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Sample records for including non-zero obliquity

  1. A Mercury orientation model including non-zero obliquity and librations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margot, Jean-Luc

    2009-12-01

    Planetary orientation models describe the orientation of the spin axis and prime meridian of planets in inertial space as a function of time. The models are required for the planning and execution of Earth-based or space-based observational work, e.g. to compute viewing geometries and to tie observations to planetary coordinate systems. The current orientation model for Mercury is inadequate because it uses an obsolete spin orientation, neglects oscillations in the spin rate called longitude librations, and relies on a prime meridian that no longer reflects its intended dynamical significance. These effects result in positional errors on the surface of ~1.5 km in latitude and up to several km in longitude, about two orders of magnitude larger than the finest image resolution currently attainable. Here we present an updated orientation model which incorporates modern values of the spin orientation, includes a formulation for longitude librations, and restores the dynamical significance to the prime meridian. We also use modern values of the orbit normal, spin axis orientation, and precession rates to quantify an important relationship between the obliquity and moment of inertia differences.

  2. Tidal Heating at Pluto and Charon as a Result of Non-Zero Obliquity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, M.; Bills, B. G.; Mitchell, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Pluto-Charon system represents a unique opportunity to examine tidal heating in a zero eccentricity system. As a result, any tidal heating in these bodies will occur as a result of finite obliquity. While Pluto and Charon's obliquities have yet to be measured, theoretical models assuming the spin poles of the bodies are in Cassini states predict observable obliquity values. We present a new tidal heating model for synchronously rotating bodies. As a major result of this formulation, we show how tidal heating is quadratically dependent on the h and l Love numbers, in contrast with classic models which assume homogeneous interior structure and find a linear dependence on the k Love number. Furthermore, we show how the spatial patterns of tidal heating depend on obliquity as well as eccentricity. By applying theoretical predictions of Pluto and Charon's spin pole orientations we examine the radially integrated spatial pattern of tidal heating at these bodies. At degree two, these patterns on Pluto predict equal heating at the sub- and anti-Charon points. Recent observations, however, show a clear dichotomy at these locations. Degree three tidal heating patterns, though reduced in magnitude, break the spatial symmetry and represent a positive indicator that tidal heating is active at Pluto and may be a source of the geologic activity at Tombaugh Regio.

  3. Oblique view of east and south sides, including component landscape ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of east and south sides, including component landscape elements that surround the building, camera facing northwest - Naval Training Station, Senior Officers' Quarters District, Quarters No. 3, Naval Station Treasure Island, 3 Whiting Way, Yerba Buena Island, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  4. Chimeric Superficial Circumflex Iliac Perforator Flap Including External Oblique Fascia: A Refinement of Conventional Harvesting

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez Garrido, Manuel; Vega Garcia, Carmen; Pons Playa, Gemma; Masiá Ayala, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    Summary: The superficial circumflex iliac perforator (SCIP) flap is one of the most suitable flaps to cover distal extremity defects due to its lack of bulkiness and donor site concealment. However, it is less popular than other perforator flaps due to its anatomical variations, short pedicle length, and small caliber vessels. We describe a novel design for the SCIP flap, consisting of a chimeric flap with a piece of the external oblique muscle fascia. The purpose of this design is to cover and protect the vascular anastomosis in distal lower limb defects where recipient vessels are superficial and skin coverage is poor. In addition, lengthening the pedicle with this design makes the flap more versatile. The addition of a cuff of fascia in harvesting of the SCIP flap lengthens the pedicle, allowing easier insetting of the skin paddle and providing complete protection and coverage of the vessels. This procedure allows greater versatility in inset of the skin paddle and is particularly suitable in cases where recipient vessels are superficial or when skin coverage is poor. PMID:27482505

  5. NLO thermal dilepton rate at non-zero momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laine, M.

    2013-11-01

    The vector channel spectral function and the dilepton production rate from a QCD plasma at a temperature above a few hundred MeV are evaluated up to next-to-leading order (NLO) including their dependence on a non-zero momentum with respect to the heat bath. The invariant mass of the virtual photon is taken to be in the range ~ ( πT)2 ~ (1GeV)2, generalizing previous NLO results valid for ≫ ( πT)2. In the opposite regime 0 < ≪ ( πT)2 the loop expansion breaks down, but agrees nevertheless in order of magnitude with a previous result obtained through resummations. Ways to test the vector spectral function through comparisons with imaginary-time correlators measured on the lattice are discussed.

  6. Hydrodynamics of a quark droplet II: Implications of a non-zero baryon chemical potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjerrum-Bohr, Johan J.; Mishustin, Igor N.; Døssing, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    We present an extended version of the dynamical model for a multi-quark droplet evolution described in our proceeding paper. The model includes collective expansion of the droplet, effects of the vacuum pressure and surface tension, and now a non-zero baryon number. The hadron emission from the droplet is described following Weisskopf's statistical model. We consider evolutions of droplets with different initial temperatures and net baryon number. It is found that the introduction of a non-zero net baryon number does not change the lifetime of the droplets significantly. Only when we consider an initially very baryon-rich, low-temperature droplets is the lifetime is decreased significantly. We have, furthermore, found a convergence of both baryon chemical potential and temperature toward the values μB≈450 MeV and T≈150 MeV. This convergence is linked to the competing emission of baryons versus mesons.

  7. Normal- and oblique-shock flow parameters in equilibrium air including attached-shock solutions for surfaces at angles of attack, sweep, and dihedral

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, J. L.; Souders, S. W.

    1975-01-01

    Normal- and oblique-shock flow parameters for air in thermochemical equilibrium are tabulated as a function of shock angle for altitudes ranging from 15.24 km to 91.44 km in increments of 7.62 km at selected hypersonic speeds. Post-shock parameters tabulated include flow-deflection angle, velocity, Mach number, compressibility factor, isentropic exponent, viscosity, Reynolds number, entropy difference, and static pressure, temperature, density, and enthalpy ratios across the shock. A procedure is presented for obtaining oblique-shock flow properties in equilibrium air on surfaces at various angles of attack, sweep, and dihedral by use of the two-dimensional tabulations. Plots of the flow parameters against flow-deflection angle are presented at altitudes of 30.48, 60.96, and 91.44 km for various stream velocities.

  8. Existence of non zero modes in an annular lined duct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balint, Agneta M.; Balint, Stefan; Tanasie, Loredana

    2012-11-01

    The purpose is to extend Vilenski - Rienstra's [32] results concerning mainly the general aspects of the existence of non zero modes in annular lined ducts. The case, when the radial and circumferential components of the mean flow are equal to zero and the axial component depends only on the distance to the duct axis, is investigated. Conditions for the existence of non zero modes, which satisfy the linearized homogeneous Euler equations (obtained by linearization around the mean flow) and the boundary conditions, (corresponding to the perturbation - liner interaction of mass-spring-damper type) are found. The first condition, called dispersion relation, is expressed in terms of the solutions of two normalized initial value problems and is equivalent to the linear dependence of these solutions. It is shown that the set of non zero modes, corresponding to a given frequency and given axial and circumferential wave number, is either the null space, either is a one dimensional function space. It is shown also that if the mean flow is symmetric with respect to the "center of the ring", then neither symmetric, nor anti-symmetric modes exist. This difference between the annular and rectangular or circular lined duct models explains while one of the boundary conditions can not be transferred in the center of symmetry. For symmetric flow, being constant in the "central part of the ring", new dispersion relations are derived. The new relations beside the solutions of the two normalized initial value problems incorporate also modified Bessel functions or additional Bessel functions. The Lyapunov stability of the mean flow with respect to the initial value perturbation by mode type perturbations is discussed in terms of the zero's of the dispersion relation.

  9. Pair-Instability Supernovae of Non-Zero Metallicity Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, K.-J.; Heger, A.; Woosley, S.; Almgren, A.; Whalen, D. J.

    2015-10-01

    Observational evidence suggests that some very massive stars in the local Universe may die as pair-instability supernovae. We present 2D simulations of the pair-instability supernova of a non-zero metallicity star. We find that very little mixing occurs in this explosion because metals in the stellar envelope drive strong winds that strip the hydrogen envelope from the star prior to death. Consequently, a reverse shock cannot form and trigger fluid instabilities during the supernova. Only weak mixing driven by nuclear burning occurs in the earliest stages of the supernova, and it is too weak to affect the observational signatures of the explosion.

  10. Dielectric waveguide with transverse index variation that support a zero group velocity mode at a non-zero longitudinal wavevector

    DOEpatents

    Ibanescu, Mihai; Joannopoious, John D.; Fink, Yoel; Johnson, Steven G.; Fan, Shanhui

    2005-06-21

    Optical components including a laser based on a dielectric waveguide extending along a waveguide axis and having a refractive index cross-section perpendicular to the waveguide axis, the refractive index cross-section supporting an electromagnetic mode having a zero group velocity for a non-zero wavevector along the waveguide axis.

  11. Obliquity dependence of the tangential YORP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ševeček, P.; Golubov, O.; Scheeres, D. J.; Krugly, Yu. N.

    2016-08-01

    Context. The tangential Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) effect is a thermophysical effect that can alter the rotation rate of asteroids and is distinct from the so-called normal YORP effect, but to date has only been studied for asteroids with zero obliquity. Aims: We aim to study the tangential YORP force produced by spherical boulders on the surface of an asteroid with an arbitrary obliquity. Methods: A finite element method is used to simulate heat conductivity inside a boulder, to find the recoil force experienced by it. Then an ellipsoidal asteroid uniformly covered by these types of boulders is considered and the torque is numerically integrated over its surface. Results: Tangential YORP is found to operate on non-zero obliquities and decreases by a factor of two for increasing obliquity.

  12. Non-zero momentum Bose-Einstein condensation of orbital atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W. Vincent

    2009-03-01

    Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) is often associated with zero momentum to which a macroscopic fraction of bosons condense. Here we propose a new class of meta-stable quantum states where bosons condense at non-zero momenta, defying the paradigm. This becomes possible when bosonic atoms are confined in the p-orbital Bloch bands of an optical lattice rather than the usual s-orbital. A recent experiment at Mainz confirmed the discovery of such an exotic BEC with alkali-metal atoms in a 3D cubic lattice with anisotropic optical potentials. Non-zero momentum suggests crystalline order. Our theoretical studies further found that such non-zero momentum BECs are also naturally orbital ordered superfluids due to the fascinating, less studied center-of-mass p-wave symmetry (e.g., a vortex-like px+ipy condensate). Varying with the geometry from standard optical lattices to double-well lattices, the interesting orderings include staggered orbital currents, stripes of angular momenta, and modulated super-current density wave. Different than a phase of coexisting orders such as supersolidity, this new class of states is characterized by a single order parameter. Work done in collaboration with J. Moore, S. Das Sarma, V. M. Stojanovic, C. Wu, and E. Zhao. [4pt] References:[0pt] [1] W. V. Liu, C. Wu, Phys. Rev. A 74, 013607 (2006). [0pt] [2] C. Wu, W. V. Liu, J. Moore, S. Das Sarma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 190406 (2006). [0pt] [3] V. M. Stojanovic, C. Wu, W. V. Liu, S. Das Sarma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 125301 (2008). [0pt] [4] E. Zhao and W. V. Liu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 160403 (2008).

  13. Climates of Oblique Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrovolskis, A. R.

    2008-12-01

    A previous paper (Dobrovolskis 2007; Icarus 192, 1-23) showed that eccentricity can have profound effects on the climate, habitability, and detectability of extrasolar planets. This complementary study shows that obliquity can have comparable effects. The known exoplanets exhibit a wide range of orbital eccentricities, but those within several million km of their suns are generally in near-circular orbits. This fact is widely attributed to the dissipation of tides in the planets, which is particularly effective for solid/liquid bodies like "Super-Earths". Along with friction between a solid mantle and a liquid core, tides also are expected to despin a planet until it is captured in the synchronous resonance, so that its rotation period is identical to its orbital period. The canonical example of synchronous spin is the way that our Moon always keeps nearly the same hemisphere facing the Earth. Tides also tend to reduce the planet's obliquity (the angle between its spin and orbital angular velocities). However, orbit precession can cause the rotation to become locked in a "Cassini state", where it retains a nearly constant non-zero obliquity. For example, our Moon maintains an obliquity of about 6.7° with respect to its orbit about the Earth. For comparison, stable Cassini states can exist for practically any obliquity up to 180° for planets of binary stars, or in multi-planet systems with high mutual inclinations, such as are produced by scattering or by the Kozai mechanism. This work considers planets in synchronous rotation with circular orbits. For obliquities greater than 90°, the ground track of the sub-solar point wraps around all longitudes on the surface of such a planet. For smaller obliquities, the sub-solar track takes the figure-8 shape of an analemma. This can be visualized as the intersection of the planet's spherical surface with a right circular cylinder, parallel to the spin axis and tangent to the equator from the inside. The excursion of the

  14. Dynamic analysis of offshore structures with non-zero initial conditions in the frequency domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fushun; Lu, Hongchao; Li, Huajun

    2016-03-01

    The state of non-zero conditions is typically treated as fact when considering the dynamic analysis of offshore structures. This article extends a newly proposed method [1] to manage the non-zero initial conditions of offshore structures in the frequency domain, including new studies on original environmental loads reconstruction, response comparisons with the commercial software ANSYS, and a demonstration using an experimental cantilever beam. The original environmental loads, such as waves, currents, and winds, that act on a structure are decomposed into multiple complex exponential components are represented by a series of poles and corresponding residues. Counter to the traditional frequency-domain method, the non-zero initial conditions of offshore structures could be solved in the frequency domain. Compared with reference [1], an improvement reported in this article is that practical issues, including the choice of model order and central-processing-unit (CPU) time consumption, are further studied when applying this new method to offshore structures. To investigate the feasibility of the representation of initial environmental loads by their poles and corresponding residues, a measured random wave force collected from a column experiment at the Lab of Ocean University of China is used, decomposed, reconstructed and then compared with the original wave force; then, a numerical offshore platform is used to study the performance of the proposed method in detail. The numerical results of this study indicate that (1) a short duration of environmental loads are required to obtain their constitutive poles and residues, which implies good computational efficiency; and (2) the proposed method has a similar computational efficiency to traditional methods due to the use of the inverse Fourier transform technique. To better understand the performance, of time consumption and accuracy of the proposed method, the commercial software ANSYS is used to determine responses

  15. The obliquity of Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baland, Rose-Marie; Yseboodt, Marie; Van Hoolst, Tim

    2016-04-01

    The extraordinary activity at Enceladus' warm south pole indicates the presence of an internal global or local reservoir of liquid water beneath the surface. While Tyler (Tyler, R.H. [2009]. Geophys. Res. Lett. 36(15), L15205; Tyler, R.H. [2011]. Icarus 211(1), 770-779) has suggested that the geological activity and the large heat flow of Enceladus could result from tidal heating triggered by a large obliquity of at least 0.05-0.1°, theoretical models of the Cassini state predict the obliquity to be two to three orders of magnitude smaller for an entirely solid and rigid Enceladus. We investigate the influence of an internal subsurface ocean and of tidal deformations of the solid layers on the obliquity of Enceladus. Our Cassini state model takes into account the external torque exerted by Saturn on each layer of the satellite and the internal gravitational and pressure torques induced by the presence of the liquid layer. As a new feature, our model also includes additional torques that arise because of the periodic tides experienced by the satellite. We find that the upper limit for the obliquity of a solid Enceladus is 4.5 ×10-4 degrees and is negligibly affected by elastic deformations. The presence of an internal ocean decreases this upper limit by 13.1%, elasticity attenuating this decrease by only 0.5%. For larger satellites, such as Titan, elastic effects could be more significant because of their larger tidal deformations. As a consequence, it appears that it is easier to reconcile the theoretical estimates of Titan's obliquity with the measured obliquity than reported in previous studies wherein the solid layers or the entire satellite were assumed to be rigid. Since the obliquity of Enceladus cannot reach Tyler's requirement, obliquity tides are unlikely to be the source of the large heat flow of Enceladus. More likely, the geological activity at Enceladus' south pole results from eccentricity tides. Even in the most favorable case, the upper limit for

  16. Unidimensional Scaling of Two Person Non-Zero Sum Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baerwaldt, James; Talley, Martha

    Groups of students were required to respond to the same eight two-person games, two variants each of four qualitatively different separable games including Prisoner's Dilemma. The games were generated by varying a payoff parameter which altered the potential maximum per trial difference between payoffs for the two players. The groups differed…

  17. Generalization of the Gluckstern formulas II: Multiple scattering and non-zero dip angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentan, M.; Regler, M.; Frühwirth, R.

    2009-07-01

    The first rules-of-thumb for the uncertainties in track momentum and direction of tracking detectors under inclusion of multiple scattering, as developed by Gluckstern [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. 24 (1963) 381] in the times of the bubble chamber, were limited to tracks with low curvature and equidistant measurement points with equal accuracy. The extension to strongly curved tracks with nonvanishing incident angle, arbitrary detector configuration and accuracy was published recently [M. Regler, R. Frühwirth, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 589 (2008) 109]. However, this extension is restricted to the (symmetry) plane with tracks with zero dip angle, perpendicular to the magnetic field, and does not treat multiple scattering. The present study extends the analytical approximate formulas for the calculation of uncertainties in track momentum and direction of “barrel” detectors to non-zero dip angles, including multiple scattering. The dip angle dependence of all terms of the error matrix is calculated. The results of a comparison with a linear least-squares fit are presented, showing excellent agreement. An open source implementation of the exact covariance matrices is described.

  18. Oblique Shock Interaction with a Laminar Cylindrical Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wayne, Patrick; Olmstead, Dell; Truman, C. Randall; Vorobieff, Peter; Kumar, Sanjay

    2015-06-01

    We present an experimental study of a planar shock interaction with an initially cylindrical, diffuse density interface, where the angle α between the plane of the shock and the axis of the cylinder can be zero (planar normal interaction) or non-zero (oblique interaction). The interface is formed by injecting a laminar jet of a heavy gas mixture (sulfure hexafluoride, acetone, nitrogen) into quiescent air. The jet is stabilized by an annular co-flow of air to minimize diffusion. Interaction between the pressure gradient (shock front) and density gradients leads to vorticity deposition, and during the subsequent evolution, the flow undergoes mixing (injected material - air) and eventually transitions to turbulence. Several parameters affect this evolution, including the angle α, the Atwood number (density ratio), and the Mach number of the shock. For quantitative and qualitative characterization of the influence of these parameters, we use flow visualization in two planes that relies on planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) in acetone, which forms a part of the injected material. This research is supported by NNSA Grant DE-NA000220.

  19. Insolation patterns on synchronous exoplanets with obliquity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrovolskis, Anthony R.

    2009-11-01

    A previous paper [Dobrovolskis, A.R., 2007. Icarus 192, 1-23] showed that eccentricity can have profound effects on the climate, habitability, and detectability of extrasolar planets. This complementary study shows that obliquity can have comparable effects. The known exoplanets exhibit a wide range of orbital eccentricities, but those within several million kilometers of their suns are generally in near-circular orbits. This fact is widely attributed to the dissipation of tides in the planets. Tides in a planet affect its spin even more than its orbit, and such tidally evolved planets often are assumed to be in synchronous rotation, so that their rotation periods are identical to their orbital periods. The canonical example of synchronous spin is the way that our Moon always keeps nearly the same hemisphere facing the Earth. Tides also tend to reduce the planet's obliquity (the angle between its spin and orbital angular velocities). However, orbit precession can cause the rotation to become locked in a "Cassini state", where it retains a nearly constant non-zero obliquity. For example, our Moon maintains an obliquity of about 6.7° with respect to its orbit about the Earth. In comparison, stable Cassini states can exist for practically any obliquity up to ˜90° or more for planets of binary stars, or in multi-planet systems with high mutual inclinations, such as are produced by scattering or by the Kozai mechanism. This work considers planets in synchronous rotation with circular orbits, but arbitrary obliquity β; this affects the distribution of insolation over the planet's surface, particularly near its poles. For β=0, one hemisphere bakes in perpetual sunshine, while the opposite hemisphere experiences eternal darkness. As β increases, the region of permanent daylight and the antipodal realm of endless night both shrink, while a more temperate area of alternating day and night spreads in longitude, and especially in latitude. The regions of permanent day or

  20. The X-ray Light Curves of Magnetic Cataclysmic Variables with Non-zero Shock Heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, Koji

    The hard X-ray emitting shocks in magnetic CVs are probably 0.01-0.1 Rwd tall. Self occultation of X-ray emitting regions under such shocks must be calculated using a full, three-dimensional geometry: The difference between the top and the bottom of the shock is substantial in this regard. In this paper, I present the results of crude simulations showing that the non-zero shock height probably is an important factor in the hard X-ray spin modulations of IPs, with applications to XY Ari and EX Hya.

  1. An estimate of maximum ground surface motion for non zero surface velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecker, Alain

    2004-09-01

    The increasing need for probability seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) of critical facilities sometimes leads to unrealistic earthquake scenarios with very high induced ground motions. From a physical standpoint these high motions cannot exist because of the limiting resistance capacity of the soil strata through which the seismic waves travel. A simple analytical model is proposed to bound the maximum ground surface acceleration that any soil deposit can transfer. This model is an extension to non zero ground surface velocity of a previously presented model. To cite this article: A. Pecker, C. R. Mecanique 332 (2004).

  2. Spin zero Hawking radiation for non-zero-angular momentum mode

    SciTech Connect

    Ngampitipan, Tritos; Bonserm, Petarpa; Visser, Matt

    2015-05-15

    Black hole greybody factors carry some quantum black hole information. Studying greybody factors may lead to understanding the quantum nature of black holes. However, solving for exact greybody factors in many black hole systems is impossible. One way to deal with this problem is to place some rigorous analytic bounds on the greybody factors. In this paper, we calculate rigorous bounds on the greybody factors for spin zero hawking radiation for non-zero-angular momentum mode from the Kerr-Newman black holes.

  3. Two-color QCD with non-zero chiral chemical potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braguta, V. V.; Goy, V. A.; Ilgenfritz, E. M.; Kotov, A. Yu.; Molochkov, A. V.; Müller-Preussker, M.; Petersson, B.

    2015-06-01

    The phase diagram of two-color QCD with non-zero chiral chemical potential is studied by means of lattice simulation. We focus on the influence of a chiral chemical potential on the confinement/deconfinement phase transition and the breaking/restoration of chiral symmetry. The simulation is carried out with dynamical staggered fermions without rooting. The dependences of the Polyakov loop, the chiral condensate and the corresponding susceptibilities on the chiral chemical potential and the temperature are presented. The critical temperature is observed to increase with increasing chiral chemical potential.

  4. Evolution of Strain in Obliquely Convergent Analog Doubly-Vergent Wedges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, D. M.; Haq, S. S.

    2012-12-01

    We have conducted a range of analog experiments across the parameter space from 0° to 70°, in which we have tracked the evolution of the model geometries and strain fields. Surface deformation is monitored by photographic analysis of the experiment and a plane laser is used to obtain precise topography of the developing pro and retro-wedges normal to strike At both high and low obliquities, our results are broadly consistent with theoretical expectations. At obliquities ranging from 0° to close to 60°, doubly-vergent wedges with the same combination of a broad, minimum taper pro-wedge and a narrower, maximum-taper double retro-wedge found in normal convergence at obliquities up to close to 60°. Above about 60° obliquity, though, the orogen continues to grow with a much greater degree of symmetry; it never develops the broad prowedge that characterizes the orogens at low to moderately high obliquities. This result is entirely consistent with the rotation of stresses and reversal in principal stress order associated with the transition from an essentially convergent orogen with some margin-parallel shear to transpression with dominant strike-slip, as described by various authors. This marked change in tectonic style and orogen shape at about 60° obliquity is accompanied by a change in the distribution of shear within the model. In normal convergence, there is no margin-parallel shear to be accommodated, so it is everywhere equal to zero. Margin-normal shortening is accommodated across the orogen, but, as taper is maintained, it occurs most rapidly near the deformation front (at left). In no case is there extension in these purely frictional models, unlike the case with a ductile layer at depth. At non-zero obliquities, there is also margin-parallel shear to be distributed across the margin. In addition to a broad zone centered on the topographic high (over the tip of the backstop), that shear is distributed across the prowedge, where it is accommodated in the

  5. Quantum Quench Dynamics in the Transverse Field Ising Model at Non-zero Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeling, Nils; Kehrein, Stefan

    The recently discovered Dynamical Phase Transition denotes non-analytic behavior in the real time evolution of quantum systems in the thermodynamic limit and has been shown to occur in different systems at zero temperature [Heyl et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 135704 (2013)]. In this talk we present the extension of the analysis to non-zero temperature by studying a generalized form of the Loschmidt echo, the work distribution function, of a quantum quench in the transverse field Ising model. Although the quantitative behavior at non-zero temperatures still displays features derived from the zero temperature non-analyticities, it is shown that in this model dynamical phase transitions do not exist if T > 0 . This is a consequence of the system being initialized in a thermal state. Moreover, we elucidate how the Tasaki-Crooks-Jarzynski relation can be exploited as a symmetry relation for a global quench or to obtain the change of the equilibrium free energy density. This work was supported through CRC SFB 1073 (Project B03) of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG).

  6. NUMERICAL ALGORITHMS AT NON-ZERO CHEMICAL POTENTIAL. PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP, VOLUME 19

    SciTech Connect

    BLUM,T.

    1999-09-14

    The RIKEN BNL Research Center hosted its 19th workshop April 27th through May 1, 1999. The topic was Numerical Algorithms at Non-Zero Chemical Potential. QCD at a non-zero chemical potential (non-zero density) poses a long-standing unsolved challenge for lattice gauge theory. Indeed, it is the primary unresolved issue in the fundamental formulation of lattice gauge theory. The chemical potential renders conventional lattice actions complex, practically excluding the usual Monte Carlo techniques which rely on a positive definite measure for the partition function. This ''sign'' problem appears in a wide range of physical systems, ranging from strongly coupled electronic systems to QCD. The lack of a viable numerical technique at non-zero density is particularly acute since new exotic ''color superconducting'' phases of quark matter have recently been predicted in model calculations. A first principles confirmation of the phase diagram is desirable since experimental verification is not expected soon. At the workshop several proposals for new algorithms were made: cluster algorithms, direct simulation of Grassman variables, and a bosonization of the fermion determinant. All generated considerable discussion and seem worthy of continued investigation. Several interesting results using conventional algorithms were also presented: condensates in four fermion models, SU(2) gauge theory in fundamental and adjoint representations, and lessons learned from strong; coupling, non-zero temperature and heavy quarks applied to non-zero density simulations.

  7. Dexterous and expedient approach strategies considering non-zero eccentricity orbits and J2 perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remeikas, Charles; Xu, Yunjun; Pham, Khanh; Chen, Genshe; Jia, Bin; Shen, Dan

    2014-06-01

    Recently bio-inspired rendezvous strategies have been investigated for applications in space situation awareness. Particularly, closed-loop solutions have been developed for the cases that the target object is in a circular orbit without considering any orbital perturbations. In this paper, the minimum-fuel consumption bio-inspired motions are further studied. The follow cases considering the J2 perturbation, the non-zero eccentricities, and different boundary conditions are analyzed: (1) the target object is at the local vertical local horizontal coordinate origin; (2) the target is moving in the local vertical local horizontal coordinate; (3) the rendezvous object approaches the target object from the R-bar, V-bar, and Z-bar directions, respectively. Fast solutions can be obtained for the rendezvous object to approach the target object with minimum energy consumption.

  8. Oblique effect in stereopsis?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Elizabeth T.; King, Robert A.; Anoskey, Alana M.

    1992-08-01

    Contrast thresholds are lower for detection of a vertical pattern than for an obliquely-oriented pattern. Is there an analogous oblique effect for the depth threshold of a stereoscopic luminance pattern? If so, why? Are the causes different from those for an oblique effect with monocular vision? To explore these issues, we used stereoscopic blurry bar (D6) luminance patterns with a peak spatial frequency of 2 or 4 cycles/degree (cpd) and either a vertical or an oblique orientation. We obtained psychometric functions for data obtained from a method of constant stimuli procedure, using 100 forced-choice trials for each datum. For each of three observers we estimated stereoacuity with a maximum-likelihood curve-fitting procedure. Subjects showed better stereoacuity for the vertical spatial patterns than for the oblique patterns. Some possible causes are that for oblique patterns (unlike vertical patterns) (1) the total vertical extent of the pattern is shrunk by a factor of sin((theta) ), where (theta) equals 90 degree(s) for vertical; (2) the pattern is 'stretched out' in the horizontal direction by a factor of csc((theta) ); (3) there are vertical as well as horizontal retinal disparities. Perhaps the resulting sparseness of horizontal disparity information or the potential vertical disparities in the oblique patterns reduce stereoacuity. To disentangle these causes, we used several different experimental conditions (e.g., elongation of oblique patterns) run in randomized blocks of trials. We will discuss these results and implications for stereopsis.

  9. Effects of Obliquity on the Habitability of Exoplanets around M Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuwei; Liu, Yonggang; Tian, Feng; Yang, Jun; Ding, Feng; Zhou, Linjiong; Hu, Yongyun

    2016-05-01

    Most previous studies on how obliquity affects planetary habitability focused on planets around Sun-like stars. Their conclusions may not be applicable to habitable planets around M dwarfs due to the tidal-locking feature and associated insolation pattern of these planets. Here we use a comprehensive three-dimensional atmospheric general circulation model to investigate this issue. We find that the climates of planets with higher obliquities are generally warmer, consistent with previous studies. The mechanism of warming is, however, completely different. Significant reduction of low clouds, instead of sea-ice cover, within the substeller region (which moves if the obliquity is non-zero) is the key in warming M-dwarf planets with high obliquities. For a total insolation of 1237 W m‑2, the climate warms by 21 K when the obliquity increases from 0° to 90°. Correspondingly, the runaway greenhouse inner edge of the habitable zone shifts outward from 2500 to 2100 W m‑2. The moist greenhouse inner edge, based on our crude estimation, shifts less, from 2180 to 2075 W m‑2. Near the outer edge, in contrast, the climates of planets with higher obliquities are colder due to their reduced ability to maintain a hotspot at the surface. Therefore, the outer edge moves inward when obliquity is increased, opposite to the finding of previous studies on planets around Sun-like stars. Our results thus indicate that the habitable zone for M dwarfs narrows if the obliquity of their planets increases.

  10. Inferring planetary obliquity using rotational and orbital photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, J. C.; Sekowski, C.; Haggard, H. M.; Pallé, E.; Cowan, N. B.

    2016-03-01

    The obliquity of a terrestrial planet is an important clue about its formation and critical to its climate. Previous studies using simulated photometry of Earth show that continuous observations over most of a planet's orbit can be inverted to infer obliquity. However, few studies of more general planets with arbitrary albedo markings have been made and, in particular, a simple theoretical understanding of why it is possible to extract obliquity from light curves is missing. Reflected light seen by a distant observer is the product of a planet's albedo map, its host star's illumination, and the visibility of different regions. It is useful to treat the product of illumination and visibility as the kernel of a convolution. Time-resolved photometry constrains both the albedo map and the kernel, the latter of which sweeps over the planet due to rotational and orbital motion. The kernel's movement distinguishes prograde from retrograde rotation for planets with non-zero obliquity on inclined orbits. We demonstrate that the kernel's longitudinal width and mean latitude are distinct functions of obliquity and axial orientation. Notably, we find that a planet's spin axis affects the kernel - and hence time-resolved photometry - even if this planet is east-west uniform or spinning rapidly, or if it is north-south uniform. We find that perfect knowledge of the kernel at 2-4 orbital phases is usually sufficient to uniquely determine a planet's spin axis. Surprisingly, we predict that east-west albedo contrast is more useful for constraining obliquity than north-south contrast.

  11. How good is μ- τ symmetry after results on non-zero θ 13?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Shivani; Joshipura, Anjan S.; Patel, Ketan M.

    2013-09-01

    Viability of the μ- τ interchange symmetry imposed as an approximate symmetry (1) on the neutrino mass matrix in the flavour basis (2) simultaneously on the charged lepton mass matrix M l and the neutrino mass matrix M ν and (3) on the underlying Lagrangian is discussed in the light of recent observation of a non-zero reactor mixing angle θ 13. In case (1), μ- τ symmetry breaking may be regarded as small (less than 20-30%) only for the inverted or quasidegenerate neutrino mass spectrum and the normal hierarchy would violate it by a large amount. The case (2) is more restrictive and the requirement of relatively small breaking allows only the quasidegenerate spectrum. If neutrinos obtain their masses from the type-I seesaw mechanism then small breaking of the μ- τ symmetry in the underlying Lagrangian may result in a large breaking in and even the hierarchical neutrino spectrum may also be consistent with mildly broken μ- τ symmetry of the Lagrangian. Neutrinoless double beta decay provides a good means of distinguishing above scenarios. In particular, non-observation of signal in future experiments such as GERDA would rule out scenarios (1) and (2).

  12. Phase dependent excitation of Rydberg atoms in non-zero average fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnuson, Eric; Carrat, Vincent; Gallagher, Tom

    2016-05-01

    The final energy of an electron excited to a high lying Rydberg state in the presence of a microwave (MW) field shows a dependence on the phase of the field at which the excitation occurs. This phase dependence is comparable to that seen in strong field experiments using attosecond pulses to probe systems perturbed by intense infrared (IR) fields. In zero average field, final energies exhibit a phase dependence at twice the frequency of the MW field. We show a phase dependence at the same frequency as the MW field emerges in the presence of a non-zero average field, parallel to the MW polarization. To isolate phase dependence at the MW frequency, we amplitude modulate the IR excitation laser and phase lock this modulation to the MW field. Li atoms are excited to states near the ionization limit in the presence of a MW field, and bound Rydberg states (n>150) are detected. In an applied average field, we observe modulation of the Rydberg signal at the MW frequency. This modulation vanishes as the average field is zeroed, but persists even in fields large enough to ionize most of the population. We compare these results to symmetry arguments and a model of classical Rydberg orbits. An experiment to determine the absolute phase of the modulation relative the MW field is discussed. This work is supported by the US Department of Energy.

  13. Two-dimensional quantum percolation with binary non-zero hopping integrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon Thomas, Brianna; Nakanishi, Hisao

    In a previous work [Dillon and Nakanishi, Eur.Phys.J B 87, 286 (2014)], we calculated the transmission coefficient of the two-dimensional quantum percolation problem and mapped out in detail the three regimes of localization, i.e., exponentially localized, power-law localized, and delocalized which had been proposed earlier [Islam and Nakanishi, Phys.Rev. E 77, 061109 (2008)]. We now consider a variation on quantum percolation in which the hopping integral (Vdiluted) associated with bonds that connect to at least one diluted site is non-zero but a fraction of the hopping integral (Vfull=1) between non-diluted sites. We study the latter model by calculating quantities such as the transmission coefficient and the inverse participation ratio and find the original quantum percolation results to be stable over a wide range of energy. In particular, except in the immediate neighborhood of the band center (where increasing Vdiluted to just 0.02*Vfull appears to eliminate localization effects), increasing Vdiluted only shifts the boundaries between the 3 regimes but does not eliminate them until the Vdiluted reaches 20

  14. Obliquity-oblateness feedback on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bills, Bruce G.

    A simple model is presented for the coupled dynamics of the orbit-rotation-climate system of Mars. Changes in the orientation of the spin pole, relative to the orbit pole, influence the spatiotemporal pattern of incident radiation and thus drive climatic mass transport into and out of the polar regions on a variety of timescales. Changes in the mass distribution occur from direct climatic forcing and compensating viscous flow in the interior. The net change in mass distribution influences the rate of spin axis precession and thereby influences obliquity. The rate of secular obliquity drift depends on several poorly known parameters, including the magnitudes and response times of volatile inventories and viscosity structure within Mars. Even relatively modest secular obliquity drift can lead to trapping in nearby resonances. The dissipative nature of the coupled dynamical system makes reconstruction of past evolution much more difficult than for a purely inertial system. The long-term obliquity history of Mars is dominated by climate.

  15. A Numerical Study of Strain Partitioning and the Development of Forearc Slivers at Obliquely Convergent Margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koster, K. L.; Haq, S. S.; Flesch, L. M.

    2012-12-01

    Oblique relative plate motion is common at convergent margins, often with a significant component of margin-parallel motion. At such margins, relative plate motion is often accommodated as spatially distinct margin-normal thrusting and margin-parallel shear, leading to the development of fore-arc slivers. These crustal slivers are bounded trench-ward by thrust faults and arc-ward by a well developed margin-parallel strike-slip fault and are observed in about half of all modern convergent boundaries. Some modestly oblique convergent settings are known to develop fore-arc slivers while some higher obliquity margins fail to effectively partition the margin-parallel component of plate motion in a distinct zone. Analog modeling has shown that pure frictional wedges only produce fore-arc like sliver motion at very high obliquities, however, the presence of ductile layers at depth can localize shear at lower obliquities. We have performed finite-element numerical simulations of oblique convergent wedges, over a wide range of obliquities, governed by viscous behavior at depth in which we solve force-balance equations for Stokes flow using COMSOL Multiphysics to quantify the magnitude and style of stress. Our numerical models reproduce topographic profiles and surface velocity fields of similarly parameterized analog experiments and demonstrate a progressive localization of margin-parallel shear with wedge growth. We also observe the onset and localization of shear in all wedges of non-zero obliquity, which we quantify by comparing the magnitudes of principal compressional and extensional stress tensor axes to constrain the timing of the transition between intermediate and high partitioning of strain in evolving wedges. These results suggest, in conjunction with analog models, that viscous behavior at depth and increase in topography during convergence both work to localize margin-parallel shear in obliquely convergent wedges and gives a mechanism for the development of

  16. Towards Efficiency of Oblique Images Orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrowski, W.; Bakuła, K.

    2016-03-01

    Many papers on both theoretical aspects of bundle adjustment of oblique images and new operators for detecting tie points on oblique images have been written. However, only a few achievements presented in the literature were practically implemented in commercial software. In consequence often aerial triangulation is performed either for nadir images obtained simultaneously with oblique photos or bundle adjustment for separate images captured in different directions. The aim of this study was to investigate how the orientation of oblique images can be carried out effectively in commercial software based on the structure from motion technology. The main objective of the research was to evaluate the impact of the orientation strategy on both duration of the process and accuracy of photogrammetric 3D products. Two, very popular software: Pix4D and Agisoft Photoscan were tested and two approaches for image blocks were considered. The first approach based only on oblique images collected in four directions and the second approach included nadir images. In this study, blocks for three test areas were analysed. Oblique images were collected with medium-format cameras in maltan cross configuration with registration of GNSS and INS data. As a reference both check points and digital surface models from airborne laser scanning were used.

