body composition and mass are determined uniquely. In the second class, the body composition can exist at an infinite number of possible states. Surprisingly, perturbations of dietary energy intake or energy expenditure can give identical responses in both model classes, and existing data are insufficient to distinguish between these two possibilities. Nevertheless, this distinction has important implications for the efficacy of clinical interventions that alter body composition and mass.
Chow, Carson C.; Hall, Kevin D.
Obesity is a leading preventable cause of death worldwide, with increasing prevalence in adults and children, and authorities view it as one of the most serious public health problems of the 21st century. Sixty-two percent of the Hungarian adult population has overweight and 27% is morbidly obese and, therefore, it is a significant interest to treat this condition. The authors review the diagnosis and the associated diseases of morbid obesity. The initial enthusiasm with the gastric band has settled now, as the long-term outcome showed only very limited reduction in the excess body weight and the complication rate was as high as 50%. The sleeve gastrectomy may induce 60-70% of excess weight loss, however, the long term follow-up data is very limited. The Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is the gold-standard of the bariatric procedures, with proven 60-75% excess weight loss and 80% type 2 diabetes remission. The body image usually changes with weight loss, and frequently a body contouring procedure is required to improve it. Multi-disciplinary team of super-specialised doctors is required to perform these procedures. Orv. Hetil., 2014, 155(25), 971-977. PMID:24936572
Vasas, Péter; Pór, Ferenc
Obesity is a multifactorial disease and often considered as an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. However, the gut microbiota could have an impact on the development of excess body weight. According to the type of diet, this black box of the bowel could contribute to modifications of both the caloric extraction and the energy expenditure. The gut microbiota is linked with intermediary metabolism and inflammation, and could be involved in physiopathogenesis of type 1 and 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity. Fiber enriched diet and Mediterranean type of diet could induce gut microbiota modifications with consecutive weight loss and improvement of both metabolic syndrome and diabetes. PMID:19462608
Pataky, Zoltan; Bobbioni-Harsch, Elisabetta; Hadengue, Antoine; Carpentier, Anne; Golay, Alain
In animal studies, n-3 PUFA have been shown to influence body composition and to reduce the accumulation of body fat, thereby affecting body weight homeostasis. In addition, it has been suggested that an additional supply of n-3 PUFA during pregnancy or lactation, or both, would have a beneficial effect on birth weight and infant growth and development. The purpose of the present study was to systematically review interventional clinical trials on the effects of dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation on body weight in adult subjects and in infants whose mothers were supplemented with these fatty acids during pregnancy and/or lactation. A systematic search, focused on n-3 PUFA and body weight, and limited to controlled clinical trials, was performed in different databases. The quality of all included studies was assessed against set criteria, and results of eligible trials were compared. There were few studies targeting this topic. In adults, all of the five studies included, except for one, show no change in body weight by dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFA. Within those trials conducted in pregnant and/or lactating women in which a main outcome was birth weight or growth in infancy, two showed a modest increase in birth weight and the rest showed no effect. None of the trials showed an effect of maternal n-3 PUFA supplementation on infant's weight at the short term. However, it should be noted that a number of limitations, including a variety of experimental designs, type and doses of n-3 PUFA, and high attrition rates, among others, make impossible to draw robust conclusions from this review. PMID:22591885
Martínez-Victoria, Emilio; Yago, María Dolores
Objective: Because post-bariatric surgery patients undergo massive weight loss, the resulting skin excess can lead to both functional problems and profound dissatisfaction with appearance. Correcting skin excess could improve all these corollaries, including body image. Presently, few data are available documenting body image and weight-related quality of life in this population.Research Methods and Procedures: Eighteen patients who underwent both bariatric
Angela Y. Song; J. Peter Rubin; Veena Thomas; Jason R. Dudas; Kacey G. Marra; Madelyn H. Fernstrom
Biological rhythms are present in the lives of almost all organisms ranging from plants to more evolved creatures. These oscillations allow the anticipation of many physiological and behavioral mechanisms thus enabling coordination of rhythms in a timely manner, adaption to environmental changes and more efficient organization of the cellular processes responsible for survival of both the individual and the species. Many components of energy homeostasis exhibit circadian rhythms, which are regulated by central (suprachiasmatic nucleus) and peripheral (located in other tissues) circadian clocks. Adipocyte plays an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis, the signaling of satiety and cellular differentiation and proliferation. Also, the adipocyte circadian clock is probably involved in the control of many of these functions. Thus, circadian clocks are implicated in the control of energy balance, feeding behavior and consequently in the regulation of body weight. In this regard, alterations in clock genes and rhythms can interfere with the complex mechanism of metabolic and hormonal anticipation, contributing to multifactorial diseases such as obesity and diabetes. The aim of this review was to define circadian clocks by describing their functioning and role in the whole body and in adipocyte metabolism, as well as their influence on body weight control and the development of obesity.
Objective To compare reports of weight loss and actual measures of body composition to predict nutritional risk in patients with Parkinson's disease and matched control subjects.Design Patients and control subjects were asked to record prior changes in weight and activity. Body composition was then compared in both groups using percentage ideal body weight (IBW), body mass index (BMI), triceps skinfold
PETER L BEYER; MARY Y PALARINO; DEBRA MICHALEK; KAREN BUSENBARK; WILLIAM C KOLLER
Most adults marry at some point in life, and many invest substantial resources in a wedding ceremony. Previous research reports that brides often strive towards culturally-bound appearance norms and engage in weight management behaviors in preparation for their wedding. However, little is known about wedding weight ideals and behaviors among engaged men. A cross-sectional survey of 163 engaged men asked them to complete a questionnaire about their current height and weight, ideal wedding body weight, wedding weight importance, weight management behaviors, formality of their upcoming wedding ceremony, and demographics. Results indicated that the discrepancy between men's current weight and reported ideal wedding weight averaged 9.61 lb. Most men considered being at a certain weight at their wedding to be somewhat important. About 39% were attempting to lose weight for their wedding, and 37% were not trying to change their weight. Attempting weight loss was more frequent among men with higher BMI's, those planning more formal weddings, and those who considered being the right weight at their wedding as important. Overall, these findings suggest that weight-related appearance norms and weight loss behaviors are evident among engaged men. PMID:23063607
Klos, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery
BACKGROUND: Current understanding of the associations between actual body weight status, weight perception, body dissatisfaction, and weight control practices among low-income urban African American adolescents is limited. The knowledge can help direct future intervention efforts. METHODS: Cross-sectional data including measured weight and height and self-reported weight status collected from 448 adolescents in four Chicago Public Schools were used. RESULTS: The
Youfa Wang; Huifang Liang; Xiaoli Chen
that the critical weight was lower on low quality diets but did not change with temperature. There was significant genetic variation for body size, for plasticity of body size, and for crit- ical weight, but not for plasticity of critical weight. Variation in the critical weight accounted for 73% of between-family vari- ance in peak larval size, whereas plasticity of
Goggy Davidowitz; Louis J. D'Amico; H. Frederik Nijhout
Mean weight loss of most conservative therapeutic weight loss programmes is about five to six kilograms after one year. In our "obesogenic" environment it is difficult for persons to maintain the new weight. Also continuation of the programme cannot prevent a moderate weight increase in the follow-up year. The reasons for this are not clear: individual lifestyle, environmental and genetic factors may play a role, but also the complex regulatory system of the body "to defend its weight". Nevertheless, for weight maintenance a lifelong change of lifestyle is of critical importance. Concerning nutrition a fat-reduced diet with a decrease of energy density together with regular eating habits and adequate portion size promises the greatest benefit and is likely to allow sufficient satiety. PMID:21225556
Holzapfel, C; Hauner, H
Rats infused with nicotine were initially hy- pophagic and lost weight. Although food intake recovered, body weight remained 8-12% below normal. Elevating (or reducing) body weight before treatment prolonged (or shortened) initial hypophagia; weight reliably stabilized at the reduced level. At this reduced weight, the treated rats' daily resting energy expen- ditune was comparable with that ofnormal-weight controls (262.3 vs
Steven R Schwid; Mati D Hirvonen; Richard E Keesey
Several studies have evaluated whether the high and rising obesity rates over the past three decades may be due to the declining smoking rates. There is mixed evidence across studies – some find negative smoking effects and positive cigarette cost effects on body weight, while others find opposite effects. This study applies a unique approach to identify the smoking effects on body weight and to evaluate the heterogeneity in these effects across the body mass index (BMI) distribution by utilizing genetic instruments for smoking. Using a data sample of 1,057 mothers from Norway, the study finds heterogeneous effects of cigarette smoking on BMI – smoking increases BMI at low/moderate BMI levels and decreases BMI at high BMI levels. The study highlights the potential advantages and challenges of employing genetic instrumental variables to identify behavior effects including the importance of qualifying the instruments and the need for large samples.
Wehby, George; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Wilcox, Allen; Lie, Rolv T.
ObjectiveConjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has several benefits, including body fat reduction, as proven in animals. However, results regarding CLA-induced body composition alterations in humans are inconsistent, and no related data are available for Chinese. This study aimed to determine whether CLA affects body weight (BW) loss and body composition of overweight and obese Chinese subjects.
Shu-Chiun Chen; Yu-Hsien Lin; Hui-Ping Huang; Wan-Ling Hsu; Jer-Yiing Houng; Chih-Kun Huang
Various animal models of hyperphagia and obesity have made possible the study of the effect on food intake of dexfenfluramine, an agent which both inhibits reuptake and stimulates release of 5 HT. These are chronic overfeeding models (hereditary model: Zucker rat, hormonal origin: insulin, ovariectomy, lesions of the VMH, and models including palatable and varied diet: cafétéria diet) and also acute overfeeding models (deprived rats, tail pinch, "dessert" test, metabolic or neuropharmacologic stimuli). Dexfenfluramine administered by osmotic minipump (3 mg/kg/day for up to 4 weeks) reduces food intake and produces weight loss in most of these models. PMID:2672937
Rowland, N E; Souquet, A M
Objective: The authors assessed associations between body weight perception and weight loss strategies. Participants: They randomly selected male and female college students (N = 38,204). Methods: The authors conducted a secondary data analysis of the rates of weight loss strategies and body weight perception among students who completed the…
Wharton, Christopher M.; Adams, Troy; Hampl, Jeffrey S.
Introduction: One of the problems of today and probably this century is obesity, which is classified by the WHO as a disease. Material and methods: We performed a prospective cross-sectional study of the body weight impact on certain biochemical indicators in menopausal women living in the municipalities Cazin and Velika Kladusa. Results and discussion: The study included 334 women aged 40-60 years, who had regular medical examinations. For each patient at the beginning of the study we measured: body mass index, total cholesterol values, LDL, HDL and triglycerides fractions. Our findings indicate an increase in total cholesterol, LDL fraction and triglycerides in patients with increased body mass index, without statistical significance. Values of HDL fraction were significantly decreased with increasing body mass index.
Rosic, Muhamed; Rosic, Semso; Samardzic, Remzo; Kendic, Sulejman
The report presents findings on weight, height and selected body dimensions of adults, United States 1960-1962. Measurements include age and sex distributions for weight, height, erect sitting height, normal sitting height, knee height, popliteal height, ...
H. Stoudt A. Damon R. McFarland J. Roberts
Cross-sectional studies have reported significant temporal increases in prevalence of childhood obesity in both genders and various racial groups, but recently the rise has subsided. Childhood obesity prevention trials suggest that, on average, overweight\\/obese children lose body weight and nonoverweight children gain weight. This investigation tested the hypothesis that overweight children lose body weight\\/fat and nonoverweight children gain body weight\\/fat
Donald A. Williamson; Hongmei Han; William D. Johnson; Tiffany M. Stewart; David W. Harsha
the macronutrient flux balances and all previous models are special cases of this model. We show that the generic dynamical behavior of body composition for a clamped diet can be divided into two classes. In the first class, the body composition and mass are determined uniquely. In the second class, the body composition can exist at an infinite number of
Carson C. Chow; Kevin D. Hall
Eating outside of the home environment on a frequent basis has been associated with weight gain. Food choices when eating out are usually high in energy content, which contributes to excessive energy intake; however, the available data on out-of-home eating and obesity are far from conclusive. This systematic review assesses the association between out-of-home eating and body weight in adults over 18 years of age. The literature databases searched included Medline, Embase, Lilacs, The Cochrane Library, and the ISI Web of Knowledge. The review includes a comprehensive quality assessment of all included observational studies, 20 cross-sectional studies, and 8 prospective cohort studies. All but one of the prospective cohort studies and about half of the cross-sectional analyses found a positive association between out-of-home eating and body weight. However, many methodological differences among the studies were found, such as the definition of out-of-home eating and its assessment, which limits comparisons. The results of the present analysis suggest that in future studies fast-food restaurants and other out-of-home dining venues should be analyzed separately, assessments based on a single 24-h recall should be avoided, and controls for at-home choices (which were not included in any of the studies reviewed) are necessary to evaluate this association. PMID:22300594
Bezerra, Ilana N; Curioni, Cintia; Sichieri, Rosely
A model including fixed and random linear regressions is described for analyzing body weights at different ages. In this study, (co)variance components, heritabilities for quail weekly weights and genetic correlations among these weights were estimated using a random regression model by DFREML under DXMRR option. Data of 1046 pedigreed quail were used. Individual live weights were obtained weekly from hatching
Y. Akba?; E. Yaylak
Typical body weight changes are known to occur in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Weight loss has been reported in early stages as well as in advanced disease and malnutrition may worsen the clinical state of the patient. On the other hand, an increasing number of patients show weight gain under dopamine replacement therapy or after surgery. These weight changes are multifactorial and involve changes in energy expenditure, perturbation of homeostatic control, and eating behavior modulated by dopaminergic treatment. Comprehension of the different mechanisms contributing to body weight is a prerequisite for the management of body weight and nutritional state of an individual PD patient. This review summarizes the present knowledge and highlights the necessity of evaluation of body weight and related factors, as eating behavior, energy intake, and expenditure in PD.
Kistner, Andrea; Lhommee, Eugenie; Krack, Paul
The study examined associations among physical activity, cigarette smoking, body mass index, perceptions of body weight, weight-management goals, and weight-management behaviors of public high school adolescents. The CDC Youth Risk Behavior Survey provided a cross-sectional sample (n = 3,089) of public high school students in South Carolina.…
Paxton, Raheem J.; Valois, Robert F.; Drane, J. Wanzer
Objective: To determine if inaccurate body weight perception predicts unhealthy weight management strategies and to determine the extent to which inaccurate body weight perception is associated with depressive symptoms among US college students. Participants: Randomly selected male and female college students in the United States (N = 97,357).…
Harring, Holly Anne; Montgomery, Kara; Hardin, James
BACKGROUND: Aging leads to increases in gait variability which may explain the large incidence of falls in the elderly. Body weight support training may be utilized to improve gait in the elderly and minimize falls. However, before initiating rehabilitation protocols, baseline studies are needed to identify the effect of body weight support on elderly gait variability. Our purpose was to
Anastasia Kyvelidou; Max J Kurz; Julie L Ehlers; Nicholas Stergiou
The following were recorded for 17 Mongolian gerbils,Meriones unguiculatus, which varied in weight between weanling size and almost 100 grams: body lengths, body weights, organ weights of the thyroid,\\u000a kidney, adrenal, brain, pituitary, lung, testis, spleen, heart, eye, and liver. Results were analyzed graphically and statistically.\\u000a The thyroid, kidney, adrenal, brain, pituitary, lung, and eye weights vary with respect to
Charles G. Wilber; Richard D. Gilchrist
The majority of laboratory animals were transported from commercial breeders to a research facility by ground transportation. During the transportation, many biological functions and systems can be affected by stress. In this experiment, the change of body weight during the transportation was measured and the recovery periods from the transportation stress established based on the body weight changes. Total 676 laboratory animals which were aged between 3 to 9 wk old were studied. The transportation time taken from container packing to unpacking the container was approximately 24 h. The temperature of animal container was constantly maintained by air-conditioning and heating equipment. Rats were found to be more sensitive than mice. The body weight of rats was significantly decreased 3.71% (p<0.05) compared to the body weight of mice which decreased 0.9% There was no significant difference between the strains in the same species. When the changes of body weights were compared between delivery days, C57BL/6 mice showed the most variable changes compared to other species and strains. Consequently, C57BL/6 was more sensitive to stress than the other strains and the transportation process needs to be standardized to reduce between day variability. To establish the recovery periods from transportation stress, the body weight changes were measured during the acclimation period. Although the body weight of animals decreased during transportation, animals recovered their weight loss after the next day.
Lee, Sunghak; Nam, Hyunsik; Kim, Jinsung; Cho, Hyejung; Jang, Yumi; Lee, Eunjung; Choi, Eunsung; Jin, Dong Il; Moon, Hongsik
As body weights and body mass indices have increased over time, we questioned the validity of correlating heart weight with body weight and whether tables from previous decades remain relevant. We investigated this by collecting details of heart weight, body weight, height, gender and age from 384 autopsy cases with no obvious heart or lung disease. Heart weights, body weights
Kezia Gaitskell; Rafael Perera; Elizabeth J Soilleux
Background: The relationship between obesity, impaired respiratory function and weight loss is established. Objective: Some aspects need further elucidation: the different impact of the pathological modifications of body compartments (total and regional fat mass and lean body mass) on respiratory function, the choice of a restricted diet, the relationship between the modifications of body compartments and the variations in respiratory
Antonino De Lorenzo; Patrizia Petrone-De Luca; Guido F. Sasso; Maria G. Carbonelli; Paolo Rossi; Aldo Brancati
We have developed two different equations, for each sex of the elderly italian population to predict weight from selected measures of recumbent anthropometry, using data of 172 females (72.8 +/- 8 years old) and 113 males (73.4 +/- 8 years old). The independent variables for both sexes were knee stature. subscapular skinfold, arm and calf circumferences. Cross validation was conducted on a free-living sample of 54 females and 30 males. The recommended equations have a 95% probability of predicting the weight of an elderly man or woman to be within plus or minus 4.9 or 6.1 Kg respectively. PMID:10993573
Donini, L M; de Felice, M R; de Bernardini, L; Ferrari, G; Rosano, A; de Medici, M; Cannella, C
Background: This study examined the mediating function of body weight perception (BWP) in the relation between body mass index (BMI) and unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCBs; eg, fasting, using diet pills, or laxatives), and between BMI and suicidal ideation. It also explored the correlation between exposure to multiple UWCBs and suicidal…
Kim, Dong-Sik; Cho, Youngtae; Cho, Sung-Il; Lim, In-Sook
Circulating leptin concentrations correlate with fat mass and signal the status of somatic energy stores to the brain. Previous studies suggest that diet-induced elevations of body weight increase body weight "set-point". To assess whether chronic hyperleptinemia is responsible for this shift in defended body weight, we elevated circulating leptin concentrations in lean mice to those comparable to diet-induced obese mice for eighteen weeks. We hypothesized that following cessation of leptin infusion, a higher body weight would be defended. Compared to saline-infused controls, leptin-infused mice had elevated circulating leptin concentrations, gained less weight, yet had similar metabolic rates. Following cessation of leptin administration, leptin-infused mice gained some weight yet plateaued at 5-10% below controls. These results suggest that, unlike mice rendered hyperleptinemic by diet-induced weight gain, leptin-infused mice do not subsequently "defend" a higher body weight, suggesting that hyperleptinemia per se does not mimic the CNS consequences of chronic weight gain. PMID:24944902
Ravussin, Y; LeDuc, C A; Watanabe, K; Mueller, B R; Skowronski, A; Rosenbaum, M; Leibel, R L
Gravity is a force that influences all living systems, and is often disregarded in the study of environment on growth and development. To assess the effect of gravity exposure on growth, immature rats (130-200 g) were evaluated during chronic altered gravity exposure and during transition between gravity fields. The effects of 14 days of spaceflight on body weight gain were evaluated (n=12) and compared to controls. Spaceflight did not affect weight gain. In 6 rats, the transition from spaceflight to 1 G showed a significant (p less than 0.05) post flight weight loss over 48 hr of 13 g compared to controls. Over subsequent days this loss was compensated for with no difference noted after 5 days. Exposure to hypergravity, 2 G for 16 days, was evaluated in groups of n=6 (Control; On Center Control (OCC); Centrifuged). With centrifugation or OCC there was a reduction in body weight within 24 hr. The OCC regained control weights within 13 days. The weight difference, 26 +/- 1 g, persisted with 2 G with no subsequent difference in weight gain over days 3-16 compared to controls; 3.7 +/- 0.1 versus 3.9 +/- 0.1 g/day respectively. Transition from centrifugation to 1 G resulted in a weight increase within 48 hours. Over 16 days the rate of gain was increased 3.1 +/- 0.1 g/day for centrifuge compared to 2.1 +/- 0.1 g/day for controls between Day 3 to 16. However, differences from control were still noted on Day 16. Transition from one gravity field to another causes acute changes in body weight. Transition to microgravity or 1 G, following the acute changes, results in adjustments to attain a normal weight. In hypergravity the acute reduction in body weight persist, but weight gain is normal. Transitioning from hypergravity to 1G results in an increased weight gain to compensate for the persistent reduction during exposure.
Wade, Charles E.; Harper, J. S.; Daunton, N. G.; Corcoran, M. L.; Morey-Holton, E.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)
A complete 4 x 4 diallel cross of CF#1 (C), C57BL/6NCrj (B) C3H/HeNCrj (H) and Yonakuni wild mice (Y, Mus musculus molossinus yonakuni) has been conducted to estimate the effects of sex, degree of heterosis, general combining ability (gca), specific combining ability (sca), maternal ability, and reciprocal cross on body weight at 1 (Wk1), 3 (Wk3), 6 (Wk6) and 10 (Wk10) weeks of age. A least squares analysis was performed on 828 mice and all sources of variation showed significant effects (P < 0.01) on body weight but not sex at Wk1 (P > 0.05). Males were heavier than females (P < 0.01) at Wk3, Wk6 and Wk10. C and Y were the heaviest and lightest in body weight, whereas H and B were intermediate. Differences in body weight were observed between linebred and linecross at all ages studied: 6.57%, 10.22%, 8.70% and 5.89% heterosis for the respective ages. The degree of gca and maternal effects can be ranked as C > H > B > Y. Crossing between C and H had greater sca than other combinations at all ages studied, whereas B x Y had the smallest. Mean body weight of the offspring from two-line reciprocal cross differed according to their dam. A relatively large proportion of additive genetic effects in contributing to the variation in offspring body weight was indicated. PMID:10591008
Kurnianto, E; Shinjo, A; Suga, D; Uema, N
We studied body weights and composition of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) during fall migration 1975-77 on stopover sites along the upper Mississippi River near La Crosse, Wisconsin (Navigational Pools 7 and 8) and Keokuk, Iowa (Navigational Pool 19). Body weights varied (P < 0.001) by age and sex without interaction. Weights varied by year (P < 0.001) on Pools 7 and 8. Mean weights increased (P < 0.01) within age and sex classes by date and averaged 3.6 and 2.7 g daily on Pools 7 and 8 and Pool 19, respectively. Percent fat was highly correlated (P < 0.001) with carcass weight for each age and sex. Live weight was a good predictor of total body fat. Mean estimated total body fat ranged from 200 to 300 g and comprised 15-20% of live weights among age and sex classes. Temporal weight patterns were less variable for adults than immatures, but generally increased during migration. Length of stopover varied inversely with fat reserves among color-marked adult males. Variation in fat condition of canvasbacks during fall may explain the mechanism regulating population ingress and egress on stopover sites. Fat reserves attained by canvasbacks during fall stopover may have adaptive significance in improving survival by conditioning for winter.
Serie, J. R.; Sharp, D. E.
Background: Adolescence may be a crucial period for developing obesity and associated mental health problems. This study examined the relationship of weight status on body image, eating behavior, and depressive symptoms in youth. Methods: A survey was conducted on 1490 youth attending grades 7-12. Participants completed questionnaires on body…
Goldfield, Gary S.; Moore, Ceri; Henderson, Katherine; Buchholz, Annick; Obeid, Nicole; Flament, Martine F.
weight, race\\/ethnicity, parity, and lactation. Body weight at conception may be particularly important among race\\/ethnic groups in which the prevalence of obesity is high (8). Both mean gestational weight gain and prevalence of overweight women in the US popu- lation have increased over the past two decades (8, 11-13). It has not been established whether increased gestational weight gain is
Erica P. Gunderson
The relationship between obesity and the intake of macronutrients and specific foods is uncertain. Thus, there is growing interest in some eating behaviours because they may reflect the joint effect of several foods and nutrients and, thus, increase the likelihood of finding a link to obesity. This study examined the association between selected eating behaviours and excess weight in the general population throughout a systematic review of publications written in English, Spanish or Portuguese identified in a PubMed search up to 31 December 2010. We included 153 articles, 73 of which have been published since 2008. Only 30 studies had a prospective design; of these, 15 adjusted for sociodemographic variables, physical activity and energy or food intake. Moreover, definitions of eating behaviours varied substantially across studies. We found only small or inconsistent evidence of a relationship between excess weight and skipping breakfast, daily eating frequency, snacking, irregular meals, eating away from home, consumption of fast food, takeaway food intake, consumption of large food portions, eating until full and eating quickly. In conclusion, this review highlights the difficulty in measuring human behaviour, and suggests that a more systematic approach is needed for capturing the effects of eating behaviours on body weight. PMID:21955734
Mesas, A E; Muñoz-Pareja, M; López-García, E; Rodríguez-Artalejo, F
This study investigated associations between eating regulation behaviors and body mass index (BMI), weight, and percent body fat in male and female students over the first two years of college. Subjects included 328 college students (215 females and 113 males). Height and weight (via standard techniques), body composition (via bioelectrical impedance analysis), and eating regulation behaviors (using the Regulation of Eating Behavior Scale) were conducted two to three times during both the freshman and sophomore years. Significant associations between eating regulation and BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were shown mostly in females. In females, higher BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat at the end of the second year of college were found in those with low levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and high levels of amotivation, while lower BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were associated with high levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and low levels of amotivation. The findings that specific eating behaviors in females during the first two years of college influence BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat may be useful for inclusion in university programs focused on college student health to help decrease the risk of obesity and disordered eating/eating disorders in female college students. PMID:24854827
Gropper, Sareen S; Arsiwalla, Dilbur D; Lord, Denali C; Huggins, Kevin W; Simmons, Karla P; Ulrich, Pamela V
This study assessed the relation between weight and weight-related factors (i.e., body dissatisfaction, body esteem, teasing frequency, and the effects of teasing) in a community sample of prepubescent African American girls. African American girls (N = 97) in Grades 3 to 5 completed the McKnight Risk Factor Survey-Third Edition and had their…
Tyler, Chermaine; Johnston, Craig A.; Dalton, William T., III; Foreyt, John P.
This study examined whether charting daily weight patterns can predict weight regain in obese patients. The subjects were 98 moderately obese Japanese women aged 23 to 66 years who were obliged to precisely record their daily weights during the initial 4-month education period, but not thereafter. The patients were followed up at 8, 12, and 16 months. Abdominal fat areas and blood samples were assessed in the outpatient clinic at 0, 4, and 16 months. The standard deviations (SDs) of the differences in body weight between "after waking up" and "after breakfast" (SDa), "after dinner" (SDb), and "before going to bed" (SDc) were calculated, which were parameters reflecting the fluctuations in the daily weight patterns during the first 4 months. SDc, but not SDa or SDb, was correlated positively with weight regain at 8, 12, and 16 months (P = 0.049, P = 0.002, and P = 0.001, respectively). There were significant differences in temporal change in body weight and abdominal visceral fat between the small SDc group (SDc =25th percentile) and the large SDc group (SDc >75th percentile), but not for subcutaneous abdominal fat or the serum concentrations of glucose, insulin, or lipids. The results indicate that fluctuation of body weight immediately before going to bed is useful for predicting the rebound in body weight. PMID:15388890
Tanaka, Misuzu; Itoh, Kazue; Abe, Shimako; Imai, Katsumi; Masuda, Takashi; Koga, Ririko; Itoh, Hitomi; Konomi, Yumiko; Kinukawa, Naoko; Sakata, Toshiie
The body dimensions and weights of over 100 ostriches were analysed to investigate which body measurements provided the best estimators of bodyweight. The data were divided between growing and adult birds (below and above two years old) for regression analyses. The residual standard deviation of weight was 0.117 for growing birds, using tibiotarsal length and abdominal girth as predictors. The analogous figure for adults was 0.078 using back length and abdominal girth. An assessment of body condition was made by calculating the average weight-for-size of a bird from skeletal measurements which are unaffected by gross changes in weight, and then comparing it with its estimated or actual weight. These estimates of the weight of a typical ostrich should be useful in veterinary practice, particularly when the weight of a bird is required for the administration of medication. PMID:8883337
Deeming, D C; Sibly, R M; Magole, I L
As for many human diseases, the incidence of obesity and its associated health risks are sexually dimorphic: worldwide the rate of obesity is higher in women. Sex differences in metabolism, appetite, body composition, and fat deposition are contributing biological factors. Gonadal hormones regulate the development of many sexually dimorphic traits in humans and animals, and, in addition, studies in mice indicate a role for direct genetic effects of sex chromosome dosage on body weight, deposition of fat, and circadian timing of feeding behavior. Specifically, mice of either sex with 2 X chromosomes, typical of normal females, have heavier body weights, gain more weight, and eat more food during the light portion of the day than mice of either sex with a single X chromosome. Here we test the effects of X chromosome dosage on body weight and report that gonadal females with 2 X chromosomes express higher levels of GH gene (Gh) mRNA in the preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus than females with 1 X chromosome and males. Furthermore, Gh expression in the POA of the hypothalamus of mice with 2 X chromosomes correlated with body weight; GH is known to have orexigenic properties. Acute infusion of GH into the POA increased immediate food intake in normal (XY) males. We propose that X inactivation-escaping genes modulate Gh expression and food intake, and this is part of the mechanism by which individuals with 2 X chromosomes are heavier than individuals with a single X chromosome. PMID:23861378
Bonthuis, Paul J; Rissman, Emilie F
New and recently developed concepts useful for obtaining and solving equations of motion of multibody mechanical systems with translation between the respective bodies of the system, is presented. The incorporation of translation effects make the analysis applicable to a much broader class of problems than was possible with previous analyses which are restricted to linked multibody systems. The concepts developed in the analysis include the use of Euler parameters, Lagrange's form of d'Alembert's principle, quasi-coordinates, relative coordinates, and body connection arrays. Procedures for the development of efficient computer algorithms for evaluating the coefficients of the governing equations of motion are outlined. The methods presented are directly applicable in the analysis of biodynamic and human models, finite segment cable models, mechanisms, manipulators and robots.
Huston, R. L.; Passerello, C. E.
The relation between body weight and responding established with unsignaled delayed reinforcement was investigated. In three experiments, naive rats were deprived to either 70%, 80%, or 90% of ad libitum weight and were then exposed to tandem variable-interval 15-s differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior 30-s schedules. The tandem schedule defined a resetting unsignaled delay-of-reinforcement procedure. In the first experiment, speed of magazine training, acquisition of lever pressing, and final rate of lever pressing were related to body weight. In the next experiment, lever pressing was established and maintained in rats that were magazine trained at 70% of ad libitum weight but that were then exposed to the delay procedure at 90% of ad libitum weight. Responding did not change consistently either across or within subjects in subsequent conditions in which body weight was manipulated. In the final experiment, lever pressing was established and maintained with delayed reinforcement in the absence of magazine training for each of 2 rats at 70% and for 1 of 2 rats at 90% of ad libitum weight. The results further illuminate the conditions under which responding can be established in the absence of training and when such responses are reinforced only following an unsignaled delay period.
Lattal, K A; Williams, A M
Introduction: A favorable or unfavorable attitude about self was named self esteem. According to Maslow theory to achieve quality of life and happiness, one must reach the gradual fulfillment of human needs, including a high degree of own self-esteem. Body dissatisfaction is a negative distortion of one's body which is especially mentioned by the women. Many studies have shown links between self esteem, body dissatisfaction, health and behaviors. this study intends to determine relationship between body satisfaction, self esteem and unhealthy weight control behaviors between women. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 408 women employees in Isfahan University and Isfahan University of Medical Sciences during 1390. They were chosen according to the stratified random sampling method. Inclusion criteria were 1) willing to participate in the study and 2) lack of serious physical defect 3) not being in pregnancy or breastfeeding course. Exclusion criteria was filling out questionnaires incompletely. Data collection tool was a multidimensional questionnaire which comprised of 4 sections as following: demographic (5items), A self-administrative questionnaire for body Satisfaction (7 items), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (10 items) and a standard Weight Control Behavior Scale (18 items). Cranach's alpha was 0.9 or higher for the different sections. Finally, collected data was analyzed with SPSS18 using the independent T-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficient, regression, Spearman correlation. Results: Frequencies of participants by weight category were 14.1% for obese, 35.3% for overweight, 47.6% for normal weight. The mean body satisfaction score in the studied women was 63.26 ± 16.27 (from 100). Mean score of self esteem was 76.70 ± 10.45. 51.5% of women had medium self esteem, 47.5% had high self esteem. Pearson correlation showed that the variables of body Satisfaction (r = 0.3, P = 0.02), BMI (r = - 0.14, P < 0.003), education level (r = 0.22, P < 0.001), income (r = 0.14, P < 0.004), consumption of fruit (r = 0.13, P < 0.008) all correlated with self-esteem significantly. Women with higher self esteem used higher fruits had a good nutrition overall (r = 0.11, P = 0.02). 92.15%, 10.8% of women respectively participated in one of healthy and unhealthy weight control behavior. There was not any Relationship between self esteem and healthy weight control behavior while finding showed reverse relationship between self esteem and Unhealthy Dieting Behaviors. Conclusion: It seemed women identity in our society tied to social appreciations that formed and supported by body satisfaction. When they feel their current appearance is differ from ideal appearance, they feel down and have lower self esteem and used unhealthy dieting behavior and low fruits daily. Due to importance of precise self evaluation, self esteem can be used to design and conduct public health programs, especially for women.
Daniali, Shahrbanoo; Azadbakht, Leila; Mostafavi, Firoozeh
The body weight gain and growth of tail and tibia were investigated in ovariectomized female rats to ascertain whether the increased skeletal growth after ovariectomy takes place at the same time as the increased body weight gain. Female rats were ovariectomized on the 30th day of age; half of them was killed on the 60th day of age and the other half was killed on the 130th day of age. The body weight and tail length were significantly higher in the ovariectomized females than in intact females from the 60th day of age (Figs. 1, 2). The ovariectomized animals had higher body weight gain and tail length increment, in comparison with intact animals, mainly between the 40th and 60th day of age (Tabs. I, II). After the 90th day of age the body weight gain and tail length increment were no longer significantly higher in ovariectomized animals than in intact animals, although the ovariectomized females maintained the significantly higher body weight and tail length till the end of the experiment (130th day of age). The length of tibia was larger in ovariectomized animals if compared with controls, on the 60th as well as on the 130th day of age. However, the rate of longitudinal growth of tibia, measured (by tetracycline method) between the 57th and 59th day and between the 127th and 129th day of age, was significantly higher in ovariectomized animals only in the first period of measurement (Tab. III).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8122344
Cíkos, S; Kuchár, S; Koppel, J
The effects of acculturation, body perception, and health behaviors on weight status among Vietnamese American students in\\u000a Houston, Texas were examined for our research. A survey was mailed to 600 randomly selected Vietnamese American students at\\u000a one university, and 261 complete surveys (response rate, 43.5%) were used for final analyses. Respondents were classified\\u000a as overweight or normal weight based on
Jin Young Choi; Jessica Hwang; Jenny Yi
A critical period for weight gain may occur during the transition from high school to university. This descriptive, noncontrolled cohort study of 116 healthy females examined the effect of this transition over three study visits in first year university. The main outcome measure was body weight; others were height, body composition, waist circumference, dietary intake, and participation in physical and sedentary activities. Difference among study visits was determined by repeated measures analysis of variance; multiple regression examined changes in energy intake and physical and sedentary activities as predictors of final weight. Weight increased (P<0.001) by 2.4 kg (61.4 to 63.8 kg) during the entire course of the study. Other increases (P<0.001) included: body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)), 22.3 to 23.1; percent body fat, 23.8% to 25.6%; and waist circumference, 76.9 to 79.4 cm. Dietary energy intake did not increase; vigorous physical, but not strength building, activities increased; television use decreased; and computer use increased (P<0.03 for all): however, these changes were not predictive of final weight. A change (decrease) in moderate physical activity was, however, an important predictor of final weight. Females making the transition to university gained 2.4 kg; weight gain during this formative period may be modified by lifestyle activities. PMID:18502240
Edmonds, Melinda J; Ferreira, Kelly J; Nikiforuk, Erica A; Finnie, Alida K; Leavey, Sarah H; Duncan, Alison M; Randall Simpson, Janis A
Overview In mammals, body weight is normally regulated around a set point by coordinated changes in food intake and energy expenditure. These changes are integrated under the influence of specific neural pathways and circulating signals. Almost 50 years ago it was first proposed that circulating signals generated in
G. Frühbeck; J. Gómez-Ambrosi
Previous estimates of the association between body weight and wages in the literature have been conditional on education and occupation. In addition to the effect of current body weight status (body mass index (BMI) or obesity) on wages, this paper examines the indirect effect of body weight status in the late-teenage years on wages operating through education and occupation choice. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 data, for women, we find that a one-unit increase in BMI is directly associated with 1.83% lower hourly wages whereas the indirect BMI wage penalty is not statistically significant. Neither a direct nor an indirect BMI wage penalty is found for men. However, results based on clinical weight classification reveal that the indirect wage penalty occurs to a larger extent at the upper tail of the BMI distribution for both men and women via the pathways of education and occupation outcomes. Late-teen obesity is indirectly associated with 3.5% lower hourly wages for both women and men. These results are important because they imply that the total effect of obesity on wages is significantly larger than has been estimated in previous cross-sectional studies. PMID:21820369
Han, Euna; Norton, Edward C; Powell, Lisa M
Several studies have evaluated whether the high and rising obesity rates over the past three decades may be due to the declining smoking rates. There is mixed evidence across studies – some find negative smoking effects and positive cigarette cost effects on body weight, while others find opposite effects. This study applies a unique approach to identify the smoking effects
George L. Wehby; Jeffrey C. Murray; Allen Wilcox; Rolv T. Lie
The guidelines for body contouring reconstructive surgery present an evidence-based guide for management of redundant tissue after massive weight loss. A standardised referral pathway to ensure safe and equitable patient care on the National Health Service (NHS) throughout England is recommended. A database of all patients for research purposes is suggested. PMID:24909630
Soldin, M; Mughal, M; Al-Hadithy, N
The physical preconditions are considered for the temperature of a body to influence the force of gravity experienced by it. The results are given of experiments on weighing metal rods heated by ultrasound which confirm a dependence of the weight of the rods on their temperature.
A. L. Dmitriev; E. M. Nikushchenko; V. S. Snegov
The increasing prevalence of obesity and its comorbidities represents a major threat to human health globally. Pharmacological treatments exist to achieve weight loss, but the subsequent weight maintenance is prone to fail in the long run. Accordingly, efficient new strategies to persistently control body weight need to be elaborated. Exercise and dietary interventions constitute classical approaches to reduce and maintain body weight, yet people suffering from metabolic diseases are often unwilling or unable to move adequately. The administration of drugs that partially mimic exercise adaptation might circumvent this problem by easing and supporting physical activity. The thermogenic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator 1? (PGC-1?) largely mediates the adaptive response of skeletal muscle to endurance exercise and is a potential target for such interventions. Here, we review the role of PGC-1? in mediating exercise adaptation, coordinating metabolic circuits and enhancing thermogenic capacity in skeletal muscle. We suggest a combination of elevated muscle PGC-1? and exercise as a modified approach for the efficient long-term control of body weight and the treatment of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:22290535
Summermatter, S; Handschin, C
BACKGROUND Locomotor training, including the use of body-weight support in treadmill stepping, is a physical therapy intervention used to improve recovery of the ability to walk after stroke. The effectiveness and appropriate timing of this intervention have not been established. METHODS We stratified 408 participants who had had a stroke 2 months earlier according to the extent of walking impairment — moderate (able to walk 0.4 to <0.8 m per second) or severe (able to walk <0.4 m per second) — and randomly assigned them to one of three training groups. One group received training on a treadmill with the use of body-weight support 2 months after the stroke had occurred (early locomotor training), the second group received this training 6 months after the stroke had occurred (late locomotor training), and the third group participated in an exercise program at home managed by a physical therapist 2 months after the stroke (home-exercise program). Each intervention included 36 sessions of 90 minutes each for 12 to 16 weeks. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants in each group who had an improvement in functional walking ability 1 year after the stroke. RESULTS At 1 year, 52.0% of all participants had increased functional walking ability. No significant differences in improvement were found between early locomotor training and home exercise (adjusted odds ratio for the primary outcome, 0.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.50 to 1.39) or between late locomotor training and home exercise (adjusted odds ratio, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.72 to 1.99). All groups had similar improvements in walking speed, motor recovery, balance, functional status, and quality of life. Neither the delay in initiating the late locomotor training nor the severity of the initial impairment affected the outcome at 1 year. Ten related serious adverse events were reported (occurring in 2.2% of participants undergoing early locomotor training, 3.5% of those undergoing late locomotor training, and 1.6% of those engaging in home exercise). As compared with the home-exercise group, each of the groups receiving locomotor training had a higher frequency of dizziness or faintness during treatment (P=0.008). Among patients with severe walking impairment, multiple falls were more common in the group receiving early locomotor training than in the other two groups (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS Locomotor training, including the use of body-weight support in stepping on a treadmill, was not shown to be superior to progressive exercise at home managed by a physical therapist. (Funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and the National Center for Medical Rehabilitation Research; LEAPS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00243919.)
Duncan, Pamela W.; Sullivan, Katherine J.; Behrman, Andrea L.; Azen, Stanley P.; Wu, Samuel S.; Nadeau, Stephen E.; Dobkin, Bruce H.; Rose, Dorian K.; Tilson, Julie K.; Cen, Steven; Hayden, Sarah K.
Social stressors at work (such as conflict or animosities) imply disrespect or a lack of appreciation and thus a threat to self. Stress induced by this offence to self might result, over time, in a change in body weight. The current study investigated the impact of changing working conditions--specifically social stressors, demands, and control at work--on women's change in weighted Body-Mass-Index over the course of a year. Fifty-seven women in their first year of occupational life participated at baseline and thirty-eight at follow-up. Working conditions were assessed by self-reports and observer-ratings. Body-Mass-Index at baseline and change in Body-Mass-Index one year later were regressed on self-reported social stressors as well as observed work stressors, observed job control, and their interaction. Seen individually, social stressors at work predicted Body-Mass-Index. Moreover, increase in social stressors and decrease of job control during the first year of occupational life predicted increase in Body-Mass-Index. Work redesign that reduces social stressors at work and increases job control could help to prevent obesity epidemic. PMID:24429516
Kottwitz, Maria U; Grebner, Simone; Semmer, Norbert K; Tschan, Franziska; Elfering, Achim
This research evaluated a dual pathway model for body dissatisfaction among adolescent boys. The study provides empirical support for the importance of distinguishing between weight and muscularity concerns in understanding male body image. A total of 128 boys from grades 8 and 11 completed a self-report questionnaire. Results indicated that…
Jones, Diane Carlson; Crawford, Joy K.
Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to document any changes that might occur in body weight, body composition, RMR, and dietary intake in newly enrolled college freshmen. Methods: Body weight, RMR by ventilated O2 consumption, body composition by bioelectrical impedance and dietary intakes were recorded in 27 first-year college freshmen during their initial 16-week semester. Results: Mean body
Laleh Hajhosseini; Tawni Holmes; Vida Goudarzi; Lucy McProud; Clarie B. Hollenbeck
Prior investigations have suggested the use of a dosing weight correction factor of ideal body weight (IBW) plus 40% excess body weight (EBW, where EBW 5total body weight (TBW) 2IBW) to determine the weight to use for aminoglycoside dosing in morbidly obese (TBW\\/IBW ratio, >2) patients. Little data are available to provide dosing information for underweight or moderately obese patients.
ANNE M. TRAYNOR; ANNE N. NAFZIGER; S. BERTINO
Background Childhood obesity is a continuing problem in the UK and South Asian children represent a group that are particularly vulnerable to its health consequences. The relationship between body dissatisfaction and obesity is well documented in older children and adults, but is less clear in young children, particularly South Asians. A better understanding of this relationship in young South Asian children will inform the design and delivery of obesity intervention programmes. The aim of this study is to describe body image size perception and dissatisfaction, and their relationship to weight status in primary school aged UK South Asian children. Methods Objective measures of height and weight were undertaken on 574 predominantly South Asian children aged 5-7 (296 boys and 278 girls). BMI z-scores, and weight status (underweight, healthy weight, overweight or obese) were calculated based on the UK 1990 BMI reference charts. Figure rating scales were used to assess perceived body image size (asking children to identify their perceived body size) and dissatisfaction (difference between perceived current and ideal body size). The relationship between these and weight status were examined using multivariate analyses. Results Perceived body image size was positively associated with weight status (partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 0.63 (95% CI 0.26-0.99) and for BMI z-score was 0.21 (95% CI 0.10-0.31), adjusted for sex, age and ethnicity). Body dissatisfaction was also associated with weight status, with overweight and obese children more likely to select thinner ideal body size than healthy weight children (adjusted partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 1.47 (95% CI 0.99-1.96) and for BMI z-score was 0.54 (95% CI 0.40-0.67)). Conclusions Awareness of body image size and increasing body dissatisfaction with higher weight status is established at a young age in this population. This needs to be considered when designing interventions to reduce obesity in young children, in terms of both benefits and harms.
Variation in sexual dimorphism (SD) is particularly marked in meat-type chickens. This paper investigates the genetic basis of SD in an important economic trait, i.e. body weight (BW) at 35 days of age, in broilers by applying quantitative genetic analysis. A large dataset comprising 203,323 BW records of a commercial line of broiler chicken was used. First, a bivariate approach was employed treating BW as a sex-specific trait. During this approach, seven bivariate models were applied and variances due to direct additive genetic, maternal genetic and maternal environmental effects were estimated via the restricted maximum likelihood method. The best-fitting model included direct additive genetic, maternal genetic and maternal environmental effects with a direct-maternal genetic covariance. Differences between male and female direct heritabilities were non-significant (0.28 vs. 0.29 for males and females, respectively), implying no need for sex-specific selection strategies. The direct-maternal genetic correlation was more strongly negative in males than in females (-0.72 vs. -0.56), implying a more profound antagonism between direct additive and maternal genetic effects in this particular gender. The direct genetic correlation of BW between the two sexes was as high as 0.91, i.e. only slightly lower than unity. Second, variance components and genetic parameters of two measures of SD, i.e. the weight difference (?) and the weight ratio (R), between the genders were estimated. Direct heritabilities for both measures were significantly different to 0 but of low magnitude (0.04). Apart from the additive-maternal covariance, no other random effects were found to be of importance for ? and R. The results of the present study suggest that only minimal selection responses due to the selection of ? and/or R and a small capacity for amplifying or reducing the BW differences between the sexes are to be expected in this specific population. Furthermore, selection pressure on BW is expected to amplify SD. PMID:23001961
Maniatis, G; Demiris, N; Kranis, A; Banos, G; Kominakis, A
A review is given on methods that can be used for the assessment of dry body weight in peritoneal dialysis patients. Besides clinical examination, the use of natriuretic hormone concentrations in plasma, and the value of multifrequency bio-impedance analysis is discussed. Ultrafiltration targets as formulated in various guidelines are reviewed. Finally, it is concluded that the ultrafiltration target is the amount required to keep patients euvolemic with an exposure to glucose that is as low as possible. PMID:19494600
Krediet, Raymond T; Smit, Watske; Coester, Annemieke M; Struijk, Dirk G
Abstract The current evidence regarding the usefulness of whole-body diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) in lymphoma is reviewed. DWI is capable of combining anatomical and functional information and is becoming a valuable tool in oncology, in particular for staging purposes. DWI may prove to be a useful biomarker in clinical decision making for patients with lymphoma. Large-scaled prospective studies are needed to confirm these preliminary results.
Itti, E.; Luciani, A.; Haioun, C.; Meignan, M.
The purpose of this study was to identify new indexes of body composition that characterize the normal weight obese (NWO) women. We measured body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and resting metabolic rate (RMR) by indirect calorimetry in a cohort of seventy-five healthy Italian women, subdivided into three groups (nonobese/controls, NWO, preobese-obese women). Despite a normal body mass index (BMI), the NWO women have a higher body fat mass percentage (FAT %) (38.99 +/- 6.03) associated to a significant (p = 0.02) lower amount of lean mass of legs (12.24 +/- 1.31) and lean mass of left leg (6.07 +/- 0.64) with respect to the control group. The NWO group showed a significant (p = 0.043) lower RMR (1201.25 +/- 349.02) in comparison with nonobese and preobese-obese women. To classify NWO individuals among general population, we identified three significant body composition indexes: abdominal index, leg index and trunk index. The NWO women showed significant increased value in the three indexes (p < 0.001). Our results suggest that, despite a normal BMI, the NWO women displayed a cluster of anthropometric characteristics (body fat mass percentage, leg indexes) not different to obese women ones. An appropriate diet-therapy and physical activity may be protecting NWO individuals from diabetes and cardiovascular diseases associated to preobese-obese women. PMID:16910350
Di Renzo, L; Del Gobbo, V; Bigioni, M; Premrov, M G; Cianci, R; De Lorenzo, A
The purpose of this study was to document changes in height (cm), body weight (kg), and body composition (%fat) of American football players from 1942 to 2011. Published articles were identified from databases and cross-referencing of bibliographies. Studies selected met the requirements of (1) having 2 of 3 dependent (height, body weight, and body composition) variables reported in the results; (2) containing a skill level of college or professional; (3) providing measured not self-reported data; and (4) published studies in English language journals. The data were categorized into groups based on skill level (college and professional). The player positions were grouped into 3 categories: mixed linemen (offensive and defensive linemen, tight ends, and linebackers), mixed offensive backs (quarterback and running backs), and mixed skilled positions (defensive backs and wide receivers). Linear regression was used to provide slope estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Unpaired t-tests were used to determine whether an individual regression slope was significantly different from zero. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.017. College level players in all position groups have significantly increased body weight over time (95% CI: mixed lineman 0.338-0.900 kg·y(-1); mixed offensive backs 0.089-0.298 kg·y(-1); mixed skilled 0.078-0.334 kg·y(-1)). The college level mixed linemen showed a significant increase over time for height (95% CI: 0.034-0.188 cm·y(-1)) and body composition (0.046-0.275% fat per year). Significant increases in body weight over time were found for professional level mixed lineman (95% CI: 0.098-0.756 kg·y(-1)) and mixed offensive backs (95% CI: 0.1800-0.545 kg·y(-1)). There were no other significant changes at the professional level. These data demonstrate that body weight of all college players and professional mixed lineman have significantly increased from 1942 to 2011. PMID:23222088
Anzell, Anthony R; Potteiger, Jeffrey A; Kraemer, William J; Otieno, Sango
Here we review the emerging neurobiological understanding of the role of the brain's reward system in the regulation of body weight in health and in disease. Common obesity is characterized by the over-consumption of palatable/rewarding foods, reflecting an imbalance in the relative importance of hedonic versus homeostatic signals. The popular 'incentive salience theory' of food reward recognises not only a hedonic/pleasure component ('liking') but also an incentive motivation component ('wanting' or 'reward-seeking'). Central to the neurobiology of the reward mechanism is the mesoaccumbal dopamine system that confers incentive motivation not only for natural rewards such as food but also by artificial rewards (eg. addictive drugs). Indeed, this mesoaccumbal dopamine system receives and integrates information about the incentive (rewarding) value of foods with information about metabolic status. Problematic over-eating likely reflects a changing balance in the control exerted by hypothalamic versus reward circuits and/or it could reflect an allostatic shift in the hedonic set point for food reward. Certainly, for obesity to prevail, metabolic satiety signals such as leptin and insulin fail to regain control of appetitive brain networks, including those involved in food reward. On the other hand, metabolic control could reflect increased signalling by the stomach-derived orexigenic hormone, ghrelin. We have shown that ghrelin activates the mesoaccumbal dopamine system and that central ghrelin signalling is required for reward from both chemical drugs (eg alcohol) and also from palatable food. Future therapies for problematic over-eating and obesity may include drugs that interfere with incentive motivation, such as ghrelin antagonists. PMID:21340584
Egecioglu, Emil; Skibicka, Karolina P; Hansson, Caroline; Alvarez-Crespo, Mayte; Friberg, P Anders; Jerlhag, Elisabet; Engel, Jörgen A; Dickson, Suzanne L
Introduction Obesity is a complex condition with multifactorial origin. Assuming that such a state is genetically controlled, the aim of our study was to evaluate the degree of genetic homozygosity among overweight and obese individuals by the homozygously recessive characteristics (HRC) test. Material and methods We analysed the presence, distribution and individual combination of 15 selected genetically controlled recessive phenotype traits in a sample of 140 individuals with increased body mass index (overweight individuals n = 100 and obese individuals n = 40) and a control group of normal weight individuals (n = 300). Results Obese individuals have significantly higher mean values for genetic homozygosity than those with normal weight (normal weight: 3.61 ±1.48; obese: 4.13 ±1.47, p < 0.05) and difference in the presence of certain individual combinations of evaluated phenotype traits (??2 = 76.9; p < 0.01). There was no difference in average homozygosity of such genetic markers between groups of normal weight and overweight individuals (normal weight: 3.61 ±1.48; overweight: 3.93 ±1.51, p > 0.05) and between groups of overweight and obese individuals (overweight: 3.93 ±1.51; obese: 4.13 ±1.47, p > 0.05). There is no difference in the presence of certain individual combinations of evaluated phenotype traits between overweight and obese individuals (??2 = 20.6; p > 0.05). Conclusions There is a populational genetic difference in the degree of genetic homozygosity and variability between the group of normal weight and group of obese individuals, indicating a possible genetic component. Overweight and obese individuals have a genetic predisposition, but different expression of genetic loads could be one of the possible explanations for different susceptibility to increase of fat mass and body mass index.
Cvjeticanin, Suzana; Petronic, Ivana; Milincic, Zeljka; Brdar, Radivoj; Karan, Radmila; Konstantinovic, Ljubica; Dragin, Aleksandra; Cutovic, Milisav
Background and objectives: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common problem in women at fertile age. A prospective study was conducted to clarify the pathophysiological responses during an application of insulin sensitizer, metformin and weight reduction therapy at the Gynecology Center in Ohud hospital, in AL-Madinah AL-Munawarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methodology: Twenty healthy women served as controls and 180 PCOS women divided into three groups participated in the study. First group was treated with Clomid citrate 100mg/day from the 2nd day of menses to the 6th day plus gonadotrophin from day three to the 13th. Group II was treated as group I plus 850mg metformin twice a day and group III was treated as group I plus weight reduction. Clinical symptoms, menstrual pattern, hirsutism, blood glucose, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, insulin, hormonal, and lipid profiles were assessed pre- and post treatment. Insulin resistance was calculated. Results: PCOS women had significantly higher values than the healthy women in most of the measurements. Metformin and weight reduction therapy resulted in a significant decrease in the fasting insulin, glucose/insulin ratio and HOMA-IR. Metformin and weight reduction therapy resulted in a significant decrease in the lipid parameters, testosterone, LH/FSH ratio, SHBG, and prolactin levels. HOMA-IR was significantly higher in women with PCOS. HOMA-IR was positively correlated with testosterone, estradiol, TG, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol parameters, and negatively correlated with HDL-cholesterol and FSH levels. Conclusion: Metformin therapy and weight reduction had favorable influences on the basic metabolic and hormonal profiles in women with PCOS and that metformin and lifestyle modification (weight reduction via diet restriction or exercise) resulted in a significantly greater weight loss than hormonal therapy alone. Metformin and weight reduction therapy decreased also hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance. PMID:23608322
Al-Nozha, Omar; Habib, Fawziah; Mojaddidi, Moaz; El-Bab, Mohamed Fath
Objective. To determine the effectiveness of exercise and/or nutrition interventions and to address body weight changes during the menopause transition. Methods. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using electronic databases, grey literature, and hand searching. Two independent researchers screened for studies using experimental designs to evaluate the impact of exercise and/or nutrition interventions on body weight and/or central weight gain performed during the menopausal transition. Studies were quality appraised using Cochrane risk of bias. Included studies were analyzed descriptively. Results. Of 3,564 unique citations screened, 3 studies were eligible (2 randomized controlled trials, and 1 pre/post study). Study quality ranged from low to high risk of bias. One randomized controlled trial with lower risk of bias concluded that participation in an exercise program combined with dietary interventions might mitigate body adiposity increases, which is normally observed during the menopause transition. The other two studies with higher risk of bias suggested that exercise might attenuate weight loss or weight gain and change abdominal adiposity patterns. Conclusions. High quality studies evaluating the effectiveness of interventions targeting body weight changes in women during their menopause transition are needed. Evidence from one higher quality study indicates an effective multifaceted intervention for women to minimize changes in body adiposity.
Jull, Janet; Stacey, Dawn; Beach, Sarah; Dumas, Alex; Strychar, Irene; Ufholz, Lee-Anne; Prince, Stephanie; Abdulnour, Joseph; Prud'homme, Denis
Guilt is an important social and moral emotion. In addition to feeling unpleasant, guilt is metaphorically described as a "weight on one's conscience." Evidence from the field of embodied cognition suggests that abstract metaphors may be grounded in bodily experiences, but no prior research has examined the embodiment of guilt. Across four studies we examine whether i) unethical acts increase subjective experiences of weight, ii) feelings of guilt explain this effect, and iii) whether there are consequences of the weight of guilt. Studies 1-3 demonstrated that unethical acts led to more subjective body weight compared to control conditions. Studies 2 and 3 indicated that heightened feelings of guilt mediated the effect, whereas other negative emotions did not. Study 4 demonstrated a perceptual consequence. Specifically, an induction of guilt affected the perceived effort necessary to complete tasks that were physical in nature, compared to minimally physical tasks. PMID:23936041
Day, Martin V; Bobocel, D Ramona
Guilt is an important social and moral emotion. In addition to feeling unpleasant, guilt is metaphorically described as a “weight on one's conscience.” Evidence from the field of embodied cognition suggests that abstract metaphors may be grounded in bodily experiences, but no prior research has examined the embodiment of guilt. Across four studies we examine whether i) unethical acts increase subjective experiences of weight, ii) feelings of guilt explain this effect, and iii) whether there are consequences of the weight of guilt. Studies 1–3 demonstrated that unethical acts led to more subjective body weight compared to control conditions. Studies 2 and 3 indicated that heightened feelings of guilt mediated the effect, whereas other negative emotions did not. Study 4 demonstrated a perceptual consequence. Specifically, an induction of guilt affected the perceived effort necessary to complete tasks that were physical in nature, compared to minimally physical tasks.
Day, Martin V.; Bobocel, D. Ramona
Body weight was measured, and body fat distribution was deter- mined by dual energy x-ray in early postmenopausal women given either oral calcium (500 mg\\/day; control group; n 5 12) or hormonal replacement therapy (HRT), a combination of estradiol valerate (2 mg\\/day for 21 days) with cyproterone acetate (1 mg\\/day in the last 10 days of the treatment cycle; n
M. Gambacciani; M. CIAPONI; B. CAPPAGLI; L. PIAGGESI; L. DE SIMONE; R. ORLANDI; A. R. GENAZZANI
Our objective was to investigate the psychobiological impact associated with resistance to further weight loss in obese men. Anthropometric and body composition measurements, resting metabolic rate (RMR) measurement, appetite sensation markers, and three questionnaires [Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36), Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)] were assessed at baseline and after 1 month of body weight loss plateau induced by a supervised diet and exercise clinical intervention in 11 obese men. The weight loss plateau corresponded to 11.2% of initial body weight (93.9% from fat stores). However, this amount of weight loss induced a significant decrease in RMR (P <.05) and a significant increase in hunger (P <.05) and desire to eat (P <.05). Using the SF-36 Health Survey, physical and mental health were shown to be unchanged at plateau as compared to baseline. The TFEQ showed that cognitive dietary restraint increased (P <.001) compared to baseline. Finally, depression risk as measured by the BDI significantly increased at plateau (P <.01) compared to baseline. Weight loss until resistance to further weight loss may be detrimental for some psychobiological variables including depression, which emphasizes the relevance of caution and reasonable objectives when prescribing a weight reduction program for obese individuals. PMID:17131351
Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Drapeau, Vicky; Hetherington, Marion; Lemieux, Simone; Provencher, Véronique; Tremblay, Angelo
Background/Objectives Physiological evidence indicates that high-protein diets reduce caloric intake and increase thermogenic response, which may prevent weight gain and regain after weight loss. Clinical trials have shown such effects, whereas observational cohort studies suggest an association between greater protein intake and weight gain. In both types of studies the results are based on average weight changes, and show considerable diversity in both directions. This study investigates whether the discrepancy in the evidence could be due to recruitment of overweight and obese individuals into clinical trials. Subjects/Methods Data were available from the European Diet, Obesity and Genes (DiOGenes) post-weight-loss weight-maintenance trial and the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health (DCH) cohort. Participants of the DCH cohort were matched with participants from the DiOGenes trial on gender, diet, and body characteristics. Different subsets of the DCH-participants, comparable with the trial participants, were analyzed for weight maintenance according to the randomization status (high or low protein) of the matched trial participants. Results Trial participants were generally heavier, had larger waist circumference and larger fat mass than the participants in the entire DCH cohort. A better weight maintenance in the high-protein group compared to the low protein group was observed in the subgroups of the DCH cohort matching body characteristics of the trial participants. Conclusion This modified observational study, minimized the differences between the RCT and observational data with regard to dietary intake, participant characteristics and statistical analysis. Compared with low protein diet the high protein diet was associated with better weight maintenance when individuals with greater body mass index and waist circumference were analyzed. Selecting subsets of large-scale observational cohort studies with similar characteristics as participants in clinical trials may reconcile the otherwise conflicting results.
Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z.; Angquist, Lars; Stocks, Tanja; Jakobsen, Marianne U.; Overvad, Kim; Halkjaer, Jytte; Saris, Wim H. M.; Astrup, Arne; S?rensen, Thorkild I. A.
Since obesity has grown to epidemic proportions, its effective management is a very important clinical issue. Despite the great amount of scientific effort that has been put into understanding the mechanisms that lead to overconsumption and overweight, at the moment very few approaches to weight management are effective in the long term. On the other hand, modern society is also affected by the growing incidence of eating disorders on the other side of the spectrum such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa which are equally difficult to treat. This review will try to summarise the main findings available in the literature regarding the effect of plants or plant extracts (phytochemicals) on human appetite and body weight. The majority of plant extracts are not single compounds but rather a mixture of different molecules, therefore their mechanism of action usually targets several systems. In addition, since some cellular receptors tend to be widely distributed, sometimes a single molecule can have a widespread effect. This review will attempt to describe the main phytochemicals that have been suggested to affect the homeostatic mechanisms that influence intake and body weight. Clinical data will be summarised and scientific evidence will be reviewed.
Tucci, Sonia A.
General Aspects There are various endocrine diseases including defined genetic syndromes which are the underlying cause for obesity in children and adolescents. These cases are rare. However, there are very common alterations in endocrine functions in obese children and adolescents which are a characteristic of the increased body fat mass (fig. 1). These alterations include disturbances of insulin secretion and
Martin Wabitsch; Thomas Reinehr; Pamela Fischer-Posovszky
Background. The obese patients have differences in body composition, drug distribution, and metabolism. Sugammadex at T 2 recovery in a dose of 2?mg?kg(-1) of real body weight (RBW) can completely reverse the NMB block; in our study we investigated the safety and efficacy of Sugammadex dose based on their ideal body weight (IBW). Methods. 40 patients of both sexes undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery were enrolled divided into 2 groups according to the dose of Sugammadex: the first received a dose of 2?mg?kg(-1) of IBW and the second received a dose of 2?mg?kg(-1) of RBW. Both were anesthetized with doses calculated according to the IBW: fentanyl 2? ? g?kg(-1), propofol 3?mg?kg(-1), rocuronium 0,6?mg?kg(-1), oxygen, air, and desflurane (6-8%). Maintenance doses of rocuronium were 1/4 of the intubation dose. Sugammadex was administrated at T 2 recovery. Results. The durations of intubation and maintenance doses of rocuronium were similar in both groups. In IBW group, the T 4/T 1 value of 0.9 was reached in 151?±?44 seconds and in 121?±?55 seconds in RBW group (P = 0.07). Discussion. Recovery times to T 4/T 1 of 0.9 are surprisingly similar in both groups without observing any postoperative residual curarization. Conclusion. Sugammadex doses calculated according to the IBW are certainly safe for a rapid recovery and absence of PORC. PMID:23840203
Sanfilippo, Maria; Alessandri, Francesco; Wefki Abdelgawwad Shousha, Ahmed Abdelgawwad; Sabba, Antonio; Cutolo, Alessandra
Background. The obese patients have differences in body composition, drug distribution, and metabolism. Sugammadex at T2 recovery in a dose of 2?mg?kg?1 of real body weight (RBW) can completely reverse the NMB block; in our study we investigated the safety and efficacy of Sugammadex dose based on their ideal body weight (IBW). Methods. 40 patients of both sexes undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery were enrolled divided into 2 groups according to the dose of Sugammadex: the first received a dose of 2?mg?kg?1 of IBW and the second received a dose of 2?mg?kg?1 of RBW. Both were anesthetized with doses calculated according to the IBW: fentanyl 2??g?kg?1, propofol 3?mg?kg?1, rocuronium 0,6?mg?kg?1, oxygen, air, and desflurane (6–8%). Maintenance doses of rocuronium were 1/4 of the intubation dose. Sugammadex was administrated at T2 recovery. Results. The durations of intubation and maintenance doses of rocuronium were similar in both groups. In IBW group, the T4/T1 value of 0.9 was reached in 151?±?44 seconds and in 121?±?55 seconds in RBW group (P = 0.07). Discussion. Recovery times to T4/T1 of 0.9 are surprisingly similar in both groups without observing any postoperative residual curarization. Conclusion. Sugammadex doses calculated according to the IBW are certainly safe for a rapid recovery and absence of PORC.
Alessandri, Francesco; Wefki Abdelgawwad Shousha, Ahmed Abdelgawwad; Sabba, Antonio; Cutolo, Alessandra
Excess body weight (EBW) is an independent risk factor for many human malignancies, including cancers throughout the gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary tract from the esophagus to the colorectum. The relative risk of gastrointestinal cancer in obese individuals is approximately 1.5–2.0 times that for normal weight individuals, with organ-specific and gender-specific differences for specific cancers. The association between EBW and risk of
Prashant Kant; Mark A. Hull
Opioids have been suggested to affect feeding behaviour. To clarify the role of mu-opioid receptors in feeding, we measured several parameters relating to food intake in mu-opioid receptor knockout mice. Here, we show that the knockout mice had increased body weight in adulthood, although the intake amount of standard food was similar between the wild-type and knockout littermates. Serum markers for energy homeostasis were not significantly altered in the knockout mice. Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y mRNA, however, was higher in knockouts than in wild-type mice. Our results suggest that the up-regulated expression of neuropeptide Y mRNA might contribute to the increased weights of adult mu-opioid receptor knockout mice. PMID:16738492
Han, Wenhua; Hata, Harumi; Imbe, Hiroki; Liu, Qing-Rong; Takamatsu, Yukio; Koizumi, Miwako; Murphy, Niall P; Senba, Emiko; Uhl, George R; Sora, Ichiro; Ikeda, Kazutaka
Background Aging leads to increases in gait variability which may explain the large incidence of falls in the elderly. Body weight support training may be utilized to improve gait in the elderly and minimize falls. However, before initiating rehabilitation protocols, baseline studies are needed to identify the effect of body weight support on elderly gait variability. Our purpose was to determine the kinematic variability of the lower extremities in young and elderly healthy females at changing levels of body weight support during walking. Methods Ten young and ten elderly females walked on a treadmill for two minutes with a body weight support (BWS) system under four different conditions: 1 g, 0.9 g, 0.8 g, and 0.7 g. Three-dimensional kinematics was captured at 60 Hz with a Peak Performance high speed video system. Magnitude and structure of variability of the sagittal plane angular kinematics of the right lower extremity was analyzed using both linear (magnitude; standard deviations and coefficient of variations) and nonlinear (structure; Lyapunov exponents) measures. A two way mixed ANOVA was used to evaluate the effect of age and BWS on variability. Results Linear analysis showed that the elderly presented significantly more variability at the hip and knee joint than the young females. Moreover, higher levels of BWS presented increased variability at all joints as found in both the linear and nonlinear measures utilized. Conclusion Increased levels of BWS increased lower extremity kinematic variability. If the intent of BWS training is to decrease variability in gait patterns, this did not occur based on our results. However, we did not perform a training study. Thus, it is possible that after several weeks of training and increased habituation, these initial increased variability values will decrease. This assumption needs to be addressed in future investigation with both "healthy" elderly and elderly fallers. In addition, it is possible that BWS training can have a positive transfer effect by bringing overground kinematic variability to healthy normative levels, which also needs to be explored in future studies.
Kyvelidou, Anastasia; Kurz, Max J; Ehlers, Julie L; Stergiou, Nicholas
Stress experienced during pregnancy increases the risk for altered birth weights. Recent studies have revealed a link between abnormal birth weights and a future predisposition toward developing overweight or obesity. To determine the gestational time window when stress exposure produces the greatest impact on offspring body weight regulation, we have examined the birth weights and long-term body weight changes in
Bridget R. Mueller; Tracy L. Bale
Energy density is a relatively new concept that has been identified as an important factor in body weight control in adults and in children and adolescents. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 encourages consumption of an eating pattern low in energy density to manage body weight. This article describes the systematic evidence-based review conducted by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (DGAC), with support from the US Department of Agriculture's Nutrition Evidence Library, which resulted in this recommendation. An update to the committee's review was prepared for this article. PubMed was searched for English-language publications from January 1980 to May 2011. The literature review included 17 studies (seven randomized controlled trials, one nonrandomized controlled trial, and nine cohort studies) in adults and six cohort studies in children and adolescents. Based on this evidence, the 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee concluded that strong and consistent evidence in adults indicates that dietary patterns relatively low in energy density improve weight loss and weight maintenance. In addition, the committee concluded that there was moderately strong evidence from methodologically rigorous longitudinal cohort studies in children and adolescents to suggest that there is a positive association between dietary energy density and increased adiposity. This review supports a relationship between energy density and body weight in adults and in children and adolescents such that consuming diets lower in energy density may be an effective strategy for managing body weight. PMID:22480489
Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Obbagy, Julie E; Altman, Jean M; Essery, Eve V; McGrane, Mary M; Wong, Yat Ping; Spahn, Joanne M; Williams, Christine L
'Fetal programming' is a newly emerging field that is revealing astounding insights into the prenatal origins of adult disease, including metabolic, endocrine, and cardiovascular pathophysiology. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that rat pups conceived, gestated and born at 2-g have significantly reduced birth weights and increased adult body weights as compared to 1-g controls. Offspring were produced by mating young adult male and female rats that were adapted to 2-g centrifugation. Female rats underwent conception, pregnancy and birth at 2-g. Newborn pups in the 2-g condition were removed from the centrifuge and fostered to non-manipulated, newly parturient dams maintained at 1 -g. Comparisons were made with 1-g stationary controls, also crossfostered at birth. As compared to 1-g controls, birth weights of pups gestated and born at 2-g were significantly reduced. Pup body weights were significantly reduced until Postnatal day (P) 12. Beginning on P63, body weights of 2-g-gestated offspring exceeded those of 1-g controls by 7-10%. Thus, prenatal rearing at 2-g restricts neonatal growth and increases adult body weight. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that 2-g centrifugation alters the intrauterine milieu, thereby inducing persistent changes in adult phenotype.
Baer, Lisa A.; Rushing, Linda; Wade, Charles E.; Ronca, April E.
Excessive BW has become a major health issue in the equine (Equus caballus) industry. The objectives were to determine if the addition of neck circumference and height improved existing BW estimation equations, to develop an equation for estimation of ideal BW, and to develop a method for assessing the likelihood of being overweight in adult equids. Six hundred and twenty-nine adult horses and ponies who met the following criteria were measured and weighed at 2 horse shows in September 2011 in Minnesota: age ? 3 yr, height ? 112 cm, and nonpregnant. Personnel assessed BCS on a scale of 1 to 9 and measured wither height at the third thoracic vertebra, body length from the point of shoulder to the point of the buttock, neck and girth circumference, and weight using a portable livestock scale. Individuals were grouped into breed types on the basis of existing knowledge and were confirmed with multivariate ANOVA analysis of morphometric measurements. Equations for estimated and ideal BW were developed using linear regression modeling. For estimated BW, the model was fit using all individuals and all morphometric measurements. For ideal BW, the model was fit using individuals with a BCS of 5; breed type, height, and body length were considered as these measurements are not affected by adiposity. A BW score to assess the likelihood of being overweight was developed by fitting a proportional odds logistic regression model on BCS using the difference between ideal and estimated BW, the neck to height ratio, and the girth to height ratio as predictors; this score was then standardized using the data from individuals with a BCS of 5. Breed types included Arabian, stock, and pony. Mean (± SD) BCS was 5.6 ± 0.9. BW (kg) was estimated by taking [girth (cm)(1.48)6 × length (cm)(0.554) × height (cm)(0.599) × neck (cm)(0.173)]/3,596, 3,606, and 3,441 for Arabians, ponies, and stock horses, respectively (R(2) = 0.92; mean-squared error (MSE) = 22 kg). Ideal BW (kg) was estimated by taking [length (cm) × 2.8] + [height (cm) × 4.2] - 611, 606, and 577 for Arabians, ponies, and stock horses, respectively (R(2) = 0.86; MSE = 24). Equids with a BCS of ? 7 had a greater likelihood of being overweight, and the model suggested cutoffs at the 48th and 83rd percentiles for underweight and overweight individuals, respectively. Morphometric measurements were successfully used to develop equid BW-related equations. PMID:24663191
Martinson, K L; Coleman, R C; Rendahl, A K; Fang, Z; McCue, M E
Background Successful weight management involves the regulation of eating behavior. However, the specific mechanisms underlying its successful regulation remain unclear. This study examined one potential mechanism by testing a model in which improved body image mediated the effects of obesity treatment on eating self-regulation. Further, this study explored the role of different body image components. Methods Participants were 239 overweight women (age: 37.6 ± 7.1 yr; BMI: 31.5 ± 4.1 kg/m2) engaged in a 12-month behavioral weight management program, which included a body image module. Self-reported measures were used to assess evaluative and investment body image, and eating behavior. Measurements occurred at baseline and at 12 months. Baseline-residualized scores were calculated to report change in the dependent variables. The model was tested using partial least squares analysis. Results The model explained 18-44% of the variance in the dependent variables. Treatment significantly improved both body image components, particularly by decreasing its investment component (f2 = .32 vs. f2 = .22). Eating behavior was positively predicted by investment body image change (p < .001) and to a lesser extent by evaluative body image (p < .05). Treatment had significant effects on 12-month eating behavior change, which were fully mediated by investment and partially mediated by evaluative body image (effect ratios: .68 and .22, respectively). Conclusions Results suggest that improving body image, particularly by reducing its salience in one's personal life, might play a role in enhancing eating self-regulation during weight control. Accordingly, future weight loss interventions could benefit from proactively addressing body image-related issues as part of their protocols.
Body image and weight loss beliefs and behaviors were assessed in 341 female and 221 male high school students. Estimates of body dissatisfaction varied depending on the measurement strategy used. Despite having similar weight distributions around the expected norm, girls were significantly more dissatisfied with their bodies than boys. Body Mass Index was positively related to body dissatisfaction in girls
Susan J. Paxton; Eleanor H. Wertheim; Kay Gibbons; George I. Szmukler; Lynne Hillier; Janice L. Petrovich
Objective: To evaluate the results after total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) in small children, our clinical experience was retrospectively reviewed. Methods: Of 164 patients undergoing TCPC, the body weight at operation was less than 10 kg (8.8±1.1 kg) in 54, including 21 with visceral heterotaxy. The superior caval vein (SVC) was anastomosed to the pulmonary arteries in a bidirectional fashion. To
Hideki Uemura; Toshikatsu Yagihara; Youichi Kawahira; Yoshiro Yoshikawa; Soichiro Kitamura
157 undergraduate students (M age 18.6 yr.) taking introductory psychology courses participated in this study to assess if men's self-perceived weight status is associated with a disposition to engage in or to avoid activities that would expose the body to scrutiny of male and female observers. A second objective of this study was to examine whether willingness to expose the upper torso would be associated with self-reports of anxiety about physique and fear of negative evaluation. Analysis indicated that both self-perceived overweight and underweight men reported less intent than self-perceived normal weight men to volunteer for activities that would expose the body to scrutiny. Surprisingly, participants volunteered for more activities if the viewers of their bodies were women than if they were men. Finally, endorsed unwillingness to expose the upper torso to others was significantly associated with increased social physique anxiety and higher fear of negative evaluation. PMID:15648480
We describe the distribution of body weight, height and body mass index (BMI) by age, sex and ethnicity in Malaysian adults. A national sample of 28,737 individuals aged 20 or older had usable data. They were selected by stratified 2-stage cluster sampling. Percentile tables and curves by age, sex and ethnicity are presented. The body weight and BMI distributions were right skewed, while that of height was symmetrical. BMI distribution showed the expected increase with age, while that of height decrease with age. Differences in BMI between the 2 sexes and among the 4 ethnic groups were observed. Indian had the highest BMI, followed by Malay, Chinese and other indigenous ethnic group. PMID:11072496
Lim, T O; Ding, L M; Zaki, M; Suleiman, A B; Fatimah, S; Siti, S; Tahir, A; Maimunah, A H
Microenvironmental sensitivity of a genotype refers to the ability to buffer against non-specific environmental factors, and it can be quantified by the amount of residual variation in a trait expressed by the genotype’s offspring within a (macro)environment. Due to the high degree of polymorphism in behavioral, growth and life-history traits, both farmed and wild salmonids are highly susceptible to microenvironmental variation, yet the heritable basis of this characteristic remains unknown. We estimated the genetic (co)variance of body weight and its residual variation in 2-year-old rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) using a multigenerational data of 45,900 individuals from the Finnish national breeding programme. We also tested whether or not microenvironmental sensitivity has been changed as a correlated genetic response when genetic improvement for growth has been practiced over five generations. The animal model analysis revealed the presence of genetic heterogeneity both in body weight and its residual variation. Heritability of residual variation was remarkably lower (0.02) than that for body weight (0.35). However, genetic coefficient of variation was notable in both body weight (14%) and its residual variation (37%), suggesting a substantial potential for selection responses in both traits. Furthermore, a significant negative genetic correlation (?0.16) was found between body weight and its residual variation, i.e., rapidly growing genotypes are also more tolerant to perturbations in microenvironment. The genetic trends showed that fish growth was successfully increased by selective breeding (an average of 6% per generation), whereas no genetic change occurred in residual variation during the same period. The results imply that genetic improvement for body weight does not cause a concomitant increase in microenvironmental sensitivity. For commercial production, however, there may be high potential to simultaneously improve weight gain and increase its uniformity if both criteria are included in a selection index.
Janhunen, Matti; Kause, Antti; Vehvilainen, Harri; Jarvisalo, Otso
The effects of short-term (3 weeks) integrated body weight reduction (BWR) program (including energy-restricted diet, aerobic and strength exercise (5 days/week), nutritional education and psychological counseling) on plasma leptin levels and body composition were investigated in 54 morbidly obese patients (38 females/16 males; mean BMI +/- SE: 41.8 +/- 0.1 kg/m2, range 35-58 kg/m2; mean age: 29.8 +/- 1.0 yr, age range: 18-46 yr). The BWR program induced a significant (p < 0.001) weight loss (BMI reduction: -4.8%) and a significant modification in body composition, consisting in a fat mass (FM) decrease (-7.0 +/- 0.4%, p < 0.001) with a concomitant fat-free (FFM) mass increase (1.8 +/- 0.3%, p < 0.001). On average, plasma leptin levels decreased significantly both in males (from 19.4 +/- 2.6 ng/ml to 11.6 +/- 1.3 ng/ml, p < 0.001) and in females (from 41.1 +/- 3.6 ng/ml to 29.9 +/- 3.0 ng/ml, p < 0.001). Both before and after weight loss, leptin levels were positively correlated (p < 0.001) with BMI and percent fat mass (FM) values. Weight changes after the BWR program were negatively correlated with baseline leptin concentrations both in absolute terms and expressed per unit FM. In conclusion, a short-term diet plus aerobic/strength training effectively induces body composition changes and reduces plasma leptin levels. Body FM reduction appears to be not the unique determinant of leptin levels regulation and the degree of leptin over-expression may negatively affect weight loss in morbidly obese patients. PMID:12809176
Sartorio, A; Agosti, F; Resnik, M; Lafortuna, C L
The discovery of cannabinoid receptors, together with the development of selective cannabinoid receptor antagonists, has encouraged a resurgence of cannabinoid pharmacology. With the identification of endogenous agonists, such as anandamide, scientists have sought to uncover the biological role of endocannabinoid systems; initially guided by the long-established actions of cannabis and exogenous cannabinoids such as delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). In particular, considerable research has examined endocannabinoid involvement in appetite, eating behaviour and body weight regulation. It is now confirmed that endocannabinoids, acting at brain CB1 cannabinoid receptors, stimulate appetite and ingestive behaviours, partly through interactions with more established orexigenic and anorexigenic signals. Key structures such as the nucleus accumbens and hypothalamic nuclei are sensitive sites for the hyperphagic actions of these substances, and endocannabinoid activity in these regions varies in relation to nutritional status and feeding expression. Behavioural studies indicate that endocannabinoids increase eating motivation by enhancing the incentive salience and hedonic evaluation of ingesta. Moreover, there is strong evidence of an endocannabinoid role in energy metabolism and fuel storage. Recent developments point to potential clinical benefits of cannabinoid receptor antagonists in the management of obesity, and of agonists in the treatment of other disorders of eating and body weight regulation. PMID:16148436
Kirkham, T C
Objective Body weight and overt thyroid dysfunction are associated. Cross-sectional population-based studies have repeatedly found that thyroid hormone levels, even within the normal reference range, might be associated with body weight. However, for longitudinal data, the association is less clear. Thus, we tested the association between serum thyrotropin (TSH) and body weight in a community-based sample of adult persons followed for 11 years. Methods A random sample of 4,649 persons aged 18–65 years from a general population participated in the DanThyr study in 1997–8. We included 2,102 individuals who participated at 11-year follow-up, without current or former treatment for thyroid disease and with measurements of TSH and weight at both examinations. Multiple linear regression models were used, stratified by sex and adjusted for age, smoking status, and leisure time physical activity. Results Baseline TSH concentration was not associated with change in weight (women, P?=?0.17; men, P?=?0.72), and baseline body mass index (BMI) was not associated with change in TSH (women, P?=?0.21; men, P?=?0.85). Change in serum TSH and change in weight were significantly associated in both sexes. Weight increased by 0.3 kg (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.1, 0.4, P?=?0.005) in women and 0.8 kg (95% CI 0.1, 1.4, P?=?0.02) in men for every one unit TSH (mU/L) increase. Conclusions TSH levels were not a determinant of future weight changes, and BMI was not a determinant for TSH changes, but an association between weight change and TSH change was present.
Bjergved, Lena; J?rgensen, Torben; Perrild, Hans; Laurberg, Peter; Krejbjerg, Anne; Ovesen, Lars; Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Knudsen, Nils
Deficits in dopamine D2/D3 receptor (D2R/D3R) binding availability using PET imaging have been reported in obese humans and rodents. Similar deficits have been reported in cocaine-addicts and cocaine-exposed primates. We found that D2R/D3R binding availability negatively correlated with measures of body weight at the time of scan (ventral striatum), at 1 (ventral striatum) and 2 months (dorsal and ventral striatum) post scan in rats. Cocaine preference was negatively correlated with D2R/D3R binding availability 2 months (ventral striatum) post scan. Our findings suggest that inherent deficits in striatal D2R/D3R signaling are related to obesity and drug addiction susceptibility and that ventral and dorsal striatum serve dissociable roles in maintaining weight gain and cocaine preference. Measuring D2R/D3R binding availability provides a way for assessing susceptibility to weight gain and cocaine abuse in rodents and given the translational nature of PET imaging, potentially primates and humans.
Michaelides M.; Wang G.; Michaelides M.; Thanos P.K. Kim R.; Cho J.; Ananth M.; Wang G.-J.; Volkow N.D.
Background. Massage therapy (MT) and kangaroo mother care (KMC) are both effective in increasing the weight and reducing length of hospital stay in low birth weight preterm infants but they have not been compared. Aim. Comparison of effectiveness of MT and KMC on body weight and length of hospital stay in low birth weight preterm (LBWPT) infants. Method. 30 LBWPT infants using convenience sampling from Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, V.S. hospital, were randomly divided into 2 equal groups. Group 1 received MT and Group 2 received KMC for 15 minutes, thrice daily for 5 days. Medically stable babies with gestational age < 37 weeks and birth weight < 2500?g were included. Those on ventilators and with congenital, orthopedic, or genetic abnormality were excluded. Outcome measures, body weight and length of hospital stay, were taken before intervention day 1 and after intervention day 5. Level of significance was 5%. Result. Data was analyzed using SPSS16. Both MT and KMC were found to be effective in improving body weight (P = 0.001, P = 0.001). Both were found to be equally effective for improving body weight (P = 0.328) and reducing length of hospital stay (P = 0.868). Conclusion. MT and KMC were found to be equally effective in improving body weight and reducing length of hospital stay. Limitation. Long term follow-up was not taken. PMID:24976830
Rangey, Priya Singh; Sheth, Megha
Background. Massage therapy (MT) and kangaroo mother care (KMC) are both effective in increasing the weight and reducing length of hospital stay in low birth weight preterm infants but they have not been compared. Aim. Comparison of effectiveness of MT and KMC on body weight and length of hospital stay in low birth weight preterm (LBWPT) infants. Method. 30 LBWPT infants using convenience sampling from Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, V.S. hospital, were randomly divided into 2 equal groups. Group 1 received MT and Group 2 received KMC for 15 minutes, thrice daily for 5 days. Medically stable babies with gestational age < 37 weeks and birth weight < 2500?g were included. Those on ventilators and with congenital, orthopedic, or genetic abnormality were excluded. Outcome measures, body weight and length of hospital stay, were taken before intervention day 1 and after intervention day 5. Level of significance was 5%. Result. Data was analyzed using SPSS16. Both MT and KMC were found to be effective in improving body weight (P = 0.001, P = 0.001). Both were found to be equally effective for improving body weight (P = 0.328) and reducing length of hospital stay (P = 0.868). Conclusion. MT and KMC were found to be equally effective in improving body weight and reducing length of hospital stay. Limitation. Long term follow-up was not taken.
