Science.gov

Sample records for including milk production

  1. Economic values of production and functional traits, including residual feed intake, in Finnish milk production.

    PubMed

    Hietala, P; Wolfová, M; Wolf, J; Kantanen, J; Juga, J

    2014-02-01

    Improving the feed efficiency of dairy cattle has a substantial effect on the economic efficiency and on the reduction of harmful environmental effects of dairy production through lower feeding costs and emissions from dairy farming. To assess the economic importance of feed efficiency in the breeding goal for dairy cattle, the economic values for the current breeding goal traits and the additional feed efficiency traits for Finnish Ayrshire cattle under production circumstances in 2011 were determined. The derivation of economic values was based on a bioeconomic model in which the profit of the production system was calculated, using the generated steady state herd structure. Considering beef production from dairy farms, 2 marketing strategies for surplus calves were investigated: (A) surplus calves were sold at a young age and (B) surplus calves were fattened on dairy farms. Both marketing strategies were unprofitable when subsidies were not included in the revenues. When subsidies were taken into account, a positive profitability was observed in both marketing strategies. The marginal economic values for residual feed intake (RFI) of breeding heifers and cows were -25.5 and -55.8 €/kg of dry matter per day per cow and year, respectively. The marginal economic value for RFI of animals in fattening was -29.5 €/kg of dry matter per day per cow and year. To compare the economic importance among traits, the standardized economic weight of each trait was calculated as the product of the marginal economic value and the genetic standard deviation; the standardized economic weight expressed as a percentage of the sum of all standardized economic weights was called relative economic weight. When not accounting for subsidies, the highest relative economic weight was found for 305-d milk yield (34% in strategy A and 29% in strategy B), which was followed by protein percentage (13% in strategy A and 11% in strategy B). The third most important traits were calving

  2. 9 CFR 94.16 - Milk and milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk and milk products. 94.16 Section... VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.16 Milk and milk products. (a) The following milk products are exempt from the provisions of this part:...

  3. 9 CFR 94.16 - Milk and milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Milk and milk products. 94.16 Section... VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.16 Milk and milk products. (a) The following milk products are exempt from the provisions of this part:...

  4. Selenium content of milk and milk products of Turkey. II.

    PubMed

    Yanardağ, R; Orak, H

    1999-04-01

    Selenium content of 1028 milk and milk products of Turkey are presented in this study. The selenium content of human milk (colostrum, transitional, and mature milk), various kinds of milk [cow, sheep, goat, buffalo, paper boxes (3%, 1.5%, 0.012% fat), bottled milk, condensed milk (10% fat), mineral added milk (1.6%), and banana, strawberry, and chocolate milk] and milk products (kefir, yogurt, Ayran, various cheese, coffee cream, ice cream, butter, margarine, milk powder, and fruit yogurt) in Turkey were determined by a spectrofluorometric method. The selenium levels of cow milks collected from 57 cities in Turkey were also determined. Selenium levels in cow milk varied with geographical location in Turkey and were found to be lowest for Van and highest for Aksaray. The results [milk (cow, sheep, goat, buffalo and human) and milks products] were compared with literature data from different countries. PMID:10208658

  5. Bacteriological examination of milk and milk products sold in Harare.

    PubMed

    Igumbor, E O; Obi, C L; Milingo, T

    2000-01-01

    A study to assess the bacteriological quality of milk and ice cream was conducted using the direct plate count method and the methylene blue dye reduction test. A total of 105 milk and 95 ice cream samples were obtained form two factories (depots) and distributing supermarkets (outlets) in Harare. Under the methylene blue test, all milk and ice cream samples passed the hour and 2 hour tests respectively. However, 99% of the milk and 69% of the ice cream samples reduced the dye after 5.5 and 4 hrs respectively. The results from the direct plate counts revealed the presence of both pathogens and non-pathogens. The median plate counts in the milk and ice cream were found 400 cfu / ml and 100 cfu / ml respectively. Organisms isolated in both samples and in all outlets were similar, these included Bacillus spp. Coagulase Staphlococcus spp., microcuccus spp., Steptococcus spp., Diphthroids, Fusiform bacterial Klebsiella spp., and Citrobacter spp. No significant differences were found in the plate counts of the samples obtained from the depots and outlets for the milk (P = 0.542, df = 1)) and ice cream samples (P = 0.377, df = 1). Results further revealed that there was no significant difference in isolates obtained form strawberry ice cream (0.0096). The study has therefore, revealed that milk and milk product sold in various outlets in Harare contained a variety of bacteria of public health importance and also that the methylene blue dye reduction test is not reliable for the detection of bacterial contaminants in dairy products. It is thus suggested that the use of methylene blue dyes be adapted in combination with other tests such as the plate count in assessing bacterial contaminants in milk products. PMID:17650038

  6. Elevation view of front (east) side of milk barn includes ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation view of front (east) side of milk barn includes portion of creamery on left and main barn on right. - Kosai Farm, Milk Barn, B Street north of Northwest Twenty-ninth Street, Auburn, King County, WA

  7. Major advances in fresh milk and milk products: fluid milk products and frozen desserts.

    PubMed

    Goff, H D; Griffiths, M W

    2006-04-01

    Major technological advances in the fluid milk processing industry in the last 25 yr include significant improvements in all the unit operations of separation, standardization, pasteurization, homogenization, and packaging. Many advancements have been directed toward production capacity, automation, and hygienic operation. Extended shelf-life milks are produced by high heat treatment, sometimes coupled with microfiltration or centrifugation. Other nonthermal methods have also been investigated. Flavored milk beverages have increased in popularity, as have milk beverages packaged in single-service, closeable plastic containers. Likewise, the frozen dairy processing industry has seen the development of large-capacity, automated processing equipment for a wide range of products designed to gain market share. Significant advancements in product quality have been made, many of these arising from improved knowledge of the functional properties of ingredients and their impact on structure and texture. Incidents of foodborne disease associated with dairy products continue to occur, necessitating even greater diligence in the control of pathogen transmission. Analytical techniques for the rapid detection of specific types of microorganisms have been developed and greatly improved during this time. Despite tremendous technological advancements for processors and a greater diversity of products for consumers, per capita consumption of fluid milk has declined and consumption of frozen dairy desserts has been steady during this 25-yr period. PMID:16537949

  8. Modelling milk production from feed intake in dairy cattle

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, D.L.

    1985-05-01

    Predictive models were developed for both Holstein and Jersey cows. Since Holsteins comprised eighty-five percent of the data, the predictive models developed for Holsteins were used for the development of a user-friendly computer model. Predictive models included: milk production (squared multiple correlation .73), natural log (ln) of milk production (.73), four percent fat-corrected milk (.67), ln four percent fat-corrected milk (.68), fat-free milk (.73), ln fat-free milk (.73), dry matter intake (.61), ln dry matter intake (.60), milk fat (.52), and ln milk fat (.56). The predictive models for ln milk production, ln fat-free milk and ln dry matter intake were incorporated into a computer model. The model was written in standard Fortran for use on mainframe or micro-computers. Daily milk production, fat-free milk production, and dry matter intake were predicted on a daily basis with the previous day's dry matter intake serving as an independent variable in the prediction of the daily milk and fat-free milk production. 21 refs.

  9. Consumption of milk and milk products in the population of the Upper Silesian agglomeration inhabitants

    PubMed Central

    Kardas, Marek; Grochowska-Niedworok, Elżbieta; Całyniuk, Beata; Kolasa, Ilona; Grajek, Mateusz; Bielaszka, Agnieszka; Kiciak, Agata; Muc-Wierzgoń, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Background Providing the appropriate amount of nutrients at every stage of life is a key element determining the proper development and functioning of the body. Objective Because of the nutritional value and resulting position of milk and milk products in the daily diet, this study was undertaken to assess the consumption of milk and milk products among the inhabitants of the Upper Silesian agglomeration. Design The survey covered 600 people, including 339 women (56.5%) and 261 men (43.5%) aged 18–78 years. To assess the consumption of milk and milk products, as a research tool an original survey with the closed-ended and open-ended questions was used. The questions concerned the characteristics of the surveyed group and various aspects of the consumption of milk and milk products. The results obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using the Statistica 10.0 program with a chi-square test for quality features. Results The level of consumption of milk and milk products among the Upper Silesian agglomeration inhabitants is insufficient in relation to nutrition recommendations. However, despite many controversies surrounding milk, the respondents also claimed that it played an important role in their daily diet. Conclusions The most frequently consumed type of milk in the surveyed group is ultra heat treated (UHT) milk with average fat content. PMID:26942408

  10. A Qualitative Investigation of Adults' Perceived Benefits, Barriers and Strategies for Consuming Milk and Milk Products

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Mary E.; Mistry, Chetan; Bourne, Jessica E.; Perrier, Marie-Josee; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A.; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Milk and milk products provide important nutrients and have been associated with numerous health benefits in addition to bone health, including a healthy weight and a reduction of risk for certain conditions such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and colorectal cancer. Nonetheless, consumption of milk and milk…

  11. Consumption of raw or unpasteurized milk and milk products by pregnant women and children.

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    Sales of raw or unpasteurized milk and milk products are still legal in at least 30 states in the United States. Raw milk and milk products from cows, goats, and sheep continue to be a source of bacterial infections attributable to a number of virulent pathogens, including Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella species, Brucella species, and Escherichia coli O157. These infections can occur in both healthy and immunocompromised individuals, including older adults, infants, young children, and pregnant women and their unborn fetuses, in whom life-threatening infections and fetal miscarriage can occur. Efforts to limit the sale of raw milk products have met with opposition from those who are proponents of the purported health benefits of consuming raw milk products, which contain natural or unprocessed factors not inactivated by pasteurization. However, the benefits of these natural factors have not been clearly demonstrated in evidence-based studies and, therefore, do not outweigh the risks of raw milk consumption. Substantial data suggest that pasteurized milk confers equivalent health benefits compared with raw milk, without the additional risk of bacterial infections. The purpose of this policy statement was to review the risks of raw milk consumption in the United States and to provide evidence of the risks of infectious complications associated with consumption of unpasteurized milk and milk products, especially among pregnant women, infants, and children. PMID:24344105

  12. The associations between milk production, milk composition and Salmonella in the bulk milk supplies of dairy farms in Ontario.

    PubMed Central

    McClure, L H; McEwen, S A; Martin, S W

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess changes in dairy herd milk production and milk composition associated with changes in Salmonella contamination of bulk milk on dairy farms in southwestern Ontario. Twenty-three dairy farms that had submitted milk filters for culture from which Salmonella were isolated (cases) and 23 farms that submitted Salmonella-negative milk filters (controls) were included in the study. The rolling herd averages for milk and fat of case and control farms for the months of December 1985, December 1986 and April 1987 were compared and no significant differences were detected. Case and control farms were divided into three groups (A,B,C) on the basis of Salmonella culture results of milk filters submitted at various time periods throughout the study. Daily and monthly changes in milk production and composition parameters that reflected the time periods of milk filter culture were compared. The following unconditional associations between a changing Salmonella infection status on dairy farms and changes in milk production or composition variables were significant (p less than or equal to 0.05): group A: case farms had higher plate loop counts than control farms; group B: case farms had younger cows than control farms; group C: case farms had cows with longer average days in lactation than control farms. After analytical control of confounding variables, the disappearance of Salmonella from bulk milk supplies of dairy farms was associated with a decrease in percent fat and in somatic cell count. PMID:2713783

  13. Public health and the safety of milk and milk products from sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Klinger, I; Rosenthal, I

    1997-08-01

    Goats and sheep rank third and fourth in terms of global milk production from different species, but unlike cow milk, which has stringent hygiene and quality regulations, microbiological standards for the production and distribution of goat milk and sheep milk are more relaxed. Difficulties in managing the sanitary quality of sheep and goat milk derive from a series of factors including the low level of production per head, the milking system, the difficulty involved in machine milking, the conditions under which the herds or flocks are raised, adverse climatic conditions and the spread of production over a wide geographic area. Fresh goat milk is consumed by infants and others with allergies to cow milk and is also used for on-farm manufactured cheese, with or without thermal treatment. The high fat content and peculiar taste of cheeses made from ewe milk are also very popular. These cheese varieties, which are mostly still of 'artisan-type', are not covered by regulatory definitions and the dispute over the use of raw versus pasteurised milk is still alive. However, in documented intoxications recorded after the consumption of cheese, there has always been evidence of incorrect temperature control during pasteurisation, the deliberate addition of raw milk, or contamination during storage. Compositional differences between the milk from cows, ewes and goats (chemical composition of lipids, phosphatase level, freezing point, natural bacterial inhibitor levels, somatic cell count, etc.) preclude the nondiscriminatory use of bovine standards for regulatory purposes. Quality standards adjusted for the specifics of ewe/goat milk should be considered. The production of safe cheese is linked to a series of conditions which ensure consumer health, primarily pasteurisation. In the absence of pasteurisation, all cheeses made from raw milk should be subjected to strict periodic controls. PMID:9501361

  14. Distribution of Animal Drugs between Skim Milk and Milk Fat Fractions in Spiked Whole Milk: Understanding the Potential Impact on Commercial Milk Products.

    PubMed

    Hakk, Heldur; Shappell, Nancy W; Lupton, Sara J; Shelver, Weilin L; Fanaselle, Wendy; Oryang, David; Yeung, Chi Yuen; Hoelzer, Karin; Ma, Yinqing; Gaalswyk, Dennis; Pouillot, Régis; Van Doren, Jane M

    2016-01-13

    Seven animal drugs [penicillin G (PENG), sulfadimethoxine (SDMX), oxytetracycline (OTET), erythromycin (ERY), ketoprofen (KETO), thiabendazole (THIA), and ivermectin (IVR)] were used to evaluate the drug distribution between milk fat and skim milk fractions of cow milk. More than 90% of the radioactivity was distributed into the skim milk fraction for ERY, KETO, OTET, PENG, and SDMX, approximately 80% for THIA, and 13% for IVR. The distribution of drug between milk fat and skim milk fractions was significantly correlated to the drug's lipophilicity (partition coefficient, log P, or distribution coefficient, log D, which includes ionization). Data were fit with linear mixed effects models; the best fit was obtained within this data set with log D versus observed drug distribution ratios. These candidate empirical models serve for assisting to predict the distribution and concentration of these drugs in a variety of milk and milk products. PMID:26652058

  15. Invited review: reduced milking frequency: milk production and management implications.

    PubMed

    Stelwagen, K; Phyn, C V C; Davis, S R; Guinard-Flament, J; Pomiès, D; Roche, J R; Kay, J K

    2013-06-01

    Most dairy cows throughout the world are milked twice daily. In intensive dairying systems, however, it is not uncommon to increase milking frequency to between 3 and 6 times daily to increase milk production. Reducing milking frequency is much less common; however, once-daily milking of dairy cows, practiced either strategically during certain parts of the lactation or for the entire lactation, is not uncommon in key dairying countries where less emphasis is placed on milk production per cow. The practice fits well with more extensive dairy production systems, particularly those based on grazed pasture. A feature of once-daily milking is that it reduces milk yield by approximately 22%, depending on stage of lactation, breed, and parity, and it may adversely affect lactation length and persistency. However, it can offer several positive farm management options, especially related to labor requirements and farm working expenses. In addition, it may provide a tool to better manage the metabolism and energy balance of cows during early lactation or during periods of pasture deficit, and it may help to improve reproductive performance and animal health and welfare. Once-daily milking, representing one extreme of the mammary function spectrum, has attracted considerable research interest over the years. Consequently, substantial scientific information is available on its effects on mammary function, at both the physiological and molecular levels. This review focuses instead on the management of the cow milked once daily, covering the production response in relation to breed, stage of lactation, and parity, and its effect on energy status, reproduction, health and welfare, as well as on milk composition and processability. PMID:23548302

  16. Milk, milk products, and disease free health: an updated overview.

    PubMed

    Nagpal, R; Behare, P V; Kumar, M; Mohania, D; Yadav, M; Jain, S; Menon, S; Parkash, O; Marotta, F; Minelli, E; Henry, C J K; Yadav, H

    2012-01-01

    The cow and its milk have been held sacred in the world since the dawn of human civilization. Indian ancient Vedic texts describe the virtues of milk and dairy products, as is authenticated by modern scientific principles and proofs. Therefore, milk has been considered as one of the most natural and highly nutritive part of a daily balanced diet. Currently, the integration of advanced scientific knowledge with traditional information is gaining incredible momentum toward developing the concept of potential therapeutic foods. Furthermore, new advances toward understanding the therapeutic roles of milk and milk products have also given a new impetus for unraveling the age old secrets of milk. At present, the best-known examples of therapeutic foods are fermented milk products containing health promoting probiotic bacteria. In the present article, we have tried to review the various aspects of the therapeutic nature of milk and fermented dairy products in a highly up-dated manner, and offer an in-depth insight into the development of targeted therapeutic future foods as per the requirements of consumers. PMID:22332596

  17. 7 CFR 1160.107 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1160.107 Section 1160.107... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.107 Fluid milk product. Fluid milk product means any product that meets...

  18. 7 CFR 1160.107 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1160.107 Section 1160.107... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.107 Fluid milk product. Fluid milk product means any product that meets...

  19. 7 CFR 1160.107 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1160.107 Section 1160.107... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.107 Fluid milk product. Fluid milk product means any product that meets...

  20. 7 CFR 1160.107 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1160.107 Section 1160.107... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.107 Fluid milk product. Fluid milk product means any product that meets...

  1. 7 CFR 1160.107 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1160.107 Section 1160.107... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.107 Fluid milk product. Fluid milk product means any product that meets...

  2. Factors associated with increased milk production for automatic milking systems.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Marlène; Hess, Justin P; Christenson, Brock M; McIntyre, Kolby K; Smink, Ben; van der Kamp, Arjen J; de Jong, Lisanne G; Döpfer, Dörte

    2016-05-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) are increasingly popular throughout the world. Our objective was to analyze 635 North American dairy farms with AMS for (risk) factors associated with increased milk production per cow per day and milk production per robot per day. We used multivariable generalized mixed linear regressions, which identified several significant risk factors and interactions of risk factors associated with milk production. Free traffic was associated with increased production per cow and per robot per day compared with forced systems, and the presence of a single robot per pen was associated with decreased production per robot per day compared with pens using 2 robots. Retrofitted farms had significantly less production in the first 4 yr since installation compared with production after 4 yr of installation. In contrast, newly built farms did not see a significant change in production over time since installation. Overall, retrofitted farms did not produce significantly more or less milk than newly constructed farms. Detailed knowledge of factors associated with increased production of AMS will help guide future recommendations to producers looking to transition to an AMS and maximize their production. PMID:26898275

  3. Automatic milking systems, farm size, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Rotz, C A; Coiner, C U; Soder, K J

    2003-12-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) offer relief from the demanding routine of milking. Although many AMS are in use in Europe and a few are used in the United States, the potential benefit for American farms is uncertain. A farm-simulation model was used to determine the long-term, whole-farm effect of implementing AMS on farm sizes of 30 to 270 cows. Highest farm net return to management and unpaid factors was when AMS were used at maximal milking capacity. Adding stalls to increase milking frequency and possibly increase production generally did not improve net return. Compared with new traditional milking systems, the greatest potential economic benefit was a single-stall AMS on a farm size of 60 cows at a moderate milk production level (8600 kg/cow). On other farm sizes using single-stall type robotic units, losses in annual net return of 0 dollars to 300 dollars/cow were projected, with the greatest losses on larger farms and at high milk production (10,900 kg/cow). Systems with one robot serving multiple stalls provided a greater net return than single-stall systems, and this net return was competitive with traditional parlors for 50- to 130-cow farm sizes. The potential benefit of AMS was improved by 100 dollars/cow per year if the AMS increased production an additional 5%. A 20% reduction in initial equipment cost or doubling milking labor cost also improved annual net return of an AMS by up to 100 dollars/cow. Annual net return was reduced by 110 dollars/cow, though, if the economic life of the AMS was reduced by 3 yr for a more rapid depreciation than that normally used with traditional milking systems. Thus, under current assumptions, the economic return for an AMS was similar to that of new parlor systems on smaller farms when the milking capacity of the AMS was well matched to herd size and milk production level. PMID:14740859

  4. 7 CFR 1150.113 - Fluid milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid milk products. 1150.113 Section 1150.113... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.113 Fluid milk products. Fluid milk products means those milk products...

  5. 7 CFR 1150.113 - Fluid milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk products. 1150.113 Section 1150.113... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.113 Fluid milk products. Fluid milk products means those milk products...

  6. 7 CFR 1150.113 - Fluid milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid milk products. 1150.113 Section 1150.113... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.113 Fluid milk products. Fluid milk products means those milk products...

  7. 7 CFR 1150.113 - Fluid milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid milk products. 1150.113 Section 1150.113... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.113 Fluid milk products. Fluid milk products means those milk products...

  8. Aflatoxins in dairy cow feed, raw milk and milk products from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Hilal Zeynep; Celik, Mehtap; Kotay, Seda; Kabak, Bulent

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to detect aflatoxins (AFs) in dairy cow feed, milk and milk products using a high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) method. All the validation parameters met the method performance criteria of the European Union. The samples comprised 76 dairy cow feeds and 205 milk and milk products (including yoghurt and yoghurt-based beverage, ayran). AFs were present in 26.3% of the feed samples. Two feed samples exceeded the maximum limit (ML) of 5 µg kg(-1) for AFB1 as established by the EU. Nineteen milk samples (21.1%) contained aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) of which three exceeded the EU ML of 0.05 µg l(-1). In addition, only two yoghurt samples and one ayran sample contained AFM1, but the levels were lower than the EU ML. PMID:26883580

  9. 21 CFR 139.120 - Milk macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Milk macaroni products. 139.120 Section 139.120... Noodle Products § 139.120 Milk macaroni products. (a) Milk macaroni products are the class of food, each...), except that: (1) Milk is used as the sole moistening ingredient in preparing the dough; or in lieu...

  10. 21 CFR 139.120 - Milk macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Milk macaroni products. 139.120 Section 139.120... Noodle Products § 139.120 Milk macaroni products. (a) Milk macaroni products are the class of food, each...), except that: (1) Milk is used as the sole moistening ingredient in preparing the dough; or in lieu...

  11. 21 CFR 139.120 - Milk macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Milk macaroni products. 139.120 Section 139.120... Noodle Products § 139.120 Milk macaroni products. (a) Milk macaroni products are the class of food, each...), except that: (1) Milk is used as the sole moistening ingredient in preparing the dough; or in lieu...

  12. 21 CFR 139.120 - Milk macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Milk macaroni products. 139.120 Section 139.120... Noodle Products § 139.120 Milk macaroni products. (a) Milk macaroni products are the class of food, each...), except that: (1) Milk is used as the sole moistening ingredient in preparing the dough; or in lieu...

  13. 7 CFR 1150.113 - Fluid milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid milk products. 1150.113 Section 1150.113 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Order Definitions § 1150.113 Fluid milk products. Fluid milk products means those milk products...

  14. 21 CFR 139.120 - Milk macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Milk macaroni products. 139.120 Section 139.120... Noodle Products § 139.120 Milk macaroni products. (a) Milk macaroni products are the class of food, each...), except that: (1) Milk is used as the sole moistening ingredient in preparing the dough; or in lieu...

  15. Q fever through consumption of unpasteurised milk and milk products - a risk profile and exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Gale, P; Kelly, L; Mearns, R; Duggan, J; Snary, E L

    2015-05-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii which is endemic in cattle, sheep and goats in much of the world, including the United Kingdom (UK). There is some epidemiological evidence that a small proportion of cases in the developed world may arise from consumption of unpasteurised milk with less evidence for milk products such as cheese. Long maturation at low pH may give some inactivation in hard cheese, and viable C. burnetii are rarely detected in unpasteurised cheese compared to unpasteurised milk. Simulations presented here predict that the probability of exposure per person to one or more C. burnetii through the daily cumulative consumption of raw milk in the UK is 0·4203. For those positive exposures, the average level of exposure predicted is high at 1266 guinea pig intraperitoneal infectious dose 50% units (GP_IP_ID50 ) per person per day. However, in the absence of human dose-response data, the case is made that the GP_IP_ID50 unit represents a very low risk through the oral route. The available evidence suggests that the risks from C. burnetii through consumption of unpasteurised milk and milk products (including cheese) are not negligible but they are lower in comparison to transmission via inhalation of aerosols from parturient products and livestock contact. PMID:25692216

  16. 75 FR 1027 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Milk and Milk Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... Milk and Milk Products AGENCY: Office for Food Safety, USDA. ACTION: Notice of public meeting and... draft United States positions that will be discussed at the 9th Session of the Codex Committee on Milk and Milk Products (CCMMP) of the Codex ] Alimentarius Commission (Codex), which will be held...

  17. Process audits versus product quality monitoring of bulk milk.

    PubMed

    Velthuis, A G J; van Asseldonk, M A P M

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of milk quality is based on bulk milk testing and farm certification on process quality audits. It is unknown to what extent dairy farm audits improve milk quality. A statistical analysis was conducted to quantify possible associations between bulk milk testing and dairy farm audits. The analysis comprised 64.373 audit outcomes on 26,953 dairy farms, which were merged with all conducted laboratory tests of bulk milk samples 12 mo before the audit. Each farm audit record included 271 binary checklist items and 52 attention point variables (given to farmers if serious deviations were observed), both indicating possible deviations from the desired farm situation. Test results included somatic cell count (SCC), total bacterial count (TBC), antimicrobial drug residues (ADR), level of butyric acid spores (BAB), freezing point depression (FPD), level of free fatty acid (FFA), and milk sediment (SED). Results show that numerous audit variables were related to bulk milk test results, although the goodness of fit of the models was generally low. Cow hygiene, clean cubicles, hygiene of milking parlor, and utility room were positively correlated with superior product quality, mainly with respect to SCC, TBC, BAB, FPD, FFA, and SED. Animal health or veterinary drugs management (i.e., drug treatment recording, marking of treated animals, and storage of veterinary drugs) related to SCC, FPD, FFA, and SED. The availability of drinking water was related to TBC, BAB, FFA, and SED, whereas maintenance of the milking equipment was related mainly to SCC, FPD, and FFA. In summary, bulk milk quality and farm audit outcomes are, to some degree, associated: if dairy farms are assessed negatively on specific audit aspects, the bulk milk quality is more likely to be inferior. However, the proportion of the total variance in milk test results explained by audits ranged between 4 and 13% (depending on the specific bulk milk test), showing that auditing dairy farms provides

  18. Milk: the new white gold? Milk production options for smallholder farmers in Southern Mali.

    PubMed

    de Ridder, N; Sanogo, O M; Rufino, M C; van Keulen, H; Giller, K E

    2015-07-01

    Until the turn of the century, farmers in West Africa considered cotton to be the 'white gold' for their livelihoods. Large fluctuations in cotton prices have led farmers to innovate into other business including dairy. Yet the productivity of cows fed traditional diets is very poor, especially during the long dry season. This study combines earlier published results of farmer participatory experiments with simulation modelling to evaluate the lifetime productivity of cows under varying feeding strategies and the resulting economic performance at farm level. We compared the profitability of cotton production to the innovation of dairy. The results show that milk production of the West African Méré breed could be expanded if cows are supplemented and kept stall-fed during the dry season. This option seems to be profitable for better-off farmers, but whether dairy will replace (some of) the role of cotton as the white gold for these smallholder farmers will depend on the cross price elasticity of cotton and milk. Farmers may (partly) replace cotton production for fodder production to produce milk if the price of cotton remains poor (below US$0.35/kg) and the milk price relatively strong (higher than US$0.38/kg). Price ratios need to remain stable over several seasons given the investments required for a change in production strategy. Furthermore, farmers will only seize the opportunity to engage in dairy if marketing infrastructure and milk markets are further developed. PMID:25682711

  19. [Milk and milk products: food sources of calcium].

    PubMed

    Farré Rovira, Rosaura

    2015-01-01

    The importance of calcium in human nutrition, the mechanisms of absorption and excretion of the element, and the factors affecting them with special reference to dietary factors are described. After reviewing daily dietary intakes of calcium and the main contributors in European and Spanish population, recommended intakes in Spain, the Nordic countries and the United States are mentioned. In relation to the dietary sources of calcium it has to be noted that the value of a given food as a source of a nutrient depends on its content in the food, the bioavailability of the nutrient and the usual food consumption. The calcium contents of potential food sources of the element are reported and its value is estimated according to the potential absorbability of the calcium they contain. The benefits of milk and dairy products as sources of calcium are also highlighted. Populations such as children or elderly may require fortified foods or supplements to satisfy their high calcium needs, so some examples of the efficacy of this supplementation are discussed. It is concluded that food and drinks are the best choice to obtain calcium. Taking into account the calcium content, the usual portion size and the consumption habits milk and dairy products, nuts, green leafy vegetables and legumes can provide adequate amounts of calcium. However, milk and dairy products constitute the best dietary source thanks to the bioavailability of the calcium they contain. PMID:25862323

  20. 7 CFR 58.627 - Milk and dairy products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Milk and dairy products. 58.627 Section 58.627... Material § 58.627 Milk and dairy products. To produce ice cream and related products the raw milk and cream... commingled milk and cream meeting the bacteriological requirements of No. 1 shall be used....

  1. 7 CFR 58.627 - Milk and dairy products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Milk and dairy products. 58.627 Section 58.627... Material § 58.627 Milk and dairy products. To produce ice cream and related products the raw milk and cream... commingled milk and cream meeting the bacteriological requirements of No. 1 shall be used....

  2. 7 CFR 58.627 - Milk and dairy products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk and dairy products. 58.627 Section 58.627... Material § 58.627 Milk and dairy products. To produce ice cream and related products the raw milk and cream... commingled milk and cream meeting the bacteriological requirements of No. 1 shall be used....

  3. 7 CFR 58.627 - Milk and dairy products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Milk and dairy products. 58.627 Section 58.627... Material § 58.627 Milk and dairy products. To produce ice cream and related products the raw milk and cream... commingled milk and cream meeting the bacteriological requirements of No. 1 shall be used....

  4. 7 CFR 58.627 - Milk and dairy products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Milk and dairy products. 58.627 Section 58.627... Material § 58.627 Milk and dairy products. To produce ice cream and related products the raw milk and cream... commingled milk and cream meeting the bacteriological requirements of No. 1 shall be used....

  5. Novel trends in engineered milk products.

    PubMed

    Chandrapala, Jayani; Zisu, Bogdan

    2016-08-01

    Food engineering within the dairy sector is an ever developing field of study purely based on the application of engineering principles and concepts to any aspect of dairy product manufacturing and operations. The last 25 years of science and technology devoted to milk and milk products have led to major advances. The purpose of this paper is to review the history and current status of some engineered milk products and to speculate regarding future trends. Much of the advancement has been directed towards production capacity, mechanisation, automation, hygiene within the processing plant, safety, extensions in shelf life, and new product introductions that bring variety and convenience for the consumer. Significant advancements in product quality have been made, many of these arising from improved knowledge of the functional properties of ingredients and their impact on structure and texture. In addition, further improvements focused on energy efficiency and environmental sustainability have been made and will be needed in the future. PMID:27600960

  6. 7 CFR 1006.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1006.15 Section 1006.15 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  7. 7 CFR 1124.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1124.15 Section 1124.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  8. 7 CFR 1005.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1005.15 Section 1005.15 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  9. 7 CFR 1124.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1124.15 Section 1124.15 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  10. 7 CFR 1007.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1007.15 Section 1007.15 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1007.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  11. 7 CFR 1030.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1030.15 Section 1030.15 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  12. 7 CFR 1005.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1005.15 Section 1005.15 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  13. 7 CFR 1000.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1000.15 Section 1000.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Definitions § 1000.15 Fluid milk product. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, fluid...

  14. 7 CFR 1030.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1030.15 Section 1030.15 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  15. 7 CFR 1000.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1000.15 Section 1000.15 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Definitions § 1000.15 Fluid milk product. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, fluid...

  16. 7 CFR 1131.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1131.15 Section 1131.15 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  17. 7 CFR 1005.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1005.15 Section 1005.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  18. 7 CFR 1006.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1006.15 Section 1006.15 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  19. 7 CFR 1030.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1030.15 Section 1030.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  20. 7 CFR 1007.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1007.15 Section 1007.15 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1007.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  1. 7 CFR 1032.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1032.15 Section 1032.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  2. 7 CFR 1001.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1001.15 Section 1001.15 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  3. 7 CFR 1131.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1131.15 Section 1131.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  4. 7 CFR 1007.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1007.15 Section 1007.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1007.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  5. 7 CFR 1032.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1032.15 Section 1032.15 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  6. 7 CFR 1033.15 - Fluid milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk products. 1033.15 Section 1033.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.15 Fluid milk products. See § 1000.15....

  7. 7 CFR 1124.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1124.15 Section 1124.15 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  8. 7 CFR 1000.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1000.15 Section 1000.15 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Definitions § 1000.15 Fluid milk product. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, fluid...

  9. 7 CFR 1033.15 - Fluid milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid milk products. 1033.15 Section 1033.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.15 Fluid milk products. See § 1000.15....

  10. 7 CFR 1126.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1126.15 Section 1126.15 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  11. 7 CFR 1001.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1001.15 Section 1001.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  12. 7 CFR 1126.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1126.15 Section 1126.15 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  13. 7 CFR 1032.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1032.15 Section 1032.15 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  14. 7 CFR 1126.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1126.15 Section 1126.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  15. 7 CFR 1033.15 - Fluid milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid milk products. 1033.15 Section 1033.15... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.15 Fluid milk products. See § 1000.15....

  16. 7 CFR 1131.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1131.15 Section 1131.15 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  17. 7 CFR 1006.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1006.15 Section 1006.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  18. 7 CFR 1001.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1001.15 Section 1001.15 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  19. 7 CFR 1131.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1131.15 Section 1131.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  20. 7 CFR 1005.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1005.15 Section 1005.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  1. 7 CFR 1033.15 - Fluid milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid milk products. 1033.15 Section 1033.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.15 Fluid milk products. See § 1000.15....

  2. 7 CFR 1126.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1126.15 Section 1126.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  3. 7 CFR 1030.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1030.15 Section 1030.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  4. 7 CFR 1006.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1006.15 Section 1006.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  5. 7 CFR 1000.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1000.15 Section 1000.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Definitions § 1000.15 Fluid milk product. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, fluid...

  6. 7 CFR 1007.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1007.15 Section 1007.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1007.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  7. 7 CFR 1124.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1124.15 Section 1124.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  8. 7 CFR 1001.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1001.15 Section 1001.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  9. 7 CFR 1032.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1032.15 Section 1032.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  10. Milk Production and Fertility in Cattle.

    PubMed

    Berry, D P; Friggens, N C; Lucy, M; Roche, J R

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary biology provides reasons for why the intensive selection for milk production reduces reproductive success rates. There is considerable exploitable genetic variation in reproductive performance in both dairy and beef cattle, and examination of national genetic trends demonstrates that genetic gain for both reproductive performance and milk production is possible in a well-structured breeding program. Reproductive failure is often postulated to be a consequence of the greater negative energy balance associated with the genetic selection for increased milk production. However, experimental results indicate that the majority of the decline in reproductive performance cannot be attributed to early lactation energy balance, per se; reproductive success will, therefore, not be greatly improved by nutritional interventions aimed at reducing the extent of negative energy balance. Modeling can aid in better pinpointing the key physiological components governing reproductive success and, also, the impact of individual improvements on overall fertility, helping to prioritize variables for inclusion in breeding programs. PMID:26526546

  11. Microorganism Utilization for Synthetic Milk Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morford, Megan A.; Khodadad, Christina L.; Mccoy, LaShelle E.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Strayer, Richard F.; Caro, Janicce L.; Hummerick, Mary E.; Birmele, Michele N.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    A desired architecture for long duration spaceflight, such as aboard the International Space Station (ISS) or for future missions to Mars, is to provide a supply of fresh food crops for the astronauts. However, some crops can create a high proportion of inedible plant waste. The main goal of this project was to produce the components of milk (sugar, lipid, protein) from inedible plant waste by utilizing microorganisms (fungi, yeast, bacteria). Of particular interest was utilizing the valuable polysaccharide, cellulose, found in plant waste, to naturally fuel- through microorganism cellular metabolism- the creation of sugar (glucose), lipid (milk fat), and protein (casein) to produce a synthetic edible food product. Environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, carbon source, aeration, and choice microorganisms were optimized in the laboratory and the desired end-products, sugars and lipids, were analyzed. Trichoderma reesei, a known cellulolytic fungus, was utilized to drive the production of glucose, with the intent that the produced glucose would serve as the carbon source for milk fat production and be a substitute for the milk sugar lactose. Lipid production would be carried out by Rhodosporidium toruloides, yeast known to accumulate those lipids that are typically found in milk fat. Results showed that glucose and total lipid content were below what was expected during this phase of experimentation. In addition, individual analysis of six fatty acids revealed that the percentage of each fatty acid was lower than naturally produced bovine milk. Overall, this research indicates that microorganisms could be utilized to breakdown inedible solid waste to produce useable products.

  12. [Multiplication of Listeria in milk products].

    PubMed

    Karpova, T I; Shustrova, N M; Snegireva, A E; Sheveleva, S A; Kubaeva, I B; Tartakovskiĭ, I S

    2001-01-01

    The results of the evaluation of the multiplication dynamics of Listeria cells in milk and Bifidok, a lactic acid product, are presented. The samples were inoculated on thioglycol agar and studied at different exposure time after incubation at 37 degrees C, 20 degrees C and 4 degrees C. The study revealed the intensive multiplication of Listeria cells in milk, also during storage in a household refrigerator. The presence of bifidobacteria mixed with kefir-producing culture in dairy products was shown to essentially inhibit the growth of Listeria cells which were not detected by bacteriological techniques on day 7. PMID:11236515

  13. Radionuclides accumulation in milk and its products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmuleva, N. I.; Barinov, E. Ya.; Petukhov, V. L.

    2003-05-01

    The problem of radioactive pollution is extremely urgent in Russia in connection with presence of territories polluted by radionuclides on places of nuclear tests, in zones around the enterprises on production, processing and storage of radioactive materials, and also in areas of emergency pollution (Barakhtin, 2001). The aim of our investigation was a determination of the levels of the main radioactive elements - Cs-137 and Sr-90 in diary products. 363 samples of milk, dry milk, butter, cheese and yogurt from Novosibirsk region were examined. Cs-137 level was 3.7...9.2 times higher than Sr-90 one in milk, cheese and yogurt. At the same time the level of these radio nuclides in butter was identical (8.03 Bk/kg).

  14. 21 CFR 139.121 - Nonfat milk macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonfat milk macaroni products. 139.121 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.121 Nonfat milk macaroni products. (a) Each of the macaroni products made with nonfat milk for which a definition and standard of identity is prescribed by this section...

  15. 21 CFR 139.121 - Nonfat milk macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nonfat milk macaroni products. 139.121 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.121 Nonfat milk macaroni products. (a) Each of the macaroni products made with nonfat milk for which a definition and standard of identity is prescribed by this section...

  16. 21 CFR 139.121 - Nonfat milk macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nonfat milk macaroni products. 139.121 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.121 Nonfat milk macaroni products. (a) Each of the macaroni products made with nonfat milk for which a definition and standard of identity is prescribed by this section...

  17. 21 CFR 139.122 - Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products. 139.122... Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.122 Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products. (a) Each of the enriched macaroni products made with nonfat milk for which a definition and standard of identity is prescribed...

  18. 21 CFR 139.122 - Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products. 139.122... Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.122 Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products. (a) Each of the enriched macaroni products made with nonfat milk for which a definition and standard of identity is prescribed...

  19. 21 CFR 139.121 - Nonfat milk macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nonfat milk macaroni products. 139.121 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.121 Nonfat milk macaroni products. (a) Each of the macaroni products made with nonfat milk for which a definition and standard of identity is prescribed by this section...

  20. 21 CFR 139.121 - Nonfat milk macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nonfat milk macaroni products. 139.121 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.121 Nonfat milk macaroni products. (a) Each of the macaroni products made with nonfat milk for which a definition and standard of identity is prescribed by this section...

  1. Factors associated with marketable milk production recovery after treatment of naturally occurring acute coliform mastitis.

    PubMed

    Shinozuka, Yasunori; Kaneko, Sohei; Kurose, Tomoyasu; Watanabe, Aiko; Kuruhara, Kana; Kawai, Kazuhiro

    2016-06-01

    Milk production loss after recovery from acute coliform mastitis causes major economic losses for dairy industries. Declines in milk production and composition are caused by multiple factors, including cow factors, microorganisms and treatments, but the influence of each factor has not been determined. To investigate risk factors for milk loss after treatment for acute coliform mastitis, multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted in 53 clinical cases. Systemic administration of fluoroquinolone was significantly associated with recovery of marketable milk production. The time to slaughter was significantly shorter in cows with complete loss of quarter milk production than in cows that produced marketable milk. In this study, we identified factors associated with increased risk of milk production loss. PMID:26860356

  2. Factors associated with marketable milk production recovery after treatment of naturally occurring acute coliform mastitis

    PubMed Central

    SHINOZUKA, Yasunori; KANEKO, Sohei; KUROSE, Tomoyasu; WATANABE, Aiko; KURUHARA, Kana; KAWAI, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Milk production loss after recovery from acute coliform mastitis causes major economic losses for dairy industries. Declines in milk production and composition are caused by multiple factors, including cow factors, microorganisms and treatments, but the influence of each factor has not been determined. To investigate risk factors for milk loss after treatment for acute coliform mastitis, multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted in 53 clinical cases. Systemic administration of fluoroquinolone was significantly associated with recovery of marketable milk production. The time to slaughter was significantly shorter in cows with complete loss of quarter milk production than in cows that produced marketable milk. In this study, we identified factors associated with increased risk of milk production loss. PMID:26860356

  3. 7 CFR 58.235 - Modified dry milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.235 Modified dry milk products. Dry milk products to which approved neutralizing agents...

  4. 7 CFR 58.235 - Modified dry milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.235 Modified dry milk products. Dry milk products to which approved neutralizing agents...

  5. 7 CFR 58.235 - Modified dry milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.235 Modified dry milk products. Dry milk products to which approved neutralizing agents...

  6. 7 CFR 58.235 - Modified dry milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.235 Modified dry milk products. Dry milk products to which approved neutralizing agents...

  7. 7 CFR 58.235 - Modified dry milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.235 Modified dry milk products. Dry milk products to which approved neutralizing agents...

  8. An evaluation of life cycle assessment of European milk production.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ming-Jia; Humphreys, James; Holden, Nicholas M

    2011-03-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a method regulated by ISO that conveys the environmental impact of products. LCA studies of the same product should be comparable to benefit environmental policy making. LCA of milk production has evaluated environmental issues such as greenhouse gas emissions, resource utilisation and land use change. Thirteen LCA studies of European milk production were analysed for comparability, and direct comparison was difficult due to technical issues, arbitrary choices and inconsistent assumptions. The strengths and weaknesses of LCA for evaluating an agricultural system are identified and improvements for comparability of future studies are also considered. Future LCA of milk production should ensure that: (1) the production system is appropriately characterized according to the goal of study; (2) a clear description of the system boundary and allocation procedures is provided according to ISO standards; (3) a common functional unit, probably Energy Corrected Milk, should be used or assumed fat and protein content presented to enable comparisons; (4) where appropriate, site-specific emission factors and characterization factors should be used in environmental hotspots (e.g. manure management, spreading of synthetic fertilizer, production of purchased feed), and phosphorous loss should be better addressed; (5) a range of impact categories including climate change, energy use, land use, acidification and eutrophication should be used to assess pollution swapping, all of which are subject to national or regional directives; perhaps in the future biodiversity should also be included; and (6) the sensitivity to choices of methods and uncertainty of final results should be evaluated. PMID:21055870

  9. Fresh cow mastitis monitoring on day 3 postpartum and its relationship to subsequent milk production.

    PubMed

    Anderson, K L; Correa, M T; Allen, A; Rodriguez, R R

    2010-12-01

    The purpose was to determine the association of milk California Mastitis Test (CMT), somatic cell concentration (SCC), and milk differential cell count results on day 3 postcalving with subsequent lactation production and health events. On d 3 postcalving, the CMT was performed and quarter milk samples were collected from 130 dairy cows. Quarter SCC and milk differential cell counts were determined. Microbiology on duplicate quarter milk samples was used to determine the presence of intramammary infection by major or minor pathogens. Production measures obtained using Dairy Herd Improvement Association testing were 150-d standardized and summit milks. Milk culture results on a cow basis included 82 (63.1%) samples with no growth, 31 (23.9%) with major pathogens, and 17 (13.1%) with minor pathogens. Milk culture results comparing cows with no growth to those with any growth (major or minor pathogens) were not associated with statistically significant differences in milk production. Milk culture results comparing cows with major pathogens to those with no growth and minor pathogens combined were associated with statistically significant differences in 150 d milk. Milk production did not differ for cows with CMT results above and below a cut-off of trace, and for SCC results above and below cut-offs of 200,000, 300,000, and 400,000/mL, respectively. Statistically significant differences in milk production were found for cows above and below cut-offs for percentage neutrophils in milk and for absolute neutrophil counts. Associations were found for milk production and number of quarters (0, 1, 2, or 3 and 4 combined) above respective cut-offs for SCC, percentage neutrophils in milk, and absolute numbers of neutrophils in milk, but not for CMT. Milk production differed for cows experiencing any health event versus those with no health event. The most commonly recorded health event was clinical mastitis. Statistically significant associations were detected between health

  10. 7 CFR 1000.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... milk protein. Sources of such nonfat solids/protein include but are not limited to: Casein, whey protein concentrate, milk protein concentrate, dry whey, caseinates, lactose, and any similar dairy... contains less than 2.25 percent true milk protein; whey; plain or sweetened evaporated milk/skim...

  11. Sequencing the transcriptome of milk production: milk trumps mammary tissue

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies of normal human mammary gland development and function have mostly relied on cell culture, limited surgical specimens, and rodent models. Although RNA extracted from human milk has been used to assay the mammary transcriptome non-invasively, this assay has not been adequately validated in primates. Thus, the objectives of the current study were to assess the suitability of lactating rhesus macaques as a model for lactating humans and to determine whether RNA extracted from milk fractions is representative of RNA extracted from mammary tissue for the purpose of studying the transcriptome of milk-producing cells. Results We confirmed that macaque milk contains cytoplasmic crescents and that ample high-quality RNA can be obtained for sequencing. Using RNA sequencing, RNA extracted from macaque milk fat and milk cell fractions more accurately represented RNA from mammary epithelial cells (cells that produce milk) than did RNA from whole mammary tissue. Mammary epithelium-specific transcripts were more abundant in macaque milk fat, whereas adipose or stroma-specific transcripts were more abundant in mammary tissue. Functional analyses confirmed the validity of milk as a source of RNA from milk-producing mammary epithelial cells. Conclusions RNA extracted from the milk fat during lactation accurately portrayed the RNA profile of milk-producing mammary epithelial cells in a non-human primate. However, this sample type clearly requires protocols that minimize RNA degradation. Overall, we validated the use of RNA extracted from human and macaque milk and provided evidence to support the use of lactating macaques as a model for human lactation. PMID:24330573

  12. Deciphering the Genetic Blueprint behind Holstein Milk Proteins and Production

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Jaemin; Lee, Taeheon; Son, Jun Kyu; Yoon, Ho-Baek; Baek, Kwang-Soo; Jeong, Jin Young; Cho, Yong-Min; Lee, Kyung-Tai; Yang, Byoung-Chul; Lim, Hyun-Joo; Cho, Kwanghyeon; Kim, Tae-Hun; Kwon, Eung Gi; Nam, Jungrye; Kwak, Woori; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal

    2014-01-01

    Holstein is known to provide higher milk yields than most other cattle breeds, and the dominant position of Holstein today is the result of various selection pressures. Holstein cattle have undergone intensive selection for milk production in recent decades, which has left genome-wide footprints of domestication. To further characterize the bovine genome, we performed whole-genome resequencing analysis of 10 Holstein and 11 Hanwoo cattle to identify regions containing genes as outliers in Holstein, including CSN1S1, CSN2, CSN3, and KIT whose products are likely involved in the yield and proteins of milk and their distinctive black-and-white markings. In addition, genes indicative of positive selection were associated with cardiovascular disease, which is related to simultaneous propagation of genetic defects, also known as inbreeding depression in Holstein. PMID:24920005

  13. Detection of calcium based neutralizers in milk and milk products by AAS.

    PubMed

    Sowmya, R; Indumathi, K P; Arora, S; Sharma, V; Singh, A K

    2015-02-01

    Current study was carried out with the intent to standardize detection and estimation method for calcium (Ca) based neutralizers in milk and milk based indigenous products (khoa and paneer) using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Neutralized milk, khoa and paneer samples were prepared using milk with developed acidity to which calculated quantity of neutralizer (Ca based) was added. Rosalic acid test results get masked at times due to developed acidity which neutralizes the alkalinity imparted by neutralizer and hence gives false result with time in neutralizer added samples. Atomic absorption spectroscopy proved to be an accurate estimate which could detect the abnormal rise in mineral concentration even with slight addition of neutralizers in comparison with control milk and milk products. Formalin, which is a commonly used preservative in milk samples for chemical analysis, did not have any significant impact on estimation of calcium in the neutralized milk during storage. PMID:25694738

  14. Fermented milks and milk products as functional foods--a review.

    PubMed

    Shiby, V K; Mishra, H N

    2013-01-01

    Fermented foods and beverages possess various nutritional and therapeutic properties. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) play a major role in determining the positive health effects of fermented milks and related products. The L. acidophilus and Bifidobacteria spp are known for their use in probiotic dairy foods. Cultured products sold with any claim of health benefits should meet the criteria of suggested minimum number of more than 10⁶ cfu/g at the time of consumption. Yoghurt is redefined as a probiotic carrier food. Several food powders like yoghurt powder and curd (dahi) powder are manufactured taking into consideration the number of organisms surviving in the product after drying. Such foods, beverages and powders are highly acceptable to consumers because of their flavor and aroma and high nutritive value. Antitumor activity is associated with the cell wall of starter bacteria and so the activity remains even after drying. Other health benefits of fermented milks include prevention of gastrointestinal infections, reduction of serum cholesterol levels and antimutagenic activity. The fermented products are recommended for consumption by lactose intolerant individuals and patients suffering from atherosclerosis. The formulation of fermented dietetic preparations and special products is an expanding research area. The health benefits, the technology of production of fermented milks and the kinetics of lactic acid fermentation in dairy products are reviewed here. PMID:23391015

  15. Induction of milk ejection and milk removal in different production systems.

    PubMed

    Bruckmaier, R M; Wellnitz, O

    2008-03-01

    Milk ejection is important during milking or suckling to obtain the alveolar milk fraction, which can represent more than 80% of the milk stored in the udder of dairy cows. In response to tactile teat stimulation, either manually or by the milking machine, milk ejection is induced by the release of oxytocin and resultant myoepithelial contraction. The time from the start of tactile stimulation until the occurrence of milk ejection spans 40 s to > 2 min and increases with a decreasing degree of udder filling. Therefore, cows need a longer prestimulation in the late stages of lactation or if the milking is performed shortly after the previous milking, whereas in full udders prestimulation is less important. Milk ejection is disturbed under several conditions, such as during milking in unfamiliar surroundings (i.e., a novel milking environment) or for several weeks immediately after parturition in primiparous cows. Disturbed milk ejection is due to a reduction of or absence of oxytocin release from the pituitary. The severity of disturbed milk ejection and the coping capacity toward a novel milking environment is related to cortisol release in response to ACTH (i.e., adrenal cortex activity). Therefore, susceptibility of individual cows to the inhibition of oxytocin release and milk ejection can be predicted by an ACTH challenge test. Comfortable surroundings, such as feeding in and lighting of the milking parlor, can increase the secretion of oxytocin. Overcoming the lack of oxytocin release by injection of exogenous oxytocin for an extended time results in a reduction of the mammary response to endogenous oxytocin. In different production systems, it has to be verified that udder stimulation is sufficient to prevent disturbed milk ejection. Different brands of automatic milking systems induce a sufficient prestimulation of the udder, even if a few minutes are needed for a successful onset of the teat clusters. Specific breeds used for less intense milk production

  16. Hyperoxaluria and Genitourinary Disorders in Children Ingesting Almond Milk Products.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Demetrius; Lieb, Jessica

    2015-11-01

    We describe 3 children presenting with hematuria, dysuria or kidney stones, and hyperoxaluria believed to be related to ingestion of excessive amounts of almond milk products. Our investigation of the oxalate content of several popular plant-based milk substitutes indicates that almond milk products are a particularly rich source of dietary oxalate. All genitourinary and urinary metabolic disturbances resolved after discontinuation of almond milk ingestion. Therefore, pediatricians should be aware of this potential link. PMID:26382627

  17. Innovative uses of milk protein concentrates in product development.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Shantanu; Beausire, Robert L W; Patel, Sonia; Patel, Hasmukh

    2015-03-01

    Milk protein concentrates (MPCs) are complete dairy proteins (containing both caseins and whey proteins) that are available in protein concentrations ranging from 42% to 85%. As the protein content of MPCs increases, the lactose levels decrease. MPCs are produced by ultrafiltration or by blending different dairy ingredients. Although ultrafiltration is the preferred method for producing MPCs, they also can be produced by precipitating the proteins out of milk or by dry-blending the milk proteins with other milk components. MPCs are used for their nutritional and functional properties. For example, MPC is high in protein content and averages approximately 365 kcal/100 g. Higher-protein MPCs provide protein enhancement and a clean dairy flavor without adding significant amounts of lactose to food and beverage formulations. MPCs also contribute valuable minerals, such as calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus, to formulations, which may reduce the need for additional sources of these minerals. MPCs are multifunctional ingredients and provide benefits, such as water binding, gelling, foaming, emulsification, and heat stability. This article will review the development of MPCs and milk protein isolates including their composition, production, development, functional benefits, and ongoing research. The nutritional and functional attributes of MPCs are discussed in some detail in relation to their application as ingredients in major food categories. PMID:25757895

  18. Microorganism Utilization for Synthetic Milk Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birmele, Michele; Morford, Megan; Khodadad, Christina; Spencer, Lashelle; Richards, Jeffrey; Strayer, Richard; Caro, Janicce; Hummerick, Mary; Wheeler, Ray

    2014-01-01

    A desired architecture for long duration spaceflight, such as aboard the International Space Station (ISS) or for future missions to Mars, is to provide a supply of fresh food crops for the astronauts. However, some crops can create a high proportion of inedible plant waste. The main goal of this project was to produce the components of milk (sugar, lipid, protein) from inedible plant waste by utilizing microorganisms (fungi, yeast, bacteria). Of particular interest was utilizing the valuable polysaccharide, cellulose, found in plant waste, to naturally fuel- through microorganism cellular metabolism- the creation of sugar (glucose), lipid (milk fat), and protein (casein) to produce a synthetic edible food product. Environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, carbon source, aeration, and choice microorganisms.

  19. Production and chemical composition of two dehydrated fermented dairy products based on cow or goat milk.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Fernández, Jorge; Díaz-Castro, Javier; Alférez, Maria J M; Hijano, Silvia; Nestares, Teresa; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the differences between the main macro and micronutrients including proteins, fat, minerals and vitamins in cow and goat dehydrated fermented milks. Fermented goat milk had higher protein and lower ash content. All amino acids (except for Ala), were higher in fermented goat milk than in fermented cow milk. Except for the values of C11:0, C13:0, C16:0, C18:0, C20:5, C22:5 and the total quantity of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, all the other fatty acid studied were significantly different in both fermented milks. Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, Cu and Se were higher in fermented goat milk. Fermented goat milk had lower amounts of folic acid, vitamin E and C, and higher values of vitamin A, D3, B6 and B12. The current study demonstrates the better nutritional characteristics of fermented goat milk, suggesting a potential role of this dairy product as a high nutritional value food. PMID:26869113

  20. Characterizing Milk Production Related Genes in Holstein Using RNA-seq.

    PubMed

    Seo, Minseok; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Kwondo; Caetano-Anolles, Kelsey; Jeong, Jin Young; Park, Sungkwon; Oh, Young Kyun; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal

    2016-03-01

    Although the chemical, physical, and nutritional properties of bovine milk have been extensively studied, only a few studies have attempted to characterize milk-synthesizing genes using RNA-seq data. RNA-seq data was collected from 21 Holstein samples, along with group information about milk production ability; milk yield; and protein, fat, and solid contents. Meta-analysis was employed in order to generally characterize genes related to milk production. In addition, we attempted to investigate the relationship between milk related traits, parity, and lactation period. We observed that milk fat is highly correlated with lactation period; this result indicates that this effect should be considered in the model in order to accurately detect milk production related genes. By employing our developed model, 271 genes were significantly (false discovery rate [FDR] adjusted p-value<0.1) detected as milk production related differentially expressed genes. Of these genes, five (albumin, nitric oxide synthase 3, RNA-binding region (RNP1, RRM) containing 3, secreted and transmembrane 1, and serine palmitoyltransferase, small subunit B) were technically validated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in order to check the accuracy of RNA-seq analysis. Finally, 83 gene ontology biological processes including several blood vessel and mammary gland development related terms, were significantly detected using DAVID gene-set enrichment analysis. From these results, we observed that detected milk production related genes are highly enriched in the circulation system process and mammary gland related biological functions. In addition, we observed that detected genes including caveolin 1, mammary serum amyloid A3.2, lingual antimicrobial peptide, cathelicidin 4 (CATHL4), cathelicidin 6 (CATHL6) have been reported in other species as milk production related gene. For this reason, we concluded that our detected 271 genes would be strong candidates for

  1. Characterizing Milk Production Related Genes in Holstein Using RNA-seq

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Minseok; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Kwondo; Caetano-Anolles, Kelsey; Jeong, Jin Young; Park, Sungkwon; Oh, Young Kyun; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal

    2016-01-01

    Although the chemical, physical, and nutritional properties of bovine milk have been extensively studied, only a few studies have attempted to characterize milk-synthesizing genes using RNA-seq data. RNA-seq data was collected from 21 Holstein samples, along with group information about milk production ability; milk yield; and protein, fat, and solid contents. Meta-analysis was employed in order to generally characterize genes related to milk production. In addition, we attempted to investigate the relationship between milk related traits, parity, and lactation period. We observed that milk fat is highly correlated with lactation period; this result indicates that this effect should be considered in the model in order to accurately detect milk production related genes. By employing our developed model, 271 genes were significantly (false discovery rate [FDR] adjusted p-value<0.1) detected as milk production related differentially expressed genes. Of these genes, five (albumin, nitric oxide synthase 3, RNA-binding region (RNP1, RRM) containing 3, secreted and transmembrane 1, and serine palmitoyltransferase, small subunit B) were technically validated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in order to check the accuracy of RNA-seq analysis. Finally, 83 gene ontology biological processes including several blood vessel and mammary gland development related terms, were significantly detected using DAVID gene-set enrichment analysis. From these results, we observed that detected milk production related genes are highly enriched in the circulation system process and mammary gland related biological functions. In addition, we observed that detected genes including caveolin 1, mammary serum amyloid A3.2, lingual antimicrobial peptide, cathelicidin 4 (CATHL4), cathelicidin 6 (CATHL6) have been reported in other species as milk production related gene. For this reason, we concluded that our detected 271 genes would be strong candidates for

  2. Milk production of West African Dwarf goats in the Gambia.

    PubMed

    Jaitner, J; Njie, M; Corr, N; Dempfle, L

    2006-04-01

    Goats are important in the low-input systems of West Africa and their main importance lies in their role for income and saving. In addition, it is known that milk offtake for home consumption is also important. In order to obtain information about the real importance of milk offtake, a recording scheme was operated in 27 villages in the Central River Division of The Gambia from July 1998 until January 2000. Detailed information was obtained from about 1500 kiddings. In the recording scheme, any sheep being milked as well as the goats of the International Trypanotolerance Centre nucleus flock were also recorded. In the villages, 36% of all lactations were used for milk offtake, but the fraction milked was lower for the first two lactations. The average length of lactation was 127 days and the average daily milk offtake was 0.18 L. Goats are milked once a day and the residual milk is left for the kids. Milking starts about one week after parturition and stops when the goat becomes pregnant or the kid(s) die or the goat is drying off. The repeatability of the 90-day milk offtake was 0.24 +/- 0.09. Sixty-five percent of goat owner were women and a large fraction of goat owners also owned cattle. Goat milk was used exclusively for home consumption. It is concluded that in breeding and extension work more attention should be given to aspects of milk production. PMID:16986773

  3. Melamine in Chinese milk products and consumer confidence.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Guanghua; Guo, Ting; Klein, K K

    2010-10-01

    Chinese consumers were shocked to learn in September 2008 that melamine, a chemical used in plastics, had been found in domestic dairy products and many people, especially young children, were experiencing adverse health impacts including death. A survey of consumers in four districts of Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, near where the two largest dairy companies in China are located, was conducted in November 2008. Findings reveal that consumption of fluid milk, yogurt, milk powder and ice cream, and perceptions of the safety of these products, which had plummeted in the days following the contamination announcement, had recovered strongly by the time of the survey. High proportions of respondents expressed high or moderate levels of confidence in the domestic dairy industry and generally were satisfied with corrective and remedial actions taken by the two large Hohhot-based companies, though there was less satisfaction for actions taken by companies located in other parts of the country. PMID:20566397

  4. Milk cow feed intake and milk production and distribution estimates for Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, D.M.; Darwin, R.F.; Erickson, A.R.; Eckert, R.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report provides initial information on milk production and distribution in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project Phase I study area. The Phase I study area consists of eight countries in central Washington and two countries in northern Oregon. The primary objective of the HEDR Project is to develop estimates of the radiation doses populations could have received from Hanford operations. The objective of Phase I of the project was to determine the feasibility of reconstructing data, models, and development of preliminary dose estimates received by people living in the ten countries surrounding Hanford from 1944 to 1947. One of the most important contributors to radiation doses from Hanford during the period of interest was radioactive iodine. Consumption of milk from cows that ate vegetation contaminated with iodine is likely the dominant pathway of human exposure. To estimate the doses people could have received from this pathway, it is necessary to estimate the amount of milk that the people living in the Phase I area consumed, the source of the milk, and the type of feed that the milk cows ate. The objective of the milk model subtask is to identify the sources of milk supplied to residents of each community in the study area as well as the sources of feeds that were fed to the milk cows. In this report, we focus on Grade A cow's milk (fresh milk used for human consumption).

  5. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 in milk and milk products in Ogun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ivbade, Akhigbe; Ojo, Olufemi Ernest; Dipeolu, Morenike Atinuke

    2014-01-01

    Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 is a major cause of food-borne illnesses in humans. This study investigated the presence of STEC O157 in milk and milk products in Ogun State, Nigeria. Of a total of 202 samples 10 (5%) were positive for STEC O157 including 1 (2%) of 50 raw milk samples, 3 (6%) of 50 samples of fresh local cheese, 1 (2%) of 50 samples of fried local cheese and 5 (9.6%) of 52 fermented milk samples. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the prevalence of STEC O157 among the sample types. Of 10 isolates, shiga toxin 1 gene (stx1) was detected only in 2 samples (20%), shiga toxin 2 (stx2) was extracted only in 6 samples (60%), stx1 /stx2 in 2 samples (20.0%), intimin gene (eaeA) in 5 samples (50%), and enterohaemolysin (E-hlyA) gene was isolated in 7 (70%) samples. Rates of resistance of the STEC O157 isolates were: amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 100%, ampicillin 100%, chloramphenicol 60%, nalidixic acid 20%, norfloxacin 10%, streptomycin 30%, sulphamethoxazole/trimethprim 20%, and tetracycline 90%. The isolates were all susceptible to ciprofloxacin and neomycin. The presence of virulent multidrug resistant E. coli O157 strains in milk and milk products as revealed by this study unveils a risk of human exposure to these potentially fatal pathogens following consumption of contaminated products. PMID:25273960

  6. 21 CFR 139.122 - Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MACARONI AND NOODLE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.122 Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products. (a) Each of the...

  7. 21 CFR 139.122 - Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MACARONI AND NOODLE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.122 Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products. (a) Each of the...

  8. 21 CFR 139.122 - Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MACARONI AND NOODLE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.122 Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products. (a) Each of the...

  9. Associations between lameness and production, feeding and milking attendance of Holstein cows milked with an automatic milking system.