  17. The oblique electron lens.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. B.; Hallam, K. L.

    1973-01-01

    An oblique electron lens is described that is especially applicable to image converters and camera tubes employing flat opaque photocathodes. The use of optical lenses, corrector plates, and/or mirrors (often employed in other electron lenses designed for use with opaque photocathodes) are eliminated. The oblique electron lens is well suited to ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet image converters, and to image converters employing opaque negative electron affinity photocathodes. It is also possible to use this oblique electron lens for electronography. Measurements on an experimental tube show that a limiting resolution of 50 line pairs/mm is possible, but the intrinsic lens quality is believed to approach that of a conventional electromagnetic lens having uniform and colinear electric and magnetic fields.

  18. Multi-input, multi-output regulator design for constant disturbances and non-zero set points with application to automatic landing in a crosswind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holley, W. E.; Bryson, A. E., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Undesirable steady offsets result when a stationary, linear regulator using state feedback is subjected to constant disturbances and/or non-zero setspoints. To eliminate these offsets, the disturbances and non-zero setpoints can be fed forward to the control. Only when the number of outputs is less than or equal to the number of control inputs can the outputs be maintained at arbitrary non-zero setpoints. The state and the disturbance may be estimated using a constant gain Kalman filter or by modeling the constant disturbances as exponentially correlated processes with long correlation times.

  19. Assessing Uncertainties in Boundary Layer Transition Predictions for HIFiRE-1 at Non-zero Angles of Attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marek, Lindsay C.

    2011-01-01

    Boundary layer stability was analyzed for the HIFiRE-1 flight vehicle geometry for ground tests conducted at the CUBRC LENS I hypersonic shock test facility and the Langley Research Center (LaRC) 20- inch Mach 6 Tunnel. Boundary layer stability results were compared to transition onset location obtained from discrete heat transfer measurements from thin film gauges during the CUBRC test and spatially continuous heat transfer measurements from thermal phosphor paint data during the LaRC test. The focus of this analysis was on conditions at non-zero angles of attack as stability analysis has already been performed at zero degrees angle of attack. Also, the transition onset data obtained during flight testing was at nonzero angles of attack, so this analysis could be expanded in the future to include the results of the flight test data. Stability analysis was performed using the 2D parabolized stability software suite STABL (Stability and Transition Analysis for Hypersonic Boundary Layers) developed at the University of Minnesota and the mean flow solutions were computed using the DPLR finite volume Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver. A center line slice of the 3D mean flow solution was used for the stability analysis to incorporate the angle of attack effects while still taking advantage of the 2D STABL software suite. The N-factors at transition onset and the value of Re(sub theta)/M(sub e), commonly used to predict boundary layer transition onset, were compared for all conditions analyzed. Ground test data was analyzed at Mach 7.2 and Mach 6.0 and angles of attack of 1deg, 3deg and 5deg. At these conditions, the flow was found to be second mode dominant for the HIFiRE-1 slender cone geometry. On the leeward side of the vehicle, a strong trend of transition onset location with angle of attack was observed as the boundary layer on the leeward side of the vehicle developed inflection points at streamwise positions on the vehicle that correlated to

  20. Obliquity Modulation of the Incoming Solar Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Han-Shou; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Based on a basic principle of orbital resonance, we have identified a huge deficit of solar radiation induced by the combined amplitude and frequency modulation of the Earth's obliquity as possibly the causal mechanism for ice age glaciation. Including this modulation effect on solar radiation, we have performed model simulations of climate change for the past 2 million years. Simulation results show that: (1) For the past 1 million years, temperature fluctuation cycles were dominated by a 100-Kyr period due to amplitude-frequency resonance effect of the obliquity; (2) From 2 to 1 million years ago, the amplitude-frequency interactions. of the obliquity were so weak that they were not able to stimulate a resonance effect on solar radiation; (3) Amplitude and frequency modulation analysis on solar radiation provides a series of resonance in the incoming solar radiation which may shift the glaciation cycles from 41-Kyr to 100-Kyr about 0.9 million years ago. These results are in good agreement with the marine and continental paleoclimate records. Thus, the proposed climate response to the combined amplitude and frequency modulation of the Earth's obliquity may be the key to understanding the glaciation puzzles in paleoclimatology.

  1. Simulation of Low-density Nozzle Plumes in Non-zero Ambient Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Chan-Hong; Dewitt, Kenneth J.; Stubbs, Robert M.; Penko, Paul F.

    1994-01-01

    The direct simulation Monte-Carlo (DSMC) method was applied to the analysis of low-density nitrogen plumes exhausting from a small converging-diverging nozzle into finite ambient pressures. Two cases were considered that simulated actual test conditions in a vacuum facility. The numerical simulations readily captured the complicated flow structure of the overexpanded plumes adjusting to the finite ambient pressures, including Mach disks and barrel shaped shocks. The numerical simulations compared well to experimental data of Rothe.

  2. Simulation of low-density nozzle plumes in non-zero ambient pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Chan-Hong; Dewitt, Kenneth J.; Stubbs, Robert M.; Penko, Paul F.

    1994-02-01

    The direct simulation Monte-Carlo (DSMC) method was applied to the analysis of low-density nitrogen plumes exhausting from a small converging-diverging nozzle into finite ambient pressures. Two cases were considered that simulated actual test conditions in a vacuum facility. The numerical simulations readily captured the complicated flow structure of the overexpanded plumes adjusting to the finite ambient pressures, including Mach disks and barrel shaped shocks. The numerical simulations compared well to experimental data of Rothe.

  3. The effects of a non-zero cosmological constant on the Veltmann models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingam, Manasvi

    2014-10-01

    The Veltmann models, which include the Plummer and Hernquist models as special cases, are studied in the presence of a cosmological constant. Physically relevant quantities such as the velocity dispersion profiles and the anisotropy parameter are computed through the use of the self-consistent approach. The cut-off radii for these models and the mass contained within this volume are also calculated. It is shown that the inclusion of a cosmological constant leads to many observable quantities such as the surface density, dispersion profiles and the anisotropy parameter becoming increasingly modified. In some scenarios, they are easily distinguished from the case where the cosmological constant is absent, as a result of their non-monotonic behaviour. The effects of neighbouring gravitational systems on the central system are also studied, and compared against the effects arising from the cosmological constant. Consequently, it is suggested that the effects of a cosmological constant can prove to be quite important when modelling dilute collisionless systems.

  4. Persistently Auxetic Materials: Engineering the Poisson Ratio of 2D Self-Avoiding Membranes under Conditions of Non-Zero Anisotropic Strain.

    PubMed

    Ulissi, Zachary W; Govind Rajan, Ananth; Strano, Michael S

    2016-08-23

    Entropic surfaces represented by fluctuating two-dimensional (2D) membranes are predicted to have desirable mechanical properties when unstressed, including a negative Poisson's ratio ("auxetic" behavior). Herein, we present calculations of the strain-dependent Poisson ratio of self-avoiding 2D membranes demonstrating desirable auxetic properties over a range of mechanical strain. Finite-size membranes with unclamped boundary conditions have positive Poisson's ratio due to spontaneous non-zero mean curvature, which can be suppressed with an explicit bending rigidity in agreement with prior findings. Applying longitudinal strain along a singular axis to this system suppresses this mean curvature and the entropic out-of-plane fluctuations, resulting in a molecular-scale mechanism for realizing a negative Poisson's ratio above a critical strain, with values significantly more negative than the previously observed zero-strain limit for infinite sheets. We find that auxetic behavior persists over surprisingly high strains of more than 20% for the smallest surfaces, with desirable finite-size scaling producing surfaces with negative Poisson's ratio over a wide range of strains. These results promise the design of surfaces and composite materials with tunable Poisson's ratio by prestressing platelet inclusions or controlling the surface rigidity of a matrix of 2D materials. PMID:27428003

  5. Oblique dust density waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piel, Alexander; Arp, Oliver; Menzel, Kristoffer; Klindworth, Markus

    2007-11-01

    We report on experimental observations of dust density waves in a complex (dusty) plasma under microgravity. The plasma is produced in a radio-frequency parallel-plate discharge (argon, p=15Pa, U=65Vpp). Different sizes of dust particles were used (3.4 μm and 6.4μm diameter). The low-frequency (f 11Hz) dust density waves are naturally unstable modes, which are driven by the ion flow in the plasma. Surprisingly, the wave propagation direction is aligned with the ion flow direction in the bulk plasma but becomes oblique at the boundary of the dust cloud with an inclination of 60^o with respect to the plasma boundary. The experimental results are compared with a kinetic model in the electrostatic approximation [1] and a fluid model [2]. Moreover, the role of dust surface waves is discussed. [1] M. Rosenberg, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 631 (1996) [2] A. Piel et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 205009 (2006)

  6. Proton beam generation of oblique whistler waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, H. K.; Goldstein, M. L.

    1988-01-01

    It is known that ion beams are capable of generating whistler waves that propagate parallel to the mean magnetic field. Such waves may have been observed both upstream of the earth's bow shock and in the vicinity of comets. Previous analyses are extended to include propagation oblique to the mean magnetic field. The instability is generated by the perpendicular component of free energy in the ions, which can arise either via a temperature anisotropy or via a gyrating distribution. In the former case, the generation of whistler waves is confined to a fairly narrow cone of propagation directions centered about parallel propagation; in the latter case, the maximum growth of the instability can occur at fairly large obliquities (theta equal to about 50 deg).

  7. Habitable planets with high obliquities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. M.; Kasting, J. F.

    1997-01-01

    Earth's obliquity would vary chaotically from 0 degrees to 85 degrees were it not for the presence of the Moon (J. Laskar, F. Joutel, and P. Robutel, 1993, Nature 361, 615-617). The Moon itself is thought to be an accident of accretion, formed by a glancing blow from a Mars-sized planetesimal. Hence, planets with similar moons and stable obliquities may be extremely rare. This has lead Laskar and colleagues to suggest that the number of Earth-like planets with high obliquities and temperate, life-supporting climates may be small. To test this proposition, we have used an energy-balance climate model to simulate Earth's climate at obliquities up to 90 degrees. We show that Earth's climate would become regionally severe in such circumstances, with large seasonal cycles and accompanying temperature extremes on middle- and high-latitude continents which might be damaging to many forms of life. The response of other, hypothetical, Earth-like planets to large obliquity fluctuations depends on their land-sea distribution and on their position within the habitable zone (HZ) around their star. Planets with several modest-sized continents or equatorial supercontinents are more climatically stable than those with polar supercontinents. Planets farther out in the HZ are less affected by high obliquities because their atmospheres should accumulate CO2 in response to the carbonate-silicate cycle. Dense, CO2-rich atmospheres transport heat very effectively and therefore limit the magnitude of both seasonal cycles and latitudinal temperature gradients. We conclude that a significant fraction of extrasolar Earth-like planets may still be habitable, even if they are subject to large obliquity fluctuations.

  8. Proton Acceleration at Oblique Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galinsky, V. L.; Shevchenko, V. I.

    2011-06-01

    Acceleration at the shock waves propagating oblique to the magnetic field is studied using a recently developed theoretical/numerical model. The model assumes that resonant hydromagnetic wave-particle interaction is the most important physical mechanism relevant to motion and acceleration of particles as well as to excitation and damping of waves. The treatment of plasma and waves is self-consistent and time dependent. The model uses conservation laws and resonance conditions to find where waves will be generated or damped, and hence particles will be pitch-angle-scattered. The total distribution is included in the model and neither introduction of separate population of seed particles nor some ad hoc escape rate of accelerated particles is needed. Results of the study show agreement with diffusive shock acceleration models in the prediction of power spectra for accelerated particles in the upstream region. However, they also reveal the presence of spectral break in the high-energy part of the spectra. The role of the second-order Fermi-like acceleration at the initial stage of the acceleration is discussed. The test case used in the paper is based on ISEE-3 data collected for the shock of 1978 November 12.

  9. PROTON ACCELERATION AT OBLIQUE SHOCKS

    SciTech Connect

    Galinsky, V. L.; Shevchenko, V. I.

    2011-06-20

    Acceleration at the shock waves propagating oblique to the magnetic field is studied using a recently developed theoretical/numerical model. The model assumes that resonant hydromagnetic wave-particle interaction is the most important physical mechanism relevant to motion and acceleration of particles as well as to excitation and damping of waves. The treatment of plasma and waves is self-consistent and time dependent. The model uses conservation laws and resonance conditions to find where waves will be generated or damped, and hence particles will be pitch-angle-scattered. The total distribution is included in the model and neither introduction of separate population of seed particles nor some ad hoc escape rate of accelerated particles is needed. Results of the study show agreement with diffusive shock acceleration models in the prediction of power spectra for accelerated particles in the upstream region. However, they also reveal the presence of spectral break in the high-energy part of the spectra. The role of the second-order Fermi-like acceleration at the initial stage of the acceleration is discussed. The test case used in the paper is based on ISEE-3 data collected for the shock of 1978 November 12.

  10. Comparison of Chevron and Distal Oblique Osteotomy for Bunion Correction.

    PubMed

    Scharer, Brandon M; DeVries, J George

    2016-01-01

    The chevron osteotomy is a standard procedure by which bunions are corrected. One of us routinely performs a distal oblique osteotomy, which, to the best of our knowledge, has not been described for the correction of bunion deformities. The purpose of the present study was to compare the short- and medium-term results of the distal oblique and chevron osteotomies for bunion correction. We performed a retrospective clinical and radiographic comparison of patients who had undergone a distal oblique or chevron osteotomy for the correction of bunion deformity. In addition, a prospective patient satisfaction survey was undertaken. A total of 55 patients were included in the present study and were treated from January 2012 to November 2014. Of the 55 patients, 27 (49.2%) were in the chevron group and 28 (50.8%) in the distal oblique group. Radiographically, no statistically significant difference was found between the 2 groups with respect to postoperative first intermetatarsal angle (p < .0001) and hallux valgus angle (p < .0001), but a greater change was found in the intermetatarsal angle in the distal oblique group (p = .467). Prospective patient satisfaction scores were available for 33 patients (60%), 16 (29%) in the chevron group and 17 (31%) in the distal oblique group. When converting the satisfaction score to a numerical score, the chevron group scored 3.3 ± 1.1 and the distal oblique group scored 3.2 ± 0.8 (p = .812). We found that the distal oblique osteotomy used in the present study is simple and reliable and showed radiographic correction and patient satisfaction equivalent to those in the chevron osteotomy. PMID:26972755

  11. Obliquely incident ion beam figuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lin; Dai, Yifan; Xie, Xuhui; Li, Shengyi

    2015-10-01

    A new ion beam figuring (IBF) technique, obliquely incident IBF (OI-IBF), is proposed. In OI-IBF, the ion beam bombards the optical surface obliquely with an invariable incident angle instead of perpendicularly as in the normal IBF. Due to the higher removal rate in oblique incidence, the process time in OI-IBF can be significantly shortened. The removal rates at different incident angles were first tested, and then a test mirror was processed by OI-IBF. Comparison shows that in the OI-IBF technique with a 30 deg incident angle, the process time was reduced by 56.8%, while keeping the same figure correcting ability. The experimental results indicate that the OI-IBF technique is feasible and effective to improve the surface correction process efficiency.

  12. Effects of oblique wave propagation on the nonlinear plasma resonance in the two-dimensional channel of the Dyakonov-Shur detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupper, Greg; Rudin, Sergey; Crowne, Frank J.

    2012-12-01

    In the Dyakonov-Shur terahertz detector the conduction channel of a heterostructure High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) is used as a plasma wave resonator for density oscillations in electron gas. Nonlinearities in the plasma wave propagation lead to a constant source-to-drain voltage, providing the detector output. In this paper, we start with the quasi-classical Boltzmann equation and derive the hydrodynamic model with temperature dependent transport coefficients for a two-dimensional viscous flow. This derivation allows us to obtain the parameters for the hydrodynamic model from the band-structure of the HEMT channel. The treatment here also includes the energy balance equation into the analysis. By numerical solution of the hydrodynamic equations with a non-zero boundary current we evaluate the detector response function and obtain the temperature dependence of the plasma resonance. The present treatment extends the theory of Dyakonov-Shur plasma resonator and detector to account for the temperature dependence of viscosity, the effects of oblique wave propagation on detector response, and effects of boundary current in two-dimensional flow on quality of the plasma resonance. The numerical results are given for a GaN channel. We also investigated a stability of source to drain flow and formation of shock waves.

  13. Testing obliquity-tuned timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeeden, Christian; Meyers, Stephen R.; Lourens, Lucas J.; Hilgen, Frederik J.

    2016-04-01

    Astrochronology seeks to use rhythmic sedimentary alterations to provide high-resolution age models, and this method now provides a backbone for much of the Cenozoic and Mesozoic time scale. While a range of methods for orbital tuning are available, a common approach is to directly match observed sedimentary alternations to target curves from astronomical computations, followed by evaluation of amplitude modulations (AM) as a means of verification. A quantitative test for precession-eccentricity modulations in astronomically-tuned data has been recently developed, however, a similar test for obliquity is lacking. Here, we introduce an algorithm for obliquity AM assessment, which avoids effects of obliquity frequency modulation that can artificially mimic the expected AM. The approach can be used to test for correlation with the theoretical astronomical solution in a way similar to the precession AM method. Obliquity is an especially dominant component of orbitally-driven climate variability in the early Quaternary; here Quaternary models and climate proxy records are used to evaluate the reliability of the proposed method.

  14. Finding the true spin-lattice relaxation time for half-integral nuclei with non-zero quadrupole couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yesinowski, James P.

    2015-03-01

    Measuring true spin-lattice relaxation times T1 of half-integral quadrupolar nuclei having non-zero nuclear quadrupole coupling constants (NQCCs) presents challenges due to the presence of satellite-transitions (STs) that may lie outside the excitation bandwidth of the central transition (CT). This leads to complications in establishing well-defined initial conditions for the population differences in these multi-level systems. In addition, experiments involving magic-angle spinning (MAS) can introduce spin exchange due to zero-crossings of the ST and CT (or possibly rotational resonance recoupling in the case of multiple sites) and greatly altered initial conditions as well. An extensive comparison of pulse sequences that have been previously used to measure T1 in such systems is reported, using the 71Ga (I = 3/2) NMR of a Ge-doped h-GaN n-type semiconductor sample as the test case. The T1 values were measured at the peak maximum of the Knight shift distribution. Analytical expressions for magnetization-recovery of the CT appropriate to the pulse sequences tested were used, involving contributions from both a magnetic relaxation mechanism (rate constant W) and a quadrupolar one (rate constants W1 and W2, approximately equal in this case). An asynchronous train of high-power saturating pulses under MAS that is able to completely saturate both CT and STs is found to be the most reliable and accurate method for obtaining the "true T1", defined here as (2W + 2W1,2)-1. All other methods studied yielded poor agreement with this "true T1" value or even resulted in gross errors, for reasons that are analyzed in detail. These methods involved a synchronous train of saturating pulses under MAS, an inversion-recovery sequence under MAS or static conditions, and a saturating comb of pulses on a static sample. Although the present results were obtained on a sample where the magnetic relaxation mechanism dominated the quadrupolar one, the asynchronous saturating pulse train

  15. Asymmetric kinetic equilibria: Generalization of the BAS model for rotating magnetic profile and non-zero electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Dorville, Nicolas Belmont, Gérard; Aunai, Nicolas; Dargent, Jérémy; Rezeau, Laurence

    2015-09-15

    ) 20, 110702 (2013)], and more recently in a fully kinetic simulation as well [J. Dargent and N. Aunai, Phys. Plasmas (submitted)]. Nevertheless, in most asymmetric layers like the terrestrial magnetopause, one would indeed expect a magnetic field rotation from one direction to another without going through zero [J. Berchem and C. T. Russell, J. Geophys. Res. 87, 8139–8148 (1982)], and a non-zero normal electric field. In this paper, we propose the corresponding generalization: in the model presented, the profiles can be freely imposed for the magnetic field rotation (although restricted to a 180 rotation hitherto) and for the normal electric field. As it was done previously, the equilibrium is tested with a hybrid simulation.

  16. Asymmetric kinetic equilibria: Generalization of the BAS model for rotating magnetic profile and non-zero electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorville, Nicolas; Belmont, Gérard; Aunai, Nicolas; Dargent, Jérémy; Rezeau, Laurence

    2015-09-01

    , 110702 (2013)], and more recently in a fully kinetic simulation as well [J. Dargent and N. Aunai, Phys. Plasmas (submitted)]. Nevertheless, in most asymmetric layers like the terrestrial magnetopause, one would indeed expect a magnetic field rotation from one direction to another without going through zero [J. Berchem and C. T. Russell, J. Geophys. Res. 87, 8139-8148 (1982)], and a non-zero normal electric field. In this paper, we propose the corresponding generalization: in the model presented, the profiles can be freely imposed for the magnetic field rotation (although restricted to a 180 rotation hitherto) and for the normal electric field. As it was done previously, the equilibrium is tested with a hybrid simulation.

  17. Oblique lumbar spine radiographs: importance in young patients

    SciTech Connect

    Libson, E.; Bloom, R.A.; Dinari, G.; Robin, G.C.

    1984-04-01

    Spondylolysis is a direct precursor of spondylolisthesis and can lead to crippling back pain. Of 1,743 patients surveyed, including 936 who were asymptomatic and 807 with back pain, 165 (including 91 who were asymptomatic and 74 with back pain) had spondylolysis, which was seen only on oblique lumbar views in 20% of cases. Because of the high false-negative rate of AP and lateral views, oblique views are essential in children and young adults. As spondylolysis is rare above L3, radiographs can be limited to L3-S1. Significantly less spondylolysis was seen in persons older than 30 with back pain usually caused by disk degeneration.

  18. Oblique Photogrammetry and Usage on Land Administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisa, A.; Ozmus, L.; Erkek, B.; Ates, H. B.; Bakici, S.

    2013-08-01

    Projects based on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have started within the body of the General Directorate of Land Registry and Cadastre (GDLRC) by the Land Registry and Cadastre Information System (LRCIS) in the beginning of 2000s. LRCIS was followed by other projects which are Turkish National Geographic Information System (TNGIS), Continuously Operating GPS Reference Stations (CORS-TR), Geo Metadata Portal (GMP), Orthophoto Web Services, Completion of Initial Cadastre, Cadastre Renovation Project (CRP), 2B and Land Registry Achieve Information System (LRAIS). When examining the projects generated by GDLRC, it is realized that they include basic functions of land administration required for sustainable development. Sustainable development is obtained through effective land administration as is known. Nowadays, land use becomes more intense as a result of rapid population increase. The importance of land ownership has increased accordingly. At this point, the necessity of cadastre appears. In Turkey, cadastral registration is carried out by the detection of parcels. In other words, it is obtained through the division of land surface into 2D boundaries and mapping of them. However, existing land administration systems have begun to lose their efficiency while coping with rights, restrictions and responsibilities (RRRs) belonging to land which become more complicated day by day. Overlapping and interlocking constructions appear particularly in urban areas with dense housing and consequently, the problem of how to project these structures onto the surface in 2D cadastral systems has arisen. Herein, the necessity of 3D cadastre concept and 3D property data is confronted. In recent years, oblique photogrammetry, whose applications are gradually spreading, is used as an effective method for producing 3D data. In this study, applications of oblique photogrammetry and usability of oblique images as base for 3D Cadastre and Land Administration projects are examined.

  19. Anaglyph videoanimations from oblique stereoimages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vozenilek, Vit; Kralik, Tomas

    2015-03-01

    The paper deals with the approach of compiling of animations from a pair of oblique stereoimages. The authors investigated as simple and cheap way as possible to develop such approach which will be available for wide scope of ordinary users with common equipment. They concentrated on three procedures of oblique stereoimage handling to compile sets of images, animations and analogue documents. After capturing construction site by a pair of web cameras the data were corrected, photogrammetrically adjusted (due to radial distortion) and exported. Firstly, a set of anaglyphic images were compiled, then they were trimmed and timeline was inserted. The final anaglyph animations are compiled in various versions. In addition, an anaglyphic book containing 150 images was created in a special way that the user can easily browse through its content. The main outputs are several unique anaglyph products, but more beneficial outputs are developed procedures of anaglyph visualization that can be applied with minor modifications to photographing of any objects.

  20. Oblique focus ICCD laboratory evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    York, D. G.

    1982-01-01

    An oblique focus intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) was constructed and operated in a vacuum system. Special gratings were obtained and an optical system set up to try to model a candidate UV spectrometer (Milieu Interstellaire et Intergalactique-MISIG), and to produce small enough images to test the theoretical subpixel resolution capability of the ICCD system. The efforts were only partly successful. Based on the results, a similar detector was built and flown successfully on a Princeton rocket program.

  1. DEM simulation of oblique boudinage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komoroczi, Andrea; Abe, Steffen; Urai, Janos L.

    2013-04-01

    Boudinage occurs in mechanically layered rocks if there is a component of lengthening parallel to a brittle layer in a ductile matrix. Asymmetric boudin structures develop if the extension is not layer-parallel, and the boudin blocks rotate. The amount of block rotation is commonly used as shear indicators; therefore, it has been well studied. However, full oblique boudinage has not been modeled yet. We simulated full boudinage processes during layer oblique extension using DEM simulation software. In our boudinage model, the initial setup consists of three layers: there is a brittle center oblique layer in a ductile matrix. We simulated horizontal extension by applying vertical displacement: the top and bottom boundaries of the model are moved at a constant velocity, while the side boundaries were force controlled by applying a constant confining force. By varying the cohesion of the competent layer, various type and shape of boudin blocks were developed. By varying the angle of the competent layer, the rotation of the boudin blocks changed. With higher dip of the competent layer, the rotation of the boudin blocks is more consistent. We also studied the stress field during the simulation. The results show, that in case of ductile material, the disruptions of the layer are driven by the angle of the layer and not the orientation of the external stress field.

  2. History of the earth's obliquity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, George E.

    1993-03-01

    The evolution of the obliquity of the ecliptic (ɛ), the Earth's axial tilt of 23.5°, may have greatly influenced the Earth's dynamical, climatic and biotic development. For ɛ > 54°, climatic zonation and zonal surface winds would be reversed, low to equatorial latitudes would be glaciated in preference to high latitudes, and the global seasonal cycle would be greatly amplified. Phanerozoic palaeoclimates were essentially uniformitarian in regard to obliquity, with normal climatic zonation and zonal surface winds, circum-polar glaciation and little seasonal change in low latitudes. Milankovitch-band periodicity in early Palaeozoic evaporites implies ɛ¯≈ 26.4 ± 2.1°at ˜ 430 Ma, suggesting that the obliquity during most of Phanerozoic time was comparable to the present value. By contrast, the paradoxical Late Proterozoic (˜ 800-600Ma) glacial environment— frigid, strongly seasonal climates, with permafrost and grounded ice-sheets near sea level preferentially in low to equatorial palaeolatitudes—implies glaciation with ɛ > 54° (assuming a geocentric axial dipolar magnetic field). Palaeotidal data accord with a large obliquity in Late Proterozoic time. Indeed, Proterozoic palaeoclimates in general appear non-uniformitarian with respect to climatic zonation, consistent with ɛ > 54°. The primordial Earth's obliquity is unconstrained by the widely-accepted single-giant-impact hypothesis for the origin of the Moon; an impact-induced obliquity ≳ 70° is possible, depending on the impact parameters. Subsequent evolution of ɛ depends on the relative magnitudes of the rate of obliquity-increase ɛ caused by tidal friction, and the rate of decrease ɛ due to dissipative core-mantle torques during precession (ɛ < 90° is required for precessional torques to move ɛ toward 0°). Proterozoic palaeotidal data indicate ɛ ≈ 0.0003-0.0006″/cy (seconds of arc per century) during most of Earth history, only half the rate estimated using the modern, large

  3. Clinical anatomy of the internal oblique muscle.

    PubMed

    Ramasastry, S S; Granick, M S; Futrell, J W

    1986-01-01

    In recent years microvascular free tissue transfer has become a well accepted reconstructive technique. The current trend in flap research seems to be the development of more refined flaps to meet specific needs with minimal donor site morbidity. The internal oblique muscle provides a broad, thin, well-vascularized flap which is ideally suited for restoration of contour with excellent aesthetic results. In addition, the iliac crest may be raised in continuity based on the same vascular pedicle, i.e. the deep circumflex iliac vessels. The purpose of this article is to describe the anatomic details necessary for the clinical application of this versatile flap. Thirty specimens of the internal oblique muscle flap were dissected and studied using Microfil injection techniques, including xerograms. In about 80 percent of the flaps, a single ascending branch of the deep circumflex iliac artery (DCIA) enters the undersurface of the muscle, arborizing within the muscle. In the remaining 20 percent, two or three branches enter the muscle separately, originating on the DCIA. The arc of rotation extends into the ipsilateral groin for coverage of exposed femoral vessels, along the pubis and the anterior perineum. The length of the vascular pedicle is to 6 to 7 cm and the vessel diameter is 2.0 to 3.0 mm, making the flap suitable for free tissue transfer. PMID:2935630

  4. Strike-Slip Fault Patterns on Europa: Obliquity or Polar Wander?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhoden, Alyssa Rose; Hurford, Terry A.; Manga, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Variations in diurnal tidal stress due to Europa's eccentric orbit have been considered as the driver of strike-slip motion along pre-existing faults, but obliquity and physical libration have not been taken into account. The first objective of this work is to examine the effects of obliquity on the predicted global pattern of fault slip directions based on a tidal-tectonic formation model. Our second objective is to test the hypothesis that incorporating obliquity can reconcile theory and observations without requiring polar wander, which was previously invoked to explain the mismatch found between the slip directions of 192 faults on Europa and the global pattern predicted using the eccentricity-only model. We compute predictions for individual, observed faults at their current latitude, longitude, and azimuth with four different tidal models: eccentricity only, eccentricity plus obliquity, eccentricity plus physical libration, and a combination of all three effects. We then determine whether longitude migration, presumably due to non-synchronous rotation, is indicated in observed faults by repeating the comparisons with and without obliquity, this time also allowing longitude translation. We find that a tidal model including an obliquity of 1.2?, along with longitude migration, can predict the slip directions of all observed features in the survey. However, all but four faults can be fit with only 1? of obliquity so the value we find may represent the maximum departure from a lower time-averaged obliquity value. Adding physical libration to the obliquity model improves the accuracy of predictions at the current locations of the faults, but fails to predict the slip directions of six faults and requires additional degrees of freedom. The obliquity model with longitude migration is therefore our preferred model. Although the polar wander interpretation cannot be ruled out from these results alone, the obliquity model accounts for all observations with a value

  5. 9. OBLIQUE VIEW, PARTIAL WEST SPAN, FROM SOUTHWEST, SHOWING TRUSS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. OBLIQUE VIEW, PARTIAL WEST SPAN, FROM SOUTHWEST, SHOWING TRUSS PANELS AND SOLID CONFIGURATION OF TRUSS MEMBERS, INCLUDING POLYGONAL TOP CHORD, VERTICAL AND DIAGONAL MEMBERS, AND CROSS-STRUTS - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  6. Oblique partial east elevation of Castle Garden Bridge, from south, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique partial east elevation of Castle Garden Bridge, from south, showing structural configuration of Pratt truss, including typical panels, downstream end of squared cut stone masonry center pier, and squared cut stone masonry north abutment - Castle Garden Bridge, Township Route 343 over Bennetts Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek, Driftwood, Cameron County, PA

  7. Oblique view, west elevation, from northwest, showing Pratt truss configuration ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view, west elevation, from northwest, showing Pratt truss configuration of north and south spans, including verticals with lacing bars, endposts, diagonals, and north portal - Castle Garden Bridge, Township Route 343 over Bennetts Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek, Driftwood, Cameron County, PA

  8. Analysis of oblique hypervelocity impact phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schonberg, William P.; Taylor, Roy A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the results of an experimental investigation of phenomena associated with the oblique hypervelocity impact of spherical projectiles on multisheet aluminum structures. A model that can be employed in the design of meteoroid and space debris protection systems for space structures is developed. The model consists of equations that relate crater and perforation damage of a multisheet structure to parameters such as projectile size, impact velocity, and trajectory obliquity. The equations are obtained through a regression analysis of oblique hypervelocity impact test data. This data shows that the response of a multisheet structure to oblique impact is significantly different from its response to normal hypervelocity impact. It was found that obliquely incident projectiles produce ricochet debris that can severely damage panels or instrumentation located on the exterior of a space structure. Obliquity effects of high-speed impact must, therefore, be considered in the design of any structure exposed to a meteoroid or space debris environement.

  9. An investigation of oblique hypervelocity impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schonberg, William P.

    1987-01-01

    This report describes the results of an investigation of phenomena associated with the oblique hypervelocity impact of spherical projectiles on multi-sheet aluminum structures. A model to be employed in the design of meteoroid and space debris protection systems for space structures is developed. The model consists of equations relating crater and perforation damage of a multi-sheet structure to parameters such as projectile size, impact velocity, and trajectory obliquity. The equations are obtained through a regression analysis of oblique hypervelocity impact test data. This data shows that the response of a multi-sheet structure to oblique impact is significantly different from its response to normal hypervelocity impact. It was found that obliquely incident projectiles produce ricochet debris that can severely damage panels or instrumentation located on the exterior of a space structure. Obliquity effects of high-speed impact must, therefore, be considered in the design of any structure exposed to the hazardous meteoroid and space debris environment.

  10. The Blume Emery Griffiths model at an infinitely many ground states interface and exponential decay of correlations at all non-zero temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, Gastão A.; Lima, Paulo C.

    2003-09-01

    In this paper we study the spin-spin correlation function decay properties of the Blume-Emery-Griffiths (BEG) model with Hamiltonian located on the interface between the disordered and the anti-quadrupolar phases. On this interface, the BEG model has infinitely many ground state configurations. We show that, for any dimension d, there exists a parameter value, yd, below which the spin-spin correlation function with zero boundary condition decays exponentially fast at all non-zero temperatures. This result suggests that reentrant behaviour predicted by mean-field and numerical calculations may be absent for those values of parameters.

  11. Obliquity Variations of Extrasolar Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Chambers, John E.

    2004-01-01

    A planet's obliquity, which is the angle between its orbital angular momentum and its rotational angular momentum, is an important factor in determining its climate and habitability. For small obliquities, as well as obliquities close to 180 degrees, the planet receives more radiant energy from its star at equatorial latitudes than near its poles, whereas the poles are heated the most for obliquities near 90 degrees. Jacques Laskar has analyzed possible obliquity variations of the planets in our Solar System. His study also considers the same planets with different rotational periods, and the Earth without the Moon. He finds, using frequency map analysis, that the obliquity of the Earth is stabilized by the Moon, and can vary by at most a few degrees. In contrast, the obliquity of Mars can range from 0 to 60 degrees, and a hypothetical moonless Earth's axial tilt could be close to 0 degrees or as large as 85 degrees. Numerical integrations by Laskar and others have shown that Mars' obliquity indeed varies over most of its permitted range on time scales of tens of millions of years. In contrast, our analysis shows that the obliquity of a moonless Earth appears to be confined to the range of approximately 12 - 38 degrees over time scales of 100 million years. Results of ongoing longer integrations will be presented, and their implications discussed.

  12. Document segmentation via oblique cuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svendsen, Jeremy; Branzan-Albu, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel solution for the layout segmentation of graphical elements in Business Intelligence documents. We propose a generalization of the recursive X-Y cut algorithm, which allows for cutting along arbitrary oblique directions. An intermediate processing step consisting of line and solid region removal is also necessary due to presence of decorative elements. The output of the proposed segmentation is a hierarchical structure which allows for the identification of primitives in pie and bar charts. The algorithm was tested on a database composed of charts from business documents. Results are very promising.

  13. History of the earth's obliquity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, George E.

    1993-03-01

    The evolution of the obliquity of the ecliptic (ɛ), the Earth's axial tilt of 23.5°, may have greatly influenced the Earth's dynamical, climatic and biotic development. For ɛ > 54°, climatic zonation and zonal surface winds would be reversed, low to equatorial latitudes would be glaciated in preference to high latitudes, and the global seasonal cycle would be greatly amplified. Phanerozoic palaeoclimates were essentially uniformitarian in regard to obliquity, with normal climatic zonation and zonal surface winds, circum-polar glaciation and little seasonal change in low latitudes. Milankovitch-band periodicity in early Palaeozoic evaporites implies ɛ¯≈ 26.4 ± 2.1°at ˜ 430 Ma, suggesting that the obliquity during most of Phanerozoic time was comparable to the present value. By contrast, the paradoxical Late Proterozoic (˜ 800-600Ma) glacial environment— frigid, strongly seasonal climates, with permafrost and grounded ice-sheets near sea level preferentially in low to equatorial palaeolatitudes—implies glaciation with ɛ > 54° (assuming a geocentric axial dipolar magnetic field). Palaeotidal data accord with a large obliquity in Late Proterozoic time. Indeed, Proterozoic palaeoclimates in general appear non-uniformitarian with respect to climatic zonation, consistent with ɛ > 54°. The primordial Earth's obliquity is unconstrained by the widely-accepted single-giant-impact hypothesis for the origin of the Moon; an impact-induced obliquity ≳ 70° is possible, depending on the impact parameters. Subsequent evolution of ɛ depends on the relative magnitudes of the rate of obliquity-increase ɛ caused by tidal friction, and the rate of decrease ɛ due to dissipative core-mantle torques during precession (ɛ < 90° is required for precessional torques to move ɛ toward 0°). Proterozoic palaeotidal data indicate ɛ ≈ 0.0003-0.0006″/cy (seconds of arc per century) during most of Earth history, only half the rate estimated using the modern, large

  14. The chaotic obliquity of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touma, J.; Wisdom, J.

    1993-02-01

    The discovery (by Laskar, 1989, 1990) that the evolution of the solar system is chaotic, made in a numerical integration of the averaged secular approximation of the equations of motions for the planets, was confirmed by Sussman and Wisdom (1992) by direct numerical integration of the whole solar system. This paper presents results of direct integrations of the rotation of Mars in the chaotically evolved planetary system, made using the same model as that used by Sussman and Wisdom. The numerical integration shows that the obliquity of Mars undergoes large chaotic variations, which occur as the system evolves in the chaotic zone associated with a secular spin-orbit resonance.