Rangey, Priya Singh
Both national and international bodies recommend an increased intake of fruits and vegetables in order to decrease the risk of overweight and obesity. However, there is a rationale to investigate the separate role of fruits. The aim of this paper was to systematically review and analyse published human intervention, prospective observational and cross-sectional studies on fruit intake and body weight in adults. We identified three intervention, eight prospective observational and five cross-sectional studies that explored this relationship. Two of the intervention studies showed that fruit intake reduced body weight, five of the prospective observational studies showed that fruit consumption reduced the risk of developing overweight and obesity, and four of the cross-sectional studies found an inverse association between fruit intake and body weight. Important methodological differences and limitations in the studies make it difficult to compare results. However, the majority of the evidence points towards a possible inverse association between fruit intake and overweight. Future intervention and prospective observational studies examining the direct and independent role of fruit in body-weight management in free-living individuals are needed. Moreover, important determinants such as energy density, energy content, fruit and vegetable consumption, physical form of fruit and preparation methods need to be included in future studies. PMID:19413705
Alinia, S; Hels, O; Tetens, I
Five commercial botanical products (Shilianhua [SLH] tablets, Shiu Huo pills, Fenulyn, Bitter Melon, and Glucose Metabolic Support), available in the US market, with reported claims for regulation of metabolism were screened for their effect on body weight gain in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Pilot results suggested that SLH tablets attenuated body weight gain, whereas Shiu Huo pills and Fenulyn tended to promote weight gain in the mice on the high-fat diet. To investigate the bioactive components in the SLH tablet, the wild SLH plant (Sinocrassula indica Berge) was collected from China and used to make a variety of extracts including aqueous extract, ethanol extract (SLH-E), and subfraction F100. In the study of metabolic activities, the extracts were administrated through food intake by incorporating them into the diet. A rigorous evaluation of the extracts on body weight was conducted in 2 animal models. The aqueous extract and SLH-E were tested in dietary obese mice, while F100 together with SLH-E was tested in KK-Ay mice, a genetic diabetic model. In the 12- to 16-week study, body weight was not significantly altered by the SLH extracts in the 2 animal models. The results suggest that neither the total extract nor the purified components from the SLH plant have a clear effect in the regulation of body weight. The weight reduction observed with the over-the-counter SLH tablet in the pilot studies may be secondary to other components in the tablet, but not from the SLH extract. PMID:18555854
Yin, Jun; Zuberi, Aamir; Gao, Zhanguo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Zhijun; Cefalu, William T; Ye, Jianping
Objective:The objective of this study was to determine the effects of disodium ascorbyl phytostanyl phosphate (DAPP), a novel hydrophilic phytostanol analogue, on energy homeostasis, including body weight and intestinal energy absorption, and plasma triglyceride concentrations, in hamsters.Methods:Male Golden Syrian hamsters (n=50) were fed for 5 weeks with experimental diets varying in cholesterol and phytostanol content. Diets included (i) non-cholesterol (semipurified
N Ebine; I Demonty; X Jia; P J H Jones; PJH Jones
Quantification of disease burden by deaths or years lived with disability is a useful indicator as it informs prevention by accounting for health loss but it does not reflect the needs for health services. An alternative indicator is to quantify the impact of a risk factor on health care utilization. In an article published in BMC Medicine, Reeves and colleagues describe the relationship between body mass index in 1.2 million women (England) and hospital admission rates. The main finding was that around one in eight hospital admissions was attributable to overweight or obesity, translating to around 420,000 extra hospital admissions, and two million extra days spent in hospital, annually. These findings reinforce the evidence that excess body weight is associated with extensive healthcare utilization and emphasize the need to scale-up and speed-up research if global problems, such as obesity, are to be tackled with due alacrity.Please see related research: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/12/45. PMID:24742301
Renehan, Andrew G; Buchan, Iain E
Quantification of disease burden by deaths or years lived with disability is a useful indicator as it informs prevention by accounting for health loss but it does not reflect the needs for health services. An alternative indicator is to quantify the impact of a risk factor on health care utilization. In an article published in BMC Medicine, Reeves and colleagues describe the relationship between body mass index in 1.2 million women (England) and hospital admission rates. The main finding was that around one in eight hospital admissions was attributable to overweight or obesity, translating to around 420,000 extra hospital admissions, and two million extra days spent in hospital, annually. These findings reinforce the evidence that excess body weight is associated with extensive healthcare utilization and emphasize the need to scale-up and speed-up research if global problems, such as obesity, are to be tackled with due alacrity. Please see related research: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/12/45.
This study examined whether guar gum (Guar) and\\/or conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) modifies the long-term effect of hydroxycitrate (HCA) on food intake and body weight regain as well as on different blood and liver variables after substantial body weight loss. A total of 63 rats were fed restrictively for 10 days, then divided into seven groups and switched to ad
Monika Leonhardt; Sabine Münch; Margriet Westerterp-Plantenga; Wolfgang Langhans
Introduction Infants with low body weight (LBW) following cardiac surgery are a major challenge for the post cardiac surgery care unit. It has been observed that post surgery outcome for LBW infants is worse compared to the outcome of normal body weight infants. A study was conducted to compare post operative course and outcome of infants with body weight of 2.2 kg or less against infants with normal body weight who underwent similar cardiac surgeries. Methods A retrospective review was performed for all infants below 2.2 kg who underwent cardiac operations at King Abdulaziz Cardiac Center from January 2001 to October 2011. Cases with LBW (Group A) were compared with matching group (Group B) of normal body weight infants who had similar cardiac surgeries and matching surgical risk category. The demographic, ICU parameters, complications, and short-term outcome of both groups were analyzed. Results Two groups were formed, with 37 patients in Group A, and 39 patients in Group B. Except for weight (2.13 ± 0.08 kg in Group A vs 3.17 ± 0.2 kg in Group B), there was no statistical difference in demographic data between both groups. Cardiac procedures included coarctation repair, arterial switch, ventricular septal defect (VSD) repair, tetralogy of Fallot repair, systemic to pulmonary shunt and Norwood procedures. Patients in Group A had statistically significant difference from Group B in terms of bypass time (p = 0.01), duration of inotropes (p = 0.01), duration of mechanical ventilation (p = 0.004), number of re-intubations (p = 0.015), PCICU length of stay (p = 0.007), and hospital mortality: 13.5% in Group A vs 0% in Group B (p value 0.02). Conclusion Patients with LBW (<2.2 kg) underwent cardiac surgery with overall satisfactory results, but with increased risk of ICU morbidity and mortality.
Mehmood, Akhter; Ismail, Sameh R.; Kabbani, Mohamed S.; Abu-Sulaiman, Riyadh M.; Najm, Hani K.
Cyclosporine A (CsA) is a commonly prescribed and effective therapy for canine atopic dermatitis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential relationship between patient body weight and CsA dosing. Seventy-seven cases of canine atopic dermatitis managed between 2000 and 2011 were evaluated retrospectively. Duration of CsA therapy was at least 16 wk. Groups analyzed included the study population as a whole, those treated with only CsA, and those treated with both CsA and metoclopramide. The division between small and large dogs was set at 15 kg. Descriptive analysis, two-way analysis of variance, Pearson correlations, and a Student t test were used to analyze data. There were no significant differences between CsA dose and body weight regardless of method of analysis. Concurrent corticosteroid use, other medication use, and pruritus score were also analyzed over the study period. There was a significant decrease in CsA dose, corticosteroid dose, medication score, and pruritus score between the time points for all patients, but no significant relationship between those changes and body weight. These study findings suggest that differential CsA dosing is not warranted based on body weight. PMID:24659725
Cohen, Loren; Zabel, Sonja; Rosychuk, Rod A W
Measurements of body weight (BW), body condi- tion score, wither height, calf birth weight, and calf sex were recorded by parity from 728 Holstein cows and heifers at the Purina Research Center during the 8-wk prepartum period. Data were compiled over 5 yr. Mean daily BW gain was 0.93 kg. Loss of BW at parturition was 11.1%. Mean body condition
A. F. Kertz; L. F. Reutzel; B. A. Barton; R. L. Ely
Reference ranges for clinical biochemical parameters commonly investigated in pigs were determined in one- (day 1), 21- and 35-day old piglets. The mean and standard deviation were also estimated for body weight, and haematological and clinical biochemical parameters at these ages. The piglets were divided into 2 investigation groups according to whether they had a haemoglobin concentration < or = 80 g/l ("anaemic group") or > 80 g/l ("normal group") on days 14, 21 and 28. The "anaemic group" was compared to the "normal group" on days 21 and 35. Many of the clinical biochemical parameters varied according to age. Some of the enzymes had high average values and wide reference ranges in piglets, especially on day 1, compared to the reference ranges for sows given in the literature. The reference ranges for some of the metabolic parameters were broader on day 1 than later in the preweaning period. The reference ranges for albumin, total iron-binding capacity and serum iron were, however, lower and more narrow on day 1. On days 21 and 35, relatively high values for phosphorus must be considered "normal" compared to the figures given in the literature for adult pigs. The other minerals seemed to be quite unaffected of age, but some were affected by anaemia. The anaemic piglets had lower average serum iron but higher total iron-binding capacity than the "normal" piglets on days 21 and 35. However, variation between piglets gave wide reference ranges, indicating that these parameters will only have limited usefulness in detecting iron deficiency anaemia in piglets. The electrolytes seemed also to be affected by the existence of anaemia. The body weight and leukocyte counts were significantly lower in the "anaemic group" than the "normal group" on day 35, while the greatest differences in clinical biochemical parameters between the groups were found on day 21, when the piglets in the "anaemic group" were most severely anaemic. Although these piglets suffered from severe iron-deficiency anaemia, only a few clinical biochemical parameters were affected, and the differences between groups were mostly small. PMID:9787501
Egeli, A K; Framstad, T; Morberg, H
Placental growth is a strong predictor of fetal growth, but little is known about maternal predictors of placental growth in malnourished populations. Our objective was to investigate in a prospective study the associations of maternal weight and body composition [total body water (TBW) estimated by bioelectrical impedance and fat and fat-free mass derived from upper arm fat and muscle areas (UAFA, UAMA)] and changes in these with placental and birth weights. Within a cluster-randomized trial of maternal micronutrient supplementation, a subsample of 350 women was measured 3 times across gestation. Longitudinal analysis was used to examine independent associations of ?10-wk measurements and ?10–20 wk and ?20–32 wk changes with birth outcomes. Weight, TBW, and UAMA, but not UAFA, at ?10 wk were each positively and independently associated with placental weight and birth weight (P < 0.05). Of the maternal ?10–20 wk changes in measurements, only TBW change and placental weight, and maternal weight and birth weight were positively associated (P < 0.05). Gains in weight, TBW, and UAMA from 20 to 32 wk were positively and UAFA gain was negatively associated with placental weight (P ? 0.01). Gains in weight and UAMA from 20 to 32 wk were positively associated with birth weight (P ? 0.01). Overall, higher maternal weight and measures of fat-free mass at ?10 wk gestation and gains from 20 to 32 wk are independently associated with higher placental and birth weight.
Gernand, Alison D.; Christian, Parul; Paul, Rina Rani; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Labrique, Alain B.; Schulze, Kerry J.; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; West, Keith P.
A critical period for weight gain may occur during the transition from high school to university. This descriptive, noncontrolled cohort study of 116 healthy females examined the effect of this transition over three study visits in first year university. The main outcome measure was body weight; others were height, body composition, waist circumference, dietary intake, and participation in physical and
Melinda J. Edmonds; Kelly J. Ferreira; Erica A. Nikiforuk; Alida K. Finnie; Sarah H. Leavey; Alison M. Duncan; Janis A. Randall Simpson
BackgroundSuccessful reduction of body weight (BW) is often followed by recidivism to obesity. BW-changes including BW-loss and -regain is associated with marked alterations in energy expenditure (EE) and adipose tissue (AT) metabolism. Since these processes are sex-specifically controlled, we investigated sexual dimorphisms in metabolic processes during BW-dynamics (gain-loss-regain).Research DesignObesity was induced in C57BL\\/6J male (m) and female (f) mice by
Verena Benz; Mandy Bloch; Sami Wardat; Christian Böhm; Lukas Maurer; Shokoufeh Mahmoodzadeh; Petra Wiedmer; Joachim Spranger; Anna Foryst-Ludwig; Ulrich Kintscher
We investigated the relationship between being bullied and measured body weight and perceived body weight among adolescents of a middle-income sub Saharan African country. Our data originated from the Global School-based Health Survey, which targets adolescents aged 13–15 years. Student weights and heights were measured before administrating the questionnaire which included questions about personal data, health behaviors and being bullied. Standard criteria were used to assess thinness, overweight and obesity. Among 1,006 participants who had complete data, 16.5% (95%CI 13.3–20.2) reported being bullied ?3 days during the past 30 days; 13.4% were thin, 16.8% were overweight and 7.6% were obese. Categories of actual weight and of perceived weight correlated only moderately (Spearman correlation coefficient 0.37 for boys and 0.57 for girls; p < 0.001). In univariate analysis, both actual obesity (OR 1.76; p = 0.051) and perception of high weight (OR 1.63 for “slightly overweight”; OR 2.74 for “very overweight”, both p < 0.05) were associated with being bullied. In multivariate analysis, ORs for categories of perceived overweight were virtually unchanged while ORs for actual overweight and obesity were substantially attenuated, suggesting a substantial role of perceived weight in the association with being bullied. Actual underweight and perceived thinness also tended to be associated with being bullied, although not significantly. Our findings suggest that more research attention be given to disentangling the significant association between body image, overweight and bullying among adolescents. Further studies in diverse populations are warranted.
Wilson, Michael L.; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Rousson, Valentin; Bovet, Pascal
An experiment is conducted to determine whether the NASA Space Shuttle food system can provide the food and fluid required to mitigate weight loss and physical decomposition in 12 female subjects for 28 days. Subjects receive only foods from the Space Shuttle system for four weeks within an 11-wk monitoring period. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is employed throughout the trial period to study lean body mass, percent body fat, and energy-intake levels with attention given to differences the experimental diet and the subjects' typical diet. Percent body fat is found to change significantly with losses of less than 0.05 percent, whereas energy intake based on autonomous diet choices by the participants does not vary significantly. Lean body mass remains unchanged throughout the study in which the subjects receive a relatively low-fat and low-protein menu. The 100 items on the space shuttle list of approved food items are shown to provide a palatable dietary framework for maintaining the health of female astronauts.
Lane, Helen W.; Frye, Sherrie; Kloeris, Vickie; Rice, Barbara; Siconolfi, Steven F.; Spector, Elisabeth; Gretebeck, Randall J.
Circulating leptin concentrations correlate with fat mass and signal the status of somatic energy stores to the brain. Previous studies suggest that diet-induced elevations of body weight increase body weight “set-point”. To assess whether chronic hyperleptinemia is responsible for this shift in defended body weight, we elevated circulating leptin concentrations in lean mice to those comparable to diet-induced obese mice for eighteen weeks. We hypothesized that following cessation of leptin infusion, a higher body weight would be defended. Compared to saline-infused controls, leptin-infused mice had elevated circulating leptin concentrations, gained less weight, yet had similar metabolic rates. Following cessation of leptin administration, leptin-infused mice gained some weight yet plateaued at 5–10% below controls. These results suggest that, unlike mice rendered hyperleptinemic by diet-induced weight gain, leptin-infused mice do not subsequently “defend” a higher body weight, suggesting that hyperleptinemia per se does not mimic the CNS consequences of chronic weight gain.
Ravussin, Y.; LeDuc, C.A.; Watanabe, K.; Mueller, B.R.; Skowronski, A.; Rosenbaum, M.; Leibel, R.L.
Height and weight at menarche were found for each subject in three longitudinal growth studies. Early and late maturing girls have menarche at the same mean weight, but late maturers are taller at menarche. Two other major events of adolescence, initiation of the weight growth spurt and maximum rate of weight gain, also occur at an invariant mean weight. The
Rose E. Frisch; Roger Revelle
Direct and maternal genetic heritabilities and their correlations with body weight at 5 stages in the life span of purebred Berkshire pigs, from birth to harvest, were estimated to scrutinize body weight development with the records for 5,088 purebred Berkshire pigs in a Korean farm, using the REML based on an animal model. Body weights were measured at birth (Birth), at weaning (Weaning: mean 22.9 d), at the beginning of a performance test (On: mean 72.7 d), at the end of a performance test (Off: mean 152.4 d), and at harvest (Finish: mean 174.3 d). Ordinary polynomials and Legendre with order 1, 2, and 3 were adopted to adjust body weight with age in the multivariate animal models. Legendre with order 3 fitted best concerning prediction error deviation (PED) and yielded the lowest AIC for multivariate analysis of longitudinal body weights. Direct genetic correlations between body weight at Birth and body weight at Weaning, On, Off, and Finish were 0.48, 0.36, 0.10, and 0.10, respectively. The estimated maternal genetic correlations of body weight at Finish with body weight at Birth, Weaning, On, and Off were 0.39, 0.49, 0.65, and 0.90, respectively. Direct genetic heritabilities progressively increased from birth to harvest and were 0.09, 0.11, 0.20, 0.31, and 0.43 for body weight at Birth, Weaning, On, Off, and Finish, respectively. Maternal genetic heritabilities generally decreased and were 0.26, 0.34, 0.15, 0.10, and 0.10 for body weight at Birth, Weaning, On, Off, and Finish, respectively. As pigs age, maternal genetic effects on growth are reduced and pigs begin to rely more on the expression of their own genes. Although maternal genetic effects on body weight may not be large, they are sustained through life.
Lee, Dong-Hee; Do, Chang-Hee
This study was conducted to compare body shape satisfaction, body image perception, weight control status, and dietary habits of Korean and Chinese female high school students in order to provide information for proper body image perception of adolescents. 221 students in Yongin, a city in Korea, and 227 students in Weihai, a city in China, were surveyed using questionnaires. Body shape satisfaction was significantly higher in Chinese students (P < 0.001) compared to Korean students. 76.2% of Korean students and 72.7% of Chinese students wanted a thinner body shape than their present body shapes. Experiences of weight control, laxative or diuretics uses, eating during weight control, and vomiting after eating were significantly higher in Korean students (P < 0.05-P < 0.001) compared to Chinese students. The score for dietary habits was significantly higher in Chinese students (P < 0.001) compared to Korean students, suggesting a more desirable dietary habit among Chinese students. Students of both countries showed a significantly positive correlation between body shape satisfaction and dietary habits, suggesting that as body shape satisfaction increases, dietary habits become more desirable. In conclusion, Korean female students showed a more distorted body image perception and had more poor dietary habits than Chinese students. Nutritional education for the establishment of normal body weight, proper body image perception, and healthy dietary habits are needed.
Male Siberian hamsters undergo physiological weight change in changing photoperiod. Weight loss was induced by food restriction in long days to mimic short-day weight loss, or by food restriction superimposed on short-day weight loss, to test the hypothesis that the hypothalamus differentiates between weight change induced by imposed negative energy balance (inappropriate body weight) and seasonal, appropriate, body weight change,
JULIAN G. MERCER; KIM M. MOAR; TRACY J. LOGIE; PATRICIA A. FINDLAY; CLARE L. ADAM; PETER J. MORGAN
Background:Obesity treatment with single drugs produces weight losses of about 8–10% of initial body weight. Few studies of combinations of drugs for treating obesity have been published. The combination of phentermine, an adrenergic agent, and fenfluramine, a serotonergic agent, (phen–fen) produced weight losses of about 15% of initial body weight. Fenfluramine is no longer available because it was associated with
L D Whigham; N V Dhurandhar; P S Rahko; R L Atkinson
Background Successful weight maintenance following weight loss is challenging for many people. Identifying predictors of longer-term success will help target clinical resources more effectively. To date, focus has been predominantly on the identification of predictors of weight loss. The goal of the current study was to determine if changes in anthropometric and clinical parameters during acute weight loss are associated with subsequent weight regain. Methodology The study consisted of an 8-week low calorie diet (LCD) followed by a 6-month weight maintenance phase. Anthropometric and clinical parameters were analyzed before and after the LCD in the 285 participants (112 men, 173 women) who regained weight during the weight maintenance phase. Mixed model ANOVA, Spearman correlation, and linear regression were used to study the relationships between clinical measurements and weight regain. Principal Findings Gender differences were observed for body weight and several clinical parameters at both baseline and during the LCD-induced weight loss phase. LCD-induced changes in BMI (Spearman’s ??=?0.22, p?=?0.0002) were inversely associated with weight regain in both men and women. LCD-induced changes in fasting insulin (??=?0.18, p?=?0.0043) and HOMA-IR (??=?0.19, p?=?0.0023) were also associated independently with weight regain in both genders. The aforementioned associations remained statistically significant in regression models taking account of variables known to independently influence body weight. Conclusions/Significance LCD-induced changes in BMI, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR are inversely associated with weight regain in the 6-month period following weight loss.
Wong, Monica H. T.; Holst, Claus; Astrup, Arne; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Jebb, Susan A.; Kafatos, Anthony; Kunesova, Marie; Larsen, Thomas M.; Martinez, J. Alfredo; Pfeiffer, Andreas F. H.; van Baak, Marleen A.; Saris, Wim H. M.; McNicholas, Paul D.; Mutch, David M.; DiOGenes, on behalf of
Set-point of body weight was assessed by the behavioral method of the weight threshold to hoard food. Intra-peritoneal injection of nicotine (0.02-0.05 mg/kg) significantly lowered the rats' body weight set-point by 8.5+/-2.7 and 19.2+/-2.6 g (p< or =0.05). These results suggest that the administration of low-dose nicotine lowers the body-weight set-point and may be important in predicting the anticipated gain in weight frequently reported upon withdrawal. PMID:12880615
Frankham, Patrick; Cabanac, Michel
Examined parents' awareness of their daughters' attitudes, beliefs, and feelings about their bodies. Sixty-six adolescent daughters completed an eating disorder scale, a body figure rating scale, and made ratings of their shape and weight. Greater discrepancies between parents' estimates of daughters' body esteem and daughters' self-reported body…
Geller, Josie; Srikameswaran, Suja; Zaitsoff, Shannon L.; Cockell, Sarah J.; Poole, Gary D.
Forty female and ten male pigs were used to study the effect of carbadox on reproductive performance when included in the diet at a level of 55 mg/kg from one week of age through approximately 60 kg body weight. Five replicates, each consisting of eight females and a pair of littermate boars, all crossfostered, were used. One boar reared on medicated feed and another on an unmedicated diet, were bred to two groups of four littermates. One female in each pair had been fed the medicated diet, and the other the unmedicated diet. The same breeding scheme was carried out for two parities. The following observations were made: length of estrous cycle, weaning-to-estrus interval; conception rate; age and weight at first estrus, at breeding, at 109 days of gestation, at farrowing and after farrowing; gestation length; and litter size and weights at birth and 28 days. The results showed that carbadox had no apparent effect on reproductive performance.
Groves, B.I.; Flipot, P.M.; Hartsock, T.G.; Vlielander, L.C.
There is evidence for the idea that there is biological (active) control of body weight at a given set point. Body weight is the product of genetic effects (DNA), epigenetic effects (heritable traits that do not involve changes in DNA), and the environment. Regulation of body weight is asymmetric, being more effective in response to weight loss than to weight gain. However, regulation may be lost or camouflaged by Western diets, suggesting that the failure of biological control is due mainly to external factors. In this situation, the body’s ‘set point’ (i.e., a constant ‘body-inherent’ weight regulated by a proportional feedback control system) is replaced by various ‘settling points’ that are influenced by energy and macronutrient intake in order for the body to achieve a zero energy balance. In a world of abundance, a prudent lifestyle and thus cognitive control are preconditions of effective biological control and a stable body weight. This idea also impacts future genetic research on body weight regulation. Searching for the genetic background of excess weight gain in a world of abundance is misleading since the possible biological control is widely overshadowed by the effect of the environment. In regard to clinical practice, dietary approaches to both weight loss and weight gain have to be reconsidered. In underweight patients (e.g., patients with anorexia nervosa), weight gain is supported by biological mechanisms that may or may not be suppressed by hyperalimentation. To overcome weight loss-induced counter-regulation in the overweight, biological signals have to be taken into account. Computational modeling of weight changes based on metabolic flux and its regulation will provide future strategies for clinical nutrition.
Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Heymsfield, Steven B
Aim To assess the association between weight gain at different time periods during childhood and measures of adiposity in late adolescence. Methods A population-based birth cohort carried out in Pelotas, a 320 000-inhabitant city in a relatively developed area in Southern Brazil. All newborns in the city's hospitals were enrolled in 1982. Weight gain from 0–1, 1–2, 2–4 and 4–15 years were expressed as changes in weight-for-age Z-scores relative to the NCHS/WHO reference. In 2000, 79% (2250) of all males were located when enrolling at the national Army. Weight and height were assessed. Body composition indicators (fat mass/height2, lean mass/height2, fat mass/lean mass2.3) were estimated through bioimpedance. Analyses were adjusted for maternal and social factors, as well as for gestational age. Results In the adjusted analyses, birthweight and weight gain in the first year of life were positively associated with attained height at age 18 years. Except for the fat mass/lean mass2.3 ratio, all weight-related outcomes were positively associated with weight gain in different periods of life. Children who gained weight rapidly in more than one time period became fatter at age 18 years, independently of when fast growth took place. Conclusions Height was primarily determined by fetal and infant growth. Weight-related indices, including the fat/lean mass ratio, were more strongly influenced by later growth. No clear critical windows of growth during which absolute tissue masses are programmed could be identified.
Victora, Cesar G; Sibbritt, David; Horta, Bernardo L; Lima, Rosangela C; ScD, Tim Cole; Wells, Jonathan
High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) accounts for as much as 40% of caloric sweeteners used in the United States. Some studies have shown that short-term access to HFCS can cause increased body weight, but the findings are mixed. The current study examined both short- and long-term effects of HFCS on body weight, body fat, and circulating triglycerides. In Experiment 1, male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained for short term (8 wks) on (1) 12-h/day of 8% HFCS, (2) 12-h/day 10% sucrose, (3) 24-h/day HFCS, all with ad libitum rodent chow, or (4) ad libitum chow alone. Rats with 12-h access to HFCS gained significantly more body weight than animals given equal access to 10% sucrose, even though they consumed the same number of total calories but fewer calories from HFCS than sucrose. In Experiment 2, the long-term effects of HFCS on body weight and obesogenic parameters, as well as gender differences, were explored. Over the course of 6 or 7 months, both male and female rats with access to HFCS gained significantly more body weight than control groups. This increase in body weight with HFCS was accompanied by an increase in adipose fat, notably in the abdominal region, and elevated circulating triglyceride levels. Translated to humans, these results suggest that excessive consumption of HFCS may contribute to the incidence of obesity.
Bocarsly, Miriam E.; Powell, Elyse S.; Avena, Nicole M.; Hoebel, Bartley G.
Over the past three decades, the potential effects of lifestyle interventions targeting changes in body weight and composition (weight, body mass index, fat mass, waist circumference) among adults with an intellectual disability (ID) have been examined in various systematic reviews. Nevertheless, since the middle of the 1980s, the potential effects of these interventions for youth with an ID remain an open question. The purpose of this article is to review the effects of lifestyle interventions targeting changes in body weight and composition among youth with an ID. This review will focus on changes in body weight and composition, healthy lifestyle, and secondary health conditions. A systematic review of English- and French-language studies, published between 1981 and 2013, was performed on Academic Search Complete, PsycARTICLES, Medline and Scopus. The nine studies included in this review focused mainly on: a sample with a wide age range (e.g., 7-22 years); males; overweight-obese youth having a mild-to-moderate ID with Down or Prader-Willi syndrome; physical activity interventions; cohort pre- and post-test designs with/without a control group; and changes in body weight and composition. Taken together, results from these studies suggest successful changes in weight, body mass index and fat mass. However, intervention effects on healthy lifestyle and secondary health conditions are scarce and inconclusive. Given the weaknesses of the reviewed studies, the present findings should be considered preliminary and indicative of the need for future research. PMID:24830882
Maïano, Christophe; Normand, Claude L; Aimé, Annie; Bégarie, Jérôme
BackgroundArthritis is the leading cause of disability in the United States. Obesity is a risk factor for arthritis, but the relationship between arthritis and weight has not been well characterized at the population level in the United States. Previous research shows that physicians often fail to advise their obese patients to lose weight.
Chetna Mehrotra; Timothy S Naimi; Mary Serdula; Julie Bolen; Karl Pearson
This study explored rhythmic gymnasts’ perceptions of the influence of their retirement transition on body satisfaction and weight control behaviors. Eight retired elite female rhythmic gymnasts participated in semi-structured interviews. Findings were interpreted to suggest that these retired gymnasts experienced an increase in body dissatisfaction upon retirement and that they felt guilty about their weight gain, loss of muscle mass
Ashley E. Stirling; Lisanne C. Cruz; Gretchen A. Kerr
Objective: To examine diet, physical activity, and body-weight changes associated with relocation from home to university. Methods: Diet, fitness/physical activity, body-weight parameters and self-efficacy were assessed among 54 freshman women upon college entry and 5 months later. Results: Although caloric intake significantly decreased, a…
Butler, Scott M.; Black, David R.; Blue, Carolyn L.; Gretebeck, Randall J.
Body weight maintenance is required in a variety of behavioral and physiological studies. C-based animal weighing system is described which features automated data collection and allows for accurate control of body weight in test animals via manipulation of food intake. ajor syst...
PurposeAlpha-lipoic acid is an essential cofactor for mitochondrial respiratory enzymes that improves mitochondrial function. We previously reported that alpha-lipoic acid markedly reduced body weight gain in rodents. The purpose of this study was to determine whether alpha-lipoic acid reduces body weight in obese human subjects.
Eun Hee Koh; Woo Je Lee; Sang Ah Lee; Eun Hee Kim; Eun Hee Cho; Eunheui Jeong; Dong Woo Kim; Min-Seon Kim; Joong-Yeol Park; Keun-Gyu Park; Hyo-Jung Lee; In-Kyu Lee; Soo Lim; Hak Chul Jang; Ki Hoon Lee; Ki-Up Lee
Nicotine administration and cessation have greater effects on body weight and eating behavior in female than in male rats. These generalizations are based on studies of body weight and eating behavior for 2–3 week periods before, during, and after nicotine administration. Therefore, the sex differences may reflect differences in sensitivity to nicotine or simply differences in the time course of
N. E. Grunberg; S. E. Winders; K. A. Popp
2 Abstract: An experiment was conducted to detect the relationship between some serum enzyme activities, i.e. lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) enzymes and liver functions, as well as evaluating the difference in some physiological parameters in relation to body weight in six body weight lines of Golden Montazah (GM) chickens. A total of 288 GM chickens 4-wk old
S. F. Hassaan; S. A. Abdel-Fattah; A. E. Elsalmoney; M. S. H. Hassan
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a major non-psychotropic constituent of Cannabis sativa, with well recognized therapeutic potential. Considering the importance of the endogenous cannabinoid system to the regulation of food intake and energy balance we studied the effects of repeated CBD administration on body weight gains in rats. Male Wistar rats (260 ± 20 g at start of study) received intraperitoneal injections of CBD at doses of 2.5 and 5mg/kg/day for 14 consecutive days and body weight gains were monitored. Both doses of CBD produced significant decrease in body weight gain, with the effect produced by 5mg/kg being more pronounced. The CB2 receptor selective antagonist, AM630, blocked the decrease in body weight gain. AM630 alone did not affect body weight gain. The results suggest that CBD has the ability to alter body weight gain, possibly via the CB2 receptor. CB2 receptors may play a role in the regulation of body weight and the effects of CB2 specific ligands should be further investigated in studies of body weight regulation. PMID:21172406
Ignatowska-Jankowska, Bogna; Jankowski, Maciej M; Swiergiel, Artur H
Comparison of self-reported and measured weights in a working population of 2046 men and 2393 women revealed systematic underreporting of 1.3% in men and l.7% in women. Underreporting was significantly related to weight, height, and current participation in a weight reduction program in both men and women. In men only, it was also related to age, education, history of weight-control
Robert W. Jeffery
Nutritional or pharmacological perturbations during perinatal growth can cause persistent effects on the function of white adipose tissue, altering susceptibility to obesity later in life. Previous studies have established that saccharin, a nonnutritive sweetener, inhibits lipolysis in mature adipocytes and stimulates adipogenesis. Thus, the current study tested whether neonatal exposure to saccharin via maternal lactation increased susceptibility of mice to diet-induced obesity. Saccharin decreased body weight of female mice beginning postnatal week 3. Decreased liver weights on week 14 corroborated this diminished body weight. Initially, saccharin also reduced male mouse body weight. By week 5, weights transiently rebounded above controls, and by week 14, male body weights did not differ. Body composition analysis revealed that saccharin increased lean and decreased fat mass of male mice, the latter due to decreased adipocyte size and epididymal, perirenal, and sc adipose weights. A mild improvement in glucose tolerance without a change in insulin sensitivity or secretion aligned with this leaner phenotype. Interestingly, microcomputed tomography analysis indicated that saccharin also increased cortical and trabecular bone mass of male mice and modified cortical bone alone in female mice. A modest increase in circulating testosterone may contribute to the leaner phenotype in male mice. Accordingly, the current study established a developmental period in which saccharin at high concentrations reduces adiposity and increases lean and bone mass in male mice while decreasing generalized growth in female mice. PMID:24456165
Parlee, Sebastian D; Simon, Becky R; Scheller, Erica L; Alejandro, Emilyn U; Learman, Brian S; Krishnan, Venkatesh; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto; MacDougald, Ormond A
While sedentary leisure-time activities such as reading, going to movies, attending cultural events, attending sporting events, watching TV, listening to music, and socializing with friends would seem to contribute to excess weight, a perspective focusing on SES differences in cultural tastes suggests the opposite, that some sedentary activities are associated with lower rather than higher body weight. This study aims to test theories of cultural distinction by examining relationships between leisure-time activities and body weight. Using 2007 data on 17 nations from the International Social Survey Program, the analysis estimates relationships between the body mass index and varied leisure-time activities while controlling for SES, physical activities, and sociodemographic variables. Net of controls for SES and physical activities, participation time in cultural activities is associated with lower rather than higher body weight, particularly in high-income nations. The results suggest that both cultural activities and body weight reflect forms of distinction that separate SES-based lifestyles.
Pampel, Fred C.
Lexus LFA's CFRP body structure has been developed from the ground level within Toyota. The development team has spent countless hours on technical discussions, especially as most of the member were not experienced at all in CFRP material and manufacturin...
Purpose: To examine the relationship between body mass index (BMI), body weight perception (BWP), and indicators of internalizing and externalizing distress and social, attention and thought problems in a large representative sample of Dutch youth. Methods: A total of 1826 pupils in the eighth grade of primary education and 5730 students in the first four years of secondary education gave
Bogt ter T. F. M; K. Monshouwer; J. E. E. Verdurmen; R. C. M. E. Engels; W. A. M. Vollebergh
BackgroundAn upper limit of 130% predicted ideal body weight (PIBW) has been promulgated for assessing lung transplant (LTx) candidacy, but no data in the lung transplant population support this value. A prior study used body mass index (BMI) to suggest greater mortality risk in obese allograft recipients, but the number of studied patients was small.
Daniel A. Culver; Peter J. Mazzone; Farah Khandwala; Holli C. Blazey; Malcolm M. DeCamp; Jeffrey T. Chapman
Background: An upper limit of 130% predicted ideal body weight (PIBW) has been promulgated for assessing lung transplant (LTx) candidacy, but no data in the lung transplant population support this value. A prior study used body mass index (BMI) to suggest greater mortality risk in obese allograft recipients, but the number of studied patients was small. Methods: Pre-operative PIBW percentage
Daniel A. Culver; Peter J. Mazzone; Holli C. Blazey; Malcolm M. DeCamp; Jeffrey T. Chapman
Body weight has important health implications across the lifespan. Most recent attention has focused on the obesity epidemic\\u000a that is occurring in many parts of the world. However, underweight is also a concern, particularly in less developed countries.\\u000a For most health outcomes there is a curvilinear association with body weight, with underweight and overweight (compared to\\u000a normal weight) being associated
Kristi Rahrig Jenkins; Nan E. Johnson; Mary Beth Ofstedal
Manipulation of body weight set point may be an effective weight loss and maintenance strategy as the homeostatic mechanism governing energy balance remains intact even in obese conditions and counters the effort to lose weight. However, how the set point is determined is not well understood. We show that a single injection of rapamycin (RAP), an mTOR inhibitor, is sufficient to shift the set point in rats. Intraperitoneal RAP decreased food intake and daily weight gain for several days, but surprisingly, there was also a long-term reduction in body weight which lasted at least 10 weeks without additional RAP injection. These effects were not due to malaise or glucose intolerance. Two RAP administrations with a two-week interval had additive effects on body weight without desensitization and significantly reduced the white adipose tissue weight. When challenged with food deprivation, vehicle and RAP-treated rats responded with rebound hyperphagia, suggesting that RAP was not inhibiting compensatory responses to weight loss. Instead, RAP animals defended a lower body weight achieved after RAP treatment. Decreased food intake and body weight were also seen with intracerebroventricular injection of RAP, indicating that the RAP effect is at least partially mediated by the brain. In summary, we found a novel effect of RAP that maintains lower body weight by shifting the set point long-term. Thus, RAP and related compounds may be unique tools to investigate the mechanisms by which the defended level of body weight is determined; such compounds may also be used to complement weight loss strategy.
Hebert, Mark; Licursi, Maria; Jensen, Brittany; Baker, Ashley; Milway, Steve; Malsbury, Charles; Grant, Virginia L.; Adamec, Robert; Hirasawa, Michiru; Blundell, Jacqueline
Objective. To investigate effects of weight loss on adipokines and health measures in obese older adults with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. Methods. Participants were randomly assigned to either weight loss (WL) (men: 12, women: 14) or weight stable (WS) group (men: 12, women: 13). WL intervention included meal replacements and structured exercise training. Measurements of leptin, adiponectin, soluble leptin receptor, lifestyle behaviors, and body composition were collected at baseline and 6 months. Univariate analysis of covariance was performed on 6 month variables, and Spearman and partial correlations were made between variables. Results. Weight loss was 13.0% and 6.7% in WL for men and women, respectively. Women in WL had lower whole body and trunk fat than WS. The leptin?:?adiponectin ratio was lower for women in WL than WS at 6 months, with no group differences in adipokines for men. Leptin and free leptin index correlated with body fat in both genders at baseline. Interestingly, only women showed reductions in leptin (P < 0.100) and correlations between the percentage change leptin and trunk fat and the percentage changes in free leptin index with total fat and trunk fat. Partial correlations between 6 month adipokines after adjustments for covariates and group/time period show potential multivariate influences. Conclusions. In the presence of an effective weight loss intervention in older obese adults, there are significant relationships between weight and fat loss and leptin in women, but not men, suggesting gender-specific features of adipokine metabolism in this age group.
Miller, Gary D.; Jenks, Monica Z.; Vendela, Mandolyn; Norris, James L.; Muday, Gloria K.
Objective:To investigate weight perception, dieting and emotional well being across the range of body mass index (BMI) in a population-based multiethnic sample of early adolescents.Design:Cross-sectional population-based survey.Subjects:In total, 2789 adolescents 11–14 years of age from three highly deprived regional authorities in East London, in 2001.Measurements:Data were collected by student-completed questionnaire on weight perception, dieting history, mental and physical health, health
R M Viner; M M Haines; S J C Taylor; J Head; R Booy; S Stansfeld
esteem. Results: Relative to the other two groups, competitive bodybuilders had greater body mass due to fat-free body mass. Although groups did not differ in their situational body image discomfort, competitive bodybuilders and weight trainers had a more positive global appearance evaluation and were more psychologically invested in their physical appearance. Compared with active controls, men in both weightlifting groups
T C Pickett; R J Lewis; T F Cash
BACKGROUND: A relatively high percentage of energy intake as protein has been shown to increase satiety and decrease energy efficiency during overfeeding.AIM: To investigate whether addition of protein may improve weight maintenance by preventing or limiting weight regain after weight loss of 5–10% in moderately obese subjects.DESIGN OF THE STUDY: In a randomized parallel design, 148 male and female subjects
M S Westerterp-Plantenga; M P G M Lejeune; I Nijs; M van Ooijen; E M R Kovacs; Westerterp-Plantenga
The somatotype was determined of 247 healthy students of medicine, male Bulgarians, average age 22, according to the method of Heath and Carter. More than half of the examined subjects (55,9%) was established to belong to the group of mesomorphy with a predomination of the subgroup of endomorphic mesomorphy. The other morphological structures are presented in comparatively identical shares. The fatty body mass, being 16,29 per cent of the total body mass of the subjects studied was determined to the same subjects according to the method of Möhr and Milev. It was established that the fatty body mass was within the physiological limits among the students from the group of ectomorphy and from the group with balanced mesomorphy, non-manifested obesity had the subjects with ectomorphic endomorphy, endomorphic mesomorphy and with central somatotype and with manifested obesity--the students with balanced and mesomorphic endomorphy. PMID:4036089
Radev, A; Khandzhiev, S; Kostadinov, D
We obtained esophageal food samples from 311 mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and 94 wood ducks (Aix sponsa) and body weights from 2,118 mallards and 315 wood ducks in western Mississippi during December and January 1979-83. On average, mallards ingested 3.0% animal food, principally aquatic invertebrates, and 97.0% plant food. Rice, soybeans, and seeds of 'moist soil' plants provided 41.3, 41.6, and 10-11% of the total food intake. Wood ducks ingested nearly 100% plant food, of which 23.4% was soybeans and 74.3% was acorns from Nuttall (Quercus nuttallii), water (Q. nigra), and willow oaks (Q. phellos). Mallard food use varied with water conditions; the use of rice decreased and soybeans increased during 1980-81 when cumulative November-January precipitation was < 50% of normal. Wood duck food use varied with habitat; the diet included more acorns at sites having larger acreages of intact bottomland hardwood forest. Mallard and wood duck body weights varied within and among winters. Mallard weights decreased by about 2% from December to January each year. We considered this a regulated loss, whereas we attributed increases and decreases of 4-5% in average weights during wet and dry winters to changes in feeding opportunities associated with winter precipitation. Wood duck weights followed similar trends. We concluded that continued drainage in the Mississippi Delta will adversely affect waterfowl foraging opportunities, and that research on winter feeding ecology will progress more rapidly if we develop an understanding of the foraging efficiencies associated with alternate food resources.
Delnicki, D.; Reinecke, K.J.
Low-fat diets produce spontaneous weight loss in the research setting, but as a public health strategy, they have been disappointing. Insulin resistance and impairments in insulin secretory function leading to postprandial hyperglycaemia are now common, making the current context greatly different to that of 25 years ago. There is increasing evidence that reducing the proportion of energy derived from carbohydrate
J McMillan-Price; J Brand-Miller
Increases in regulatory oversight of animal research require verification of effects of standard practices. There are no formal guidelines for establishing free-feeding weights in adult pigeons. In the present study, pigeons were obtained from a commercial supplier, weighed upon arrival, and then held in quarantine for 7 days with free access to…
Kangas, Brian D.; Branch, Marc N.