    PubMed

    Bach, Alex; Dinarés, Martí; Devant, Maria; Carré, Xavier

    2007-02-01

    A longitudinal study involving 73 primiparous (PP) and 47 multiparous (MP) Holstein cows was conducted over an 8-month period to assess the associations between locomotion score (LCS) and milk production, dry matter intake (DMI), feeding behaviour, and number of visits to an automatic milking system (AMS). Twice weekly, all cows were locomotion scored (scale 1-5) by the same observer. Individual eating behaviour and individual feed consumption at each cow visit to the feed troughs, individual milk production, the time of milking, and the number of milkings for each cow were recorded for the day of locomotion scoring and the day before and after. Dependent variables, such as milk yield, DMI, etc. were modelled using a mixed-effects model with parity, LCS, days in milk (DIM), the exponential of -0.05 DIM, and the interaction between parity and LCS, as fixed effects and random intercepts and random slopes for the linear and the exponential of -0.05DIM effects within cow. LCS did not affect time of attendance at feed troughs, but affected the location that cows occupied in the feed troughs. The time devoted to eating and DMI decreased with increasing LCS. Milk production decreased with LCS>3. The number of daily visits to the AMS also decreased with increasing LCS. The cows with high LCS were fetched more often than the cows with low LCS. Overall, PP cows were more sensitive to the effects of increasing LCS than were MP cows. The decrease in milk production observed with increasing LCS seemed to be affected similarly by the decrease in DMI and by the decrease in number of daily visits to the AMS. A further economic loss generated by lame cows with AMS will be associated with the additional labour needed to fetch them. PMID:16978436

  10. 7 CFR 1007.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1007.15 Section 1007.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Handling Definitions § 1007.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  11. 7 CFR 1032.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1032.15 Section 1032.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Handling Definitions § 1032.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  12. 7 CFR 1033.15 - Fluid milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid milk products. 1033.15 Section 1033.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Handling Definitions § 1033.15 Fluid milk products. See § 1000.15....

  13. 7 CFR 1131.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1131.15 Section 1131.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Handling Definitions § 1131.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  14. 7 CFR 1126.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1126.15 Section 1126.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Handling Definitions § 1126.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  15. 7 CFR 1005.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1005.15 Section 1005.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  16. 7 CFR 1124.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1124.15 Section 1124.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  17. 7 CFR 1001.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1001.15 Section 1001.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Handling Definitions § 1001.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  18. 7 CFR 1030.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1030.15 Section 1030.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  19. 7 CFR 1006.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1006.15 Section 1006.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Handling Definitions § 1006.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  20. Impact of increasing milk production on whole farm environmental management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing herd milk production can provide both economic benefit to the producer and environmental benefit to society. Simulated dairy farms with average annual herd productions from 16,000 to 30,000 lb/cow illustrate that increasing milk yield per cow improves feed efficiency, reduces feed costs a...

  1. Milk production, quality, and consumption in Jimma (Ethiopia): Facts and producers', retailers', and consumers' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Tolosa, T; Verbeke, J; Piepers, S; Tefera, M; Getachew, Y; Supré, K; DeVliegher, S

    2016-02-01

    Four studies were performed to quantify milk production, quality and consumption in the town Jimma, Ethiopia. First, 47 dairy farmers and 44 milk retailers were interviewed to gain more insights in dairy farming and marketing, and associated constraints. Second, bulk milk samples (n=188) were collected for 4 consecutive weeks to investigate milk quality [Total Bacterial Counts (TBC), Coliform Counts (CC), Somatic Cell Counts (SCC), and antimicrobial residues]. Third, (bulk) milk samples from 32 farms, 46 milk retailers and the 3 local milk collection centers were collected to determine the presence of oxacillin susceptible-and oxacillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Fourth, 208 adult inhabitants were interviewed to gain more insight in milk consumption and associated concerns of consumers. The average dairy farm included in the studies consisted of 5 lactating cows, produced 43 liters of milk per day and was owned by male, literate adults. Milk was sold to retailers (71% of the production) and directly to customers (25%) without any quality control, whereas 4% was self-consumed. Shortage of animal nutrition and adulteration of the milk were the main constraints for farmers and retailers, respectively. The median TBC, CC and SCC were 122,500CFU/mL, 1,005CFU/mL and 609,500cells/mL, respectively. Antimicrobial residues were detected in 20% of all samples. In general, the milk quality was considered to be poor (TBC>10,000CFU/mL, and/or CC>100CFU/mL, and/or SCC>400,000cells/mL and/or presence of antimicrobial residues) in 97% of all samples. S. aureus was isolated from 12 (38%), 13 (33%), and 2 out of 3 of the milk samples originating from the dairy farms, the milk retailers, and the milk collection centers, respectively. Seven (26%) of the isolates were resistant to oxacillin suggesting the presence of MRSA (Lee, 2003). Local milk is occasionally consumed by adults but more frequently by children. Adults mainly drink spontaneously fermented milk (57% of 105

  2. Role of milk protein-based products in some quality attributes of goat milk yogurt.

    PubMed

    Gursel, A; Gursoy, A; Anli, E A K; Budak, S O; Aydemir, S; Durlu-Ozkaya, F

    2016-04-01

    Goat milk yogurts were manufactured with the fortification of 2% (wt/vol) skim goat milk powder (SGMP), sodium caseinate (NaCn), whey protein concentrate (WPC), whey protein isolate (WPI), or yogurt texture improver (YTI). Yogurts were characterized based on compositional, microbiological, and textural properties; volatile flavor components (with gas chromatography); and sensory analyses during storage (21d at 5 °C). Compared with goat milk yogurt made by using SGMP, the other goat milk yogurt variants had higher protein content and lower acidity values. Goat milk yogurts with NaCn and WPC, in particular, had better physical characteristics. Using WPI caused the hardest structure in yogurt, leading to higher syneresis values. Acetaldehyde and ethanol formation increased with the incorporation of WPI, WPC, or YTI to yogurt milk. The tyrosine value especially was higher in the samples with NaCn and YTI than in the samples with WPC and WPI. Counts of Streptococcus thermophilus were higher than the counts of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, possibly due to a stimulatory effect of milk protein-based ingredients other than SGMP on the growth of S. thermophilus. Yogurt with NaCn was the best accepted among the yogurts. For the parameters used, milk protein-based products such as NaCn or WPC have promising features as suitable ingredients for goat milk yogurt manufacture. PMID:26874417

  3. Microbial contamination of milk and dairy products from restaurants in Spain.

    PubMed

    Sospedra, Isabel; Rubert, Josep V; Soler, Carla; Soriano, Jose M; Mañes, Jordi

    2009-12-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the microbiological quality of milk and some dairy products, including 95 lots of warm milk, 95 lots of milk conserved at room temperature, and 75 lots of dairy products collected from restaurants in Spain. According to the European microbiological criteria (92/46/EEC, 93/43/EEC, and Commission Regulation No. 2073/2005), 31% and 35% of the total examined lots exceed the adopted limits of mesophilic aerobic counts and Enterobacteriaceae, respectively. This may be due to incorrect handling of milk and dairy products and inadequate cleaning and sanitization of milk container. Further, 2% of all the lots examined were positive for the presence of Escherichia coli. All lots, however, were negative for Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella spp. These results emphasize the need for applying and maintaining good hygienic practices in the restaurants. PMID:19737068

  4. 9 CFR 94.2 - Fresh (chilled or frozen) products (other than meat), and milk and milk products of ruminants and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (other than meat), and milk and milk products of ruminants and swine. 94.2 Section 94.2 Animals and... DISEASE, HIGHLY PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR... (chilled or frozen) products (other than meat), and milk and milk products of ruminants and swine. (a)...

  5. Effect of sunflower oil supplementation and milking frequency reduction on sheep milk production and composition.

    PubMed

    Prieto, N; Bodas, R; López-Campos, Ó; Andrés, S; López, S; Giráldez, F J

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of milking frequency reduction and dietary lipid supplementation on intake, BW, and milk yield and composition in high yielding dairy ewes. Ten lactating Assaf ewes were allocated into 2 experimental groups (n=5). Ewes were fed alfalfa hay ad libitum and 34 g·kg(-1) of BW of a concentrate feed with either 0 (Control group) or 43 g of sunflower oil·kg(-1) of DM (SO group). The experiment lasted 63 d and consisted of 3 periods. During Period 1 (from d 1 to 21), ewes were milked twice a day. During Period 2 (from d 22 to 49), ewes were unilaterally milked, so that each gland of each ewe was milked either once or twice daily. During Period 3 (from d 50 to the end of the experiment), both udder halves were again milked twice daily. Intake, BW, and milk composition were controlled weekly and milk production from each half udder was recorded twice a week. Total DM intake, BW, and milk yield in Period 1 were not significantly (P>0.10) affected by dietary treatments. Milk yield tended to be increased in the ewes fed the SO diet in periods 2 (P=0.093) and 3 (P=0.067). Oil supplementation (SO diet) significantly (P<0.05) decreased milk protein and total solids concentrations in the 3 experimental periods and fat content in Period 3, and tended (P=0.077) to decline fat content in Period 2. Lactose content and somatic cell count (SCC) were unaffected (P>0.10) by dietary lipid supplementation in any of the experimental periods. There were no significant (P>0.10) differences between half udders in milk yield and composition in Period 1, and in SCC in any of the experimental periods. Fat and total solids contents were unaffected (P>0.10) by reducing milking frequency. Nevertheless, milk protein content was increased (P<0.001) when glands were milked only once daily whereas milk yield and lactose content were decreased (P=0.001). The interaction between gland and diet was significant for lactose in Period 2, suggesting a

  6. Technology and potential applications of probiotic encapsulation in fermented milk products.

    PubMed

    Iravani, Siavash; Korbekandi, Hassan; Mirmohammadi, Seyed Vahid

    2015-08-01

    Fermented milk products containing probiotics and prebiotics can be used in management, prevention and treatment of some important diseases (e.g., intestinal- and immune-associated diseases). Microencapsulation has been used as an efficient method for improving the viability of probiotics in fermented milks and gastrointestinal tract. Microencapsulation of probiotic bacterial cells provides shelter against adverse conditions during processing, storage and gastrointestinal passage. Important challenges in the field include survival of probiotics during microencapsulation, stability of microencapsulated probiotics in fermented milks, sensory quality of fermented milks with microencapsulated probiotics, and efficacy of microencapsulation to deliver probiotics and their controlled or targeted release in the gastrointestinal tract. This study reviews the current knowledge, and the future prospects and challenges of microencapsulation of probiotics used in fermented milk products. In addition, the influence of microencapsulation on probiotics viability and survival is reviewed. PMID:26243890

  7. 9 CFR 94.2 - Fresh (chilled or frozen) products (other than meat), and milk and milk products of ruminants and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (other than meat), and milk and milk products of ruminants and swine. 94.2 Section 94.2 Animals and... NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE... (other than meat), and milk and milk products of ruminants and swine. (a) The importation of...

  8. 9 CFR 94.2 - Fresh (chilled or frozen) products (other than meat), and milk and milk products of ruminants and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (other than meat), and milk and milk products of ruminants and swine. 94.2 Section 94.2 Animals and... NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE... (other than meat), and milk and milk products of ruminants and swine. (a) The importation of...

  9. 9 CFR 94.2 - Fresh (chilled or frozen) products (other than meat), and milk and milk products of ruminants and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (other than meat), and milk and milk products of ruminants and swine. 94.2 Section 94.2 Animals and... NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE... (other than meat), and milk and milk products of ruminants and swine. (a) The importation of...

  10. 9 CFR 94.2 - Fresh (chilled or frozen) products (other than meat), and milk and milk products of ruminants and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (other than meat), and milk and milk products of ruminants and swine. 94.2 Section 94.2 Animals and... NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE... (other than meat), and milk and milk products of ruminants and swine. (a) The importation of...

  11. FLUORIDE CONTENT OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE SOY MILK PRODUCTS IN THAILAND.

    PubMed

    Rirattanapong, Opas; Rirattanapong, Praphasri

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. In Thailand, the consumption of soy milk products is common but there is limited data about their fluoride content. The purpose of this study was to es- timate the fluoride content of soy milk products available in Thailand. Fluoride content was determined for 76 brands of soy milk using a F-ion-specific electrode. The fluoride concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 3.78 μg/ml. The fluoride content was not related to sugar content, soy bean content or the sterilization process. Among 3 brands of soy milk containing tea powder extract, the fluoride content was high (1.25 to 3.78 μg/ml). Most brands of soy milk tested in our study had fluoride content below the optimal daily intake but brands containing tea powder extract if consumed by children may increase their risk for fluorosis. PMID:27086437

  12. Effects of high concentrations of dietary crude glycerin on dairy cow productivity and milk quality.

    PubMed

    Ezequiel, J M B; Sancanari, J B D; Machado Neto, O R; da Silva, Z F; Almeida, M T C; Silva, D A V; van Cleef, F O S; van Cleef, E H C B

    2015-11-01

    An increasing worldwide interest in alternative fuel sources and in a more diversified energy matrix has provided incentives for the biodiesel industry, generating large amounts of the by-product crude glycerin, a potential alternative feed for dairy cows. A replicated 3×3 Latin square study was conducted to evaluate the effects of high concentrations of crude glycerin on dry matter intake, milk yield and composition, milk fatty acid profile, and blood metabolites of medium-yield cows. Ruminally cannulated Holstein cows (n=6; 587 ± 39 kg of body weight; 114 ± 29 d in milk; and 20 ± 1.5 kg/d milk yield) were used in the study. The experimental period included 2 wk for adaptation and 1 wk for data collection. Cows were fed diets containing 0 (control), 15, or 30% crude glycerin (83% glycerol). Cows were milked, milk weights were recorded twice daily, and milk samples were collected for milk quality analyses at d 18 and 19 in each experimental period. Feeding cows with crude glycerin linearly decreased dry-matter intake, the 3.5% fat-corrected milk, and the solid-corrected milk yield. Hepatic enzymes were not affected by dietary treatments, except gamma-glutamyl transferase, which was decreased with the 15% crude glycerin diet. Serum glucose and albumin showed quadratic effect with increasing inclusion of crude glycerin. Plasma cholesterol as well as total protein linearly decreased with increasing inclusion of crude glycerin. Milk fat concentration and yield showed a quadratic effect of treatments. Solid yield decreased linearly with increasing inclusion of crude glycerin. Odd-chain fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid in milk fat linearly increased with addition of crude glycerin in the diets. Together, these results suggest that crude glycerin has potential to replace corn; however, feeding diets in which corn is replaced with crude glycerin at 30% of dietary DM greatly reduces animal performance. PMID:26298757

  13. Modification of the Kjeldahl noncasein nitrogen method to include bovine milk concentrates and milks from other species.

    PubMed

    Wojciechowski, Karen L; Barbano, David M

    2015-11-01

    The objective of our research was to modify the current indirect casein method for bovine milk to enable it to be applied to bovine milk, bovine milk concentrates, and milks of other species that contain a protein concentration up to 9% (wt/wt). Our work used a series of bovine milk concentrates from about 3 to 9% protein with the same casein as a percentage of true protein to determine the amount of buffer required and pH of the noncasein nitrogen (NCN) filtrate to achieve consistent estimates of casein and casein as percent of true protein. As the concentration of protein in milk increased (either in bovine milk concentrates or in milks of other species), the amount of buffer needed for the NCN sample preparation method to achieve a filtrate pH of 4.6 increased. In the first part of the study using a series of bovine milk concentrates, it was demonstrated that the method gave more consistent predictions of casein as a percentage of true protein when the final NCN filtrate pH was between 4.5 and 4.6 at 38°C. When the amount of buffer added to the sample was not sufficient (i.e., the filtrate pH was too high), the filtrates were not clear. A polynomial equation was developed for prediction of the amount of acetic acid or sodium acetate buffer required to achieve pH 4.5 to 4.6 for milk protein concentrations from 3 to 9% protein using bovine milk and milk concentrates. When the equation developed using cow milk was applied to goat, sheep, and water buffalo milks, it correctly predicted the volume of reagents needed to achieve a final NCN filtrate pH of 4.6 at 38°C. We also verified as part of this work that the ability to measure NPN content of milk was not influenced by protein content of milk in the range from 3 to 9% protein. The results of this study will be used as the basis for proposed changes in the official methods for measurement of the casein content of milk to expand the scope of the method so it can be used to achieve accurate results for milk

  14. The effect of pulsation ratio on teat condition, milk somatic cell count and productivity in dairy cows in automatic milking.

    PubMed

    Ferneborg, Sabine; Svennersten-Sjaunja, Kerstin

    2015-11-01

    The pulsation ratio of a milking machine affects milk flow and milking time, and has also been reported to influence teat condition and milk somatic cell count (SCC). However, most studies comparing pulsation ratios have been performed on conventional cluster milking (whole-udder level), where effects such as deteriorated teat end condition and increased milk SCC are likely to be caused by over-milking on teats that are emptied faster than the other teats. When the teat cups are detached from each udder quarter separately which can be done in automatic milking systems (AMS), the risk of over-milking, especially in front teats, may be significantly reduced. This study investigated the effects of pulsation ratio on teat end condition, milk SCC, milk yield, milking time and milk flow in an automatic milking system where each udder quarter is milked separately. In total, 356 cows on five commercial farms were included in a split-udder design experiment comparing three pulsation ratios (60:40, 70:30 and 75:25) with the standard pulsation ratio (65:35) during 6 weeks. Pulsation rate was 60 cycles/min and vacuum level 46 kPa. The 70:30 and 75:25 ratios increased peak and average milk flow and the machine-on time was shorter with 75:25, while both peak and average milk flows were lower and machine-on time was longer with the 60:40 ratio. No negative effects on teat condition or milk SCC were observed with any of the pulsation ratios applied during the study. Thus it is possible that increased pulsation ratio can be used to increase milking efficiency in AMS where quarter milking is applied. PMID:26411595

  15. Mycotoxins in Bovine Milk and Dairy Products: A Review.

    PubMed

    Becker-Algeri, Tania Aparecida; Castagnaro, Denise; de Bortoli, Kennidy; de Souza, Camila; Drunkler, Deisy Alessandra; Badiale-Furlong, Eliana

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a literature review of the occurrence of several mycotoxins in bovine milk and dairy products, because it is the main type of milk produced and marketed worldwide. Mycotoxins are produced by different genera of filamentous fungi and present serious health hazards such as carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. Under favorable growth conditions, toxigenic fungi produce mycotoxins which contaminate the lactating cow's feedstuff. During metabolism, these mycotoxins undergo biotransformation and are secreted in milk. Data show that there is a seasonal trend in the levels of mycotoxins in milk, with these being higher in the cold months probably due to the prolonged storage required for the cattle feeds providing favorable conditions for fungal growth. Good agricultural and storage practices are therefore of fundamental importance in the control of toxigenic species and mycotoxins. Although aflatoxins (especially aflatoxin M1 ) are the mycotoxins of greater incidence in milk and dairy products, this review shows that other mycotoxins, such as fumonisin, ochratoxin A, trichothecenes, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, and deoxynivalenol, can also be found in these products. Given that milk is widely consumed and is a source of nutrients, especially in childhood, a thorough investigation of the occurrence of mycotoxins as well the adoption of measures to minimize their contamination of milk is essential. PMID:26799355

  16. Milk and dairy products: a unique micronutrient combination.

    PubMed

    Gaucheron, Frédéric

    2011-10-01

    Milk and dairy products contain micronutrients such as minerals and vitamins, which contribute to multiple and different vital functions in the organism. The mineral fraction is composed of macroelements (Ca, Mg, Na, K, P, and Cl) and oligoelements (Fe, Cu, Zn, and Se). From a physicochemical point of view, the chemical forms, the associations with other ions or organic molecules, and the location of macroelements such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, P, and Cl in milk are relatively well described and understood. Thus, it is admitted that these macroelements are differently distributed into aqueous and micellar phases of milk, depending on their nature. K, Na, and Cl ions are essentially in the aqueous phase, whereas Ca, P, and Mg are partly bound to the casein micelles. About one third of the Ca, half of the P, and two thirds of the Mg are located in the aqueous phase of milk. Dairy products are more or less rich in these different minerals. In cheeses, mineral content depends mainly on their processing. The Ca content is strongly related to the acidification step. Moreover, if acidification is associated with the draining step, the Ca content in the cheese will be reduced. Thus, the Ca content varies in the following increasing order: milks/fermented milks/fresh cheeses < soft cheeses < semi-hard cheeses < hard cheeses. The chemical forms and associations are less described than those present in milk. Concerning Ca, the formation of insoluble calcium phosphate, carbonate, and lactate is reported in some ripened cheeses. The NaCl content in cheeses depends on the salting of the curd. From a nutritional point of view, it is largely admitted that milk and dairy products are important sources of Ca, Mg, Zn, and Se. The vitamin fraction of milk and dairy products is composed of lipophilic (A, D, E, and K) and hydrophilic (B(1), B(2), B(3), B(5), B(6), B(8), B(9), B(12), and C) vitamins. Because of their hydrophobic properties, the lipophilic vitamins are mainly in the milk fat

  17. Automatic milking systems in the Protected Designation of Origin Montasio cheese production chain: effects on milk and cheese quality.

    PubMed

    Innocente, N; Biasutti, M

    2013-02-01

    Montasio cheese is a typical Italian semi-hard, semi-cooked cheese produced in northeastern Italy from unpasteurized (raw or thermised) cow milk. The Protected Designation of Origin label regulations for Montasio cheese require that local milk be used from twice-daily milking. The number of farms milking with automatic milking systems (AMS) has increased rapidly in the last few years in the Montasio production area. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a variation in milking frequency, associated with the adoption of an automatic milking system, on milk quality and on the specific characteristics of Montasio cheese. Fourteen farms were chosen, all located in the Montasio production area, with an average herd size of 60 (Simmental, Holstein-Friesian, and Brown Swiss breeds). In 7 experimental farms, the cows were milked 3 times per day with an AMS, whereas in the other 7 control farms, cows were milked twice daily in conventional milking parlors (CMP). The study showed that the main components, the hygienic quality, and the cheese-making features of milk were not affected by the milking system adopted. In fact, the control and experimental milks did not reveal a statistically significant difference in fat, protein, and lactose contents; in the casein index; or in the HPLC profiles of casein and whey protein fractions. Milk from farms that used an AMS always showed somatic cell counts and total bacterial counts below the legal limits imposed by European Union regulations for raw milk. Finally, bulk milk clotting characteristics (clotting time, curd firmness, and time to curd firmness of 20mm) did not differ between milk from AMS and milk from CMP. Montasio cheese was made from milk collected from the 2 groups of farms milking either with AMS or with CMP. Three different cheese-making trials were performed during the year at different times. As expected, considering the results of the milk analysis, the moisture, fat, and protein contents of the

  18. Development of an immunochromatographic strip test for rapid detection of melamine in raw milk, milk products, and animal feed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple, rapid and sensitive immunogold chromatographic strip test based on a monoclonal antibody was developed for the detection of melamine (MEL) residues in raw milk, milk products and animal feed. The limit of detection was estimated to be 0.05 µg/mL in raw milk, since the detection test line ...

  19. Osteoporosis and bone metabolic parameters in dependence upon calcium intake through milk and milk products.

    PubMed

    Stracke, H; Renner, E; Knie, G; Leidig, G; Minne, H; Federlin, K

    1993-09-01

    The bone mineral content of young adults as well as of osteoporotic patients and age-matched controls without bone disease was measured by single-photon absorptiometry. A retrospective nutrition survey was additionally made to study the relationship between bone mineral content and calcium intake in different periods of life. The bone mineral content and bone mineral density of young adults is directly related to the calcium intake through milk and dairy products. The osteoporotics had a significantly lower bone mineral content than the controls. Calcium intake through milk and milk products in childhood and adolescence had been significantly lower in the patients than in the controls, whereas in the later periods of life (20-30 years prior to the study and at the time of the study) there were no significant differences between the calcium intakes of the two groups. It was also found that an adequate intake of calcium protected against increased bone resorption, as evidenced in particular by the reduced levels of serum osteocalcin, a parameter of bone turnover. In conclusion it can be stated that the data support the hypothesis that adequate calcium intake through milk and milk products in childhood and adolescence is a decisive marker for obtaining a maximum bone mass (peak adult bone mass) and for the prevention of osteoporosis. Furthermore, it can be stated that increased calcium intake in the later years may not reduce the accelerated risk of osteoporosis resulting from inadequate calcium intake during childhood and adolescence. PMID:8243426

  20. Use of a corn milling product in diets for dairy cows to alleviate milk fat depression.

    PubMed

    Weiss, W P

    2012-04-01

    Various diet formulation strategies were evaluated to alleviate milk fat depression using a corn milling product (CMP) that contained approximately 28% crude protein, 34% neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and 12% starch (dry basis). The control diet comprised mostly corn silage, alfalfa silage, corn grain, and soybean meal and contained approximately 22% forage NDF (fNDF), 28% total NDF, and 33% starch. Another diet included 25% CMP that replaced corn grain and soybean meal and contained 27% starch and 33% NDF. Two other diets included 25 or 40% CMP that replaced forage and concentrate and contained 19 and 17% fNDF, 31 and 32% total NDF, and 30 and 28% starch, respectively. Diets were fed to 16 mid-lactation Holstein cows in 4 replicated 4 × 4 Latin squares. Milk fat percentage was low for the control diet (2.9%) but increased to 3.5% when cows were fed the diet with 25% CMP that replaced concentrate. Cows fed diets with 25 or 40% CMP that replaced forage and concentrate also had low milk fat percentages (3.0 and 2.9%, respectively). Intake was lowest for cows fed the control diet. Milk yield was reduced when CMP replaced only concentrate but because of the substantial increase in milk fat, the yield of energy-corrected milk was greater. Calculated energy use (maintenance+milk+body weight change) divided by dry matter intake was similar for the control and for the diet in which CMP replaced only concentrate, but it decreased linearly as increasing amounts of CMP replaced both forage and concentrate. A quadratic equation using the ratio of dietary starch to fNDF was the best predictor of milk fat percentage (ratios >1.4 were associated with reduced milk fat). Overall, CMP was effective at alleviating milk fat depression when it replaced corn grain but not when it replaced forage and concentrate. PMID:22459853

  1. Advantages of pasture-based milk products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent research has focused on determining the biologically active compounds naturally occurring in milk from pasture-fed cows and evaluating the impact of processing on these compounds. This research addresses one of the critical goals of the Northeast Pasture Consortium to “summarize conjugated li...

  2. Relationships between lactational incidence of displaced abomasum and milk production traits in German Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Hamann, H; Wolf, V; Scholz, H; Distl, O

    2004-05-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse the heritabilitiy of the lactational incidence of displaced abomasum (DA) and the relationships of DA with milk production traits in German Holstein cows. Data were recorded between February 1999 and January 2000 in cooperation with five veterinary practitioners. Their veterinary practices were located in the northern part of Lower Saxony. The investigation included 160 dairy farms under the official milk-recording scheme with 9,315 cows. The lactational incidence of the left abomasal displacement amounted to 1.21%, and of the right abomasal displacement to 0.41%, respectively. The linear heritability estimates for the lactational incidences of left and right DA were h(2) = 0.05 +/- 0.012 and h(2) = 0.004 +/- 0.005, respectively. Using the Dempster-Lerner-transformation the corresponding heritabilities were h(2) = 0.53 and 0.09, respectively. Milk losses for the lactation when DA was diagnosed were significant and reached 1016 kg milk, 41 kg fat, 36 kg protein and 0.07% protein. Fat content significantly increased by 0.18%. The analysis could not show significant differences between cows diagnosed with DA and cows not diagnosed with DA in the 305-day milk production traits of the lactation preceding the diagnosis of DA. There was also no indication for an unequal distribution of breeding values for milk performance traits between cows with and without DA. The additive genetic correlations between 305-day milk performance and left DA were low. The results indicated that cows with a high milk production and superior breeding values for milk performance were not exposed to an increased risk for DA. PMID:15265178

  3. Origin of haloacetic acids in milk and dairy products.

    PubMed

    Cardador, Maria Jose; Gallego, Mercedes

    2016-04-01

    Haloacetic acids (HAAs) are formed during the process of water disinfection. Therefore their presence in foods can be correlated with the addition of or contact with treated water. To determine the origin of HAAs in milk and dairy products, firstly a chromatographic method was developed for their determination. The sample treatment involves deproteination of milk followed by derivatization/extraction of the HAAs in the supernatant. About 20% of the foods analyzed contained two HAAs - which in no case exceeded 2 μg L(-1), that can be ascribed to contamination from sanitizers usually employed in the dairy industry. The process of boiling tap water (containing HAAs) for the preparation of powdered infant formula did not remove them; therefore it would be advisable to prepare this type of milk with mineral water (free of HAAs). In addition, it is possible to establish if the milk has been adulterated with treated water through the determination of HAAs. PMID:26593550

  4. Characterization of casein phosphopeptides from fermented milk products.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Takeshi; Aruga, Kaori; Otani, Hajime

    2005-10-01

    This study dealt with the potential of fermented milk products as a source of functional casein phosphopeptides (CPPs) using plain yogurts and Camembert cheeses. The CPPs were prepared by tryptic digestion from four commercially available plain yogurts (P1-P4), five Camembert cheeses (C1-C5), and raw milk. From portions with a 1-g protein content of the plain yogurts, the Camembert cheeses, and the raw milk, 171 mg, 139 mg, and 146 mg of CPPs were obtained, respectively. The Camembert cheeses retained high amounts of organic phosphorus (32 microg) per 1 mg CPPs compared to the raw milk (15 microg) and plain yogurts (16 microg). Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis showed that the elution patterns and retention times of the three major peaks of CPPs from P1 and C1 were similar to those from raw milk. Moreover, CPPs from P1 and C1 showed a mitogenic effect, while CPPs from C1 showed an IgA-enhancing effect in mouse spleen cell cultures. These results suggest that fermented milk products such as plain yogurts and Camembert cheeses generate functional CPPs in the body and exert beneficial effects on the immune system. PMID:16392711

  5. Nisin Production Utilizing Skimmed Milk Aiming to Reduce Process Cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jozala, Angela Faustino; de Andrade, Maura Sayuri; de Arauz, Luciana Juncioni; Pessoa, Adalberto; Penna, Thereza Christina Vessoni

    Nisin is a natural additive for conservation of food, pharmaceutical, and dental products and can be used as a therapeutic agent. Nisin inhibits the outgrowth of spores, the growth of a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. This study was performed to optimize large-scale nisin production in skimmed milk and subproducts aiming at low-costs process and stimulating its utilization. Lactococcus lactis American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 11454 was developed in a rotary shaker (30°C/36 h/100 rpm) in diluted skimmed milk and nisin activity, growth parameters, and media components were also studied. Nisin activity in growth media was expressed in arbitrary units (AU/mL) and converted to standard nisin concentration (Nisaplin®, 25 mg of pure nisin is 1.0×106 AU/mL). Nisin activity in skimmed milk 2.27 gtotal solids was up to threefold higher than transfers in skimmed milk 4.54 gtotal solids and was up to 85-fold higher than transfers in skimmed milk 1.14 gtotal solids. L. lactis was assayed in a New Brunswick fermentor with 1.5 L of diluted skimmed milk (2.27 gtotal solids) and airflow of 1.5 mL/min (30°C/36/200 rpm), without pH control. In this condition nisin activity was observed after 4 h (45.07 AU/mL) and in the end of 36 h process (3312.07 AU/mL). This work shows the utilization of a low-cost growth medium (diluted skimmed milk) to nisin production with wide applications. Furthermore, milk subproducts (milk whey) can be exploited in nisin production, because in Brazil 50% of milk whey is disposed with no treatment in rivers and because of high organic matter concentrations it is considered an important pollutant. In this particular case an optimized production of an antimicrobial would be lined up with industrial disposal recycling.

  6. Comparison of mineral and cholesterol composition of different commercial goat milk products manufactured in USA.

    PubMed

    Park

    2000-07-01

    Concentrations of 12 major and trace minerals and cholesterol in commercial goat fluid milk, evaporated, powdered, yogurt, and cheese products manufactured in the US were evaluated for compositional differences. Minerals were determined by an Inductively Coupled Argon Plasma Emission Spectroscopy (ICAP), while cholesterol was analyzed using colorimetric and gas chromatographic (GC) methods. Mean total solids content (%) of fluid milk, evaporated milk, powdered milk, yogurt, plain soft and Monterey Jack cheeses were: 11.3, 20.9, 94.1, 11.5, 32.5, and 57.7, respectively. Mean calcium and phosphorus contents (ppm, dry basis) of the corresponding products were: 103, 125; 440, 393; 7715, 7471; 161, 144; 691, 1105; 3492, 3067, respectively. The respective iron and zinc contents (ppm) of the corresponding products were: 0.062, 0.349; 1.518, 1.635; 3.33, 30.21, 0.117, 0.338; 7.16, 3.64; 8.86, 3.81. The levels of potassium (K) in cheeses were lowest among all the products including fluid goat milk, suggesting that a significant amount of K was lost during cheese manufacturing processes. Levels of all trace minerals were higher in yogurt and cheeses than in fluid milk. The levels of trace minerals in cheeses were greater than those in yogurt products. Iron and aluminum contents of certain goat milk products were considerably higher than normal, possibly due to contamination of minerals from manufacturing utensils and product metal cans. Sulphur contents of fermented products were significantly greater than those of fluid milk, which may be accountable for the microbial synthesis of sulfur containing proteins during the manufacturing processes of the products. Cholesterol contents (mg/100g, wet basis) of fluid, evaporated, powdered goat milk and Monterey Jack cheese determined by GC method were: 11.0, 24.9, 119.5 and 91.7, respectively. Cholesterol contents of the goat milk products analyzed by colorimetric method were substantially greater than those by GC method. PMID

  7. 21 CFR 1240.61 - Mandatory pasteurization for all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... products in final package form intended for direct human consumption. 1240.61 Section 1240.61 Food and... pasteurization for all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct human consumption. (a) No... package form for direct human consumption unless the product has been pasteurized or is made from...

  8. 21 CFR 1240.61 - Mandatory pasteurization for all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... products in final package form intended for direct human consumption. 1240.61 Section 1240.61 Food and... pasteurization for all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct human consumption. (a) No... package form for direct human consumption unless the product has been pasteurized or is made from...

  9. 21 CFR 1240.61 - Mandatory pasteurization for all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... products in final package form intended for direct human consumption. 1240.61 Section 1240.61 Food and... pasteurization for all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct human consumption. (a) No... package form for direct human consumption unless the product has been pasteurized or is made from...

  10. Calcium absorbability from milk products, an imitation milk, and calcium carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Recker, R.R.; Bammi, A.; Barger-Lux, M.J.; Heaney, R.P.

    1988-01-01

    Whole milk, chocolate milk, yogurt, imitation milk (prepared from dairy and nondairy products), cheese, and calcium carbonate were labeled with /sup 45/Ca and administered as a series of test meals to 10 healthy postmenopausal women. Carrier Ca content of the test meals was held constant at 250 mg and subjects fasted before each meal. The absorbability of Ca from the six sources was compared by measuring fractional absorption by the double isotope method. The mean absorption values for all six sources were tightly clustered between 21 and 26% and none was significantly different from the others using one-way analysis of variance. We conclude that none of the sources was significantly superior or inferior to the others.

  11. 76 FR 36078 - Milk for Manufacturing Purposes and Its Production and Processing; Requirements Recommended for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Milk for Manufacturing Purposes and Its Production and Processing; Requirements... regulations relating to quality and sanitation requirements for the production and processing of manufacturing... Change the document, ``Milk for Manufacturing Purposes and Its Production and Processing;...

  12. Effects of continuous milking during a field trial on productivity, milk protein yield and health in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Köpf, M; Gellrich, K; Küchenhoff, H; Meyer, H H D; Kliem, H

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this field study with an automatic milking system was to evaluate the effects of omitting the dry period on health and productivity during the subsequent lactation in dairy cows. A total of 98 German Simmental cows of six Southern German farms were assigned randomly to two experimental groups: The first group was dried-off 56 days before calving (D for dried-off, n=49), and the second group was milked continuously during this period until calving (CM for continuous milking, n=49). From the latter a third group emerged, including cows that dried-off themselves spontaneously (DS for dried-off spontaneously, n=14). Blood serum values of glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and IGF-1 showed most pronounced fluctuations in D cows. Over the entire study period, the concentrations of BHBA and NEFA were markedly lower in the CM and DS groups. Furthermore, IGF-1 concentration was lowest for D cows and also decrease in back fat thickness was more pronounced. Mean concentration of milk protein was markedly higher in CM and DS cows (3.70% and 3.71%) compared with D cows (3.38%). Owing to the lower 305-day milk yield (-15.6%) and the lower total milk yield (-3.1%), the total amount of produced protein in the subsequent lactation was 2.5% (6.8 kg) lower, although the additional protein amount in CM cows from week -8 to calving was 35.7 kg. The greatest benefit resulted from positive effects on fertility and the lower incidence of diseases: CM cows had their first oestrus 1 week earlier compared with D cows, they also conceived earlier and showed a significantly lower risk of developing hypocalcaemia, ketosis and puerperal disorders. The present study showed that the costs of medical treatment and milk losses were twice as high in D cows, compared with CM and DS cows, and thus the reduced costs because of the more stable health outweighed the financial losses of milk yield by +18.49 € per cow and lactation. PMID:26263029

  13. Beneficial health effects of milk and fermented dairy products--review.

    PubMed

    Ebringer, L; Ferencík, M; Krajcovic, J

    2008-01-01

    Milk is a complex physiological liquid that simultaneously provides nutrients and bioactive components that facilitate the successful postnatal adaptation of the newborn infant by stimulating cellular growth and digestive maturation, the establishment of symbiotic microflora, and the development of gut-associated lymphoid tissues. The number, the potency, and the importance of bioactive compounds in milk and especially in fermented milk products are probably greater than previously thought. They include certain vitamins, specific proteins, bioactive peptides, oligosaccharides, organic (including fatty) acids. Some of them are normal milk components, others emerge during digestive or fermentation processes. Fermented dairy products and probiotic bacteria decrease the absorption of cholesterol. Whey proteins, medium-chain fatty acids and in particular calcium and other minerals may contribute to the beneficial effect of dairy food on body fat and body mass. There has been growing evidence of the role that dairy proteins play in the regulation of satiety, food intake and obesity-related metabolic disorders. Milk proteins, peptides, probiotic lactic acid bacteria, calcium and other minerals can significantly reduce blood pressure. Milk fat contains a number of components having functional properties. Sphingolipids and their active metabolites may exert antimicrobial effects either directly or upon digestion. PMID:19085072

  14. Foods for Special Dietary Needs: Non-dairy Plant-based Milk Substitutes and Fermented Dairy-type Products.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, Outi Elina; Wanhalinna, Viivi; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke Karin

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of consumers opt for plant-based milk substitutes for medical reasons or as a lifestyle choice. Medical reasons include lactose intolerance, with a worldwide prevalence of 75%, and cow's milk allergy. Also, in countries where mammal milk is scarce and expensive, plant milk substitutes serve as a more affordable option. However, many of these products have sensory characteristics objectionable to the mainstream western palate. Technologically, plant milk substitutes are suspensions of dissolved and disintegrated plant material in water, resembling cow's milk in appearance. They are manufactured by extracting the plant material in water, separating the liquid, and formulating the final product. Homogenization and thermal treatments are necessary to improve the suspension and microbial stabilities of commercial products that can be consumed as such or be further processed into fermented dairy-type products. The nutritional properties depend on the plant source, processing, and fortification. As some products have extremely low protein and calcium contents, consumer awareness is important when plant milk substitutes are used to replace cow's milk in the diet, e.g. in the case of dairy intolerances. If formulated into palatable and nutritionally adequate products, plant-based substitutes can offer a sustainable alternative to dairy products. PMID:25575046

  15. Evaluation of different milking practices for optimum production performance in Sahiwal cows.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Naveed; Abdullah, Muhammad; Fiaz, Muhammad; Bhatti, Jalees Ahmad; Iqbal, Zeeshan Muhammad; Bangulzai, Nasrullah; Choi, Chang Weon; Jo, Ik Hwan

    2014-01-01

    The production performance of multiparous lactating Sahiwal cows (n = 24) was evaluated according to both milking frequency and method. Selected animals were randomly divided into four groups containing six animals each under a completely randomized design. Cows in groups A & B were milked by the hand milking method three times per day, respectively. Similarly, cows in groups C & D were milked by the machine milking method two and three times per day, respectively. All animals were maintained under uniform feeding and management conditions. Dry matter intake was high in animal groups milked three times per day, and it remained unchanged between the hand and machine milking methods. Milk yield was higher (P < 0.05) in cows milked three times compared to those milked twice per day, and it did not differ between hand and machine milking methods. Milk fat percentage was higher (P < 0.05) in cows milked twice per day compared to those milked three times using both machine and hand milking methods. The percentage of total solids showed a similar pattern as the fat percentage. However, percentages of protein, lactose, and non-fat solids in milk were not significantly different (P > 0.05) among the treatment groups. Collectively, the results show that milking three times per day instead of twice at 8-hour intervals can enhance milk yield in Sahiwal cows using both hand and machine milking methods. PMID:26290702

  16. Using Life Cycle Assessment methodology to assess UHT milk production in Portugal.

    PubMed

    González-García, Sara; Castanheira, Erica G; Dias, Ana Cláudia; Arroja, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Milk and dairy products constitute an important ingredient in the human diet. Ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk is the main dairy product consumed in Portugal and its production entails large inputs of resources which derive on negative environmental effects such as nutrient enrichment of the ecosystem and climate change. In this study, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology was considered for the environmental assessment of packaged UHT milk produced in Portugal, including simple (whole, semi-skimmed and skimmed) and cocoa milk from a cradle-to-gate perspective and to identify the environmental hot spots. Results showed that the production of the raw milk in the dairy farm is the main hot spot in almost all the categories under assessment mainly due to the emissions from enteric fermentation, manure management and fertilisers production and application. Furthermore, on-site emissions derived from dairy factory are remarkable together with the packages and energy requirements production. The values reported in this study are in the range of other related papers. However, differences were also identified due to several reasons such as allocation approach, data sources, characterisation factors, farm management regimes and assumptions considered. Therefore, these aspects should be carefully addressed and sensitivity to the assumptions and uncertainty of the results should be evaluated. PMID:23178782

  17. Review of present knowledge on machine milking and intensive milk production in dromedary camels and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Peter; Juhasz, Judit

    2016-06-01

    The camel dairy industry has gone through major development in the last decade. The world's first large-scale camel dairy farm was established 10 years ago in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, and since then, several commercial and scientific projects have been started, and more studies have been published demonstrating increasing interest in camel milk. The aims of this paper are to summarize relevant published data on factors influencing milk production under intensive management, compare those with our own observations obtained from Emirates Industry for Camel Milk and Products (EICMP), and highlight areas of research that are indispensable for further development. As in other species, the most important factors influencing milk yield are genetic and individual variation, age, parity, stage of lactation, nutrition, management, season, photoperiod, etc. However, the precise role of the various factors has not been thoroughly studied in camels and based on our understanding of the basic physiological processes, endocrine control is minimal. In addition, machine milking of dromedaries is still at early stage and requires research for improvement of the technology and defining factors affecting and improving milk ejection. The role of environment (like photoperiod, nutrition) should also be investigated as there is significant annual variation both in milk quantity and quality that might influence the processing characteristics of raw camel milk. The large pool of animals and thoroughly recorded data at EICMP provide an excellent opportunity for increasing milk production and improving milk quality using various methods, like feeding, management, reproduction, selection, and breeding. PMID:26992732

  18. How can farming intensification affect the environmental impact of milk production?

    PubMed

    Bava, L; Sandrucci, A; Zucali, M; Guerci, M; Tamburini, A

    2014-07-01

    The intensification process of the livestock sector has been characterized in recent decades by increasing output of product per hectare, increasing stocking rate, including more concentrated feed in the diet, and improving the genetic merit of the breeds. In dairy farming, the effects of intensification on the environmental impact of milk production are not completely clarified. The aim of the current study was to assess the environmental impacts of dairy production by a life cycle approach and to identify relations between farming intensity and environmental performances expressed on milk and land units. A group of 28 dairy farms located in northern Italy was involved in the study; data collected during personal interviews of farmers were analyzed to estimate emissions (global warming potential, acidification, and eutrophication potentials) and nonrenewable source consumption (energy and land use). The environmental impacts of milk production obtained from the life cycle assessment were similar to those of other recent studies and showed high variability among the farms. From a cluster analysis, 3 groups of farms were identified, characterized by different levels of production intensity. Clusters of farms showed similar environmental performances on product basis, despite important differences in terms of intensification level, management, and structural characteristics. Our study pointed out that, from a product perspective, the most environmentally friendly way to produce milk is not clearly identifiable. However, the principal component analysis showed that some characteristics related to farming intensification, such as milk production per cow, dairy efficiency, and stocking density, were negatively related to the impacts per kilogram of product, suggesting a role of these factors in the mitigation strategy of environmental burden of milk production on a global scale. Considering the environmental burden on a local perspective, the impacts per hectare were

  19. 21 CFR 1240.61 - Mandatory pasteurization for all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... products in final package form intended for direct human consumption. 1240.61 Section 1240.61 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS... pasteurization for all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct human consumption. (a)...

  20. 21 CFR 1240.61 - Mandatory pasteurization for all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... products in final package form intended for direct human consumption. 1240.61 Section 1240.61 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS... pasteurization for all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct human consumption. (a)...

  1. Direct estimation of sialic acid in milk and milk products by fluorimetry and its application in detection of sweet whey adulteration in milk.

    PubMed

    Neelima; Rao, Priyanka Singh; Sharma, Rajan; Rajput, Yudhishthir S

    2012-11-01

    Sialic acid, being a biologically active compound, is recognised as an important component of milk and milk products. Almost all the sialic acid estimation protocols in milk require prior hydrolysis step to release the bound sialic acid followed by its estimation. The objective of this work was to estimate sialic acid in milk and milk products by fluorimetric assay which does not require a prior hydrolysis step thus decreasing the estimation time. The recovery of added sialic acid in milk was 91·6 to 95·8%. Sialic acid in milk was found to be dependent on cattle breed and was in the range of 1·68-3·93 g/kg (dry matter basis). The assay was further extended to detect adulteration of milk with sweet whey which is based on the detection of glycomacropeptide (GMP) bound sialic acid in adulterated milk. GMP is the C-terminal part of κ-casein which is released into the whey during cheese making. For detection of adulteration, selective precipitation of GMP was done using trichloroacetic acid (TCA). TCA concentration in milk was first raised to 5% to precipitate milk proteins, especially κ-casein, followed by raising the TCA concentration to 14% to precipitate out GMP. In the precipitates GMP bound sialic acid was estimated using fluorimetric method and the fluorescence intensity was found to be directly proportional to the level of sweet whey in adulterated milk samples. The method was found to detect the presence of 5% sweet whey in milk. PMID:23089266

  2. Vibrational spectroscopy used in milk products analysis: A review.

    PubMed

    Bunaciu, Andrei A; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y; Hoang, Vu Dang

    2016-04-01

    Milk is a fluid containing several substances, and its composition depends on several factors. Vibrational spectroscopy is a powerful tool to determine the constituent concentrations and qualitative characteristics of dairy products. Vibrational spectrometry covers a series of well-established analytical methodologies suitable to be employed for both qualitative and quantitative purposes. In the first part of this review, theoretical aspects on vibrational techniques are presented; in the second part, the most important papers, published during the period 2009-2015, related to milk analysis are discussed. PMID:26593568

  3. Associations between polymorphisms of the gene and milk production traits in water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Deng, T X; Pang, C Y; Lu, X R; Zhu, P; Duan, A Q; Liang, X W

    2016-03-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 () is an important regulator of mammary gland differentiation and cell survival that has been regarded as a candidate gene affecting milk production traits in mammals. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate significant associations between SNP of the gene and milk production traits in buffaloes. Here, 18 SNP were identified in the buffalo gene, including 15 intronic mutations and 3 exon mutations. All the identified SNP were then genotyped using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry methods from 192 buffaloes. All the SNP were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and 2 haplotype blocks were successfully constructed based on these SNP data, which formed 5 and 3 major haplotypes in the population (>5%), respectively. The results of association analysis showed that only SNP13 located in exon 10 was significantly associated with the milk production traits in the population ( < 0.05). Single nucleotide polymorphism 2, SNP5, SNP8, and SNP9 were associated with protein percentage, and SNP4 and SNP10 were associated with 305-d milk yield ( < 0.05). Our results provide evidence that polymorphisms of the buffalo gene are associated with milk production traits and can be used as a candidate gene for marker-assisted selection in buffalo breeding. PMID:27065255

  4. Udder measurements and milk production in two Awassi sheep genotypes and their crosses.

    PubMed

    Iñiguez, L; Hilali, M; Thomas, D L; Jesry, G

    2009-09-01

    To improve the effectiveness of community-based breeding programs for increased milk production, the values of different udder measurements for predicting milk production traits during the milking period were assessed over 3 yr on 273 Awassi ewes. Machine milking of ewes began after weaning, 56 d after parturition, and continued until the milk yield of the ewes was <200 mL/d. Milk yield obtained by hand milking and milk composition were measured weekly, and days in milk, total milk yield, and total yields of protein, fat, and nonfat solids in milk were calculated for each ewe. On d 70 of milking, morphological traits of the whole udder (circumference, width, height, and length), udder cistern (height), and teats (length, width, and position score) were measured. On the same day, the milk yield of ewes was recorded by hand milking. Positive and moderate to strong correlations (r = 0.36 to 0.76) between udder circumference and width, teat width, and milk production traits of total milk yield, and total yields of protein, fat, and nonfat solids were found. However, a more accurate predictor of milk production traits was milk yield on d 70, as higher positive correlations between this variable and the milk production traits were found (r = 0.63 to 0.89). Nine farmers were invited to independently estimate the hand-milked milk yield performance of a sample of 169 ewes (d 15 to 45 of milking) by visually observing each ewe and making a subjective linear score (1 to 5). Their assessments were significantly correlated with milk yield on the day of the observation (r = 0.52), total milk yield (r = 0.50), and days in milk (r = 0.45). Considering the perception details provided by farmers concerning each of the subjective linear scores, it was found that most predictive linear udder measurements of udder circumference and width and teat width identified in this study were implicit in these scores. The predictive ability of the measurements studied have practical implications

  5. Bioactive Peptides in Milk and Dairy Products: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young Woo; Nam, Myoung Soo

    2015-01-01

    Functionally and physiologically active peptides are produced from several food proteins during gastrointestinal digestion and fermentation of food materials with lactic acid bacteria. Once bioactive peptides (BPs) are liberated, they exhibit a wide variety of physiological functions in the human body such as gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, immune, endocrine, and nervous systems. These functionalities of the peptides in human health and physiology include antihypertensive, antimicrobial, antioxidative, antithrombotic, opioid, anti-appetizing, immunomodulatory and mineral-binding activities. Most of the bioactivities of milk proteins are latent, being absent or incomplete in the original native protein, but full activities are manifested upon proteolytic digestion to release and activate encrypted bioactive peptides from the original protein. Bioactive peptides have been identified within the amino acid sequences of native milk proteins. Due to their physiological and physico-chemical versatility, milk peptides are regarded as greatly important components for health promoting foods or pharmaceutical applications. Milk and colostrum of bovine and other dairy species are considered as the most important source of natural bioactive components. Over the past a few decades, major advances and developments have been achieved on the science, technology and commercial applications of bioactive components which are present naturally in the milk. Although the majority of published works are associated with the search of bioactive peptides in bovine milk samples, some of them are involved in the investigation of ovine or caprine milk. The advent of functional foods has been facilitated by increasing scientific knowledge about the metabolic and genomic effects of diet and specific dietary components on human health. PMID:26877644

  6. Review: Production and functionality of active peptides from milk.

    PubMed

    Muro Urista, C; Álvarez Fernández, R; Riera Rodriguez, F; Arana Cuenca, A; Téllez Jurado, A

    2011-08-01

    In recent years, research on the production of active peptides obtained from milk and their potential functionality has grown, to a great extent. Bioactive peptides have been defined as specific protein fragments that have a positive impact on body functions or conditions, and they may ultimately have an influence on health. Individual proteins of casein or milk-derived products such as cheese and yogurt have been used as a protein source to study the isolation and activity of peptides with several applications. Currently, the milk whey waste obtained in the production of cheese also represents a protein source from which active peptides could be isolated with potential industrial applications. The active properties of milk peptides and the results found with regard to their physiological effects have led to the classification of peptides as belonging to the group of ingredients of protein nature, appropriate for use in functional foods or pharmaceutical formulations. In this study, the main peptides obtained from milk protein and the past research studies about its production and biological activities will be explained. Second, an analysis will be made on the methods to determinate the biological activities, the separation of bioactive peptides and its structure identification. All of these form the base required to obtain synthetic peptides. Finally, we explain the experimental animal and human trials done in the past years. Nevertheless, more research is required on the design and implementation of equipment for the industrial production and separation of peptides. In addition, different authors suggest that more emphasis should therefore be given to preclinical studies, proving that results are consistent and that effects are demonstrated repeatedly by several research human groups. PMID:21917640

  7. Demand for functional and nutritional enhancements in specialty milk products.

    PubMed

    Gulseven, Osman; Wohlgenant, Michael

    2014-10-01

    This article investigates the socio-demographic determinants affecting the demand for functional and nutritional enhancements in milk products based on a two-stage model. In order to derive the implicit market values of these enhancements, first we estimated the relationship between the prices of differentiated dairy products and the amount or respectively the presence of specific characteristics in these products. Next, using these implicit prices along with the information on households' demographic background, we analyzed the socio-demographic factors that affect consumer demand for specific functional and nutritional enhancements. The model is estimated using a combined panel data set based on AC Nielsen Retail Homescan Panel and the USDA Nutrient Database. Our results indicate that being lactose/cholesterol free (LFCF) and organic implies substantially higher price premiums, whereas soy has a negative price. Socio-demographic factors such as income, racial profile, presence of children; education level and age have significant effects on the demand for functional enhancements. Specialty milk consumption increases with age, education, and presence of kids, whereas it declines with income. The ratio of specialty milk consumption to total milk consumption is substantially higher among Hispanic, Asian and African-American households. PMID:24997409

  8. An exclusively human milk-based diet is associated with a lower rate of necrotizing enterocolitis than a diet of human milk and bovine milk-based products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the health benefits of an exclusively human milk–based diet compared, with a diet of both human milk and bovine milk–based products in extremely premature infants. Infants fed their own mothers’ milk were randomized to 1 of 3 study groups. Groups HM100 and HM40 received pasteurized donor...

  9. Milk production responses to a change in dietary starch concentration vary by production level in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Boerman, J P; Potts, S B; VandeHaar, M J; Allen, M S; Lock, A L

    2015-07-01

    The effects of dietary starch concentration on yield of milk and milk components were evaluated in a crossover design experiment. Holstein cows (n=32; 115±22 d in milk) with a wide range in milk yield (28 to 62kg/d) were assigned randomly within level of milk yield to a treatment sequence. Treatments were diets containing 30% dry ground corn (CG) or 30% soyhulls (SH) on a DM basis. Diets containing corn silage and alfalfa silage were formulated to contain 16% crude protein, 24% forage neutral detergent fiber, and either 27 or 44% neutral detergent fiber and 30 or 12% starch for CG and SH, respectively. Cows were fed a diet intermediate to the treatments during a preliminary 14-d period. Treatment periods were 28 d with measurements taken throughout the period for energy calculations and the final 5 d used for data and sample collection for production variables. Compared with SH, CG increased dry matter intake, and yields of milk, milk protein, milk fat, and energy-corrected milk, as well as milk protein concentration. Treatment did not affect milk fat concentration. Yield of de novo synthesized and preformed milk fatty acids increased with CG. Treatment interacted with level of preliminary milk production for several response variables (yields of milk, milk protein, milk fat, energy-corrected milk, and 3.5% fat-corrected milk). Compared with SH, the CG treatment increased energy-corrected milk in higher-producing cows with a lesser response to CG as milk yield decreased. The CG treatment increased milk:feed compared with the SH treatment, but not body weight or body condition score. In conclusion, higher-producing cows benefited from the high-starch diet, and lower-producing cows were able to maintain production when most of the starch was replaced with nonforage fiber. PMID:25981075

  10. Genetic parameters for milk production traits and breeding goals for Gir dairy cattle in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Prata, M A; Faro, L E; Moreira, H L; Verneque, R S; Vercesi Filho, A E; Peixoto, M G C D; Cardoso, V L

    2015-01-01

    To implement an animal breeding program, it is important to define the production circumstances of the animals of interest to determine which traits of economic interest will be selected for the breeding goal. The present study defined breeding goals and proposed selection indices for milk production and quality traits of Gir dairy cattle. First, a bioeconomic model was developed to calculate economic values. The genetic and phenotypic parameters were estimated based on records from 22,468 first-lactation Gir dairy cows and their crosses for which calving occurred between 1970 and 2011. Statistical analyses were carried out for the animal model, with multitrait analyses using the restricted maximum likelihood method. Two situations were created in the present study to define the breeding goals: 1) including only milk yield in the breeding goal (HGL1) and 2) including fat and protein in addition to the milk yield (HGL2). The heritability estimates for milk, protein, and fat production were 0.33 ± 0.02, 0.26 ± 0.02, and 0.24 ± 0.02, respectively. All phenotypic and genetic correlations were highly positive. The economic values for milk, fat, and protein were US$0.18, US$0.27, and US$7.04, respectively. The expected economic responses for HGL2 and for HGL1 were US$126.30 and US$79.82, respectively. These results indicate that milk component traits should be included in a selection index to rank animals evaluated in the National Gir Dairy Breeding Program developed in Brazil. PMID:26505409

  11. Milk production traits of beef cows as affected by horn fly count and sire breed type.

    PubMed

    Mays, A R; Brown, M A; von Tunglen, D L; Rosenkrans, C F

    2014-03-01

    reduced 0.72, 0.68, and 0.71 kg/d per unit increase in log horn fly count. Our results indicate that horn fly infestations reduce milk yield and quality of spring-calving beef cows depending on sire breed and month of lactation. Development of sustainable beef production systems may include selecting breed types whose milk yield and quality is less influenced by horn flies, allowing for better expression of genetic potential for milk yield in nutritionally challenging environments. PMID:24492544

  12. Distribution of animal drugs between skim milk and milk fat fractions in spiked whole milk: Understanding the potential impact on commercial milk products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven animal drugs [penicillin G (PENG), sulfadimethoxine (SDMX), oxytetracycline (OTET), erythromycin (ERY), ketoprofen (KETO), thiabendazole (THIA) and ivermectin (IVR)] were used to evaluate drug distribution between milk fat and skim milk fractions of cow milk. Greater than 90% of radioactivity...

  13. An Intervention to Promote Breast Milk Production in Mothers of Preterm Infants.

    PubMed

    Héon, Marjolaine; Goulet, Céline; Garofalo, Carole; Nuyt, Anne Monique; Levy, Emile

    2016-05-01

    A pilot study was conducted to estimate the effects of a breast milk expression education and support intervention on breast milk production outcomes in mothers of very and extremely preterm infants. Forty mothers of hospitalized preterm infants (<30 weeks of gestation) were randomized to the experimental intervention or standard care for 6 weeks. Duration and frequency of breast milk expressions and volume of expressed breast milk were measured daily. Samples of breast milk were collected thrice during the study and analyzed for their lipid concentration. Mothers in the experimental group had a statistically significant higher duration of breast milk expression in min/day (p= .043). Differences observed between the two groups regarding the frequency of breast milk expression, volume of breast milk, and lipid concentration were not statistically significant. Results suggest that the experimental intervention may promote breast milk production in mothers of very and extremely preterm infants. PMID:25395013

  14. Milk production response to dietary forage:grain ratio.

    PubMed

    Tessmann, N J; Radloff, H D; Kleinmans, J; Dhiman, T R; Satter, L D

    1991-08-01

    Forty-four multiparous and 49 primiparous Holstein cows were assigned randomly at parturition to one of five diets differing in forage:grain ratio and studied for the entire lactation for effects of diet on milk production and milk composition, body condition, BW gain, health, and reproductive performance. Total mixed rations fed once daily consisted of alfalfa silage, high moisture ear corn, soybean meal, vitamins, and minerals. Percentages of forage in the diet (dry basis) for treatments 1 to 5 were postpartum wk 1 to 12 (38.2, 48.2, 58.2, 68.2, and 98.2); wk 13 to 26 (48.2, 58.2, 68.2, 88.2, and 98.2); and wk 27 to 44 (68.2, 78.2, 88.2, 98.2, and 98.2). Milk production (3.5% FCM in 305 d) was 8295, 8659, 7563, 6849, and 6000 kg for multiparous cows in treatments 1 to 5, respectively, and 7334, 7177, 6976, 6014, and 4750 kg for primiparous cows. Primiparous cows had decreased milk protein, BW gain, DMI and gross feed efficiency as forage increased in the diet. Multiparous cows in treatment 1 had depressed milk fat and lower DMI and gross feed efficiency compared with other treatments. Body condition scores tended to be lower as forage increased in the diet with both age groups. Increased forage in the diet did not cause any adverse effects on health and reproductive performance in either age group. PMID:1918543

  15. Experimental intramammary inoculation with Mycoplasma bovis in vaccinated and unvaccinated cows: effect on milk production and milk quality.

    PubMed Central

    Boothby, J T; Jasper, D E; Thomas, C B

    1986-01-01

    The effect of vaccination on milk production was evaluated in vaccinated and control cows experimentally challenged in two of four quarters with live Mycoplasma bovis. During the first three weeks after experimental challenge, six of eight unchallenged quarters on vaccinated cows and seven of eight unchallenged quarters on control cows became infected. Most of these quarters secreted normal milk, with negative California Mastitis Test scores and maintained normal milk production throughout most of the study (although some quarters on control cows remained infected). All challenged quarters became infected, had strong California Mastitis Test reactions, and had a drastic (greater than 85%) loss in milk production. Thereafter, four of eight challenged quarters on control cows remained infected, had mostly positive California Mastitis Test scores, produced mostly normal-appearing milk, and recovered some productive capabilities. By the end of the study no M. bovis could be recovered from challenged quarters on vaccinated cows and the milk appeared mostly normal. The California Mastitis Test scores on these quarters, however, remained elevated and milk production remained very low. PMID:3756674

  16. Short communication: Monitoring nutritional quality of Amiata donkey milk: effects of lactation and productive season.

    PubMed

    Martini, Mina; Altomonte, Iolanda; Salari, Federica; Caroli, Anna M

    2014-11-01

    Milk nutritional characteristics are especially interesting when donkey milk is aimed at consumption by children and the elderly. The aim of this study was to monitor the nutritional quality of Amiata donkey milk during lactation and productive season to provide information on the milk characteristics and to study action plans to improve milk yield and quality. Thirty-one pluriparous jennies belonging to the same farm were selected. Individual samples of milk from the morning milking were taken once per month starting from the d 30 of lactation until d 300. Milk yield and dry matter, fat, and ash content were constant throughout the experimental period. Milk total protein content showed a progressive decrease during the first 6 mo of lactation; after this period, the protein percentages remained constant (1.50%). Caseins and lactose were lower until d 60 of lactation and remained constant thereafter. During summer and autumn, milk yield and casein and lactose contents were higher, whereas during the spring season, higher protein and ash contents were found. The percentages of fat and dry matter were stable as were most of the minerals in the milk, except for calcium, which was higher in the spring. In conclusion, Amiata donkey milk was found to be relatively stable during lactation. This is an advantage in terms of the production and trade of a food product with consistent characteristics. The different milk yield and quality during the productive seasons were probably related to better adaptability of the animals to warm and temperate periods. PMID:25200774

  17. Adoption of technology, management practices, and production systems in US milk production.

    PubMed

    Khanal, A R; Gillespie, J; MacDonald, J

    2010-12-01

    The introduction of new technology, management practices, and alternative production systems has resulted in rapid structural change in the US dairy industry. This paper examines adoption rates and adopter characteristics for the following dairy technologies, practices, and systems: holding pen with an udder washer, milking units with automatic take-offs, genetic selection technologies, recombinant bovine somatotropin, membership in the Dairy Herd Improvement Association, computerized feed delivery systems, computerized milking systems, use of a nutritionist to design feed rations, grazing, milking cows 3 times daily, and milking parlors. Four of these were used on a greater percentage of farms in 2005 than in 2000, but increased farm sizes and the interaction of farm size with adoption suggest a greater percentage of milk being produced under each, with the exception of grazing. Except for grazing, technologies were generally complementary. PMID:21094776

  18. Effects of pistachio by-products on digestibility, milk production, milk fatty acid profile and blood metabolites in Saanen dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Sedighi-Vesagh, R; Naserian, A A; Ghaffari, M H; Petit, H V

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of pistachio by-products (PBP) on nutrient digestibility, blood metabolites and milk fatty acid (FA) profile in Saanen dairy goats. Nine multiparous lactating Saanen goats (on day 90 post-partum, 45 ± 2/kg BW) were randomly assigned to a 3 × 3 Latin square design with three treatment diets: 1) control diet (alfalfa hay based), 2) 32% PBP and 3) 32% PBP + polyethylene glycol (PEG-4000; 1 g/kg dry matter). Each period lasted 21 days, including 14 day for treatment adaptation and 7 day for data collection. Pistachio by-products significantly decreased (p < 0.01) crude protein (CP) digestibility compared with the control diet (64.4% vs. 58.7%), but PEG addition did not differ for CP digestibility of goats fed 32% PBP + PEG and those fed the two other diets. The digestibility of NDF tended (p = 0.06) to decrease for goats fed PBP compared with those fed the control diet. Yields of milk and 4% fat-corrected milk were not affected by dietary treatments. Compared with the control diet, PBP supplementation appreciably changed the proportions of almost all the milk FA measured; the main effects were decreases (p < 0.01) in FA from 8:0 to 16:0 and increases (p < 0.01) proportions of cis-9, trans-11 18:2 and trans-11 18:1, monounsaturated FA, polyunsaturated FA and long-chain FA. The saturated FA, short-chain FA and medium-chain FA proportions were lower (p < 0.01) in goats fed the two PBP supplemented diet than in those fed the control diet and PEG addition led to intermediate proportions of saturated FA, unsaturated and monounsaturated FA. Inclusion of PBP in the diet decreased (p < 0.01) plasma concentrations of glucose and urea nitrogen compared with the control diet. It was concluded that PBP can be used as forage in the diet of dairy goats without interfering with milk yield. Inclusion of 32% PBP in the diet of dairy goats had beneficial effects on milk FA profile but PEG addition to PBP

  19. Effect of dietary crude protein concentration on milk production and nitrogen utilization in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Colmenero, J J Olmos; Broderick, G A

    2006-05-01

    Forty lactating Holstein cows, including 10 with ruminal cannulas, were blocked by days in milk into 8 groups and then randomly assigned to 1 of 8 incomplete 5 x 5 Latin squares to assess the effects of 5 levels of dietary crude protein (CP) on milk production and N use. Diets contained 25% alfalfa silage, 25% corn silage, and 50% concentrate, on a dry matter (DM) basis. Rolled high-moisture shelled corn was replaced with solvent-extracted soybean meal to increase CP from 13.5 to 15.0, 16.5, 17.9, and 19.4% of DM. Each of the 4 experimental periods lasted 28 d, with 14 d for adaptation and 14 d for data collection. Spot sampling of ruminal digesta, blood, urine, and feces was conducted on d 21 of each period. Intake of DM was not affected by diet but milk fat content as well as ruminal acetate, NH3, and branched-chain volatile fatty acids, urinary allantoin, and blood and milk urea all increased linearly with increasing CP. Milk and protein yield showed trends for quadratic responses to dietary CP and were, respectively, 38.3 and 1.18 kg/d at 16.5% CP. As a proportion of N intake, urinary N excretion increased from 23.8 to 36.2%, whereas N secreted in milk decreased from 36.5 to 25.4%, as dietary protein increased from 13.5 to 19.4%. Under the conditions of this study, yield of milk and protein were not increased by feeding more than 16.5% CP. The linear increase in urinary N excretion resulted from a sharp decline in N efficiency as dietary CP content increased. PMID:16606741

  20. Effect of including canola meal and supplemental iodine in diets of dairy cows on short-term changes in iodine concentrations in milk.