  15. Evaluation of the oblique detonation wave ramjet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, R. B.

    1978-01-01

    The potential performance of oblique detonation wave ramjets is analyzed in terms of multishock diffusion, oblique detonation waves, and heat release. Results are presented in terms of thrust coefficients and specific impulses for a range of flight Mach numbers of 6 to 16.

  16. Direct oblique sagittal CT of orbital wall fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, J.B. Jr.

    1987-03-01

    Direct oblique sagittal CT was used to evaluate trauma to 77 orbits. Sixty-seven orbital wall fractures with intact orbital rims (36 floor, 22 medial wall, nine roof) were identified in 47 orbits. Since persistent diplopia and/or enophthalmos may warrant surgical repair of orbital floor fractures, optimal imaging should include an evaluation of extraocular muscle status, the nature and amount of displaced orbital contents, and an accurate definition of fracture margins. For orbital floor fractures, a combination of the direct oblique sagittal and direct coronal projections optimally displayed all fracture margins, the fracture's relationship to the inferior orbital rim and medial orbital wall, and the amount of displacement into the maxillary sinus. Inferior rectus muscle status with 36 floor fractures was best seen on the direct oblique sagittal projection in 30 fractures (83.3%) and was equally well seen on sagittal and coronal projections in two fractures (5.5%). Floor fractures were missed on 100% of axial, 5.5% of sagittal, and 0% of coronal projections. Since the direct oblique sagittal projection complements the direct coronal projection in evaluating orbital floor fractures, it should not be performed alone. A technical approach to the CT evaluation or orbital wall fractures is presented.

  17. Obliquity Variations of a Moonless Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Barnes, J. W.; Chambers, J. E.

    2011-05-01

    We numerically explore the obliquity (axial tilt) variations of a hypothetical moonless Earth. Previous work has shown that the Earth's Moon stabilizes Earth's obliquity such that it remains within a narrow range, between 22.1° and 24.5°. Without lunar influence, a frequency map analysis by Laskar et al. (1993 Nature 361, 615) showed that the obliquity could vary between 0° and 85°. Using a modified version of the orbital integrator mercury, we calculate the obliquity evolution for moonless Earths with various initial conditions for up to 4 billion years. We find many configurations in which obliquity variations are small. This implies that moonless extrasolar planets may well have the climate stability thought to be required for the development of advanced life.

  18. Obliquity variations of a moonless Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Barnes, Jason W.; Chambers, John E.

    2012-01-01

    We numerically explore the obliquity (axial tilt) variations of a hypothetical moonless Earth. Previous work has shown that the Earth's Moon stabilizes Earth's obliquity such that it remains within a narrow range, between 22.1° and 24.5°. Without lunar influence, a frequency map analysis by Laskar et al. (Laskar, J., Joutel, F., Robutel, P. [1993]. Nature 361, 615-617) showed that the obliquity could vary between 0° and 85°. This has left an impression in the astrobiology community that a big moon is necessary to maintain a habitable climate on an Earth-like planet. Using a modified version of the orbital integrator mercury, we calculate the obliquity evolution for moonless Earths with various initial conditions for up to 4 Gyr. We find that while obliquity varies significantly more than that of the actual Earth over 100,000 year timescales, the obliquity remains within a constrained range, typically 20-25° in extent, for timescales of hundreds of millions of years. None of our Solar System integrations in which planetary orbits behave in a typical manner show obliquity accessing more than 65% of the full range allowed by frequency-map analysis. The obliquities of moonless Earths that rotate in the retrograde direction are more stable than those of prograde rotators. The total obliquity range explored for moonless Earths with rotation periods less than 12 h is much less than that for slower-rotating moonless Earths. A large moon thus does not seem to be needed to stabilize the obliquity of an Earth-like planet on timescales relevant to the development of advanced life.

  19. Oblique View of Eros' Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image, showing an oblique view of Eros' large central crater, was taken at a resolution of about 20 meters (65 feet) per pixel. The brightness or albedo patterns on the walls of this crater are clearly visible, with the brighter materials near the tops of the walls and darker materials on the lower walls. Boulders are seen inside this crater and the smaller nearby craters. The higher density of craters to the left of the large crater implies that this region is older than the smoother area seen associated with the saddle region on the opposite side of the asteroid.

    Built and managed by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Maryland, NEAR was the first spacecraft launched in NASA's Discovery Program of low-cost, small-scale planetary missions. See the NEAR web page at http://near.jhuapl.edu for more details.

  20. Microwave Imaging under Oblique Illumination.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qingyang; Xu, Kuiwen; Shen, Fazhong; Zhang, Bin; Ye, Dexin; Huangfu, Jiangtao; Li, Changzhi; Ran, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    Microwave imaging based on inverse scattering problem has been attracting many interests in the microwave society. Among some major technical challenges, the ill-posed, multi-dimensional inversion algorithm and the complicated measurement setup are critical ones that prevent it from practical applications. In this paper, we experimentally investigate the performance of the subspace-based optimization method (SOM) for two-dimensional objects when it was applied to a setup designed for oblique incidence. Analytical, simulation, and experimental results show that, for 2D objects, neglecting the cross-polarization scattering will not cause a notable loss of information. Our method can be potentially used in practical imaging applications for 2D-like objects, such as human limbs. PMID:27399706

  1. Microwave Imaging under Oblique Illumination

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Qingyang; Xu, Kuiwen; Shen, Fazhong; Zhang, Bin; Ye, Dexin; Huangfu, Jiangtao; Li, Changzhi; Ran, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    Microwave imaging based on inverse scattering problem has been attracting many interests in the microwave society. Among some major technical challenges, the ill-posed, multi-dimensional inversion algorithm and the complicated measurement setup are critical ones that prevent it from practical applications. In this paper, we experimentally investigate the performance of the subspace-based optimization method (SOM) for two-dimensional objects when it was applied to a setup designed for oblique incidence. Analytical, simulation, and experimental results show that, for 2D objects, neglecting the cross-polarization scattering will not cause a notable loss of information. Our method can be potentially used in practical imaging applications for 2D-like objects, such as human limbs. PMID:27399706

  2. Carrier escape from ground state and non-zero resonance frequency at low bias powers for semiconductor quantum-dot lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Grillot, F.; Even, J.

    2012-06-01

    The three-dimensional confinement of electrons and holes in the semiconductor quantum dot (QD) structure profoundly changes its density of states compared to the bulk semiconductor or the thin-film quantum well (QW) structure. The aim of this paper is to theoretically investigate the microwave properties of InAs/InP(311B) QD lasers. A new expression of the modulation transfer function is derived for the analysis of QD laser modulation properties based on a set of four rate equations. Analytical calculations point out that carrier escape from ground state (GS) to excited state (ES) induces a non-zero resonance frequency at low bias powers. Calculations also show that the carrier escape leads to a larger damping factor offset as compared to conventional QW lasers. These results are of prime importance for a better understanding of the carrier dynamics in QD lasers as well as for further optimization of low cost sources for optical telecommunications.

  3. A Core-Offset Mach Zehnder Interferometer Based on A Non-Zero Dispersion-Shifted Fiber and Its Torsion Sensing Application

    PubMed Central

    Huerta-Mascotte, Eduardo; Sierra-Hernandez, Juan M.; Mata-Chavez, Ruth I.; Jauregui-Vazquez, Daniel; Castillo-Guzman, Arturo; Estudillo-Ayala, Julian M.; Guzman-Chavez, Ana D.; Rojas-Laguna, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an all-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) based on a non-zero dispersion-shifted fiber (NZ-DSF) is presented. The MZI was implemented by core-offset fusion splicing one section of a NZ-DSF fiber between two pieces of single mode fibers (SMFs). Here, the NZ-DSF core and cladding were used as the arms of the MZI, while the core-offset sections acted as optical fiber couplers. Thus, a MZI interference spectrum with a fringe contrast (FC) of about 20 dB was observed. Moreover, its response spectrum was experimentally characterized to the torsion parameter and a sensitivity of 0.070 nm/° was achieved. Finally, these MZIs can be implemented in a compact size and low cost. PMID:27294930

  4. Effects of the dark energy and flat rotation curve on the gravitational time delay of particle with non-zero mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Tamal; Ghosh, Shubhrangshu; Bhadra, Arunava

    2016-07-01

    The effects of several dark energy models on gravitational time delay of particles with non-zero mass are investigated and analytical expressions for the same are obtained at the first order accuracy. Also the expression for gravitational time delay under the influence of conformal gravity potential that well describes the flat rotation curve of spiral galaxies is derived. The findings suggest that (i) the conformal gravity description of dark matter reduces the net time delay in contrast to the effect of normal dark matter, and therefore in principle the models can be discriminated using gravitational time delay observations, and (ii) the effect of dark energy/flat rotation curve may be revealed from high-precision measurements of gravitational time delay of particles involving the megaparsec and beyond distance scale.

  5. A Core-Offset Mach Zehnder Interferometer Based on A Non-Zero Dispersion-Shifted Fiber and Its Torsion Sensing Application.

    PubMed

    Huerta-Mascotte, Eduardo; Sierra-Hernandez, Juan M; Mata-Chavez, Ruth I; Jauregui-Vazquez, Daniel; Castillo-Guzman, Arturo; Estudillo-Ayala, Julian M; Guzman-Chavez, Ana D; Rojas-Laguna, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an all-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) based on a non-zero dispersion-shifted fiber (NZ-DSF) is presented. The MZI was implemented by core-offset fusion splicing one section of a NZ-DSF fiber between two pieces of single mode fibers (SMFs). Here, the NZ-DSF core and cladding were used as the arms of the MZI, while the core-offset sections acted as optical fiber couplers. Thus, a MZI interference spectrum with a fringe contrast (FC) of about 20 dB was observed. Moreover, its response spectrum was experimentally characterized to the torsion parameter and a sensitivity of 0.070 nm/° was achieved. Finally, these MZIs can be implemented in a compact size and low cost. PMID:27294930

  6. Interaction of axial and oblique astigmatism in theoretical and physical eye models.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Thibos, Larry N

    2016-09-01

    The interaction between oblique and axial astigmatism was investigated analytically (generalized Coddington's equations) and numerically (ray tracing) for a theoretical eye model with a single refracting surface. A linear vector-summation rule for power vector descriptions of axial and oblique astigmatism was found to account for their interaction over the central 90° diameter of the visual field. This linear summation rule was further validated experimentally using a physical eye model measured with a laboratory scanning aberrometer. We then used the linear summation rule to evaluate the relative contributions of axial and oblique astigmatism to the total astigmatism measured across the central visual field. In the central visual field, axial astigmatism dominates because the oblique astigmatism is negligible near the optical axis. At intermediate eccentricities, axial and oblique astigmatism may have equal magnitude but orthogonal axes, which nullifies total astigmatism at two locations in the visual field. At more peripheral locations, oblique astigmatism dominates axial astigmatism, and the axes of total astigmatism become radially oriented, which is a trait of oblique astigmatism. When eccentricity is specified relative to a foveal line-of-sight that is displaced from the eye's optical axis, asymmetries in the visual field map of total astigmatism can be used to locate the optical axis empirically and to estimate the relative contributions of axial and oblique astigmatism at any retinal location, including the fovea. We anticipate the linear summation rule will benefit many topics in vision science (e.g., peripheral correction, emmetropization, meridional amblyopia) by providing improved understanding of how axial and oblique astigmatism interact to produce net astigmatism. PMID:27607493

  7. Oblique interactions of dust density waves

    SciTech Connect

    Li Yangfang; Wang Zhehui; Hou Lujing; Jiang Ke; Thomas, Hubertus M.; Morfill, Gregor E.; Wu Dejin

    2010-06-16

    Self-excited dust density waves (DDWs) are studied in a striped electrode device. In addition to the usual perpendicularly (with respect to the electrode) propagating DDWs, which have been frequently observed in dusty plasma experiments on the ground, a low-frequency oblique mode is also observed. This low-frequency oblique DDW has a frequency much lower than the dust plasma frequency and its spontaneous excitation is observed even with a very low dust density. It is found that the low-frequency oblique mode can exist either separately or together with the usual perpendicular mode. In the latter case, a new mode arises as a result of the interactions between the perpendicular and the oblique modes. The experiments show that these three modes satisfy the wave coupling conditions in both the frequencies and the wave-vectors.

  8. Graduated recession of the superior oblique muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Caldeira, J A

    1975-01-01

    Recession of the superior oblique was performed bilaterally in 12 patients with the A phenomenon and unilaterally in four patients with vertical imbalance. The results are discussed. Images PMID:1191613

  9. Oblique interactions of dust density waves

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhelchui; Li, Yang - Fang; Hou, Lujing; Jiang, Ke; Wu, De - Jin; Thomas, Hubertus M; Morfill, Gregor E

    2010-01-01

    Self-excited dust density waves (DDWs) are studied in a striped electrode device. In addition to the usual perpendicularly (with respect to the electrode) propagating DDWs, which have been frequently observed in dusty plasma experiments on the ground, a low-frequency oblique mode is also observed. This low-frequency oblique DDW has a frequency much lower than the dust plasma frequency and its spontaneous excitation is observed even with a very low dust density. It is found that the low-frequency oblique mode can exist either separately or together with the usual perpendicular mode. In the latter case, a new mode arises as a result of the interactions between the perpendicular and the oblique modes. The experiments show that these three modes satisfy the wave coupling conditions in both the frequencies and the wave-vectors.

  10. Oblique orthographic projections and contour plots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, G. L.

    1977-01-01

    Oblique orthographic projections allow model to be viewed in any selected orientation specified by Euler-angle transformation. This transformation resolves coordinate system of model to principal plane on which display is to be plotted.

  11. Obliquity Variations of a Rapidly Rotating Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quarles, Billy L.; Barnes, Jason W.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Chambers, John E.; Hedman, Matthew M.

    2016-05-01

    Venus clearly differs from Earth in terms of its spin and atmospheric composition, where the former is controlled by solid-body and atmospheric thermal tides. However, this may have been different during earlier stages of planetary evolution, when the Sun was fainter and the Venusian atmosphere was less massive. We investigate how the axial tilt, or obliquity, would have varied during this epoch considering a rapidly rotating Venus. Through numerical simulation of an ensemble of hypothetical Early Venuses, we find the obliquity variation to be simpler than a Moonless Earth (Lissauer et al., 2012). Most low-obliquity Venuses show very low total obliquity variability comparable to that of the real Moon-influenced Earth.

  12. Red Shifts with Obliquely Approaching Light Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Head, C. E.; Moore-Head, M. E.

    1988-01-01

    Refutes the Doppler effect as the explanation of large red shifts in the spectra of distant galaxies and explains the relativistic effects in which the light sources approach the observer obliquely. Provides several diagrams and graphs. (YP)

  13. Modal control of an oblique wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, James D.

    1989-01-01

    A linear modal control algorithm is applied to the NASA Oblique Wing Research Aircraft (OWRA). The control law is evaluated using a detailed nonlinear flight simulation. It is shown that the modal control law attenuates the coupling and nonlinear aerodynamics of the oblique wing and remains stable during control saturation caused by large command inputs or large external disturbances. The technique controls each natural mode independently allowing single-input/single-output techniques to be applied to multiple-input/multiple-output systems.

  14. Useful angular selectivity in oblique columnar aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditchburn, R. J.; Smith, G. B.

    1991-03-01

    A useful magnitude of angular selective transmittance of incident unpolarized light is demonstrated in obliquely deposited aluminum. Required deposition procedures and anisotropic optical properties are discussed. Angular selectivity is very strong at visible wavelengths but both experiment and theory indicate that a single oblique layer with well defined columns gives high transmittance at near-infrared wavelengths compared with normal films. There are ways of reducing this to enhance the energy control capability. Both solar and luminous angular selectivity are reported.

  15. The effect of polar caps on obliquity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindner, B. L.

    1993-01-01

    Rubincam has shown that the Martian obliquity is dependent on the seasonal polar caps. In particular, Rubincam analytically derived this dependence and showed that the change in obliquity is directly proportional to the seasonal polar cap mass. Rubincam concludes that seasonal friction does not appear to have changed Mars' climate significantly. Using a computer model for the evolution of the Martian atmosphere, Haberle et al. have made a convincing case for the possibility of huge polar caps, about 10 times the mass of the current polar caps, that exist for a significant fraction of the planet's history. Since Rubincam showed that the effect of seasonal friction on obliquity is directly proportional to polar cap mass, a scenario with a ten-fold increase in polar cap mass over a significant fraction of the planet's history would result in a secular increase in Mars' obliquity of perhaps 10 degrees. Hence, the Rubincam conclusion of an insignificant contribution to Mars' climate by seasonal friction may be incorrect. Furthermore, if seasonal friction is an important consideration in the obliquity of Mars, this would significantly alter the predictions of past obliquity.

  16. Segmentation and Reconstruction of Buildings with Aerial Oblique Photography Point Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, P.; Li, Y. C.; Hu, W.; Ding, X. B.

    2015-06-01

    Oblique photography technology as an excellent method for 3-D city model construction has brought itself to large-scale recognition and undeniable high social status. Tilt and vertical images with the high overlaps and different visual angles can produce a large number of dense matching point clouds data with spectral information. This paper presents a method of buildings reconstruction with stereo matching dense point clouds from aerial oblique images, which includes segmentation of buildings and reconstruction of building roofs. We summarize the characteristics of stereo matching point clouds from aerial oblique images and outline the problems with existing methods. Then we present the method for segmentation of building roofs, which based on colors and geometrical derivatives such as normal and curvature. Finally, a building reconstruction approach is developed based on the geometrical relationship. The experiment and analysis show that the methods are effective on building reconstruction with stereo matching point clouds from aerial oblique images.

  17. The transpressional strain model applied to strike-slip, oblique-convergent and oblique-divergent deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krantz, R. W.

    1995-08-01

    Zones of distributed shear deformation associated with strike-slip and oblique-convergent or oblique-divergent systems accommodate complex three-dimensional strains. Current models suggest that structural orientations within the zones depend on not only the magnitude of shear strain but also the degree of convergence or divergence. The transpressional strain model of Sanderson and Marchini is further developed here, and this study also focuses on relating structural orientations in map view to the magnitude of shear and the degree of convergence or divergence, and to the magnitudes of horizontal and vertical strains. Results include both the mathematical derivation and a set of nomograms relating the model parameters. Applications of the model to field examples and laboratory analogs show how the model can be used to determine the degree of convergence or divergence, and to calculate strain parameters. The model provides geologists with a method to evaluate and predict structural orientations, and to test map and cross-section interpretations.

  18. Accurate method for measuring oblique astigmatism and oblique power of ophthalmic lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wihardjo, Erning; Silva, Donald E.

    1991-12-01

    The measurement of oblique astigmatism error and its oblique power of ophthalmic lens under identical conditions of the human visual system--such as the distance from the center rotation of the eye to the back vertex surface of the lens--viewing distance, and lens aperture using a Mach Zehnder interferometer is describe.

  19. Hydrodynamic Instabilities at an Oblique Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuranz, Carolyn; di Stefano, Carlos; Wan, W. C.; Drake, R. P.; Malamud, G.; Shimony, A.; Shvarts, D.

    2015-11-01

    Hydrodynamic instabilities are an important phenomenon that have consequences in many high-energy-density systems, including astrophysical systems and inertial confinement fusion experiments. Using the Omega EP laser we have created a sustained shock platform to drive a steady shock wave using a ~ 30 ns laser pulse. Coupled with a Spherical Crystal Imager we have created high-resolution x-ray radiographs to diagnose the evolution of complex hydrodynamic structures. This experiment involves a hydrodynamically unstable interface at an oblique angle so that the Richtmyer-Meshkov and Kelvin-Helmholtz processes are present. A dual-mode perturbation is machined onto the interface and we seek to observe the merging of vertical structures. Preliminary data from recent experiments and simulations results will be shown. This work is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, through the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in High-Energy-Density Laboratory Plasmas, grant number DE-NA0001840, and the National Laser User Facility Program, grant number DE-NA0002032 and through the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester by the NNSA/OICF under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NA0001944.

  20. SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN vSHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN - Snake River Bridge at Lyons' Ferry, State Route 261 spanning Snake River, Starbuck, Columbia County, WA

  1. Titan's interior constrained from its obliquity and tidal Love number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baland, Rose-Marie; Coyette, Alexis; Yseboodt, Marie; Beuthe, Mikael; Van Hoolst, Tim

    2016-04-01

    In the last few years, the Cassini-Huygens mission to the Saturn system has measured the shape, the obliquity, the static gravity field, and the tidally induced gravity field of Titan. The large values of the obliquity and of the k2 Love number both point to the existence of a global internal ocean below the icy crust. In order to constrain interior models of Titan, we combine the above-mentioned data as follows: (1) we build four-layer density profiles consistent with Titan's bulk properties; (2) we determine the corresponding internal flattening compatible with the observed gravity and topography; (3) we compute the obliquity and tidal Love number for each interior model; (4) we compare these predictions with the observations. Previously, we found that Titan is more differentiated than expected (assuming hydrostatic equilibrium), and that its ocean is dense and less than 100 km thick. Here, we revisit these conclusions using a more complete Cassini state model, including: (1) gravitational and pressure torques due to internal tidal deformations; (2) atmosphere/lakes-surface exchange of angular momentum; (3) inertial torque due to Poincaré flow. We also adopt faster methods to evaluate Love numbers (i.e. the membrane approach) in order to explore a larger parameter space.

  2. An Analytical Study for Subsonic Oblique Wing Transport Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, E. S.; Honrath, J.; Tomlin, K. H.; Swift, G.; Shumpert, P.; Warnock, W.

    1976-01-01

    The oblique wing concept has been investigated for subsonic transport application for a cruise Mach number of 0.95. Three different mission applications were considered and the concept analyzed against the selected mission requirements. Configuration studies determined the best area of applicability to be a commercial passenger transport mission. The critical parameter for the oblique wing concept was found to be aspect ratio which was limited to a value of 6.0 due to aeroelastic divergence. Comparison of the concept final configuration was made with fixed winged configurations designed to cruise at Mach 0.85 and 0.95. The crossover Mach number for the oblique wing concept was found to be Mach 0.91 for takeoff gross weight and direct operating cost. Benefits include reduced takeoff distance, installed thrust and mission block fuel and improved community noise characteristics. The variable geometry feature enables the final configuration to increase range by 10% at Mach 0.712 and to increase endurance by as much as 44%.

  3. Viscosity Solutions for the One-Body Liouville Equation in Yang-Mills Charged Bianchi Models with Non-Zero Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayissi, Raoul Domingo; Noutchegueme, Norbert; Etoua, Remy Magloire; Tchagna, Hugues Paulin Mbeutcha

    2015-09-01

    Recently in 2005, Briani and Rampazzo (Nonlinear Differ Equ Appl 12:71-91, 2005) gave, using results of Crandall and Lions (Ill J Math 31:665-688, 1987), Ishii (Indiana Univ Math J 33: 721-748, 1984, Bull Fac Sci Eng 28: 33-77, 1985) and Ley (Adv Diff Equ 6:547-576, 2001) a density approach to Hamilton-Jacobi equations with t-measurable Hamiltonians. In this paper we show, using an important result of Briani and Rampazzo (Nonlinear Differ Equ Appl 12:71-91, 2005) the existence and uniqueness of viscosity solutions to the one-body Liouville relativistic equation in Yang-Mills charged Bianchi space times with non-zero mass. To our knowledge, the method used here is original and thus, totally different from those used in Alves (C R Acad Sci Paris Sér A 278:1151-1154, 1975), Choquet-Bruhat and Noutchegueme (C R Acad Sci Paris Sér I 311, 1973), Choquet-Bruhat and Noutchegueme (Ann Inst Henri Poincaré 55:759-787, 1991), Choquet-Bruhat and Noutchegueme (Pitman Res Notes Math Ser 253:52-71, 1992), Noutchegueme and Noundjeu (Ann Inst Henri Poincaré 1:385-404, 2000), Wollman (J Math Anal Appl 127:103-121, 1987) and Choquet-Bruhat (Existence and uniqueness for the Einstein-Maxwell-Liouville system. Volume dedicated to Petrov, Moscow, 1971) who have studied the same equation.

  4. How strong is localization in the integer quantum Hall effect: Relevant quantum corrections to conductivity in non-zero magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greshnov, A. A.; Kolesnikova, E. N.; Utesov, O. I.; Zegrya, G. G.

    2010-02-01

    The divergent at ω=0 quantum correction to conductivity δσ2(ω) of the leading order in (kFl)-1 has been calculated neglecting Cooperon-type contributions suppressed by moderate or strong magnetic field. In the so-called diffusion approximation this quantity is equal to zero up to the second order in (kFl)-1. More subtle treatment of the problem shows that δσ2(ω) is non-zero due to ballistic contributions neglected previously. Knowledge of δσ2(ω) allows to estimate value of the so-called unitary localization length as ξu≈lexp(1.6g2) where Drude conductivity is given by σ0=ge2/h. This estimation underpins the statement of the linear growth of σxx peaks with Landau level number n in the integer quantum Hall effect regime [1] (Greshnov and Zegrya, 2008; Greshnov et al., 2008) at least for n≤2 and calls Pruisken-Khmelnitskii hypothesis of universality [2] (Levine et al., 1983; Khmelnitskii, 1983) in question.

  5. Relativistic electron acceleration by oblique whistler waves

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Peter H.; Pandey, Vinay S.; Lee, Dong-Hun

    2013-11-15

    Test-particle simulations of electrons interacting with finite-amplitude, obliquely propagating whistler waves are carried out in order to investigate the acceleration of relativistic electrons by these waves. According to the present findings, an efficient acceleration of relativistic electrons requires a narrow range of oblique propagation angles, close to the whistler resonance cone angle, when the wave amplitude is held constant at relatively low value. For a constant wave propagation angle, it is found that a range of oblique whistler wave amplitudes permits the acceleration of relativistic electrons to O(MeV) energies. An initial distribution of test electrons is shown to form a power-law distribution when plotted in energy space. It is also found that the acceleration is largely uniform in electron pitch-angle space.

  6. F-8 oblique wing structural feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koltko, E.; Katz, A.; Bell, M. A.; Smith, W. D.; Lauridia, R.; Overstreet, C. T.; Klapprott, C.; Orr, T. F.; Jobe, C. L.; Wyatt, F. G.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of fitting a rotating oblique wing on an F-8 aircraft to produce a full scale manned prototype capable of operating in the transonic and supersonic speed range was investigated. The strength, aeroelasticity, and fatigue life of such a prototype are analyzed. Concepts are developed for a new wing, a pivot, a skewing mechanism, control systems that operate through the pivot, and a wing support assembly that attaches in the F-8 wing cavity. The modification of the two-place NTF-8A aircraft to the oblique wing configuration is discussed.

  7. Oblique and Head-On Elastic Collisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Chiu-king

    2008-01-01

    When a moving ball collides elastically with an identical, initially stationary ball, the incident ball will either come to rest (head-on collision; see Fig. 1) or will acquire a velocity that is perpendicular to that acquired by the target ball (oblique collision; see Fig. 2). These two possible outcomes are related in an interesting way, which…

  8. LOW STELLAR OBLIQUITIES IN COMPACT MULTIPLANET SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, Simon; Winn, Joshua N.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Isaacson, Howard; Howard, Andrew W.; Johnson, John A.

    2013-07-01

    We measure the sky-projected stellar obliquities ({lambda}) in the multiple-transiting planetary systems KOI-94 and Kepler-25, using the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. In both cases, the host stars are well aligned with the orbital planes of the planets. For KOI-94 we find {lambda} = -11 Degree-Sign {+-} 11 Degree-Sign , confirming a recent result by Hirano and coworkers. Kepler-25 was a more challenging case, because the transit depth is unusually small (0.13%). To obtain the obliquity, it was necessary to use prior knowledge of the star's projected rotation rate and apply two different analysis methods to independent wavelength regions of the spectra. The two methods gave consistent results, {lambda} = 7 Degree-Sign {+-} 8 Degree-Sign and -0. Degree-Sign 5 {+-} 5. Degree-Sign 7. There are now a total of five obliquity measurements for host stars of systems of multiple-transiting planets, all of which are consistent with spin-orbit alignment. This alignment is unlikely to be the result of tidal interactions because of the relatively large orbital distances and low planetary masses in the systems. In this respect, the multiplanet host stars differ from hot-Jupiter host stars, which commonly have large spin-orbit misalignments whenever tidal interactions are weak. In particular, the weak-tide subset of hot-Jupiter hosts has obliquities consistent with an isotropic distribution (p = 0.6), but the multiplanet hosts are incompatible with such a distribution (p {approx} 10{sup -6}). This suggests that high obliquities are confined to hot-Jupiter systems, and provides further evidence that hot-Jupiter formation involves processes that tilt the planetary orbit.

  9. Magnetohydrodynamic Jump Conditions for Oblique Relativistic Shocks with Gyrotropic Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Double, Glen P.; Baring, Matthew G.; Jones, Frank C.; Ellison, Donald C.

    2003-01-01

    Shock jump conditions, i.e., the specification of the downstream parameters of the gas in terms of the upstream parameters, are obtained for steady-state, plane shocks with oblique magnetic fields and arbitrary flow speeds. This is done by combining the continuity of particle number flux and the electromagnetic boundary conditions at the shock with the magnetohydrodynamic conservation laws derived from the stress-energy tensor. For ultrarelativistic and nonrelativistic shocks, the jump conditions may be solved analytically. For mildly relativistic shocks, analytic solutions are obtained for isotropic pressure using an approximation for the adiabatic index that is valid in high sonic Mach number cases. Examples assuming isotropic pressure illustrate how the shock compression ratio depends on the shock speed and obliquity. In the more general case of gyrotropic pressure, the jump conditions cannot be solved analytically with- out additional assumptions, and the effects of gyrotropic pressure are investigated by parameterizing the distribution of pressure parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field. Our numerical solutions reveal that relatively small departures from isotropy (e.g., approximately 20%) produce significant changes in the shock compression ratio, r , at all shock Lorentz factors, including ultrarelativistic ones, where an analytic solution with gyrotropic pressure is obtained. In particular, either dynamically important fields or significant pressure anisotropies can incur marked departures from the canonical gas dynamic value of r = 3 for a shocked ultrarelativistic flow and this may impact models of particle acceleration in gamma-ray bursts and other environments where relativistic shocks are inferred. The jump conditions presented apply directly to test-particle acceleration, and will facilitate future self-consistent numerical modeling of particle acceleration at oblique, relativistic shocks; such models include the modification of the fluid

  10. [When and how to perform the superior oblique tucking surgery].

    PubMed

    Zhang, W

    2016-08-01

    Either superior oblique weakening or strengthening surgery is the most complicated and most difficult to perform in the field of strabismus surgery. The effect of superior oblique surgery is also unpredictable. In addition, improper superior oblique strengthening surgery may produce limited elevation in adduction (iatrogenic Brown syndrome). In this article, we reviewed the history of superior oblique surgery, especially on when and how to perform the superior oblique strengthening surgery for providing reference to the clinicians in the field of strabismus and pediatric ophthalmology. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2016, 52: 565-567). PMID:27562275

  11. Numerical study of oblique detonation wave initiation in a stoichiometric hydrogen-air mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; Zhang, Yining; Teng, Honghui; Jiang, Zonglin; Ng, Hoi Dick

    2015-09-01

    Two-dimensional, oblique detonations induced by a wedge are simulated using the reactive Euler equations with a detailed chemical reaction model. The focus of this study is on the oblique shock-to-detonation transition in a stoichiometric hydrogen-air mixture. A combustible, gas mixture at low pressure and high temperature, corresponding to the realistic, inflow conditions applied in oblique detonation wave engines, is presented in this study. At practical flight conditions, the present numerical results illustrate that oblique detonation initiation is achieved through a smooth transition from a curved shock, which differs from the abrupt transition depicted in the previous studies. The formation mechanism of this smooth transition is discussed and a quantitative analysis is carried out by defining a characteristic length for the initiation process. The dependence of the initiation length on different parameters including the wedge angle, flight Mach number, and inflow Mach number is discussed. Despite the hypothetical nature of the simulation configuration, the present numerical study uses parameters we deem relevant to practical conditions and provides important observations for which future investigations can benefit from in reaching toward a rigorous theory of the formation and self-sustenance of oblique detonation waves.

  12. Effect of oblique nerve grafting on peripheral nerve regeneration in rats.

    PubMed

    Kotulska, Katarzyna; Marcol, Wiesław; Larysz-Brysz, Magdalena; Tendera, Zofia; Malinowska-Kołodziej, Izabela; Slusarczyk, Wojciech; Jedrzejowska-Szypułka, Halina; Lewin-Kowalik, Joanna

    2006-01-01

    Current methods of peripheral nerve repair are to rejoin cut nerve stumps directly or to bridge large gaps with autologous nerve grafts. In both cases the surface of nerve stump endings is typically cut perpendicularly to the long axis of the nerve. The outcome of such operations, however, is still not satisfactory. In this study, we examine the effect of oblique nerve cutting and grafting on morphological as well as functional features of regeneration. In adult rats, sciatic nerve was cut and rejoined either directly or using an autologous graft, at 90 degrees or 30 degrees angle. Functional regeneration was assessed by walking track analysis during 12-week follow-up. Afterwards muscle weight was measured and histological studies were performed. The latter included nerve fibers and Schwann cells counting, as well as visualization of scar formation and epineural fibrosis. Nerves cut obliquely and rejoined showed better functional recovery than perpendicularly transected. Similar effect was observed after oblique grafting when compared to perpendicular one. Numbers of nerve fibers growing into the distal stump of the nerve as well as the number of Schwann cells were significantly higher in obliquely than in perpendicularly operated nerves. Moreover, growing axons were arranged more regularly following oblique treatment. These data indicate that joining or grafting the nerve stumps at acute angle is a more profitable method of nerve repair than the standard procedure performed at right angle. PMID:17066410

  13. Oblique wing transonic transport configuration development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Studies of transport aircraft designed for boom-free supersonic flight show the variable sweep oblique wing to be the most efficient configuration for flight at low supersonic speeds. Use of this concept leads to a configuration that is lighter, quieter, and more fuel efficient than symmetric aircraft designed for the same mission. Aerodynamic structural, weight, aeroelastic and flight control studies show the oblique wing concept to be technically feasible. Investigations are reported for wing planform and thickness, pivot design and weight estimation, engine cycle (bypass ratio), and climb, descent and reserve fuel. Results are incorporated into a final configuration. Performance, weight, and balance characteristics are evaluated. Flight control requirements are reviewed, and areas in which further research is needed are identified.

  14. Obliquely propagating dust-density waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piel, A.; Arp, O.; Klindworth, M.; Melzer, A.

    2008-02-01

    Self-excited dust-density waves are experimentally studied in a dusty plasma under microgravity. Two types of waves are observed: a mode inside the dust volume propagating in the direction of the ion flow and another mode propagating obliquely at the boundary between the dusty plasma and the space charge sheath. The dominance of oblique modes can be described in the frame of a fluid model. It is shown that the results fom the fluid model agree remarkably well with a kinetic electrostatic model of Rosenberg [J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 631 (1996)]. In the experiment, the instability is quenched by increasing the gas pressure or decreasing the dust density. The critical pressure and dust density are well described by the models.

  15. Do oblique impacts produce Martian meteorites?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyquist, L. E.

    Geochronological and geochemical characteristics of several achondritic meteorites match those expected of Martian rocks. Several authors have suggested that these meteorites might have originated on Mars, but no satisfactory explanation has been given of how they may have been ejected from the Martian surface. It is suggested that the oblique impact of large meteoroids may produce ejecta which is entrained with the ricocheting projectile and accelerated to velocities in excess of Martian escape velocity. This suggestion is based on earlier experimental studies of oblique impacts and on the observation of several large Martian craters with the characteristic 'butterfly' ejecta pattern produced by low angle impacts. Several acceleration mechanisms may act on the Martian ejecta. The considerations suggest that a Martian origin of the shergottite meteorites is dynamically possible.

  16. Oblique waves lift the flapping flag.

    PubMed

    Hœpffner, Jérôme; Naka, Yoshitsugu

    2011-11-01

    The flapping of the flag is a classical model problem for the understanding of fluid-structure interaction: How does the flat state lose stability? Why do the nonlinear effects induce hysteretic behavior? We show in this Letter that, in contrast with the commonly studied model, the full three-dimensional flag with gravity has no stationary state whose stability can be formally studied: The waves are oblique and must immediately be of large amplitude. The remarkable structure of these waves results from the interplay of weight, geometry, and aerodynamic forces. This pattern is a key element in the force balance which allows the flag to hold and fly in the wind: Large amplitude oblique waves are responsible for lift. PMID:22181612

  17. Fabricational morphology of oblique ribs in bivalves.

    PubMed

    Checa, Antonio G

    2002-11-01

    The formation of oblique ribs of bivalve shells usually has been attributed to processes of reaction-diffusion of morphogens from cell to cell at the mantle margin or neural activation and lateral inhibition in the mantle. In particular, such ribs appear with high rates of lateral diffusion. Nevertheless, theoretical models fail to explain either partially or wholly some varieties of oblique ribs. After surveying the modes of formation of the shell and oblique ribs by the bivalve mantle and associated fabricational defects, I have determined that the mantle is able to develop an elaborate behavior in order to displace the rib in a particular direction during growth. The mantle margin is, therefore, not only the shell-secreting organ, but also the main morphogenetic unit. In particular, there are two main fabricational strategies. In forms with strict contact guidance (SCG) the mantle is able to project far enough beyond the shell margins so as to feel the already formed reliefs and to align new growth increments of the ribs in the appropriate directions. The shell margin is always strongly reflected. In bivalves with reduced contact guidance plus constant lateral shift (RCG), the margin is usually acute and the information about ribs available to the mantle is reduced. During rib construction the mantle extrudes slightly from the shell edge and then pushes laterally by muscular action; in this way, the new growth increment of the rib is displaced laterally on a small scale. The contact-guidance model is supported also by the homogeneous structure of the shell-secreting mantle. From the morphogenetic standpoint, oblique ribs are related to commarginal ones and both differ completely from other ribbing patterns of bivalves. PMID:12353301

  18. Oblique interaction of waves with shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morro, A.

    The oblique interaction between plane waves and shocks in materials described by a system of conservation equations is investigated. Two results are found. First, a straightforward geometric-kinematic analysis of the interaction yields a relation for each emergent mode (i.e., the outgoing wave) which determines the relation of propagation once the incident wave is given. Second, the shock may undergo an angular velocity which is ultimately related to the shock acceleration

  19. The oblique mastectomy incision: advantages and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Gronet, Edward M; Halvorson, Eric G

    2014-01-01

    Mastectomy has traditionally been performed using a transverse elliptical incision. The disadvantages of this approach are a potentially visible scar medially and poor subincisional soft-tissue coverage of implants laterally. A more natural and aesthetic result is obtained with an oblique incision running parallel to the pectoralis major muscle fibers. This approach offers women more freedom of choice in clothing as well as the potential for complete subincisional muscle coverage in alloplastic breast reconstruction, in addition to other functional advantages. PMID:24835870

  20. Sensitivity of Martian circulation to obliquity changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segschneider, J.; Grieger, B.; Lunkeit, F.; Kirk, E.