Objective: To examine longitudinal trajectories of perceived weight from adolescence to early adulthood by gender. Methods: We analyzed 9 waves (1997-2005) of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 8302) using Mplus. Results: Perceived overweight increased over time among girls and did not level off until 23 years of age. Blacks…
Seo, Dong-Chul; Li, Kaigang
Background & Purpose Given the extensive literature on body weight supported treadmill training (BWSTT) in adult rehabilitation, a systematic review was undertaken to explore the strength, quality and conclusiveness of the scientific evidence supporting the use of treadmill training and body weight support in those with pediatric motor disabilities. A secondary goal was to ascertain whether sufficient protocol guidelines for BWSTT are as yet available to guide pediatric physical therapy practice. Methods The database search included MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL Plus (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), PEDro (Physiotherapy Evidence Database), Cochrane Library databases, and ERIC (Education Resources Information Center) from January 1, 1980 until May 31, 2008 for all articles that included treadmill training and body weight support alone or in combination for individuals under 21 years of age, with or at risk for having a motor disability. We identified 277 unique articles from which 29 met all inclusion criteria Results Efficacy of treadmill training in accelerating walking development in Down syndrome has been well-demonstrated. Evidence supporting the efficacy or effectiveness of BWSTT in pediatric practice for improving gait impairments and level of activity and participation in those with cerebral palsy, spinal cord injuries, and other central nervous system disorders remains insufficient even though many studies noted positive, yet small, effects. Increased use of randomized designs, studies with treadmill training only groups, and dosage studies are needed before practice guidelines can be formulated. Neural changes in response to training warrant greater exploration, especially given the capacity for change in developing nervous systems. Discussion and Conclusion Large scale controlled trials are critically needed to support the use of BWSTT in specific pediatric patient sub-groups and to define optimal protocol parameters.
Damiano, Diane L.; DeJong, Stacey L.
Using data from the 1994-1998 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth merged Mother and Young Adult file, this article examines the relationship between depressive symptoms and body mass index (BMI) in adolescence. The authors also examine whether this relationship varies by race and gender. Their findings indicate that over a 4-year…
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Christie-Mizell, C. Andre
Background Since feed represents 70% of the total cost in poultry production systems, an animal’s ability to convert feed is an important trait. In this study, residual feed intake (RFI) and residual body weight gain (RG), and their linear combination into residual feed intake and body weight gain (RIG) were studied to estimate their genetic parameters and analyze the potential differences in feed intake between the top ranked birds based on the criteria for each trait. Methods Phenotypic and genetic analyses were completed on 8340 growing tom turkeys that were measured for feed intake and body weight gain over a four-week period from 16 to 20 weeks of age. Results The heritabilities of RG and RIG were 0.19?±?0.03 and 0.23?±?0.03, respectively. Residual body weight gain had moderate genetic correlations with feed intake (?0.41) and body weight gain (0.43). All three linear combinations to form the RIG traits had genetic correlations ranging from ?0.62 to ?0.52 with feed intake, and slightly weaker, 0.22 to 0.34, with body weight gain. Sorted into three equal groups (low, medium, high) based on RG, the most efficient group (high) gained 0.62 and 1.70 kg more (P?0.001) body weight than that of the medium and low groups, yet the feed intake for the high group was less (P?0.05) than that of the medium group (19.52 vs. 19.75 kg). When separated into similar partitions, the high RIG group (most efficient) had both the lowest (P?0.001) feed intake (18.86 vs. 19.57 and 20.41 kg) and the highest (P?0.001) body weight gain (7.41 vs. 7.03 and 6.43 kg) relative to the medium and low groups, respectively. Conclusions The difference in feed intake between the top ranked birds based on different residual feed efficiency traits may be small when looking at the average individual, however, when extrapolated to the production level, the lower feed intake values could lead to significant savings in feed costs over time.
Objective:Young women in the United States and Western Europe are notoriously concerned about weight but less is known about attitudes to weight in other regions of the world. This study explores the associations between body mass index (BMI), weight perceptions, and attempts to lose weight in male and female university students from 22 countries.Methods:Data were collected from 18 512 university
J Wardle; A M Haase; A Steptoe
Self-perception of body weight and other weight-related factors were assessed among 2665 Taipei, Taiwan high school students. A high percent of the girls (70.7%) and boys (42.2%) reported that they were too fat and these percentages were much higher than those reported by U.S. students in a recent Youth Risk Behavior Survey. In addition, only 13.2% of girls and 22.0% of boys reported being completely satisfied with their weight and the level of dissatisfaction with weight appeared to be greater than among U.S. students. Yet, in comparison to U.S. students, the Taiwanese students were considerably less likely than their U.S. counterparts to engage in weight management practices (e.g., dieting, eating less food, using diet pills). Taiwanese students with a self-perception of being too fat were more likely than those with perceptions of being just right or too thin to engage in weight management practices, to be dissatisfied with their weight, feel that they were unattractive, estimate that their same-sex peers were trying to lose weight, and have a higher body mass index. The findings from this study showed a relationship between self-perception of body size and engaging in weight control behaviors was consistent with other research. It suggested that self-perception of body weight, more so than objective weight status, was predictive of weight loss behavior and also negative psychological outcomes associated with poor body weight image. As a result, self-perception of weight may be an important point of focus for the design and implementation of clinical and public health initiatives targeted at this adolescent population as well as others. PMID:15971733
Page, Randy M; Lee, Ching-Mei; Miao, Nae-Fang
Background There is an increasing concern on cardiometabolic health in young professional athletes at heavy-weight class. Objective Our cross-sectional survey aimed to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and clustering of metabolic risk factors in a population of young and active professional athletes of strength sports in China. Methods From July 2006 to December 2008, a total of 131 male and 130 female athletes of strength sports were enrolled. We used two criteria provided by the Chinese Diabetes Society (2004) and the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III (2002) to define the metabolic syndrome and its individual components, respectively. Results Regardless of their similar ages (mean: 21 years) and exercise levels, athletes in the heaviest-weight-class with unlimited maximum body weight (UBW) boundaries (mean weight and BMI: 130 kg and 38 kg/m2 for men, 110 kg and 37 kg/m2 for women) had significantly higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome than did those in all other body-weight-class with limited body weight (LBW) boundaries (mean weight and BMI: 105 kg and 32 kg/m2 for men, 70 kg and 26 kg/m2 for women). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome using CDS criteria (UBW vs. LBW: 89% vs. 18% for men, 47% vs. 0% for women) and its individual components, including central obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, and impaired fasting glucose, were all significantly higher in athletes at the heaviest weight group with UBW than all other weight groups with LBW. Conclusions Our study suggests that professional athletes of strength sports at the heaviest-weight-class are at a significant increased risk of cardiometabolic disease compared with those at all other weight categories. The findings support the importance of developing and implementing the strategy of early screening, awareness, and interventions for weight-related health among young athletes.
Guo, Jianjun; Zhang, Xi; Wang, Ling; Guo, Yan; Xie, Minhao
Background/Objectives Monitoring changes in total fat mass and abdominal adiposity are important in understanding the impact of different types of weight loss interventions on health risks. Our objective was to assess the usefulness of anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) in predicting fat mass changes during moderate weight loss. Subjects/Methods Fat mass changes were assessed in 34 overweight adults (24 females, 10 males) after a 12-week supervised weight loss induced by caloric restriction (?30% of requirement) using BIA and DXA. Agreement between BIA and DXA measurements were assessed by Bland-Altman plots. Linear regression modeling was used to predict body and truncal fat mass from anthropometric measures. Results Diet intervention resulted in a significant decrease in body weight (? 7.86 ± 2.87 kg), body mass index (BMI ? 2.69 ± 0.98 kg/m2), total body fat (? 5.22 ± 2.32 kg), truncal fat (? 2.80 ± 1.94 kg) and waist circumference (? 5.52 ± 3.57 cm). BMI and body weight were highly correlated with body fat (0.83 and 0.92 in females and 0.94 and 0.92 in males respectively) and truncal fat (0.75 and 0.87 in females; 0.90 and 0.84 in males respectively) during weight loss. Waist circumference was more correlated with truncal fat in males than females (0.94 vs. 0.85 in females). Compared to DXA, BIA underestimated total body fat changes in males (? 8.8 kg, p<0.001) and overestimated total body fat changes in females (+ 2.1 kg, p< 0.001). Conclusions Body mass index, body weight, and waist circumference provide simple and more accurate than BIA estimates of relative changes in total and truncal fat during moderate weight loss in adults.
Aslam, Muhammad; Eckhauser, Aaron W.; Dorminy, Cindy A.; Dossett, Cynthia M.; Choi, Leena; Buchowski, Maciej S.
Abstract Objective: The objective of this study was to estimate utility values for hypothetical health states that describe differences in weight and quality of life associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) from Canadians with type 2 DM. The impact on utility values was examined separately for participants with a body mass index (BMI) of 18 to less than 25?kg/m(2) ('healthy'), 25 to less than 30 ('overweight'), and 30 or more ('obese'). Methods: The health state descriptions were modified from a published diabetes utility study. Health states included a base-case type 2 DM health state (at participants' current weight), and six health states where the weight and attendant quality of life impact varied (base case ±3%, ±5%, and ±7% weight). Utilities were elicited using the time trade-off technique. Linear regression modeling was used to estimate the utility increment or decrement associated with a one unit difference in BMI. Results: Among 96 participants, the mean age was 55 years and 51% were men. The mean BMI was 32?kg/m(2) and 84% wanted to lose weight. The mean (SD) utility for the base-case state was 0.911 (0.013). Mean utilities (utility decrements) were 0.907 (-0.004), 0.865 (-0.046) and 0.806 (-0.105) for the health states describing an increased weight of 3%, 5% and 7%, respectively; and 0.923 (+0.012), 0.940 (+0.029) and 0.949 (+0.038) for the health states describing a decreased weight of 3%, 5% and 7%, respectively. For every increase of 1?kg/m(2) BMI there was an associated decrease in utility of 0.0472 (95% CI: 0.0375, 0.0569) and for every decrease of 1?kg/m(2) BMI there was an associated increase in utility of 0.0171 (95% CI: 0.0103, 0.0238). Conclusions: The preferences of Canadian patients with type 2 DM for diabetes-related health states varied according to the weight, and quality of life impact, associated with that health state. Increased weight had a greater effect on utilities than decreased weight. PMID:24588550
Lane, S; Levy, A R; Mukherjee, J; Sambrook, J; Tildesley, H
C57BL\\/6J-mice with a mutation in the obese (ob) gene are obese, diabetic, and exhibit reduced activity, metabolism, and body temperature. Daily intraperitoneal injection of these mice with recombinant OB protein lowered their body weight, percent body fat, food intake, and serum concentrations of glucose and insulin. In addition, metabolic rate, body temperature, and activity levels were increased by this treatment.
Mary Ann Pelleymounter; Mary Jane Cullen; Mary Beth Baker; Randy Hecht; Dwight Winters; Thomas Boone; Frank Collins
Littoral cell angioma (LCA) is a rare primary splenic vascular tumor originating from littoral cells lining the splenic red pulp sinuses. LCAs are rarely seen in children. We present the US, CT, and MRI findings including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in a 2-year-old boy with histologically proven LCA. Previous studies on liver lesions have shown that DWI allows differentiation of vascular tumors from primary neoplasms and metastatic disease. The current case indicates that increased ADC values within the splenic lesions suggest a vascular etiology, which might help narrow the differential diagnosis. PMID:19597808
Ertan, Gulhan; Tekes, Aylin; Mitchell, Sally; Keefer, Jeffrey; Huisman, Thierry A G M
Background Advanced studies on adipose tissue have established that subcutaneous adipose tissue acts as an endocrine organ to help maintain\\u000a homeostasis. Based on this information, many plastic surgeons have evaluated the metabolic effects of liposuction because\\u000a liposuction is the most common surgical procedure in plastic surgery. Liposuction removes a substantial amount of subcutaneous\\u000a fat from a specific area of the body.
Murat SariciM; M. Erol Demirseren; Mustafa Durgun; Candemir Ceran; M. Oguz Yenidunya
In a 12-year prospective study, the authors examined the relation between body mass index (BMI) and mortality among the 20,346 middle-aged (25-54 years) and older (55-84 years) non-Hispanic white cohort members of the Adventist Health Study (California, 1976-1988) who had never smoked cigarettes and had no history of coronary heart disease, cancer, or stroke. In analyses that accounted for putative
Pramil N. Singh; Kristian D. Lindsted; Gary E. Fraser
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a major cytokine controlling not only the immune system but also basic physiological variables such as body weight and metabolism. While central IL-6 is clearly implicated in the latter, the putative role of peripheral IL-6 controlling body weight remains unclear. We herewith report results obtained in muscle-specific IL-6 KO (mIL-6 KO) mice. mIL-6 KO male mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD, 58.4% kcal from fat) or a control diet (18%) gained less weight and body fat than littermate floxed male mice, while the opposite pattern was observed in female mice. Food intake was not affected by muscle IL-6 deficiency, but male and female mIL-6 KO mice were more and less active, respectively, in the hole-board test. Moreover, female mIL-6 KO mice did not control adequately their body temperature upon exposure to 4°C, suggesting a role of muscle IL-6 in energy expenditure. At least part of this regulatory role of muscle IL-6 may be mediated by the hypothalamus, as IL-6 deficiency regulated the expression of critical hypothalamic neuropeptides (NPY, AgRP, POMC, CRH and preproOX). Leptin and insulin changes cannot explain the phenotype of these mice. In summary, the present results demonstrate that muscle IL-6 controls body weight and body fat in a sex-specific fashion, influencing the expression of the main neuropeptides involved in energy homeostasis. PMID:24632224
Ferrer, Beatriz; Navia, Belén; Giralt, Mercedes; Comes, Gemma; Carrasco, Javier; Molinero, Amalia; Quintana, Albert; Señarís, Rosa M; Hidalgo, Juan
Obesity contributes to increased risk for several chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Xanthohumol, a prenylated flavonoid from hops (Humulus lupulus), was tested for efficacy on biomarkers of metabolic syndrome in 4 week old Zucker fa/fa rats, a rodent model of obesity. Rats received daily oral doses of xanthohumol at 0, 1.86, 5.64, and 16.9 mg/kg BW for 6 weeks. All rats were maintained on a high fat (60% kcal) AIN-93G diet for 3 weeks to induce severe obesity followed by a normal AIN-93G (15% kcal fat) diet for the last 3 weeks of the study. Weekly food intake and body weight were recorded. Plasma cholesterol, glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels were assessed using commercial assay kits. Plasma and liver tissue levels of XN and its metabolites were determined by liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Plasma and liver tissue levels of xanthohumol were similar between low and medium dose groups and significantly (p<0.05) elevated in the highest dose group. There was a dose-dependent effect on body weight and plasma glucose levels. The highest dose group (n=6) had significantly lower plasma glucose levels compared to the control group (n=6) in male but not female rats. There was also a significant decrease in body weight for male rats in the highest dose group (16.9 mg/kg BW) compared to rats that received no xanthohumol, which was also not seen for female rats. Plasma cholesterol, insulin, triglycerides, and MCP-1 as well as food intake were not affected by treatment. The findings suggest that xanthohumol has beneficial effects on markers of metabolic syndrome. PMID:22640929
Legette, Leecole L; Luna, Arlyn Y Moreno; Reed, Ralph L; Miranda, Cristobal L; Bobe, Gerd; Proteau, Rosita R; Stevens, Jan F
Impaired sensitivity to insulin (the so called insulin resistance, IR) occurs in a number of genetic and acquired conditions, including obesity, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and metabolic syndrome (MS). In this review we discuss the correlation between IR, the adipose tissue hormones and appetite and body weight regulators. Leptin acts as a major adipostat: it suppresses food intake and activates catabolic pathways associated with increased energy production. It improves the peripheral insulin sensitivity and affects beta-cell function. Adiponectin is the only adipocytokine discovered so far that has anti-atherogenic properties. There is a reverse correlation between the serum adiponectin levels and the degree of obesity, IR, impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis. Ghrelin stimulates food intake; of all circulating orexigenic hormones ghrelin is the most thoroughly studied. Ghrelin levels are decreased in MS and PCOS patients as this hormone is negatively correlated with body mass. Resistin is a hormone secreted by adipose tissues; a growing body of evidence suggests that it might be implicated in the link between obesity and diabetes. It has been found that the hormone's levels are significantly higher in obese people than those in normal body mass people. The recently discovered adipose tissue hormones, vaspin, visfatin, omentin-1 and their effect on IR development, have been increasingly researched. PMID:23905484
Koleva, Daniela Iv; Orbetzova, Maria M; Atanassova, Pepa K
This paper presents normative data on height, weight, and body mass in a birth cohort studied prospectively from birth to the age of 7 years. Data are presented by gender and race. The cohort was meant to be representative of the St. Louis metropolitan area in that it included poor people's children, and especially black children who had rarely…
Missouri Univ., St. Louis. Parents as Teachers National Center.
According to recent reports that nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has become the eighth most common cancer in Taiwan. The aim of this study was to assess the status of trace elements, including Zn, Cu, Fe and Se, and compare the levels of trace elements of NPC patients before and after radiotherapy. The maintenance of ideal body weight is a good index
Y. F. Shu; H. M. L. Chin; G. S. W. Hsu
The impacts of acute falciparum malaria on body weight and the host and parasite factors predictive of change in body weight were characterized in 465 prospectively studied children in an endemic area of southwest Nigeria. Pre-treatment weights were significantly lower than the 14 to 28-day post-treatment weights (P = 0.0001). In 187 children, fractional fall in body weight (FFBW) exceeded 4.9%. FFBW correlated negatively with age and body weight (P = 0.014 and 0.0001, respectively), but not with enrollment parasitaemia. In a multiple regression model, an age < or =5 years (AOR = 2.03, 95% CI 1.2-3.2, P = 0.003), a hematocrit < or =29% (AOR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.0-2.3, P = 0.037), and a body weight < or =9.6 kg (AOR = 5.4, 95% CI 1.7-20, P = 0.003) were independent predictors of FFBW > or =5% at presentation. Children who, after initial clearance, had recurrence of their parasitaemia within 28 days had a significantly higher propensity not to gain weight than children who were aparasitaemic after treatment (log-rank statistic 6.76, df = 1, P = 0.009). These results indicate that acute malaria contribute to sub-optimal growth in young children and may have implications for malaria control efforts in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:17323138
Sowunmi, Akintunde; Gbotosho, Grace O; Adedeji, Ahmed A; Fateye, Babasola A; Sabitu, Morenikeji F; Happi, Christian T; Fehintola, Fatai A
Weight cycling may cause a redistribution of body fat to the upper body fat compartments. We investigated the distribution of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in 30 overweight women with a history of weight-cycling and age-matched controls (167 normal weight and 97 overweight subjects). Measurements of SAT were performed using an optical device, the Lipometer. The SAT topography describes the thicknesses of SAT layers at 15 anatomically well-defined body sites from neck to calf. The overweight women with a history of weight cycling had significantly thicker SAT layers on the upper body compared to the overweight controls, but even thinner SAT layers on their legs than the normal weight women. An android fat pattern was attributed to overweight females and, even more pronounced, to the weight cyclers. The majority of normal weight women showed a gynoid fat pattern. Using stepwise discriminant analysis, 89.0% of all weight cyclers and overweight controls could be classified correctly into the two groups. These findings show the importance of normal weight maintenance as a health-promoting factor. PMID:15263924
Wallner, S J; Luschnigg, N; Schnedl, W J; Lahousen, T; Sudi, K; Crailsheim, K; Möller, R; Tafeit, E; Horejsi, R
Italians in Britain have low rates of coronary heart disease while South Asians have high rates, which correspond to a tendency to central abdominal fat deposition and overweight. World variations in attitudes to body size are thought to be related to economic security. This cross-sectional study employed a range of measures including photographic silhouettes of known BMI to investigate the attitudes of 259 South Asian, Italian and general population women (aged 20-42 years) towards body size. Migrants are compared with British-born minority members. Our results indicate that although migrant South Asians were less happy with their weight than migrant Italians, fewer had tried to lose weight in the past or had experienced external pressures to change their bodies. More migrant South Asians than Italians or general population women equated one of the four largest shapes (BMI 28-38) with health and successful reproduction. All groups wanted to resemble one of the two thinnest shapes, equating them with longevity, likelihood of marriage and job success. British-born South Asians generally showed a considerable degree of convergence towards general population women's negative attitudes to large body size, but British-born Italians' attitudes were significantly more negative even than general population women. The study's conclusions were that South Asian health beliefs are an important focus of resistance to slimness. The tendency of migrant South Asians to equate large size with health contrasts with the opposing views of Italian and general population women. British-born South Asians' views are modifying from those of migrants, but significant differences remain when compared with general population women and British-born Italians. Present differences in economic security offer only a partial explanation; South Asian attitudes may be explained by economic insecurity in the past. PMID:11895321
Bush, H M; Williams, R G; Lean, M E; Anderson, A S
Marital terminations are life transitions that may lead to changes in diet, activity, and body weight. This investigation\\u000a examined how marital status was associated with relative body weight, underweight, overweight, and obesity among men and women\\u000a in the United States using cross-sectional nationally representative data from the 1992 HRS cohort age 51–61 and the 1993\\u000a AHEAD cohort age 70 and
Jeffery Sobal; Barbara S. Rauschenbach
Miyai I, Fujimoto Y, Ueda Y, Yamamoto H, Nozaki S, Saito T, Kang J. Treadmill training with body weight support: its effect on Parkinson's disease. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2000;81:849-52. Objective: To test whether body weight—supported treadmill training (BWSTT) is effective in improving functional outcome of patients with Parkinson's disease. Design: Prospective crossover trial. Patients were randomized to receive either
Ichiro Miyai; Yasuyuki Fujimoto; Yoshishige Ueda; Hiroshi Yamamoto; Sonoko Nozaki; Toshio Saito; Jin Kang
Studies on the relationship between unemployment and body weight show a positive relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and unemployment at the individual level, while aggregate unemployment is negatively related to a population's average BMI. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between job loss and changes in body weight following the Icelandic economic collapse of 2008. The analysis relies on a health and lifestyle survey "Heilsa og líðan", carried out by The Public Health Institute of Iceland in the years 2007 and 2009. The sample is a stratified random sample of 9,807 Icelanders between the ages of 18 and 79, with a net response rate of 42.1 % for individuals responding in both waves. A linear regression model was used when estimating the relationship between job loss following the economic collapse and changes in body weight. Family income and mental health were explored as mediators. Point estimates indicated that both men and women gain less weight in the event of a job loss relative to those who retained their employment. The coefficients of job loss were only statistically significant for females, but not in the male population. The results from all three models were inconsistent with results from other studies where job loss has been found to increase body weight. However, body weight has been shown to be procyclical, and the fact that the data used were gathered during a severe economic downturn might separate these results from earlier findings. PMID:23757095
Jónsdóttir, Sif; Asgeirsdóttir, Tinna Laufey
A rational multilevel approach for minimum weight structural design of truss and wing structures including local and system buckling constraints is presented. Overall proportioning of the structure is achieved at the system level subject to strength, displacement and system buckling constraints, while the detailed component designs are carried out separately at the component level satisfying local buckling constraints. Total structural weight is taken to be the objective function at the system level while employing the change in the equivalent system stiffness of the component as the component level objective function. Finite element analysis is used to predict static response while system buckling behavior is handled by incorporating a geometric stiffness matrix capability. Buckling load factors and the corresponding mode shapes are obtained by solving the eigenvalue problem associated with the assembled elastic stiffness and geometric stiffness matrices for the structural system. At the component level various local buckling failure modes are guarded against using semi-empirical formulas. Mathematical programming techniques are employed at both the system and component level.
Schmit, L. A., Jr.; Ramanathan, R. K.
Objective Sleep-restriction in humans increases risk for obesity, but previous rodent studies show weight loss following sleep deprivation, possibly due to stressful-methods used to prevent sleep. Obesity-resistant (OR) rats exhibit consolidated-sleep and resistance to weight-gain. We hypothesized that sleep disruption by a less-stressful method would increase body weight, and examined effect of partial sleep deprivation (PSD) on body weight in OR and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Design and Methods OR and SD rats (n=12/group) were implanted with transmitters to record sleep/wake. After baseline recording, six SD and six OR rats underwent 8 h PSD during light-phase for 9 d. Sleep was reduced using recordings of random noise. Sleep/wake states were scored as wakefulness (W), slow-wave-sleep (SWS) and rapid-eye-movement-sleep (REMS). Total number of transitions between stages, SWS-delta-power, food intake and body weight were documented. Results Exposure to noise decreased SWS and REMS time, while increasing W time. Sleep-deprivation increased number of transitions between stages and SWS-delta-power. Further, PSD during the rest phase increased recovery-sleep during active phase. The PSD SD and OR rats had greater food intake and body weight compared to controls Conclusions PSD by less-stressful means increases body weight in rats. Also, PSD during rest phase increases active period sleep.
Mavanji, Vijayakumar; Teske, Jennifer A.; Billington, Charles J.; Kotz, Catherine M.
Mannooligosaccharides (MOS), extracted from coffee, have been shown to promote a decrease in body fat when consumed as part of free-living, weight-maintaining diets. Our objective was to determine if MOS consumption (4 g/day), in conjunction with a weight-loss diet, would lead to greater reductions in adipose tissue compartments than placebo. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled weight-loss study in which 60 overweight men and women consumed study beverages and received weekly group counseling for 12 weeks. Weight and blood pressure were measured weekly, and adipose tissue distribution was assessed at baseline and at end point using magnetic resonance imaging. A total of 54 subjects completed the study. Men consuming the MOS beverage had greater loss of body weight than men consuming the Placebo beverage (?6.0 ± 0.6% vs. ?2.3 ± 0.5%, respectively, P < 0.05). Men consuming the MOS beverage also had reductions in total body volume (P < 0.0001), total (P < 0.0001), subcutaneous (P < 0.0001), and visceral (P < 0.05) adipose tissue that were greater than changes observed in those consuming the Placebo beverage. In women, changes in body weight and adipose tissue compartments were not different between groups. Adding coffee-derived MOS to a weight-loss diet enhanced both weight and adipose tissue losses in men, suggesting a potential functional use of MOS for weight management and improvement in adipose tissue distribution. More studies are needed to investigate the apparent gender difference in response to MOS consumption.
St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Salinardi, Taylor; Herron-Rubin, Kristin; Black, Richard M.
The melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) is a well-established mediator of body weight homeostasis. However, the neurotransmitter(s) that mediate MC4R function remain largely unknown; as a result, little is known about the second-order neurons of the MC4R neural pathway. Single-minded 1 (Sim1)-expressing brain regions, which include the paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus (PVH), represent key brain sites that mediate melanocortin action. We conditionally restored MC4R expression in Sim1 neurons in the background of Mc4r-null mice. The restoration dramatically reduced obesity in Mc4r-null mice. The anti-obesity effect was completely reversed by selective disruption of glutamate release from those same Sim1 neurons. The reversal was caused by lower energy expenditure and hyperphagia. Corroboratively, selective disruption of glutamate release from adult PVH neurons led to rapid obesity development via reduced energy expenditure and hyperphagia. Thus, this study establishes glutamate as the primary neurotransmitter that mediates MC4Rs on Sim1 neurons in body weight regulation. PMID:24315371
Xu, Yuanzhong; Wu, Zhaofei; Sun, Hao; Zhu, Yaming; Kim, Eun Ran; Lowell, Bradford B; Arenkiel, Benjamin R; Xu, Yong; Tong, Qingchun
In order to study weight concerns and eating disorders in women tennis players, 107 women tennis players and 26 women's tennis coaches from colleges across the U.S. responded to questionnaires relating to weight concern, body image, and abnormal eating. When evaluating drawings of female figures, players and coaches both considered the ideal body shape to be smaller than the healthiest one. Most players had normal weight, eating habits, and self-esteem; however, they also exhibited noticeable concern about their weight and appearance. Coaches revealed only moderate knowledge of weight related issues, believed such knowledge to be important, recognized that most of their players were of normal weight, and revealed somewhat negative feelings about overweight people. Players and coaches shared a healthy attitude toward tennis. The results of this study do not imply that college women tennis players are at greater risk of eating disorders than other young women, nor that college coaches are encouraging abnormal eating behaviors PMID:10722777
Harris, M B
Chemical composition of the noncarcass organs, combined noncarcass organs, and fleece-free empty body (FFEB) was measured during live weight gain (LWG) and live weight loss (LWL) to determine the effect of different periods of normal and retarded growth on chemical composition of noncarcass organs and FFEB. Thirty-five Merino wethers had ad libitum access to the experimental diet (17.23% CP and 12.09 MJ/kg of DE) to grow from 23.0 to 33.0 kg live weight and then were fed to lose a total of 10 kg in three periods of 25 d each at the rate of 133 g/d. Groups of five wethers were slaughtered at live weights of 23.0, 26.3, 29.6, and 33.0 kg during LWG and 29.6 (first period), 26.3 (second period), and 23.0 kg (third period) during LWL. The lower combined noncarcass weight in LWL wethers than in LWG wethers at 23.0 and 26.3 kg of live weights was due to the significantly lower protein weight at 23.0 and 26.3 kg (P < .01) and water weight at all common slaughter weights (P < .01). Chemical fat in the combined noncarcass organs was significantly greater in LWL wethers than in LWG wethers at 23.0, 26.3 (P < .01), and 29.6 kg (P < .05). The general increase of chemical fat in the combined noncarcass organs of the LWL wethers was mainly due to the significant increase in the chemical fat in the head and feet at 23.0 (P < .01), 26.3, and 29.6 kg (P < .05), liver at 23.0 kg (P < .01), and total alimentary tract fat at 23.0 (P < .01) and 29.6 kg (P < .05). Although fleece-free empty body weight (FFEBW) was similar in LWG and LWL wethers at all common slaughter weights, FFEB water weight was lower significantly in LWL wethers at 23.0, 26.3 (P < .01), and 29.6 kg (P < .05) and that of chemical fat was greater significantly in LWL wethers at 23.0 (P < .01), 26.3, and 29.6 kg (P < .05) than in LWG wethers. Wethers after weight loss had more chemical fat and less water in their FFEB than normal growing wethers at the same FFEBW. PMID:7759358
Aziz, N N; Murray, D M; Ball, R O
BACKGROUND: Associations between body weight, physical activity and dietary intake among a population of metropolitan transit workers are described. METHODS: Data were collected during October through December, 2005, as part of the baseline measures for a worksite weight gain prevention intervention in four metro transit bus garages. All garage employees were invited to complete behavioral surveys that assessed food choices
Simone A French; Lisa J Harnack; Traci L Toomey; Peter J Hannan
Background: To examine whether differences in participation in active play (PAP) can account for gender differences in the relationship between Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and body weight/fat (BMI and percentage fat) in youth. Methods: A cross-sectional investigation of students in grades four through eight (n = 590). Height, weight…
Cairney, John; Kwan, Matthew Y. W.; Hay, John A.; Faught, Brent E.
This study has three primary goals that make an important contribution to the literature on body weight and childbearing experiences among United States’ women. It sheds light on the physiological and social nature of this relationship by examining whether the consequences of early adult weight for lifetime childbearing are shaped by historical social context, women’s social characteristics, and their ability
Michelle L. Frisco; Margaret M. Weden; Adam M. Lippert; Kristin D. Burnett
The heritabilities of and genetic correlations between part record production, body weight, egg weight, shell colour, specific gravity and albumen quality have been estimated in one strain each of Light Sussex and Rhode Island Red and in three strains of White Leghorns using variance and covariance components in a hierarchical classification.The heritability values are in general agreement with published figures.
W. P. Jaffé
BACKGROUND Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may cause excessive weight gain. We aimed to assess the effect on weight gain of an intervention that included the provision of noncaloric beverages at home for overweight and obese adolescents. METHODS We randomly assigned 224 overweight and obese adolescents who regularly consumed sugar-sweetened beverages to experimental and control groups. The experimental group received a 1-year intervention designed to decrease consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, with follow-up for an additional year without intervention. We hypothesized that the experimental group would gain weight at a slower rate than the control group. RESULTS Retention rates were 97% at 1 year and 93% at 2 years. Reported consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages was similar at baseline in the experimental and control groups (1.7 servings per day), declined to nearly 0 in the experimental group at 1 year, and remained lower in the experimental group than in the control group at 2 years. The primary outcome, the change in mean body-mass index (BMI, the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) at 2 years, did not differ significantly between the two groups (change in experimental group minus change in control group, ?0.3; P = 0.46). At 1 year, however, there were significant between-group differences for changes in BMI (?0.57, P = 0.045) and weight (?1.9 kg, P = 0.04). We found evidence of effect modification according to ethnic group at 1 year (P = 0.04) and 2 years (P = 0.01). In a prespecified analysis according to ethnic group, among Hispanic participants (27 in the experimental group and 19 in the control group), there was a significant between-group difference in the change in BMI at 1 year (?1.79, P = 0.007) and 2 years (?2.35, P = 0.01), but not among non-Hispanic participants (P>0.35 at years 1 and 2). The change in body fat as a percentage of total weight did not differ significantly between groups at 2 years (?0.5%, P = 0.40). There were no adverse events related to study participation. CONCLUSIONS Among overweight and obese adolescents, the increase in BMI was smaller in the experimental group than in the control group after a 1-year intervention designed to reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, but not at the 2-year follow-up (the prespecified primary outcome). (Funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00381160.)
Ebbeling, Cara B.; Feldman, Henry A.; Chomitz, Virginia R.; Antonelli, Tracy A.; Gortmaker, Steven L.; Osganian, Stavroula K.; Ludwig, David S.
The relationship between energy status and fertility in dairy cattle was retrospectively analyzed by comparing fertility with body condition score (BCS) near artificial insemination (AI; experiment 1), early postpartum changes in BCS (experiment 2), and postpartum changes in body weight (BW; experiment 3). To reduce the effect of cyclicity status, all cows were synchronized with Double-Ovsynch protocol before timed AI. In experiment 1, BCS of lactating dairy cows (n=1,103) was evaluated near AI. Most cows (93%) were cycling at initiation of the breeding Ovsynch protocol (first GnRH injection). A lower percentage pregnant to AI (P/AI) was found in cows with lower (?2.50) versus higher (?2.75) BCS (40.4 vs. 49.2%). In experiment 2, lactating dairy cows on 2 commercial dairies (n=1,887) were divided by BCS change from calving until the third week postpartum. Overall, P/AI at 70-d pregnancy diagnosis differed dramatically by BCS change and was least for cows that lost BCS, intermediate for cows that maintained BCS, and greatest for cows that gained BCS [22.8% (180/789), 36.0% (243/675), and 78.3% (331/423), respectively]. Surprisingly, a difference existed between farms with BCS change dramatically affecting P/AI on one farm and no effect on the other farm. In experiment 3, lactating dairy cows (n=71) had BW measured weekly from the first to ninth week postpartum and then had superovulation induced using a modified Double-Ovsynch protocol. Cows were divided into quartiles (Q) by percentage of BW change (Q1 = least change; Q4 = most change) from calving until the third week postpartum. No effect was detected of quartile on number of ovulations, total embryos collected, or percentage of oocytes that were fertilized; however, the percentage of fertilized oocytes that were transferable embryos was greater for cows in Q1, Q2, and Q3 than Q4 (83.8, 75.2, 82.6, and 53.2%, respectively). In addition, percentage of degenerated embryos was least for cows in Q1, Q2, and Q3 and greatest for Q4 (9.6, 14.5, 12.6, and 35.2% respectively). In conclusion, for cows synchronized with a Double-Ovsynch protocol, an effect of low BCS (?2.50) near AI on fertility was detected, but change in BCS during the first 3wk postpartum had a more profound effect on P/AI to first timed AI. This effect could be partially explained by the reduction in embryo quality and increase in degenerate embryos byd 7 after AI in cows that lost more BW from the first to third week postpartum. PMID:24731646
Carvalho, P D; Souza, A H; Amundson, M C; Hackbart, K S; Fuenzalida, M J; Herlihy, M M; Ayres, H; Dresch, A R; Vieira, L M; Guenther, J N; Grummer, R R; Fricke, P M; Shaver, R D; Wiltbank, M C
Examines weight-related criticism from romantic partners and the importance of the romantic relationship in relation to the body image and self esteem for college freshmen women. Results reveal that self esteem and body image were positively related. Partner importance also predicted self esteem, whereas criticism did not. (Contains 55 references…
Befort, Christie; Kurpius, Sharon E. Robinson; Hull-Blanks, Elva; Nicpon, Megan Foley; Huser, Laura; Sollenberger, Sonja
Background Stress has been shown to be a determinant of weight change and risk for obesity. To date, there is scarce evidence that stressful life events and their severity contribute to changes in body weight. We studied the association between the occurrence, impact of and adaptation to adverse life events and weight change and the role of initial weight status. Methods Analyses were based on data from a population-based cohort of 2789 adults. Adverse life events, their impact and adaptation were measured retrospectively after baseline and follow-up weight and height measurements. Results Over six years, participants gained an average of 2.8 kg. There were no differences in weight change between those who had experienced an adverse life event versus those who had not. However, the impact of life events had a significant interaction with initial weight status. Adults with a healthy weight showed an average weight reduction of 0.2 kg (95% CIs: -0.7 - 0.2), and overweight adults showed an average weight gain of 0.4 kg (95% CIs: -0.3 - 1.1) for each point increase in impact after experiencing an adverse life event. Further, a slower adaptation to events was significantly associated with greater weight loss among those who lost weight. Conclusions We found no proof for an association between life events and weight change in the entire study sample, but we found that adults at a healthy weight responded differently to adverse life events than those who were overweight.
Measurements of body weight (BW), body condition score, wither height, calf birth weight, and calf sex were recorded by parity from 728 Holstein cows and heifers at the Purina Research Center during the 8-wk prepartum period. Data were compiled over 5 yr. Mean daily BW gain was 0.93 kg. Loss of BW at parturition was 11.1%. Mean body condition score was 3.35 (five-point scale where 1 = thin to 5 = obese) and did not change during the 8-wk period. However, body condition score was lower for second parity cows than for heifers or cows in third or greater parity. Wither height averaged 138 cm at first parity and increased 3 cm from first to second parity. During fifth and sixth parities, wither height peaked at an additional 2 to 3 cm. Birth weights for all calves averaged 41.4 kg. Male calves were 8.5% heavier than female calves. Calves born to cows in second or greater parity had increased BW by 7 to 8%. Mean BW of twin calves was 15% less than that of single calves. PMID:9098803
Kertz, A F; Reutzel, L F; Barton, B A; Ely, R L
Weight loss is frequently observed after acute exposure to high altitude. However, the magnitude and rate of weight loss during acute exposure to high altitude has not been clarified in a controlled prospective study. The present study was performed to evaluate weight loss at high altitude. A group of 120 male subjects [aged (32±6) years] who worked on the construction of the Golmud-Lhasa Railway at Kunlun Mountain (altitude of 4 678 m) served as volunteer subjects for this study. Eighty-five workers normally resided at sea level (sea level group) and 35 normally resided at an altitude of 2 200 m (moderate altitude group). Body weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference were measured in all subjects after a 7-day stay at Golmud (altitude of 2 800 m, baseline measurements). Measurements were repeated after 33-day working on Kunlun Mountain. In order to examine the daily rate of weight loss at high altitude, body weight was measured in 20 subjects from the sea level group (sea level subset group) each morning before breakfast for 33 d at Kunlun Mountain. According to guidelines established by the Lake Louise acute mountain sickness (AMS) consensus report, each subject completed an AMS self-report questionnaire two days after arriving at Kunlun Mountain. After 33-day stay at an altitude of 4 678 m, the average weight loss for the sea level group was 10.4% (range 6.5% to 29%), while the average for the moderate altitude group was 2.2% (-2% to 9.1%). The degree of weight loss (? weight loss) after a 33-day stay at an altitude of 4 678 m was significantly correlated with baseline body weight in the sea level group (r=0.677, P<0.01), while the correlation was absent in the moderate altitude group (r=0.296, P>0.05). In the sea level subset group, a significant weight loss was observed within 20 d, but the weight remained stable thereafter. AMS-score at high altitude was significantly higher in the sea level group (4.69±2.48) than that in the moderate altitude group (2.97±1.38), and was significantly correlated with baseline body weight. These results indicate that (1) the person with higher body weight during stay at high altitude loses more weight, and this is more pronounced in sea level natives when compared with that in moderate altitude natives; (2) heavier individuals are more likely to develop AMS than leaner individuals during exposure to high-altitude hypoxia. PMID:21170501
Ge, Ri-Li; Wood, Helen; Yang, Hui-Huang; Liu, Yi-Ning; Wang, Xiu-Juan; Babb, Tony
Objective Body Mass Index (BMI) and obesity (BMI?30) are often derived from self-reported weight and height; psychological dispositions may bias how participants report these physical characteristics. The present research uses a large national sample of U.S. adults to examine the correspondence between reported and measured body weight and height and to test whether optimists and pessimists misreport their weight/height in ways that are consistent with their worldviews. Methods Participants in the Health and Retirement Study (N=11,207) reported their weight and height and completed a measure of dispositional optimism and pessimism; trained interviewers measured participants’ weight and height. Results There was a high correlation between measured and reported weight (r=.98) and height (r=.92). Consistent with their positive and negative worldviews, respectively, optimists underreported and pessimists over-reported their weight. There was not a consistent association with misreported height. Optimism and pessimism were also associated with actual BMI and risk of obesity, but the protective/risk effects were amplified when using reported weight to derive BMI. Conclusions These findings suggest that reported body weight tends to be accurate, but that biases associated with psychological dispositions may inflate the relation between the disposition and obesity. Such biases may extend to associations with other self-reported factors thought to be related to optimism and pessimism.
Sutin, Angelina R.
Grape products such as black grape juice (BGJ) are rich in phenolic compounds and are effective in modifying the effects of radiation either as a radioprotector or damage mitigator. In this study, the effect of BGJ on lipid peroxidation has been analyzed by testing a possible radiomodifiying activity of BGJ against radiation- induced damage in rat, focused on body weight
Edson R Andrade; Jacqueline CE Piccoli; Ivana BM Cruz; Joao BT Rocha; Veronica VR Andrade; Paquita González; Liliane F Bauermann; Juan P Barrio
Objective To evaluate the cross-sectional relationship between migraine and pre-gravid obesity; and to assess the risk of adult weight gain among women with history of a pediatric diagnosis of migraine. Background Obesity, comorbid with pain disorders including migraine, shares common pathophysiological characteristics including systemic inflammation, and derangements in adipose-tissue derived cytokines. Despite biochemical and epidemiological commonalities, obesity-migraine associations have been inconsistently observed. Methods A cohort of 3,733 women was interviewed during early pregnancy. We ascertained participants’ self-reported history of physician-diagnosed migraine and collected self-reported information about pre-gravid weight, adult height and net weight change from age 18 to the 3-monthsperiodpriorto pregnancy. Using pre-gravid body mass index, we categorized participants as follows: lean (<18.5 kg/m2); normal (18.5–24.9 kg/m2); overweight (25–29.9 kg/m2), obese (30–34.9 kg/m2), severely obese (35–39.9 kg/m2), and morbidly obese (? 40 kg/m2). Logistic regression procedures were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results After adjusting for confounders, relative to normal weight women, obese women had a 1.48-fold increased odds of migraine(OR=1.48; 95%CI 1.12–1.96). Severely obese (OR=2.07; 95%CI 1.27–3.39) and morbidly obese (OR=2.75; 95%CI 1.60–4.70) had the highest odds of migraines. Women with a history of diagnosed pediatric migraine had a 1.67-fold higher odds of gaining ?10.0 kg above their weight at age 18, as compared with non-migraineurs (OR=1.67; 95%CI 1.13–2.47). Conclusion These data support earlier observations of migraine-obesity association among women, and extend the literature to include evidence of adult weight gain among women with a history of pediatric migraine.
Vo, Michelle; Ainalem, Abinnet; Qiu, Chunfang; Peterlin, B. Lee; Aurora, Sheena K.; Williams, Michelle A.