    PubMed

    Weiss, W P; Wyatt, D J; Kleinschmit, D H; Socha, M T

    2015-07-01

    The dietary requirement for iodine is based on thyroxine production, but data are becoming available showing potential improvements in hoof health when substantially greater amounts of I are fed. Feeding high amounts of I, however, can result in the milk having excessive concentrations of I. Canola meal contains goitrogenic compounds that reduce the transfer of I into milk. We hypothesized that including canola meal in diets would allow high supplementation rates of I without producing milk with unacceptable concentrations of I. Thirty midlactation Holstein cows were fed a diet with all supplemental protein from soybean meal (0% of diet dry matter as canola meal) or with all supplemental protein from canola meal (13.9% canola meal). A third treatment has a mix of soybean meal and canola meal (3.9% canola meal). Within canola-meal treatment, cows were fed 0.5 or 2.0mg of supplemental I per kilogram of diet dry matter from ethylenediamine dihydroiodide. Cows were maintained on the canola treatment for the duration of the experiment but were changed from one I treatment to the other after 13d of receiving the treatment. Milk I concentration before the treatments started (cows fed 0.5mg/kg of I) averaged 272μg/L and increased within 22h after cows were first fed diets with 2mg/kg of I. As inclusion rate of canola meal increased, the concentration of I in milk decreased linearly. After 12d of supplementation, milk from cows fed 0.5mg/kg of I had 358, 289, and 169μg of I/L for the 0, 3.9%, and 13.9% canola-meal treatments. For cows fed 2.0mg/kg of I, milk I concentrations were 733, 524, and 408μg/L, respectively. Concentrations of I in serum increased with increased I supplementation, but the effect of canola meal was opposite of what was observed for milk I. Cows fed the highest canola-meal diets had the highest serum I whether cows were fed 0.5 or 2.0mg/kg of I. Feeding dairy cows diets with 13.9% canola meal maintained milk I concentrations below 500μg/L when

  1. Effect of stocking rate on milk and pasture productivity and supplementary feed use for spring calving pasture fed dairy systems.

    PubMed

    Patton, D; Pierce, K M; Horan, B

    2016-07-01

    The productivity of grazing systems is primarily limited by the scale and efficiency of systems applied to the grazable land platform adjacent to the milking parlor. The objective of this study was to compare forage production, utilization and quality, milk production, and requirement for supplementary feeds for 2 different grazing platform stocking rate (GPSR) treatments over 4 yr. Animals were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 GPSR treatments: high-closed (HC; 3.1 cows/ha) and high-open (HO; 4.5 cows/ha), which were designed to represent alternative GPSR in a post-European Union milk quota, spring calving, pasture-based milk production system. Animal production data were analyzed using Proc MIXED of SAS with GPSR, year, and parity included as fixed effects in the final model. Within a seasonal spring calving grazing system, at high GPSR and offering moderate amounts of additional supplements based on pasture supply deficits, both systems produced more milk and fat plus protein per hectare in comparison with Irish commercial dairy farms. Although requiring additional supplementation, increased GPSR resulted in increased milk production per hectare but also in an increased requirement for concentrate and forage supplementation during lactation. No significant influence of GPSR was found on body weight and body condition score or reproductive performance during the 4-yr study period. In addition, GPSR also had no effect on pasture production, utilization, or quality during the study period. The strategic use of additional supplements with restricted pasture availability at higher GPSR maintained milk production per cow and significantly increased milk production per hectare. PMID:27108176

  2. The acceptability of milk and milk products in populations with a high prevalence of lactose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Scrimshaw, N S; Murray, E B

    1988-10-01

    1) Most humans, like other mammals, gradually lose the intestinal enzyme lactase after infancy and with it the ability to digest lactose, the principle sugar in milk. At some point in prehistory, a genetic mutation occurred and lactase activity persisted in a majority of the adult population of Northern and Central Europe. 2) Persistence of intestinal lactase, the uncommon trait worldwide, is inherited as a highly penetrant autosomal-dominant characteristic. Both types of progeny are almost equally common when one parent is a lactose maldigester and the other a lactose digester. 3) The incidence of lactose maldigestion is usually determined in adults by the administration in the fasting state of a 50-g dose of lactose in water, the equivalent of that in 1 L of milk. Measurement is made of either the subsequent rise in blood glucose or the appearance of additional hydrogen in the breath. It is also sometimes identified by measuring lactase activity directly in a biopsy sample from the jejunum. For children the test dose is reduced according to weight. Depending on the severity of the lactase deficiency and other factors, the test dose may result in abdominal distention, pain, and diarrhea. 4) The frequency of lactose maldigestion varies widely among populations but is high in nearly all but those of European origin. In North American adults lactose maldigestion is found in approximately 79% of Native Americans, 75% of blacks, 51% of Hispanics, and 21% of Caucasians. In Africa, Asia, and Latin America prevalence rates range from 15-100% depending on the population studied. 5) Whenever the lactose ingested exceeds the capacity of the intestinal lactase to split it into the simple sugars glucose and galactose, which are absorbed directly, it passes undigested to the large intestine. There it is fermented by the colonic flora, with short-chain fatty acids and hydrogen gas as major products. The gas produced can cause abdominal distention and pain and diarrhea may also

  3. Milk production increase in a dairy farm under a six-year Brucellosis control program.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Enrique; Palomares, Gabriela; Díaz-Aparicio, Efrén

    2008-12-01

    The present work aims to quantify milk production in a bovine dairy herd during a 6-year brucellosis control program in Hidalgo, Mexico, where bovine brucellosis is endemic. This 6-year longitudinal pilot study comprised 74 monthly samplings to determine the incidence of brucellosis and to quantify daily milk production. To determine the monthly incidence of brucellosis, an average of 346 Holstein cows was examined each month with the card and Rivanol tests. These animals had been vaccinated as calves with the normal dose of Brucella abortus RB51 and were revaccinated annually with a reduced dose. Brucellosis is endemic in Mexico, where the control programs include vaccination and diagnosis; nevertheless, it is uncommon to carry out other essential control practices, such as separation and elimination of positive cows. In this herd, the cows positive to the card and rivanol tests were separated in specific units, especially at the moment of delivery. These cows were placed at the end of the line for milking and were eliminated from the herd at the end of their productive cycle. In this dairy herd, cows were milked three times a day and there was a monthly average of 300 cows in production. At the beginning of this study the prevalence of brucellosis was 8.43%; from days 180-330 the incidence was from 0.51% to 0.90%. Between days 360-570, the incidence diminished to 0%; between days 600 to 1140, it increased to 4.46%; and from days 1440 to 2220 the incidence was kept beneath 1%. The average of dairy milk production for each cow per day started with 24 L, increasing in direct proportion to the decrease in the presence of new cases of brucellosis: in the subsequent years, the production increased successively to 25, 27, 28, 29, and 30 L. The daily average per year of milk production in the herd was also quantified: at the beginning of the study it was 7220 L and in subsequent years was 7470, 7710, 8340, 8790, 8970, and 9150 L, respectively. We conclude that a direct

  4. Production and properties of health-promoting proteins and peptides from bovine colostrum and milk.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, H J

    2013-01-01

    The high nutritive value and diverse functional properties of milk proteins are well known. Beyond these qualities, milk proteins have attracted growing scientific and commercial interest as a source of biologically active molecules. Such proteins are found in abundance in colostrum which is the initial milk secreted by mammalian species during late pregnancy and the first few days after birth of the offspring. The best characterized colostrum-based bioactive proteins include alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, immunoglobulins, lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase and growth factors. All of them can nowadays be enriched and purified on an industrial scale from bovine colostral whey or cheese whey. These native proteins exhibit a wide range of biological activities that are known to affect the digestive function, metabolic responses to absorbed nutrients, growth and development of organs and disease resistance. Also, some of these proteins may prove beneficial in reduction of the risks of chronic human diseases reflected by the metabolic syndrome. It is speculated that such potentially beneficial effects are partially attributed to bioactive peptides derived from intact proteins. These peptides can be liberated during gastrointestinal digestion or fermentation of milk by starter cultures. The efficacy of a few peptides has been established in animal and human studies and the number of commercial products supplemented with specific milk peptides is envisaged to increase on global markets. Bovine colostrum appears as a highly potential source of biologically active native proteins and peptide fractions for inclusion as health-promoting ingredients in various food applications. PMID:24200017

  5. Designer milk.

    PubMed

    Sabikhi, Latha

    2007-01-01

    Dairy biotechnology is fast gaining ground in the area of altering milk composition for processing and/or animal and human health by employing nutritional and genetic approaches. Modification of the primary structure of casein, alteration in the lipid profile, increased protein recovery, milk containing nutraceuticals, and replacement for infant formula offer several advantages in the area of processing. Less fat in milk, altered fatty acid profiles to include more healthy fatty acids such as CLA and omega-fats, improved amino acid profiles, more protein, less lactose, and absence of beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) are some opportunities of "designing" milk for human health benefits. Transgenic technology has also produced farm animals that secrete in their milk, human lactoferrin, lysozyme, and lipase so as to simulate human milk in terms of quality and quantity of these elements that are protective to infants. Cow milk allergenicity in children could be reduced by eliminating the beta-LG gene from bovines. Animals that produce milk containing therapeutic agents such as insulin, plasma proteins, drugs, and vaccines for human health have been genetically engineered. In order to cater to animal health, transgenic animals that express in their mammary glands, various components that work against mastitis have been generated. The ultimate acceptability of the "designer" products will depend on ethical issues such as animal welfare and safety, besides better health benefits and increased profitability of products manufactured by the novel techniques. PMID:17900499

  6. Evaluation of fertility in relation to milk production and productivity of Murrah buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Jamuna, V; Chakravarty, A K

    2016-08-01

    Intense selection of buffaloes for milk production at organized herds of the country without giving due attention to fertility traits has lead to deterioration in their performances. The study was initiated to assess the relationship between milk production and productivity with fertility in Murrah buffaloes. In the present study, fertility was defined in terms of pregnancy rate of Murrah buffaloes. Pregnancy rate measures the percentage of non-pregnant animals that become pregnant during each oestrous cycle. Data pertaining to 1224 lactation records of Murrah buffaloes spread over a period 22 years from 1993 to 2014 were analyzed in the study. It was observed that pregnancy rate is negatively associated with 305days or less milk yield (-0.08±0.04) and wet average (-0.12±0.02) and positively associated with life time (0.15±0.03) in Murrah buffaloes. Wet average is defined as average daily milk yield per lactation of Murrah buffaloes. To achieve around 2000kg 305days or less milk yield and 7.5kg wet average, the level of pregnancy rate in Murrah buffaloes should vary between 30 and 50%. The per unit change in pregnancy rate with respect to milk yield in Murrah buffaloes, were studied using regression analysis. The results suggest that increasing hundred kilogram in 305days or one kilogram milk yield per day in 305days, pregnancy rate reduced by 0.9% in overall lactations of Murrah buffaloes. By increasing hundred kilogram life time 305days or less milk yield and one kilogram life time wet average, pregnancy rate of Murrah buffaloes reduced by about 0.2% and 0.34%, respectively. The study quantifies the decline of pregnancy rate with increase of lactation milk yield and wet average in Murrah buffaloes and emphasis the importance of fertility i.e. pregnancy rate in the evaluation and breeding programmes of Murrah buffaloes. PMID:27357943

  7. Effect of amount of concentrate offered in automatic milking systems on milking frequency, feeding behavior, and milk production of dairy cattle consuming high amounts of corn silage.

    PubMed

    Bach, A; Iglesias, C; Calsamiglia, S; Devant, M

    2007-11-01

    The objective was to evaluate whether the amount of concentrate offered in an automatic milking systems (AMS) would modify milking frequency, feeding behavior, and milk production. One hundred fifteen lactating cows were used in a cross-over design with 2 periods of 90 d each and 2 treatments: low concentrate (LC; up to 3 kg/d of concentrate at the AMS) or high concentrate (HC; up to 8 kg/d of concentrate at the AMS). Cows were evenly distributed in 2 symmetrical pens, each containing 1 AMS and about 50 cows at any given time. All cows received the same total ration (28% corn silage, 1.67 Mcal of net energy for lactation/kg, 16.5% crude protein, DM basis), but a different amount of concentrate from this ration was offered at the AMS depending on treatment. The concentrate at the AMS had the same composition in both treatments. Cows were fetched when time elapsed, because last milking was greater than 12 h. The amount of concentrate offered at the AMS was proportional to the time elapsed since last visit (125 and 333 g/h for LC and HC, respectively). Milk production, total number of daily milkings, number of cows fetched, or number of voluntary milkings were not affected by treatments. The consumption of basal ration was greater in LC than in HC, but this difference was compensated by a greater consumption of concentrate at the AMS in HC than LC cows. Total dry matter intake tended to be lower, therefore, in HC than in LC cows. Eating rate of the basal ration was greater in LC than in HC, but the total amount of time that cows devoted to eat was similar between treatments. Offering high amounts of concentrate to the AMS feeding a basal ration rich in corn silage did not diminish the need for fetching cows and did not increase the number of daily milkings nor milk production. PMID:17954744

  8. THE EFFECTS OF PREPARTUM MILKING ON POSTPARTUM PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE IN DAIRY HEIFERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The acclimation of heifers to the milking parlor via prepartum milking may be beneficial to heifer postpartum production performance, and has been shown to improve postpartum heifer udder health (reduced udder edema). The objective of this study was to determine the impact of prepartum milking on p...

  9. Prediction of individual milk proteins including free amino acids in bovine milk using mid-infrared spectroscopy and their correlations with milk processing characteristics.

    PubMed

    McDermott, A; Visentin, G; De Marchi, M; Berry, D P; Fenelon, M A; O'Connor, P M; Kenny, O A; McParland, S

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of mid-infrared spectroscopy in predicting milk protein and free amino acid (FAA) composition in bovine milk. Milk samples were collected from 7 Irish research herds and represented cows from a range of breeds, parities, and stages of lactation. Mid-infrared spectral data in the range of 900 to 5,000 cm(-1) were available for 730 milk samples; gold standard methods were used to quantify individual protein fractions and FAA of these samples with a view to predicting these gold standard protein fractions and FAA levels with available mid-infrared spectroscopy data. Separate prediction equations were developed for each trait using partial least squares regression; accuracy of prediction was assessed using both cross validation on a calibration data set (n=400 to 591 samples) and external validation on an independent data set (n=143 to 294 samples). The accuracy of prediction in external validation was the same irrespective of whether undertaken on the entire external validation data set or just within the Holstein-Friesian breed. The strongest coefficient of correlation obtained for protein fractions in external validation was 0.74, 0.69, and 0.67 for total casein, total β-lactoglobulin, and β-casein, respectively. Total proteins (i.e., total casein, total whey, and total lactoglobulin) were predicted with greater accuracy then their respective component traits; prediction accuracy using the infrared spectrum was superior to prediction using just milk protein concentration. Weak to moderate prediction accuracies were observed for FAA. The greatest coefficient of correlation in both cross validation and external validation was for Gly (0.75), indicating a moderate accuracy of prediction. Overall, the FAA prediction models overpredicted the gold standard values. Near-unity correlations existed between total casein and β-casein irrespective of whether the traits were based on the gold standard (0.92) or mid

  10. Carbon footprint of dairy goat milk production in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Kimberly; Symes, Wymond; Garnham, Malcolm

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cradle-to-farm gate carbon footprint of indoor and outdoor dairy goat farming systems in New Zealand, identifying hotspots and discussing variability and methodology. Our study was based on the International Organization for Standardization standards for life cycle assessment, although only results for greenhouse gas emissions are presented. Two functional units were included: tonnes of CO2-equivalents (CO2e) per hectare (ha) and kilograms of CO2e per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM). The study covered 5 farms, 2 farming systems, and 3yr. Two methods for the calculation of enteric methane emissions were assessed. The Lassey method, as used in the New Zealand greenhouse gas inventory, provided a more robust estimate of emissions from enteric fermentation and was used in the final calculations. The alternative dry matter intake method was shown to overestimate emissions due to use of anecdotal assumptions around actual consumption of feed. Economic allocation was applied to milk and co-products. Scenario analysis was performed on the allocation method, nitrogen content of manure, manure management, and supplementary feed choice. The average carbon footprint for the indoor farms (n=3) was 11.05 t of CO2e/ha and 0.81kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. For the outdoor farms (n=2), the average was 5.38 t of CO2e/ha and 1.03kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. The average for all 5 farms was 8.78 t of CO2e/ha and 0.90kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. The results showed relatively high variability due to differences in management practices between farms. The 5 farms covered 10% of the total dairy goat farms but may not be representative of an average farm. Methane from enteric fermentation was a major emission source. The use of supplementary feed was highly variable but an important contributor to the carbon footprint. Nitrous oxide can contribute up to 18% of emissions. Indoor goat farming systems produced milk with a significantly higher carbon

  11. Mapping quantitative trait loci for milk production and genetic polymorphisms of milk proteins in dairy sheep

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present recent advances in the molecular dissection of complex traits in dairy sheep and discuss their possible impact on breeding schemes. In the first step, we review the literature data on genetic polymorphisms and the effects of sheep αs1-casein and β-lactoglobulin loci. It is concluded that the results are rather inconsistent and cannot be used in dairy sheep selection. In a second step, we describe the strategy implemented in France, Italy and Spain taking advantage of the genetic maps for QTL detection. These studies were part of a European project, called "genesheepsafety", which investigated both milk production and functional traits. Preliminary QTL results are presented for production traits. PMID:15601591

  12. Development of an immunochromatographic strip test for rapid detection of melamine in raw milk, milk products and animal feed.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangmei; Luo, Pengjie; Tang, Shusheng; Beier, Ross C; Wu, Xiaoping; Yang, Lili; Li, Yanwei; Xiao, Xilong

    2011-06-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive immunogold chromatographic strip test based on a monoclonal antibody was developed for the detection of melamine (MEL) residues in raw milk, milk products and animal feed. The limit of detection was estimated to be 0.05 μg/mL in raw milk, since the detection test line on the strip test completely disappeared at this concentration. The limit of detection was 2 μg/mL (or 2 μg/g) for milk drinks, yogurt, condensed milk, cheese, and animal feed and 1 μg/g for milk powder. Sample pretreatment was simple and rapid, and the results can be obtained within 3-10 min. A parallel analysis of MEL in 52 blind raw milk samples conducted by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed comparable results to those obtained from the strip test. The results demonstrate that the developed method is suitable for the onsite determination of MEL residues in a large number of samples. PMID:21548621

  13. Triennial Lactation Symposium: Opportunities for improving milk production efficiency in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Connor, E E; Hutchison, J L; Olson, K M; Norman, H D

    2012-05-01

    Increasing feed costs and the desire to improve environmental stewardship have stimulated renewed interest in improving feed efficiency of livestock, including that of US dairy herds. For instance, USDA cost projections for corn and soybean meal suggest a 20% increase over 2010 pricing for a 16% protein mixed dairy cow ration in 2011, which may lead to a reduction in cow numbers to maintain profitability of dairy production. Furthermore, an October 2010 study by The Innovation Center for US Dairy to assess the carbon footprint of fluid milk found that the efficiency of feed conversion is the single greatest factor contributing to variation in the carbon footprint because of its effects on methane release during enteric fermentation and from manure. Thus, we are conducting research in contemporary US Holsteins to identify cows most efficient at converting feed to milk in temperate climates using residual feed intake (RFI), a measure used successfully to identify the beef cattle most efficient at converting feed to gain. Residual feed intake is calculated as the difference between predicted and actual feed intake to support maintenance and production (e.g., growth in beef cattle, or milk in dairy cattle). Heritability estimates for RFI in dairy cattle reported in the literature range from 0.01 to 0.38. Selection for a decreased RFI phenotype can reduce feed intake, methane production, nutrient losses in manure, and visceral organ weights substantially in beef cattle. We have estimated RFI during early lactation (i.e., to 90 d in milk) in the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center Holstein herd and observed a mean difference of 3.7 kg/d (P < 0.0001) in actual DMI between the efficient and inefficient groups (±0.5 SD from the mean RFI of 0), with no evidence of differences (P > 0.20) in mean BW, ADG, or energy-corrected milk exhibited between the 2 groups. These results indicate promise for using RFI in dairy cattle to improve feed conversion to milk. Previous and

  14. Selected parameters in urine as indicators of milk production in lactating sows: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, G A; Maes, D G D; Van Weyenberg, S; Verheyen, A; Janssens, G P J

    2008-07-01

    Although insufficient milk production in lactating sows may cause tremendous economic losses, reliable methods for estimating milk production in sows under field conditions are not available. This study aimed to investigate whether urine parameters could be used to predict milk production in sows. The milk production of 18 sows was determined during early and mid-lactation. Morning (a.m.) and afternoon (p.m.) urinary levels of potassium (K), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), lactose and creatinine were analysed. The absolute concentrations, the ratios relative to creatinine, and the fractional excretions of all elements in urine were not significantly associated with milk production. The p.m./a.m. ratios of K, Na and Ca concentrations in urine (K(R), Na(R), and Ca(R)) were significant predictors for milk production, but only during mid-lactation. The total variation in milk production (r(2) value) explained by K(R), Na(R), Ca(R) amounted to 72%, 55%, 42%, respectively. Analysis of minerals and especially K in the a.m. and p.m. urine of sows during mid-lactation provided an acceptable indication of milk production. Further research is necessary to investigate whether the present results can be used to estimate milk production in hypogalactic sows under field conditions. PMID:17512765

  15. A model of milk production in lactating dairy cows in relation to energy and nitrogen dynamics.

    PubMed

    Johnson, I R; France, J; Cullen, B R

    2016-02-01

    A generic daily time-step model of a dairy cow, designed to be included in whole-system pasture simulation models, is described that includes growth, milk production, and lactation in relation to energy and nitrogen dynamics. It is a development of a previously described animal growth and metabolism model that describes animal body composition in terms of protein, water, and fat, and energy dynamics in relation to growth requirements, resynthesis of degraded protein, and animal activity. This is further developed to include lactation and fetal growth. Intake is calculated in relation to stage of lactation, pasture availability, supplementary feed, and feed quality. Energy costs associated with urine N excretion and methane fermentation are accounted for. Milk production and fetal growth are then calculated in relation to the overall energy and nitrogen dynamics. The general behavior of the model is consistent with expected characteristics. Simulations using the model as part of a whole-system pasture simulation model (DairyMod) are compared with experimental data where good agreement between pasture, concentrate and forage intake, as well as milk production over 3 consecutive lactation cycles, is observed. The model is shown to be well suited for inclusion in large-scale system simulation models. PMID:26686718

  16. An overview on the presence of cyclopropane fatty acids in milk and dairy products.

    PubMed

    Caligiani, Augusta; Marseglia, Angela; Palla, Gerardo

    2014-08-01

    A survey was carried out to determine the presence of cyclopropane fatty acids (CPFA) in various dairy products. CPFA such as lactobacillic acid and dihydrosterculic acid are components of bacterial membranes and have been recently detected in milk from cows fed with maize silage. In this paper about 200 dairy samples comprising cow, sheep, and goat milk, cheese, yogurt/fermented milk, and butter were analyzed. Results showed that cow milks were generally positive to CPFA (0.014-0.105% of total fatty acids), while goat, yak, and sheep milks were negative. Experimental yogurt and fermented milks showed the same CPFA content of the starting milk. Positive to CPFA were also the majority of samples of commercial butter and cheeses, except some PDO cheeses as Parmigiano-Reggiano and Fontina, cheeses from mountain regions, and goat and sheep cheeses. These data suggest that the presence of CPFA in dairy products could be used as a marker of silage feeding. PMID:25033416

  17. Milk fat triacylglycerols and their relations with milk fatty acid composition, DGAT1 K232A polymorphism, and milk production traits.

    PubMed

    Tzompa-Sosa, D A; van Valenberg, H J F; van Aken, G A; Bovenhuis, H

    2016-05-01

    Milk fat (MF) triacylglycerols (TAG) determine the physical and functional properties of butter and products rich in MF. To predict these properties, it is necessary to understand the variability of fatty acids, TAG, their associations, and their effect on milk productive traits, days in milk (DIM), and genes related to fat synthesis. Therefore, the aim of this research was to study the variability of TAG using MF from individual cows and to investigate the effect of fatty acid composition, DGAT1 K232A polymorphism, DIM, and milk production traits (fat content and morning milk yield) on MF TAG profile in the Dutch Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle population. Large differences in MF TAG profiles were seen among cows. We showed that the variability of TAG is highest for low and high molecular weight TAG [TAG with carbon numbers (Cn) 26-30 and Cn52-54, respectively] and lowest for TAG with Cn38, which was the most abundant TAG. Saturation index (saturated fatty acid/unsaturated fatty acid) and the ratio C16:0/C18:1 cis-9 showed significant effects on TAG Cn34, Cn36, Cn52, and Cn54: TAG Cn34 and Cn36 increased as the saturation index and ratio C16:0/C18:1 cis-9 increased, whereas the opposite was seen for TAG Cn52 and Cn54. Moreover, the DGAT1 K232A polymorphism significantly affected TAG Cn38. We showed that the relative concentration of TAG with Cn38 was higher in cows with DGAT1 KK genotype. Production traits (fat content and morning milk yield) and DIM had no significant effect on TAG profile. This is a relevant observation because considerable increases of milk yield and fat content have been seen in the Netherlands over the last 60 yr. The large differences shown between individual cows in MF TAG profile imply differences in physical properties of MF. PMID:26971154

  18. Rapid Screening of Bovine Milk Oligosaccharides in a Whey Permeate Product and Domestic Animal Milks by Accurate Mass Database and Tandem Mass Spectral Library.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeyoung; Cuthbertson, Daniel J; Otter, Don E; Barile, Daniela

    2016-08-17

    A bovine milk oligosaccharide (BMO) library, prepared from cow colostrum, with 34 structures was generated and used to rapidly screen oligosaccharides in domestic animal milks and a whey permeate powder. The novel library was entered into a custom Personal Compound Database and Library (PCDL) and included accurate mass, retention time, and tandem mass spectra. Oligosaccharides in minute-sized samples were separated using nanoliquid chromatography (nanoLC) coupled to a high resolution and sensitive quadrupole-Time of Flight (Q-ToF) MS system. Using the PCDL, 18 oligosaccharides were found in a BMO-enriched product obtained from whey permeate processing. The usefulness of the analytical system and BMO library was further validated using milks from domestic sheep and buffaloes. Through BMO PCDL searching, 15 and 13 oligosaccharides in the BMO library were assigned in sheep and buffalo milks, respectively, thus demonstrating significant overlap between oligosaccharides in bovine (cow and buffalo) and ovine (sheep) milks. This method was shown to be an efficient, reliable, and rapid tool to identify oligosaccharide structures using automated spectral matching. PMID:27428379

  19. Milk Thistle Constituents Inhibit Raloxifene Intestinal Glucuronidation: A Potential Clinically Relevant Natural Product-Drug Interaction.

    PubMed

    Gufford, Brandon T; Chen, Gang; Vergara, Ana G; Lazarus, Philip; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Paine, Mary F

    2015-09-01

    Women at high risk of developing breast cancer are prescribed selective estrogen response modulators, including raloxifene, as chemoprevention. Patients often seek complementary and alternative treatment modalities, including herbal products, to supplement prescribed medications. Milk thistle preparations, including silibinin and silymarin, are top-selling herbal products that may be consumed by women taking raloxifene, which undergoes extensive first-pass glucuronidation in the intestine. Key constituents in milk thistle, flavonolignans, were previously shown to be potent inhibitors of intestinal UDP-glucuronosyl transferases (UGTs), with IC50s ≤ 10 μM. Taken together, milk thistle preparations may perpetrate unwanted interactions with raloxifene. The objective of this work was to evaluate the inhibitory effects of individual milk thistle constituents on the intestinal glucuronidation of raloxifene using human intestinal microsomes and human embryonic kidney cell lysates overexpressing UGT1A1, UGT1A8, and UGT1A10, isoforms highly expressed in the intestine that are critical to raloxifene clearance. The flavonolignans silybin A and silybin B were potent inhibitors of both raloxifene 4'- and 6-glucuronidation in all enzyme systems. The Kis (human intestinal microsomes, 27-66 µM; UGT1A1, 3.2-8.3 µM; UGT1A8, 19-73 µM; and UGT1A10, 65-120 µM) encompassed reported intestinal tissue concentrations (20-310 µM), prompting prediction of clinical interaction risk using a mechanistic static model. Silibinin and silymarin were predicted to increase raloxifene systemic exposure by 4- to 5-fold, indicating high interaction risk that merits further evaluation. This systematic investigation of the potential interaction between a widely used herbal product and chemopreventive agent underscores the importance of understanding natural product-drug interactions in the context of cancer prevention. PMID:26070840

  20. [Investigation of the residue of the fasciolicide nitroxynil in milk and dairy products].

    PubMed

    Takeba, K; Matsumoto, M

    1992-02-01

    A sensitive gas chromatographic method with electron capture detection of the fasciolicide, nitroxynil, in milk and dairy products was developed and was applied to assess nitroxynil concentration in cow's milk after subcutaneous injection of three lactating cows. The level of nitroxynil in cow's milk reached a maximum (0.25-0.26 micrograms/ml) in 6-30 hours, and was undetectable within 8 weeks. Analysis of nitroxynil concentrations in cream, skimmed milk, curd and whey prepared from nitroxynil excreting cow's milk showed that the chemical became concentrated in cream and curd. Nitroxynil appeared to be stable at temperature used in LTLT and HTST pasteurization with the rate of degradation in milk being less than 10%. Investigation of nitroxynil residues in milk (raw, liquid whole, processed) and dairy products (processed cheese, natural cheese, butter, sweetened condensed milk, evaporated skimmed milk, skimmed milk powder, formulated milk powder) was performed during 1976-1979. Nitroxynil was detected in 20% of milk samples at a maximum level of 39 ng/ml, with one formulated milk powder at level of 0.34 ng/g. Confirmation of nitroxynil was performed by GCMS. The results of this investigation were promptly reported to the government. Since then administrative guidance was provided leading to appropriated use of nitroxynil thereafter. The ordinance controlling dairy production amended in 1979 revised the withdrawal time for medicines administrated to cows from "three days" to "the period when medicine remains in the milk". There was no mutagenicity of nitroxynil evident by the Ames test. PMID:1568024

  1. Potential of functional strains, isolated from traditional Maasai milk, as starters for the production of fermented milks.

    PubMed

    Patrignani, Francesca; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Mathara, Julius Maina; Guerzoni, Maria Elisabetta; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this research was the evaluation of technological features and of the ability of functional LAB strains with desirable sensory characteristics, to produce fermented milk. Eight strains of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactococcus lactis, isolated from Maasai traditional fermented milk in Kenya and previously tested for their probiotic properties, were selected for this investigation. Technological features such as growth kinetics in fresh heat-treated whole milk medium and survival in the final product during storage at 4 degrees C, were studied. The strains Lb. acidophilus BFE 6,059, Lb. paracasei BFE 5,264 and Lc. lactis BFE 6,049 showed the best potential and were thus selected for use as starter cultures in further trials with the objective to improve their technological performance and to optimise the sensory features of fermented milk obtained. The effects of fat (F), non-fat milk solids (S) and fermentation temperature (T), modulated according to a Central Composite Design, on fermentation rates and viability losses during refrigerated storage of the chosen starters, and on product texture parameters, were studied. From the data analysis, it was possible to select optimum conditions for enhancing positive sensory traits of final products and for improving the survival of these potentially probiotic cultures. PMID:16271787

  2. Milk production responses to dietary stearic acid vary by production level in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Piantoni, P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S

    2015-03-01

    Effects of stearic acid supplementation on feed intake and metabolic and production responses of dairy cows with a wide range of milk production (32.2 to 64.4 kg/d) were evaluated in a crossover design experiment with a covariate period. Thirty-two multiparous Holstein cows (142±55 d in milk) were assigned randomly within level of milk yield to treatment sequence. Treatments were diets supplemented (2% of diet dry matter) with stearic acid (SA; 98% C18:0) or control (soyhulls). The diets were based on corn silage and alfalfa and contained 24.5% forage neutral detergent fiber, 25.1% starch, and 17.3% crude protein. Treatment periods were 21 d with the final 4 d used for data and sample collection. Compared with the control, SA increased dry matter intake (DMI; 26.1 vs. 25.2 kg/d) and milk yield (40.2 vs. 38.5 kg/d). Stearic acid had no effect on the concentration of milk components but increased yields of fat (1.42 vs. 1.35 kg/d), protein (1.19 vs. 1.14 kg/d), and lactose (1.96 vs. 1.87 kg/d). The SA treatment increased 3.5% fat-corrected milk (3.5% FCM; 40.5 vs. 38.6 kg/d) but did not affect feed efficiency (3.5% FCM/DMI, 1.55 vs. 1.53), body weight, or body condition score compared with the control. Linear interactions between treatment and level of milk yield during the covariate period were detected for DMI and yields of milk, fat, protein, lactose, and 3.5% FCM; responses to SA were positively related to milk yield of cows. The SA treatment increased crude protein digestibility (67.4 vs. 65.5%), tended to increase neutral detergent fiber digestibility (43.6 vs. 42.3%), decreased fatty acid (FA) digestibility (56.6 vs. 76.1%), and did not affect organic matter digestibility. Fatty acid yield response, calculated as the additional FA yield secreted in milk per unit of additional FA intake, was only 13.3% for total FA and 8.2% for C18:0 plus cis-9 C18:1. Low estimated digestibility of the SA supplement was at least partly responsible for the low FA yield response

  3. Improving the quantity, quality and transparency of data used to derive radionuclide transfer parameters for animal products. 1. Goat milk.

    PubMed

    Howard, B J; Wells, C; Barnett, C L

    2016-04-01

    Under the MODARIA (Modelling and Data for Radiological Impact Assessments Programme of the International Atomic Energy Agency), there has been an initiative to improve the derivation, provenance and transparency of transfer parameter values for radionuclides. The approach taken for animal products is outlined here and the first revised table for goat milk is provided. Data from some references used in TRS 472 were removed and reasons given for removal. Particular efforts were made to improve the number of CR (concentration ratio) values which have some advantages over transfer coefficients. There is little difference in most of the new CR and Fm (transfer coefficient) values for goat milk compared with those in TRS 472. In TRS 472, 21 CR values were reported for goat milk. In the 2015 dataset for goat milk CR values for a further 14 elements are now included. The CR and Fm values for only one element (Co) were removed. PMID:26845198

  4. Characterization of Cronobacter recovered from dried milk and related products

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Cronobacter is a recently proposed genus consisting of six genomospecies that encompass the organisms previously identified as Enterobacter sakazakii. Cronobacter are opportunistic pathogens and are known to cause serious infections in infants, particularly neonates. High case fatality rates have been associated with infections and acute sequelae can occur in survivors with severe ramifications on neurological development. Infant formula has been identified as one route of transmission for infection in infants. However, the primary reservoirs for subsequent contamination of foods with Cronobacter remain undefined due to the ubiquitous nature of these organisms. More recently, infections in adults have been reported, especially amongst the elderly and patients who are immunocompromised. To help prevent the transmission of infection, it is important to identify the main food sources for Cronobacter. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize Cronobacter isolated from dried-milk and related products available in an Egyptian food market. Results In total sixteen Cronobacter strains were isolated from 152 dairy-based products. These were identified and characterized using pheno- and genotyping experiments. Real-time PCR confirmed the detection of Cronobacter. Following antibiotic susceptibility tests, 3 strains showed resistance to trimethoprim and/or neomycin. Phenotype profiles were generated based on key biochemical distinguishing tests. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) identified 8 PFGE types amongst the collection of strains. Repetitive sequence based PCR (rep-PCR) analysis identified 3 rep-PCR types amongst the collection of strains. Sequencing of the recN gene was used to differentiate among the recently described species of Cronobacter. Conclusion This study identified the presence of Cronobacter in dried milk and related products sourced from the Nile-Delta region of Egypt. Although the majority of the strains were susceptible to

  5. Jennet milk production during the lactation in a Sicilian farming system.

    PubMed

    Giosuè, C; Alabiso, M; Russo, G; Alicata, M L; Torrisi, C

    2008-10-01

    In Italy, the interest for jennet milk production has recently developed. An 18-month-long experiment was carried out on a jennet farm near Milo (CT), where 24 jennets, which derived from the Ragusana breed, were tested for milk yield and composition over an entire lactation period. The jennets were fed with hay and concentrate in a large paddock. From the 28th post-foaling day to the end of the lactation, the jennets were machine-milked twice a day with an in-between milking interval of 5 h. The milk amount from each jennet was recorded every 3 weeks and individual samples were collected and analyzed for fat, protein, casein, non-proteic nitrogen, lactose and somatic cell count. This study showed that jennets at Sicilian latitudes are not seasonal polyestrous. The daily milk yield, the length of lactation and the milk characteristics varied depending on the foaling season. The total average milk production was 490 ± 36 kg in 295 ± 12 post-foaling days, considering two milking records per day. During the lactation, milk yield decreased constantly from 1.98 to 1.28 kg/jennet per day. When looking at the jennet milk quality during lactation, the percentage of fat and protein decreased, while the lactose percentage increased, according to a tendency apparently unique for equines when compared to the ruminants. When looking at the productive season, spring generally gave the best qualitative and quantitative results. Based on these results, jennet milk yield and quality could be improved; furthermore, jennet milk production may turn out to be a profitable business. PMID:22443907

  6. Reduced milk production in udder quarters with subclinical mastitis and associated economic losses in crossbred dairy cows in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mungube, E O; Tenhagen, B A; Regassa, F; Kyule, M N; Shiferaw, Y; Kassa, T; Baumann, M P O

    2005-08-01

    The objective of the study was to estimate the losses associated with subclinical mastitis (SCM) in crossbred dairy cows in the Central Highlands of Ethiopia. A split udder investigation was performed with 30 cows to determine production losses associated with SCM. Each quarter of the study cows was examined using the California Mastitis Test (CMT) and quarter milk production was measured over a period of 8 days. Production losses were determined for different CMT scores by comparing production of quarters with CMT score 0 to quarters with CMT scores trace, 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Using data from a recently published study, economic losses were determined for different farm sizes and production subsystems by multiplying the prevalence of the respective CMT scores with the production losses associated with these CMT scores. Mean quarter milk production was 0.82 +/- 0.40 kg per milking in the split udder trial. Milk production was reduced by 1.2%, 6.3%, and 33% in quarters with CMT scores 1+, 2+, and 3+, respectively. Using data from the published study, a quarter with SCM lost an average of 17.2% of its milk production. Production losses associated with SCM were estimated at 5.6% for the Addis Ababa Milk Shed. Stratified losses were highest (9.3%) in urban dairy farms (UDF) and small-scale farms (6.3%). The estimates of the financial losses ranged from US dollars 29.1 in dairy herds in secondary towns (DHIST) to US dollars 66.6 in UDF. A total loss of US dollars 38 was estimated for each cow per lactation. Reducing mastitis in UDF (highest prevalence) to the level of DHIST (lowest prevalence) could reduce the loss by US dollars 35. As this does not include costs associated with treatment or culling of diseased cows, this figure probably underestimates the possible benefits of control measures. PMID:16248222

  7. Differential rumination, intake, and enteric methane production of dairy cows in a pasture-based automatic milking system.

    PubMed

    Watt, L J; Clark, C E F; Krebs, G L; Petzel, C E; Nielsen, S; Utsumi, S A

    2015-10-01

    Proper performance monitoring of cows on pasture-based diets is crucial to inform nutritional recommendations that minimize undesirable effects of high ruminant CH4 emissions into the environment. The prediction of linkages between rumination patterns, methane emissions, and correlated production traits of cows in a pasture-based automatic milking system was tested. A previous 10-d baseline measurement of rumination activity by acoustic methodology of 156 Holstein-Friesian cows was used for frequency analysis of rumination time and identification of 2 treatment groups (n = 37 cows/group) represented by cows with consistently high (HR; 75th rumination percentile = 617.55 ± 81.37 min/d) or low (LR; 25th rumination percentile = 356.65 ± 72.67 min/d) rumination. The HR and LR cows were paired by nearest parity, days in milk, body weight (BW), and previous 10-d milk production, and within pairs randomly assigned to 1 of 2 experimental groups managed on a voluntary milking system with diets consisting of at least 75% pasture, plus concentrates. Animal traits, including rumination time, mass flux of CH4 (QCH4) and carbon dioxide (QCO2), milk production, and estimated dry matter intake according to individual QCO2 fluxes over a 22-d period were analyzed with repeated measure mixed models for a completely randomized design, structural equation modeling, and nonlinear regression. High rumination and methane was seen in older and heavier cows that had greater estimated dry matter intake and milk production. A consistent difference in rumination time and QCH4 across days was detected between HR and LR, even after adjustment for metabolic BW. Estimated dry matter intake had direct positive effects on rumination and QCH4, but no independent direct effect of rumination on QCH4 was detected. The LR cows produced more QCH4/milk, associated with lower milk, BW, concentrate intake, and greater activity at pasture. A typical dilution of maintenance effect on QCH4/milk was detected

  8. Growth and exopolysaccharide production by Streptococcus thermophilus ST1 in skim milk

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tiehua; Zhang, Chunhong; Li, Shengyu; Zhang, Yanchun; Yang, Zhennai

    2011-01-01

    To analyze the exopolysaccharide (EPS) production by Streptococcus thermophilus ST1, cultures were cultivated in 10% (w/v) reconstituted skim milk under different growth conditions including various temperatures and pHs of growth medium, supplementation of the medium with various carbon sources (glucose, lactose, sucrose, galactose and fructose) and nitrogen source (whey protein concentrate, or WPC). The results showed that most EPS production by strain ST1 was obtained at a temperature (42°C) and pH (6.5) optimal for its growth. Supplementation of the skim milk medium with either carbohydrates or WPC increased both growth and polymer formation by different extents, with sucrose being most effective among the carbon sources tested. Under the optimal cultural conditions, i.e. pH 6.5, 42°C with 2% (w/v) sucrose and 0.5% (w/v) WPC, 135.80 mg l-1 of EPS was produced by strain ST1. The monosaccharide composition of the EPS was determined to be glucose and galactose (2:1), and the molecular mass of the EPS was 3.97 × 106 Da. The aqueous solution of the EPS at 1% (w/v) showed relatively high viscosity, indicating the potential of this EPS-producing S. thermophilus strain for applications in the improvement of physical properties of fermented milk products. PMID:24031780

  9. Diet and cooling interactions on physiological responses of grazing dairy cows, milk production and composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, M. R.; Valtorta, S. E.; Leva, P. E.; Gaggiotti, M. C.; Conti, G. A.; Gregoret, R. F.

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effects of diet and cooling in the holding pen before milking on rectal temperature, respiration rate and milk production and composition. Fifty-eight lactating Holstein cows were used in a factorial split-plot design, at Rafaela Experimental Station from 12 January to 3 March 2003. The treatments were combinations of two diets: control (CD) and balanced (BD) with two levels of cooling before milking: none (NSF) and a sprinkler and fans (SF). Forage:concentrate ratios for CD and BD were 81:19 and 68:32, respectively. Cows were milked twice daily. Milk production was recorded daily, and milk composition (fat, protein, lactose and urea) was analysed twice a week. The physiological data were recorded once a week, before the cattle entered the holding pen and after milking, in the afternoon. Average maximum weekly temperature humidity index was 75.4 and ranged from 61.4 to 83. There were highly significant effects of cooling on physiological responses. Milk production was affected by diet and cooling, with no interaction; the highest and lowest production of milk was 22.42 and 20.07 l/cow per day, for BD+SF and CD+NSF, respectively. Protein was affected by diet, and was higher for BD (3.17 vs. 3.08%). There were interaction effects on milk fat at the 8% level, the highest concentration being 3.65% for BD+NFS. It was concluded that under grazing conditions, cooling by sprinkler and fans before milking improves the comfort of dairy cows, and that the effects on milk production and composition are enhanced when diets are specially formulated for heat-stress periods.

  10. Association between Milk and Milk Product Consumption and Anthropometric Measures in Adult Men and Women in India: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Satija, Ambika; Agrawal, Sutapa; Bowen, Liza; Khandpur, Neha; Kinra, Sanjay; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Reddy, Kolli Srinath; Smith, George Davey; Ebrahim, Shah

    2013-01-01

    Background The nutritional aetiology of obesity remains unclear, especially with regard to the role of dairy products in developing countries. Objective To examine whether milk/milk product consumption is associated with obesity and high waist circumference among adult Indians. Methods Information on plain milk, tea, curd and buttermilk/lassi consumption assessed using a Food Frequency Questionnaire was obtained from the cross-sectional sib-pair designed Indian Migration Study (3698 men and 2659 women), conducted at four factory locations across north, central and south India. The anthropometric measures included were Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Circumference (WC). Mixed-effect logistic regression models were conducted to accommodate sib-pair design and adjust for potential confounders. Results After controlling for potential confounders, the risk of being obese (BMI≥25 kg/m2) was lower among women (OR = 0.57;95%CI:0.43−0.76;p≤0.0001) and men (OR = 0.67;95%CI: 0.51−0.87;p = 0.005), and the risk of a high WC (men: >90 cm; women: >80 cm) was lower among men (OR = 0.71;95%CI:0.54−0.93;p = 0.005) and women (OR = 0.79;95%CI:0.59−1.05;p>0.05) who consume ≥1 portions of plain milk daily than those who do not consume any milk. The inverse association between daily plain milk consumption and obesity was also confirmed in sibling-pair analyses. Daily tea consumption of ≥1 portion was associated with obesity (OR = 1.51;95%CI:1.00−2.25;p>0.050) and high WC (OR = 1.65;95%CI:1.08−2.51;p>0.019) among men but not among women but there was no strong evidence of association of curd and buttermilk/lassi consumption with obesity and high waist circumference among both men and women. Conclusions The independent, inverse association of daily plain milk consumption with the risk of being obese suggests that high plain milk intake may lower the risk of obesity in adult Indians. However, this is an observational finding and

  11. Effect of superovulation prior to mating on milk production performance during lactation in ewes.

    PubMed

    Manalu, W; Sumaryadi, M Y; Sudjatmogo; Satyaningtijas, A S

    2000-03-01

    Thirty lactating ewes were used to evaluate the effect of superovulation on milk production. Twelve ewes had been injected, prior to mating, with 700 IU of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin; 18 ewes were injected with saline as a control. Thirteen ewes (nine control and four superovulated ewes) were fed at low plane of nutrition; the other ewes (nine control and eight superovulated ewes) were fed at high plane of nutrition. Superovulated ewes, fed at both low and high planes of nutrition, had dramatically higher milk yields (59%), and their milk composition was not changed. Plane of nutrition increased milk lactose and P contents without significant effect on milk production. The increased milk yields in the superovulated ewes were accompanied by increases in dry matter, gross energy intakes, and gross efficiency of milk synthesis. At the end of lactation, superovulated ewes had higher mammary dry fat-free tissue, total DNA, and total RNA. The results demonstrated that superovulation prior to mating dramatically increased milk production and efficiency regardless of plane of nutrition. Increased milk production and efficiency in the superovulated ewes were due to the increased mammary secretory cell numbers and their synthetic activities presumably through the increased endogenous hormonal stimulation of mammary growth and development during pregnancy. PMID:10750105

  12. Effects of increasing milking frequency during the last 28 days of gestation on milk production, dry matter intake, and energy balance in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Rastani, R R; Del Rio, N Silva; Gressley, T F; Dahl, G E; Grummer, R R

    2007-04-01

    Forty-eight Holstein cows were used in a randomized block design to evaluate different dry period lengths and prepartum milking frequencies (MF) on subsequent milk production, milk composition, solids-corrected milk production, dry matter intake (DMI), and energy balance. Lactating cows, milked 2 times/d, began a 7-d covariate period 35 d prior to the expected calving date. Cows were milked 0 times/d (0x), 1 time/d (1x), and 4 times/d (4x) for the last 28 d of gestation. If milk production decreased to less than 0.5 kg/milking or 1 kg/d, milking via machine ceased; however, teat stimulation continued 1 or 4 times/d according to the treatment assignment. All cows were milked 2 times/d postpartum (wk 1 to 10). Prepartum DMI tended to be greater for 1x and 4x compared with 0x. Prepartum, cows milked 1x produced 17% less milk than cows milked 4x (5.9 and 7.1 kg/d, respectively). There were no differences in prepartum and postpartum body condition scores, body weights, and DMI. Postpartum milk production by cows following their third or greater gestation was greater for 0x and 4x compared with 1x. Postpartum milk production by cows following their second gestation was significantly decreased with increased MF (0x vs. 1x and 4x). Regardless of parity, postpartum solids-corrected milk was greater for 0x compared with 1x and 4x. Postpartum fat yield was greater for 0x vs. 4x, with 1x being intermediate. Postpartum protein yield was greater for 0x vs. 4x, whereas 0x tended to have greater protein yield than 1x. Postpartum energy balance was greater for 1x and 4x relative to 0x. Continuous milking (1x and 4x) resulted in a loss of milk production in the subsequent lactation for cows following their second gestation; however, for cows following their third or greater gestation, increasing the MF from 1x to 4x in the last 28 d of gestation alleviated the loss in milk production. PMID:17369213

  13. 78 FR 11791 - Flavored Milk; Petition to Amend the Standard of Identity for Milk and 17 Additional Dairy Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... Lowfat and Nonfat Yogurt and to Amend the Standard for Yogurt'' (74 FR 2443, January 15, 2009). Thus, FDA... and reduce childhood obesity by providing for lower-calorie flavored milk products. They state that... comments regarding similar amendments to those standards in a proposed rulemaking. See 74 FR 2443. 5....

  14. Identification and Characterization of Psychrotolerant Sporeformers Associated with Fluid Milk Production and Processing

    PubMed Central

    Ivy, Reid A.; Ranieri, Matthew L.; Martin, Nicole H.; den Bakker, Henk C.; Xavier, Bruno M.; Wiedmann, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Psychrotolerant spore-forming bacteria represent a major challenge to the goal of extending the shelf life of pasteurized dairy products. The objective of this study was to identify prominent phylogenetic groups of dairy-associated aerobic sporeformers and to characterize representative isolates for phenotypes relevant to growth in milk. Analysis of sequence data for a 632-nucleotide fragment of rpoB showed that 1,288 dairy-associated isolates (obtained from raw and pasteurized milk and from dairy farm environments) clustered into two major divisions representing (i) the genus Paenibacillus (737 isolates, including the species Paenibacillus odorifer, Paenibacillus graminis, and Paenibacillus amylolyticus sensu lato) and (ii) Bacillus (n = 467) (e.g., Bacillus licheniformis sensu lato, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus weihenstephanensis) and genera formerly classified as Bacillus (n = 84) (e.g., Viridibacillus spp.). When isolates representing the most common rpoB allelic types (ATs) were tested for growth in skim milk broth at 6°C, 6/9 Paenibacillus isolates, but only 2/8 isolates representing Bacillus subtypes, grew >5 log CFU/ml over 21 days. In addition, 38/40 Paenibacillus isolates but only 3/47 Bacillus isolates tested were positive for β-galactosidase activity (including some isolates representing Bacillus licheniformis sensu lato, a common dairy-associated clade). Our study confirms that Paenibacillus spp. are the predominant psychrotolerant sporeformers in fluid milk and provides 16S rRNA gene and rpoB subtype data and phenotypic characteristics facilitating the identification of aerobic spore-forming spoilage organisms of concern. These data will be critical for the development of detection methods and control strategies that will reduce the introduction of psychrotolerant sporeformers and extend the shelf life of dairy products. PMID:22247129

  15. Production and composition of Iberian sow's milk and use of milk nutrients by the suckling Iberian piglet.

    PubMed

    Aguinaga, M A; Gómez-Carballar, F; Nieto, R; Aguilera, J F

    2011-08-01

    Sixteen purebred Iberian (IB) sows were used in two consecutive trials to determine the efficiency of conversion of sow's milk into piglet body weight (BW) gain and the relationship between milk protein and body protein retention and between milk energy yield and body energy retention in the nursing IB piglet. In each trial, four sows were selected in order to evaluate their milk production, litter growth and nutrient balance measurements, together with four additional sows for milk sampling. Litter size was equalized to six piglets. Daily milk yield (MY) was determined weekly by the weigh-suckle-weigh technique over a 34-day lactation period. Piglets were weighed individually at birth and then weekly from day 5 of lactation. Milk samples were collected on days 5, 12, 19, 26 and 34 post partum. The comparative slaughter procedure was used to determine piglet nutrient and energy retention. One piglet from each litter was slaughtered at birth and four on the morning of day 35. Total MY was on average 5.175 ± 0.157 kg/day. The average chemical composition (g/kg) of the milk was 179 ± 4 dry matter, 53.4 ± 1.0 CP, 58.5 ± 3.8 fat, 10.4 ± 0.3 ash and 56.9 ± 2.3 lactose. Milk gross energy (GE) was 4.626 ± 0.145 MJ/kg. Milk intake per piglet tended to increase in trial 2 (832 v. 893 g/day; P = 0.066). Piglet BW gain contained (g/kg) 172.1 ± 1.3 protein, 151.5 ± 3.5 fat, 41.4 ± 0.6 ash and 635 ± 3 water and 10.127 ± 0.126 MJ GE/kg. Throughout the 34-day nursing period, the piglets grew at an average rate of 168 ± 3 g/day. The ratio of daily piglet BW gain to daily MY was 0.195 ± 0.002 g/g and the gain per MJ milk GE intake was 41.9 ± 0.5 g/MJ. The overall efficiency of protein accretion (g CP gain/g CP milk intake) was low and declined in trial 2 (0.619 v. 0.571; P = 0.016). Nutrient and energy deposition between birth and weaning were 27.4 ± 0.5 g/day protein, 24.2 ± 0.8 g/day fat and 1615 ± 40 kJ/day energy. Piglet energy requirements for maintenance were

  16. Short communication: The water footprint of dairy products: case study involving skim milk powder.

    PubMed

    Ridoutt, B G; Williams, S R O; Baud, S; Fraval, S; Marks, N

    2010-11-01

    In the context of global water scarcity and food security concerns, water footprints are emerging as an important sustainability indicator in the agriculture and food sectors. Using a recently developed life cycle assessment-based methodology that takes into account local water stress where operations occur, the normalized water footprints of milk products from South Gippsland, one of Australia's major dairy regions, were 14.4 L/kg of total milk solids in whole milk (at farm gate) and 15.8 L/kg of total milk solids in skim milk powder (delivered to export destination). These results demonstrate that dairy products can be produced with minimal potential to contribute to freshwater scarcity. However, not all dairy production systems are alike and the variability in water footprints between systems and products should be explored to obtain strategic insights that will enable the dairy sector to minimize its burden on freshwater systems from consumptive water use. PMID:20965326

  17. Effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Pimpinella anisum L. seeds on milk production in rats.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Tafaghodi, Mohsen; Abedzadeh, Shirin; Taghiabadi, Elahe

    2014-08-01

    Pimpinella anisum L. (P. anisum) is used as a galactagogue in traditional medicine; hence, the effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of P. anisum seeds on milk production in rats was evaluated. The milk production was assessed by measuring the pups' weights during the suckling period. The intraperitoneal LD(50) values of P. anisum aqueous and ethanolic extracts were 4.93 and 3.77 g/kg, respectively. The aqueous (1 g/kg) and ethanolic extracts (1 g/kg) increased the milk production significantly (p < 0.001), with about 68.1% and 81% more milk being produced, respectively, than in the control group. The pups gained weight during the study period with the aqueous (0.5 and 1 g/kg, p < 0.05) and ethanolic (0.5 and 1 g/kg, p < 0.01) extracts. Thus, P. anisum aqueous and ethanolic extracts can increase milk production in rats. PMID:25151455

  18. 75 FR 61418 - Milk for Manufacturing Purposes and Its Production and Processing; Requirements Recommended for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Milk for Manufacturing Purposes and Its Production and Processing; Requirements... relating to quality and sanitation requirements for the production and processing of manufacturing grade.... The requirements of Executive Order 13132, Federalism, were considered in developing this notice,...

  19. Anaerobic digestion and milking frequency as mitigation strategies of the environmental burden in the milk production system.

    PubMed

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Bava, Luciana; Zucali, Maddalena; Lovarelli, Daniela; Sandrucci, Anna; Tamburini, Alberto; Fiala, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess, through a cradle to farm gate Life Cycle Assessment, different mitigation strategies of the potential environmental impacts of milk production at farm level. The environmental performances of a conventional intensive dairy farm in Northern Italy (baseline scenario) were compared with the results obtained: from the introduction of the third daily milking and from the adoption of anaerobic digestion (AD) of animal slurry in a consortium AD plant. The AD plant, fed only with animal slurries coming also from nearby farms. Key parameters concerning on-farm activities (forage production, energy consumptions, agricultural machines maintenance, manure and livestock management), off-farm activities (production of fertilizers, pesticides, bedding materials, purchased forages, purchased concentrate feed, replacement animals, agricultural machines manufacturing, electricity, fuel) and transportation were considered. The functional unit was 1kg fat and protein corrected milk (FPCM) leaving the farm gate. The selected environmental impact categories were: global warming potential, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical oxidation and non-renewable energy use. The production of 1kg of FPCM caused, in the baseline scenario, the following environmental impact potentials: global warming potential 1.12kg CO2 eq; acidification 15.5g SO2 eq; eutrophication 5.62g PO4(3-) eq; photochemical oxidation 0.87g C2H4 eq/kg FPCM; energy use 4.66MJeq. The increase of milking frequency improved environmental performances for all impact categories in comparison with the baseline scenario; in particular acidification and eutrophication potentials showed the largest reductions (-11 and -12%, respectively). In anaerobic digestion scenario, compared to the baseline one, most of the impact potentials were strongly reduced. In particular the most important advantages were in terms of acidification (-29%), global warming (-22%) and eutrophication potential (-18

  20. Life cycle assessment of milk production from commercial dairy farms: the influence of management tactics.

    PubMed

    Yan, M-J; Humphreys, J; Holden, N M

    2013-07-01

    Little consideration has been given to how farm management, specifically tactics used to implement the management strategy, may influence the carbon footprint (CF) and land use for milk produced on commercial farms. In this study, the CF and land use of milk production from 18 Irish commercial dairy farms were analyzed based on foreground data from a 12-mo survey capturing management tactics and background data from the literature. Large variation was found in farm attributes and management tactics; for example, up to a 1.5-fold difference in fertilizer nitrogen input was used to support the same stocking density, and up to a 3.5-fold difference in concentrate fed for similar milk output per cow. However, the coefficient of variation for milk CF between farms only varied by 13% and for land use by 18%. The overall CF and overall land use of the milk production from the 18 dairy farms was 1.23±0.04kg of CO2 Eq and 1.22±0.05 m(2) per kilogram of energy-corrected milk. Milk output per cow, economic allocation between exports of milk and liveweight, and on-farm diesel use per ha were found to be influential factors on milk CF, whereas the fertilizer N rate, milk output per cow, and economic allocation between exports of milk and liveweight were influential on land use. Effective sward management of white clover within a few farms appeared to lower the CF but increased on-farm land use. It was concluded that a combination of multiple tactics determines CF and land use for milk production on commercial dairy farms and, although these 2 measures of environmental impact are correlated, a farm with a low CF did not always have low land use and vice versa. PMID:23660142

  1. Genomic analysis of dominance effects on milk production and conformation traits in Fleckvieh cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Estimates of dominance variance in dairy cattle based on pedigree data vary considerably across traits and amount to up to 50% of the total genetic variance for conformation traits and up to 43% for milk production traits. Using bovine SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) genotypes, dominance variance can be estimated both at the marker level and at the animal level using genomic dominance effect relationship matrices. Yield deviations of high-density genotyped Fleckvieh cows were used to assess cross-validation accuracy of genomic predictions with additive and dominance models. The potential use of dominance variance in planned matings was also investigated. Results Variance components of nine milk production and conformation traits were estimated with additive and dominance models using yield deviations of 1996 Fleckvieh cows and ranged from 3.3% to 50.5% of the total genetic variance. REML and Gibbs sampling estimates showed good concordance. Although standard errors of estimates of dominance variance were rather large, estimates of dominance variance for milk, fat and protein yields, somatic cell score and milkability were significantly different from 0. Cross-validation accuracy of predicted breeding values was higher with genomic models than with the pedigree model. Inclusion of dominance effects did not increase the accuracy of the predicted breeding and total genetic values. Additive and dominance SNP effects for milk yield and protein yield were estimated with a BLUP (best linear unbiased prediction) model and used to calculate expectations of breeding values and total genetic values for putative offspring. Selection on total genetic value instead of breeding value would result in a larger expected total genetic superiority in progeny, i.e. 14.8% for milk yield and 27.8% for protein yield and reduce the expected additive genetic gain only by 4.5% for milk yield and 2.6% for protein yield. Conclusions Estimated dominance variance was substantial

  2. Effects of calcium montmorillonite clay and aflatoxin exposure on dry matter intake, milk production, and milk composition.

    PubMed

    Maki, C R; Thomas, A D; Elmore, S E; Romoser, A A; Harvey, R B; Ramirez-Ramirez, H A; Phillips, T D

    2016-02-01

    .86, 7.38, 0.64, and 0.23, ± 1.71 µg/d, for AFD, NSP-0.5%+AFD, NSP-1%+AFD, NSP-1%, and CON, respectively. More specifically, 1.07±0.08% of the daily AF intake was transferred to the milk of cows consuming the AFD, whereas the AF transfer rates in milk from cows that consumed the NSP-0.5%+AFD and NSP-1%+AFD were 0.52 and 0.32±0.08%. Results from this research demonstrate that feeding NSP to lactating cows is an effective method to reduce the transfer and excretion of AFM1 in milk with no negative effects on dry matter intake, milk production, and composition. PMID:26709170

  3. Novel method based on chromogenic media for discrimination and selective enumeration of lactic acid bacteria in fermented milk products.

    PubMed

    Galat, Anna; Dufresne, Jérôme; Combrisson, Jérôme; Thépaut, Jérôme; Boumghar-Bourtchai, Leyla; Boyer, Mickaël; Fourmestraux, Candice

    2016-05-01

    Microbial analyses of fermented milk products require selective methods to discriminate between close species simultaneously present in high amounts. A culture-based method combining novel chromogenic agar media and appropriate incubation conditions was developed to enumerate lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains in fermented milk. M1 agar, containing two chromogenic substrates, allowed selective enumeration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, two strains of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei and Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus based on differential β-galactosidase and β-glucosidase activities. Depending on the presence of some or all of the above strains, M1 agar was supplemented with L-rhamnose or vancomycin and incubations were carried out at 37 °C or 44 °C to increase selectivity. A second agar medium, M2, containing one chromogenic substrates was used to selectively enumerate β-galactosidase producing Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus at 47 °C. By contrast with the usual culture media, the chromogenic method allowed unambiguous enumeration of each species, including discrimination between the two L. paracasei, up to 10(9) CFU/g of fermented milk. In addition, the relevance of the method was approved by enumerating reference ATCC strains in pure cultures and fermented milk product. The method could also be used for enumerations on non-Danone commercial fermented milk products containing strains different from those used in this study, showing versatility of the method. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a chromogenic culture method applied to selective enumeration of LAB. PMID:26742619

  4. Increased milk production by Holstein cows consuming endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected grasses inhibit prolactin (PRL) secretion and may reduce milk production of cows consuming endophyte-infected grasses. We hypothesized that consumption of endophyte-infected fescue during the dry period inhibits mammary differentiation and subsequent milk produ...