    2003-04-01

    The obliquity of the Martian rotation axis varies between 15 and 35 degrees with main periods of 125 kyr and 1.3 My. This is thought to have similar impact on the Martian climate as the Milancovic cycles on Earth. The northern layered terrains indicate that climate cycles of yet unknown nature have led to varying accumulation and ablation rates. This study aims at investigating the impact of orbital changes on the Martian atmospheric circulation, while an accompanying study (CR5.05) aims at exploring the internal dynamics of the ice sheet. Here, PUMA, the Portable University Model of the Atmosphere, is used in the Martian set-up to perform sensitivity studies for minimum and maximum obliquity. PUMA is a spectral model with sigma co-ordinates that solves the dynamical equations for vorticity and divergence. Additional modules compute radiative transfers, the soil temperature and heat fluxes between the surface and the atmosphere. So far PUMA has been sucesfully used for modelling of the terrestial climate. As a first step towards a more complete simulation of the evolution of the Martian climate, simulations over one Martian year for minimum and maximum obliquity will be shown.

  1. Vortex-induced vibrations under oblique shedding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourguet, Remi; Karniadakis, George; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2014-11-01

    A slender flexible body with bluff cross-section placed at normal incidence within a current may be subjected to vortex-induced vibrations (VIV). In practical applications, the structures (e.g. marine risers, towing cables) are often inclined with respect to the direction of the oncoming flow, sometimes at large angles. The vibrations that may appear in such configurations are investigated in the present work on the basis of direct numerical simulation results. We find that a flexible cylinder inclined at 80 degrees exhibits regular large-amplitude vibrations and that the structural responses are excited under the lock-in condition, i.e. synchronization between body oscillation and vortex formation, which is the central mechanism of VIV. We show that the lock-in condition may involve parallel vortex shedding, where the vortex rows are aligned with the body axis, but also oblique vortex shedding patterns. The excited structural wavenumber and the spanwise wavenumber of the obliquely shed vortices coincide; therefore, the flexible structure and the wake are locked both temporally and spatially. In addition, we find that the VIV occurring under oblique shedding may reach very high frequencies compared to the vibrations observed under parallel shedding.

  2. Jet ejecta mass upon oblique impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, W.; Ahrens, T. J.; Miller, G. H.; Petach, M. B.

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical models in the jetting regime for symmetric and asymmetric impact of thin plates predict the mass and velocity of jetted material upon oblique impact. However, experimental constraints on the amount of material which form jets upon oblique impact are not known. A series of preliminary experiments were conducted in which tungsten (W) flyer plates at speeds of 1.5 to 2.0 km/s were obliquely impacted into carbon targets at 30 deg in the regime of jetting, yielding radiation temperatures in the about 3200 K range. Both framing-camera and flash X-ray imaging were conducted. Broad cm-sized craters induced by jet ejecta on 2024 Al witness plates were used to infer jet mass. We infer, from measured witness plate crater volumes, that jet masses in the range of 0.01 to 0.06 g are produced by a 32 mm diameter, 6 mm thick W impactor. This is about one to two orders of magnitude less than those calculated from present theoretical models. In contrast, in refractory material experiments, the mass of gabbro ejecta trapped in styrofoam is 0.52 g, which is similar to that calculated.

  3. DYNAMICAL INSTABILITIES IN HIGH-OBLIQUITY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Tamayo, D.; Nicholson, P. D.; Burns, J. A.; Hamilton, D. P.

    2013-03-01

    High-inclination circumplanetary orbits that are gravitationally perturbed by the central star can undergo Kozai oscillations-large-amplitude, coupled variations in the orbital eccentricity and inclination. We first study how this effect is modified by incorporating perturbations from the planetary oblateness. Tremaine et al. found that, for planets with obliquities >68. Degree-Sign 875, orbits in the equilibrium local Laplace plane are unstable to eccentricity perturbations over a finite radial range and execute large-amplitude chaotic oscillations in eccentricity and inclination. In the hope of making that treatment more easily understandable, we analyze the problem using orbital elements, confirming this threshold obliquity. Furthermore, we find that orbits inclined to the Laplace plane will be unstable over a broader radial range, and that such orbits can go unstable for obliquities less than 68. Degree-Sign 875. Finally, we analyze the added effects of radiation pressure, which are important for dust grains and provide a natural mechanism for particle semimajor axes to sweep via Poynting-Robertson drag through any unstable range. For low-eccentricity orbits in the equilibrium Laplace plane, we find that generally the effect persists; however, the unstable radial range is shifted and small retrograde particles can avoid the instability altogether. We argue that this occurs because radiation pressure modifies the equilibrium Laplace plane.

  4. Further investigations of oblique hypervelocity impact phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schonberg, William P.

    1988-01-01

    The results of a continuing investigation of the phenomena associated with the oblique hypervelocity impact of spherical projectiles onto multi-sheet aluminum structures are described. A series of equations that quantitatively describes these phenomena is obtained through a regression of experimental data. These equations characterize observed ricoshet and penetration damage phenomena in a multi-sheet structure as functions of the geometric parameters of the structure and the diameter, obliquity, and velocity of the impacting projectile. Crater damage observed on the ricochet witness plates is used to determine the sizes and speeds of the ricochet debris particles that caused the damage. It is shown that, in general, the most damaging ricochet debris particle is approximately 0.25 cm (0.10 in) in diameter and travels at the speed of approximately 2.1 km/sec (6,890 ft/sec). The equations necessary for the design of shielding panels that will protect external systems from such ricochet debris damage are also developed. The dimensions of these shielding panels are shown to be strongly dependent on their inclination and on their circumferential distribution around the spacecraft. It is concluded that obliquity effects of high-speed impacts must be considered in the design of any structure exposed to the meteoroid and space debris environment.

  5. Oblique-wing supersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. T. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An aircraft including a single fuselage having a main wing and a horizontal stabilizer airfoil pivotally attached at their centers to the fuselage is described. The pivotal attachments allow the airfoils to be yawed relative to the fuselage for high speed flight, and to be positioned at right angles with respect to the fuselage during takeoff, landing, and low speed flight. The main wing and the horizontal stabilizer are upwardly curved from their center pivotal connections towards their ends to form curvilinear dihedrals.

  6. Analytical and experimental validation of the Oblique Detonation Wave Engine concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, Henry G.; Cambier, Jean-Luc; Menees, Gene P.; Balboni, John A.

    1988-01-01

    The Oblique Detonation Wave Engine (ODWE) for hypersonic flight has been analytically studied by NASA using the CFD codes which fully couple finite rate chemistry with fluid dynamics. Fuel injector designs investigated included wall and strut injectors, and the in-stream strut injectors were chosen to provide good mixing with minimal stagnation pressure losses. Plans for experimentally validating the ODWE concept in an arc-jet hypersonic wind tunnel are discussed. Measurements of the flow field properties behind the oblique wave will be compared to analytical predictions.

  7. Relativistic neutron star merger simulations with non-zero temperature equations of state. I. Variation of binary parameters and equation of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oechslin, R.; Janka, H.-T.; Marek, A.

    2007-05-01

    An extended set of binary neutron star (NS) merger simulations is performed with an approximative treatment of general relativity to systematically investigate the influence of the nuclear equation of state (EoS), the NS masses, and the NS spin states prior to merging. The general relativistic hydrodynamics simulations are based on a conformally flat approximation to the Einstein equations and a Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics code for the gas treatment. We employ the two non-zero temperature EoSs of Shen et al. (1998a, Nucl. Phys. A, 637, 435; 1998b, Prog. Theor. Phys., 100, 1013) and Lattimer & Swesty (1991, Nucl. Phys. A, 535, 331), which represent a "harder" and a "softer" behavior, respectively, with characteristic differences in the incompressibility at supernuclear densities and in the maximum mass of nonrotating, cold neutron stars. In addition, we use the cold EoS of Akmal et al. (1998, Phys. Rev. C, 58, 1804) with a simple ideal-gas-like extension according to Shibata & Taniguchi (2006, Phys. Rev. D, 73, 064027), in order to compare with their results, and an ideal-gas EoS with parameters fitted to the supernuclear part of the Shen-EoS. We estimate the mass sitting in a dilute "torus" around the future black hole (BH) by requiring the specific angular momentum of the torus matter to be larger than the angular momentum of the ISCO around a Kerr BH with the mass and spin parameter of the compact central remnant. The dynamics and outcome of the models is found to depend strongly on the EoS and on the binary parameters. Larger torus masses are found for asymmetric systems (up to 0.3 M_⊙ for a mass ratio of 0.55), for large initial NSs, and for a NS spin state which corresponds to a larger total angular momentum. We find that the postmerger remnant collapses either immediately or after a short time when employing the soft EoS of Lattimer& Swesty, whereas no sign of post-merging collapse is found within tens of dynamical timescales for all other EoSs used

  8. Equilibrium in the oblique rotating outer pulsar magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endean, Geoffrey

    1995-06-01

    A simple solution to the problem of plasma equilibrium outside the velocity-of-light cylinder of the oblique rotating pulsar magnetosphere is presented. The magnetic field has a swept-back, open spiral structure with zero axial component. The corotational motion of the plasma just inside the velocity-of-light cylinder transits to radial motion at large radius while maintaining highly relativistic speed throughout. There are no streaming currents along the magnetic field lines, but, in addition to a net charge density and associated convection current density, there is a non-force-free axial current density which is arbitraily large at the velocity-of-light cylinder but gives a finite current when integrated over radius. This axial current density is directly responsible for pulses of coherent radiation. The solution presented applies independently of the inclination angle and nondipolar content of the source magnetic field of the pulsar and includes both the axisymmetric field and the fully oblique or orthogonal field as special cases. It is a plasma equilibrium solution, with any similarities to vacuum fields, particularly outside the velocity-of-light cylinder, being purely coincidental.

  9. Penetration and ricochet phenomena in oblique hypervelocity impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schonberg, William P.; Taylor, Roy A.

    1989-01-01

    An experimental investigation of phenomena associated with the oblique hypervelocity impact of spherical projectile on multisheet aluminum structures is described. A model that can be employed in the design of meteoroid and space debris protection systems for space structures is developed. The model consists of equations that relate crater and perforation damage of a multisheet structure to parameters such as projectile size, impact velocity, and trajectory obliquity. The equations are obtained through a regression analysis of oblique hypervelocity impact test data. This data shows that the response of a multisheet structure to oblique impact is significantly different from its response to normal hypervelocity impact. It was found that obliquely incident projectiles produce ricochet debris that can severely damage panels or instrumentation located on the exterior of a space structure. Obliquity effects of high-speed impact must, therefore, be considered in the design of any structure exposed to the meteoroid and space debris environment.

  10. The Deep Impact oblique impact cratering experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Peter H.; Eberhardy, Clara A.; Ernst, Carolyn M.; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Sunshine, Jessica M.; Lisse, Carey M.

    The Deep Impact probe collided with 9P Tempel 1 at an angle of about 30° from the horizontal. This impact angle produced an evolving ejecta flow field very similar to much smaller scale oblique-impact experiments in porous particulate targets in the laboratory. Similar features and phenomena include a decoupled vapor/dust plume at the earliest times, a pronounced downrange bias of the ejecta, an uprange “zone of avoidance” (ZoA), heart-shaped ejecta ray system (cardioid pattern), and a conical (but asymmetric) ejecta curtain. Departures from nominal cratering evolution, however, provide clues on the nature of the impact target. These departures include: fainter than expected flash at first contact, delayed emergence of the self-luminous vapor/dust plume, uprange-directed plume, narrow early-time uprange ray followed by a late-stage uprange plume, persistence of ejecta asymmetries (and the uprange ZoA) throughout the approach sequence, emergence of a downrange ZoA at late times, detachment of uprange curved rays, very long lasting non-radial ejecta rays, and high-angle ejecta plume lasting over the entire encounter. The first second of crater formation most closely resembles the consequences of a highly porous target, while later evolution indicates that the target may be layered as well. Experiments also reveal that impacts into highly porous targets produce a vapor/dust plume directed back up the incoming trajectory. This uprange plume is attributed to cavitation within a narrow penetration funnel. The observed lateral expansion speed of the initial vapor plume downrange provides an estimate for the total vaporized mass equal to ˜5m (projectile masses) of water ice or 6m of CO2. The downrange plume speed is consistent with the gas expansion added to the downrange horizontal component of the DI probe. Based on high-speed spectroscopy of experimental impacts, the observed delay in brightening of the DI plume may be the result of delayed condensation of carbon

  11. The Deep Impact oblique impact cratering experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Peter H.; Eberhardy, Clara A.; Ernst, Carolyn M.; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Sunshine, Jessica M.; Lisse, Carey M.

    2007-10-01

    The Deep Impact probe collided with 9P Tempel 1 at an angle of about 30° from the horizontal. This impact angle produced an evolving ejecta flow field very similar to much smaller scale oblique-impact experiments in porous particulate targets in the laboratory. Similar features and phenomena include a decoupled vapor/dust plume at the earliest times, a pronounced downrange bias of the ejecta, an uprange "zone of avoidance" (ZoA), heart-shaped ejecta ray system (cardioid pattern), and a conical (but asymmetric) ejecta curtain. Departures from nominal cratering evolution, however, provide clues on the nature of the impact target. These departures include: fainter than expected flash at first contact, delayed emergence of the self-luminous vapor/dust plume, uprange-directed plume, narrow early-time uprange ray followed by a late-stage uprange plume, persistence of ejecta asymmetries (and the uprange ZoA) throughout the approach sequence, emergence of a downrange ZoA at late times, detachment of uprange curved rays, very long lasting non-radial ejecta rays, and high-angle ejecta plume lasting over the entire encounter. The first second of crater formation most closely resembles the consequences of a highly porous target, while later evolution indicates that the target may be layered as well. Experiments also reveal that impacts into highly porous targets produce a vapor/dust plume directed back up the incoming trajectory. This uprange plume is attributed to cavitation within a narrow penetration funnel. The observed lateral expansion speed of the initial vapor plume downrange provides an estimate for the total vaporized mass equal to ˜5m (projectile masses) of water ice or 6m of CO 2. The downrange plume speed is consistent with the gas expansion added to the downrange horizontal component of the DI probe. Based on high-speed spectroscopy of experimental impacts, the observed delay in brightening of the DI plume may be the result of delayed condensation of carbon, in

  12. Oblique view of southeast corner; camera facing northwest. Mare ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of southeast corner; camera facing northwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Defense Electronics Equipment Operating Center, I Street, terminus west of Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  13. Oblique Raman and polariton scattering in lithium iodate

    SciTech Connect

    Falk, J.; Moshrefzadeh, R.

    1985-02-01

    The authors have predicted and measured tuning of the LO and TO oblique Raman and the oblique polariton frequencies in the 769-848 cm/sup -1/ spectral region in lithium iodate. Oblique scattering in LilO/sub 3/ is produced by coupling of A and E symmetry crystal modes. The resulting LO and TO frequencies lie between the frequencies of the contributing modes. The intensity of the scattered light observed indicates that construction of CW or quasi-CW stimulated oblique Raman and polariton oscillators are possible.

  14. OBLIQUE VIEW, REAR ELEVATION, LOOKING NORTHEAST Mountain Home Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW, REAR ELEVATION, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Mountain Home Air Force Base 1958 Senior Officers' Housing, General's Residence, Rabeni Street (originally Ivy Street), Mountain Home, Elmore County, ID

  15. Spin Precession in Oblique Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Huang, Biqin; Appelbaum, Ian

    2009-03-01

    Spin precession and dephasing (``Hanle effect'') provide an unambiguous means to establish the presence of spin transport in semiconductors. We compare theoretical modeling with experimental data from drift-dominated silicon spin-transport devices, illustrating the non-trivial consequences of employing oblique magnetic fields (due to misalignment or intentional, fixed in-plane field components) to measure the effects of spin precession. Model results are also calculated for Hanle measurements under conditions of diffusion-dominated transport, revealing an expected Hanle peak-widening effect induced by the presence of fixed in-plane magnetic bias fields.

  16. Oblique shock dynamics in nonextensive magnetized plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bains, A. S.; Tribeche, M.

    2014-05-01

    A study is presented for the oblique propagation of low-frequency ion-acoustic ( IA) shock waves in a magnetized plasma having cold viscous ion fluid and nonextensively distributed electrons. A weakly nonlinear analysis is carried out to derive a Korteweg de-Vries-Burger like equation. Dependence of the shock wave characteristics (height, width and nature) on plasma parameters is then traced and studied in details. We hope that our results will aid to explain and interpret the nonlinear oscillations occurring in magnetized space plasmas.

  17. Oblique Whistler-Mode Waves in the Earth's Inner Magnetosphere: Energy Distribution, Origins, and Role in Radiation Belt Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemyev, Anton; Agapitov, Oleksiy; Mourenas, Didier; Krasnoselskikh, Vladimir; Shastun, Vitalii; Mozer, Forrest

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we review recent spacecraft observations of oblique whistler-mode waves in the Earth's inner magnetosphere as well as the various consequences of the presence of such waves for electron scattering and acceleration. In particular, we survey the statistics of occurrences and intensity of oblique chorus waves in the region of the outer radiation belt, comprised between the plasmapause and geostationary orbit, and discuss how their actual distribution may be explained by a combination of linear and non-linear generation, propagation, and damping processes. We further examine how such oblique wave populations can be included into both quasi-linear diffusion models and fully nonlinear models of wave-particle interaction. On this basis, we demonstrate that varying amounts of oblique waves can significantly change the rates of particle scattering, acceleration, and precipitation into the atmosphere during quiet times as well as in the course of a storm. Finally, we discuss possible generation mechanisms for such oblique waves in the radiation belts. We demonstrate that oblique whistler-mode chorus waves can be considered as an important ingredient of the radiation belt system and can play a key role in many aspects of wave-particle resonant interactions.

  18. Mathematical Model for the Contribution of Individual Organs to Non-Zero Y-Intercepts in Single and Multi-Compartment Linear Models of Whole-Body Energy Expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Kaiyala, Karl J.

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical models for the dependence of energy expenditure (EE) on body mass and composition are essential tools in metabolic phenotyping. EE scales over broad ranges of body mass as a non-linear allometric function. When considered within restricted ranges of body mass, however, allometric EE curves exhibit ‘local linearity.’ Indeed, modern EE analysis makes extensive use of linear models. Such models typically involve one or two body mass compartments (e.g., fat free mass and fat mass). Importantly, linear EE models typically involve a non-zero (usually positive) y-intercept term of uncertain origin, a recurring theme in discussions of EE analysis and a source of confounding in traditional ratio-based EE normalization. Emerging linear model approaches quantify whole-body resting EE (REE) in terms of individual organ masses (e.g., liver, kidneys, heart, brain). Proponents of individual organ REE modeling hypothesize that multi-organ linear models may eliminate non-zero y-intercepts. This could have advantages in adjusting REE for body mass and composition. Studies reveal that individual organ REE is an allometric function of total body mass. I exploit first-order Taylor linearization of individual organ REEs to model the manner in which individual organs contribute to whole-body REE and to the non-zero y-intercept in linear REE models. The model predicts that REE analysis at the individual organ-tissue level will not eliminate intercept terms. I demonstrate that the parameters of a linear EE equation can be transformed into the parameters of the underlying ‘latent’ allometric equation. This permits estimates of the allometric scaling of EE in a diverse variety of physiological states that are not represented in the allometric EE literature but are well represented by published linear EE analyses. PMID:25068692

  19. Surface electromyography activity of the rectus abdominis, internal oblique, and external oblique muscles during forced expiration in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kenichi; Nonaka, Koji; Ogaya, Shinya; Ogi, Atsushi; Matsunaka, Chiaki; Horie, Jun

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to characterize rectus abdominis, internal oblique, and external oblique muscle activity in healthy adults under expiratory resistance using surface electromyography. We randomly assigned 42 healthy adult subjects to 3 groups: 30%, 20%, and 10% maximal expiratory intraoral pressure (PEmax). After measuring 100% PEmax and muscle activity during 100% PEmax, the activity and maximum voluntary contraction of each muscle during the assigned experimental condition were measured. At 100% PEmax, the external oblique (p<0.01) and internal oblique (p<0.01) showed significantly elevated activity compared with the rectus abdominis muscle. Furthermore, at 20% and 30% PEmax, the external oblique (p<0.05 and<0.01, respectively) and the internal oblique (p<0.05 and<0.01, respectively) showed significantly elevated activity compared with the rectus abdominis muscle. At 10% PEmax, no significant differences were observed in muscle activity. Although we observed no significant difference between 10% and 20% PEmax, activity during 30% PEmax was significantly greater than during 20% PEmax (external oblique: p<0.05; internal oblique: p<0.01). The abdominal oblique muscles are the most active during forced expiration. Moreover, 30% PEmax is the minimum intensity required to achieve significant, albeit very slight, muscle activity during expiratory resistance. PMID:27077819

  20. Oblique impacts into low impedance layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stickle, A. M.; Schultz, P. H.

    2009-12-01

    Planetary impacts occur indiscriminately, in all locations and materials. Varied geologic settings can have significant effects on the impact process, including the coupling between the projectile and target, the final damage patterns and modes of deformation that occur. For example, marine impact craters are not identical to impacts directly into bedrock or into sedimentary materials, though many of the same fundamental processes occur. It is therefore important, especially when considering terrestrial impacts, to understand how a low impedance sedimentary layer over bedrock affects the deformation process during and after a hypervelocity impact. As a first step, detailed comparisons between impacts and hydrocode models were performed. Experiments performed at the NASA Ames Vertical Gun Range of oblique impacts into polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) targets with low impedance layers were performed and compared to experiments of targets without low impedance layers, as well as to hydrocode models under identical conditions. Impact velocities ranged from 5 km/s to 5.6 km/s, with trajectories from 30 degrees to 90 degrees above the horizontal. High-speed imaging provided documentation of the sequence and location of failure due to impact, which was compared to theoretical models. Plasticine and ice were used to construct the low impedance layers. The combination of experiments and models reveals the modes of failure due to a hypervelocity impact. How such failure is manifested at large scales can present a challenge for hydrocodes. CTH models tend to overestimate the amount of damage occurring within the targets and have difficulties perfectly reproducing morphologies; nevertheless, they provide significant and useful information about the failure modes and style within the material. CTH models corresponding to the experiments allow interpretation of the underlying processes involved as well as provide a benchmark for the experimental analysis. The transparency of PMMA

  1. Oblique Shocks in AGN Jet Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Hughes, P. A.; Wardle, J. F. C.; Roberts, D. H.; Homan, D. C.

    2001-12-01

    We present multi-epoch VLBI images and single antenna monitoring results from a study of 10 highly variable AGNs (BL Lacs and QSOs) whose primary goal is to investigate the strengths and orientations of oblique shocks in relativistic flows by comparing observed polarized features found in VLBA total intensity and polarization images and UMRAO monitoring data with the predictions of simple oblique shock models which account for the effects of relativistic aberration. The data consist of weekly observations at 14.5, 8.0 and 4.8 GHz using the UMRAO 26-meter telescope, and seven sets of VLBA total flux and polarization images spaced over the past two years at 15 and 43 GHz supplemented by maps at 8 and 22 GHz for a subset known to exhibit significant opacity. The morphological evolution in both structure and polarization revealed by these data are used to provide an estimation of the projected flow deviation and magnetic field orientation at shocks, and initial results from a comparison of the data with newly developed radiative transfer models allowing for a range of shock orientations are presented. This work was supported in part by NSF grant AST-9900723. The UMRAO is supported by the University of Michigan; The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is operated by Associated Universities, Inc, under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  2. Oblique slip in Laramide foreland arches

    SciTech Connect

    Erslev, E.A.; Selvig, B.; Molzer, P. . Dept. of Earth Resources)

    1993-03-01

    Don Wise was one of the first structural geologists to recognize the complex, four-dimensional (space and time) nature of basement-involved faulting in the Rocky Mountain foreland. His focus on both small scale kinematic indicators and regional tectonic hypotheses has provided a launching point for many Rocky Mountain geologists. The implications of the anastomosing patterns of Laramide foreland arches on models of regional stress and strain have provoked considerable debate. Hypotheses range from those invoking multiple stages of lateral compression from different directions to single-stage models necessitating a component of strike-slip motion in east-west and north-south arches. These hypotheses were tested using slickenline analysis of minor faulting in structures with different orientations. In Wyoming, structures paralleling the dominant northwest structural trend have slickenlines in the NE-SW vertical plane, consistent with shortening and compression in this direction. The east-west Owl Creek and Casper Mountain structures also have NE-SW trending slickenlines, indicating slip oblique to these arches. In Colorado, minor faults in the north-south margin of the northeastern Front Range also indicate oblique slip, with shortening in the NE-SW quadrant. The actual trend of the slickenlines is more easterly, however, suggesting a change of slip trajectory with latitude, not time, possibly in response to identation by the Colorado Plateau.

  3. Photogrammetric Processing of Apollo 15 Metric Camera Oblique Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmundson, K. L.; Alexandrov, O.; Archinal, B. A.; Becker, K. J.; Becker, T. L.; Kirk, R. L.; Moratto, Z. M.; Nefian, A. V.; Richie, J. O.; Robinson, M. S.

    2016-06-01

    The integrated photogrammetric mapping system flown on the last three Apollo lunar missions (15, 16, and 17) in the early 1970s incorporated a Metric (mapping) Camera, a high-resolution Panoramic Camera, and a star camera and laser altimeter to provide support data. In an ongoing collaboration, the U.S. Geological Survey's Astrogeology Science Center, the Intelligent Robotics Group of the NASA Ames Research Center, and Arizona State University are working to achieve the most complete cartographic development of Apollo mapping system data into versatile digital map products. These will enable a variety of scientific/engineering uses of the data including mission planning, geologic mapping, geophysical process modelling, slope dependent correction of spectral data, and change detection. Here we describe efforts to control the oblique images acquired from the Apollo 15 Metric Camera.

  4. An investigation of supersonic aeroelastic characteristics of oblique winged aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisshaar, T. A.

    1975-01-01

    Two formulations of the oblique wing flutter problem are presented: one formulation allows wing bending deformations and the rigid body roll degree of freedom while the second formulation includes bending-torsional deformation and roll degrees of freedom. Flutter is found to occur in two basic modes. The first mode is associated with bending-roll coupling and occurs at low reduced frequency values. The other instability mode is primarily one of classical bending-torsion with negligible roll coupling; this mode occurs at much higher reduced frequencies. The occurrence of bending-roll coupling mode leads to lower flutter speeds while the bending-torsion mode is associated with higher flutter speeds. The ratio of the wing mass moment of inertial in roll to the fuselage moment of inertia evidently plays a major role in the determination of which of the two instabilities is critical.

  5. 33 CFR 118.90 - Bridges crossing channel obliquely.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bridges crossing channel obliquely. 118.90 Section 118.90 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.90 Bridges crossing channel obliquely....

  6. 33 CFR 118.90 - Bridges crossing channel obliquely.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bridges crossing channel obliquely. 118.90 Section 118.90 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.90 Bridges crossing channel obliquely....

  7. 33 CFR 118.90 - Bridges crossing channel obliquely.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bridges crossing channel obliquely. 118.90 Section 118.90 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.90 Bridges crossing channel obliquely....

  8. 33 CFR 118.90 - Bridges crossing channel obliquely.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bridges crossing channel obliquely. 118.90 Section 118.90 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.90 Bridges crossing channel obliquely....

  9. 33 CFR 118.90 - Bridges crossing channel obliquely.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bridges crossing channel obliquely. 118.90 Section 118.90 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.90 Bridges crossing channel obliquely....

  10. Achieving success with the silicone expander for overacting superior obliques.

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Z F; Greenberg, M

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: To report the results of and complications with silicone expander surgery for the overacting superior oblique. METHODS: A total of 26 patients with bilateral overaction of the superior oblique and A-pattern strabismus and 5 patients with unilateral overacting superior oblique secondary to inferior oblique palsy were treated with a 7 mm silicone expander. Care was taken not to enter the sub-Tenon's space. RESULTS: The group that underwent bilateral superior oblique surgery had an average preoperative pattern of 37.42 diopters (D) and an average correction of 35.37 D. Three patients had a severe unilateral postoperative inflammatory incident that was successfully treated with oral and topical corticosteroids. One of these patient developed Brown's syndrome. Another patient, who had no postoperative inflammatory incident, also developed Brown's syndrome. In these 4 patients, the sub-Tenon's space was inadvertently entered during surgery. CONCLUSION: The silicone expander surgery has a very high success rate in treating the A-pattern associated with the bilateral overacting superior oblique. This procedure also works well for the unilateral superior oblique that overacts owing to an inferior oblique palsy. No cyclotorsion symptoms occurred after this surgery. However, 4 patients had complications because the sub-Tenon's space was exposed during surgery. With this procedure, there is a learning curve to obtain the skill not to enter the sub-Tenon's space. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:10703132

  11. A BASIC program to resolve obliquely crossed spherocylinders.

    PubMed

    Calossi, A

    1993-12-01

    It is often necessary to know the solution of two spherocylinders having oblique axes. Resolving obliquely crossed cylinders involves tedious trigonometric calculation; for this reason we are presenting a simple BASIC program for the rapid and accurate calculation with the help of a personal computer or a programmable calculator. PMID:8115130

  12. Reduced Oblique Effect in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

    PubMed Central

    Sysoeva, Olga V.; Davletshina, Maria A.; Orekhova, Elena V.; Galuta, Ilia A.; Stroganova, Tatiana A.

    2016-01-01

    People are very precise in the discrimination of a line orientation relative to the cardinal (vertical and horizontal) axes, while their orientation discrimination sensitivity along the oblique axes is less refined. This difference in discrimination sensitivity along cardinal and oblique axes is called the “oblique effect.” Given that the oblique effect is a basic feature of visual processing with an early developmental origin, its investigation in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) may shed light on the nature of visual sensory abnormalities frequently reported in this population. We examined line orientation sensitivity along oblique and vertical axes in a sample of 26 boys with ASD (IQ > 68) and 38 typically developing (TD) boys aged 7–15 years, as well as in a subsample of carefully IQ-matched ASD and TD participants. Children were asked to detect the direction of tilt of a high-contrast black-and-white grating relative to vertical (90°) or oblique (45°) templates. The oblique effect was reduced in children with ASD as compared to TD participants, irrespective of their IQ. This reduction was due to poor orientation sensitivity along the vertical axis in ASD children, while their ability to discriminate line orientation along the oblique axis was unaffected. We speculate that this deficit in sensitivity to vertical orientation may reflect disrupted mechanisms of early experience-dependent learning that takes place during the critical period for orientation selectivity. PMID:26834540

  13. Measurement of Oblique Impact-generated Shear Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, J. M.; Schultz, P. H.

    2001-01-01

    Experimental strain measurements reveal that oblique impacts can generate shear waves with displacements as large as those in the P-wave. Large oblique impacts may thus be more efficient sources of surface disruption than vertical impacts. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  14. Mars Secular Obliquity Decrease and the Layered Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubincam, D. P.

    2000-01-01

    Mars may have substantially decreased its average axial tilt over geologic time due to the waxing and waning of water ice caps through the phenomenon of climate friction (also called obliquity-oblateness feedback). Depending upon Mars' climate and internal structure, water caps of the order of 10(exp 17) - 10(exp 18) kg cycling with the obliquity oscillations could have either increased or decreased the average obliquity by possibly tens of degrees over the age of the solar system. Gravity and topography observations by the Mars Global Surveyor indicate that the south polar cap is mostly uncompensated, so that Mars may be largely rigid on the obliquity timescale. Further, Mars may be a water-rich planet, so that there is a large phase angle between insolation forcing and the size of the obliquity-driven water caps. A stiff, water-rich planet implies an obliquity decrease over the eons. Such a decrease might account for the apparent youthfulness of the polar layered terrain. The idea is that fewer volatiles were available to be cycled into and out of the terrain at high mean obliquity, because of the eveness of insolation between equator and pole, and because of small insolation variations as the obliquity oscillated; so that the movement of volatiles and dust produced thin layers or perhaps no layers at all. As the average obliquity decreased, the insolation contrast between high and low latitudes increased, plus the insolation variations over the obliquity cycle grew somewhat bigger, so that more volatiles and dust might have shuttled into and out of the polar regions, forming the observed thick layers late in Mars' history. It may also be that the average tilt has decreased to the point where the climate friction mechanism is starving itself: more and more water has gotten locked up in the polar regions, making less available for cycling with the oscillations. And the layer-forming mechanism may be starving too: not only less water, but also at low average

  15. Combining evolutionary algorithms with oblique decision trees to detect bent double galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Cantu-Paz, E; Kamath, C

    2000-06-22

    Decision trees have long been popular in classification as they use simple and easy-to-understand tests at each node. Most variants of decision trees test a single attribute at a node, leading to axis-parallel trees, where the test results in a hyperplane which is parallel to one of the dimensions in the attribute space. These trees can be rather large and inaccurate in cases where the concept to be learnt is best approximated by oblique hyperplanes. In such cases, it may be more appropriate to use an oblique decision tree, where the decision at each node is a linear combination of the attributes. Oblique decision trees have not gained wide popularity in part due to the complexity of constructing good oblique splits and the tendency of existing splitting algorithms to get stuck in local minima. Several alternatives have been proposed to handle these problems including randomization in conjunction with deterministic hill climbing and the use of simulated annealing. In this paper, they use evolutionary algorithms (EAs) to determine the split. EAs are well suited for this problem because of their global search properties, their tolerance to noisy fitness evaluations, and their scalability to large dimensional search spaces. They demonstrate the technique on a practical problem from astronomy, namely, the classification of galaxies with a bent-double morphology, and describe their experiences with several split evaluation criteria.

  16. Oblique rotaton in canonical correlation analysis reformulated as maximizing the generalized coefficient of determination.

    PubMed

    Satomura, Hironori; Adachi, Kohei

    2013-07-01

    To facilitate the interpretation of canonical correlation analysis (CCA) solutions, procedures have been proposed in which CCA solutions are orthogonally rotated to a simple structure. In this paper, we consider oblique rotation for CCA to provide solutions that are much easier to interpret, though only orthogonal rotation is allowed in the existing formulations of CCA. Our task is thus to reformulate CCA so that its solutions have the freedom of oblique rotation. Such a task can be achieved using Yanai's (Jpn. J. Behaviormetrics 1:46-54, 1974; J. Jpn. Stat. Soc. 11:43-53, 1981) generalized coefficient of determination for the objective function to be maximized in CCA. The resulting solutions are proved to include the existing orthogonal ones as special cases and to be rotated obliquely without affecting the objective function value, where ten Berge's (Psychometrika 48:519-523, 1983) theorems on suborthonormal matrices are used. A real data example demonstrates that the proposed oblique rotation can provide simple, easily interpreted CCA solutions. PMID:25106398

  17. Obliquity Variability of a Potentially Habitable Early Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Jason W.; Quarles, Billy; Lissauer, Jack J.; Chambers, John; Hedman, Matthew M.

    2016-07-01

    Venus currently rotates slowly, with its spin controlled by solid-body and atmospheric thermal tides. However, conditions may have been far different 4 billion years ago, when the Sun was fainter and most of the carbon within Venus could have been in solid form, implying a low-mass atmosphere. We investigate how the obliquity would have varied for a hypothetical rapidly rotating Early Venus. The obliquity variation structure of an ensemble of hypothetical Early Venuses is simpler than that Earth would have if it lacked its large Moon (Lissauer et al., 2012), having just one primary chaotic regime at high prograde obliquities. We note an unexpected long-term variability of up to $\\pm7^\\circ$ for retrograde Venuses. Low-obliquity Venuses show very low total obliquity variability over billion-year timescales -- comparable to that of the real Moon-influenced Earth.

  18. Bow and Oblique Shock Formation in Soap Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ildoo; Mandre, Shreyas; Sane, Aakash

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, soap films have been exploited primarily to approximate two-dimensional flows while their three-dimensional character is relatively unattended. An example of the three-dimensional character of the flow in a soap film is the observed Marangoni shock wave when the flow speed exceeds the wave speed. In this study, we investigated the formation of bow and oblique shocks in soap films generated by wedges with different deflection angles. When the wedge deflection angle is small and the film flows fast, oblique shocks are observed. When the oblique shock cannot exists, bow shock is formed upstream the wedge. We characterized the oblique shock angle as a function of the wedge deflection angle and the flow speed, and we also present the criteria for transition between bow and oblique Marangoni shocks in soap films.

  19. The Role of Rift Obliquity During Pangea Fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brune, S.; Butterworth, N. P.; Williams, S.; Müller, D.

    2014-12-01

    Does supercontinent break-up follow specific laws? What parameters control the success and the failure of rift systems? Recent analytical and geodynamic modeling suggests that oblique rifting is energetically preferred over orthogonal rifting. This implies that during rift competition, highly oblique branches proceed to break-up while less oblique ones become inactive. These models predict that the relative motion of Earth's continents during supercontinent break-up is affected by the orientation and shape of individual rift systems. Here, we test this hypothesis based on latest plate tectonic reconstructions. Using PyGPlates, a recently developed Python library that allows script-based access to the plate reconstruction software GPlates, we quantify rift obliquity, extension velocity and their temporal evolution for continent-scale rift systems of the past 200 Myr. Indeed we find that many rift systems contributing to Pangea fragmentation involved strong rift obliquity. East and West Gondwana for instance split along the East African coast with a mean obliquity of 55° (measured as the angle between local rift trend normal and extension direction). While formation of the central and southern South Atlantic segment involved a low obliquity of 10°, the Equatorial Atlantic opened under a high angle of 60°. Rifting between Australia and Antarctica involved two stages with 25° prior to 100 Ma followed by 50° obliquity and distinct increase of extension velocity. Analyzing the entire passive margin system that formed during Pangea breakup, we find a mean obliquity of 40°, with a standard deviation of 20°. Hence 50% of these margins formed with an angle of 40° or more. Considering that many conceptual models of rifting and passive margin formation assume 2D deformation, our study quantifies the degree to which such 2D models are globally applicable, and highlights the importance of 3D models where oblique rifting is the dominant mode of deformation.