Purpose The aim of the present conventional observational study was to compare the clinical outcomes of initial non-weight-bearing therapy and conventional relative rest therapy among elderly patients with clinical vertebral fractures. Methods In total, 196 consecutive patients with clinical vertebral fractures (mean age: 78 years) who were hospitalized for treatment between January 1999 and March 2007 were analyzed. Initial non-weight-bearing therapy consisted of complete bed rest allowing rolling on the bed without any weight-bearing to the spine for 2 weeks, followed by rehabilitation wearing a soft brace. The indications for initial non-weight-bearing therapy were vertebral fracture involving the posterior portion of the vertebral body at the thoraco-lumbar spine, mild neurological deficit, instability of the fracture site, severe pain, multiple vertebral fractures arising from trauma, malalignment at the fracture site, and mild spinal canal stenosis caused by the fracture. Patients who met the indication criteria were treated with initial non-weight-bearing therapy (n = 103), while the other patients were treated with conventional relative rest (n = 93). All the patients were uniformly treated with intramuscular elcatonin to relieve pain. The primary endpoint was progression of the vertebral fracture. The secondary endpoints included bony union and subjective back pain. The follow-up period was 12 weeks. Results Compared with the conventional relative rest group, the collapse rate of the anterior and posterior portions of the vertebral body was significantly smaller in the initial non-weight-bearing group. The bony union rate was 100% in the initial non-weight-bearing group and 97% in the conventional relative rest group. The number of patients who experienced back pain was significantly lower in the initial non-weight-bearing group than in the conventional relative rest group. Conclusion These results suggest that initial non-weight-bearing therapy is important for preventing vertebral body collapse and for relieving pain among elderly patients with clinical vertebral fractures.
The goals of this study were to examine gender differences in body satisfaction, obesity status, and weight loss strategies among African Americans. A self-administered survey was completed by a convenient sample of 789 African Americans, but 763 provided weight and height information. Significantly more men than women were satisfied or very satisfied with their weight. Based on self-reported weights, the mean body mass index for both men (26.61+/-4.23) and women (26.44+/-5.80) was greater than 25, thus classifying them as being overweight. Sixty-two percent of respondents had tried to lose weight in the last 12 months, with significantly more women trying to lose weight than men (P<.0001). Of those who tried to lose weight, most tried to lose weight by decreasing fried foods, decreasing sweets, and increasing exercise levels. Women were significantly more likely than men to use liquid meals, to use diet pills, to join a weight loss program, and to increase exercise levels to lose weight (P<.05). PMID:14520259
James, Delores C s
The objective of this study was to determine the live weight, body condition scores (BCS) and fleece weight of sheep in four smallholder farming communities of Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Among the four communities studied, two (Roxeni and Tyabane) were in sweetveld and other two (Luzi I and Luzi II) were in a sourveld. Roxeni and Luzi communities were also engaged in the ram exchange project with the National Wool Growers Association (NWGA). Sixty crossbred ewes and 20 non-descript ewes aged 2 to 3 years were randomly selected from the four communities studied and were measured during their annual shearing in October. They were assessed for average greasy fleece weight per head, body condition score and live weight after shearing. Roxeni sheep were heavier (39.9?±?1.10 kg) than Tyabane sheep (29.8?±?1.10 kg). Sheep from Tyabane had the lightest (P <0.05) fleece weight (1.0?±?1.10 kg) than Roxeni sheep (3.1?±?1.10 kg). The 2-year-old ewes had similar (P???0.05) live weight to that of the 3-year-old ewes. However, the 3-year-old ewes had higher (3.3?±?0.11) (P?0.05) body condition scores than the 2-year-old ewes (2.8?±?0.10). Two-year-old ewes also had lower (1.9?±?0.11 kg) (P?0.05) fleece weight than the 3-year-old ewes (2.3?±?0.10 kg). It was concluded that sheep that were raised in the sweetveld had higher live and fleece weights than the ones that were raised on the sourveld. The communities that were engaged on ram exchange project had sheep with higher live weights, body condition score and fleece weight. PMID:24715207
Mvinjelwa, Sivuyile Alex; Mapekula, Monde; Maphosa, Viola; Muchenje, Voster
Techniques for determining large deformation of layered or graded structures to include effects of body forces such as gravity, electrostatic or electromagnetic forces, and other forces that uniformly distribute over the structures, support forces, and concentrated forces. A real-time stress monitoring system is also disclosed to provide in-situ monitoring of a device based on the large deformation analytical approach. A coherent gradient sensing module, for example, may be included in such a system.
The relationships between the shelf level at which mice were housed and body weight and food consumption/wastage were examined by analyzing data obtained from the first 9 months of a carcinogenic dose-response study carried out in 24,192 female BALB/c mice using 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) as the carcinogen. Each cage, containing four mice, was maintained on a rack at a given shelf level throughout the course of the experiment to allow analysis of data by shelf level. The amount of food removed from each feeder and the body weight of each mouse was measured weekly. Average body weight gain during the first 12 weeks was lowest on the top shelf, highest on the next two shelves, and progressively lower as the shelf approached the lowest level on the rack. Body weights attained by week 36 of the experiment generally reflected this same pattern. Weekly food consumption/wastage, as measured by disappearance of food from the feeder, generally showed the converse shelf-level pattern as that shown by body weight gain. Removal of food from feeders was greatest on the top shelf, lowest on the next shelf, and progressively increased with each succeedingly lower shelf. Although it is not clear whether the food removal pattern was related more to food consumption or food wastage, the observation was reproducible. PMID:6664066
Greenman, D L; Bryant, P; Kodell, R L; Sheldon, W
The authors previously reported that male offspring of mothers rats given alkaline ionized water (AKW) showed a significantly higher body weight by day 14 after birth than did offspring of mother rats given tap water (TPW); furthermore, marked myocardial necrosis and fibrosis were observed particularly in the former male offspring at the age of 15 weeks. In the present experiment we looked for differences in bioparameters, namely the milk yield of mothers and suckled milk volume of the offspring, between the AKW- and the TPW-treated groups in order to reveal the factors which cause the unusual body weight gain in the offspring. Even though we were able to repeat our previous observation (the body weight of the male offspring of the AKW group increased significantly more by day 14 and 20 after birth and of the female by day 20 after birth than did that of the TPW group (p < 0.05), no significant difference was noted in any of the bioparameters, including those related to milk production and consumption. It is thus suspected that the water-hydrated cation, which was transferred either to the fetus through the placenta or to the offspring through the milk, might be the cause of the unusual body weight increase. Since calcium plays an important role in skeletal formation, it is tentatively concluded that the higher calcium concentration of AKW enriched the mother, serum calcium which was transferred to the fetus through the placenta and to the offspring through the milk. PMID:9922938
Watanabe, T; Pan, I; Fukuda, Y; Murasugi, E; Kamata, H; Uwatoko, K
Objectives. I sought to examine gender's role as a moderator in the association of relative body weight to smoking and mental health. Methods. Data came from the 2004–2005 Minnesota Survey on Adult Substance Use, a statewide telephone survey (N = 16 289). Current smoking and mental health problems were examined in relation to relative body weight across genders, with control for covariates. Results. Relative to their healthy-weight counterparts, overweight or obese men were less likely to smoke, whereas overweight women were more likely to smoke. Mental health problems were not related to relative body weight among men. However, overweight or obese women were more likely than were their healthy-weight counterparts to have a negative self-assessment of mental health, and obese women were more likely to have a mental health problem. In addition, underweight women had increased odds of being a smoker and having mental health problems. Conclusions. The results indicate that gender has a moderating role in the association between body weight and both smoking and mental health. Gender-specific analysis rather than adjustment for the impact of gender in analyses is a promising avenue for future research.
Objective. The effect of oral boric acid intake on reducing body weight has been previously demonstrated although the mechanism has been unclear. This research study reveals the mechanism. Subjects. Twelve mice were used, in groups of six each in the control and study groups. For five days, control group mice drank standard tap water while during the same time period the study group mice drank tap water which contains 0.28?mg/250?mL boric acid. After a 5-day period, gene expression levels for uncoupling proteins (UCPs) in the white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT), and skeletal muscle tissue (SMT) and total body weight changes were analyzed. Results. Real time PCR analysis revealed no significant change in UCP3 expressions, but UCP2 in WAT (P: 0.0317), BAT (P: 0.014), and SMT (P: 0.0159) and UCP1 in BAT (P: 0.026) were overexpressed in the boric acid group. In addition, mice in the boric acid group lost body weight (mean 28.1%) while mice in the control group experienced no weight loss but a slight weight gain (mean 0.09%, P < 0.001). Conclusion. Oral boric acid intake causes overexpression of thermogenic proteins in the adipose and skeletal muscle tissues. Increasing thermogenesis through UCP protein pathway results in the accelerated lipolysis and body weight loss.
Aysan, Erhan; Telci, Dilek; Erdem, Merve; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut; Yard?mc?, Erkan; Bektasoglu, Huseyin
In vitro, pancreatic triglyceride lipase requires co-lipase to restore activity in the presence of inhibitors, like bile acids. Presumably, colipase performs the same function in vivo, but little data supports that notion. Other studies suggest that colipase or its proform, procolipase, may have additional functions in appetite regulation or in fat digestion during the newborn period when pancreatic triglyceride lipase is not expressed. To identify the physiological role of procolipase, we created a mouse model of procolipase deficiency. The Clps?/? mice appeared normal at birth, but unexpectedly 60% died within the first 2 weeks of life. The survivors had fat malabsorption as newborns and as adults, but only when fed a high fat diet. On a low fat diet, the Clps?/? mice did not have steatorrhea. The Clps?/? pups had impaired weight gain and weighed 30% less than Clps+/+or Clps+/? littermates. After weaning, the Clps?/? mice had normal rate of weight gain, but they maintained a reduced body weight compared with normal littermates even on a low fat diet. Despite the reduced body weight, the Clps?/? mice had a normal body temperature. To maintain their weight gain in the presence of steatorrhea, the Clps?/? mice had hyperphagia on a high fat diet. Clps?/? mice had normal intake on a low fat diet. We conclude that, in addition to its critical role in fat digestion, procolipase has essential functions in postnatal development and in regulating body weight set point.
D'Agostino, Dymphna; Cordle, Richard A.; Kullman, John; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte; Muglia, Louis J.; Lowe, Mark E.
Objectives: To investigate body image and psychosocial adjustment among competitive bodybuilders, non-competitive weight trainers, and athletically active men. Methods: Participants were 40 men in each of the three groups who were assessed on body composition and multiple facets of body image evaluation, investment and anxiety, eating attitudes, and social self esteem. Results: Relative to the other two groups, competitive bodybuilders had greater body mass due to fat-free body mass. Although groups did not differ in their situational body image discomfort, competitive bodybuilders and weight trainers had a more positive global appearance evaluation and were more psychologically invested in their physical appearance. Compared with active controls, men in both weightlifting groups were more satisfied with their upper torso and muscle tone. Competitive bodybuilders reported more mid torso satisfaction than the other two groups. Competitive bodybuilders also wished to be significantly heavier than controls did and reported higher social self esteem but greater eating disturbance. Conclusions: The findings suggest that competitive bodybuilders as a group are not more "muscle dysmorphic" than either non-competitive weight trainers or physically active men who do not train with weights.
Pickett, T; Lewis, R; Cash, T; Pope, H
Background: Considering the importance and prevalence of obesity and the desire to lose weight, especially among women, this study intended to investigate the relationship between Body Mass Index, body satisfaction, and weight control behavior among women employees in Isfahan. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted among 408 women who were selected by stratified random sampling method among employees at Isfahan University and Isfahan University of Medical Sciences during 2012. The data collection tool was a multidimensional questionnaire which comprised two sections: Demographic Tool and Body Satisfaction Tool (7 items), Weight Control Behavior Scale (18 items). Results: Age, marital status, educational level, and multiparity were significantly correlated with body size satisfaction. Seventy-five participants were dissatisfied with their weight and 60.5% reported a desire to lose weight; 92.15% of women studied had participated in a healthy dieting behavior and 10.8% of them had participated in an unhealthy one during the past six months. There was an inverse correlation between body satisfaction and Body Mass Index (BMI) (r = –0.64, P = 0.001). Ninety percent of participants had at least one of the dieting behaviors. There was an inverse significant relationship between body satisfaction and dieting behaviors (r = –0.19, P = 0.001). Conclusions: Due to the importance of the prevention of obesity and the necessity of having a normal BMI in order to prevent subsequent complications, precise self-evaluation of body size can be used to focus on designing and conducting public health programs, especially for women.
Mostafavi-Darani, Firoozeh; Daniali, Seyede-Shahrbanoo; Azadbakht, Leila
Qualitative aspects of diet may affect body composition and propensity for weight gain or loss. We tested the hypothesis that consumption of a relatively low glycemic load (GL) diet would reduce total and visceral adipose tissue under both eucaloric and hypocaloric conditions. Participants were 69 healthy overweight men and women. Body composition was assessed by DXA and fat distribution by CT scan at baseline, after 8 weeks of a eucaloric diet intervention, and after 8 weeks of a hypocaloric (1000 kcal/d deficit) diet intervention. Participants were provided all food for both phases, and randomized to either a low GL diet (?45 points per 1000 kcal; n=40) or high GL diet (>75 points per 1000 kcal, n=29). After the eucaloric phase, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 11% less intra-abdominal fat (IAAT) than those who consumed the high GL diet (P<0.05, adjusted for total fat mass and baseline IAAT). Participants lost an average of 5.8 kg during the hypocaloric phase, with no differences in the amount of weight loss with diet assignment (P=0.39). Following weight loss, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 4.4% less total fat mass than those who consumed the high GL diet (P<0.05, adjusted for lean mass and baseline fat mass). Consumption of a relatively low GL diet may affect energy partitioning, both inducing reduction in IAAT independent of weight change, and enhancing loss of fat relative to lean mass during weight loss.
Goss, Amy M.; Goree, Laura Lee; Ellis, Amy C.; Chandler-Laney, Paula C.; Casazza, Krista; Lockhart, Mark E.; Gower, Barbara A.
Background. Hypertension and excess body weight are important risk factors for endothelial dysfunction. Recent evidence suggests that high-polyphenol dark chocolate improves endothelial function and lowers blood pressure. This study aimed to evaluate the association of chocolate 70% cocoa intake with metabolic profile, oxidative stress, inflammation, blood pressure, and endothelial function in stage 1 hypertensives with excess body weight. Methods. Intervention clinical trial includes 22 stage 1 hypertensives without previous antihypertensive treatment, aged 18 to 60 years and presents a body mass index between 25.0 and 34.9?kg/m(2). All participants were instructed to consume 50?g of chocolate 70% cocoa/day (2135?mg polyphenols) for 4 weeks. Endothelial function was evaluated by peripheral artery tonometry using Endo-PAT 2000 (Itamar Medical). Results. Twenty participants (10 men) completed the study. Comparison of pre-post intervention revealed that (1) there were no significant changes in anthropometric parameters, percentage body fat, glucose metabolism, lipid profile, biomarkers of inflammation, adhesion molecules, oxidized LDL, and blood pressure; (2) the assessment of endothelial function through the reactive hyperemia index showed a significant increase: 1.94 ± 0.18 to 2.22 ± 0.08, P = 0.01. Conclusion.In individuals with stage 1 hypertension and excess body weight, high-polyphenol dark chocolate improves endothelial function. PMID:23209885
Nogueira, Lívia de Paula; Knibel, Marcela Paranhos; Torres, Márcia Regina Simas Gonçalves; Nogueira Neto, José Firmino; Sanjuliani, Antonio Felipe
Background. Hypertension and excess body weight are important risk factors for endothelial dysfunction. Recent evidence suggests that high-polyphenol dark chocolate improves endothelial function and lowers blood pressure. This study aimed to evaluate the association of chocolate 70% cocoa intake with metabolic profile, oxidative stress, inflammation, blood pressure, and endothelial function in stage 1 hypertensives with excess body weight. Methods. Intervention clinical trial includes 22 stage 1 hypertensives without previous antihypertensive treatment, aged 18 to 60 years and presents a body mass index between 25.0 and 34.9?kg/m2. All participants were instructed to consume 50?g of chocolate 70% cocoa/day (2135?mg polyphenols) for 4 weeks. Endothelial function was evaluated by peripheral artery tonometry using Endo-PAT 2000 (Itamar Medical). Results. Twenty participants (10 men) completed the study. Comparison of pre-post intervention revealed that (1) there were no significant changes in anthropometric parameters, percentage body fat, glucose metabolism, lipid profile, biomarkers of inflammation, adhesion molecules, oxidized LDL, and blood pressure; (2) the assessment of endothelial function through the reactive hyperemia index showed a significant increase: 1.94 ± 0.18 to 2.22 ± 0.08, P = 0.01. Conclusion.In individuals with stage 1 hypertension and excess body weight, high-polyphenol dark chocolate improves endothelial function.
Nogueira, Livia de Paula; Knibel, Marcela Paranhos; Torres, Marcia Regina Simas Goncalves; Nogueira Neto, Jose Firmino; Sanjuliani, Antonio Felipe
Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models need the correct organ/tissue weights to match various total body weights in order to be applied to children and the obese individual. Baseline data from Reference Man for the growth of human organs (adrenals, brain, heart, kidneys, liver, lungs, pancreas, spleen, thymus, and thyroid) were augmented with autopsy data to extend the describing polynomials to include the morbidly obese individual (up to 250 kg). Additional literature data similarly extends the growth curves for blood volume, muscle, skin, and adipose tissue. Collectively these polynomials were used to calculate blood/organ/tissue weights for males and females from birth to 250 kg, which can be directly used to help parameterize PBPK models. In contrast to other black/white anthropomorphic measurements, the data demonstrated no observable or statistical difference in weights for any organ/tissue between individuals identified as black or white in the autopsy reports. PMID:19267313
Young, John F; Luecke, Richard H; Pearce, Bruce A; Lee, Taewon; Ahn, Hongshik; Baek, Songjoon; Moon, Hojin; Dye, Daniel W; Davis, Thomas M; Taylor, Susan J
Buffalo are an economically important source for meat and milk production, especially in Brazil. However, important aspects of their biology remain unknown thus far. Herein, we describe the reproductive characteristics of male Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) raised under extensive management conditions by applying biometrics associated with testicular weight. We analyzed seven males, divided into two groups: G1, which consisted of four 18-month-old animals, and G2, which consisted of three 24-month-old animals. Testicular development occurs slowly in Murrah buffalo, suggesting a delay of sexual maturity. The biometric testicular parameters analyzed were scrotal circumference, testicular weight, testicular length, testicular width, testicular thickness and testicular circumference. Our data indicate strong correlations between SC, age and body weight, and additional significant relationships were identified between body weight, age and other testicular parameters. Thus, these parameters are suitable indicators when selecting bulls for breeding purposes. PMID:22986925
da Luz, Patrícia Aparecida Cardoso; Santos, Paulo Ramos da Silva; Andrighetto, Cristiana; Jorge, André Mendes; de Assis Neto, Antônio Chaves
Fish consumption is the major dietary source of EPA and DHA, which according to rodent experiments may reduce body fat mass and prevent obesity. Only a few human studies have investigated the association between fish consumption and body-weight gain. We investigated the association between fish consumption and subsequent change in body weight. Women and men (n 344,757) participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition were followed for a median of 5.0 years. Linear and logistic regression were used to investigate the associations between fish consumption and subsequent change in body weight. Among women, the annual weight change was 5.70 (95 % CI 4.35, 7.06), 2.23 (95 % CI 0.16, 4.31) and 11.12 (95 % CI 8.17, 14.08) g/10 g higher total, lean and fatty fish consumption per d, respectively. The OR of becoming overweight in 5 years among women who were normal weight at enrolment was 1.02 (95 % CI 1.01, 1.02), 1.01 (95 % CI 1.00, 1.02) and 1.02 (95 % CI 1.01, 1.04) g/10 g higher total, lean and fatty consumption per d, respectively. Among men, fish consumption was not statistically significantly associated with weight change. Adjustment for potential over- or underestimation of fish consumption did not systematically change the observed associations, but the 95 % CI became wider. The results in subgroups from analyses stratified by age or BMI at enrolment were not systematically different. In conclusion, the present study suggests that fish consumption has no appreciable association with body-weight gain. PMID:22716915
Jakobsen, Marianne U; Dethlefsen, Claus; Due, Karen M; May, Anne M; Romaguera, Dora; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Norat, Teresa; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Halkjær, Jytte; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Fagherazzi, Guy; Teucher, Birgit; Kühn, Tilman; Bergmann, Manuela M; Boeing, Heiner; Naska, Androniki; Orfanos, Philippos; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Santucci De Magistris, Maria; Sieri, Sabina; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; van der A, Daphne L; Engeset, Dagrun; Hjartåker, Anette; Rodríguez, Laudina; Agudo, Antonio; Molina-Montes, Esther; Huerta, José M; Barricarte, Aurelio; Amiano, Pilar; Manjer, Jonas; Wirfält, Elisabet; Hallmans, Göran; Johansson, Ingegerd; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Key, Timothy J; Chajès, Veronique; Slimani, Nadia; Riboli, Elio; Peeters, Petra H M; Overvad, Kim
Why bodies? It is rather puzzling that given the massive interest in affective neuroscience in the last decade, it still seems to make sense to raise the question ‘Why bodies’ and to try to provide an answer to it, as is the goal of this article. There are now hundreds of articles on human emotion perception ranging from behavioural studies to brain imaging experiments. These experimental studies complement decades of reports on affective disorders in neurological patients and clinical studies of psychiatric populations. The most cursory glance at the literature on emotion in humans, now referred to by the umbrella term of social and affective neuroscience, shows that over 95 per cent of them have used faces as stimuli. Of the remaining 5 per cent, a few have used scenes or auditory information including human voices, music or environmental sounds. But by far the smallest number has looked into whole-body expressions. As a rough estimate, a search on PubMed today, 1 May 2009, yields 3521 hits for emotion × faces, 1003 hits for emotion × music and 339 hits for emotion × bodies. When looking in more detail, the body × emotion category in fact yields a majority of papers on well-being, nursing, sexual violence or organ donation. But the number of cognitive and affective neuroscience studies of emotional body perception as of today is lower than 20. Why then have whole bodies and bodily expressions not attracted the attention of researchers so far? The goal of this article is to contribute some elements for an answer to this question. I believe that there is something to learn from the historical neglect of bodies and bodily expressions. I will next address some historical misconceptions about whole-body perception, and in the process I intend not only to provide an impetus for this kind of work but also to contribute to a better understanding of the significance of the affective dimension of behaviour, mind and brain as seen from the vantage point of bodily communication. Subsequent sections discuss available evidence for the neurofunctional basis of facial and bodily expressions as well as neuropsychological and clinical studies of bodily expressions.
de Gelder, Beatrice
Objective Stress is associated with increased intake of palatable foods and with weight gain, particularly in overweight women. Stress, food, and body mass index (BMI) have been separately shown to impact amygdala activity. However, it is not known whether stress influences amygdala responses to palatable foods, and whether this response is associated with chronic stress or BMI. Design Fourteen overweight and obese women participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan as they consumed a palatable milkshake during script-driven autobiographical guided imagery of stressful and neutral-relaxing scenarios. Results We report that a network including insula, somatomotor mouth area, ventral striatum, and thalamus responds to milkshake receipt, but none of these areas are impacted by stress. In contrast, while the left amygdala responds to milkshake irrespective of condition, the right amygdala responds to milkshake only under stressful conditions. Moreover, this right amygdala response is positively associated with basal cortisol levels, an objective measure of chronic stress. We also found a positive relationship between BMI and stress related increased response to milkshake in the orbitofrontal cortex. Conclusions These results demonstrate that acute stress potentiates response to food in the right amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex as a function of chronic stress and body weight, respectively. This suggests that the influence of acute stress in potentiating amygdala and OFC responses to food is dependent upon individual factors like BMI and chronic stress. We conclude that BMI and chronic stress play a significant role in brain response to food and in stress-related eating.
Rudenga, KJ; Sinha, R; Small, DM
The study was conducted to determine the effects of chitosan on the concentrations of GH and IGF-I in serum and small intestinal morphological structure of piglets, in order to evaluate the regulating action of chitosan on weaned pig growth through endocrine and intestinal morphological approaches. A total of 180 weaned pigs (35 d of age; 11.56±1.61 kg of body weight) were selected and assigned randomly to 5 dietary treatments, including 1 basal diet (control) and 4 diets with chitosan supplementation (100, 500, 1,000 and 2,000 mg/kg, respectively). Each treatment contained six replicate pens with six pigs per pen. The experiment lasted for 28 d. The results showed that the average body weight gain (BWG) of pigs was improved quadratically by dietary chitosan during the former 14 d and the later 14 d after weaned (p<0.05). Furthermore, dietary supplementation of chitosan tended to quadratically increase the concentration of serum GH on d 14 (p = 0.082) and 28 (p = 0.087). Diets supplemented with increasing levels of chitosan increased quadratically the villus height of jejunum and ileum on d 14 (p = 0.089, p<0.01) and 28 (p = 0.074, p<0.01), meanwhile, chitosan increased quadratically the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in duodenum, jejunum and ileum on d 14 (p<0.05, p = 0.055, p<0.01) and 28 (p<0.01, p<0.01, p<0.01), however, it decreased quadratically crypt depth in ileum on d 14 (p<0.05) and that in duodenum, jejunum and ileum on d 28 (p<0.01, p<0.05, p<0.05). In conclusion, these results indicated that chitosan could quadratically improve growth in weaned pigs, and the underlying mechanism may due to the increase of the serum GH concentration and improvement of the small intestines morphological structure.
Xu, Yuanqing; Shi, Binlin; Yan, Sumei; Li, Tiyu; Guo, Yiwei; Li, Junliang
Intake of palatable solutions can enhance the anorectic potency of opioid antagonists. This experiment examined the relative contributions of orosensory experience and body weight gain to the enhanced anorectic potency of naloxone (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg i.p.). Four groups of male hooded Lister rats (Charles River) were maintained on separate feeding regimes for 3 months. S-ADLIB rats were nondeprived with free access to lab chow and 20% (w/v) sucrose solution. S-RESTRICT rats received limited sucrose (50 ml/day) and chow (15 g/day) access, yoking their body weights to ADLIB rats receiving free access to lab chow only. RESTRICT rats received approx. 15 g of chow/day to maintain their body weights at 90% of the ADLIB rats. Fifteen-minute sucrose intake tests revealed marked differences between naloxone sensitivity of chronic sucrose drinkers and sucrose-naive groups. Intakes of S-ADLIB and S-RESTRICT were suppressed at all doses (max suppression >60%). In comparison to animals given sucrose, ADLIB and RESTRICT animals were significantly less sensitive (maximum suppression = 35%). Naloxone potency was independent of body weight differences. The data demonstrate that overconsumption of palatable ingesta, and not diet-induced weight gain, is sufficient to enhance antagonist potency. The study confirms that orosensory stimulation can induce plasticity in opioid systems, supporting an important role for opioids in intake regulation and general reward processes. PMID:10208364
Shabir, S; Kirkham, T C
IntroductionPrevious studies suggested potential priming effects of gestational weight gain (GWG) on offspring’s body composition in later life. However, consistency of these effects in normal weight, overweight and obese mothers is less clear.MethodsWe combined the individual data of three German cohorts and assessed associations of total and excessive GWG (as defined by criteria of the Institute of Medicine) with offspring’s
Andreas Beyerlein; Ina Nehring; Peter Rzehak; Joachim Heinrich; Manfred J. Müller; Sandra Plachta-Danielzik; Martin Wabitsch; Melanie Weck; Hermann Brenner; Dietrich Rothenbacher; Rüdiger von Kries
This study compared the effect of Picolax when administered for large bowel preparation in combination with preoperative fasting on body weight, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, and cardiovascular variables with matched subjects who were fasted before surgery. Picolax resulted in significantly greater weight loss, increases in haemoglobin concentration combined with cardiovascular changes suggesting hypovolaemia in the Picolax group. Intravenous fluid replacement is recommended in patients receiving Picolax.
Barker, P.; Trotter, T.; Hanning, C.
Background\\/Aim: Skinfold-based equations are widely used to evaluate body fat (BF), but over-\\/underestimation is often reported. We evaluate the capacity of improved skinfold-based equations to estimate BF changes during weight reduction and compare them against well-established equations. Methods: Overweight adults (n = 44) participated in a 4-month weight reduction intervention. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and anthropometric measurements were taken at
Ada L. García; Karen Wagner; Christiana Einig; Ulrike Trippo; Corinna Koebnick; Hans-Joachim F. Zunft
Objective To compare self-reported to measured heights and weights of adults examined in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), and to determine to what extent body mass index (BMI) calculated from self-reported heights and weights affects estimates of overweight prevalence compared with BMI calculated from measured values.Design A complex sample design was used in NHANES III
MARIE FANELLI KUCZMARSKI; ROBERT J KUCZMARSKI; MATTHEW NAJJAR
To examine the associations between birth weight and BMI, and total body composition, in overweight Latino adolescents. Two hundred and forty-two overweight Latino children (baseline age = 11.1 ± 1.7 years; BMI ? 85th percentile) were measured annually for up to 6 years (2.6 ± 1.4 observations\\/child, total 848 visits). Birth weight and history of gestational diabetes were obtained by
Louise A. Kelly; Geoff D. C. Ball; Marc J. Weigensberg; Lisa G. Vargas; Courtney E. Byrd-Williams; Emily E. Ventura; Michael I. Goran
Average body weight differences between urban and rural areas have been reported in many countries, but it is unknown whether these are due to effects of social selection or social causation. We examined whether adolescent body mass index (BMI) predicted selective urban\\/rural migration over a 21-year period and whether urban\\/rural living over the same period predicted differences in BMI increase
Markus Jokela; Mika Kivimäki; Marko Elovainio; Jorma Viikari; Olli T. Raitakari; Liisa Keltikangas-Järvinen
Objective:Cross-breeding experiments with different mouse strains have successfully been used by many groups to identify genetic loci that predispose for obesity. In order to provide a statistical assessment of these quantitative trait loci (QTL) as a basis for a systematic investigation of candidate genes, we have performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide linkage scans for body weight and body fat.Data:From a
S Wuschke; S Dahm; C Schmidt; H-G Joost; H Al-Hasani
CT is currently the mainstay in staging malignant lymphoma in children, but the risk of second neoplasms due to ionizing radiation\\u000a associated with CT is not negligible. Whole-body MRI techniques and whole-body diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in particular,\\u000a may be a good radiation-free alternative to CT. DWI is characterized by high sensitivity for the detection of lesions and\\u000a allows quantitative assessment
Thomas C. Kwee; Taro Takahara; Malou A. Vermoolen; Marc B. Bierings; Willem P. Mali; Rutger A. J. Nievelstein
Researchers and policymakers from diverse fields are engaged in efforts to understand the biological and social causes of obesity in order to develop policies, interventions, and recommendations to stop or reverse increases in obesity. One potentially promising approach is to harness influence from social contacts. An important foundation for this approach involves critically analyzing available data regarding whether and how body weight can be affected by close social contacts, especially friends. This systematic review examines evidence from published studies addressing the influences of friends on body weight. The majority of the sixteen studies conclude that there is evidence of influence: six reported that friends influence body weight and ten reported evidence of influence in some circumstances or specifications. However, this literature sheds little light on mechanisms of influence. There is limited evidence that friends’ communication about weight is associated with weight status and no compelling evidence that friends’ behaviors affect one’s weight. Many of the studies best designed to examine influence were the ones that did not explore mechanisms of influence. A priority for future research is to understand how, when, and how much friends affect the risk of obesity.
Cunningham, Solveig A.; Vaquera, Elizabeth; Maturo, Claire C.; Narayan, K.M. Venkat
Obesity is a major health concern. Strategies to reduce obesity including weight loss by energy restriction have disease risk reduction benefits, however, energy restriction alone often leads to the loss of muscle mass. Muscle is a very important tissues in the body particularly from a metabolic standpoint, thus, efforts to maintain it by promoting weight loss with the greatest ratio
Andrea R Josse
The overall purpose of this study is to investigate the physical performance of early postmenopausal Caucasian women during a 12-month weight reduction program. Additionally, the relationships between body composition (bone, fat and lean mass) and physical performance during that period is explored. A total of 97 participants aged 56.0(±4.3) years old with an average BMI of 30.3(±3.8) kg\\/m2 were included
The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between body weight, circadian blood pressure profile, pulse pressure and insulin resistance. The participants were divided into a lean group with a BMI<26 and the overweight group with a BMI ?26. Sixty-five overweight and 55 lean subjects (age 50.5±14.4 and 49.9±14.4 y, respectively) were included. Ninety five were hypertensives (SBP
M. Akopian; A. Renauld; A. O. Olivieri; H. M. Chavin; S. Cauterucci; D. Garrido; C. A. Feldstein
Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) is posttranslationally processed to several peptides including ?-MSH, a primary regulator of energy balance that inhibits food intake and stimulates energy expenditure. However, another POMC-derived peptide, ?-endorphin (?-EP), has been shown to stimulate food intake. In this study we examined the effects of intracerebroventricular (icv) ?-EP on food intake and its ability to antagonize the negative effects of ?-MSH on energy balance in male rats. A single icv injection of ?-EP stimulated food intake over a 2- to 6-h period during both the light and dark cycles. This effect was, however, not sustained with chronic icv ?-EP infusion. In the next study, a subthreshold dose of ?-EP was injected together with Nle4, d-Phe7 (NDP)-MSH after a 16-h fast, and the negative effects of NDP-MSH on refeeding and body weight gain were partially reversed. Finally, peptide interactions were studied in a chronic icv infusion model. Weight gain and food intake were significantly suppressed in the NDP-MSH group during the entire study. A subthreshold dose of ?-EP antagonized these suppressive effects on food intake and weight gain for the first 3 d. However on d 4–7, ?-EP no longer blocked these effects. Of note, the stimulatory effect of ?-EP on feeding and its ability to antagonize MSH were specific for ?-EP1–31 and were not observed with ?-EP1–27. This study highlights the importance of understanding how the balance between ?-MSH and ?-EP is maintained and the potential role of differential POMC processing in regulating energy balance.
Dutia, Roxanne; Meece, Kana; Dighe, Shveta; Kim, Andrea J.
Childhood obesity is an issue of public health concern globally. This review reports on levels of overweight and obesity in Irish children and examines some aspects of their diet and lifestyle proposed to promote or protect against increasing body fatness in children. While there is still some debate with regard to the most appropriate cut-off points to use when assessing body fatness in children, approximately one in five Irish children (aged 2-17 years) have been classified as overweight (including obese) according to two generally accepted approaches. Furthermore, comparison with previous data has shown an increase in mean body weight and BMI over time. On examining dietary patterns for Irish children, there was a noticeable transition from a less energy dense diet in pre-school children to a more energy dense diet in older children and teenagers, associated with a change to less favourable dietary intakes for fibre, fat, fruit and vegetables, confectionery and snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages as children got older. A significant proportion of school-aged children and teenagers reported watching more than 2 h television per day (35 % on school-days and 65 % on week-ends) compared with 13 % of pre-school children. For children aged 5-12 years, eating out of the home contributed just 9 % of energy intake but food eaten from outside the home was shown to contribute a higher proportion of energy from fat and to be less fibre-dense than food prepared at home. Improvements in dietary lifestyle are needed to control increasing levels of overweight and obesity in children in Ireland. PMID:24598015
Walton, Janette; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J; Flynn, Albert
Background Studies addressing the influence of early sexual maturation on the excess of body weight and height of children and adolescents are scarce. The aim of the study was to analyze the association of sexual maturation with excess body weight and height in children and adolescents. Methods This was a cross-sectional study performed in Florianópolis city, Brazil, in 2007, with 2339 school children, aged 8–14 years (1107 males). Selection was based on a probabilistic, cluster-stratified sampling technique. School children were classified according to the presence of excess body weight, using sex- and age-specific body mass index (BMI) cutoff points. Z-scores were calculated from height and BMI data. Sexual maturation was self-assessed according to Tanner stages of development. Subjects were ranked based on tertiles of sexual maturation (early, normal and late) for each stage of development. Poisson and linear regression models were used. Results Compared to the reference group (normal sexual maturation), early maturing females had higher prevalence of excess weight (adjusted prevalence ratio: 1.70; 95% CI: 1.24 to 2.33) and increased height-for-age (adjusted ?: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.14 to 0.59), while late maturing females had lower prevalence of excess weight (adjusted prevalence ratio: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.37 to 0.87) and decreased height-for-age (adjusted ?: ?0.38; 95% CI: ?0.56 to ?0.20). In males, early and late sexual maturation were associated with increased (adjusted ?: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.14 to 0.59) and decreased (adjusted ?: ?0.38; 95% CI: ?0.56 to ?0.20) height-for-age, respectively. Conclusion Early sexual maturation is associated with excess body weight in females and with greater height-for-age in both sexes.
I used captive young and adult American Black Ducks (Anas rubripes) during October-February 1984-1985 to test whether body weight and age affected time of pair-bond formation. Eighty ducks were marked individually, and 10 ducks (6 males and 4 females, half of each age class) were assigned to each of 8 experimental pens. Ducks in 4 pens received an ad libitum diet of commercial duck food, and ducks in the other 4 pens received a restricted ration of the same food. During early winter ducks in both groups gained weight, but ducks on the restricted diet gained less than birds on the ad libitum diet; peak winter weight of ducks on the ad libitum diet averaged 22% greater than initial body weight compared with 6.5% for ducks on the restricted diet. In late winter ducks on the restricted diet lost 28.7% of peak winter weight, and ducks on the ad libitum diet lost 19.3%. Weight loss of ducks on the ad libitum diet began before weather conditions became severe and coincided with a reduction in food consumption. This result supports the idea that weight loss of waterfowl in late winter is controlled endogenously. Individuals on the ad libitum diet paired earlier than those on the restricted diet, and pair bonds were stronger. Adults of both sexes paired earlier than young ducks, but differences for females were not significant statistically. Age and energy constraints are factors that can affect intraspecific variation in pairing chronology.
This paper investigated weight misperceptions as determinants of racial/ethnic disparities in body mass index (BMI) among adolescent females using data from the National Survey of Youth 1997. Compared to their white counterparts, higher proportions of black and Hispanic adolescent females underperceived their weight status; that is, they misperceived themselves to have lower weight status compared to their clinically defined weight status. Compared to their black counterparts, higher proportions of white and Hispanic adolescent females misperceived themselves to be heavier than their clinical weight status. Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition analysis showed that accounting for weight misperceptions, in addition to individual and contextual factors, increased the total explained portion of the black-white female BMI gap from 44.7% to 54.3% but only slightly increased the total explained portion of the Hispanic-white gap from 62.8% to 63.1%. Weight misperceptions explained 13.0% of the black-white female BMI gap and 3.3% of the Hispanic-white female BMI gap. The regression estimates showed that weight underperceptions were important determinants of adolescent female BMI, particularly among black and Hispanic adolescents. Education regarding identification and interpretation of weight status may play an important role to help reduce the incidence and racial disparity of female adolescent obesity.
Krauss, Ramona C.; Powell, Lisa M.; Wada, Roy
Preparing young students to resist the sociocultural pressures that contribute to body image and eating problems in American culture poses a monumental challenge. This project determined if the 11-lesson "Healthy Body Image: Teaching Kids to Eat and Love Their Bodies Too!" curriculum would have a positive effect when presented to upper elementary school children. A controlled study with 415 students measured changes from pretest to posttest related to: 1) body image; 2) knowledge about the biology of size, shape, and restricted hunger or dieting; 3) body size prejudice; 4) media awareness; 5) self-image; and 6) lifestyle behavior. Boys and girls who completed the curriculum showed significant or notable improvement compared to a control group not exposed to the curriculum. Results suggest it is possible to provide children with a knowledge base to use as they face increasing pressures about appearance, weight, and eating in the critical middle school years. PMID:12109175
Kater, Kathy J; Rohwer, John; Londre, Karen
TEIXEIRA, P. J., S. B. GOING, L. B. HOUTKOOPER, E. C. CUSSLER, L. L. METCALFE, R. M. BLEW, L. B. SARDINHA, and T. G. LOHMAN. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 38, No. 1, pp. 179-188, 2006. Purpose: This study investigated changes in psychosocial variables related to exercise, eating, and body image during a weight reduction program and evaluated their association
PEDRO J. TEIXEIRA; SCOTT B. GOING; LINDA B. HOUTKOOPER; ELLEN C. CUSSLER; LAUVE L. METCALFE; ROB M. BLEW; LUIS B. SARDINHA; TIMOTHY G. LOHMAN
Breakfast has been labeled the most important meal of the day, but are there data to support this claim? We summarized the results of 47 studies examining the association of breakfast consumption with nutritional adequacy (nine studies), body weight (16 studies), and academic performance (22 studies) in children and adolescents. Breakfast skipping is highly prevalent in the United States and
Gail C. Rampersaud; Mark A. Pereira; Beverly L. Girard; Judi Adams; Jordan D. Metzl
Performed lateral hypothalamic (LH) lesions in 23 male Holtzman albino rats, resulting in a decline to 90% body weight (BW) compared to 14 controls. Thereafter, throughout a 9-wk observation period, BW was maintained at this chronically reduced level. Quinine adulteration of the diet resulted in an additional 12.8% decline in the level of maintained BW. Intact Ss fed the same
Richard E. Keesey; Peter C. Boyle
The effects of selective ibotenate lesions of the complete hippocampus (CHip), the hippocampal ventral pole (VP), or the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in male rats were assessed on several measures related to energy regulation (i.e., body weight gain, food intake, body adiposity, metabolic activity general behavioral activity, conditioned appetitive responding). The testing conditions were designed to minimize the nonspecific debilitating effects of these surgeries on intake and body weight. Rats with CHip and VP lesions exhibited significantly greater weight gain and food intake compared to controls. Furthermore, CHip-lesioned rats, but not rats with VP lesions, showed elevated metabolic activity, general activity in the dark phase of the light-dark cycle, and greater conditioned appetitive behavior, compared to control rats without these brain lesions. In contrast, rats with mPFC lesions were not different from controls on any of these measures. These results indicate that hippocampal damage interferes with energy and body weight regulation, perhaps by disrupting higher-order learning and memory processes that contribute to the control of appetitive and consummatory behavior.
Davidson, T. L.; Chan, Kinho; Jarrard, Leonard E.; Kanoski, Scott E.; Clegg, Deborah J.; Benoit, Stephen C.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether body mass index (BMI) is related to energy intake during pregnancy, and whether BMI, energy intake and other factors are related to net weight gain. DESIGN: Longitudinal, duration of pregnancy. SUBJECTS: 156 healthy pregnant women residing in Quedlinburg county, Germany. METHODS: Weighed 7 d food records and standardized anthropometric measures in the first, second and third
MM Bergmann; EW Flagg; HL Miracle-McMahill; H Boeing
2 Abstract: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of body weight on stress and nutrition in women. Data were gathered from 889 women living in Turkey. The participants were selected randomly. Women were informed that the purpose of the study was to gather information on stress and nutrition and each participant attended a face-to-face interview .Subjects
N. Sanlier; N. Unusan
Objective: Association between nutritional status of adolescents and food consumption pattern. Design: Data on number of meals and snacks consumed daily were collected using structured questionnaires. Nutritional status was assessed as weight-for-age body mass index score less than fifth percentile of the National Center for Health…
Olumakaiye, M. F.; Atinmo, Tola; Olubayo-Fatiregun, M. A.