  5. Chemical properties and consumer perception of fluid milk from conventional and pasture-based production system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical abstract: The continued popularity of organic and natural foods has generated interest in organic milk, and use of pasture for dairy cattle is a requirement for organic production. This process may improve the health benefits of fluid milk via increases in the unsaturated fatty acid cont...

  6. TEMPERATURE-HUMIDITY INDICES AS INDICATORS OF MILK PRODUCTION LOSSES DUE TO HEAT STRESS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meteorological data (1993 to 2004) from two public weather stations in Phoenix, AZ and Athens, GA were analyzed with test day milk yield data from herds nearby the weather stations to identify the most appropriate temperature humidity index (THI) to measure losses in milk production due to heat stre...

  7. [Production of Kluyveromices fragilis biomass in deproteinized milk whey].

    PubMed

    Chinappi, I; Sánchez Crispín, J A

    2000-01-01

    The milk whey from a mature cheese factory deproteinised by acid thermic coagulation (pH 4.5 and 90 degrees C), provides a good culture media for the production of Kluyveromices fragilis biomass. The optimal experimental conditions for the maximal production of biomass were established by using fermenters with different capacity and design. For lactose concentration of 15 g/l, pH 4.5, 30 degrees C and aireation between 0.25 and 1 VVM, the duplication time was below two hours and 98% of the lactose was consumed. The obtained yield in dried weight was between 36 and 49% (g biomass/g lactose). The biomass (without broken cell) contain 46% protein on dry base and showed an "in vitro" digestibility of 65%. The organic mass decreased 80% after 12 hour of fermentation. This process eliminates a polluting agent and simultaneously, produces a biomass that could have industrial use as a protein complement in feeds. PMID:11460792

  8. Milk production and composition responds to dietary neutral detergent fiber and starch ratio in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Meng; Bu, Dengpan; Wang, Jiaqi; Zhou, Xiaoqiao; Zhu, Dan; Zhang, Ting; Niu, Junli; Ma, Lu

    2016-06-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether dietary neutral detergent fiber (NDF) : starch ratio could be considered as a nutritional indicator to evaluate carbohydrate composition and manipulate milk production and composition synthesis. Eight primiparous dairy cows were assigned to four total mixed rations with NDF : starch ratios of 0.86, 1.18, 1.63 and 2.34 from T1 to T4 in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Dry matter intake and milk production were decreased from T1 to T4. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, NDF and crude protein were linearly decreased from T1 to T4. As NDF : starch ratio increased, milk protein content and production, and milk lactose content and production were linearly reduced. However, milk fat content was linearly increased from T1 to T4. Quadratic effect was observed on milk fat production with the highest level in T3. Averaged rumen pH was linearly increased from T1 to T4, and subacute rumen acidosis occurred in T1. Ruminal propionate and butyrate concentration were linearly decreased, and microbial crude protein and metabolizable protein decreased from T1 to T4. It is concluded that NDF : starch ratio can be considered as a potential indicator to evaluate dietary carbohydrate composition and manipulate milk production and composition synthesis. PMID:26712573

  9. Effects of partly replacing dietary starch with fiber and fat on milk production and energy partitioning.

    PubMed

    Boerman, J P; Potts, S B; VandeHaar, M J; Lock, A L

    2015-10-01

    maintaining high milk production. PMID:26233447

  10. Effects of dry period length on milk production and health of dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Watters, R D; Guenther, J N; Brickner, A E; Rastani, R R; Crump, P M; Clark, P W; Grummer, R R

    2008-07-01

    Holstein cows (n = 781) in a commercial dairy herd were used in a randomized design to evaluate 2 dry period (DP) management strategies on milk production, milk components, milk quality, colostrum quality, and incidence of metabolic disorders. Cows were randomly assigned to a traditional 55 d (T) or shortened 34 d (S) DP. Cows assigned to T were fed a low-energy diet until 34 d before expected calving at which time all cows were fed a moderate-energy transition diet until calving. Postpartum, cows assigned to T produced more milk and tended to produce more solids-corrected milk than cows on S. Treatment differences in milk and solids-corrected milk yield were accounted for by cows in their second lactation. Milk fat percentage did not differ between treatments, but milk protein percentage was greater for cows assigned to S. Colostrum quality measured as IgG concentration did not differ between management strategies. Somatic cell score and cases of mastitis were not affected by management strategy. There was a tendency for prepartum nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) to be lower for cows assigned to T compared with S. However, postpartum, cows assigned to S had significantly lower NEFA concentrations than those assigned to T. The incidences of ketosis, retained placenta, displaced abomasum, and metritis did not differ between treatments. Postpartum energy balance, as indicated by plasma NEFA, may have been improved for cows assigned to S; there was no detectable effect on animal health. PMID:18565918

  11. Salted food preferences in rats (Rattus norvegicus): responses to liquid milk products.

    PubMed

    Bertino, M; Beauchamp, G K

    1987-02-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats do not prefer salted (NaCl) solid food when it is presented with its unsalted counterpart but prefer isotonic saline when it is presented with plain water. Preferences in liquid foods were examined by giving rats one-hour choices between various salted liquid milk products and their unsalted counterparts. When heavy cream and half and half were tested, rats consumed either equal amounts of the salted and unsalted food, or more of the unsalted food. The absence of salt preference in heavy cream and half and half was evident using other testing procedures and, with heavy cream, additional salt concentrations. In contrast, rats consumed more skin milk containing 0.150 M NaCl than plain skim milk. The role of fat content in modulating the expression of these salt preferences was examined in tests using whole milk and low-fat milk, both of which have water, protein and carbohydrate contents similar to skim milk, but a greater fat content. Unlike skim milk, preferences for 0.150 M NaCl in whole milk and low-fat milk were approximately 50%. The role of solidity in salted food preferences was also investigated by adding gelatin to salted (0.150 M NaCl) and unsalted skim milk. Whereas the rats ate equal quantities of salted and unsalted gelled skim milk, they preferred salted skim milk when it was a liquid. Results from these experiments suggest that several cues contained within food influence the expression of rats' salt preferences. PMID:3566263

  12. Integrating Fasciolosis Control in the Dry Cow Management: The Effect of Closantel Treatment on Milk Production

    PubMed Central

    Charlier, Johannes; Hostens, Miel; Jacobs, Jos; Van Ranst, Bonny; Duchateau, Luc; Vercruysse, Jozef

    2012-01-01

    The liver fluke Fasciola hepatica is a parasite of ruminants with a worldwide distribution and an apparent increasing incidence in EU member states. Effective control in dairy cattle is hampered by the lack of flukicides with a zero-withdrawal time for milk, leaving the dry period as the only time that preventive treatment can be applied. Here, we present the results of a blinded, randomized and placebo-controlled trial on 11 dairy herds (402 animals) exposed to F. hepatica to 1) assess the effect of closantel treatment at dry-off (or 80–42 days before calving in first-calving heifers) on milk production parameters and 2) evaluate if a number of easy-to-use animal parameters is related to the milk production response after treatment. Closantel treatment resulted in a noticeable decrease of anti-F. hepatica antibody levels from 3–6 months after treatment onwards, a higher peak production (1.06 kg) and a slightly higher persistence (9%) of the lactation, resulting in a 305-day milk production increase of 303 kg. No effects of anthelmintic treatment were found on the average protein and fat content of the milk. Milk production responses after treatment were poor in meagre animals and clinically relevant higher milk production responses were observed in first-lactation animals and in cows with a high (0.3–0.5 optical density ratio (ODR)), but not a very high (≥0.5 ODR) F. hepatica ELISA result on a milk sample from the previous lactation. We conclude that in dairy herds exposed to F. hepatica, flukicide treatment at dry-off is a useful strategy to reduce levels of exposure and increase milk production in the subsequent lactation. Moreover, the results suggest that treatment approaches that only target selected animals within a herd can be developed based on easy-to-use parameters. PMID:22916226

  13. Effect of added carbohydrates on glycemic and insulin responses to children’s milk products.

    PubMed

    Brand-Miller, Jennie; Atkinson, Fiona; Rowan, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Powdered milk products for children (Growing Up Milk Powders or GUMPs) containing added carbohydrates such as glucose and sucrose are now well established in parts of Asia. We surveyed GUMPs in Malaysia and Indonesia to determine the content of added carbohydrates. The ingredient lists and nutrition information panels were used to calculate the percentage of declared carbohydrates contributed by added carbohydrates and a subset of seven products was tested for their glycemic index (GI) and insulin responses in healthy adults. The glycemic load for each product was calculated. In total, 58 products (n = 24 in Malaysia and n = 34 in Indonesia) were surveyed. Added carbohydrate content (excluding fibre) ranged from 0 to 21.5 g per serve. Milk powders without added sources of carbohydrate had similar GI values to standard liquid whole milk. Products containing maltodextrins, corn or glucose syrups increased the GI by more than 2-fold, and glycemic load (GL) by 7-fold compared to milk powders with no added carbohydrates. Insulin responses were significantly but not strongly correlated with glucose responses (r = 0.32, p < 0.006). Children's milk powders containing higher levels of added carbohydrate ingredients elicit higher glucose and insulin responses than liquid or powdered whole milk. PMID:23306187

  14. Effect of Added Carbohydrates on Glycemic and Insulin Responses to Children’s Milk Products

    PubMed Central

    Brand-Miller, Jennie; Atkinson, Fiona; Rowan, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Powdered milk products for children (Growing Up Milk Powders or GUMPs) containing added carbohydrates such as glucose and sucrose are now well established in parts of Asia. We surveyed GUMPs in Malaysia and Indonesia to determine the content of added carbohydrates. The ingredient lists and nutrition information panels were used to calculate the percentage of declared carbohydrates contributed by added carbohydrates and a subset of seven products was tested for their glycemic index (GI) and insulin responses in healthy adults. The glycemic load for each product was calculated. In total, 58 products (n = 24 in Malaysia and n = 34 in Indonesia) were surveyed. Added carbohydrate content (excluding fibre) ranged from 0 to 21.5 g per serve. Milk powders without added sources of carbohydrate had similar GI values to standard liquid whole milk. Products containing maltodextrins, corn or glucose syrups increased the GI by more than 2-fold, and glycemic load (GL) by 7-fold compared to milk powders with no added carbohydrates. Insulin responses were significantly but not strongly correlated with glucose responses (r = 0.32, p < 0.006). Children’s milk powders containing higher levels of added carbohydrate ingredients elicit higher glucose and insulin responses than liquid or powdered whole milk. PMID:23306187

  15. Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis--incidences in milk and milk products, their isolation, enumeration, characterization, and role in human health.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ami; Shah, Nihir

    2011-12-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP), excreted in the feces and milk, is reported to be not easily inactivated by pasteurization and thermal treatments as other bacteria infecting humans and animals do. The D values of all MAP strains tested were considerably higher than those published for other pathogens. Culturing techniques for this organism are labor intensive. Although an increasing amount of scientific evidence suggests that this organism can be responsible for at least some cases of Crohn's disease (CD), there is controversy about MAP being a cause of CD in humans. In general, although some studies have described an association between the presence of MAP and CD, the role of Mycobacterium species and MAP in the etiology of this human disease remains unestablished. Although published reports indicate that it may not be completely inactivated by pasteurization of milk, the effectiveness of increasing the time or temperature in the pasteurization process has not been established and hence any potential benefit to human health cannot be determined. This article summarizes the incidences of MAP in milk and milk products with respect to human health and brief discussion of various serological as well as molecular techniques used for their isolation, enumeration, and characterization. PMID:21620785

  16. Amino acids and mammary gland development: nutritional implications for milk production and neonatal growth.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Reza; Wu, Zhenlong; Hou, Yongqing; Bazer, Fuller W; Wu, Guoyao

    2016-01-01

    Milk is synthesized by mammary epithelial cells of lactating mammals. The synthetic capacity of the mammary gland depends largely on the number and efficiency of functional mammary epithelial cells. Structural development of the mammary gland occurs during fetal growth, prepubertal and post-pubertal periods, pregnancy, and lactation under the control of various hormones (particularly estrogen, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-I, progesterone, placental lactogen, and prolactin) in a species- and stage-dependent manner. Milk is essential for the growth, development, and health of neonates. Amino acids (AA), present in both free and peptide-bound forms, are the most abundant organic nutrients in the milk of farm animals. Uptake of AA from the arterial blood of the lactating dam is the ultimate source of proteins (primarily β-casein and α-lactalbumin) and bioactive nitrogenous metabolites in milk. Results of recent studies indicate extensive catabolism of branched-chain AA (leucine, isoleucine and valine) and arginine to synthesize glutamate, glutamine, alanine, aspartate, asparagine, proline, and polyamines. The formation of polypeptides from AA is regulated not only by hormones (e.g., prolactin, insulin and glucocorticoids) and the rate of blood flow across the lactating mammary gland, but also by concentrations of AA, lipids, glucose, vitamins and minerals in the maternal plasma, as well as the activation of the mechanistic (mammalian) target rapamycin signaling by certain AA (e.g., arginine, branched-chain AA, and glutamine). Knowledge of AA utilization (including metabolism) by mammary epithelial cells will enhance our fundamental understanding of lactation biology and has important implications for improving the efficiency of livestock production worldwide. PMID:27042295

  17. Particle size of roasted soybeans and the effect on milk production of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, T R; Korevaar, A C; Satter, L D

    1997-08-01

    Fifteen cows were used in an experiment with a 5 x 5 replicated Latin square design to quantify the effect of particle size of roasted soybeans on milk production and fecal excretion of soybeans. The five experimental periods were each 2 wk long. Diets contained (percentage of dry matter) 33% alfalfa silage, 17% corn silage, 30.6% high moisture ear corn, 18% soybeans, and 1.4% mineral supplement. The five dietary treatments included raw whole soybeans or roasted soybeans in four particle sizes (whole and half, half and quarter, quarter and smaller, and coarsely ground). Mean particle sizes of the raw soybeans and of the roasted soybeans in whole and half sizes were > 4.75 mm. Mean particle sizes of the roasted soybeans in half and quarter, quarter and smaller, and coarsely ground roasted soybeans were 2.92, 2.01, and 1.59, respectively. During the normal handling of roasted soybeans, a large number of seeds was broken into halves in the treatment with whole and half sizes (36%, wt/wt basis). Production of 3.5% fat-corrected milk was 35.4, 37.7, 37.2, 35.1, and 35.4 kg/d for cows fed raw soybeans; roasted soybeans in whole and half, half and quarter, and quarter and smaller sizes; and ground roasted soybeans, respectively. Cows that were fed raw soybeans excreted the largest amount of visible soybean particles in feces, and cows that were fed ground roasted soybeans had the least amount of soybeans in the feces (61.3 vs. 10.6 g of soybeans/kg of fecal dry matter). Roasted soybeans in half and quarter sizes are optimal for milk production. PMID:9276812

  18. Study of microbial diversity in raw milk and fresh curd used for Fontina cheese production by culture-independent methods.

    PubMed

    Giannino, Maria Laura; Marzotto, Marta; Dellaglio, Franco; Feligini, Maria

    2009-04-15

    The bacterial populations of raw milk employed for the production of Fontina cheese in alpine farms located in different valleys and altitudes (from 700 to 2246 m above sea level) were investigated by culture independent techniques. Total microbial DNA was isolated from milk and curd samples and used as template in Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) to study the hypervariable V3 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and analyzed by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). Representative bands of DGGE patterns were sequenced for identification purposes. The use of universal primer for PCR-DGGE allowed the description of the bacterial community, not only for the presence of lactic acid bacteria, but also for other adventitious species. DGGE profiles obtained from milk and fresh curd samples were generally different and typical for each farm, although some recurrent bands were observed. Cluster analysis of DGGE profiles did not show high similarity among samples and it was probably dependent on the different geographical areas of pastures. Some Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) recurred in many samples (Streptococcus thermophilus, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, Lactococcus lactis, Leuconostoc lactis) indicating that alpine milk is a preferential niche for their colonization. The microbiota included not only mesophilic and thermoresistant LAB but also adventitious bacteria (Macrococcus caseolyticus, Rothia spp.) and psychrotrophic bacteria (Chryseobacterium spp., Pseudomonas spp.), that were found in almost all samples, but disappeared after the warming up at 47-48 degrees C of coagulated milk. Pantoea spp. was primarily found in curds and only with a low incidence in milk samples, indicating the environmental origin. Finally the sequencing data confirmed the presence of E. faecium, E. faecalis and S. thermophilus as major species present in the curd. These species were found also in raw milk, proving its importance as source of the typical fermenting

  19. Food safety in raw milk production: risk factors associated to bacterial DNA contamination.

    PubMed

    Cerva, Cristine; Bremm, Carolina; Reis, Emily Marques dos; Bezerra, André Vinícius Andrade; Loiko, Márcia Regina; Cruz, Cláudio Estêvão Farias da; Cenci, Alexander; Mayer, Fabiana Quoos

    2014-06-01

    While human illness from milkborne pathogens may be linked to contamination of the product after pasteurization or improper pasteurization, such diseases are usually associated with consumption of raw milk or its by-products. Molecular biology tools were applied to investigate contamination by Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., some pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli, and Campylobacter jejuni in 548 raw milk samples from 125 dairy farms established in two regions from southern Brazil. Moreover, 15 variables were evaluated for their association with raw milk contamination levels, and the risk factors were determined by multiple regression analysis. Salmonella spp. were more frequently detected, followed by pathogenic E. coli. There was difference in contamination index between the regions, in which risk factors such as temporary cattle confinement, low milk production, low milking machine cleaning frequency, and milk storage area without tile walls were identified. The risk factors were specific to each region studied. Nevertheless, the data can be used to improve milk quality of dairy farms/herds with similar management practices. PMID:24715203

  20. Periconceptional Heat Stress of Holstein Dams Is Associated with Differences in Daughter Milk Production during Their First Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Britni M.; Stallings, Jon W.; Clay, John S.; Rhoads, Michelle L.

    2016-01-01

    The fertility of lactating Holstein cows is severely reduced during periods of heat stress. Despite this reduction in fertility, however, some inseminations conducted during heat stress result in successful pregnancies from which heifer calves are born. Many of these heifer calves are retained and raised to enter the milking herd as replacement animals. Heat stress experienced by these females around the time they were conceived may confer long-lasting effects that alter subsequent milk production capacity. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between periconceptional heat stress and subsequent milk production of primiparous cows. National Dairy Herd Improvement Association data was obtained from Dairy Records Management Systems. Records included Holstein cows that had completed at least one lactation in one of three states with large populations of dairy cattle and which are known for having hot, humid summers: Georgia, Florida or Texas. Dates of conception were calculated by subtracting 276 d from the recorded birth date of each individual cow. Records for cows conceived within the months of June, July, and August were retained as heat stress-conceived (HSC) cows (n = 94,440); cows conceived within the months of December, January, and February were retained as thermoneutral-conceived (TNC) contemporaries (n = 141,365). In order to account for the effects of environmental conditions on total milk production for a given lactation, cows were blocked by season of calving (winter, spring, summer or fall). Adjusted 305-day mature-equivalent milk production was evaluated with a mixed model ANOVA using SAS, in which random effects were used to account for variability between herds. Of the cows that calved in the summer, fall and winter, TNC cows had higher milk yield than the HSC cows in all states. Interestingly, the cows that calved in the spring presented a unique relationship, with HSC cows producing more milk. Overall however, heat stress at

  1. Periconceptional Heat Stress of Holstein Dams Is Associated with Differences in Daughter Milk Production during Their First Lactation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Britni M; Stallings, Jon W; Clay, John S; Rhoads, Michelle L

    2016-01-01

    The fertility of lactating Holstein cows is severely reduced during periods of heat stress. Despite this reduction in fertility, however, some inseminations conducted during heat stress result in successful pregnancies from which heifer calves are born. Many of these heifer calves are retained and raised to enter the milking herd as replacement animals. Heat stress experienced by these females around the time they were conceived may confer long-lasting effects that alter subsequent milk production capacity. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between periconceptional heat stress and subsequent milk production of primiparous cows. National Dairy Herd Improvement Association data was obtained from Dairy Records Management Systems. Records included Holstein cows that had completed at least one lactation in one of three states with large populations of dairy cattle and which are known for having hot, humid summers: Georgia, Florida or Texas. Dates of conception were calculated by subtracting 276 d from the recorded birth date of each individual cow. Records for cows conceived within the months of June, July, and August were retained as heat stress-conceived (HSC) cows (n = 94,440); cows conceived within the months of December, January, and February were retained as thermoneutral-conceived (TNC) contemporaries (n = 141,365). In order to account for the effects of environmental conditions on total milk production for a given lactation, cows were blocked by season of calving (winter, spring, summer or fall). Adjusted 305-day mature-equivalent milk production was evaluated with a mixed model ANOVA using SAS, in which random effects were used to account for variability between herds. Of the cows that calved in the summer, fall and winter, TNC cows had higher milk yield than the HSC cows in all states. Interestingly, the cows that calved in the spring presented a unique relationship, with HSC cows producing more milk. Overall however, heat stress at

  2. Oriental theileriosis in dairy cows causes a significant milk production loss

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Oriental theileriosis is a tick-borne, protozoan disease of cattle caused by members of the Theileria orientalis-complex. Recent outbreaks of this disease in eastern Australia have caused major concerns to the dairy and beef farming communities, but there are no published studies of the economic impact of this disease. On a farm in Victoria, Australia, we assessed whether oriental theileriosis has an impact on milk production and reproductive performance in dairy cows. Methods Blood samples collected from all 662 cows on the farm were tested using an established molecular test. For individual cows, milk production and reproductive performance data were collected. A clinical assessment of individual cows was performed. Based on clinical findings and molecular test results, the following groups of cows were classified: group 1, with cardinal clinical signs of oriental theileriosis and molecular test-positive for T. orientalis; group 2, with mild or suspected signs of theileriosis and test-positive; group 3, with no clinical signs and test-positive; and group 4, with no clinical signs and test-negative. Milk production and reproductive performance data for groups 1, 2 and 3 were each compared with those for group 4 using linear and logistic regression analyses, respectively. Results At 100 days of lactation, group 1 cows produced significantly less milk (288 l; P = 0.001), milk fat (16.8 kg; P < 0.001) and milk protein (12.6 kg; P < 0.001) compared with group 4. At this lactation point, group 2 also produced significantly less milk fat (13.6 kg; P = 0.002) and milk protein (8.6 kg; P = 0.005) than group 4. At 305 days of lactation, group 1 cows produced significantly less milk (624 l; P = 0.004), milk fat (42.9 kg; P < 0.001) and milk protein (26.0 kg; P < 0.001) compared with group 4 cows. Group 2 cows also produced significantly less milk fat (21.2 kg; P = 0.033) at this lactation point. No statistically significant difference in reproductive performance

  3. Free Maillard Reaction Products in Milk Reflect Nutritional Intake of Glycated Proteins and Can Be Used to Distinguish "Organic" and "Conventionally" Produced Milk.

    PubMed

    Schwarzenbolz, Uwe; Hofmann, Thomas; Sparmann, Nina; Henle, Thomas

    2016-06-22

    Using LC-MS/MS and isotopically labeled standard substances, quantitation of free Maillard reaction products (MRPs), namely, N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), 5-(hydroxymethyl)-1H-pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde (pyrraline, PYR), N(δ)-(5-hydro-5-methyl-4-imidazolon-2-yl)-ornithine (MG-H), and N(ε)-fructosyllysine (FL), in bovine milk was achieved. Considerable variations in the amounts of the individual MRPs were found, most likely as a consequence of the nutritional uptake of glycated proteins. When comparing commercial milk samples labeled as originating from "organic" or "conventional" farming, respectively, significant differences in the content of free PYR (organic milk, 20-300 pmol/mL; conventional milk, 400-1000 pmol/mL) were observed. An analysis of feed samples indicated that rapeseed and sugar beet are the main sources for MRPs in conventional farming. Furthermore, milk of different dairy animals (cow, buffalo, donkey, goat, ewe, mare, camel) as well as for the first time human milk was analyzed for free MRPs. The distribution of their concentrations, with FL and PYR as the most abundant in human milk and with a high individual variability, also points to a nutritional influence. As the components of concentrated feed do not belong to the natural food sources of ruminants and equidae, free MRPs in milk might serve as indicators for an adequate animal feeding in near-natural farming and can be suitable parameters to distinguish between an "organic" and "conventional" production method of milk. PMID:27213835

  4. Evaluation of local energy sources in milk production in a tropical silvopastoral system with Erythrina poeppigiana.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Ferrer, Guillermo; Mendoza-Martínez, Germán; Soto-Pinto, Lorena; Alayón-Gamboa, Armando

    2015-06-01

    An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of four local energy sources (sorghum grain, green banana, polished rice, and sugarcane molasses) fed to dairy cows on intake, milk production and composition, and economic viability in a silvopastoral system in Costa Rica (Turrialba). Twelve grazing cows (Jersey × Central American Milking Creole), with a mean live weight of 332 kg (SD 34), were supplemented with 0.5 kg of dry matter (DM)/100 kg/LW of Erythrina porppigiana fresh foliage daily. Experimental design was a replicated change-over 4 × 4 Latin Square. The pasture composition was 11 and 17 % of star grass (Cynodon niemfuensis), 32 and 28 % of ruzzi grass (Brachiaria rusisiensis), and 45 and 42 % of natural grasses (Axonopus compresus and Paspalum conjugatum) at initial and final times of the essay, respectively. The grass allowance was 30.14 DM/cow/day. Significant differences were found among treatments for variable milk fat content (P < 0.05). Sorghum presented the highest (41.2 g/kg milk) content of milk fat, followed by green banana (39.2 g/kg milk), polished rice (38.3 g/kg milk) and molasses (38.1 g/kg milk). Non-significant differences (P > 0.05) resulted for total milk production (sorghum 9.0 kg/cow/day; green banana 8.9 kg/cow/day; polished rice 8.8 kg/cow/day; molasses 8.6 kg/cow/day) and fat-corrected milk (FCM). The financial analysis showed that all treatments were economically viable; however, supplementation with green bananas and molasses were the most favorable due to the low costs incurred. PMID:25863954

  5. Increasing breast milk production for premature infants with a relaxation/imagery audiotape.

    PubMed

    Feher, S D; Berger, L R; Johnson, J D; Wilde, J B

    1989-01-01

    Many women whose premature infants are hospitalized in a newborn intensive care unit choose to express breast milk for their babies. Yet anxiety, fatigue, and emotional stress are powerful inhibitors of lactation. To facilitate the breast-feeding experience, intervention mothers were given a 20-minute audio cassette tape based on relaxation and visual imagery techniques. At a single follow-up expression of milk at the hospital approximately 1 week after enrollment, they expressed 63% more breast milk than a randomized group of control mothers. The fat content of the breast milk in the two groups was not significantly different. Among a small group of mothers whose infants were receiving mechanical ventilation, the increase in milk volume compared with that of control mothers was 121%. Longer-term effects of the relaxation/imagery approach (such as extending the duration of breast-feeding or reducing parental stress after hospital discharge) and the physiologic basis for the increased volume of expressed milk (improved milk production v more efficient milk ejection) are appropriate topics for future research. PMID:2642620

  6. A preliminary risk assessment of potential exposure to naturally occurring estrogens from Beijing (China) market milk products.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Mi, Xiaoxia; Yuan, Yuwei; Chen, Gang; Ren, Li; Wang, Kaiqiang; Zhu, Dan; Qian, Yongzhong

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine the occurrence of the natural steroid hormones estrone (E1), 17α-estradiol (αE2), 17β-estradiol (βE2) and estriol (E3) in 38 commercial milk samples obtained from markets in Beijing, China. Liquid Chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was employed to determine estrogens levels. The concentrations of E1, αE2, βE2 and E3 in different milk products varied from 0-146.12 ng/L, 0-70.12 ng/L, 0-31.85 ng/L to 0-2.18 ng/L, respectively. We compared exposures to estrogens through milk consumption with acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and threshold for toxicological concern (TTC) to determine whether estrogen intakes from milk consumption are larger or smaller than the toxicity-based benchmarks. The combined margin of safety MOS (MOST) for total estrogens are about 72-99, 118-161, 539-1104, for 2-4, 4-7 year-old residential children, and adults, respectively. The lowest MOST for children of 2-4 years old result from comparing total of estrogens with the lowest TTC value (0.15 μg/person/day) (MOS=3.5). The MOS values suggest that the individual and total estrogens that may present in milk are not causing a health risk for the local residents, including young children. PMID:24910459

  7. Mapping quantitative trait loci controlling milk production in dairy cattle by exploiting progeny testing

    SciTech Connect

    Georges, M.; Nielsen, D.; Mackinnon, M.; Mishra, A.; Okimoto, R.; Sargeant, L.S.; Steele, M.R.; Zhao, X.; Pasquino, A.T.

    1995-02-01

    We have exploited {open_quotes}progeny testing{close_quotes} to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying the genetic variation of milk production in a selected dairy cattle population. A total of 1,518 sires, with progeny tests based on the milking performances of >150,000 daughters jointly, was genotyped for 159 autosomal microsatellites bracketing 1645 centimorgan or approximately two thirds of the bovine genome. Using a maximum likelihood multilocus linkage analysis accounting for variance heterogeneity of the phenotypes, we identified five chromosomes giving very strong evidence (LOD score {ge} 3) for the presence of a QTL controlling milk production: chromosomes 1, 6, 9, 10 and 20. These findings demonstrate that loci with considerable effects on milk production are still segregating in highly selected populations and pave the way toward marker-assisted selection in dairy cattle breeding. 44 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Modulation of Mammary Gland Development and Milk Production by Growth Hormone Expression in GH Transgenic Goats

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Zekun; Lin, Jian; Ye, Lulu; Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Jianquan; Yang, Qian; Yu, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    Mammary gland development during puberty and reconstruction during pregnancy and lactation is under the control of circulating endocrine hormones, such as growth hormone, which are released from the pituitary. In this study, we explored the influence of overexpression of growth hormone in the mammary gland on breast development and milk production in goats. Using transcriptome sequencing, we found that the number of highly expressed genes was greater in GH transgenic goats than non-transgenic goats. Furthermore, KEGG pathway analysis showed that the majority of the genes belonged to the MAPK signaling pathway and the ECM-receptor interaction pathway. The expression of genes related to breast development was further confirmed using qRT-PCR. Interestingly, both milk production and milk quality were increased. The results of these experiments imply that overexpression of growth hormone in the breast may stimulate breast development and enhances milk production by modulating alveolar cell proliferation or branching through the MAPK signaling pathway. PMID:27445863

  9. Infections associated with milk and dairy products in Europe and North America, 1980-85*

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, J. C. M.

    1987-01-01

    Outbreaks of infection associated with milk and other dairy products in Europe and North America from 1980 to 1985 are reviewed. Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. were the most commonly identified etiological agents, while other infections of animal origin, in particular listeriosis and yersiniosis, were increasingly reported. Most infections were attributed to untreated cows' milk or cheese, but also increasingly to contaminated ”heat-treated” products. Heat-treatment is highly effective in controlling foodborne disease, but may be insufficient if not complemented by high standards of hygiene throughout production and processing. Large community outbreaks of salmonellosis, listeriosis, and yersiniosis in Canada, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the USA that were associated with contaminated ”heat-treated” liquid milk, powdered milk, or cheese emphasize the vulnerability of dairy produce. PMID:3311443

  10. Effects of feeding diets based on transgenic soybean meal and soybean hulls to dairy cows on production measures and sensory quality of milk.

    PubMed

    Weiss, W P; Simons, C T; Ekmay, R D

    2015-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine whether feeding meal and hulls derived from genetically modified soybeans to dairy cows affected production measures and sensory qualities of milk. The soybeans were genetically modified (Event DAS-444Ø6-6) to be resistant to multiple herbicides. Twenty-six Holstein cows (13/treatment) were fed a diet that contained meal and hulls derived from transgenic soybeans or a diet that contained meal and hulls from a nontransgenic near-isoline variety. Soybean products comprised approximately 21% of the diet dry matter, and diets were formulated to be nearly identical in crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, energy, and minerals and vitamins. The experimental design was a replicated 2×2 Latin square with a 28-d feeding period. Dry matter intake (21.3 vs. 21.4kg/d), milk yield (29.3 vs. 29.4kg/d), milk fat (3.70 vs. 3.68%), and milk protein (3.10 vs. 3.12%) did not differ between cows fed control or transgenic soybean products, respectively. Milk fatty acid profile was virtually identical between treatments. Somatic cell count was significantly lower for cows fed transgenic soybean products, but the difference was biologically trivial. Milk was collected from all cows in period 1 on d 0 (before treatment), 14, and 28 for sensory evaluation. On samples from all days (including d 0) judges could discriminate between treatments for perceived appearance of the milk. The presence of this difference at d 0 indicated that it was likely not a treatment effect but rather an initial bias in the cow population. No treatment differences were found for preference or acceptance of the milk. Overall, feeding soybean meal and hulls derived from this genetically modified soybean had essentially no effects on production or milk acceptance when fed to dairy cows. PMID:26454286

  11. Influence of milk production potential on forage dry matter intake by multiparous and primiparous Brangus females.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C R; Lalman, D L; Brown, M A; Appeddu, L A; Buchanan, D S; Wettemann, R P

    2003-07-01

    Brangus cows (n = 29) were used in three experiments to evaluate the effects of parity (multiparous vs. primiparous) and potential genetic merit for milk production (high vs. low) on forage intake during late gestation, early lactation, and late lactation. Cows were selected for milk production based on their sire's EPD for milk production (MEPD). Cows had ad libitum access to (130% of previous 2-d average intake) low-quality hay (5.3% CP and 76% NDF), and cottonseed meal was supplemented to ensure adequate degradable intake protein. All females were adapted to diets for at least 7 d, and individual intake data were collected for 9 d. During the lactation trials, actual milk production was determined using a portable milking machine following a 12-h separation from calves. During late gestation, multiparous cows consumed 24% more (P = 0.01) forage DM (kg/d) than primiparous cows; however, parity class did not influence forage intake when intake was expressed relative to BW. Furthermore, MEPD did not influence forage intake during late gestation. During early lactation, multiparous cows produced 66% more (P < 0.001) milk than primiparous cows, and high MEPD tended (P = 0.10) to produce more milk than low MEPD. Multiparous cows consumed 19% more (P < 0.0001) forage DM than did primiparous cows when expressed on an absolute basis, but not when expressed on a BW basis. High-MEPD cows consumed 8% more (P < 0.05) forage DM than did low-MEPD cows. During late lactation, multiparous cows produced 84% more milk than primiparous cows, although MEPD did not influence (P = 0.40) milk yield. In addition, multiparous cows consumed 17% more (P < 0.01) forage DM per day than primiparous cows, but when intake was expressed relative to BW, neither parity nor MEPD influenced forage DMI during late lactation. Milk yield and BW explained significant proportions of the variation in forage DMI during early and late lactation. Each kilogram increase in milk yield was associated with a 0

  12. Immune response, productivity and quality of milk from grazing goats as affected by dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Caroprese, Mariangela; Ciliberti, Maria Giovana; Santillo, Antonella; Marino, Rosaria; Sevi, Agostino; Albenzio, Marzia

    2016-04-01

    This study was undertaken to assess how diet supplemented with fish oil and linseed improve the immune profile, the production performance, and milk quality of grazing goats by a diet supplementation of fish oil or linseed. Twenty-four Garganica grazing goats were divided into three groups named control (CON), fish oil (FO) and linseed (LIN) according to the fat supplement received in their diet. In vivo immune responses were evaluated by monitoring cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in order to verify the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation on goats' health status. Goat milk samples were analysed weekly to determine milk chemical composition, fatty acid profile, and somatic cell count. Diet based on linseed supplementation (LIN) significantly increased milk yield by 30%, milk fat yield by 67%, protein yield by 34%, and casein yield by 41% as compared with CON. Fat content increased by 30% in LIN milk as compared with CON milk, and by 12% as compared with FO milk. Linseed modified milk fatty acid profile; LIN milk showed lower SFA and higher PUFA than FO milk. The modified fatty acid composition of LIN milk resulted in lower AI and TI indexes than FO and CON milk. Linseed and fish oil administration can reduce humoral immunity of goats, but has no effect in their cellular immunity. Dietary linseed supplementation in grazing dairy goat supports feeding programs to improve milk composition and quality, and a modulation of their immune responses. PMID:27033938

  13. Aflatoxin M1 contamination in commercial samples of milk and dairy products in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, V P; Bu-Abbas, A; Alaa-Basuny; Al-Johar, W; Al-Mufti, S; Siddiqui, M K

    2001-11-01

    As part of the programme on monitoring of environmental contaminants in food stuff in Kuwait, 54 samples of fresh full cream and skimmed milk, powdered milk, yoghurt, and infant formula were analysed for aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) by HPLC following sample clean up using immuno-affinity columns. Of samples, 28% were contaminated with AFM1 with 6% being above the maximum permissible limit of 0.2 microgl(-1). Three fresh cow milk samples collected from a private local producer showed the highest level of 0.21 microg l(-1) AFM1. There was no contamination with AFM1 in powdered milk and infant formulas. These results show the necessity of a survey involving a larger number of milk and its products and suggest that presently the contamination of milk and milk products with AFM1 does not appear to be a serious health problem in Kuwait. Nevertheless, a continuous surveillance programme may be warranted to monitor regularly the occurrence of aflatoxins in the animal feeds responsible for current limited contamination and to note rapidly and worsening in the situation that may depend on market changes or on unfavourable climatic developments. PMID:11665741

  14. Polymorphisms in the promoter region of the bovine lactoferrin gene influence milk somatic cell score and milk production traits in Chinese Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yongjiang; Zhu, Xiaorui; Xing, Shiyu; Zhang, Meirong; Zhang, Huimin; Wang, Xiaolong; Karrow, Niel; Yang, Liguo; Yang, Zhangping

    2015-12-01

    Lactoferrin is an iron-binding protein found in cow's milk that plays an important role in preventing mastitis caused by intramammary infection. In this study, 20 Chinese Holstein cows were selected randomly for PCR amplification and sequencing of the bovine lactoferrin gene promoter region and used for SNP discovery in the region between nucleotide positions -461 to -132. Three SNPs (-270T>C, -190G>A and -156A>G) were identified in bovine lactoferrin, then Chinese Holstein cows (n=866) were genotyped using Sequenom MassARRAY (Sequenom Inc., San Diego, CA) based on the previous SNP information in this study, and the associations between SNPs or haplotype and milk somatic cell score (SCS) and production traits were analyzed by the least squares method in the GLM procedure of SAS. SNPs -270T>C and -156A>G showed close linkage disequilibrium (r(2)=0.76). The SNP -190G>A showed a significant association with SCS, and individuals with genotype GG had higher SCS than genotypes AG and AA. Associations were found between the SNPs -270T>C and -190G>A with SCS and the milk composition. The software MatInspector revealed that these SNPs were located within several potential transcription factor binding sites, including NF-κB p50, KLF7 and SP1, and may alter gene expression, but further investigation will be required to elucidate the biological and practical relevance of these SNPs. PMID:26679804

  15. Sustainability evaluation of pasteurized milk production with a life cycle assessment approach: An Iranian case study.

    PubMed

    Rafiee, Shahin; Khoshnevisan, Benyamin; Mohammadi, Issa; Aghbashlo, Mortaza; Mousazadeh, Hossein; Clark, Sean

    2016-08-15

    Agro-food systems play a significant role in the economies of all nations due to energy use and the resulting environmental consequences. The sustainability of these systems is determined by a multitude of interacting economic, social and environmental factors. Dairy production presents a relevant example of the sustainability trade-offs that occur within such systems. On the one hand, dairy production constitutes an important part of the human diet, but it is also responsible for significant emissions of potent greenhouse gases and other pollutants. In this study, the environmental aspects of pasteurized milk production in Iran were investigated using a life-cycle approach. Three sub-systems, namely feed production, dairy farm and dairy factory, were taken into account to determine how and where Iranian pasteurized milk production might be made more environmentally friendly and energy efficient. The results clearly demonstrate that the feed production stage was the hot spot in pasteurized milk production in terms of energy consumption, environmental burdens and economic costs. The largest share of the total production costs belonged to animal feeds (43%), which were part of the feed production stage. The largest consumers of energy in the production of raw milk were alfalfa (30.3%), concentrate (24%), straw (17.8%) and maize (10.9%) for cows, followed by diesel fuel (6.6%) and electricity (5.6%). The global warming potential for the production of 1000kg of raw milk at the dairy-farm gate was estimated at 457kg CO2,eq. Thus, more than 69% of the total impact at the milk-processing gate resulted from the previous two sub-systems (feed production and dairy farm), with the feed-production stage accounting for the largest fractions of the environmental burdens. PMID:27110976

  16. Molecular Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of Listeria monocytogenes Isolated from Milk and Milk Products in Kaduna, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Usman, U B; Kwaga, J K P; Kabir, J; Olonitola, O S; Radu, S; Bande, F

    2016-01-01

    In this study, Listeria (L.) monocytogenes isolated from milk and milk products in Kaduna, Nigeria, were subjected to a multiplex PCR assay to identify virulence-associated genes (such as prf A, inl A, hly A, act A, and iap). Of the 36 isolates, 9 (25%) were positive for one or two virulence-associated genes. Based on the sample type, 6 (16.9%) of the isolates that possessed virulence-associated genes were obtained from raw milk, 2 (3.2%) from "Manshanu," and 1 (2.8%) from "Kindrimo." Sequence and phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA revealed that Nigerian L. monocytogenes isolates (NGA 34A, NGA 35A, NGA 41A, and NGA 38A), when compared with reference L. monocytogenes, were grouped into two distinct clusters, A and B, with sequence (NGA 34A, NGA 35A, and NGA 41A) phylogenetically closer to J1776; N1-011A; R2-502; J1816; and J2-031, whereas L. monocytogenes isolate (NGA 38A) clustered with EDG; J1-220; J1926; J1817; and J2-1091. The separation of the Nigerian L. monocytogenes isolates into linage A (responsible for epidemic listeriosis) and lineage B (responsible for sporadic cases of listeriosis) is of public health concern and that local isolates might have potentials for human food borne listeriosis based on the virulence factors so far identified. PMID:27597873

  17. Molecular Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of Listeria monocytogenes Isolated from Milk and Milk Products in Kaduna, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Kabir, J.; Olonitola, O. S.; Radu, S.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, Listeria (L.) monocytogenes isolated from milk and milk products in Kaduna, Nigeria, were subjected to a multiplex PCR assay to identify virulence-associated genes (such as prf A, inl A, hly A, act A, and iap). Of the 36 isolates, 9 (25%) were positive for one or two virulence-associated genes. Based on the sample type, 6 (16.9%) of the isolates that possessed virulence-associated genes were obtained from raw milk, 2 (3.2%) from “Manshanu,” and 1 (2.8%) from “Kindrimo.” Sequence and phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA revealed that Nigerian L. monocytogenes isolates (NGA 34A, NGA 35A, NGA 41A, and NGA 38A), when compared with reference L. monocytogenes, were grouped into two distinct clusters, A and B, with sequence (NGA 34A, NGA 35A, and NGA 41A) phylogenetically closer to J1776; N1-011A; R2-502; J1816; and J2-031, whereas L. monocytogenes isolate (NGA 38A) clustered with EDG; J1-220; J1926; J1817; and J2-1091. The separation of the Nigerian L. monocytogenes isolates into linage A (responsible for epidemic listeriosis) and lineage B (responsible for sporadic cases of listeriosis) is of public health concern and that local isolates might have potentials for human food borne listeriosis based on the virulence factors so far identified. PMID:27597873

  18. Alfalfa containing the glyphosate-tolerant trait has no effect on feed intake, milk composition, or milk production of dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Combs, D K; Hartnell, G F

    2008-02-01

    The objective of this experiment was to assess if feeding glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa affects feed intake, milk composition, or milk production of dairy cows. One alfalfa (Medicago sativa), variety expressing the CP4 EPSPS protein and grown in southeastern Washington State was harvested at the late vegetative stage as hay. Three commercial conventional varieties of alfalfa hay of similar nutrient composition and harvested in the same geographic region were fed to cows as controls. The commercial hays were selected to be similar in crude protein [18% of dry matter (DM)] and neutral detergent fiber (40% of DM) to the glyphosate-tolerant hay. Sixteen multiparous Holstein cows were fed diets containing alfalfa hay (39.7% of diet DM) from either the glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa, or 1 of the 3 conventional varieties. Diets contained at least 15.7% crude protein and 29% neutral detergent fiber. Experimental design was a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square. Periods were 28 d and feed intake, milk yield, and milk composition were summarized over the last 14 d of each period. Daily milk yield (38.0 kg) and 4% fat-corrected milk (34.7 kg) were not affected by treatment. Milk fat (3.44%) and milk true protein (2.98%) were also not affected by source of hay. Milk lactose (4.72%) and soldis-not-fat (8.5%) did not differ due to treatment. Dry matter intake was similar across treatments (24.4 kg/d). These results are consistent with data from feeding trials with other glyphosate-tolerant crops and previously reported compositional comparisons of glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa with controls. Milk production, milk composition, feed intake, and feed efficiency were not affected by feeding diets that contained nearly 40% glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa hay to lactating dairy cows. PMID:18218755

  19. Neither Milk Production, Milk Transfer Nor Pup Growth Hormone Account for Reduced Body Weights of Rat Pups Reared In Hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bear, L. A.; Chowdhury, J. H.; Grindeland, R. E.; Wade, C. E.; Ronca, A. E.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Studies spanning the gravity continuum from 0 to 2-g are revealing new insights into how mammalian reproduction and development may proceed in the microgravity of space. Rat pups reared from either conception or midgestation in hypergravity (hg) weigh 6-15% less than 1-g controls. In the present study we analyzed maternal and pup factors that may account for reduced body weight of hg reared pups. Beginning on Gestational day (G)11 of the rats' 22 day pregnancy, rat dams and their litters were continuously exposed to either 1.5-g, 1.75-g or 2.0-g. Prolaction (Prl) and oxytocin (OT) were measured in hg-exposed dams during either pregnancy (G20) or lactation (Postnatal day [P] 10). Gravity related differences in Prl were not observed whereas OT was depressed during lactation in hg dams relative to controls (p less than 0.05). Milk transfer measured during a discrete suckling episode was actually increased in hg-reared litters and comparable numbers of milk-letdowns were observed in the two conditions. Recent reports using dwarfing phenotypes in mouse mutants have provided evidence for postnatal dependence on growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). Plasma GH measured in P10 pups using enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was significantly elevated in hg pups relative to 1-g controls (mean +/- sd., ng/ml: 2.0-g, 10.6 [3.0], 1.5-g 8.9 [4.0], 1.0-g, 7.95 [3.1]). Together, these findings suggest that neither milk production, milk transfer nor pup GH play significant roles in reduced body weights of hg-reared pups. Studies underway are focused on insulin-like growth factors.

  20. Determination of free and total phthalates in commercial whole milk products in different packaging materials by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jialu; Chen, Wanxin; Zhu, Hangcui; Wang, Chengjun

    2015-12-01

    We developed a method for extraction and determination of free and total phthalate esters in commercial whole milk products. The free phthalates in milk samples were extracted with ethyl acetate after general pretreatment procedures including protein precipitation, centrifugation, and filtration. The bound phthalates in samples were first desorbed with the aid of ultrasound irradiation before extraction of total phthalates. The separation and determination of phthalates in extracts was performed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric detection. The detection limits were in the range of 0.09 to 0.36ng/g and the average recovery between 79.1 and 110.3%. The developed methods were applied to extract and determine phthalates in commercial whole milk products with different packaging materials, including plastic, glass, and metal. All samples contained several phthalates, including diethyl, diisobutyl, and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalates at concentrations between 2.60 and 156.4ng/g. The identified phthalates occurred in both free and bound forms. The amounts of phthalates in milk samples packaged in glass and metal containers were much lower than those in plastic containers. Plastic packaging materials are a possible source of phthalate contamination in commercial whole milk products, and a considerable portion of bleached phthalates from packaging can be adsorbed on proteins and other solid components of milk. PMID:26454292

  1. Short communication: Effects of molasses products on productivity and milk fatty acid profile of cows fed diets high in dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Siverson, A; Vargas-Rodriguez, C F; Bradford, B J

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that replacing up to 5% [of dietary dry matter (DM)] corn with cane molasses can partially alleviate milk fat depression when cows are fed high-concentrate, low-fiber rations containing dried distillers grains with solubles. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether dietary molasses alters milk fatty acid (FA) profile or improves solids-corrected milk yield in the context of a more typical lactation diet. A secondary objective was to assess production responses to increasing rumen-degradable protein supply when molasses was fed. Twelve primiparous and 28 multiparous Holstein cows (196 ± 39 d in milk) were blocked by parity and assigned to 4 pens. Pens were randomly allocated to treatment sequence in a 4 × 4 Latin square design, balanced for carryover effects. Treatment periods were 21 d, with 17 d for diet adaptation and 4 d for sample and data collection. Treatments were a control diet, providing 20% dried distillers grains with solubles (DM basis), 35% neutral detergent fiber, 30% starch, and 5% ether extract; a diet with 4.4% cane molasses replacing a portion of the corn grain; a diet with 2.9% molasses supplement containing 32% crude protein on a DM basis; and a diet with 5.8% (DM basis) molasses supplement. Animal-level data were analyzed using mixed models, including the fixed effect of treatment and the random effects of period, pen, period × pen interaction, and cow within pen to recognize pen as the experimental unit. Diets did not alter DM intake, milk production, milk component concentration or yield, feed efficiency (DM intake/milk yield), body weight change, or milk somatic cell count. Milk stearic acid content was increased by the diet containing 5.8% molasses supplement compared with the control diet and the diet containing 2.9% molasses supplement, but the magnitude of the effect was small (12.27, 11.75, and 11.69 ± 0.29 g/100g of FA). Production data revealed a dramatic effect of period on milk fat

  2. 40 CFR 165.63 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Scope of pesticide products included. 165.63 Section 165.63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for Repackaging Pesticide Products into...

  3. 40 CFR 165.63 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope of pesticide products included. 165.63 Section 165.63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for Repackaging Pesticide Products into...

  4. Production of transgenic-cloned pigs expressing large quantities of recombinant human lysozyme in milk.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dan; Liu, Shen; Shang, Shengzhe; Wu, Fangfang; Wen, Xiao; Li, Zhiyuan; Li, Yan; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Zhao, Yaofeng; Li, Qiuyan; Li, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Human lysozyme is a natural non-specific immune factor in human milk that plays an important role in the defense of breastfed infants against pathogen infection. Although lysozyme is abundant in human milk, there is only trace quantities in pig milk. Here, we successfully generated transgenic cloned pigs with the expression vector pBAC-hLF-hLZ-Neo and their first generation hybrids (F1). The highest concentration of recombinant human lysozyme (rhLZ) with in vitro bioactivity was 2759.6 ± 265.0 mg/L in the milk of F0 sows. Compared with wild-type milk, rhLZ milk inhibited growth of Escherichia coli K88 during the exponential growth phase. Moreover, rhLZ in milk from transgenic sows was directly absorbed by the intestine of piglets with no observable anaphylactic reaction. Our strategy may provide a powerful tool for large-scale production of this important human protein in pigs to improve resistance to pathogen infection. PMID:25955256

  5. Production of Transgenic-Cloned Pigs Expressing Large Quantities of Recombinant Human Lysozyme in Milk

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Shengzhe; Wu, Fangfang; Wen, Xiao; Li, Zhiyuan; Li, Yan; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Zhao, Yaofeng; Li, Qiuyan; Li, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Human lysozyme is a natural non-specific immune factor in human milk that plays an important role in the defense of breastfed infants against pathogen infection. Although lysozyme is abundant in human milk, there is only trace quantities in pig milk. Here, we successfully generated transgenic cloned pigs with the expression vector pBAC-hLF-hLZ-Neo and their first generation hybrids (F1). The highest concentration of recombinant human lysozyme (rhLZ) with in vitro bioactivity was 2759.6 ± 265.0 mg/L in the milk of F0 sows. Compared with wild-type milk, rhLZ milk inhibited growth of Escherichia coli K88 during the exponential growth phase. Moreover, rhLZ in milk from transgenic sows was directly absorbed by the intestine of piglets with no observable anaphylactic reaction. Our strategy may provide a powerful tool for large-scale production of this important human protein in pigs to improve resistance to pathogen infection. PMID:25955256

  6. Organochlorine pesticide distribution in an organic production system for cow's milk in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Murga, María N; Gutiérrez, Rey; Vega, Salvador; Pérez, José J; Ortiz, Rutilio; Schettino, Beatriz; Yamasaki, Alberto; Ruíz, Jorge L

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of organochlorine pesticides in samples of forage, soil, water, and milk in four units of an organic production system for cow´s milk (samples of forage, milk, soil, and water) in Tecpatan, Chiapas, Mexico. The organochlorine pesticides were extracted from forage, soil and water based on the USEPA (2005) guideline and from milk based on the IDF 1991 guideline. The pesticides were identified and quantified by gas chromatography with electron capture detector (CG-ECD). In general, the highest average concentration of total pesticides was found in the samples of milk and forage (311 ± 328 and 116.5 ±77 ng g(-1) respectively). Although, the production systems analyzed are organic, organochlorine pesticides were detected in all environmental samples (forage, soil, water, and organic milk). Although no values surpassed the defined limits of Mexican and International regulation it is advisable that a monitoring program of contaminants in these production systems is continued. PMID:27228789

  7. Occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus on Farms with Small Scale Production of Raw Milk Cheeses in Poland.

    PubMed

    Rola, Jolanta G; Czubkowska, Anna; Korpysa-Dzirba, Weronika; Osek, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a 3-year study on the prevalence, enterotoxinogenicity and resistance to antimicrobials of S. aureus isolated on dairy farms with small scale production of raw cow milk cheeses. The samples of raw milk, semi-finished products and the final products as well as swabs were collected between 2011 and 2013 from nine dairy farms in Poland. A total of 244 samples were examined, of which 122 (50.0%) were contaminated with S. aureus including 18 of 26 (69.2%) mature cheese samples with log10 CFU g(-1) between <1- and 7.41. In swabs collected from the staff and production environment the highest contamination rate with coagulase positive staphylococci (CPS) was detected on hands of cheese makers (4.34 log10 CFU/swab). None of the cheese samples contaminated with CPS contained staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs). However, 55 of 122 (45.1%) S. aureus isolates possessed SEs genes, mainly (26 of 55; 47.3%) a combination of the sed, sej and ser genes. Furthermore, the sep (15 of 55; 27.3%) as well as seg and sei (9 of 55; 16.4%) genes were also identified. The remaining S. aureus isolates possessed the sea gene (one isolate), the combination of sec, seg and sei (three isolates) as well as the sed, sej, sep and ser markers together (one CPS). Resistance to penicillin (62 of 122 isolates; 50.8%) was the most common among the tested isolates. Some CPS were also resistant to chloramphenicol (7; 5.7%) and tetracycline (5; 4.1%). The obtained results indicated that the analyzed cheeses were safe for consumers. To improve the microbiological quality of traditional cheese products more attention should be paid to animal welfare and hygiene practices during the process of cheese manufacturing in some dairy farms. PMID:26950152

  8. Occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus on Farms with Small Scale Production of Raw Milk Cheeses in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Rola, Jolanta G.; Czubkowska, Anna; Korpysa-Dzirba, Weronika; Osek, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a 3-year study on the prevalence, enterotoxinogenicity and resistance to antimicrobials of S. aureus isolated on dairy farms with small scale production of raw cow milk cheeses. The samples of raw milk, semi-finished products and the final products as well as swabs were collected between 2011 and 2013 from nine dairy farms in Poland. A total of 244 samples were examined, of which 122 (50.0%) were contaminated with S. aureus including 18 of 26 (69.2%) mature cheese samples with log10 CFU g−1 between <1- and 7.41. In swabs collected from the staff and production environment the highest contamination rate with coagulase positive staphylococci (CPS) was detected on hands of cheese makers (4.34 log10 CFU/swab). None of the cheese samples contaminated with CPS contained staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs). However, 55 of 122 (45.1%) S. aureus isolates possessed SEs genes, mainly (26 of 55; 47.3%) a combination of the sed, sej and ser genes. Furthermore, the sep (15 of 55; 27.3%) as well as seg and sei (9 of 55; 16.4%) genes were also identified. The remaining S. aureus isolates possessed the sea gene (one isolate), the combination of sec, seg and sei (three isolates) as well as the sed, sej, sep and ser markers together (one CPS). Resistance to penicillin (62 of 122 isolates; 50.8%) was the most common among the tested isolates. Some CPS were also resistant to chloramphenicol (7; 5.7%) and tetracycline (5; 4.1%). The obtained results indicated that the analyzed cheeses were safe for consumers. To improve the microbiological quality of traditional cheese products more attention should be paid to animal welfare and hygiene practices during the process of cheese manufacturing in some dairy farms. PMID:26950152

  9. Milk production responses to different strategies for feeding supplements to grazing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Auldist, M J; Marett, L C; Greenwood, J S; Wright, M M; Hannah, M; Jacobs, J L; Wales, W J

    2016-01-01

    Milk production responses of grazing cows offered supplements in different ways were measured. Holstein-Friesian cows, averaging 45 d in milk, were allocated into 8 groups of 24, with 2 groups randomly assigned to each of 4 feeding strategies. These were control: cows grazed a restricted allowance of perennial ryegrass pasture supplemented with milled wheat grain fed in the milking parlor and alfalfa hay offered in the paddock; FGM: same pasture and allowance as the control supplemented with a formulated grain mix containing wheat grain, corn grain, and canola meal fed in the parlor and alfalfa hay fed in the paddock; PMRL: same pasture and allowance as the control, supplemented with a PMR consisting of the same FGM but mixed with alfalfa hay and presented on a feed pad after each milking; and PMRH: same PMR fed in the same way as PMRL but with a higher pasture allowance. For all strategies, supplements provided the same metabolizable energy and grain:forage ratio [75:25, dry matter (DM) basis]. Each group of 24 cows was further allocated into 4 groups of 6, which were randomly assigned to receive 8, 12, 14, or 16 kg of DM supplement/cow per d. Thus, 2 replicated groups per supplement amount per dietary strategy were used. The experiment had a 14-d adaptation period and a 14-d measurement period. Pasture allowance, measured to ground level, was approximately 14 kg of DM/d for control, FGM, and PMRL cows, and 28 kg of DM/d for the PMRH cows, and was offered in addition to the supplement. Positive linear responses to increasing amounts of supplement were observed for yield of milk, energy-corrected milk, fat, and protein for cows on all 4 supplement feeding strategies. Production of energy-corrected milk was greatest for PMRH cows, intermediate for FGM and PMRL cows, and lowest for control cows. Some of these differences in milk production related to differences in intake of pasture and supplement. Milk fat concentration decreased with increasing amount of supplement

  10. More milk from forage: Milk production, blood metabolites, and forage intake of dairy cows grazing pasture mixtures and spatially adjacent monocultures.

    PubMed

    Pembleton, Keith G; Hills, James L; Freeman, Mark J; McLaren, David K; French, Marion; Rawnsley, Richard P

    2016-05-01

    There is interest in the reincorporation of legumes and forbs into pasture-based dairy production systems as a means of increasing milk production through addressing the nutritive value limitations of grass pastures. The experiments reported in this paper were undertaken to evaluate milk production, blood metabolite concentrations, and forage intake levels of cows grazing either pasture mixtures or spatially adjacent monocultures containing perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), white clover (Trifolium repens), and plantain (Plantago lanceolata) compared with cows grazing monocultures of perennial ryegrass. Four replicate herds, each containing 4 spring-calving, cross-bred dairy cows, grazed 4 different forage treatments over the periods of early, mid, and late lactation. Forage treatments were perennial ryegrass monoculture (PRG), a mixture of white clover and plantain (CPM), a mixture of perennial ryegrass, white clover, and plantain (RCPM), and spatially adjacent monocultures (SAM) of perennial ryegrass, white clover, and plantain. Milk volume, milk composition, blood fatty acids, blood β-hydroxybutyrate, blood urea N concentrations, live weight change, and estimated forage intake were monitored over a 5-d response period occurring after acclimation to each of the forage treatments. The acclimation period for the early, mid, and late lactation experiments were 13, 13, and 10 d, respectively. Milk yield (volume and milk protein) increased for cows grazing the RCPM and SAM in the early lactation experiment compared with cows grazing the PRG, whereas in the mid lactation experiment, milk fat increased for the cows grazing the RCPM and SAM when compared with the PRG treatments. Improvements in milk production from grazing the RCPM and SAM treatments are attributed to improved nutritive value (particularly lower neutral detergent fiber concentrations) and a potential increase in forage intake. Pasture mixtures or SAM containing plantain and white clover could be a

  11. Production of antilisterial bacteriocins by staphylococci isolated from bovine milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A collection of 111 staphylococcal isolates recovered from healthy cows in 41 dairy herds in Brazil was surveyed for the production of bacteriocins. The group included 94 coagulase positive and 17 coagulase negative strains of staphylococci. All cultures were grown in tryptic soy broth for 18 h at ...

  12. Climatic effects on milk production traits and somatic cell score in lactating Holstein-Friesian cows in different housing systems.