  20. The oblique wing-research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, W. H.

    1980-01-01

    The AD-1 airplane was designed as a low cost, low speed manned research tool to evaluate the flying qualities of the oblique wing concept. The airplane is constructed primarily of foam and fiberglass and incorporates simplicity in terms of the onboard systems. There are no hydraulics, the control system is cable and torque tube, and the electrical systems consist of engine driven generators which power the battery for engine start, cockpit gages, trim motors, and the onboard data system. The propulsion systems consist of two Microturbo TRS-18 engines sea level trust rated at 220 pounds. The airplane weighs approximately 2100 pounds and has a performance potential in the range of 200 knots and an altitude of 15,000 feet.

  1. Calibration Procedures on Oblique Camera Setups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemper, G.; Melykuti, B.; Yu, C.

    2016-06-01

    Beside the creation of virtual animated 3D City models, analysis for homeland security and city planning, the accurately determination of geometric features out of oblique imagery is an important task today. Due to the huge number of single images the reduction of control points force to make use of direct referencing devices. This causes a precise camera-calibration and additional adjustment procedures. This paper aims to show the workflow of the various calibration steps and will present examples of the calibration flight with the final 3D City model. In difference to most other software, the oblique cameras are used not as co-registered sensors in relation to the nadir one, all camera images enter the AT process as single pre-oriented data. This enables a better post calibration in order to detect variations in the single camera calibration and other mechanical effects. The shown sensor (Oblique Imager) is based o 5 Phase One cameras were the nadir one has 80 MPIX equipped with a 50 mm lens while the oblique ones capture images with 50 MPix using 80 mm lenses. The cameras are mounted robust inside a housing to protect this against physical and thermal deformations. The sensor head hosts also an IMU which is connected to a POS AV GNSS Receiver. The sensor is stabilized by a gyro-mount which creates floating Antenna -IMU lever arms. They had to be registered together with the Raw GNSS-IMU Data. The camera calibration procedure was performed based on a special calibration flight with 351 shoots of all 5 cameras and registered the GPS/IMU data. This specific mission was designed in two different altitudes with additional cross lines on each flying heights. The five images from each exposure positions have no overlaps but in the block there are many overlaps resulting in up to 200 measurements per points. On each photo there were in average 110 well distributed measured points which is a satisfying number for the camera calibration. In a first step with the help of

  2. MIX and Instability Growth from Oblique Shock

    SciTech Connect

    Molitoris, J D; Batteux, J D; Garza, R G; Tringe, J W; Souers, P C; Forbes, J W

    2011-07-22

    We have studied the formation and evolution of shock-induced mix resulting from interface features in a divergent cylindrical geometry. In this research a cylindrical core of high-explosive was detonated to create an oblique shock wave and accelerate the interface. The interfaces studied were between the high-explosive/aluminum, aluminum/plastic, and finally plastic/air. Pre-emplaced surface features added to the aluminum were used to modify this interface. Time sequence radiographic imaging quantified the resulting instability formation from the growth phase to over 60 {micro}s post-detonation. Thus allowing the study of the onset of mix and evolution to turbulence. The plastic used here was porous polyethylene. Radiographic image data are compared with numerical simulations of the experiments.

  3. Do oblique impacts produce Martian meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyquist, L. E.

    1983-11-01

    It is pointed out that several achondritic meteorites, classified as shergottites, nakhlites, and chassignites, have a number of unusual characteristics. Following the suggestion of Wood and Ashwal (1981) these meteorites are collectively referred to as SNC meteorites. The major element compositions of the SNC meteorites are, in general, distinct from those of other meteorites and lunar samples, and similar to certain terrestrial rocks. The geochemical and geochronological characteristics of the SNC meteorites strongly imply that their parent body was on the order of lunar size or larger and geologically active. Serious attention must be given to the hypothesis of a Martian origin of the SNC meteorites and to dynamic processes capable of delivering Martian meteorites to earth. In connection with the present investigation, it is suggested that oblique impacts of large meteoroids can produce ejecta which is entrained with the ricocheting projectile and accelerated to velocities in excess of Martian escape velocity.

  4. Oblique impacts: Catastrophic vs. protracted effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, P. H.

    1988-01-01

    Proposed impacts as the cause of biologic catastrophes at the end of the Cretaceous and Eocene face several enigmas: protracted extinctions, even prior to the stratigraphic cosmogenic signature; widespread but non-uniform dispersal of the meteoritic component; absence of a crater of sufficient size; and evidence for massive intensive fires. Various hypotheses provide reasonable mechanisms for mass mortalities: global cooling by continental impact sites; global warming by oceanic impact sites; contrasting effects of asteroidal, cometary, and even multiple impacts; and stress on an already fragile global environment. Yet not every known large impact is associated with a major biologic catastrophe. An alternative is expanded: the consequences of an oblique impact. The most probable angle of impact is 45 deg with the probability for an impact at smaller angles decreasing: A vertical impact is as rare as a tangential impact with a 5 deg impact angle or less occurring only 8 percent of the time. Consequently a low-angle impact is a rare but probable event. Laboratory experiments at the NASA-Ames Vertical Gun Range reveal important information about cratering efficiency, impact vaporization, projectile dispersal, and phenomenology, thereby providing perspective for possible consequences of such an impact on both the Earth and Moon. Oblique impacts are rare but certain events through geologic time: A 5 deg impact by a 2 km-diameter impactor on the Earth would occur only once in about 18 my with a 10 km-diameter once in about 450 my. Major life extinctions beginning prior to the stratigraphic cosmogenic signature or protracted extinctions seemingly too long after the proposed event may not be evidence against an impact as a cause but evidence for a more complex but probable sequence of events.

  5. Subduction obliquity as a prime indicator for geotherm in subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plunder, Alexis; Thieulot, Cédric; van Hinsbergen, Douwe

    2016-04-01

    The geotherm of a subduction zone is thought to vary as a function of subduction rate and the age of the subducting lithosphere. Along a single subduction zone the rate of subduction can strongly vary due to changes in the angle between the trench and the plate convergence vector, namely the subduction obliquity. This phenomenon is observed all around the Pacific (i.e., Marianna, South America, Aleutian…). However due to observed differences in subducting lithosphere age or lateral convergence rate in nature, the quantification of temperature variation due to obliquity is not obvious. In order to investigate this effect, 3D generic numerical models were carried out using the finite element code ELEFANT. We designed a simplified setup to avoid interaction with other parameters. An ocean/ocean subduction setting was chosen and the domain is represented by a 800 × 300 × 200 km Cartesian box. The trench geometry is prescribed by means of a simple arc-tangent function. Velocity of the subducting lithosphere is prescribed using the analytical solution for corner flow and only the energy conservation equation is solved in the domain. Results are analysed after steady state is reached. First results show that the effect of the trench curvature on the geotherm with respect to the convergence direction is not negligible. A small obliquity yields isotherms which are very slightly deflected upwards where the obliquity is maximum. With an angle of ˜30°, the isotherms are deflected upwards of about 10 kilometres. Strong obliquity (i.e., angles from 60° to almost 90°) reveal extreme effects of the position of the isotherms. Further model will include other parameter as the dip of the slab and convergence rate to highlight their relative influence on the geotherm of subduction zone.

  6. Combining evolutionary algorithms with oblique decision trees to detect bent-double galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantu-Paz, Erick; Kamath, Chandrika

    2000-10-01

    Decision tress have long been popular in classification as they use simple and easy-to-understand tests at each node. Most variants of decision trees test a single attribute at a node, leading to axis- parallel trees, where the test results in a hyperplane which is parallel to one of the dimensions in the attribute space. These trees can be rather large and inaccurate in cases where the concept to be learned is best approximated by oblique hyperplanes. In such cases, it may be more appropriate to use an oblique decision tree, where the decision at each node is a linear combination of the attributes. Oblique decision trees have not gained wide popularity in part due to the complexity of constructing good oblique splits and the tendency of existing splitting algorithms to get stuck in local minima. Several alternatives have been proposed to handle these problems including randomization in conjunction wiht deterministic hill-climbing and the use of simulated annealing. In this paper, we use evolutionary algorithms (EAs) to determine the split. EAs are well suited for this problem because of their global search properties, their tolerance to noisy fitness evaluations, and their scalability to large dimensional search spaces. We demonstrate our technique on a synthetic data set, and then we apply it to a practical problem from astronomy, namely, the classification of galaxies with a bent-double morphology. In addition, we describe our experiences with several split evaluation criteria. Our results suggest that, in some cases, the evolutionary approach is faster and more accurate than existing oblique decision tree algorithms. However, for our astronomical data, the accuracy is not significantly different than the axis-parallel trees.

  7. Comparison of AIS 1990 update 98 versus AIS 2005 for describing PMHS injuries in lateral and oblique sled tests

    PubMed Central

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A.; Humm, John R.; Stadter, Gregory W.; Curry, William H.; Brasel, Karen J.

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed skeletal and organ injuries in pure lateral and oblique impacts from 20 intact post mortem human surrogate (PMHS) sled tests at 6.7 m/s. Injuries to the shoulder, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and spine were scored using AIS 1990–1998 update and 2005. The Injury Severity Scores (ISS) were extracted for both loadings from both versions. Mean age, stature, total body mass and body mass index for pure lateral and oblique tests: 58 and 55 years, 1.7 and 1.8 m, 69 and 66 kg, and 24 and 21 kg/m2. Skeletal injuries (ribs, sternum) occurred in both impacts. However, oblique impacts resulted in more injuries. Pure lateral and oblique impacts ISS: 0 to 16 and 0 to 24, representing a greater potential for injury-related consequences in real-world situations in oblique impacts. Internal organs were more involved in oblique impacts. ISS decreased in AIS 2005, reflecting changes to scoring and drawing attention to potential effects for pre-hospital care/medical aspects. Mean AIS scores for the two load vectors and two AIS coding schemes are included. From automotive crashworthiness perspectives, decreases in injury severities might alter injury risk functions with a shift to lower metrics for the same risk level than current risk estimations. This finding influences dummy-based injury criteria and occupant safety as risk functions are used for countermeasure effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses by regulatory bodies. Increase in organ injuries in oblique loading indicate the importance of this vector as current dummies and injury criteria used in regulations are based on pure lateral impact data. PMID:24406958

  8. Comparison of AIS 1990 update 98 versus AIS 2005 for describing PMHS injuries in lateral and oblique sled tests.

    PubMed

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A; Humm, John R; Stadter, Gregory W; Curry, William H; Brasel, Karen J

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed skeletal and organ injuries in pure lateral and oblique impacts from 20 intact post mortem human surrogate (PMHS) sled tests at 6.7 m/s. Injuries to the shoulder, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and spine were scored using AIS 1990-1998 update and 2005. The Injury Severity Scores (ISS) were extracted for both loadings from both versions. Mean age, stature, total body mass and body mass index for pure lateral and oblique tests: 58 and 55 years, 1.7 and 1.8 m, 69 and 66 kg, and 24 and 21 kg/m(2). Skeletal injuries (ribs, sternum) occurred in both impacts. However, oblique impacts resulted in more injuries. Pure lateral and oblique impacts ISS: 0 to 16 and 0 to 24, representing a greater potential for injury-related consequences in real-world situations in oblique impacts. Internal organs were more involved in oblique impacts. ISS decreased in AIS 2005, reflecting changes to scoring and drawing attention to potential effects for pre-hospital care/medical aspects. Mean AIS scores for the two load vectors and two AIS coding schemes are included. From automotive crashworthiness perspectives, decreases in injury severities might alter injury risk functions with a shift to lower metrics for the same risk level than current risk estimations. This finding influences dummy-based injury criteria and occupant safety as risk functions are used for countermeasure effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses by regulatory bodies. Increase in organ injuries in oblique loading indicate the importance of this vector as current dummies and injury criteria used in regulations are based on pure lateral impact data. PMID:24406958

  9. Obliquity Variations of a Potentially Habitable Early Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Jason W.; Quarles, Billy L.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Chambers, John E.; Hedman, Matthew M.

    2016-06-01

    Planetary obliquity (axis tilt) and its variations can have strong effects on climate. Earth's glacial cycles, for instance, are driven in part by variations in Earth's obliquity of order ±1.5o. Direct observations of the obliquity of habitable zone rocky exoplanets is likely a long way off. Therefore we investigate the long-term obliquity variations expected for Venus as it might have existed in the early Solar System. Although Venus presently rotates slowly owing to tidal despinning, it must have had a different rotation state early in Solar System history. At the same time, Venus was the Solar System's habitable zone under a Faint Young Sun. Because of our extensive knowledge of the Solar System's constituents, we therefore use Venus' obliquity variations as a proxy for what we might find in exoplanetary systems. We find that the obliquity variation structure is simpler for early Venus than it would be for a Moonless Earth, but that large, chaotic variability can occur for high initial obliquity values. Interestingly retrograde-rotating Venuses show higher variability than do retrograde Moonless Earths.

  10. Repeatability and oblique flow response characteristics of current meters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulford, Janice M.; Thibodeaux, Kirk G.; Kaehrle, William R.

    1993-01-01

    Laboratory investigation into the precision and accuracy of various mechanical-current meters are presented. Horizontal-axis and vertical-axis meters that are used for the measurement of point velocities in streams and rivers were tested. Meters were tested for repeatability and response to oblique flows. Both horizontal- and vertical-axis meters were found to under- and over-register oblique flows with errors generally increasing as the velocity and angle of flow increased. For the oblique flow tests, magnitude of errors were smallest for horizontal-axis meters. Repeatability of all meters tested was good, with the horizontal- and vertical-axis meters performing similarly.

  11. 3D Numerical simulations of oblique subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malatesta, C.; Gerya, T.; Scambelluri, M.; Crispini, L.; Federico, L.; Capponi, G.

    2012-04-01

    In the past 2D numerical studies (e.g. Gerya et al., 2002; Gorczyk et al., 2007; Malatesta et al., 2012) provided evidence that during intraoceanic subduction a serpentinite channel forms above the downgoing plate. This channel forms as a result of hydration of the mantle wedge by uprising slab-fluids. Rocks buried at high depths are finally exhumed within this buoyant low-viscosity medium. Convergence rate in these 2D models was described by a trench-normal component of velocity. Several present and past subduction zones worldwide are however driven by oblique convergence between the plates, where trench-normal motion of the subducting slab is coupled with trench-parallel displacement of the plates. Can the exhumation mechanism and the exhumation rates of high-pressure rocks be affected by the shear component of subduction? And how uprise of these rocks can vary along the plate margin? We tried to address these questions performing 3D numerical models that simulate an intraoceanic oblique subduction. The models are based on thermo-mechanical equations that are solved with finite differences method and marker-in-cell techniques combined with multigrid approach (Gerya, 2010). In most of the models a narrow oceanic basin (500 km-wide) surrounded by continental margins is depicted. The basin is floored by either layered or heterogeneous oceanic lithosphere with gabbro as discrete bodies in serpentinized peridotite and a basaltic layer on the top. A weak zone in the mantle is prescribed to control the location of subduction initiation and therefore the plate margins geometry. Finally, addition of a third dimension in the simulations allowed us to test the role of different plate margin geometries on oblique subduction dynamics. In particular in each model we modified the dip angle of the weak zone and its "lateral" geometry (e.g. continuous, segmented). We consider "continuous" weak zones either parallel or increasingly moving away from the continental margins

  12. Oblique incidence for broad monoenergetic proton beams

    SciTech Connect

    Jette, David; Yuan Jiankui; Chen Weimin

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: The depth dose of a monoenergetic broad parallel proton beam has been modeled in a number of ways, but evidently not yet for oblique incidence. The purpose of this investigation is to find an accurate analytic formula for this case, which can then be used to model the depth dose of a broad beam with an initial Gaussian angular distribution. Methods: The Bortfeld model of depth dose in a broad normally incident proton beam has been extended to the case of oblique incidence. This extension uses an empirically determined Gaussian parameter {sigma}{sub x} which (roughly) characterizes the off-axis dose of a proton pencil beam. As with Bortfeld's work, the modeling is done in terms of parabolic cylinder functions. To obtain the depth dose for an initial angular distribution, the result is integrated over the angle of incidence, weighted by a Gaussian probability function. The predictions of the theory have been compared to MCNPX Monte Carlo calculations for four phantom materials (water, bone, aluminum, and copper) and for initial proton energies of 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 MeV. Results: Comparisons of the depth dose predicted by this theory with Monte Carlo calculations have established that with very good accuracy, {sigma}{sub x} can be taken to be independent both of the depth and of the angle of incidence. As a function of initial proton range or of initial proton energy, {sigma}{sub x} has been found to obey a power law to very high accuracy. Good fits to Monte Carlo calculations have also been found for an initial Gaussian angular distribution. Conclusions: This investigation is the first step in the accurate modeling of a proton pencil beam with initial Gaussian angular distribution. It provides the longitudinal factor, with its Bragg peak buildup and sharp distal falloff. A transverse factor must still be incorporated into this theory and this will give the lateral penumbra of a collimated proton beam. Also, it will be necessary to model the dose of

  13. Particle and energy reflection coefficients of low-energy light ions at oblique incidence

    SciTech Connect

    Simovic, R.; Vukanic, J.

    1995-12-31

    The energy-dependent Boltzman equation for slow light ions incident normally on a solid has been solved previously. Since the ion distribution function is almost isotropic, satisfactory results have been obtained in the lowest order of approximation. In this paper, we complete our calculations to include the case of oblique ion incidence and compare results with the exact solutions based on the H-function method and MARLOWE computer simulation data.

  14. MAGAZINE # B10. OBLIQUE VIEW FROM RIGHT SIDE SHOWING LOADING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MAGAZINE # B-10. OBLIQUE VIEW FROM RIGHT SIDE SHOWING LOADING PLATFORM AND PART OF MAGAZINE B-9 IN BACKGROUND. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Waikele Branch, Tunnel Magazine Type, Waikakalaua & Kipapa Gulches, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. MAGAZINE # B11. OBLIQUE VIEW FROM RIGHT SIDE SHOWING LOADING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MAGAZINE # B-11. OBLIQUE VIEW FROM RIGHT SIDE SHOWING LOADING PLATFORM AND ENTRY. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Waikele Branch, Tunnel Magazine Type, Waikakalaua & Kipapa Gulches, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  16. OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTH FRONT AND EAST SIDE, FACING NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTH FRONT AND EAST SIDE, FACING NORTHWEST. - Douglas Aircraft Company Long Beach Plant, Aircraft Wing & Fuselage Assembly Building, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. 16. Oblique, guard quarters; shower stalls at left; view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Oblique, guard quarters; shower stalls at left; view to south-southwest, 65mm lens with electronic flash illumination. - Tule Lake Project Jail, Post Mile 44.85, State Route 139, Newell, Modoc County, CA

  18. 2. OBLIQUE VIEW TO NORTHEAST ALONG FRONT OF SANTA ANA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OBLIQUE VIEW TO NORTHEAST ALONG FRONT OF SANTA ANA RIVER DIVERSION DAM. NOTE CABLE CAR SUSPENSION CABLE AT GATE ATOP DAM. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Santa Ana River Diversion Dam, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  19. Oblique view of the north and east sides, view facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of the north and east sides, view facing southwest - U.S. Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay, Warehouse 250, Aviation Storehouse, C Street between Fifth & Sixth Streets, Kaneohe, Honolulu County, HI

  20. OBLIQUE VIEW OF PORTION OF SOUTH SIDE AT THE EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF PORTION OF SOUTH SIDE AT THE EAST END. VIEW FACING NORTH-NORTHEAST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Aviation Storehouse, Vincennes Avenue at Simms Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTH SIDE WITH WEST END TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTH SIDE WITH WEST END TO THE RIGHT. VIEW FACING EAST-SOUTHEAST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Aviation Storehouse, Vincennes Avenue at Simms Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. Oblique view of the south and west sides, view facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of the south and west sides, view facing northeast - U.S. Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay, Warehouse 250, Aviation Storehouse, C Street between Fifth & Sixth Streets, Kaneohe, Honolulu County, HI

  3. OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAST END WITH SOUTH SIDE TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAST END WITH SOUTH SIDE TO THE LEFT. VIEW FACING WEST-SOUTHWEST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Aviation Storehouse, Vincennes Avenue at Simms Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  4. Oblique view of building 11050, showing east and south sides, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of building 11050, showing east and south sides, looking northwest. - Naval Ordnance Test Station Inyokern, China Lake Pilot Plant, Fire Station & Marine Barracks, D Street, at corner of 4th Street, China Lake, Kern County, CA

  5. Building 904, oblique view to northeast, 210mm lens Travis ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 904, oblique view to northeast, 210mm lens - Travis Air Force Base, Base Spares Warehouse No. 1, Dixon Avenue & W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  6. Building 930, oblique view to southeast from fill slope covering ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 930, oblique view to southeast from fill slope covering building 932, 135 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Snack Bar, North of W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  7. Building 909, oblique view to southeast, 135 mm lens. Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 909, oblique view to southeast, 135 mm lens. Building 908 at extreme right for context. - Travis Air Force Base, Handling Crew Building, North of W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  8. Building 904, oblique view to southeast, 135 mm lens. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 904, oblique view to southeast, 135 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Base Spares Warehouse No. 1, Dixon Avenue & W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  9. Building 904, oblique view to northwest, 135 mm lens ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 904, oblique view to northwest, 135 mm lens - Travis Air Force Base, Base Spares Warehouse No. 1, Dixon Avenue & W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  10. Building 1204, oblique view to east, 90 mm lens. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 1204, oblique view to east, 90 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Squadron Operations & Readiness Crew Facility, W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  11. Building 931, oblique view to southeast, 135 mm lens. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 931, oblique view to southeast, 135 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Central Battery Charging Building, North of W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  12. Building 1204, oblique view to west, 135 mm lens. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 1204, oblique view to west, 135 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Squadron Operations & Readiness Crew Facility, W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  13. Detail, rear door types, building 242, oblique view to southwest, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, rear door types, building 242, oblique view to southwest, 90 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Nuclear Weapons Assembly Building, W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  14. Building 931, oblique view to northwest, 210 mm lens. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 931, oblique view to northwest, 210 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Central Battery Charging Building, North of W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  15. Building 932, oblique view to northwest, 90 mm lens. Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 932, oblique view to northwest, 90 mm lens. Building 933-935 at extreme left. - Travis Air Force Base, Nuclear Weapons Assembly Plant 5, W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  16. Facility No. 175, exterior oblique view of northeast and northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Facility No. 175, exterior oblique view of northeast and northwest sides, corner of Facility No. 176 is in background - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Landplane Hangar Type, Wasp Boulevard and Gambier Bay Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  17. Oblique of north end and west side, brig is in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique of north end and west side, brig is in background to the right - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, United States All-Steel Hangar, Wasp Boulevard between Kingfisher Street and Ranger Loop, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. Facility No. 176, oblique view of north and east sides, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Facility No. 176, oblique view of north and east sides, corner of Facility No. 175 is to the right - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Landplane Hangar Type, Wasp Boulevard and Gambier Bay Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF 2195 SOUTHWEST CANAL STREET, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF 2195 SOUTHWEST CANAL STREET, VIEW TOWARDS SOUTHEAST - St. Lucie Canal, Lock No. 1, Attendant's Quarters, St. Lucie, Cross State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Stuart, Martin County, FL

  20. OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF 2195 SOUTHWEST CANAL STREET, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF 2195 SOUTHWEST CANAL STREET, VIEW TOWARDS NORTH - St. Lucie Canal, Lock No. 1, Attendant's Quarters, St. Lucie, Cross State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Stuart, Martin County, FL

  1. FACILITY 89. OBLIQUE OF SIDE AND REAR. VIEW FACING SOUTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 89. OBLIQUE OF SIDE AND REAR. VIEW FACING SOUTH. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Naval Housing Area Makalapa, Junior Officers' Quarters Type K, Makin Place, & Halawa, Makalapa, & Midway Drives, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. 2. EXTERIOR OBLIQUE VIEW OF BUILDING 746 FROM EAST K ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EXTERIOR OBLIQUE VIEW OF BUILDING 746 FROM EAST K STREET, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Gymnasium-Cafeteria-Theater, East K Street between Eleventh & Twelfth Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  3. FACILITY 89. FRONT OBLIQUE TAKEN FROM DRIVEWAY. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 89. FRONT OBLIQUE TAKEN FROM DRIVEWAY. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Naval Housing Area Makalapa, Junior Officers' Quarters Type K, Makin Place, & Halawa, Makalapa, & Midway Drives, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  4. 17. Oblique view of northwest corner of main plant looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Oblique view of northwest corner of main plant looking southeast with railroad tracks in foreground - Skinner Meat Packing Plant, Main Plant, 6006 South Twenty-seventh Street, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

  5. 1. Oblique view: east side, from Condado Lagoon Beach on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Oblique view: east side, from Condado Lagoon Beach on southeast (context) - Puente Guillermo Esteves, Spanning San Antonio Channel at PR-25 (Juan Ponce de Leon Avenue), San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

  6. 11. OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAST TRUSS AND EAST SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAST TRUSS AND EAST SIDE OF SOUTH ABUTMENT, SEEN FROM SOUTH BANK OF WINTER'S RUN. - Mitchell's Mill Bridge, Spanning Winter's Run on Carrs Mill Road, west of Bel Air, Bel Air, Harford County, MD

  7. 7. CLOSER OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST TRUSS AND WEST SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. CLOSER OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST TRUSS AND WEST SIDE OF SOUTH ABUTMENT; VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Mitchell's Mill Bridge, Spanning Winter's Run on Carrs Mill Road, west of Bel Air, Bel Air, Harford County, MD

  8. Building G interior, second floor oblique looking southwest, showing storage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building G interior, second floor oblique looking southwest, showing storage area for samples - Daniel F. Waters Germantown Dye Works, Building G, 37-55 East Wister Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. Evidence for Obliquity Forcing of Glacial Termination II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drysdale, R. N.; Hellstrom, J. C.; Zanchetta, G.; Fallick, A. E.; Sánchez Goñi, M. F.; Couchoud, I.; McDonald, J.; Maas, R.; Lohmann, G.; Isola, I.

    2009-09-01

    Variations in the intensity of high-latitude Northern Hemisphere summer insolation, driven largely by precession of the equinoxes, are widely thought to control the timing of Late Pleistocene glacial terminations. However, recently it has been suggested that changes in Earth’s obliquity may be a more important mechanism. We present a new speleothem-based North Atlantic marine chronology that shows that the penultimate glacial termination (Termination II) commenced 141,000 ± 2500 years before the present, too early to be explained by Northern Hemisphere summer insolation but consistent with changes in Earth’s obliquity. Our record reveals that Terminations I and II are separated by three obliquity cycles and that they started at near-identical obliquity phases.

  10. 43. OBLIQUE VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING SWITCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. OBLIQUE VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING SWITCH LEVER ASSEMBLAGE AND DISPLAY BOARD - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  11. 37. OBLIQUE VIEW, INTERIOR, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. OBLIQUE VIEW, INTERIOR, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  12. 3. BUILDING 313, SOUTH SIDE, OBLIQUE VIEW WITH PORTION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. BUILDING 313, SOUTH SIDE, OBLIQUE VIEW WITH PORTION OF WEST SIDE, FROM PARKING AREA, NORTHEAST CORNER OF BUILDING 221, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, General Storehouses, Between Third & Fourth Streets, North of A Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  13. 7. Interior oblique view toward doorway, Oil House, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Interior oblique view toward doorway, Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to south (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  14. 6. Interior oblique view from doorway, Oil House, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Interior oblique view from doorway, Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to north (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  15. 6. OBLIQUE VIEW, FROM SOUTHWEST, SHOWING WEST PORTAL, THROUGH TRUSSES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. OBLIQUE VIEW, FROM SOUTHWEST, SHOWING WEST PORTAL, THROUGH TRUSSES OF WEST SPAN, AND PORTION OF WEST APPROACH - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  16. 50. Oblique view aft of saloon skylight with steering gear ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Oblique view aft of saloon skylight with steering gear beyond, mizzen gaff boom above. Photograph by Russell Booth, June 1989. - Ship BALCLUTHA, 2905 Hyde Street Pier, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  17. Oblique view of the west side, view facing southsoutheast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of the west side, view facing south-southeast - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Type "B" Casualty Dressing & Decontamination Station, Intersection of Eighth Street, Avenue E & Central Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. Oblique view of the north end and east side, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of the north end and east side, view facing southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Type "B" Casualty Dressing & Decontamination Station, Intersection of Eighth Street, Avenue E & Central Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. Oblique view of east side and south end, view facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of east side and south end, view facing northwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Type "B" Casualty Dressing & Decontamination Station, Intersection of Eighth Street, Avenue E & Central Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  20. 11. View from heat sink, south oblique of missile site ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. View from heat sink, south oblique of missile site control building - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Site Control Building, Northeast of Tactical Road; southeast of Tactical Road South, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  1. 6. View from heat sink (south to north), west oblique ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. View from heat sink (south to north), west oblique of missile site control building - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Site Control Building, Northeast of Tactical Road; southeast of Tactical Road South, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  2. 7. View from heat sink (south to north), west oblique ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View from heat sink (south to north), west oblique of missile site control building, emphasizing southwest face - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Site Control Building, Northeast of Tactical Road; southeast of Tactical Road South, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  3. 1. Oblique view of Portsmouth Naval Hospital Building looking north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Oblique view of Portsmouth Naval Hospital Building looking north from roof of 1960 high-rise hospital - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Hospital Building, Rixey Place, bounded by Williamson Drive, Holcomb Road, & The Circle, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA

  4. Contextual view showing an oblique view of the east and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view showing an oblique view of the east and north sides, taken from Facility 47 - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Auxiliary Machine & Electric Shop, Avenue G near Fifth Street intersection, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  5. 18. Credit RSA; October, 1959: Oblique view taken from roadway, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Credit RSA; October, 1959: Oblique view taken from roadway, looking north at inside elevation of eastern truss - Reading-Halls Station Bridge, U.S. Route 220, spanning railroad near Halls Station, Muncy, Lycoming County, PA

  6. 1. NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA PATCH ISLAND. REMAINS OF SEA WALL VISIBLE IN FOREGROUND AND RIGHT OF IMAGE. - Fort Delaware, Sea Wall, Pea Patch Island, Delaware City, New Castle County, DE

  7. NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA PATCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA PATCH ISLAND. REMAINS OF SEA WALL VISIBLE IN FOREGROUND AND RIGHT OF IMAGE - Fort Delaware, Pea Patch Island, Delaware City, New Castle County, DE

  8. 4. OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAST SIDE OF BRIDGE, SHOWING TRAIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAST SIDE OF BRIDGE, SHOWING TRAIN TRANSITING BOTH PORTALS, LOOKING WEST - Mystic River Drawbridge No. 7, Spanning Mystic River at Boston & Maine Railroad Eastern Route, Somerville, Middlesex County, MA

  9. 2. INTERIOR VIEW, OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE LOOKING ACROSS PEWS (WITH RACKS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. INTERIOR VIEW, OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE LOOKING ACROSS PEWS (WITH RACKS FOR FANS AND HYMNALS) TO PULPIT. - Sardis Baptist Church, Sanders' Ferry, Wilson's Crossing, Warrior River, Cordova, Walker County, AL

  10. OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTHWEST SIDE (LEFT) AND SOUTHEAST SIDE (RIGHT). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTHWEST SIDE (LEFT) AND SOUTHEAST SIDE (RIGHT). NOTE THE FIXED LOUVER ROOF VENTS. VIEW FACING NORTH. - Hickam Field, Fort Kamehameha Officers' Housing Type Z, 19 Worchester Avenue, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  11. OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE NORTHWEST SIDE. NOTE THE LAVA ROCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE NORTHWEST SIDE. NOTE THE LAVA ROCK FOUNDATION PIERS AND DETAILING AT THE WINDOWS. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST. - Hickam Field, Fort Kamehameha Officers' Housing Type Z, 19 Worchester Avenue, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  12. 2. Oblique view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking south; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Oblique view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking south; chute building is in background - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  13. 6. Oblique view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking northeast, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Oblique view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking northeast, with chute building to the right - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  14. Exterior oblique view of the east end and the south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior oblique view of the east end and the south side. Showing the Dust Collector on the right. View facing northwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Sawmill, Seventh Street near Avenue E, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. 16. OBLIQUE VIEW OF UNDERSTRUCTURE, SHOWING NORTH PIER, ARCH RIBS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. OBLIQUE VIEW OF UNDERSTRUCTURE, SHOWING NORTH PIER, ARCH RIBS, COLUMNS, AND SWAY BRACING, LOOKING SOUTH - Chili Bar Bridge, Spanning South Fork of American River at State Highway 193, Placerville, El Dorado County, CA

  16. 14. GENERAL OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST CORNER OF SHED, OBSTRUCTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. GENERAL OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST CORNER OF SHED, OBSTRUCTED BY LATE METAL BUILDING, LOOKING EAST - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  17. 3. OBLIQUE GENERAL VIEW SHOWING EAST CORNER OF SHED, WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. OBLIQUE GENERAL VIEW SHOWING EAST CORNER OF SHED, WITH RAILROAD TRACKS PASSING UNDER DERRICK ALONG WHARF - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  18. 9. GENERAL OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTH CORNER OF SHED WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. GENERAL OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTH CORNER OF SHED WITH DERRICK AND RAILWAY PASS-TROUGH ON WHARF, LOOKING NORTH - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  19. 8. General oblique view: east side of south end, from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. General oblique view: east side of south end, from the Dos Hermanos Highway Bridge - Puente Guillermo Esteves, Spanning San Antonio Channel at PR-25 (Juan Ponce de Leon Avenue), San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

  20. 9. OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE BRIDGE FROM THE SOUTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE BRIDGE FROM THE SOUTH. - Puente de la Marina, San Lorenzo-Florida & Cerro Gordo Neighborhoods, spanning Rio Grande de Loiza River at Narciso Varona-Suarez Street, San Lorenzo, San Lorenzo Municipio, PR

  1. 10. OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE BRIDGE FROM THE SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE BRIDGE FROM THE SOUTHEAST. - Puente de la Marina, San Lorenzo-Florida & Cerro Gordo Neighborhoods, spanning Rio Grande de Loiza River at Narciso Varona-Suarez Street, San Lorenzo, San Lorenzo Municipio, PR

  2. OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE NORTHEAST SIDE. NOTE THE CANTILEVERED CANOPY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE NORTHEAST SIDE. NOTE THE CANTILEVERED CANOPY OVER THE FRONT DOOR AND BELT COURSE OF THREE FLARED BANDS. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type M, 113 Beard Avenue, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  3. 7. General oblique view of south side, view to northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. General oblique view of south side, view to northeast showing dock area and canopy; note projecting entrance at egg candling room - Fort Hood, World War II Temporary Buildings, Cold Storage Building, Seventeenth Street, Killeen, Bell County, TX

  4. 10. OBLIQUE VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING EAST OF DOWNSTREAM SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. OBLIQUE VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING EAST OF DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF BRIDGE FROM YOLO COUNTY SIDE OF THE SACRAMENTO RIVER - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  5. 11. OBLIQUE VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST OF UPSTREAM SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. OBLIQUE VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST OF UPSTREAM SIDE OF BRIDGE FROM YOLO COUNTY SIDE OF SACRAMENTO RIVER - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  6. Oblique view of east side of central wing and part ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of east side of central wing and part of south side, Facility 268 to right - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Enlisted Men's Barracks & Mess Hall, Marine Barracks, Neville Way, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  7. South Fork Latrine, oblique view showing south and east sides; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South Fork Latrine, oblique view showing south and east sides; view northwest - Fort McKinley, South Fork Latrine, West side of East Side Drive, approximately 225 feet south of Weymouth Way, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  8. Exterior oblique view of southeast and northeast side. View facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior oblique view of southeast and northeast side. View facing west-southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Forge Shop & Galvanizing Shop, Sixth Street between Avenues D & E, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. Oblique interior view of the south side bay showing the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique interior view of the south side bay showing the presses. View facing southeast - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Forge Shop & Galvanizing Shop, Sixth Street between Avenues D & E, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  10. Oblique interior view of main space showing the singlecasting steel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique interior view of main space showing the single-casting steel press. View facing west-southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Forge Shop & Galvanizing Shop, Sixth Street between Avenues D & E, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. Interior oblique view of the main space from the west. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior oblique view of the main space from the west. View facing southeast - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Forge Shop & Galvanizing Shop, Sixth Street between Avenues D & E, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  12. 29. Oblique Aerial View of North Plant, Looking North, Showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Oblique Aerial View of North Plant, Looking North, Showing Powerhouse in Left Center and 1929 Bridge in Right Center (undated) - Atwater Kent Manufacturing Company, North Plant, 5000 Wissahickon Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. 6. North Plant, Southwest Elevation Oblique, Showing Loading Dock and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. North Plant, Southwest Elevation Oblique, Showing Loading Dock and Southeast Elevation of Powerhouse, Looking Northwest - Atwater Kent Manufacturing Company, North Plant, 5000 Wissahickon Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. 27. Oblique Aerial View of North and South Plants, Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Oblique Aerial View of North and South Plants, Looking East, with Powerhouse in Center Foreground (undated) - Atwater Kent Manufacturing Company, North Plant, 5000 Wissahickon Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. 1. EXTERIOR VIEW, OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE, LOOKING NORTHEAST, WITH SIDE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR VIEW, OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE, LOOKING NORTHEAST, WITH SIDE AND FRONT ELEVATIONS OF THE CHURCH AND THE GAZEBO BAND STAND (LEFT) - St. Mark's Catholic Church, 1040 Tenth Avenue West, Thomas, Jefferson County, AL