Anthocyanins in a variety of plant species have been identified and are known for its hypolipidemic and anti-obesity effects. The effect of anthocyanins extracted from black soybean on body weight and daily food intake in adult rats raised on normal diet were studied. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were daily intra-gastric administered water or anthocyanins 6 mg/kg and 24 mg/kg for 40 days. During this period daily food intake and body weight were measured prior to anthocyanins treatment. These findings showed that anthocyanins treatment resulted in significantly lowered body weight and food intake compared with water treated rats. In addition, anthocyanins dose dependently reduced the adipose tissue size compared with control group. Western blot analysis showed that high dose of anthocyanins treatment significantly reduced the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and increased ?-amino butyric acid receptor (GABAB1R) in hypothalamus. Furthermore, these events were followed by a decreased in expression of GABAB1R downstream signaling molecules protein kinase A-? (PKA) and phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein (p-CREB) in hypothalamus. These data support the concept that anthocyanins even in normal circumstances have the capability to reduce body weight and food intake through its modulatory effect on NPY and GABAB1R in hypothalamus. These results suggest that anthocyanins from black soybean seed coat might have a novel role in preventing obesity in rats on normal diet. PMID:23830691
Badshah, Haroon; Ullah, Ikram; Kim, So Eun; Kim, Tae-hyun; Lee, Hae Young; Kim, Myeong Ok
Previous estimates on the association between body weight and wages in the literature have been contingent on education and occupation. This paper examines the direct effect of BMI on wages and the indirect effects operating through education and occupation choice, particularly for late-teen BMI and adult wages. Using the National Longitudinal…
Han, Euna; Norton, Edward C.; Powell, Lisa M.
Body weight and caloric intake were measured in a group of heavy and casual marihuana users prior to, during and following 21 days of marihuana smoking under research ward conditions. A group of control subjects were studied under identical conditions, but they did not smoke marihuana. Both heavy and casual marihuana users had a significant increase in caloric intake and
Isaac Greenberg; John Kuehnle; Jack H. Mendelson; Jerrold G. Bernstein
Ideal body weight (IBW), which can be calculated using the variables of true height and sex, is important for drug dosing and ventilator settings. True height often cannot be measured in the emergency department (ED). Determine the most accurate method to...
A. Swenson C. R. Stehman F. L. Dos Santos R. G. Buckley R. H. Riffenburgh
The aims of this study was to investigate the impact of aluminum nitrate administered in drinking water during 90 days (sub-chronic toxicity), on body weight gain, motor activity, brain aluminum accumulation and especially in recognition memory of wistar rats. Two groups of young female wistar rats were used. Treated rats received (80 mg L(-1)) of aluminum nitrate diluted in drinking water, while control rats received a drinking water only, for 3 months. An evolution of body weight, a motor activity, object recognition memory (NOR) and brain aluminum concentration has been evaluated. The body weight was taken weekly, whereas the memory abilities and the motor activity are measured once every fortnight alternatively, by submitting rats to the open field test and to the novel object recognizing memory test. The results have showed a significant decrease in rats' body weight (p < 0.05). Though, no significance was registered for motor activity. Nevertheless, a high significance is showed for recognition memory compared to control rats (p < 0.01), especially at the end of testing period, even the difference between control and aluminium treated rats in brain aluminum levels was not significant. PMID:18817225
Azzaoui, F Z; Ahami, A O T; Khadmaoui, A
One of the main issues for balance control is the ability to generate enough forces to execute motions and uphold stability. This study aimed to investigate whether induced fatigue of the triceps surae muscles and decreased muscle force due to temporary additional body weight affected the ability to withstand balance perturbations. Another aim was to examine whether postural control adaptation
Torbjörn Ledin; P. A. Fransson; M. Magnusson
Overweight and obesity are major public health concerns with approximately 32% and 17% of U.S. children aged 2 – 19 being classified as overweight or obese, respectively. While the cause of overweight and obesity is multi-factorial, changes in eating habits and physical activity patterns have been proposed as contributing factors to the obesity epidemic. For example, the displacement of nutrient rich foods and beverages with non-nutrient dense items may be influencing childhood obesity. Many children do not consume the recommended servings of the Food Groups to Encourage, i.e. low-fat and fat-free dairy foods, fruits, vegetables, and whole grains identified by the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans which results in low intakes of calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E. While attention has focused primarily on reducing energy intake and/or increasing energy expenditure for weight maintenance, a promising beneficial role for dairy products in weight management has emerged. Most research has focused on adults, but there is evidence in children and adolescents indicating either a beneficial or neutral effect of dairy food consumption on body weight or body composition. The current review provides and assessment of the scientific evidence on the effects of dairy food consumption on body weight and body composition in children and adolescents.
Spence, Lisa A; Cifelli, Christopher J; Miller, Gregory D
IMPACT OF BODY WEIGHT CHANGE ON THE EDSTAC TIER I MALE AND FEMALE PUBERTAL PROTOCOLS. R.L. Cooper, T.E. Stoker, K. McElroy, J. Ferrell, K. Leffler, K. Bremser and S.C. Laws. Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, USEPA, RTP, NC. Sponsor: R.J. Kavl...
BACKGROUND: An epidemiological study conducted in Italy indicated that coffee has the greatest antioxidant capacity among the commonly consumed beverages. Green coffee bean is rich in chlorogenic acid and its related compounds. The effect of green coffee bean extract (GCBE) on fat accumulation and body weight in mice was assessed with the objective of investigating the effect of GCBE on
Hiroshi Shimoda; Emi Seki; Michio Aitani
Recent evidence suggests that the central melanocortin (MC) system is a prominent contributor to food intake and body weight control. MC receptor (MC-R) populations in the arcuate and paraventricular nuclei are considered probable sites of action mediating the orexigenic effects of systemically or intrac- erebroventricularly administered ligands. Yet, the highest MC4-R density in the brain is found in the dorsal
Harvey J. Grill; Abigail B. Ginsberg; Randy J. Seeley; Joel M. Kaplan
BACKGROUND: Television (TV) watching is the most common leisure activity in the United States. Few studies of adults have described the relationship between TV and health behaviors such as physical activity, diet, and body weight status. METHODS: Extant data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study were analyzed to assess the association of TV with physical activity, diet, and
Anne-Marie Meyer; Kelly R Evenson; David J Couper; June Stevens; Mark A Pereria; Gerardo Heiss
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate associations between pregnancy outcomes and prepregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain among pregnant women who regularly attended health centers of Kazerun, Fars, Iran. Methods: In this descriptive study records from 5172 pregnant women were considered in this study, based on the methodology criteria. Women were distributed across 4 prepregnancy categories according to the Institute of Medicine (IOM) (1990) classification of body mass index, and to 4 end-of-pregnancy categories according to median weekly gestational weight gain. Results: The risks for gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia, and preterm premature rupture of membranes were higher for those who were overweight or obese before becoming pregnant (P < 0.05). Moreover, a gestational weight gain of 0.50 kg per week or greater was associated with a higher risk for gestational hypertension, preterm premature rupture of membranes, and fetal macrosomia (P < 0.05). Women in the highest quartile for weight gain (? 0.59 kg per week) were at higher risk for pre-eclampsia (P < 0.05). Discussion: The results seems to indicate that excessive gestational weight gain and high prepregnancy body mass index were associated with increased risks for adverse pregnancy outcomes.
Objectives To synthesise current evidence for the effects of exenatide and liraglutide on heart rate, blood pressure and body weight. Design Meta-analysis of available data from randomised controlled trials comparing Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogues with placebo, active antidiabetic drug therapy or lifestyle intervention. Participants Patients with type 2 diabetes. Outcome measures Weighted mean differences between trial arms for changes in heart rate, blood pressure and body weight, after a minimum of 12-week follow-up. Results 32 trials were included. Overall, GLP-1 agonists increased the heart rate by 1.86 beats/min (bpm) (95% CI 0.85 to 2.87) versus placebo and 1.90?bpm (1.30 to 2.50) versus active control. This effect was more evident for liraglutide and exenatide long-acting release than for exenatide twice daily. GLP-1 agonists decreased systolic blood pressure by ?1.79?mm?Hg (?2.94 to ?0.64) and ?2.39?mm?Hg (?3.35 to ?1.42) compared to placebo and active control, respectively. Reduction in diastolic blood pressure failed to reach statistical significance (?0.54?mm?Hg (?1.15 to 0.07) vs placebo and ?0.50?mm?Hg (?1.24 to 0.24) vs active control). Body weight decreased by ?3.31?kg (?4.05 to ?2.57) compared to active control, but by only ?1.22?kg (?1.51 to ?0.93) compared to placebo. Conclusions GLP-1 analogues are associated with a small increase in heart rate and modest reductions in body weight and blood pressure. Mechanisms underlying the rise in heart rate require further investigation.
Robinson, Louise E; Holt, Tim A; Rees, Karen; Randeva, Harpal S; O'Hare, Joseph P
Weight gain is a common problem reported by users of estroprogestins (EPs) and is a frequent reason for EP discontinuation, even if this problem is not confirmed in several clinical studies. We studied the impact of a EP containing ethinyl estradiol (EE) 20 microg plus levonorgestrel (LNG) 100 microg on body weight (BW) and body composition in 47 treated women and 31 women as controls. Also, we studied the effect of this association on metabolic parameters (glycemia, lipid profile). EE20/LNG100 had no significant impact on body weight, body composition (fat mass, fat-free mass, total body water, intracellular water, extracellular water) or metabolic profile in comparison with no treatment. Thus, the use of EE20/LNG100 showed no impact on metabolic parameters, body weight and body composition. This could be important not only for the safety profile of this combination, but also in increasing patient compliance. PMID:17891597
Lello, Stefano; Vittori, Giorgio; Paoletti, Anna Maria; Sorge, Roberto; Guardianelli, Francesca; Melis, Gian Benedetto
Common variants at only two loci, FTO and MC4R, have been reproducibly associated with body mass index (BMI) in humans. To identify additional loci, we conducted meta-analysis of 15 genome-wide association studies for BMI (n > 32,000) and followed up top signals in 14 additional cohorts (n > 59,000). We strongly confirm FTO and MC4R and identify six additional loci (P < 5 × 10?8): TMEM18, KCTD15, GNPDA2, SH2B1, MTCH2 and NEGR1 (where a 45-kb deletion polymorphism is a candidate causal variant). Several of the likely causal genes are highly expressed or known to act in the central nervous system (CNS), emphasizing, as in rare monogenic forms of obesity, the role of the CNS in predisposition to obesity.
Willer, Cristen J; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Loos, Ruth J F; Li, Shengxu; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Heid, Iris M; Berndt, Sonja I; Elliott, Amanda L; Jackson, Anne U; Lamina, Claudia; Lettre, Guillaume; Lim, Noha; Lyon, Helen N; McCarroll, Steven A; Papadakis, Konstantinos; Qi, Lu; Randall, Joshua C; Roccasecca, Rosa Maria; Sanna, Serena; Scheet, Paul; Weedon, Michael N; Wheeler, Eleanor; Zhao, Jing Hua; Jacobs, Leonie C; Prokopenko, Inga; Soranzo, Nicole; Tanaka, Toshiko; Timpson, Nicholas J; Almgren, Peter; Bennett, Amanda; Bergman, Richard N; Bingham, Sheila A; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Brown, Morris; Burtt, Noel P; Chines, Peter; Coin, Lachlan; Collins, Francis S; Connell, John M; Cooper, Cyrus; Smith, George Davey; Dennison, Elaine M; Deodhar, Parimal; Elliott, Paul; Erdos, Michael R; Estrada, Karol; Evans, David M; Gianniny, Lauren; Gieger, Christian; Gillson, Christopher J; Guiducci, Candace; Hackett, Rachel; Hadley, David; Hall, Alistair S; Havulinna, Aki S; Hebebrand, Johannes; Hofman, Albert; Isomaa, Bo; Jacobs, Kevin B; Johnson, Toby; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jovanovic, Zorica; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kraft, Peter; Kuokkanen, Mikko; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laitinen, Jaana; Lakatta, Edward G; Luan, Jian'an; Luben, Robert N; Mangino, Massimo; McArdle, Wendy L; Meitinger, Thomas; Mulas, Antonella; Munroe, Patricia B; Narisu, Narisu; Ness, Andrew R; Northstone, Kate; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Purmann, Carolin; Rees, Matthew G; Ridderstrale, Martin; Ring, Susan M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Ruokonen, Aimo; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Saramies, Jouko; Scott, Laura J; Scuteri, Angelo; Silander, Kaisa; Sims, Matthew A; Song, Kijoung; Stephens, Jonathan; Stevens, Suzanne; Stringham, Heather M; Tung, Y C Loraine; Valle, Timo T; Van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vimaleswaran, Karani S; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Wallace, Chris; Watanabe, Richard M; Waterworth, Dawn M; Watkins, Nicholas; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Zhai, Guangju; Zillikens, M Carola; Altshuler, David; Caulfield, Mark J; Chanock, Stephen J; Farooqi, I Sadaf; Ferrucci, Luigi; Guralnik, Jack M; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hu, Frank B; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Laakso, Markku; Mooser, Vincent; Ong, Ken K; Ouwehand, Willem H; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J; Spector, Timothy D; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uda, Manuela; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Wareham, Nicholas J; Deloukas, Panagiotis; Frayling, Timothy M; Groop, Leif C; Hayes, Richard B; Hunter, David J; Mohlke, Karen L; Peltonen, Leena; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P; Wichmann, H-Erich; McCarthy, Mark I; Boehnke, Michael; Barroso, Ines; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Hirschhorn, Joel N
The effect of the body-weight gain after retirement from an exercise-training program on the retained increase in insulin sensitivity elicited by the training was investigated in exercise-trained (ET) rats. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by oral glucose tolerance and insulin suppression tests immediately after training and during retirement. Results show that, compared with sedentary controls, exercise training enhanced insulin-induced glucose uptake, but the enhanced sensitivity was gradually lost with the end of running activity until after seven days of retirement, when it became equal to that of controls. This loss of enhanced sensitivity to insulin was associated with an accelerated gain in body weight beginning one day after the start of retirement. However, those animals that gained weight only at rates similar to those of control rats, retained their enhanced sensitivity to insulin.
Dolkas, Constantine B.; Rodnick, Kenneth J.; Mondon, Carl E.
The effectiveness and efficiency of the Bi-directional Evolutionary Structural Optimization (BESO) method has been demonstrated on the minimization compliance problem with fixed external loads. This paper considers the minimization of mean compliance for continuum structure subjected to design-dependent self-weight loads. Due to the non-monotonous behaviour for this type of the optimization problems, the extended BESO method using discrete design variables
X. Huang; Y. M. Xie
This review discusses dietary strategies that may improve the metabolic profile and body weight regulation in obesity. Recent evidence demonstrated that long-term health effects seem to be more beneficial for low-glycemic index (GI) diets compared to high-protein diets. Still, these results need to be confirmed by other prospective cohort studies and long-term clinical trials, and the discrepancy between these study designs needs to be explored in more detail. Furthermore, the current literature is mixed with regard to the efficacy of increased meal frequency (or snacking) regimens in causing metabolic alterations, particularly in relation to body weight control. In conclusion, a growing body of evidence suggests that dietary strategies with the aim to reduce postprandial insulin response and increase fat oxidation, and that tend to restore metabolic flexibility, have a place in the prevention and treatment of obesity and associated metabolic disorders. PMID:24580072
Munsters, M J M; Saris, W H M
Background & Aims Gastric injections of botulinum toxin A (BTA) have been reported to delay gastric emptying, increase satiation, and reduce body weight, but there are few data from randomized, placebo-controlled studies. Methods We enrolled 60 obese participants in a 24-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, concealed allocation trial to compare the effects of gastric antral injections of BTA (100 U, 300 U, or 500 U) and saline placebo. The study was conducted at an outpatient clinical research unit. Participants were given one set of injections of BTA or placebo into the gastric antral muscularis propria, using endoscopic ultrasound guidance. Gastric emptying of solids (GES) was measured by scintigraphy; we also measured body weight, satiation (maximum tolerated volume in a caloric liquid drink test), calorie intake (by food frequency questionnaire), gastrointestinal symptoms, and psychologic aspects of eating behavior (by rating scale). Results Compared with baseline values, 2 weeks after injections, the mean t1/2 for GES increased by 0.8, 14, 24, and 14 minutes among subjects given placebo, 100 U, 300 U, or 500 U of BTA, respectively (P=.24 overall, P=.04 for the group given 300 U vs placebo); 16 weeks after the injections, mean body weights were reduced by 2.2, 0.2, 2.3, and 3.0 kg in these groups, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in mean body weight change, satiation volume, caloric intake, gastrointestinal symptoms, or psychological aspects of eating behavior among groups. Conclusions Gastric antral injections of BTA may delay gastric emptying at a dose of 300 U, but do not cause early satiety, altered eating behaviors, or loss of body weight. Clinicaltrials. gov identifier: NCT00976443
Topazian, Mark; Camilleri, Michael; Enders, Felicity T.; Clain, Jonathan E.; Gleeson, Ferga C.; Levy, Michael J.; Rajan, Elizabeth; Nehra, Vandana; Dierkhising, Ross A.; Collazo-Clavell, Maria L.; Talley, Nicholas J.; Clark, Matthew M.
Background: In adults, body weight tends to be underestimated when based on self-reported data. Whether this discrepancy between measured and reported data exists in healthy young children is unclear. We studied whether parental reported body weight and height of 4-year-old children corresponded with measured body weight and height. In addition, we studied the determinants and the consequences of differences between
Salome Scholtens; Bert Brunekreef; Tommy LS Visscher; Henriette A Smit; Kerkhof van de M; Jongste de J. C; Jorrit Gerritsen; Alet H Wijga
Introduction Previous studies suggested potential priming effects of gestational weight gain (GWG) on offspring’s body composition in later life. However, consistency of these effects in normal weight, overweight and obese mothers is less clear. Methods We combined the individual data of three German cohorts and assessed associations of total and excessive GWG (as defined by criteria of the Institute of Medicine) with offspring’s mean body mass index (BMI) standard deviation scores (SDS) and overweight at the age of 5–6 years (total: n?=?6,254). Quantile regression was used to examine potentially different effects on different parts of the BMI SDS distribution. All models were adjusted for birth weight, maternal age and maternal smoking during pregnancy and stratified by maternal pre-pregnancy weight status. Results In adjusted models, positive associations of total and excessive GWG with mean BMI SDS and overweight were observed only in children of non- overweight mothers. For example, excessive GWG was associated with a mean increase of 0.08 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.15) units of BMI SDS (0.13 (0.02, 0.24) kg/m2 of ‘real’ BMI) in children of normal-weight mothers. The effects of total and excessive GWG on BMI SDS increased for higher- BMI children of normal-weight mothers. Discussion Increased GWG is likely to be associated with overweight in offspring of non-overweight mothers.
Beyerlein, Andreas; Nehring, Ina; Rzehak, Peter; Heinrich, Joachim; Muller, Manfred J.; Plachta-Danielzik, Sandra; Wabitsch, Martin; Weck, Melanie; Brenner, Hermann; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; von Kries, Rudiger
We investigated cross-sectional associations of body composition and weight change with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and organochlorine pesticides/pesticide metabolites measured in blood collected at the baseline of the Physical Activity for Total Health study of postmenopausal, overweight women living in the Seattle, Washington metropolitan area. Indicators of greater adiposity were associated with lower plasma concentrations of most PCBs with six or more chlorine atoms. This pattern was observed for current weight, body mass index, fat mass percent, subcutaneous abdominal fat, intra-abdominal fat, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and maximum adult weight. Conversely, PCB 105, PCB 118, and p,p'-DDE were generally increased or showed no association with these variables. Weight gain since age 35 was associated with lower concentrations of almost every organochlorine we studied, and past weight loss episodes of at least 20 pounds (?9.1?kg) were associated with higher concentrations. Our results have implications for epidemiologic studies of organochlorines in terms of covariates that may be important to consider in statistical analyses, particularly as such considerations may differ importantly by specific analyte. Our finding of increased organochlorine concentrations with past weight loss episodes may have public health significance; however, this association requires confirmation in longitudinal studies. PMID:22588213
De Roos, Anneclaire J; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Sjodin, Andreas; McTiernan, Anne
Background: The frequency and short-term natural history of weight loss in community-dwelling older adults have not been de- scribed. Unintentional weight loss may be more likely to continue than intentional weight loss. Objectives:Thepresentsubstudydescribedthefrequencyofa5% lossorgaininbodyweightincommunity-dwellingolderadultsatan annual examination of the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study and 6 mo later. The weight-management prac- tices used by the participants were also
Jung Sun Lee; Stephen B Kritchevsky; Tamara B Harris; Frances Tylavsky; Susan M Rubin; Anne B Newman
Ever since Edouard Van Beneden and Theodor Boveri first formally described the centrosome in the late 1800s, it has captivated cell biologists. The name clearly indicated its central importance to cell functioning, even to these early investigators. We now know of its role as a major microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) and of its dynamic roles in cell division, vesicle trafficking and for its relative, the basal body, ciliogenesis. While centrosomes are found in most animal cells, notably it is absent in most oocytes and higher plant cells. Nevertheless, it appears that critical components of the centrosome act as MTOCs in these cells as well. The zebrafish has emerged as an exciting and promising new model organism, primarily due to the pioneering efforts of George Streisinger to use zebrafish in genetic studies and due to Christiane Nusslein-Volhard, Wolfgang Driever and their teams of collaborators, who applied forward genetics to elicit a large number of mutant lines. The transparency and rapid external development of the embryo allow for experiments not easily done in other vertebrates. The ease of producing transgenic lines, often with the use of fluorescent reporters, and gene knockdowns with antisense morpholinos further contributes to the appeal of the model as an experimental system. The added advantage of high-throughput screening of small-molecule libraries, as well as the ease of mass rearing together with low cost, makes the zebrafish a true frontrunner as a model vertebrate organism. The zebrafish has a body plan shared by all vertebrates, including humans. This conservation of body plan provides added significance to the existing lines of zebrafish as human disease models and adds an impetus to the ongoing efforts to develop new models. In this review, the current state of knowledge about the centrosome in the zebrafish model is explored. Also, studies on the related basal body in zebrafish and their relationship to ciliogenesis are reviewed.
Background: The Cystic Fibrosis Foundation (CFF) recommends using the percentage of ideal body weight (%IBWCFF) and body mass index percentiles (BMIp) to assess weight-for-height status and to screen for malnutrition. Objective: The objective was to examine the agreement and dis- crepancy between the use of %IBWCFF and BMIp for screening malnutrition. Design: Data from 13 021 children reported to the
Zhumin Zhang; HuiChuan J Lai
Breed means and differences for weight (CW, n = 19,851), height (CH, n = 14,553), and condition scores (CS, n = 19,536) recorded in four seasons per year were evaluated for 881 cows ranging from 2 to 7 yr of age from Cycle I of the Germplasm Evaluation Program at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center. Cows were straightbred Herefords and Angus and topcrosses from mating of Hereford, Angus, South Devon, Jersey, Simmental, Limousin, and Charolais sires to Hereford and Angus dams. The model included cow age, season of measurement, and their interactions, with year of birth, pregnancy-lactation (PL) code, and breed group as fixed effects for CW and CS. Analyses of weight adjusted for condition score included CS as covariate. Model for CH excluded PL. Random effects were additive genetic and permanent environmental effects. Data were analyzed by REML. Differences due to breeds of sire were significant for all traits. Differences were generally maintained across ages, with few interchanges in ranking through maturity. Rankings were in the following order: Jersey (lightest and shortest), Hereford-Angus (and reciprocal), Limousin, South Devon, Simmental, and Charolais (heaviest and tallest). The only exception was that Limousin-sired cows were heavier than South Devon-sired cows after 5 yr of age. Cows sired by breeds of British origin tended to be lighter than breeds of continental European origin. Adjustment for condition score changed estimates of breed differences. Rankings of breed groups, however, were generally the same for actual weight and weight adjusted for condition score. Results indicated that the part of the differences in weight due to differences in condition were of small magnitude. Differences tended to increase when adjusted for condition score, especially in contrasts of continental vs British breeds. Differences among breed groups for height followed differences for weight closely. PMID:12542152
Arango, J A; Cundiff, L V; Van Vleck, L D
Context Dehydration is assumed to be a major adverse effect associated with rapid loss of body mass for competing in a lower weight class in combat sports. However, the effects of such weight cutting on body fluid balance in a real-life setting are unknown. Objective To examine the effects of 5% or greater loss of body mass within a few days before competition on body water, blood volume, and plasma volume in elite amateur boxers. Design Case-control study. Setting Sports medicine laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Seventeen male boxers (age = 19.2 ± 2.9 years, height = 175.1 ± 7.0 cm, mass = 65.6 ± 9.2 kg) were assigned to the weight-loss group (WLG; n = 10) or the control group (CON; n = 7). Intervention(s) The WLG reduced body mass by restricting fluid and food and inducing excessive sweat loss by adhering to individual methods. The CON participated in their usual precompetition training. Main Outcome Measure(s) During an ordinary training period (t-1), 2 days before competition (t-2), and 1 week after competition (t-3), we performed bioelectrical impedance measurements; calculated total body water, intracellular water, and extracellular water; and estimated total hemoglobin mass (tHbmass), blood volume, and plasma volume by the CO-rebreathing method. Results In the WLG, the loss of body mass (5.6% ± 1.7%) led to decreases in total body water (6.0% ± 0.9%), extracellular water (12.4% ± 7.6%), tHbmass (5.3% ± 3.8%), blood volume (7.6% ± 2.1%; P < .001), and plasma volume (8.6% ± 3.9%). The intracellular water did not change (P > .05). At t-3, total body water, extracellular water, and plasma volume had returned to near baseline values, but tHbmass and blood volume still were less than baseline values (P < .05). In CON, we found no changes (P > .05). Conclusions In a real-life setting, the loss of approximately 6% body mass within 5 days induced hypohydration, which became evident by the decreases in body water and plasma volume. The reduction in tHbmass was a surprising observation that needs further investigation.
Reljic, Dejan; Hassler, Eike; Jost, Joachim; Friedmann-Bette, Birgit
Gonadal steroids regulate appetite and thus body weight. In addition, continuous exposure to stressors negatively influences appetite through circuits likely distinct from those of gonadal steroids. The occurrence of adverse metabolic consequences due to chronic exposure to psychosocial stressors is twice as frequent in women as men, implicating a role for ovarian hormones, estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4), in modulating stress-induced changes in appetite. Using social subordination in female macaques as a model of social stress, the current study tested the hypothesis that subordinate females would lose more weight during E2 treatment and gain less weight during P4 administration than dominant females. Because polymorphisms in the gene encoding the serotonin transporter (5HTT; SCL6A4) are known to alter responsivity to stress, we hypothesized that weight loss during E2 administration would be greatest in females with the short variant (s-variant) allele of 5HTT. Dominant females were significantly heavier than subordinate animals throughout the study, a result consistent with previous accounts of food intake when animals are fed a low-fat, high-fiber diet. Females with the s-variant 5HTT genotype weighed significantly less than l/l animals. Dominant animals lost significantly more weight than subordinate animals during E2 treatment. Administration of P4 blocked the weight-reducing effects of E2 in all females, regardless of social status. These data provide evidence that social subordination modulates the influence of ovarian steroid hormones on body weight in female rhesus monkeys independent of 5HTT genotype. Given the prosocial effects of these steroids, future studies are necessary to determine whether status differences in E2-induced weight loss are due to diminished food intake and or increases in energy expenditure and how the change in energy availability during E2 treatments relates to a female’s motivation to interact with conspecifics.
Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Wilson, Mark E.
Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) is released from the pancreas in response to a meal. In humans, low-circulating PP levels have been observed in obesity, and administration of pharmacological doses of PP has been shown to decrease food intake. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether low circulating PP is associated with weight gain in Pima Indians. Plasma PP concentrations were measured after an overnight fast and 30 min after a standardized mixed meal in 33 nondiabetic male subjects who had a follow-up visit 4.9 +/- 2.5 years later. Cross-sectionally, fasting and postprandial PP levels were negatively associated with body size and adiposity. Prospectively, the change in PP response to the meal was negatively associated with the change in body weight (r = -0.53, P = 0.002). In contrast, a high fasting PP level was positively associated with change in body weight (r = 0.45, P = 0.009). In conclusion, our results provide evidence that, even within the physiological range, PP contributes to the regulation of energy balance in humans. However this contribution appears to be more complex than anticipated because of the opposite effect of fasting and postprandial PP on the risk of future weight gain. PMID:15561938
Koska, Juraj; DelParigi, Angelo; de Courten, Barbora; Weyer, Christian; Tataranni, P Antonio
Background Overweight and obese women are known to be at increased risk of caesarean birth. This study estimates the contribution of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) to caesarean births in Canada. Methods We analyzed data from women in the Canadian Maternity Experiences Survey who had a singleton term live birth in 2005-2006. Adjusted odds ratios for caesarean birth across BMI and GWG groups were derived, separately for nulliparous women and parous women with and without a prior caesarean. Population attributable fractions of caesarean births associated with above normal BMI and excess GWG were calculated. Results The overall caesarean birth rate was 25.7%. Among nulliparous and parous women without a previous caesarean birth, rates in obese women were 45.1% and 9.7% respectively, and rates in women who gained above their recommended GWG were 33.5% and 8.0% respectively. Caesarean birth was more strongly associated with BMI than with GWG. However, due to the high prevalence of excess GWG (48.8%), the proportion of caesareans associated with above normal BMI and excess GWG was similar [10.1% (95% CI: 9.9-10.2) and 10.9% (95% CI: 10.7-11.1) respectively]. Overall, one in five (20.2%, 95% CI: 20.0-20.4) caesarean births was associated with above normal BMI or excess GWG. Conclusions Overweight and obese BMI and above recommended GWG are significantly associated with caesarean birth in singleton term pregnancies in Canada. Strategies to reduce caesarean births must include measures to prevent overweight and obese BMI prior to conception and promote recommended weight gain throughout pregnancy.
Fisheries managers often assess body condition using relative weight (Wr) because it provides a comparative measure of fish plumpness among individuals and populations. However, it is not known whether the morphological information that Wr summarizes reflects physiological measures, such as relative lipid reserves, in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. The purpose of this study was to determine whether swimming activity affects either the Wr or proximate body composition of juvenile (total length, 170-260 mm) rainbow trout. When rainbow trout from a hatchery were fed ad libitum for 147 d, inactive (no current) and active (15 cm/s current velocity) fish did not differ in Wr However, inactive rainbow trout maintained relatively constant lipid levels, whereas active fish declined in lipid content. Relative weight may provide a comparable measure of body form, but it is not an accurate index of lipid content between active and inactive rainbow trout fed an excess ration. For assessing the physiological condition of rainbow trout, measurement of proximate body composition appears to be more accurate than indices based on length and weight.
Simpkins, D. G.; Hubert, W. A.; Del, Rio, C. M.; Rule, D. C.
Data from Angus, Hereford, and top-cross cows (n = 641) from 2- to 8-yr-old daughters of seven breeds of sires included in Cycle II of the Germplasm Evaluation Program at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center, comprising cow weight (CW, n = 15,698), height (CH, n = 15,676), and condition score (CS, n = 15,667), were used to estimate breed-group differences. Data were recorded in four seasons of each year (1975 to 1982). The mixed model included cow age, season of measurement, and their interactions, year of birth, pregnancy-lactation code (PL), and breed-group as fixed effects for CW and CS. Analyses of weight adjusted for condition score included CS as covariate. The model for CH excluded PL. Random effects were additive genetic and permanent environmental effects. Differences among breed-groups were significant for all traits at different ages and were maintained across ages, with few interchanges in ranking through maturity. Cows were ranked (by breed of sire) in the following order for weight: Red Poll (lightest), Hereford-Angus (reciprocal), Braunvieh, Gelbvieh, Maine Anjou, and Chianina (heaviest). In general, cows sired by breeds of British origin were lighter and shorter than those of continental origin. Differences in weight due to differences in condition seemed to be of small magnitude because making an adjustment for condition score did not affect rankings of breed groups across ages. Differences among breed groups for height were consistent with differences for weight. Cows from Chianina sires were taller than Hereford-Angus cows by 14 to 15 cm across ages. In this study, breed of sire effects were significantly different for the mature size of their daughters. PMID:12542153
Arango, J A; Cundiff, L V; Van Vleck, L D
Objective To evaluate obesity and rate of weight change during the 5 years before pregnancy and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in a nested case-control study. Study Design GDM cases (n=251) and controls (n=204) were selected from a multiethnic cohort of 14,235 women who delivered a live birth between 1996 and 1998. Women who gained or lost weight were compared with those with a stable weight (± 1.0 kg/year). Results Women who gained weight at a rate of 1.1 to 2.2 kg/year had a small nonsignificant increased risk of GDM (odds ratio(OR): 1.63 [95% CI: 0.95-2.81]) and women who gained weight at a rate of 2.3 to 10.0 kg/year had 2.5 fold increased risk of GDM (OR: 2.61 [95% CI: 1.50-4.57]), compared to women with stable weight (after adjusting for age, race-ethnicity, parity and “baseline” body mass index). Conclusion: These results suggest that weight gain within five years before pregnancy may increase the risk of GDM.
Hedderson, Monique M.; Williams, Michelle A.; Holt, Victoria L.; Weiss, Noel S.; Ferrara, Assiamira
With the increase in obesity related diseases there is heightened interest in mechanisms regulating body weight. To assess the influence of increases in body weight on energy expenditure and intake in rats we employed variable levels of gravity. Our approach afforded the means to measure interactions of energy expenditure and intake in response to increases in body weight (body mass x gravity level). We found a dose relationship between rapid elevation of body weight and reduction of voluntary movement, such that the energy requirements for activity are unchanged, and total energy expenditure and intake maintained. Reduction of movement appears to be a response to increased body weight, rather than a contributing factor, suggesting a new regulatory pathway.
Wade, C. E.; Moran, M. M.; Stein, T. P.; Sin, Sidney (Technical Monitor)
Various methods for far-field noise reduction of a tilt-rotor acoustic signature and the performance and weight tradeoffs which result from modification of the noise sources are considered in this report. In order to provide a realistic approach for the investigation, the Boeing tilt-rotor flight research aircraft (Model 222), was selected as the baseline. This aircraft has undergone considerable engineering development. Its rotor has been manufactured and tested in the Ames full-scale wind tunnel. The study reflects the current state-of-the-art of aircraft design for far-field acoustic signature reduction and is not based solely on an engineering feasibility aircraft. This report supplements a previous study investigating reduction of noise signature through the management of the terminal flight trajectory.
Gibs, J.; Stepniewski, W. Z.; Spencer, R.; Kohler, G.
This study has three primary goals that make an important contribution to the literature on body weight and childbearing experiences among United States’ women. It sheds light on the physiological and social nature of this relationship by examining whether the consequences of early adult weight for lifetime childbearing are shaped by historical social context, women’s social characteristics, and their ability to marry. We analyze data from two female cohorts who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY79). Cohort 1 entered early adulthood before the U.S. obesity prevalence increased. Cohort 2 entered early adulthood after the obesity prevalence increased. We find that early adult weight is negatively related to the childbearing trajectories and marital status of Cohort 1 but not Cohort 2. Failing to account for race/ethnicity and women’s educational background as confounders masks some of these associations, which are evident for both White and Black women. Our results suggest that the health consequences of body weight do not fully drive its impact on childbearing. Rather, the lifetime fertility consequences of early adult weight are malleable, involve social processes, and are dependent on social context.
Frisco, Michelle L.; Weden, Margaret M.; Lippert, Adam M.
This study has three primary goals that make an important contribution to the literature on body weight and childbearing experiences among United States' women. It sheds light on the physiological and social nature of this relationship by examining whether the consequences of early adult weight for lifetime childbearing are shaped by historical social context, women's social characteristics, and their ability to marry. We analyze data from two female cohorts who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY79). Cohort 1 entered early adulthood before the U.S. obesity prevalence increased. Cohort 2 entered early adulthood after the obesity prevalence increased. We find that early adult weight is negatively related to the childbearing trajectories and marital status of Cohort 1 but not Cohort 2. Failing to account for race/ethnicity and women's educational background as confounders masks some of these associations, which are evident for both White and Black women. Our results suggest that the health consequences of body weight do not fully drive its impact on childbearing. Rather, the lifetime fertility consequences of early adult weight are malleable, involve social processes, and are dependent on social context. PMID:21944717
Frisco, Michelle L; Weden, Margaret M; Lippert, Adam M; Burnett, Kristin D
Background Doppler ultrasonography is an important tool for evaluating hepatic portal hemodynamics. However, no study in dogs of different body weights, in the range encountered in routine clinical veterinary practice, has been reported. It can be difficult to obtain an ideal insonation angle when evaluating the main portal vein, so evaluation of the right portal vein branch has been described in humans as an alternative. The aim of this study was to analyze, through Doppler ultrasonography, the hemodynamics in the right portal vein branch in dogs of different body weights. Methods Thirty normal dogs were divided in three groups by weight, in order to establish normal values for mean velocity, flow volume and portal congestion index of the right portal vein branch by means of Doppler ultrasonography. Results In all dogs ideal insonation angles were obtained for the right portal vein branch. The average velocity was similar in the three groups, but the portal congestion index and the flow volume differed, showing that the weight of the dog can influence these values. Conclusion Doppler ultrasonography for the evaluation of flow in the right branch of the portal vein could be a viable alternative, or complement, to examining the main vessel segment. This is especially so in those animals in which an ideal insonation angle for examination of the main portal vein is hard to obtain. In addition, the weight of the dog must be considered for the correct evaluation of the portal system hemodynamics, particularly for portal blood flow and the congestion index.
Obesity is associated with absolute and relative expansion of the extracellular water compartment (ECW). The effects of substantial and prolonged weight reduction on body water distribution are unknown, however. The authors studied total body water (TBW) by tritiated water dilution, ECW by 35SO4 dilution, exchangeable sodium (Na(e)) by 24Na, and total body potassium (TBK) by 40K whole-body counting in 25 severely obese women (body mass index [BMI] = 48 +/- 7 kg.m-2, mean +/- standard deviation) aged 36 +/- 8 years before and at intervals after gastric restrictive (GR; n = 12) and malabsorptive (MA; n = 13) operations for obesity. Results are compared with a control group of 26 healthy normal-weight women (BMI = 21 +/- 2). Before operation, the obese patients had absolute elevations of all water compartments compared with controls, with significantly higher ratios of Na(e) to TBK (1.17 +/- 0.13 versus 0.91 +/- 0.10; p less than 0.05) and ECW to intracellular water (ICW) (E/I = 0.82 +/- 0.17 versus 0.63 +/- 0.06; p less than 0.05). After weight loss of 52 +/- 20 kg in MA and 47 +/- 19 kg in GR patients (nonsignificant between groups) to a stable level 22 +/- 8 months after operation, there were statistically significant reductions in TBW, ICW, TBK, and Na(e) in both groups, but a significant reduction in ECW only after GR. Adjusting for preoperative weight, duration of follow-up, and rate of weight loss, E/I was greater after MA than GR (1.09 +/- 0.25 versus 0.82 +/- 0.14; p less than 0.05). The elevated preoperative E/I ratio did not normalize with weight loss after surgery, and the response was related to the type of operation. The finding remains to be explained although the increased E/I after MA may reflect mild protein-calorie malnutrition not detectable in the blood. The persistence of elevated E/I with significant weight loss after GR might imply an intrinsic or irreversible imbalance of fluid distribution in obese patients.
Mazariegos, M; Kral, J G; Wang, J; Waki, M; Heymsfield, S B; Pierson, R N; Thornton, J C; Yasumura, S
Body weight loss during the course of cancer disease has been associated with poor prognosis. Beside cancer-associated cachexia, weight loss can also result from chemotherapy. This work explored whether a model of mammary tumors in female Sprague Dawley rats could be appropriate to study the effect of doxorubicin on body weight, described weight change in this model, and assessed the effect of DHA on weight during chemotherapy. After tumor induction, rats were randomly assigned to a control or a DHA-enriched diet, and treated with doxorubicin or placebo twice a week for 2.5 wk (n = 6 in each group). Body weight, food intake, and tumor growth were monitored. Neither the induction of tumors nor their initial development impaired body weight gain. No reduction in food intake was observed. Tumor growth was similar between groups from day 1 to day 11. Although doxorubicin induced body weight loss from day 4 compared to placebo (P< 0.01) in rats fed the control diet, it did not induce body weight loss in rats fed the DHA-enriched diet (P = 0.02), indicating that DHA had a protective effect. These results indicate that doxorubicin can induce body weight loss in this model and that a DHA-enriched diet can prevent this effect. PMID:23035949
Hajjaji, Nawale; Couet, Charles; Besson, Pierre; Bougnoux, Philippe
Schizophrenic patients treated with atypical antipsychotics (AAPs) often develop excessive body weight gain, which may lead to further morbidity and poor treatment compliance. This study examined whether genetic variants in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene may be associated with body weight change after AAP treatment. The study included 481 schizophrenic patients treated with clozapine (n = 266), olanzapine (n = 79), or risperidone (n = 136) for an average of 49.2 ± 28.2 months. Three common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the BDNF gene were chosen as tagging SNPs. In single-marker-based analysis, the BDNF rs11030101-T homozygous genotype was found to be associated with significantly increased body weight gain (P = 0.037). The BDNF Val66Met (rs6265) polymorphism was not found to be associated with body weight gain. Haplotype analysis further showed that the rs11030101-T-allele-related haplotype is also associated with increased body weight gain (P = 0.047). Our findings suggest that there is a nominal association with rs11030101 but did not replicate the previously found relationship between the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and body weight gain during long-term AAP treatment. PMID:21956459
Tsai, Ashley; Liou, Ying-Jay; Hong, Chen-Jee; Wu, Chia-Liang; Tsai, Shih-Jen; Bai, Ya Mei
The social and societal pressures to be thin that many women experience are widely believed to negatively affect their body image. The fact that this view is not reflected in traditional body image measures prompted the development of this multidimensional self-report instrument of body weight and shape concerns that is contextually grounded in young women's life experiences. Semistructured interviews with high school and university women (N = 16) were used to develop the questionnaire items. Students were asked about their experiences with controlling the size and shape of their bodies, and the expectations and evaluations of others (e.g., parents, friends, intimate partners) regarding their body shape. The initial 101-item pool was derived from a content analysis of the interview transcripts and was administered to 287 female university students. Exploratory factor analysis with oblique rotation revealed five underlying dimensions, specifically, (a) Weight dissatisfaction, (b) Slimness as quality of life, (c) Interpersonal messages regarding slimness, (d) Societal value of thinness, and (e) Valuing exercise. PMID:9306683
Delaney, M E; O'Keefe, L D; Skene, K M
Summary The protein nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2) or NEFA (DNA binding/EF-hand/acidic amino acid rich region) was identified over a decade ago and implicated in intracellular processes. New developments came with the report that post-translational processing of hypothalamic NUCB2 may result in nesfatin-1, nesfatin-2 and nesfatin-3 and convergent studies showing that nesfatin-1 and full length NUCB2 injected in the brain potently inhibit the dark phase food intake in rodents including leptin receptor deficient Zucker rats. Nesfatin-1 also reduces body weight gain, suggesting a role as a new anorexigenic factor and modulator of energy balance. In light of the obesity epidemic and its associated diseases, underlying new mechanisms regulating food intake may be promising targets in the drug treatment of obese patients particularly as the vast majority of them display reduced leptin sensitivity or leptin resistance while nesfatin-1’s mechanism of action is leptin independent. Although much progress on the localization of NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in the brain and periphery as well as on the understanding of nesfatin-1’s anorexic effect have been achieved during the past three years, several important mechanisms have yet to be unraveled such as the identification of the nesfatin-1 receptor and the regulation of NUCB2 processing and nesfatin-1 release.
Stengel, A; Goebel, M.; Tache, Y.