    PubMed

    Lambertz, C; Sanker, C; Gauly, M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effect of the temperature-humidity index (THI) on milk production traits and somatic cell score (SCS) of dairy cows raised in 4 different housing systems: (1) warm loose housing with access to grazing (WG), (2) warm loose housing without access to grazing (WI), (3) cold loose housing with access to grazing (CG), and (4) cold loose housing without access to grazing (CI). For each of the 4 housing systems, 5 farms with a herd size of 70 to 200 lactating cows in Lower Saxony, Germany, were studied. Ambient temperature and relative humidity were recorded hourly in each barn to calculate THI. Milk production data included 21,546 test-day records for milk, fat, and protein yield, and SCS. These data were associated with the average THI of the 3 d preceding the respective measurement, which was divided into 6 classes (<45, ≥45 to <50, ≥50 to <55, ≥55 to <60, ≥60 to <65, and ≥65). Furthermore, bulk milk samples including the fat and protein percentage, and SCS taken 4 to 6 times per month were associated with the average and maximum THI of the 3 d before sampling. Data were recorded from April 2010 to March 2011. In each of the housing systems, monthly THI values above 60, indicating heat stress, were recorded between June and September, with higher values in WI and WG. In all systems, fat-corrected milk, fat, and protein yields of the test-day records decreased in tendency from 60 ≤ THI<65 to THI >65. In WI and CI, values for SCS were greater in the class THI > 65 than in 60 ≤ THI<65, whereas no difference between any of the THI classes was found in WG and CG. The fat and protein percentage of the bulk milk samples decreased with increasing 3-d maximum THI in all 4 systems, whereas the SCS increased with increasing 3-d average THI. In conclusion, negative effects of heat stress conditions under a temperate climate on milk production traits and SCS were found, although a housing system being superior to the other

  13. Continuous production of cheese by immobilized milk-clotting protease from aspergillus niger MC4

    PubMed

    Channe; Shewale

    1998-11-01

    Milk clotting protease from Aspergillus niger MC4 immobilized on glycidyl methacrylate-pentaerythritol triacrylate copolymer GP4 was used for continuous production of cheese using a packed bed reactor. Factors affecting the hydrolysis of kappa-casein and clot formation were studied. Acidified milk (pH 5.8) preincubated at 37 degreesC when passed through the column at a flow rate of 80 mL/min attained the required degree of hydrolysis of kappa-casein for the coagulation in a single pass. Fortification of the hydrolyzed milk with CaCl2 and FeCl3 to a final concentration of 0.01 and 0.02 M, respectively, and incubation of fortified milk at 60 degreesC for 2 h resulted in a hard cake of cheese. The yield of raw cheese was 28 g/100 mL of milk. The immobilized milk-clotting protease was used for 60 days (8 h/day) without any loss in productivity. PMID:9841651

  14. Feeding nitrate and docosahexaenoic acid affects enteric methane production and milk fatty acid composition in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Klop, G; Hatew, B; Bannink, A; Dijkstra, J

    2016-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to study potential interaction between the effects of feeding nitrate and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3) on enteric CH4 production and performance of lactating dairy cows. Twenty-eight lactating Holstein dairy cows were grouped into 7 blocks of 4 cows. Within blocks, cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: control (CON; urea as alternative nonprotein N source to nitrate), NO3 [21 g of nitrate/kg of dry matter (DM)], DHA (3 g of DHA/kg of DM and urea as alternative nonprotein N source to nitrate), or NO3 + DHA (21 g of nitrate/kg of DM and 3 g of DHA/kg of DM, respectively). Cows were fed a total mixed ration consisting of 21% grass silage, 49% corn silage, and 30% concentrates on a DM basis. Feed additives were included in the concentrates. Cows assigned to a treatment including nitrate were gradually adapted to the treatment dose of nitrate over a period of 21 d during which no DHA was fed. The experimental period lasted 17 d, and CH4 production was measured during the last 5d in climate respiration chambers. Cows produced on average 363, 263, 369, and 298 g of CH4/d on CON, NO3, DHA, and NO3 + DHA treatments, respectively, and a tendency for a nitrate × DHA interaction effect was found where the CH4-mitigating effect of nitrate decreased when combined with DHA. This tendency was not obtained for CH4 production relative to dry matter intake (DMI) or to fat- and protein corrected milk (FPCM). The NO3 treatment decreased CH4 production irrespective of the unit in which it was expressed, whereas DHA did not affect CH4 production per kilogram of DMI, but resulted in a higher CH4 production per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) production. The FPCM production (27.9, 24.7, 24.2, and 23. 8 kg/d for CON, NO3, DHA, and NO3 + DHA, respectively) was lower for DHA-fed cows because of decreased milk fat concentration. The proportion of saturated fatty acids in milk fat was decreased by DHA, and the proportion of

  15. Major advances in testing of dairy products: milk component and dairy product attribute testing.

    PubMed

    Barbano, D M; Lynch, J M

    2006-04-01

    Milk component analysis is relatively unusual in the field of quantitative analytical chemistry because an analytical test result determines the allocation of very large amounts of money between buyers and sellers of milk. Therefore, there is high incentive to develop and refine these methods to achieve a level of analytical performance rarely demanded of most methods or laboratory staff working in analytical chemistry. In the last 25 yr, well-defined statistical methods to characterize and validate analytical method performance combined with significant improvements in both the chemical and instrumental methods have allowed achievement of improved analytical performance for payment testing. A shift from marketing commodity dairy products to the development, manufacture, and marketing of value added dairy foods for specific market segments has created a need for instrumental and sensory approaches and quantitative data to support product development and marketing. Bringing together sensory data from quantitative descriptive analysis and analytical data from gas chromatography olfactometry for identification of odor-active compounds in complex natural dairy foods has enabled the sensory scientist and analytical chemist to work together to improve the consistency and quality of dairy food flavors. PMID:16537952

  16. Pasture intake and milk production of dairy cows rotationally grazing on multi-species swards.

    PubMed

    Roca-Fernández, A I; Peyraud, J L; Delaby, L; Delagarde, R

    2016-09-01

    Increasing plant species diversity has been proposed as a means for enhancing annual pasture productivity and decreasing seasonal variability of pasture production facing more frequent drought scenarios due to climate change. Few studies have examined how botanical complexity of sown swards affects cow performance. A 2-year experiment was conducted to determine how sward botanical complexity, from a monoculture of ryegrass to multi-species swards (MSS) (grasses-legumes-forb), affect pasture chemical composition and nutritive value, pasture dry matter (DM) intake, milk production and milk solids production of grazing dairy cows. Five sward species: perennial ryegrass (L as Lolium), white clover and red clover (both referred to as T as Trifolium because they were always sown together), chicory (C as Cichorium) and tall fescue (F as Festuca) were assigned to four grazing treatments by combining one (L), three (LT), four (LTC) or five (LTCF) species. Hereafter, the LT swards are called mixed swards as a single combination of ryegrass and clovers, whereas LTC and LTCF swards are called MSS as a combination of at least four species from three botanical families. The experimental area (8.7 ha) was divided into four block replicates with a mineral nitrogen fertilisation of 75 kg N/ha per year for each treatment. In total, 13 grazing rotations were carried out by applying the same grazing calendar and the same pasture allowance of 19 kg DM/cow per day above 4 cm for all treatments. Clover represented 20% of DM for mixed and MSS swards; chicory represented 30% of DM for MSS and tall fescue represented 10% of DM for LTCF swards. Higher milk production (+1.1 kg/day) and milk solids production (+0.08 kg/day) were observed for mixed swards than for ryegrass swards. Pasture nutritive value and pasture DM intake were unaffected by the inclusion of clover. Pasture DM, organic matter and NDF concentrations were lower for MSS than for mixed swards. Higher milk production (+0.8 kg

  17. Milk and Serum J5-Specific Antibody Responses, Milk Production Change, and Clinical Effects following Intramammary Escherichia coli Challenge for J5 Vaccinate and Control Cows▿

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, David J.; Mallard, Bonnie A.; Burton, Jeanne L.; Schukken, Ynte H.; Gröhn, Yrjo T.

    2007-01-01

    Holstein dairy cows (four J5 vaccinates and four controls) selected for no recorded intramammary disease and low somatic cell count (SCC) during the previous lactation were challenged by intramammary infusion of Escherichia coli. Vaccination with J5 was at 8 weeks and again 4 weeks before the anticipated calving date. Cows were challenged at 8 to 16 days in milk (DIM). Shedding of E. coli in milk was significantly higher among controls than vaccinates (no shedding) from 6 h to 21 h postchallenge. From 21 h to 132 h postchallenge, SCC in challenged quarters of controls (5,429,000/ml) was significantly higher than that of vaccinates (490,000/ml). On the day after challenge, milk production in control cows was 8 kg less, while vaccinates gained 0.5 kg, a significant difference. In serum immediately prior to challenge, J5-specific immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) was significantly higher, IgG2 was nearly significantly higher, and IgM was the same in J5 vaccinates relative to controls. Vaccinates had proportionally more IgG2 in serum postcalving and in the first 12 h following challenge and less IgG2 in milk 24 h after challenge than the controls, approaching statistical significance. The ratio of J5-specific IgG1 and IgG2 combined compared to IgM was significantly higher in vaccinates than in controls in prechallenge serum (ratios of 15.8 and 3.2, respectively) and milk (5.0 and 1.3, respectively). Cows with higher IgM titers in milk 12 h postchallenge produced significantly less milk. Vaccination with J5 was significantly associated with higher production of J5-specific IgG1 and IgG2 in early lactation, reduced SCC, faster clearance of E. coli from milk, and less milk production loss following intramammary challenge. PMID:17460115

  18. Changes of the human gut microbiome induced by a fermented milk product

    PubMed Central

    Veiga, Patrick; Pons, Nicolas; Agrawal, Anurag; Oozeer, Raish; Guyonnet, Denis; Brazeilles, Rémi; Faurie, Jean-Michel; van Hylckama Vlieg, Johan E. T.; Houghton, Lesley A.; Whorwell, Peter J.; Ehrlich, S. Dusko; Kennedy, Sean P.

    2014-01-01

    The gut microbiota (GM) consists of resident commensals and transient microbes conveyed by the diet but little is known about the role of the latter on GM homeostasis. Here we show, by a conjunction of quantitative metagenomics, in silico genome reconstruction and metabolic modeling, that consumption of a fermented milk product containing dairy starters and Bifidobacterium animalis potentiates colonic short chain fatty acids production and decreases abundance of a pathobiont Bilophila wadsworthia compared to a milk product in subjects with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, n = 28). The GM changes parallel improvement of IBS state, suggesting a role of the fermented milk bacteria in gut homeostasis. Our data challenge the view that microbes ingested with food have little impact on the human GM functioning and rather provide support for beneficial health effects. PMID:25209713

  19. 40 CFR 165.43 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Scope of pesticide products included. 165.43 Section 165.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Refillable Container Standards: Container Design § 165.43...

  20. 40 CFR 165.43 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope of pesticide products included. 165.43 Section 165.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Refillable Container Standards: Container Design § 165.43...

  1. Effects of calcium montmorillonite clay and aflatoxin exposure on dry matter intake, milk production, and milk composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifteen primiparous crossbred dairy cows that were 114 ± 14 d in milk and weighed 533 ± 56 kg were used in a replicated 5×5 Latin square to test the efficacy of NovaSil Plus (NSP) for the reduction of aflatoxin (AF) metabolite (AFM1) in milk and the effect of NSP on milk composition. Cows were hous...

  2. Identification of metabolites and thermal transformation products of quinolones in raw cow's milk by liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Junza, Alexandra; Barbosa, Sergio; Codony, M Rosa; Jubert, Anna; Barbosa, José; Barrón, Dolores

    2014-02-26

    The presence of residues of antibiotics, metabolites, and thermal transformation products (TPs), produced during thermal treatment to eliminate pathogenic microorganisms in milk, could represent a risk for people. Cow's milk samples spiked with enrofloxacin (ENR), ciprofloxacin (CIP), difloxacin (DIF), and sarafloxacin (SAR) and milk samples from cows medicated with ENR were submitted to several thermal treatments. The milk samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to find and identify TPs and metabolites. In this work, 27 TPs of 4 quinolones and 24 metabolites of ENR were found. Some of these compounds had been reported previously, but others were characterized for the first time, including lactose-conjugated CIP, the formamidation reaction for CIP and SAR, and hydroxylation or ketone formation to produce three different isomers for all quinolones studied. PMID:24499328

  3. Production of human lactoferrin and lysozyme in the milk of transgenic dairy animals: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Caitlin A; Maga, Elizabeth A; Murray, James D

    2015-08-01

    Genetic engineering, which was first developed in the 1980s, allows for specific additions to animals' genomes that are not possible through conventional breeding. Using genetic engineering to improve agricultural animals was first suggested when the technology was in the early stages of development by Palmiter et al. (Nature 300:611-615, 1982). One of the first agricultural applications identified was generating transgenic dairy animals that could produce altered or novel proteins in their milk. Human milk contains high levels of antimicrobial proteins that are found in low concentrations in the milk of ruminants, including the antimicrobial proteins lactoferrin and lysozyme. Lactoferrin and lysozyme are both part of the innate immune system and are secreted in tears, mucus, and throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Due to their antimicrobial properties and abundance in human milk, multiple lines of transgenic dairy animals that produce either human lactoferrin or human lysozyme have been developed. The focus of this review is to catalogue the different lines of genetically engineered dairy animals that produce either recombinant lactoferrin or lysozyme that have been generated over the years as well as compare the wealth of research that has been done on the in vitro and in vivo effects of the milk they produce. While recent advances including the development of CRISPRs and TALENs have removed many of the technical barriers to predictable and efficient genetic engineering in agricultural species, there are still many political and regulatory hurdles before genetic engineering can be used in agriculture. It is important to consider the substantial amount of work that has been done thus far on well established lines of genetically engineered animals evaluating both the animals themselves and the products they yield to identify the most effective path forward for future research and acceptance of this technology. PMID:26059245

  4. Variation in milk cortisol during lactation in Murciano-Granadina goats.

    PubMed

    Díaz, J R; Alejandro, M; Romero, G; Moya, F; Peris, C

    2013-02-01

    Fifty-seven goats were included in an experiment designed to study the effect of lactation stage, parity number, and mammary gland health status on milk cortisol concentration as a method to assess the welfare of Murciano-Granadina goats. The relationships of milk cortisol concentration with different production parameters (milk yield, milk composition, and mechanical milking ability: milk fractioning during milking and milking time) were also studied. The experiment lasted 8 mo and monthly samplings were carried out to determine total milk yield (MY), fractioning during milking (machine milk, MM; machine stripping milk, MSM), and milking time (MT), and a sample was taken from the total milk yield to determine milk cortisol concentration, somatic cell count, and milk composition (fat, protein, and lactose). To determine the infection status of the gland, an aseptic sample was taken for bacteriological analysis before each monthly sampling. Third-parity goats presented higher concentrations of milk cortisol than those of 1, 2, or ≥ 4 parities. Intramammary infection had no effect on milk cortisol concentration, and somatic cell count did not correlate with cortisol concentration. Cortisol presented a significant correlation with MY and MM, but showed no significant correlation with MSM, MT, or milk composition parameters. Variations in milk cortisol concentration in goats may be associated with different physiological factors in the animal (e.g., milk production level, lactation stage, and parity number) and therefore need not always indicate stress for the animal. PMID:23245963

  5. Cow's milk and goat's milk.

    PubMed

    Turck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC. PMID:24029787

  6. Conversion of geothermal waste to commercial products including silica

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow S.

    2003-01-01

    A process for the treatment of geothermal residue includes contacting the pigmented amorphous silica-containing component with a depigmenting reagent one or more times to depigment the silica and produce a mixture containing depigmented amorphous silica and depigmenting reagent containing pigment material; separating the depigmented amorphous silica and from the depigmenting reagent to yield depigmented amorphous silica. Before or after the depigmenting contacting, the geothermal residue or depigmented silica can be treated with a metal solubilizing agent to produce another mixture containing pigmented or unpigmented amorphous silica-containing component and a solubilized metal-containing component; separating these components from each other to produce an amorphous silica product substantially devoid of metals and at least partially devoid of pigment. The amorphous silica product can be neutralized and thereafter dried at a temperature from about 25.degree. C. to 300.degree. C. The morphology of the silica product can be varied through the process conditions including sequence contacting steps, pH of depigmenting reagent, neutralization and drying conditions to tailor the amorphous silica for commercial use in products including filler for paint, paper, rubber and polymers, and chromatographic material.

  7. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of milk production after pharmaceutical induction of lactation in the mare.

    PubMed

    Chavatte-Palmer, P; Arnaud, G; Duvaux-Ponter, C; Brosse, L; Bougel, S; Daels, P; Guillaume, D; Clément, F; Palmer, E

    2002-01-01

    The induction of lactation is performed in ruminants by steroidogenic impregnation, followed by drugs intended to increase prolactin secretion. The aim of this study was to induce lactation in barren mares and to evaluate milk production. Five treated and 5 control mares were used in June and September in year 1, and 12 mares were used in year 2. Mares were administered a vaginal pessary (500 mg altrenogest and 50 mg estradiol benzoate) for 1 week. The 2nd week, another sponge with 100 mg estradiol benzoate was administered, together with 50 mg/100 kg body weight (BW) sulpiride in oil (IM q12h). All mares were milked by hand. Drug treatment was stopped after I L was obtained. Milk production and composition and plasma prolactin concentration were measured. In year 2, the same steroid treatment was applied, but mares received sulpiride (n = 6) or domperidone (1.1 mg/kg PO q12h) (n = 6). A milking machine and oxytocin injections 1 minute before the start of milking were used. In year 1, all treated mares started milking within 1-5 days after sulpiride treatment. Mean daily milk production was 0.88 +/- 0.52 L/500 kg BW. Milk immunoglobulin G (IgG) contents increased in all mares (IgG concentration range, 14-92 g/L). Plasma prolactin increased during sulpiride treatment (range. 27.7 +/- 2.9 to 43.7 +/- 6.7 ng/mL [before] to 289.0 +/- 7.8 ng/mL during treatment, P < .001). In year 2, results were similar to those in year 1, with peak IgG concentrations ranging from 4.2 to 106.7 g/L and a larger daily milk production (3.13 +/- 0.75 with sulpiride and 3.45 +/- 0.51 L/500 kg BW with domperidone). In conclusion, lactation can be induced in mares within 2 weeks, and some mares produce good-quality colostrum. PMID:12141311

  8. Novel in vitro systems for prediction of veterinary drug residues in ovine milk and dairy products.

    PubMed

    González-Lobato, L; Real, R; Herrero, D; de la Fuente, A; Prieto, J G; Marqués, M M; Alvarez, A I; Merino, G

    2014-01-01

    A new in vitro tool was developed for the identification of veterinary substrates of the main drug transporter in the mammary gland. These drugs have a much higher chance of being concentrated into ovine milk and thus should be detectable in dairy products. Complementarily, a cell model for the identification of compounds that can inhibit the secretion of drugs into ovine milk, and thus reduce milk residues, was also generated. The ATP-binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2) is responsible for the concentration of its substrates into milk. The need to predict potential drug residues in ruminant milk has prompted the development of in vitro cell models over-expressing ABCG2 for these species to detect veterinary drugs that interact with this transporter. Using these models, several substrates for bovine and caprine ABCG2 have been found, and differences in activity between species have been reported. However, despite being of great toxicological relevance, no suitable in vitro model to predict substrates of ovine ABCG2 was available. New MDCKII and MEF3.8 cell models over-expressing ovine ABCG2 were generated for the identification of substrates and inhibitors of ovine ABCG2. Five widely used veterinary antibiotics (marbofloxacin, orbifloxacin, sarafloxacin, danofloxacin and difloxacin) were discovered as new substrates of ovine ABCG2. These results were confirmed for the bovine transporter and its Y581S variant using previously generated cell models. In addition, the avermectin doramectin was described as a new inhibitor of ruminant ABCG2. This new rapid assay to identify veterinary drugs that can be concentrated into ovine milk will potentially improve detection and monitoring of veterinary drug residues in ovine milk and dairy products. PMID:24679113

  9. Molecular Serotyping and Pathogenic Potential of Listeria monocytogenes Isolated from Milk and Milk Products in Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Raman; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash

    2015-06-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, an important bacterial pathogen, is responsible for foodborne illnesses worldwide. Examination of food samples for the presence of L. monocytogenes and assessment of their pathogenicity is usually an effective strategy in the prevention of listeriosis. In the present study, we have tested 307 samples of milk and milk products from various places in Tamil Nadu, India for the presence of L. monocytogenes using ISO 11290 and U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual methods. 16S rDNA sequencing and duplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for prs and iap genes were used to identify L. monocytogenes at the species level. Fifteen of the 307 samples screen tested positive for L. monocytogenes. Molecular serotyping of the L. monocytogenes isolates by multiplex PCR revealed the predominance of the serogroups 1/2a and 4b. Fourteen of the 15 isolates contained all the virulence genes (inlA, inlB, hlyA, and plcA) screened for using multiplex PCR. Only one isolate of L. monocytogenes was negative for the plcA gene and in vitro phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase C activity. L. monocytogenes strains that belong to the serogroup 4b exhibited higher nematocidal activity against Caenorhabditis elegans than the serogroup 1/2a. Worms infected with L. monocytogenes were symptomatic with aberrant contraction of body muscles, loss of pharyngeal pumping, and decreased locomotion, which highlights the pathogenic potential of the L. monocytogenes isolates. PMID:25793931

  10. Siderophore production and utilization by milk spoilage Pseudomonas species.

    PubMed

    Brown, A G; Luke, R K J

    2010-04-01

    Many bacteria respond to potentially growth-limiting availability of iron by producing low-molecular-weight iron chelators (siderophores). The aim of this work was to examine the siderophores synthesized and utilized by Pseudomonas spp. implicated in milk spoilage. Twenty isolates of Pseudomonas spp. previously shown to have significant milk spoilage potential were tested for the ability to produce siderophores. Of these, 14 produced pyoverdin and 2 of these also produced pyochelin; 1 produced only pyochelin; 1 produced only salicylate; 2 produced non-pyoverdin, hydroxamate-containing siderophore; and 2 produced chrome azurol sulfonate reactive material that was neither pyoverdin nor pyochelin. There was considerable diversity among the pyoverdins produced. All isolates were shown to utilize iron complexed with exogenous pyoverdin, but usage of particular exogenous pyoverdins differed among isolates. Interference with the iron-uptake systems of the Pseudomonas spp. may be a means by which food spoilage can be slowed, and the pyoverdin system would appear to be a potential target. However, given the diversity of pyoverdins produced and utilized, and the presence of other siderophores, successful interference with bacterial iron acquisition in this context may be challenging. PMID:20338412

  11. Aflatoxin M₁ in raw, UHT milk and dairy products in Sicily (Italy).

    PubMed

    Santini, Antonello; Raiola, Assunta; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo; Giangrosso, Giuseppe; Macaluso, Andrea; Bognanno, Matteo; Galvano, Fabio; Ritieni, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    A survey on 73 milk samples from different animal breeds and 24 dairy products samples from Sicily, Italy, was carried out for the presence of aflatoxin M₁ (AFM1) by LC-fluorescence detection after immunoaffinity cleanup. AFM1 was detected in 48% and 42% of the milk and dairy samples at concentration ranges between <5.0-16.0 and <5.0-18.0 ng L⁻¹, respectively. Within the raw milk samples, 92% had an AFM1 content below 5.0 ng L⁻¹, in 7% of the cases it was in the range 5.0-10.0 ng L⁻¹ and 1% was contaminated between 10.0 and 20.0 ng L⁻¹. For the dairy products, ultra-high-temperature treated (UHT) milk, milk cream and cheese, the incidence was 42%, of which 83% contained less than 5.0 ng L⁻¹ and 17% contained 10.0-20.0 ng L⁻¹ AFM1. The levels of contamination found justify continuous monitoring for public health and to reduce consumer exposure. PMID:24779902

  12. Effects of maturity and harvest season of grass-clover silage and of forage-to-concentrate ratio on milk production of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Alstrup, L; Søegaard, K; Weisbjerg, M R

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of maturity and season of harvest of grass-clover silages and forage:concentrate ratio (FCR) on feed intake, milk production, chewing activity, digestibility, and fecal consistency of Holstein dairy cows. Comparison included 2 cuts in spring season (early and late) and 2 cuts in summer season (early and late) combined with high FCR (80:20; HFCR) and low FCR (50:50; LFCR). The experiment included 24 lactating Holstein cows arranged as 2 repeated 4 × 4 Latin squares with four 21-d periods and included measurements of feed composition, feed intake, milk production and composition, chewing activities, digestibilities, and fecal dry matter (DM) concentration and scoring. Forages were fed as two-thirds grass-clover and one-third corn silage supplemented with either 20 or 50% concentrate. Rations were fed ad libitum as total mixed rations. Early maturity cuts were more digestible than late maturity cuts, which was also reflected in a lower concentration of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) in early maturity cuts, whereas summer cuts had a higher crude protein concentration than spring cuts. Increased maturity decreased the intake of DM and energy, increased NDF intake, and decreased the yield of energy-corrected milk (ECM). Summer cuts increased the ECM yield compared with spring cuts. Milk yield (kg and kilogram of ECM) was numerically higher for cows fed early summer cut, independent of FCR in the ration. Milk protein concentration decreased, or tended to decrease, with maturity. For LFCR, the milk fat concentration increased with maturity resulting in a decreased protein:fat ratio. At HFCR, increased maturity increased the time spent chewing per kilogram of DM. Digestibility of silages was positively correlated with the fecal DM concentration. The DM intake and ECM yield showed no significant response to FCR in the ration, but the milk composition was affected. The LFCR decreased the milk fat percentage and increased the milk protein

  13. Effect of sensor systems for cow management on milk production, somatic cell count, and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Steeneveld, W; Vernooij, J C M; Hogeveen, H

    2015-06-01

    To improve management on dairy herds, sensor systems have been developed that can measure physiological, behavioral, and production indicators on individual cows. It is not known whether using sensor systems also improves measures of health and production in dairy herds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of using sensor systems on measures of health and production in dairy herds. Data of 414 Dutch dairy farms with (n=152) and without (n=262) sensor systems were available. For these herds, information on milk production per cow, days to first service, first calving age, and somatic cell count (SCC) was provided for the years 2003 to 2013. Moreover, year of investment in sensor systems was available. For every farm year, we determined whether that year was before or after the year of investment in sensor systems on farms with an automatic milking system (AMS) or a conventional milking system (CMS), or whether it was a year on a farm that never invested in sensor systems. Separate statistical analyses were performed to determine the effect of sensor systems for mastitis detection (color, SCC, electrical conductivity, and lactate dehydrogenase sensors), estrus detection for dairy cows, estrus detection for young stock, and other sensor systems (weighing platform, rumination time sensor, fat and protein sensor, temperature sensor, milk temperature sensor, urea sensor, β-hydroxybutyrate sensor, and other sensor systems). The AMS farms had a higher average SCC (by 12,000 cells/mL) after sensor investment, and CMS farms with a mastitis detection system had a lower average SCC (by 10,000 cells/mL) in the years after sensor investment. Having sensor systems was associated with a higher average production per cow on AMS farms, and with a lower average production per cow on CMS farms in the years after investment. The most likely reason for this lower milk production after investment was that on 96% of CMS farms, the sensor system investment occurred

  14. [Actual use of milk and its products and estimation of the degree of their contamination].

    PubMed

    Normatova, Sh A; Bakhritdinov, Sh S

    2011-01-01

    The actual use of milk and its products was studied in the population of the Fergana Valley and the daily intake of heavy metals, pesticides, nitrates, antibiotics, and other foreign substances was hygienically evaluated. Guidelines were developed to set up critical control points for the hazard analysis of production factors and the sale and storage of dairy products, which were approved by the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Uzbekistan. PMID:21604394

  15. Corn silage hybrid effects on intake, digestion, and milk production by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bal, M A; Shaver, R D; Al-Jobeile, H; Coors, J G; Lauer, J G

    2000-12-01

    Three corn hybrids harvested as whole-plant silage were evaluated in three separate feeding trials with lactating dairy cows. In trial 1, 24 multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square with 28-d periods. Treatments were conventional (Pioneer 3563) and leafy (Mycogen TMF 106) corn silage hybrids, each planted at low (59,000 plants/ha) and high (79,000 plants/ha) plant populations. There were no milk production differences between treatments. Total-tract digestibility of dietary starch was higher for leafy compared with conventional corn hybrids. In trial 2, 26 multiparous Holstein cows were assigned randomly to diets containing either conventional (48% forage diet) or brown-midrib (60% forage diet) corn silage in a crossover design with 8-wk periods. Milk yield was lower, but milk fat percentage and yield were higher, for the high-forage diet containing brown-midrib corn silage. In trial 3, 24 multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square with 28-d periods. Treatments were corn silage at two concentrations of neutral detergent fiber (Garst 8751, 39.2% NDF; Cargill 3677, 32.8% NDF) each fed in normal- (53% of dry matter) and high- (61 to 67% of dry matter) forage diets. Milk production was not different between corn hybrids. Increased concentrate supplementation increased DMI and milk production. There were minimal benefits to the feeding of leafy or low-fiber corn silage hybrids. Feeding brown-midrib corn silage in a high-forage diet increased milk fat percentage and yield compared with conventional corn silage fed in a normal-forage diet. PMID:11132857

  16. ALMOND MILK: A POTENTIAL THERAPEUTIC WEAPON AGAINST COW’S MILK PROTEIN ALLERGY.

    PubMed

    Cuppari, C; Manti, S; Salpietro, A; Dugo, G; Gitto, E; Arrigo, T; Sturiale, M; Salpietro, C

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy is defined as an adverse health effect arising from a specific immune response that occurs reproducibly following exposure to a given food. Cow’s milk protein allergy results from an immunological reaction to one or more milk proteins. The principle key in the treatment of cow’s milk protein allergy is the dietary elimination of cow’s milk protein. Although hydrolyzed and elemental formulas are appropriate replacements, other milk products, including almond milk adequately integrated, could be administered. Here, in the light of encouraging results from our study, we focused on the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of almond milk and we also believe that almond milk might be considered as a potential alternative in cow’s milk protein allergy treatment. PMID:26634581

  17. Effects of Different Protein Supplements on Milk Production and Nutrient Utilization in Lactating Dairy Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixteen (8 ruminally cannulated) multiparous and 8 primiparous lactating Holstein cows were used in 6 replicated 4 x 4 Latin squares to test the effects of feeding supplemental protein as urea, solvent soybean meal (SSBM), cottonseed meal (CSM), or canola meal (CM) on milk production, nutrient utili...

  18. Low levels of aflatoxin B1, ricin and milk enhance recombinant protein production in mammalian cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changing the optimal tissue culture medium by adding low levels of environmental stress such as 1 µM of the fungal toxin aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), 1 ng of the castor bean protein toxin ricin in transduced mammalian cells or 1% reconstituted milk enhances transcription and increases production of the foll...

  19. The sfe corn mutant: a new approach to improve fiber digestibility and milk production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cross linking of lignin to hemicellulose by ferulates limits in vitro rumen fiber digestibility of grasses. Impact of ferulate cross linking on feed intake, milk production, and in vivo digestibility was investigated in a dairy cow feeding study using the low-ferulate sfe corn mutant. Silages of fiv...

  20. Water footprint analysis for the assessment of milk production in Brandenburg (Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drastig, K.; Prochnow, A.; Kraatz, S.; Klauss, H.; Plöchl, M.

    2010-09-01

    The working group "Adaptation to Climate Change" at the Leibniz-Institute for Agricultural Engineering Potsdam-Bornim (ATB) is introduced. This group calculates the water footprint for agricultural processes and farms, distinguished into green water footprint, blue water footprint, and dilution water footprint. The green and blue water demand of a dairy farm plays a pivotal role in the regional water balance. Considering already existing and forthcoming climate change effects there is a need to determine the water cycle in the field and in housing for process chain optimisation for the adaptation to an expected increasing water scarcity. Resulting investments to boost water productivity and to improve water use efficiency in milk production are two pathways to adapt to climate change effects. In this paper the calculation of blue water demand for dairy farming in Brandenburg (Germany) is presented. The water used for feeding, milk processing, and servicing of cows over the time period of ten years was assessed in our study. The preliminary results of the calculation of the direct blue water footprint shows a decreasing water demand in the dairy production from the year 1999 with 5.98×109 L/yr to a water demand of 5.00×109 L/yr in the year 2008 in Brandenburg because of decreasing animal numbers and an improved average milk yield per cow. Improved feeding practices and shifted breeding to greater-volume producing Holstein-Friesian cow allow the production of milk in a more water sustainable way. The mean blue water consumption for the production of 1 kg milk in the time period between 1999 to 2008 was 3.94±0.29 L. The main part of the consumed water seems to stem from indirect used green water for the production of feed for the cows.

  1. Epidemiology and effects of gastrointestinal nematode infection on milk productions of dairy ewes.

    PubMed

    Suarez, V H; Cristel, S L; Busetti, M R

    2009-06-01

    66 Pampinta breed ewes were studied during milking to evaluate the infection and the effect of gastrointestinal nematode on milk production sheep system. Naturally infected ewes on pasture were randomly allocated to two groups: TG, suppressively treated group every four weeks with levamisole and UG, untreated group. Faecal nematode egg counts and larval differentiation were conducted monthly. Successive groups of worm free tracer lambs were grazed with ewes and then slaughtered for worm counts. Test-day milk yield of individual ewes was recorded and ewe machine-milking period length (MPL) were estimated. Faecal egg counts and tracer nematode numbers increased towards midsummer and declined sharply toward the end of the study. TG (188.0 +/- 60 liters) produced more (p < 0.066) milk liters than UG (171.9 +/- 52.2) and TG had significantly more extended (p < 0.041) MPL than those of UG. The present study showed that dairy sheep were negatively affected by worms, even when exposed to short periods of high acute nematode (mainly Haemonchus contortus) infection. PMID:19585893

  2. Short communication: Relationships between milk quality and acidification in the production of table Mozzarella without starters.

    PubMed

    Faccia, M; Trani, A; Di Luccia, A

    2009-09-01

    The effect of some quality parameters of the milk (refrigeration time, pH, protein, and fat/protein ratio) on the extent of acidification in the production technology of table Mozzarella without starters was investigated. A screening phase carried out at the laboratory level demonstrated that variations of the milk characteristics require different levels of acidification to keep constant the quality of the cheese. The elaboration of the data collected throughout the successive experimentation on industrial scale allowed us to find a mathematical model to describe the relationships between the pH of the curd at stretching time and the milk characteristics, of which the protein concentration and the refrigeration time play the main roles. PMID:19700682

  3. Effect of pregnancy and embryonic mortality on milk production in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Nagy, P; Faigl, V; Reiczigel, J; Juhasz, J

    2015-02-01

    The main objective of the present study was to compare milk production in pregnant versus nonpregnant dromedary camels. In addition, we described the effect of embryonic mortality on lactation and measured serum progesterone levels until d 60 to 90 of gestation. Twenty-five multiparous camels were selected in midlactation for 2 studies in consecutive years. Camels were mated naturally when the size of the dominant follicle reached 1.2 to 1.5cm. Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography and progesterone determination. In the first experiment (Exp 1), 8 of 11 animals conceived at 284±21.5d postpartum. Three pregnant dromedaries were given PGF2α to induce luteolysis and pregnancy loss on d 62 and spontaneous embryonic loss was detected in 2 camels (on d 27 and 60). Animals were allotted to 3 groups retrospectively: nonpregnant camels (group 1, n=4), pregnant camels (group 2; n=3), and camels with embryonic loss after d 55 (group 3; n=4). In the second study (Exp 2), 14 dromedaries were mated during midlactation. Seven of them failed to conceive (group 1) and 7 became pregnant (group 2). No embryonic loss was detected in Exp 2. Turning points in milk production were identified by change point analysis. In nonpregnant dromedaries (group 1), milk decreased slowly over time without significant change point. In pregnant camels (group 2), a gradual decline until 4 wk after mating was followed by a sudden drop, and the change point model resulted in one breakpoint at d 28±7 and 35±3 of gestation in Exp 1 and Exp 2, respectively. In camels with embryonic mortality (group 3, Exp 1), milk yield started to decline similarly as in pregnant animals, but milk production increased gradually after embryonic loss and reached similar levels as in their nonpregnant herdmates. Change point analysis for group 3 resulted in 2 turning points at 30±4 and 48±4d after conception. Mean length of lactation was shorter by 230 (34.2%) and by 249d (37.6%) and mean total lactation production

  4. Novel α-L-Fucosidases from a Soil Metagenome for Production of Fucosylated Human Milk Oligosaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Lezyk, Mateusz; Jers, Carsten; Kjaerulff, Louise; Gotfredsen, Charlotte H.; Mikkelsen, Maria D.; Mikkelsen, Jørn D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the discovery of novel α-L-fucosidases and evaluation of their potential to catalyse the transglycosylation reaction leading to production of fucosylated human milk oligosaccharides. Seven novel α-L-fucosidase-encoding genes were identified by functional screening of a soil-derived metagenome library and expressed in E. coli as recombinant 6xHis-tagged proteins. All seven fucosidases belong to glycosyl hydrolase family 29 (GH 29). Six of the seven α-L-fucosidases were substrate-inhibited, moderately thermostable and most hydrolytically active in the pH range 6–7, when tested with para-nitrophenyl-α-L-fucopyranoside (pNP-Fuc) as the substrate. In contrast, one fucosidase (Mfuc6) exhibited a high pH optimum and an unusual sigmoidal kinetics towards pNP-Fuc substrate. When tested for trans-fucosylation activity using pNP-Fuc as donor, most of the enzymes were able to transfer fucose to pNP-Fuc (self-condensation) or to lactose. With the α-L-fucosidase from Thermotoga maritima and the metagenome-derived Mfuc5, different fucosyllactose variants including the principal fucosylated HMO 2’-fucosyllactose were synthesised in yields of up to ~6.4%. Mfuc5 was able to release fucose from xyloglucan and could also use it as a fucosyl-donor for synthesis of fucosyllactose. This is the first study describing the use of glycosyl hydrolases for the synthesis of genuine fucosylated human milk oligosaccharides. PMID:26800369

  5. The effect of diets on milk production and composition, and on lactation curves in pastured dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Min, B R; Hart, S P; Sahlu, T; Satter, L D

    2005-07-01

    A 2-yr study investigated effects of different levels of concentrate supplementation on milk production, composition, and lactation curves in pastured dairy goats. For both years, 44 Alpine goats (Capra hircus; 55 +/- 11 kg body weight) were randomly allocated to 4 groups. Animals were supplemented with 0.66 (treatments A and B), 0.33 (treatment C), or 0 kg of concentrate (treatment D) per kg of milk over 1.5 kg/d. Mixed vegetative forages were rotationally grazed by the goats (treatments B, C, and D), except that treatment A was confined and fed alfalfa hay. Individual milk production was recorded daily, and milk samples were collected once every 2 wk for the 7-mo period (March to September) and analyzed for fat, protein, lactose, urea-N, nonesterified fatty acids, and allantoin (second year only). Milk yield and composition varied among dietary treatments, with some measures affected by year. Average daily milk yield was lowest for treatment D. The increased level of concentrate supplementation in treatment A led to 22% greater milk yield compared with treatment D. Milk production increased by 1.7 and 0.9 kg for each additional kilogram of concentrate fed per day during the first and second years, respectively. Average peak yield, time of peak yield, and persistency were lower for treatment D than for other treatments. The percentage of milk fat was lower for treatment D than for other treatments. Concentration of milk protein was greater for treatments A and B during the first year, and was higher for treatment C than for other treatments during the second year. Average milk lactose concentration was higher for treatments B and C than for other treatments. However, milk urea-N concentration in treatment A was higher than other treatments. Milk allantoin, used to estimate microbial proteins synthesis, was 20 to 25% greater for treatment A than for other treatments. Averaged across year, plasma urea-N and nonesterified fatty acids concentration were lowest for

  6. Models for Estimating Genetic Parameters of Milk Production Traits Using Random Regression Models in Korean Holstein Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Cho, C. I.; Alam, M.; Choi, T. J.; Choy, Y. H.; Choi, J. G.; Lee, S. S.; Cho, K. H.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to estimate genetic parameters for milk production traits of Holstein cattle using random regression models (RRMs), and to compare the goodness of fit of various RRMs with homogeneous and heterogeneous residual variances. A total of 126,980 test-day milk production records of the first parity Holstein cows between 2007 and 2014 from the Dairy Cattle Improvement Center of National Agricultural Cooperative Federation in South Korea were used. These records included milk yield (MILK), fat yield (FAT), protein yield (PROT), and solids-not-fat yield (SNF). The statistical models included random effects of genetic and permanent environments using Legendre polynomials (LP) of the third to fifth order (L3–L5), fixed effects of herd-test day, year-season at calving, and a fixed regression for the test-day record (third to fifth order). The residual variances in the models were either homogeneous (HOM) or heterogeneous (15 classes, HET15; 60 classes, HET60). A total of nine models (3 orders of polynomials×3 types of residual variance) including L3-HOM, L3-HET15, L3-HET60, L4-HOM, L4-HET15, L4-HET60, L5-HOM, L5-HET15, and L5-HET60 were compared using Akaike information criteria (AIC) and/or Schwarz Bayesian information criteria (BIC) statistics to identify the model(s) of best fit for their respective traits. The lowest BIC value was observed for the models L5-HET15 (MILK; PROT; SNF) and L4-HET15 (FAT), which fit the best. In general, the BIC values of HET15 models for a particular polynomial order was lower than that of the HET60 model in most cases. This implies that the orders of LP and types of residual variances affect the goodness of models. Also, the heterogeneity of residual variances should be considered for the test-day analysis. The heritability estimates of from the best fitted models ranged from 0.08 to 0.15 for MILK, 0.06 to 0.14 for FAT, 0.08 to 0.12 for PROT, and 0.07 to 0.13 for SNF according to days in milk of first

  7. Models for Estimating Genetic Parameters of Milk Production Traits Using Random Regression Models in Korean Holstein Cattle.

    PubMed

    Cho, C I; Alam, M; Choi, T J; Choy, Y H; Choi, J G; Lee, S S; Cho, K H

    2016-05-01

    The objectives of the study were to estimate genetic parameters for milk production traits of Holstein cattle using random regression models (RRMs), and to compare the goodness of fit of various RRMs with homogeneous and heterogeneous residual variances. A total of 126,980 test-day milk production records of the first parity Holstein cows between 2007 and 2014 from the Dairy Cattle Improvement Center of National Agricultural Cooperative Federation in South Korea were used. These records included milk yield (MILK), fat yield (FAT), protein yield (PROT), and solids-not-fat yield (SNF). The statistical models included random effects of genetic and permanent environments using Legendre polynomials (LP) of the third to fifth order (L3-L5), fixed effects of herd-test day, year-season at calving, and a fixed regression for the test-day record (third to fifth order). The residual variances in the models were either homogeneous (HOM) or heterogeneous (15 classes, HET15; 60 classes, HET60). A total of nine models (3 orders of polynomials×3 types of residual variance) including L3-HOM, L3-HET15, L3-HET60, L4-HOM, L4-HET15, L4-HET60, L5-HOM, L5-HET15, and L5-HET60 were compared using Akaike information criteria (AIC) and/or Schwarz Bayesian information criteria (BIC) statistics to identify the model(s) of best fit for their respective traits. The lowest BIC value was observed for the models L5-HET15 (MILK; PROT; SNF) and L4-HET15 (FAT), which fit the best. In general, the BIC values of HET15 models for a particular polynomial order was lower than that of the HET60 model in most cases. This implies that the orders of LP and types of residual variances affect the goodness of models. Also, the heterogeneity of residual variances should be considered for the test-day analysis. The heritability estimates of from the best fitted models ranged from 0.08 to 0.15 for MILK, 0.06 to 0.14 for FAT, 0.08 to 0.12 for PROT, and 0.07 to 0.13 for SNF according to days in milk of first

  8. [Sublimation-dried mare's milk and the possibility of its use in creating infant and dietary food products].

    PubMed

    Stoianova, L G; Abramova, L A; Ladodo, K S

    1988-01-01

    The main biological parameters were studied in sublimated mare's milk: protein fraction composition, amino-acid spectrum, fatty-acid composition of lipids and the content of vitamins and mineral substances. A high biological value of the sublimated mare's milk has been proved, as well as significant proximity of its composition to human milk. Preliminary data have evidenced expediency of mare's milk use for the development of adapted milk mixtures for baby foods. However, the fatty component of the mixtures needs certain correction by addition of vegetable oil. The sublimated mare's milk can be used for the production of kumiss, that would extend its application in dietotherapy by removing season and territory limitations. PMID:3388813

  9. Effects of Bacillus subtilis natto on milk production, rumen fermentation and ruminal microbiome of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Sun, P; Wang, J Q; Deng, L F

    2013-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of Bacillus subtilis natto, which was initially isolated from fermented soybeans on milk production, rumen fermentation and ruminal microbiome in dairy cows. In Experiment 1, 36 early lactation Chinese Holstein dairy cows (56 ± 23 days in milk) were randomly assigned to three groups: Control, cows were fed total mixed ration (TMR); BSNLOW, TMR plus 0.5 × 1011 colony-forming units (cfu) of B. subtilis natto/cow per day; and BSNHIGH, TMR plus 1.0 × 1011 cfu of B. subtilis natto/cow per day. During the 70-day treatment period, daily milk production and daily milk composition were determined in individual cows. The results showed that supplementing dairy cows with 0.5 × 1011 and 1.0 × 1011 cfu of B. subtilis natto linearly increased (P < 0.01) milk production (25.2 and 26.4 kg/day v. 23.0 kg/day), 4% fat-corrected milk (27.3 and 28.1 kg/day v. 24.2 kg/day), energy-corrected milk (27.3 and 28.2 kg/day v. 24.2 kg/day), as well as milk fat (1.01 and 1.03 kg/day v. 0.88 kg/day), protein (0.77 and 0.82 kg/day v. 0.69 kg/day) and lactose yield (1.16 and 1.22 kg/day v. 1.06 kg/day) but decreased milk somatic cell counts (SCC) by 3.4% to 5.5% (P < 0.01) in BSNLOW and BSNHIGH treatments compared with Control. In Experiment 2, four rumen-cannulated dairy cows were fed the basal diet from 1 to 7 days (pre-trial period) and rumen samples were collected on days 6 and 7; the same cows then were fed 1.0 × 1011 cfu/day B. subtilis natto from days 8 to 21 (trial period) and rumen samples were collected on days 20 and 21. B. subtilis natto was discontinued from days 22 to 28 (post-trial period) and rumen samples were collected on days 27 and 28. Compared with the pre- and post-periods, ruminal pH decreased by 2.7% to 3.0% during the trial period (P < 0.01), whereas ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), total volatile fatty acids and molar proportion of propionate (P < 0.01) and valerate (P < 0.05) increased. Molar proportion of acetate

  10. Relationship of electric power quality to milk production of dairy herds - field study with literature review.

    PubMed

    Hillman, Donald; Stetzer, Dave; Graham, Martin; Goeke, Charles L; Mathson, Kurt E; Vanhorn, Harold H; Wilcox, Charles J

    2013-03-01

    Public Utility Commissions (PUC) in several states adopted 0.5 volt rms (root mean squared) or 1.0 milliampere as the actionable limit for utilities to respond to complaints of uncontrolled voltage. This study clearly shows that the actionable level should be reduced to 10 mV p-p (peak-to-peak), which is 140 times less than the current standard. Dairy farmer complaints that animal behavior and milk production were affected by electrical shocks below adopted standards were investigated on 12 farms in Wisconsin, Michigan, and Minnesota. Milk production per cow was determined from daily tank-weight pickup and number of cows milked. Number of transient events, transients, voltage p-p, waveform phase angle degree, sags, and sag-Vrms were measured from event recorders plugged into milk house wall outlets. Data from 1705 cows and 939 data points were analyzed by multiherd least-squares multiple regression and SAS-ANOVA statistical programs. In five herds for 517 days, milk/cow/day decreased -0.0281 kg/transient event as transient events increased from 0 to 122/day (P<0.02). Negative effects on milk/cow/day from event recorder measurements were significant for eight independent electrical variables. Step-potential voltage and frequency of earth currents were measured by oscilloscope from metal plates grouted into the floor of milking stalls. Milk decreased as number of 3rd, 5th, 7th, 21st, 28th, and 42nd harmonics and the sum of triplen harmonics (3rd, 9th, 15th, 21st, 27th, 33rd, and 39th) increased/day (P<0.003). Event recorder transient events were positively correlated with oscilloscope average V p-p event readings. Steps/min counted from videotapes of a dancing cow with no contact to metal in the barnyard were correlated with non-sinusoidal 8.1 to 14.6 mV p-p impulses recorded by oscilloscope for 5 min from EKG patches on legs. PUC standards and use of 500-Ohm resistors in test circuits underestimate effects of non-sinusoidal, higher frequency voltage/current common

  11. Gene regulation of UDP-galactose synthesis and transport: Potential rate limiting processes in initiation of milk production in humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lactose synthesis is believed to be rate-limiting for milk production. However, understanding the molecular events controlling lactose synthesis in humans is still rudimentary. We have utilized our established model of the RNA isolated from breast milk fat globule from 7 healthy exclusively breastfe...

  12. Danish Holsteins Favor Bull Offspring: Biased Milk Production as a Function of Fetal Sex, and Calving Difficulty

    PubMed Central

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study from 2014 it was found that US Holstein cows that gave birth to heifer calves produced more milk than cows having bull calves. We wanted to assess whether this is also true for Danish cattle. Data from 578 Danish Holstein herds were analysed with a mixed effect model and contrary to the findings in the US, we found that cows produced higher volumes of milk if they had a bull calf compared to a heifer calf. We found a significantly higher milk production of 0.28% in the first lactation period for cows giving birth to a bull calf, compared to a heifer calf. This difference was even higher when cows gave birth to another bull calf, so having two bull calves resulted in a difference of 0.52% in milk production compared to any other combination of sex of the offspring. Furthermore, we found that farmer assisted calvings were associated with a higher milk yield. Cows with no farmer assistance or with veterinary assistance during the most recent calving produced less milk. There were also indications that dams would favor a bull fetus by decreasing milk production during the second pregnancy if the calf born in the first parity was a heifer. We hypothesize that size of calves is a confounding factor for milk production. However, calving weight was not available in the present data set to test this hypothesis. PMID:25874441

  13. Milk Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the word “Milk” on the label. Read all product labels carefully before purchasing and consuming any item. Ingredients ... following the circled K or U on a product label indicates the presence of milk protein or a ...

  14. Environmental profile and milk production of Friesian-Zebu crosses in Nigerian Guinea Savanna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igono, M. O.; Aliu, Y. O.

    1982-06-01

    A 10-year meteorologic data have been collated to enable delienation of the environmental profile of the Nigerian Guinea Savanna zone. Three distinct seasons are defined: a hot-dry season which lasts from March to April; a hot-humid season (May to October); and the harmattan season (November to February). The effects of these seasons on milk production by half and three-quarter Friesian-Zebu crosses were evaluated during the first 100 days of lactation over a 2-year period. There were no significant differences in milk yield between the genotypes, but at heat intensities above 27‡C, the half cross gave more milk than the three-quarter cross. It is thus recommended that the half Friesian-Zebu cross be selected for milk production in the Nigerian Guinea Savanna and that suitable husbandry and managerial adjustments such as provision of adequate clean water, shelter, good quality and silage and night grazing should be evolved to ameliorate the adverse effects of thermal stress and nutritional deficiency during the drier and hotter months of the year.

  15. [Estimation of milk production in the nursing mare by labeling the body water of the foal].

    PubMed

    Doreau, M; Dussap, G

    1980-01-01

    Female milk production was related to offspring water turnover, estimated by a tracer method (fig. 1). After deuterium oxide was injected into the blood of the offspring, we measured the decrease of its concentration in time. Milk intake was calculated by equations taking into account the weight gain of the offspring. The reliability of this method was checked in 28 bottle-fed lambs with known milk intake; the correlation between the actual intakes and our estimates was 0.98 with an error means of 5.6 p. 100. The error on the mean of 28 lambs was 0.5 p. 100 (table 1). The milk production of 6 heavy brood mares, estimated during the first week of lactation, varied from 12 to 20 kg per day between animals (table 2). This method did not interfere with the mother-offspring relationship nor with the usual suckling conditions; it can be used advantageously during the onset of lactation in species whose offspring suck frequently. PMID:6296942

  16. Relationship between test-day measures of somatic cell count and milk production in California dairy cows.

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, J W; Thurmond, M C; Lasslo, L

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between test-day measures of milk somatic cell count and milk yield was evaluated using the November 1985 test data from 8352 Holstein cattle (2923 primiparous and 5429 multiparous cows) located in ten Tulare County, California dairies. Following correction for herd and stage of lactation effects, design variable regression was used to create separate models for primiparous and multiparous cows predicting the changes in milk production associated with milk somatic cell count class. Cell counts were stratified by 1/2 loge cell count (x1000 cells/mL) units, permitting comparisons with previous studies. Cell counts less than 148,000/mL were not found to be associated with significant reductions in milk yield when compared to the reference class (cell counts less than 20,000/mL). Consistent incremental decreases in milk production were not noted with increasing cell count strata, even following the natural log transformation. The most dramatic production losses were noted in the range of 148,000 to 665,000 cells/mL. Primiparous cattle in the 403,000 to 665,000 cell count strata experienced a 5.22 kg (19.72%) decrease in test-day milk yield. Multiparous cattle in the same class experienced 3.01 kg (7.82%) reductions in milk production. Primiparous and multiparous cows had similar production losses. The study population differed from previous studies on the basis of herd size, milk production and the level of udder health, measured by milk somatic cell count. These differences and the choice of experimental design may in part explain differences in study results and conclusions. PMID:2713782

  17. Food safety hazards associated with consumption of raw milk.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Stephen P; Boor, Kathryn J; Murphy, Steven C; Murinda, Shelton E

    2009-09-01

    An increasing number of people are consuming raw unpasteurized milk. Enhanced nutritional qualities, taste, and health benefits have all been advocated as reasons for increased interest in raw milk consumption. However, science-based data to substantiate these claims are limited. People continue to consume raw milk even though numerous epidemiological studies have shown clearly that raw milk can be contaminated by a variety of pathogens, some of which are associated with human illness and disease. Several documented milkborne disease outbreaks occurred from 2000-2008 and were traced back to consumption of raw unpasteurized milk. Numerous people were found to have infections, some were hospitalized, and a few died. In the majority of these outbreaks, the organism associated with the milkborne outbreak was isolated from the implicated product(s) or from subsequent products made at the suspected dairy or source. In contrast, fewer milkborne disease outbreaks were associated with consumption of pasteurized milk during this same time period. Twenty nine states allow the sale of raw milk by some means. Direct purchase, cow-share or leasing programs, and the sale of raw milk as pet food have been used as means for consumers to obtain raw milk. Where raw milk is offered for sale, strategies to reduce risks associated with raw milk and products made from raw milk are needed. Developing uniform regulations including microbial standards for raw milk to be sold for human consumption, labeling of raw milk, improving sanitation during milking, and enhancing and targeting educational efforts are potential approaches to this issue. Development of pre- and postharvest control measures to effectively reduce contamination is critical to the control of pathogens in raw milk. One sure way to prevent raw milk-associated foodborne illness is for consumers to refrain from drinking raw milk and from consuming dairy products manufactured using raw milk. PMID:19737059

  18. Milk production and composition of mid-lactation cows consuming perennial ryegrass-and chicory-based diets.

    PubMed

    Muir, S K; Ward, G N; Jacobs, J L

    2014-02-01

    Dry matter intakes (DMI), nutrient selection, and milk production responses of dairy cows grazing 3 herbage-based diets offered at 2 allowances were measured. The 2 allowances were 20 (low) and 30 (high) kg of dry matter (DM)/cow per day and these were applied to 3 herbage types: perennial ryegrass (PRG) and chicory (CHIC+) monocultures and a mixed sward of chicory and perennial ryegrass (MIX). The CHIC+ diet was supplemented with alfalfa hay (approximately 2 kg of DM/cow per day) to maintain dietary neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentration and all diets were supplemented with energy-based pellets (6 kg of DM/cow per day). Holstein-Friesian dairy cows averaging 136 ± 30 d in milk were allocated to 4 replicates of the 6 treatments using stratified randomization procedures. Cows were adapted to their experimental diets over a 14-d period, with measurements of DMI, milk yield, and composition conducted over the following 10 d. Herbage DMI was lowest (12.8 vs. 14.0 kg of DM/d) for CHIC+ compared with the MIX and PRG, although total forage intake (grazed herbage plus hay) was similar (14.0 to 15.0 kg of DM/d) across the 3 treatments. Milk production, milk protein, and milk fat concentrations were not different between herbage types. Grazed herbage DMI increased with increasing herbage allowance and this was associated with increased milk protein concentration (3.23 to 3.34%) and total casein production (41.7 to 43.6 mg/g). Concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk fat, particularly linoleic acid, were increased in milk from cows offered the CHIC+ or the MIX diets, indicating potential benefits of chicory herbage on milk fatty acid concentrations. Although feeding CHIC+ or MIX did not increase milk yield, these herbage types could be used as an alternative to perennial ryegrass pasture in spring. PMID:24290818

  19. Production of Conjugated Linoleic and Conjugated α-Linolenic Acid in a Reconstituted Skim Milk-Based Medium by Bifidobacterial Strains Isolated from Human Breast Milk

    PubMed Central

    Villar-Tajadura, María Antonia; Rodríguez-Alcalá, Luis Miguel; Martín, Virginia; Gómez de Segura, Aránzazu; Rodríguez, Juan Miguel; Fontecha, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Eight bifidobacterial strains isolated from human breast milk have been tested for their abilities to convert linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (LNA) to conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and conjugated α-linolenic acid (CLNA), respectively. These bioactive lipids display important properties that may contribute to the maintenance and improvement human health. Three selected Bifidobacterium breve strains produced CLA from LA and CLNA from LNA in MRS (160–170 and 210–230 μg mL−1, resp.) and, also, in reconstituted skim milk (75–95 and 210–244 μg mL−1, resp.). These bifidobacterial strains were also able to simultaneously produce both CLA (90–105 μg mL−1) and CLNA (290–320 μg mL−1) in reconstituted skim milk. Globally, our findings suggest that these bifidobacterial strains are potential candidates for the design of new fermented dairy products naturally containing very high concentrations of these bioactive lipids. To our knowledge, this is the first study describing CLNA production and coproduction of CLA and CLNA by Bifidobacterium breve strains isolated from human milk in reconstituted skim milk. PMID:25110689

  20. Improved milk production performance of smallholder farms in West Java (Indonesia).

    PubMed

    Sembada, Pria; Duteurtre, Guillaume; Purwanto, Bagus Priyo; Suryahadi

    2016-04-01

    In Indonesia, because of the rapidly growing demand for dairy products, the development of milk production in rural communities can play a strong role in reducing poverty. However, the development of smallholder dairy production requires adequate support from the government, development organizations, and private firms. To assess the needs and situations of poor dairy farmers, we conducted a study in Ciater sub-district in West Java Province to compare the current situation with the situation that prevailed 4 years ago, i.e., before the implementation of a dairy development project. Data were collected from 61 farms in June 2014. The average number of cows on the farms surveyed was three to four, and each relied on cultivating an average of 0.4 ha of forage. Results showed that thanks to the project activities, milk productivity per cow and net income from milk production increased by 25% between 2010 and 2014. These results underline the importance of providing training and technical support for the development of the livelihoods of dairy smallholders. PMID:26969314

  1. First-calving age and first-lactation milk production on Dutch dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Mohd Nor, N; Steeneveld, W; van Werven, T; Mourits, M C M; Hogeveen, H

    2013-02-01

    Farmers attempting to reduce first-calving age (FCA) need to understand which rearing management factors influence FCA and first-lactation milk production (FLP). Reduced FCA might be associated with lower FLP. This study describes the association between herd FCA, FLP, and several herd-level health and rearing management variables and describes the association between FCA and FLP at the cow level. It uses data from a 2010 survey of 100 Dutch dairy farms about general management, colostrum and milk feeding, housing, cleanliness, healthcare, disease, and breeding. It also used available data on FCA and 305-d FLP at both cow and herd level. The associations between median FCA and median FLP of the herd and herd-level health and rearing management variables were determined using multivariate regression analysis. The median FCA was associated with minimum age of first insemination, feeding of waste milk, and the amount of milk given preweaning. The median FLP was associated with median FCA and vaccination status for bovine respiratory syncytial virus. The association between FCA and FLP (based on 8,454 heifers) was analyzed with a single-effect linear mixed model, where the dependent variable was either FCA or relative FCA (defined as the difference between FCA of the heifer and median FCA of the herd to which they belonged). Heifers having an FCA of 24 mo produced, on average, 7,164 kg of milk per 305 d, and calving 1 mo earlier gave 143 kg less milk per 305 d. When FCA did not deviate from the median herd FCA, heifers produced, on average, 7,272 kg of milk per 305 d. From the median FCA of the herd, heifers calving 1 mo earlier produced 90 kg of milk per 305 d less, and heifers calving 1 mo later produced 86 kg per 305 d more. This is the first study that explained FLP using relative FCA. It assumes that heifers raised within the same farm have similar development because they are similarly managed. Similar management is reflected by the median FCA of the herd, with a

  2. Feed intake, milk production and composition of crossbred cows fed with insect-protected Bollgard II® cottonseed containing Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab proteins.

    PubMed

    Singhal, K K; Tyagi, A K; Rajput, Y S; Singh, M; Kaur, H; Perez, T; Hartnell, G F

    2011-09-01

    Twenty crossbred lactating multiparous cows were used in a 28-day study to compare dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, milk composition and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protein concentrations in plasma when fed diets containing Bollgard II(®) cottonseed (BGII) or a control non-genetically modified isogenic cottonseed (CON). Bollgard II cottonseed contains the Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab insecticidal proteins that protect cotton plants from feeding damage caused by certain lepidopteran insects. Cows were assigned randomly to the BGII or CON treatments after a 2-week adjustment period. Cows consumed a concentrate containing 40% crushed cottonseed according to milk yield and green maize forage ad libitum. All cows received the same diet but with different crushed cottonseed sources. Cottonseed was included to provide approximately 2.9 kg per cow daily (dry matter basis). The ingredient composition of the concentrate was 40% crushed cottonseed, 15% groundnut cake, 20% corn, 22% wheat bran, 1% salt and 2% mineral mixture. Milk and blood plasma were analyzed for Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab proteins. DMI, BW, milk yield and milk components did not differ between cows on the BGII and CON treatments. Although milk yield and milk fat percentage were not affected by treatment, 4% fat-corrected milk (FCM) production and FCM/kg DMI for cows on the BGII treatment (14.0 kg/cow per day, 1.12 kg/kg) were significantly improved compared with cows on the CON treatment (12.1 kg/cow per day, 0.97 kg/kg). Gossypol contents in BGII cottonseed and conventional cottonseed were similar. Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab2 proteins in Bollgard II cottonseed were 5.53 and 150.8 μg/g, respectively, and were not detected in the milk or plasma samples. The findings suggested that Bollgard II cottonseed can replace conventional cottonseed in dairy cattle diets with no adverse effects on performance and milk composition. PMID:22440417

  3. Milk kefir: composition, microbial cultures, biological activities, and related products

    PubMed Central

    Prado, Maria R.; Blandón, Lina Marcela; Vandenberghe, Luciana P. S.; Rodrigues, Cristine; Castro, Guillermo R.; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Soccol, Carlos R.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a strong focus on beneficial foods with probiotic microorganisms and functional organic substances. In this context, there is an increasing interest in the commercial use of kefir, since it can be marketed as a natural beverage that has health promoting bacteria. There are numerous commercially available kefir based-products. Kefir may act as a matrix in the effective delivery of probiotic microorganisms in different types of products. Also, the presence of kefir’s exopolysaccharides, known as kefiran, which has biological activity, certainly adds value to products. Kefiran can also be used separately in other food products and as a coating film for various food and pharmaceutical products. This article aims to update the information about kefir and its microbiological composition, biological activity of the kefir’s microflora and the importance of kefiran as a beneficial health substance. PMID:26579086

  4. The ability of exogenous growth hormone to maintain milk production during prolonged lactation in the mouse is more evident with reduced nursing frequency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although growth hormone (GH) increases milk production in dairy animals, the milk production response of lactating rodents to this treatment has been variable. Milk removal frequency in the lactating mouse is about 10-fold higher than that of lactating dairy cows. The hypothesis tested in this study...

  5. The effects of progressing and non-progressing Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection on milk production in dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rebecca L.; Gröhn, Y. T.; Pradhan, A.K.; Whitlock, R. H.; Van Kessel, J. S.; Smith, J. M.; Wolfgang, D.R.; Schukken, Y. H.

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal data from 3 commercial dairy herds in the northeast United States, collected from 2004 to 2011, were analyzed to determine the effect of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection status and progression path on milk production. Disease status, as indicated by MAP test results, was determined through quarterly ELISA serum testing, biannual fecal culture, and culture of tissues and feces at slaughter. Milk production data were collected from the Dairy Herd Information Association. Animals with positive MAP test results were categorized, based on test results over the full course of the study, as high path (at least one high-positive culture) or low path (at least one positive culture or ELISA). The cumulative number of positive ELISA and culture results were recorded. The effects of both MAP infection path, status, and number of positive tests on milk production were analyzed using a mixed linear model with an autocorrelation random effect structure. Low and high path animals produced more milk prior to their first positive test than always-negative animals, especially high path animals. While mean production decreased after a first positive test, low path animals were shown to recover some productivity. High path animals continued to exhibit a decrease in milk production, especially after their first high-positive fecal culture. These results show that not all animals that test positive for MAP will have long-term production losses. Milk production decreased significantly with each additional positive test. Ultimately, production loss appeared to be a function of MAP infection progression. PMID:26686721

  6. Genetic and genomic dissection of Prolactin revealed potential association with milk production traits in riverine buffalo.

    PubMed

    Nadeem, A; Maryam, J

    2016-08-01

    Milk yield and quality has been a major selection criterion for genetic improvement in livestock species. Role of Prolactin gene in determining milk quality in terms of protein profile, lactose, lipids and other imperative macromolecules is very important. In this context, genetic profiling of Prolactin gene in riverine buffalo of Pakistan was performed and potential genetic markers were identified illustrating worth of this gene in marker-assisted selection of superior dairy buffaloes. Series of wet and dry lab experimentation was performed starting with genomic DNA isolation from true to breed representatives of indigenous river buffalo (Nili-Ravi). After amplification of coding regions of Prolactin gene, products were eluted and sequenced by Sanger's chain termination method and aligned to get variations in genomic region. A total of 15 novel variations were identified and analyzed statistically for their significance at population level, haplotypes were constructed, and association was estimated. Phylogenetic analysis was performed to evaluate the rate of evolution for Prolactin gene in various mammalian species. Lastly, biological networking for this molecule was predicted to get the bigger pictorial of its functional machinery. Pathway analysis was performed to find its physiological mode of action in milk synthesis. This is a first report toward complete genetic screening of Prolactin gene in Pakistani buffaloes. Results of this study not only provide an insight for potential role of Prolactin gene in milk-producing abilities of buffalo but also suggest new directions for exploration of more genes that may have promising role to enhance future milk production capabilities of river buffalo breeds of Asian region through marker-assisted selection. PMID:27240674

  7. Gene targeting by TALEN-induced homologous recombination in goats directs production of β-lactoglobulin-free, high-human lactoferrin milk.