  16. 2. EXTERIOR OBLIQUE VIEW OF BUILDING 218 WITH DOMES TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EXTERIOR OBLIQUE VIEW OF BUILDING 218 WITH DOMES TO THE RIGHT, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Consolidated Open Mess, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  17. 4. OBLIQUE VIEW, AUTOMATIC BLOCK SIGNAL, EASTBOUND ON CATENARY BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. OBLIQUE VIEW, AUTOMATIC BLOCK SIGNAL, EASTBOUND ON CATENARY BRIDGE 486 - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  18. 10. OBLIQUE DETAIL VIEW OF PUMP NO. 1 IN FILTRATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. OBLIQUE DETAIL VIEW OF PUMP NO. 1 IN FILTRATION ROOM IN FILTRATION PLANT (#1773), LOOKING NORTHEAST - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  19. 7. OBLIQUE INTERIOR VIEW OF FILTRATION ROOM IN FILTRATION PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. OBLIQUE INTERIOR VIEW OF FILTRATION ROOM IN FILTRATION PLANT (#1773), LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING PUMP NO. 1 AND METERING EQUIPMENT - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  20. 12. OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTH WORK ROOM IN FILTRATION PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTH WORK ROOM IN FILTRATION PLANT (#1773), LOOKING NORTHWEST - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  1. 8. OBLIQUE INTERIOR VIEW OF FILTRATION ROOM IN FILTRATION PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. OBLIQUE INTERIOR VIEW OF FILTRATION ROOM IN FILTRATION PLANT (#1773), LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING MEZZANINE WITH FILTER TANKS AT REAR - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  2. Oblique perspective of portal, due north. Bridge has gable roof ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique perspective of portal, due north. Bridge has gable roof clad with wood shingles and has board and batten siding. - Watson Mill Bridge, Spanning South Fork Broad River, Watson Mill Road, Watson Mill Bridge State Park, Comer, Madison County, GA

  3. OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAST (REAR) AND NORTH FACADES, WITH BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAST (REAR) AND NORTH FACADES, WITH BUILDING 792 VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND RIGHT, LOOKING WEST - Eglin Air Force Base, Storehouse & Company Administration, Southeast of Flager Road, Nassau Lane, & southern edge of Weekly Bayou, Valparaiso, Okaloosa County, FL

  4. OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST (FRONT) AND NORTH FACADES, LOOKING SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST (FRONT) AND NORTH FACADES, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Eglin Air Force Base, Storehouse & Company Administration, Southeast of Flager Road, Nassau Lane, & southern edge of Weekly Bayou, Valparaiso, Okaloosa County, FL

  5. OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE WEST (REAR) AND SOUTH FACADES, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE WEST (REAR) AND SOUTH FACADES, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Eglin Air Force Base, Motor Repair Shop, Northwest of Flager Road, Chisk Lane & southern edge of Weekly Bayou, Valparaiso, Okaloosa County, FL

  6. 5. OBLIQUE INTERIOR VIEW OF CHEMICAL STORAGE BUILDING (#1776), LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. OBLIQUE INTERIOR VIEW OF CHEMICAL STORAGE BUILDING (#1776), LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Chemical Storage, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  7. 3. OBLIQUE DETAIL VIEW OF DOOR AT CHEMICAL STORAGE BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. OBLIQUE DETAIL VIEW OF DOOR AT CHEMICAL STORAGE BUILDING (#1776), LOOKING NORTHWEST - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Chemical Storage, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  8. 13. OBLIQUE OF UNDERSIDE OF SOUTH TRUSS SPAN, SOUTH APPROACH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. OBLIQUE OF UNDERSIDE OF SOUTH TRUSS SPAN, SOUTH APPROACH SPAN, AND SOUTH PIER, SHOWING FLOOR SYSTEM AND BEARINGS. LOOKING NORTH. - Flintville Bridge, Spanning Broad Creek at Flintville Road (Maryland Route 623), Castleton, Harford County, MD

  9. 1. OBLIQUE VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, OF MCNALLY DRYER, WITH FARQUHAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OBLIQUE VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, OF MCNALLY DRYER, WITH FARQUHAR DRIVE UNIT, JEFFREY FAN UNIT, AND ROOF PARTS IN BACKGROUND - Eska Coal Mine, McNally Dryer Unit, Wishbone Hill, Sutton, Matanuska-Susitna Borough, AK

  10. 1. OBLIQUE VIEW OF HOIST, SHOWING CABLE DRUM, WOODEN BRAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OBLIQUE VIEW OF HOIST, SHOWING CABLE DRUM, WOODEN BRAKE SHOES AND BRAKE HANDLE, LOOKING NORTH - Buffalo Coal Mine, Vulcan Cable Hoist, Wishbone Hill, Southeast end, near Moose Creek, Sutton, Matanuska-Susitna Borough, AK

  11. 2. OBLIQUE VIEW OF HOIST, SHOWING CABLE DRUM, WOODEN BRAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OBLIQUE VIEW OF HOIST, SHOWING CABLE DRUM, WOODEN BRAKE SHOES, BRAKE HANDLE, AND REDUCTION GEARS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Buffalo Coal Mine, Vulcan Cable Hoist, Wishbone Hill, Southeast end, near Moose Creek, Sutton, Matanuska-Susitna Borough, AK

  12. 13. OBLIQUE VIEW, THREE DWARF SIGNALS, EAST OF CATENARY BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. OBLIQUE VIEW, THREE DWARF SIGNALS, EAST OF CATENARY BRIDGE 522 - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  13. 9. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. DETAIL, OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST APPROACH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. DETAIL, OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST APPROACH SPAN. NOTE PIN CONNECTIONS, UNDERSIDE DETAILS, SHADOW PATTERN CAST BY STEEL OPEN GRATE DECK. - Gianella Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at State Highway 32, Hamilton City, Glenn County, CA

  14. West side, oblique, partially hidden by trees, utility safety fence, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West side, oblique, partially hidden by trees, utility safety fence, and the deep shadow of the 1962 annex. View to northeast. - San Bernardino Valley College, Library, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  15. 14. Oblique detail; understructure beneath short span used for docking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Oblique detail; understructure beneath short span used for docking fishing boats, north of northen pillar, from northwest. - Puente Ferroviario San Antonio, Spanning San Antonio Channel at PR-1, San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

  16. Oblique view of arches and ironwork on south breezeway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of arches and ironwork on south breezeway - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Pacific Branch, Mental Health Buildings, 11301 Wilshire Boulevard, West Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. Oblique view to the west of the southeast elevation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view to the west of the southeast elevation - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Mountain Home Air Force Operations Building, On Desert Street at 9th Avenue Mountain Home Air Force Base, Mountain Home, Elmore County, ID

  18. 10. SLIGHTLY OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP COMPLEX. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. SLIGHTLY OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP COMPLEX. NOTE AUXILIARY STRUCTURES. - Eagle Mountain Pump Plant, Ten miles north of Route 10, southeast of Eagle Mountain, Eagle Mountain, Riverside County, CA

  19. Oblique view to the west of two communications antennas ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view to the west of two communications antennas - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Mountain Home Air Force Operations Building, On Desert Street at 9th Avenue Mountain Home Air Force Base, Mountain Home, Elmore County, ID

  20. OBLIQUE OF THE NORTHEAST END (MAIN ENTRY) AND NORTHWEST SIDE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE OF THE NORTHEAST END (MAIN ENTRY) AND NORTHWEST SIDE, WITH FACILITY 346 ON LEFT. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Joint Intelligence Center, Makalapa Drive in Makalapa Administration Area, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. OBLIQUE OF SOUTHWEST END AND SOUTHEAST SIDE, WITH ADJACENT FACILITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE OF SOUTHWEST END AND SOUTHEAST SIDE, WITH ADJACENT FACILITY 391 IN THE FOREGROUND. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Joint Intelligence Center, Makalapa Drive in Makalapa Administration Area, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. OBLIQUE OF NORTHEAST END WITH FACILITY 252 PORTION OF BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE OF NORTHEAST END WITH FACILITY 252 PORTION OF BUILDING (FIRST-FLOOR CONCRETE PORTION) IN FOREGROUND. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Combat Intelligence Center, Makalapa Drive in Makalapa Administration Area, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. OBLIQUE SHOWING NORTHEAST END AND NORTHWEST SIDE. FACILITY 252 PORTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE SHOWING NORTHEAST END AND NORTHWEST SIDE. FACILITY 252 PORTION OF BUILDING IS ON LEFT. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Combat Intelligence Center, Makalapa Drive in Makalapa Administration Area, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  4. Detail, oblique view to southeast of front porch, showing clinker ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, oblique view to southeast of front porch, showing clinker brick plinths and foundation, Doric columns, simple balustrade - Ira H. Brooks House, 350 North Fulton Avenue, Fresno, Fresno County, CA

  5. OBLIQUE VIEW, TCI TWOROOM HOUSE WITH STEEL ROOF AND ORIGINAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW, TCI TWO-ROOM HOUSE WITH STEEL ROOF AND ORIGINAL SIDING, FRONT PORCH, BRICK CHIMNEY, AND PIER FOUNDATIONS AND A CADILLAC - Edgewater Community, Off New Mulga Loop Road (Junction 80), Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  6. 12. Oblique view of northeast facade, showing missing rain gutter, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Oblique view of northeast facade, showing missing rain gutter, deteriorated slate roof, broken windows in tower; view west-northwest, 90mm lens. - Southern Pacific Depot, 559 El Camino Real, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA

  7. Detail of front entrance stoop, siding, and eaves construction. Oblique ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of front entrance stoop, siding, and eaves construction. Oblique view to the southwest - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Building No. 10 A-B (Duplex), 30691 & 30693 Wellton-Mohawk Drive, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  8. 9. East oblique of missile site control building Stanley ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. East oblique of missile site control building - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Site Control Building, Northeast of Tactical Road; southeast of Tactical Road South, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  9. 8. North oblique of missile site control building Stanley ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. North oblique of missile site control building - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Site Control Building, Northeast of Tactical Road; southeast of Tactical Road South, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  10. Oblique view, north end and west side, Burton Park Club ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view, north end and west side, Burton Park Club House, view to south (90mm lens). - Burton Park, Club House & Amphitheater, Adjacent ot south end of Chestnut Avenue, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA

  11. 2. OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTHWEST CORNER OF WEST WING. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTHWEST CORNER OF WEST WING. THE VAULT ROOM IS ATTACHED TO THE WEST WALL, SHOWN AT FAR RIGHT. - Oakland Army Base, General Purpose Administration Building, Chungking & Algiers Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  12. 8. OBLIQUE VIEW OF WALKER BRIDGE FROM PASTURE SOUTH OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. OBLIQUE VIEW OF WALKER BRIDGE FROM PASTURE SOUTH OF THE KLAMATH RIVER; FACING NORTHEAST. - Walker Bridge, Spanning Klamath River and connecting Highway 96 and Walker Road, Klamath River, Siskiyou County, CA

  13. 4. EXTERIOR OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, LOOKING EASTNORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EXTERIOR OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Administration Building, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  14. 5. INTERIOR OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE MAIN ROOM IN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INTERIOR OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE MAIN ROOM IN THE ADMINISTRATION BUILDING 202, LOOKING WEST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Administration Building, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  15. 19. DETAILED OBLIQUE VIEW SOUTHSOUTHEAST OF FURNACE 2, SHOWING PLATFORM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. DETAILED OBLIQUE VIEW SOUTH-SOUTHEAST OF FURNACE 2, SHOWING PLATFORM AT UPPER LEFT HOLDING PULLEY SYSTEM AND ELECTRIC MOTOR TO ACTIVATE DOORS. - Vulcan Crucible Steel Company, Building No. 3, 100 First Street, Aliquippa, Beaver County, PA

  16. 22. DETAIL OBLIQUE VIEW NORTHWEST OF FURNACE 2, SHOWING GENERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DETAIL OBLIQUE VIEW NORTHWEST OF FURNACE 2, SHOWING GENERAL CONSTRUCTION. CONCRETE PAD AT LEFT IS SITE OF FORMER FURNACE USED TO HEAT URANIUM BILLETS. - Vulcan Crucible Steel Company, Building No. 3, 100 First Street, Aliquippa, Beaver County, PA

  17. 15. DETAILED OBLIQUE VIEW SOUTHWEST OF FURNACE 1, SHOWING COUNTERWEIGHTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. DETAILED OBLIQUE VIEW SOUTHWEST OF FURNACE 1, SHOWING COUNTER-WEIGHTED PIVOT ARMS TO RAISE AND LOWER DOORS. - Vulcan Crucible Steel Company, Building No. 3, 100 First Street, Aliquippa, Beaver County, PA

  18. 20. DETAILED OBLIQUE VIEW SOUTHWEST FURNACE 2, SHOWING STEEL FRAME ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETAILED OBLIQUE VIEW SOUTHWEST FURNACE 2, SHOWING STEEL FRAME BOXES FOR COUNTERWEIGHTS, AND FURNACE HEATING PIPES AT RIGHT. - Vulcan Crucible Steel Company, Building No. 3, 100 First Street, Aliquippa, Beaver County, PA

  19. 6. OVERALL OBLIQUE VIEW SOUTHSOUTHWEST, SHOWING NORTH & WEST FACADES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. OVERALL OBLIQUE VIEW SOUTH-SOUTHWEST, SHOWING NORTH & WEST FACADES WITH SHED ROOF BUILDING 8 JUTTING FROM NORTH FACADE OF WEST BAY. - Vulcan Crucible Steel Company, Building No. 3, 100 First Street, Aliquippa, Beaver County, PA

  20. OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTHWEST END AND SOUTHWEST SIDE, SHOWING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTHWEST END AND SOUTHWEST SIDE, SHOWING THE PROJECTING ENTRY FOYER. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, First Aid & Decontamination Building, Wasp Boulevard near Ranger Loop, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. DOME, NORTH ARMORY ON LEFT, OBLIQUE VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DOME, NORTH ARMORY ON LEFT, OBLIQUE VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST. - Colt Fire Arms Company, East Armory Building, 36-150 Huyshope Avenue, 17-170 Van Dyke Avenue, 49 Vredendale Avenue, Hartford, Hartford County, CT

  2. FACILITY 810, REAR OF DUPLEX SHOWING COURTYARD BETWEEN WINGS, OBLIQUE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 810, REAR OF DUPLEX SHOWING COURTYARD BETWEEN WINGS, OBLIQUE VIEW FACING EAST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Duplex Housing Type with Corner Entries, Between Hamilton & Tidball Streets near Williston Avenue, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  3. OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTHEAST SIDE. SHOWING THE TWO REAR WINGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTHEAST SIDE. SHOWING THE TWO REAR WINGS OF THE BUILDING. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST. - Hickam Field, Fort Kamehameha Officers' Housing Type Y, 27 Worchester Avenue, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  4. FACILITY 846, TOILET AND SHOWER WINGS, QUADRANGLE J, OBLIQUE VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 846, TOILET AND SHOWER WINGS, QUADRANGLE J, OBLIQUE VIEW FACING WEST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Quadrangles I & J Barracks Type, Between Wright-Smith & Capron Avenues near Williston Avenue, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  5. Building L west elevation oblique from cartway (between Buildings L ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building L west elevation oblique from cartway (between Buildings L and M), also showing west elevation of Building J - Daniel F. Waters Germantown Dye Works, Building L, 37-55 East Wister Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. Substrate Effects from Oblique Hypervelocity Impacts into Layered Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stickle, A. M.; Schultz, P. H.

    2011-03-01

    We experimentally and numerically examine effects of low-impedance layers on subsurface target damage. Oblique impacts into targets with low-impedance surface layers exhibit reduced peak pressures, subsurface damage and crater size in the substrate.

  7. 12. Oblique view of station from northwest at corner of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Oblique view of station from northwest at corner of Stillwell Avenue and Neptune Avenue. Looking southeast. - Stillwell Avenue Station, Intersection of Stillwell & Surf Avenues, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  8. Oblique view to the northwest of the Antenna Array ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view to the northwest of the Antenna Array - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Christmas Valley Radar Site Transmit Sector Six Antenna Array, On unnamed road west of Lost Forest Road, Christmas Valley, Lake County, OR

  9. GABLE FRONT OF STABLE WITH OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTH SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GABLE FRONT OF STABLE WITH OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTH SIDE SHOWING FILLED-IN OPENING WITH SMALL, PERSONNEL DOOR AND TYPICAL BOARD-AND-BATTEN SIDING - Fort Huachuca, Cavalry Stable, Clarkson Road, Sierra Vista, Cochise County, AZ

  10. Exterior overall oblique view of the northeast and southeast sides ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior overall oblique view of the northeast and southeast sides - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Scrap Metal Packaging Facility, Seventh Street between Facility Nos. 6 & 247, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. 1. OBLIQUE VIEW OF BUNKER LOOKING NORTHWEST. GERMAN VILLAGE IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OBLIQUE VIEW OF BUNKER LOOKING NORTHWEST. GERMAN VILLAGE IN BACKGROUND. - Dugway Proving Ground, German-Japanese Village, Observation Bunker, South of Stark Road, in WWII Incendiary Test Area, Dugway, Tooele County, UT

  12. OBLIQUE VIEW OF FRONT ELEVATION OF MARINE BARRACKS, LOOKING NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF FRONT ELEVATION OF MARINE BARRACKS, LOOKING NORTH. - Naval Computer & Telecommunications Area Master Station, Eastern Pacific, Radio Transmitter Facility Lualualei, Marine Barracks, Intersection of Tower Drive & Morse Street, Makaha, Honolulu County, HI

  13. OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR ELEVATION OF MARINE BARRACKS, LOOKING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR ELEVATION OF MARINE BARRACKS, LOOKING WEST NORTHWEST. - Naval Computer & Telecommunications Area Master Station, Eastern Pacific, Radio Transmitter Facility Lualualei, Marine Barracks, Intersection of Tower Drive & Morse Street, Makaha, Honolulu County, HI

  14. 6. ELEVATED, OBLIQUE VIEW OF INTERSECTION INFRASTRUCTURE AT LATROBE ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. ELEVATED, OBLIQUE VIEW OF INTERSECTION INFRASTRUCTURE AT LATROBE ROAD AND WHITE ROCK ROAD; VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Placerville Road, White Rock Road between Clarksville & White Rock, El Dorado Hills, El Dorado County, CA

  15. Oblique view showing north and west elevations; camera facing southeast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view showing north and west elevations; camera facing southeast. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Supply Building, Walnut Avenue, southeast corner of Walnut Avenue & Fifth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  16. 4. NORTH SIDE, OBLIQUE VIEW, FROM INTERSECTION OF G AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. NORTH SIDE, OBLIQUE VIEW, FROM INTERSECTION OF G AND 5TH STREETS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Storehouse, Between G & H Streets, & Fifth & Sixth Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  17. 9. Oblique view of south loading dock showing insulated doors ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Oblique view of south loading dock showing insulated doors and concrete deck and piers - Fort Hood, World War II Temporary Buildings, Cold Storage Building, Seventeenth Street, Killeen, Bell County, TX

  18. 2. OBLIQUE VIEW TO SOUTHEAST SHOWING WEST SIDE AND NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OBLIQUE VIEW TO SOUTHEAST SHOWING WEST SIDE AND NORTH LOADING PLATFORM AND INSULATED DOORS - Fort McCoy, Building No. T-2112, South Side of South Eighth Avenue, Approximately 400' East of South "J" Street, Sparta, Monroe County, WI

  19. 5. Oblique view of center and south sections of building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Oblique view of center and south sections of building. VIEW OF NORTHWEST CORNER OF CENTER SECTION. - Department of Energy, Grand Junction Office, Building No. 3022, 2597 B3/4 Road, Grand Junction, Mesa County, CO

  20. 9. Oblique view from liftbed truck, showing deteriorated slate roof ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Oblique view from lift-bed truck, showing deteriorated slate roof and chimney, bicycle lockers placed against southeast wall; view to north, 90mm lens. - Southern Pacific Depot, 559 El Camino Real, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA

  1. Oblique Multi-Camera Systems - Orientation and Dense Matching Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupnik, E.; Nex, F.; Remondino, F.

    2014-03-01

    The use of oblique imagery has become a standard for many civil and mapping applications, thanks to the development of airborne digital multi-camera systems, as proposed by many companies (Blomoblique, IGI, Leica, Midas, Pictometry, Vexcel/Microsoft, VisionMap, etc.). The indisputable virtue of oblique photography lies in its simplicity of interpretation and understanding for inexperienced users allowing their use of oblique images in very different applications, such as building detection and reconstruction, building structural damage classification, road land updating and administration services, etc. The paper reports an overview of the actual oblique commercial systems and presents a workflow for the automated orientation and dense matching of large image blocks. Perspectives, potentialities, pitfalls and suggestions for achieving satisfactory results are given. Tests performed on two datasets acquired with two multi-camera systems over urban areas are also reported.

  2. OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF WATER TREATMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, LOCK TENDER'S HOUSE IN BACKGROUND, VIEW TOWARDS SOUTHWEST - Ortona Lock, Lock No. 2, Water Treatment Plant, Caloosahatchee River, Cross-State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Ortona, Glades County, FL

  3. OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF WATER TREATMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, FIRE PUMP HOUSE IN BACKGROUND, VIEW TOWARDS SOUTHEAST - Ortona Lock, Lock No. 2, Water Treatment Plant, Caloosahatchee River, Cross-State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Ortona, Glades County, FL

  4. OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTH AND EAST SIDES OF WATER TREATMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTH AND EAST SIDES OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, VIEW TOWARDS NORTHWEST - Ortona Lock, Lock No. 2, Water Treatment Plant, Caloosahatchee River, Cross-State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Ortona, Glades County, FL

  5. OBLIQUE INTERIOR VIEW. NOTE THE FLAT TRUSS AT THE CENTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE INTERIOR VIEW. NOTE THE FLAT TRUSS AT THE CENTER OF THE HANGAR. VIEW FACING EAST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Seaplane Hangar, Lexington Boulevard, south of Enterprise Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. 2. BUILDING 522, NORTH SIDE, OBLIQUE VIEW, FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. BUILDING 522, NORTH SIDE, OBLIQUE VIEW, FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER OF BUILDING 421, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Aeronautical Materials Storehouses, Between E & G Streets, between Fourth & Sixth Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  7. 1. BUILDING 522, SOUTH SIDE, OBLIQUE VIEW, FROM NORTHEAST CORNER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. BUILDING 522, SOUTH SIDE, OBLIQUE VIEW, FROM NORTHEAST CORNER OF BUILDING 431, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Aeronautical Materials Storehouses, Between E & G Streets, between Fourth & Sixth Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  8. 5. Oblique view of rear (southeast) and right side (southwest) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Oblique view of rear (southeast) and right side (southwest) elevations, looking north. - Downtown Short Pump Grocery, West Broad Street (State Route 250) & Three Chopt Road, Short Pump, Henrico County, VA

  9. 3. Oblique view of front (northwest) and left side (northeast) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Oblique view of front (northwest) and left side (northeast) elevations, looking south. - Downtown Short Pump Grocery, West Broad Street (State Route 250) & Three Chopt Road, Short Pump, Henrico County, VA

  10. OBLIQUE VIEW OF FRONT SIDE (ENTRANCE) AND COURTYARD OF BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF FRONT SIDE (ENTRANCE) AND COURTYARD OF BUILDING 23, FACING SOUTHWEST - Roosevelt Base, Auditorium-Gymnasium, West Virginia Street between Richardson & Reeves Avenues, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. 1. OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF MYSTIC RIVER BRIDGE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF MYSTIC RIVER BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST FROM NEW (U/C) RAILROAD BRIDGE DECK - Mystic River Drawbridge No. 7, Spanning Mystic River at Boston & Maine Railroad Eastern Route, Somerville, Middlesex County, MA

  12. OBLIQUE VIEW WITH ABOVEGROUND PORTION IN THE FOREGROUND. VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW WITH ABOVE-GROUND PORTION IN THE FOREGROUND. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island 5-Inch Antiaircraft Battery, Battery Command Center, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  13. OBLIQUE VIEW. NOTE THE ROUGHSURFACED EXTERIOR OF THE CONCRETE WALLS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW. NOTE THE ROUGH-SURFACED EXTERIOR OF THE CONCRETE WALLS. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island 5-Inch Antiaircraft Battery, Battery Command Center, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  14. OBLIQUE VIEW SHOWING THE SMALL ENCLOSURE WITH NO DOOR IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW SHOWING THE SMALL ENCLOSURE WITH NO DOOR IN THE FOREGROUND. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island 5-Inch Antiaircraft Battery, Battery Command Center, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. OBLIQUE VIEW WITH ENTRY STAIRWAY ON THE LEFT. VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW WITH ENTRY STAIRWAY ON THE LEFT. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island 5-Inch Antiaircraft Battery, Battery Command Center, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  16. 14. INTERIOR OBLIQUE VIEW OF GAME ROOM IN BUILDING 746, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INTERIOR OBLIQUE VIEW OF GAME ROOM IN BUILDING 746, LOOKING WEST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Gymnasium-Cafeteria-Theater, East K Street between Eleventh & Twelfth Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  17. Interior oblique view with wagon in foreground; camera facing southwest. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior oblique view with wagon in foreground; camera facing southwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Mechanics Shop, Waterfront Avenue, west side between A Street & Third Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  18. 14. Credit JTL: Detail, oblique view of Egyptian Revival decorative ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Credit JTL: Detail, oblique view of Egyptian Revival decorative motifs used typically at midpoints of diagonals - Reading-Halls Station Bridge, U.S. Route 220, spanning railroad near Halls Station, Muncy, Lycoming County, PA

  19. OBLIQUE VIEW, TCI DOUBLE THREEROOM HOUSE WITH STEEL ROOF AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW, TCI DOUBLE THREE-ROOM HOUSE WITH STEEL ROOF AND ORIGINAL HEDGING AND CURB AND GUTTER ALONG ENGLAND AVENUE. - Edgewater Community, Off New Mulga Loop Road (Junction 80), Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  20. Oblique view of Building 477 showing the southeast end (left) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of Building 477 showing the southeast end (left) and the northeast side (right), view facing west - U.S. Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay, Golf Course Equipment & Repair Shop, Reeves & Moffett Roads, Kaneohe, Honolulu County, HI

  1. Oblique view of the northwest end (left) and the southwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of the northwest end (left) and the southwest side (right), view facing east - U.S. Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay, Golf Course Equipment & Repair Shop, Reeves & Moffett Roads, Kaneohe, Honolulu County, HI

  2. Detail of generator number three, oblique. Control panels on the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of generator number three, oblique. Control panels on the main floor and on the mezzanine are visible behind and above the generators. - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Utility Building, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  3. 3. OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE PRESENT CONTROL ROOM (ORIGINALLY THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE PRESENT CONTROL ROOM (ORIGINALLY THE TRANSFORMER ROOM). - Washington Water Power Company Post Falls Power Plant, Middle Channel Powerhouse & Dam, West of intersection of Spokane & Fourth Streets, Post Falls, Kootenai County, ID

  4. 13. 64 foot truss oblique view of the 64 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. 64 foot truss - oblique view of the 64 foot pony truss showing its general configuration. The 80 foot pony trusses are similar. - Weidemeyer Bridge, Spanning Thomes Creek at Rawson Road, Corning, Tehama County, CA

  5. 3. Oblique view of 215 Division Street, looking southeast, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Oblique view of 215 Division Street, looking southeast, showing rear (west) facade and north side, Fairbanks Company appears at left and 215 Division Street is visible at right - 215 Division Street (House), Rome, Floyd County, GA

  6. 2. Oblique view of 215 Division Street, looking northeast, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Oblique view of 215 Division Street, looking northeast, showing rear (west) facade and south side, 217 Division Street is visible at left and Fairbanks Company appears at right - 215 Division Street (House), Rome, Floyd County, GA

  7. 3. Oblique view of 213 Division Street, looking northeast, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Oblique view of 213 Division Street, looking northeast, showing rear (west) facade and south side, 215 Division Street is visible at left and Fairbanks Company appears at right - 213 Division Street (House), Rome, Floyd County, GA

  8. 1. Oblique view of 215 Division Street, looking southwest, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Oblique view of 215 Division Street, looking southwest, showing front (east) facade and north side, 213 Division Street is visible at left and 217 Division Street appears at right - 215 Division Street (House), Rome, Floyd County, GA

  9. 19. Oblique, typical cell (south cells) from rear of cell; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Oblique, typical cell (south cells) from rear of cell; view to north, 65mm lens with electronic flash illumination. - Tule Lake Project Jail, Post Mile 44.85, State Route 139, Newell, Modoc County, CA

  10. FRONT OBLIQUE, WITH ENTRY AND WATER FEATURE TO LEFT, TAKEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FRONT OBLIQUE, WITH ENTRY AND WATER FEATURE TO LEFT, TAKEN FROM ENTRY. VIEW FACING SOUTH. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Naval Housing Area Makalapa, Senior Officers' Quarters Type A, 37 Makalapa Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. 24. VIEW TO NORTHEAST; OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTH RETAINING WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. VIEW TO NORTHEAST; OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTH RETAINING WALL AND PARKING STRUCTURE BELOW REA LOADING DOCK (Asano) - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Mail, Baggage, & Express Building, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. OBLIQUE VIEW, REAR ELEVATION, LOOKING SOUTHSOUTHWEST Mountain Home Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW, REAR ELEVATION, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHWEST - Mountain Home Air Force Base 1958 Senior Officers' Housing, General's Residence, Rabeni Street (originally Ivy Street), Mountain Home, Elmore County, ID

  13. OBLIQUE VIEW, FRONT ELEVATION, LOOKING WESTSOUTHWEST Mountain Home Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW, FRONT ELEVATION, LOOKING WEST-SOUTHWEST - Mountain Home Air Force Base 1958 Senior Officers' Housing, General's Residence, Rabeni Street (originally Ivy Street), Mountain Home, Elmore County, ID

  14. Oblique view of center portion of west elevation; camera facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of center portion of west elevation; camera facing southeast. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Ordnance Warehouse, Blake Avenue, northeast corner of Blake Avenue & Railroad Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  15. 3. General oblique view of west facade showing brick piers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. General oblique view of west facade showing brick piers and industrial windows; view to southeast. - Champion-International Paper Company, Paper Machine Building, West bank of Spicket River at Canal Street, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

  16. Oblique view of south and east sides showing parachute tower, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of south and east sides showing parachute tower, facing northwest. - Albrook Air Force Station, Parachute & Armament Building, 200 feet north of Andrews Boulevard, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  17. Oblique view of north side showing bracketed window awnings, main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of north side showing bracketed window awnings, main entry, and mission coping, facing southeast. - Albrook Air Force Station, Parachute & Armament Building, 200 feet north of Andrews Boulevard, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  18. 3. OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF EASTERN FACADE OF UNITY PLANT SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF EASTERN FACADE OF UNITY PLANT SHOWING LANDSCAPING AND HILL. NOTE THE CORBELED BRICK SUPPORT FOR THE FIRE WALL BETWEEN SECTIONS OF THE MILL. - Unity Spinning Mill, 1402 Austin Street, La Grange, Troup County, GA

  19. 21. General oblique view of main central building mass looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. General oblique view of main central building mass looking to southeast, showing meeting of north and central building elements. - Fort Ord, Soldiers' Club, California State Highway 1 near Eighth Street, Seaside, Monterey County, CA

  20. Launch of martian meteorites in oblique impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemieva, Natalia; Ivanov, Boris

    2004-09-01

    A high-velocity oblique impact into the martian surface accelerates solid target material to escape velocity. A fraction of that material eventually falls as meteorites on Earth. For a long time they were called the SNC meteorites (Shergotty, Nakhla, and Chassigny). We study production of potential martian meteorites numerically within the frame of 3D hydrodynamic modeling. The ratio of the volume of escaping solid ejecta to projectile volume depends on the impact angle, impact velocity and the volatile content in the projectile and in the target. The size distribution of ejected fragments appears to be of crucial importance for the atmosphere-ejecta interaction in the case of a relatively small impact (with final crater size <3 km): 10-cm-sized particles are decelerated efficiently, while 30-50% of larger fragments could escape Mars. The results of numerical modeling are compared with shock metamorphic features in martian meteorites, their burial depth, and preatmospheric mass. Although it is impossible to accelerate ejected fragments to escape velocity without substantial compression (above 10 GPa), the maximum temperature increase in dunite (Chassigny) or ortopyroxenite (ALH84001) may be lower than 200 degree. This result is consistent with the observed chaotic magnetization of ALH84001. The probability of microbes' survival may be rather high even for the extreme conditions during the ejection process.

  1. Mix and Instability Growth from Oblique Shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molitoris, John D.; Batteux, Jan D.; Garza, Raul G.; Tringe, Joseph W.; Souers, P. Clark; Energetic Materials Center Team

    2011-06-01

    We have studied the formation and evolution of shock-induced turbulent mix resulting from pre-emplaced interface features in a cylindrical geometry. In this research a solid cylindrical core of high-explosive was detonated to create an oblique shock wave that is driven through a cylindrical interface. Pre-emplaced surface features in plastic and aluminum were studied. Time sequence radiographic imaging was utilized to observe the resulting instability formation from the growth phase to onset of mix and turbulence. Different types of pre-emplaced structures at the interface resulted in a range of mix and instability conditions, with some much more effective at creating a well-mixed region. The plastic used here was porous polyethylene. Interfaces studied were between the high-explosive/aluminum, aluminum/plastic, and finally plastic/air. Radiographic image data will be compared with numerical simulations of the experiments. Partial support for this research was obtained from the Advanced Energetics Program, Defense Threat Reduction Agency. This work performed under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  2. Analytical and experimental investigations of the oblique detonation wave engine concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menees, Gene P.; Adelman, Henry G.; Cambier, Jean-Luc

    1990-01-01

    Wave combustors, which include the oblique detonation wave engine (ODWE), are attractive propulsion concepts for hypersonic flight. These engines utilize oblique shock or detonation waves to rapidly mix, ignite, and combust the air-fuel mixture in thin zones in the combustion chamber. Benefits of these combustion systems include shorter and lighter engines which require less cooling and can provide thrust at higher Mach numbers than conventional scramjets. The wave combustor's ability to operate at lower combustor inlet pressures may allow the vehicle to operate at lower dynamic pressures which could lessen the heating loads on the airframe. The research program at NASA-Ames includes analytical studies of the ODWE combustor using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes which fully couple finite rate chemistry with fluid dynamics. In addition, experimental proof-of-concept studies are being performed in an arc heated hypersonic wind tunnel. Several fuel injection design were studied analytically and experimentally. In-stream strut fuel injectors were chosen to provide good mixing with minimal stagnation pressure losses. Measurements of flow field properties behind the oblique wave are compared to analytical predictions.

  3. Analytical and experimental investigations of the oblique detonation wave engine concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menees, Gene P.; Adelman, Henry G.; Cambier, Jean-Luc

    1991-01-01

    Wave combustors, which include the Oblique Detonation Wave Engine (ODWE), are attractive propulsion concepts for hypersonic flight. These engines utilize oblique shock or detonation waves to rapidly mix, ignite, and combust the air-fuel mixture in thin zones in the combustion chamber. Benefits of these combustion systems include shorter and lighter engines which will require less cooling and can provide thrust at higher Mach numbers than conventional scramjets. The wave combustor's ability to operate at lower combustor inlet pressures may allow the vehicle to operate at lower dynamic pressures which could lessen the heating loads on the airframe. The research program at NASA-Ames includes analytical studies of the ODWE combustor using CFD codes which fully couple finite rate chemistry with fluid dynamics. In addition, experimental proof-of-concept studies are being carried out in an arc heated hypersonic wind tunnel. Several fuel injection designs were studied analytically and experimentally. In-stream strut fuel injectors were chosen to provide good mixing with minimal stagnation pressure losses. Measurements of flow field properties behind the oblique wave are compared to analytical predictions.

  4. The Oblique Basis Method from an Engineering Point of View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gueorguiev, V. G.

    2012-12-01

    The oblique basis method is reviewed from engineering point of view related to vibration and control theory. Examples are used to demonstrate and relate the oblique basis in nuclear physics to the equivalent mathematical problems in vibration theory. The mathematical techniques, such as principal coordinates and root locus, used by vibration and control theory engineers are shown to be relevant to the Richardson - Gaudin pairing-like problems in nuclear physics.

  5. Effects of extreme obliquity variations on the habitability of exoplanets.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, J C; Barnes, R; Domagal-Goldman, S; Breiner, J; Quinn, T R; Meadows, V S

    2014-04-01

    We explore the impact of obliquity variations on planetary habitability in hypothetical systems with high mutual inclination. We show that large-amplitude, high-frequency obliquity oscillations on Earth-like exoplanets can suppress the ice-albedo feedback, increasing the outer edge of the habitable zone. We restricted our exploration to hypothetical systems consisting of a solar-mass star, an Earth-mass planet at 1 AU, and 1 or 2 larger planets. We verified that these systems are stable for 10(8) years with N-body simulations and calculated the obliquity variations induced by the orbital evolution of the Earth-mass planet and a torque from the host star. We ran a simplified energy balance model on the terrestrial planet to assess surface temperature and ice coverage on the planet's surface, and we calculated differences in the outer edge of the habitable zone for planets with rapid obliquity variations. For each hypothetical system, we calculated the outer edge of habitability for two conditions: (1) the full evolution of the planetary spin and orbit and (2) the eccentricity and obliquity fixed at their average values. We recovered previous results that higher values of fixed obliquity and eccentricity expand the habitable zone, but we also found that obliquity oscillations further expand habitable orbits in all cases. Terrestrial planets near the outer edge of the habitable zone may be more likely to support life in systems that induce rapid obliquity oscillations as opposed to fixed-spin planets. Such planets may be the easiest to directly characterize with space-borne telescopes. PMID:24611714

  6. Effects of Extreme Obliquity Variations on the Habitability of Exoplanets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. C.; Barnes, R.; Domagal-Goldman, S.; Breiner, J.; Quinn, T. R.; Meadows, V. S.

    2014-01-01

    We explore the impact of obliquity variations on planetary habitability in hypothetical systems with high mutual inclination. We show that large-amplitude, high-frequency obliquity oscillations on Earth-like exoplanets can suppress the ice-albedo feedback, increasing the outer edge of the habitable zone. We restricted our exploration to hypothetical systems consisting of a solar-mass star, an Earth-mass planet at 1 AU, and 1 or 2 larger planets. We verified that these systems are stable for 108 years with N-body simulations and calculated the obliquity variations induced by the orbital evolution of the Earth-mass planet and a torque from the host star. We ran a simplified energy balance model on the terrestrial planet to assess surface temperature and ice coverage on the planet's surface, and we calculated differences in the outer edge of the habitable zone for planets with rapid obliquity variations. For each hypothetical system, we calculated the outer edge of habitability for two conditions: (1) the full evolution of the planetary spin and orbit and (2) the eccentricity and obliquity fixed at their average values. We recovered previous results that higher values of fixed obliquity and eccentricity expand the habitable zone, but we also found that obliquity oscillations further expand habitable orbits in all cases. Terrestrial planets near the outer edge of the habitable zone may be more likely to support life in systems that induce rapid obliquity oscillations as opposed to fixed-spin planets. Such planets may be the easiest to directly characterize with space-borne telescopes.