With recommendations to include parents as targets for childhood obesity interventions, there is a need to review the relationship of general parenting influences on childhood obesity. Therefore, the aim of this review is to examine the existing literature regarding the influence of parenting style and/or feeding styles on childhood obesogenic behaviors and body weight. Research articles related to parenting style (n=40) and parental feeding style (n=11) were identified and reviewed. An authoritative style appears to be the most protective parenting and feeding style while the indulgent feeding style is consistently associated with negative health outcomes. Overall, results for parenting style studies are inconsistent due to differences in conceptualization and measurement, while the results for feeding styles are much more cohesive. The literature is lacking in the ability to describe the interplay between parenting and feeding styles and child obesity risk. Recommendations for future research and interventions are discussed in regards to feeding style and influences on childhood obesity. PMID:24001395
Vollmer, Rachel L; Mobley, Amy R
Aim and Objectives: To study the effect of the ratio of donor kidney weight (dkw) to recipient body weight (rbw) on short and long term graft function in live donor kidney transplant patients. Materials and Methods: It was a prospective study of 79 live donor kidney transplant recipients. Patients were divided into three groups depending on the ratio of dkw in grams to rbw in kilograms. Serum creatinine in milligrams percent on the day of surgery, 7th day, 1 month, 6 months, 1 year, and 3 years after the surgery was recorded and their means compared. Results: The comparison showed that the decrease in mean creatinine level was more in group three patients as compared with group 2 and one patients at 7 days (1.04,1.44 and 1.59 in group 3,2 and 1 respectively) and 30 days (1.12,1.36 and 1.45 in group 3,2 and 1 respectively), showing that higher dkw/rbw ratio is beneficial with respect to the early graft function. However this decrease was not statistically significant (P value –0.256 and 0.358 respectively on 7th and 30th day). Furthermore long-term function was not different among these three groups. Conclusion: The ratio of dkw to rbw does not have a significant effect on long-term graft function inspite of an early improvement in the function with increased dkw to rbw ratio.
Dar, Tanveer Iqbal; Tyagi, Vipin; Pahwa, Mrinal; Chada, Sudhir; Jauhari, Harsh; Sharma, Nikhil
Introduction Many recent epidemiological studies have shown the influence of treatment with anti-TNF-? on body mass of patients with psoriasis but there are no reports in the literature on the influence of ustekinumab on that parameter. Aim To review the effect of ustekinumab therapy on body weight in patients with psoriasis. Material and methods The examined group consisted of 11 patients with psoriasis treated at the Department and Clinic of Dermatology in Olsztyn. Patients’ body mass and body mass index (BMI) were evaluated prior to the first administration of the ustekinumab dose and at week 28 of treatment (the day of the fourth dose). Results Body mass increase was determined in 7 patients (64%), on average by 2.27 kg (p < 0.05), and the BMI increased by 3.35% (p < 0.1). Conclusions Observing a correlation between ustekinumab application and body mass increase, similar to the treatment with anti-TNF-? preparations, an attempt was undertaken at explaining that correlation by analysing the role of IL-12 and IL-23 in psoriasis pathogenesis. IL-12 and IL-23, by influencing the naïve lymphocytes T and stimulating their diversification towards Th1 and Th17, also, indirectly, cause an increase in TNF-? and other cytokines production (IL-2, IFN-?, IL-17, IL-10, IL-22). Ustekinumab will then have a significant influence on decreasing the production of cytokines, which are important for metabolism and body mass.
Placek, Waldemar; Rybak-d'Obyrn, Joanna; Wygonowska, Ewa
Background Successful weight management involves the regulation of eating behavior. However, the specific mechanisms underlying its successful\\u000a regulation remain unclear. This study examined one potential mechanism by testing a model in which improved body image mediated\\u000a the effects of obesity treatment on eating self-regulation. Further, this study explored the role of different body image\\u000a components.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Participants were 239 overweight women (age:
Eliana V Carraça; Marlene N Silva; David Markland; Paulo N Vieira; Cláudia S Minderico; Luís B Sardinha; Pedro J Teixeira
Vaccination against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) in sheep receives growing attention worldwide, particularly in countries with national Map control strategies. A field study was conducted, investigating the effect of GUDAIR on body condition, weight and Map-shedding in a professionally managed but largely Map-affected suffolk flock prior and after vaccination. For this, 80 ewes out of 1000 animals were randomly sampled. In the univariate analysis body condition scores of ewes twelve months after vaccination improved significantly compared to those sampled prior to vaccination. At the same time the rate of ewes shedding Map was reduced by 37%. PMID:23227760
Hüttner, Klim; Krämer, Ulla; Kleist, Petra
The relationship between body size and rumen-reticulum capacity among conspecific individuals is predicted to be isometric. We examined whether the relationship between body weight and rumen-reticulum capacity was isometric in adult male and female rule elk (Cervus elaphus nannodes) and in adult female mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). We detected no effect of sex on this relationship in elk, and the slope of the regression was 1.0 for one measure of rumen-reticulum capacity and <1.0 for another. Among deer, the slope of the relationship was <1.0 in one measure of rumen-reticulum capacity, and we detected no relationship with the other.
Weckerly, F. W.; Bleich, V. C.; Chetkiewicz, C. -L. B.; Ricca, M. A.
Already the solution of the interacting classical many-body problem is difficult to achieve, since the integration of the equations of motions couples all positions of the particles contained in the system. Transport calculations require to include the contacts within the simulation and to study the effect of interactions there. Classical and quantum-mechanical equations of motions can be related by the time-dependent variational principle for Coulombic interacting electrons in a magnetic field . Interacting systems require to carefully consider the questions of self-consistency. The emergence of an mean-field potential out of a large (10000 electrons!) many-body calculation is shown in . The calculation is only possible due to our usage of graphics processing units, which are ideal tools to study interacting systems. [4pt]  Two interacting electrons in a magnetic field: comparison of semiclassical, quantum, and variational solutions, T. Kramer, AIP in press (2010), arxiv:1009.6051 [0pt]  Self-consistent calculation of electric potentials in Hall devices, T. Kramer, V. Krueckl, E. Heller, and R. Parrott Phys. Rev. B, 81, 205306 (2010)
The relationship between microsatellite polymorphism and body weight of captive bred Chinese sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus was investigated in two local populations in Dalian. Among ten loci discovered, nine show changes except for AJ07 loci. Seven loci were found highly polymorphic in both populations. For each locus in two populations, the average number of alleles is 6.428 6 and 6.285 7, the average observed heterozygosity at 0.225 7 and 0.245 9, the expected heterozygosity at 0.776 8 and 0.748 8, the polymorphism information content (PIC) at 0.709 2 and 0.674 6, respectively. Further analysis show significant correlation between A. japonicus body weight and occurrence markers AJ02 and AJ04. The findings of the relation may be helpful for molecular breeding, as well as the marker-assisted selection of sea cucumbers.
Wang, Xiuli; Shan, Xue; Qiu, Xuemei; Meng, Xiangying; Chang, Yaqing
What is the association between food insufficiency and body weight? Although common sense would suggest a negative association, research often finds the opposite. We contrast commodity theories of material privation with stress theories, proposing that the seemingly counterintuitive association results from the confounding influence of economic hardship. Because it is a chronic stressor, economic hardship may contribute to overweight. Data from the WCF project of 2,402 disadvantaged women in Chicago, Boston, and San Antonio show that people who experience economic hardship weigh more; and that the true negative association between body weight and food insufficiency—especially going hungry because one cannot afford food—is revealed only after adjustment for economic hardship.
Ross, Catherine E.; Hill, Terrence D.
The aim of this study is to examine the development of body weight as well as the development of the subjective body image among German youth focusing on trends (2002-2006-2010). The analysis focuses on those children and adolescents who consider themselves as "a bit too fat" or "much too fat" in spite of the fact that they are "about the right size" (risk group). Based on the findings, recommendations for prevention and intervention measures will be derived, which can be applied in youth work.The trend analysis is based on german data from the international WHO study Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) from the survey years 2002, 2006 and 2010. In addition to the socio-demographic variables (sex, age, family affluence status), the analysis also included variables on weight status (BMI), body image, dieting and breakfast consumption (independent variables). Using binary logistic regression analyses, the relationship between the independent and dependent variable (distorted body image) was examined.For the 13- and as well as for the 15-year-old adolescents in the overall trend the fraction of those that are underweight decreases in contrast to the increasing fraction of the overweight subjects. The results show that in the year 2010, the risk for adolescents for being overweight is 1.3-times higher than in the reference year 2002. Furthermore it can be proven in the timeline that the risk to perceive the own body as "too fat" is slightly higher. A distorted perception regarding the body image (normal weight but perceiving themselves as "too fat") is primarily a problem of the girls: they have in the year 2006 and 2010 a 2-times higher chance to belong to the group of the distorted perceivers than in 2002. Dieting as a strategy in dealing with an alleged fat body has in a comparison still a major role, however in 2010 far fewer young people made use of it.The observed trends will be discussed against the background of gender-specific health promotion. PMID:22836887
Schmechtig, N; Hähne, C
Intake of palatable solutions can enhance the anorectic potency of opioid antagonists. This experiment examined the relative contributions of orosensory experience and body weight gain to the enhanced anorectic potency of naloxone (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mg\\/kg IP). Four groups of male hooded Lister rats (Charles River) were maintained on separate feeding regimes for 3 months. S-ADLIB rats were
Saima Shabir; Tim C Kirkham
Neuropeptide Y is implicated in energy homeostasis, and contributes to obesity when hypothalamic levels remain chronically elevated. To investigate the specific role of hypothalamic Y2 receptors in this process, we used a conditional Y2 knockout model, using the Cre-lox system and adenoviral delivery of Cre-recombinase. Hypothalamus-specific Y2-deleted mice showed a significant decrease in body weight and a significant increase in
Amanda Sainsbury; Christoph Schwarzer; Michelle Couzens; Serguei Fetissov; Sabine Furtinger; Arthur Jenkins; Helen M. Cox; Günther Sperk; Tomas Hökfelt; Herbert Herzog
Adult PET\\/CT acquisition protocols need to be modified for pediatric imaging to minimize the radiation dose while main- taining diagnostic utility. We developed pediatric PET\\/CT ac- quisition protocols customized to patient weight and estimated the dosimetry and cancer risk of these low-dose protocols to communicate basic imaging risks.Methods:Pro- tocols were developed for whole-body 18 F-FDG imaging ofpa- tients in PET
Adam M. Alessio; Paul E. Kinahan; Vivek Manchanda; Victor Ghioni; Lisa Aldape; Marguerite T. Parisi
NPY has been reported to co-exist within catecholaminergic neurons of the central and peripheral nervous systems. The functional significance in noradrenergic neurons has been related to the vasomotor effects of NPY which complement and interact with NE which is known to have central and peripheral effects on resting metabolic rate (RMR), food intake and body weight of rats. We have studied the effect of chronic peripheral administration of NPY on the metabolic action of NE in lean and obese adult male rats. A group of 20 adult male obese (Jaffa) Zucker rats were acclimated to environmental temperature of either 28 degrees C or 17 degrees C. Each group was divided into 5 subgroups: (I) untreated controls; (II) Carrier-treated Controls; (III) NPY treated; (IV) NE treated and (V) NPY+NE treated. In subgroups II-V , AlzetTm (2002) osmotic minipumps were implanted under the skin in the interscapular region. Pumps were filled with carrier alone (subgroups II) plus NPY (subgroups III), or NE (subgroups IV), or both (subgroups V). Delivery rates were calculated to be 03 microg/h NPY ; 20 microg/h NE, extending over a period of 14 days. Starting from day 2, cumulative food intake and cumulative changes in total body weight were measured every two days.. In warm environmental the combined treatment with NE and NPY was the only treatment that caused significant reduction of total body weight by inhibiting food intake. In the cold environment the NE and NPY together showed similar but less enhancing effect on body weight, this was mainly due to the significant depression of food. PMID:20467124
Al-Arabi, Ateegh; Andrews, J F
Objectives: The effect of national exercise recommendations on adiposity is unknown and may differ by sex. We examined long-term effects of aerobic exercise on adiposity in women and men.Research Methods and Procedures: This was a 12-month randomized, controlled clinical trial testing exercise effect on weight and body composition in men (N = 102) and women (N = 100). Sedentary\\/unfit persons,
Anne McTiernan; Bess Sorensen; Melinda L. Irwin; Angela Morgan; Yutaka Yasui; Rebecca E. Rudolph; Christina Surawicz; Johanna W. Lampe; Paul D. Lampe; Kamran Ayub; John D. Potter
In this paper, a weighted-random-value based resource allocation protocol, WRAP, for multiuser wireless body area network (WBAN) is proposed. WRAP will simultaneously allocate intra and inter WBAN resources by considering both the quality of service (QoS) control in a single WBAN and priority differences among WBANs. Simulation results show that WRAP algorithm can effectively allocate data slots to meet WBAN
ChingYao Huang; MeiLing Liu; ShihHeng Cheng
Objective:The aim of this paper is to analyse the relationships between eating behaviours (picky eating, irregular eating and overeating), and dietary adequacy in accordance with nutrition recommendations and body weight during the preschool years.Design and setting:Our analyses were performed using data from the Longitudinal Study of Child Development in Québec (1998–2002), a population-based birth cohort.Subjects:The study followed a representative sample
L Dubois; A P Farmer; M Girard; K Peterson
It is well established that leptin regulates energy balance largely through isoform B leptin receptor-expressing neurons (LepR neurons) in the brain and that leptin activates one subset of LepR neurons (leptin-excited neurons) while inhibiting the other (leptin-inhibited neurons). However, the neurotransmitters released from LepR neurons that mediate leptin action in the brain are not well understood. Previous results demonstrate that leptin mainly acts on ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons to reduce body weight, and that leptin activates proopiomelanocortin neuron activity by reducing GABA release onto these neurons, suggesting a body weight-promoting role for GABA released from leptin-inhibited neurons. To directly examine the role of GABA release from LepR neurons in body weight regulation, mice with disruption of GABA release specifically from LepR neurons were generated by deletion of vesicular GABA transporter in LepR neurons. Interestingly, these mice developed mild obesity on chow diet and were sensitive to diet-induced obesity, which were associated with higher food intake and lower energy expenditure. Moreover, these mice showed blunted responses in both food intake and body weight to acute leptin administration. These results demonstrate that GABA plays an important role in mediating leptin action. In combination with the previous studies that leptin reduces GABA release onto proopiomelanocortin neurons through leptin-inhibited neurons and that disruption of GABA release from agouti gene-related protein neurons, one subset of LepR-inhibited neurons, leads to a lean phenotype, our results suggest that, under our experimental conditions, GABA release from leptin-excited neuron dominates over leptin-inhibited ones.
Xu, Yuanzhong; O'Brien, William G.; Lee, Cheng-Chi; Myers, Martin G.
BACKGROUND: Beverages are contributing an increased proportion of energy to the diet. Because they elicit a weak compensatory dietary response, they may increase risk of positive energy balance.OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to document the differential effects of matched liquid and solid carbohydrate loads on diet and body weight.DESIGN: In a cross-over design, seven males and eight females consumed dietary carbohydrate
Chronic treatment with nicotine results in reduced body weight gain without a change in food intake. To evaluate the role of brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis in this effect of nicotine, male Sprague-Dawley rats were chronically treated (3X daily, IP) over a 14 day period with either saline, 0.8 mg/kg nicotine, 10 mg/kg caffeine or a combination of 0.8 mg/kg nicotine and 10 mg/kg caffeine and were pretreated (once daily) with either saline or 20 mg/kg nadolol, a long-acting beta-adrenergic receptor blocker. Nicotine significantly reduced body weight gain but not food intake and nadolol did not reverse the effect of nicotine on body weight gain. To evaluate whether nicotine induces BAT thermogenesis, rats were injected IP with either saline or 0.8, 1.2 or 1.6 mg/kg nicotine hydrogen tartrate, with 5 mg/kg dl-phenylpropanolamine (dl-PPA) or with a combination of 0.8 mg/kg nicotine and 10 mg/kg caffeine with interscapular BAT (IBAT) temperatures recorded for 30 minutes after injection. No dose of nicotine produced a change in IBAT temperature whereas a combination of caffeine and nicotine produced a temperature increase in IBAT (0.95 degree C) 63% of that induced by 5 mg/kg dl-PPA. These data suggest that changes in body weight gain induced by nicotine treatment are not the result of an action of nicotine on BAT thermogenesis. PMID:3737629
Wellman, P J; Marmon, M M; Reich, S; Ruddle, J
Between January 1980 and December 1994, seventeen premature infants weighing less than 2500 g underwent surgical management\\u000a for the isolated patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Indometacine therapy for closure of PDA was not effective for all these patients.\\u000a In terms of the body weight at birth, they were divided into two groups; Group I (G-I) consisted of ten patients with birth
Shunji Uchita; Yasuharu Imai; Yoshinori Takanashi; Shuichi Hoshino; Kazuhiro Seo; Masatsugu Terada; Mitsuru Aoki; Mitsugi Nagashima
Oleylethanolamide (OEA) is a naturally occurring lipid that regulates satiety and body weight. Although structurally related to the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide, OEA does not bind to cannabinoid receptors and its molecular targets have not been defined. Here we show that OEA binds with high affinity to the peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-alpha), a nuclear receptor that regulates several aspects of lipid metabolism.
Jin Fu; Silvana Gaetani; Fariba Oveisi; Jesse Lo Verme; Antonia Serrano; Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca; Anja Rosengarth; Hartmut Luecke; Barbara Di Giacomo; Giorgio Tarzia; Daniele Piomelli
Background Despite the increasing prevalence of overweight/obesity and its association to eating patterns in adolescents and adults, little is known about the relationship between problematic eating behaviours and body weight in the preschool years within the context of various social factors. This research aims to analyze the relationship between social factors, mothers' perceptions of their child's eating behaviour (picky eating and overeating), and body weight in preschool years, in a population-based cohort of preschoolers from Québec (Canada). Methods Analyses were performed on 1498 children from the Longitudinal Study of Child Development in Québec, a representative sample of children born in 1998 in the Canadian province of Québec. Eating behaviours (picky eating and overeating) were derived from questionnaires at 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5 years of age. BMI was calculated from children's measured height and weight at 4.5 years. Children's sex and birth weight, mothers' age, immigrant status, smoking status during pregnancy, and education level, family type, annual household income and income sufficiency, the number of overweight/obese parents, children's day-care attendance, and food insufficiency were part of the analysis. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to determine odds ratios for different body weight profiles (underweight, normal weight, at risk of overweight, overweight), and one-way analysis-of-variances (ANOVA) allowed for group comparisons of means. Results The proportion of children reported for each eating behaviour category remained quite stable across the years studied. Picky eating and overeating related to body weight among 4.5-year-old children, even when social and parental factors were accounted for in multivariate analysis. Picky eaters were twice as likely to be underweight at 4.5 years as children who were never picky eaters. Adjusted odds ratios revealed overeaters were 6 times more likely to be overweight at 4.5 years than were children who were never overeaters. Conclusion Given the association between eating behaviours and bodyweight among 4.5-year-old children, particularly among those from less educated, lower income families and younger mothers, health professionals should target parents of children at risk of overweight/obesity and underweight with focussed messages and strategies for the management of emerging problematic eating behaviours.
Dubois, Lise; Farmer, Anna; Girard, Manon; Peterson, Kelly; Tatone-Tokuda, Fabiola
Examines the effects and interactions of gender, pubertal status, and body weight on the self-concept of young adolescent Australian students. The mean self-concept score was significantly related to students' standard body weight, and there was an interaction between gender and puberty, with postpubertal males having the highest and…
O'Dea, Jennifer A.; Abraham, Suzanne
Postnatal weight gain may predispose to the development of obesity during childhood. The aims of this study were to study the impact of weight gain during specific periods of the first year of life and of feeding patterns on the body mass index (BMI) of adolescents. Growth records during the first 24 months of life of 88 obese and 214 non-obese 12 year-old Arab children were evaluated. Birth weight and length were similar for obese and non-obese adolescents, while the rate of breastfeeding was significantly lower in the obese group (p < 0.01). Obese adolescents demonstrated a small yet significant accelerated weight gain at 4 (p = 0.002) and 12 (p = 0.01) months of age. Weight gain during the first 2 months of life and feeding pattern were independent predictors of BMI at the age of 12 years. Thus, early postnatal weight gain is associated with obesity in adolescence, while breastfeeding seems to have a protective effect. PMID:18404968
Shehadeh, Naim; Weitzer-Kish, Hila; Shamir, Raanan; Shihab, Shihab; Weiss, Ram
We showed previously that, at ambient room temperature (22°C), mice maintained at 20% below their initial body weight by calorie restriction expend energy at a rate below that which can be accounted for by the decrease of fat and fat-free mass. Food-restricted rodents may become torpid at subthermoneutral temperatures, a possible confounding factor when using mice as human models in obesity research. We examined the bioenergetic, hormonal, and behavioral responses to maintenance of a 20% body weight reduction in singly housed C57BL/6J +/+ and Lep(ob) mice housed at both 22°C and 30°C. Weight-reduced high-fat-fed diet mice (HFD-WR) showed similar quantitative reductions in energy expenditure-adjusted for body mass and composition-at both 22°C and 30°C: -1.4 kcal/24 h and -1.6 kcal/24 h below predicted, respectively, and neither group entered torpor. In contrast, weight-reduced Lep(ob) mice (OB-WR) housed at 22°C became torpid in the late lights-off period (0200-0500) but did not when housed at 30°C. These studies indicate that mice with an intact leptin axis display similar decreases in "absolute" energy expenditure in response to weight reduction at both 22°C and 30°C ambient temperature. More importantly, the "percent" decrease in total energy expenditure observed in the HFD-WR compared with AL mice is much greater at 30°C (-19%) than at 22°C (-10%). Basal energy expenditure demands are ?45% lower in mice housed at 30°C vs. 22°C, since the mice housed at thermoneutrality do not allocate extra energy for heat production. The higher total energy expenditure of mice housed at 22°C due to these increased thermogenic demands may mask physiologically relevant changes in energy expenditure showing that ambient temperature must be carefully considered when quantifying energy metabolism in both rodents and humans. PMID:22761182
Ravussin, Yann; LeDuc, Charles A; Watanabe, Kazuhisa; Leibel, Rudolph L
Hemodialysis patients have high rates of mortality that may be related to aspects of the dialytic procedure. In prior studies, shorter length dialysis sessions have been associated with decreased survival, but these studies may have been confounded by body size differences. Here we tested whether in-center thrice-weekly hemodialysis patients with adequate urea clearances but shorter dialysis session length is associated with mortality independent of body size. Data were taken from a large national cohort of patients from a large dialysis organization undergoing thrice-weekly, in-center hemodialysis. In the primary analysis, patients with prescribed dialysis sessions greater and less than 240 minutes were pair-matched on post-dialysis weight as well as on age, gender, and vascular access type. Compared to prescribed longer dialysis sessions, session lengths less than 240 minutes were significantly associated with increased all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 1.26). The association was consistent across strata of age, gender, and dialysis post-weight. Secondary analyses found a dose-response between prescribed session length and survival. Thus, among patients with adequate urea clearance, shorter dialysis session lengths are associated with increased mortality independent of body weight.
Flythe, Jennifer E.; Curhan, Gary C.; Brunelli, Steven M.
Regulator of G protein signaling 9–2 (RGS9–2) is a protein that is highly enriched in the striatum, a brain region that mediates motivation, movement and reward responses. We identified a naturally occurring 5 nucleotide deletion polymorphism in the human RGS9 gene and found that the mean body mass index (BMI) of individuals with the deletion was significantly higher than those without. A splicing reporter minigene assay demonstrated that the deletion had the potential to significantly decrease the levels of correctly spliced RGS9 gene product. We measured the weights of rats after virally transduced overexpression of RGS9–2 or the structurally related RGS proteins, RGS7, or RGS11, in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and observed a reduction in body weight after overexpression of RGS9–2 but not RGS7 or 11. Conversely, we found that the RGS9 knockout mice were heavier than their wild-type littermates and had significantly higher percentages of abdominal fat. The constituent adipocytes were found to have a mean cross-sectional area that was more than double that of corresponding cells from wild-type mice. However, food intake and locomotion were not significantly different between the two strains. These studies with humans, rats and mice implicate RGS9–2 as a factor in regulating body weight.
Sharma, Meenakshi; Dufresne, Robert L.; Terzi, Dimitra; Risch, S. Craig; Fairbrother, William G.; Neve, Rachael L.; Kane, John P.; Malloy, Mary J.; Pullinger, Clive R.; Gu, Harvest F.; Tsatsanis, Christos; Hamilton, Steven P.; Gold, Stephen J.; Zachariou, Venetia; Kovoor, Abraham
Objective To investigate the role of smoking cessation in body weight. Data Sources 2004–2005 and 2009–2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Surveys (BRFSS) (N = 349,000), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Tax Burden on Tobacco (Orzechowski and Walker 2010). Study Design The Gaussian treatment effect model is estimated for three age categories by gender. Treatment effects of quitting smoking on body mass index (BMI) by quit length are calculated. Principal Findings Quitting is found to be endogenous. Differentiated effects of quitting smoking on BMI are found among quitters by gender, between age groups, and by length of time since quitting smoking, and positive association between smoking cessation and body weight confirmed. Declining smoking rates have only a modest effect in the overweight population. The effects of quitting on BMI are considerably lower among younger men and women. Conclusion The price that must be paid, in terms of weight gain, to enjoy the health benefits of smoking cessation is trivial even for the obese population.
Kasteridis, Panagiotis; Yen, Steven T
Objectives Previous studies demonstrated increased levels of cysteine proteases cathepsins in serum and adipose tissues from obese patients. We now provide evidence from a mouse model of obesity to suggest a direct participation of cathepsin K (CatK) in mouse body weight gain and glucose metabolism. Methods and Results Using real-time PCR, we detected 12-fold increase in CatK transcripts after adipogenesis of human preadipocytes. Using an immunohistology analysis, we consistently observed high levels of CatK expression in adipose tissues from obese humans and mice. Selective inhibition of CatK activity blocked the lipid accumulation in human and mouse preadipocytes. In mice, CatK deficiency reduced significantly diet-induced body weight gain and serum glucose and insulin levels. Similar results were obtained in diet-induced and genetically created (ob/ob) obese mice after animals were treated with a CatK-selective inhibitor. Mechanistic study demonstrated a role for CatK in degrading fibronectin, a matrix protein that controls adipogenesis. Deficiency or inhibition of CatK leads to fibronectin accumulation in muscle and adipose tissues. Conclusion This study demonstrates an essential role of CatK in adipogenesis and mouse body weight gain, possibly via degradation of fibronectin, thus suggesting a novel therapeutic strategy for the control of obesity by regulating CatK activity.
Yang, Min; Sun, Jiusong; Zhang, Tinghu; Liu, Jian; Zhang, Jie; Shi, Michael A.; Darakhshan, Froogh; Guerre-Millo, Michele; Clement, Karine; Gelb, Bruce D.; Dolgnov, Gregory; Shi, Guo-Ping
Generally, patients' actual body weight (ABW) is used to calculate the number of CD34? cells to be harvested for autologous haematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) transplantation. In our institution, 'overweight' patients weighing at least 25% more than their ideal body weight (IBW) have their adjusted ideal body weight (AdjIBW) used for determination of blood volume to be processed to achieve a minimum target of CD34? cells per kilogram, as well as CD34? cell dosage calculation at transplant. AdjIBW is calculated as follows: AdjIBW?=?IBW?+?0.25?×?(actual weight?-?IBW). We have used AdjIBW for 65/153 patients who have had autologous HPC harvests, with a median AdjIBW of 69 kg (range, 50-110 kg). Median actual weight was 90 kg (range, 62-175 kg). Median volume of peripheral blood processed to achieve a minimum 2?×?10? CD34? cells/kg for these patients was 13.2 L (range, 5-35 L), and the median CD34? cells?×?10?/kg collected for AdjIBW was 6.3 (range, 1.7-33). For normal-weight patients (n?=?88; median ABW, 75 kg; range, 49-98 kg), the corresponding median apheresis volume was 16 L (range, 7-24 L), and median CD34? cells?×?10?/kg harvested was 4.5 (range, 1.4-15.9). In total, 35 in a total transplant cohort of 82 patients had AdjIBW used to determine CD34? cell dose at time of transplant, with a median of 4.5?×?10?/kg, (if their ABW was used in the calculation; 3.1?×?10?/kg), compared to median dose of 3.2?×?10?/kg ABW for the normal-weight patient cohort. All patients engrafted with no significant difference between median times to neutrophil and platelet engraftment for the overweight (13 and 15 days, respectively) compared with normal-weight (12 and 14 days, respectively) patient cohorts. We conclude that the use of AdjIBW is a useful tool for successful harvest and subsequent transplant for overweight patients, with no adverse effect on engraftment times. PMID:22836946
Hicks, C; Trickett, A; Kwan, Y L; Ramanathan, S
An increase in obesity is usually accompanied by an increase in eating disturbances. Susceptibility to these states may arise from different combinations of underlying traits: Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) Restraint and Disinhibition. Two studies were conducted to examine the interaction between these traits; one on-line study (n=351) and one laboratory-based study (n=120). Participants completed a battery of questionnaires and provided self-report measures of body weight and physical activity. A combination of high Disinhibition and high Restraint was associated with a problematic eating behaviour profile (EAT-26), and a higher rate of smoking and alcohol consumption. A combination of high Disinhibition and low Restraint was associated with a higher susceptibility to weight gain and a higher sedentary behaviour. These data show that different combinations of Disinhibition and Restraint are associated with distinct weight and behaviour outcomes. PMID:20571320
Bryant, E J; Kiezebrink, K; King, N A; Blundell, J E
This study develops a body motion interactive system with computer vision technology. This application combines interactive games, art performing, and exercise training system. Multiple image processing and computer vision technologies are used in this study. The system can calculate the characteristics of an object color, and then perform color segmentation. When there is a wrong action judgment, the system will avoid the error with a weight voting mechanism, which can set the condition score and weight value for the action judgment, and choose the best action judgment from the weight voting mechanism. Finally, this study estimated the reliability of the system in order to make improvements. The results showed that, this method has good effect on accuracy and stability during operations of the human-machine interface of the sports training system.
Lin, Chern-Sheng; Chen, Chia-Tse; Shei, Hung-Jung; Lay, Yun-Long; Chiu, Chuang-Chien
Total body levels of nitrogen were measured by prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis in 136 healthy adults in the general population (age 20 to 80 years), in 55 cancer patients, and in 20 obese subjects. In order to evaluate the TBN values for the patients, it was necessary to normalize the data for possible differences due to body habitus. This normalization was defined as the ratio of the measured nitrogen level to a predicted nitrogen level derived from the normal population. The parameters of sex, age, height, weight, and fat were used to calculate expected normal values of nitrogen. For the cancer patients, an average TBN deficit of less than 10% was observed. Individual patients, however, showed deviations from the TBN/sub p/ value as large as 28%. For obese patients, the TBN values were normal to slightly high. When adjusted for body size, the deficit of TBN in the cancer patients was approximately half that observd for TBK.
Ellis, K.J.; Yasumura, S.; Vartsky, D.; Vaswani, A.N.; Cohn, S.H.
Objective:Previous research has focused on overall associations between work stress and body mass index (BMI) ignoring the possibility that stress may cause some people to eat less and lose weight and others to eat more. Using longitudinal data, we studied whether work stress induced weight loss in lean individuals and weight gain in overweight individuals.Design:Prospective cohort study.Subjects:A total of 7965
M Kivimäki; J Head; J E Ferrie; M J Shipley; E Brunner; J Vahtera; M G Marmot
The purpose of this study was to separate the effects of gender from those of desired weight loss on body satisfaction and eating disordered behavior. Therefore, we explored gender differences in a sample (N = 191) of men and women who wanted to lose weight. We expected that controlling for desire to lose weight would minimize gender differences; this was
Susan Kashubeck-West; Laurie B. Mintz; Ingrid Weigold
BACKGROUND: Previous research with adolescents has shown associations of body weight, weight control concerns and behaviors with eating disorder symptoms, but it is unclear whether these associations are direct or whether a mediating effect exists. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of overweight and obesity, weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms and to examine the
Yiou Fan; Yanping Li; Ailing Liu; Xiaoqi Hu; Guansheng Ma; Guifa Xu
Background: The question of whether weight loss increases a per- son's longevity is important given the high prevalence of obesity and the large number of people trying to lose weight in industrialized countries. Objective: This study assessed the effect of body mass index (BMI) and weight change (withi n1yo fbaseline) on subsequent mortality. Design: This prospective cohort study had a
Shoko Maru; Yvonne T van Der Schouw; C. H. F. Gimbrere; Diederick E Grobbee; Petra HM Peeters
The aim of the study was to examine the effect of socioeconomic status (SES), age, weight and gender on the body image and weight control practices of children and adolescents, and to investigate whether health education about weight issues should target low socioeconomic groups. The study participants were a randomly selected group of school children who completed a questionnaire, and had their height and weight measured. Participants (n = 1131) were aged 6-19 years from 12 schools in New South Wales. SES, age, gender, body weight, body image, skipping breakfast, physical self-esteem, attempts to lose or gain weight, and dietary and weight control advice received from others were examined. Log-linear, chi 2 and MANOVA analyses were used to determine interactions between variables. Low SES children were more likely to be overweight, to skip breakfast, to perceive themselves as 'too thin', to be trying to gain weight and less likely to receive dietary or weight control advice. Physical self-esteem was lowest among overweight girls of middle/upper SES and greatest among boys of low SES, despite the latter being more likely to be overweight. Being overweight does not appear to adversely affect the physical self-esteem of children of low SES, particularly boys. Health educators should examine these issues with young people to help make health education and nutrition education most relevant and appropriate. PMID:11675800
O'Dea, J A; Caputi, P
Objectives Perception of a healthy body weight may influence health behaviors including physical activity level, nutritional habits, and health outcomes, and these perceptions may vary importantly by race. Midlife is a critical period for women, which typically includes weight gain. We assessed the associations between perception of healthy body weight and body mass index (BMI) and whether they vary by race. Methods In the Do Stage Transitions Result in Detectable Effects (STRIDE) study, body mass index (BMI) and perception of body weight (healthy, underweight, or overweight) were measured at the baseline examination. Multinomial logistic regression models examined the associations, with race (White vs. Black) as a moderator variable. Results Of 729 women enrolled, 689 women (95%, N=145 Black, N=544 White) were included in these analyses. Even though the average BMI was higher for Black women compared to White women (33.1 vs. 29.2, respectively, p<.0001), Black women were less likely to report that they weighed too much (RRR (Relative Risk Ratio) [95% CI]: 0.4 [0.2, 0.9], p 0.022) and more likely to think that they did not weigh enough (RRR [95% CI]: 14.2 [1.8, 110], p 0.011). Conclusion Although Black women in general face a greater threat of morbidity from weight-related chronic diseases, they are more likely to be accepting of their weight at higher BMI’s, relative to Whites. Weight-loss interventions and counseling about healthy body size may influence healthy behavior and reduce chronic disease risk.
Thomas, Semara; Ness, Roberta B.; Thurston, Rebecca C.; Matthews, Karen; Chang, Chung-Chou; Hess, Rachel
The Siberian hamster survives winter by decreasing food intake and catabolizing abdominal fat reserves, resulting in a sustained, profound loss of body weight. VGF gene expression is photoperiodically regulated in the hypothalamus with significantly higher expression in lean Siberian hamsters. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of VGF in regulating these seasonal cycles by determining the effects of a VGF-derived peptide (TLQP-21) on food intake and body weight. Acute intracerebroventricular administration of TLQP-21 decreased food intake, and chronic treatment caused a sustained reduction in food intake and body weight and decreased abdominal fat depots. Behavioral analysis revealed that TLQP-21 reduced meal size but not the frequency of feeding bouts, suggesting a primary action on satiety. Hamsters treated with TLQP-21 lost a similar amount of weight as a pair-fed group in which food intake was matched to that of the TLQP-21-treated group. Central or peripheral treatment with TLQP-21 did not produce a significant effect on resting metabolic rate. We conclude that the primary action of TLQP-21 is to decrease food intake rather than increase energy expenditure. TLQP-21 treatment caused a decrease in UCP-1 mRNA in brown adipose tissue, but hypothalamic expression of orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptide genes remained unchanged after TLQP-21 treatment, although compensatory increases in NPY and AgRP mRNA were observed in the pair-fed hamsters. The effects of TLQP-21 administration are similar to those in hamsters in short days, suggesting that increased VGF activity may contribute to the hypophagia that underlies the seasonal catabolic state. PMID:17463057
Jethwa, Preeti H; Warner, Amy; Nilaweera, Kanishka N; Brameld, John M; Keyte, John W; Carter, Wayne G; Bolton, Neil; Bruggraber, Michael; Morgan, Peter J; Barrett, Perry; Ebling, Francis J P
and mean duration of obesity 13.7years) were included. The patients were predominantly cared for by general practitioners. Four fifths of the patients reported having obesity-associated co-morbidities. All patients were advised to take orlistat 120mg three times daily. Results: After a mean treatment duration of 7.1months, both women and men lost 10.7% of their baseline weight (87% lost >5% weight and
The current research extended the implicit theory approach to a weight management context and merged it with value expectancy theory. Three studies investigated the hypothesis that individuals are especially unlikely to self-regulate effectively after dieting setbacks when they believe body weight to be fixed (entity theory) rather than malleable (incremental theory). Study 1 examined avoidant coping after a hypothetical dieting setback. Study 2 examined the implicit theory-avoidant coping relation after naturally occurring challenges to participants' weight-loss goals. Across both studies, entity theorists, relative to incremental theorists, reported more avoidant coping after setbacks. In Study 2, avoidant coping, in turn, predicted difficulty achieving weight-loss success. Study 3 manipulated implicit theories of weight to test the causal effects of implicit theories on effortful regulation. Entity theorists, relative to incremental theorists, reported less persistence following setbacks. Across the three studies, expectations about the potential for future dieting success mediated the link between implicit theory and self-regulation. PMID:20179317
Burnette, Jeni L
This study evaluated the effects of garment size and fabric weight on range-of-motion (ROM). Ten male subjects performed a series of twelve gross body movements while wearing each of nine similarly styled coveralls. The coveralls were undersized, appropriately sized, and oversized, and were constructed from three different weights of poly/cotton fabric. A balanced 3 x 3 repeated measures experimental design was used, along with a seminude control condition. ROM was measured with a two-arm manual goniometer. Garment size significantly affected (p < .05) ROM for all movements except shoulder extension and trunk lateral flexion. Compared to seminude ROM, undersized garments reduced the mean ROM by as much as 24% in the case of hip flexion. Fabric weights on ROM were significant for shoulder extension and elbow, hip, knee, and shoulder horizontal flexion. Fabric weight affected ROM less than garment size. Interaction effects between fabric weight and size generally were not significant. These results demonstrate that undersized garments can measurably reduce the wearer's movement capability. Providers of protective clothing should ensure that garments are not undersized and should consider the benefits of oversizing against possible safety and wearer acceptance problems. PMID:7726098
Adams, P S; Keyserling, W M
Using data from the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study, we evaluated the influence of adulthood weight history on mortality risk. The National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study is an observational cohort study of US men and women who were aged 50-71 years at entry in 1995-1996. This analysis focused on 109,947 subjects who had never smoked and were younger than age 70 years. We estimated hazard ratios of total and cause-specific mortality for recalled body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) at ages 18, 35, and 50 years; weight change across 3 adult age intervals; and the effect of first attaining an elevated BMI at 4 successive ages. During 12.5 years' follow-up through 2009, 12,017 deaths occurred. BMI at all ages was positively related to mortality. Weight gain was positively related to mortality, with stronger associations for gain between ages 18 and 35 years and ages 35 and 50 years than between ages 50 and 69 years. Mortality risks were higher in persons who attained or exceeded a BMI of 25.0 at a younger age than in persons who reached that threshold later in adulthood, and risks were lowest in persons who maintained a BMI below 25.0. Heavier initial BMI and weight gain in early to middle adulthood strongly predicted mortality risk in persons aged 50-69 years. PMID:24173550
Adams, Kenneth F; Leitzmann, Michael F; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Albanes, Demetrius; Harris, Tamara B; Hollenbeck, Albert; Kipnis, Victor
Anorexia nervosa exhibits one of the highest death rates among psychiatric patients and a relevant fraction of it is derived from undernutrition. Nutritional and medical treatment of extreme undernutrition present two very complex and conflicting tasks: (1) to avoid “refeeding syndrome” caused by a too fast correction of malnutrition; and (2) to avoid “underfeeding” caused by a too cautious refeeding. To obtain optimal treatment results, the caloric intake should be planned starting with indirect calorimetry measurements and electrolyte abnormalities accurately controlled and treated. This article reports the case of an anorexia nervosa young female affected by extreme undernutrition (BMI 9.6 kg/m2) who doubled her admission body weight (from 22.5 kg to 44 kg) in a reasonable time with the use of enteral tube feeding for gradual correction of undernutrition. Refeeding syndrome was avoided through a specialized and flexible program according to clinical, laboratory, and physiological findings.
Gentile, Maria Gabriella; Lessa, Chiara; Cattaneo, Marina
Large systems of interacting particles are often treated by assuming that the effect on any one particle of the remaining N-1 may be approximated by an average potential. This approach reduces the problem to that of finding the bound-state solutions for a particle in a potential; statistical mechanics is then used to obtain the properties of the many-body system. In some physical systems this approach may not be acceptable, because the two-body force component cannot be treated in this one-body limit. A technique for incorporating two-body forces in such calculations in a more realistic fashion is described. 1 figure.
A QTL analysis of pig chromosome X (SSCX) was carried out using an approach that accurately takes into account the specific features of sex chromosomes i.e. their heterogeneity, the presence of a pseudoautosomal region and the dosage compensation phenomenon. A three-generation full-sib population of 386 animals was created by crossing Pietrain sires with a crossbred dam line. Phenotypic data on 72 traits were recorded for at least 292 and up to 315 F2 animals including chemical body composition measured on live animals at five target weights ranging from 30 to 140 kg, daily gain and feed intake measured throughout growth, and carcass characteristics obtained at slaughter weight (140 kg). Several significant and suggestive QTL were detected on pig chromosome X: (1) in the pseudoautosomal region of SSCX, a QTL for entire loin weight, which showed paternal imprinting, (2) closely linked to marker SW2456, a suggestive QTL for feed intake at which Pietrain alleles were found to be associated with higher feed intake, which is unexpected for a breed known for its low feed intake capacity, (3) at the telomeric end of the q arm of SSCX, QTL for jowl weight and lipid accretion and (4) suggestive QTL for chemical body composition at 30 kg. These results indicate that SSCX is important for physical and chemical body composition and accretion as well as feed intake regulation. PMID:19284590
Duthie, Carol-Anne; Simm, Geoff; Pérez-Enciso, Miguel; Doeschl-Wilson, Andrea; Kalm, Ernst; Knap, Pieter W; Roehe, Rainer
Objective We assessed the relation between prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and the likelihood of major depressive disorder (MDD) during pregnancy and test whether this association was modified by gestational weight gain. Method Women (n=242) were enrolled at <20 weeks gestation into a prospective cohort study. Diagnosis of MDD was made with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV at 20, 30, and 36 weeks. Gestational weight gain was compared with the 1990 Institute of Medicine weight gain recommendations. To assess the independent association between prepregnancy BMI and the odds of MDD, MDD at each time point was used as the dependent measure in a multivariable longitudinal logistic regression model employing generalized estimating equations. Results There was a strong, positive dose-response association between prepregnancy BMI and the likelihood of MDD (p=0.002). Compared with a BMI of 18, the adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for BMIs of 23, 28, and 33 were 1.4 (1.1, 1.7), 1.9 (1.3, 2.9), and 2.6 (1.4, 4.3), respectively. Gestational weight gain significantly modified this effect. Among women with weight gains within and above the 1990 IOM recommendations, pregravid overweight was associated with a greater likelihood of major depression. In contrast, all women with weight gains below recommended levels had an elevated odds of depression, regardless of their pregravid BMI (p<0.05). Conclusions Because pregravid overweight, poor gestational weight gain, and major depression all pose substantial risks for fetal development and birth outcomes, health care providers should monitor depression levels in these women to facilitate appropriate depression intervention.
Bodnar, Lisa M.; Wisner, Katherine L.; Moses-Kolko, Eydie; Sit, Dorothy K.Y.; Hanusa, Barbara H.
Because eating behavior can take on an impulsive nature many people experience difficulty with dieting to lose weight. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the effectiveness of two interventions targeting impulsive processes of eating behavior to facilitate weight loss: Implementation intentions to remind people about dieting versus a go/no-go task to change impulses toward palatable foods. Dieters performed an online training program (four times in 4 weeks) in which they were randomly assigned to a 2 (implementation intention condition: dieting versus control) × 2 (go/no-go task condition: food versus control) design. They formed either dieting implementation intentions (e.g., If I open the fridge I will think of dieting!) or control implementation intentions. Furthermore, they received either a go/no-go task in which behavioral stop signals were presented upon presentation of palatable foods (food go/no-go task), or upon control stimuli. Participants' weight was measured in the laboratory before and after the intervention. Strength of participants' dieting goal and their Body Mass Index (BMI; as a proxy for impulsiveness toward food) were examined as moderators. Results showed that both dieting implementation intentions and the food go/no-go task facilitated weight loss. Moreover, dieting implementation intentions facilitated weight loss particularly among people with a strong current dieting goal, whereas the food go/no-go task facilitated weight loss independent of this factor. Instead, the food go/no-go task, but not formation of dieting implementation intentions, was primarily effective among dieters with a relatively high BMI. These results provide the first preliminary evidence that interventions aimed at targeting impulsive eating-related processes via the internet can facilitate weight loss. PMID:24675683
Veling, Harm; van Koningsbruggen, Guido M; Aarts, Henk; Stroebe, Wolfgang
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Background and purpose: We have previously shown that treatment with zinc plus cyclo-(His-Pro) (CHP) significantly stimulated synthesis of the insulin degrading enzyme and lowered plasma insulin and blood glucose levels, alongside improving oral glucose tolerance in genetically type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (G-K) rats and in aged obese Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rats. Thus, we postulated that zinc plus CHP (ZC) treatment might also improve body weight control in these rats. We therefore determined the effects of ZC treatment on body weights in both genetically diabetic, mature G-K rats and non-diabetic, obese S-D rats. Experimental approach: G-K rats aged 1.5–10 months and non-diabetic overweight or obese S-D rats aged 6–18 months were treated with 0–6 mg CHP plus 0–10 mg zinc·L?1 drinking water for 2–4 weeks, and changes in weight, serum leptin and adiponectin levels, food and water intakes were measured. Key results: The optimal dose of CHP (in combination with zinc) to reduce weight and plasma leptin levels and to increase plasma adiponectin levels was close to 0.1 mg·kg?1·day?1, in either mature G-K rats and aged overweight or obese S-D rats. Food and water intake significantly decreased in ZC treated rats in both aged S-D rats and mature G-K rats, but not in young S-D and G-K rats. Conclusions and implications: ZC treatment improved weight control and may be a possible treatment for overweight and obesity.
Song, MK; Rosenthal, MJ; Song, AM; Uyemura, K; Yang, H; Ament, ME; Yamaguchi, DT; Cornford, EM
Growth acceleration or catch-up growth (CUG) in early infancy is a plausible risk factor for later obesity and cardiovascular disease. We postulate that this risk may be mediated by an adverse programming of body composition by CUG in early infancy. The study was aimed at evaluating the association between the pattern of gain in weight and length of term low birth weight (LBW) infants from birth to 6 months, with fat mass percent (FM%) at 6 months. Term healthy singleton LBW infants were enrolled. Baby's weight and length z-scores were measured at birth and three follow-up visits. Body composition was measured by dual-energy absorptiometry at last visit. A total of 54 babies (28 boys) were enrolled. The mean birth weight and gestation were 2175±180 g and 37.6±0.6 weeks. Follow-up visits were at 1.4±0.0, 3.0±0.3 and 7.2±0.8 months. The proportion of babies who showed CUG [increase in weight for age z-score (?WAZ)>0.67] from birth to 1.4, 3.0 and 7.2 months was 29.6, 26.4 and 48.5%, respectively. The mean FM% at 7.2 months was 16.6±7.8%. Infants with greater ?WAZ from birth to 3 and 7.2 months had significantly greater FM% at 7.2 months after adjusting for current age, size and gender. Infants with early CUG (<1.4 months) had higher FM% than infants with no CUG. We conclude that earlier and greater increment in WAZ is positively associated with FM%. PMID:24901658
Khandelwal, P; Jain, V; Gupta, A K; Kalaivani, M; Paul, V K
It has been reported that the adrenal gland is essential to the development of obesity if Ay/a Yellow obese mice (Hausberger and Hausberger 1960). Since the actual body composition data to support this report has not been published, we attempted to duplicate this observation by adrenalectomy of the Yellow mice before the onset of obesity. Two groups of Yellow mice (Ay/a) and normal mice (a/a) were either sham operated or adrenalectomized at two months of age and at four months of age. Body weight was monitored until body gain had stopped. At that time the animals were sacrified and checked for completeness of adrenal removal. Body composition of dry matter, fat, protein, and ash was determined. Adrenalectomy caused a reduction of body fat of 33% and 30% in both the a/a Control and the Ay/a Yellow mice, respectively. The adrenalectomized Yellow mice were still fatter than adrenalectomized Controls (25.3% fat vs. 10.6% fat). Yellow and control adrenalectomized mice showed similar depression in growth rate. These data suggest that while the adrenal gland is essential for complete expression of the genetic potential for fat deposition, it may not be necessary for partial expression indicating a secondary role in the development of obesity in the Ay/a Yellow mouse. PMID:1002103
Jackson, E; Stolz, D; Martin, R
Background:Obesity is associated with reduced levels of circulating high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) and its major protein, apolipoprotein (apo) A-I. As a result of the role of HDL and apoA-I in cellular lipid transport, low HDL and apoA-I may contribute directly to establishing or maintaining the obese condition.Methods:To test this, male C57BL/6 wild-type (WT), apoA-I deficient (apoA-I(-/-)) and apoA-I transgenic (apoA-I(tg/tg)) mice were fed obesogenic diets (ODs) and monitored for several clinical parameters. We also performed cell culture studies.Results:ApoA-I(-/-) mice gained significantly more body weight and body fat than WT mice over 20 weeks despite their reduced food intake. During a caloric restriction regime imposed on OD-fed mice, apoA-I deficiency significantly inhibited the loss of body fat as compared with WT mice. Reduced body fat loss with caloric restriction in apoA-I(-/-) mice was associated with blunted stimulated adipose tissue lipolysis as verified by decreased levels of phosphorylated hormone-sensitive lipase (p-HSL) and lipolytic enzyme mRNA. In contrast to apoA-I(-/-) mice, apoA-I(tg/tg) mice gained relatively less weight than WT mice, consistent with other reports. ApoA-I(tg/tg) mice showed increased adipose tissue lipolysis, verified by increased levels of p-HSL and lipolytic enzyme mRNA. In cell culture studies, HDL and apoA-I specifically increased catecholamine-induced lipolysis possibly through modulating the adipocyte plasma membrane cholesterol content.Conclusions:Thus, apoA-I and HDL contribute to modulating body fat content by controlling the extent of lipolysis. ApoA-I and HDL are key components of lipid metabolism in adipose tissue and constitute new therapeutic targets in obesity. PMID:24567123
Wei, H; Averill, M M; McMillen, T S; Dastvan, F; Mitra, P; Subramanian, S; Tang, C; Chait, A; Leboeuf, R C
This study assessed the relationship between the body mass index (BMI) of HIV-1-infected women and their infants’ perinatal outcomes. The study population consisted of women enrolled in the NICHD International Site Development Initiative (NISDI) Perinatal Study with data allowing calculation of the BMI adjusted for length of gestation (adjBMI), who delivered singleton infants. Outcome variables included infant growth parameters at birth (weight, BMI, length and head circumference) and gestational age. Of 697 women from Argentina, the Bahamas, Brazil and Mexico who were included in the analysis, the adjBMI was classified as underweight for 109 (15.6%), normal for 418 (60.0%), overweight for 88 (12.6%) and obese for 82 (11.8%). Median infant birth weight, BMI, birth length and head circumference differed significantly according to maternal adjBMI (P?0.0002). Underweight mothers gave birth to infants with lower weight, lower BMI, shorter length and smaller head circumference, while infants born to normal, overweight and obese mothers were of similar size.
Cruz, Maria Leticia S.; Harris, D. Robert; Read, Jennifer S.; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa M.; Succi, Regina C.M.
The selection of meat-type chickens (broilers) for rapid growth has been accompanied by excessive fat deposition. In this study, we analysed 53 candidate genes that are associated with obesity and obesity-related traits in humans, for which we found chicken orthologues by BLAST searches. We have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with significant differences in allele frequencies between broilers and layers in each of the following six candidate genes: adrenergic, beta-2-, receptor, surface (ADRB2); melanocortin 5 receptor (MC5R); leptin receptor (LEPR), McKusick-Kaufman syndrome (MKKS), milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 protein (MFGE8) and adenylate kinase 1 (AK1). To examine associations with fatness and/or body weight, we used birds of extreme phenotypes in F(2) and backcross populations with varying levels of abdominal fat weight per cent (%AFW) and body weight. We then assessed the level of gene expression by real-time PCR. In two genes, ADRB2 and MFGE8, we found significant association with %AFW. The ADRB2 gene was found to have a significantly higher expression in the liver of lean chickens compared with those of the fat individuals. We believe that this approach can be applied for the identification of other quantitative genes. PMID:22035006
Twito, T; Madeleine, D; Perl-Treves, R; Hillel, J; Lavi, U
By studying genomic changes over time in populations subjected to strong artificial directional selection, we can gain insights to the dynamics of beneficial alleles originating from the founder population or emerging as novel mutations undergoing ongoing selection. The Virginia lines are a chicken resource population generated by long-term bi-directional, single-trait selection for juvenile body weight. We studied genome-wide allele frequency changes from generation 40 to 53 using genome-wide genotypes from directional and relaxed selection lines. Overall, there were small changes in allele frequencies at individual loci over the studied time period; but, on average, the changes were greater in lines with larger phenotypic changes. This is consistent with previous findings that much of the response to selection over the first 40 years of selection was attributable to utilization of standing genetic variation at many loci in the genome, indicating a mostly polygenic architecture for body weight. Over the course of the selection experiment, the largest phenotypic response to selection was observed in the high-weight selected line, and in this line we detected a single locus where the allele frequency changed rapidly during a late stage of the experiment. This locus likely contains a novel, beneficial mutation that appeared between generations 40 and 45 and was driven to fixation in 5 to 10 generations. This result illustrates the dependence of continued long-term selection response on standing genetic variation at many loci as well as strong, novel, beneficial mutations.
Pettersson, Mats E.; Johansson, Anna M.; Siegel, Paul B.; Carlborg, Orjan
Excess body weight and adiposity cause insulin resistance, inflammation, and numerous other alterations in metabolic and hormonal factors that promote atherosclerosis, tumorigenesis, neurodegeneration, and aging. Studies in both animals and humans have demonstrated a beneficial role of dietary restriction and leanness in promoting health and longevity. Epidemiological studies have found strong direct associations between increasing body mass index (BMI) and risks of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and several types of cancer, beginning from BMI of 20-21 kg m(-2) . Although a recent meta-analysis suggests that overweight individuals have significantly lower overall mortality than normal-weight individuals, these data are likely to be an artifact produced by serious methodological problems, especially confounding by smoking, reverse causation due to existing chronic disease, and nonspecific loss of lean mass and function in the frail elderly. From a clinical and public health point of view, maintaining a healthy weight through diet and physical activity should remain the cornerstone in the prevention of chronic diseases and the promotion of healthy aging. PMID:24628815
Fontana, Luigi; Hu, Frank B
Literature on the relationship between depression and C-reactive protein (CRP), a biomarker of systematic inflammation, remains inconsistent. Insufficient adjustment for confounders and effect modifiers might be one explanation. We used the data of 6396 men and 6610 women aged 18 or older, who completed a depression screening and had blood collected as a part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2010. Depression was measured using the 9-item depression scale of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). The odds ratios (ORs) of depression were 1.00 (reference), 1.89 (95% CI=0.77-4.67) and 3.41(1.25-9.25) respectively for men with low, intermediate and upper quartile of CRP. Adjustment for covariates, mainly body mass index, diminished the association among women, from 1.65(1.00-2.74) to 1.08(0.57-2.03) for intermediate, from 2.44 (1.43-4.16) to 1.05 (0.56-1.98) for upper quartile of CRP. Adjustment for the history of major medical illnesses changed ORs neither among men nor among women. The study concluded that CRP remained significantly associated with depression in a dose-response fashion among men but women after being adjusted for body weight. Abnormal body weight, both under and overweight, explained a substantial part of the relationship between CRP and depression among women. PMID:24909972
Liu, Yuexing; Al-Sayegh, Hasan; Jabrah, Rajai; Wang, Wei; Yan, Fei; Zhang, Jian
Objective Loss of BDNF-TrkB signaling results in obesity in both humans and mice; however, the neural circuit that mediates this effect is unknown. We tested the role of TrkB signaling dopamine-1 receptor expressing neurons in body weight regulation. Design and Methods Mice with a floxed allele of the TrkB gene were paired with mice expressing Cre-recombinase under control of the D1 promoter in order to conditionally knock out expression of TrkB receptors from D1-neurons. Results Deletion of TrkB receptors from D1 neurons results in obesity in chow fed mice due to increased feed efficiency. In contrast, loss of Trk B signaling in D1 neurons induced hyperphagia and hyperglycemia in mice maintained on high fat diet. Conclusions These findings indicate TrkB signaling in D1 neurons regulates body weight by distinct mechanisms for chow and high fat diet and may be important for defending the body against the development of obesity and obesity-related disorders.
Mason, Brittany L.; Lobo, Mary Kay; Parada, Luis F.; Lutter, Michael
Body weight support (WS) during treadmill exercise is used to rehabilitate orthopedic/neurological patients. WS lowers musculoskeletal strain and load. It compresses the lower body and increases intrathoracic volume. We studied short-term effects of WS on wave reflection indices using applanation tonometry during progressive WS of 25%, 50%, and 75% of body weight in 25 healthy men. WS decreased mean heart rate from 79 to 69 beats/min (P < .001). Peripheral and central mean arterial, systolic, and pulse pressures (PP) remained unchanged. There was a trend toward lower peripheral and central diastolic pressure. PP amplification ratio decreased significantly (P = .005). Reflected wave characteristics: Augmented pressure and index increased in a stepwise manner with WS (both P < .001). Both ejection duration and systolic duration of the reflected pressure wave (Ätr) increased progressively (both P < .001). The round-trip travel time (?tp) was unchanged. Left ventricular workload and oxygen demand: Left ventricular wasted pressure energy increased (P < .001), and the subendocardial viability ratio decreased (P = .005), whereas the tension time index remained unchanged. In normal men, WS acutely decreases the PP amplification ratio, increases the amplitude and duration of the reflected aortic pressure wave, and increases measures of wasted left ventricular pressure energy and oxygen demand. PMID:24794204
Afzal, Atif; Fung, Daniel; Galligan, Sean; Godwin, Ellen M; Kral, John G; Salciccioli, Louis; Lazar, Jason M
Because of its direct consequences on reproductive success, body condition is an often-studied individual trait in insects. Various studies on insects use disparate methods to assess “body condition.” However, it is doubtful that the results obtained by disparate methods are comparable. In this study, the body conditions of Poecilus cupreus (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera: Carabidae) from eight sites were compared based on the following commonly used variables: (i) fresh weight, (ii) dry weight, and (iii) fat content. All of these variables were corrected for structural body size. Moreover, the effects of using the following ways of assessing structural body size were examined: (a) one size measurement (length of elytron, which is commonly used in beetles), and (b) three size measurements (length of elytron, width of pronotum and length of hind femur). The results obtained using the various estimations of body condition (i, ii, iii) varied significantly. Therefore, studies employing distinct body measurements to assess body condition are not comparable to each other. Using multiple structural size measurements in body condition analyses is better than the common practice of using only one size measurement. However, in the present study, results provided by both methods differ only slightly. A recommendation on the use of terminology in studies on body condition is introduced.
Knapp, Michal; Knappova, Jana
Background Body weight dissatisfaction is an important factor in preventing weight gain and promoting weight loss or maintenance. This study focuses on differences in the rates of body weight dissatisfaction among obese, preobese and normal weight women and men by socioeconomic status within a general adult population in Germany. Methods Data were analyzed from 4186 adults aged 25 to 74 who participated in a cross-sectional, representative population-based health survey (KORA S4, 1999–2001, Augsburg region/Germany). Body mass was measured anthropometrically and indexed following international standards. Among the 2123 women participating in the survey, 40.3% had a normal weight, 34.9% were preobese, and 24.8% were obese (compared to 25.9%, 51.4% and 22.6% among men, respectively). Body weight dissatisfaction, educational level, household income and occupational status were assessed by computer-aided personal interviewing. An index for socioeconomic status was calculated and categorized into quintiles. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to test for differences in the odds of body weight dissatisfaction across socioeconomic strata in normal weight, preobese and obese groups. Body mass index, age, family status, place of residence and health behaviors were adjusted for. Results Overall, being dissatisfied with one’s body weight was more prevalent in women (48.3%) than in men (33.2%). In the normal weight group, no significant differences in the odds of being dissatisfied were found across socioeconomic groups among women or men. Among preobese men, compared to the lowest socioeconomic stratum, increased odds of being dissatisfied with one’s body weight were associated with the highest socioeconomic index group (OR?=?2.3, 95% CI: 1.4–3.8), middle and high educational level (OR?=?1.6, 95% CI: 1.1–2.3, and OR?=?1.9, 95% CI: 1.3–3.7), high income (OR?=?1.8, 95% CI: 1.2–2.7), and middle and high occupational status (both OR?=?1.8, 95% CI: 1.2–2.6). Among preobese women, the odds of being dissatisfied were only significantly elevated in those with a middle educational level (OR?=?1.6, 95% CI: 1.1–2.3). Among obese men, elevated odds were found in the highest socioeconomic index group (OR?=?3.7, 95% CI: 1.8–7.5) and in those with a high educational level (OR?=?2.3, 95% CI: 1.3–4.1), high income (OR?=?2.6, 95% CI: 1.4–4.7), and middle and high occupational status (both OR?=?2.2, 95% CI: 1.3–3.6). The odds of dissatisfaction among obese women were not associated with socioeconomic status as a whole, but were associated with a high educational level, albeit with a comparatively large confidence interval (OR?=?3.6, 95% CI: 1.0–12.8). Conclusions In Germany, body weight dissatisfaction is more prevalent among obese and preobese men in high socioeconomic status groups, a pattern not found in women. The exception to this is a greater prevalence of dissatisfaction among obese and preobese women with a high educational level (albeit inconsistently). Moreover, there is a social gradient in body weight dissatisfaction, especially in obese men, which may partly explain why obesity is more prevalent in men with low socioeconomic status. It also suggests that they are a target group for obesity care in which body weight satisfaction is an important topic.
Peanuts and peanut butter are commonly consumed as a snack, meal component and ingredient in various commercial products. Their consumption is associated with reduced CVD risk and they pose little threat to positive energy balance. However, questions have arisen as to whether product form (e.g. whole nut v. butter) and processing properties (e.g. roasting and adding flavours) may compromise their positive health effects. The present study investigated the effects of peanut form and processing on two CVD risk factors: fasting plasma lipids and body weight. One hundred and eighteen adults (forty-seven males and seventy-one females; age 29.2 (sd 8.4) years; BMI 30.0 (sd 4.5) kg/m2) from Brazil, Ghana and the United States were randomised to consume 56 g of raw unsalted (n 23), roasted unsalted (n 24), roasted salted (n 23) or honey roasted (n 24) peanuts, or peanut butter (n 24) daily for 4 weeks. Peanut form and processing did not differentially affect body weight or fasting plasma lipid responses in the total sample. However, HDL-cholesterol increased significantly at the group level, and total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and TAG concentrations decreased significantly in individuals classified as having elevated fasting plasma lipids compared with those with normal fasting plasma lipids. These observations suggest that the processing attributes assessed in this trial do not compromise the lipid-lowering effects of peanuts, and do not negatively impact body weight. Further studies are warranted to determine the effects of form and processing on other health risk factors. PMID:20456815
McKiernan, Fiona; Lokko, Phoebe; Kuevi, Anna; Sales, Regiane L; Costa, Neuza M B; Bressan, Josefina; Alfenas, Rita C G; Mattes, Richard D
The ability of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) to induce growth in hypophysectomized immature rats was tested by continuous infusion of the partially purified factor at daily doses of 6, 21, and 46 mU for an 8-day period. A dose-dependent growth of the proximal epiphyseal cartilage of the tibia and an associated stimulation of the primary spongiosa were produced by these amounts of IGF. The two highest doses of IGF also resulted in dose-dependent increases of body weight. Gel permeation of the sera at neutrality showed that the large-molecular-weight IGF binding protein was not induced by the infusion of IGF, whereas it ws generated in the sera of hypophysectomized rats that were infused with daily doses of 86 mU of human growth hormone.
Objectives. To evaluate the impact of the body mass index (BMI) before pregnancy and the weight gain during pregnancy, on the occurrence of maternal and neonatal morbidity in the Moroccan population, as well as to analyze the quality of the weight gain depending on the BMI. Methods. A study was carried out over a period of one year from October 1, 2010 to October 1, 2011, using data collected from a descriptive-transversal study. We recruited nondiabetic women without several HTAs, delivering singletons from 37 completed weeks up to 42 weeks gestation. Results. Total of 1408 were analyzed. The risks of moderate hypertension, macrosomia, dystocia, and resort to cesarean section were higher among overweight or obese women, as well as among women whose weight gain was >16?kg. The differences were significant <0.05. Conclusion. This study demonstrates that overweight women before pregnancy and weight gain during pregnancy are associated with higher risks of maternal and neonatal complications. These data provide ideas on prevention opportunities.
Mochhoury, Latifa; Razine, Rachid; Kasouati, Jalal; Kabiri, Mariam; Barkat, Amina
Most studies linking obesity and periodontal disease have been cross-sectional in design. We examined whether gains in body weight, waist circumference, and arm fat area are associated with periodontitis progression in 893 non-diabetic men followed for up to four decades in the prospective VA Dental Longitudinal Study. Probing pocket depth (PPD) was measured by calibrated examiners. Repeated-measures generalized linear models estimated the mean cumulative numbers of teeth with PPD events (PPD > 3 mm) at each dental examination and the slopes associated with increasing numbers of affected teeth over time. Means were adjusted for baseline PPD, education, and cigarette pack-years, and time-dependent values of age, mean plaque score, cigarette packs/day, brushing, and flossing. Men who were overweight at baseline and gained weight most rapidly (> 0.19 kg/yr or ~15 lb during follow-up) had significantly more PPD events than men in the lowest tertile of weight gain (? -0.05 kg/yr). Overweight men whose waist circumference increased > 0.14–0.39 or > 0.39 cm/yr experienced more PPD events than men in the lowest tertile (? 0.14 cm/yr). Increase in arm fat area was associated with disease progression in normal-weight men. These results suggest that tracking adiposity changes with easily obtained anthropometric measures may help predict risk of periodontitis progression.
Gorman, A.; Kaye, E.K.; Nunn, M.; Garcia, R.I.
The postnatal development of the juxtaglomerular apparatus was studied by fluorescent microscopy in a series of 275 albino Wistar rats aged from 2 to 90 days. After treatment of kidney sections with thioflavine T, the appearance and evolution of secretory function in the terminal segment of the afferent glomerular arteriole were assessed in terms of the granular cell index (GCI) and the juxtaglomerular cell granulation index (JGI). Variations in these indices were analyzed in function of age, body weight, renal weight and sex of the animals. It emerges quite clearly from these studies that granular cell differentiation and maturation takes place in four successive stages: (a) a growth and differentiation phase lasting from the 2nd day to the beginning of the 5th week of extra-uterine life; (b) a critical phase around day 30; (c) a declining phase from day 30 to day 45, and (d) a stabilization phase from day 45 onwards. Until day 30 this evolutionary pattern is paralleled by rising body weight in animals of both sexes; afterwards it becomes independent of the parameters studied, in the males as well as in the females. The pattern of kidney weight parallels that of growth in body size and weight and does not constitute a more specific variable than body weight in the study of the developing granules in the juxtaglomerular apparatus. PMID:3986253
Rabineau, D; Asselain, B; Salesses, A
Many proinflammatory cytokines, such as leptin, play key roles in dynamic regulation of energy expenditure and food intake. The present work tested a role for the proinflammatory cytokine GM-CSF. Central but not peripheral administration of GM-CSF to adult rats significantly decreased food intake and body weight for at least 48 hours. Similar results were observed following central administration of GM-CSF in mice. GM-CSF receptor immunoreactivity was found on neurons within the paraventricular and arcuate nuclei of the hypothalamus. GM-CSF–deficient (GM–/–) mice weighed more and had significantly higher total body fat than wild-type (GM+/+) mice. Energy expenditure in GM–/– mice was decreased compared with that in GM+/+ mice. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that GM-CSF signaling in the CNS can regulate energy homeostasis.
Reed, Jacquelyn A.; Clegg, Deborah J.; Blake Smith, Kathleen; Tolod-Richer, Emeline G.; Matter, Emily K.; Picard, Lara S.; Seeley, Randy J.
Using the 1957-2004 data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we apply structural equation modeling to examine gender-specific effects of family socioeconomic status (SES) at age 18 on body weight at age 65. We further explore SES and health behaviors over the life course as mechanisms linking family background and later-life body weight. We find that early-life socioeconomic disadvantage is related to higher body weight at age 65 and a steeper weight increase between midlife and late life. These adverse effects are stronger among women than men. Significant mediators of the effect of parents' SES include adolescent body mass (especially among women) as well as exercise and SES in midlife. Yet, consistent with the critical period mechanism, the effect of early-life SES on late-life body weight persists net of all mediating variables. This study expands current understanding of life-course mechanisms that contribute to obesity and increase biological vulnerability to social disadvantage. PMID:24767590
Pudrovska, Tetyana; Logan, Ellis Scott; Richman, Aliza
ABSTRACT Breakfast,has,been,labeled,the most,important,meal,of the day, but are there data to support this claim? We summarized,the results of 47 studies,examining,the as- sociation,of breakfast,consumption,with,nutritional,ade- quacy (nine studies), body weight (16 studies), and aca- demic,performance,(22 studies),in,children,and adolescents. Breakfast skipping,is highly,prevalent,in the United States and Europe (10% to 30%), depending on age group, population, and definition. Although the qual- ity of breakfast was variable
Jordan D. Metzl
A randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in overweight calcium stone-forming (CSF) patients, to evaluate the effect\\u000a of calcium supplementation associated with a calorie-restricted diet on body weight (BW) and fat reduction and its potential\\u000a changes upon serum and urinary parameters. Fifteen patients were placed on a hypocaloric diet for 3 months, supplemented with\\u000a either calcium carbonate (CaCO3, n = 8) or placebo (n = 7),
Viviane Barcellos Menon; Alessandra Calábria Baxmann; Leila Froeder; Lígia Araújo Martini; Ita Pfeferman Heilberg
Introduction Gastric bypass surgery in rats has been shown to mimic the weight loss pattern seen in humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether two variations of the technique to create the gastric pouch resulted in a different outcome regarding body weight and food intake. Material and Methods Male Wistar rats underwent either gastric bypass (n=55) or sham-operation (n=27). In Group 1 the complete paraoesophageal neurovascular bundle including the dorsal vagal trunk and the left gastric vessels was completely ligated in all gastric bypass rats (n=17). In Group 2 the left gastric vessels were separated and selectively ligated while the paraoesophageal bundle itself was preserved in all gastric bypass rats (n=10), In Group 3 gastric bypass rats (n=28) were randomized for either one of the two techniques described above. Body weight and food intake of gastric bypass rats were compared to sham-operated controls in all three groups. Results Overall surgical mortality was 13.4% (11/82). Over an observation period of 60 days there was no difference in daily energy intake between gastric bypass rats and sham-operated rats in group 1 (sham: 97.4 ± 2.5 kcal vs. bypass: 89.3 ± 4.7 kcal, p=0.3), while gastric bypass rats in group 2 ate significantly less than their sham-operated counterparts (sham: 76.7 ± 2.2 kcal vs. bypass 52.5 ± 4.8 kcal, p<0.001). In group 3, gastric bypass rats with selectively ligated left gastric vessels showed a lower food intake than sham controls and bypass rats whose paraoesophageal bundle was completely ligated (sham: 118.7 ± 3.9 kcal vs. bypass with selective ligation: 85.5 ± 2.2 kcal vs. bypass with complete ligation 98.6 ± 2.8 kcal, p<0.001). Similar differences were observed for body weight with gastric bypass rats with a selective ligation of the left gastric vessels having the lowest body weight in comparison to sham controls and bypass rats whose paraoesophageal bundle was completely ligated (group 3 (day 75): sham: 608.1 ± 7.0g vs. bypass with selective ligation: 365.8 ± 14.6 vs. bypass with complete ligation: 468.0 ± 9.3 g, p<0.001). Differences in food intake and body weight were not related to the size of the gastro-jejunostomy in gastric bypass rats of group 3. There were no signs of malabsorption or inflammation after gastric bypass in any of the groups. Conclusion In conclusion, our gastric bypass technique induces reliable weight loss in rats with an acceptable mortality. We propose that the left gastric vessels should be selectively ligated during the operation as this might play an important role for the mechanisms that induce weight loss and reduce food intake after gastric bypass in rats. In contrast, the gastro-jejunal stoma size was found to be of minor relevance.
Bueter, Marco; Lowenstein, Christian; Ashrafian, Hutan; Hillebrand, Jacquelien; Bloom, Stephen R; Lutz, Thomas; Olbers, Torsten; le Roux, Carel W
The immune response of juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) ranging in weight from approximately 10 to 55 g was compared when the fish were acclimated to either 13 or 21?? C. A haemolytic plaque assay was conducted to determine differences in the number of antibody-producing cells (APC) among fish of a similar age but different body weights. Regression analyses revealed significant increases in the number of APC with increasing body weight when fish were acclimated to either water temperature. These results emphasise the importance of standardising fish weight in immunological studies of salmonids before exploring the possible effects of acclimation temperatures. ?? 2001 Academic Press.
Harrahy, L. N. M.; Schreck, C. B.; Maule, A. G.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine body mass index and pregnancy weight gain as risk factors for primary cesarean delivery in nulliparous women in a middle-class private practice. Study Design: Primiparous women who delivered in a private practice setting between February 1993 and July 13, 2001, were included. CIs along with Z statistics for paired count data
Thomas K. Young; Barbara Woodmansee
This study explored the association of socioeconomic status with individuals' perception of their body image (BI) and body weight (BW) among adults in a sub-urban Nigerian population. The cross-sectional sample comprised 1521 residents (775 males and 746 females) of the town of Nnewi. Perceived BI was assessed using figural representations of different sizes for males and females. Perceived BW was determined by presenting participants with BW category options to choose from. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from objectively measured BW and height using standardized procedures. Actual BW categories were derived from participants' BMIs using WHO criteria. Perceived BI and BW differed from actual BW among unskilled and non-tertiary males (p<0.001) and female (p<0.001 to p<0.04) in all BW categories whereas these variables differed (p<0.001) among skilled and tertiary males and females in normal weight, overweight and obese categories. Perceived BW differed (p<0.001) from actual BW among unskilled and non-tertiary males in underweight, overweight and obese categories whereas these variables differed (p<0.001) among unskilled and non-tertiary females, skilled and tertiary males and females in overweight and obese categories. Underweight 'unskilled' and 'non-tertiary' males perceived their BI to be different from their actual BW (p<0.001). Overweight and obese 'skilled' and 'unskilled', and 'tertiary' and 'non-tertiary', males and females perceived their BI and BW to be different from their actual BW (p<0.001). Significant differences in perceived BI existed between 'skilled' and 'unskilled' (p<0.001), and 'tertiary' and 'non-tertiary' (p=0.005), overweight males, and between 'skilled' and 'unskilled' (p<0.001), and 'tertiary' and 'non-tertiary' (p=0.008), normal-weight females. The 'skilled' participants had a lower risk of perceiving a larger BI (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.41-0.64; p<0.001) and larger BW (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.53-0.96; p=0.03) than the 'unskilled' participants. The 'tertiary' participants had a lower risk of perceiving a larger BI (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.40-0.63; p<0.001) and larger BW (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.53-0.95; p=0.02) than the 'non-tertiary' participants. After adjusting for possible confounders, all the risks became insignificant except for perception of BI by the 'skilled' participants (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.50-0.99; p=0.04). Individuals in the different occupational and educational categories perceived their BI differently but their BW similarly. Given the same BMI, age, perceived ideal BI and sex, only occupation is found to be associated with perception of BI. PMID:23721833
Maruf, Fatai A; Akinpelu, Aderonke O; Udoji, Nwannedimma V
Objective To determine if a dose-response relationship exists between percentage body weight changes in persons with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) and self reported pain and function. Methods Data from persons in the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) and the Multicenter Osteoarthritis (MOST) datasets (n=1,410) with symptomatic function limiting knee OA were studied. For the OAI, we used baseline and 3-year follow-up data while for the MOST, baseline and 30-month data were used. Key outcome variables were WOMAC Physical Function and Pain change scores. In addition to covariates, the predictor variable of interest was the extent of weight change over the study period and divided into 5 categories representing different percentages of body weight change. Results A significant dose-response relationship (p< 0.003) was found between the extent of percentage change in body weight and the extent of change in WOMAC Physical Function and WOMAC Pain. For example, persons who gained ?10% of body weight had WOMAC Physical Function score changes of ?5.4 (95%CI, ?8.7, ?2.00) points indicating worsening relative to the reference group of persons with weight changes of between <5% weight gain and <5% weight reduction. Conclusion Our data suggest a dose-response relationship exists between changes in body weight and corresponding changes in pain and function. The threshold for this response gradient appears to be ?10% body weight shifts. Weight changes of ?10% have potential to lead to important changes in pain and function for patient groups as well as individual patients.
Riddle, Daniel L.; Stratford, Paul W.
Objective The aim of the present study was to evaluate the single and joint associations of maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) with pregnancy outcomes in Tianjin, China. Methods Between June 2009 and May 2011, health care records of 33,973 pregnant women were collected and their children were measured for birth weight and birth length. The independent and joint associations of prepregnancy BMI and GWG based on the Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines with the risks of pregnancy and neonatal outcomes were examined by using Logistic Regression. Results After adjustment for all confounding factors, maternal prepregnancy BMI was positively associated with risks of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), pregnancy-induced hypertension, caesarean delivery, preterm delivery, large-for-gestational age infant (LGA), and macrosomia, and inversely associated with risks of small-for-gestational age infant (SGA) and low birth weight. Maternal excessive GWG was associated with increased risks of pregnancy-induced hypertension, caesarean delivery, LGA, and macrosomia, and decreased risks of preterm delivery, SGA, and low birth weight. Maternal inadequate GWG was associated with increased risks of preterm delivery and SGA, and decreased risks of LGA and macrosomia, compared with maternal adequate GWG. Women with both prepregnancy obesity and excessive GWG had 2.2–5.9 folds higher risks of GDM, pregnancy-induced hypertension, caesarean delivery, LGA, and macrosomia compared with women with normal prepregnancy BMI and adequate GWG. Conclusions Maternal prepregnancy obesity and excessive GWG were associated with greater risks of pregnancy-induced hypertension, caesarean delivery, and greater infant size at birth. Health care providers should inform women to start the pregnancy with a BMI in the normal weight category and limit their GWG to the range specified for their prepregnancy BMI.
Li, Nan; Liu, Enqing; Guo, Jia; Pan, Lei; Li, Baojuan; Wang, Ping; Liu, Jin; Wang, Yue; Liu, Gongshu; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Hou, Lifang; Hu, Gang
Dynamics of body weight and food intake can be studied by temporally perturbing food availability. This perturbation can be obtained by modifying the amount of available food over time while keeping the overall food quantity constant. To describe food intake dynamics, we developed a mathematical model that describes body weight, fat mass, fat-free mass, energy expenditure and food intake dynamics in rats. In addition, the model considers regulation of food intake by leptin, ghrelin and glucose. We tested our model on rats experiencing temporally variable food availability. Our model is able to predict body weight and food intake variations by taking into account energy expenditure dynamics based on a memory of the previous food intake. This model allowed us to estimate this memory lag to approximately 8 days. It also explains how important variations in food availability during periods longer than these 8 days can induce body weight gains.
Jacquier, Marine; Crauste, Fabien; Soulage, Christophe O.; Soula, Hedi A.
SUMMARY The clinical outcome of infection with Leishmania species of the subgenus Viannia in hamster model (Mesocricetus auratus) has shown to be different depending on experimental protocol. Body weight has been a relevant determinant of the clinical outcome of the infection in hamsters with visceral leishmaniasis but its importance as a clinical parameter in hamsters with cutaneous leishmaniasis is not known. In this study, the clinical evolution of infection with L. (V) panamensis was evaluated in juvenile and adult male hamsters during 11 weeks by comparing clinical parameters such as attitude, temperature, respiratory rate, appearance of the stool, and body weight between infected and non-infected groups. Results showed that body weight decreased in adult hamsters after infection by L. (V) panamensis; this observation supports the use of body weight as an additional parameter to define the management or treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in infected adult hamsters used as an animal experimental model for leishmaniasis.
Gomez-Galindo, Angela Maria; Delgado-Murcia, Lucy Gabriela
Background Comorbidity of migraine with anxiety and depression may play a role in the link between migraine and obesity. We examined the moderating and mediating roles of ghrelin in the relationship between depression (and anxiety) and body weight in newly diagnosed migraineurs. Methods Participants were 63 newly diagnosed migraine patients (using the ICHD-II criteria) and 42 healthy volunteers. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated by measuring height and weight. Ghrelin was assessed at fasting. Depression was assessed with the Hamilton Depression scale, and anxiety with the Hamilton Anxiety scale. Results The data did not support the mediating role of ghrelin in the relationship between depression (or anxiety) and BMI for either the migraine or the control group. The interaction between ghrelin and depression as well as anxiety was significant for the migraine group, but not for the control group. Depressed (or anxious) migraineurs had a positive association between ghrelin and BMI, whereas for the non-depressed (or non-anxious) migraineurs this association was negative. Conclusions Depression and anxiety moderated the effect of ghrelin on BMI for migraineurs. Management of anxiety and depression might be regarded as part of migraine treatment.
Amikacin use is difficult because of its narrow therapeutic and its pharmacokinetic variability. This variability of amikacin is not well known. To adapt amikacin the physician assumes that there is a linear and continuous relation between the volume of distribution and the body weight. The objective of our study was to evaluate the relationship between the volume of distribution (Vd) and the body weight (BW) using a non parametric statistical analysis of dependence so called Z method. Retrospective pharmacokinetic population study and statistic analysis. 872 patients receiving intravenous amikacin. The volume of distribution was modelled using the Non Parametric Adaptive Grid algorithm (NPAG) for a two-compartment model with intravenous infusion. Z coefficient was performed to evaluate the relationships between Vd and BW. For the 872 patients (mean age of 73 ± 17 years) dispatched as follow 53 % female and 47 % male, the analysis of the statistical relationships by the non parametric Z analysis showed a scattered linkage between Vd and BW. For the whole population, the relationship between Vd and BW was not linear (regression analysis). Z analysis demonstrated that only for 80 % of patients there is a relationship between Vd and BW. For these patients, regression analysis give a significant adjustment of a linear model (r = 0.47, p < 0.001). In the whole studied population there is not a continuous and linear relationship between Vd estimated by NPAG and the BW. These results underline the difficulties to adapt doses of amikacin with only BW information. PMID:24599705
Rughoo, L; Bourguignon, L; Maire, P; Ducher, M
It was hypothesized that chickens with extremely varying body weights (BW) from an otherwise homogeneous host sample cope differently with Ascaridia galli (Schrank 1788) infection. Small and large birds, falling into either the lower or the upper 5 % quantiles of BW distribution of a parent stock flock, were selected at an age of 4 weeks, housed separately and fed restrictively with the same amount of feed. At week 5, all the small and large birds (635 and 1,297 g/bird, respectively; P?0.001) were inoculated with 1,000 A. galli eggs and euthanized 52 days post-infection. Small birds had higher daily weight gains (P?=?0.004) but final BWs of larger birds were still higher (P?0.001) at slaughter. Prevalence, intensity of infection as well as worm abundance were higher in small birds when compared with the large birds (P?0.05), whereas plasma concentrations of A. galli-specific antibodies and worm length remained unaffected (P?>?0.05). In conclusion, large birds resist A. galli infection more effectively than do small ones, possibly through different mechanisms acting on allocation of available nutrient and body reserves under the exposure of the infection. PMID:24585156
Da?, Gürbüz; Gauly, Matthias
The effect of body weight on P digestibility and on efficacy of supplemental Aspergillus niger phytase was studied in two experiments with young growing pigs. Excreta were collected quantitatively. All diets contained 2.0 g digestible P per kg dry matter at a maximum and renal P excretion never exceeded 15 mg/d. When dietary P mainly originated from monocalcium-phosphate, both P digestibility and Ca net absorption linearly increased by 3.6 and 5.6 percentage units, respectively, when BW increased from 15 to 35 kg. With a similar range in BW, P digestibility and Ca net absorption were unaffected by BW when P mainly originated from maize, barley and soybean meal. In both types of diet, crude protein digestibility increased with increasing body weight, whereas organic matter digestibility was effected by BW only in the diet containing maize, barley and soybean meal. Phytase (400 U/kg) almost doubled P digestibility when supplemented to a diet with P mainly originating from maize, soybean meal and barley. This effect of phytase supplementation was equal in pigs at 15.7 kg BW (33 vs. 55%) and at 39.1 kg BW (32 vs. 56%). Digestibility of any organic fraction was unaffected by supplemental phytase. With regard to on-farm conditions, it appears eligible from this results to apply digestibility coefficients for P determined in growing-finishing pigs for piglets as well. PMID:10548967
Rodehutscord, M; Krause, G; Pfeffer, E
The purpose was to determine whether forced change in dominance rank affected total corticoids of plasma of dairy cattle. Nineteen cows in late lactation were assigned randomly to one of two lots. Restriction of manger space enhanced observations of dominance rank during feeding for three 1-h periods per wk over 6 wk. After 3 wk, a group of the five highest ranking cows from each lot were combined into a new aggressive lot; two groups of subordinate cows formed a docile lot. Blood samples were from tail vein, and concentrations of total corticoids were determined by competitive protein binding. Changes of dominance rank varied from zero to eight places in the 10-cow assemblage after new lots were formed. Body weight was the most significant variable affecting dominance rank. There was no discernable relationship between total corticoids and dominance rank, body weight, or age. The pattern of variation of total corticoids was similar for all groups during the first 3-wk period, but in the second period docile and aggressive groups had dissimilar patterns. Interaction of group by week for total corticoids was significant; however, a cause and effect relationship could not be established. Total corticoids did not appear to be a valid or useful determinant of social stress. PMID:557062
Arave, C W; Mickelsen, C H; Lamb, R C; Svejda, A J; Canfield, R V
Dispersion energy of a system out of equilibrium containing two molecules and substrate in different thermostats is calculated taking into account nonlocal optical effects. A resonance increase of energy due to three-body interaction in a system out of equilibrium is shown. In particular, dispersion energy of a two-body subsystem of the three-body system out of equilibrium may be essentially larger than the energy of the same