    PubMed

    Cui, Chenchen; Song, Yujie; Liu, Jun; Ge, Hengtao; Li, Qian; Huang, Hui; Hu, Linyong; Zhu, Hongmei; Jin, Yaping; Zhang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    β-Lactoglobulin (BLG) is a major goat's milk allergen that is absent in human milk. Engineered endonucleases, including transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and zinc-finger nucleases, enable targeted genetic modification in livestock. In this study, TALEN-mediated gene knockout followed by gene knock-in were used to generate BLG knockout goats as mammary gland bioreactors for large-scale production of human lactoferrin (hLF). We introduced precise genetic modifications in the goat genome at frequencies of approximately 13.6% and 6.09% for the first and second sequential targeting, respectively, by using targeting vectors that underwent TALEN-induced homologous recombination (HR). Analysis of milk from the cloned goats revealed large-scale hLF expression or/and decreased BLG levels in milk from heterozygous goats as well as the absence of BLG in milk from homozygous goats. Furthermore, the TALEN-mediated targeting events in somatic cells can be transmitted through the germline after SCNT. Our result suggests that gene targeting via TALEN-induced HR may expedite the production of genetically engineered livestock for agriculture and biomedicine. PMID:25994151

  8. Effects of shortening the dry period of dairy cows on milk production, energy balance, health, and fertility: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    van Knegsel, Ariëtte T M; van der Drift, Saskia G A; Cermáková, Jana; Kemp, Bas

    2013-12-01

    A dry period of 6-8 weeks for dairy cows is generally thought to maximise milk production in the next lactation. However, the value of such a long dry period is increasingly questioned. In particular, shortening the dry period shifts milk production from the critical period after calving to the weeks before calving. This shift in milk production could improve the energy balance (EB), health and fertility of dairy cows. The objective of this study was to systematically review the current knowledge on dry period length in relation to milk production, EB, fertility, and health of cows and calves. A meta-analysis was performed for variables where at least five studies were available. Overall, both shortening and omitting the dry period reduces milk production, increases milk protein percentage and tends to reduce the risk of ketosis in the next lactation. Individual studies reported an improvement of EB after a short or no dry period, compared with a conventional dry period. Shortening or omitting the dry period did not affect milk fat percentage and shortening the dry period did not alter the odds ratio for mastitis, metritis, or fertility measures in the next lactation. So, current evidence for an improvement of health and fertility of dairy cows is marginal and may be partly explained by the limited number of studies which have evaluated health and fertility in relation to dry period length, the limited number of animals in those studies and the variable responses reported. PMID:24238794

  9. Relationships between milk production, ovarian function and fertility in high-producing dairy herds in north-eastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Yániz, J; López-Gatius, F; Bech-Sàbat, G; García-Ispierto, I; Serrano, B; Santolaria, P

    2008-10-01

    In the dairy industry worldwide, reproductive disorders are a major cause of economic losses and a challenge to scientists and technicians. In recent decades, declining fertility and increasing milk production have been widely reported in dairy cattle. In this article, the relationships between milk production, ovarian disorders and fertility in high-producing dairy herds are briefly described. We carried out a retrospective study of 23 204 lactations included in a reproductive control programme in north-eastern Spain, a geographical area experiencing both warm and cool conditions. The data were collected between 1991 and 2007 and refer to cows first inseminated or examined 45-80 days postpartum in five well-managed, commercial, Holstein-Friesian high-producing dairy herds. Ovarian disorders were classified as ovarian inactivity or hypofunction, cystic ovarian disease, sub-oestrus or silent ovulation and sub-luteal function. Ovarian hypofunction and milk production increased throughout the study period and there was a decrease in the pregnancy rate to first artificial insemination (AI). Cows suffering ovarian hypofunction were efficiently treated using combined progestagen-prostaglandin treatments. The incidence of ovarian cysts showed little variation with time. Treatment of this syndrome may include different GnRH-based treatments or manual rupture. During the last 5 years, sub-oestrus was the predominant dysfunction (42.1%) compared with the cystic (6.3%) and ovarian hypofunction (12%) forms. Response of sub-oestrous cows to treatment with luteolitic agents was usually higher than 60%. Ovarian function and fertility were dramatically impaired during the warm period. However, during the later years of the study, the inclusion of fans and water sprinklers for the warm season appeared to overcome the seasonal effect on fertility. PMID:18803755

  10. An indirect competitive biotin-streptavidin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the determination of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) in milk and milk products.

    PubMed

    Sun, Rui Y; Zhuang, Hui S

    2015-01-01

    After the "plasticizer event" in Taiwan, phthalic acid esters (PAEs) have been listed in "Inedible materials possibly added into food illegally" and "Commonly abused food additives." As one of the PAEs family, DMP has long been a problem of great concern due to its potential impacts on human health. In order to detect DMP with high sensitivity and specificity, a sensitive indirect competitive biotin-streptavidin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (BA-ELISA) has been established in this study. A high-titer rabbit polyclonal antibody (pAb-DMP) targeting DMP was obtained, and the procedures of BA-ELISA were optimized for the determination of DMP in milk and milk products. Under optimal conditions, good linearity was achieved within a range of 0.024 to 6.027 μg L(-1), with low cross-reactivity values for DMP structural analogues (lower than 10%). The median inhibitory concentration (IC50) was 0.356 μg L(-1) and the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.0082 μg L(-1). Finally, the concentrations of DMP in milk and milk products ranged from 1.03 μg kg(-1) to 7.23 μg kg(-1) by BA-ELISA. Satisfactory recoveries (90.26-112.38%) and coefficient of variation (CV) values (5.08-8.46%) were obtained. These results were consistent with those using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), which further confirmed that the proposed BA-ELISA was accurate, specific, reliable and rapid for routine monitoring trace DMP residues in foodstuff, especially milk and milk products. PMID:25714459

  11. Effect of dietary phosphorus content on milk production and phosphorus excretion in dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Phosphorus (P) supplementation is costly and can result in excess P excretion. This study investigated the effects of reducing dietary P on milk production and P excretion in dairy cows over a full lactation. Method Forty-five multiparous Holstein dairy cows were divided into 15 blocks according to expected calving date and previous milk yield, and assigned randomly to one of the three dietary treatments: 0.37, 0.47, and 0.57% P (DM basis); these P levels represent the NRC recommendations, Chinese recommendations, and the amount of dietary P commonly fed by Chinese dairy farmers, respectively. Average daily feed intake was calculated from monthly data on feed offered and refused. Milk yields of individual cows were recorded weekly, and milk samples were taken for analysis of protein, fat, solids-not-fat, lactose, and somatic cell count. Blood samples were collected on days −6, −3, 0, 3, 6 relative to calving, and then monthly throughout lactation, and analyzed for P and Ca concentrations. Spot samples of feces and urine were collected for 3 consecutive d during weeks 12, 24, and 36, and P concentrations were analyzed. Reproduction and health data were recorded. Results Dietary P did not affect dry matter intake or milk yield (P > 0.10). Milk fat content was slightly higher in cows fed 0.37% P than in cows fed 0.47% P (P = 0.05). Serum concentrations of P and Ca did not reflect dietary P content (P > 0.10). Fecal and urinary P both declined linearly (P < 0.05) as dietary P decreased from 0.57 to 0.37%. Fecal P content was 25% less when dietary P was 0.37% compared to 0.57%. Health events and reproductive performance were not associated with dietary P content (P > 0.05). Conclusions Lowering dietary P from 0.57 to 0.37% did not negatively affect milk production, but did significantly reduce P excretion into environment. PMID:24872881

  12. Paratuberculosis sero-status and milk production, SCC and calving interval in Irish dairy herds

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of paratuberculosis sero-status on milk yield, fat, protein, somatic cell count and calving interval in Irish dairy herds. Serum from all animals over 12 months of age (n = 2,602) in 34 dairy herds was tested for antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis using an ELISA. Herds were categorised by sero-status into positive, non-negative and negative, where a positive herd contained two or more positive cows, a non-negative herd contained only one positive cow and a negative herd contained no positive cows. Data at animal, parity and herd-level were analysed by multiple regression using general linear models. Positive herds (mean herd size = 129 cows) and non-negative herds (81 cows) were larger than negative herds (72 cows) (P < 0.01). Negative herds had the highest economic breeding index (EBI), while positive herds had the highest estimated breeding value (EBV) for milk yield. There was no significant effect of paratuberculosis sero-status at animal, parity or herd-level on milk yield, milk fat or protein production, somatic cell count score (SCCS) or calving interval. Negative herds tended to have a lower SCCS than positive and nonnegative herds (P = 0.087). This study only examined the effects of paratuberculosis sero-status but did not examine the clinical effects of Johne's disease at the farm or dairy industry levels. PMID:21851733

  13. On the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in milk and dairy products.

    PubMed

    Prandini, A; Tansini, G; Sigolo, S; Filippi, L; Laporta, M; Piva, G

    2009-05-01

    Aflatoxins are toxic fungal metabolites found in foods and feeds. When ruminants eat AFB(1)-feedstuffs, they metabolise the toxin and excrete AFM(1) in milk. To control AFM(1) in foods it is necessary to reduce AFB(1) contamination of feeds for dairy cattle by preventing fungal growth and AFB(1) formation in agricultural commodities intended for animal use. Corn and corn-based products are one of the most contaminated feedstuffs; therefore risk factor analysis of AFB(1) contamination in corn is necessary to evaluate risk of AFM(1) contamination in milk and milk products. During the corn silage production, the aflatoxins production is mostly influenced by: harvest time; fertilization; irrigation; pest control; silage moisture; and storage practices. Due to the lower moisture at harvest and to the conservation methods, the corn grain is mostly exposed to the contamination by Aspergillus species. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce the probability of this contaminant through choice of: hybrids; seeding time and density; suitable ploughing and fertirrigation; and chemical or biological control. Grains harvested with the lowest possible moisture and conservation moisture close to or less than 14% are necessary to reduce contamination risks, as is maintaining mass to homogeneous moisture. Kernel mechanical damage, grain cleaning practices and conservation temperature are also factors which need to be carefully controlled. PMID:18037552

  14. The mammary gland in small ruminants: major morphological and functional events underlying milk production--a review.

    PubMed

    Lérias, Joana R; Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo E; Suárez-Trujillo, Aridany; Castro, Noemí; Pourlis, Aris; Almeida, André M

    2014-08-01

    The importance of small ruminants to the dairy industry has increased in recent years, especially in developing countries, where it has a high economic and social impact. Interestingly and despite the fact that the mammary gland is the specialised milk production organ, very few authors studied the modifications occurring in the mammary gland through the lactation period in production animals, particularly in the small ruminants, sheep (Ovis aries) and goat (Capra hircus). Nevertheless, understanding the different mammary gland patterns throughout lactation is essential to improve dairy production. In addition, associating these patterns with different milking frequencies, lactation number or different diets is also of high importance, directly affecting the dairy industry. The mammary gland is commonly composed of parenchyma and stroma, which includes the ductal system, with individual proportions of each changing during the different periods and yields in a lactation cycle. Indeed, during late gestation, as well as during early to mid-lactation, mammary gland expansion occurs, with an increase in the number of epithelial cells and lumen area, which leads to increment of the parenchyma tissue, as well as a reduction of stroma, corresponding macroscopically to the increase in mammary gland volume. Throughout late lactation, the mammary gland volume decreases owing to the regression of the secretory structure. In general, common mammary gland patterns have been shown for both goats and sheep throughout the several lactation stages, although the number of studies is limited. The main objective of this manuscript is to review the colostrogenesis and lactogenesis processes as well as to highlight the mammary gland morphological patterns underlying milk production during the lactation cycle for small ruminants, and to describe potential differences between goats and sheep, hence contributing to a better description of mammary gland development during lactation for these

  15. Computer simulation to predict energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and costs for production of fluid milk using alternative processing methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Computer simulation is a useful tool for benchmarking the electrical and fuel energy consumption and water use in a fluid milk plant. In this study, a computer simulation model of the fluid milk process based on high temperature short time (HTST) pasteurization was extended to include models for pr...

  16. Enterotoxin Gene Profile and Molecular Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Bovine Bulk Milk and Milk Products of Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tarekgne, Enquebaher K; Skjerdal, Taran; Skeie, Siv; Rudi, Knut; Porcellato, Davide; Félix, Benjamin; Narvhus, Judith A

    2016-08-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) is an important foodborne disease worldwide, and milk and milk products are commonly associated with SFP outbreaks. The objectives of this study were to investigate the distribution of staphylococcal enterotoxin (se) genes in Staphylococcus aureus from raw cow's milk and milk products and to assess their genetic background with the spa typing method. Of the 549 samples (297 bulk milk and 162 milk product samples) collected from Tigray region, Northern Ethiopia, 160 (29.1%) were positive for S. aureus, of which 82 (51%) were found to harbor se genes by a modified multiplex PCR. Nine se genes were identified: sea (n = 12), seb (n = 3), sec (n = 3), sed(n = 4), seg (n = 49), seh (n = 2), sei (n = 40), sej (n = 1), and tsst-1 (n = 24). The classical type of genes accounted for 27%. Of the 82 enterotoxigenic isolates, 41.5 and 12.4% harbored two or more se genes, respectively. The highest gene association was observed between sei and seg, whereas sea and seb were always found together with the new types of se genes. Altogether, 18 genotypes of toxin genes were identified, and 33% of the samples contained > 5 log CFU ml(-1) S. aureus. spa typing identified 22 spa types and three novel spa sequences, which showed the high genetic diversity of the isolates. No apparent relationship was observed between spa type and se genes. Of the 25 spa types, 13 (52%) were from raw milk, 3 (12%) from milk products, and 9 (36%) from both types of sample. Types t314 (20.7%,n = 17), t458 (18.3%, n = 15), and t6218 (9.8%, n= 8) were the most common spa types identified and were widely distributed in three of the eight studied localities. This is the first study from the Tigray region to report the high distribution of enterotoxigenic S. aureus with a diversified genetic background from dairy food. The study may provide valuable data for microbial food safety risk assessment, molecular epidemiology, and phylogenetic studies of S. aureus in Ethiopia. PMID

  17. Pattern of eprinomectin milk excretion in dairy sheep unaffected by lactation stage: comparative residual profiles in dairy products.

    PubMed

    Imperiale, Fernanda; Pis, Alejandra; Sallovitz, Juan; Lisfchitz, Adrián; Busetti, Margarita; Suárez, Victor; Lanusse, Carlos

    2006-10-01

    Eprinomectin (EPM) is a broad-spectrum endectocide compound approved for use in dairy cattle with a zero milk-withdrawal period, but has not been registered for use in lactating dairy sheep. The pattern of EPM excretion in milk was comparatively characterized following its pour-on administration (500 microg/kg) to lactating dairy sheep at two different stages of lactation. The relationship between milk excretion and plasma disposition kinetics of EPM was characterized. Residual EPM concentrations were assessed during cheese making (whey and curd) and ripening (cheese) by high-performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection. EPM was poorly distributed from the bloodstream to the mammary gland and low concentrations were excreted in milk. The level of milk production (early-mid and mid-late lactation) did not affect either the plasma-milk distribution or the pattern of residual concentrations in milk. During cheese making, the highest residual concentrations of EPM were measured in the curd, which increased during cheese ripening, reaching a maximum after 40 days. However, these residual concentrations were below the maximum residue limit of 20 ng/ml established for EPM in bovine's milk. Therefore, these dairy products could be considered safe for consumers after the EPM antiparasitic pour-on treatment (500 microg/kg) in lactating dairy sheep. PMID:17066922

  18. Detection of genetic variants affecting cattle behaviour and their impact on milk production: a genome-wide association study.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Juliane; Brand, Bodo; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Graunke, Katharina L; Langbein, Jan; Knaust, Jacqueline; Kühn, Christa; Schwerin, Manfred

    2016-02-01

    Behaviour traits of cattle have been reported to affect important production traits, such as meat quality and milk performance as well as reproduction and health. Genetic predisposition is, together with environmental stimuli, undoubtedly involved in the development of behaviour phenotypes. Underlying molecular mechanisms affecting behaviour in general and behaviour and productions traits in particular still have to be studied in detail. Therefore, we performed a genome-wide association study in an F2 Charolais × German Holstein cross-breed population to identify genetic variants that affect behaviour-related traits assessed in an open-field and novel-object test and analysed their putative impact on milk performance. Of 37,201 tested single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs), four showed a genome-wide and 37 a chromosome-wide significant association with behaviour traits assessed in both tests. Nine of the SNPs that were associated with behaviour traits likewise showed a nominal significant association with milk performance traits. On chromosomes 14 and 29, six SNPs were identified to be associated with exploratory behaviour and inactivity during the novel-object test as well as with milk yield traits. Least squares means for behaviour and milk performance traits for these SNPs revealed that genotypes associated with higher inactivity and less exploratory behaviour promote higher milk yields. Whether these results are due to molecular mechanisms simultaneously affecting behaviour and milk performance or due to a behaviour predisposition, which causes indirect effects on milk performance by influencing individual reactivity, needs further investigation. PMID:26515756

  19. Nighttime Cooling Is an Effective Method for Improving Milk Production in Lactating Goats Exposed to Hot and Humid Environment

    PubMed Central

    Sunagawa, Katsunori; Nagamine, Itsuki; Kamata, Yasuhiro; Niino, Noriko; Taniyama, Yoshihiko; Kinjo, Kazuhide; Matayoshi, Ayano

    2015-01-01

    Heat production in ruminants follows a diurnal pattern over the course of a day peaking 3 hours following afternoon feeding and then gradually declining to its lowest point prior to morning feeding. In order to clarify the cooling period most effective in reducing decreases in feed intake and milk production, experiments were carried out based on the diurnal rhythm of heat production and heat dissipation. In experiment 1, the effects of hot environment on milk production were investigated. The animals were kept first in a thermoneutral environment (20.0°C, 80.0%) for 12 days, they were then transitioned to a hot environment (32°C, 80.0%) for 13 days before being returned to second thermoneutral environment for a further 12 days. In experiment 2, the effectiveness of daytime cooling or nighttime cooling for improving milk production in hot environment was compared. While ten lactating Japanese Saanen goats (aged 2 years, weighing 41.0 kg) during early lactation were used in experiment 1, ten lactating goats (aged 2 years, weighing 47.5 kg) during mid-lactation were used in experiment 2. The animals were fed 300 g of concentrated feed and excessive amounts of crushed alfalfa hay cubes twice daily. Water was given ad libitum. The animals were milked twice daily. When exposed to a hot environment, milk yield and composition decreased significantly (p<0.05). Milk yield in the hot environment did not change with daytime cooling, but tended to increase with nighttime cooling. Compared to the daytime cooling, milk components percentages in the nighttime cooling were not significantly different but the milk components yields in the nighttime cooling were significantly higher (p<0.05). The results indicate that nighttime cooling is more effective than daytime cooling in the reduction of milk production declines in lactating goats exposed to a hot environment. PMID:26104401

  20. Gold nanostructure-integrated silica-on-silicon waveguide for the detection of antibiotics in milk and milk products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozhikandathil, Jayan; Badilescu, Simona; Packirisamy, Muthukumaran

    2012-10-01

    Antibiotics are extensively used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases. The use of antibiotics for the treatment of animals used for food production raised the concern of the public and a rapid screening method became necessary. A novel approach of detection of antibiotics in milk is reported in this work by using an immunoassay format and the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance property of gold. An antibiotic from the penicillin family that is, ampicillin is used for testing. Gold nanostructures deposited on a glass substrate by a novel convective assembly method were heat-treated to form a nanoisland morphology. The Au nanostructures were functionalized and the corresponding antibody was absorbed from a solution. Solutions with known concentrations of antigen (antibiotics) were subsequently added and the spectral changes were monitored step by step. The Au LSPR band corresponding to the nano-island structure was found to be suitable for the detection of the antibody antigen interaction. The detection of the ampicillin was successfully demonstrated with the gold nano-islands deposited on glass substrate. This process was subsequently adapted for the integration of gold nanostructures on the silica-on-silicon waveguide for the purpose of detecting antibiotics.

  1. Effect of extruded linseeds alone or in combination with fish oil on intake, milk production, plasma metabolite concentrations and milk fatty acid composition in lactating goats.

    PubMed

    Bernard, L; Leroux, C; Rouel, J; Delavaud, C; Shingfield, K J; Chilliard, Y

    2015-05-01

    Based on the potential benefits for long-term human health, there is interest in developing sustainable nutritional strategies for lowering medium-chain saturated fatty acids (FA) and increasing specific unsaturated FA in ruminant milk. Dietary supplements of extruded linseeds (EL), fish oil (FO) or a mixture of EL and FO increase cis-9,trans-11 CLA and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated FA in bovine milk. Supplements of FO cause milk fat depression in lactating cows, but information for dairy goats is limited. A total of 14 Alpine goats were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square with 28-days experimental periods to examine the effects of EL alone or in combination with FO on animal performance, milk fat synthesis and milk FA composition. Treatments comprised diets based on natural grassland hay supplemented with no additional oil (control), 530 of EL or 340 g/day of EL and 39 g/day of FO (ELFO). Compared with the control, ELFO tended (P=0.08) to lower milk fat yield, whereas EL increased (P<0.01) milk fat content and yield (15% and 10%, respectively). Relative to EL, ELFO decreased (P<0.01) milk fat content and yield (19% and 17%, respectively). Relative to the control and ELFO, EL decreased (P<0.05) milk 10:0 to 16:0 and odd- and branched-chain FA content and increased 18:0, cis-18:1, trans-13 18:1 (and their corresponding ∆-9 (desaturase products), trans-12,cis-14 CLA, cis-13,trans-15 CLA, cis-12,trans-14 CLA and trans-11,cis-13 CLA and 18:3n-3 concentrations. ELFO was more effective for enriching (P<0.05) milk cis-9, trans-11 CLA and trans-11 18:1 concentrations (up to 5.4- and 7.1-fold compared with the control) than EL (up to 1.7- and 2.5-fold increases). Furthermore, ELFO resulted in a substantial increase in milk trans-10 18:1 concentration (5.4% total FA), with considerable variation between individual animals. Relative to the control and EL, milk fat responses to ELFO were characterized by increases (P<0.05) in milk trans-16:1 (Δ9 to 11), trans-18:1 (Δ6

  2. [Efficacy of using inulin fortified fermented milk products in patients with functional constipation].

    PubMed

    Pilipenko, V I; Burliaeva, E A; Shakhovskaia, A K; Isakov, V A

    2009-01-01

    The research involved 76 patients with irritable bowel syndrome with constipation. Introduction of fermented milk products--inulin fortified spoon yoghurt, drinking, yoghurt, kefir drink--into a standard ration exerted influence upon dynamics of basis manifestations of illness and made for increase of indices, which characterize patients' quality of life. The biggest was marked upon use of spoon yoghurt and kefir drink. After use of drinking yoghurt, dyspeptic effects were observed in a third part of patients. PMID:19663305

  3. PEDIOCIN PRODUCTION IN MILK BY PEDIOCOCCUS ACIDILACTICI IN CO-CULTURE WITH STREPTOCOCCUS THERMOPHILUS AND LACTOBACILLUS DELBRUECKII SUBSP. BULGARICUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The production of pediocin in milk by Pediococcus acidilactici was evaluated in co-culture with the dairy fermentation cultures Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. The cultures were tested singly or in different combinations...

  4. Milk production in dairy goats supplemented with different levels of ruminally protected methionine.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Mélendez, Erick; Mendoza, Germán D; Castrejón-Pineda, Francisco A; Ducoing-Watty, Andrés E

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the study reported in this Research Communication was to evaluate graded levels of ruminally protected methionine (RPM) in dairy goat rations on milk production and live weight changes during 155 d of lactation. Twenty-five primiparous dairy goats (crosses of Toggenburg, French Alpine and Saanen; 45·4 ± 1·0 kg BW) were fed a basal diet (10·10% CP, 6·13 DP and 2·34 Mcal/kg ME) of corn silage, oat hay, alfalfa hay and concentrate (80% forage, 20% concentrate). After kidding, the treatments, which consisted of four oral doses of ruminally protected methionine (RPM) at 0, 1, 2 and 3 g/d, were randomly assigned to the goats. The experiment was conducted for 110 d with measurements of milk production and composition, body weight and dry matter intake. No treatment effects were detected in milk production and composition. However, goats with RPM showed a positive live weight changes during lactation which were improved as dose was increased (linear P < 0·01) whereas goats without RPM showed weight loss during the experiment. PMID:27048778

  5. Encapsulation of ascorbic acid promotes the reduction of Maillard reaction products in UHT milk.

    PubMed

    Troise, Antonio Dario; Vitiello, Daniele; Tsang, Catherine; Fiore, Alberto

    2016-06-15

    The presence of amino groups and carbonyls renders fortified milk with ascorbic acid particularly susceptible to the reduction of available lysine and to the formation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs), as Nε-(carboxyethyl)-l-lysine (CEL), Nε-(carboxymethyl)-l-lysine (CML), Amadori products (APs) and off-flavors. A novel approach was proposed to control the Maillard reaction (MR) in fortified milk: ascorbic acid was encapsulated in a lipid coating and the effects were tested after a lab scale UHT treatment. Encapsulation promoted a delayed release of ascorbic acid and a reduction in the formation of MRPs. Total lysine increased up to 45% in milk with encapsulated ascorbic acid, while reductions in CML, CEL and furosine ranged from 10% to 53% compared with control samples. The effects were also investigated towards the formation of amide-AGEs (advanced glycation end products) by high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) revealing that several mechanisms coincide with the MR in the presence of ascorbic acid. PMID:27240727

  6. [Simultaneous determination of various aseptics and sweeteners in milk and dairy products].

    PubMed

    Song, Ge; Jiang, Jindou; Zhang, Qiumei

    2010-03-01

    A method for simultaneous determination of acesulfame, benzoic acid, sodium saccharin, sorbic acid, and aspartame in milk and dairy products using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed. The proteins in milk and dairy products were mostly eliminated by the precipitators. Three aseptics and two sweeteners were separated on a C18 column with the mobile phase of methanol-0.05 mol/L potassium dihydrogen phosphate under gradient elution. With a diode array detector, acesulfame, benzoic acid, and sorbic acid were detected at 230 nm and sodium saccharin and aspartame were detected at 210 nm. The recoveries were 96.0% - 103.5% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) in the range of 1.93% - 2.76%. The detection limits of acesulfame, benzoic acid, sodium saccharin, sorbic acid and aspartame were 1.0, 1.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 microg/g, respectively. This method can be used for the routine analysis of these additives in milk and dairy products. PMID:20549988

  7. Development of a non-dairy probiotic fermented product based on almond milk and inulin.

    PubMed

    Bernat, Neus; Cháfer, Maite; Chiralt, Amparo; González-Martínez, Chelo

    2015-09-01

    A new fermented almond "milk" that combined the properties of both almonds and probiotics was considered to cover the current versatile health-promoting foods' demand. Almond milk fermentation with probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri and Streptococcus thermophilus was studied by using a Central Composite design with response surface methodology, and different factors (glucose, fructose, inulin and starters) were optimised to assure high probiotic survivals in the final product. The optimal formulation was physicochemically characterised throughout cold storage (28 days) and both probiotic survivals to in vitro digestion and proteolysis were quantified. Results showed that a high probiotic population (>10(7) cfu/mL) was obtained in the previously optimised almond milk throughout storage time, which correspond to the addition of 0.75 g of glucose/100 mL, 0.75 g of fructose/100 mL, 2 g/100 mL inulin and 6 mL/100 mL inoculum. Glucose was used as the main nutrient and the production of mannitol by L. reuteri was detected. The fermentation process increased the viscosity values, forming a weak gel structure, whose physical properties hardly changed. Probiotic bacteria notably survived (51%) to the in vitro digestion, surely related to the inulin presence, which would add value to the developed product by enhancing the potential health benefits of its consumption. PMID:25028153

  8. Development of a rapid detection system for opportunistic pathogenic Cronobacter spp. in powdered milk products.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Jennifer; Schmidt, Herbert; Loessner, Martin J; Weiss, Agnes

    2014-09-01

    Certain species of the genus Cronobacter are considered opportunistic pathogens, but their detection in milk products according to ISO/TS 22964 may take up to six days. The aim of this study was to develop a fast and sensitive PCR-based detection system for these species including enrichment, DNA-isolation and detection by real-time PCR, using the outer membrane protein gene ompA as a target. The assay was successfully validated using type strains of the genus Cronobacter, as well as 18 strains of closely related genera as controls. A total of 40 Cronobacter spp. food isolates yielded positive results, while the food matrix itself did not influence the PCR reaction. An equal detection limit as achieved with the ISO/TS 22964 method was established in this study, when 0.01 CFU Cronobacter sakazakii DSM 4485(T) per gram powdered infant formula were successfully detected after 28 days of storage at ambient temperature. In comparison to the ISO/TS 22964 method, the method described here has an equal detection limit, but offers a specific detection at the genus level in an analysis time of 24 h. PMID:24929712

  9. Effect of microclimate alteration on milk production and composition in Murrah buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Seerapu, Sandeep Reddy; Kancharana, Ananda Rao; Chappidi, Venkata Seshaiah; Bandi, Eswara Rao

    2015-01-01

    increased feed intake in buffaloes resulting increased milk production, fat and SNF yield which was due to decreased heat stress in buffaloes. PMID:27047058

  10. Quantification of anthocyanins and flavonols in milk-based food products by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Kornél; Redeuil, Karine; Bertholet, Raymond; Steiling, Heike; Kussmann, Martin

    2009-08-01

    The present article describes the development and validation of an ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the comprehensive quantification of anthocyanin and flavonol constituents of milk-based food products. Protein precipitation by acidified methanol and ultrafiltration was utilized as sample preparation to preserve overall polyphenol composition but to eliminate milk proteins in order to comply with UPLC. Reversed-phase chromatography was optimized to achieve separation of 27 analytes in 10 min in order to reduce suppression effects, achieve a wide dynamic range, and most importantly, to resolve isomeric compounds. Positive-ion electrospray mass spectrometric detection and fragmentation of analytes was optimized, final transitions were selected for maximized selectivity, reliable quantification, and reduction of false positives. The quantitative performance of the method was validated, the main features include (1) range of lower limits of detection 0.3-30 ng/mL for glycosylated analytes, 10-300 ng/mL for aglycones, (2) lower limits of quantification 1-100 ng/mL for glycosylated analytes, 30-1,000 ng/mL for aglycones, (3) averaged intraday precision 9%, (4) calibrated range 2-180,000 ng/mL for glycosylated analytes, 60-600,000 ng/mL for aglycones, and (5) averaged accuracy 101%. Applications for yogurt and ice cream products are given. The presented data suggest that this method will help to better characterize the polyphenol composition of milk-based food products for quality control, for assessment of dietary intake, and for polyphenol bioavailability/bioefficacy studies. PMID:20337399

  11. 40 CFR 165.23 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... this section, a pesticide product must be packaged in compliance with 49 CFR 173.24. If the pesticide product meets the definition of a hazardous material in 49 CFR 171.8, the Department of Transportation requires it to be packaged according to 49 CFR parts 171-180. (f) What does “pesticide product”...

  12. 40 CFR 165.23 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... this section, a pesticide product must be packaged in compliance with 49 CFR 173.24. If the pesticide product meets the definition of a hazardous material in 49 CFR 171.8, the Department of Transportation requires it to be packaged according to 49 CFR parts 171-180. (f) What does “pesticide product”...

  13. 40 CFR 165.23 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... this section, a pesticide product must be packaged in compliance with 49 CFR 173.24. If the pesticide product meets the definition of a hazardous material in 49 CFR 171.8, the Department of Transportation requires it to be packaged according to 49 CFR parts 171-180. (f) What does “pesticide product”...

  14. 40 CFR 165.23 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... this section, a pesticide product must be packaged in compliance with 49 CFR 173.24. If the pesticide product meets the definition of a hazardous material in 49 CFR 171.8, the Department of Transportation requires it to be packaged according to 49 CFR parts 171-180. (f) What does “pesticide product”...

  15. 40 CFR 165.23 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... this section, a pesticide product must be packaged in compliance with 49 CFR 173.24. If the pesticide product meets the definition of a hazardous material in 49 CFR 171.8, the Department of Transportation requires it to be packaged according to 49 CFR parts 171-180. (f) What does “pesticide product”...

  16. Clinical applications of bioactive milk components

    PubMed Central

    Newburg, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Milk represents a unique resource for translational medicine: It contains a rich pool of biologically active molecules with demonstrated clinical benefits. The ongoing characterization of the mechanistic process through which milk components promote development and immunity has revealed numerous milk-derived compounds with potential applications as clinical therapies in infectious and inflammatory disease, cancer, and other conditions. Lactoferrin is an effective antimicrobial and antiviral agent in high-risk patient populations and a potentially potent adjuvant to chemotherapy in lung cancer. Enteric nutrition formulas supplemented with transforming growth factor β, a milk cytokine, have been shown to promote remission in pediatric Crohn's disease. A number of milk glycans, including human milk oligosaccharides, show promise in preclinical studies as antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agents. While active preclinical investigations of human milk may soon result in large-scale production of human milk molecules, bovine milk components in many instances represent a practical source of bioactive milk compounds for use in clinical trials. This review summarizes current efforts to translate the compounds derived from human and bovine milk into effective clinical therapies. These efforts suggest a common pathway for the translation of milk-derived compounds into clinical applications. PMID:26011900

  17. Clinical applications of bioactive milk components.

    PubMed

    Hill, David R; Newburg, David S

    2015-07-01

    Milk represents a unique resource for translational medicine: It contains a rich pool of biologically active molecules with demonstrated clinical benefits. The ongoing characterization of the mechanistic process through which milk components promote development and immunity has revealed numerous milk-derived compounds with potential applications as clinical therapies in infectious and inflammatory disease, cancer, and other conditions. Lactoferrin is an effective antimicrobial and antiviral agent in high-risk patient populations and a potentially potent adjuvant to chemotherapy in lung cancer. Enteric nutrition formulas supplemented with transforming growth factor β, a milk cytokine, have been shown to promote remission in pediatric Crohn's disease. A number of milk glycans, including human milk oligosaccharides, show promise in preclinical studies as antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agents. While active preclinical investigations of human milk may soon result in large-scale production of human milk molecules, bovine milk components in many instances represent a practical source of bioactive milk compounds for use in clinical trials. This review summarizes current efforts to translate the compounds derived from human and bovine milk into effective clinical therapies. These efforts suggest a common pathway for the translation of milk-derived compounds into clinical applications. PMID:26011900

  18. Maximizing the value of milk through separation technologies.

    PubMed

    Huffman, L M; Harper, W J

    1999-10-01

    Milk is the source of a wide range of proteins that deliver nutrition to the most promising new food products today. Isolated milk proteins are natural, trusted food ingredients with excellent functionality. Separation technologies provide the basis for adding value to milk through the production of proteins that provide the food industry with ingredients to meet specific needs, not possible with milk itself or with other ingredients. The major milk proteins, casein and whey protein, can be isolated by manipulating their compositional and physical properties and then by using various separation technologies to recover the proteins. Additionally, they can be processed in various ways to create a wide range of ingredients with diverse functional characteristics. These ingredients include milk protein concentrate, milk protein isolate, casein, caseinate, whey protein concentrate, whey protein isolate, hydrolysates, and various milk fractions. Within each of these ingredient categories, there is further differentiation according to the functional and nutritional requirements of the finished food. Adding value to milk by expanding from consumer products to ingredients often requires different technologies, marketing structure and distribution channels. The worldwide market for both consumer products and ingredients from milk continues to grow. Technology often precedes market demand. Methods for the commercial production of individual milk components now exist, and in the future as clinical evidence develops, the opportunity for adding value to dairy products as functional foods with health benefits may be achieved. The research and development of today will be the basis of those value-added milk products for tomorrow. PMID:10531613

  19. Milk production and fertility performance of Holstein, Friesian, and Jersey purebred cows and their respective crosses in seasonal-calving commercial farms.

    PubMed

    Coffey, E L; Horan, B; Evans, R D; Berry, D P

    2016-07-01

    There is renewed interest in dairy cow crossbreeding in Ireland as a means to further augment productivity and profitability. The objective of the present study was to compare milk production and fertility performance for Holstein, Friesian, and Jersey purebred cows, and their respective crosses in 40 Irish spring-calving commercial dairy herds from the years 2008 to 2012. Data on 24,279 lactations from 11,808 cows were available. The relationship between breed proportion, as well as heterosis and recombination coefficients with performance, was quantified within a mixed model framework that also contained the fixed effects of parity; cow and contemporary group of herd-year-season of calving were both included as random effects in the mixed model. Breed proportion was associated with all milk production parameters investigated. Milk yield was greatest for Holstein (5,217kg), intermediate for Friesian (4,591kg), and least for Jersey (4,230kg), whereas milk constituents (i.e., fat and protein concentration) were greatest for Jersey (9.38%), intermediate for Friesian (7.91%), and least for Holstein (7.75%). Yield of milk solids in crossbred cows exceeded their respective parental average performance; greatest milk solids yield (i.e., fat kg + protein kg) was observed in the Holstein × Jersey first-cross, yielding 25kg more than the mid-parent mean. There was no consistent breed effect on the reproductive traits investigated. Relative to the mid-parent mean, Holstein × Jersey cows calved younger as heifers and had a shorter calving interval. Friesian × Jersey first-cross cows also had a shorter calving interval relative to their mid-parent mean. Results were consistent with findings from smaller-scale controlled experiments. Breed complementarity and heterosis attainable from crossbreeding resulted in superior animal performance and, consequently, greater expected profitability in crossbred cows compared with their respective purebreds. PMID:27132092

  20. Crushed sunflower, flax, or canola seeds in lactating dairy cow diets: effects on methane production, rumen fermentation, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Beauchemin, K A; McGinn, S M; Benchaar, C; Holtshausen, L

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of reducing enteric methane production from dairy cows by incorporating into the diet various sources of long-chain FA varying in their degree of saturation and ruminal availability. The experiment was conducted as a crossover design with 16 lactating dairy cows maintained in 2 groups and fed 4 dietary treatments in four 28-d periods. Eight ruminally cannulated primiparous cows (96 +/- 18 d in milk) were assigned to group 1 and 8 multiparous cows (130 +/- 31 d in milk) were assigned to group 2. The dietary treatments were: 1) a commercial source of calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (CTL), 2) crushed sunflower seeds (SS), 3) crushed flaxseed (FS), and 4) crushed canola seed (CS). The oilseeds added 3.1 to 4.2% fat to the diet (DM basis). All 3 oilseed treatments decreased methane production (g/d) by an average of 13%. When corrected for differences in dry matter intake (DMI), compared with CTL, methane production (g/kg of DM intake) was decreased by feeding FS (-18%) or CS (-16%) and was only numerically decreased (-10%) by feeding SS. However, compared with the CTL, feeding SS or FS lowered digestible DMI by 16 and 9%, respectively, because of lowered digestibility. Thus, only CS lowered methane per unit of digestible DM intake. Feeding SS and CS decreased rumen protozoal counts, but there were no treatment effects on mean ruminal pH or total volatile fatty acid concentration. Milk efficiency (3.5% fat corrected milk/DMI), milk yield, and component yield and concentrations were not affected by oilseed treatments. The study shows that adding sources of long-chain fatty acids to the diet in the form of processed oilseeds can be an effective means of reducing methane emissions. However, for some oilseeds such as SS or FS, the reduction in methane can be at the expense of diet digestibility. The use of crushed CS offers a means of mitigating methane without negatively affecting diet digestibility, and

  1. Extruded soybean meal increased feed intake and milk production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Giallongo, F; Oh, J; Frederick, T; Isenberg, B; Kniffen, D M; Fabin, R A; Hristov, A N

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of 2 extruded soybean meals (ESBM) processed at 2 extruder temperatures, 149°C (LTM) and 171°C (HTM), on performance, nutrient digestibility, milk fatty acid and plasma amino acid profiles, and rumen fermentation in lactating dairy cows. Nine multiparous Holstein cows were included in a replicated 3×3 Latin square design experiment with three 28-d periods. The control diet contained 13% solvent-extracted soybean meal (SSBM; 53.5% crude protein with 74.1% ruminal degradability and 1.8% fat), which was replaced with equivalent amount (dry matter basis) of LTM (46.8%, 59.8%, and 10.0%) or HTM (46.9%, 41.1%, and 10.9%, respectively) ESBM in the 2 experimental diets (LTM and HTM, respectively). The diets met or exceeded the nutrient requirements of the cows for net energy of lactation and metabolizable protein. The 2 ESBM diets increased dry matter intake and milk yield compared with SSBM. Feed efficiency and milk composition were not affected by treatment. Milk protein yield tended to be increased by ESBM compared with SSBM. Milk urea N and urinary urea N excretions were increased by the ESBM diets compared with SSBM. Concentration of fatty acids with chain length of up to C17 and total saturated fatty acids in milk fat were generally decreased and that of C18 and total mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids was increased by the ESBM diets compared with SSBM. Blood plasma concentrations of His, Leu, and Val were increased by HTM compared with LTM and SSBM. Plasma concentration of Met was decreased, whereas that of carnosine was increased by the ESBM diets. Treatments had no effect on rumen fermentation, but the proportion of Fibrobacter spp. in whole ruminal contents was increased by HTM compared with SSBM and LTM. Overall, data from this crossover experiment suggest that substituting SSBM with ESBM in the diet has a positive effect on feed intake and milk yield in dairy cows. PMID:26188569

  2. 40 CFR 165.63 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, or slime; and (B) In the intended use is subject to... bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, or slime. (ii) The labeling of the pesticide product...

  3. 40 CFR 165.63 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, or slime; and (B) In the intended use is subject to... bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, or slime. (ii) The labeling of the pesticide product...

  4. 40 CFR 165.63 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, or slime; and (B) In the intended use is subject to... bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, or slime. (ii) The labeling of the pesticide product...

  5. Effect of protein supplementation on milk production and metabolism of dairy cows grazing tropical grass.

    PubMed

    Danes, M A C; Chagas, L J; Pedroso, A M; Santos, F A P

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine if midlactation dairy cows (Bos taurus L.) grazing intensively managed elephantgrass would have their protein requirement met exclusively with the pasture and an energy concentrate, making the use of protein ingredients unnecessary, as well as to determine the dietary crude protein (CP) content that would optimize the efficiency of N utilization (ENU). Thirty-three Holstein and crossbred (Holstein × Jersey) midlactation dairy cows, producing approximately 20 kg/d, were grouped within breed into 11 blocks according to milk yield and days in milk. Within blocks, cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments and remained in the study for 11 wk. The control treatment contained only finely ground corn, minerals, and vitamins, and it was formulated to be 8.7% CP. Two higher levels of CP (formulated to be 13.4 and 18.1%) were achieved by replacing corn with solvent-extracted soybean meal (SSBM). Pasture was fertilized with 50 kg of N/ha after each grazing cycle and averaged 18.5% CP (dry matter basis). No differences were observed in milk yield or milk fat, protein, and casein content or casein yield. In addition, pasture intake was not different among treatments. Milk urea N increased linearly as the concentrate CP content increased. Cows fed the 8.7% CP concentrate had higher ENU. In another experiment, 4 ruminally cannulated Holstein dry cows were used in a metabolism trial designed in a 4×4 Latin square. Cows were fed the same treatments described as well as a fourth treatment with 13.4% CP in the concentrate, in which urea replaced SSBM as the main N source. Ruminal volatile fatty acid concentration and microbial synthesis were not affected by levels or sources of N in the concentrate. Ruminal NH(3)N content increased as the concentrate CP content increased. Inclusion of SSBM in the concentrate did not increase production and decreased the ENU of midlactation dairy cows grazing on tropical forage. Supplementation of

  6. Opportunities for improving milk production efficiency in dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing feed costs and the desire to improve environmental stewardship have stimulated renewed interest in improving feed efficiency of livestock, including that of U.S. dairy herds. For instance, USDA cost projections for corn and soybean meal suggest a 20% increase over 2010 pricing for a 16% p...

  7. Opportunities for improving milk production efficiency in dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing feed costs and the desire to improve environmental stewardship have stimulated interest in improving feed efficiency of livestock, including that of U.S. dairy herds. For instance, USDA cost projections for corn and soybean meal suggest a 20% increase over 2010 pricing for a 16% protein ...

  8. Non-contact evaluation of milk-based products using air-coupled ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, S.; Hindle, S. A.; Sandoz, J.-P.; Gan, T. H.; Hutchins, D. A.

    2006-07-01

    An air-coupled ultrasonic technique has been developed and used to detect physicochemical changes of liquid beverages within a glass container. This made use of two wide-bandwidth capacitive transducers, combined with pulse-compression techniques. The use of a glass container to house samples enabled visual inspection, helping to verify the results of some of the ultrasonic measurements. The non-contact pulse-compression system was used to evaluate agglomeration processes in milk-based products. It is shown that the amplitude of the signal varied with time after the samples had been treated with lactic acid, thus promoting sample destabilization. Non-contact imaging was also performed to follow destabilization of samples by scanning in various directions across the container. The obtained ultrasonic images were also compared to those from a digital camera. Coagulation with glucono-delta-lactone of skim milk poured into this container could be monitored within a precision of a pH of 0.15. This rapid, non-contact and non-destructive technique has shown itself to be a feasible method for investigating the quality of milk-based beverages, and possibly other food products.

  9. Application of mass spectrometry for the detection of glycation and oxidation products in milk proteins.

    PubMed

    Meltretter, Jasmin; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2008-04-01

    Protein mass spectometry techniques, such as electrospray ionization mass spectrometry or matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), are effective methods to screen for protein modifications derived from the Maillard reaction. The analysis of the intact proteins reveals the major modification, most commonly the Amadori product, whereas partial enzymatic hydrolysis prior to mass spectrometry additionally allows the detection of minor adducts. Therefore, a mass spectrometric method was developed for the analysis of whey protein modifications occurring during heat treatment. The two main whey proteins, alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin, were incubated with lactose in a milk model and modifications were recorded using MALDI-TOF-MS. The analysis of the intact proteins revealed protein species with 0-4 lactulosyl residues. Partial enzymatic hydrolysis with endoproteinase AspN prior to mass spectrometric analysis enabled the detection of further modifications and their localization in the amino acid sequence. Detected modifications were lactulosyllysine, N epsilon-(carboxymethyl)lysine, lysine aldehyde, methionine sulfoxide, cyclization of N-terminal glutamic acid to a pyrrolidone, and oxidation of cysteine or tryptophan. Protein modifications in heated milk and commercially available dairy products can be analyzed after the separation of the milk proteins using one-dimensional SDS-PAGE. PMID:18448807

  10. Milk production in Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows grazing common bermuda grass or endophyte-infected tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Brown, M A; Brown, A H; Jackson, W G; Miesner, J R

    1996-09-01

    Milk yield and quality were measured on 139 Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows grazing common bermuda grass or endophyte-infected tall fescue for 4 yr to evaluate interactions of direct and maternal breed effects and heterosis for these traits with forage environment. Milk yield was estimated by method of milking machine, and milk fat, protein, and somatic cell counts were evaluated in a commercial dairy laboratory. Monthly estimates were made beginning on an average d 61 of lactation and continued monthly for six estimates in 3 yr and five estimates in 1 yr. Data were averaged over month within year, and the model included sire breed, sire in sire breed, dam breed, forage, and age averages. Somatic cell counts were transformed using natural logarithms prior to analyses. Forage effects for milk yield were dissimilar among sire breed x dam breed subclasses (P < .10), resulting in higher levels of heterosis on common bermuda grass than on tall fescue. Maternal breed effects for milk yield favored Angus on bermuda grass (P < .05) but not on tall fescue, whereas direct breed effects were similar on both forages and favored Brahman. Milk fat was reduced on tall fescue compared to bermuda grass by an average of .6% (P < .01), and direct breed effects were similar across forages and averaged 1.04% (P < .01) in favor of Brahman. Heterosis and maternal breed effects for milk fat were not important. There was little evidence of direct and maternal breed effects or heterosis for milk protein or somatic cell counts. These data suggest that heterosis for milk yield is larger on common bermuda grass than on tall fescue and that grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue is detrimental to milk fat. PMID:8880406

  11. Milk production and distribution in nine western states in the 1950s

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, G.M.; Whicker, F.W.

    1987-03-01

    This report provides information on milk distribution and dairy cattle feeding practices in Nevada, Utah and portions of seven other adjacent states during the 1950s. The information was gathered to support the US Department of Energy's ''Offsite Radiation Exposure Review Project (ORERP).'' This project is charged with providing radiation dose estimates for residents of Nevada, Utah, and surrounding states from nuclear weapons testing conducted at the Nevada Test Site from 1951 through 1962. The information on milk production and distribution is essential for assessment of the internal organ doses received by people as a result of ingesting radioactive fallout-contaminated foods. The information is used as input data for Colorado State University's PATHWAY computer code which estimates the ingestion of twenty radionuclides by people relative to a given level of fallout deposition.

  12. Fatty acid synthase is required for mammary gland development and milk production during lactation

    PubMed Central

    Suburu, Janel; Shi, Lihong; Wu, Jiansheng; Wang, Shihua; Samuel, Michael; Thomas, Michael J.; Kock, Nancy D.; Yang, Guangyu; Kridel, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The mammary gland is one of the few adult tissues that strongly induce de novo fatty acid synthesis upon physiological stimulation, suggesting that fatty acid is important for milk production during lactation. The committed enzyme to perform this function is fatty acid synthase (FASN). To determine whether de novo fatty acid synthesis is obligatory or dietary fat is sufficient for mammary gland development and function during lactation, Fasn was specifically knocked out in mouse mammary epithelial cells. We found that deletion of Fasn hindered the development and induced the premature involution of the lactating mammary gland and significantly decreased medium- and long-chain fatty acids and total fatty acid contents in the milk. Consequently, pups nursing from Fasn knockout mothers experienced growth retardation and preweanling death, which was rescued by cross-fostering pups to a lactating wild-type mother. These results demonstrate that FASN is essential for the development, functional competence, and maintenance of the lactating mammary gland. PMID:24668799

  13. Milk allergy in adults and children.

    PubMed

    Odedra, Katy Mara

    2015-07-01

    Cow's milk allergy is common in children and rare in adults. The clinical features of cow's milk allergy are varied and they include anaphylaxis, gastrointestinal symptoms and atopic dermatitis. The prevalence of cow's milk allergy is difficult to ascertain, based on self-reported symptoms that are not subsequently confirmed by diagnostic testing. The gold-standard diagnostic test is the double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge. Avoidance of milk and milk products is the main therapy. Nutritional considerations are important in both children and adults, as is recognising the potential for resolution of cow's milk allergy. Providing evidence-based advice and support to individuals and their families and carers is central to managing cow's milk allergy. PMID:26136034

  14. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs (including dl-PCBs) in human milk samples collected from multiparae from Croatia and comparison with primiparae.

    PubMed

    Klinčić, D; Herceg Romanić, S; Brčić Karačonji, I; Matek Sarić, M; Grzunov Letinić, J; Brajenović, N

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the levels of 20 congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including toxic dioxin-like PCBs and 7 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in 33 human milk samples collected in 2011 from multiparae living in Zadar, Croatia. Concentrations of ∑PCBs, ∑DDTs, ∑HCHs and HCB in samples ranged from 11.7 to 146.3, 8.7 to 89.2, 0.9 to 28.4, and milk fat, respectively. PCB congeners -153, -138, -180 and -170 dominated in the PCB profiles, while p,ṕ-DDE was the most abundant OCP. PCB-126 was the most abundant non-ortho PCB, while among mono-ortho PCBs, the congeners -118, -105 and -156 equally contributed to the mono-ortho PCB fraction. TEQs for dl-PCBs ranged between 0 and 13.3pgg(-1) milk fat. The calculated estimated daily intakes for all compound groups were below the tolerable daily intake indicating no risk for breastfed infants. A comparison of our results with our previous study on primiparae revealed that the concentrations of the main contaminant groups are lower in the milk of multiparae, with the exception of toxic mono-ortho PCBs whose concentrations and TEQ remained similar among the groups, and HCB whose concentrations were found to be higher in multiparae. Concentrations of PCBs and OCPs found in the samples from this study did not exceed those from other parts of the world. This study revealed that there are differences in contaminant concentrations depending on the mothers' parity and that this fact should be taken into account when risk assessment studies are conducted. PMID:27262989

  15. Effects of breast milk from allergic and non-allergic mothers on mitogen- and allergen-induced cytokine production.

    PubMed

    Böttcher, Malin F; Fredriksson, Jenny; Hellquist, Anna; Jenmalm, Maria C

    2003-02-01

    Breast milk contains several components that provide specific immunity and affect the maturation of the infant's immune system. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of breast milk, on mitogen- and allergen-induced cytokine production from cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMC), and if those effects differ between allergic and non-allergic mothers. The cells were incubated for 96 h with phytohemagglutinin (PHA), ovalbumin or cat dander in the presence of various dilutions of colostrum. Colostrum inhibited both mitogen- and cat-induced IFN-gamma and mitogen-induced interleukin-4 (IL-4) production. The inhibition on IFN-gamma production was to some extent caused by TGF-beta, as the effect was modified when an anti-TGF-beta antibody was added to the cultures. In contrast, colostrum enhanced allergen-induced production of the Th2-like cytokines IL-5 and IL-13, and this was accompanied with increased production of IL-10. No differences were found between allergic and non-allergic mothers. The inhibitory effect of breast milk on IFN-gamma production, which was partly due to the high levels of TGF-beta, together with the enhancing effect on IL-10 secretion, confirm that breast milk is anti-inflammatory. Although the production of IL-5 and IL-13 was enhanced by colostrum, this was accompanied with an increased production of IL-10. Together with the high levels of TGF-beta in breast milk and inhibitory effect of colostrum on IL-4 production, this suggests a possible mechanism whereby breast-feeding may protect against the development of allergy. Despite differences in the composition of breast milk between allergic and non-allergic mothers, the effects of breast milk on cytokine production from CBMC were independent of the atopic status of the mothers. PMID:12603708

  16. Effect of dietary phosphorus on performance of lactating dairy cows: milk production and cow health.

    PubMed

    Lopez, H; Kanitz, F D; Moreira, V R; Wiltbank, M C; Satter, L D

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure cow response to feeding of two dietary concentrations of P, one of which was close to recent National Research Council requirements, and the other of which was well in excess of the requirement. Diets containing 0.37 or 0.57% P (dry basis) were fed to Holstein cows for the first 165 d of lactation, and occasionally longer until cows were confirmed pregnant approximately 60 d after insemination. At calving, cows were randomly assigned to experimental diets. The number of cows completing a minimum of 165 d of lactation was 123 for the 0.37 and 124 for the 0.57% P groups. Cows were housed in a stanchion barn and fed one of two transition diets, each formulated to contain one of the P treatments for the first 3 wk of lactation, and then cows were moved to a free-stall barn where the experimental diets were group fed. Milk production, milk fat, and milk protein averaged 35.1 kg/d, 3.92%, and 2.90% for the 0.37% P diet, and 34.9 kg/d, 3.98%, and 2.91% for the 0.57% P diet. None of these measures were different between treatments. Blood serum P concentrations on d 50 and 100 of lactation averaged 6.1 and 6.2 mg/dL for the 0.37% P diet, and 6.8 and 6.9 mg/dL for the 0.57% P diet. No treatment differences were detected in milk production, cow health, or body condition score. PMID:14765820

  17. Short communication: The effect of feeding high protein distillers dried grains on milk production of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, K J; Kononoff, P J; Gehman, A M; Kelzer, J M; Karges, K; Gibson, M L

    2009-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of feeding high-protein distillers dried grains (HPDDG) on rumen degradability, dry matter intake, milk production, and milk composition. Sixteen lactating Holstein cows (12 multiparous and 4 primiparous) averaging 80 +/- 14 d in milk were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 dietary treatments in a 2 x 2 crossover design. A portion of forage and all soy-based protein in the control diet were replaced by HPDDG (20% dry matter). Milk production and dry matter intake were recorded daily and averaged for d 19 to 21 of each 21-d period. Milk samples were collected on d 20 to 21 of each period. Milk yield increased with the inclusion of HPDDG (33.4 vs. 31.6 +/- 2.13 kg/d), and 3.5% FCM was higher for the ration containing HPDDG (36.3 vs. 33.1 +/- 2.24 kg/d). Percentage protein was not affected by treatment (average 3.04 +/- 0.08%), but protein yield increased with inclusion of HPDDG (0.95 to 1.00 +/- 0.05 kg/d). Milk fat concentration was not different between treatments (average 3.95 +/- 0.20%), but fat yield increased for the ration containing HPDDG (1.35 vs. 1.21 +/- 0.09 kg/d). Dry matter intake was not affected and averaged 21.9 +/- 0.80 kg across treatments. Because of greater milk production, feed conversion was improved by the inclusion of HPDDG (1.47 to 1.73 +/- 0.09). Milk urea N was greater for the HPDDG ration than the control (14.5 vs. 12.8 +/- 0.67 mg/dL). This research suggests that HPDDG may effectively replace soy-based protein in lactating dairy cow diets. PMID:19448023

  18. RAPD and SCAR markers as potential tools for detection of milk origin in dairy products: Adulterant sheep breeds in Serra da Estrela cheese production.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Joana T; Ribeiro, Tânia I B; Rocha, João B; Nunes, João; Teixeira, José A; Domingues, Lucília

    2016-11-15

    Serra da Estrela Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) cheese is the most famous Portuguese cheese and has a high commercial value. However, the adulteration of production with cheaper/lower-quality milks from non-autochthones ovine breeds compromises the quality of the final product and undervalues the original PDO cheese. A Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method was developed for efficient detection of adulterant breeds in milk mixtures used for fraudulent production of this cheese. Furthermore, Sequence Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR) markers were designed envisioning the detection of milk adulteration in processed dairy foods. The RAPD-SCAR technique is here described, for the first time, to be potentially useful for detection of milk origin in dairy products. In this sense, our findings will play an important role on the valorization of Serra da Estrela cheese, as well as on other high-quality dairy products prone to adulteration, contributing to the further development of the dairy industry. PMID:27283677

  19. Identification and site-specific relative quantification of beta-lactoglobulin modifications in heated milk and dairy products.

    PubMed

    Meltretter, Jasmin; Becker, Cord-Michael; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2008-07-01

    During milk processing, proteins can be severely modified by oxidation, condensation, and Maillard reaction, leading to changes in their nutritional and technological properties. In this study, major modifications of beta-lactoglobulin, formed during the heating and processing of milk, were screened by mass spectrometry. For this purpose, beta-lactoglobulin was isolated from the milk samples by gel electrophoresis and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry after in-gel digestion with endoproteinase AspN. In heated milk, lactulosyllysine was detected at lysine 47 and 138 or 141 as well as methionine sulfoxide at methionine 7, 24, and 145. All these modifications increased gradually when raw milk was heated for 20, 40, and 60 min at 120 degrees C. The major modifications were also relatively quantified in dairy products, such as raw, high-temperature, ultra-high-temperature, sterilized, and condensed milk as well as infant formulas. The highest contents of lactulosyllysine at Lys47 were detected in powdered infant formulas, whereas lactulosyllysine at Lys138/141 was predominant in condensed milk samples. Methionine sulfoxide at Met7 and Met24 showed a trend toward higher modification rates in more severely processed products. PMID:18537261

  20. Effects of feeding rumen-degradable valine on milk production in late-lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hultquist, Kayla M; Casper, David P

    2016-02-01

    The study objective was to determine if feeding the rumen-degradable AA Val can increase milk production comparable to recombinant bovine somatotropin (bST). Eight multiparous late-lactating (255±26.4 d in milk) Holstein dairy cows were blocked by milk yield (34.1±8.25 kg/d) and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 21-d periods (7 d for dietary adaptation and 14 d for data collection). Treatments were control (CON), a single injection of recombinant bST (rbST), and Val fed at 40 (V40) and 80 g/d (V80). Cows were fed a total mixed ration with a distillers dried grains carrier at 113.4 g/d containing none or added AA. Dry matter intake (21.3, 22.0, 22.8, and 21.5 kg/d for CON, rbST, V40, and V80, respectively) was similar among treatments, except cows receiving V40 had greater dry matter intake than cows receiving V80. Milk yield (22.0, 26.1, 25.2, and 24.9 kg/d), 3.5% fat-corrected milk (22.1, 25.4, 24.4, and 24.3 kg/d), and energy-corrected milk (22.7, 26.1, 25.1, and 24.9 kg/d) were increased at similar amounts for cows receiving rbST, V40, and V80 compared with CON cows. Milk fat percentages (3.51, 3.36, 3.32, and 3.38%) were greatest for CON cows compared with cows receiving V40, whereas cows receiving other treatments were intermediate and similar. Milk protein percentages (3.20, 3.12, 3.15, and 3.13%) were greater for CON cows compared with cows receiving rbST and V40, whereas cows receiving V80 were intermediate and similar. Ruminal isobutyrate (1.19, 1.24, 1.44, and 1.74 mol/100 mol) concentrations were increased for cows receiving V40 and V80 compared with CON and rbST cows, with cows receiving V80 having greater concentrations than cows receiving V40. Plasma growth hormone concentrations (1.78, 1.99, 1.55, and 1.45 ng/mL) were greater for cows receiving rbST compared with cows receiving V40 and V80, whereas CON cows were intermediate and similar. Plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations (60.4, 106

  1. Influence of Sunflower Whole Seeds or Oil on Ruminal Fermentation, Milk Production, Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile in Lactating Goats.

    PubMed

    Morsy, T A; Kholif, S M; Kholif, A E; Matloup, O H; Salem, A Z M; Elella, A Abu

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of sunflower seeds, either as whole or as oil, on rumen fermentation, milk production, milk composition and fatty acids profile in dairy goats. Fifteen lactating Damascus goats were divided randomly into three groups (n = 5) fed a basal diet of concentrate feed mixture and fresh Trifolium alexandrinum at 50:50 on dry matter basis (Control) in addition to 50 g/head/d sunflower seeds whole (SS) or 20 mL/head/d sunflower seeds oil (SO) in a complete randomized design. Milk was sampled every two weeks during 90 days of experimental period for chemical analysis and rumen was sampled at 30, 60, and 90 days of the experiment for ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids (tVFA), and ammonia-N determination. Addition of SO decreased (p = 0.017) ruminal pH, whereas SO and SS increased tVFA (p<0.001) and acetate (p = 0.034) concentrations. Serum glucose increased (p = 0.013) in SO and SS goats vs Control. The SO and SS treated goats had improved milk yield (p = 0.007) and milk fat content (p = 0.002). Moreover, SO increased milk lactose content (p = 0.048) and feed efficiency (p = 0.046) compared to Control. Both of SS and SO increased (p<0.05) milk unsaturated fatty acids content specially conjugated linolenic acid (CLA) vs Control. Addition of SS and SO increased (p = 0. 021) C18:3N3 fatty acid compared to Control diet. Data suggested that addition of either SS or SO to lactating goats ration had beneficial effects on milk yield and milk composition with enhancing milk content of healthy fatty acids (CLA and omega 3), without detrimental effects on animal performance. PMID:26104519

  2. Influence of Sunflower Whole Seeds or Oil on Ruminal Fermentation, Milk Production, Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile in Lactating Goats

    PubMed Central

    Morsy, T. A.; Kholif, S. M.; Kholif, A. E.; Matloup, O. H.; Salem, A. Z. M.; Elella, A. Abu

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of sunflower seeds, either as whole or as oil, on rumen fermentation, milk production, milk composition and fatty acids profile in dairy goats. Fifteen lactating Damascus goats were divided randomly into three groups (n = 5) fed a basal diet of concentrate feed mixture and fresh Trifolium alexandrinum at 50:50 on dry matter basis (Control) in addition to 50 g/head/d sunflower seeds whole (SS) or 20 mL/head/d sunflower seeds oil (SO) in a complete randomized design. Milk was sampled every two weeks during 90 days of experimental period for chemical analysis and rumen was sampled at 30, 60, and 90 days of the experiment for ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids (tVFA), and ammonia-N determination. Addition of SO decreased (p = 0.017) ruminal pH, whereas SO and SS increased tVFA (p<0.001) and acetate (p = 0.034) concentrations. Serum glucose increased (p = 0.013) in SO and SS goats vs Control. The SO and SS treated goats had improved milk yield (p = 0.007) and milk fat content (p = 0.002). Moreover, SO increased milk lactose content (p = 0.048) and feed efficiency (p = 0.046) compared to Control. Both of SS and SO increased (p<0.05) milk unsaturated fatty acids content specially conjugated linolenic acid (CLA) vs Control. Addition of SS and SO increased (p = 0. 021) C18:3N3 fatty acid compared to Control diet. Data suggested that addition of either SS or SO to lactating goats ration had beneficial effects on milk yield and milk composition with enhancing milk content of healthy fatty acids (CLA and omega 3), without detrimental effects on animal performance. PMID:26104519

  3. Comparison of milk production of the progeny of BLAD-carrier and healthy Holstein bulls in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Jánosa, A; Baranyai, B; Dohy, J

    1999-01-01

    'Bovine Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency' (BLAD) is a recessive monofactorial, lethal inheritable defect occurring in Holstein-Friesian cattle and often passed on by well-known top bulls. The aim of this study was to find a relationship between the BLAD genotype of bulls, their genetic evaluation for milk and their daughters' milk production. BLAD-carrier and healthy bulls were compared on the basis of their breeding value published in November 1997. The first 100 bulls ranked according to the Total Production Index (TPI) were used, including nine BLAD carriers with 2,835 daughters and 77 healthy sires with 21,950 female progenies. For 14 bulls the BLAD genotype was not indicated. The healthy animals significantly outperformed the BLAD carriers, which result contradicts our earlier findings (Dohy et al., 1996; Jánosa and Dohy, 1997). In a BLAD elimination programme, the identification of BLAD carriers and properly planned mating are of great importance in order to avoid 'inter se' mating of BLAD-carrier top animals which can be of significant influence in Holstein breeding. PMID:10497821

  4. Effects of fermentation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on product quality and fatty acids of goat milk yogurt.