  7. Cylindrical cloaking at oblique incidence with optimized finite multilayer parameters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Baile; Wu, Bae-Ian

    2010-08-15

    We propose multilayer cylindrical invisibility cloaks that are optimized for oblique incidences through a combination of analytic formalism of scattering and genetic optimization. We show that by using only four layers of homogeneous and anisotropic metamaterials without large values of constitutive parameters, the scattering for oblique incidences can be reduced by 2 orders. Although the optimization is done at a single incident angle, the cloak provides reduced scattering over a large range of incident angles. PMID:20717422

  8. Effects of Extreme Obliquity Variations on the Habitability of Exoplanets

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, R.; Domagal-Goldman, S.; Breiner, J.; Quinn, T.R.; Meadows, V.S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We explore the impact of obliquity variations on planetary habitability in hypothetical systems with high mutual inclination. We show that large-amplitude, high-frequency obliquity oscillations on Earth-like exoplanets can suppress the ice-albedo feedback, increasing the outer edge of the habitable zone. We restricted our exploration to hypothetical systems consisting of a solar-mass star, an Earth-mass planet at 1 AU, and 1 or 2 larger planets. We verified that these systems are stable for 108 years with N-body simulations and calculated the obliquity variations induced by the orbital evolution of the Earth-mass planet and a torque from the host star. We ran a simplified energy balance model on the terrestrial planet to assess surface temperature and ice coverage on the planet's surface, and we calculated differences in the outer edge of the habitable zone for planets with rapid obliquity variations. For each hypothetical system, we calculated the outer edge of habitability for two conditions: (1) the full evolution of the planetary spin and orbit and (2) the eccentricity and obliquity fixed at their average values. We recovered previous results that higher values of fixed obliquity and eccentricity expand the habitable zone, but we also found that obliquity oscillations further expand habitable orbits in all cases. Terrestrial planets near the outer edge of the habitable zone may be more likely to support life in systems that induce rapid obliquity oscillations as opposed to fixed-spin planets. Such planets may be the easiest to directly characterize with space-borne telescopes. Key Words: Exoplanets—Habitable zone—Energy balance models. Astrobiology 14, 277–291. PMID:24611714

  9. Form Birefringence in Thin Films with Oblique Columnar Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian-Guo; Shao, Jian-Da; Wang, Su-Mei; He, Hong-Bo; Fan, Zheng-Xiu

    2005-08-01

    Effective medium theory is useful for designing optical elements with form birefringent subwavelength structures. Thin films fabricated by oblique deposition are similar to the two-dimensional surface relief subwavelength gratings. We use the effective medium theory to calculate the anisotropic optical properties of the thin films with oblique columnar structures. The effective refractive indices and the directions are calculated from effective medium theory. It is shown that optical thin films with predetermined refractive indices and birefringence may be engineered.

  10. Large capacity oblique all-wing transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloway, Thomas L.; Phillips, James A.; Kennelly, Robert A., Jr.; Waters, Mark H.

    1996-01-01

    Dr. R. T. Jones first developed the theory for oblique wing aircraft in 1952, and in subsequent years numerous analytical and experimental projects conducted at NASA Ames and elsewhere have established that the Jones' oblique wing theory is correct. Until the late 1980's all proposed oblique wing configurations were wing/body aircraft with the wing mounted on a pivot. With the emerging requirement for commercial transports with very large payloads, 450-800 passengers, Jones proposed a supersonic oblique flying wing in 1988. For such an aircraft all payload, fuel, and systems are carried within the wing, and the wing is designed with a variable sweep to maintain a fixed subsonic normal Mach number. Engines and vertical tails are mounted on pivots supported from the primary structure of the wing. The oblique flying wing transport has come to be known as the Oblique All-Wing (OAW) transport. This presentation gives the highlights of the OAW project that was to study the total concept of the OAW as a commercial transport.

  11. Fluid model of the sheath in front of a floating electrode immersed in a magnetized plasma with oblique magnetic field: Some comments on ion source terms and ion temperature effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyergyek, T.; Kovačič, J.

    2015-04-01

    A one-dimensional fluid model of the magnetized plasma-wall transition region in front of a floating electrode immersed in a magnetized plasma with oblique magnetic field is presented. The Boltzmann relation is assumed for the electrons, while the positive ions obey the ion continuity and momentum exchange equation. The ions are assumed to be isothermal. By comparison with a two-fluid model, it is shown that assuming the Boltzmann relation for the electrons implies that there is no creation or annihilation of the electrons. Consequently, there should not be any creation and annihilation of the positive ions either. The models that assume the Boltzmann relation for the electrons and a non-zero ion source term at the same time are therefore inconsistent, but such models have nevertheless been used extensively by many authors. So, in this work, an extensive comparison of the results obtained using the zero source term on one hand and three different non-zero source terms on the other hand is made. Four different ion source terms are considered in total: the zero source term and three different non-zero ion source terms. When the zero source term is used, the model becomes very sensitive to the boundary conditions, and in some cases, the solutions exhibit large amplitude oscillations. If any of the three non-zero ion source terms is used, those problems are eliminated, but also the consistency of the model is broken. The model equations are solved numerically in the entire magnetized plasma-wall transition region. For zero ion temperature, the model can be solved even if a very small ion velocity is selected as a boundary condition. For finite ion temperature, the system of equations becomes stiff, unless the ion velocity at the boundary is increased slightly above the ion thermal velocity. A simple method how to find a solution with a very small ion velocity at the boundary also for finite ion temperature in the entire magnetized plasma-wall transition region is

  12. Fluid model of the sheath in front of a floating electrode immersed in a magnetized plasma with oblique magnetic field: Some comments on ion source terms and ion temperature effects

    SciTech Connect

    Gyergyek, T.; Kovačič, J.

    2015-04-15

    A one-dimensional fluid model of the magnetized plasma-wall transition region in front of a floating electrode immersed in a magnetized plasma with oblique magnetic field is presented. The Boltzmann relation is assumed for the electrons, while the positive ions obey the ion continuity and momentum exchange equation. The ions are assumed to be isothermal. By comparison with a two-fluid model, it is shown that assuming the Boltzmann relation for the electrons implies that there is no creation or annihilation of the electrons. Consequently, there should not be any creation and annihilation of the positive ions either. The models that assume the Boltzmann relation for the electrons and a non-zero ion source term at the same time are therefore inconsistent, but such models have nevertheless been used extensively by many authors. So, in this work, an extensive comparison of the results obtained using the zero source term on one hand and three different non-zero source terms on the other hand is made. Four different ion source terms are considered in total: the zero source term and three different non-zero ion source terms. When the zero source term is used, the model becomes very sensitive to the boundary conditions, and in some cases, the solutions exhibit large amplitude oscillations. If any of the three non-zero ion source terms is used, those problems are eliminated, but also the consistency of the model is broken. The model equations are solved numerically in the entire magnetized plasma-wall transition region. For zero ion temperature, the model can be solved even if a very small ion velocity is selected as a boundary condition. For finite ion temperature, the system of equations becomes stiff, unless the ion velocity at the boundary is increased slightly above the ion thermal velocity. A simple method how to find a solution with a very small ion velocity at the boundary also for finite ion temperature in the entire magnetized plasma-wall transition region is

  13. Velocity field measurements in oblique static divergent vocal fold models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erath, Byron

    2005-11-01

    During normal phonation, the vocal fold cycle is characterized by the glottal opening transitioning from a convergent to a divergent passage and then closing before the cycle is repeated. Under ordinary phonatory conditions, both vocal folds, which form the glottal passage, move in phase with each other, creating a time-varying symmetric opening. However, abnormal pathological conditions, such as unilateral paralysis, and polyps, can result in geometrical asymmetries between the vocal folds throughout the phonatory cycle. This study investigates pulsatile flow fields through 7.5 times life-size vocal fold models with included divergence angles of 5 to 30 degrees, and obliquities between the vocal folds of up to 15 degrees. Flow conditions were scaled to match physiological parameters. Data were taken at the anterior posterior mid-plane using phase-averaged Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Viscous flow phenomena including the Coanda effect, flow separation points, and jet "flapping" were investigated. The results are compared to previously reported work of flow through symmetric divergent vocal fold models.

  14. OBLIQUELY ROTATING PULSARS: SCREENING OF THE INDUCTIVE ELECTRIC FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Melrose, D. B.; Yuen Rai

    2012-02-01

    Pulsar electrodynamics has been built up by taking ingredients from two models, the vacuum-dipole model, which ignores the magnetosphere but includes the inductive electric field due to the obliquely rotating magnetic dipole, and the corotating-magnetosphere model, which neglects the vacuum inductive electric field and assumes a corotating magnetosphere. We argue that the inductive field can be neglected only if it is screened by a current, J{sub sc}, which we calculate for a rigidly rotating magnetosphere. Screening of the parallel component of the inductive field can be effective, but the perpendicular component cannot be screened in a pulsar magnetosphere. The incompletely screened inductive electric field has not been included in any model for a pulsar magnetosphere, and taking it into account has important implications. One effect is that it implies that the magnetosphere cannot be corotating, and we suggest that drift relative to corotation offers a natural explanation for the drifting of subpulses. A second effect is that this screening of the parallel inductive electric field must break down in the outer magnetosphere, and this offers a natural explanation for the acceleration of the electrons that produce pulsed gamma-ray emission.

  15. Manual cataract extraction via a subconjunctival limbus oblique incision for mature cataracts

    PubMed Central

    Yang, J; Lai, P; Wu, D; Long, Z

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To report the technique and outcomes of sutureless manual cataract extraction via a subconjunctival limbus oblique incision for mature cataracts. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study comprised of 112 eyes of 83 patients with mature cataract who all had manual cataract extraction via a subconjunctival limbus oblique incision. A transconjunctival tunnel is fashioned with a 3.0 mm keratome, 0.5 mm behind the limbal vascular arcades. A limbal tunnel, with a transverse extent of 9 mm in the cornea and 7.0 mm in the limbus, is created beneath the conjunctival/Tenon's tissue using an angled bevel-up crescent blade. Outcome measures included visual acuity, intraoperative complications, surgically induced astigmatism, endothelial cell loss rate and surgery time. Results: Self-sealing wound was achieved in 112 eyes (98.2%). The nucleus was delivered in whole in 108 eyes (96.4%). Intraoperative complications included hyphema in 3 eyes (2.7%), iridodialysis in 2 eyes 1.8%), posterior capsular rupture and zonular dialysis in 2 eyes (1.8%). At the 3-month follow-up, 91% patients achieved a best-corrected visual acuity of 20/20 or better, the mean of surgically induced astigmatism was -0.62 ± 0.41 Diopters and endothelial cell loss was 4.2%. Average surgical time was 3.75 min per case. Conclusion: This subconjunctival limbus oblique incision has the potential to serve as safe and effective technique for mature cataracts. PMID:24722270

  16. Manual cataract extraction via a subconjunctival limbus oblique incision for mature cataracts.

    PubMed

    Yang, J; Lai, P; Wu, D; Long, Z

    2013-11-11

    Aims: To report the technique and outcomes of sutureless manual cataract extraction via a subconjunctival limbus oblique incision for mature cataracts. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study comprised of 112 eyes of 83 patients with mature cataract who all had manual cataract extraction via a subconjunctival limbus oblique incision. A transconjunctival tunnel is fashioned with a 3.0 mm keratome, 0.5 mm behind the limbal vascular arcades. A limbal tunnel, with a transverse extent of 9 mm in the cornea and 7.0 mm in the limbus, is created beneath the conjunctival/Tenon's tissue using an angled bevel-up crescent blade. Outcome measures included visual acuity, intraoperative complications, surgically induced astigmatism, endothelial cell loss rate and surgery time. Results: Self-sealing wound was achieved in 112 eyes (98.2%). The nucleus was delivered in whole in 108 eyes (96.4%). Intraoperative complications included hyphema in 3 eyes (2.7%), iridodialysis in 2 eyes 1.8%), posterior capsular rupture and zonular dialysis in 2 eyes (1.8%). At the 3-month follow-up, 91% patients achieved a best-corrected visual acuity of 20/20 or better, the mean of surgically induced astigmatism was -0.62 ± 0.41 Diopters and endothelial cell loss was 4.2%. Average surgical time was 3.75 min per case. Conclusion: This subconjunctival limbus oblique incision has the potential to serve as safe and effective technique for mature cataracts. PMID:24212212

  17. RTJ-303: Variable geometry, oblique wing supersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antaran, Albert; Belete, Hailu; Dryzmkowski, Mark; Higgins, James; Klenk, Alan; Rienecker, Lisa

    1992-01-01

    This document is a preliminary design of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) named the RTJ-303. It is a 300 passenger, Mach 1.6 transport with a range of 5000 nautical miles. It features four mixed-flow turbofan engines, variable geometry oblique wing, with conventional tail-aft control surfaces. The preliminary cost analysis for a production of 300 aircraft shows that flyaway cost would be 183 million dollars (1992) per aircraft. The aircraft uses standard jet fuel and requires no special materials to handle aerodynamic heating in flight because the stagnation temperatures are approximately 130 degrees Fahrenheit in the supersonic cruise condition. It should be stressed that this aircraft could be built with today's technology and does not rely on vague and uncertain assumptions of technology advances. Included in this report are sections discussing the details of the preliminary design sequence including the mission to be performed, operational and performance constraints, the aircraft configuration and the tradeoffs of the final choice, wing design, a detailed fuselage design, empennage design, sizing of tail geometry, and selection of control surfaces, a discussion on propulsion system/inlet choice and their position on the aircraft, landing gear design including a look at tire selection, tip-over criterion, pavement loading, and retraction kinematics, structures design including load determination, and materials selection, aircraft performance, a look at stability and handling qualities, systems layout including location of key components, operations requirements maintenance characteristics, a preliminary cost analysis, and conclusions made regarding the design, and recommendations for further study.

  18. Oblique Aerial Photography Tool for Building Inspection and Damage Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murtiyoso, A.; Remondino, F.; Rupnik, E.; Nex, F.; Grussenmeyer, P.

    2014-11-01

    Aerial photography has a long history of being employed for mapping purposes due to some of its main advantages, including large area imaging from above and minimization of field work. Since few years multi-camera aerial systems are becoming a practical sensor technology across a growing geospatial market, as complementary to the traditional vertical views. Multi-camera aerial systems capture not only the conventional nadir views, but also tilted images at the same time. In this paper, a particular use of such imagery in the field of building inspection as well as disaster assessment is addressed. The main idea is to inspect a building from four cardinal directions by using monoplotting functionalities. The developed application allows to measure building height and distances and to digitize man-made structures, creating 3D surfaces and building models. The realized GUI is capable of identifying a building from several oblique points of views, as well as calculates the approximate height of buildings, ground distances and basic vectorization. The geometric accuracy of the results remains a function of several parameters, namely image resolution, quality of available parameters (DEM, calibration and orientation values), user expertise and measuring capability.

  19. Oblique facial clefts in Johanson-Blizzard syndrome.

    PubMed

    Corona-Rivera, Jorge Román; Zapata-Aldana, Eugenio; Bobadilla-Morales, Lucina; Corona-Rivera, Alfredo; Peña-Padilla, Christian; Solis-Hernández, Elizabeth; Guzmán, Celina; Richmond, Erick; Zahl, Christian; Zenker, Martin; Sukalo, Maja

    2016-06-01

    Johanson-Blizzard syndrome (JBS) is considered as an infrequent, but clinically easily recognizable autosomal recessive entity by the pathognomonic combination of congenital exocrine pancreatic insufficiency and hypoplastic alae nasi, in addition to other distinctive findings such as scalp defects, hypothyroidism, and rectourogenital malformations. There are few reports of patients with JBS in association with facial clefting, referring all to types 2 to 6 of Tessier's classification that can be characterized properly as oblique facial clefts (OFCs). We describe the clinical aspects in four patients with JBS and extensive OFCs. In all of them, the diagnosis of JBS was confirmed by the demonstration of homozygous or compound-heterozygous mutations in the UBR1 gene. Additionally, we review three previously reported cases of JBS with OFCs. Taking into account a number of approximately 100 individuals affected by JBS that have been published in the literature we estimate that the frequency of OFCs in JBS is between 5% and 10%. This report emphasizes that extensive OFCs may be the severe end of the spectrum of facial malformations occurring in JBS. No obvious genotype phenotype correlation could be identified within this cohort. Thus, UBR1 should be included within the list of contributory genes of OFCs, although the exact mechanism remains unknown. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26989884

  20. Protein microarrays imaging using oblique-incidence reflectivity difference method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Heng; Zhang, Hongyan; Li, Wei; Zhou, Yueliang; Lu, Huibin; Jin, Kuijuan; Yang, Guozhen; Ruan, Kangcheng

    2007-11-01

    In this study Oblique-Incidence Reflectivity Difference (OIRD) technique, a recent developed label-free detection, is applied to image biomolecular microarrays. Compared to the currently widely used fluorescence-dependent optical microscopy, OIRD technique not only images the morphology of protein bio-arrays in the absence of extrinsic labeling molecules but also monitors the changes in the optical properties of biochips in high-throughput fashion. Additionally, such a technique complements other label-free detections including Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) and Mass Spectrometry (MS) by offering the opportunity to detect biochemical activities without the special requirements on the substrate or the specific matrix medium. It is shown in this article that the surface topography can be reflected by OIRD method. Besides, the differences among printing concentrations and various proteins are able to be identified as well. Incidentally, the OIRD images appear to be useful aids to distinguish the variations resulting from antibody-antigen capture. Both the imaginary and real parts of OIRD images we presented provide more information than the single imaginary one especially. On the basis of the scattering mechanism, the absorptive properties of protein molecules are analyzed through the real part of OIRD signal. Accordingly, OIRD technique shows its unique potential in detection of biochemical processes.

  1. POLARIZATION AND COMPRESSIBILITY OF OBLIQUE KINETIC ALFVEN WAVES

    SciTech Connect

    Hunana, P.; Goldstein, M. L.; Passot, T.; Sulem, P. L.; Laveder, D.; Zank, G. P.

    2013-04-01

    It is well known that a complete description of the solar wind requires a kinetic description and that, particularly at sub-proton scales, kinetic effects cannot be ignored. It is nevertheless usually assumed that at scales significantly larger than the proton gyroscale r{sub L} , magnetohydrodynamics or its extensions, such as Hall-MHD and two-fluid models with isotropic pressures, provide a satisfactory description of the solar wind. Here we calculate the polarization and magnetic compressibility of oblique kinetic Alfven waves and show that, compared with linear kinetic theory, the isotropic two-fluid description is very compressible, with the largest discrepancy occurring at scales larger than the proton gyroscale. In contrast, introducing anisotropic pressure fluctuations with the usual double-adiabatic (or CGL) equations of state yields compressibility values which are unrealistically low. We also show that both of these classes of fluid models incorrectly describe the electric field polarization. To incorporate linear kinetic effects, we use two versions of the Landau fluid model that include linear Landau damping and finite Larmor radius (FLR) corrections. We show that Landau damping is crucial for correct modeling of magnetic compressibility, and that the anisotropy of pressure fluctuations should not be introduced without taking into account the Landau damping through appropriate heat flux equations. We also show that FLR corrections to all the retained fluid moments appear to be necessary to yield the correct polarization. We conclude that kinetic effects cannot be ignored even for kr{sub L} << 1.

  2. The Martian polar caps: Stability and water transport at low obliquities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, B. G.; Jakosky, B. M.

    1992-12-01

    The seasonal cycle of water on Mars is regulated by the two polar caps. In the winter hemisphere, the seasonal CO2 deposits at a temperature near 150 K acts as a cold trap to remove water vapor from the atmosphere. When summer returns, water is pumped back into the atmosphere by a number of mechanisms, including release from the receding CO2 frost, diffusion from the polar regolith, and sublimation from a water-ice residual cap. These processes drive an exchange of water vapor between the polar caps that helps shape the Martian climate. Thus, understanding the behavior of the polar caps is important for interpreting the Martian climate both now and at other epochs. Mars' obliquity undergoes large variations over large time scales. As the obliquity decreases, the poles receive less solar energy so that more CO2 condenses from the atmosphere onto the poles. It has been suggested that permanent CO2 condenses from the atmosphere onto the poles. It has been suggested that permanent CO2 caps might form at the poles in response to a feedback mechanism existing between the polar cap albedo, the CO2 pressure, and the dust storm frequency. The year-round presence of the CO2 deposits would effectively dry out the atmosphere, while diffusion of water from the regolith would be the only source of water vapor to the atmosphere. We have reviewed the CO2 balance at low obliquity taking into account the asymmetries which make the north and south hemispheres different. Our analysis linked with a numerical model of the polar caps leads us to believe that one summertime cap will always lose its CO2 cover during a Martian year, although we cannot predict which cap this will be. We conclude that significant amounts of water vapor will sublime from the exposed cap during summer, and the Martian atmosphere will support an active water cycle even at low obliquity.

  3. Oblique tearing of a thin current sheet: Implications for patchy magnetopause reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, F.; Kan, J.R. )

    1991-04-01

    A linear resistive tearing instability of thin magnetic reversal layer, with thickness down to the order of the ion inertial length, is analyzed under an incompressible approximation. The growth rate is calculated numerically for an oblique tearing mode exp(ik(z cos{theta} + y sin{theta})), where {theta} is the propagation angle between the wave vector k and the z axis parallel to the reversal magnetic fields. In the MHD limit, it is known that the maximally growing mode is centered about {theta} = O, and the growth rate decreases monotonically with increasing {vert bar}{theta}{vert bar}. When the finite-ion-inertial-length effect is included, the tearing instability is either enhanced or suppressed depending on the propagation angle {theta}. The authors find that only waves in several relatively narrow bands of the angle {theta} are unstable and that the unstable tearing modes become highly drifting for oblique propagations. Either the ion-inertial-length effect or the oblique propagation can lead to a vortex electric current which is responsible for magnetic field B{sub y} components normal to the tearing plane. The structure of magnetic islands is fully three dimensional and is carefully examined. Implications of the results for the patchy and intermittent reconnection of a finite-size current sheet at the dayside magnetopause are discussed.

  4. Improved depth resolution in near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy using obliquely oriented fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thilwind, Rachel Estelle; 't Hooft, Gert; Uzunbajakava, Natallia E.

    2009-03-01

    We demonstrate a significant improvement of depth selectivity when using obliquely oriented fibers for near-infrared (NIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. This is confirmed by diffuse reflectance measurements of a two-layer tissue-mimicking phantom across the spectral range from 1000 to 1940 nm. The experimental proof is supported by Monte Carlo simulations. The results reveal up to fourfold reduction in the mean optical penetration depth, twofold reduction in its variation, and a decrease in the number of scattering events when a single fiber is oriented at an angle of 60 deg. The effect of reducing the mean optical penetration depth is enhanced by orienting both fibers inwardly. Using outwardly oriented fibers enables more selective probing of deeper layers, while reducing the contribution from surface layers. We further demonstrate that the effect of an inward oblique arrangement can be approximated to a decrease in fiber-to-fiber separation in the case of a perpendicular fiber arrangement. This approximation is valid in the weak- or absorption-free regime. Our results assert the advantages of using obliquely oriented fibers when attempting to specifically address superficial tissue layers, for example, for skin cancer detection, or in noninvasive glucose monitoring. Such flexibility could be further advantageous in a range of minimally invasive applications, including catheter-based interventions.

  5. Obliquity pacing of the late Pleistocene glacial terminations.

    PubMed

    Huybers, Peter; Wunsch, Carl

    2005-03-24

    The 100,000-year timescale in the glacial/interglacial cycles of the late Pleistocene epoch (the past approximately 700,000 years) is commonly attributed to control by variations in the Earth's orbit. This hypothesis has inspired models that depend on the Earth's obliquity (approximately 40,000 yr; approximately 40 kyr), orbital eccentricity (approximately 100 kyr) and precessional (approximately 20 kyr) fluctuations, with the emphasis usually on eccentricity and precessional forcing. According to a contrasting hypothesis, the glacial cycles arise primarily because of random internal climate variability. Taking these two perspectives together, there are currently more than thirty different models of the seven late-Pleistocene glacial cycles. Here we present a statistical test of the orbital forcing hypothesis, focusing on the rapid deglaciation events known as terminations. According to our analysis, the null hypothesis that glacial terminations are independent of obliquity can be rejected at the 5% significance level, whereas the corresponding null hypotheses for eccentricity and precession cannot be rejected. The simplest inference consistent with the test results is that the ice sheets terminated every second or third obliquity cycle at times of high obliquity, similar to the original proposal by Milankovitch. We also present simple stochastic and deterministic models that describe the timing of the late-Pleistocene glacial terminations purely in terms of obliquity forcing. PMID:15791252

  6. HOT STARS WITH HOT JUPITERS HAVE HIGH OBLIQUITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, Joshua N.; Albrecht, Simon; Fabrycky, Daniel; Johnson, John Asher

    2010-08-01

    We show that stars with transiting planets for which the stellar obliquity is large are preferentially hot (T{sub eff} > 6250 K). This could explain why small obliquities were observed in the earliest measurements, which focused on relatively cool stars drawn from Doppler surveys, as opposed to hotter stars that emerged more recently from transit surveys. The observed trend could be due to differences in planet formation and migration around stars of varying mass. Alternatively, we speculate that hot-Jupiter systems begin with a wide range of obliquities, but the photospheres of cool stars realign with the orbits due to tidal dissipation in their convective zones, while hot stars cannot realign because of their thinner convective zones. This in turn would suggest that hot Jupiters originate from few-body gravitational dynamics and that disk migration plays at most a supporting role.

  7. Chaotic obliquity and the nature of the Martian climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jakosky, Bruce M.; Henderson, Bradley G.; Mellon, Michael T.

    1995-01-01

    Recent calculations of the Martian obliquity suggests that it varies chaotically on timescales longer than about 10(exp 7) years and varies between about 0 and 60 deg. We examine the seasonal water behavior at obliquities between 40 and 60 deg. Up to several tens of centimeters of water may sublime from the polar caps each year, and possibly move to the equator, where it is more stable. The CO2 frost and CO2-H2O clathrate hydrate are stable in thepolar deposits below a few tens of meters depth, so that the polar cap could contain a significant CO2 reservoir. If CO2 is present, it could be left over from the early history of Mars; also, it could be released into the atmosphere during periods of high obliquity, causing occasional periods of more-clement climate.

  8. Oblique Perforation of Thick Metallic Plates by Rigid Projectiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaowei; Li, Qingming; Fan, Saucheong

    2006-08-01

    Oblique perforation of thick metallic plates by rigid projectiles with various nose shapes is studied in this paper. Two perforation mechanisms, i.e., the hole enlargement for a sharp projectile nose and the plugging formation for a blunt projectile nose, are considered in the proposed analytical model. It is shown that the perforation of a thick plate is dominated by several non-dimensional numbers, i.e., the impact function, the geometry function of projectile, the non-dimensional thickness of target and the impact obliquity. Explicit formulae are obtained to predict the ballistic limit, residual velocity and directional change for the oblique perforation of thick metallic plates. The proposed model is able to predict the critical condition for the occurrence of ricochet. The proposed model is validated by comparing the predictions with other existing models and independent experimental data.

  9. Pre-late heavy bombardment evolution of the Earth's obliquity

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Gongjie; Batygin, Konstantin

    2014-11-01

    The Earth's obliquity is stabilized by the Moon, which facilitates a rapid precession of the Earth's spin axis, detuning the system away from resonance with orbital modulation. It is, however, likely that the architecture of the solar system underwent a dynamical instability-driven transformation, where the primordial configuration was more compact. Hence, the characteristic frequencies associated with orbital perturbations were likely faster in the past, potentially allowing for secular resonant encounters. In this work, we examine if, at any point in the Earth's evolutionary history, the obliquity varied significantly. Our calculations suggest that even though the orbital perturbations were different, the system nevertheless avoided resonant encounters throughout its evolution. This indicates that the Earth obtained its current obliquity during the formation of the Moon.

  10. Numerical Simulations of 1-D Two-Phase Flow with Non-Zero Mass Fluxes: Application to Phase Separation at 9° N (EPR) and the Main Endeavour Vent Field (JDF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, K.; Lowell, R. P.

    2004-12-01

    Numerical simulations of vertical one-dimensional two-phase flow with non-zero mass fluxes can help to enumerate and describe the different parameter space regimes at which phase separation can occur in submarine hydrothermal systems. Our simulations suggest that there are at least two such quasi-steady state regimes, corresponding to low and high mass fluxes imposed at the bottom of the system. For relatively low mass fluxes (10-5 - 10-4 kg/m2-s), a low salinity vapor-rich region forms near the top of the system, and high-salinity brine flows downward, raising the salinity in the lower half of the system. For high mass fluxes (&\\sim 10^{-3} kg/m^{2}-s), both vapor and brine flow upward, with the vapor moving more quickly than the brine. In this case, phase separation results in higher salinities near the top of the system, corresponding to a mixture of brine and vapor, and salinities approaching that of normal seawater lower in the system. Bulk surface salinities in the high-flux regime are qualitatively consistent with vent fluid salinities at hydrothermal systems such as 9\\deg$N on the East Pacific Rise and some of the vents of the Main Endeavour Field on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Our future work will further test this preliminary analysis.

  11. Slip partitioning by elastoplastic propagation of oblique slip at depth.

    PubMed

    Bowman, David; King, Geoffrey; Tapponnier, Paul

    2003-05-16

    Oblique motion along tectonic boundaries is commonly partitioned into slip on faults with different senses of motion. The origin of slip partitioning is important to structural geology, tectonophysics, and earthquake mechanics. Partitioning can be explained by the upward elastoplastic propagation of oblique slip from a fault or shear zone at depth. The strain field ahead of the propagating fault separates into zones of predominantly normal, reverse, and strike-slip faulting. The model successfully predicts the distribution of fault types along parts of the San Andreas and Haiyuan faults. PMID:12750513

  12. Using Evolutionary Algorithms to Induce Oblique Decision Trees

    SciTech Connect

    Cantu-Paz, E.; Kamath, C.

    2000-01-21

    This paper illustrates the application of evolutionary algorithms (EAs) to the problem of oblique decision tree induction. The objectives are to demonstrate that EAs can find classifiers whose accuracy is competitive with other oblique tree construction methods, and that this can be accomplished in a shorter time. Experiments were performed with a (1+1) evolutionary strategy and a simple genetic algorithm on public domain and artificial data sets. The empirical results suggest that the EAs quickly find Competitive classifiers, and that EAs scale up better than traditional methods to the dimensionality of the domain and the number of training instances.

  13. Oblique sounding using the DPS-4D stations in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosna, Zbysek; Kouba, Daniel; Koucka Knizova, Petra; Arikan, Feza; Arikan, Orhan; Gok, Gokhan; Rejfek, Lubos

    2016-07-01

    The DPS-4D Digisondes are capable of detection of echoes from neighbouring European stations. Currently, a campaign with high-temporal resolution of 5 min is being run. Further, ionograms from regular vertical sounding with 15 min resolution provide us with oblique reflections together with vertical reflections. We analyzed profiles of electron concentration and basic ionospheric parameters derived from the ionograms. We compared results derived from reflections from the ionosphere above the stations (vertical sounding) with information derived from oblique reflections between the stations. This study is supported by the Joint TUBITAK 114E092 and AS CR 14/001 projects.

  14. Cosmic-ray shock acceleration in oblique MHD shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, G. M.; Drury, L. OC.; Volk, H. J.

    1986-01-01

    A one-dimensional, steady-state hydrodynamical model of cosmic-ray acceleration at oblique MHD shocks is presented. Upstream of the shock the incoming thermal plasma is subject to the adverse pressure gradient of the accelerated particles, the J x B force, as well as the thermal gas pressure gradient. The efficiency of the acceleration of cosmic-rays at the shock as a function of the upstream magnetic field obliquity and upstream plasma beta is investigated. Astrophysical applications of the results are briefly discussed.

  15. Experimental studies of oblique impact. [of meteorites on planetary surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gault, D. E.; Wedekind, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    Meteoritic materials most probably impact planetary bodies along oblique trajectories inclined less than 45 deg above their surfaces. Laboratory studies of hypervelocity impacts against rock and particulate media are presented that indicate important effects of obliquity on crater size, shape, and ejecta distribution. The effects are particularly important to crater size-frequency analyses and geologic interpretations of crater formations. Impacts at shallow incidence, which are not uncommon, lead to ricochet of the impacting object accompanied with some entrained excavated materials at velocities only slightly reduced from the pre-impact value.

  16. Obliquity variation in a Mars climate evolution model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyler, D.; Haberle, Robert M.

    1993-01-01

    The existence of layered terrain in both polar regions of Mars is strong evidence supporting a cyclic variation in climate. It has been suggested that periods of net deposition have alternated with periods of net erosion in creating the layered structure that is seen today. The cause for this cyclic climatic behavior is variation in the annually averaged latitudinal distribution of solar insolation in response to obliquity cycles. For Mars, obliquity variation leads to major climatological excursion due to the condensation and sublimation of the major atmospheric constituent, CO2. The atmosphere will collapse into the polar caps, or existing caps will rapidly sublimate into the atmosphere, dependent upon the polar surface heat balance and the direction of the change in obliquity. It has been argued that variations in the obliquity of Mars cause substantial departures from the current climatological values of the surface pressure and the amount of CO2 stored in both the planetary regolith and polar caps. In this new work we have modified the Haberle et al. model to incorporate variable obliquity by allowing the polar and equatorial insolation to become functions of obliquity, which we assume to vary sinusoidally in time. As obliquity varies in the model, there can be discontinuities in the time evolution of the model equilibrium values for surface pressure, regolith, and polar cap storage. The time constant, tau r, for the regolith to find equilibrium with the climate is estimated--depending on the depth, thermal conductivity, and porosity of the regolith--between 10(exp 4) and 10(exp 6) yr. Thus, using 2000-yr timesteps to move smoothly through the 0.1250 m.y. obliquity cycles, we have an atmosphere/regolith system that cannot be assumed in equilibrium. We have dealt with this problem by limiting the rate at which CO2, can move between the atmosphere and regolith, mimicking the diffusive nature and effects of the temperature and pressure waves, by setting the time

  17. Oblique double layers: a comparison between terrestrial and auroral measurements.

    PubMed

    Charles, C; Boswell, R W; Hawkins, R

    2009-08-28

    The S3-3, POLAR, and FAST satellite auroral observations of parallel and perpendicular electric field structures have been identified as belonging to a large "U"-shaped potential structure that supports oblique electric double layers. This interpretation is verified by terrestrial laboratory measurements of a self-consistently supported three-dimensional oblique current-free double layer. Its width is a few tens of Debye lengths, its oblicity (with respect to the magnetic field) varies from 0 up to 30 degrees, and its strength is a few times the electron temperature. PMID:19792801

  18. Depth sensitive oblique polarized reflectance spectroscopy of oral epithelial tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez, Maria K.; Lam, Sylvia; Poh, Catherine; Sokolov, Konstantin

    2014-05-01

    Identifying depth-dependent alterations associated with epithelial cancerous lesions can be challenging in the oral cavity where variable epithelial thicknesses and troublesome keratin growths are prominent. Spectroscopic methods with enhanced depth resolution would immensely aid in isolating optical properties associated with malignant transformation. Combining multiple beveled fibers, oblique collection geometry, and polarization gating, oblique polarized reflectance spectroscopy (OPRS) achieves depth sensitive detection. We report promising results from a clinical trial of patients with oral lesions suspected of dysplasia or carcinoma demonstrating the potential of OPRS for the analysis of morphological and architectural changes in the context of multilayer, epithelial oral tissue.

  19. Interferometric measurement of actual oblique astigmatism of ophthalmic lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wihardjo, Erning

    1995-03-01

    A technique for measuring oblique astigmatism error of ophthalmic lenses is described. The technique is based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, which allows us to simulate the actual conditions of the eye. The effects of the lens power, the pupilary aperture size and the viewing distance in calculating a projected pupil zone on the lens are discussed. The projected pupil size on the lens affects the measurement result of the oblique astigmatism error. Conversion of the interferogram to astigmatism error in diopters is given.

  20. High-Power Prismatic Devices for Oblique Peripheral Prisms

    PubMed Central

    Peli, Eli; Bowers, Alex R.; Keeney, Karen; Jung, Jae-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose Horizontal peripheral prisms for hemianopia provide field expansion above and below the horizontal meridian; however, there is a vertical gap leaving the central area (important for driving) without expansion. In the oblique design, tilting the bases of both prism segments toward the horizontal meridian moves the field expansion area vertically and centrally (closing the central gap) while the prisms remain in the peripheral location. However, tilting the prisms results also in a reduction of the lateral field expansion. Higher prism powers are needed to counter this effect. Methods We developed, implemented, and tested a series of designs aimed at increasing the prism power to reduce the central gap while maintaining wide lateral expansion. The designs included inserting the peripheral prisms into carrier lenses that included yoked prism in the opposite direction, combination of two Fresnel segments attached at the base and angled to each other (bi-part prisms), and creating Fresnel prism–like segments from nonparallel periscopic mirror pairs (reflective prisms). Results A modest increase in lateral power was achieved with yoked-prism carriers. Bi-part combination of 36Δ Fresnel segments provided high power with some reduction in image quality. Fresnel reflective prism segments have potential for high power with superior optical quality but may be limited in field extent or by interruptions of the expanded field. Extended apical scotomas, even with unilateral fitting, may limit the utility of very high power prisms. The high-power bi-part and reflective prisms enable a wider effective eye scanning range (more than 15 degrees) into the blind hemifield. Conclusions Conventional prisms of powers higher than the available 57Δ are limited by the binocular impact of a wider apical scotoma and a reduced effective eye scanning range to the blind side. The various designs that we developed may overcome these limitations and find use in various other

  1. Hydraulic Resistance of Submerged Vegetated Oblique Weir-Like Obstacles in a Floodplain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Shahid; Ghani, Usman

    2014-05-01

    Reliable water level predictions for extreme river discharges (floods) are extremely important for designing flood safety measures. During floods, the water flows in the floodplain which always contains various obstacles that hamper the conveyance capacity of the river. Weir-like obstacles such as access roads, summer embankments, submerged groins etc. give rise to rapidly varying flow. Typical flow features related to these obstacles such as flow separation and hydraulic jump cause energy losses (form drag) and affect the flow levels during high water stages. It is therefore of great importance to properly understand the flow characteristics and hydraulic resistance caused by such obstacles and correctly implements these in modelling tools. In many circumstances the weir-like obstacles are oriented at an oblique angle with respect to the flow direction, sometimes even parallel to flow, as in the case of overtopping summer dykes. In this study weir-liked behaviour has been considered to determine the energy losses due to the above mentioned obstacles rather than considering the weir as a control structure. A limited amount of literature is available on flow investigations for the oblique weirs. These studies are mostly about the discharge coefficient of the oblique smooth weirs. There is hardly a study about the flow field around the oblique weir-like structures. An experimental study has been carried out in the Laboratory of Environmental Fluid Mechanics of Delft University of Technology. The prototype dike and groin were modeled as a weir with downstream and upstream slopes of 1:4 and vegetation has been represented by the cylindrical rods on the crest of weir with 25% blockage area inside the vegetated region. In this study, experiments have been performed to determine the energy head losses caused by the weir-like obstacles. Longitudinal and vertical velocity profiles were measured in the flume upstream and downstream of the schematized models of oblique weir

  2. Controls on continental strain partitioning above an oblique subduction zone, Northern Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schütt, Jorina M.; Whipp, David M., Jr.