    PubMed

    Jia, Ru; Chen, Han; Chen, Hui; Ding, Wu

    2016-01-01

    The effect of fermentation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on the product quality of goat milk yogurt using traditional yogurt starter was studied through single-factor experiments and orthogonal experiments. The optimum fermentation condition was evaluated by the titratable acidity of goat milk yogurt, water-retaining capability, sensory score, and texture properties; the fatty acids of the fermented goat milk were determined by a gas chromatograph. Results indicate that high product quality of goat milk yogurt can be obtained and the content of short-chain and medium-chain fatty acids can be decreased significantly when amount of sugar added was 7%, inoculation amount was 3%, the ratio of 3 lactic acid bacteria--Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, and L. rhamnosus GG--was 1:1:3, and fermentation temperature was 42°C. PMID:26601583

  5. The occurrence of Listeria species in milk and dairy products: a national survey in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, M H; Roberts, D; Burden, P

    1991-02-01

    A total of 4172 samples of milk, cheese and other dairy products were examined over a 1-year period for the presence of Listeria species. Strains of Listeria were found most frequently in soft, ripened cows milk cheese; 63 out of 769 (8.2%) samples contained Listeria monocytogenes, 25 samples contained species other than L. monocytogenes, and 18 samples contained both L. monocytogenes and other Listeria spp. Eleven samples of pasteurized cows milk (1.1%) from four dairies contained L. monocytogenes, and other Listeria spp. were isolated from a further five samples. Goats and ewes milk and their products, yogurt, cream and ice cream also occasionally contained Listeria spp. Levels of Listeria were usually low, but 20 samples of cheese contained more than 1000 cfu/g. Most strains of L. monocytogenes belonged to serotype 1/2 (58%) or serotype 4b (33%). PMID:1904761

  6. Development of a surface plasmon resonance immunosensor for detecting melamine in milk products and pet foods.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yang; Xia, Yinqiang; Pan, Mingfei; Wang, Xiaojun; Wang, Shuo

    2014-12-24

    A sensitive and stable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunosensor based on the inhibition format was developed and validated for detecting melamine (MEL) in milk products and pet foods. The sensitivity and the limit of detection (LOD) of the proposed method for MEL were 2.32 × 10(-2) and 1.4 × 10(-3) μg/mL, respectively. The immunosensor was highly specific to MEL, which displayed only low cross-reactivity (CR) (<0.01%) for cyanuric acid, cyanuric chloride, and atrazine. The assay was validated for the detection of MEL in full-cream milk, skim milk powder, infant formula, dog food, and cat food. Most of the recovery results ranged between 76 and 115%. The sensitivities of the assay in each type of sample were 2.57 × 10(-2) μg/mL, 2.32 × 10(-2) μg/kg, 2.51 × 10(-2) μg/kg, 2.66 × 10(-2) μg/kg, and 2.68 × 10(-2) μg/kg, respectively, which were much lower than the maximum residue levels (MRLs) of MEL. PMID:25473730

  7. Effects on milk yield of milking interval regularity and teat cup attachment failures with robotic milking systems.

    PubMed

    Bach, Alex; Busto, Isabel

    2005-02-01

    A database consisting of 35291 milking records from 83 cows was built over a period of 10 months with the objectives of studying the effect of teat cup attachment failures and milking interval regularity on milk production with an automated milking system (AMS). The database collected records of lactation number, days in milk (DIM), milk production, interval between milkings (for both the entire udder and individual quarters in case of a teat cup attachment failure) and average and peak milk flows for each milking. The weekly coefficient of variation (CV) of milking intervals was used as a measure of milking regularity. DIM, milking intervals, and CV of milking intervals were divided into four categories coinciding with the four quartiles of their respective distributions. The data were analysed by analysis of variance with cow as a random effect and lactation number, DIM, the occurrence of a milking failure, and the intervals between milkings or the weekly CV of milking intervals as fixed effects. The incidence of attachment failures was 7.6% of total milkings. Milk production by quarters affected by a milking failure following the failure was numerically greater owing to the longer interval between milkings. When accounting for the effect of milking intervals, milk production by affected quarters following a milking failure was 26% lower than with regular milkings. However, the decrease in milk production by quarters affected by milking failures was more severe as DIM increased. Average and peak milk flows by quarters affected by a milking failure were lower than when milkings occurred normally. However, milk production recovered its former level within seven milkings following a milking failure. Uneven frequency (weekly CV of milking intervals >27%) decreased daily milk yield, and affected multiparous more negatively than primiparous cows. PMID:15747737

  8. Effect of pre-partum prilled fat supplementation on feed intake, energy balance and milk production in Murrah buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shikha; Singh, Mahendra; Roy, Ashwani Kumar; Thakur, Sunita

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of pre-partum prilled fat feeding on dry matter intake (DMI), energy balance and milk production in Murrah buffaloes. Materials and Methods: Advance pregnant Murrah buffaloes were either received a dietary supplement of prilled fat at 100 g/day for 35 days pre-partum and at 150 g/day for 95 days post-partum (supplemented group [SG]) or did not receive fat supplement (control group [CG]). DMI and the yields of milk and milk component were measured. A body condition score (BCS) was recorded. Energy balance and gross feed efficiency (GFE) were calculated. DMI and BCS were recorded and milk yield (MY), fat, protein, lactose, solid not fat, energy balance were measured. The fat corrected milk yield was calculated. Results: The DMI was non-significant between groups and periods of study. BCS of buffaloes improved in the SG than CG (p<0.01). The energy intake in terms of total digestible nutrients (TDN%), TDN intake, digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy/kg of milk, DE of milk, net energy, and GFE were higher (p<0.01) in SG during post-partum period. Crude protein intake was statistically similar in both the groups. MY was higher (p<0.01) in SG than in CG during 95 days of early lactation. Milk fat, fat corrected MY was higher (p<0.01) in SG however protein, lactose and solid not fat content did not varied between the groups. The feed efficiency of the SG was higher (p<0.01) than the CG during the post-partum period. Conclusion: It was inferred that prilled fat supplementation augments energy balance and milk production in transition Murrah buffaloes. PMID:27057108

  9. The relationship between greenhouse gas emissions and the intensity of milk production in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Casey, J W; Holden, N M

    2005-01-01

    European Union agri-environmental schemes aim to reduce the environmental impact of agricultural production, but were developed before consideration of greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture. Life cycle assessment methodology provided a framework for comparing emissions as kg CO2 equivalent per kg of energy corrected milk (ECM) (kg CO2 kg(-1) ECM yr(-1)) and per hectare (kg CO2 ha(-1) yr(-1)) for farms both within and outside the Irish agri-environmental scheme. The agri-environmental scheme farms operate extensive systems from 40 to 120 cows producing between 3032 and 5946 kg ECM cow(-1) lactation(-1). The cows are fed on grass, conserved silage, and concentrates. Supplementation ranged between 250 and 620 kg cow(-1) yr(-1). The conventional farms had between 30 and 77 milking cows producing 4736 to 6944 kg ECM cow(-1) lactation(-1). Supplementation ranged from 400 to 1000 kg cow(-1) yr(-1). The emissions from each unit were estimated using published emissions factors and possible error was evaluated by using ranges for each factor. Calculated emissions ranged from 0.92 to 1.51 kg CO2 kg(-1) ECM yr(-1) and 5924 to 8323 kg CO2 ha(-1). On average, total emissions from conventional farms were around 18% (p = 0.01) greater than the agri-environmental scheme farms and emissions per hectare (total area required) were 17% greater (p = 0.02) but there was no significant difference (p = 0.335) in terms of emission per unit milk produced. To evaluate greenhouse gas emissions for each farm in terms of the system intensity it was necessary to define a measure of intensification and area per liter of milk produced that was best. PMID:15758094

  10. Effects of Combination of Rice Straw with Alfalfa Pellet on Milk Productivity and Chewing Activity in Lactating Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Na, Y. J.; Lee, I. H.; Park, S. S.; Lee, S. R.

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of diets containing coarse-texture rice straw and small particle size alfalfa pellets as a part of total mixed ration (TMR) on milk productivity and chewing activity in lactating dairy cows. Sixteen multiparous Holstein dairy cows (670±21 kg body weight) in mid-lactation (194.1±13.6 days in milk) were randomly assigned to TMR containing 50% of timothy hay (TH) or TMR containing 20% of rice straw and 30% of alfalfa pellet mixture (RSAP). Geometric mean lengths of TH and RSAP were found to be 5.8 and 3.6, respectively. Dry matter intake, milk yield and milk composition were measured. Moreover, eating and ruminating times were recorded continuously using infrared digital camcorders. Milk yield and milk composition were not detected to have significant differences between TH and RSAP. Dry matter intake (DMI) did not significantly differ for cows fed with TH or RSAP. Although particle size of TH was larger than RSAP, eating, ruminating and total chewing time (min/d or min/kg of DMI) on TH and RSAP were similar. Taken together, our results suggest that using a proper amount of coarse-texture rice straw with high value nutritive alfalfa pellets may stimulate chewing activity in dairy cows without decreasing milk yield and composition even though the quantity of rice straw was 40% of TH. PMID:25050037

  11. A Post-GWAS Replication Study Confirming the PTK2 Gene Associated with Milk Production Traits in Chinese Holstein

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuan; Yang, Jie; Wei, Julong; Xu, Jingen; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Jian-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Our initial genome-wide association study (GWAS) demonstrated that two SNPs (ARS-BFGL-NGS-33248, UA-IFASA-9288) within the protein tyrosine kinase 2 (PTK2) gene were significantly associated with milk production traits in Chinese Holstein dairy cattle. To further validate if the statistical evidence provided in GWAS were true-positive findings, a replication study was performed herein through genotype-phenotype associations. The two tested SNPs were found to show significant associations with milk production traits, which confirmed the associations observed in the original study. Specifically, SNPs lying in the PTK2 gene were also detected by sequencing 14 unrelated sires in Chinese Holsteins and a total of thirty-three novel SNPs were identified. Thirteen out of these identified SNPs were genotyped and tested for association with milk production traits in an independent resource population. After Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, twelve SNPs were statistically significant for more than two milk production traits. Analyses of pairwise D’ measures of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between all SNPs were also explored. Two haplotype blocks were inferred and the association study at haplotype level revealed similar effects on milk production traits. In addition, the RNA expression analyses revealed that a non-synonymous coding SNP (g.4061098T>G) was involved in the regulation of gene expression. Thus the findings presented here provide strong evidence for associations of PTK2 variants with dairy production traits and may be applied in Chinese Holstein breeding program. PMID:24386238

  12. One pion production in neutrino reactions: Including nonresonant background

    SciTech Connect

    Lalakulich, O.; Leitner, T.; Buss, O.; Mosel, U.

    2010-11-01

    We investigate neutrino-induced one pion production on nucleons. The elementary neutrino-nucleon cross section is calculated as the sum of the leading Delta pole diagram and several background diagrams obtained within the nonlinear sigma model. This approach does not introduce any new adjustable parameters, which allows unambiguous predictions for the observables. Considering electroproduction experiments as benchmark, the model is shown to be applicable up to pion-nucleon invariant mass W<1.4 GeV and provides a good accuracy. With respect to the total one pion cross section, the model predicts the background at the level of 10% for the p{pi}{sup +}, 30% for p{pi}{sup 0}, and 50% for n{pi}{sup +} final states. The results are compared with experimental data for various differential cross sections. Distributions with respect to muon-nucleon and muon-pion invariant masses are presented for the first time. The model describes the data quite well, with the discrepancies being of the same order as those between different data sets.

  13. Effect of Supplementation with Antioxidants on the Quality of Bovine Milk and Meat Production

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Cristina; Pereira, Víctor; Abuelo, Ángel; Hernández, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    From a clinical point of view, oxidative stress (OS) is considered the primary cause of numerous metabolic processes in transition cow. Thus, the addition of antioxidants has been considered a palliative or preventive treatment. But beyond the clinical perspective, antioxidant supplementation provides an added value to the product obtained being either milk or meat. This paper reviews the beneficial aspects that provide antioxidant supplementation on quality of both products and that fit into the new concept that the consumer has a functional and healthy food. Our approach is from a veterinary standpoint, by reviewing the studies conducted to date and the new perspectives that are interesting and need to be studied in the following years. One of the highlights is that sustainable farming, one in which production is combined with animal health, also impacts positively on the quality of the final products, with beneficial antioxidant properties to human health. PMID:24348176

  14. Effects of polybrominated biphenyl on milk production, reproduction, and health problems in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Wastell, M E; Moody, D L; Plog, J F

    1978-04-01

    PBB found in relatively low levels among animals present on a cross-section of Michigan farms during the time PBB was inadvertantly added to dairy feeds had no effect upon these animals' milk production, body weight, weight gain, breeding and reproduction performance, incidence of commonly experienced health problems, calving rate, and the health of their calves. No significant differences in these vital areas could be seen between Michigan animals exposed to PBB and equivalent Wisconsin animals which had not been exposed to PBB when both groups were subjected to equivalent management practices. No pattern of gross of histopathological lesions was seen upon necropsy between test animals and control animals. PMID:210008

  15. Transgenic rabbits for the production of biologically-active recombinant proteins in the milk.

    PubMed

    Castro, F O; Limonta, J; Rodriguez, A; Aguirre, A; de la Fuente, J; Aguilar, A; Ramos, B; Hayes, O

    1999-11-01

    The use of live bioreactors for the expression of human genes in the mammary gland of transgenic animals is one of the most cost-effective ways for the production of valuable recombinant therapeutic proteins. Among the transgenic species used so far, rabbits are good candidates for the expression of tens to hundreds of grams of complex proteins in the milk during lactation. The lactating mammary gland of rabbits has proven to be effective in the processing of complex proteins. In this work. the potential use of rabbits as bioreactors is discussed based on our results and the published data. PMID:10596760

  16. The Measurement of Protein in Powdered Milk Products and Infant Formulas: A Review and Recent Developments.

    PubMed

    Elgar, Dave; Evers, Jaap M; Holroyd, Stephen E; Johnson, Richard; Rowan, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Proteins are a key nutritional component of both powdered milk and infant formula types of product, and reliable methods for their determination are important for manufacturing and international trade. In this review, we distinguish between methods used for determining protein quality for nutrition purposes and those used for determining chemically defined protein. The former methods cover the ability of a dietary protein source to meet human nutritional requirements for the indispensable amino acids. The latter are chemical methods for the determination of total protein and can be divided into three broad types: total nitrogen determination, direct protein determination, and indirect protein determination. Current techniques and recent developments in each are reviewed. PMID:26823162

  17. Effects of polybrominated biphenyl on milk production, reproduction, and health problems in Holstein cows.

    PubMed Central

    Wastell, M E; Moody, D L; Plog, J F

    1978-01-01

    PBB found in relatively low levels among animals present on a cross-section of Michigan farms during the time PBB was inadvertantly added to dairy feeds had no effect upon these animals' milk production, body weight, weight gain, breeding and reproduction performance, incidence of commonly experienced health problems, calving rate, and the health of their calves. No significant differences in these vital areas could be seen between Michigan animals exposed to PBB and equivalent Wisconsin animals which had not been exposed to PBB when both groups were subjected to equivalent management practices. No pattern of gross of histopathological lesions was seen upon necropsy between test animals and control animals. PMID:210008

  18. The effects of progressing and nonprogressing Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection on milk production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rebecca L; Gröhn, Y T; Pradhan, A K; Whitlock, R H; Van Kessel, J S; Smith, J M; Wolfgang, D R; Schukken, Y H

    2016-02-01

    Longitudinal data from 3 commercial dairy herds in the northeast United States, collected from 2004 to 2011, were analyzed to determine the effect of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection status and progression path on milk production. Disease status, as indicated by MAP test results, was determined through quarterly ELISA serum testing, biannual fecal culture, and culture of tissues and feces at slaughter. Milk production data were collected from the Dairy Herd Information Association. Animals with positive MAP test results were categorized, based on test results over the full course of the study, as high path (at least one high-positive culture) or low path (at least one positive culture or ELISA). The cumulative numbers of positive ELISA and culture results were recorded. The effects of both MAP infection path, status, and number of positive tests on milk production were analyzed using a mixed linear model with an autocorrelation random effect structure. Low- and high-path animals produced more milk before their first positive test than always-negative animals, especially high-path animals. Although mean production decreased after a first positive test, low-path animals were shown to recover some productivity. High-path animals continued to exhibit a decrease in milk production, especially after their first high-positive fecal culture. These results show that not all animals that test positive for MAP will have long-term production losses. Milk production decreased significantly with each additional positive test. Ultimately, production loss appeared to be a function of MAP infection progression. PMID:26686721

  19. The effect of lameness on the environmental performance of milk production by rotational grazing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenhao; White, Eoin; Holden, Nicholas M

    2016-05-01

    Dairy production leads to significant environmental impacts and increased production will only be feasible if the environmental performance at farm level permits a sustainable milk supply. Lameness is believed to become more prevalent and severe as herd sizes increase, and can significantly reduce milk output per cow while not influencing other attributes of the production system. The objective of this work was to quantify the effect of lameness on the environmental performance of a typical grazed grass dairy farm and evaluate the theoretical value of sensor-based real-time lameness management. Life cycle assessment was used to compare a typical baseline farm with scenarios assuming increased lameness severity and prevalence. It was found that lameness could increase the farm level global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential and fossil fuel depletion by 7-9%. As increased herd sizes will increase cow: handler ratio, this result was interpreted to suggest that the use of sensors and information and communication technology for lameness detection could improve management on dairy farms to reduce the adverse impact on environmental performance that is associated with lameness. PMID:26934643

  20. Chemical characteristics and enhanced hepatoprotective activities of Maillard reaction products derived from milk protein-sugar system.

    PubMed

    Oh, Nam Su; Young Lee, Ji; Lee, Hyun Ah; Joung, Jae Yeon; Shin, Yong Kook; Kim, Sae Hun; Kim, Younghoon; Lee, Kwang Won

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the characteristics, antioxidative properties, and hepatoprotective effects of Maillard reaction products (MRP) from milk protein reacted with sugars. The MRP were obtained from milk protein, whey protein concentrates and sodium caseinate, using 2 types of sugars, lactose and glucose, by heating the mixture at 55°C for 7d in a sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). Changes in the chemical modification of the milk protein were monitored by measuring the protein-bound carbonyls and PAGE protein profiles. The results showed that the amount of protein-bound carbonyls increased after Maillard reaction (MR). In addition, sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE analysis indicated a formation of high-molecular weight complexes through MR. The modification sites induced by MR of milk protein were monitored by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis of tryptic-digested gel spots of MRP. As a result, modification and their localization in AA sequence of MRP was identified. Also, the MRP showed higher antioxidant activities than the intact milk protein, and they reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species production and inhibited the depletion of the reduced glutathione concentrations in the HepG2 cells. In particular, glucose-sodium caseinate MRP showed the highest biological activities among all MRP. Therefore, these results suggest that the MRP from milk protein reacting with sugars possess effective antioxidant activity and have a protective ability against oxidative damage. PMID:26627852

  1. Abuse Liability Assessment of Tobacco Products Including Potential Reduced Exposure Products (PREPs)

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Lawrence P.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Henningfield, Jack E.; O'Connor, Rich J.; Cummings, K. Michael; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.

    2009-01-01

    The harm produced by tobacco products is a result of frequent use of a highly toxic product. Reducing the adverse public health impact of tobacco products might be most effectively achieved by reducing the likelihood of their use and the toxicity of the products. Products that retain some characteristics of cigarettes, but have been altered with the intention of reducing toxicity have been referred to as modified risk tobacco products or potential reduced exposure products (MRTP/PREPS). Evaluation of their content, emission, and toxicity is discussed in other articles in this special issue. Here, we discuss the methodology that has been used to examine the likelihood of abuse or addiction. Abuse liability assessment (ALA) methodology has been used by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other drug regulatory agencies world-wide for decades to assess the risks posed by a wide variety of pharmacologically active substances. ALA is routinely required among other evaluations of safety during the premarket assessment of new drugs, and is continually adapted to meet the challenges posed by new drug classes and drug formulations. In the 2009 law giving FDA regulation over tobacco products, FDA is now required to evaluate new tobacco products including MRTP/PREPs to determine their risk for abuse and toxicity at the population level. This paper describes the traditional tools and methods of ALA that can be used to evaluate new tobacco and nicotine products including MRTP/PREPs. Such ALA data could contribute to the scientific foundation on which future public policy decisions are based. PMID:19959676

  2. Analysis of 27 antibiotic residues in raw cow's milk and milk-based products--validation of Delvotest® T.

    PubMed

    Bion, Cindy; Beck Henzelin, Andrea; Qu, Yajuan; Pizzocri, Giuseppe; Bolzoni, Giuseppe; Buffoli, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Delvotest® T was evaluated for its capability at detecting residues of 27 antibiotics in raw cow's milk and in some dairy ingredients (skimmed and full-cream milk powders). The kit was used as a screening tool for the qualitative determination of antibiotics from different families in a single test. Results delivered by such a method are expressed as 'positive' or 'negative', referring to the claimed screening target concentration (STC). Validation was conducted according to the European Community Reference Laboratories' (CRLs) residues guidelines of 20 January 2010 and performed by two laboratories, one located in Europe and the other in Asia. Five criteria were evaluated including detection capability at STC, false-positive (FP) rate, false-negative (FN) rate, robustness and cross-reactivity using visual reading and Delvoscan®. STCs were set at or below the corresponding maximum residue limit (MRL), as fixed by European Regulation EC No. 37/2010. Four antibiotics (nafcillin, oxytetracycline, tetracycline and rifaximin) out of 27 had a false-negative rate ranging from 1.7% to 4.9%; however, it was still compliant with the CRLs' requirements. Globally, Delvotest T can be recommended for the analysis of the surveyed antibiotics in raw cow's milk, skimmed and full-cream milk powders. Additional compounds were tested such as sulfamethazine, spiramycin and erythromycin; however, detection at the corresponding MRL was not achievable and these compounds were removed from the validation. Other drugs from the sulfonamide, aminoglycoside or macrolide families not detected by the test at the MRL were not evaluated in this study. Regarding the reliability of this rapid test to milk-based preparations, additional experiments should be performed on a larger range of compounds and samples to validate the Delvotest T in such matrices. PMID:26555933

  3. Estimation of genetic parameters for productive life, reproduction, and milk-production traits in US dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Castañeda-Bustos, V J; Montaldo, H H; Torres-Hernández, G; Pérez-Elizalde, S; Valencia-Posadas, M; Hernández-Mendo, O; Shepard, L

    2014-01-01

    Heritabilities and correlations for milk yield (MY), fat yield (FY), protein yield (PY), combined fat and protein yield (FPY), fat percentage (F%), protein percentage (P%), age at first kidding (AFK), interval between the first and second kidding (KI), and real and functional productive life at 72mo (FPL72) of 33,725 US dairy goats, were estimated using animal models. Productive life was defined as the total days in production until 72mo of age (PL72) for goats having the opportunity to express the trait. Functional productive life was obtained by correcting PL72 for MY, FY, PY, and final type score (FS). Six selection indexes were used, including or excluding PL72, with 6 groups of different economic weights, to estimate the responses to selection considering MY, FY, PY, and PL72 as selection criteria. The main criteria that determined the culling of a goat from the herd were low FS, MY, and FY per lactation. Heritability estimates were 0.22, 0.17, 0.37, 0.37, 0.38, 0.39, 0.54, 0.64, 0.09, and 0.16 for PL72, FPL72, MY, FY, PY, FPY, F%, P%, KI, and AFK, respectively. Most genetic correlations between the evaluated traits and PL72 or FPL72 were positive, except for F% (-0.04 and -0.06, respectively), P% (-0.002 and -0.03, respectively), and AFK (-0.03 and -0.01, respectively). The highest genetic correlations were between FPL72 and MY (0.39) and between PL72 and MY (0.33). Most phenotypic correlations between the traits evaluated and FPL72 and PL72 were positive (>0.23 and >0.26, respectively), except for F% (-0.004 and -0.02, respectively), P% (-0.05 and -0.02), KI (-0.01 and -0.07), and AFK (-0.08 and -0.08). The direct selection for PL72 increased it by 102.28d per generation. The use of MY, FY, PY, KI, or AFK as selection criteria increased PL72 by 39.21, 27.33, 35.90, -8.28, or 2.77d per generation, respectively. The inclusion of PL72 as selection criterion increased the expected response per generation from 0.15 to 17.35% in all selection indices studied. PMID

  4. Capturing urine while maintaining pasture intake, milk production, and animal welfare of dairy cows in early and late lactation.

    PubMed

    Clark, C E F; McLeod, K L M; Glassey, C B; Gregorini, P; Costall, D A; Betteridge, K; Jago, J G

    2010-05-01

    Capturing urine and spreading it evenly across a paddock reduces the risk of nitrogen loss to the environment. This study investigated the effect of 16h/d removal from pasture on the capture of urination events, milk production, pasture intake, and animal welfare from cows grazing fresh pasture in early and late lactation. Forty-eight Holstein-Friesian cows in early [470+/-47kg of body weight (BW); 35+/-9 days in milk] and late (498+/-43kg of BW; 225+/-23 days in milk) lactation were allocated to 3 treatment groups. Cows had access to pasture for either 4h after each milking (2 x 4), for 8h between morning and afternoon milkings (1 x 8), or for 24h, excluding milking times (control). When not grazing, the 2 x 4 and 1 x 8 groups were confined to a plastic-lined loafing area with a woodchip surface. In early lactation, the proportion of urinations on pasture and laneways was reduced from 89% (control) to 51% (1 x 8) and 54% (2 x 4) of total urinations. The 1 x 8 cows ate less pasture [10.9kg of dry matter (DM)/cow per day] than the control (13.6kg of DM/cow per day) and 2 x 4 (13.0kg of DM/cow per day) cows, which did not differ from each other. The 1 x 8 and 2 x 4 cows produced less milk (21 and 22kg of milk/cow per day, respectively) compared with control cows (24kg of milk/cow per day). There were no differences in BW or body condition score (BCS) change across treatment groups, with all groups gaining BW and BCS during the experimental period. In late lactation, there was no difference in pasture intake (mean=8.8kg of DM/cow per day), milk production (mean=10kg of milk/cow per day), and BW or BCS change (mean=3.7kg and -0.2U/cow per week, respectively) between treatment groups. As in early lactation, urinations on pasture and laneways were reduced from 85% (control) to 56% (1 x 8) and 50% (2 x 4) of total urinations. These findings highlight an opportunity to maintain performance and welfare of grazing cows in early and late lactation while capturing additional

  5. Association analysis of polymorphism in thyroglobulin gene promoter with milk production traits in riverine buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, P.K.; Goyal, S.; Mishra, S.K.; Yadav, A.K.; Kathiravan, P.; Arora, R.; Malik, R.; Kataria, R.S.

    2015-01-01

    Polymorphism within the promoter region of bovine thyroglobulin has been reported to be associated with milk and meat quality. In this study, we investigated the genetic variation within thyroglobulin promoter region of swamp and riverine buffaloes using PCR–SSCP technique and sequencing, and also analyzing association of polymorphism with the milk production traits. The study revealed four conformational patterns, A, B, C, and D among 323 buffaloes of two riverine breeds and different swamp populations. The frequency of SSCP variant ‘A’ was found to be invariably high among all buffalo populations. Variant ‘C’ was found to be absent in pure swamp population and present with higher frequency among riverine dairy breeds Mehsana and Nili Ravi. Frequency of D variant was observed to be highest in buffalo population, representing riverine and hybrid types. Sequencing of three representative PCR products of each of the SSCP variants, revealed three polymorphic sites responsible, 33C > T, 176G > T and 221C > T, in the buffalo TG promoter region. Further, association studies of SSCP variants with various milk production and milk quality traits indicated significant effect on fat percentage in buffaloes belonging to Mehsana and Nili Ravi dairy breeds. The preliminary results also showed the substantial variations in the distribution of SSCP variants' frequencies across swamp and riverine buffaloes, two distinct populations being reared for meat and milk production, respectively. PMID:26273563

  6. Identification of Genetic Associations and Functional Polymorphisms of SAA1 Gene Affecting Milk Production Traits in Dairy Cattle.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shaohua; Gao, Yahui; Zhang, Shengli; Zhang, Qin; Sun, Dongxiao

    2016-01-01

    Our initial RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) revealed that the Serum amyloid A1 (SAA1) gene was differentially expressed in the mammary glands of lactating Holstein cows with extremely high versus low phenotypic values of milk protein and fat percentage. To further validate the genetic effect and potential molecular mechanisms of SAA1 gene involved in regulating milk production traits in dairy cattle, we herein performed a study through genotype-phenotype associations. Six identified SNPs were significantly associated with one or more milk production traits (0.00002< P < 0.0025), providing additional evidence for the potential role of SAA1 variants in milk production traits in dairy cows. Subsequently, both luciferase assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) clearly demonstrated that the allele A of g.-963C>A increased the promoter activity by binding the PARP factor while allele C did not. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that the secondary structure of SAA protein changed by the substitution A/G in the locus c. +2510A>G. Our findings were the first to reveal the significant associations of the SAA1 gene with milk production traits, providing basis for further biological function validation, and two identified SNPs, g.-963C>A and c. +2510A>G, may be considered as genetic markers for breeding in dairy cattle. PMID:27610623

  7. Genetic Parameters for Linear Type Traits and Milk, Fat, and Protein Production in Holstein Cows in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Rafael Viegas; Cobuci, Jaime Araujo; Kern, Elisandra Lurdes; Costa, Cláudio Napolis; McManus, Concepta Margaret

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters for linear type traits, as well as milk yield (MY), fat yield (FY) and protein yield (PY) in 18,831 Holstein cows reared in 495 herds in Brazil. Restricted maximum likelihood with a bivariate model was used for estimation genetic parameters, including fixed effects of herd-year of classification, period of classification, classifier and stage of lactation for linear type traits and herd-year of calving, season of calving and lactation order effects for production traits. The age of cow at calving was fitted as a covariate (with linear and quadratic terms), common to both models. Heritability estimates varied from 0.09 to 0.38 for linear type traits and from 0.17 to 0.24 for production traits, indicating sufficient genetic variability to achieve genetic gain through selection. In general, estimates of genetic correlations between type and production traits were low, except for udder texture and angularity that showed positive genetic correlations (>0.29) with MY, FY, and PY. Udder depth had the highest negative genetic correlation (−0.30) with production traits. Selection for final score, commonly used by farmers as a practical selection tool to improve type traits, does not lead to significant improvements in production traits, thus the use of selection indices that consider both sets of traits (production and type) seems to be the most adequate to carry out genetic selection of animals in the Brazilian herd. PMID:25656190

  8. Determination of the presence of Listeria monocytogenes in milk and dairy products: IDF collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Twedt, R M; Hitchins, A D; Prentice, G A

    1994-01-01

    A collaborative study was conducted on the recovery of viable Listeria monocytogenes from milk and dairy products (Camembert cheese, Limburger cheese, skim milk powder, and ice cream). Test portions were homogenized with Listeria-selective liquid enrichment medium and cultured at 30 degrees C for 48 h. The enrichment culture was then subcultured onto a solid isolation medium at 37 degrees C for 48 h. Suspected Listeria colonies were identified by appropriate conventional morphological, physiological, and biochemical tests. Five kinds of dairy matrixes were spiked with L. monocytogenes at 2 levels: 12 and 120 colony forming units (cfu)/25 g. Each of the 18 collaborating laboratories analyzed 15 blind test portions from each matrix, comprising 5 replicates at each spiking level and 5 uninoculated controls, for a total of 1350 analyses. The specificity of the method was 100%; its sensitivity was 94-100% at the high spiking level and 89-98% at the low spiking level, except for Limburger cheese, which was only 68%. No specificity or sensitivity differences were observed between laboratories for all matrixes at the high spiking level and for all except Limburger cheese at the low spiking level. The calculated 50% detection limit for all products except Limburger cheese was 1.6 cfu/25 g; the 50% detection limit for Limburger cheese itself was 4.1 cfu/25 g. The method was adopted first action by AOAC INTERNATIONAL. PMID:8199474

  9. Association between aflatoxin M1 excreted in human urine samples with the consumption of milk and dairy products.

    PubMed

    Mohd Redzwan, Sabran; Rosita, Jamaluddin; Mohd Sokhini, Abdul Mutalib; Nurul Aqilah, Abdul Rahman

    2012-12-01

    This study aimed to find the association between urinary aflatoxin M(1) level and milk and dairy products consumption. Of 160 morning urine samples collected, aflatoxin M(1) was detected in 61.3 % samples (n = 98) [mean ± SD = 0.0234 ± 0.0177 ng/mL; range = 0-0.0747 ng/mL]. Of these positive samples, 67.3 % (n = 66) had levels above the limit of detection. Respondents with intake of milk and dairy products above median (67.79 g/day) had significantly high level of AFM(1) compared to those with low intake. A significant and positive association (φ = 0.286) was found between milk and dairy products consumption and urinary aflatoxin M(1) level. PMID:23052590

  10. Effects of extruding wheat dried distillers grains with solubles with peas or canola meal on ruminal fermentation, microbial protein synthesis, nutrient digestion, and milk production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Claassen, R M; Christensen, D A; Mutsvangwa, T

    2016-09-01

    Our objective was to examine the effects of feeding coextruded and nonextruded supplements consisting of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles with peas (WDDGS-peas) or canola meal (WDDGS-CM) on ruminal fermentation, omasal flow, and production performance in Holstein cows. Eight cows (4 ruminally cannulated) were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square with 28-d periods and a 2×2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. Dietary treatments were coextruded or nonextruded mixtures of WDDGS-peas and WDDGS-CM that were included in total mixed rations at 15.1% [dry matter (DM) basis]. Diet had no effect on DM intake. Milk yield was greater in cows fed coextruded diets compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Milk fat content was greater in cows fed nonextruded diets compared with those fed coextruded diets, but milk fat yield was greater in cows fed coextruded diets compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Milk yield tended to be greater and milk protein yield was greater in cows fed WDDGS-peas compared with those fed WDDGS-CM. Cows fed nonextruded diets had a greater milk urea-N concentration compared with those fed coextruded diets. Cows fed coextruded diets had greater ruminal digestion of DM and tended to have greater ruminal digestion of organic matter compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Total-tract digestibilities of organic matter, crude protein, ether extract, and starch were greater, whereas that of acid detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber tended to be greater in cows fed coextruded compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Total-tract digestibility of ether extract was lower whereas that of starch was greater and that of crude protein tended to be greater in cows fed WDDGS-peas compared with those fed WDDGS-CM. Total N excretion and milk N efficiency were unaffected by diet. Ruminal NH3-N concentration tended to be greater in cows fed WDDGS-CM compared with those fed WDDGS-peas. Ruminal propionate concentration was greater whereas

  11. Customized recommendations for production management clusters of North American automatic milking systems.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Marlène; Hess, Justin P; Christenson, Brock M; McIntyre, Kolby K; Smink, Ben; van der Kamp, Arjen J; de Jong, Lisanne G; Döpfer, Dörte

    2016-07-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) are implemented in a variety of situations and environments. Consequently, there is a need to characterize individual farming practices and regional challenges to streamline management advice and objectives for producers. Benchmarking is often used in the dairy industry to compare farms by computing percentile ranks of the production values of groups of farms. Grouping for conventional benchmarking is commonly limited to the use of a few factors such as farms' geographic region or breed of cattle. We hypothesized that herds' production data and management information could be clustered in a meaningful way using cluster analysis and that this clustering approach would yield better peer groups of farms than benchmarking methods based on criteria such as country, region, breed, or breed and region. By applying mixed latent-class model-based cluster analysis to 529 North American AMS dairy farms with respect to 18 significant risk factors, 6 clusters were identified. Each cluster (i.e., peer group) represented unique management styles, challenges, and production patterns. When compared with peer groups based on criteria similar to the conventional benchmarking standards, the 6 clusters better predicted milk produced (kilograms) per robot per day. Each cluster represented a unique management and production pattern that requires specialized advice. For example, cluster 1 farms were those that recently installed AMS robots, whereas cluster 3 farms (the most northern farms) fed high amounts of concentrates through the robot to compensate for low-energy feed in the bunk. In addition to general recommendations for farms within a cluster, individual farms can generate their own specific goals by comparing themselves to farms within their cluster. This is very comparable to benchmarking but adds the specific characteristics of the peer group, resulting in better farm management advice. The improvement that cluster analysis allows for is

  12. Consumption of endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period does not decrease milk production in the following lactation.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Ransom L; Capuco, Anthony V; Evock-Clover, Christina M; Grossi, Paolo; Choudhary, Ratan K; Vanzant, Eric S; Elsasser, Theodore H; Bertoni, Giuseppe; Trevisi, Erminio; Aiken, Glen E; McLeod, Kyle R

    2016-09-01

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected grasses inhibit prolactin (PRL) secretion and may reduce milk production of cows consuming these grasses. We investigated the effects of consuming endophyte-infected fescue seed during late lactation and the dry period on mammary growth, differentiation, and milk production. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 3 treatment groups. Starting at 90±4 d prepartum, cows were fed endophyte-free fescue seed (control; CON), endophyte-free fescue seed plus 3×/wk subcutaneous injections of bromocriptine (0.1mg/kg of body weight, positive control; BROMO), or endophyte-infected fescue seed (INF) as 10% of the diet on an as fed basis. Although milk yield of groups did not differ before treatment, at dry off (-60 d prepartum) INF and BROMO cows produced less milk than CON. Throughout the treatment period, basal concentrations of PRL and the prepartum increase in plasma PRL were reduced in INF and BROMO cows compared with CON cows. Three weeks after the end of treatment, circulating concentrations of PRL were equivalent across groups. In the subsequent lactation milk yield was not decreased; in fact, BROMO cows exhibited a 9% increase in milk yield relative to CON. Evaluation of mammary tissue during the dry period and the subsequent lactation, by quantitative histology and immunohistochemical analysis of proliferation markers and putative mammary stem or progenitor cell markers, indicated that feeding endophyte-infected fescue seed did not significantly affect mammary growth and development. Feeding endophyte-infected grasses during the dry period may permit effective utilization of feed resources without compromising milk production in the next lactation. PMID:27320660

  13. Preventive effect of fermented Maillard reaction products from milk proteins in cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Oh, N S; Kwon, H S; Lee, H A; Joung, J Y; Lee, J Y; Lee, K B; Shin, Y K; Baick, S C; Park, M R; Kim, Y; Lee, K W; Kim, S H

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the dual effect of Maillard reaction and fermentation on the preventive cardiovascular effects of milk proteins. Maillard reaction products (MRP) were prepared from the reaction between milk proteins, such as whey protein concentrates (WPC) and sodium caseinate (SC), and lactose. The hydrolysates of MRP were obtained from fermentation by lactic acid bacteria (LAB; i.e., Lactobacillus gasseri H10, L. gasseri H11, Lactobacillus fermentum H4, and L. fermentum H9, where human-isolated strains were designated H1 to H15), which had excellent proteolytic and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities (>20%). The antioxidant activity of MRP was greater than that of intact proteins in assays of the reaction with 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt and trivalent ferric ions; moreover, the effect of MRP was synergistically improved by fermentation. The Maillard reaction dramatically increased the level of antithrombotic activity and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) inhibitory effect of milk proteins, but did not change the level of activity for micellar cholesterol solubility. Furthermore, specific biological properties were enhanced by fermentation. Lactobacillus gasseri H11 demonstrated the greatest activity for thrombin and HMGR inhibition in Maillard-reacted WPC, by 42 and 33%, respectively, whereas hydrolysates of Maillard-reacted SC fermented by L. fermentum H9 demonstrated the highest reduction rate for micellar cholesterol solubility, at 52%. In addition, the small compounds that were likely released by fermentation of MRP were identified by size-exclusion chromatography. Therefore, MRP and hydrolysates of fermented MRP could be used to reduce cardiovascular risks. PMID:24731635

  14. Isolation and identification of cultivable lactic acid bacteria in traditional yak milk products of Gansu Province in China.

    PubMed

    Bao, QiuHua; Liu, WenJun; Yu, Jie; Wang, Weihong; Qing, ManJun; Chen, Xia; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Jiachao; Zhang, Wenyi; Qiao, Jianmin; Sun, Tiansong; Zhang, Heping

    2012-01-01

    Various traditional fermented yak milk and raw milk foods could be considered as an abundant resource for obtaining novel lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with unique properties. Eighty-eight samples of yak milk products were collected from Gansu Province in China. Three hundred and nineteen strains of LAB isolated from these samples were identified by phenotypic methods, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) technology. Among the isolates, one hundred and sixty-four isolates (51.41% of the total) were classified under Lactobacilli, and one hundred and fifty-five (48.59%) belonged to cocci. All the isolates were classified to six genera (Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Streptococcus, Enterococcus and Weissella) and twenty-one species. Lactobacillus helveticus (87 strains), Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides (49 strains), Streptococcus thermophilus (39 strains), Lactobacillus casei (31 strains) and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (19 strains) were considered as the predominant populations in the yak milk products. The results showed that there were abundant genus and species LAB existing in yak milk products in Gansu Province in China. The obtained LAB pure cultures may be a valuable source for further starter selection. PMID:22688240

  15. Relationships of milk production of beef cows to postweaning gain of thier calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Milk yield from 157 Brangus cows bred to 6 breeds (Bonsmara, Brangus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Romosinuano) was measured over a 3-yr period with a single-cow milking machine to estimate the relationship of actual milk yield of cows and their calves’ postweaning average daily gain on two postweaning man...

  16. 76 FR 41525 - Hewlett Packard Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit Including...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ... Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, including teleworkers reporting to... Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, including teleworkers reporting to Houston, Texas... Employment and Training Administration Hewlett Packard Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life...

  17. Quality milk and tests for antibiotic residues.

    PubMed

    Sischo, W M

    1996-06-01

    One goal of total quality management is to prevent the occurrence of antibiotics in raw milk shipped from the farm. An effective approach to meet this goal is the implementation of HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) procedures, which are part of the Milk and Dairy Beef Quality Assurance Program for antibiotic avoidance. The program defines 10 critical control points, including screening tests for preventing antibiotic residues. Although milk from individual cows clearly should be tested to ensure that antibiotic-free milk is leaving the farm, it is not clear whether any existing tests can be reliably used on milk samples from individual cows, or even on samples from bulk tanks. The FDA acceptance procedures have not required that bulk milk tests undergo a population evaluation; these tests have not been objectively evaluated for individual cows. Of more concern, detection limits differ among tests, sometimes approaching zero. Despite the intent of the Pasteurized Milk Ordinance, milk acceptability definitions vary between states. In addition, the predictive value of test results has not been integrated into the regulatory process. Although largely ignored by the regulatory agencies, these issues cannot be ignored by the dairy industry. Ultimately, the milk testing program should become a component of the quality process that is centered on the farm and that measures the success of the industry in producing high quality milk rather than being a regulatory program that searches for a flawed product. PMID:8827472

  18. OPG Treatment Prevents Bone Loss During Lactation But Does Not Affect Milk Production or Maternal Calcium Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ardeshirpour, Laleh; Dumitru, Cristina; Dann, Pamela; Sterpka, John; VanHouten, Joshua; Kim, Wonnam; Kostenuik, Paul; Wysolmerski, John

    2015-08-01

    Lactation is associated with increased bone turnover and rapid bone loss, which liberates skeletal calcium used for milk production. Previous studies suggested that an increase in the skeletal expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells ligand (RANKL) coupled with a decrease in osteoprotegerin (OPG) levels likely triggered bone loss during lactation. In this study, we treated lactating mice with recombinant OPG to determine whether bone loss during lactation was dependent on RANKL signaling and whether resorption of the maternal skeleton was required to support milk production. OPG treatment lowered bone resorption rates and completely prevented bone loss during lactation but, surprisingly, did not decrease osteoclast numbers. In contrast, OPG was quite effective at lowering osteoblast numbers and inhibiting bone formation in lactating mice. Furthermore, treatment with OPG during lactation prevented the usual anabolic response associated with reversal of lactational bone loss after weaning. Preventing bone loss had no appreciable effect on milk production, milk calcium levels, or maternal calcium homeostasis when mice were on a standard diet. However, when dietary calcium was restricted, treatment with OPG caused maternal hypocalcemia, maternal death, and decreased milk production. These studies demonstrate that RANKL signaling is a requirement for bone loss during lactation, and suggest that osteoclast activity may be required to increase osteoblast numbers during lactation in preparation for the recovery of bone mass after weaning. These data also demonstrate that maternal bone loss is not absolutely required to supply calcium for milk production unless dietary calcium intake is inadequate. PMID:25961842

  19. OPG Treatment Prevents Bone Loss During Lactation But Does Not Affect Milk Production or Maternal Calcium Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Ardeshirpour, Laleh; Dumitru, Cristina; Dann, Pamela; Sterpka, John; VanHouten, Joshua; Kim, Wonnam; Kostenuik, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Lactation is associated with increased bone turnover and rapid bone loss, which liberates skeletal calcium used for milk production. Previous studies suggested that an increase in the skeletal expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells ligand (RANKL) coupled with a decrease in osteoprotegerin (OPG) levels likely triggered bone loss during lactation. In this study, we treated lactating mice with recombinant OPG to determine whether bone loss during lactation was dependent on RANKL signaling and whether resorption of the maternal skeleton was required to support milk production. OPG treatment lowered bone resorption rates and completely prevented bone loss during lactation but, surprisingly, did not decrease osteoclast numbers. In contrast, OPG was quite effective at lowering osteoblast numbers and inhibiting bone formation in lactating mice. Furthermore, treatment with OPG during lactation prevented the usual anabolic response associated with reversal of lactational bone loss after weaning. Preventing bone loss had no appreciable effect on milk production, milk calcium levels, or maternal calcium homeostasis when mice were on a standard diet. However, when dietary calcium was restricted, treatment with OPG caused maternal hypocalcemia, maternal death, and decreased milk production. These studies demonstrate that RANKL signaling is a requirement for bone loss during lactation, and suggest that osteoclast activity may be required to increase osteoblast numbers during lactation in preparation for the recovery of bone mass after weaning. These data also demonstrate that maternal bone loss is not absolutely required to supply calcium for milk production unless dietary calcium intake is inadequate. PMID:25961842

  20. Reducing dietary protein in dairy cow diets: implications for nitrogen utilization, milk production, welfare and fertility.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, K D; Garnsworthy, P C; Mann, G E; Sinclair, L A

    2014-02-01

    In light of increasing global protein prices and with the need to reduce environmental impact of contemporary systems of milk production, the current review seeks to assess the feasibility of reducing levels of dietary CP in dairy cow diets. At CP levels between 140 and 220 g/kg DM there is a strong positive relationship between CP concentration and dry matter intake (DMI). However, such effects are modest and reductions in DMI when dietary CP is below 180 g/kg DM can be at least partially offset by improving the digestibility and amino acid profile of the undegradable protein (UDP) component of the diet or by increasing rumen fermentable energy. Level and balance of intestinally absorbable amino acids, in particular methionine and lysine, may become limiting at lower CP concentrations. In general the amino acid composition of microbial protein is superior to that of UDP, so that dietary strategies that aim to promote microbial protein synthesis in the rumen may go some way to correcting for amino acid imbalances in low CP diets. For example, reducing the level of NDF, while increasing the proportion of starch, can lead to improvements in nitrogen (N) utilisation as great as that achieved by reducing dietary CP to below 150 g/kg. A systematic review and meta-analysis of responses to rumen protected forms of methionine and lysine was conducted for early/mid lactation cows fed diets containing ⩽150 g CP/kg DM. This analysis revealed a small but significant (P=0.002) increase in milk protein yield when cows were supplemented with these rumen protected amino acids. Variation in milk and milk protein yield responses between studies was not random but due to differences in diet composition between studies. Cows fed low CP diets can respond to supplemental methionine and lysine so long as DMI is not limiting, metabolisable protein (MP) is not grossly deficient and other amino acids such as histidine and leucine do not become rate limiting. Whereas excess dietary protein

  1. Low incidence of foodborne pathogens of concern in raw milk utilized for farmstead cheese production.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Dennis J; Groves, Errol; Donnelly, Catherine W

    2008-08-01

    Overall milk quality and prevalence of four target pathogens in raw milk destined for farmstead cheesemaking was examined. Raw milk samples were collected weekly from June to September 2006 from 11 farmstead cheese operations manufacturing raw milk cheese from cow's, goat's, and sheep's milk. Samples were screened for Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 both quantitatively (direct plating) and qualitatively (PCR). Overall, 96.8% of samples had standard plate counts of < 100,000 CFU/ml, 42.7% of which were < 1,000 CFU/ml. Although no federal standards exist for coliforms in raw milk, 61% of samples tested conformed to pasteurized milk standards under the U.S. Pasteurized Milk Ordinance (PMO) at < 10 CFU/ml. All cow and sheep milk samples and 93.8% of goat milk samples were within the limits dictated by the PMO for somatic cell counts. Of the 11 farms, 8 (73%) produced samples that were positive for S. aureus, which was detected in 34.6% (46 of 133) of milk samples. L. monocytogenes was isolated from three milk samples (2.3%), two of which were from the same farm. E. coli O157:H7 was recovered from one sample of goat's milk for an overall incidence of 0.75%. Salmonella was not recovered from any of the 133 samples. The findings of this study suggest that most raw milk intended for farmstead cheesemaking is of high microbiological quality with a low incidence of pathogens. These data will help inform risk assessments associated with the microbiological safety of farmstead cheeses, particularly those manufactured from raw milk. PMID:18724751

  2. Herbage intake and milk production of late-lactation dairy cows offered a second-year chicory crop during summer.

    PubMed

    Muir, S K; Ward, G N; Jacobs, J L

    2015-12-01

    Chicory (Cichorum intybus L.) is a summer-active forage herb which has been proposed as an option to increase summer feed supply, increase dry matter intake, nutrient intake, and milk yield from nonirrigated dairy production systems in southern Australia. Dry matter intake, nutrient intake, milk yield, and yield of milk fat and protein of predominantly Holstein-Friesian dairy cows in late lactation consuming 3 herbage-based diets (4 replicates per treatment) were measured. The 3 grazed herbages were second-year chicory (CHIC) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.; PRG) monocultures and a mixed sward (~50:50) of chicory and perennial ryegrass (MIX). All diets (CHIC, PRG, and MIX) were supplemented with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hay (5.5kg of DM/cow per day) and an energy-based concentrate pellet (4.0kg of DM/cow per day). There were no significant differences in milk yield (12.0 to 12.6kg/d across the treatments) or the yield of milk fat (539 to 585g/d) and milk protein (433 to 447g/d) between the 3 herbage-based diets. No differences in DMI (17.9 to 19.2kg/d) or estimated metabolizable energy intake (173 to 185MJ/d) were noted between treatments. Estimated metabolizable energy concentrations in the forages on offer were lower in CHIC than PRG (7.6 vs. 8.2MJ/kg of dry matter), but the concentration in consumed herbage was not different (9.1 vs. 9.2MJ/kg of dry matter); as such, potential for increased milk yield in cows offered CHIC was limited. Increased concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids was observed in chicory herbage compared with perennial ryegrass. This was associated with increased milk conjugated linoleic acid and milk polyunsaturated fatty acids when chicory formed part of the diet (CHIC compared to PRG and MIX). Chicory could be used as an alternative to perennial ryegrass in summer; however, the developmental stage of chicory will influence concentrations of metabolizable energy and neutral detergent fiber and, therefore, intake and milk

  3. Effects of diets containing grape seed, linseed, or both on milk production traits, liver and kidney activities, and immunity of lactating dairy ewes.

    PubMed

    Nudda, A; Correddu, F; Marzano, A; Battacone, G; Nicolussi, P; Bonelli, P; Pulina, G

    2015-02-01

    G on d 60 and SFT in ewes fed GS suggests an immunomodulatory effect of this residue. The limited variation in milk and hematological and metabolic parameters suggests that GS and LIN can be included, alone or in combination, in the diet of dairy ewes without adverse effects on milk production and health status. PMID:25497793

  4. Holsteins Favor Heifers, Not Bulls: Biased Milk Production Programmed during Pregnancy as a Function of Fetal Sex

    PubMed Central

    Hinde, Katie; Carpenter, Abigail J.; Clay, John S.; Bradford, Barry J.

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian females pay high energetic costs for reproduction, the greatest of which is imposed by lactation. The synthesis of milk requires, in part, the mobilization of bodily reserves to nourish developing young. Numerous hypotheses have been advanced to predict how mothers will differentially invest in sons and daughters, however few studies have addressed sex-biased milk synthesis. Here we leverage the dairy cow model to investigate such phenomena. Using 2.39 million lactation records from 1.49 million dairy cows, we demonstrate that the sex of the fetus influences the capacity of the mammary gland to synthesize milk during lactation. Cows favor daughters, producing significantly more milk for daughters than for sons across lactation. Using a sub-sample of this dataset (N = 113,750 subjects) we further demonstrate that the effects of fetal sex interact dynamically across parities, whereby the sex of the fetus being gestated can enhance or diminish the production of milk during an established lactation. Moreover the sex of the fetus gestated on the first parity has persistent consequences for milk synthesis on the subsequent parity. Specifically, gestation of a daughter on the first parity increases milk production by ∼445 kg over the first two lactations. Our results identify a dramatic and sustained programming of mammary function by offspring in utero. Nutritional and endocrine conditions in utero are known to have pronounced and long-term effects on progeny, but the ways in which the progeny has sustained physiological effects on the dam have received little attention to date. PMID:24498270

  5. Mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions in the production of fluid milk.

    PubMed

    Tomasula, Peggy M; Nutter, Darin W

    2011-01-01

    Global climate change, driven by the buildup of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the atmosphere, is challenging the dairy industries in the United States and throughout the world to develop sustainable initiatives to reduce their environmental impact. The U.S. dairy industry has committed to lowering the GHG emissions, primarily CH(4), N(2)O, and CO(2), in each sector of the fluid milk supply chain which extends from the farm, to the processing plant, and to distribution of the packaged product, where it is refrigerated by the retailer and then the consumer. This chapter provides an overview of the life cycle analysis (LCA) technique and its use in identifying the GHG emissions in each sector of the fluid milk supply chain, from cradle to grave, and the best practices and research that is currently being conducted to reduce or mitigate GHG emissions in each sector. We also discuss the use of on-farm and off-farm process simulation as tools for evaluating on-farm mitigation techniques, off-farm alternative processing scenarios, and use of alternative energy management practices. PMID:21504821

  6. Effect of flavored milk vs plain milk on total milk intake and nutrient provision in children.

    PubMed

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia

    2016-01-01

    Concerns surrounding added sugars and their effects on health have created a need to review the literature to assess consumption of flavored milk, consumer preferences for flavored milk, behavior related to the intake of flavored milk, and the effect of flavored milk on the diet and health of children. A review of the literature was performed using the following keywords: milk, flavored, flavoured, sweetened, and chocolate. The search was limited to articles published in English, studies conducted in children, and studies reporting on prevalence of consumption, trends in consumption, preferences for flavored milk, intakes of milk and nutrients, and health outcomes. Fifty-three studies were included. Flavored milk receives the highest palatability rating among children. Children drink more flavored milk than plain milk and, when flavored milk is not available, children drink less plain milk and, consequently, less milk overall. Consumers of flavored milk have a higher total milk intake. Micronutrient intake among consumers of flavored milk is similar to that among consumers of plain milk, while intakes of energy and sugars vary, owing to differences in reporting across studies. There is no association between flavored milk intake and weight status among normal-weight children, and some contradictory effects of flavored milk intake have been observed in subgroups of overweight children. Flavored milk is a palatable beverage choice that helps children to meet calcium targets. Further research to test the effect of flavored milk consumption among overweight children is warranted. PMID:26534904

  7. Effects of 2 commercially-available 9-way killed vaccines on milk production and rectal temperature in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, H M; Atkins, G; Willows, B; McGregor, R

    2001-01-01

    Veterinarians and farmers employing multivalent killed vaccines in lactating dairy cows have reported transient losses in milk production. Few studies have quantified this loss. In this report, effects of 2 commercially available 9-way vaccines on milk production and rectal temperature are examined. Repeated measures analyses of variance were used to compare changes in milk production and rectal temperature over time between treatment groups. There was a significant (P < 0.01) interaction among treatment and time when comparing vaccine- and placebo-treated animals. When pretreatment milk production (or days in milk) and pretreatment rectal temperature were considered, respectively, as covariates, a significant (P < 0.05) depression of milk production and a significant (P < 0.05) increase in rectal temperature were observed one day following injection. These effects were small and short-lived. The stage of lactation, level of milk production, and choice of product may be used as decision-making tools to decrease milk production losses in vaccine-candidate cows. PMID:11665428

  8. Milk processing quality of suckled/milked goats: effects of milk accumulation interval and milking regime.

    PubMed

    Högberg, M; Dahlborn, K; Hydbring-Sandberg, E; Hartmann, E; Andrén, A

    2016-05-01

    Milk with a high concentration of fat and casein is required for cheese production, and these components have a major impact for both quality and yield of the curd. Recent observations have shown that suckling can elevate milk fat concentration in goats and our aim was therefore to check the hypothesis that animal welfare and cheese-processing properties of goat milk could be optimised by appropriate management of suckled/milked goats. Twelve Swedish dairy goats were kept together with one kid each in 4 different mixed management-systems (milking combined with partial suckling) in a cross-over design. Two milk accumulation intervals were tested; Short = dams and kids were together for 16 h (T16) and Long = ; dams and kids were together for 8 h (T8 h). In addition, two milking regimes were used; Suckled Before Milking = S and Milked Before Suckling = M. Milk accumulation interval referred to how long dams and kids were separated. The milk yield available for processing (milk offtake), was weighed and analysed from each milking occasion and the suckled milk yield was estimated by a weigh-suckle-weigh method (WSW) in combination with observing the suckling behaviour during the free suckling periods. Milking managements, such as 'suckling before milking (S)', increased milk fat concentration compared to milking before suckling (M) and 'Short accumulation treatments (T16)' gave higher milk fat, casein concentration and individual curd yield (%) compared to the 'Long accumulation treatment (T8)'. The total individual curd yield (g) was the same despite treatment, but the animal welfare was most likely higher in T16 where dams and kids spent more time together. PMID:27056664

  9. A Multiple-SNP Approach for Genome-Wide Association Study of Milk Production Traits in Chinese Holstein Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Ming; Fu, Weixuan; Jiang, Dan; Zhang, Qin; Sun, Dongxiao; Ding, Xiangdong; Liu, Jianfeng

    2014-01-01

    The multiple-SNP analysis has been studied by many researchers, in which the effects of multiple SNPs are simultaneously estimated and tested in a multiple linear regression. The multiple-SNP association analysis usually has higher power and lower false-positive rate for detecting causative SNP(s) than single marker analysis (SMA). Several methods have been proposed to simultaneously estimate and test multiple SNP effects. In this research, a fast method called MEML (Mixed model based Expectation-Maximization Lasso algorithm) was developed for simultaneously estimate of multiple SNP effects. An improved Lasso prior was assigned to SNP effects which were estimated by searching the maximum joint posterior mode. The residual polygenic effect was included in the model to absorb many tiny SNP effects, which is treated as missing data in our EM algorithm. A series of simulation experiments were conducted to validate the proposed method, and the results showed that compared with SMMA, the new method can dramatically decrease the false-positive rate. The new method was also applied to the 50k SNP-panel dataset for genome-wide association study of milk production traits in Chinese Holstein cattle. Totally, 39 significant SNPs and their nearby 25 genes were found. The number of significant SNPs is remarkably fewer than that by SMMA which found 105 significant SNPs. Among 39 significant SNPs, 8 were also found by SMMA and several well-known QTLs or genes were confirmed again; furthermore, we also got some positional candidate gene with potential function of effecting milk production traits. These novel findings in our research should be valuable for further investigation. PMID:25148050

  10. Official Methods for the Determination of Minerals and Trace Elements in Infant Formula and Milk Products: A Review.

    PubMed

    Poitevin, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The minerals and trace elements that account for about 4% of total human body mass serve as materials and regulators in numerous biological activities in body structure building. Infant formula and milk products are important sources of endogenic and added minerals and trace elements and hence, must comply with regulatory as well as nutritional and safety requirements. In addition, reliable analytical data are necessary to support product content and innovation, health claims, or declaration and specific safety issues. Adequate analytical platforms and methods must be implemented to demonstrate both the compliance and safety assessment of all declared and regulated minerals and trace elements, especially trace-element contaminant surveillance. The first part of this paper presents general information on the mineral composition of infant formula and milk products and their regulatory status. In the second part, a survey describes the main techniques and related current official methods determining minerals and trace elements in infant formula and milk products applied for by various international organizations (AOAC INTERNATIONAL, the International Organization for Standardization, the International Dairy Federation, and the European Committe for Standardization). The third part summarizes method officialization activities by Stakeholder Panels on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals and Stakeholder Panel on Strategic Food Analytical Methods. The final part covers a general discussion focusing on analytical gaps and future trends in inorganic analysis that have been applied for in infant formula and milk-based products. PMID:26821839

  11. Effects of restricted nursing on milk production and collection, kid growth and plasma prolactin and growth hormone concentrations in dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Hernández, H; Delgadillo, J A; Flores, J A; Rodríguez, A D; Serafín, N; Kann, G; Marnet, P G; Poindron, P

    2007-03-01

    The milk production of dairy goats under various regimes of mother-young contact from day 4 post partum were studied during the first 2 months of lactation, together with the prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH) responses to udder stimulation. In the control group, 13 goats and their kids were left in permanent contact and did not undergo milking. In two additional groups, goats were machine milked once a day in the morning (at 0800 h) and kids were allowed 10 hours (from 1000 to 2000 h; 10H group, n = 11) or 5 h (from 1000 to 2000 h; 5H group, n = 11) of mother-young interaction per day. In the last group (MO, n = 10), mothers were permanently separated from their kids on day 4 post partum and milked once a day. Milk production during a 24-h period at 37 days post partum performed by controlled nursing and weighing of the kids (groups with kids) or by two machine milking 12 h apart (milking only group) revealed a higher production in the three groups with some mother-young contact than in the MO group. Total milk collected by milking over the 2 months of the study did not differ between the three groups that underwent milking. Kid weights at 2 months were 3.4 to 4.8 kg. lighter in the groups that underwent milking than in the control group. Hormonal profiles were significantly affected by restricted mother-young contact, with highest pre-stimulation concentrations of PRL and GH in the 5H group. Restricting mother-young contact from the first week postpartum can permit an early collection of milk without major effects on kid growth, when compared with one daily milking in goats totally separated from their young. PMID:22444289

  12. Investigation of the persistence of closantel residues in bovine milk following lactating-cow and dry-cow treatments and its migration into dairy products.

    PubMed

    Power, Clare; Sayers, Riona; O'Brien, Bernadette; Clancy, Clare; Furey, Ambrose; Jordan, Kieran; Danaher, Martin

    2013-09-11

    Closantel is a veterinary drug used to treat liver fluke in cattle and sheep. A provisional maximum residue limit (MRL) of 45 μg/kg in milk has been set by the European Union. The purpose of this study was to investigate the persistence of closantel residues in milk and the migration of residues into milk products. Following dry-cow treatment, residues ranged from undetectable to 8.7 μg/kg at the first milking. Following lactating-cow treatment, residues detected ranged from 278 to 482 μg/kg at day 1 post-treatment and were detectable above the MRL for 52 days and detectable for 198 days. At day 2 and day 23 post-treatment, the milk was collected and dairy products manufactured. Closantel residues concentrated in the cheese, butter, and skim milk powder. The results indicate that closantel is best used as a dry-cow treatment. PMID:23992251

  13. Consistent simulation of direct-photon production in hadron collisions including associated two-jet production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odaka, Shigeru; Kurihara, Yoshimasa

    2016-05-01

    We have developed an event generator for direct-photon production in hadron collisions, including associated 2-jet production in the framework of the GR@PPA event generator. The event generator consistently combines γ + 2-jet production processes with the lowest-order γ + jet and photon-radiation (fragmentation) processes from quantum chromodynamics (QCD) 2-jet production using a subtraction method. The generated events can be fed to general-purpose event generators to facilitate the addition of hadronization and decay simulations. Using the obtained event information, we can simulate photon isolation and hadron-jet reconstruction at the particle (hadron) level. The simulation reasonably reproduces measurement data obtained at the large hadron collider (LHC) concerning not only the inclusive photon spectrum, but also the correlation between the photon and jet. The simulation implies that the contribution of the γ + 2-jet is very large, especially in low photon-pT ( ≲ 50 GeV) regions. Discrepancies observed at low pT, although marginal, may indicate the necessity for the consideration of further higher-order processes. Unambiguous particle-level definition of the photon-isolation condition for the signal events is desired to be given explicitly in future measurements.

  14. Paratuberculosis: decrease in milk production of German Holstein dairy cows shedding Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis depends on within-herd prevalence.

    PubMed

    Donat, K; Soschinka, A; Erhardt, G; Brandt, H R

    2014-05-01

    Paratuberculosis impairs productivity of infected dairy cows because of reduced milk production and fertility and enhanced risk of culling. The magnitude of the milk yield depression in individual cows is influenced by factors such as parity, the stage of the disease and the choice of test used. The objectives of this case-control study were to substantiate the influence of the different levels of the within-herd prevalence (WHP) on individual milk yield of fecal culture (FC)-positive cows (FC+) compared with FC-negative herd-mates (FC-), and to estimate the magnitude of the deviation of the milk yield, milk components and somatic cell count (SCC) in an FC-based study. Of a total of 31 420 cows from 26 Thuringian dairy herds tested for paratuberculosis by FC, a subset of 1382 FC+ and 3245 FC- with milk recording data were selected as cases and controls, respectively. The FC- cows were matched for the same number and stage of lactation (±10 days in milk) as one FC+ from the same herd. Within a mixed model analysis using the fixed effects of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) status, lactation number, days in milk, prevalence class of farm and the random effect of farm on milk yield per day (kg), the amount of fat and protein (mg/dl) and lactose (mg/dl) as well as the SCC (1000/ml) were measured. On the basis of least square means, FC+ cows had a lower test-day milk yield (27.7±0.6 kg) compared with FC- (29.0±0.6 kg), as well as a lower milk protein content and a slightly diminished lactose concentration. FC status was not associated with milk fat percentage or milk SCC. In FC+ cows, reduction in milk yield increased with increasing WHP. An interaction of FC status and farm was found for the test-day milk yield, and milk protein percentage, respectively. We conclude that the reduction in milk yield of FC+ cows compared with FC- herd-mates is significantly influenced by farm effects and depends on WHP class. Owners of MAP-positive dairy herds may

  15. Production of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance by Bifidobacterium lactis in skim milk supplemented with additives.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Fabio Andres Castillo; Domínguez, José Manuel; Converti, Attilio; Oliveira, Ricardo Pinheiro de Souza

    2015-08-01

    Bacteriocins are natural compounds used as food biopreservatives instead of chemical preservatives. Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (Bifid. lactis) was shown to produce a bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS) able to inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenes selected as an indicator microorganism. To enhance this production by the strain Bifid. lactis BL 04, skim milk (SM) was used as a fermentation medium either in the presence or in the absence of yeast extract, Tween 80 or inulin as stimulating additives, and the results in terms of bacterial growth and BLIS production were compared with those obtained in a traditional high cost complex medium such as Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS). To this purpose, all the cultivations were carried out in flasks at 200 rpm under anaerobic conditions ensured by a nitrogen flowrate of 1.0 L/min for 48 h, and BLIS production was quantified by means of a modified agar diffusion assay at low values of both temperature and concentration of List. monocytogenes. Although all these ingredients were shown to exert positive influence on BLIS production in both media, yeast extract and SM were by far the best ingredient and the best medium, respectively, allowing for a BLIS production at the late exponential phase of 2000 AU/ml. PMID:25850555

  16. Farm Management in Organic and Conventional Dairy Production Systems Based on Pasture in Southern Brazil and Its Consequences on Production and Milk Quality

    PubMed Central

    Kuhnen, Shirley; Stibuski, Rudinei Butka; Honorato, Luciana Aparecida; Pinheiro Machado Filho, Luiz Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary This study provides the characteristics of the conventional high input (C-HI), conventional low input (C-LI), and organic low input (O-LI) pasture-based production systems used in Southern Brazil, and its consequences on production and milk quality. C-HI farms had larger farms and herds, annual pasture with higher inputs and milk yield, whereas O-LI had smaller farms and herds, perennial pastures with lowest input and milk yields; C-LI was in between. O-LI farms may contribute to eco-system services, but low milk yield is a major concern. Hygienic and microbiological milk quality was poor for all farms and needs to be improved. Abstract Pasture-based dairy production is used widely on family dairy farms in Southern Brazil. This study investigates conventional high input (C-HI), conventional low input (C-LI), and organic low input (O-LI) pasture-based systems and their effects on quantity and quality of the milk produced. We conducted technical site visits and interviews monthly over one year on 24 family farms (n = 8 per type). C-HI farms had the greatest total area (28.9 ha), greatest percentage of area with annual pasture (38.7%), largest number of lactating animals (26.2) and greatest milk yield per cow (22.8 kg·day−1). O-LI farms had the largest perennial pasture area (52.3%), with the greatest botanical richness during all seasons. Area of perennial pasture was positively correlated with number of species consumed by the animals (R2 = 0.74). Milk from O-LI farms had higher levels of fat and total solids only during the winter. Hygienic and microbiological quality of the milk was poor for all farms and need to be improved. C-HI farms had high milk yield related to high input, C-LI had intermediate characteristics and O-LI utilized a year round perennial pasture as a strategy to diminish the use of supplements in animal diets, which is an important aspect in ensuring production sustainability. PMID:26479369

  17. The effects of progressing and nonprogressing Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection on milk production in dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Longitudinal data from three commercial dairy herds in the northeast United States, collected from 2004 to 2011, were analyzed to determine the effect of Johne’s disease status and path on milk production. Disease status, as indicated by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis test results, was ...

  18. EFFECTS OF ATRAZINE AND AN ATRAZINE METABOLITE MIXTURE ON DIFFERENTIATED MAMMARY EPITHELIAL CELL MILK PROTEIN PRODUCTION IN CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of Atrazine and an Atrazine Metabolite Mixture on Differentiated Mammary Epithelial Cell Milk Protein Production in Culture

    E.P. Hines, R. Barbee, M. Blanton, M.S. Pooler, and S.E. Fenton. US EPA, ORD/NHEERL, RTD, RTP, NC, 27711, USA.

    Previous studies have ...

  19. Validation of PDE9A Gene Identified in GWAS Showing Strong Association with Milk Production Traits in Chinese Holstein

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shao-Hua; Bi, Xiao-Jun; Xie, Yan; Li, Cong; Zhang, Sheng-Li; Zhang, Qin; Sun, Dong-Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Phosphodiesterase9A (PDE9A) is a cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-specific enzyme widely expressed among the tissues, which is important in activating cGMP-dependent signaling pathways. In our previous genome-wide association study, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (BTA-55340-no-rsb) located in the intron 14 of PDE9A, was found to be significantly associated with protein yield. In addition, we found that PDE9A was highly expressed in mammary gland by analyzing its mRNA expression in different tissues. The objectives of this study were to identify genetic polymorphisms of PDE9A and to determine the effects of these variants on milk production traits in dairy cattle. DNA sequencing identified 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and six SNPs in 5′ regulatory region were genotyped to test for the subsequent association analyses. After Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, all these identified SNPs were statistically significant for one or more milk production traits (p < 0.0001~0.0077). Interestingly, haplotype-based association analysis revealed similar effects on milk production traits (p < 0.01). In follow-up RNA expression analyses, two SNPs (c.-1376 G>A, c.-724 A>G) were involved in the regulation of gene expression. Consequently, our findings provide confirmatory evidences for associations of PDE9A variants with milk production traits and these identified SNPs may serve as genetic markers to accelerate Chinese Holstein breeding program. PMID:26556348

  20. Consumption of endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period does not decrease milk production in the following lactation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected grasses inhibit prolactin (PRL) secretion and may reduce milk production of cows consuming endophyte-infected grasses. We investigated the effects of consuming endophyte-infected fescue during late lactation and the dry period on mammary growth, differentiation ...

  1. Validation of PDE9A Gene Identified in GWAS Showing Strong Association with Milk Production Traits in Chinese Holstein.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shao-Hua; Bi, Xiao-Jun; Xie, Yan; Li, Cong; Zhang, Sheng-Li; Zhang, Qin; Sun, Dong-Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Phosphodiesterase9A (PDE9A) is a cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-specific enzyme widely expressed among the tissues, which is important in activating cGMP-dependent signaling pathways. In our previous genome-wide association study, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (BTA-55340-no-rs(b)) located in the intron 14 of PDE9A, was found to be significantly associated with protein yield. In addition, we found that PDE9A was highly expressed in mammary gland by analyzing its mRNA expression in different tissues. The objectives of this study were to identify genetic polymorphisms of PDE9A and to determine the effects of these variants on milk production traits in dairy cattle. DNA sequencing identified 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and six SNPs in 5' regulatory region were genotyped to test for the subsequent association analyses. After Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, all these identified SNPs were statistically significant for one or more milk production traits (p < 0.0001~0.0077). Interestingly, haplotype-based association analysis revealed similar effects on milk production traits (p < 0.01). In follow-up RNA expression analyses, two SNPs (c.-1376 G>A, c.-724 A>G) were involved in the regulation of gene expression. Consequently, our findings provide confirmatory evidences for associations of PDE9A variants with milk production traits and these identified SNPs may serve as genetic markers to accelerate Chinese Holstein breeding program. PMID:26556348

  2. Effects of lauric acid on ruminal protozoal numbers and fermentation pattern and milk production in lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate lauric acid (LA) as a practical agent to suppress ruminal protozoa (RP), and to assess the effects of RP suppression on fermentation patterns and milk production in dairy cows. In experiment 1, six Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulae were used in ...

  3. Two Mutations in the Caprine MTHFR 3'UTR Regulated by MicroRNAs Are Associated with Milk Production Traits

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yuxuan; Gao, Teyang; Lei, Yingnan; Cao, Binyun

    2015-01-01

    Background 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) plays a central role in folate metabolism by irreversibly converting 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methylenetetrahydrofolate, a predominant circulating form of folate. Folate is reportedly important for milk protein synthesis, and MTHFR may be a key regulatory point of folate metabolism for milk protein synthesis in mammary epithelial cells. Prior to this study, polymorphisms of the MTHFR gene were not associated with milk production traits from a breeding perspective. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at microRNA (miRNA) binding sites (miR-SNPs) can affect gene expression. This study aimed to identify the effects of miR-SNPs (g.2244A>G and g.2264A>G) in the caprine MTHFR 3' UTR on the milk production traits of dairy goats. Results Guanzhong dairy (GD, n = 325) goats were used to detect SNPs in the caprine MTHFR 3' UTR by DNA sequencing. Two novel SNPs (g.2244A>G and g.2264A>G) were identified in the said region. The homozygous haplotype A-G of the SNPs g.2244A>G and g.2264A>G was significantly associated with milk yield and milk protein levels in GD goats (P < 0.05). Functional assays indicated that the MTHFR 2244 A → G substitution could increase the binding activity of hsa-miR-1266 with the MTHFR 3' UTR. The MTHFR 2264 A → G substitution could decrease the binding activity of hsa-miR-616 with the MTHFR 3' UTR. In addition, we observed a significant increase in the MTHFR mRNA levels of homozygous haplotype A-G carriers relative to those of homozygous haplotype G-A carriers. These results indicated that both SNPs altered the MTHFR mRNA levels. These altered levels of MTHFR mRNA may account for the association of SNPs with milk production traits. Conclusions This study is the first to report that the g.2244A>G and g.2264A>G polymorphisms were associated with milk production traits in GD goats. Further investigations should explore the underlying miRNA-mediated mechanisms that are modified by

  4. Variation of milk components in the Italian Brown cattle.

    PubMed

    Frigo, Erika; Samorè, Antonia B; Reghenzani, Liliana; Bergomi, Nicola; Strillacci, Maria G; Schiavini, Fausta; Prinsen, Raphaelle T M M; Cozzi, Maria C; Serra, Marco; Rossoni, Attilio; Bagnato, Alessandro

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the variations of protein, casein, saturated (SFA), unsaturated (UFA), monounsaturated (MUFA), polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids contents and cheese yield in the milk of two groups of Italian Brown cows conventionally reared in indoor period of housing or consuming pasture during the summer months in 2008 and 2013. Milk components were obtained from samples collected during the national routine (conventionally reared) and 'extraordinary' (pasture period) milk recording scheme in herds located near Sondrio (Lombardia, Italy). Milk samples were processed with the MilkoScanTM FT6000 for the identification of milk casein, SFA, UFA, MUFA and PUFA composition. The groups were analysed separately per year and the environmental factors affecting milk protein, casein, and fatty acids contents (pasture/indoor, parity, data of sampling, days in milk, days from collection to analysis) were included in the MIXED procedure of SAS 9.3. A total of 778 milk samples were available, including 234 records from indoor and 544 observations from pasture feeding. Pasture intake affected the content of casein (%) and the proportion of fat in milk (g/100 g), enhancing milk casein levels (from 2.90 to 3) and reducing the concentration of milk SFA in milk from grazing cows (from 2.29 to 1.92). Additionally, the cheese yield was calculated as 'kg of cheese per 100 kg of milk' and resulted to be 10.4 and 12 in 2008 from milk of cows reared indoor and with pasture based diet, respectively. The dairy industry should take advantage of the milk production during grazing periods from which high quality products may be obtained. PMID:26511665

  5. Reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles reduces the risk for milk fat depression and supports milk production and ruminal fermentation in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Ramirez, H A; Castillo Lopez, E; Jenkins, C J R; Aluthge, N D; Anderson, C; Fernando, S C; Harvatine, K J; Kononoff, P J

    2016-03-01

    Twenty Holstein cows, 12 primiparous and 8 multiparous, with (mean ± SD) 91 ± 19 d in milk and 595 ± 81 kg were used in replicated 4 × 4 Latin squares to compare the effects of feeding conventional dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and reduced-fat DDGS (RFDDGS) in combination with rumen-inert fat (RIF) on milk production and rumen fermentation; one square contained rumen cannulated animals for rumen measurements. In each 21-d period, cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments (values on a dry matter basis): (1) control (CON) that contained 0% DDGS; (2) DG contained 30% DDGS; (3) RFDG contained 30% RFDDGS in substitution of DDGS; and (4) RFDG+RIF was similar to RFDG with the addition of 1.9% RIF. Unlike most practical diets in the dairy field, our diets had <22% forage neutral detergent fiber and >18.0% crude protein. Dry matter intake was similar across treatments with any form of DDGS averaging 26.0 ± 0.6 kg/d, whereas the CON diet resulted in less dry matter intake, 21.6 ± 0.6 kg/d. Milk yield tended to be 1.7 kg/d greater for diets with either type of DDGS. Concentration of milk protein was greatest for the DG and RFDG diets, intermediate for the RFDG+RIF diet, and least for the CON diet, namely 3.22, 3.21, 3.12, and 3.07 ± 0.05%. Reduced milk fat percentage and yield were observed when cows consumed the DG diet, 3.27 ± 0.10% and 1.11 ± 0.04 kg/d, respectively, whereas these responses were similar among CON, RFDG, and RFDG+RIF, which averaged 3.68 ± 0.10% and 1.22 ± 0.04 kg/d. The presence of trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid was only detected in milk from cows consuming the DG diet; similarly, concentration and yield of trans-10 18:1 were greater for cows consuming this diet. Rumen ammonia was similar across treatments averaging 27.0 ± 2.1mg/dL. The CON and RFDG+RIF diets had similar mean pH, 6.1 ± 0.11, whereas DG and RFDG resulted in lower pH averaging 5.79 ± 0.11. No effect on total concentration of volatile

  6. Quantification of bovine casein fractions by direct chromatographic analysis of milk. Approaching the application to a real production context.

    PubMed

    Bonizzi, Ivan; Buffoni, Joanna Natalia; Feligini, Maria

    2009-01-01

    The ability to quantify the casein content by an exact and cost-effective approach represents an issue of crucial importance in the dairy industry as the natural variations in milk protein concentration can markedly affect the yield of the cheesemaking processes, thus causing a direct and significant economic impact on the producers. In this work, the separation and quantification of alpha(s1)-, alpha(s2)-, kappa- and beta-casein was carried out by direct RP-HPLC analysis of milk. The identification of each casein was established by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The data show that this method is able to effectively separate the bovine casein fractions, it provides simplified analytical conditions (with special regard to mobile phase composition and gradient profile) and faster separation while ensuring adequate precision to achieve reliable quantifications in milk samples from dairy production. PMID:19062022

  7. Prevalence, Molecular Characterization, and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Milk and Dairy Products.

    PubMed

    Al-Ashmawy, Maha Abdou; Sallam, Khalid Ibrahim; Abd-Elghany, Samir Mohammed; Elhadidy, Mohamed; Tamura, Tomohiro

    2016-03-01

    The present work was undertaken to study the prevalence, molecular characterization, virulence factors, and antimicrobial susceptibility of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in raw milk and dairy products in Mansoura City, Egypt. MRSA was detected in 53% (106/200) among all milk and dairy products with prevalence rates of 75%, 65%, 40%, 50%, and 35% in raw milk, Damietta cheese, Kareish cheese, ice cream, and yogurt samples, respectively. The mean S. aureus counts were 3.49, 3.71, 2.93, 3.40, and 3.23 log10 colony-forming units (CFU)/g among tested raw milk, Damietta cheese, Kareish cheese, ice cream and yogurt, respectively, with an overall count of 3.41 log10 CFU/g. Interestingly, all recovered S. aureus isolates were genetically verified as MRSA strains by molecular detection of the mecA gene. Furthermore, genes encoding α-hemolysin (hla) and staphylococcal enterotoxins (sea, seb, sec) were detected in all isolates. The antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of recovered MRSA isolates against 13 tested antimicrobials revealed that the least effective drugs were penicillin G, cloxacillin, tetracycline, and amoxicillin with bacterial resistance percentages of 87.9%, 75.9%, 65.2%, and 55.6%, respectively. These findings suggested that milk and dairy products represent a potential infection risk threat of multidrug-resistant and toxigenic S. aureus in Egypt due to neglected hygienic practices during production, retail, or storage stages. These findings highlighted the crucial importance of applying more restrictive hygienic measures in dairy production in Egypt for food safety. PMID:26836943

  8. Methane Emission and Milk Production of Dairy Cows Grazing Pastures Rich in Legumes or Rich in Grasses in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Dini, Yoana; Gere, José; Briano, Carolina; Manetti, Martin; Juliarena, Paula; Picasso, Valentin; Gratton, Roberto; Astigarraga, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary GHGs emissions are relevant in evaluating environmental impact of farming systems. Methane (CH4) produced by enteric fermentation accounts for half of all anthropogenic emissions of GHGs in Uruguay, where ruminant production is based on year round grazing of forages. Here we compared milk production and CH4 emissions by dairy cows grazing two contrasting mixed pastures (rich in legumes or rich in grasses) using the SF6 tracer technique adapted to collect breath samples over 5-days periods. There were no differences in milk or CH4 production between the contrasting pastures, probably because of the high herbage allowance that enabled selective grazing by cows. Abstract Understanding the impact of changing pasture composition on reducing emissions of GHGs in dairy grazing systems is an important issue to mitigate climate change. The aim of this study was to estimate daily CH4 emissions of dairy cows grazing two mixed pastures with contrasting composition of grasses and legumes: L pasture with 60% legumes on Dry Matter (DM) basis and G pasture with 75% grasses on DM basis. Milk production and CH4 emissions were compared over two periods of two weeks during spring using eight lactating Holstein cows in a 2 × 2 Latin square design. Herbage organic matter intake (HOMI) was estimated by chromic oxide dilution and herbage organic matter digestibility (OMD) was estimated by faecal index. Methane emission was estimated by using the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer technique adapted to collect breath samples over 5-day periods. OMD (0.71) and HOMI (15.7 kg OM) were not affected by pasture composition. Milk production (20.3 kg/d), milk fat yield (742 g/d) and milk protein yield (667 g/d) were similar for both pastures. This may be explained by the high herbage allowance (30 kg DM above 5 cm/cow) which allowed the cows to graze selectively, in particular in grass sward. Similarly, methane emission expressed as absolute value (368 g/d or 516 L/d) or expressed as

  9. Growth rates and milk production potential of Sahelian and Red Sokoto breeds of goats in northern Guinea Savannah.

    PubMed

    Makun, H J; Ajanusi, J O; Ehoche, O W; Lakpini, C A M; Otaru, S M

    2008-02-15

    The milk production potentials and growth rates of Red Sokoto and Sahelian goats fed basal diets of maize stover and Digitaria smutsii (wolly finger grass) supplemented with concentrate was investigated in two separate trials. In experiment 1, ten multi-parous does were allocated to intensive management following kidding. Does were hand-milked twice weekly and the milk production recorded. Body weight changes of dam and kid, milk fat, milk solid were determined weekly over 12 weeks period. The average birth weight of the Sahelian (2.2+/-0.23 kg) was significantly (p<0.05) higher than the Red Sokoto kids (1.0+/-0.17). At weaning age, the average kid weight of the Sahelian (5.6+/-0.42 kg) was significantly higher than the Red Sokoto (3.9+/-0.44 kg). There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in daily milk yield and total lactation between the two breeds. The total solids and milk fat of 16.4+/-0.39 and 3.7+/-0.13% were significantly (p<0.05) higher for the Red Sokoto than the Sahelian (15.1+/-0.39 and 3.2+/-0.13%). The second trial was to evaluate the comparative growth of the Sahelian and Red Sokoto breeds of goats. Animals were group-fed based on sex and fed Digitaria smutsii hay supplemented with concentrate. The growth trial lasted for 150 days with a 14 day digestibility trial. The Average Daily Gain (ADG) were significantly (p<0.05) different for breed, as well as sex. The Red Sokoto (66.9+/-1.59) kids had higher ADG than the Sahelian (46.6+/-1.59). Similarly the males of the Red Sokoto (61.9+/-1.59) had higher ADG than the Sahelian males (46.7+/-0.59) and the females of both breed. The experiments demonstrated a linear increase in weight gains of Red Sokoto over the Sahelian and a slightly higher milk yield obtained from the Sahelian providing the basis to conclude that the Sahelian goat can adapted and fit into the production systems of Sudan Savannah rural farmers. PMID:18817133

  10. Commercial milk distribution profiles and production locations. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Deonigi, D.E.; Anderson, D.M.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1993-12-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project was established to estimate radiation doses that people could have received from nuclear operations at the Hanford Site since 1944. For this period iodine-131 is the most important offsite contributor to radiation doses from Hanford operations. Consumption of milk from cows that ate vegetation contaminated by iodine-131 is the dominant radiation pathway for individuals who drank milk. Information has been developed on commercial milk cow locations and commercial milk distribution during 1945 and 1951. The year 1945 was selected because during 1945 the largest amount of iodine-131 was released from Hanford facilities in a calendar year; therefore, 1945 was the year in which an individual was likely to have received the highest dose. The year 1951 was selected to provide data for comparing the changes that occurred in commercial milk flows (i.e., sources, processing locations, and market areas) between World War II and the post-war period. To estimate the doses people could have received from this milk flow, it is necessary to estimate the amount of milk people consumed, the source of the milk, the specific feeding regime used for milk cows, and the amount of iodine-131 contamination deposited on feed.

  11. Commercial milk distribution profiles and production locations. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Deonigi, D.E.; Anderson, D.M.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1994-04-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project was established to estimate radiation doses that people could have received from nuclear operations at the Hanford Site since 1944. For this period iodine-131 is the most important offsite contributor to radiation doses from Hanford operations. Consumption of milk from cows that ate vegetation contaminated by iodine-131 is the dominant radiation pathway for individuals who drank milk (Napier 1992). Information has been developed on commercial milk cow locations and commercial milk distribution during 1945 and 1951. The year 1945 was selected because during 1945 the largest amount of iodine-131 was released from Hanford facilities in a calendar year (Heeb 1993); therefore, 1945 was the year in which an individual was likely to have received the highest dose. The year 1951 was selected to provide data for comparing the changes that occurred in commercial milk flows (i.e., sources, processing locations, and market areas) between World War II and the post-war period. To estimate the doses people could have received from this milk flow, it is necessary to estimate the amount of milk people consumed, the source of the milk, the specific feeding regime used for milk cows, and the amount of iodine-131 contamination deposited on feed.

  12. Short communication: Effects of feeding sweet sorghum silage on milk production of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Amer, S; Seguin, P; Mustafa, A F

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the feeding value of sweet sorghum silage (SS) for dairy cows compared with alfalfa silage (AS). Two diets were formulated with a 50:50 forage:concentrate ratio. Sweet sorghum silage and AS constituted 70% of the forage in each diet (dry matter basis). Twelve lactating Holstein cows in early lactation were used in a crossover experiment. Relative to AS, SS contained 58% more neutral detergent fiber and 36.6 and 72.7% less acid detergent lignin and crude protein, respectively. Milk yield (33.0 vs. 36.7 kg/d) was lower for cows fed SS than for those fed AS. However, dry matter intake, energy-corrected milk, and feed efficiency were similar for both dietary treatments. Replacing AS with SS increased concentrations of milk fat (4.44 vs. 3.80%) and total solids (13.31 vs. 12.88%) and reduced concentrations of milk lactose (4.55 vs. 4.61%), milk solids-not-fat (8.88 vs. 9.08%), and milk urea nitrogen (10.0 vs. 14.0 mg/dL). We concluded that replacing AS with SS had negative effects on milk yield, whereas dry matter intake, energy-corrected milk, and milk efficiency were similar. PMID:22281350

  13. Unexpected Decrease in Milk Production after Fenbendazole Treatment of Dairy Cows during Early Grazing Season

    PubMed Central

    Ravinet, Nadine; Chartier, Christophe; Bareille, Nathalie; Lehebel, Anne; Ponnau, Adeline; Brisseau, Nadine; Chauvin, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) infection can impair milk production (MP) in dairy cows. To investigate whether MP would be optimized by spring targeted-selective anthelmintic treatment in grazing cows, we assessed (1) the effect on MP of an anthelmintic treatment applied 1.5 to 2 months after turn-out, and (2) herd and individual indicators associated with the post-treatment MP response. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 13 dairy farms (578 cows) in western France in spring 2012. In each herd, lactating cows of the treatment group received fenbendazole orally, control cows remained untreated. Daily cow MP was recorded from 2 weeks before until 15 weeks after treatment. Individual serum pepsinogen and anti-Ostertagia antibody levels (expressed as ODR), faecal egg count and bulk tank milk (BTM) Ostertagia ODR were measured at treatment time. Anthelmintic treatment applied during the previous housing period was recorded for each cow. In each herd, information regarding heifers’ grazing and anthelmintic treatment history was collected to assess the Time of Effective Contact (TEC, in months) with GIN infective larvae before the first calving. The effect of treatment on weekly MP averages and its relationships with herd and individual indicators were studied using linear mixed models with two nested random effects (cow within herd). Unexpectedly, spring treatment had a significant detrimental effect on MP (-0.92 kg/cow/day on average). This negative MP response was particularly marked in high producing cows, in cows not treated during the previous housing period or with high pepsinogen levels, and in cows from herds with a high TEC or a high BTM ODR. This post-treatment decrease in MP may be associated with immuno-inflammatory mechanisms. Until further studies can assess whether this unexpected result can be generalized, non-persistent treatment of immunized adult dairy cows against GIN should not be recommended in early grazing season. PMID

  14. Unexpected Decrease in Milk Production after Fenbendazole Treatment of Dairy Cows during Early Grazing Season.

    PubMed

    Ravinet, Nadine; Chartier, Christophe; Bareille, Nathalie; Lehebel, Anne; Ponnau, Adeline; Brisseau, Nadine; Chauvin, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) infection can impair milk production (MP) in dairy cows. To investigate whether MP would be optimized by spring targeted-selective anthelmintic treatment in grazing cows, we assessed (1) the effect on MP of an anthelmintic treatment applied 1.5 to 2 months after turn-out, and (2) herd and individual indicators associated with the post-treatment MP response. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 13 dairy farms (578 cows) in western France in spring 2012. In each herd, lactating cows of the treatment group received fenbendazole orally, control cows remained untreated. Daily cow MP was recorded from 2 weeks before until 15 weeks after treatment. Individual serum pepsinogen and anti-Ostertagia antibody levels (expressed as ODR), faecal egg count and bulk tank milk (BTM) Ostertagia ODR were measured at treatment time. Anthelmintic treatment applied during the previous housing period was recorded for each cow. In each herd, information regarding heifers' grazing and anthelmintic treatment history was collected to assess the Time of Effective Contact (TEC, in months) with GIN infective larvae before the first calving. The effect of treatment on weekly MP averages and its relationships with herd and individual indicators were studied using linear mixed models with two nested random effects (cow within herd). Unexpectedly, spring treatment had a significant detrimental effect on MP (-0.92 kg/cow/day on average). This negative MP response was particularly marked in high producing cows, in cows not treated during the previous housing period or with high pepsinogen levels, and in cows from herds with a high TEC or a high BTM ODR. This post-treatment decrease in MP may be associated with immuno-inflammatory mechanisms. Until further studies can assess whether this unexpected result can be generalized, non-persistent treatment of immunized adult dairy cows against GIN should not be recommended in early grazing season. PMID

  15. Organic production enhances milk nutritional quality by shifting fatty acid composition: a United States-wide, 18-month study.

    PubMed

    Benbrook, Charles M; Butler, Gillian; Latif, Maged A; Leifert, Carlo; Davis, Donald R

    2013-01-01

    Over the last century, intakes of omega-6 (ω-6) fatty acids in Western diets have dramatically increased, while omega-3 (ω-3) intakes have fallen. Resulting ω-6/ω-3 intake ratios have risen to nutritionally undesirable levels, generally 10 to 15, compared to a possible optimal ratio near 2.3. We report results of the first large-scale, nationwide study of fatty acids in U.S. organic and conventional milk. Averaged over 12 months, organic milk contained 25% less ω-6 fatty acids and 62% more ω-3 fatty acids than conventional milk, yielding a 2.5-fold higher ω-6/ω-3 ratio in conventional compared to organic milk (5.77 vs. 2.28). All individual ω-3 fatty acid concentrations were higher in organic milk--α-linolenic acid (by 60%), eicosapentaenoic acid (32%), and docosapentaenoic acid (19%)--as was the concentration of conjugated linoleic acid (18%). We report mostly moderate regional and seasonal variability in milk fatty acid profiles. Hypothetical diets of adult women were modeled to assess milk fatty-acid-driven differences in overall dietary ω-6/ω-3 ratios. Diets varied according to three choices: high instead of moderate dairy consumption; organic vs. conventional dairy products; and reduced vs. typical consumption of ω-6 fatty acids. The three choices together would decrease the ω-6/ω-3 ratio among adult women by ∼80% of the total decrease needed to reach a target ratio of 2.3, with relative impact "switch to low ω-6 foods" > "switch to organic dairy products" ≈ "increase consumption of conventional dairy products." Based on recommended servings of dairy products and seafoods, dairy products supply far more α-linolenic acid than seafoods, about one-third as much eicosapentaenoic acid, and slightly more docosapentaenoic acid, but negligible docosahexaenoic acid. We conclude that consumers have viable options to reduce average ω-6/ω-3 intake ratios, thereby reducing or eliminating probable risk factors for a wide range of developmental and

  16. Invited review: organic and conventionally produced milk-an evaluation of factors influencing milk composition.

    PubMed

    Schwendel, B H; Wester, T J; Morel, P C H; Tavendale, M H; Deadman, C; Shadbolt, N M; Otter, D E

    2015-02-01

    Consumer perception of organic cow milk is associated with the assumption that organic milk differs from conventionally produced milk. The value associated with this difference justifies the premium retail price for organic milk. It includes the perceptions that organic dairy farming is kinder to the environment, animals, and people; that organic milk products are produced without the use of antibiotics, added hormones, synthetic chemicals, and genetic modification; and that they may have potential benefits for human health. Controlled studies investigating whether differences exist between organic and conventionally produced milk have so far been largely equivocal due principally to the complexity of the research question and the number of factors that can influence milk composition. A main complication is that farming practices and their effects differ depending on country, region, year, and season between and within organic and conventional systems. Factors influencing milk composition (e.g., diet, breed, and stage of lactation) have been studied individually, whereas interactions between multiple factors have been largely ignored. Studies that fail to consider that factors other than the farming system (organic vs. conventional) could have caused or contributed to the reported differences in milk composition make it impossible to determine whether a system-related difference exists between organic and conventional milk. Milk fatty acid composition has been a central research area when comparing organic and conventional milk largely because the milk fatty acid profile responds rapidly and is very sensitive to changes in diet. Consequently, the effect of farming practices (high input vs. low input) rather than farming system (organic vs. conventional) determines milk fatty acid profile, and similar results are seen between low-input organic and low-input conventional milks. This confounds our ability to develop an analytical method to distinguish organic from

  17. Effects of milk powders in milk chocolate.

    PubMed

    Liang, B; Hartel, R W

    2004-01-01

    The physical characteristics of milk powders used in chocolate can have significant impact on the processing conditions needed to make that chocolate and the physical and organoleptic properties of the finished product. Four milk powders with different particle characteristics (size, shape, density) and "free" milk fat levels (easily extracted with organic solvent) were evaluated for their effect on the processing conditions and characteristics of chocolates in which they were used. Many aspects of chocolate manufacture and storage (tempering conditions, melt rheology, hardness, bloom stability) were dependent on the level of free milk fat in the milk powder. However, particle characteristics of the milk powder also influenced the physical and sensory properties of the final products. PMID:14765806

  18. Clostridium botulinum spores and toxin in mascarpone cheese and other milk products.

    PubMed

    Franciosa, G; Pourshaban, M; Gianfranceschi, M; Gattuso, A; Fenicia, L; Ferrini, A M; Mannoni, V; De Luca, G; Aureli, P

    1999-08-01

    A total of 1,017 mascarpone cheese samples, collected at retail, were analyzed for Clostridium botulinum spores and toxin, aerobic mesophilic spore counts, as well as pH, a(w) (water activity), and Eh (oxidation-reduction potential). In addition 260 samples from other dairy products were also analyzed for spores and botulinum toxin. Experiments were carried out on naturally and artificially contaminated mascarpone to investigate the influence of different temperature conditions on toxin production by C. botulinum. Three hundred and thirty-one samples (32.5%) of mascarpone were positive for botulinal spores, and 7 (0.8%) of the 878 samples produced at the plant involved in an outbreak of foodborne botulism also contained toxin type A. The chemical-physical parameters (pH, a(w), Eh) of all samples were compatible with C. botulinum growth and toxinogenesis. Of the other milk products, 2.7% were positive for C. botulinum spores. Growth and toxin formation occurred in naturally and experimentally contaminated mascarpone samples after 3 and 4 days of incubation at 28 degrees C, respectively. PMID:10456738

  19. Prevalence and characterization of Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, isolated from bulk tank milk from Minnesota dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Haran, K P; Godden, S M; Boxrud, D; Jawahir, S; Bender, J B; Sreevatsan, S

    2012-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common causative agent of bovine mastitis in dairy herds. The emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in hospitals as well as the community is a significant and costly public health concern. S. aureus-related bovine mastitis is a common reason for therapeutic and/or prophylactic use of antibiotics on dairy farms. In this study, herd prevalence of S. aureus, including MRSA, was estimated from bulk tank milk (BTM) from Minnesota farms. A total of 150 pooled BTM samples from 50 farms, collected over 3 seasons (spring, summer, and fall of 2009), were assessed. Herd prevalence of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) was 84%, while MRSA herd prevalence was 4%. A total of 93 MSSA isolates and 2 MRSA isolates were recovered from 150 BTM samples. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of S. aureus isolates showed pansusceptibility in 54 isolates, resistance to a single antibiotic class in 21 isolates, resistance to two antibiotic classes in 13 isolates, and resistance to ≥3 antibiotics classes and thus multidrug resistance in 5 isolates. The two MRSA isolates displayed resistance to β-lactams, cephalosporins, and lincosamides and were multiresistant. Staphylococcal protein A gene (spa) typing identified spa types t529 and t034 most frequently among methicillin-susceptible isolates, while t121 was observed in MRSA isolates. Seven isolates, including the two MRSA isolates, produced staphylococcal enterotoxins B, C, D, and E on overnight culture. MRSA isolates were further genotyped using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Of the 2 MRSA isolates, one had a composite genotype profile of MLST ST 5-PFGE USA100-unknown spa type, which has been reported among hospital-associated MRSA isolates, while the second isolate carried the MLST ST 8-PFGE USA300-spa type t121 genotype, commonly identified among community-associated MRSA isolates. These results suggest that MRSA genotypes

  20. Effects of dry period length on milk production, body condition, metabolites, and hepatic glucose metabolism in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Weber, C; Losand, B; Tuchscherer, A; Rehbock, F; Blum, E; Yang, W; Bruckmaier, R M; Sanftleben, P; Hammon, H M

    2015-03-01

    Dry period (DP) length affects energy metabolism around calving in dairy cows as well as milk production in the subsequent lactation. The aim of the study was to investigate milk production, body condition, metabolic adaptation, and hepatic gene expression of gluconeogenic enzymes in Holstein cows (>10,000 kg milk/305 d) with 28- (n=18), 56- (n=18), and 90-d DP (n=22) length (treatment groups) in a commercial farm. Cows were fed total mixed rations ad libitum adjusted for far-off (not for 28-d DP) and close-up DP and lactation. Milk yield was recorded daily and body condition score (BCS), back fat thickness (BFT), and body weight (BW) were determined at dry off, 1 wk before expected and after calving, and on wk 2, 4, and 8 postpartum (pp). Blood samples were taken on d -56, -28, -7, 1, 7, 14, 28, and 56 relative to calving to measure plasma concentrations of metabolites and hormones. Liver biopsies (n=11 per treatment) were taken on d -10 and 10 relative to calving to determine glycogen and total liver fat concentration (LFC) and to quantify mRNA levels of pyruvate carboxylase (PC), cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and glucose-6-phosphatase. Time course of milk yield during first 8 wk in lactation differed among treatment. Milk protein content was higher in 28-d than in 90-d DP cows. Milk fat to protein ratio was highest and milk urea was lowest in 90-d DP cows. Differences in BW, BFT, and BCS were predominantly seen before calving with greatest BW, BFT, and BCS in 90-d DP cows. Plasma concentrations of NEFA and BHBA were elevated during the transition period in all cows, and the greatest increase pp was seen in 90-d DP cows. Plasma glucose concentration decreased around calving and was greater in 28-d than in 90-d DP cows. Dry period length also affected plasma concentrations of urea, cholesterol, aspartate transaminase, and glutamate dehydrogenase. Plasma insulin concentration decreased around calving in all cows, but insulin concentration pp was

  1. Bovine renal lipofuscinosis: Prevalence, genetics and impact on milk production and weight at slaughter in Danish cattle

    PubMed Central

    Agerholm, Jørgen S; Christensen, Knud; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Flagstad, Pia

    2009-01-01

    to a longer production life. However, a reduced milk yield was detected in the end of the production life in Danish Red. The study supports that BRL is inherited autosomal recessively in the Danish Red breed and Danish Holsteins, but with incomplete penetrance of the genotype in Danish Holsteins. PMID:19216753

  2. Milk nutritional composition and its role in human health.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Paula C

    2014-06-01

    Dairy and milk consumption are frequently included as important elements in a healthy and balanced diet. It is the first food for mammals and provides all the necessary energy and nutrients to ensure proper growth and development, being crucial in respect to bone mass formation. However, several controversies arise from consumption of dairy and milk products during adulthood, especially because it refers to milk from other species. Despite these controversies, epidemiologic studies confirm the nutritional importance of milk in the human diet and reinforce the possible role of its consumption in preventing several chronic conditions like cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), some forms of cancer, obesity, and diabetes. Lactose malabsorption symptoms and cow milk protein allergy are generally considered to be the adverse reactions to milk consumption. The present article reviews the main aspects of milk nutritional composition and establishes several associations between its nutritious role, health promotion, and disease prevention. PMID:24800664

  3. Estimation of sow milk nutrient output.

    PubMed

    Noblet, J; Etienne, M

    1989-12-01

    Ten replicates of two littermate gilts were used during a 21-d lactation in order to calculate relationships between milk nutrient intake and piglet growth rate and composition of gain. Gilts were fed 14.2 or 10.4 Mcal ME/d and litter size was standardized to 9 or 10 piglets. Piglets had no access to creep feed. Milk production was measured on 10 sucklings over 12 h on d 1, 5, 9, 13, 17 and 21 by the weigh-suckle-weigh method. Heat production of the piglets was measured (RQ method) on the same days in a confinement chamber. Milk composition was determined on the days following milk production measurements. Four to ten piglets/litter were slaughtered at weaning and their body composition was determined. Milk nutrient production during part of lactation was related closely to piglet weight gain and body weight (R2 = .80 to .96). Milk DM, energy and N output over the entire lactation were predicted from piglet ADG (R2 = .87 to .90) when, for each litter, the difference between energy in piglet daily weight gain measured by the slaughter technique and energy in piglet daily weight gain estimated by the RQ method was included in the model. This variable corrects for milk production measurement errors. The relationships were slightly improved, especially for energy output, when the composition of piglet weight gain was taken into account (R2 = .93 to .97). PMID:2613581

  4. Farm Management in Organic and Conventional Dairy Production Systems Based on Pasture in Southern Brazil and Its Consequences on Production and Milk Quality.

    PubMed

    Kuhnen, Shirley; Stibuski, Rudinei Butka; Honorato, Luciana Aparecida; Filho, Luiz Carlos Pinheiro Machado

    2015-01-01

    Pasture-based dairy production is used widely on family dairy farms in Southern Brazil. This study investigates conventional high input (C-HI), conventional low input (C-LI), and organic low input (O-LI) pasture-based systems and their effects on quantity and quality of the milk produced. We conducted technical site visits and interviews monthly over one year on 24 family farms (n = 8 per type). C-HI farms had the greatest total area (28.9 ha), greatest percentage of area with annual pasture (38.7%), largest number of lactating animals (26.2) and greatest milk yield per cow (22.8 kg·day(-1)). O-LI farms had the largest perennial pasture area (52.3%), with the greatest botanical richness during all seasons. Area of perennial pasture was positively correlated with number of species consumed by the animals (R² = 0.74). Milk from O-LI farms had higher levels of fat and total solids only during the winter. Hygienic and microbiological quality of the milk was poor for all farms and need to be improved. C-HI farms had high milk yield related to high input, C-LI had intermediate characteristics and O-LI utilized a year round perennial pasture as a strategy to diminish the use of supplements in animal diets, which is an important aspect in ensuring production sustainability. PMID:26479369

  5. Influence of Condensed Tannins from Ficus bengalensis Leaves on Feed Utilization, Milk Production and Antioxidant Status of Crossbred Cows.

    PubMed

    Dey, Avijit; De, Partha Sarathi

    2014-03-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of condensed tannins (CT) from Ficus bengalensis leaves on the feed utilization, milk production and health status of crossbred cows. Eighteen crossbred dairy cows at their second and mid lactation (avg. BW 351.6±10.6 kg) were randomly divided into two groups of nine each in a completely randomized block design and fed two iso-nitrogenous supplements formulated to contain 0% and 1.5% CT through dried and ground leaves of Ficus bengalensis. The diets were designated as CON and FBLM, respectively and fed to cows with a basal diet of rice straw to meet requirements for maintenance and milk production. The daily milk yield was significantly (p<0.05) increased due to supplementation of FBLM diet. The 4% fat corrected milk yield was also significantly (p<0.01) higher due to increased (p<0.05) milk fat in cows under diet FBLM as compared to CON. The inclusion of CT at 1.5% in the supplement did not interfere with the feed intake or digestibility of DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF, and ADF by lactating cows. Digestible crude protein (DCP) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) values of the composite diets were comparable between the groups. The blood biochemical parameters remained unaltered except significantly (p<0.05) lowered serum urea concentration in cows fed FBLM diet. There was a significant (p<0.05) increase intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity in cows supplemented with condensed tannins. The total thiol group (T-SH) was found to be higher with reduction in lipid peroxidation (LPO) in cows of FBLM group. The cost of feeding per kg milk production was also reduced due to supplementation of Ficus bengalensis leaves. Therefore, a perceptible positive impact was evident on milk production and antioxidant status in crossbred cows during mid-lactation given supplement containing 1.5% CT through Ficus bengalensis leaves. PMID:25049960

  6. Influence of Condensed Tannins from Ficus bengalensis Leaves on Feed Utilization, Milk Production and Antioxidant Status of Crossbred Cows

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Avijit; De, Partha Sarathi

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of condensed tannins (CT) from Ficus bengalensis leaves on the feed utilization, milk production and health status of crossbred cows. Eighteen crossbred dairy cows at their second and mid lactation (avg. BW 351.6±10.6 kg) were randomly divided into two groups of nine each in a completely randomized block design and fed two iso-nitrogenous supplements formulated to contain 0% and 1.5% CT through dried and ground leaves of Ficus bengalensis. The diets were designated as CON and FBLM, respectively and fed to cows with a basal diet of rice straw to meet requirements for maintenance and milk production. The daily milk yield was significantly (p<0.05) increased due to supplementation of FBLM diet. The 4% fat corrected milk yield was also significantly (p<0.01) higher due to increased (p<0.05) milk fat in cows under diet FBLM as compared to CON. The inclusion of CT at 1.5% in the supplement did not interfere with the feed intake or digestibility of DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF, and ADF by lactating cows. Digestible crude protein (DCP) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) values of the composite diets were comparable between the groups. The blood biochemical parameters remained unaltered except significantly (p<0.05) lowered serum urea concentration in cows fed FBLM diet. There was a significant (p<0.05) increase intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity in cows supplemented with condensed tannins. The total thiol group (T-SH) was found to be higher with reduction in lipid peroxidation (LPO) in cows of FBLM group. The cost of feeding per kg milk production was also reduced due to supplementation of Ficus bengalensis leaves. Therefore, a perceptible positive impact was evident on milk production and antioxidant status in crossbred cows during mid-lactation given supplement containing 1.5% CT through Ficus bengalensis leaves. PMID:25049960

  7. The Effect of Calf Gender on Milk Production in Seasonal Calving Cows and Its Impact on Genetic Evaluations.

    PubMed

    Hess, Melanie K; Hess, Andrew S; Garrick, Dorian J

    2016-01-01

    Gender of the calf whose birth initiates lactation could influence whole lactation milk yield of the dam due to hormonal influences on mammary gland development, or through calf gender effects on gestation length. Fetal gender could influence late lactation yields because cows become pregnant at peak lactation. The effects of calf gender sequences in parities 1-3 were assessed by separately fitting animal models to datasets from New Zealand comprising 274 000 Holstein Friesian and 85 000 Jersey cows, decreasing to 12 000 and 4 000 cows by parity 3. The lactation initiated by the birth of a female rather than a male calf was associated with a 0.33-1.1% (p≤0.05) higher milk yield. Female calf gender had carryover effects associated with higher milk yield in second lactations for Holstein Friesians (0.24%; p = 0.01) and third lactations for Jerseys (1.1%; p = 0.01). Cows giving birth to bull calves have 2 day longer gestations, which reduces lactation length in seasonal calving herds. Adding a covariate for lactation length to the animal model eroded some of these calf gender effects, such that calving a female led to higher milk yield only for second lactation Holstein Friesians (1.6%; p = 0.002). The interval centering method generates lower estimates of whole lactation yield when Wood's lactation curves are shifted to the right by 2 days for male calves and this explained the higher yield in female calves when differences in lactation length were considered. Correlations of estimated breeding values between models including or excluding calf gender sequence were 1.00 for bulls or cows. Calf gender primarily influences milk yield through increased gestation length of male calves, and bias associated with the interval centering method used to estimate whole lactation milk yields. Including information on calf gender is unlikely to have an effect on selection response in New Zealand dairy cattle. PMID:26974166

  8. The Effect of Calf Gender on Milk Production in Seasonal Calving Cows and Its Impact on Genetic Evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Melanie K.; Hess, Andrew S.; Garrick, Dorian J.

    2016-01-01

    Gender of the calf whose birth initiates lactation could influence whole lactation milk yield of the dam due to hormonal influences on mammary gland development, or through calf gender effects on gestation length. Fetal gender could influence late lactation yields because cows become pregnant at peak lactation. The effects of calf gender sequences in parities 1–3 were assessed by separately fitting animal models to datasets from New Zealand comprising 274 000 Holstein Friesian and 85 000 Jersey cows, decreasing to 12 000 and 4 000 cows by parity 3. The lactation initiated by the birth of a female rather than a male calf was associated with a 0.33–1.1% (p≤0.05) higher milk yield. Female calf gender had carryover effects associated with higher milk yield in second lactations for Holstein Friesians (0.24%; p = 0.01) and third lactations for Jerseys (1.1%; p = 0.01). Cows giving birth to bull calves have 2 day longer gestations, which reduces lactation length in seasonal calving herds. Adding a covariate for lactation length to the animal model eroded some of these calf gender effects, such that calving a female led to higher milk yield only for second lactation Holstein Friesians (1.6%; p = 0.002). The interval centering method generates lower estimates of whole lactation yield when Wood’s lactation curves are shifted to the right by 2 days for male calves and this explained the higher yield in female calves when differences in lactation length were considered. Correlations of estimated breeding values between models including or excluding calf gender sequence were 1.00 for bulls or cows. Calf gender primarily influences milk yield through increased gestation length of male calves, and bias associated with the interval centering method used to estimate whole lactation milk yields. Including information on calf gender is unlikely to have an effect on selection response in New Zealand dairy cattle. PMID:26974166

  9. Label-free surface-enhanced Raman scattering strategy for rapid detection of penicilloic acid in milk products.

    PubMed

    Qi, Meihui; Huang, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Yujie; Zhang, Liying; Jin, Yang; Peng, Yan; Jiang, Huijun; Du, Shuhu

    2016-04-15

    A label-free surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) strategy based on silver-coated gold nanoparticles (Au@Ag NPs) was developed for rapid detection of penicilloic acid (PA) in milk products. It has been demonstrated that core size and shell thickness of Au@Ag NPs are two critical variants affecting enhancement of Raman signals by coupling of two plasma resonance absorption. The Au@Ag NPs with 26-nm core and 9-nm Ag shell exhibit excellent Raman enhancement, in particular, upon the formation of hot spots through NPs aggregation induced by interaction between target molecules and Au@Ag NPs. Compared to the early studies limited to laboratory settings, our analytical approach is simple (without sample pretreatment), less time-consuming (within ∼3 min) and inexpensive. The limit of detection of PA is 3.00 ppm, 3.00 ppm and 4.00 ppm in liquid milk, yogurt and milk powder, respectively. The label-free SERS technique offers a potential for the on-site monitoring of chemical contaminants in milk products. PMID:26617009

  10. An inhibitor persistently decreased enteric methane emission from dairy cows with no negative effect on milk production

    PubMed Central

    Hristov, Alexander N.; Oh, Joonpyo; Giallongo, Fabio; Frederick, Tyler W.; Harper, Michael T.; Weeks, Holley L.; Branco, Antonio F.; Moate, Peter J.; Deighton, Matthew H.; Williams, S. Richard O.; Kindermann, Maik; Duval, Stephane

    2015-01-01

    A quarter of all anthropogenic methane emissions in the United States are from enteric fermentation, primarily from ruminant livestock. This study was undertaken to test the effect of a methane inhibitor, 3-nitrooxypropanol (3NOP), on enteric methane emission in lactating Holstein cows. An experiment was conducted using 48 cows in a randomized block design with a 2-wk covariate period and a 12-wk data collection period. Feed intake, milk production, and fiber digestibility were not affected by the inhibitor. Milk protein and lactose yields were increased by 3NOP. Rumen methane emission was linearly decreased by 3NOP, averaging about 30% lower than the control. Methane emission per unit of feed dry matter intake or per unit of energy-corrected milk were also about 30% less for the 3NOP-treated cows. On average, the body weight gain of 3NOP-treated cows was 80% greater than control cows during the 12-wk experiment. The experiment demonstrated that the methane inhibitor 3NOP, applied at 40 to 80 mg/kg feed dry matter, decreased methane emissions from high-producing dairy cows by 30% and increased body weight gain without negatively affecting feed intake or milk production and composition. The inhibitory effect persisted over 12 wk of treatment, thus offering an effective methane mitigation practice for the livestock industries. PMID:26229078

  11. An inhibitor persistently decreased enteric methane emission from dairy cows with no negative effect on milk production.

    PubMed

    Hristov, Alexander N; Oh, Joonpyo; Giallongo, Fabio; Frederick, Tyler W; Harper, Michael T; Weeks, Holley L; Branco, Antonio F; Moate, Peter J; Deighton, Matthew H; Williams, S Richard O; Kindermann, Maik; Duval, Stephane

    2015-08-25

    A quarter of all anthropogenic methane emissions in the United States are from enteric fermentation, primarily from ruminant livestock. This study was undertaken to test the effect of a methane inhibitor, 3-nitrooxypropanol (3NOP), on enteric methane emission in lactating Holstein cows. An experiment was conducted using 48 cows in a randomized block design with a 2-wk covariate period and a 12-wk data collection period. Feed intake, milk production, and fiber digestibility were not affected by the inhibitor. Milk protein and lactose yields were increased by 3NOP. Rumen methane emission was linearly decreased by 3NOP, averaging about 30% lower than the control. Methane emission per unit of feed dry matter intake or per unit of energy-corrected milk were also about 30% less for the 3NOP-treated cows. On average, the body weight gain of 3NOP-treated cows was 80% greater than control cows during the 12-wk experiment. The experiment demonstrated that the methane inhibitor 3NOP, applied at 40 to 80 mg/kg feed dry matter, decreased methane emissions from high-producing dairy cows by 30% and increased body weight gain without negatively affecting feed intake or milk production and composition. The inhibitory effect persisted over 12 wk of treatment, thus offering an effective methane mitigation practice for the livestock industries. PMID:26229078

  12. Greater mortality and mordidity in extremely preterm infants fed a diet containing cow milk protein products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Provision of human milk has important implications for the health and outcomes of extremely preterm (EP) infants. This study evaluated the effects of an exclusive human milk diet on the health of EP infants during their stay in the neonatal intensive care unit. EP infants <1,250 g birth weight recei...

  13. Processing and chop length effects in brown-midrib corn silage on intake, digestion, and milk production by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Schwab, E C; Shaver, R D; Shinners, K J; Lauer, J G; Coors, J G

    2002-03-01

    In this experiment, we evaluated the influence of increasing chop length and mechanical processing of whole-plant brown-midrib corn silage on intake, digestion, and milk production by dairy cows. Corn silage treatments were harvested at three-quarter milk line stage of maturity at 13- and 19-mm theoretical chop length without processing, or at 19- and 32-mm theoretical chop length with processing at a 2-mm roll clearance. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows that averaged 102 +/- 17 d in milk at trial initiation were randomly assigned to treatments in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods. Preplanned orthogonal contrasts were used to evaluate effects of processing (19 processed vs. 19 mm unprocessed) and chop length (13 vs. 19 mm unprocessed and 19 vs. 32 mm processed). Treatments were fed in total mixed rations containing 60% forage (67% corn silage and 33% alfalfa silage) and 40% shelled corn and soybean meal-based concentrate (dry matter basis). Milk yield was unaffected by treatment. Dry matter intake was unaffected by corn silage processing, but increasing corn silage chop length reduced dry matter intake in unprocessed (26.6 vs. 25.5 kg/d) and processed (25.9 vs. 25.1 kg/d) chop length contrasts. Processing reduced milk fat content (3.36 vs. 3.11%) and yield (1.43 vs. 1.35 kg/d), increased total-tract starch digestion (92.9 vs. 97.4%), and decreased total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestion (51.0 vs. 41.8%). Total chewing time (min/d) was unaffected by treatment. Masticate mean particle length was unaffected by chop length in unprocessed and processed corn silage treatments. In this study with brown-midrib corn silage fed to dairy cows producing 43 kg/d of milk, there were no benefits from crop processing or increasing chop length on lactation performance. PMID:11949866

  14. Methane Emission and Milk Production of Dairy Cows Grazing Pastures Rich in Legumes or Rich in Grasses in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Dini, Yoana; Gere, José; Briano, Carolina; Manetti, Martin; Juliarena, Paula; Picasso, Valentin; Gratton, Roberto; Astigarraga, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the impact of changing pasture composition on reducing emissions of GHGs in dairy grazing systems is an important issue to mitigate climate change. The aim of this study was to estimate daily CH₄ emissions of dairy cows grazing two mixed pastures with contrasting composition of grasses and legumes: L pasture with 60% legumes on Dry Matter (DM) basis and G pasture with 75% grasses on DM basis. Milk production and CH₄ emissions were compared over two periods of two weeks during spring using eight lactating Holstein cows in a 2 × 2 Latin square design. Herbage organic matter intake (HOMI) was estimated by chromic oxide dilution and herbage organic matter digestibility (OMD) was estimated by faecal index. Methane emission was estimated by using the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer technique adapted to collect breath samples over 5-day periods. OMD (0.71) and HOMI (15.7 kg OM) were not affected by pasture composition. Milk production (20.3 kg/d), milk fat yield (742 g/d) and milk protein yield (667 g/d) were similar for both pastures. This may be explained by the high herbage allowance (30 kg DM above 5 cm/cow) which allowed the cows to graze selectively, in particular in grass sward. Similarly, methane emission expressed as absolute value (368 g/d or 516 L/d) or expressed as methane yield (6.6% of Gross Energy Intake (GEI)) was not affected by treatments. In conclusion, at high herbage allowance, the quality of the diet selected by grazing cows did not differ between pastures rich in legumes or rich in grasses, and therefore there was no effect on milk or methane production. PMID:26486922

  15. Effect of CSN1S1-CSN3 (α(S1)-κ-casein) composite genotype on milk production traits and milk coagulation properties in Mediterranean water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Bonfatti, V; Giantin, M; Gervaso, M; Coletta, A; Dacasto, M; Carnier, P

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate effects of CSN1S1-CSN3 (α(S1)-κ-casein) composite genotypes on milk production traits and milk coagulation properties (MCP) in Mediterranean water buffalo. Genotypes at CSN1S1 and CSN3 and coagulation properties [rennet clotting time (RCT), curd firming time (K₂₀), and curd firmness (A₃₀)] were assessed by reversed-phase HPLC and computerized renneting meter analysis, respectively, using single test-day milk samples of 536 animals. Alternative protein variants of α(S1)-CN and κ-CN were detected by HPLC, and identification of the corresponding genetic variants was carried out by DNA analysis. Two genetic variants were detected at CSN1S1 (A and B variants) and 2 at CSN3 (X1 and X2 variants). Statistical inference was based on a linear model including the CSN1S1-CSN3 composite genotype effect (7 genotypes), the effects of herd-test-day (8 levels), and a combined days in milk (DIM)-parity class. Composite genotype AB-X2X2 was associated with decreased test-day milk yield [-0.21 standard deviation (SD) units of the trait] relative to genotype BB-X2X2. Genotypes did not affect milk protein content, but genotype AB-X1X1 was associated with increased fat content compared with genotype BB-X2X2 (+0.28 SD units of the trait) and AB-X1X1 (+0.43 SD units of the trait). For RCT, the largest difference (+1.91 min; i.e., 0.61 SD units of the trait) was observed between genotype AA-X1X2 and AB-X1X1. Direction of genotype effects on K(20) was consistent with that for RCT. The maximum variation in K₂₀ due to genotype effects (between AA-X1X2 and AB-X1X1 genotypes) was almost 0.9 SD units of the trait. Magnitude of genotype effects was smaller for A₃₀ than for RCT and K₂₀, with a maximum difference of 0.5 SD units of the trait between genotype AA-X1X2 and AA-X1X1. The B allele at CSN1S1 was associated with increased RCT and K₂₀ and with weaker curds compared with allele A. Allele X2 at CSN3 exerted opposite effects on

  16. Investigation of genes involved in nisin production in Enterococcus spp. strains isolated from raw goat milk.

    PubMed

    Perin, Luana Martins; Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2016-09-01

    Different strains of Lactococcus lactis are capable of producing the bacteriocin nisin. However, genetic transfer mechanisms allow the natural occurrence of genes involved in nisin production in members of other bacterial genera, such as Enterococcus spp. In a previous study, nisA was identified in eight enterococci capable of producing antimicrobial substances. The aim of this study was to verify the presence of genes involved in nisin production in Enterococcus spp. strains, as well as nisin expression. The nisA genes from eight Enterococcus spp. strains were sequenced and the translated amino acid sequences were compared to nisin amino-acid sequences previously described in databases. Although containing nisin structural and maturation related genes, the enterococci strains tested in the present study did not present the immunity related genes (nisFEG and nisI). The translated sequences of nisA showed some point mutations, identical to those presented by Lactococcus strains isolated from goat milk. All enterococci were inhibited by nisin, indicating the absence of immunity and thus that nisin cannot be expressed. This study demonstrated for the first time the natural occurrence of nisin structural genes in Enterococcus strains and highlights the importance of providing evidence of a link between the presence of bacteriocin genes and their expression. PMID:27255139

  17. Effects of supplementing condensed tannin extract on intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation, and milk production of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Dschaak, C M; Williams, C M; Holt, M S; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Min, B R

    2011-05-01

    CTE. The most remarkable finding in this study was that cows fed CTE-supplemented diets had decreased ruminal ammonia-N and MUN concentrations, indicating that less ruminal N was lost as ammonia because of decreased degradation of crude protein by rumen microorganisms in response to CTE supplementation. Therefore, supplementation of CTE in lactation dairy diets may change the route of N excretion, having less excretion into urine but more into feces, as it had no effect on N utilization efficiency for milk production. PMID:21524543

  18. In vivo inhibition followed by exogenous supplementation demonstrates galactopoietic effects of prolactin on mammary tissue and milk production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lollivier, V; Lacasse, P; Angulo Arizala, J; Lamberton, P; Wiart, S; Portanguen, J; Bruckmaier, R; Boutinaud, M

    2015-12-01

    It has been previously shown that the long-term inhibition of milking-induced prolactin (PRL) release by quinagolide (QN), a dopamine agonist, reduces milk yield in dairy cows. To further demonstrate that PRL is galactopoietic in cows, we performed a short-term experiment that used PRL injections to restore the release of PRL at milking in QN-treated cows. Nine Holstein cows were assigned to treatments during three 5-d periods in a 3×3 Latin square design: 1) QN: twice-daily i.m. injections of 1mg of QN; 2) QN-PRL: twice-daily i.m. injections of 1mg of QN and twice-daily (at milking time) i.v. injections of PRL (2µg/kg body weight); and 3) control: twice-daily injections of the vehicles. Mammary epithelial cells (MEC) were purified from milk so that their viability could be assessed, and mammary biopsies were harvested for immunohistological analyses of cell proliferation using PCNA and STAT5 staining. In both milk-purified MEC and mammary tissue, the mRNA levels of milk proteins and BAX were determined using real-time reverse-transcription PCR. Daily QN injections reduced milking-induced PRL release. The area under the PRL curve was similar in the control and PRL injection treatments, but the shape was different. The QN treatment decreased milk, lactose, protein, and casein production. Injections of PRL did not restore milk yield but tended to increase milk protein yield. In mammary tissue, the percentage of STAT5-positive cells was reduced during QN but not during QN-PRL in comparison with the control treatment. The percentage of PCNA-positive cells was greater during QN-PRL injections than during the control or QN treatment and tended to be lower during QN than during the control treatment. In milk-purified MEC, κ-casein and α-lactalbumin mRNA levels were lower during QN than during the control treatment, but during QN-PRL, they were not different from the control treatment. In mammary tissue, the BAX mRNA level was lower during QN-PRL than during QN. The

  19. The effect of somatic cell count data adjustment and interpretation, as outlined in European Union legislation, on herd eligibility to supply raw milk for processing of dairy products.

    PubMed

    More, S J; Clegg, T A; Lynch, P J; O'Grady, L

    2013-06-01

    Somatic cell count (SCC) limits are a key component of national and international regulation for milk quality. As yet, very limited work has been published on SCC regulatory standards, including on the effect of different approaches to SCC data adjustment and interpretation. This study examines the effect of SCC data adjustment and interpretation, as outlined in current European Union (EU) legislation, on herd eligibility to supply raw milk for processing of dairy products for human consumption, using Irish data for illustration. The study used Irish milk-recording data as a proxy for bulk tank SCC (BTSCC) data, to calculate an unadjusted monthly SCC value for each herd during each month of participation. Subsequently, 4 data adjustments were applied, as outlined in EU and national legislation: seasonal adjustment; 3-mo rolling geometric average, without accounting for a break in the supply; 3-mo rolling geometric average, after accounting for a break in the supply; and seasonal adjustment and 3-mo rolling geometric average combined, after accounting for a break in the supply. Analyses were conducted to examine the effect, during the period from 2004 to 2010, of data adjustment on the percentage of herds with herd SCC >400,000 cells/mL. In all, 4 interpretation scenarios, incorporating different data adjustment combinations, were used to estimate herd eligibility (compliant, under warning, or suspended, as defined by legislation) to supply raw milk for processing. The 4 methods of data adjustment each led to a sizable reduction (6.7, 5.0, 5.3, and 11.1 percentage points, respectively, compared with the unadjusted data) in the percentage of herds exceeding a herd SCC of 400,000 cells/mL. Herd eligibility varied by interpretation scenarios, in particular those incorporating seasonal adjustment. The study provides new perspectives on the effect of data adjustment on herd SCC and of interpretation scenarios on herd eligibility. The results provide an illustrative

  20. Heifers infected with coagulase-negative staphylococci in early lactation have fewer cases of clinical mastitis and higher milk production in their first lactation than noninfected heifers.

    PubMed

    Piepers, S; Opsomer, G; Barkema, H W; de Kruif, A; De Vliegher, S

    2010-05-01

    Intramammary infections (IMI) in recently calved dairy heifers are more common than was formerly believed but their relevance for future performance has been studied only rarely. In the present study, the association between the IMI status of fresh heifers and their subsequent udder health, milk production<