    2016-04-01

    simplified, generic subduction zone similar to the northern Andes. The upper surface is initially defined to resemble the Andes, but is free to deform during the experiments. We consider two main model designs, one with and one without a volcanic arc (weak continental zone). A relatively high angle of convergence obliquity is predicted to favor strain partitioning, but preliminary model results show no strain partitioning for a uniform continental crustal strength with a friction angle of Φ = 15° . However, strain partitioning does occur when including a weak zone in the continental crust resulting from arc volcanic activity with Φ = 5° . This results in margin-parallel northeastward translation of a continental sliver at 3.2 cm/year. The presence of the sliver agrees well with observations of a continental sliver identified by GPS measurements in the Northern Volcanic Zone with a translation velocity of about 1 cm/year, though the GPS-derived velocity may not be representative of the long-term rate of translation depending on whether the observation period includes one or more seismic cycles. Regardless, the observed behavior is consistent with the observed earthquake focal mechanisms and GPS measurements, suggesting significant northeastward transport of Andean crust along the margin of the northern Andes.

  3. Fault Orientations at Obliquely Rifted Margins: Where? When? Why?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brune, Sascha

    2015-04-01

    Present-day knowledge of rifted margin formation is largely based on 2D seismic lines, 2D conceptual models, and corroborated by 2D numerical experiments. However, the 2D assumption that the extension direction is perpendicular to the rift trend is often invalid. In fact, worldwide more than 75% of all rifted margin segments have been formed under significant obliquity exceeding 20° (angle measured between extension direction and rift trend normal): During formation of the Atlantic Ocean, oblique rifting dominated at the sheared margins of South Africa and Patagonia, the Equatorial Atlantic margins, separation of Greenland and North America, and it played a major role in the protracted rift history of the North East Atlantic. Outside the Atlantic Ocean, oblique rifting occurred during the split between East and West Gondwana, the separation of India and Australia, India and Madagascar, Australia and Antarctica, as well as Arabia and Africa. It is presently observed in the Gulf of California, the Aegean and in the East African Rift. Despite its significance, the degree to which oblique lithospheric extension affects first-order rift and passive margin properties like surface stress pattern, fault azimuths, and basin geometry, is still not entirely clear. This contribution provides insight in crustal stress patterns and fault orientations by applying a 3D numerical rift model to oblique extensional settings. The presented forward experiments cover the whole spectrum of oblique extension (i.e. rift-orthogonal extension, low obliquity, high obliquity, strike-slip deformation) from initial deformation to breakup. They are conducted using an elasto-visco-plastic finite element model and involve crustal and mantle layers accounting for self-consistent necking of the lithosphere. Results are thoroughly compared to previous analogue experiments, which yields many similarities but also distinct differences for late rift stages and for high obliquity. Even though the model

  4. Exterior oblique view of northeast and southeast sides with heavy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior oblique view of northeast and southeast sides with heavy weight sliding doors, louvered entry door, view facing west - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Industrial X-Ray Building, Off Sixth Street, adjacent to and south of Facility No. 11, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  5. Detail, oblique view to northeast atop building 935 showing exposed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, oblique view to northeast atop building 935 showing exposed roof sections of buildings 934 (center) and 933 (left), 90 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Nuclear Weapons Assembly Plant 3, W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  6. Building 933935, oblique view to southwest showing, left to right, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 933-935, oblique view to southwest showing, left to right, rear doors to building 933, 934, 935, 90 mm lens. Building 934 in the center of complex. - Travis Air Force Base, Nuclear Weapons Assembly Plant 3, W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  7. Building 933935, oblique view to southeast showing, left to right, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 933-935, oblique view to southeast showing, left to right, rear doors to building 933, 934, 935, 90 mm lens. Building 933 is in foreground. - Travis Air Force Base, Nuclear Weapons Assembly Plant 4, W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  8. Oblique view of south end and west side from Wasp ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of south end and west side from Wasp Boulevard, with Facility No. S168 oh right - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, United States All-Steel Hangar, Wasp Boulevard between Kingfisher Street and Ranger Loop, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. Facility No. 175, oblique view of southwest doors and northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Facility No. 175, oblique view of southwest doors and northwest side, corner of Facility No. 176 is on the right - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Landplane Hangar Type, Wasp Boulevard and Gambier Bay Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  10. Facility No. 175, oblique view of southeast side and southwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Facility No. 175, oblique view of southeast side and southwest doors, corner of Facility No. 176 is on the left - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Landplane Hangar Type, Wasp Boulevard and Gambier Bay Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. 11. OBLIQUE OVERVIEW OF WEST AND SOUTH SIDES OF SKIDOO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. OBLIQUE OVERVIEW OF WEST AND SOUTH SIDES OF SKIDOO MILL, LOOKING WEST SOUTHWEST, WITH SIX FOOT SCALE AND MAN AGAINST WATER TANK IN FOREGROUND THE IN THE BOTTOM OF THE RAVINE IS THE SAME AS IN CA-290-3. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  12. Oblique view of stacks and towers alongside the Dryer House, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of stacks and towers alongside the Dryer House, note the pivot windows in the saw tooth monitor atop the Dryer House, view facing southeast - Kahului Cannery, Plant No. 28, Cannery Building and Dryer House/Feed Storage Building, 120 Kane Street, Kahului, Maui County, HI

  13. Exterior oblique view of the west end and the south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior oblique view of the west end and the south side, Facility No. 6 is behind - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Flask Storage, West side of Seventh Street between Facility Nos. 1107 & S1115, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  14. 3. OBLIQUE CONTEXTUAL VIEW FROM NORTHWEST, SHOWING OVER HALF OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. OBLIQUE CONTEXTUAL VIEW FROM NORTHWEST, SHOWING OVER HALF OF MILLS HALL MAIN WING, NORTH WALL, ALL OF MILLS HALL NORTH WING WEST WALL, AND ADDITION NORTH AND WEST WALLS. - Mills Hall, Mills College, 5000 MacArthur Boulevard, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  15. 11. UNDERSIDE, VIEW PERPENDICULAR TO PIERS, SHOWING FLOOR SYSTEM OBLIQUELY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. UNDERSIDE, VIEW PERPENDICULAR TO PIERS, SHOWING FLOOR SYSTEM OBLIQUELY AND NORTH PIER. LOOKING NORTH. - Route 31 Bridge, New Jersey Route 31, crossing disused main line of Central Railroad of New Jersey (C.R.R.N.J.) (New Jersey Transit's Raritan Valley Line), Hampton, Hunterdon County, NJ

  16. 8. OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST ELEVATION. LOOKING EAST. Route ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST ELEVATION. LOOKING EAST. - Route 31 Bridge, New Jersey Route 31, crossing disused main line of Central Railroad of New Jersey (C.R.R.N.J.) (New Jersey Transit's Raritan Valley Line), Hampton, Hunterdon County, NJ

  17. 7. OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAST ELEVATION. LOOKING WEST. Route ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAST ELEVATION. LOOKING WEST. - Route 31 Bridge, New Jersey Route 31, crossing disused main line of Central Railroad of New Jersey (C.R.R.N.J.) (New Jersey Transit's Raritan Valley Line), Hampton, Hunterdon County, NJ

  18. 5. OBLIQUE VIEW OF INTAKE PIER AND ACCESS BRIDGE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. OBLIQUE VIEW OF INTAKE PIER AND ACCESS BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, FROM THE EASTERN LEVEE. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  19. Interaction of Oblique Instability Waves with Weak Streamwise Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, M. E.; Wundrow, David W.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the effect of a weak spanwise-variable mean-flow distortion on the growth of oblique instability waves in a Blasius boundary layer. The streamwise component of the distortion velocity initially grows linearly with increasing streamwise distance, reaches a maximum, and eventually decays through the action of viscosity. This decay occurs slowly and allows the distortion to destabilize the Blasius flow over a relatively large streamwise region. It is shown that even relatively weak distortions can cause certain oblique Rayleigh instability waves to grow much faster than the usual two-dimensional Tollmien-Schlichting waves that would be the dominant instability modes in the absence of the distortion. The oblique instability waves can then become large enough to interact nonlinearly within a common critical layer. It is shown that the resulting nonlinearity is weak and that the common amplitude of the interacting oblique waves is governed by the amplitude evolution equation derived in Goldstein & Choi (1989). The implications of these results for Klebanoff-type transition are discussed.

  20. North rear, oblique view to the southeast, showing the east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North rear, oblique view to the southeast, showing the east wing and rear wall construction. Note the outline of the former windows beneath the current small aluminum-frame windows - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Building No. 16 A-B (Duplex), 30652 & 30654 Wellton-Mohawk Drive, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  1. Exterior oblique view of south (front) side, eight doors open, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior oblique view of south (front) side, eight doors open, "Supply Dept. SS-19", "27" on left edge, view facing east - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Paint & Oil Storehouse, Avenue D near Seventh Street intersection, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. 5. Oblique view of east side as viewed from shore. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Oblique view of east side as viewed from shore. This photo forms a panorama with photo WA-131-G-1, which shows the west dock from the same location. - Pacific Creosoting Plant, Oil-Creosote Unloading Dock, 5350 Creosote Place, Northeast, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  3. Benchmarking High Density Image Matching for Oblique Airborne Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavegn, S.; Haala, N.; Nebiker, S.; Rothermel, M.; Tutzauer, P.

    2014-08-01

    Both, improvements in camera technology and new pixel-wise matching approaches triggered the further development of software tools for image based 3D reconstruction. Meanwhile research groups as well as commercial vendors provide photogrammetric software to generate dense, reliable and accurate 3D point clouds and Digital Surface Models (DSM) from highly overlapping aerial images. In order to evaluate the potential of these algorithms in view of the ongoing software developments, a suitable test bed is provided by the ISPRS/EuroSDR initiative Benchmark on High Density Image Matching for DSM Computation. This paper discusses the proposed test scenario to investigate the potential of dense matching approaches for 3D data capture from oblique airborne imagery. For this purpose, an oblique aerial image block captured at a GSD of 6 cm in the west of Zürich by a Leica RCD30 Oblique Penta camera is used. Within this paper, the potential test scenario is demonstrated using matching results from two software packages, Agisoft PhotoScan and SURE from University of Stuttgart. As oblique images are frequently used for data capture at building facades, 3D point clouds are mainly investigated at such areas. Reference data from terrestrial laser scanning is used to evaluate data quality from dense image matching for several facade patches with respect to accuracy, density and reliability.

  4. Detail, building 810, oblique view to northwest of open front ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, building 810, oblique view to northwest of open front of hangar showing roof truss system, nested doors at left center, 90mm lens. C-5 aircraft in background at right. - Travis Air Force Base, B-36 Hangar, Between Woodskill Avenue & Ellis, adjacent to Taxiway V & W, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  5. Interior oblique view of unit living room in ground floor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior oblique view of unit living room in ground floor of Building 6 from kitchen hall, looking northeast, showing radiator and barred windows - North Beach Place, 401 Bay Street, 500 Francisco Street, 401 Bay Street, 500 Francisco Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  6. Interior oblique view from hall doorway of typical unit bedroom ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior oblique view from hall doorway of typical unit bedroom in 2nd floor of Building 6 looking southeast, showing radiator and closet - North Beach Place, 401 Bay Street, 500 Francisco Street, 401 Bay Street, 500 Francisco Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  7. Exterior oblique view of trash chute, balconies, and unit entrances ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior oblique view of trash chute, balconies, and unit entrances on west side of Building 10, from courtyard, looking southeast - North Beach Place, 501 Bay Street, 600 Francisco Street, 501 Bay Street, 600 Francisco Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  8. 5. OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTH AND EAST FACES. THE REFRIGERATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTH AND EAST FACES. THE REFRIGERATION SPACE PROJECTING FROM THE SOUTH SIDE OF THE BUILDING WAS ADDED IN MARCH 1944. - Oakland Army Base, Private Exchange Cafeteria, Bataan Avenue & Attu Street, facing Post Headquarters Building, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  9. 11. DETAIL: OBLIQUE VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST OF TYPICAL SPAN SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DETAIL: OBLIQUE VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST OF TYPICAL SPAN SHOWING ART DECO RELIEFS AND REMAINS OF BRACKETS FOR SUPPORTING STEEL SIDEWALKS. - Puente de la Marina, San Lorenzo-Florida & Cerro Gordo Neighborhoods, spanning Rio Grande de Loiza River at Narciso Varona-Suarez Street, San Lorenzo, San Lorenzo Municipio, PR

  10. 7. Oblique partial view of the bridge with its modified ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Oblique partial view of the bridge with its modified eastern end's box culverts and a part of the causeway, from the new bridge and the northeast. - Puente del Caño Perdomo, Route PR-2 spanning Cano Perdomo Channel, Arecibo, Arecibo Municipio, PR

  11. OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE SOUTHWEST SIDE, WITH ENTRY TO UNIT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE SOUTHWEST SIDE, WITH ENTRY TO UNIT 212E ON THE LEFT. SHOWING THE COVERED CONCRETE WALKWAY SUPPORTED BY OCTAGONAL POSTS AND MULTI-LIGHT SLIDING WINDOWS. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST. - Hickam Field, NCO Housing Type 8, 212E Thirteenth Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  12. Oblique of recreation center portion, showing onestory exercise room with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique of recreation center portion, showing one-story exercise room with louvered windows and two-story section as left. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Bloch Recreation Center & Arena, Between Center Drive & North Road near Nimitz Gate, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  13. 4. OBLIQUE OVERVIEW OF MILL SITE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. NOTICE WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. OBLIQUE OVERVIEW OF MILL SITE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. NOTICE WEST TAILINGS DAM SHOWN IN CA-290-3 IS LOCATED RIGHT OF CENTER FRAME, NEAR EDGE OF TAILINGS (WHITE) AREA. FOR MORE DESCRIPTION OF MILL COMPONENTS, SEE CA-290-9 BELOW. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  14. Oblique Aerial Imagery for NMA - Some best Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remondino, F.; Toschi, I.; Gerke, M.; Nex, F.; Holland, D.; McGill, A.; Talaya Lopez, J.; Magarinos, A.

    2016-06-01

    Oblique airborne photogrammetry is rapidly maturing and being offered by service providers as a good alternative or replacement of the more traditional vertical imagery and for very different applications (Fig.1). EuroSDR, representing European National Mapping Agencies (NMAs) and research organizations of most EU states, is following the development of oblique aerial cameras since 2013, when an ongoing activity was created to continuously update its members on the developments in this technology. Nowadays most European NMAs still rely on the traditional workflow based on vertical photography but changes are slowly taking place also at production level. Some NMAs have already run some tests internally to understand the potential for their needs whereas other agencies are discussing on the future role of this technology and how to possibly adapt their production pipelines. At the same time, some research institutions and academia demonstrated the potentialities of oblique aerial datasets to generate textured 3D city models or large building block models. The paper provides an overview of tests, best practices and considerations coming from the R&D community and from three European NMAs concerning the use of oblique aerial imagery.

  15. 5. OBLIQUE VIEW WASTE CALCINING FACILITY, LOOKING AT SOUTH END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. OBLIQUE VIEW WASTE CALCINING FACILITY, LOOKING AT SOUTH END AND EAST SIDE OF BUILDING. CAMERA FACING NORTHWEST. STACK IN UPPER LEFT OF VIEW IS NOT ASSOCIATED WITH THE BUILDING. INEEL PROOF SHEET NOT NUMBERED. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. 9. OBLIQUE OF DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF BRIDGE, LOOKING EAST FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. OBLIQUE OF DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF BRIDGE, LOOKING EAST FROM YOLO COUNTY SIDE OF THE SACRAMENTO RIVER. VESSEL MOORED AT RIGHT IS DELTA KING, WHICH HAS SINCE BEEN REFURBISHED AND MOVED UPSTREAM OF BRIDGE TO PERMANENT MOORING. CAPITOL BANK OF COMMERCE BUILDING IS BEHIND VESSEL. - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  17. 2. West portal of Tunnel 18, oblique view to northnortheast, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. West portal of Tunnel 18, oblique view to north-northeast, 135mm lens. Note the use of concrete face and wingwalls, with dressed stone voussoirs, wingwall coping, parapet with stone belt course and coping, and coursed stone masonry slope protection flanking the portal. - Southern Pacific Railroad Natron Cutoff, Tunnel No. 18, Milepost 410, Dorris, Siskiyou County, CA

  18. South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, oblique view of (W) and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, oblique view of (W) and (S) sides, view to northeast - Fort McKinley, South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, South side of Weymouth Way, approximately 100 feet west of East Side Drive, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  19. South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, oblique view of east side; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, oblique view of east side; view northwest - Fort McKinley, South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, South side of Weymouth Way, approximately 100 feet west of East Side Drive, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  20. Interior oblique view of the north side bay showing ovens ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior oblique view of the north side bay showing ovens and tongs in the foreground and a press behind at the right. View facing southeast - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Forge Shop & Galvanizing Shop, Sixth Street between Avenues D & E, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. 7. OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST BRIDGE ELEVATION, SHOWING NORTHERN ABUTMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST BRIDGE ELEVATION, SHOWING NORTHERN ABUTMENT (LEFT), CANTILEVERED NORTHERN TRUSS SECTION (CENTER), AND PIER (RIGHT), FROM SOUTHWEST SIDE OF BRIDGE. FACING NORTHEAST. - Coverts Crossing Bridge, Spanning Mahoning River along Township Route 372 (Covert Road), New Castle, Lawrence County, PA

  2. OBLIQUE PHOTO OF NORTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS OF REMOTE ANALYTICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE PHOTO OF NORTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS OF REMOTE ANALYTICAL FACILITY (CPP-627) LOOKING SOUTHEAST. LABORATORY AND OFFICE BUILDING (CPP-602) APPEAR ON LEFT IN PHOTO. INL PHOTO NUMBER HD-22-2-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 11/1998 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE HOUSE FROM THE NORTH. THIS VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE HOUSE FROM THE NORTH. THIS VIEW SHOWS THE PRIVACY FENCE AND AMOUNT OF COMMON AREA BETWEEN THE HOUSES - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Three-Bedroom Single-Family Type 7, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  4. Oblique view of the entry to the pump well showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of the entry to the pump well showing the louvered vent, the crane and dry dock are beyond - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Dry Dock No. 4, East & West Pumpwells, Near south end of Third Street, at east & west sides of Dry Dock No. 4, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  5. Facility 171 Oblique exterior view of west facade and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Facility 171 - Oblique exterior view of west facade and south side - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Latrine Dry Dock No. 2 & Latrine Dry Dock No.3, Near Avenue G adjacent to Dry Dock No. 2 & Dry Dock No. 3, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. Facility 208 Oblique view from north. "Crane Construction Zone". ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Facility 208 - Oblique view from north. "Crane Construction Zone". View facing south. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Latrine Dry Dock No. 2 & Latrine Dry Dock No.3, Near Avenue G adjacent to Dry Dock No. 2 & Dry Dock No. 3, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  7. Facility 171 Oblique exterior view of east and north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Facility 171 - Oblique exterior view of east and north sides - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Latrine Dry Dock No. 2 & Latrine Dry Dock No.3, Near Avenue G adjacent to Dry Dock No. 2 & Dry Dock No. 3, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. Facility 208 Oblique exterior view of east and south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Facility 208 - Oblique exterior view of east and south sides. View facing northwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Latrine Dry Dock No. 2 & Latrine Dry Dock No.3, Near Avenue G adjacent to Dry Dock No. 2 & Dry Dock No. 3, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. 12. Oblique view northeast of south elevation at southwest corner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Oblique view northeast of south elevation at southwest corner of building. Door at center accesses storage area. Pedimented 'niche' at left center holds mosaic shown in HABS-CA-2611-B-14. Scale visible at left edge of open door. - Deetjen's Big Sur Inn, Hayloft Building, East Side of State Highway 1, Big Sur, Monterey County, CA

  10. Obliquity Driven Climate Change in Mars' Recent Past

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haberle, R. M.; Montmessin, F.; Forget, F.; Spiga, A.; Colaprete, A.

    2003-01-01

    Mars has a natural mechanism for experiencing significant climate change and redistributing surface ice. Obliquity changes alone are quite capable of moving ice into low latitudes and may provide an explanation for the many geological landforms that strongly indicate recent climate change.

  11. 6. OBLIQUE VIEW OF HOIST, SHOWING WOODEN BRAKE SHOES, REDUCTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. OBLIQUE VIEW OF HOIST, SHOWING WOODEN BRAKE SHOES, REDUCTION GEARS AND BED FOR (MISSING) CLUTCH/DRIVE GEAR UNIT, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Buffalo Coal Mine, Vulcan Cable Hoist, Wishbone Hill, Southeast end, near Moose Creek, Sutton, Matanuska-Susitna Borough, AK

  12. 5. OBLIQUE VIEW OF HOIST, SHOWING REDUCTION GEARS AND BED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. OBLIQUE VIEW OF HOIST, SHOWING REDUCTION GEARS AND BED FOR (MISSING) CLUTCH/DRIVE GEAR UNIT, LOOKING EAST (McNALLY DRYER AND COVER SHOWN IN EXTREME UPPER RIGHT BACKGROUND) - Buffalo Coal Mine, Vulcan Cable Hoist, Wishbone Hill, Southeast end, near Moose Creek, Sutton, Matanuska-Susitna Borough, AK

  13. Rotational Uniqueness Conditions under Oblique Factor Correlation Metric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peeters, Carel F. W.

    2012-01-01

    In an addendum to his seminal 1969 article Joreskog stated two sets of conditions for rotational identification of the oblique factor solution under utilization of fixed zero elements in the factor loadings matrix (Joreskog in "Advances in factor analysis and structural equation models," pp. 40-43, 1979). These condition sets, formulated under…

  14. 1. OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE NORTH SIDE (IN SHADOW) AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE NORTH SIDE (IN SHADOW) AND THE NORTH PART OF THE WEST SIDE, FROM A BOOM LIFT NEAR THE NORTHWEST CORNER. BUILDING NO. 21 (OFFICE/FIREHOUSE) IS THE FIRST SMALL BUILDING AT THE FAR LEFT. - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Inspection & Repair Shops, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  15. 6. East portal of Tunnel 17, oblique view to westsouthwest, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. East portal of Tunnel 17, oblique view to west-southwest, 90mm lens. This view shows to advantage the stepped concrete wingwalls and fitted stone masonry coping protection flanking the portal, features typical of the Southern Pacific Common Standard tunnels of this period. - Southern Pacific Railroad Natron Cutoff, Tunnel No. 17, Milepost 408, Dorris, Siskiyou County, CA

  16. 6. East portal of Tunnel 18, oblique view to northwest, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. East portal of Tunnel 18, oblique view to northwest, 135mm lens. This view shows to advantage the stepped ashlar granite wingwalls and fitted rubble slab slope protection flanking the portal, features typical of the Southern Pacific Common Standard tunnels. - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Tunnel No. 18, Milepost 120.5, Newcastle, Placer County, CA

  17. 3. SOUTH SIDE, OBLIQUE VIEW, FROM F STREET SIDEWALK, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SOUTH SIDE, OBLIQUE VIEW, FROM F STREET SIDEWALK, LOOKING NORTHWEST, WITH BUILDING 222 ACROSS 3RD STREET AT LEFT. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Administration Building-Dental Annex-Dispensary, Between E & F Streets, East of Third Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  18. Oblique view to the northwest detailing four overhead rolling doors ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view to the northwest detailing four overhead rolling doors on the northeast elevation - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Mountain Home Air Force Operations Building, On Desert Street at 9th Avenue Mountain Home Air Force Base, Mountain Home, Elmore County, ID

  19. Oblique view of Bonita Ridge Access Road Retaining Wall, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of Bonita Ridge Access Road Retaining Wall, showing southernmost portion of intact wall and portion of concrete drainage ditch from Signal Corps Radar 296 Station 5 Transmitter Building foundation above, camera facing west-north - Fort Barry, Bonita Ridge Access Road, Retaining Wall, Point Bonita, Marin Headlands, Sausalito, Marin County, CA

  20. OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTHWEST AND SOUTHEAST SIDES OF UPPER GATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTHWEST AND SOUTHEAST SIDES OF UPPER GATE MACHINERY HOUSE, NORTH OF LOCK, WITH HYDRO-ELECTRIC POWER HOUSE AND DAM IN BACKGROUND, VIEW TOWARD NORTH NORTHWEST - St. Lucie Canal, Lock No. 1, Machinery Houses, St. Lucie, Cross State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Stuart, Martin County, FL

  1. Oblique view of southwest and southeast side of northwest machinery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of southwest and southeast side of northwest machinery house and hydro-electric power house, concrete pylon at upstream entrance to lock in foreground, view towards north - St. Lucie Canal, St. Lucie Lock No. 1, St. Lucie, Cross State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Stuart, Martin County, FL

  2. Oblique view of southwest and southeast sides of hydroelectric power ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of southwest and southeast sides of hydro-electric power house with upstream side of dam to left and concrete pylon at upper entrance to lock on right, view towards north - St. Lucie Canal, St. Lucie Lock No. 1, St. Lucie, Cross State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Stuart, Martin County, FL

  3. 1. SOUTH SIDE (MAJORITY), OBLIQUE VIEW, FROM APPROXIMATELY 25 FEET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SOUTH SIDE (MAJORITY), OBLIQUE VIEW, FROM APPROXIMATELY 25 FEET SOUTH OF SOUTHEAST CORNER OF BUILDING, LOOKING NORTHWEST. BUILDING EXTENDS FROM LIGHT EXTERIOR BUILDING AT CENTER TO FAR RIGHT AND OUT OF THE PICTURE FRAME. BUILDING 341 AT CENTER LEFT. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Coffee Roasting Plant, East of Fourth Street, between J & K, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  4. Oblique overview, looking eastsoutheast, of fish ladder construction activity after ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique overview, looking east-southeast, of fish ladder construction activity after dewatering of north side. The east abutment wall, concrete crest, and north side apron are exposed. Easternmost roller gate (raised position) and service bridge at upper right - Grand Valley Diversion Dam, Half a mile north of intersection of I-70 & Colorado State Route 65, Cameo, Mesa County, CO

  5. Oblique view, looking south of the concrete crest and apron ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view, looking south of the concrete crest and apron after dewatering of north side. The east abutment wall, is at left. Easternmost roller gate (raised position) and service bridge at top - Grand Valley Diversion Dam, Half a mile north of intersection of I-70 & Colorado State Route 65, Cameo, Mesa County, CO

  6. 8. View toward northeast, southwest oblique of perimeter acquisition radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. View toward northeast, southwest oblique of perimeter acquisition radar building showing accessway #101 leading into par power plant from service road B in foreground - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  7. The oblique effect is both allocentric and egocentric

    PubMed Central

    Mikellidou, Kyriaki; Cicchini, Guido Marco; Thompson, Peter G.; Burr, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Despite continuous movements of the head, humans maintain a stable representation of the visual world, which seems to remain always upright. The mechanisms behind this stability are largely unknown. To gain some insight on how head tilt affects visual perception, we investigate whether a well-known orientation-dependent visual phenomenon, the oblique effect—superior performance for stimuli at cardinal orientations (0° and 90°) compared with oblique orientations (45°)—is anchored in egocentric or allocentric coordinates. To this aim, we measured orientation discrimination thresholds at various orientations for different head positions both in body upright and in supine positions. We report that, in the body upright position, the oblique effect remains anchored in allocentric coordinates irrespective of head position. When lying supine, gravitational effects in the plane orthogonal to gravity are discounted. Under these conditions, the oblique effect was less marked than when upright, and anchored in egocentric coordinates. The results are well explained by a simple “compulsory fusion” model in which the head-based and the gravity-based signals are combined with different weightings (30% and 70%, respectively), even when this leads to reduced sensitivity in orientation discrimination. PMID:26129862

  8. 12. View from south to north, south oblique of missile ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. View from south to north, south oblique of missile site control building emphasizing diesel generators and exhaust an intake towers - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Site Control Building, Northeast of Tactical Road; southeast of Tactical Road South, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  9. 5. Distant view of west oblique of missile site control ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Distant view of west oblique of missile site control building. To right can be seen intake and exhaust of MSRPP, on far right is accessway - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Site Control Building, Northeast of Tactical Road; southeast of Tactical Road South, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  10. OBLIQUE VIEW OF MISSILE LAB WITH CRANE SHOWING SOUTHWEST AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF MISSILE LAB WITH CRANE SHOWING SOUTHWEST AND NORTHWEST SIDES. VIEW FACING EAST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island Polaris Missile Lab & U.S. Fleet Ballistic Missile Submarine Training Center, Between Lexington Boulvevard and the sea plane ramps on the southwest side of Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. OBLIQUE VIEW OF MISSILE LAB WITH CRANE SHOWING SOUTHEAST AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF MISSILE LAB WITH CRANE SHOWING SOUTHEAST AND SOUTHWEST SIDES. VIEW FACING NORTH/NORTHWEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island Polaris Missile Lab & U.S. Fleet Ballistic Missile Submarine Training Center, Between Lexington Boulvevard and the sea plane ramps on the southwest side of Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  12. OBLIQUE VIEW OF ONE AND TWO STORY SECTIONS OF NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF ONE AND TWO STORY SECTIONS OF NORTHEAST WING OF RECREATION CENTER WITH GRADUATED SCALE IN 1' INCREMENTS. NOTE THE CANOPY OVER THE SECOND STORY WINDOWS. VIEW FACING WEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Bloch Recreation Center & Arena, Between Center Drive & North Road near Nimitz Gate, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  13. FACILITY 209, SINGLESTORY DUPLEX, FRONT OBLIQUE VIEW OF FRONT FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 209, SINGLE-STORY DUPLEX, FRONT OBLIQUE VIEW OF FRONT FROM CENTER DRIVE, FACING SW. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Housing Area 1, Single Story Duplex Type, Bounded by Kamehameha Highway, Plantation Drive, South Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  14. FACILITY 210, TWOSTORY DUPLEX, REAR OBLIQUE FROM CENTER DRIVE, VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 210, TWO-STORY DUPLEX, REAR OBLIQUE FROM CENTER DRIVE, VIEW FACING EAST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Housing Area 1, Two-Story Duplex Type, Bounded by Kamehameha Highway, Plantation Drive, South Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. Oblique view of rear, showing twostory south wing and threestory ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of rear, showing two-story south wing and three-story southwest wing, as seen from roof of Facility No. 75 - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Barracks & Mess Hall, Hornet Avenue between Liscome Bay & Enterprise Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  16. FACILITY 210, TWO STORY DUPLEX, FRONT OBLIQUE. FACILITY 209 TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 210, TWO STORY DUPLEX, FRONT OBLIQUE. FACILITY 209 TO LEFT, 201 TO RIGHT, VIEW FACING NW. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Housing Area 1, Two-Story Duplex Type, Bounded by Kamehameha Highway, Plantation Drive, South Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  17. 2. OVERALL OBLIQUE VIEW NORTHNORTHWEST FROM CORNER OF FIRST STREET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OVERALL OBLIQUE VIEW NORTH-NORTHWEST FROM CORNER OF FIRST STREET AND BEAVER AVENUE, SOUTH FACADES OF BUILDINGS, NO. 1 ON RIGHT WITH OFFSET GABLE, NO. 2 ON RIGHT WITH GABLE ROOF WITH SIGN AND SHED ROOF, WHITE OF NO. 3 BARELY VISIBLE AT LEFT. - Vulcan Crucible Steel Company, 100 First Street, Aliquippa, Beaver County, PA

  18. OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTHEAST SIDE AND NORTHWEST END, SHOWING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTHEAST SIDE AND NORTHWEST END, SHOWING THE WOOD-FRAMED WING (IN BACKGROUND) AND THE PROJECTING ENTRY FOYER. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, First Aid & Decontamination Building, Wasp Boulevard near Ranger Loop, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. Oblique view of the south side wall, showing the lathe ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of the south side wall, showing the lathe for the drive shafts and the ramp to the lower section. View facing west - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Machine Shop, Sixth Street opposite 10-10 Pier, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  20. 9. COPY OF UNDATED OBLIQUE AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH WEST SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. COPY OF UNDATED OBLIQUE AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH WEST SIDE OF BASE, PROBABLY TAKEN IN THE 1960'S. PHOTOGRAPH LOCATED AT AIR FORCE BASE CONVERSION AGENCY, LORING AIR FORCE BASE, MARINE. - Loring Air Force Base, Airfield, Central portion of base, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  1. 10. COPY OF OBLIQUE AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH OF FLIGHTLINE SHOWING BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. COPY OF OBLIQUE AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH OF FLIGHTLINE SHOWING BUILDING 8280 (DOUBLE CANTILEVER HANGAR) AT LEFT DATED JANUARY 18, 1968. PHOTOGRAPH FROM LORING AIR FORCE BASE MASTER PLAN LOCATED AT AIR FORCE BASE CONVERSION AGENCY, LORING AIR FORCE BASE, MAINE. - Loring Air Force Base, Airfield, Central portion of base, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  2. 10. COPY OF OBLIQUE PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING ARCH HANGAR AT RIGHT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. COPY OF OBLIQUE PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING ARCH HANGAR AT RIGHT, BUILDING 8200 (OBSERVATION TOWER) AT LEFT, AND B-52 AIRCRAFT PARKED ALONG APRON IN BACKGROUND, DATED OCTOBER 1967, PHOTOGRAPH FROM BASE MASTER PLAN LOCATED AT AIR FORCE BASE CONVERSION AGENCY, LORING AIR FORCE BASE, MAINE. - Loring Air Force Base, Arch Hangar, East of Arizona Road near southern end of runway, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  3. 67. COPY OF UNDATED OBLIQUE AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING WEAPONS STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    67. COPY OF UNDATED OBLIQUE AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING WEAPONS STORAGE AREA, FROM MASTER PLAN OF CARIBOU AFS. PHOTOGRAPH, PROBABLY TAKEN IN THE 1960'S LOCATED AT AIR FORCE BASE CONVERSION AGENCY, LORING AIR FORCE BASE, MAINE. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  4. 10. East oblique of missile site control building, with better ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. East oblique of missile site control building, with better view of exhaust (the taller columns) and intake shafts - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Site Control Building, Northeast of Tactical Road; southeast of Tactical Road South, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  5. Oblique view from southwest showing newer (1966) addition with taller ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view from southwest showing newer (1966) addition with taller original structure, view facing east-northeast - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Industrial X-Ray Building, Off Sixth Street, adjacent to and south of Facility No. 11, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. Oblique view of rear, showing threestory northwest and southwest wings ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of rear, showing three-story northwest and southwest wings with one-story kitchen wing at center - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Barracks & Mess Hall, Hornet Avenue between Liscome Bay & Enterprise Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  7. Oblique view of Sector Five Compound, looking southwest. Water Tank ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of Sector Five Compound, looking southwest. Water Tank to right, Receiver Building to left, antenna array in background - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake Radar Site Receive Sector Five Water Storage Tank, Unnamed Road West of Double Head Road, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

  8. Oblique view of Sector Four Compound, looking southwest. Water Storage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of Sector Four Compound, looking southwest. Water Storage Tank in center behind fence, in front of Receiver Building - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake Radar Site Receive Sector Four Water Storage Facility, Unnamed Road West of Double Head Road, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

  9. 2. OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST FRONT. The frames on an ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST FRONT. The frames on an angle originally held mirrors for viewing the tests from inside the building. Vertical frame originally held bullet glass. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing Control Blockhouse, South of Sled Track at east end, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTH AND EAST SIDES OF NORTHWEST CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTH AND EAST SIDES OF NORTHWEST CONTROL HOUSE WITH SOUTHWEST CONTROL HOUSE IN BACKGROUND, VIEW TOWARDS SOUTH - Ortona Lock, Lock No. 2, Machinery and Control Houses, Caloosahatchee River, Cross-State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Ortona, Glades County, FL

  11. OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTH AND WEST SIDES OF SOUTHWEST CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTH AND WEST SIDES OF SOUTHWEST CONTROL HOUSE WITH NORTHWEST CONTROL HOUSE AND BUILDING NO. 52 IN BACKGROUND, VIEW TOWARDS NORTH - Ortona Lock, Lock No. 2, Machinery and Control Houses, Caloosahatchee River, Cross-State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Ortona, Glades County, FL

  12. Oblique perspective, due east by 70 degrees. Note concrete pier, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique perspective, due east by 70 degrees. Note concrete pier, added CA. 1930's. Other piers and abutments are heavily mortared rubble stone. - Watson Mill Bridge, Spanning South Fork Broad River, Watson Mill Road, Watson Mill Bridge State Park, Comer, Madison County, GA

  13. OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR SIDE WITH UNIT B ON THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR SIDE WITH UNIT B ON THE LEFT. NOTE THE TERRACING OF THE YARD WHICH IS TYPICAL OF THE NEIGHBORHOOD. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 2, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  14. OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR SIDE WITH UNIT A ON THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR SIDE WITH UNIT A ON THE RIGHT. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 2, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR SIDE WITH UNIT A IN FOREGROUND. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR SIDE WITH UNIT A IN FOREGROUND. NOTE THE FLOOR TO CEILING WINDOWS OF THE LIVING ROOM. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 3, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  16. OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTHWEST CORNER OF UNIT B. NOTE THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTHWEST CORNER OF UNIT B. NOTE THE TERRACING WHICH IS TYPICAL OF THE NEIGHBORHOOD. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 3, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  17. OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTHEAST CORNER UNIT A. NOTE THE ADDED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTHEAST CORNER UNIT A. NOTE THE ADDED OPENING WITH AIR CONDITIONER. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Duplex Type 1, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTHEAST CORNER OF UNIT A. VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTHEAST CORNER OF UNIT A. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Duplex Type 1, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTHWEST CORNER UNIT A. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTHWEST CORNER UNIT A. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 2, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  20. OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE FRONT OF UNIT B. VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE FRONT OF UNIT B. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 2, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI