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Sample records for income inequality mortality

  1. Relation between income inequality and mortality: empirical demonstration.

    PubMed

    Wolfson, M C; Kaplan, G; Lynch, J; Ross, N; Backlund, E

    2000-01-01

    Objective To assess the extent to which observed associations between income inequality and mortality at population level are statistical artifacts. Design Indirect "what if" simulation using observed risks of mortality at individual level as a function of income to construct hypothetical state-level mortality specific for age and sex as if the statistical artifact argument were 100% correct. Method Data from the 1990 census for the 50 US states plus Washington, DC, were used for population distributions by age, sex, state, and income range; data disaggregated by age, sex, and state from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were used for mortality; and regressions from the national longitudinal mortality study were used for the individual-level relation between income and risk of mortality. Results Hypothetical mortality, although correlated with inequality (as implied by the logic of the statistical artifact argument), showed a weaker association with the level of income inequality in each state than the observed mortality. Conclusions The observed associations in the United States at the state level between income inequality and mortality cannot be entirely or substantially explained as statistical artifacts of an underlying individual-level relation between income and mortality. There remains an important association between income inequality and mortality at state level above anything that could be accounted for by any statistical artifact. This result reinforces the need to consider a broad range of factors, including the social milieu, as fundamental determinants of health. PMID:18751209

  2. Relation between income inequality and mortality: empirical demonstration.

    PubMed

    Wolfson, M; Kaplan, G; Lynch, J; Ross, N; Backlund, E

    1999-10-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the extent to which observed associations at the population level between income inequality and mortality are statistical artifacts. Data from the 1990 census for the 50 American states plus the District of Columbia were used for population distributions by age, sex, state and income range; data disaggregated by age, sex and state from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were used for mortality; and regressions from the national longitudinal mortality study were used for the individual level relation between income and risk of mortality. Results revealed that hypothetical mortality, while correlated with inequality, displayed a weaker association with state's levels of income inequality than the observed mortality. The associations seen in the US at the state level between income inequality and mortality cannot be entirely or substantially explained as statistical artifacts of an underlying individual level relation between income and mortality. There is still a significant association between income inequality and mortality at state level over and above anything that could be accounted for by any statistical artifact. This finding reinforces the need to consider a broad range of factors, including the social milieu, as fundamental determinants of health. PMID:10514157

  3. Race, Neighborhood Economic Status, Income Inequality and Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Mode, Nicolle A; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B

    2016-01-01

    Mortality rates in the United States vary based on race, individual economic status and neighborhood. Correlations among these variables in most urban areas have limited what conclusions can be drawn from existing research. Our study employs a unique factorial design of race, sex, age and individual poverty status, measuring time to death as an objective measure of health, and including both neighborhood economic status and income inequality for a sample of middle-aged urban-dwelling adults (N = 3675). At enrollment, African American and White participants lived in 46 unique census tracts in Baltimore, Maryland, which varied in neighborhood economic status and degree of income inequality. A Cox regression model for 9-year mortality identified a three-way interaction among sex, race and individual poverty status (p = 0.03), with African American men living below poverty having the highest mortality. Neighborhood economic status, whether measured by a composite index or simply median household income, was negatively associated with overall mortality (p<0.001). Neighborhood income inequality was associated with mortality through an interaction with individual poverty status (p = 0.04). While racial and economic disparities in mortality are well known, this study suggests that several social conditions associated with health may unequally affect African American men in poverty in the United States. Beyond these individual factors are the influences of neighborhood economic status and income inequality, which may be affected by a history of residential segregation. The significant association of neighborhood economic status and income inequality with mortality beyond the synergistic combination of sex, race and individual poverty status suggests the long-term importance of small area influence on overall mortality. PMID:27171406

  4. Race, Neighborhood Economic Status, Income Inequality and Mortality.

    PubMed

    Mode, Nicolle A; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B

    2016-01-01

    Mortality rates in the United States vary based on race, individual economic status and neighborhood. Correlations among these variables in most urban areas have limited what conclusions can be drawn from existing research. Our study employs a unique factorial design of race, sex, age and individual poverty status, measuring time to death as an objective measure of health, and including both neighborhood economic status and income inequality for a sample of middle-aged urban-dwelling adults (N = 3675). At enrollment, African American and White participants lived in 46 unique census tracts in Baltimore, Maryland, which varied in neighborhood economic status and degree of income inequality. A Cox regression model for 9-year mortality identified a three-way interaction among sex, race and individual poverty status (p = 0.03), with African American men living below poverty having the highest mortality. Neighborhood economic status, whether measured by a composite index or simply median household income, was negatively associated with overall mortality (p<0.001). Neighborhood income inequality was associated with mortality through an interaction with individual poverty status (p = 0.04). While racial and economic disparities in mortality are well known, this study suggests that several social conditions associated with health may unequally affect African American men in poverty in the United States. Beyond these individual factors are the influences of neighborhood economic status and income inequality, which may be affected by a history of residential segregation. The significant association of neighborhood economic status and income inequality with mortality beyond the synergistic combination of sex, race and individual poverty status suggests the long-term importance of small area influence on overall mortality. PMID:27171406

  5. Income inequality and mortality in metropolitan areas of the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, J W; Kaplan, G A; Pamuk, E R; Cohen, R D; Heck, K E; Balfour, J L; Yen, I H

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined associations between income inequality and mortality in 282 US metropolitan areas. METHODS: Income inequality measures were calculated from the 1990 US Census. Mortality was calculated from National Center for Health Statistics data and modeled with weighted linear regressions of the log age-adjusted rate. RESULTS: Excess mortality between metropolitan areas with high and low income inequality ranged from 64.7 to 95.8 deaths per 100,000 depending on the inequality measure. In age-specific analyses, income inequality was most evident for infant mortality and for mortality between ages 15 and 64. CONCLUSIONS: Higher income inequality is associated with increased mortality at all per capita income levels. Areas with high income inequality and low average income had excess mortality of 139.8 deaths per 100,000 compared with areas with low inequality and high income. The magnitude of this mortality difference is comparable to the combined loss of life from lung cancer, diabetes, motor vehicle crashes, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, suicide, and homicide in 1995. Given the mortality burden associated with income inequality, public and private sector initiatives to reduce economic inequalities should be a high priority. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:9663157

  6. Income Inequality and Child Mortality in Wealthy Nations.

    PubMed

    Collison, David

    2016-01-01

    This chapter presents evidence of a relationship between child mortality data and socio-economic factors in relatively wealthy nations. The original study on child mortality that is reported here, which first appeared in a UK medical journal, was undertaken in a school of business by academics with accounting and finance backgrounds. The rationale explaining why academics from such disciplines were drawn to investigate these issues is given in the first part of the chapter. The findings related to child mortality data were identified as a special case of a wide range of social and health indicators that are systematically related to the different organisational approaches of capitalist societies. In particular, the so-called Anglo-American countries show consistently poor outcomes over a number of indicators, including child mortality. Considerable evidence has been adduced in the literature to show the importance of income inequality as an explanation for such findings. An important part of the chapter is the overview of a relatively recent publication in the epidemiological literature entitled The Spirit Level: Why Equality Is Better for Everyone, which was written by Wilkinson and Pickett. PMID:27197976

  7. Poverty or income inequality as predictor of mortality: longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed Central

    Fiscella, K.; Franks, P.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of inequality in income between communities independent of household income on individual all cause mortality in the United States. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study. SUBJECTS: A nationally representative sample of 14,407 people aged 25-74 years in the United States from the first national health and nutrition examination survey. SETTING: Subjects were followed from initial interview in 1971-5 until 1987. Complete follow up information was available for 92.2% of the sample. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Relation between both household income and income inequality in community of residence and individual all cause mortality at follow up was examined with Cox proportional hazards survival analysis. RESULTS: Community income inequality showed a significant association with subsequent community mortality, and with individual mortality after adjustment for age, sex, and mean income in the community of residence. After adjustment for individual household income, however, the association with mortality was lost. CONCLUSIONS: In this nationally representative American sample, family income, but not community income inequality, independently predicts mortality. Previously reported ecological associations between income inequality and mortality may reflect confounding between individual family income and mortality. PMID:9185498

  8. Income Inequality, Economic Growth and Stroke Mortality in Brazil: Longitudinal and Regional Analysis 2002-2009

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Stroke accounts for more than 10% of all deaths globally and most of it occurs in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Income inequality and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita has been associated to stroke mortality in developed countries. In LMIC, GDP per capita is considered to be a more relevant health determinant than income inequality. This study aims to investigate if income inequality is associated to stroke mortality in Brazil at large, but also on regional and state levels, and whether GDP per capita modulates the impact of this association. Methods Stroke mortality rates, Gini index and GDP per capita data were pooled for the 2002 to 2009 period from public available databases. Random effects models were fitted, controlling for GDP per capita and other covariates. Results Income inequality was independently associated to stroke mortality rates, even after controlling for GDP per capita and other covariates. GDP per capita reduced only partially the impact of income inequality on stroke mortality. A decrease in 10 points in the Gini index was associated with 18% decrease in the stroke mortality rate in Brazil. Conclusions Income inequality was independently associated to stroke mortality in Brazil. PMID:26352415

  9. Income inequality, life expectancy and cause-specific mortality in 43 European countries, 1987-2008: a fixed effects study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yannan; van Lenthe, Frank J; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2015-08-01

    Whether income inequality is related to population health is still open to debate. We aimed to critically assess the relationship between income inequality and mortality in 43 European countries using comparable data between 1987 and 2008, controlling for time-invariant and time-variant country-level confounding factors. Annual data on income inequality, expressed as Gini index based on net household income, were extracted from the Standardizing the World Income Inequality Database. Data on life expectancy at birth and age-standardized mortality by cause of death were obtained from the Human Lifetable Database and the World Health Organization European Health for All Database. Data on infant mortality were obtained from the United Nations World Population Prospects Database. The relationships between income inequality and mortality indicators were studied using country fixed effects models, adjusted for time trends and country characteristics. Significant associations between income inequality and many mortality indicators were found in pooled cross-sectional regressions, indicating higher mortality in countries with larger income inequalities. Once the country fixed effects were added, all associations between income inequality and mortality indicators became insignificant, except for mortality from external causes and homicide among men, and cancers among women. The significant results for homicide and cancers disappeared after further adjustment for indicators of democracy, education, transition to national independence, armed conflicts, and economic freedom. Cross-sectional associations between income inequality and mortality seem to reflect the confounding effects of other country characteristics. In a European context, national levels of income inequality do not have an independent effect on mortality. PMID:26177800

  10. Distinguishing the race-specific effects of income inequality and mortality in U.S. metropolitan areas.

    PubMed

    Nuru-Jeter, Amani M; Williams, T; LaVeist, Thomas A

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, the association between income inequality and mortality has been fairly consistent. However, few studies have explicitly examined the impact of race. Studies that have either stratified outcomes by race or conducted analyses within race-specific groups suggest that the income inequality/mortality relation may differ for blacks and whites. The factors explaining the association may also differ for the two groups. Multivariate ordinary least squares regression analysis was used to examine associations between study variables. We used three measures of income inequality to examine the association between income inequality and age-adjusted all-cause mortality among blacks and whites separately. We also examined the role of racial residential segregation and concentrated poverty in explaining associations among groups. Metropolitan areas were included if they had a population of at least 100,000 and were at least 10 percent black. There was a positive income inequality/mortality association among blacks and an inverse association among whites. Racial residential segregation completely attenuated the income inequality/mortality relationship for blacks, but was not significant among whites. Concentrated poverty was a significant predictor of mortality rates in both groups but did not confound associations. The implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:25618984

  11. Does the socioeconomic context explain both mortality and income inequality? Prospective register-based study of Norwegian regions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies from various countries have observed worse population health in geographical areas with more income inequality. The psychosocial interpretation of this association is that large income disparities are harmful to health because they generate relative deprivation and undermine social cohesion. An alternative explanation contends that the association between income inequality and ill health arises because the underlying social and economic structures will influence both the level of illness and disease and the size of income differences. This paper examines whether the observed association between mortality and income inequality in Norwegian regions can be accounted for by the socioeconomic characteristics of the regions. Methods Norwegian register data covering the entire population were utilised. An extensive set of contextual and individual predictors were included in multilevel Poisson regression analyses of mortality 1994-2003 among 1.6 millions individuals born 1929-63, distributed across 35 residential regions. Results Mean income, composition of economic branches, and percentage highly educated in the regions were clearly connected to the level of income inequality. These social and economic characteristics of the regions were also markedly related to regional mortality levels, after adjustment for population composition, i.e., the individual-level variables. Moreover, regional mortality was significantly higher in regions with larger income disparities. The regions' social and economic structure did not, however, account for the association between regional income inequality and mortality. A distinct independent effect of income inequality on mortality remained after adjustment for regional-level social and economic characteristics. Conclusions The results indicate that the broader socioeconomic context in Norwegian regions has a substantial impact both on mortality and on the level of income disparities. However, the results also suggest

  12. Relation between income inequality and mortality in Canada and in the United States: cross sectional assessment using census data and vital statistics

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Nancy A; Wolfson, Michael C; Dunn, James R; Berthelot, Jean-Marie; Kaplan, George A; Lynch, John W

    2000-01-01

    Objective To compare the relation between mortality and income inequality in Canada with that in the United States. Design The degree of income inequality, defined as the percentage of total household income received by the less well off 50% of households, was calculated and these measures were examined in relation to all cause mortality, grouped by and adjusted for age. Setting The 10 Canadian provinces, the 50 US states, and 53 Canadian and 282 US metropolitan areas. Results Canadian provinces and metropolitan areas generally had both lower income inequality and lower mortality than US states and metropolitan areas. In age grouped regression models that combined Canadian and US metropolitan areas, income inequality was a significant explanatory variable for all age groupings except for elderly people. The effect was largest for working age populations, in which a hypothetical 1% increase in the share of income to the poorer half of households would reduce mortality by 21 deaths per 100 000. Within Canada, however, income inequality was not significantly associated with mortality. Conclusions Canada seems to counter the increasingly noted association at the societal level between income inequality and mortality. The lack of a significant association between income inequality and mortality in Canada may indicate that the effects of income inequality on health are not automatic and may be blunted by the different ways in which social and economic resources are distributed in Canada and in the United States. PMID:10741994

  13. Correlation or causation? Income inequality and infant mortality in fixed effects models in the period 1960-2008 in 34 OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Avendano, Mauricio

    2012-08-01

    Income inequality is strongly associated with infant mortality across countries, but whether this association is causal has not been established. In their commentary in this issue of Social Science & Medicine, Regidor et al. (2012) argue that this association has disappeared in recent years, and question the premise of a causal link. This paper empirically tests the impact of income inequality on infant mortality in a fixed effects model that exploits the evolution of income inequality over a 38-year period, controlling for all time-invariant differences across countries. Data came from the Standardized World Income Inequality Database, containing yearly estimates for the period 1960-2008 in 34 countries member of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), linked to infant mortality data from the OECD Health database. Infant mortality was modelled as a function of income inequality in a country and year fixed effects model, incorporating controls for changing economic and labour conditions. In a model without country fixed effects, a one-point increase in the Gini coefficient was associated with a 7% increase in the infant mortality rate (Rate ratio[RR] = 1.07, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.04, 1.09). Controlling for differences across countries in a country fixed effects model, however, income inequality was no longer associated with infant mortality (RR = 1.00, 0.98, 1.01). Similar results were obtained when using lagged values of income inequality for up to 15 years, and in models that controlled for changing labour and economic conditions. Findings suggest that in the short-run, changes in income inequality are not associated with changes in infant mortality. A possible interpretation of the discrepancy between cross-country correlations and fixed effects models is that social policies that reduce infant mortality cluster in countries with low income inequality, but their effects do not operate via income. Findings highlight the

  14. Educational Inequality and Income Inequality: An Empirical Study on China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Jun; Huang, Xiao; Li, Xiaoyu

    2009-01-01

    Based on the endogenous growth theory, this paper uses the Gini coefficient to measure educational inequality and studies the empirical relationship between educational inequality and income inequality through a simultaneous equation model. The results show that: (1) Income inequality leads to educational inequality while the reduction of…

  15. Retirement Patterns and Income Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasang, Anette Eva

    2012-01-01

    How do social policies shape life courses, and which consequences do different life course patterns hold for individuals? This article engages the example of retirement in Germany and Britain to analyze life course patterns and their consequences for income inequality. Sequence analysis is used to measure retirement trajectories. The liberal…

  16. The Relationship between Income Inequality and Inequality in Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    Children of affluent parents get more schooling than children of poor parents, which seems to imply that reducing income inequality would reduce inequality in schooling. Similarly, one of the best predictors of an individual's income is his educational attainment, which seems to imply that reducing inequality in schooling will reduce income…

  17. Growing Income Inequality Threatens American Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; Murnane, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The first of two articles in consecutive months describes the origins and nature of growing income inequality, and some of its consequences for American children. It documents the increased family income inequality that's occurred over the past 40 years and shows that the increased income disparity has been more than matched by an expanding…

  18. Income Inequality and the Education Divide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The economics of the decision to go to college or obtain technical training is discussed in this booklet. To stay competitive in the job market requires constant educational updating. The following questions are discussed: (1) how income inequality is measured; (2) how income is distributed in the United States; (3) why income inequality is…

  19. Health and social cohesion: why care about income inequality?

    PubMed Central

    Kawachi, I.; Kennedy, B. P.

    1997-01-01

    Throughout the world, wealth and income are becoming more concentrated. Growing evidence suggests that the distribution of income-in addition to the absolute standard of living enjoyed by the poor-is a key determinant of population health. A large gap between rich people and poor people leads to higher mortality through the breakdown of social cohesion. The recent surge in income inequality in many countries has been accompanied by a marked increase in the residential concentration of poverty and affluence. Residential segregation diminishes the opportunities for social cohesion. Income inequality has spillover effects on society at large, including increased rates of crime and violence, impeded productivity and economic growth, and the impaired functioning of representative democracy. The extent of inequality in society is often a consequence of explicit policies and public choice. Reducing income inequality offers the prospect of greater social cohesiveness and better population health. PMID:9112854

  20. Correlations between Income Inequality and Antimicrobial Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Andrew; Herbert, Annie

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to investigate if correlations exist between income inequality and antimicrobial resistance. This study’s hypothesis is that income inequality at the national level is positively correlated with antimicrobial resistance within developed countries. Data collection and analysis Income inequality data were obtained from the Standardized World Income Inequality Database. Antimicrobial resistance data were obtained from the European antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network and outpatient antimicrobial consumption data, measured by Defined daily Doses per 1000 inhabitants per day, from the European Surveillance of antimicrobial Consumption group. Spearman’s correlation coefficient (r) defined strengths of correlations of: > 0.8 as strong, > 0.5 as moderate and > 0.2 as weak. Confidence intervals and p values were defined for all r values. Correlations were calculated for the time period 2003-10, for 15 European countries. Results Income inequality and antimicrobial resistance correlations which were moderate or strong, with 95% confidence intervals > 0, included the following. Enterococcus faecalis resistance to aminopenicillins, vancomycin and high level gentamicin was moderately associated with income inequality (r= ≥0.54 for all three antimicrobials). Escherichia coli resistance to aminoglycosides, aminopenicillins, third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones was moderately-strongly associated with income inequality (r= ≥0.7 for all four antimicrobials). Klebsiella pneumoniae resistance to third generation cephalosporins, aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones was moderately associated with income inequality (r= ≥0.5 for all three antimicrobials). Staphylococcus aureus methicillin resistance and income inequality were strongly associated (r=0.87). Conclusion As income inequality increases in European countries so do the rates of antimicrobial resistance for bacteria including E. faecalis, E. coli, K. pneumoniae

  1. Hispanic Population Growth and Rural Income Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrado, Emilio A.; Kandel, William A.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the relationship between Hispanic population growth and changes in U.S. rural income inequality from 1990 through 2000. Applying comparative approaches used for urban areas we disentangle Hispanic population growth's contribution to inequality by comparing and statistically modeling changes in the family income Gini coefficient across…

  2. American Higher Education and Income Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Catharine B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that increasing income inequality can contribute to the trends we see in American higher education, particularly in the selective, private nonprofit and public sectors. Given these institutions' selective admissions and commitment to socioeconomic diversity, the paper demonstrates how increasing income inequality leads to…

  3. Income Inequality, Global Economy and the State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Cheol-Sung; Nielsen, Francois; Alderson, Arthur S.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate interrelationship among income inequality, global economy and the role of the state using an unbalanced panel data set with 311 observations on 60 countries, dated from 1970 to 1994. The analysis proceeds in two stages. First, we test for effects on income inequality of variables characterizing the situation of a society in the…

  4. Inequality, income, and poverty: comparative global evidence.

    PubMed

    Fosu, Augustin Kwasi

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. The study seeks to provide comparative global evidence on the role of income inequality, relative to income growth, in poverty reduction.Methods. An analysis-of-covariance model is estimated using a large global sample of 1980–2004 unbalanced panel data, with the headcount measure of poverty as the dependent variable, and the Gini coefficient and PPP-adjusted mean income as explanatory variables. Both random-effects and fixed-effects methods are employed in the estimation.Results. The responsiveness of poverty to income is a decreasing function of inequality, and the inequality elasticity of poverty is actually larger than the income elasticity of poverty. Furthermore, there is a large variation across regions (and countries) in the relative effects of inequality on poverty.Conclusion. Income distribution plays a more important role than might be traditionally acknowledged in poverty reduction, though this importance varies widely across regions and countries. PMID:21125764

  5. Income inequality in today’s China

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yu; Zhou, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Using multiple data sources, we establish that China's income inequality since 2005 has reached very high levels, with the Gini coefficient in the range of 0.53–0.55. Analyzing comparable survey data collected in 2010 in China and the United States, we examine social determinants that help explain China’s high income inequality. Our results indicate that a substantial part of China’s high income inequality is due to regional disparities and the rural-urban gap. The contributions of these two structural forces are particularly strong in China, but they play a negligible role in generating the overall income inequality in the United States, where individual-level and family-level income determinants, such as family structure and race/ethnicity, play a much larger role. PMID:24778237

  6. Income Inequality and Intergenerational Income Mobility in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bloome, Deirdre

    2015-01-01

    Is there a relationship between family income inequality and income mobility across generations in the United States? As family income inequality rose in the United States, parental resources available for improving children’s health, education, and care diverged. The amount and rate of divergence also varied across US states. Researchers and policy analysts have expressed concern that relatively high inequality might be accompanied by relatively low mobility, tightening the connection between individuals’ incomes during childhood and adulthood. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, and various government sources, this paper exploits state and cohort variation to estimate the relationship between inequality and mobility. Results provide very little support for the hypothesis that inequality shapes mobility in the United States. The inequality children experienced during youth had no robust association with their economic mobility as adults. Formal analysis reveals that offsetting effects could underlie this result. In theory, mobility-enhancing forces may counterbalance mobility-reducing effects. In practice, the results suggest that in the US context, the intergenerational transmission of income may not be very responsive to changes in inequality. PMID:26388653

  7. Income inequality and health: pathways and mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Kawachi, I; Kennedy, B P

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between income and health is well established: the higher an individual's income, the better his or her health. However, recent research suggests that health may also be affected by the distribution of income within society. We outline the potential mechanisms underlying the so-called relative income hypothesis, which predicts that an individual's health status is better in societies with a more equal distribution of incomes. The effects of income inequality on health may be mediated by underinvestment in social goods, such as public education and health care; disruption of social cohesion and the erosion of social capital; and the harmful psychosocial effects of invidious social comparisons. PMID:10199670

  8. Income inequality and health in China: A panel data analysis.

    PubMed

    Bakkeli, Nan Zou

    2016-05-01

    During the last decades, the level of income inequality in China has increased dramatically. Despite rapid economic growth and improved living conditions, the health performance in China has dropped compared to the period before the economic reform. The "Wilkinson hypothesis" suggests that increased income inequality in a society is correlated to worse health performance. China is a particular interesting case due to the rapid socioeconomic change in the country. This study uses the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) to address the question of whether income inequality has an impact on individuals' risks of having health problems in China. Unlike previous studies with health measures such as self-reported health or mortality rate, our study uses physical functions to measure individual health. By analysing panel data using county/city-level dummies and year fixed-effects, we found that income inequality does not have a significant impact on individuals' risks of having health problems. This result is robust when changing between different indicators for income inequality. PMID:27060540

  9. Should we worry about income inequality?

    PubMed

    Wade, Robert Hunter

    2006-01-01

    Liberals (in the European sense) argue that a liberal free-market economic policy regime-nationally and globally-is good for economic growth and poverty reduction and for keeping income inequality within tolerable limits. Second, they argue that substantial income inequality is desirable because of its good effects on other things, notably incentives, innovation, and panache; and conversely, they dismiss concerns about growing inequality as "the politics of envy." Third, they argue that the core liberal theory of capitalist political economy satisfactorily explains the central tendencies in the role of the state in advanced capitalist economies. This essay challenges all three arguments on both conceptual and empirical grounds. It then suggests why the arguments are nevertheless widely accepted, proposes criteria for deciding how much inequality is fair, and ends by suggesting ways for achieving higher salience for income redistribution (downwards) in political agendas. PMID:16878393

  10. Can Education Expenditures Reduce Income Inequality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylwester, Kevin

    2002-01-01

    Examines whether devoting more resources to education can positively affect the distribution of income within a country. Finds that public-education expenditures appear to be associated with a subsequent decrease in the level of income inequality. Finding is robust to the inclusion of various control variables and appears to be larger in…

  11. Global Inequalities in Youth Mortality, 2007-2012

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gopal K.; Lokhande, Anagha; Azuine, Romuladus E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: There is limited cross-national research on youth mortality. We examined age-and gender-variations in all-cause mortality among youth aged 15-34 years across 52 countries. Methods: Using the 2014 WHO mortality database, mortality rates for all countries were computed for the latest available year between 2007 and 2012. Rates, rate ratios, and ordinary least squares (OLS) and Poisson regression were used to analyze international variation in mortality. Results: Mortality rates among youth aged 15-34 years varied from a low of 28.4 deaths per 100,000 population for Hong Kong to a high of 250.6 for Russia and 619.1 for South Africa. For men aged 15-34, Singapore and Hong Kong had the lowest mortality rates (≈40 per 100,000), compared with South Africa and Russia with rates of 589.7 and 383.3, respectively. Global patterns in mortality among women were similar. Youth aged 15-24 in South Africa had 14 times higher mortality and those in the Philippines, Mexico, Russia, Colombia, and Brazil had 5-7 times higher mortality than those in Hong Kong. Youth aged 25-34 in Russia and South Africa had, respectively, 10 and 29 times higher mortality than their counterparts in Hong Kong. United States (US) had the 12th highest mortality rate among youth aged 15-24 and the 13th highest rate among youth aged 25-34. Overall, the US youth had 2-3 times higher rates of mortality than their counterparts in many industrialized countries including Hong Kong, Singapore, Netherlands, Switzerland, Germany, Norway, and Sweden. Income inequality, unemployment rate, and human development explained 50-66% of the global variance in youth mortality. Compared to the countries with low unemployment and income inequality and high human development levels, countries with high unemployment and income inequality and low human development had, respectively, 343%, 213%, and 205% higher risks of youth mortality. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Marked international disparities in

  12. Income Inequality and U.S. Tax Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocco, Margaret S.; Marri, Anand R.; Wylie, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Many social scientists have recently commented on the high levels of income inequality in the United States. Indeed, the last time income inequality was as great as it is today was 1928, the year before the stock market crash ushered in the Great Depression. In this article, the authors offer a historical look at income inequality and taxation in…

  13. Income Inequality and Economic Development, A Case Study: Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watanabe, Tsunehiko

    The changes in income inequality during the post-war period in Japan are investigated quantitatively and extensively in order to shed some light on the relationship between income inequality and the rapid economic development experienced in Japan. Following a presentation of some summary pictures on income inequality in the Japanese society the…

  14. Inequalities of Income and Inequalities of Longevity: A Cross-Country Study

    PubMed Central

    Plümper, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the effects of market income inequality (income inequality before taxes and transfers) and income redistribution via taxes and transfers on inequality in longevity. Methods. We used life tables to compute Gini coefficients of longevity inequality for all individuals and for individuals who survived to at least 10 years of age. We regressed longevity inequality on market income inequality and income redistribution, and we controlled for potential confounders, in a cross-sectional time-series sample of up to 28 predominantly Western developed countries and up to 37 years (1974–2011). Results. Income inequality before taxes and transfers was positively associated with inequality in the number of years lived; income redistribution (the difference between market income inequality and income inequality after taxes and transfers were accounted for) was negatively associated with longevity inequality. Conclusions. To the extent that our estimated effects derived from observational data are causal, governments can reduce longevity inequality not only via public health policies, but also via their influence on market income inequality and the redistribution of incomes from the relatively rich to the relatively poor. PMID:26562120

  15. Education's Effect on Income Inequality: An Economic Globalisation Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Ryan

    2006-01-01

    Utilising a globalisation framework this study contributes to discussions concerning inequality, education, and development by re-examining the effects of educational and economic variables on income inequality. This research shows that the effects of education on income inequality are affected by the level of economic freedom in a country, and…

  16. Income-related health inequalities across regions in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction In addition to economic inequalities, there has been growing concern over socioeconomic inequalities in health across income levels and/or regions. This study measures income-related health inequalities within and between regions and assesses the possibility of convergence of socioeconomic inequalities in health as regional incomes converge. Methods We considered a total of 45,233 subjects (≥ 19 years) drawn from the four waves of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). We considered true health as a latent variable following a lognormal distribution. We obtained ill-health scores by matching self-rated health (SRH) to its distribution and used the Gini Coefficient (GC) and an income-related ill-health Concentration Index (CI) to examine inequalities in income and health, respectively. Results The GC estimates were 0.3763 and 0.0657 for overall and spatial inequalities, respectively. The overall CI was -0.1309, and the spatial CI was -0.0473. The spatial GC and CI estimates were smaller than their counterparts, indicating substantial inequalities in income (from 0.3199 in Daejeon to 0.4233 Chungnam) and income-related health inequalities (from -0.1596 in Jeju and -0.0844 in Ulsan) within regions. The results indicate a positive relationship between the GC and the average ill-health and a negative relationship between the CI and the average ill-health. Those regions with a low level of health tended to show an unequal distribution of income and health. In addition, there was a negative relationship between the GC and the CI, that is, the larger the income inequalities, the larger the health inequalities were. The GC was negatively related to the average regional income, indicating that an increase in a region's average income reduced income inequalities in the region. On the other hand, the CI showed a positive relationship, indicating that an increase in a region's average income reduced health inequalities in the

  17. Does Income Inequality Harm Health? New Cross-National Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckfield, Jason

    2004-01-01

    The provocative hypothesis that income inequality harms population health has sparked a large body of research, some of which has reported strong associations between income inequality and population health. Cross-national evidence is frequently cited in support of this important hypothesis, but the hypothesis remains controversial, and the…

  18. Does income inequality have lasting effects on health and trust?

    PubMed

    Rözer, Jesper Jelle; Volker, Beate

    2016-01-01

    According to the income inequality hypothesis, income inequality is associated with poorer health. One important proposed mechanism for this effect is reduced trust. In this study, we argue that income inequality during a person's formative years (i.e., around age 16) may have lasting consequences for trust and health. Multilevel analyses of data from the combined World Values Survey and European Values Study that were collected between 1981 and 2014 support our prediction and show that income inequality is associated with ill health in young adults, in part because it reduces their social trust. The negative consequences of income inequality remain stable for a substantial period of life but eventually fade away and have no effect after age 36. PMID:26704353

  19. Widening Income Inequalities: Higher Education's Role in Serving Low Income Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Jon C.; Crosby, Pamela C.

    2015-01-01

    Many scholars argue that America is becoming a dangerously divided nation because of increasing inequality, especially in income distribution. This article examines the problem of widening income inequality with particular focus on the role that colleges and universities and their student affairs organizations play in serving low income students…

  20. Educational inequalities in tuberculosis mortality in sixteen European populations

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez, J. L.; Kunst, A. E.; Leinsalu, M.; Bopp, M.; Strand, B. H.; Menvielle, Gwenn; Lundberg, O.; Martikainen, P.; Deboosere, P.; Kalediene, R.; Artnik, B.; Mackenbach, J. P.; Richardus, J. H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective We aim to describe the magnitude of socioeconomic inequalities in tuberculosis (TB) mortality by level of education in male, female, urban, and rural populations in several European countries. Design Data were obtained from the Eurothine project covering 16 populations between 1990 and 2003. Age- and sex-standardized mortality rates, the Relative Index of Inequality, and the slope index of inequality were used to assess educational inequalities. Results The number of TB deaths reported was 8530, with a death rate of 3 per 100 000 per year, of which 73% were males. Educational inequalities in TB mortality were present in all European populations. Inequalities in TB mortality were larger than in total mortality. Relative and absolute inequalities were large in Eastern Europe, and Baltic countries but relatively small in Southern countries and in Norway, Finland, and Sweden. Mortality inequalities were observed among both men and women, and in both rural and urban populations. Conclusions Socioeconomic inequalities in TB mortality exist in all European countries. Firm political commitment is required to reduce inequalities in the social determinants of TB incidence. Targeted public health measures are called for to improve vulnerable groups’ access to treatment and thereby reduce TB mortality. PMID:22008757

  1. Income Inequality, Alcohol Use, and Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    C. M. Roberts, Sarah; Bond, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationship between state-level income inequality and alcohol outcomes and sought to determine whether associations of inequality with alcohol consumption and problems would be more evident with between-race inequality measures than with the Gini coefficient. We also sought to determine whether inequality would be most detrimental for disadvantaged individuals. Methods. Data from 2 nationally representative samples of adults (n = 13 997) from the 2000 and 2005 National Alcohol Surveys were merged with state-level inequality and neighborhood disadvantage indicators from the 2000 US Census. We measured income inequality using the Gini coefficient and between-race poverty ratios (Black–White and Hispanic–White). Multilevel models accounted for clustering of respondents within states. Results. Inequality measured by poverty ratios was positively associated with light and heavy drinking. Associations between poverty ratios and alcohol problems were strongest for Blacks and Hispanics compared with Whites. Household poverty did not moderate associations with income inequality. Conclusions. Poverty ratios were associated with alcohol use and problems, whereas overall income inequality was not. Higher levels of alcohol problems in high-inequality states may be partly due to social context. PMID:23237183

  2. Better off than we know: distorted perceptions of incomes and income inequality in America.

    PubMed

    Chambers, John R; Swan, Lawton K; Heesacker, Martin

    2014-02-01

    Three studies examined Americans' perceptions of incomes and income inequality using a variety of criterion measures. Contrary to recent findings indicating that Americans underestimate wealth inequality, we found that Americans not only overestimated the rise of income inequality over time, but also underestimated average incomes. Thus, economic conditions in America are more favorable than people seem to realize. Furthermore, ideological differences emerged in two of these studies, such that political liberals overestimated the rise of inequality more than political conservatives. Implications of these findings for public policy debates and ideological disagreements are discussed. PMID:24317422

  3. The Health Effects of Income Inequality: Averages and Disparities.

    PubMed

    Truesdale, Beth C; Jencks, Christopher

    2016-03-18

    Much research has investigated the association of income inequality with average life expectancy, usually finding negative correlations that are not very robust. A smaller body of work has investigated socioeconomic disparities in life expectancy, which have widened in many countries since 1980. These two lines of work should be seen as complementary because changes in average life expectancy are unlikely to affect all socioeconomic groups equally. Although most theories imply long and variable lags between changes in income inequality and changes in health, empirical evidence is confined largely to short-term effects. Rising income inequality can affect individuals in two ways. Direct effects change individuals' own income. Indirect effects change other people's income, which can then change a society's politics, customs, and ideals, altering the behavior even of those whose own income remains unchanged. Indirect effects can thus change both average health and the slope of the relationship between individual income and health. PMID:26735427

  4. National Income, Inequality and Global Patterns of Cigarette Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pampel, Fred

    2007-01-01

    Declining tobacco use in high-income nations and rising tobacco use in low- and middle-income nations raises questions about the sources of worldwide patterns of smoking. Theories posit a curvilinear influence of national income based on the balance of affordability and health-cost effects. In addition, however, economic inequality, gender…

  5. Beyond the income inequality hypothesis: class, neo-liberalism, and health inequalities.

    PubMed

    Coburn, David

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes and critiques the income inequality approach to health inequalities. It then presents an alternative class-based model through a focus on the causes and not only the consequences of income inequalities. In this model, the relationship between income inequality and health appears as a special case within a broader causal chain. It is argued that global and national socio-political-economic trends have increased the power of business classes and lowered that of working classes. The neo-liberal policies accompanying these trends led to increased income inequality but also poverty and unequal access to many other health-relevant resources. But international pressures towards neo-liberal doctrines and policies are differentially resisted by various nations because of historically embedded variation in class and institutional structures. Data presented indicates that neo-liberalism is associated with greater poverty and income inequalities, and greater health inequalities within nations. Furthermore, countries with Social Democratic forms of welfare regimes (i.e., those that are less neo-liberal) have better health than do those that are more neo-liberal. The paper concludes with discussion of what further steps are needed to "go beyond" the income inequality hypothesis towards consideration of a broader set of the social determinants of health. PMID:14572920

  6. Income distribution, public services expenditures, and all cause mortality in US states

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, J.; Burgess, B.; Ross, N.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this paper is to investigate the relation between state and local government expenditures on public services and all cause mortality in 48 US states in 1987, and determine if the relation between income inequality and mortality is conditioned on levels of public services available in these jurisdictions. Methods: Per capita public expenditures and a needs adjusted index of public services were examined for their association with age and sex specific mortality rates. OLS regression models estimated the contribution of public services to mortality, controlling for median income and income inequality. Results: Total per capita expenditures on public services were significantly associated with all mortality measures, as were expenditures for primary and secondary education, higher education, and environment and housing. A hypothetical increase of $100 per capita spent on higher education, for example, was associated with 65.6 fewer deaths per 100 000 for working age men (p<0.01). The positive relation between income inequality and mortality was partly attenuated by controls for public services. Discussion: Public service expenditures by state and local governments (especially for education) are strongly related to all cause mortality. Only part of the relation between income inequality and mortality may be attributable to public service levels. PMID:16100315

  7. Income Mobility Breeds Tolerance for Income Inequality: Cross-National and Experimental Evidence.

    PubMed

    Shariff, Azim F; Wiwad, Dylan; Aknin, Lara B

    2016-05-01

    American politicians often justify income inequality by referencing the opportunities people have to move between economic stations. Though past research has shown associations between income mobility and resistance to wealth redistribution policies, no experimental work has tested whether perceptions of mobility influence tolerance for inequality. In this article, we present a cross-national comparison showing that income mobility is associated with tolerance for inequality and experimental work demonstrating that perceptions of higher mobility directly affect attitudes toward inequality. We find support for both the prospect of upward mobility and the view that peoples' economic station is the product of their own efforts, as mediating mechanisms. PMID:27217250

  8. Is wealthier always healthier? The impact of national income level, inequality, and poverty on public health in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Brian; King, Lawrence; Basu, Sanjay; Stuckler, David

    2010-07-01

    Despite findings indicating that both national income level and income inequality are each determinants of public health, few have studied how national income level, poverty and inequality interact with each other to influence public health outcomes. We analyzed the relationship between gross domestic product (GDP) per capita in purchasing power parity, extreme poverty rates, the gini coefficient for personal income and three common measures of public health: life expectancy, infant mortality rates, and tuberculosis (TB) mortality rates. Introducing poverty and inequality as modifying factors, we then assessed whether the relationship between GDP and health differed during times of increasing, decreasing, and decreasing or constant poverty and inequality. Data were taken from twenty-two Latin American countries from 1960 to 2007 from the December 2008 World Bank World Development Indicators, World Health Organization Global Tuberculosis Database 2008, and the Socio-Economic Database for Latin America and the Caribbean. Consistent with previous studies, we found increases in GDP have a sizable positive impact on population health. However, the strength of the relationship is powerfully influenced by changing levels of poverty and inequality. When poverty was increasing, greater GDP had no significant effect on life expectancy or TB mortality, and only led to a small reduction in infant mortality rates. When inequality was rising, greater GDP had only a modest effect on life expectancy and infant mortality rates, and no effect on TB mortality rates. In sharp contrast, during times of decreasing or constant poverty and inequality, there was a very strong relationship between increasing GDP and higher life expectancy and lower TB and infant mortality rates. Finally, inequality and poverty were found to exert independent, substantial effects on the relationship between national income level and health. Wealthier is indeed healthier, but how much healthier depends on how

  9. Child wellbeing and income inequality in rich societies: ecological cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Pickett, Kate E

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To examine associations between child wellbeing and material living standards (average income), the scale of differentiation in social status (income inequality), and social exclusion (children in relative poverty) in rich developed societies. Design Ecological, cross sectional studies. Setting Cross national comparisons of 23 rich countries; cross state comparisons within the United States. Population Children and young people. Main outcome measures The Unicef index of child wellbeing and its components for rich countries; eight comparable measures for the US states and District of Columbia (teenage births, juvenile homicides, infant mortality, low birth weight, educational performance, dropping out of high school, overweight, mental health problems). Results The overall index of child wellbeing was negatively correlated with income inequality (r=−0.64, P=0.001) and percentage of children in relative poverty (r=−0.67, P=0.001) but not with average income (r=0.15, P=0.50). Many more indicators of child wellbeing were associated with income inequality or children in relative poverty, or both, than with average incomes. Among the US states and District of Columbia all indicators were significantly worse in more unequal states. Only teenage birth rates and the proportion of children dropping out of high school were lower in richer states. Conclusions Improvements in child wellbeing in rich societies may depend more on reductions in inequality than on further economic growth. PMID:18024483

  10. Income inequality, social cohesion, and class relations: a critique of Wilkinson's neo-Durkheimian research program.

    PubMed

    Muntaner, C; Lynch, J

    1999-01-01

    Wilkinson's "income inequality and social cohesion" model has emerged as a leading research program in social epidemiology. Public health scholars and activists working toward the elimination of social inequalities in health can find several appealing features in Wilkinson's research. In particular, it provides a sociological alternative to former models that emphasize poverty, health behaviors, or the cultural aspects of social relations as determinants of population health. Wilkinson's model calls for social explanations, avoids the subjectivist legacy of U.S. functionalist sociology that is evident in "status" approaches to understanding social inequalities in health, and calls for broad policies of income redistribution. Nevertheless, Wilkinson's research program has characteristics that limit its explanatory power and its ability to inform social policies directed toward reducing social inequalities in health. The model ignores class relations, an approach that might help explain how income inequalities are generated and account for both relative and absolute deprivation. Furthermore, Wilkinson's model implies that social cohesion rather than political change is the major determinant of population health. Historical evidence suggests that class formation could determine both reductions in social inequalities and increases in social cohesion. Drawing on recent examples, the authors argue that an emphasis on social cohesion can be used to render communities responsible for their mortality and morbidity rates: a community-level version of "blaming the victim." Such use of social cohesion is related to current policy initiatives in the United States and Britain under the New Democrat and New Labor governments. PMID:10079398

  11. Income redistribution is not enough: income inequality, social welfare programs, and achieving equity in health

    PubMed Central

    Starfield, Barbara; Birn, Anne‐Emanuelle

    2007-01-01

    Income inequality is widely assumed to be a major contributor to poorer health at national and subnational levels. According to this assumption, the most appropriate policy strategy to improve equity in health is income redistribution. This paper considers reasons why tackling income inequality alone could be an inadequate approach to reducing differences in health across social classes and other population subgroups, and makes the case that universal social programs are critical to reducing inequities in health. A health system oriented around a strong primary care base is an example of such a strategy. PMID:18000124

  12. The Inequality Footprints of Nations: A Novel Approach to Quantitative Accounting of Income Inequality

    PubMed Central

    Alsamawi, Ali; Murray, Joy; Lenzen, Manfred; Moran, Daniel; Kanemoto, Keiichiro

    2014-01-01

    In this study we use economic input-output analysis to calculate the inequality footprint of nations. An inequality footprint shows the link that each country's domestic economic activity has to income distribution elsewhere in the world. To this end we use employment and household income accounts for 187 countries and an historical time series dating back to 1990. Our results show that in 2010, most developed countries had an inequality footprint that was higher than their within-country inequality, meaning that in order to support domestic lifestyles, these countries source imports from more unequal economies. Amongst exceptions are the United States and United Kingdom, which placed them on a par with many developing countries. Russia has a high within-country inequality nevertheless it has the lowest inequality footprint in the world, which is because of its trade connections with the Commonwealth of Independent States and Europe. Our findings show that the commodities that are inequality-intensive, such as electronic components, chemicals, fertilizers, minerals, and agricultural products often originate in developing countries characterized by high levels of inequality. Consumption of these commodities may implicate within-country inequality in both developing and developed countries. PMID:25353333

  13. Income inequality and homicide rates in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Szwarcwald, C L; Bastos, F I; Viacava, F; de Andrade, C L

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study determined the effect of income inequality on homicide rates in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS: We conducted an ecological study at 2 geographical levels, municipalities in the state of Rio de Janeiro and administrative regions in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro. The association between homicide and income inequality was tested by multiple regression procedures, with adjustment for other socioeconomic indicators. RESULTS: For the municipalities of Rio de Janeiro State, no association between homicide and income concentration was found an outcome that can be explained by the municipalities' different degrees of urbanization. However, for the administrative regions in the city of Rio de Janeiro, the 2 income inequality indicators were strongly correlated with the outcome variable (P < .01). Higher homicide rates were found precisely in the sector of the city that has the greatest concentration of slum residents and the highest degree of income inequality. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that social policies specifically aimed at low-income urban youth, particularly programs to reduce the harmful effects of relative deprivation, may have an important impact on the homicide rate. PMID:10358673

  14. Education and Income Inequality among Asian Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macaranas, Federico M.

    The reduction of social inequalities through education is widely believed to be possible. In the past decade however, social scientists have increasingly questioned the posited conventional relationship between education and socio-economic equality. Factors other than the number of years and/or the quality of schooling have to be considered in…

  15. [Inequalities in mortality in the Italian longitudinal studies].

    PubMed

    Cardano, M; Costa, G; Demaria, M; Merler, E; Biggeri, A

    1999-01-01

    The article presents some of the most relevant results on inequalities in mortality, obtained by the two Italian longitudinal studies carried out in Turin, and Tuscany (in Leghorn and Florence). The two studies share the same methodology. Each database contains census data, information from population register and from death certificates. The authors approach this issue not in an analytical way (as they did in the works cited in the reference list), but answering some questions, relevant both from a scientific and a political point of view. How big are the health inequalities in Italy? Are the health inequalities in Italy increasing or decreasing? Are the health inequalities due to absolute or to relative deprivation? Does the mortality profile of the Italian population express the presence of old or new health inequalities? Can the health inequalities be reduced? The study's results prove that the health inequalities in Italy are deep and strictly related to individuals' position in the social fabric. Facing the other questions the authors focus only in the Turin data. From the 1970's to the 1990's the health inequalities in Turin have increased, despite of general improvement of population's health condition and the progressive reduction of the size of deprived groups. Turin data support both the hypotheses on the source of health inequalities, using long term unemployment as absolute deprivation's indicator, and status' inconsistency as (a row) indicator of relative deprivation. The growth of drug-related causes of death (AIDS and overdose) shows that in the Turin and--quite reasonably--Italian population old and new health inequalities live together. The essay closes offering evidence on the possibility to reduce health inequalities. For this purpose the authors analyses the Turin trend of avoidable deaths and infant and adolescent mortality. PMID:10605247

  16. Inequalities in Alcohol-Related Mortality in 17 European Countries: A Retrospective Analysis of Mortality Registers

    PubMed Central

    Mackenbach, Johan P.; Kulhánová, Ivana; Bopp, Matthias; Borrell, Carme; Deboosere, Patrick; Kovács, Katalin; Looman, Caspar W. N.; Leinsalu, Mall; Mäkelä, Pia; Martikainen, Pekka; Menvielle, Gwenn; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Rychtaříková, Jitka; de Gelder, Rianne

    2015-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic inequalities in alcohol-related mortality have been documented in several European countries, but it is unknown whether the magnitude of these inequalities differs between countries and whether these inequalities increase or decrease over time. Methods and Findings We collected and harmonized data on mortality from four alcohol-related causes (alcoholic psychosis, dependence, and abuse; alcoholic cardiomyopathy; alcoholic liver cirrhosis; and accidental poisoning by alcohol) by age, sex, education level, and occupational class in 20 European populations from 17 different countries, both for a recent period and for previous points in time, using data from mortality registers. Mortality was age-standardized using the European Standard Population, and measures for both relative and absolute inequality between low and high socioeconomic groups (as measured by educational level and occupational class) were calculated. Rates of alcohol-related mortality are higher in lower educational and occupational groups in all countries. Both relative and absolute inequalities are largest in Eastern Europe, and Finland and Denmark also have very large absolute inequalities in alcohol-related mortality. For example, for educational inequality among Finnish men, the relative index of inequality is 3.6 (95% CI 3.3–4.0) and the slope index of inequality is 112.5 (95% CI 106.2–118.8) deaths per 100,000 person-years. Over time, the relative inequality in alcohol-related mortality has increased in many countries, but the main change is a strong rise of absolute inequality in several countries in Eastern Europe (Hungary, Lithuania, Estonia) and Northern Europe (Finland, Denmark) because of a rapid rise in alcohol-related mortality in lower socioeconomic groups. In some of these countries, alcohol-related causes now account for 10% or more of the socioeconomic inequality in total mortality. Because our study relies on routinely collected underlying causes of

  17. Inequality and mortality: long-run evidence from a panel of countries.

    PubMed

    Leigh, Andrew; Jencks, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    We investigate whether changes in economic inequality affect mortality in rich countries. To answer this question we use a new source of data on income inequality: tax data on the share of pretax income going to the richest 10% of the population in Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the UK, and the US between 1903 and 2003. Although this measure is not a good proxy for inequality within the bottom half of the income distribution, it is a good proxy for changes in the top half of the distribution and for the Gini coefficient. In the absence of country and year fixed effects, the income share of the top decile is negatively related to life expectancy and positively related to infant mortality. However, in our preferred fixed-effects specification these relationships are weak, statistically insignificant, and likely to change their sign. Nor do our data suggest that changes in the income share of the richest 10% affect homicide or suicide rates. PMID:16963138

  18. Cross-National Determinants of Income Inequality: A Replication and Extension Using Ecological-Evolutionary Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crenshaw, Edward

    1992-01-01

    Examines existing models of income inequality that include the following factors: (1) access to education; (2) foreign capital exacerbating income inequality; and (3) political democracy. Hypothesizes, based on ecological-evolutionary theory, that agricultural density has a robust, negative influence on income inequality. (KS)

  19. Income Inequality, Race, and Child Well-Being: An Aggregate Analysis in the 50 United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Jane D.; Nonnemaker, James M.; Call, Kathleen Thiede

    2004-01-01

    Interest in income inequality as a predictor of health has exploded since the mid-1990s. Recent analyses suggest, however, that the effect of income inequality on population health is not robust to a control for the racial composition of the population. That observation raises two interpretational questions. First, does income inequality have an…

  20. Meeting the Educational Challenges of Income Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; Murnane, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Can the nation's schools meet today's challenge of providing all students with the skills they will need to thrive in the rapidly changing economy and society of the 21st century? The authors point out in this article that a large percentage of children, overwhelmingly from low-income families, end their formal schooling without the…

  1. Socioeconomic inequalities in premature mortality in Colombia, 1998-2007: The double burden of non-communicable diseases and injuries

    PubMed Central

    Arroyave, Ivan; Burdorf, Alex; Cardona, Doris; Avendano, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Non-communicable diseases have become the leading cause of death in middle-income countries, but mortality from injuries and infections remains high. We examined the contribution of specific causes to disparities in adult premature mortality (ages 25-64) by educational level from 1998 to 2007 in Colombia. Methods Data from mortality registries were linked to population censuses to obtain mortality rates by educational attainment. We used Poisson regression to model trends in mortality by educational attainment and estimated the contribution of specific causes to the Slope Index of Inequality. Results Men and women with only primary education had higher premature mortality than men and women with post-secondary education (RRmen=2·60, 95% confidence interval [CI]:2·56, 2·64; RRwomen=2·36, CI:2·31, 2·42). Mortality declined in all educational groups, but declines were significantly larger for higher-educated men and women. Homicide explained 55·1% of male inequalities while non-communicable diseases explained 62·5% of female inequalities and 27·1% of male inequalities. Infections explained a small proportion of inequalities in mortality. Conclusion Injuries and non-communicable diseases contribute considerably to disparities in premature mortality in Colombia. Multi-sector policies to reduce both interpersonal violence and non-communicable disease risk factors are required to curb mortality disparities. PMID:24674854

  2. Trends in absolute socioeconomic inequalities in mortality in Sweden and New Zealand. A 20-year gender perspective

    PubMed Central

    Wamala, Sarah; Blakely, Tony; Atkinson, June

    2006-01-01

    Background Both trends in socioeconomic inequalities in mortality, and cross-country comparisons, may give more information about the causes of health inequalities. We analysed trends in socioeconomic differentials by mortality from early 1980s to late 1990s, comparing Sweden with New Zealand. Methods The New Zealand Census Mortality Study (NZCMS) consisting of over 2 million individuals and the Swedish Survey of Living Conditions (ULF) comprising over 100, 000 individuals were used for analyses. Education and household income were used as measures of socioeconomic position (SEP). The slope index of inequality (SII) was calculated to estimate absolute inequalities in mortality. Analyses were based on 3–5 year follow-up and limited to individuals aged 25–77 years. Age standardised mortality rates were calculated using the European population standard. Results Absolute inequalities in mortality on average over the 1980s and 1990s for both men and women by education were similar in Sweden and New Zealand, but by income were greater in Sweden. Comparing trends in absolute inequalities over the 1980s and 1990s, men's absolute inequalities by education decreased by 66% in Sweden and by 17% in New Zealand (p for trend <0.01 in both countries). Women's absolute inequalities by education decreased by 19% in Sweden (p = 0.03) and by 8% in New Zealand (p = 0.53). Men's absolute inequalities by income decreased by 51% in Sweden (p for trend = 0.06), but increased by 16% in New Zealand (p = 0.13). Women's absolute inequalities by income increased in both countries: 12% in Sweden (p = 0.03) and 21% in New Zealand (p = 0.04). Conclusion Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in mortality were clearly most favourable for men in Sweden. Trends also seemed to be more favourable for men than women in New Zealand. Assuming the trends in male inequalities in Sweden were not a statistical chance finding, it is not clear what the substantive reason(s) was for the pronounced decrease

  3. The effect of private tubewells on income and income inequality in rural Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiyu; Huang, Qiuqiong; Giordano, Mark

    2015-08-01

    Since the introduction of private tubewells in rural Pakistan, farmers have increasingly used groundwater to supplement canal water for irrigation and improve the reliability of the water supply. Farmers obtain groundwater either from their own tubewells or from other well owners. This paper examines the effect of private tubewells on rural income, both in terms of income level and income distribution since it may differ across farmers with different irrigation status (only canal water, canal water and groundwater from own tubewell, and canal water and purchased groundwater). The results show that private tubewells work to enhance rural income and reduce income inequality in rural Pakistan.

  4. A matter of perception: exploring the role of income satisfaction in the income-mortality relationship in German survey data 1995-2010.

    PubMed

    Miething, Alexander

    2013-12-01

    Individual- and community-level income has been shown to be linked to social inequalities in health and mortality. On the individual level, social comparisons and relative deprivation resulting from them have been identified as relevant mechanisms involved in the relationship between income and health, but it is mainly income-based measures of relative deprivation that have been considered in previous studies. Using income satisfaction, this study employs a perception-based indicator of relative deprivation. The study, covering the period between 1995 and 2010, utilized the German Socio-Economic Panel. The follow-up included 11,056 men and 11,512 women at employment age 25-64. Discrete-time survival analysis with Cox regression was performed to estimate the effects of relative income position and income satisfaction on all-cause mortality. The univariate analysis revealed an income gradient on mortality and further showed a strong association between income satisfaction and survival. After education and employment status were adjusted for, the effect of discontent with income on mortality was still present in the female sample, whereas in the male sample only the income gradient prevailed. When self-rated health was controlled for, the hazard ratios of income satisfaction attenuated and turned non-significant for both men and women while the effects of income position remained stable. In conclusion, the findings suggest that income satisfaction and income position measure different aspects of income inequality and complement one another. Income satisfaction appeared to be a possible contributing component to the causal pathway between income and mortality. PMID:24355473

  5. Socioeconomic inequalities in child mortality: comparisons across nine developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Wagstaff, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper generates and analyses survey data on inequalities in mortality among infants and children aged under five years by consumption in Brazil, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Nepal, Nicaragua, Pakistan, the Philippines, South Africa, and Viet Nam. The data were obtained from the Living Standards Measurement Study and the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey. Mortality rates were estimated directly where complete fertility histories were available and indirectly otherwise. Mortality distributions were compared between countries by means of concentration curves and concentration indices: dominance checks were carried out for all pairwise intercountry comparisons; standard errors were calculated for the concentration indices; and tests of intercountry differences in inequality were performed. PMID:10686730

  6. The effect of income growth and inequality on health inequality: Theory and empirical evidence from the European Panel.

    PubMed

    Van Ourti, Tom; van Doorslaer, Eddy; Koolman, Xander

    2009-05-01

    Governments of EU countries have declared that they would like to couple income growth with reductions in social inequalities in income and health. We show that, theoretically, both aims can be reconciled only under very specific conditions concerning the type of growth and the income responsiveness of health. We investigate whether these conditions were met in Europe in the 1990s using panel data from the European Community Household Panel. We demonstrate that (i) in most countries, the income elasticity of health was positive and increases with income, and (ii) that income growth was not pro-rich in most EU countries, resulting in small or negligible reductions in income inequality. The combination of both findings explains the modest increases we observe in income-related health inequality in the majority of countries. PMID:19185942

  7. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Mortality and Repeated Measurement of Explanatory Risk Factors in a 25 Years Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Skalická, Věra; Ringdal, Kristen; Witvliet, Margot I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic inequalities in mortality can be explained by different groups of risk factors. However, little is known whether repeated measurement of risk factors can provide better explanation of socioeconomic inequalities in health. Our study examines the extent to which relative educational and income inequalities in mortality might be explained by explanatory risk factors (behavioral, psychosocial, biomedical risk factors and employment) measured at two points in time, as compared to one measurement at baseline. Methods and Findings From the Norwegian total county population-based HUNT Study (years 1984–86 and 1995–1997, respectively) 61 513 men and women aged 25–80 (82.5% of all enrolled) were followed-up for mortality in 25 years until 2009, employing a discrete time survival analysis. Socioeconomic inequalities in mortality were observed. As compared to their highest socioeconomic counterparts, the lowest educated men had an OR (odds ratio) of 1.41 (95% CI 1.29–1.55) and for the lowest income quartile OR = 1.59 (1.48–1.571), for women OR = 1.35 (1.17–1.55), and OR = 1.40 (1.28–1.52), respectively. Baseline explanatory variables attenuated the association between education and income with mortality by 54% and 54% in men, respectively, and by 69% and 18% in women. After entering time-varying variables, this attainment increased to 63% and 59% in men, respectively, and to 25% (income) in women, with no improvement in regard to education in women. Change in biomedical factors and employment did not amend the explanation. Conclusions Addition of a second measurement for risk factors provided only a modest improvement in explaining educational and income inequalities in mortality in Norwegian men and women. Accounting for change in behavior provided the largest improvement in explained inequalities in mortality for both men and women, as compared to measurement at baseline. Psychosocial factors explained the largest share of income

  8. Income inequality, social cohesion, and health: clarifying the theory--a reply to Muntaner and Lynch.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, R G

    1999-01-01

    Statistical evidence suggests that social cohesion provides the link between income inequality and health, but it is not clear how it might do so. The vagueness of the concept of cohesion and the difficulty of seeing how something so apparently ephemeral could exert a major influence on health has led to skepticism about its role in the relation between income distribution and mortality. The author suggests that social cohesion is indicative of underlying psychosocial risk factors that are known to be closely associated with health. Attention is drawn to the strong inverse relationships between measures of social inequality and measures of the quality of social relations in numerous different data sets. Given that social status and social affiliations, in terms of population-attributable risks, are among the most powerful influences on population health in the developed world, this is a potentially potent mixture for health. An antipathy between hierarchical relations across inequalities of power, income, and status on the one hand, and supportive social relations between equals on the other, is likely to exert a powerful influence on health. PMID:10450545

  9. Geographical inequalities in mortality in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Curto de Casas, S I

    1993-05-01

    This paper is an attempt to synthesize several models of health and levels of affluence in Latin America. An analysis is accomplished wherein various countries and regions of Latin America are classified for health purposes as either products of a poverty model or a wealth model. Variables utilized include: mortality rates in preschool children and infants; elderly mortality; life expectancy; and overall causes of death. All three of the general models can be found in different parts of Latin America. More developed countries and regions tend to approximate the wealth model where chronic and degenerative diseases dominate. Still, while life expectations are shorter in countries and regions with lower levels of development, some elderly are afflicted by chronic and degenerative diseases. PMID:8511622

  10. Income Inequality and Its Consequences for Life Satisfaction: What Role Do Social Cognitions Play?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Simone M.

    2012-01-01

    While it is generally agreed that income inequality affects an individual's well-being, researchers disagree on whether people living in areas of high income disparity report more or less happiness than those in more equal environments, thereby indicating the need to study how and why income inequality matters to the individual's well-being.…

  11. Is Income Inequality a Determinant of Population Health? Part 1. A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, John; Smith, George Davey; Harper, Sam; Hillemeier, Marianne; Ross, Nancy; Kaplan, George A; Wolfson, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews 98 aggregate and multilevel studies examining the associations between income inequality and health. Overall, there seems to be little support for the idea that income inequality is a major, generalizable determinant of population health differences within or between rich countries. Income inequality may, however, directly influence some health outcomes, such as homicide in some contexts. The strongest evidence for direct health effects is among states in the United States, but even that is somewhat mixed. Despite little support for a direct effect of income inequality on health per se, reducing income inequality by raising the incomes of the most disadvantaged will improve their health, help reduce health inequalities, and generally improve population health. PMID:15016244

  12. Oil and gas development and coastal income inequality: A comparative analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, C.M.

    1994-11-30

    This research employed parish-and county-level data from the 1970, 1980, and 1990 censuses in a comparative analysis of family income inequality. We examined inequality trends in coastal Louisiana parishes and in Florida panhandle counties where there has been no significant onshore or offshore development. The analysis framework spanned key decades that correspond to expansion and subsequent contraction in oil and gas industry activity. A comparative inequality analysis revealed very different patterns of income inequality for Florida and Louisiana. While Florida inequality primarily trended downward across time, inequality in Louisiana exhibited a great deal of volatility and, by 1990, was higher than in 1970 in several cases.

  13. Explaining the differences in income-related health inequalities across European countries.

    PubMed

    van Doorslaer, Eddy; Koolman, Xander

    2004-07-01

    This paper provides new evidence on the sources of differences in the degree of income-related inequalities in self-assessed health in 13 European Union member states. It goes beyond earlier work by measuring health using an interval regression approach to compute concentration indices and by decomposing inequality into its determining factors. New and more comparable data were used, taken from the 1996 wave of the European Community Household Panel. Significant inequalities in health (utility) favouring the higher income groups emerge in all countries, but are particularly high in Portugal and - to a lesser extent - in the UK and in Denmark. By contrast, relatively low health inequality is observed in the Netherlands and Germany, and also in Italy, Belgium, Spain Austria and Ireland. There is a positive correlation with income inequality per se but the relationship is weaker than in previous research. Health inequality is not merely a reflection of income inequality. A decomposition analysis shows that the (partial) income elasticities of the explanatory variables are generally more important than their unequal distribution by income in explaining the cross-country differences in income-related health inequality. Especially the relative health and income position of non-working Europeans like the retired and disabled explains a great deal of 'excess inequality'. We also find a substantial contribution of regional health disparities to socio-economic inequalities, primarily in the Southern European countries. PMID:15259042

  14. Income inequality, social cohesion and the health status of populations: the role of neo-liberalism.

    PubMed

    Coburn, D

    2000-07-01

    There has been a recent upsurge of interest in the relationship between income inequality and health within nations and between nations. On the latter topic Wilkinson and others believe that, in the advanced capitalist countries, higher income inequality leads to lowered social cohesion which in turn produces poorer health status. I argue that, despite a by-now voluminous literature, not enough attention has been paid to the social context of income inequality--health relationships or to the causes of income inequality itself. In this paper I contend that there is a particular affinity between neo-liberal (market-oriented) political doctrines, income inequality and lowered social cohesion. Neo-liberalism, it is argued, produces both higher income inequality and lowered social cohesion. Part of the negative effect of neo-liberalism on health status is due to its undermining of the welfare state. The welfare state may have direct effects on health as well as being one of the underlying structural causes of social cohesion. The rise of neo-liberalism and the decline of the welfare state are themselves tied to globalization and the changing class structures of the advanced capitalist societies. More attention should be paid to understanding the causes of income inequalities and not just to its effects because income inequalities are neither necessary nor inevitable. Moreover, understanding the contextual causes of inequality may also influence our notion of the causal pathways involved in inequality-health status relationships (and vice versa). PMID:10817476

  15. Does grassroots democracy reduce income inequality in China?*

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yan; Yao, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Using village and household survey data collected from 48 villages of eight Chinese provinces for the period 1986–2002, this paper studies how the introduction of village elections affects income distribution at the village level. We estimate both a static fixed-effect panel model and a dynamic panel model for the within-village Gini coefficient and take care of the endogeneity of the introduction of elections. The dynamic panel model shows that having elections reduces the Gini coefficient by 0.04, or 14.3% of the sample average. We also find that elections tend to increase the income shares of poorer portions of the population. Further econometric analysis based on dynamic panel models shows that elections increase per-capita public expenditures by 271 Yuan, but do not increase the level or progressiveness of net or total income transfer in a village. Therefore, elections’ positive role in reducing income inequality is not played through more income redistribution, but through more pro-poor public investment. PMID:26052164

  16. The Dynamics of Wealth Inequality and the Effect of Income Distribution.

    PubMed

    Berman, Yonatan; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Shapira, Yoash

    2016-01-01

    The rapid increase of wealth inequality in the past few decades is one of the most disturbing social and economic issues of our time. Studying its origin and underlying mechanisms is essential for policy aiming to control and even reverse this trend. In that context, controlling the distribution of income, using income tax or other macroeconomic policy instruments, is generally perceived as effective for regulating the wealth distribution. We provide a theoretical tool, based on the realistic modeling of wealth inequality dynamics, to describe the effects of personal savings and income distribution on wealth inequality. Our theoretical approach incorporates coupled equations, solved using iterated maps to model the dynamics of wealth and income inequality. Notably, using the appropriate historical parameter values we were able to capture the historical dynamics of wealth inequality in the United States during the course of the 20th century. It is found that the effect of personal savings on wealth inequality is substantial, and its major decrease in the past 30 years can be associated with the current wealth inequality surge. In addition, the effect of increasing income tax, though naturally contributing to lowering income inequality, might contribute to a mild increase in wealth inequality and vice versa. Plausible changes in income tax are found to have an insignificant effect on wealth inequality, in practice. In addition, controlling the income inequality, by progressive taxation, for example, is found to have a very small effect on wealth inequality in the short run. The results imply, therefore, that controlling income inequality is an impractical tool for regulating wealth inequality. PMID:27105224

  17. The Dynamics of Wealth Inequality and the Effect of Income Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Yonatan; Shapira, Yoash

    2016-01-01

    The rapid increase of wealth inequality in the past few decades is one of the most disturbing social and economic issues of our time. Studying its origin and underlying mechanisms is essential for policy aiming to control and even reverse this trend. In that context, controlling the distribution of income, using income tax or other macroeconomic policy instruments, is generally perceived as effective for regulating the wealth distribution. We provide a theoretical tool, based on the realistic modeling of wealth inequality dynamics, to describe the effects of personal savings and income distribution on wealth inequality. Our theoretical approach incorporates coupled equations, solved using iterated maps to model the dynamics of wealth and income inequality. Notably, using the appropriate historical parameter values we were able to capture the historical dynamics of wealth inequality in the United States during the course of the 20th century. It is found that the effect of personal savings on wealth inequality is substantial, and its major decrease in the past 30 years can be associated with the current wealth inequality surge. In addition, the effect of increasing income tax, though naturally contributing to lowering income inequality, might contribute to a mild increase in wealth inequality and vice versa. Plausible changes in income tax are found to have an insignificant effect on wealth inequality, in practice. In addition, controlling the income inequality, by progressive taxation, for example, is found to have a very small effect on wealth inequality in the short run. The results imply, therefore, that controlling income inequality is an impractical tool for regulating wealth inequality. PMID:27105224

  18. The "new" military and income inequality: A cross national analysis.

    PubMed

    Kentor, Jeffrey; Jorgenson, Andrew K; Kick, Edward

    2012-05-01

    Military expenditures have escalated over the last three decades in both developed and less developed countries, without a corresponding expansion of military personnel. Spending has instead been directed towards hi-tech weaponry, what we refer to as the "new" military. We hypothesize that this new, increasingly capital-intensive military is no longer a pathway of upward mobility or employer of last resort for many uneducated, unskilled, or unemployed people, with significant consequences for those individuals and society as a whole. One such consequence, we argue, is an increase in income inequality. We test this hypothesis with cross-national panel models, estimated for 82 developed and less developed countries from 1970 to 2000. Findings indicate that military capital-intensiveness, as measured by military expenditures per soldier, exacerbates income inequality net of control variables. Neither total military expenditures/GDP nor military participation has a significant effect. It appears from these findings that today's "new" military establishment is abrogating its historical role as an equalizing force in society, with important policy implications. PMID:23017789

  19. Are health inequalities really not the smallest in the Nordic welfare states? A comparison of mortality inequality in 37 countries

    PubMed Central

    Popham, Frank; Dibben, Chris; Bambra, Clare

    2013-01-01

    Background Research comparing mortality by socioeconomic status has found that inequalities are not the smallest in the Nordic countries. This is in contrast to expectations given these countries’ policy focus on equity. An alternative way of studying inequality has been little used to compare inequalities across welfare states and may yield a different conclusion. Methods We used average life expectancy lost per death as a measure of total inequality in mortality derived from death rates from the Human Mortality Database for 37 countries in 2006 that we grouped by welfare state type. We constructed a theoretical ‘lowest mortality comparator country’ to study, by age, why countries were not achieving the smallest inequality and the highest life expectancy. We also studied life expectancy as there is an important correlation between it and inequality. Results On average, Nordic countries had the highest life expectancy and smallest inequalities for men but not women. For both men and women, Nordic countries had particularly low younger age mortality contributing to smaller inequality and higher life expectancy. Although older age mortality in the Nordic countries is not the smallest. There was variation within Nordic countries with Sweden, Iceland and Norway having higher life expectancy and smaller inequalities than Denmark and Finland (for men). Conclusions Our analysis suggests that the Nordic countries do have the smallest inequalities in mortality for men and for younger age groups. However, this is not the case for women. Reducing premature mortality among older age groups would increase life expectancy and reduce inequality further in Nordic countries. PMID:23386671

  20. Should Less Inequality in Education Lead to a More Equal Income Distribution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foldvari, Peter; van Leeuwen, Bas

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we revisit the question whether inequality in education and human capital is closely related to income inequality. Using the most popular functional forms describing the relationship between, first, output and human capital and, second, education and human capital, we find that the effect of inequality in schooling on income…

  1. Income inequality, drug-related arrests, and the health of people who inject drugs: Reflections on seventeen years of research.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Samuel R; Tempalski, Barbara; Brady, Joanne E; West, Brooke S; Pouget, Enrique R; Williams, Leslie D; Des Jarlais, Don C; Cooper, Hannah L F

    2016-06-01

    This paper reviews and then discusses selected findings from a seventeen year study about the population prevalence of people who inject drugs (PWID) and of HIV prevalence and mortality among PWID in 96 large US metropolitan areas. Unlike most research, this study was conducted with the metropolitan area as the level of analysis. It found that metropolitan area measures of income inequality and of structural racism predicted all of these outcomes, and that rates of arrest for heroin and/or cocaine predicted HIV prevalence and mortality but did not predict changes in PWID population prevalence. Income inequality and measures of structural racism were associated with hard drug arrests or other properties of policing. These findings, whose limitations and implications for further research are discussed, suggest that efforts to respond to HIV and to drug injection should include supra-individual efforts to reduce both income inequality and racism. At a time when major social movements in many countries are trying to reduce inequality, racism and oppression (including reforming drug laws), these macro-social issues in public health should be both addressable and a priority in both research and action. PMID:27198555

  2. The dynamics of income-related health inequality among American children.

    PubMed

    Chatterji, Pinka; Lahiri, Kajal; Song, Jingya

    2013-05-01

    We estimate and decompose income-related inequality in child health in the USA and analyze its dynamics using the recently introduced health mobility index. Data come from the 1997, 2002, and 2007 waves of the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. The findings show that income-related child health inequality remains stable as children grow up and enter adolescence. The main factor underlying income-related child health inequality is income itself, although other factors, such as maternal education, also play a role. Decomposition of income-related health mobility indicates that health changes over time are more favorable to children with lower initial family incomes versus children with higher initial family incomes. However, offsetting this effect, our findings also suggest that changes in income ranking over time are positively related to children's subsequent health status. PMID:22514158

  3. The Link between Inequality and Population Health in Low and Middle Income Countries: Policy Myth or Social Reality?

    PubMed Central

    van Deurzen, Ioana; van Oorschot, Wim; van Ingen, Erik

    2014-01-01

    An influential policy idea states that reducing inequality is beneficial for improving health in the low and middle income countries (LMICs). Our study provides an empirical test of this idea: we utilized data collected by the Demographic and Health Surveys between 2000 and 2011 in as much as 52 LMICs, and we examined the relationship between household wealth inequality and two health outcomes: anemia status (of the children and their mothers) and the women' experience of child mortality. Based on multi-level analyses, we found that higher levels of household wealth inequality related to worse health, but this effect was strongly reduced when we took into account the level of individuals' wealth. However, even after accounting for the differences between individuals in terms of household wealth and other characteristics, in those LMICs with higher household wealth inequality more women experienced child mortality and more children were tested with anemia. This effect was partially mediated by the country's level and coverage of the health services and infrastructure. Furthermore, we found higher inequality to be related to a larger health gap between the poor and the rich in only one of the three examined samples. We conclude that an effective way to improve the health in the LMICs is to increase the wealth among the poor, which in turn also would lead to lower overall inequality and potential investments in public health infrastructure and services. PMID:25501652

  4. The link between inequality and population health in low and middle income countries: policy myth or social reality?

    PubMed

    van Deurzen, Ioana; van Oorschot, Wim; van Ingen, Erik

    2014-01-01

    An influential policy idea states that reducing inequality is beneficial for improving health in the low and middle income countries (LMICs). Our study provides an empirical test of this idea: we utilized data collected by the Demographic and Health Surveys between 2000 and 2011 in as much as 52 LMICs, and we examined the relationship between household wealth inequality and two health outcomes: anemia status (of the children and their mothers) and the women' experience of child mortality. Based on multi-level analyses, we found that higher levels of household wealth inequality related to worse health, but this effect was strongly reduced when we took into account the level of individuals' wealth. However, even after accounting for the differences between individuals in terms of household wealth and other characteristics, in those LMICs with higher household wealth inequality more women experienced child mortality and more children were tested with anemia. This effect was partially mediated by the country's level and coverage of the health services and infrastructure. Furthermore, we found higher inequality to be related to a larger health gap between the poor and the rich in only one of the three examined samples. We conclude that an effective way to improve the health in the LMICs is to increase the wealth among the poor, which in turn also would lead to lower overall inequality and potential investments in public health infrastructure and services. PMID:25501652

  5. Income Inequality and Use of Dental Services in 66 Countries.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, B; Newton, J T; Bernabé, E

    2015-08-01

    This study explored the association between income inequality and use of dental services and the role that investment in health care plays in explaining that association. We pooled individual-level data from 223,299 adults, 18 years or older, in 66 countries, who participated in the World Health Organization (WHO) World Health Surveys with country-level data from different international sources. Income inequality was measured at the national level using the Gini coefficient, and use of dental services was defined as having received treatment to address problems with mouth and/or teeth in the past year. The association between the Gini coefficient and use of dental services was examined in multilevel models controlling for a standard set of individual- and country-level confounders. The individual and joint contributions of 4 indicators of investment in health care were evaluated in sequential modeling. The Gini coefficient and use of dental services were inversely associated after adjustment for confounders. Every 10% increase in the Gini coefficient corresponded with a 15% lower odds of using dental services (odds ratio: 0.85; 95% confidence interval: 0.70-0.99). The association between the Gini coefficient and use of dental services was attenuated and became nonsignificant after individual adjustment for total health expenditure, public expenditure on health, health system responsiveness, or type of dental health system. The 4 indicators together explained 80% of the association between the Gini coefficient and use of dental services. This study suggests that more equal countries have greater use of dental services. It also supports the mediating role of investment in health care in explaining that association. PMID:25994178

  6. Inequality in mortality decreased among the young while increasing for older adults, 1990-2010.

    PubMed

    Currie, J; Schwandt, H

    2016-05-01

    Many recent studies point to increasing inequality in mortality in the United States over the past 20 years. These studies often use mortality rates in middle and old age. We used poverty level rankings of groups of U.S. counties as a basis for analyzing inequality in mortality for all age groups in 1990, 2000, and 2010. Consistent with previous studies, we found increasing inequality in mortality at older ages. For children and young adults below age 20, however, we found strong mortality improvements that were most pronounced in poorer counties, implying a strong decrease in mortality inequality. These younger cohorts will form the future adult U.S. population, so this research suggests that inequality in old-age mortality is likely to decline. PMID:27103667

  7. Green space, social inequalities and neonatal mortality in France

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies have considered using environmental amenities to explain social health inequalities. Nevertheless, Green spaces that promote good health may have an effect on socioeconomic health inequalities. In developed countries, there is considerable evidence that green spaces have a beneficial effect on the health of urban populations and recent studies suggest they can have a positive effect on pregnancy outcomes. To investigate the relationship between green spaces and the spatial distribution of infant mortality taking account neighborhood deprivation levels. Methods The study took place in Lyon metropolitan area, France. All infant deaths that occurred between 2000 and 2009 were geocoded at census block level. Each census block was assigned greenness and socioeconomic deprivation levels. The spatial–scan statistic was used to identify high risk cluster of infant mortality according to these neighborhood characteristics. Results The spatial distribution of infant mortality was not random with a high risk cluster in the south east of the Lyon metropolitan area (p<0.003). This cluster disappeared (p=0.12) after adjustment for greenness level and socioeconomic deprivation, suggesting that these factors explain part of the spatial distribution of infant mortality. These results are discussed using a conceptual framework with 3 hypothetical pathways by which green spaces may have a beneficial effect on adverse pregnancy outcomes: (i) a psychological pathway, (ii) a physiological disruption process and (iii) an environmental pathway. Conclusions These results add some evidence to the hypothesis that there is a relationship between access to green spaces and pregnancy outcomes but further research is required to confirm this. PMID:24139283

  8. Nations’ Income Inequality Predicts Ambivalence in Stereotype Content: How Societies Mind the Gap

    PubMed Central

    Durante, Federica; Fiske, Susan T.; Kervyn, Nicolas; Cuddy, Amy J. C.; Akande, Adebowale (Debo); Adetoun, Bolanle E.; Adewuyi, Modupe F.; Tserere, Magdeline M.; Ramiah, Ananthi Al; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Barlow, Fiona Kate; Bonn, Gregory; Tafarodi, Romin W.; Bosak, Janine; Cairns, Ed; Doherty, Claire; Capozza, Dora; Chandran, Anjana; Chryssochoou, Xenia; Iatridis, Tilemachos; Contreras, Juan Manuel; Costa-Lopes, Rui; González, Roberto; Lewis, Janet I.; Tushabe, Gerald; Leyens, Jacques-Philippe; Mayorga, Renée; Rouhana, Nadim N.; Castro, Vanessa Smith; Perez, Rolando; Rodríguez-Bailón, Rosa; Moya, Miguel; Morales Marente, Elena; Palacios Gálvez, Marisol; Sibley, Chris G.; Asbrock, Frank; Storari, Chiara C.

    2013-01-01

    Income inequality undermines societies: the more inequality, the more health problems, social tensions, and the lower social mobility, trust, life expectancy. Given people’s tendency to legitimate existing social arrangements, the Stereotype Content Model (SCM) argues that ambivalence—perceiving many groups as either warm or competent, but not both—may help maintain socio-economic disparities. The association between stereotype ambivalence and income inequality in 37 cross-national samples from Europe, the Americas, Oceania, Asia, and Africa investigates how groups’ overall warmth-competence, status-competence, and competition-warmth correlations vary across societies, and whether these variations associate with income inequality (Gini index). More unequal societies report more ambivalent stereotypes, while more equal ones dislike competitive groups and do not necessarily respect them as competent. Unequal societies may need ambivalence for system stability: income inequality compensates groups with partially positive social images. PMID:23039178

  9. Trends in inequalities in premature cancer mortality by educational level in Colombia, 1998–2007

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Esther; Arroyave, Ivan; Pardo, Constanza; Wiesner, Carolina; Murillo, Raul; Forman, David; Burdorf, Alex; Avendaño, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Background There is paucity of studies on socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality in developing countries. We examined trends in inequalities in cancer mortality by educational attainment in Colombia during a period of epidemiological transition and a rapid expansion of health insurance coverage. Methods Population mortality data (1998–2007) were linked to census data to obtain age-standardised cancer mortality rates by educational attainment at ages 25–64 years for stomach, cervical, prostate, lung, colorectal, breast and other cancers. We used Poisson regression to model mortality by educational attainment and estimated the contribution of specific cancers to the Slope Index of Inequality in cancer mortality. Results We observed large educational inequalities in cancer mortality, particularly for cancer of the cervix (RR primary versus tertiary groups=5.75, contributing 51% of cancer inequalities), stomach (RR=2.56 for males, contributing 49% of total cancer inequalities, and RR=1.98 for females, contributing 14% to total cancer inequalities), and lung (RR=1.64 for males contributing 17% of total cancer inequalities, and 1.32 for females contributing 5% to total cancer inequalities). Total cancer mortality rates declined faster among those with higher education, with the exception of mortality from cervical cancer, which declined more rapidly in the lower educational groups. Conclusion There are large socioeconomic inequalities in preventable cancer mortality in Colombia, which underscore the need for intensifying prevention efforts. Reducing cervical cancer through reducing HPV infection, early detection and improved access to treatment of preneoplasic lesions. Reinforcing anti-tobacco measures may be particularly important to curb inequalities in cancer mortality. PMID:25492898

  10. High economic inequality leads higher-income individuals to be less generous

    PubMed Central

    Côté, Stéphane; House, Julian; Willer, Robb

    2015-01-01

    Research on social class and generosity suggests that higher-income individuals are less generous than poorer individuals. We propose that this pattern emerges only under conditions of high economic inequality, contexts that can foster a sense of entitlement among higher-income individuals that, in turn, reduces their generosity. Analyzing results of a unique nationally representative survey that included a real-stakes giving opportunity (n = 1,498), we found that in the most unequal US states, higher-income respondents were less generous than lower-income respondents. In the least unequal states, however, higher-income individuals were more generous. To better establish causality, we next conducted an experiment (n = 704) in which apparent levels of economic inequality in participants’ home states were portrayed as either relatively high or low. Participants were then presented with a giving opportunity. Higher-income participants were less generous than lower-income participants when inequality was portrayed as relatively high, but there was no association between income and generosity when inequality was portrayed as relatively low. This research finds that the tendency for higher-income individuals to be less generous pertains only when inequality is high, challenging the view that higher-income individuals are necessarily more selfish, and suggesting a previously undocumented way in which inequitable resource distributions undermine collective welfare. PMID:26598668

  11. Divergence in Age Patterns of Mortality Change Drives International Divergence in Lifespan Inequality

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Duncan O. S.; Trotter, Meredith V.; Tuljapurkar, Shripad D.

    2014-01-01

    In the past six decades, lifespan inequality has varied greatly within and among countries even while life expectancy has continued to increase. How and why does mortality change generate this diversity? We derive a precise link between changes in age-specific mortality and lifespan inequality, measured as the variance of age at death. Key to this relationship is a young–old threshold age, below and above which mortality decline respectively decreases and increases lifespan inequality. First, we show for Sweden that shifts in the threshold’s location have modified the correlation between changes in life expectancy and lifespan inequality over the last two centuries. Second, we analyze the post–World War II (WWII) trajectories of lifespan inequality in a set of developed countries—Japan, Canada, and the United States—where thresholds centered on retirement age. Our method reveals how divergence in the age pattern of mortality change drives international divergence in lifespan inequality. Most strikingly, early in the 1980s, mortality increases in young U.S. males led to a continuation of high lifespan inequality in the United States; in Canada, however, the decline of inequality continued. In general, our wider international comparisons show that mortality change varied most at young working ages after WWII, particularly for males. We conclude that if mortality continues to stagnate at young ages yet declines steadily at old ages, increases in lifespan inequality will become a common feature of future demographic change. Keywords Disparity, Health, Longevity, Retirement, Social policy PMID:24756909

  12. The relative contribution of income inequality and imprisonment to the variation in homicide rates among Developed (OECD), South and Central American countries.

    PubMed

    Nadanovsky, Paulo; Cunha-Cruz, Joana

    2009-11-01

    Homicide rates vary widely across and within different continents. In order to address the problem of violence in the world, it seems important to clarify the sources of this variability. Despite the fact that income inequality and imprisonment seem to be two of the most important determinants of the variation in homicide rates over space and time, the concomitant effect of income inequality and imprisonment on homicide has not been examined. The objective of this cross-sectional ecological study was to investigate the association of income inequality and imprisonment with homicide rates among Developed (OECD), South and Central American countries. A novel index was developed to indicate imprisonment: the Impunity Index (the total number of homicides in the preceding decade divided by the number of persons in prison at a single slice in time). Negative binomial models were used to estimate rate ratios of homicides for young males and for the total population in relation to Gini Index and Impunity Index, controlling for infant mortality (as a proxy for poverty levels), Gross Domestic Product per-capita, education, percentage of young males in the population and urbanization. Both low income inequality and low impunity (high imprisonment of criminals) were related to low homicide rates. In addition, we found that countries with lower income inequality, lower infant mortality (less poverty), higher average income (GDP per-capita) and higher levels of education had low impunity. Our results are compatible with the hypothesis that both low income inequality and imprisonment of criminals, independent of each other and of other social-structural circumstances, may greatly contribute to the reduction in homicide rates in South and Central American countries, and to the maintenance of low levels of homicides in OECD countries. The Impunity Index reveals that countries that show greater commitment to education and to distribution of income also show greater commitment to

  13. Socio-economic Inequality in the Use of Procedures and Mortality Among AMI Patients: Quantifying the Effects Along Different Paths.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Terje P; Häkkinen, Unto; Iversen, Tor; Klitkou, Søren Toksvig; Moger, Tron Anders

    2015-12-01

    It is not known whether inequality in access to cardiac procedures translates into inequality in mortality. In this paper, we use a path analysis model to quantify both the direct effect of socio-economic status on mortality and the indirect effect of socio-economic status on mortality as mediated by the provision of cardiac procedures. The study links microdata from the Finnish and Norwegian national patient registers describing treatment episodes with data from prescription registers, causes-of-death registers and registers covering education and income. We show that socio-economic variables affect access to percutaneous coronary intervention in both countries, but that these effects are only moderate and that the indirect effects of the socio-economic factors on mortality through access to percutaneous coronary intervention are minor. The direct effects of income and education on mortality are significantly larger. We conclude that the socio-economic gradient in the use of percutaneous coronary intervention adds to socio-economic differences in mortality to little or no extent. PMID:26633871

  14. Increasing Area Deprivation and Socioeconomic Inequalities in Heart Disease, Stroke, and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality Among Working Age Populations, United States, 1969-2011

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gopal K.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Azuine, Romuladus E.; Williams, Shanita D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: We examined the extent to which area- and individual-level socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular-disease (CVD), heart disease, and stroke mortality among United States men and women aged 25-64 years changed between 1969 and 2011. Methods: National vital statistics data and the National Longitudinal Mortality Study were used to estimate area- and individual-level socioeconomic gradients in mortality over time. Rate ratios and log-linear and Cox regression were used to model mortality trends and differentials. Results: Area socioeconomic gradients in mortality from CVD, heart disease, and stroke increased substantially during the study period. Compared to those in the most affluent group, individuals in the most deprived area group had, respectively 35%, 29%, and 73% higher CVD, heart disease, and stroke mortality in 1969, but 120-121% higher mortality in 2007-2011. Gradients were steeper for women than for men. Education, income, and occupation were inversely associated with CVD, heart disease, and stroke mortality, with individual-level socioeconomic gradients being steeper during 1990-2002 than in 1979-1989. Individuals with low education and incomes had 2.7 to 3.7 times higher CVD, heart disease, and stroke mortality risks than their counterparts with high education and income levels. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Although mortality declined for all US groups during 1969-2011, socioeconomic disparities in mortality from CVD, heart disease and stroke remained marked and increased over time because of faster declines in mortality among higher socioeconomic groups. Widening disparities in mortality may reflect increasing temporal areal inequalities in living conditions, behavioral risk factors such as smoking, obesity and physical inactivity, and access to and use of health services. With social inequalities and prevalence of smoking, obesity, and physical inactivity on the rise, most segments of the working-age population in low

  15. An exploratory multilevel analysis of income, income inequality and self-rated health of the elderly in China

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Zhixin; Wang, Wenfei Winnie; Jones, Kelvyn; Li, Yaqing

    2013-01-01

    In the last three decades, China has experienced rapid economic development and growing economic inequality, such that economic disparities between rural and urban areas, as well as coastal and interior areas have deepened. Since the late 1990s China has also experienced an ageing population which has attracted attention to the wellbeing of the rapidly growing number of elderly. This research aims to characterise province differences in health and to explore the effects of individual income and economic disparity in the form of income inequality on health outcomes of the elderly. The study is based on the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey data collected in 2008 for 23 provinces. Multilevel logistic models are employed to investigate the relationship between income, income inequality and self-rated health for the elderly using both individual and province-level variables. Results are presented as relative odds ratios, and for province differentials as Median Odds Ratios. The analysis is deliberately exploratory so as to find evidence of income effects if they exist and particular attention is placed on how province-level inequality (contemporaneous and lagged) may moderate individual relationships. The results show that the health of the elderly is not only affected by individual income (the odds of poor health are 3 times greater for the elderly with the lowest income compared to those at the upper quartile) but also by a small main effect for province-level income inequality (odds ratio of 1.019). There are significant cross-level interactions such that where inequality is high there are greater differences between those with and without formal education, and between men and women with the latter experiencing poorer health. PMID:23063218

  16. Health-income inequality: the effects of the Icelandic economic collapse

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Health-income inequality has been the focus of many studies. The relationship between economic conditions and health has also been widely studied. However, not much is known about how changes in aggregate economic conditions relate to health-income inequality. Nevertheless, such knowledge would have both scientific and practical value as substantial public expenditures are used to decrease such inequalities and opportunities to do so may differ over the business cycle. For this reason we examine the effect of the Icelandic economic collapse in 2008 on health-income inequality. Methods The data used come from a health and lifestyle survey carried out by the Public Health Institute of Iceland in 2007 and 2009. A stratified random sample of 9,807 individuals 18–79 years old received questionnaires and a total of 42.1% answered in both years. As measures of health-income inequality, health-income concentration indices are calculated and decomposed into individual-level determinants. Self-assessed health is used as the health measure in the analyses, but three different measures of income are used: individual income, household income, and equivalized household income. Results In both years there is evidence of health-income inequality favoring the better off. However, changes are apparent between years. For males health-income inequality increases after the crisis while it remains fairly stable for females or slightly decreases. The decomposition analyses show that income itself and disability constitute the most substantial determinants of inequality. The largest increases in contributions between years for males come from being a student, having low education and being obese, as well as age and income but those changes are sensitive to the income measure used. Conclusions Changes in health and income over the business cycle can differ across socioeconomic strata, resulting in cyclicality of income-related health distributions. As substantial fiscal

  17. Neighborhood income inequality, social capital and emotional distress among adolescents: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Vilhjalmsdottir, Arndis; Gardarsdottir, Ragna B; Bernburg, Jon Gunnar; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora

    2016-08-01

    Theory holds that income inequality may harm adolescent mental health by reducing social capital within neighborhood communities. However, research on this topic has been very limited. We use multilevel data on 102 public schools and 5958 adolescents in Iceland (15 and 16 years old) to examine whether income inequality within neighborhoods is associated with emotional distress in adolescents. Moreover, we test whether indicators of social capital, including social trust and embeddedness in neighborhood social networks, mediate this contextual effect. The findings show that neighborhood income inequality positively influences emotional distress of individual adolescents, net of their personal household situations and social relations. However, although the indicators of social capital negatively influence emotional distress, they do not mediate the contextual effect of neighborhood income inequality. The study illustrates the role of economic disparities in adolescent mental health, but calls for more research on the underlying social and social-psychological mechanisms. PMID:27337213

  18. Income Inequality, the Median Voter, and the Support for Public Education. NBER Working Paper No. 16097

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Sean; Evans, William N.

    2010-01-01

    Using a panel of U.S. school districts spanning 1970-2000, we examine the relationship between income inequality and fiscal support for public education. In contrast with recent theoretical and empirical work suggesting a negative relationship between inequality and public spending, we find results consistent with a median voter model, in which…

  19. Income Inequality across Micro and Meso Geographic Scales in the Midwestern United States, 1979-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, David J.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the spatial distribution of income inequality and the socioeconomic factors affecting it using spatial analysis techniques across 16,285 block groups, 5,050 tracts, and 618 counties in the western part of the North Central Region of the United States. Different geographic aggregations result in different inequality outcomes,…

  20. Longitudinal analysis of income-related health inequalities: methods, challenges and applications.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Martin; Allanson, Paul

    2016-02-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in health are an important research area in health economics and public health. The concentration index has become a well-established measure of income-related health inequalities, and a number of approaches to identify potential causes of health inequalities exist. With the increasing availability of suitable longitudinal data, more sophisticated approaches to monitor inequalities and to identify potential causal relationships between socioeconomic status and health evolved. We first review the concentration index and some more basic approaches to explain health inequalities. We then discuss advantages and potential shortcomings of "static" and "dynamic" health inequality measures. We review different concepts of health and socioeconomic mobility, as well as recent studies on the life course perspective and economic changes. Our aim is to provide an overview of the concepts and empirical methodologies in the current literature, and to guide interested researchers in their choice of an appropriate inequality measure. PMID:26588093

  1. Province-Level Income Inequality and Health Outcomes in Canadian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Jennifer J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the effects of provincial income inequality (disparity between rich and poor), independent of provincial income and family socioeconomic status, on multiple adolescent health outcomes. Methods Participants (aged 12–17 years; N = 11,899) were from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. Parental education, household income, province income inequality, and province mean income were measured. Health outcomes were measured across a number of domains, including self-rated health, mental health, health behaviors, substance use behaviors, and physical health. Results Income inequality was associated with injuries, general physical symptoms, and limiting conditions, but not associated with most adolescent health outcomes and behaviors. Income inequality had a moderating effect on family socioeconomic status for limiting conditions, hyperactivity/inattention, and conduct problems, but not for other outcomes. Conclusions Province-level income inequality was associated with some physical and mental health outcomes in adolescents, which has research and policy implications for this age-group. PMID:25324533

  2. The effect of poverty, social inequity, and maternal education on infant mortality in Nicaragua, 1988-1993.

    PubMed Central

    Peña, R; Wall, S; Persson, L A

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the effect of poverty and social inequity on infant mortality risks in Nicaragua from 1988 to 1993 and the preventive role of maternal education. METHODS: A cohort analysis of infant survival, based on reproductive histories of a representative sample of 10,867 women aged 15 to 49 years in León, Nicaragua, was conducted. A total of 7073 infants were studied; 342 deaths occurred during 6394 infant-years of follow-up. Outcome measures were infant mortality rate (IMR) and relative mortality risks for different groups. RESULTS: IMR was 50 per 1000 live births. Poverty, expressed as unsatisfied basic needs (UBN) of the household, increased the risk of infant death (adjusted relative risk [RR] = 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15, 1.92). Social inequity, expressed as the contrast between the household UBN and the predominant UBN of the neighborhood, further increased the risk (adjusted RR = 1.74; 95% CI = 1.12, 2.71). A protective effect of the mother's educational level was seen only in poor households. CONCLUSIONS: Apart from absolute level of poverty, social inequity may be an independent risk factor for infant mortality in a low-income country. In poor households, female education may contribute to preventing infant mortality. PMID:10630139

  3. Changes in mortality inequalities over two decades: register based study of European countries

    PubMed Central

    Kulhánová, Ivana; Artnik, Barbara; Bopp, Matthias; Borrell, Carme; Clemens, Tom; Costa, Giuseppe; Dibben, Chris; Kalediene, Ramune; Lundberg, Olle; Martikainen, Pekka; Menvielle, Gwenn; Östergren, Olof; Prochorskas, Remigijus; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Strand, Bjørn Heine; Looman, Caspar W N; de Gelder, Rianne

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether government efforts in reducing inequalities in health in European countries have actually made a difference to mortality inequalities by socioeconomic group. Design Register based study. Data source Mortality data by level of education and occupational class in the period 1990-2010, usually collected in a census linked longitudinal study design. We compared changes in mortality between the lowest and highest socioeconomic groups, and calculated their effect on absolute and relative inequalities in mortality (measured as rate differences and rate ratios, respectively). Setting All European countries for which data on socioeconomic inequalities in mortality were available for the approximate period between years 1990 and 2010. These included Finland, Norway, Sweden, Scotland, England and Wales (data applied to both together), France, Switzerland, Spain (Barcelona), Italy (Turin), Slovenia, and Lithuania. Results Substantial mortality declines occurred in lower socioeconomic groups in most European countries covered by this study. Relative inequalities in mortality widened almost universally, because percentage declines were usually smaller in lower socioeconomic groups. However, as absolute declines were often smaller in higher socioeconomic groups, absolute inequalities narrowed by up to 35%, particularly among men. Narrowing was partly driven by ischaemic heart disease, smoking related causes, and causes amenable to medical intervention. Progress in reducing absolute inequalities was greatest in Spain (Barcelona), Scotland, England and Wales, and Italy (Turin), and absent in Finland and Norway. More detailed studies preferably using individual level data are necessary to identify the causes of these variations. Conclusions Over the past two decades, trends in inequalities in mortality have been more favourable in most European countries than is commonly assumed. Absolute inequalities have decreased in several countries, probably

  4. Income Inequality and Health Status in the United States: Evidence from the Current Population Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellor, Jennifer M.; Milyo, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    Current Population Survey data on self-reported health status and income for the general population and those in poverty were analyzed. No consistent association was found between income inequality and individual health status. Previous findings of such an association were attributed to ecological fallacy or failure to control for individual…

  5. Inequality in child mortality across different states of India: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    De, Partha; Dhar, Arpita

    2013-12-01

    The burden of social inequality falls disproportionately on child health and survival. This inequality raises the question of how wide this gap is, or what its relation is with the level of child mortality. Whether these disparities are increasing or declining with the development and how they differ from region to region or from state to state within the country needs to be looked into. As a measure of inequality and to compare the disparities between different states of India, concentration curves and indices are constructed from infant and under five mortality data classified under different quintiles of wealth index from the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) data of India. Inequality measures indicate that inequality in child mortality is more concentrated in the comparatively developed states than the poorer states in India. PMID:23435164

  6. Joint Effects of Structural Racism and Income Inequality on Small-for-Gestational-Age Birth

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Maeve E.; Liu, Danping; Grantz, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined potential synergistic effects of racial and socioeconomic inequality associated with small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth. Methods. Electronic medical records from singleton births to White and Black women in 10 US states and the District of Columbia (n = 121 758) were linked to state-level indicators of structural racism, including the ratios of Blacks to Whites who were employed, were incarcerated, and had a bachelor’s or higher degree. We used state-level Gini coefficients to assess income inequality. Generalized estimating equations models were used to quantify the adjusted odds of SGA birth associated with each indicator and the joint effects of structural racism and income inequality. Results. Structural racism indicators were associated with higher odds of SGA birth, and similar effects were observed for both races. The joint effects of racial and income inequality were significantly associated with SGA birth only when levels of both were high; in areas with high inequality levels, adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.81 to 2.11 for the 3 structural racism indicators. Conclusions. High levels of racial inequality and socioeconomic inequality appear to increase the risk of SGA birth, particularly when they co-occur. PMID:26066964

  7. Alternative measures to BMI: Exploring income-related inequalities in adiposity in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Davillas, Apostolos; Benzeval, Michaela

    2016-10-01

    Socio-economic inequalities in adiposity are of particular interest themselves but also because they may be associated with inequalities in overall health status. Using cross-sectional representative data from Great Britain (1/2010-3/2012) for 13,138 adults (5652 males and 7486 females) over age 20, we aimed to explore the presence of income-related inequalities in alternative adiposity measures by gender and to identify the underlying factors contributing to these inequalities. For this reason, we employed concentration indexes and regression-based decomposition techniques. To control for non-homogeneity in body composition, we employed a variety of adiposity measures including body fat (absolute and percentage) and central adiposity (waist circumference) in addition to the conventional body mass index (BMI). The body fat measures allowed us to distinguish between the fat- and lean-mass components of BMI. We found that the absence of income-related obesity inequalities for males in the existing literature may be attributed to their focus on BMI-based measures. Pro-rich inequalities were evident for the fat-mass and central adiposity measures for males, while this was not the case for BMI. Irrespective of the adiposity measure applied, pro-rich inequalities were evident for females. The decomposition analysis showed that these inequalities were mainly attributable to subjective financial well-being measures (perceptions of financial strain and material deprivation) and education, with the relative contribution of the former being more evident in females. Our findings have important implications for the measurement of socio-economic inequalities in adiposity and indicate that central adiposity and body composition measures should be included health policy agendas. Psycho-social mechanisms, linked to subjective financial well-being, and education -rather than income itself-are more relevant for tackling inequalities. PMID:27580342

  8. Income inequality and the double burden of under‐ and overnutrition in India

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, S V; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2007-01-01

    Objectives Developing countries are increasingly characterised by the simultaneous occurrence of under‐ and overnutrition. This study examined the association between contextual income inequality and the double burden of under‐ and overnutrition in India. Design A population‐based multilevel study of 77 220 ever married women, aged 15–49 years, from 26 Indian states, derived from the 1998–99 Indian National Family Health Survey data. The World Health Organization recommended categories of body mass index constituted the outcome, and the exposure was contextual measure of state income inequality based on the Gini coefficient of per capita consumption expenditure. Covariates included a range of individual demographic, socioeconomic, behavioural and morbidity measures and state‐level economic development. Results In adjusted models, for each standard deviation increase in income inequality, the odds ratio for being underweight increased by 19% (p = 0.02) and the odds ratio for being obese increased by 21% (p<0.0001). Income inequality had a similar effect on the risk of being overweight as it did on the risk of obesity (p = 0.01), and state income inequality increased the risk of being pre‐overweight by 9% (p = 0.01). While average levels of state economic development were strongly associated with degrees of overnutrition, no association was found with the risk of being underweight. Conclusions Rapidly developing economies, besides experiencing paradoxical health patterns, are typically characterised by increased levels of income inequality. This study suggests that the twin burden of undernutrition and overnutrition in India is more likely to occur in high‐inequality states. Focusing on economic equity via redistribution policies may have a substantial impact in reducing the prevalence of both undernutrition and overnutrition. PMID:17699536

  9. Exploring the inequality-mortality relationship in the US with Bayesian spatial modeling

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tse-Chuan; Jensen, Leif

    2014-01-01

    While there is evidence to suggest that socioeconomic inequality within places is associated with mortality rates among people living within them, the empirical connection between the two remains unsettled as potential confounders associated with racial and social structure are overlooked. This study seeks to test this relationship, to determine whether it is due to differential levels of deprivation and social capital, and does so with intrinsically conditional autoregressive Bayesian spatial modeling that effectively addresses the bias introduced by spatial dependence. We find that deprivation and social capital partly but not completely account for why inequality is positively associated with mortality and that spatial modeling generates more accurate predictions than does the traditional approach. We advance the literature by unveiling the intervening roles of social capital and deprivation in the inequality-mortality relationship and offering new evidence that inequality matters in US county mortality rates. PMID:26166920

  10. Socioeconomic inequalities in mortality from conditions amenable to medical interventions: do they reflect inequalities in access or quality of health care?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies have reported large socioeconomic inequalities in mortality from conditions amenable to medical intervention, but it is unclear whether these can be attributed to inequalities in access or quality of health care, or to confounding influences such as inequalities in background risk of diseases. We therefore studied whether inequalities in mortality from conditions amenable to medical intervention vary between countries in patterns which differ from those observed for other (non-amenable) causes of death. More specifically, we hypothesized that, as compared to non-amenable causes, inequalities in mortality from amenable causes are more strongly associated with inequalities in health care use and less strongly with inequalities in common risk factors for disease such as smoking. Methods Cause-specific mortality data for people aged 30–74 years were obtained for 14 countries, and were analysed by calculating age-standardized mortality rates and relative risks comparing a lower with a higher educational group. Survey data on health care use and behavioural risk factors for people aged 30–74 years were obtained for 12 countries, and were analysed by calculating age-and sex-adjusted odds ratios comparing a low with a higher educational group. Patterns of association were explored by calculating correlation coefficients. Results In most countries and for most amenable causes of death substantial inequalities in mortality were observed, but inequalities in mortality from amenable causes did not vary between countries in patterns that are different from those seen for inequalities in non-amenable mortality. As compared to non-amenable causes, inequalities in mortality from amenable causes are not more strongly associated with inequalities in health care use. Inequalities in mortality from amenable causes are also not less strongly associated with common risk factors such as smoking. Conclusions We did not find evidence that inequalities in

  11. Income-related inequality in health and health-related behaviour: exploring the equalisation hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Vallejo-Torres, Laura; Hale, Daniel; Morris, Stephen; Viner, Russell M

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have found the socioeconomic gradient in health among adolescents to be lower than that observed during childhood and adulthood. The aim of this study was to examine income-related inequalities in health and health-related behaviour across the lifespan in England to explore ‘equalisation’ in adolescence. Methods We used five years of data (2006–2010) from the Health Survey for England to explore inequalities in six indicators: self-assessed general health, longstanding illness, limiting longstanding illness, psychosocial wellbeing, obesity and smoking status. We ran separate analyses by age/gender groups. Inequality was measured using concentration indices. Results Our findings for longstanding illnesses, psychosocial wellbeing and obesity were consistent with the equalisation hypothesis. For these indicators, the extent of income-related inequality was lower among late adolescents (16–19 years) and young adults (20–24 years) compared to children and young adolescents (under 15 years), mid- and late-adults (25–44 and 45–64 years) and the elderly (65+ years). The remaining indicators showed lower inequality among adolescents compared to adults, but higher inequality when compared with children. Conclusions Our work shows that inequalities occur across the life-course but that for some health issues there may be a period of equalisation in late adolescence and early adulthood. PMID:24619989

  12. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality in Barcelona: 1992–2003

    PubMed Central

    Puigpinós, Rosa; Borrell, Carme; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Azlor, Enric; Pasarín, M Isabel; Serral, Gemma; Pons-Vigués, Mariona; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Fernández, Esteve

    2009-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to assess trends in cancer mortality by educational level in Barcelona from 1992 to 2003. Methods The study population comprised Barcelona inhabitants aged 20 years or older. Data on cancer deaths were supplied by the system of information on mortality. Educational level was obtained from the municipal census. Age-standardized rates by educational level were calculated. We also fitted Poisson regression models to estimate the relative index of inequality (RII) and the Slope Index of Inequalities (SII). All were calculated for each sex and period (1992–1994, 1995–1997, 1998–2000, and 2001–2003). Results Cancer mortality was higher in men and women with lower educational level throughout the study period. Less-schooled men had higher mortality by stomach, mouth and pharynx, oesophagus, larynx and lung cancer. In women, there were educational inequalities for cervix uteri, liver and colon cancer. Inequalities of overall and specific types of cancer mortality remained stable in Barcelona; although a slight reduction was observed for some cancers. Conclusion This study has identified those cancer types presenting the greatest inequalities between men and women in recent years and shown that in Barcelona there is a stable trend in inequalities in the burden of cancer. PMID:19166582

  13. Racial Inequality Trends and the Intergenerational Persistence of Income and Family Structure

    PubMed Central

    Bloome, Deirdre

    2015-01-01

    Racial disparity in family incomes remained remarkably stable over the past 40 years in the United States despite major legal and social reforms. Previous scholarship presents two primary explanations for persistent inequality through a period of progressive change. One highlights continuity: because socioeconomic status is transmitted from parents to children, disparities created through histories of discrimination and opportunity denial may dissipate slowly. The second highlights change: because family income results from joining individual earnings in family units, changing family compositions can offset individuals’ changing economic chances. I examine whether black-white family income inequality trends are better characterized by the persistence of existing disadvantage (continuity) or shifting forms of disadvantage (change). I combine cross-sectional and panel analysis using Current Population Survey, Panel Study of Income Dynamics, Census, and National Vital Statistics data. Results suggest that African Americans experience relatively extreme intergenerational continuity (low upward mobility) and discontinuity (high downward mobility); both helped maintain racial inequality. Yet, intergenerational discontinuities allow new forms of disadvantage to emerge. On net, racial inequality trends are better characterized by changing forms of disadvantage than by continuity. Economic trends were equalizing but demographic trends were disequalizing; as family structures shifted, family incomes did not fully reflect labor-market gains. PMID:26456973

  14. A multilevel analysis of the effects of neighbourhood income inequality on individual self-rated health in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wong, Irene O L; Cowling, Benjamin J; Lo, Su-Vui; Leung, Gabriel M

    2009-01-01

    We examined the effect on self-rated health of neighbourhood-level income inequality in Hong Kong, which has a high and growing Gini coefficient. Data were derived from two population household surveys in 2002 and 2005 of 25,623 and 24,610 non-institutional residents aged 15 or over. We estimated neighbourhood-level Gini coefficients in each of 287 Government Planning Department Tertiary Planning Units. We used multilevel regression analysis to assess the association of neighbourhood income inequality with individual self-perceived health status. After adjustment for both individual- and household-level predictors, there was no association between neighbourhood income inequality, median household income or household-level income and self-rated health. We tested for but did not find any statistical interaction between these three income-related exposures. These findings suggest that neighbourhood income inequality is not an important predictor of individual health status in Hong Kong. PMID:18995943

  15. Widening social inequalities in mortality: the case of Barcelona, a southern European city.

    PubMed Central

    Borrell, C; Plasència, A; Pasarin, I; Ortún, V

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse trends in mortality inequalities in Barcelona between 1983 and 1994 by comparing rates in those electoral wards with a low socioeconomic level and rates in the remaining wards. DESIGN: Mortality trends study. SETTING: The city of Barcelona (Spain). SUBJECTS: The study included all deaths among residents of the two groups of city wards. Details were obtained from death certificates. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Age standardised mortality rates, age standardised rates of years of potential life lost, and age specific mortality rates in relation to cause of death, sex, and year were computed as well as the comparative mortality figure and the ratio of standardised rates of years of potential life lost. RESULTS: Rates of premature mortality increased from 5691.2 years of potential life lost per 100,000 inhabitants aged 1 to 70 years in 1983 to 7606.2 in 1994 in the low socioeconomic level wards, and from 3731.2 to 4236.9 in the other wards, showing an increase in inequalities over the 12 years, mostly due to AIDS and drug overdose as causes of death. Conversely, cerebrovascular disease showed a reduction in inequality over the same period. Overall mortality in the 15-44 age group widened the gap between both groups of wards. CONCLUSION: AIDS and drug overdose are emerging as the causes of death that are contributing to a substantial increase in social inequality in terms of premature mortality, an unreported observation in European urban areas. PMID:9519129

  16. Cancer mortality inequalities in urban areas: a Bayesian small area analysis in Spanish cities

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Intra-urban inequalities in mortality have been infrequently analysed in European contexts. The aim of the present study was to analyse patterns of cancer mortality and their relationship with socioeconomic deprivation in small areas in 11 Spanish cities. Methods It is a cross-sectional ecological design using mortality data (years 1996-2003). Units of analysis were the census tracts. A deprivation index was calculated for each census tract. In order to control the variability in estimating the risk of dying we used Bayesian models. We present the RR of the census tract with the highest deprivation vs. the census tract with the lowest deprivation. Results In the case of men, socioeconomic inequalities are observed in total cancer mortality in all cities, except in Castellon, Cordoba and Vigo, while Barcelona (RR = 1.53 95%CI 1.42-1.67), Madrid (RR = 1.57 95%CI 1.49-1.65) and Seville (RR = 1.53 95%CI 1.36-1.74) present the greatest inequalities. In general Barcelona and Madrid, present inequalities for most types of cancer. Among women for total cancer mortality, inequalities have only been found in Barcelona and Zaragoza. The excess number of cancer deaths due to socioeconomic deprivation was 16,413 for men and 1,142 for women. Conclusion This study has analysed inequalities in cancer mortality in small areas of cities in Spain, not only relating this mortality with socioeconomic deprivation, but also calculating the excess mortality which may be attributed to such deprivation. This knowledge is particularly useful to determine which geographical areas in each city need intersectorial policies in order to promote a healthy environment. PMID:21232096

  17. American income inequality across economic and geographic space, 1970-2010.

    PubMed

    Peters, David J

    2013-11-01

    This analysis examines the spatial clustering of income inequality and its socioeconomic correlates at the meso-scale over the past four decades. Cluster analysis is used to group N=3078 counties into five inequality clusters; and multinomial logistic regression is used to assess the effects of socioeconomic correlates. High and extreme inequality places are concentrated in large metropolitan centers, high amenity rural areas, and parts of the Great Plains and Mountain West. They tend to have better socioeconomic outcomes, with fewer at-risk populations, higher incomes, lower poverty, and greater economic participation. Unequal places are more specialized in high-skill finance and professional services, and in energy-based mining. By contrast, equality places are associated with low-skill services, education and health services, manufacturing, and stable farm economies. PMID:24090847

  18. The role of ethnic and rural discrimination in the relationship between income inequality and health in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Poder, Thomas G; He, Jie

    2015-01-01

    This article seeks to understand in the ways in which income inequality can affect children's health (z-score of stunting) in Guatemala. We postulate that there are several transmission channels through which income inequality can affect health and that the children's ethnic and rural origins influence the size and direction of this effect. The methodology employed is systems of simultaneous equations (three-stage least squares and generalized method of moments). Our results highlight the importance of rural and indigenous characteristics in the relationship between income inequality and child health and indicate that the most important transmission channels are household income levels and maternal education. PMID:25813502

  19. A Political-Ecological Analysis of Income Inequality in the Metropolitan Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollens, Scott A.

    1986-01-01

    Metropolitan development is not simply a result of ecological factors. Governmental organization affects the incentives of localities and helps determine patterns of growth. This study updates previous studies on factors influencing residential area income inequality. Modification of the variables in the ecological explanation will increase…

  20. How Socio-Economic Change Shapes Income Inequality in Post-Socialist Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandelj, Nina; Mahutga, Matthew C.

    2010-01-01

    Although income inequality in Central and Eastern Europe was considerably lower during socialism than in other countries at comparable levels of development, it increased significantly in all Central and East European states after the fall of communist regimes. However, some of these countries managed to maintain comparatively low inequality…

  1. The Macro Model of the Inequality Process and The Surging Relative Frequency of Large Wage Incomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angle, John

    Revision and extension of a paper, `U.S. wage income since 1961: the perceived inequality trend', presented to the annual meetings of the Population Association of America, March-April 2005, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. On-line at: http://paa2005.princeton.edu/download.aspx?submission ID=50379.

  2. Comparing health inequality in men and women: prospective study of mortality 1986-96

    PubMed Central

    Sacker, Amanda; Firth, David; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Lynch, Kevin; Bartley, Mel

    2000-01-01

    Objectives To study prospectively the differences in health inequality in men and women from 1986-96 using the Office for National Statistics' longitudinal study and new socioeconomic classification. To assess the relative importance of social class (based on employment characteristics) and social position according to the general social advantage of the household to mortality risk in men and women. Design Prospective study. Setting England and Wales. Subjects Men and women of working age at the time of the 1981 census, with a recorded occupation. Main outcome measures Mortality. Results In men, social class based on employment relations, measured according to the Office for National Statistics' socioeconomic classification, was the most important influence on mortality. In women, social class based on individual employment relations and conditions showed only a weak gradient. Large differences in risk of mortality in women were found, however, when social position was measured according to the general social advantage in the household. Conclusions Comparisons of the extent of health inequality in men and women are affected by the measures of social inequality used. For women, even those in paid work, classifications based on characteristics of the employment situation may give a considerable underestimate. The Office for National Statistics' new measure of socioeconomic position is useful for assessing health inequality in men, but in women a more important predictor of mortality is inequality in general social advantage of the household. PMID:10807620

  3. Does early-life income inequality predict self-reported health in later life? Evidence from the United States.

    PubMed

    Lillard, Dean R; Burkhauser, Richard V; Hahn, Markus H; Wilkins, Roger

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the association between adult health and the income inequality they experienced as children up to 80 years earlier. Our inequality data track shares of national income held by top percentiles from 1913 to 2009. We average those data over the same early-life years and merge them to individual data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics data for 1984-2009. Controlling for demographic and economic factors, we find both men and women are statistically more likely to report poorer health if income was more unequally distributed during the first years of their lives. The association is robust to alternative specifications of income inequality and time trends and remains significant even when we control for differences in overall childhood health. Our results constitute prima facie evidence that adults' health may be adversely affected by the income inequality they experienced as children. PMID:25577308

  4. Four Decades of Educational Inequalities in Hospitalization and Mortality among Older Swedes

    PubMed Central

    Torssander, Jenny; Ahlbom, Anders; Modig, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Background The inverse association between education and mortality has grown stronger the last decades in many countries. During the same period, gains in life expectancy have been concentrated to older ages; still, old-age mortality is seldom the focus of attention when analyzing trends in the education-mortality gradient. It is further unknown if increased educational inequalities in mortality are preceded by increased inequalities in morbidity of which hospitalization may be a proxy. Methods Using administrative population registers from 1971 and onwards, education-specific annual changes in the risk of death and hospital admission were estimated with complimentary log-log models. These risk changes were supplemented by estimations of the ages at which 25, 50, and 75% of the population had been hospitalized or died (after age 60). Results The mortality decline among older people increasingly benefitted the well-educated over the less well-educated. This inequality increase was larger for the younger old, and among men. Educational inequalities in the age of a first hospital admission generally followed the development of growing gaps, but at a slower pace than mortality and inequalities did not increase among the oldest individuals. Conclusions Education continues to be a significant predictor of health and longevity into old age. That the increase in educational inequalities is greater for mortality than for hospital admissions (our proxy of overall morbidity) may reflect that well-educated individuals gradually have obtained more possibilities or resources to survive a disease than less well-educated individuals have the last four decades. PMID:27031107

  5. Education Expansion, Educational Inequality, and Income Inequality: Evidence from Taiwan, 1976-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chun-Hung A.

    2007-01-01

    The expansion of higher education in Taiwan starting from the late 1980s has successfully raised the average level of education. Using the concept of the education Gini, we find that the educational inequality declined as average schooling rose during the period of 1976-2003. The impacts of a rising average schooling and a declining educational…

  6. Is Inequality Inevitable in Society? Income Distribution as a Consequence of Resource Flow in Hierarchical Organizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Sitabhra; Srivastava, Nisheeth

    Almost all societies, once they attain a certain level of complexity, exhibit inequality in the income of its members. Hierarchical stratification of social classes may be a major contributor to such unequal distribution of income, with intra-class variation often being negligible compared to inter-class differences. In this paper, examples from different historical periods, such as 10th century Byzantium and the Mughal empire of India in the 15th century, and different kinds of organizations, such as a criminal gang in the USA and Manufacturing & IT Services companies in India, are shown to suggest a causal relation between the hierarchical structure of social organization and the observed income inequality in societies. Proceeding from the assumption that income inequality may be a consequence of resource flow in a hierarchically structured social network, we present a model to show that empirically observed long-tailed income distribution can be explained through a process of division of assets at various levels in a hierarchical organization.

  7. The Association of Geographic Coordinates with Mortality in People with Lower and Higher Education and with Mortality Inequalities in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Regidor, Enrique; Reques, Laura; Giráldez-García, Carolina; Miqueleiz, Estrella; Santos, Juana M.; Martínez, David; de la Fuente, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Objective Geographic patterns in total mortality and in mortality by cause of death are widely known to exist in many countries. However, the geographic pattern of inequalities in mortality within these countries is unknown. This study shows mathematically and graphically the geographic pattern of mortality inequalities by education in Spain. Methods Data are from a nation-wide prospective study covering all persons living in Spain's 50 provinces in 2001. Individuals were classified in a cohort of subjects with low education and in another cohort of subjects with high education. Age- and sex-adjusted mortality rate from all causes and from leading causes of death in each cohort and mortality rate ratios in the low versus high education cohort were estimated by geographic coordinates and province. Results Latitude but not longitude was related to mortality. In subjects with low education, latitude had a U-shaped relation to mortality. In those with high education, mortality from all causes, and from cardiovascular, respiratory and digestive diseases decreased with increasing latitude, whereas cancer mortality increased. The mortality-rate ratio for all-cause death was 1.27 in the southern latitudes, 1.14 in the intermediate latitudes, and 1.20 in the northern latitudes. The mortality rate ratios for the leading causes of death were also higher in the lower and upper latitudes than in the intermediate latitudes. The geographic pattern of the mortality rate ratios is similar to that of the mortality rate in the low-education cohort: the highest magnitude is observed in the southern provinces, intermediate magnitudes in the provinces of the north and those of the Mediterranean east coast, and the lowest magnitude in the central provinces and those in the south of the Western Pyrenees. Conclusion Mortality inequalities by education in Spain are higher in the south and north of the country and lower in the large region making up the central plateau. This geographic

  8. Inequalities in health: living conditions and infant mortality in Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Renata Alves da Silva; Santos, Victor Santana; de Melo, Cláudia Moura; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz; Oliveira, Cristiane Costa da Cunha

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the variation of infant mortality as per condition of life in the urban setting. METHODS Ecological study performed with data regarding registered deaths of children under the age of one who resided in Aracaju, SE, Northeastern Brazil, from 2001 to 2010. Infant mortality inequalities were assessed based on the spatial distribution of the Living Conditions Index for each neighborhood, classified into four strata. The average mortality rates of 2001-2005 and 2006-2010 were compared using the Student’s t-test. RESULTS Average infant mortality rates decreased from 25.3 during 2001-2005 to 17.7 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2006-2010. Despite the decrease in the rates in all the strata during that decade, inequality of infant mortality risks increased in neighborhoods with worse living conditions compared with that in areas with better living conditions. CONCLUSIONS Infant mortality rates in Aracaju showed a decline, but with important differences among neighborhoods. The assessment based on a living condition perspective can explain the differences in the risks of infant mortality rates in urban areas, highlighting health inequalities in infant mortality as a multidimensional issue. PMID:25741650

  9. Lagged Associations of Metropolitan Statistical Area- and State-Level Income Inequality with Cognitive Function: The Health and Retirement Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Daniel; Griffin, Beth Ann; Kabeto, Mohammed; Escarce, José; Langa, Kenneth M.; Shih, Regina A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Much variation in individual-level cognitive function in late life remains unexplained, with little exploration of area-level/contextual factors to date. Income inequality is a contextual factor that may plausibly influence cognitive function. Methods In a nationally-representative cohort of older Americans from the Health and Retirement Study, we examined state- and metropolitan statistical area (MSA)-level income inequality as predictors of individual-level cognitive function measured by the 27-point Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS-m) scale. We modeled latency periods of 8–20 years, and controlled for state-/metropolitan statistical area (MSA)-level and individual-level factors. Results Higher MSA-level income inequality predicted lower cognitive function 16–18 years later. Using a 16-year lag, living in a MSA in the highest income inequality quartile predicted a 0.9-point lower TICS-m score (β = -0.86; 95% CI = -1.41, -0.31), roughly equivalent to the magnitude associated with five years of aging. We observed no associations for state-level income inequality. The findings were robust to sensitivity analyses using propensity score methods. Conclusions Among older Americans, MSA-level income inequality appears to influence cognitive function nearly two decades later. Policies reducing income inequality levels within cities may help address the growing burden of declining cognitive function among older populations within the United States. PMID:27332986

  10. Health inequalities by wage income in Sweden: the role of work environment.

    PubMed

    Hemström, Orjan

    2005-08-01

    The main aim of this study was to explore the mediating role made by work environment to health inequalities by wage income in Sweden. Gender differences were also analysed. Data from the Swedish Survey of Living Conditions for the years 1998 and 1999 were analysed. Employed 20-64-year olds with a registered wage were included (nearly 6000 respondents). Sex-specific logistic regressions in relation to global self-rated health were applied. Those in the lowest income quintile had 2.4 times (men) and 4.3 times (women) higher probability of less than good health than did those in the highest quintile (adjusted for age, family status, country of birth, education level, smoking and full-time work). The mediating contribution of work environment factors to the health gradient by income was 25 per cent (men) and 29 per cent (women), respectively. This contribution was observed mainly from ergonomic and physical exposure, decision authority and skill discretion. Psychological demands did not contribute to such inequalities because mentally demanding work tasks are more common in high income as compared with low income jobs. Using sex-specific income quintiles, instead of income quintiles for the entire sample, gave very similar results. In conclusion, work environment factors can be seen as important mediators for the association between wage income and ill health in Sweden. A larger residual effect of income on health for women as compared with men suggests that one's own income from work is a more important determinant of women's than men's ill health in Sweden. PMID:15899322

  11. How Do People Attribute Income-Related Inequalities in Health? A Cross-Sectional Study in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Lofters, Aisha; Slater, Morgan; Kirst, Maritt; Shankardass, Ketan; Quiñonez, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Context Substantive equity-focused policy changes in Ontario, Canada have yet to be realized and may be limited by a lack of widespread public support. An understanding of how the public attributes inequalities can be informative for developing widespread support. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to examine how Ontarians attribute income-related health inequalities. Methods We conducted a telephone survey of 2,006 Ontarians using random digit dialing. The survey included thirteen questions relevant to the theme of attributions of income-related health inequalities, with each statement linked to a known social determinant of health. The statements were further categorized depending on whether the statement was framed around blaming the poor for health inequalities, the plight of the poor as a cause of health inequalities, or the privilege of the rich as a cause of health inequalities. Results There was high agreement for statements that attributed inequalities to differences between the rich and the poor in terms of employment, social status, income and food security, and conversely, the least agreement for statements that attributed inequalities to differences in terms of early childhood development, social exclusion, the social gradient and personal health practices and coping skills. Mean agreement was lower for the two statements that suggested blame for income-related health inequalities lies with the poor (43.1%) than for the three statements that attributed inequalities to the plight of the poor (58.3%) or the eight statements that attributed inequalities to the privilege of the rich (58.7%). Discussion A majority of this sample of Ontarians were willing to attribute inequalities to the social determinants of health, and were willing to accept messages that framed inequalities around the privilege of the rich or the plight of the poor. These findings will inform education campaigns, campaigns aimed at increasing public support for equity

  12. Preventable avoidable mortality: evolution of socioeconomic inequalities in urban areas in Spain, 1996-2003.

    PubMed

    Nolasco, Andreu; Melchor, Inmaculada; Pina, José A; Pereyra-Zamora, Pamela; Moncho, Joaquin; Tamayo, Nayara; García-Senchermes, Carmen; Zurriaga, Oscar; Martínez-Beneito, Miguel A

    2009-09-01

    This study describes the inequalities in preventable avoidable mortality in relation to socioeconomic levels and analyses their evolution during the period 1996-2003 in the cities of Alicante, Castellon and Valencia. Four causes of preventable avoidable mortality were analysed according to sex: malignant tumour of the trachea, bronchus and lung, cirrhosis and other chronic diseases of the liver, motor vehicle accidents and AIDS, which had caused the death of non-institutionalised residents in the three cities during the period 1996-2003. The different census tracts were grouped into three socioeconomic levels. In general, socioeconomic inequalities in preventable avoidable mortality remain constant in time, except the ones caused by AIDS in Valencia, where they increase for men. Some census tracts in the three cities where the study was carried out were found to have significantly higher preventable mortality rates, and therefore require intervention. PMID:19201247

  13. Socioeconomic inequalities in premature mortality in France: have they widened in recent decades?

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Annette; Chastang, Jean-François; Menvielle, Gwenn; Luce, Danièle

    2006-04-01

    An increase in social inequalities in premature mortality has been observed in the last decades in various European countries. In France, large inequalities have been reported for several years, but the changes over time have been only partially examined. The study was based on the analysis of a large longitudinal data set. Four periods of 7 years following a census were compared. Deaths in the period (21,003 deaths for men, 9,418 for women) were recorded and studied according to socioeconomic status (SES) at the census. Relative Index of Inequality (RII) was calculated in order to quantify the magnitude of inequalities among those employed, and also in the entire population, with specific categories for those inactive. The results showed that the magnitude of inequalities remained mainly stable over time for men and women working at the time of the census. However, for the entire population, a strong increase in the magnitude of social inequalities was observed. For men the RIIs increased from 3.53 in the first period to 6.54 in the most recent period. For women, the corresponding figures were 1.94 and 3.88. The increase was observed also for specific causes of deaths: cancer and cardiovascular diseases for both sexes, and external causes for men. In spite of a global decrease in the mortality over the period, the absolute differences between the top and the bottom of the socioeconomic scale did not change. The results highlight the importance of temporal changes in mortality associated with an increase of unemployment, changes in the labour market, and the consequences of selective exclusion from work. The classification of those not working is an important point to consider in the study of social inequalities. PMID:16162384

  14. TRENDS IN THE GEOGRAPHIC INEQUALITY OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE MORTALITY IN THE UNITED STATES, 1962-1982

    EPA Science Inventory

    Substantial geographic variation of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality within the U.S. has been recognized for decades. nalyses reported here address the question of whether relative geographic inequality has increased or decreased during the period of rapidly declining CVD m...

  15. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in amenable mortality in urban areas of Spanish cities, 1996–2007

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background While research continues into indicators such as preventable and amenable mortality in order to evaluate quality, access, and equity in the healthcare, it is also necessary to continue identifying the areas of greatest risk owing to these causes of death in urban areas of large cities, where a large part of the population is concentrated, in order to carry out specific actions and reduce inequalities in mortality. This study describes inequalities in amenable mortality in relation to socioeconomic status in small urban areas, and analyses their evolution over the course of the periods 1996–99, 2000–2003 and 2004–2007 in three major cities in the Spanish Mediterranean coast (Alicante, Castellón, and Valencia). Methods All deaths attributed to amenable causes were analysed among non-institutionalised residents in the three cities studied over the course of the study periods. Census tracts for the cities were grouped into 3 socioeconomic status levels, from higher to lower levels of deprivation, using 5 indicators obtained from the 2001 Spanish Population Census. For each city, the relative risks of death were estimated between socioeconomic status levels using Poisson’s Regression models, adjusted for age and study period, and distinguishing between genders. Results Amenable mortality contributes significantly to general mortality (around 10%, higher among men), having decreased over time in the three cities studied for men and women. In the three cities studied, with a high degree of consistency, it has been seen that the risks of mortality are greater in areas of higher deprivation, and that these excesses have not significantly modified over time. Conclusions Although amenable mortality decreases over the time period studied, the socioeconomic inequalities observed are maintained in the three cities. Areas have been identified that display excesses in amenable mortality, potentially attributable to differences in the healthcare system

  16. Income Inequality, Socioeconomic Deprivation and Depressive Symptoms among Older Adults in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo; Manrique-Espinoza, Betty Soledad; Bojorquez-Chapela, Ietza; Salinas-Rodríguez, Aarón

    2014-01-01

    Objective Depression is the second most common mental disorder in older adults (OA) worldwide. The ways in which depression is influenced by the social determinants of health – specifically, by socioeconomic deprivation, income inequality and social capital - have been analyzed with only partially conclusive results thus far. The objective of our study was to estimate the association of income inequality and socioeconomic deprivation at the locality, municipal and state levels with the prevalence of depressive symptoms among OA in Mexico. Methods Cross-sectional study based on a nationally representative sample of 8,874 OA aged 60 and over. We applied the brief seven-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) to determine the presence of depressive symptoms. Additionally, to select the principal context variables, we used the Deprivation Index of the National Population Council of Mexico at the locality, municipal and state levels, and the Gini Index at the municipal and state levels. Finally, we estimated the association of income inequality and socioeconomic deprivation with the presence of depressive symptoms using a multilevel logistic regression model. Results Socioeconomic deprivation at the locality (OR = 1.28; p<0.10) and municipal levels (OR = 1.16; p<0.01) correlated significantly with the presence of depressive symptoms, while income inequality did not. Conclusions The results of our study confirm that the social determinants of health are relevant to the mental health of OA. Further research is required, however, to identify which are the specific socioeconomic deprivation components at the locality and municipal levels that correlate with depression in this population group. PMID:25250620

  17. Labour Market Performance, Income Inequality and Poverty in OECD Countries. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 500

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burniaux, Jean-Marc; Padrini, Flavio; Brandt, Nicola

    2006-01-01

    There have been concerns that employment-enhancing reforms along the lines of the 1994 OECD Jobs Strategy could inadvertently lead to increased income inequality and poverty. This paper focuses on the impact of institutions and redistributive policies on inequality and poverty with the view of assessing whether a trade-off between better labour…

  18. Predicting Mortality in Low-Income Country ICUs: The Rwanda Mortality Probability Model (R-MPM)

    PubMed Central

    Kiviri, Willy; Fowler, Robert A.; Mueller, Ariel; Novack, Victor; Banner-Goodspeed, Valerie M.; Weinkauf, Julia L.; Talmor, Daniel S.; Twagirumugabe, Theogene

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Intensive Care Unit (ICU) risk prediction models are used to compare outcomes for quality improvement initiatives, benchmarking, and research. While such models provide robust tools in high-income countries, an ICU risk prediction model has not been validated in a low-income country where ICU population characteristics are different from those in high-income countries, and where laboratory-based patient data are often unavailable. We sought to validate the Mortality Probability Admission Model, version III (MPM0-III) in two public ICUs in Rwanda and to develop a new Rwanda Mortality Probability Model (R-MPM) for use in low-income countries. Methods We prospectively collected data on all adult patients admitted to Rwanda’s two public ICUs between August 19, 2013 and October 6, 2014. We described demographic and presenting characteristics and outcomes. We assessed the discrimination and calibration of the MPM0-III model. Using stepwise selection, we developed a new logistic model for risk prediction, the R-MPM, and used bootstrapping techniques to test for optimism in the model. Results Among 427 consecutive adults, the median age was 34 (IQR 25–47) years and mortality was 48.7%. Mechanical ventilation was initiated for 85.3%, and 41.9% received vasopressors. The MPM0-III predicted mortality with area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.72 and Hosmer-Lemeshow chi-square statistic p = 0.024. We developed a new model using five variables: age, suspected or confirmed infection within 24 hours of ICU admission, hypotension or shock as a reason for ICU admission, Glasgow Coma Scale score at ICU admission, and heart rate at ICU admission. Using these five variables, the R-MPM predicted outcomes with area under the ROC curve of 0.81 with 95% confidence interval of (0.77, 0.86), and Hosmer-Lemeshow chi-square statistic p = 0.154. Conclusions The MPM0-III has modest ability to predict mortality in a population of Rwandan ICU patients. The R

  19. Income-related inequality in perceived oral health among adult Finns before and after a major dental subsidization reform.

    PubMed

    Raittio, Eero; Aromaa, Arpo; Kiiskinen, Urpo; Helminen, Sari; Suominen, Anna Liisa

    2016-07-01

    Objectives In Finland, a dental subsidization reform, implemented in 2001-2002, abolished age restrictions on subsidized dental care. The aim of this study was to investigate income-related inequality in the perceived oral health and its determinants among adult Finns before and after the reform. Materials and methods Three identical cross-sectional nationally representative postal surveys, concerning perceived oral health and the use of dental services among people born before 1971, were conducted in 2001 (n = 2157), in 2004 (n = 1814) and in 2007 (n = 1671). Three measures of perceived oral health were used: toothache or oral discomfort during the past 12 months, current need for dental care and self-reported oral health status. Concentration index was used to analyse the income-related inequalities. Its decomposition was used to study factors related to the inequalities. Results The proportion of respondents reporting need for dental care decreased from 2001 to 2007, while no changes were seen in reports of toothache or self-reported oral health status. Income-related inequalities in reports of toothache and perceived need for care widened, while the inequality in self-reported oral health remained stable. Most of the inequalities were related to income itself, perceived general health and the time since the last visit to dental care. Conclusions It seems that the income-related inequalities in perceived oral health remained or even widened after the reform. PMID:26980421

  20. Early diffusion of gene expression profiling in breast cancer patients associated with areas of high income inequality.

    PubMed

    Ponce, Ninez A; Ko, Michelle; Liang, Su-Ying; Armstrong, Joanne; Toscano, Michele; Chanfreau-Coffinier, Catherine; Haas, Jennifer S

    2015-04-01

    With the Affordable Care Act reducing coverage disparities, social factors could prominently determine where and for whom innovations first diffuse in health care markets. Gene expression profiling is a potentially cost-effective innovation that guides chemotherapy decisions in early-stage breast cancer, but adoption has been uneven across the United States. Using a sample of commercially insured women, we evaluated whether income inequality in metropolitan areas was associated with receipt of gene expression profiling during its initial diffusion in 2006-07. In areas with high income inequality, gene expression profiling receipt was higher than elsewhere, but it was associated with a 10.6-percentage-point gap between high- and low-income women. In areas with low rates of income inequality, gene expression profiling receipt was lower, with no significant differences by income. Even among insured women, income inequality may indirectly shape diffusion of gene expression profiling, with benefits accruing to the highest-income patients in the most unequal places. Policies reducing gene expression profiling disparities should address low-inequality areas and, in unequal places, practice settings serving low-income patients. PMID:25847643

  1. Rising inequality in mortality among working-age men and women in Sweden: a national registry-based repeated cohort study, 1990–2007

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Naoki; Rostila, Mikael; Yngwe, Monica Åberg

    2014-01-01

    Background In the past two decades, health inequality has persisted or increased in states with comprehensive welfare. Methods We conducted a national registry-based repeated cohort study with a 3-year follow-up between 1990 and 2007 in Sweden. Information on all-cause mortality in all working-age Swedish men and women aged between 30 and 64 years was collected. Data were subjected to temporal trend analysis using joinpoint regression to statistically confirm the trajectories observed. Results Among men, age-standardised mortality rate decreased by 38.3% from 234.9 to 145 (per 100 000 population) over the whole period in the highest income quintile, whereas the reduction was only 18.3% (from 774.5 to 632.5) in the lowest quintile. Among women, mortality decreased by 40% (from 187.4 to 112.5) in the highest income group, but increased by 12.1% (from 280.2 to 314.2) in the poorest income group. Joinpoint regression identified that the differences in age-standardised mortality between the highest and the lowest income quintiles decreased among men by 18.85 annually between 1990 and 1994 (p trend=0.02), whereas it increased later, with a 2.88 point increase per year (p trend <0.0001). Among women, it continuously increased by 9.26/year (p trend <0.0001). In relative terms, age-adjusted mortality rate ratios showed a continuous increase in both genders. Conclusions Income-based inequalities among working-age male and female Swedes have increased since the late 1990s, whereas in absolute terms the increase was less remarkable among men. Structural and behavioural factors explaining this trend, such as the economic recession in the early 1990s, should be studied further. PMID:25143429

  2. Socioeconomic inequalities in mortality among women and among men: an international study.

    PubMed Central

    Mackenbach, J P; Kunst, A E; Groenhof, F; Borgan, J K; Costa, G; Faggiano, F; Józan, P; Leinsalu, M; Martikainen, P; Rychtarikova, J; Valkonen, T

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study compared differences in total and cause-specific mortality by educational level among women with those among men in 7 countries: the United States, Finland, Norway, Italy, the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Estonia. METHODS: National data were obtained for the period ca. 1980 to ca. 1990. Age-adjusted rate ratios comparing a broad lower-educational group with a broad upper-educational group were calculated with Poisson regression analysis. RESULTS: Total mortality rate ratios among women ranged from 1.09 in the Czech Republic to 1.31 in the United States and Estonia. Higher mortality rates among lower-educated women were found for most causes of death, but not for neoplasms. Relative inequalities in total mortality tended to be smaller among women than among men. In the United States and Western Europe, but not in Central and Eastern Europe, this sex difference was largely due to differences between women and men in cause-of-death pattern. For specific causes of death, inequalities are usually larger among men. CONCLUSIONS: Further study of the interaction between socioeconomic factors, sex, and mortality may provide important clues to the explanation of inequalities in health. PMID:10589306

  3. National Income and Income Inequality, Family Affluence and Life Satisfaction among 13 Year Old Boys and Girls: A Multilevel Study in 35 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Kate Ann; Torsheim, Torbjorn; Vollebergh, Wilma; Richter, Matthias; Davies, Carolyn A.; Schnohr, Christina W.; Due, Pernille; Currie, Candace

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period where many patterns of health and health behaviour are formed. The objective of this study was to investigate cross-national variation in the relationship between family affluence and adolescent life satisfaction, and the impact of national income and income inequality on this relationship. Data from the 2006…

  4. The Macro Model of the Inequality Process and the Surging Relative Frequency of Large Wage Incomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angle, John

    2008-03-01

    Particles are randomly paired in the Inequality Process (IP), a particle system scattering a positive quantity, wealth. Each particle has a parameter, φ, the fraction of wealth lost in a loss whose probability is 0.5. The stationary distribution of the wealth of particles with φψ is approximated by a γ pdf, the IP's macro model, with shape and scale parameters expressed in terms of φψ. The model's dynamics are driven by the product, φtμt, where φt is the harmonic mean of the φ's in the population at time t and μt, the population mean of wealth at time t. This γ pdf model fits the annual distribution of annual wage income in the U.S. 1961-2003. These data also confirm that the time-series of scalar statistics of wage income that labor economists think are produced by the U.S. distribution of wage income being ``hollowed out'' (bimodal), the increasing dispersion of wage income and the surging relative frequency of large wage incomes, are produced by the distribution being stretched over larger wage incomes, as implied by the IP's macro model when φtμt increases. The IP's macro model includes wage income distribution dynamics into statistical mechanics. To appear in The Econophysics of Markets and Business Networks.

  5. [Methods to smooth mortality indicators: application to analysis of inequalities in mortality in Spanish cities [the MEDEA Project

    PubMed

    Barceló, M Antònia; Saez, Marc; Cano-Serral, Gemma; Martínez-Beneito, Miguel Angel; Martínez, José Miguel; Borrell, Carme; Ocaña-Riola, Ricardo; Montoya, Imanol; Calvo, Montse; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Toro, Silvia; Alcalá, José Tomás; Saurina, Carme; Sánchez-Villegas, Pablo; Figueiras, Adolfo

    2008-01-01

    Although there is some experience in the study of mortality inequalities in Spanish cities, there are large urban centers that have not yet been investigated using the census tract as the unit of territorial analysis. The coordinated project inequalities in mortality in Spanish cities. The MEDEA project> was designed to fill this gap, with the participation of 10 groups of researchers in Andalusia, Aragon, Catalonia, Galicia, Madrid, Valencia, and the Basque Country. The MEDEA project has four distinguishing features: a) the census tract is used as the basic geographical area; b) statistical methods that include the geographical structure of the region under study are employed for risk estimation; c) data are drawn from three complementary data sources (information on air pollution, information on industrial pollution, and the records of mortality registrars), and d) a coordinated, large-scale analysis, favored by the implantation of coordinated research networks, is carried out. The main objective of the present study was to explain the methods for smoothing mortality indicators in the context of the MEDEA project. This study focusses on the methodology and the results of the Besag, York and Mollié model (BYM) in disease mapping. In the MEDEA project, standardized mortality ratios (SMR), corresponding to 17 large groups of causes of death and 28 specific causes, were smoothed by means of the BYM model; however, in the present study this methodology was applied to mortality due to cancer of the trachea, bronchi and lung in men and women in the city of Barcelona from 1996 to 2003. As a result of smoothing, a different geographical pattern for SMR in both genders was observed. In men, a SMR higher than unity was found in highly deprived areas. In contrast, in women, this pattern was observed in more affluent areas. PMID:19080940

  6. Urbanization and Income Inequality in Post-Reform China: A Causal Analysis Based on Time Series Data.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guo; Glasmeier, Amy K; Zhang, Min; Shao, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential causal relationship(s) between China's urbanization and income inequality since the start of the economic reform. Based on the economic theory of urbanization and income distribution, we analyze the annual time series of China's urbanization rate and Gini index from 1978 to 2014. The results show that urbanization has an immediate alleviating effect on income inequality, as indicated by the negative relationship between the two time series at the same year (lag = 0). However, urbanization also seems to have a lagged aggravating effect on income inequality, as indicated by positive relationship between urbanization and the Gini index series at lag 1. Although the link between urbanization and income inequality is not surprising, the lagged aggravating effect of urbanization on the Gini index challenges the popular belief that urbanization in post-reform China generally helps reduce income inequality. At deeper levels, our results suggest an urgent need to focus on the social dimension of urbanization as China transitions to the next stage of modernization. Comprehensive social reforms must be prioritized to avoid a long-term economic dichotomy and permanent social segregation. PMID:27433966

  7. Urbanization and Income Inequality in Post-Reform China: A Causal Analysis Based on Time Series Data

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guo; Glasmeier, Amy K.; Zhang, Min; Shao, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential causal relationship(s) between China’s urbanization and income inequality since the start of the economic reform. Based on the economic theory of urbanization and income distribution, we analyze the annual time series of China’s urbanization rate and Gini index from 1978 to 2014. The results show that urbanization has an immediate alleviating effect on income inequality, as indicated by the negative relationship between the two time series at the same year (lag = 0). However, urbanization also seems to have a lagged aggravating effect on income inequality, as indicated by positive relationship between urbanization and the Gini index series at lag 1. Although the link between urbanization and income inequality is not surprising, the lagged aggravating effect of urbanization on the Gini index challenges the popular belief that urbanization in post-reform China generally helps reduce income inequality. At deeper levels, our results suggest an urgent need to focus on the social dimension of urbanization as China transitions to the next stage of modernization. Comprehensive social reforms must be prioritized to avoid a long-term economic dichotomy and permanent social segregation. PMID:27433966

  8. Geographic Inequalities in All-Cause Mortality in Japan: Compositional or Contextual?

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Etsuji; Kashima, Saori; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, S. V.

    2012-01-01

    Background A recent study from Japan suggested that geographic inequalities in all-cause premature adult mortality have increased since 1995 in both sexes even after adjusting for individual age and occupation in 47 prefectures. Such variations can arise from compositional effects as well as contextual effects. In this study, we sought to further examine the emerging geographic inequalities in all-cause mortality, by exploring the relative contribution of composition and context in each prefecture. Methods We used the 2005 vital statistics and census data among those aged 25 or older. The total number of decedents was 524,785 men and 455,863 women. We estimated gender-specific two-level logistic regression to model mortality risk as a function of age, occupation, and residence in 47 prefectures. Prefecture-level variance was used as an estimate of geographic inequalities in mortality, and prefectures were ranked by odds ratios (ORs), with the reference being the grand mean of all prefectures (value  = 1). Results Overall, the degree of geographic inequalities was more pronounced when we did not account for the composition (i.e., age and occupation) in each prefecture. Even after adjusting for the composition, however, substantial differences remained in mortality risk across prefectures with ORs ranging from 0.870 (Okinawa) to 1.190 (Aomori) for men and from 0.864 (Shimane) to 1.132 (Aichi) for women. In some prefectures (e.g., Aomori), adjustment for composition showed little change in ORs, while we observed substantial attenuation in ORs in other prefectures (e.g., Akita). We also observed qualitative changes in some prefectures (e.g., Tokyo). No clear associations were observed between prefecture-level socioeconomic status variables and the risk of mortality in either sex. Conclusions Geographic disparities in mortality across prefectures are quite substantial and cannot be fully explained by differences in population composition. The relative contribution

  9. Inequality as a Powerful Predictor of Infant and Maternal Mortality around the World

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Maternal and infant mortality are highly devastating, yet, in many cases, preventable events for a community. The human development of a country is a strong predictor of maternal and infant mortality, reflecting the importance of socioeconomic factors in determinants of health. Previous research has shown that the Human Development Index (HDI) predicts infant mortality rate (IMR) and the maternal mortality ratio (MMR). Inequality has also been shown to be associated with worse health in certain populations. The main purpose of the present study was to determine the correlation and predictive power of the Inequality Adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) as a measure of inequality with the Infant Mortality Rate (IMR), Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR), Early Neonatal Mortality Rate (ENMR), Late Neonatal Mortality Rate (LNMR), and the Post Neonatal Mortality Rate (PNMR). Methods and Findings Data for the present study were downloaded from two sources: infant and maternal mortality data were downloaded from the Global Burden of Disease 2013 Cause of Death Database and the Human Development Index (HDI) and Inequality-Adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) data were downloaded from the United Nations Development Program (UNDP). Pearson correlation coefficients were estimated, following logarithmic transformations to the data, to examine the relationship between HDI and IHDI with MMR, IMR, ENMR, LNMR, and PNMR. Steiger’s Z test for the equality of two dependent correlations was utilized in order to determine whether the HDI or IHDI was more strongly associated with the outcome variables. Lastly, we constructed OLS regression models in order to determine the predictive power of the HDI and IHDI in terms of the MMR, IMR, ENMR, LNMR, and PNMR. Maternal and infant mortality were both strongly and negatively correlated with both HDI and IHDI; however, Steiger’s Z test for the equality of two dependent correlations revealed that IHDI was more strongly correlated

  10. How much inequality in income is fair? A microeconomic game theoretic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatasubramanian, Venkat; Luo, Yu; Sethuraman, Jay

    2015-10-01

    The increasing inequality in income and wealth in recent years, and the associated excessive pay packages of CEOs in the US and elsewhere, is of growing concern among policy makers as well as the common person. However, there seems to be no satisfactory answer, in conventional economic theories and models, to the fundamental questions of what kind of income distribution we ought to see, at least under ideal conditions, in a free market environment, and whether this distribution is fair. We propose a novel microeconomic game theoretic framework that addresses these questions and proves that the lognormal distribution is the fairest inequality of pay in an organization comprising of homogeneous agents, under ideal free market conditions at equilibrium. We also show that for a population of two different classes of agents, the equilibrium distribution is a combination of two different lognormal distributions where one of them, corresponding to the top ˜3-5% of the population, can be misidentified as a Pareto distribution. We compare our predictions with empirical data on global income inequality trends provided by Piketty and others. Our analysis suggests that the Scandinavian countries, and to a lesser extent Switzerland, Netherlands and Australia, have managed to get close to the ideal distribution for the bottom ˜99% of the population, while the US and UK remain less fair at the other extreme. Other European countries such as France and Germany, and Japan and Canada, are in the middle. Our theory also shows the deep and direct connection between potential game theory and statistical mechanics through entropy, which we identify as a measure of fairness in a distribution. This leads us to propose the fair market hypothesis, that the self-organizing dynamics of the ideal free market, i.e., Adam Smith's "invisible hand", not only promotes efficiency but also maximizes fairness under the given constraints.

  11. Protocol for a systematic review on inequalities in postnatal care services utilization in low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Each year, 287,000 women die from complications related to pregnancy or childbirth, and 3.8 million newborns die before reaching 28 days of life. The near totality (99%) of maternal and neonatal deaths occurs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Utilization of essential obstetric care services including postnatal care (PNC) largely contributes to the reduction of maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. There is a strong need to evaluate the evidence on the unmet needs in utilization of PNC services to inform health policy planning. Our objective is to assess systematically the socioeconomic, geographic and demographic inequalities in the use of PNC interventions in low- and middle-income countries. Methods/Design The current protocol adopts a strategy informed by the guidelines of The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews. Our systematic review will identify studies in English, French, Spanish, Portuguese and Chinese – provided inclusion of an English abstract - from 1960 onwards, by searching MEDLINE (PubMed interface), EMBASE (OVID interface), Cochrane Central (OVID interface) and the gray literature. Study selection criteria include research setting, study design, reported outcomes and determinants of interest. Our primary outcome is the utilization of PNC services, and determinants of concern are: 1) socioeconomic status (for example, income, education); 2) geographic determinants (for example, distance to a health center, rural versus urban residence); and 3) demographic determinants (for example, ethnicity, immigration status). Screening, data abstraction, and scientific quality assessment will be conducted independently by two reviewers using standardized forms. Where feasible, study results will be combined through meta-analyses to obtain a pooled measure of association between utilization of PNC services and key determinants. Results will be stratified by countries’ income levels (World Bank classification). Discussion Our

  12. Twenty years of socioeconomic inequalities in premature mortality in Barcelona: The influence of population and neighbourhood changes.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Gotsens, Mercè; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Mehdipanah, Roshanak; Borrell, Carme

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse trends in socioeconomic inequalities in premature mortality in Barcelona from 1992 to 2011, accounting for population changes. We conducted a repeated cross-sectional study of the Barcelona population (25-64 years) using generalized linear mixed models for trend analysis, and found that socioeconomic inequalities in premature mortality persisted between neighbourhoods, but tended to diminish. However, the reduction in inequality was related to an increase in the number of foreign-born individuals mainly in socioeconomic disadvantaged neighbourhoods, in which the decrease in premature mortality was more marked. To study trends in geographical inequalities in mortality, it is essential to understand demographic changes occurred in different places related to local levels of deprivation. PMID:27105035

  13. Tackling Health Inequities in Chile: Maternal, Newborn, Infant, and Child Mortality Between 1990 and 2004

    PubMed Central

    Requejo, Jennifer Harris; Nien, Jyh Kae; Merialdi, Mario; Bustreo, Flavia; Betran, Ana Pilar

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We analyzed trends in maternal, newborn, and child mortality in Chile between 1990 and 2004, after the introduction of national interventions and reforms, and examined associations between trends and interventions. Methods. Data were provided by the Chilean Ministry of Health on all pregnancies between 1990 and 2004 (approximately 4 000 000). We calculated yearly maternal mortality ratios, stillbirth rates, and mortality rates for neonates, infants (aged > 28 days and < 1 year), and children aged 1 to 4 years. We also calculated these statistics by 5-year intervals for Chile's poorest to richest district quintiles. Results. During the study period, the maternal mortality ratio decreased from 42.1 to 18.5 per 100 000 live births. The mortality rate for neonates decreased from 9.0 to 5.7 per 1000 births, for infants from 7.8 to 3.1 per 1000 births, and for young children from 3.1 to 1.7 per 1000 live births. The stillbirth rate declined from 6.0 to 5.0 per 1000 births. Disparities in these mortality statistics between the poorest and richest district quintiles also decreased, with the largest mortality reductions in the poorest quintile. Conclusions. During a period of socioeconomic development and health sector reforms, Chile experienced significant mortality and inequity reductions. PMID:19443831

  14. Data on Income inequality in Germany, France, Italy, Spain, the UK, and other affluent nations, 2012.

    PubMed

    Dorling, Danny

    2015-12-01

    This data article contains information on the distribution of household incomes in the five most populous European countries as surveyed in 2012, with data released in 2014 and published here aggregated and so further anonymized in 2015. The underlying source data is the already anonymized EU Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EUSILC) Microdata. The data include the annual household income required in each country to fall within the best-off 1% in that country, median and mean incomes, average (mean) incomes of the best off 1%, 0.1% and estimates for the 0.01%, 0.001% and so on for the UK, and of the 90% and worse-off 10%, the best-off 10% and best-off 1% of households for all countries. Average income from the state is also calculated by these income categories and the number of people working in finance and receiving over €1,000,000 a year in income is reported from other sources (the European Banking Authority). Finally income distribution data is provided from the USA and the rest of Europe in order to allow comparisons to be made. The data revealed the gross household (simple unweighted) median incomes in 2012 to have been (in order from best-off country by median to worse-off): France €39,000, Germany: €33,400, UK: €36,300, Italy €33,400 and Spain €27,000. However the medians, once households are weighted to reflect the nation populations do differ although they are in the same order: France €36,000, Germany: €33,400, UK: €31,300, Italy €31,000 and Spain €23,700. Thus weighting to increase representativeness of the medians reduces each by €3000, €0, €5000, €3300 and €3300 respectively. In short, the middle (weighted median) French household is €4700 a year better off than the middle UK family, and that is before housing costs are considered. This Data in Brief article accompanies Dorling, D. (2015) Income Inequality in the UK: Comparisons with five large Western European countries and the USA [1]. PMID:26594656

  15. Global Inequalities in Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality are Linked to Deprivation, Low Socioeconomic Status, and Human Development

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gopal K.; Azuine, Romuladus E.; Siahpush, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study examined global inequalities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates as a function of cross-national variations in the Human Development Index (HDI), socioeconomic factors, Gender Inequality Index (GII), and healthcare expenditure. Methods Age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates were calculated for women in 184 countries using the 2008 GLOBOCAN database, and incidence and mortality trends were analyzed using the WHO cancer mortality database. Log-linear regression was used to model annual trends, while OLS and Poisson regression models were used to estimate the impact of socioeconomic and human development factors on incidence and mortality rates. Results Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates varied widely, with many African countries such as Guinea, Zambia, Comoros, Tanzania, and Malawi having at least 10-to-20-fold higher rates than several West Asian, Middle East, and European countries, including Iran, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Egypt, and Switzerland. HDI, GII, poverty rate, health expenditure per capita, urbanization, and literacy rate were all significantly related to cervical cancer incidence and mortality, with HDI and poverty rate each explaining >52% of the global variance in mortality. Both incidence and mortality rates increased in relation to lower human development and higher gender inequality levels. A 0.2 unit increase in HDI was associated with a 20% decrease in cervical cancer risk and a 33% decrease in cervical cancer mortality risk. The risk of a cervical cancer diagnosis increased by 24% and of cervical cancer death by 42% for a 0.2 unit increase in GII. Higher health expenditure levels were independently associated with decreased incidence and mortality risks. Conclusions and Public Health Implications Global inequalities in cervical cancer are clearly linked to disparities in human development, social inequality, and living standards. Reductions in cervical cancer rates are achievable by reducing

  16. Household income and health problems during a period of labour-market change and widening income inequalities - a study among the Finnish population between 1987 and 2007.

    PubMed

    Aittomäki, Akseli; Martikainen, Pekka; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero

    2014-01-01

    Income inequalities widened considerably from 1987 to 2007 in Finland. We compared the association between household income and health problems across three periods and in several different ways of modelling the dependence. Our aim was to find out whether the change in the distribution of income might have led to wider income-related inequalities in health problems. The data represent an 11-per-cent random sample of the Finnish population, and we restricted the analysed sample to those between 18 and 67 years of age and not in receipt of any pension in each of the three six-year periods examined (n between 280,106 and 291,198). The health outcome was sickness-allowance days compensated. Household-equivalent taxable income was applied with two different scale transformations: firstly, as real income adjusted for price level and secondly, as rank position on the income distribution. We used negative binomial regression models, with and without zero inflation, as well as decomposition analysis. We found that sickness-allowance days decreased with increasing income, while differences in the shape and magnitude of the association were found between the scales and the periods. During the study period the association strengthened considerably at both the lowest fifth and the top fifth of the rank scale, while the observed per-unit effect of real income changed less. Decomposition analysis suggested that slightly less than half of the observed increase in concentration of health problems at lower end of the rank scale could be accounted for by the change in real income distribution. The results indicate that widening differences in household consumption potential may have contributed to an intensified impact of household income on inequalities in health problems. Explaining the change only in terms of consumption potential, however, was problematic, and changes in the interdependence of labour-market advantage and health problems are likely to contribute as well. PMID

  17. Inequality of child mortality among ethnic groups in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Brockerhoff, M.; Hewett, P.

    2000-01-01

    Accounts by journalists of wars in several countries of sub-Saharan Africa in the 1990s have raised concern that ethnic cleavages and overlapping religious and racial affiliations may widen the inequalities in health and survival among ethnic groups throughout the region, particularly among children. Paradoxically, there has been no systematic examination of ethnic inequality in child survival chances across countries in the region. This paper uses survey data collected in the 1990s in 11 countries (Central African Republic, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Namibia, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal, Uganda, and Zambia) to examine whether ethnic inequality in child mortality has been present and spreading in sub-Saharan Africa since the 1980s. The focus was on one or two groups in each country which may have experienced distinct child health and survival chances, compared to the rest of the national population, as a result of their geographical location. The factors examined to explain potential child survival inequalities among ethnic groups included residence in the largest city, household economic conditions, educational attainment and nutritional status of the mothers, use of modern maternal and child health services including immunization, and patterns of fertility and migration. The results show remarkable consistency. In all 11 countries there were significant differentials between ethnic groups in the odds of dying during infancy or before the age of 5 years. Multivariate analysis shows that ethnic child mortality differences are closely linked with economic inequality in many countries, and perhaps with differential use of child health services in countries of the Sahel region. Strong and consistent results in this study support placing the notion of ethnicity at the forefront of theories and analyses of child mortality in Africa which incorporate social, and not purely epidemiological, considerations. Moreover, the typical advantage of relatively small, clearly

  18. Global occurrence of anti-infectives in contaminated surface waters: Impact of income inequality between countries.

    PubMed

    Segura, Pedro A; Takada, Hideshige; Correa, José A; El Saadi, Karim; Koike, Tatsuya; Onwona-Agyeman, Siaw; Ofosu-Anim, John; Sabi, Edward Benjamin; Wasonga, Oliver V; Mghalu, Joseph M; dos Santos Junior, Antonio Manuel; Newman, Brent; Weerts, Steven; Yargeau, Viviane

    2015-07-01

    The presence anti-infectives in environmental waters is of interest because of their potential role in the dissemination of anti-infective resistance in bacteria and other harmful effects on non-target species such as algae and shellfish. Since no information on global trends regarding the contamination caused by these bioactive substances is yet available, we decided to investigate the impact of income inequality between countries on the occurrence of anti-infectives in surface waters. In order to perform such study, we gathered concentration values reported in the peer-reviewed literature between 1998 and 2014 and built a database. To fill the gap of knowledge on occurrence of anti-infectives in African countries, we also collected 61 surface water samples from Ghana, Kenya, Mozambique and South Africa, and measured concentrations of 19 anti-infectives. A mixed one-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) model, followed by Turkey-Kramer post hoc tests was used to identify potential differences in anti-infective occurrence between countries grouped by income level (high, upper-middle and lower-middle and low income) according to the classification by the World Bank. Comparison of occurrence of anti-infectives according to income level revealed that concentrations of these substances in contaminated surface waters were significantly higher in low and lower-middle income countries (p=0.0001) but not in upper-middle income countries (p=0.0515) compared to high-income countries. We explained these results as the consequence of the absence of or limited sewage treatment performed in lower income countries. Furthermore, comparison of concentrations of low cost anti-infectives (sulfonamides and trimethoprim) and the more expensive macrolides between income groups suggest that the cost of these substances may have an impact on their environmental occurrence in lower income countries. Since wastewaters are the most important source of contamination of anti-infectives and other

  19. Time trends in educational inequalities in cancer mortality in Colombia, 1998–2012

    PubMed Central

    Arroyave, Ivan; Pardo, Constanza

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate trends in premature cancer mortality in Colombia by educational level in three periods: 1998–2002 with low healthcare insurance coverage, 2003–2007 with rapidly increasing coverage and finally 2008–2012 with almost universal coverage (2008–2012). Setting Colombian population-based, national secondary mortality data. Participants We included all (n=188 091) cancer deaths occurring in the age group 20–64 years between 1998 and 2012, excluding only cases with low levels of quality of registration (n=2902, 1.5%). Primary and secondary outcome measures In this descriptive study, we linked mortality data of ages 20–64 years to census data to obtain age-standardised cancer mortality rates by educational level. Using Poisson regression, we modelled premature mortality by educational level estimating rate ratios (RR), relative index of inequality (RII) and the Slope Index of Inequality (SII). Results Relative measures showed increased risks of dying among the lower educated compared to the highest educated; this tendency was stronger in women (RRprimary 1.49; RRsecondary 1.22, both p<0.0001) than in men (RRprimary 1.35; RRsecondary 1.11, both p<0.0001). In absolute terms (SII), cancer caused a difference per 100 000 deaths between the highest and lowest educated of 20.5 in males and 28.5 in females. RII was significantly higher among women and the younger age categories. RII decreased between the first and second periods; afterwards (2008–2012), it increased significantly back to their previous levels. Among women, no significant increases or declines in cancer mortality over time were observed in recent periods in the lowest educated group, whereas strong recent declines were observed in those with secondary education or higher. Conclusions Educational inequalities in cancer mortality in Colombia are increasing in absolute and relative terms, and are concentrated in young age categories. This trend was not curbed by increases in

  20. Does health insurance mitigate inequities in non-communicable disease treatment? Evidence from 48 low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Abdulrahman M; Palma, Anton; Freedman, Lynn P; Kruk, Margaret E

    2015-09-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the greatest contributor to morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, NCD care is limited in LMICs, particularly among the disadvantaged and rural. We explored the role of insurance in mitigating socioeconomic and urban-rural disparities in NCD treatment across 48 LMICs included in the 2002-2004 World Health Survey (WHS). We analyzed data about ever having received treatment for diagnosed high-burden NCDs (any diagnosis, angina, asthma, depression, arthritis, schizophrenia, or diabetes) or having sold or borrowed to pay for healthcare. We fit multivariable regression models of each outcome by the interaction between insurance coverage and household wealth (richest 20% vs. poorest 50%) and urbanicity, respectively. We found that insurance was associated with higher treatment likelihood for NCDs in LMICs, and helped mitigate socioeconomic and regional disparities in treatment likelihood. These influences were particularly strong among women. Insurance also predicted lower likelihood of borrowing or selling to pay for health services among the poorest women. Taken together, insurance coverage may serve as an important policy tool in promoting NCD treatment and in reducing inequities in NCD treatment by household wealth, urbanicity, and sex in LMICs. PMID:26271138

  1. State-level variations in income-related inequality in health and health achievement in the US.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ke Tom

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine state-level variations in income-related inequality in health and overall health achievement in the US. Data that were representative of the US and each state in 2001 were extracted from the Current Population Survey 2001. Income-related inequality in health and health achievement were measured by Health Concentration and Health Achievement Indices, respectively. Significant variations were found across states in income-related inequality in health and health achievement. In particular, states in the south and east regions, on average, experienced a higher degree of health inequality and lower health achievement. About 80% of the state-level variation in health achievement could be explained by demographics, economic structure and performance, and state and local government spending and burden. In contrast, medical care resource indicators were not found to contribute to health achievement in states. States with better health achievement were more urbanized, had lower proportions of minority groups, females and the elderly, fewer individuals below the poverty line, larger primary industry, and lower unemployment rates. Also, per capita state and local government spending, particularly the proportion spent on public health, was positively associated with better health achievement. Because of the direct implications of health level and distribution in resource allocation and social norms, states with a lower level of health achievement need to prioritize efforts in increasing and reallocating resources to diminish health inequality and to improve population health. PMID:16500008

  2. Income Inequality and the Online Reading Gap: Teaching Our Way to Success With Online Research and Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leu, Donald J.; Forzani, Elena; Kennedy, Clint

    2015-01-01

    A recent study in "Reading Research Quarterly" provided evidence that an online reading achievement gap, based on income inequality, exists that is separate and independent from the well-known achievement gap in offline reading. This column briefly reviews the evidence and provides an initial set of instructional suggestions that may be…

  3. Income Inequality and Risk of Suicide in New York City Neighborhoods: A Multilevel Case-Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jeffrey R.; Piper, Tinka Markham; Ahern, Jennifer; Tracy, Melissa; Tardiff, Kenneth J.; Vlahov, David; Galea, Sandro

    2005-01-01

    Evidence on the relationship between income inequality and suicide is inconsistent. Data from the New York City Office of the Chief Medical Examiner for all fatal injuries was collected to conduct a multilevel case-control study. In multilevel models, suicide decedents (n = 374) were more likely than accident controls (n = 453) to reside in…

  4. What interventions are effective on reducing inequalities in maternal and child health in low- and middle-income settings? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The deadline for achieving Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 is approaching, but inequalities between disadvantaged and other populations is a significant barrier for progress towards achieving these goals. This systematic review aims to collect evidence about the differential effects of interventions on different sociodemographic groups in order to identify interventions that were effective in reducing maternal or child health inequalities. Methods We searched the PubMed, EMBASE and other relevant databases. The reference lists of included reviews were also screened to find more eligible studies. We included experimental or observational studies that assessed the effects of interventions on maternal and child health, but only studies that report quantitative inequality outcomes were finally included for analysis. Results 22 articles about the effectiveness of interventions on equity in maternal and child health were finally included. These studies covered five kinds of interventions: immunization campaigns, nutrition supplement programs, health care provision improvement interventions, demand side interventions, and mixed interventions. The outcome indicators covered all MDG 4 and three MDG 5 outcomes. None of the included studies looked at equity in maternal mortality, adolescent birth rate and unmet need for family planning. The included studies reported inequalities based on gender, income, education level or comprehensive socioeconomic status. Stronger or moderate evidence showed that all kinds of the included interventions may be more effective in improving maternal or child health for those from disadvantaged groups. Conclusion Studies about the effectiveness of interventions on equity in maternal or child health are limited. The limited evidence showed that the interventions that were effective in reducing inequity included the improvement of health care delivery by outreach methods, using human resources in local areas or provided at the

  5. Correcting for numerator/denominator bias when assessing changing inequalities in occupational class mortality, Australia 1981 -2002.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Gail M.; Najman, Jake M.; Clavarino, Alexandra

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Comparisons of the changing patterns of inequalities in occupational mortality provide one way to monitor the achievement of equity goals. However, previous comparisons have not corrected for numerator/denominator bias, which is a consequence of the different ways in which occupational details are recorded on death certificates and on census forms. The objective of this study was to measure the impact of this bias on mortality rates and ratios over time. METHODS: Using data provided by the Australian Bureau of Statistics, we examined the evidence for bias over the period 1981 -2002, and used imputation methods to adjust for this bias. We compared unadjusted with imputed rates of mortality for manual/non-manual workers. FINDINGS: Unadjusted data indicate increasing inequality in the age-adjusted rates of mortality for manual/non-manual workers during 1981 -2002. Imputed data suggest that there have been modest fluctuations in the ratios of mortality for manual/non-manual workers during this time, but with evidence that inequalities have increased only in recent years and are now at historic highs. CONCLUSION: We found that imputation for missing data leads to changes in estimates of inequalities related to social class in mortality for some years but not for others. Occupational class comparisons should be imputed or otherwise adjusted for missing data on census or death certificates. PMID:16583078

  6. Time trends in socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality: results from a 35 year prospective study in British men

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality in Britain have been shown to be present in the 1990s and early 2000s. Little is known about on-going patterns in such inequalities in cancer mortality. We examined time trends in socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality in Britain between 1978 and 2013. Methods A socially representative cohort of 7489 British men with data on longest-held occupational social class, followed up for 35 years, in whom 1484 cancer deaths occurred. Results The hazard ratio for cancer mortality for manual vs. non-manual social classes remained unchanged; among men aged 50–59 years it was 1.62 (95%CI 1.17–2.24) between 1980–1990 and 1.65 (95%CI 1.14–2.40) between 1990–2000. The absolute difference (non-manual minus manual) in probability of surviving death from cancer to 70 years remained at 3% over the follow-up. The consistency of risks over time was similar for both smoking-related and non-smoking related cancer mortality. Conclusion Socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality in Britain remain unchanged over the last 35 years and need to be urgently addressed. PMID:24975430

  7. Beefing up with the Chans: evidence for the effects of relative income and income inequality on health from the China Health and Nutrition Survey.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhuo; Meltzer, David

    2008-06-01

    A great deal of research has examined the hypothesis that the well-being of individuals is shaped not just by the absolute level of resources available to them but also the level of resources available to them relative to others in their cohort or community. Several causal pathways have been hypothesized to explain associations between relative social position and health. For example, greater community income could increase the overall availability of health care in a community or decrease the availability for people for any given level of individual income. Relative social position could also create stress, resulting in adverse health outcomes through increased hypertension and other pathways. We explore yet another pathway by which relative social position may affect health. Specifically, to the extent that norms about physical appearance might be shaped by one's observations of others, we examine whether obesity might constitute another physiologic pathway by which community attributes could influence aspects of individual health, such as hypertension. We examine this hypothesis in rural China, where income often limits food intake so that, if community norms are an important determinant of individual obesity, higher community income could increase the obesity rate in a community and therefore change norms about obesity. These norms, in turn, could increase individuals' chances of being obese given their income. To test this hypothesis, we use multilevel linear probability models to examine the relationship between ecologic factors, i.e., relative income and income inequality, and health risk factors, i.e., obesity and hypertension among a sample of Chinese adults interviewed in four waves over 9 years. The results suggest that, among rural Chinese residents, increasing community average income and income inequality are positively associated with both obesity and hypertension. However, the effect of relative income on hypertension is not accounted for by

  8. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Secondhand Smoke Exposure at Home and at Work in 15 Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Lee, John Tayu; Arora, Monika; Millett, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In high-income countries, secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is higher among disadvantaged groups. We examine socioeconomic inequalities in SHS exposure at home and at workplace in 15 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Methods: Secondary analyses of cross-sectional data from 15 LMICs participating in Global Adult Tobacco Survey (participants ≥ 15 years; 2008–2011) were used. Country-specific analyses using regression-based methods were used to estimate the magnitude of socioeconomic inequalities in SHS exposure: (1) Relative Index of Inequality and (2) Slope Index of Inequality. Results: SHS exposure at home ranged from 17.4% in Mexico to 73.1% in Vietnam; exposure at workplace ranged from 16.9% in Uruguay to 65.8% in Bangladesh. In India, Bangladesh, Thailand, Malaysia, Philippines, Vietnam, Uruguay, Poland, Turkey, Ukraine, and Egypt, SHS exposure at home reduced with increasing wealth (Relative Index of Inequality range: 1.13 [95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04–1.22] in Turkey to 3.31 [95% CI 2.91–3.77] in Thailand; Slope Index of Inequality range: 0.06 [95% CI 0.02–0.11] in Turkey to 0.43 [95% CI 0.38–0.48] in Philippines). In these 11 countries, and in China, SHS exposure at home reduced with increasing education. In India, Bangladesh, Thailand, and Philippines, SHS exposure at workplace reduced with increasing wealth. In India, Bangladesh, Thailand, Philippines, Vietnam, Poland, Russian Federation, Turkey, Ukraine, and Egypt, SHS exposure at workplace reduced with increasing education. Conclusion: SHS exposure at homes is higher among the socioeconomically disadvantaged in the majority of LMICs studied; at workplaces, exposure is higher among the less educated. Pro-equity tobacco control interventions alongside targeted efforts in these groups are recommended to reduce inequalities in SHS exposure. Implications: SHS exposure is higher among the socioeconomically disadvantaged groups in high-income countries. Comprehensive smoke

  9. The color of child mortality in Brazil, 1950-2000: social progress and persistent racial inequality.

    PubMed

    Wood, Charles H; Magno de Carvalho, José Alberto; Guimarães Horta, Cláudia Júlia

    2010-01-01

    Now that racism has been officially recognized in Brazil, and some universities have adopted affirmative-action admission policies, measures of the magnitude of racial inequality and analyses that identify the factors associated with changes in racial disparities over time assume particular relevance to the conduct of public debate. This study uses census data from 1950 to 2000 to estimate the probability of death in the early years of life, a robust indicator of the standard of living among the white and Afro-Brazilian populations. Associated estimates of the average number of years of life expectancy at birth show that the 6.6-year advantage that the white population enjoyed in the 1950s remained virtually unchanged throughout the second half of the twentieth century, despite the significant improvements that accrued to both racial groups. The application of multivariate techniques to samples selected from the 1960, 1980, and 2000 census enumerations further shows that, controlling for key determinants of child survival, the white mortality advantage persisted and even increased somewhat in 2000. The article discusses evidence of continued racial inequality during an era of deep transformation in social structure, with reference to the challenges of skin color classification in a multiracial society and the evolution of debates about color, class, and discrimination in Brazil. PMID:21188889

  10. Income related inequalities in New Cooperative Medical Scheme: a five-year empirical study of Junan County in China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The Chinese New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) was launched in 2003 aiming at protecting the poor in rural areas from high health expenditures and improving access to health services. The income related inequality of the reform is a debating and concerning policy issue in China. The purpose of this study is to analyze the degree and changes of income related inequalities in both inpatient and outpatient services among NCMS enrollees from 2007 to 2011. Data and methods Data was extracted from the NCMS information system of Junan County in Shandong province from 2007 to 2011. The study targeted all NCMS enrollees in the county, 726850 registered in 2011. Detailed information included demographic data, inpatient and outpatient data in each year. Descriptive analysis of quintiles and standardized concentration index (CI*) were employed to examine the income related inequalities in both inpatient and outpatient care. Results For inpatient care, the benefit rate CI* was positive (pro-rich) and increased from 2007 to 2011 while for outpatient care was negative (pro-poor) and a decreasing pattern was observed. For outpatient visits and expenses, the CI* changed from a positive sign in 2007 to a negative sign in 2011 with some fluctuations. The pro-rich inequality exacerbated for admissions while alleviated for length of stay and total inpatient expenses during the study period. The pro-rich inequality for inpatient reimbursement aggravated from 2007 to 2010 and alleviated from 2010 to 2011. For outpatient reimbursement, it altered from a positive sign in 2007 to a small negative sign in 2011. Finally, the richer needed to afford more self-payments for inpatient services and the CI* decreased from 2009 to 2011 while the inequality for outpatient self-payments changed from pro-rich in 2007 to pro-poor in 2011. Conclusions In the NCMS, the pro-rich inequality dominated for the inpatient care while a pro-poor advantage was shown for outpatient care from 2007 to

  11. Rising U.S. income inequality and the changing gradient of socioeconomic status on physical functioning and activity limitations, 1984-2007.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hui; George, Linda K

    2012-12-01

    This study examines the interactive contextual effect of income inequality on health. Specifically, we hypothesize that income inequality will moderate the relationships between individual-level risk factors and health. Using National Health Interview Survey data 1984-2007 (n = 607,959) and U.S. Census data, this paper estimates the effect of the dramatic increase in income inequality in the U.S. over the past two decades on the gradient of socioeconomic status on two measures of health (i.e., physical functioning and activity limitations). Results indicate that increasing income inequality strengthens the protective effects of family income, employment, college education, and marriage on these two measures of health. In contrast, high school education's protective effect (relative to less than a high school education) weakens in the context of increasing income inequality. In addition, we find that increasing income inequality exacerbates men's disadvantages in physical functioning and activity limitations. These findings shed light on research about growing health disparities in the U.S. in the last several decades. PMID:22959768

  12. Overall, gender and social inequalities in suicide mortality in Iran, 2006–2010: a time trend province-level study

    PubMed Central

    Kiadaliri, Aliasghar A; Saadat, Soheil; Shahnavazi, Hossein; Haghparast-Bidgoli, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Suicide is a major global health problem imposing a considerable burden on populations in terms of disability-adjusted life years. There has been an increasing trend in fatal and attempted suicide in Iran over the past few decades. The aim of the current study was to assess overall, gender and social inequalities across Iran’s provinces during 2006–2010. Design Ecological study. Setting The data on distribution of population at the provinces were obtained from the Statistical Centre of Iran. The data on the annual number of deaths caused by suicide in each province were gathered from the Iranian Forensic Medicine Organization. Methods Suicide mortality rate per 100 000 population was calculated. Human Development Index was used as the provinces’ social rank. Gini coefficient, rate ratio and Kunst and Mackenbach relative index of inequality were used to assess overall, gender and social inequalities, respectively. Annual percentage change was calculated using Joinpoint regression. Results Suicide mortality has slightly increased in Iran during 2006–2010. There was a substantial and constant overall inequality across the country over the study period. Male-to-female rate ratio was 2.34 (95% CI 1.45 to 3.79) over the same period. There were social inequalities in suicide mortality in favour of people in better-off provinces. In addition, there was an increasing trend in these social disparities over time, although it was not statistically significant. Conclusions We found substantial overall, gender and social disparities in the distribution of suicide mortality across the provinces in Iran. The findings showed that men in the provinces with low socioeconomic status are at higher risk of suicide mortality. Further analyses are needed to explain these disparities. PMID:25138804

  13. Self-Rated Health and Mortality: Does the Relationship Extend to a Low Income Setting?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Jones, Nathan R.

    2004-01-01

    Although a relationship between poor self-reported health status and excess mortality risk has been well-established for industrialized countries, almost no research considers developing countries. We use data from Indonesia to show that in a low-income setting, as in more advantaged parts of the world, individuals who perceive their health to be…

  14. Socioeconomic inequalities in smoking in low and mid income countries: positive gradients among women?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Southern Europe, smoking among older women was more prevalent among the high educated than the lower educated, we call this a positive gradient. This is dominant in the early stages of the smoking epidemic model, later replaced by a negative gradient. The aim of this study is to assess if a positive gradient in smoking can also be observed in low and middle income countries in other regions of the world. Methods We used data of the World Health Survey from 49 countries and a total of 233,917 respondents. Multilevel logistic regression was used to model associations between individual level smoking and both individual level and country level determinants. We stratified results by education, occupation, sex and generation (younger vs. older than 45). Countries were grouped based on GDP and region. Results In Eastern Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean, we observed a positive gradient in smoking among older women and a negative gradient among younger women. In Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America no clear gradient was observed: inequalities were relatively small. In South-East Asia and East Asia a strong negative gradient was observed. Among men, no positive gradients were observed, and like women the strongest negative gradients were seen in South-East Asia and East Asia. Conclusions A positive socio-economic gradient in smoking was found among older women in two regions, but not among younger women. But contrary to predictions derived from the smoking epidemic model, from a worldwide perspective the positive gradients are the exception rather than the rule. PMID:24502335

  15. How Pronounced Is Income Inequality around the World--and How Can Education Help Reduce It? Education Indicators in Focus. No. 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    How pronounced is income inequality around the world--and how can education help reduce it? This paper reports the following: (1) Across OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries, the average income of the richest 10% of the population was about nine times that of the poorest 10% before the onset of the global economic…

  16. From a conservative to a liberal welfare state: decomposing changes in income-related health inequalities in Germany, 1994-2011.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Martin; Vogt, Verena; Sundmacher, Leonie

    2014-05-01

    Individual socio-economic status and the respective socio-economic and political contexts are both important determinants of health. Welfare regimes may be linked with health and health inequalities through two potential pathways: first, they may influence the associations between socio-economic status and health. Second, they may influence the income-related distributions of socio-economic determinants of health within a society. Using the Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) for the years 1994-2011, we analyze how income-related health inequalities evolved in the context of the transformation from a conservative to a liberal welfare system in Germany. We use the concentration index to measure health inequalities, and the annual concentration indices are decomposed to reveal how the contributions of the explanatory variables age, sex, income, education, and occupation changed over time. The changes in the contributions are further decomposed to distinguish whether changes in health inequalities stem from redistributions of the explanatory variables, from changes in their associations with health, or from changes in their means. Income-related health inequalities to the disadvantage of the economically deprived roughly doubled over time, which can largely be explained by changes in the contributions of individual characteristics representing weaker labor market positions, particularly income and unemployment. The social and labor market reforms coincide with the observed changes in the distributions of these characteristics and, to a lesser extent, with changes of their associations with health. PMID:24607705

  17. Occupational Class Inequalities in All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality among Middle-Aged Men in 14 European Populations during the Early 2000s

    PubMed Central

    Toch-Marquardt, Marlen; Menvielle, Gwenn; Eikemo, Terje A.; Kulhánová, Ivana; Kulik, Margarete C.; Bopp, Matthias; Esnaola, Santiago; Jasilionis, Domantas; Mäki, Netta; Martikainen, Pekka; Regidor, Enrique; Lundberg, Olle; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyses occupational class inequalities in all-cause mortality and four specific causes of death among men, in Europe in the early 2000s, and is the most extensive comparative analysis of occupational class inequalities in mortality in Europe so far. Longitudinal data, obtained from population censuses and mortality registries in 14 European populations, from around the period 2000–2005, were used. Analyses concerned men aged 30–59 years and included all-cause mortality and mortality from all cancers, all cardiovascular diseases (CVD), all external, and all other causes. Occupational class was analysed according to five categories: upper and lower non-manual workers, skilled and unskilled manual workers, and farmers and self-employed combined. Inequalities were quantified with mortality rate ratios, rate differences, and population attributable fractions (PAF). Relative and absolute inequalities in all-cause mortality were more pronounced in Finland, Denmark, France, and Lithuania than in other populations, and the same countries (except France) also had the highest PAF values for all-cause mortality. The main contributing causes to these larger inequalities differed strongly between countries (e.g., cancer in France, all other causes in Denmark). Relative and absolute inequalities in CVD mortality were markedly lower in Southern European populations. We conclude that relative and absolute occupational class differences in all-cause and cause specific mortality have persisted into the early 2000's, although the magnitude differs strongly between populations. Comparisons with previous studies suggest that the relative gap in mortality between occupational classes has further widened in some Northern and Western European populations. PMID:25268702

  18. Socioeconomic inequalities in all-cause mortality in the Czech Republic, Russia, Poland and Lithuania in the 2000s: findings from the HAPIEE Study

    PubMed Central

    Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Vikhireva, Olga; Pikhart, Hynek; Kubinova, Ruzena; Malyutina, Sofia; Pajak, Andrzej; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Peasey, Anne; Simonova, Galina; Topor-Madry, Roman; Marmot, Michael; Bobak, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background Relatively large socioeconomic inequalities in health and mortality have been observed in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and the former Soviet Union (FSU). Yet comparative data are sparse and virtually all studies include only education. The aim of this study is to quantify and compare socioeconomic inequalities in all-cause mortality during the 2000s in urban population samples from four CEE/FSU countries, by three different measures of socioeconomic position (SEP) (education, difficulty buying food and household amenities), reflecting different aspects of SEP. Methods Data from the prospective population-based HAPIEE (Health, Alcohol, and Psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe) study were used. The baseline survey (2002–2005) included 16 812 men and 19 180 women aged 45–69 years in Novosibirsk (Russia), Krakow (Poland), Kaunas (Lithuania) and seven Czech towns. Deaths in the cohorts were identified through mortality registers. Data were analysed by direct standardisation and Cox regression, quantifying absolute and relative SEP differences. Results Mortality inequalities by the three SEP indicators were observed in all samples. The magnitude of inequalities varied according to gender, country and SEP measure. As expected, given the high mortality rates in Russian men, largest absolute inequalities were found among Russian men (educational slope index of inequality was 19.4 per 1000 person-years). Largest relative inequalities were observed in Czech men and Lithuanian subjects. Disadvantage by all three SEP measures remained strongly associated with increased mortality after adjusting for the other SEP indicators. Conclusions The results emphasise the importance of all SEP measures for understanding mortality inequalities in CEE/FSU. PMID:24227051

  19. Linking stroke mortality with air pollution, income, and greenness in northwest Florida: an ecological geographical study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhiyong; Liebens, Johan; Rao, K Ranga

    2008-01-01

    Background Relatively few studies have examined the association between air pollution and stroke mortality. Inconsistent and inclusive results from existing studies on air pollution and stroke justify the need to continue to investigate the linkage between stroke and air pollution. No studies have been done to investigate the association between stroke and greenness. The objective of this study was to examine if there is association of stroke with air pollution, income and greenness in northwest Florida. Results Our study used an ecological geographical approach and dasymetric mapping technique. We adopted a Bayesian hierarchical model with a convolution prior considering five census tract specific covariates. A 95% credible set which defines an interval having a 0.95 posterior probability of containing the parameter for each covariate was calculated from Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulations. The 95% credible sets are (-0.286, -0.097) for household income, (0.034, 0.144) for traffic air pollution effect, (0.419, 1.495) for emission density of monitored point source polluters, (0.413, 1.522) for simple point density of point source polluters without emission data, and (-0.289,-0.031) for greenness. Household income and greenness show negative effects (the posterior densities primarily cover negative values). Air pollution covariates have positive effects (the 95% credible sets cover positive values). Conclusion High risk of stroke mortality was found in areas with low income level, high air pollution level, and low level of exposure to green space. PMID:18452609

  20. Disparities in breast cancer mortality trends in a middle income country.

    PubMed

    Pedraza, Ana Maria; Pollán, Marina; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Cabanes, Anna

    2012-08-01

    In recent decades, breast cancer cases have increased steadily worldwide. However, the increases do not hold across all demographics and breast cancer cases in low and middle income countries have increased much faster than the global trend. Colombia is not an exception. Breast cancer was the most frequent tumor and the second cause of cancer-related deaths in women in 2008, with an estimated of 6,700 new cases and 2,100 deaths. We present here an analysis of breast cancer mortality rates and trends in Colombia, over the period 1985-2008. We studied overall and age-specific changes in breast cancer mortality using change-point Poisson regression models. Between 1985 and 2008, there were 32,375 breast cancer deaths in women in Colombia. Breast cancer mortality increased since 1985, although the annual increase varied between age groups and socioeconomic levels. Only in women aged 45-64 years old that live in areas of high socioeconomic levels, breast cancer mortality was stable or decreasing. Hence, successful cancer control is possible in middle income countries, as shown by the progress observed in certain groups. The development of an integrated strategy of early detection and early access to proper treatment, suitable for areas with limited resources, is an urgent necessity. PMID:22460615

  1. Income Inequality Indices Interpreted as Measures of Relative Deprivation/Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imedio-Olmedo, Luis Jose; Parrado-Gallardo, Encarnacion M.; Barcena-Martin, Elena

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers different ways of making comparisons between individuals in terms of deprivation and/or satisfaction. This allows the Gini index, the Bonferroni index and the De Vergottini index to be interpreted as social deprivation measures as well as social satisfaction measures. The inequality measures that belong to the [beta] family,…

  2. Inequalities in Global Trade: A Cross-Country Comparison of Trade Network Position, Economic Wealth, Pollution and Mortality.

    PubMed

    Prell, Christina; Sun, Laixiang; Feng, Kuishuang; Myroniuk, Tyler W

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate how structural patterns of international trade give rise to emissions inequalities across countries, and how such inequality in turn impact countries' mortality rates. We employ Multi-regional Input-Output analysis to distinguish between sulfur-dioxide (SO2) emissions produced within a country's boarders (production-based emissions) and emissions triggered by consumption in other countries (consumption-based emissions). We use social network analysis to capture countries' level of integration within the global trade network. We then apply the Prais-Winsten panel estimation technique to a panel data set across 172 countries over 20 years (1990-2010) to estimate the relationships between countries' level of integration and SO2 emissions, and the impact of trade integration and SO2 emission on mortality rates. Our findings suggest a positive, (log-) linear relationship between a country's level of integration and both kinds of emissions. In addition, although more integrated countries are mainly responsible for both forms of emissions, our findings indicate that they also tend to experience lower mortality rates. Our approach offers a unique combination of social network analysis with multiregional input-output analysis, which better operationalizes intuitive concepts about global trade and trade structure. PMID:26642202

  3. Inequalities in Global Trade: A Cross-Country Comparison of Trade Network Position, Economic Wealth, Pollution and Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Prell, Christina; Sun, Laixiang; Feng, Kuishuang; Myroniuk, Tyler W.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate how structural patterns of international trade give rise to emissions inequalities across countries, and how such inequality in turn impact countries’ mortality rates. We employ Multi-regional Input-Output analysis to distinguish between sulfur-dioxide (SO2) emissions produced within a country’s boarders (production-based emissions) and emissions triggered by consumption in other countries (consumption-based emissions). We use social network analysis to capture countries’ level of integration within the global trade network. We then apply the Prais-Winsten panel estimation technique to a panel data set across 172 countries over 20 years (1990–2010) to estimate the relationships between countries’ level of integration and SO2 emissions, and the impact of trade integration and SO2 emission on mortality rates. Our findings suggest a positive, (log-) linear relationship between a country’s level of integration and both kinds of emissions. In addition, although more integrated countries are mainly responsible for both forms of emissions, our findings indicate that they also tend to experience lower mortality rates. Our approach offers a unique combination of social network analysis with multiregional input-output analysis, which better operationalizes intuitive concepts about global trade and trade structure. PMID:26642202

  4. Income Related Inequality of Health Care Access in Japan: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Misuzu; Hata, Akira

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to analyze the association between income level and health care access in Japan. Data from a total of 222,259 subjects (age range, 0–74 years) who submitted National Health Insurance claims in Chiba City from April 2012 to March 2014 and who declared income for the tax period from January 1 to December 31, 2012 were integrated and analyzed. The generalized estimating equation, in which household was defined as a cluster, was used to evaluate the association between equivalent income and utilization and duration of hospitalization and outpatient care services. A significant positive linear association was observed between income level and outpatient visit rates among all age groups of both sexes; however, a significantly higher rate and longer period of hospitalization, and longer outpatient care, were observed among certain lower income subgroups. To control for decreased income due to hospitalization, subjects hospitalized during the previous year were excluded, and the data was then reanalyzed. Significant inverse associations remained in the hospitalization rate among 40–59-year-old men and 60–69-year-old women, and in duration of hospitalization among 40–59 and 60–69-year-olds of both sexes and 70–74-year-old women. These results suggest that low-income individuals in Japan have poorer access to outpatient care and more serious health conditions than their higher income counterparts. PMID:26978270

  5. Social inequalities in life expectancy and mortality during the transition period of economic crisis (1993–2010) in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Backgrounds This study examines social inequalities in life expectancy and mortality during the transition period of the Korean economic crisis (1993–2010) among Korean adults aged 40 and over. Methods Data from the census and the national death file from the Statistics Korea are employed to calculate life expectancy and age-specific-death-rates (ASDR) by age, gender, and educational attainment for five years: 1993, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010. Absolute and relative differences in life expectancy and Age-Specific Death Rates by educational attainment were utilized as proxy measures of social inequality. Results Clear educational gradient of life expectancy was observed at age 40 by both sexes and across five time periods (1993, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010). The gradient became notably worse in females between 1993 and 2010 compared to the trend in males. The educational gradient was also found for ASDR in all five years, but it was more pronounced in working age groups (40s and 50s) than in elderly groups. The relative disadvantage of ASDR among working age Korean adults, both males and females, became substantially worse over time. Conclusions Social inequalities in life expectancy and ASDR of the working age group across socioeconomic status over time were closely related to the widening of the social difference created by the macroeconomic crisis and the expansion of neo-liberalism in Korea. PMID:23171369

  6. Inequality Matters: Bachelor's Degree Losses among Low-Income Black and Hispanic High School Graduates. A Policy Bulletin for HEA Reauthorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The Advisory Committee's 2010 report, "The Rising Price of Inequality," found that need-based grant aid from all sources was inadequate by examining the enrollment and completion rates of low-income high school graduates who seek to earn a bachelor's degree and are qualified to gain admission to a 4-year college. The major…

  7. Potential of trans fats policies to reduce socioeconomic inequalities in mortality from coronary heart disease in England: cost effectiveness modelling study

    PubMed Central

    Pearson-Stuttard, Jonathan; Hooton, William; Diggle, Peter; Capewell, Simon; O’Flaherty, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine health and equity benefits and cost effectiveness of policies to reduce or eliminate trans fatty acids from processed foods, compared with consumption remaining at most recent levels in England. Design Epidemiological modelling study. Setting Data from National Diet and Nutrition Survey, Low Income Diet and Nutrition Survey, Office of National Statistics, and health economic data from other published studies Participants Adults aged ≥25, stratified by fifths of socioeconomic circumstance. Interventions Total ban on trans fatty acids in processed foods; improved labelling of trans fatty acids; bans on trans fatty acids in restaurants and takeaways. Main outcome measures Deaths from coronary heart disease prevented or postponed; life years gained; quality adjusted life years gained. Policy costs to government and industry; policy savings from reductions in direct healthcare, informal care, and productivity loss. Results A total ban on trans fatty acids in processed foods might prevent or postpone about 7200 deaths (2.6%) from coronary heart disease from 2015-20 and reduce inequality in mortality from coronary heart disease by about 3000 deaths (15%). Policies to improve labelling or simply remove trans fatty acids from restaurants/fast food could save between 1800 (0.7%) and 3500 (1.3%) deaths from coronary heart disease and reduce inequalities by 600 (3%) to 1500 (7%) deaths, thus making them at best half as effective. A total ban would have the greatest net cost savings of about £265m (€361m, $415m) excluding reformulation costs, or £64m if substantial reformulation costs are incurred outside the normal cycle. Conclusions A regulatory policy to eliminate trans fatty acids from processed foods in England would be the most effective and equitable policy option. Intermediate policies would also be beneficial. Simply continuing to rely on industry to voluntary reformulate products, however, could have negative health and economic outcomes

  8. Variations in the relation between education and cause-specific mortality in 19 European populations: a test of the "fundamental causes" theory of social inequalities in health.

    PubMed

    Mackenbach, Johan P; Kulhánová, Ivana; Bopp, Matthias; Deboosere, Patrick; Eikemo, Terje A; Hoffmann, Rasmus; Kulik, Margarete C; Leinsalu, Mall; Martikainen, Pekka; Menvielle, Gwenn; Regidor, Enrique; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Östergren, Olof; Lundberg, Olle

    2015-02-01

    Link and Phelan have proposed to explain the persistence of health inequalities from the fact that socioeconomic status is a "fundamental cause" which embodies an array of resources that can be used to avoid disease risks no matter what mechanisms are relevant at any given time. To test this theory we compared the magnitude of inequalities in mortality between more and less preventable causes of death in 19 European populations, and assessed whether inequalities in mortality from preventable causes are larger in countries with larger resource inequalities. We collected and harmonized mortality data by educational level on 19 national and regional populations from 16 European countries in the first decade of the 21st century. We calculated age-adjusted Relative Risks of mortality among men and women aged 30-79 for 24 causes of death, which were classified into four groups: amenable to behavior change, amenable to medical intervention, amenable to injury prevention, and non-preventable. Although an overwhelming majority of Relative Risks indicate higher mortality risks among the lower educated, the strength of the education-mortality relation is highly variable between causes of death and populations. Inequalities in mortality are generally larger for causes amenable to behavior change, medical intervention and injury prevention than for non-preventable causes. The contrast between preventable and non-preventable causes is large for causes amenable to behavior change, but absent for causes amenable to injury prevention among women. The contrast between preventable and non-preventable causes is larger in Central & Eastern Europe, where resource inequalities are substantial, than in the Nordic countries and continental Europe, where resource inequalities are relatively small, but they are absent or small in Southern Europe, where resource inequalities are also large. In conclusion, our results provide some further support for the theory of "fundamental causes". However

  9. Informing Investment to Reduce Inequalities: A Modelling Approach

    PubMed Central

    McAuley, Andrew; Denny, Cheryl; Taulbut, Martin; Mitchell, Rory; Fischbacher, Colin; Graham, Barbara; Grant, Ian; O’Hagan, Paul; McAllister, David; McCartney, Gerry

    2016-01-01

    Background Reducing health inequalities is an important policy objective but there is limited quantitative information about the impact of specific interventions. Objectives To provide estimates of the impact of a range of interventions on health and health inequalities. Materials and Methods Literature reviews were conducted to identify the best evidence linking interventions to mortality and hospital admissions. We examined interventions across the determinants of health: a ‘living wage’; changes to benefits, taxation and employment; active travel; tobacco taxation; smoking cessation, alcohol brief interventions, and weight management services. A model was developed to estimate mortality and years of life lost (YLL) in intervention and comparison populations over a 20-year time period following interventions delivered only in the first year. We estimated changes in inequalities using the relative index of inequality (RII). Results Introduction of a ‘living wage’ generated the largest beneficial health impact, with modest reductions in health inequalities. Benefits increases had modest positive impacts on health and health inequalities. Income tax increases had negative impacts on population health but reduced inequalities, while council tax increases worsened both health and health inequalities. Active travel increases had minimally positive effects on population health but widened health inequalities. Increases in employment reduced inequalities only when targeted to the most deprived groups. Tobacco taxation had modestly positive impacts on health but little impact on health inequalities. Alcohol brief interventions had modestly positive impacts on health and health inequalities only when strongly socially targeted, while smoking cessation and weight-reduction programmes had minimal impacts on health and health inequalities even when socially targeted. Conclusions Interventions have markedly different effects on mortality, hospitalisations and

  10. Interventions to reduce tuberculosis mortality and transmission in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed Central

    Borgdorff, Martien W.; Floyd, Katherine; Broekmans, Jaap F.

    2002-01-01

    Tuberculosis is among the top ten causes of global mortality and affects low-income countries in particular. This paper examines, through a literature review, the impact of tuberculosis control measures on tuberculosis mortality and transmission, and constraints to scaling-up. It also provides estimates of the effectiveness of various interventions using a model proposed by Styblo. It concludes that treatment of smear-positive tuberculosis using the WHO directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS) strategy has by far the highest impact. While BCG immunization reduces childhood tuberculosis mortality, its impact on tuberculosis transmission is probably minimal. Under specific conditions, an additional impact on mortality and transmission can be expected through treatment of smear-negative cases, intensification of case-finding for smear-positive tuberculosis, and preventive therapy among individuals with dual tuberculosis-HIV infection. Of these interventions, DOTS is the most cost-effective at around US$ 5-40 per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) gained. The cost for BCG immunization is likely to be under US$ 50 per DALY gained. Treatment of smear-negative patients has a cost per DALY gained of up to US$ 100 in low-income countries, and up to US$ 400 in middle-income settings. Other interventions, such as preventive therapy for HIV-positive individuals, appear to be less cost-effective. The major constraint to scaling up DOTS is lack of political commitment, resulting in shortages of funding and human resources for tuberculosis control. However, in recent years there have been encouraging signs of increasing political commitment. Other constraints are related to involvement of the private sector, health sector reform, management capacity of tuberculosis programmes, treatment delivery, and drug supply. Global tuberculosis control could benefit strongly from technical innovation, including the development of a vaccine giving good protection against smear

  11. [The economic crisis at the beginning of the XXI century and mortality in Spain. Trend and impact on social inequalities. SESPAS Report 2014].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ramos, Miguel; Córdoba-Doña, Juan Antonio; Bacigalupe, Amaia; Juárez, Sol; Escolar-Pujolar, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to assess the impact of the current economic crisis on mortality trends in Spain and its effect on social inequalities in mortality in Andalusia. We used data from vital statistics and the Population Register for 1999 to 2011, as provided by the Spanish Institute of Statistics, to estimate general and sex- and age-specific mortality rates. The Longitudinal Database of the Andalusian Population (2001 census cohort) was used to estimate general mortality rates and ratios by educational level. The annual percentages of change and trends were calculated using Joinpoint regressions. No significant change in the mortality trend was observed in Spain from 2008 onward. A downward trend after 1999 was confirmed for all causes and both sexes, with the exception of nervous system-related diseases. The reduction in mortality due to traffic accidents accelerated after 2003, while the negative trend in suicide was unchanged throughout the period studied. In Andalusia, social inequalities in mortality have increased among men since the beginning of the crisis, mainly due to a more intense reduction in mortality among persons with a higher educational level. Among women, no changes were observed in the pattern of inequality. PMID:24612790

  12. Shining India?: Assessing and addressing the risks from an unsustainable trajectory of climate, water, food, energy and income inequity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lall, U.

    2012-12-01

    Climate and demographics are primary drivers of regional resource sustainability. In today's global economy, increasing trade has provided a mechanism to alleviate regional stresses. However, increasing regional income promotes consumption, aggravating regional and global resource pressures. South Asia, has the highest population density at a sub-continent scale. Given its monsoonal climate, and high intensity of agriculture it faces perhaps the most severe population weighted water stress in the world. Rapidly declining groundwater tables and the associated high energy use for pumping for irrigated agriculture translate into unsustainable energy imports and expenditure that contributed to the two largest blackouts in global history in summer 2012. Access to water has been progressively declining for both rural and urban populations for the last 3 decades. The increasing energy imports and poor grid reliability translate into limits to the growth of manufacturing and exports of goods and services. The growing income inequity within the population and across national borders, and the impacts of floods and droughts on access to water, food and energy collectively suggest a very high risk for social unrest and a conflict flashpoint. I present a scenario analysis that establishes this case for the emergence of internal and external strife in the region as an outcome of the current resource and natural disaster management policies in the region. Prospects for strategic policy changes for water and energy management and the design of a food procurement and distribution system that could lead to a better future are discussed.

  13. Women's Education and Health Inequalities in Under-Five Mortality in Selected Sub-Saharan African Countries, 1990–2015

    PubMed Central

    Bado, Aristide Romaric; Sathiya Susuman, A.

    2016-01-01

    -five mortality rates, during last two decades, can be partly due to the government policies on women’s education. It is evident that women’s educational level has resulted in increased maternal awareness about infant health and hygiene, thereby bringing about a decline in the under-five mortality rates. This reduction is due to improved supply of health care programmes and health policies in reducing economic inequalities and increasing access to health care. PMID:27442118

  14. Patterns of inequality: Dynamics of income distribution in USA and global energy consumption distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Anand; Yakovenko, Victor

    2010-03-01

    Applying the principle of entropy maximization, we argued that the distribution of money in a closed economic system should be exponential [1], see also recent review [2]. In this talk, we show that income distribution in USA is exponential for the majority of population (about 97%). However, the high-income tail follows a power law and is highly dynamical, i.e., out of equilibrium. The fraction of income going to the tail swelled to 20% of all income in 2000 and 2006 at the peaks of speculative bubbles followed by spectacular crashes. Next, we analyze the global distribution of energy consumption per capita among different countries. In the first approximation, it is reasonably well captured by the exponential function. Comparing the data for 1990 and 2005, we observe that the distribution is getting closer to the exponential, presumably as a result of globalization of the world economy.[4pt] [1] A. A. Dragulescu and V. M. Yakovenko, Eur. Phys. J. B 17, 723 (2000). [2] V. M. Yakovenko and J. B. Rosser, to appear in Rev. Mod. Phys. (2009), arXiv:0905.1518.

  15. Happiness Inequality: How Much Is Reasonable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandelman, Nestor; Porzecanski, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    We compute the Gini indexes for income, happiness and various simulated utility levels. Due to decreasing marginal utility of income, happiness inequality should be lower than income inequality. We find that happiness inequality is about half that of income inequality. To compute the utility levels we need to assume values for a key parameter that…

  16. Household out-of-pocket medical expenditures and national health insurance in Taiwan: income and regional inequality

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Tu-Bin; Liu, Tsai-Ching; Chen, Chin-Shyan; Tsai, Yi-Wen; Chiu, Wen-Ta

    2005-01-01

    Background Unequal geographical distribution of medical care resources and insufficient healthcare coverage have been two long-standing problems with Taiwan's public health system. The implementation of National Health Insurance (NHI) attempted to mitigate the inequality in health care use. This study examines the degree to which Taiwan's National Health Insurance (NHI) has reduced out-of-pocket medical expenditures in households in different regions and varying levels of income. Methods Data used in this study were drawn from the 1994 and 1996 Surveys of Family Income and Expenditure. We pooled the data from 1994 and 1996 and included a year dummy variable (NHI), equal to 1 if the household data came from 1996 in order to assess the impact of NHI on household out-of-pocket medical care expenditures shortly after its implementation in 1995. Results An individual who was older, female, married, unemployed, better educated, richer, head of a larger family household, or living in the central and eastern areas was more likely to have greater household out-of-pocket medical expenditures. NHI was found to have effectively reduced household out-of-pocket medical expenditures by 23.08%, particularly for more affluent households. With the implementation of NHI, lower and middle income quintiles had smaller decreases in out-of-pocket medical expenditure. NHI was also found to have reduced household out-of-pocket medical expenditures more for households in eastern Taiwan. Conclusion Although NHI was established to create free medical care for all, further effort is needed to reduce the medical costs for certain disadvantaged groups, particularly the poor and aborigines, if equality is to be achieved. PMID:16137336

  17. Inequities in postnatal care in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Miszkurka, Malgorzata; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Ghaffar, Abdul; Ziegler, Daniela; Karp, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the socioeconomic, geographical and demographic inequities in the use of postnatal health-care services in low- and middle-income countries. Methods We searched Medline, Embase and Cochrane Central databases and grey literature for experimental, quasi-experimental and observational studies that had been conducted in low- and middle-income countries. We summarized the relevant studies qualitatively and performed meta-analyses of the use of postnatal care services according to selected indicators of socioeconomic status and residence in an urban or rural setting. Findings A total of 36 studies were included in the narrative synthesis and 10 of them were used for the meta-analyses. Compared with women in the lowest quintile of socioeconomic status, the pooled odds ratios for use of postnatal care by women in the second, third, fourth and fifth quintiles were: 1.14 (95% confidence interval, CI : 0.96–1.34), 1.32 (95% CI: 1.12–1.55), 1.60 (95% CI: 1.30–1.98) and 2.27 (95% CI: 1.75–2.93) respectively. Compared to women living in rural settings, the pooled odds ratio for the use of postnatal care by women living in urban settings was 1.36 (95% CI: 1.01–1.81). A qualitative assessment of the relevant published data also indicated that use of postnatal care services increased with increasing level of education. Conclusion In low- and middle-income countries, use of postnatal care services remains highly inequitable and varies markedly with socioeconomic status and between urban and rural residents. PMID:26229190

  18. Cardiovascular inflammation in healthy women: multilevel associations with state-level prosperity, productivity and income inequality

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular inflammation is a key contributor to the development of atherosclerosis and the prediction of cardiovascular events among healthy women. An emerging literature suggests biomarkers of inflammation vary by geography of residence at the state-level, and are associated with individual-level socioeconomic status. Associations between cardiovascular inflammation and state-level socioeconomic conditions have not been evaluated. The study objective is to estimate whether there are independent associations between state-level socioeconomic conditions and individual-level biomarkers of inflammation, in excess of individual-level income and clinical covariates among healthy women. Methods The authors examined cross-sectional multilevel associations among state-level socioeconomic conditions, individual-level income, and biomarkers of inflammation among women (n = 26,029) in the Women's Health Study, a nation-wide cohort of healthy women free of cardiovascular diseases at enrollment. High sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and fibrinogen were measured between 1993 and 1996. Biomarker levels were examined among women within quartiles of state-level socioeconomic conditions and within categories of individual-level income. Results The authors found that favorable state-level socioeconomic conditions were correlated with lower hsCRP, in excess of individual-level income (e.g. state-level real per capital gross domestic product fixed effect standardized Βeta coefficient [Std B] -0.03, 95% CI -0.05, -0.004). Individual-level income was more closely associated with sICAM-1 (Std B -0.04, 95% CI -0.06, -0.03) and fibrinogen (Std B -0.05, 95% CI -0.06, -0.03) than state-level conditions. Conclusions We found associations between state-level socioeconomic conditions and hsCRP among healthy women. Personal household income was more closely associated with sICAM-1 and fibrinogen than state

  19. Gender Differences in Material, Psychological, and Social Domains of the Income Gradient in Mortality: Implications for Policy

    PubMed Central

    Muennig, Peter; Kuebler, Meghan; Kim, Jaeseung; Todorovic, Dusan; Rosen, Zohn

    2013-01-01

    We set out to examine the material, psychological, and sociological pathways mediating the income gradient in health and mortality. We used the 2008 General Social Survey-National Death Index dataset (N = 26,870), which contains three decades of social survey data in the US linked to thirty years of mortality follow-up. We grouped a large number of variables into 3 domains: material, psychological, and sociological using factor analysis. We then employed discrete-time hazard models to examine the extent to which these three domains mediated the income-mortality association among men and women. Overall, the gradient was weaker for females than for males. While psychological and material factors explained mortality hazards among females, hazards among males were explained only by social capital. Poor health significantly predicted both income and mortality, particularly among females, suggesting a strong role for reverse causation. We also find that many traditional associations between income and mortality are absent in this dataset, such as perceived social status. PMID:23527129

  20. Mortality risk in preterm and small-for-gestational-age infants in low-income and middle-income countries: a pooled country analysis

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Joanne; Lee, Anne CC; Kozuki, Naoko; Lawn, Joy E; Cousens, Simon; Blencowe, Hannah; Ezzati, Majid; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Marchant, Tanya; Willey, Barbara A; Adair, Linda; Barros, Fernando; Baqui, Abdullah H; Christian, Parul; Fawzi, Wafaie; Gonzalez, Rogelio; Humphrey, Jean; Huybregts, Lieven; Kolsteren, Patrick; Mongkolchati, Aroonsri; Mullany, Luke C; Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Nien, Jyh Kae; Osrin, David; Roberfroid, Dominique; Sania, Ayesha; Schmiegelow, Christentze; Silveira, Mariangela F; Tielsch, James; Vaidya, Anjana; Velaphi, Sithembiso C; Victora, Cesar G; Watson-Jones, Deborah; Black, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Babies with low birthweight (<2500 g) are at increased risk of early mortality. However, low birthweight includes babies born preterm and with fetal growth restriction, and not all these infants have a birthweight less than 2500 g. We estimated the neonatal and infant mortality associated with these two characteristics in low-income and middle-income countries. Methods For this pooled analysis, we searched all available studies and identified 20 cohorts (providing data for 2 015 019 livebirths) from Asia, Africa, and Latin America that recorded data for birthweight, gestational age, and vital statistics through 28 days of life. Study dates ranged from 1982 through to 2010. We calculated relative risks (RR) and risk differences (RD) for mortality associated with preterm birth (<32 weeks, 32 weeks to <34 weeks, 34 weeks to <37 weeks), small-for-gestational-age (SGA; babies with birthweight in the lowest third percentile and between the third and tenth percentile of a US reference population), and preterm and SGA combinations. Findings Pooled overall RRs for preterm were 6·82 (95% CI 3·56–13·07) for neonatal mortality and 2·50 (1·48–4·22) for post-neonatal mortality. Pooled RRs for babies who were SGA (with birthweight in the lowest tenth percentile of the reference population) were 1·83 (95% CI 1·34–2·50) for neonatal mortality and 1·90 (1·32–2·73) for post-neonatal mortality. The neonatal mortality risk of babies who were both preterm and SGA was higher than that of babies with either characteristic alone (15·42; 9·11–26·12). Interpretation Many babies in low-income and middle-income countries are SGA. Preterm birth affects a smaller number of neonates than does SGA, but is associated with a higher mortality risk. The mortality risks associated with both characteristics extend beyond the neonatal period. Differentiation of the burden and risk of babies born preterm and SGA rather than with low birthweight could guide

  1. Modelling small-area inequality in premature mortality using years of life lost rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Congdon, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Analysis of premature mortality variations via standardized expected years of life lost (SEYLL) measures raises questions about suitable modelling for mortality data, especially when developing SEYLL profiles for areas with small populations. Existing fixed effects estimation methods take no account of correlations in mortality levels over ages, causes, socio-ethnic groups or areas. They also do not specify an underlying data generating process, or a likelihood model that can include trends or correlations, and are likely to produce unstable estimates for small-areas. An alternative strategy involves a fully specified data generation process, and a random effects model which "borrows strength" to produce stable SEYLL estimates, allowing for correlations between ages, areas and socio-ethnic groups. The resulting modelling strategy is applied to gender-specific differences in SEYLL rates in small-areas in NE London, and to cause-specific mortality for leading causes of premature mortality in these areas.

  2. Inequalities in institutional delivery uptake and maternal mortality reduction in the context of cash incentive program, Janani Suraksha Yojana: results from nine states in India.

    PubMed

    Randive, Bharat; San Sebastian, Miguel; De Costa, Ayesha; Lindholm, Lars

    2014-12-01

    Proportion of women giving birth in health institutions has increased sharply in India since the introduction of cash incentive program, Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) in 2005. JSY was intended to benefit disadvantaged population who had poor access to institutional care for childbirth and who bore the brunt of maternal deaths. Increase in institutional deliveries following the implementation of JSY needs to be analysed from an equity perspective. We analysed data from nine Indian states to examine the change in socioeconomic inequality in institutional deliveries five years after the implementation of JSY using the concentration curve and concentration index (CI). The CI was then decomposed in order to understand pathways through which observed inequalities occurred. Disparities in access to emergency obstetric care (EmOC) and in maternal mortality reduction among different socioeconomic groups were also assessed. Slope and relative index of inequality were used to estimate absolute and relative inequalities in maternal mortality ratio (MMR). Results shows that although inequality in access to institutional delivery care persists, it has reduced since the introduction of JSY. Nearly 70% of the present inequality was explained by differences in male literacy, EmOC availability in public facilities and poverty. EmOC in public facilities was grossly unavailable. Compared to richest division in nine states, poorest division has 135 more maternal deaths per 100,000 live births in 2010. While MMR has decreased in all areas since JSY, it has declined four times faster in richest areas compared to the poorest, resulting in increased inequalities. These findings suggest that in order for the cash incentive to succeed in reducing the inequalities in maternal health outcomes, it needs to be supported by the provision of quality health care services including EmOC. Improved targeting of disadvantaged populations for the cash incentive program could be considered. PMID:25462599

  3. Childhood mortality in sub-Saharan Africa: cross-sectional insight into small-scale geographical inequalities from Census data

    PubMed Central

    Kazembe, Lawrence; Clarke, Aileen; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To estimate and quantify childhood mortality, its spatial correlates and the impact of potential correlates using recent census data from three sub-Saharan African countries (Rwanda, Senegal and Uganda), where evidence is lacking. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Nation-wide census samples from three African countries participating in the 2010 African Census round. All three countries have conducted recent censuses and have information on mortality of children under 5 years. Participants 111 288 children under the age of 5 years in three countries. Primary and secondary outcome measures Under-five mortality was assessed alongside potential correlates including geographical location (where children live), and environmental, bio-demographic and socioeconomic variables. Results Multivariate analysis indicates that in all three countries the overall risk of child death in the first 5 years of life has decreased in recent years (Rwanda: HR=0.04, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.09; Senegal: HR=0.02 (95% CI 0.02 to 0.05); Uganda: HR=0.011 (95% CI 0.006 to 0.018). In Rwanda, lower deaths were associated with living in urban areas (0.79, 0.73, 0.83), children with living mother (HR=0.16, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.17) or living father (HR=0.38, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.39). Higher death was associated with male children (HR=1.06, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.08) and Christian children (HR=1.14, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.27). Children less than 1 year were associated with higher risk of death compared to older children in the three countries. Also, there were significant spatial variations showing inequalities in children mortality by geographic location. In Uganda, for example, areas of high risk are in the south-west and north-west and Kampala district showed a significantly reduced risk. Conclusions We provide clear evidence of considerable geographical variation of under-five mortality which is unexplained by factors considered in the data. The resulting under-five mortality maps can be used as a

  4. Estimating the Effect of Income on Health and Mortality Using Lottery Prizes as an Exogenous Source of Income

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindahl, Mikael

    2005-01-01

    A new approach is presented to analyze if there is a causal effect or relationship between income and measures of good health and life expectancy. One of the findings is that winning monetary lotteries could improve general health by 3 percent and decreased probability of death within five years by 2-3 percentage points. Higher income by 10…

  5. Mortality under age 50 accounts for much of the fact that US life expectancy lags that of other high-income countries.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jessica Y

    2013-03-01

    Life expectancy at birth in the United States is among the lowest of all high-income countries. Most recent studies have concentrated on older ages, finding that Americans have a lower life expectancy at age fifty and experience higher levels of disease and disability than do their counterparts in other industrialized nations. Using cross-national mortality data to identify the key age groups and causes of death responsible for these shortfalls, I found that mortality differences below age fifty account for two-thirds of the gap in life expectancy at birth between American males and their counterparts in sixteen comparison countries. Among females, the figure is two-fifths. The major causes of death responsible for the below-fifty trends are unintentional injuries, including drug overdose--a fact that constitutes the most striking finding from this study; noncommunicable diseases; perinatal conditions, such as pregnancy complications and birth trauma; and homicide. In all, this study highlights the importance of focusing on younger ages and on policies both to prevent the major causes of death below age fifty and to reduce social inequalities. PMID:23459724

  6. Do socioeconomic inequalities in mortality vary between different Spanish cities? a pooled cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The relationship between deprivation and mortality in urban settings is well established. This relationship has been found for several causes of death in Spanish cities in independent analyses (the MEDEA project). However, no joint analysis which pools the strength of this relationship across several cities has ever been undertaken. Such an analysis would determine, if appropriate, a joint relationship by linking the associations found. Methods A pooled cross-sectional analysis of the data from the MEDEA project has been carried out for each of the causes of death studied. Specifically, a meta-analysis has been carried out to pool the relative risks in eleven Spanish cities. Different deprivation-mortality relationships across the cities are considered in the analysis (fixed and random effects models). The size of the cities is also considered as a possible factor explaining differences between cities. Results Twenty studies have been carried out for different combinations of sex and causes of death. For nine of them (men: prostate cancer, diabetes, mental illnesses, Alzheimer’s disease, cerebrovascular disease; women: diabetes, mental illnesses, respiratory diseases, cirrhosis) no differences were found between cities in the effect of deprivation on mortality; in four cases (men: respiratory diseases, all causes of mortality; women: breast cancer, Alzheimer’s disease) differences not associated with the size of the city have been determined; in two cases (men: cirrhosis; women: lung cancer) differences strictly linked to the size of the city have been determined, and in five cases (men: lung cancer, ischaemic heart disease; women: ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular diseases, all causes of mortality) both kinds of differences have been found. Except for lung cancer in women, every significant relationship between deprivation and mortality goes in the same direction: deprivation increases mortality. Variability in the relative risks across

  7. Inequalities in non-small cell lung cancer treatment and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Nur, Ula; Quaresma, Manuela; De Stavola, Bianca; Peake, Michael; Rachet, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Background Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) comprises approximately 85% of all lung cancer cases, and surgery is the preferred treatment for patients. The National Health Service established Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) in 2002 to manage local health needs. We investigate whether PCTs with a lower uptake of surgical treatment are those with above-average mortality 1 year after diagnosis. The applied methods can be used to monitor the performance of any administrative bodies responsible for the management of patients with cancer. Methods All adults diagnosed with NSCLC lung cancer during 1998–2006 in England were identified. We fitted mixed effect logistic models to predict surgical treatment within 6 months after diagnosis, and mortality within 1 year of diagnosis. Results Around 10% of the NCSLC patients received curative surgery. Older deprived patients and those who did not receive surgery had much higher odds of death 1 year after being diagnosed with cancer. In total, 69% of the PCTs were below the lower control limit of surgery and have predicted random intercepts above the mean value of zero of the random effect for mortality, whereas 40% were above the upper control limit of mortality within 1 year. Conclusions Our main results suggest the presence of clear geographical variation in the use of surgical treatment of NSCLC and mortality. Mixed-effects models combined with the funnel plot approach were useful for assessing the performance of PCTs that were above average in mortality and below average in surgery. PMID:26047831

  8. "Fundamental Causes" of Social Inequalities in Mortality: A Test of the Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelan, Jo C.; Link, Bruce G.; Diez-Roux, Ana; Kawachi, Ichiro; Levin, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    Medicine and epidemiology currently dominate the study of the strong association between socioeconomic status and mortality. Socioeconomic status typically is viewed as a causally irrelevant "confounding variable" or as a less critical variable marking only the beginning of a causal chain in which intervening risk factors are given prominence. Yet…

  9. Social Inequalities in Suicide Mortality: Spain and France, 1980-1982 and 1988-1990

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lostao, Lourdes; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.; Lester, David; Regidor, Enrique; Aiach, Pierre; Sandin, Bonifacio

    2006-01-01

    In this study we analyzed the socioeconomic differences in mortality from suicide in the economically active male population aged 25-64 years in Spain and France in 1980-1982 and 1988-1990; in the case of Spain the data came from the Eight Provinces Study (Regidor, Gutierrez-Fisac, & Rodriguez, 1995). Individuals were grouped into four categories:…

  10. Dynamics of Inequality: Mother's Education and Infant Mortality in China, 1970-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Shige; Burgard, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the authors analyze the dynamic relationship between Chinese women's education, their utilization of newly available medical pregnancy care, and their infants' mortality risk. China has undergone enormous social, economic, and political changes over recent decades and is a novel context in which to examine the potential influence of…

  11. In Italy, North-South Differences in IQ Predict Differences in Income, Education, Infant Mortality, Stature, and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Regional differences in IQ are presented for 12 regions of Italy showing that IQs are highest in the north and lowest in the south. Regional IQs obtained in 2006 are highly correlated with average incomes at r = 0.937, and with stature, infant mortality, literacy and education. The lower IQ in southern Italy may be attributable to genetic…

  12. Excess mortality in women of reproductive age from low-income countries: a Swedish national register study

    PubMed Central

    Haglund, Bengt; Högberg, Ulf; Essén, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cause-of-death statistics is widely used to monitor the health of a population. African immigrants have, in several European studies, shown to be at an increased risk of maternal death, but few studies have investigated cause-specific mortality rates in female immigrants. Methods: In this national study, based on the Swedish Cause of Death Register, we studied 27 957 women of reproductive age (aged 15–49 years) who died between 1988 and 2007. Age-standardized mortality rates per 100 000 person years and relative risks for death and underlying causes of death, grouped according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision, were calculated and compared between women born in Sweden and in low-, middle- and high-income countries. Results: The total age-standardized mortality rate per 100 000 person years was significantly higher for women born in low-income (84.4) and high-income countries (83.7), but lower for women born in middle-income countries (57.5), as compared with Swedish-born women (68.1). The relative risk of dying from infectious disease was 15.0 (95% confidence interval 10.8–20.7) and diseases related to pregnancy was 6.6 (95% confidence interval 2.6–16.5) for women born in low-income countries, as compared to Swedish-born women. Conclusions: Women born in low-income countries are at the highest risk of dying during reproductive age in Sweden, with the largest discrepancy in mortality rates seen for infectious diseases and diseases related to pregnancy, a cause of death pattern similar to the one in their countries of birth. The World Bank classification of economies may be a useful tool in migration research. PMID:22850186

  13. Relative deprivation in income and mortality by leading causes among older Japanese men and women: AGES cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Naoki; Saito, Masashige; Hikichi, Hiroyuki; Aida, Jun; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Kondo, Katsunori; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Background Relative deprivation of income is hypothesised to generate frustration and stress through upward social comparison with one's peers. If psychosocial stress is the mechanism, relative deprivation should be more strongly associated with specific health outcomes, such as cardiovascular disease (compared with other health outcomes, eg, non-tobacco-related cancer). Methods We evaluated the association between relative income deprivation and mortality by leading causes, using a cohort of 21 031 community-dwelling adults aged 65 years or older. A baseline mail-in survey was conducted in 2003. Information on cause-specific mortality was obtained from death certificates. Our relative deprivation measure was the Yitzhaki Index, derived from the aggregate income shortfall for each person, relative to individuals with higher incomes in that person's reference group. Reference groups were defined according to gender, age group and same municipality of residence. Results We identified 1682 deaths during the 4.5 years of follow-up. A Cox regression demonstrated that, after controlling for demographic, health and socioeconomic factors including income, the HR for death from cardiovascular diseases per SD increase in relative deprivation was 1.50 (95% CI 1.09 to 2.08) in men, whereas HRs for mortality by cancer and other diseases were close to the null value. Additional adjustment for depressive symptoms and health behaviours (eg, smoking and preventive care utilisation) attenuated the excess risks for mortality from cardiovascular disease by 9%. Relative deprivation was not associated with mortality for women. Conclusions The results partially support our hypothesised mechanism: relative deprivation increases health risks via psychosocial stress among men. PMID:25700534

  14. Abolishing inequity, a necessity for poverty reduction and the realisation of child mortality targets.

    PubMed

    Målqvist, Mats

    2015-02-01

    The first Millennium Development Goal (MDG 1) due in 2015 concerns poverty reduction. It has been claimed to be fulfilled on a global level, but still more than 1 billion people are living in abject poverty. There is a strong link between the economy and child survival, and only a minority of countries will have reached the MDG target for child mortality reduction by 2015. This paper discusses the relationship between poverty and child survival. It argues that a focus on equity is necessary to further reduce child mortality, through poverty reduction in absolute terms and also through targeting interventions for increased child survival to disadvantaged populations. The political will to actually achieve real change for those in greatest need is crucial but not to be taken for granted, and the distribution rather than the generation of wealth needs to be made a priority in the post-MDG era. PMID:25613969

  15. Inequalities in child mortality in Mozambique: differentials by parental socio-economic position.

    PubMed

    Macassa, Gloria; Ghilagaber, Gebrenegus; Bernhardt, Eva; Diderichsen, Finn; Burström, Bo

    2003-12-01

    This study investigates the relation between socio-economic parental position (education and occupation) and child death in Mozambique using data from the Mozambican Demographic and Health Survey carried out between March and July 1997. The analysis included 9142 children born within 10 years before the survey. In spite of the Western system of classification used in the study, the results partly showed a parental socio-economic gradient of infant and child mortality in Mozambique. Father's education seemed to reflect the family's social standing in the Mozambique context, showing a strong statistical association with postneonatal and child mortality. However, maternal education as a measure of socio-economic position was not statistically significantly associated with child mortality. This finding may partly be explained by the extreme hardships experienced by the country (civil war and natural disasters) and the implementation of the Economic Structural Adjustment Programme that have also affected the health of women and their children during the years covered by this study. Other measures of socio-economic position applicable to the rural African setting should be investigated. PMID:14572835

  16. Social inequalities in mental health and mortality among refugees and other immigrants to Sweden – epidemiological studies of register data

    PubMed Central

    Hollander, Anna-Clara

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this PhD project was to increase knowledge, using population-based registers, of how pre- and post-migration factors and social determinants of health are associated with inequalities in poor mental health and mortality among refugees and other immigrants to Sweden. Study I and II had cross-sectional designs and used logistic regression analysis to study differences in poor mental health (measured with prescribed psychotropic drugs purchased) between refugee and non-refugee immigrants. In Study I, there was a significant difference in poor mental health between female refugees and non-refugees (OR=1.27; CI=1.15–1.40) when adjusted for socio-economic factors. In Study II, refugees of most origins had a higher likelihood of poor mental health than non-refugees of the same origin. Study III and IV had cohort designs and used Cox regression analysis. Study III analysed mortality rates among non-labour immigrants. Male refugees had higher relative risks of mortality from cardiovascular disease (HR=1.53; CI=1.04–2.24) and external causes (HR=1.59; CI=1.01–2.50) than male non-refugees did, adjusted for socio-economic factors. Study IV included the population with a strong connection to the labour market in 1999 to analyse the relative risk of hospitalisation due to depressive disorder following unemployment. The lowest relative risk was found among employed Swedish-born men and the highest among foreign-born females who lost employment during follow-up (HR=3.47; CI=3.02–3.98). Immigrants, and particularly refugees, have poorer mental health than native Swedes. Refugee men have a higher relative mortality risk for cardiovascular disease and external causes of death than do non-refugees. The relative risk of hospitalisation due to depressive disorder following unemployment was highest among immigrant women. To promote mental health and reduce mortality among immigrants, it is important to consider pre- and post-migration factors and the general social

  17. Social inequalities in mental health and mortality among refugees and other immigrants to Sweden--epidemiological studies of register data.

    PubMed

    Hollander, Anna-Clara

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this PhD project was to increase knowledge, using population-based registers, of how pre- and post-migration factors and social determinants of health are associated with inequalities in poor mental health and mortality among refugees and other immigrants to Sweden. Study I and II had cross-sectional designs and used logistic regression analysis to study differences in poor mental health (measured with prescribed psychotropic drugs purchased) between refugee and non-refugee immigrants. In Study I, there was a significant difference in poor mental health between female refugees and non-refugees (OR=1.27; CI=1.15-1.40) when adjusted for socio-economic factors. In Study II, refugees of most origins had a higher likelihood of poor mental health than non-refugees of the same origin. Study III and IV had cohort designs and used Cox regression analysis. Study III analysed mortality rates among non-labour immigrants. Male refugees had higher relative risks of mortality from cardiovascular disease (HR=1.53; CI=1.04-2.24) and external causes (HR=1.59; CI=1.01-2.50) than male non-refugees did, adjusted for socio-economic factors. Study IV included the population with a strong connection to the labour market in 1999 to analyse the relative risk of hospitalisation due to depressive disorder following unemployment. The lowest relative risk was found among employed Swedish-born men and the highest among foreign-born females who lost employment during follow-up (HR=3.47; CI=3.02-3.98). Immigrants, and particularly refugees, have poorer mental health than native Swedes. Refugee men have a higher relative mortality risk for cardiovascular disease and external causes of death than do non-refugees. The relative risk of hospitalisation due to depressive disorder following unemployment was highest among immigrant women. To promote mental health and reduce mortality among immigrants, it is important to consider pre- and post-migration factors and the general social

  18. Seatbelt compliance and mortality in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries in comparison with other high-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Alaa K.; Hefny, Ashraf F.; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Mortality from road traffic collisions (RTC) is a major problem in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. Low compliance with seatbelt usage can be a contributing factor for increased mortality. The present study aimed to ascertain the presence of a relationship between seatbelt non-compliance of vehicle occupants and mortality rates in the GCC countries versus other high-income countries. DESIGN AND SETTING: Observational and descriptive study using information published by the World Health Organization METHODS: Data for all GCC countries (n=6) and other high-income countries (n=37) were retrieved and compared with regard to population, gross national income, number of vehicles, seatbelt non-compliance and road traffic death rates. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to define factors affecting the mortality rates. RESULTS: The median road traffic death rates, occupant death rates, and the percentage of seatbelt non-compliance were significantly higher in the GCC countries (P<.0001, P=.02, P<.001, respectively). There was a strong correlation between occupant death rates and seatbelt non-compliance (R=.52, P=.008). Seatbelt non-compliance percentage was the only significant factor predicting mortality in the multiple linear regression model (P=.015). CONCLUSIONS: Seatbelt non-compliance percentages in the GCC countries are significantly higher than in other high-income countries. This is a contributing factor in the increased road traffic collision mortality rate in these countries. Enforcement of seatbelt usage by law should be mandatory so as to reduce the toll of death of RTC in the GCC countries. PMID:21808108

  19. Access to prenatal care: inequalities in a region with high maternal mortality in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, Katrini Guidolini; Santos Neto, Edson Theodoro Dos; Gama, Silvana Granado Nogueira da; Oliveira, Adauto Emmerich

    2016-05-01

    Aim This article aims to evaluate access to prenatal care according to the dimensions of availability, affordability and acceptability in the SUS microregion of southeastern Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study conducted in 2012-2013 that selected 742 postpartum women in seven hospitals in the region chosen for the research. The information was collected, processed and submitted to the chi-square test and the nonparametric Spearman's test, with p-values less than 5% (p < 0.05). Results Although the SUS constitutionally guarantees universal access to health care, there are still inequalities between pregnant women from rural and urban areas in terms of the availability of health care and among families earning up to minimum wage and more than one minimum wage per month in terms of affordability; however, the acceptability of health care was equal, regardless of the modality of the health services. Conclusion The location, transport resources and financing of health services should be reorganised, and the training of health professionals should be enhanced to provide more equitable health care access to pregnant women. PMID:27166912

  20. Inequalities in Health Status from EQ-5D Findings: A Cross-Sectional Study in Low-Income Communities of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Sultana, Marufa; Sarker, Abdur Razzaque; Mahumud, Rashidul Alam; Ahmed, Sayem; Ahmed, Wahid; Chakrovorty, Sanchita; Rahman, Hafizur; Islam, Ziaul; Khan, Jahangir A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Measuring health status by using standardized and validated instrument has become a growing concern over the past few decades throughout the developed and developing countries. The aim of the study was to investigate the overall self-reported health status along with potential inequalities by using EuroQol 5 dimensions (EQ-5D) instrument among low-income people of Bangladesh. Methods: A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in Chandpur district of Bangladesh. Bangla version of the EQ-5D questionnaire was employed along with socio-demographic information. EQ-5D questionnaire composed of 2-part measurements: EQ-5D descriptive system and the visual analogue scale (VAS). For measuring health status, UK-based preference weights were applied while higher score indicated better health status. For facilitating the consistency with EQ-5D score, VASs were converted to a scale with scores ranging from 0 to 1. Multiple logistic regression models were also employed to examine differences among EQ-5D dimensions. Results: A total of 1433 respondents participated in the study. The mean EQ-5D and VAS score was 0.76 and 0.77, respectively. The females were more likely to report any problem than the males (P < 0.001). Compared to the younger, elderly were more than 2-3 times likely to report any health problem in all EQ-5D dimensions (OR [odds ratio] = 3.17 for mobility, OR = 3.24 for self-care). However, the respondents of the poorest income group were significantly suffered more from every EQ-5D dimension than the richest income quintile. Conclusion: Socio-economic and demographic inequalities in health status was observed in the study. Study suggests to do further investigation with country representative sample to measure the inequalities of overall health status. It would be helpful for policy-maker to find a new way aiming to reduce such inequalities. PMID:27239879

  1. Regional inequalities of child mortality in peninsular Malaysia with special reference to the differentials between Perlis and Kuala Terengganu.

    PubMed

    Brehm, U

    1993-05-01

    In Peninsular Malaysia child mortality rates (5q0) vary from 13 to 63 per thousand at district level. The spatial pattern is closely associated with the regional distribution of socio-economic factors. But due to multicollinearity it is difficult to isolate the influence of socio-economic variables from other variables by employing aggregated data. However, individual data collected in a case-control-study that was conducted in Perlis and Kuala Terengganu confirm the important role of socio-economic factors. So it should be possible to achieve a further reduction of child mortality by raising the income and educational level of the under-privileged groups. Apart from that, as the case of Perlis shows, the provision of family planning and preventive medical services may also contribute to lower child mortality independent from socio-economic changes. But, as the comparison with Kuala Terengganu shows, the utilization of family planning and preventive medical services is not only influenced by the accessibility to, but also by the socio-culturally determined acceptability of such services. PMID:8511619

  2. Income-related inequalities in chronic conditions, physical functioning and psychological distress among older people in Australia: cross-sectional findings from the 45 and up study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The burden of chronic disease continues to rise as populations age. There is relatively little published on the socioeconomic distribution of this burden in older people. This study quantifies absolute and relative income-related inequalities in prevalence of chronic diseases, severe physical functioning limitation and high psychological distress in mid-age and older people in Australia. Methods Cross-sectional study of 208,450 participants in the 45 and Up Study, a population-based cohort of men and women aged 45–106 years from New South Wales, Australia. Chronic conditions included self-reported heart disease, diabetes, Parkinson’s disease, cancer and osteoarthritis; physical functioning limitation (severe/not) was measured using Medical Outcomes Study measures and psychological distress (high/not) using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. For each outcome, prevalence was estimated in relation to annual household income (6 categories). Prevalence differences (PDs) and ratios (PRs) were generated, comparing the lowest income category (<$20,000) to the highest (≥$70,000), using Poisson regression with robust standard errors, weighted for age, sex and region of residence. Analyses were stratified by age group (45–64, 65–79 and ≥80 years) and sex and adjusted for age and country of birth. Results With few exceptions, there were income gradients in the prevalence of chronic conditions among all age-sex groups, with prevalence decreasing with increasing income. Of the chronic diseases, PDs were highest for diabetes (ranging between 5.69% and 10.36% across age-sex groups) and in women, also for osteoarthritis (5.72% to 8.14%); PRs were highest for osteoarthritis in men aged 45–64 years (4.01), otherwise they were highest for diabetes (1.78 to 3.43). Inequalities were very high for both physical functioning limitation and psychological distress, particularly among those aged 45–64 (PDs between 18.67% and 29.23% and PRs between 4.63 and 16

  3. Inequalities in mortality of men by oral and pharyngeal cancer in Barcelona, Spain and São Paulo, Brazil, 1995–2003

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Borrell, Carme; Pérez, Glòria; Boing, Antonio Fernando; Wünsch-Filho, Victor

    2008-01-01

    Background Large inequalities of mortality by most cancers in general, by mouth and pharynx cancer in particular, have been associated to behaviour and geopolitical factors. The assessment of socioeconomic covariates of cancer mortality may be relevant to a full comprehension of distal determinants of the disease, and to appraise opportune interventions. The objective of this study was to compare socioeconomic inequalities in male mortality by oral and pharyngeal cancer in two major cities of Europe and South America. Methods The official system of information on mortality provided data on deaths in each city; general censuses informed population data. Age-adjusted death rates by oral and pharyngeal cancer for men were independently assessed for neighbourhoods of Barcelona, Spain, and São Paulo, Brazil, from 1995 to 2003. Uniform methodological criteria instructed the comparative assessment of magnitude, trends and spatial distribution of mortality. General linear models assessed ecologic correlations between death rates and socioeconomic indices (unemployment, schooling levels and the human development index) at the inner-city area level. Results obtained for each city were subsequently compared. Results Mortality of men by oral and pharyngeal cancer ranked higher in Barcelona (9.45 yearly deaths per 100,000 male inhabitants) than in Spain and Europe as a whole; rates were on decrease. São Paulo presented a poorer profile, with higher magnitude (11.86) and stationary trend. The appraisal of ecologic correlations indicated an unequal and inequitably distributed burden of disease in both cities, with poorer areas tending to present higher mortality. Barcelona had a larger gradient of mortality than São Paulo, indicating a higher inequality of cancer deaths across its neighbourhoods. Conclusion The quantitative monitoring of inequalities in health may contribute to the formulation of redistributive policies aimed at the concurrent promotion of wellbeing and social

  4. Wealth inequality and health: a political economy perspective.

    PubMed

    Nowatzki, Nadine R

    2012-01-01

    Despite a plethora of studies on income inequality and health, researchers have been unable to make any firm conclusions as a result of methodological and theoretical limitations. Within this body of research, there has been a call for studies of wealth inequality and health. Wealth is far more unequally distributed than income and is conceptually unique from income. This paper discusses the results of bivariate cross-sectional analyses of the relationship between wealth inequality (Gini coefficient) and population health (life expectancy and infant mortality) in 14 wealthy countries. The results confirm that wealth inequality is associated with poor population health. Both unweighted and weighted correlations between wealth inequality and health are strong and significant, even after controlling for a variety of potential aggregate-level confounders, including gross domestic product per capita, and after excluding the United States, the most unequal country. The results are strongest for female life expectancy and infant mortality. The author outlines potential pathways through which wealth inequality might affect health, using specific countries to illustrate. The article concludes with policy recommendations that could contribute to a more equitable distribution of wealth and, ultimately, decreased health disparities. PMID:22993961

  5. Factors Contributing to Maternal and Child Mortality Reductions in 146 Low- and Middle-Income Countries between 1990 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Alfonso, Y. Natalia; Adam, Taghreed; Kuruvilla, Shyama; Schweitzer, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction From 1990–2010, worldwide child mortality declined by 43%, and maternal mortality declined by 40%. This paper compares two sources of progress: improvements in societal coverage of health determinants versus improvements in the impact of health determinants as a result of technical change. Methods This paper decomposes the progress made by 146 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in lowering childhood and maternal mortality into one component due to better health determinants like literacy, income, and health coverage and a second component due to changes in the impact of these health determinants. Health determinants were selected from eight distinct health-impacting sectors. Health determinants were selected from eight distinct health-impacting sectors. Regression models are used to estimate impact size in 1990 and again in 2010. Changes in the levels of health determinants were measured using secondary data. Findings The model shows that respectively 100% and 89% of the reductions in maternal and child mortality since 1990 were due to improvements in nationwide coverage of health determinants. The relative share of overall improvement attributable to any single determinant varies by country and by model specification. However, in aggregate, approximately 50% of the mortality reductions were due to improvements in the health sector, and the other 50% of the mortality reductions were due to gains outside the health sector. Conclusions Overall, countries improved maternal and child health (MCH) from 1990 to 2010 mainly through improvements in the societal coverage of a broad array of health system, social, economic and environmental determinants of child health. These findings vindicate efforts by the global community to obtain such improvements, and align with the post-2015 development agenda that builds on the lessons from the MDGs and highlights the importance of promoting health and sustainable development in a more integrated manner across

  6. Reducing income-related inequities in colorectal cancer screening: lessons learned from a retrospective analysis of organised programme and non-programme screening delivery in Winnipeg, Manitoba

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Kathleen M; Demers, Alain A; Nugent, Zoann; Biswanger, Natalie; Singh, Harminder

    2016-01-01

    Objective We examined organised colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programme and non-programme faecal occult blood test (FOBT) use from 2008 to 2012 for individuals living in Winnipeg, Manitoba, by area-level income. Setting Winnipeg, Manitoba, a region with universal healthcare and an organised CRC screening programme. Participants Individuals who had a non-programme FOBT were identified from the Provincial Medical Claims database. Individuals who had a programme FOBT were identified from the provincial screening registry. Census data were used to determine average household income based on area of residence. Statistical analysis Trends in age-standardised FOBT rates were examined using Joinpoint Regression. Logistic regression was performed to explore the association between programme and non-programme FOBT use and income quintile. Results FOBT use (non-programme and programme) increased from 32.2% in 2008 to 41.6% in 2012. Individuals living in the highest income areas (Q5) were more likely to have a non-programme FOBT compared with those living in other areas. Individuals living in areas with the lowest average income level (Q1) were less likely to have had programme FOBT than those living in areas with the highest average income level (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.82). There was no difference in programme FOBT use for individuals living in areas with the second lowest income level (Q2) compared with those living in areas with the highest. Individuals living in areas with a moderate-income level (Q3 and Q4) were more likely to have had a programme FOBT compared with those living in an area with the highest income level (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.15 for Q3 and OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.13 for Q4). Conclusions Inequities by income observed for non-programme FOBTs were largely eliminated when programme FOBTs were examined. Targeted interventions within organised screening programmes in very low-income areas are needed. PMID:26908517

  7. Time Trends and Inequalities of Under-Five Mortality in Nepal: A Secondary Data Analysis of Four Demographic and Health Surveys between 1996 and 2011

    PubMed Central

    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.; Harsha Kumar, H. N.; Sathian, Brijesh

    2013-01-01

    Background Inequalities in progress towards achievement of Millennium Development Goal four (MDG-4) reflect unequal access to child health services. Objective To examine the time trends, socio-economic and regional inequalities of under-five mortality rate (U5MR) in Nepal. Methods We analyzed the data from complete birth histories of four Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (NDHS) done in the years 1996, 2001, 2006 and 2011. For each livebirth, we computed survival period from birth until either fifth birthday or the survey date. Using direct methods i.e. by constructing life tables, we calculated yearly U5MRs from 1991 to 2010. Projections were made for the years 2011 to 2015. For each NDHS, U5MRs were calculated according to child's sex, mother’s education, household wealth index, rural/urban residence, development regions and ecological zones. Inequalities were calculated as rate difference, rate ratio, population attributable risk and hazard ratio. Results Yearly U5MR (per 1000 live births) had decreased from 157.3 (95% CIs 178.0-138.9) in 1991 to 43.2 (95% CIs 59.1-31.5) in 2010 i.e. 114.1 reduction in absolute risk. Projected U5MR for the year 2015 was 54.33. U5MRs had decreased in absolute terms in all sub groups but relative inequalities had reduced for gender and rural/urban residence only. Wide inequalities existed by wealth and education and increased between 1996 and 2011. For lowest wealth quintile (as compared to highest quintile) hazard ratio (HR) increased from 1.37 (95% CIs 1.27, 1.49) to 2.54 ( 95% CIs 2.25, 2.86) and for mothers having no education (as compared to higher education) HR increased from 2.55 (95% CIs 1.95, 3.33) to 3.75 (95% CIs 3.17, 4.44). Changes in regional inequities were marginal and irregular. Conclusions Nepal is most likely to achieve MDG-4 but eductional and wealth inequalities may widen further. National health policies should address to reduce inequalities in U5MR through ‘inclusive policies'. PMID:24224010

  8. Three Centuries of American Inequality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindert, Peter H.; Williamson, Jeffrey G.

    Income inequality in the United States displays considerable variance since the seventeenth century. There is no eternal constancy to the degree of inequality in total income, in labor earnings, or in income from conventional nonhuman wealth either before or after the effects of government taxes and spending. When all the necessary adjustments to…

  9. Geographical Inequalities and Social and Environmental Risk Factors for Under-Five Mortality in Ghana in 2000 and 2010: Bayesian Spatial Analysis of Census Data

    PubMed Central

    Arku, Raphael E.; Bennett, James E.; Agyeman-Duah, Kofi; Mintah, Samilia E.; Spengler, John D.; Agyei-Mensah, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Background Under-five mortality is declining in Ghana and many other countries. Very few studies have measured under-five mortality—and its social and environmental risk factors—at fine spatial resolutions, which is relevant for policy purposes. Our aim was to estimate under-five mortality and its social and environmental risk factors at the district level in Ghana. Methods and Findings We used 10% random samples of Ghana’s 2000 and 2010 National Population and Housing Censuses. We applied indirect demographic methods and a Bayesian spatial model to the information on total number of children ever born and children surviving to estimate under-five mortality (probability of dying by 5 y of age, 5q0) for each of Ghana’s 110 districts. We also used the census data to estimate the distributions of households or persons in each district in terms of fuel used for cooking, sanitation facility, drinking water source, and parental education. Median district 5q0 declined from 99 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2000 to 70 in 2010. The decline ranged from <5% in some northern districts, where 5q0 had been higher in 2000, to >40% in southern districts, where it had been lower in 2000, exacerbating existing inequalities. Primary education increased in men and women, and more households had access to improved water and sanitation and cleaner cooking fuels. Higher use of liquefied petroleum gas for cooking was associated with lower 5q0 in multivariate analysis. Conclusions Under-five mortality has declined in all of Ghana’s districts, but the cross-district inequality in mortality has increased. There is a need for additional data, including on healthcare, and additional environmental and socioeconomic measurements, to understand the reasons for the variations in mortality levels and trends. PMID:27327774

  10. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Toro, Felipe; Verdejo, Hugo E; Castro, Pablo F

    2015-10-01

    Prevalence and incidence of chronic heart failure (CHF) has increased during the past decades. Beyond its impact on mortality rates, CHF severely impairs quality of life, particularly with the elderly and vulnerable population. Several studies have shown that CHF takes its toll mostly on the uneducated, low-income population, who exhibit impaired access to health care systems, less knowledge regarding its pathology and poorer self-care behaviors. This review summarizes the available evidence linking socioeconomic inequalities and CHF, focusing on the modifiable factors that may explain the impaired health outcomes in socioeconomically deprived populations. PMID:26462090

  11. National Income Inequality and Declining GDP Growth Rates Are Associated with Increases in HIV Diagnoses among People Who Inject Drugs in Europe: A Panel Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nikolopoulos, Georgios K.; Fotiou, Anastasios; Kanavou, Eleftheria; Richardson, Clive; Detsis, Marios; Pharris, Anastasia; Suk, Jonathan E.; Semenza, Jan C.; Costa-Storti, Claudia; Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Sypsa, Vana; Malliori, Melpomeni-Minerva; Friedman, Samuel R.; Hatzakis, Angelos

    2015-01-01

    Background There is sparse evidence that demonstrates the association between macro-environmental processes and drug-related HIV epidemics. The present study explores the relationship between economic, socio-economic, policy and structural indicators, and increases in reported HIV infections among people who inject drugs (PWID) in the European Economic Area (EEA). Methods We used panel data (2003–2012) for 30 EEA countries. Statistical analyses included logistic regression models. The dependent variable was taking value 1 if there was an outbreak (significant increase in the national rate of HIV diagnoses in PWID) and 0 otherwise. Explanatory variables included the growth rate of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), the share of the population that is at risk for poverty, the unemployment rate, the Eurostat S80/S20 ratio, the Gini coefficient, the per capita government expenditure on health and social protection, and variables on drug control policy and drug-using population sizes. Lags of one to three years were investigated. Findings In multivariable analyses, using two-year lagged values, we found that a 1% increase of GDP was associated with approximately 30% reduction in the odds of an HIV outbreak. In GDP-adjusted analyses with three-year lagged values, the effect of the national income inequality on the likelihood of an HIV outbreak was significant [S80/S20 Odds Ratio (OR) = 3.89; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.15 to 13.13]. Generally, the multivariable analyses produced similar results across three time lags tested. Interpretation Given the limitations of ecological research, we found that declining economic growth and increasing national income inequality were associated with an elevated probability of a large increase in the number of HIV diagnoses among PWID in EEA countries during the last decade. HIV prevention may be more effective if developed within national and European-level policy contexts that promote income equality, especially among vulnerable

  12. Basic Education and Income Inequality in Brazil: The Long-Term View. World Bank Staff Working Paper No. 268.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jallade, Jean-Pierre

    A statistical study of Brazilian education reveals that children of high-income, well-educated groups enjoy better educational opportunities and a usually higher rate of return on their educational investment than do the children of low-income groups. Poorer regions of the country, however, have a higher rate of return than do regions with a…

  13. Promoting Integrated Approaches to Reducing Health Inequities among Low-Income Workers: Applying a Social Ecological Framework

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Sherry L; Beard, Sharon; Davis, Letitia K.; Delp, Linda; Forst, Linda; Kidd-Taylor, Andrea; Liebman, Amy K.; Linnan, Laura; Punnett, Laura; Welch, Laura S.

    2013-01-01

    Nearly one of every three workers in the United States is low-income. Low-income populations have a lower life expectancy and greater rates of chronic diseases compared to those with higher incomes. Low- income workers face hazards in their workplaces as well as in their communities. Developing integrated public health programs that address these combined health hazards, especially the interaction of occupational and non-occupational risk factors, can promote greater health equity. We apply a social-ecological perspective in considering ways to improve the health of the low-income working population through integrated health protection and health promotion programs initiated in four different settings: the worksite, state and local health departments, community health centers, and community-based organizations. An example of successful approaches to developing integrated programs in each of these settings is described. Recommendations for improved research, training, and coordination among health departments, health practitioners, worksites and community organizations are proposed. PMID:23532780

  14. Perinatal Mortality and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes in a Low-Income Rural Population of Women who Smoke

    PubMed Central

    McElroy, Jane A.; Bloom, Tina; Moore, Kelly; Geden, Beth; Everett, Kevin; Bullock, Linda F.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY We describe adverse pregnancy outcomes, including congenital anomalies, fetal, neonatal, and infant mortality among a Missouri population of low- income, rural mothers who participated in two randomized smoking cessation trials. In the Baby Beep (BB) trial, 695 rural women were recruited from 21 WIC clinics with 650 women’s pregnancy outcomes known (93.5% retention rate). Following the BB trial, 298 women, who had a live infant after November 2004 were re-recruited into and completed the Baby Beep for Kids (BBK) trial. Simple statistics describing the population, perinatal and postneonatal mortality rates were calculated. Of the adverse pregnancy outcomes (n=79), 29% were spontaneous abortions of <20 weeks gestation, 23% were premature births and 49% were identified birth defects. The perinatal mortality rate was 15.9 per 1,000 births (BB study) compared to 8.6 per 1,000 births (state of MO) and 8.5 per 1,000 births (U.S.) The postneonatal infant mortality rate was 13.4 per 1,000 live births (BBK) compared to 2.1 per 1,000 live births (U.S.). The health disparity in this population of impoverished rural pregnant women who smoke, particular with regard to perinatal and infant deaths, warrants attention. PMID:22371350

  15. The Effects of Education Quality on Income Growth and Mortality Decline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamison, Eliot A.; Jamison, Dean T.; Hanushek, Eric A.

    2007-01-01

    Previous work shows that higher levels of education quality (as measured by international student achievement tests) increase growth rates of national income. This paper begins by confirming those findings in an analysis involving more countries over more time with additional controls. We then use the panel structure of our data to assess whether…

  16. Cluster analysis of social and environment inequalities of infant mortality. A spatial study in small areas revealed by local disease mapping in France.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Cindy M; Deguen, Severine; Lalloue, Benoit; Blanchard, Olivier; Beaugard, Charles; Troude, Florence; Navier, Denis Zmirou; Vieira, Verónica M

    2013-06-01

    Mapping spatial distributions of disease occurrence can serve as a useful tool for identifying exposures of public health concern. Infant mortality is an important indicator of the health status of a population. Recent literature suggests that neighborhood deprivation status can modify the effect of air pollution on preterm delivery, a known risk factor for infant mortality. We investigated the effect of neighborhood social deprivation on the association between exposure to ambient air NO2 and infant mortality in the Lille and Lyon metropolitan areas, north and center of France, respectively, between 2002 and 2009. We conducted an ecological study using a neighborhood deprivation index estimated at the French census block from the 2006 census data. Infant mortality data were collected from local councils and geocoded using the address of residence. We generated maps using generalized additive models, smoothing on longitude and latitude while adjusting for covariates. We used permutation tests to examine the overall importance of location in the model and identify areas of increased and decreased risk. The average death rate was 4.2‰ and 4.6‰ live births for the Lille and Lyon metropolitan areas during the period. We found evidence of statistically significant precise clusters of elevated infant mortality for Lille and an east-west gradient of infant mortality risk for Lyon. Exposure to NO2 did not explain the spatial relationship. The Lille MA, socioeconomic deprivation index explained the spatial variation observed. These techniques provide evidence of clusters of significantly elevated infant mortality risk in relation with the neighborhood socioeconomic status. This method could be used for public policy management to determine priority areas for interventions. Moreover, taking into account the relationship between social and environmental exposure may help identify areas with cumulative inequalities. PMID:23563257

  17. Who cares about health inequalities? Cross-country evidence from the World Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    King, Nicholas B; Harper, Sam; Young, Meredith E

    2013-01-01

    Reduction of health inequalities within and between countries is a global health priority, but little is known about the determinants of popular support for this goal. We used data from the World Health Survey to assess individual preferences for prioritizing reductions in health and health care inequalities. We used descriptive tables and regression analysis to study the determinants of preferences for reducing health inequalities as the primary health system goal. Determinants included individual socio-demographic characteristics (age, sex, urban residence, education, marital status, household income, self-rated health, health care use, satisfaction with health care system) and country-level characteristics [gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, disability-free life expectancy, equality in child mortality, income inequality, health and public health expenditures]. We used logistic regression to assess the likelihood that individuals ranked minimizing inequalities first, and rank-ordered logistic regression to compare the ranking of other priorities against minimizing health inequalities. Individuals tended to prioritize health system goals related to overall improvement (improving population health and health care responsiveness) over those related to equality and fairness (minimizing inequalities in health and responsiveness, and promoting fairness of financial contribution). Individuals in countries with higher GDP per capita, life expectancy, and equality in child mortality were more likely to prioritize minimizing health inequalities. PMID:23059735

  18. The relationship between changes in employment status and mortality risk based on the Korea Labor and Income Panel Study (2003-2008).

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Man; Son, Nak-Hoon; Park, Eun-Cheol; Nam, Chung Mo; Kim, Tae Hyun; Cho, Woo-Hyun

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the mortality rate and changes in employment status. This study used mortality data from the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study. To analyze the relationship between the mortality rate and changes in employment status, the population was classified into employed, unemployed, or economically inactive. Demographic and socioeconomic variables such as gender, age, educational level, annual household income, marital status, and self-rated health status were controlled. In this study, the generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the relationship between the morality rate and the changes in employment status. The mortality rate was higher (odds ratio = 4.31) among the population that experienced a change in economic status from employed to unemployed than those who maintained employment. The mortality rate for the population who became unemployed or economically inactive was higher (odds ratio = 5.05) in cases of death by disease. PMID:23674827

  19. The association between temperature and mortality in tropical middle income Thailand from 1999 to 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawatsupa, Benjawan; Dear, Keith; Kjellstrom, Tord; Sleigh, Adrian

    2014-03-01

    We have investigated the association between tropical weather condition and age-sex adjusted death rates (ADR) in Thailand over a 10-year period from 1999 to 2008. Population, mortality, weather and air pollution data were obtained from four national databases. Alternating multivariable fractional polynomial (MFP) regression and stepwise multivariable linear regression analysis were used to sequentially build models of the associations between temperature variable and deaths, adjusted for the effects and interactions of age, sex, weather (6 variables), and air pollution (10 variables). The associations are explored and compared among three seasons (cold, hot and wet months) and four weather zones of Thailand (the North, Northeast, Central, and South regions). We found statistically significant associations between temperature and mortality in Thailand. The maximum temperature is the most important variable in predicting mortality. Overall, the association is nonlinear U-shape and 31 °C is the minimum-mortality temperature in Thailand. The death rates increase when maximum temperature increase with the highest rates in the North and Central during hot months. The final equation used in this study allowed estimation of the impact of a 4 °C increase in temperature as projected for Thailand by 2100; this analysis revealed that the heat-related deaths will increase more than the cold-related deaths avoided in the hot and wet months, and overall the net increase in expected mortality by region ranges from 5 to 13 % unless preventive measures were adopted. Overall, these results are useful for health impact assessment for the present situation and future public health implication of global climate change for tropical Thailand.

  20. The association between temperature and mortality in tropical middle income Thailand from 1999 to 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawatsupa, Benjawan; Dear, Keith; Kjellstrom, Tord; Sleigh, Adrian

    2012-10-01

    We have investigated the association between tropical weather condition and age-sex adjusted death rates (ADR) in Thailand over a 10-year period from 1999 to 2008. Population, mortality, weather and air pollution data were obtained from four national databases. Alternating multivariable fractional polynomial (MFP) regression and stepwise multivariable linear regression analysis were used to sequentially build models of the associations between temperature variable and deaths, adjusted for the effects and interactions of age, sex, weather (6 variables), and air pollution (10 variables). The associations are explored and compared among three seasons (cold, hot and wet months) and four weather zones of Thailand (the North, Northeast, Central, and South regions). We found statistically significant associations between temperature and mortality in Thailand. The maximum temperature is the most important variable in predicting mortality. Overall, the association is nonlinear U-shape and 31 °C is the minimum-mortality temperature in Thailand. The death rates increase when maximum temperature increase with the highest rates in the North and Central during hot months. The final equation used in this study allowed estimation of the impact of a 4 °C increase in temperature as projected for Thailand by 2100; this analysis revealed that the heat-related deaths will increase more than the cold-related deaths avoided in the hot and wet months, and overall the net increase in expected mortality by region ranges from 5 to 13 % unless preventive measures were adopted. Overall, these results are useful for health impact assessment for the present situation and future public health implication of global climate change for tropical Thailand.

  1. Cause-specific mortality by race in low-income Black and White people with Type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Conway, B N; May, M E; Fischl, A; Frisbee, J; Han, X; Blot, W J

    2015-01-01

    Aim To investigate, with extended follow-up, cause-specific mortality among low-income Black and White Americans with Type 2 diabetes who have similar socio-economic status. Methods Black and White Americans aged 40–79 years with Type 2 diabetes (n = 12 498) were recruited from community health centres as part of the Southern Community Cohort Study. Multivariable Cox analysis was used to estimate mortality hazard ratios and 95% CIs for subsequent cause-specific mortality, based on both underlying and contributing causes of death. Results During the follow-up (median 5.9 years), 13.3% of the study population died. The leading causes of death in each race were ischaemic heart disease, respiratory disorders, cancer, renal failure and heart failure; however, Blacks were at a lower risk of dying from ischaemic heart disease (hazard ratio 0.70, 95% CI 0.54–0.91) or respiratory disorders (hazard ratio 0.70, 0.53–0.92) than Whites but had higher or similar mortality attributable to renal failure (hazard ratio 1.57, 95% CI 1.02–2.40), heart failure (hazard ratio 1.47, 95% CI 0.98–2.19) and cancer (hazard ratio 0.87, 95% CI 0.62–1.22). Risk factors for each cause of death were generally similar in each race. Conclusions These findings suggest that the leading causes of death and their risk factors are largely similar among Black and White Americans with diabetes. For the two leading causes of death in each race, however, ischaemic heart disease and respiratory disorders, the magnitude of risk is lower among Black Americans and contributes to their higher survival rates. PMID:25112863

  2. Inequality in mortality by occupation related to economic crisis from 1980 to 2010 among working-age Japanese males

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Koji; Gilmour, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    The mortality rate for Japanese males aged 30–59 years in managerial and professional spiked in 2000 and remains worse than that of other occupations possibly associated with the economic downturn of the 1990s and the global economic stagnation after 2008. The present study aimed to assess temporal occupation-specific mortality trends from 1980 to 2010 for Japanese males aged 30–59 years for major causes of death. We obtained data from the Occupation-specific Vital Statistics. We calculated age-standardized mortality rates for the four leading causes of death (all cancers, suicide, ischaemic heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease). We used a generalized estimating equation model to determine specific effects of the economic downturn after 2000. The age-standardized mortality rate for the total working-age population steadily declined up to 2010 in all major causes of death except suicide. Managers had a higher risk of mortality in all leading causes of death compared with before 1995. Mortality rates among unemployed people steadily decreased for all cancers and ischaemic heart disease. Economic downturn may have caused the prolonged increase in suicide mortality. Unemployed people did not experience any change in mortality due to suicide and cerebrovascular disease and saw a decline in cancer and ischemic heart disease mortality, perhaps because the basic properties of Japan’s social welfare system were maintained even during economic recession. PMID:26936097

  3. Inequality in mortality by occupation related to economic crisis from 1980 to 2010 among working-age Japanese males.

    PubMed

    Wada, Koji; Gilmour, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    The mortality rate for Japanese males aged 30-59 years in managerial and professional spiked in 2000 and remains worse than that of other occupations possibly associated with the economic downturn of the 1990s and the global economic stagnation after 2008. The present study aimed to assess temporal occupation-specific mortality trends from 1980 to 2010 for Japanese males aged 30-59 years for major causes of death. We obtained data from the Occupation-specific Vital Statistics. We calculated age-standardized mortality rates for the four leading causes of death (all cancers, suicide, ischaemic heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease). We used a generalized estimating equation model to determine specific effects of the economic downturn after 2000. The age-standardized mortality rate for the total working-age population steadily declined up to 2010 in all major causes of death except suicide. Managers had a higher risk of mortality in all leading causes of death compared with before 1995. Mortality rates among unemployed people steadily decreased for all cancers and ischaemic heart disease. Economic downturn may have caused the prolonged increase in suicide mortality. Unemployed people did not experience any change in mortality due to suicide and cerebrovascular disease and saw a decline in cancer and ischemic heart disease mortality, perhaps because the basic properties of Japan's social welfare system were maintained even during economic recession. PMID:26936097

  4. Geographic Inequalities in the Availability of Government-Subsidized Rental Housing for Low-Income Older Persons in Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golant, Stephen M.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: This article investigates the extent to which government-subsidized affordable rental units available to low-income older persons are unequally and unfairly distributed throughout Florida's counties. Design and Methods: Primary data sources from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development and the U.S. Census were analyzed using…

  5. On hunger and child mortality in India.

    PubMed

    Gaiha, Raghav; Kulkarni, Vani S; Pandey, Manoj K; Imai, Katsushi S

    2012-01-01

    Despite accelerated growth there is pervasive hunger, child undernutrition and mortality in India. Our analysis focuses on their determinants. Raising living standards alone will not reduce hunger and undernutrition. Reduction of rural/urban disparities, income inequality, consumer price stabilization, and mothers’ literacy all have roles of varying importance in different nutrition indicators. Somewhat surprisingly, public distribution system (PDS) do not have a significant effect on any of them. Generally, child undernutrition and mortality rise with poverty. Our analysis confirms that media exposure triggers public action, and helps avert child undernutrition and mortality. Drastic reduction of economic inequality is in fact key to averting child mortality, conditional upon a drastic reordering of social and economic arrangements. PMID:22451985

  6. Segregation, income disparities, and survival in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Kimmel, Paul L; Fwu, Chyng-Wen; Eggers, Paul W

    2013-02-01

    Social and ecologic factors, such as residential segregation, are determinants of health in the general population, but how these factors associate with outcomes among patients with ESRD is not well understood. Here, we examined associations of income inequality and residence, as social determinants of health, with survival among black and white patients with ESRD. We merged U.S. Renal Data System data from 589,036 patients who started hemodialysis from 2000 through 2008 with race-specific median household income data from the Census Bureau. We used Gini Index coefficients to assess income distributional inequality and the Dissimilarity Index to determine residential segregation. Black patients lived in areas of lower median household income compared with white patients ($26,742 versus $41,922; P<0.001). Residence in areas with higher median household income was associated with improved survival. Among whites, income inequality was associated with mortality. Among blacks exclusively, residence in highly segregated areas was associated with increased mortality. In conclusion, black hemodialysis patients in the United States are particularly susceptible to gradients in income and residential segregation. Interventions directed at highly segregated black neighborhoods might favorably affect hemodialysis patient outcomes. PMID:23334394

  7. Trends in Global Gender Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorius, Shawn F.; Firebaugh, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates trends in gender inequality throughout the world. Using data encompassing a large majority of the world's population, we examine trends in recent decades for key indicators of gender inequality in education, mortality, political representation and economic activity. We find that gender inequality is declining in virtually…

  8. Individual and area socioeconomic inequalities in cause-specific unintentional injury mortality: 11-year follow-up study of 2.7 million Canadians.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Stephanie; Auger, Nathalie; Gamache, Philippe; Hamel, Denis

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated the association between individual and area socioeconomic status (SES) and leading causes of unintentional injury mortality in Canadian adults. Using the 1991-2001 Canadian Census Mortality Follow-up Study cohort (N=2,735,152), Cox proportional hazard regression was used to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for all-cause unintentional injury, motor vehicle collision (MVC), fall, poisoning, suffocation, fire/burn, and drowning deaths. Results indicated that associations with SES differed by cause of injury, and were generally more pronounced for males. Low education was associated with an elevated risk of mortality from all-cause unintentional injury and MVC (males only) and poisoning and drowning (both sexes). Low income was strongly associated with most causes of injury mortality, particularly fire/burn and poisoning. Having no occupation or low occupational status was associated with higher risks of all-cause injury, fall, poisoning and suffocation (both sexes) and MVC deaths among men. Associations with area deprivation were weak, and only areas with high deprivation had elevated risk of all-cause injury, MVC (males only), poisoning and drowning (both sexes). This study reveals the importance of examining SES differentials by cause of death from a multilevel perspective. Future research is needed to clarify the mechanisms underlying these differences to implement equity-oriented approaches for reducing differential exposures, vulnerability or consequences of injury mortality. PMID:22269490

  9. How Colleges Perpetuate Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacks, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Colleges, once seen as beacons of egalitarian hope, are becoming bastions of wealth and privilege that perpetuate inequality. The chance of a low-income child obtaining a bachelor's degree has not budged in three decades: Just 6 percent of students from the lowest-income families earned a bachelor's degree by age 24 in 1970, and in 2002 still only…

  10. Mortality in the First 3 Months on Antiretroviral Therapy Among HIV-Positive Adults in Low- and Middle-income Countries: A Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Alana T; Long, Lawrence; Useem, Johanna; Garrison, Lindsey; Fox, Matthew P

    2016-09-01

    Previous meta-analyses reported mortality estimates of 12-month post-antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation; however, 40%-60% of deaths occur in the first 3 months on ART, a more sensitive measure of averted deaths through early ART initiation. To determine whether early mortality is dropping as treatment thresholds have increased, we reviewed studies of 3 months on ART initiation in low- to middle-income countries. Studies of 3-month mortality from January 2003 to April 2016 were searched in 5 databases. Articles were included that reported 3-month mortality from a low- to middle-income country; nontrial setting and participants were ≥15. We assessed overall mortality and stratified by year using random effects models. Among 58 included studies, although not significant, pooled estimates show a decline in mortality when comparing studies whose enrollment of patients ended before 2010 (7.0%; 95% CI: 6.0 to 8.0) with the studies during or after 2010 (4.0%; 95% CI: 3.0 to 5.0). To continue to reduce early HIV-related mortality at the population level, intensified efforts to increase demand for ART through active testing and facilitated referral should be a priority. Continued financial investments by multinational partners and the implementation of creative interventions to mitigate multidimensional complex barriers of accessing care and treatment for HIV are needed. PMID:27513571

  11. Psychosocial Functioning and Intelligence Both Partly Explain Socioeconomic Inequalities in Premature Death. A Population-Based Male Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Falkstedt, Daniel; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Hemmingsson, Tomas; Deary, Ian J.; Melin, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Objective The possible contributions of psychosocial functioning and intelligence differences to socioeconomic status (SES)-related inequalities in premature death were investigated. None of the previous studies focusing on inequalities in mortality has included measures of both psychosocial functioning and intelligence. Methods The study was based on a cohort of 49 321 men born 1949–1951 from the general community in Sweden. Data on psychosocial functioning and intelligence from military conscription at ∼18 years of age were linked with register data on education, occupational class, and income at 35–39 years of age. Psychosocial functioning was rated by psychologists as a summary measure of differences in level of activity, power of initiative, independence, and emotional stability. Intelligence was measured through a multidimensional test. Causes of death between 40 and 57 years of age were followed in registers. Results The estimated inequalities in all-cause mortality by education and occupational class were attenuated with 32% (95% confidence interval: 20–45%) and 41% (29–52%) after adjustments for individual psychological differences; both psychosocial functioning and intelligence contributed to account for the inequalities. The inequalities in cardiovascular and injury mortality were attenuated by as much as 51% (24–76%) and 52% (35–68%) after the same adjustments, and the inequalities in alcohol-related mortality were attenuated by up to 33% (8–59%). Less of the inequalities were accounted for when those were measured by level of income, with which intelligence had a weaker correlation. The small SES-related inequalities in cancer mortality were not attenuated by adjustment for intelligence. Conclusions Differences in psychosocial functioning and intelligence might both contribute to the explanation of observed SES-related inequalities in premature death, but the magnitude of their contributions likely varies with measure of socioeconomic

  12. Race/Ethnicity, Primary Language, and Income Are Not Demographic Drivers of Mortality in Breast Cancer Patients at a Diverse Safety Net Academic Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Divya A.; Chudasama, Rani; Agarwal, Ankit; Rand, Alexandar; Qureshi, Muhammad M.; Ngo, Taylor; Hirsch, Ariel E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To examine the impact of patient demographics on mortality in breast cancer patients receiving care at a safety net academic medical center. Patients and Methods. 1128 patients were diagnosed with breast cancer at our institution between August 2004 and October 2011. Patient demographics were determined as follows: race/ethnicity, primary language, insurance type, age at diagnosis, marital status, income (determined by zip code), and AJCC tumor stage. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors related to mortality at the end of follow-up in March 2012. Results. There was no significant difference in mortality by race/ethnicity, primary language, insurance type, or income in the multivariate adjusted model. An increased mortality was observed in patients who were single (OR = 2.36, CI = 1.28–4.37, p = 0.006), age > 70 years (OR = 3.88, CI = 1.13–11.48, p = 0.014), and AJCC stage IV (OR = 171.81, CI = 59.99–492.06, p < 0.0001). Conclusions. In this retrospective study, breast cancer patients who were single, presented at a later stage, or were older had increased incidence of mortality. Unlike other large-scale studies, non-White race, non-English primary language, low income, or Medicaid insurance did not result in worse outcomes. PMID:26605089

  13. Conference on the Trend in Income Inequality in the U.S. Part I, Trends in Inequality of Well-Offness in the United States since World War II. Part 2, Conference Overview: Conceptual Issues, Data Issues, and Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taussig, Michael K.; Danziger, Sheldon

    The first part of this document summarizes the current state of knowledge on trends in inequality of economic well-being in the United States since World War II. It surveys alternative answers to the often asked question: Has inequality in the U.S. increased, decreased, or remained roughly the same over a period of time? Intelligent laymen, and…

  14. Fish, omega-3 long-chain fatty acids, and all-cause mortality in a low-income US population: results from the Southern Community Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, R; Takata, Y; Murff, H; Blot, WJ

    2015-01-01

    Background We examined associations between fish and n-3 LCFA and mortality in a prospective study with a large proportion of blacks with low socio-economic status. Methods and Results We observed 6,914 deaths among 77,604 participants with dietary data (follow-up time 5.5 years). Of these, 77,100 participants had available time-to-event data. We investigated associations between mortality with fish and n-3 LCFA intake, adjusting for age, race, sex, kcals/day, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, income, education, chronic disease, insurance coverage, and meat intake. Intakes of fried fish, baked/grilled fish and total fish, but not tuna, were associated with lower mortality among all participants. Analysis of trends in overall mortality by quintiles of intake showed that intakes of fried fish, baked/grilled fish and total fish, but not tuna, were associated with lower risk of total mortality among all participants. When participants with chronic disease were excluded, the observed association remained only between intakes of baked/grilled fish, while fried fish was associated with lower risk of mortality in participants with prevalent chronic disease. The association between n-3 LCFA intake and lower risk of mortality was significant among those with diabetes at baseline. There was an inverse association of mortality with fried fish intake in men, but not women. Total fish and baked/grilled fish intakes were associated with lower mortality among blacks while fried fish intake was associated with lower mortality among whites. Effect modifications were not statistically significant. Conclusion Our findings suggest a modest benefit of fish consumption on mortality. PMID:26026210

  15. [Social inequalities in cervical cancer mortality in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, 1999-2003 and 2004-2006].

    PubMed

    Martínez, María Laura; Guevel, Carlos Gust

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the spatial distribution of cervical cancer mortality in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires during the period 1999-2003 and its relationship to the socioeconomic conditions of the population, as well as to compare the distribution during this period with that of the triennium 2004-2006. This ecological study used electoral districts as the unit of analysis. The selected socioeconomic indicators were educational deficit, lack of health insurance and the Material Deprivation of Households Index (Índice de Privación Material de Hogares), taken from the National Population and Housing Census (Censo Nacional de Población, Hogares y Viviendas) of 2001. The stratification of the city into areas according to these conditions and the analysis of standardized mortality ratios showed an increased risk of dying from cervical cancer associated with worse socioeconomic conditions. The stratification and death risks demonstrated a clear spatial pattern, with the south of the city presenting the highest death risks, and the northern and central areas presenting the lowest risks. PMID:23989624

  16. Exclusive Breastfeeding and Under-Five Mortality, 2006-2014: A Cross-National Analysis of 57 Low- and-Middle Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Azuine, Romuladus E.; Murray, Janna; Alsafi, Noor; Singh, Gopal K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Few studies have examined the long-term, cross-national, and population-level impacts of exclusive breastfeeding on major global child health indicators. We investigated the overall and independent associations between exclusive breastfeeding and under-five mortality in 57 low- and-middle-income countries. Methods: Data were obtained from the latest World Health Organization, United Nations, and United Nations Children’s Fund databases for 57 low- and middle-income countries covering the periods 2006-2014. Multivariate linear regression was used to estimate the effects of exclusive breastfeeding on under-five mortality after adjusting for differences in socioeconomic, demographic, and health-related factors. Results: In multivariate models, exclusive breastfeeding was independently associated with under-five mortality after adjusting for sociodemographic and health systems-related factors. A 10 percentage-points increase in exclusive breastfeeding was associated with a reduction of 5 child deaths per 1,000 live births. A one-unit increase in Human Development Index was associated with a decrease of 231 under-five child deaths per 1,000 live births. A $100 increase in per capita health care expenditure was associated with a decrease of 2 child deaths per 1,000 live births. One unit increase in physician density was associated with 2.8 units decrease in the under-five mortality rate. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Population-level health system and socioeconomic factors exert considerable effect on the association between exclusive breastfeeding and under-five mortality. Given that the health policy and socioeconomic indicators shown to influence exclusive breastfeeding and under-five mortality are modifiable, policy makers could potentially target specific policies and programs to address national-level deficiencies in these sectors to reduce under-five mortality in their countries.

  17. Urban Inequality. NBER Working Paper No. 14419

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Resseger, Matthew G.; Tobio, Kristina

    2008-01-01

    What impact does inequality have on metropolitan areas? Crime rates are higher in places with more inequality, and people in unequal cities are more likely to say that they are unhappy. There is also a negative association between local inequality and the growth of both income and population, once we control for the initial distribution of skills.…

  18. Measuring total health inequality: adding individual variation to group-level differences

    PubMed Central

    Gakidou, Emmanuela; King, Gary

    2002-01-01

    Background Studies have revealed large variations in average health status across social, economic, and other groups. No study exists on the distribution of the risk of ill-health across individuals, either within groups or across all people in a society, and as such a crucial piece of total health inequality has been overlooked. Some of the reason for this neglect has been that the risk of death, which forms the basis for most measures, is impossible to observe directly and difficult to estimate. Methods We develop a measure of total health inequality – encompassing all inequalities among people in a society, including variation between and within groups – by adapting a beta-binomial regression model. We apply it to children under age two in 50 low- and middle-income countries. Our method has been adopted by the World Health Organization and is being implemented in surveys around the world; preliminary estimates have appeared in the World Health Report (2000). Results Countries with similar average child mortality differ considerably in total health inequality. Liberia and Mozambique have the largest inequalities in child survival, while Colombia, the Philippines and Kazakhstan have the lowest levels among the countries measured. Conclusions Total health inequality estimates should be routinely reported alongside average levels of health in populations and groups, as they reveal important policy-related information not otherwise knowable. This approach enables meaningful comparisons of inequality across countries and future analyses of the determinants of inequality. PMID:12379153

  19. Risk factors for maternal death and trends in maternal mortality in low- and middle-income countries: a prospective longitudinal cohort analysis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Because large, prospective, population-based data sets describing maternal outcomes are typically not available in low- and middle-income countries, it is difficult to monitor maternal mortality rates over time and to identify factors associated with maternal mortality. Early identification of risk factors is essential to develop comprehensive intervention strategies preventing pregnancy-related complications. Our objective was to describe maternal mortality rates in a large, multi-country dataset and to determine maternal, pregnancy-related, delivery and postpartum characteristics that are associated with maternal mortality. Methods We collected data describing all pregnancies from 2010 to 2013 among women enrolled in the multi-national Global Network for Women’s and Children’s Health Research Maternal and Neonatal Health Registry (MNHR). We reported the proportion of mothers who died per pregnancy and the maternal mortality ratio (MMR). Generalized linear models were used to evaluate the relationship of potential medical and social factors and maternal mortality and to develop point and interval estimates of relative risk associated with these factors. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for the correlation of outcomes within cluster to develop appropriate confidence intervals. Results We recorded 277,736 pregnancies and 402 maternal deaths for an MMR of 153/100,000 live births. We observed an improvement in the total MMR from 166 in 2010 to 126 in 2013. The MMR in Latin American sites (91) was lower than the MMR in Asian (178) and African sites (125). When adjusted for study site and the other variables, no formal education (RR 3.2 [1.5, 6.9]), primary education only (RR 3.4 [1.6, 7.5]), secondary education only (RR 2.5 [1.1, 5.7]), lack of antenatal care (RR 1.8 [1.2, 2.5]), caesarean section delivery (RR 1.9 [1.3, 2.8]), hemorrhage (RR 3.3 [2.2, 5.1]), and hypertensive disorders (RR 7.4 [5.2, 10.4]) were associated with higher

  20. Increased Duration of Paid Maternity Leave Lowers Infant Mortality in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, Arijit; Hajizadeh, Mohammad; Harper, Sam; Koski, Alissa; Strumpf, Erin C.; Heymann, Jody

    2016-01-01

    Background Maternity leave reduces neonatal and infant mortality rates in high-income countries. However, the impact of maternity leave on infant health has not been rigorously evaluated in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In this study, we utilized a difference-in-differences approach to evaluate whether paid maternity leave policies affect infant mortality in LMICs. Methods and Findings We used birth history data collected via the Demographic and Health Surveys to assemble a panel of approximately 300,000 live births in 20 countries from 2000 to 2008; these observational data were merged with longitudinal information on the duration of paid maternity leave provided by each country. We estimated the effect of an increase in maternity leave in the prior year on the probability of infant (<1 y), neonatal (<28 d), and post-neonatal (between 28 d and 1 y after birth) mortality. Fixed effects for country and year were included to control for, respectively, unobserved time-invariant confounders that varied across countries and temporal trends in mortality that were shared across countries. Average rates of infant, neonatal, and post-neonatal mortality over the study period were 55.2, 30.7, and 23.0 per 1,000 live births, respectively. Each additional month of paid maternity was associated with 7.9 fewer infant deaths per 1,000 live births (95% CI 3.7, 12.0), reflecting a 13% relative reduction. Reductions in infant mortality associated with increases in the duration of paid maternity leave were concentrated in the post-neonatal period. Estimates were robust to adjustment for individual, household, and country-level characteristics, although there may be residual confounding by unmeasured time-varying confounders, such as coincident policy changes. Conclusions More generous paid maternity leave policies represent a potential instrument for facilitating early-life interventions and reducing infant mortality in LMICs and warrant further discussion in the post-2015

  1. Inequality, deprivation and alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Marmot, M

    1997-03-01

    There are major social inequalities in health within societies. Alcohol and tobacco are major preventable causes of ill health. Using data from the United Kingdom, this paper examines the social distribution of tobacco and alcohol consumption; the role that tobacco and alcohol may play in mediating or modifying social inequalities in health; and the implications of social distribution for policies to reduce harm associated with consumption of alcohol and tobacco. In the United Kingdom, as in many other countries, there is clear inverse association between socio-economic position and consumption of cigarettes. Over the past three decades, the decline in smoking has been more rapid in men and women in higher socio-economic groups. United Kingdom suggest that among employed men and women, the prevalence of non-drinking shows an inverse association with occupational status; heavy drinking differs little; and moderate drinking is more common among those of higher socio-economic status. Smoking accounts for perhaps 25% of the social class difference in coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality, more for lung cancer, less for some other diseases. healthier patterns of drinking may contribute to the lower CHD rates of higher social classes. Although other factors are clearly important in generating social inequalities, it is important to take the social distribution of alcohol and tobacco into account when formulating policy. For cigarette consumption, there is evidence that in lower socio-economic groups demand is more sensitive to price; higher socio-economic groups are more responsive to health education. There has been less research of this nature for alcohol. Available analyses suggest that price responsiveness of heavy drinking may be greatest in young men and in those with lower incomes. A pricing strategy has important equity implications. PMID:9167283

  2. Dementia incidence and mortality in middle-income countries, and associations with indicators of cognitive reserve: a 10/66 Dementia Research Group population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Martin; Acosta, Daisy; Ferri, Cleusa P; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Rodriguez, Juan J Llibre; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Williams, Joseph D; Dewey, Michael E; Acosta, Isaac; Jotheeswaran, Amuthavalli T; Liu, Zhaorui

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Results of the few cohort studies from countries with low incomes or middle incomes suggest a lower incidence of dementia than in high-income countries. We assessed incidence of dementia according to criteria from the 10/66 Dementia Research Group and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) IV, the effect of dementia at baseline on mortality, and the independent effects of age, sex, socioeconomic position, and indicators of cognitive reserve. Methods We did a population-based cohort study of all people aged 65 years and older living in urban sites in Cuba, the Dominican Republic, and Venezuela, and rural and urban sites in Peru, Mexico, and China, with ascertainment of incident 10/66 and DSM-IV dementia 3–5 years after cohort inception. We used questionnaires to obtain information about age in years, sex, educational level, literacy, occupational attainment, and number of household assets. We obtained information about mortality from all sites. For participants who had died, we interviewed a friend or relative to ascertain the likelihood that they had dementia before death. Findings 12 887 participants were interviewed at baseline. 11 718 were free of dementia, of whom 8137 (69%) were reinterviewed, contributing 34 718 person-years of follow-up. Incidence for 10/66 dementia varied between 18·2 and 30·4 per 1000 person-years, and were 1·4–2·7 times higher than were those for DSM-IV dementia (9·9–15·7 per 1000 person-years). Mortality hazards were 1·56–5·69 times higher in individuals with dementia at baseline than in those who were dementia-free. Informant reports suggested a high incidence of dementia before death; overall incidence might be 4–19% higher if these data were included. 10/66 dementia incidence was independently associated with increased age (HR 1·67; 95% CI 1·56–1·79), female sex (0·72; 0·61–0·84), and low education (0·89; 0·81–0·97), but not with occupational attainment (1

  3. Cohort Change and Racial Differences in Educational and Income Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloome, Deirdre; Western, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Policy reforms and rising income inequality transformed educational and economic opportunities for Americans approaching midlife in the 1990s. Rising income inequality may have reduced mobility, as income gaps increased between rich and poor children. Against the effects of rising inequality, Civil Rights reforms may have increased mobility, as…

  4. Reducing neonatal mortality associated with preterm birth: gaps in knowledge of the impact of antenatal corticosteroids on preterm birth outcomes in low-middle income countries.

    PubMed

    McClure, Elizabeth M; Goldenberg, Robert L; Jobe, Alan H; Miodovnik, Menachem; Koso-Thomas, Marion; Buekens, Pierre; Belizan, Jose; Althabe, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The Global Network's Antenatal Corticosteroids Trial (ACT), was a multi-country, cluster-randomized trial to improve appropriate use of antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) in low-resource settings in low-middle income countries (LMIC). ACT substantially increased ACS use in the intervention clusters, but the intervention failed to show benefit in the targeted < 5th percentile birth weight infants and was associated with increased neonatal mortality and stillbirth in the overall population. In this issue are six papers which are secondary analyses related to ACT that explore potential reasons for the increase in adverse outcomes overall, as well as site differences in outcomes. The African sites appeared to have increased neonatal mortality in the intervention clusters while the Guatemalan site had a significant reduction in neonatal mortality, perhaps related to a combination of ACS and improving obstetric care in the intervention clusters. Maternal and neonatal infections were increased in the intervention clusters across all sites and increased infections are a possible partial explanation for the increase in neonatal mortality and stillbirth in the intervention clusters, especially in the African sites. The analyses presented here provide guidance for future ACS trials in LMIC. These include having accurate gestational age dating of study subjects and having care givers who can diagnose conditions leading to preterm birth and predict which women likely will deliver in the next 7 days. All study subjects should be followed through delivery and the neonatal period, regardless of when they deliver. Clearly defined measures of maternal and neonatal infection should be utilized. Trials in low income country facilities including clinics and those without newborn intensive care seem to be of the highest priority. PMID:27221397

  5. Hypoxaemia as a Mortality Risk Factor in Acute Lower Respiratory Infections in Children in Low and Middle-Income Countries: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lazzerini, Marzia; Sonego, Michela; Pellegrin, Maria Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between hypoxaemia and mortality from acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) in children in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Study Selection Observational studies reporting on the association between hypoxaemia and death from ALRI in children below five years in LMIC. Data Sources Medline, Embase, Global Health Library, Lilacs, and Web of Science to February 2015. Risk of Bias Assessment Quality In Prognosis Studies tool with minor adaptations to assess the risk of bias; funnel plots and Egger’s test to evaluate publication bias. Results Out of 11,627 papers retrieved, 18 studies from 13 countries on 20,224 children met the inclusion criteria. Twelve (66.6%) studies had either low or moderate risk of bias. Hypoxaemia defined as oxygen saturation rate (SpO2) <90% associated with significantly increased odds of death from ALRI (OR 5.47, 95% CI 3.93 to 7.63) in 12 studies on 13,936 children. An Sp02 <92% associated with a similar increased risk of mortality (OR 3.66, 95% CI 1.42 to 9.47) in 3 studies on 673 children. Sensitivity analyses (excluding studies with high risk of bias and using adjusted OR) and subgroup analyses (by: altitude, definition of ALRI, country income, HIV prevalence) did not affect results. Only one study was performed on children living at high altitude. Conclusions The results of this review support the routine evaluation of SpO2 for identifying children with ALRI at increased risk of death. Both a Sp02 value of 92% and 90% equally identify children at increased risk of mortality. More research is needed on children living at high altitude. Policy makers in LMIC should aim at improving the regular use of pulse oximetry and the availability of oxygen in order to decrease mortality from ALRI. PMID:26372640

  6. The effectiveness of antenatal care programmes to reduce infant mortality and preterm birth in socially disadvantaged and vulnerable women in high-income countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Infant mortality has shown a steady decline in recent years but a marked socioeconomic gradient persists. Antenatal care is generally thought to be an effective method of improving pregnancy outcomes, but the effectiveness of specific antenatal care programmes as a means of reducing infant mortality in socioeconomically disadvantaged and vulnerable groups of women has not been rigorously evaluated. Methods We conducted a systematic review, focusing on evidence from high income countries, to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative models of organising or delivering antenatal care to disadvantaged and vulnerable groups of women vs. standard antenatal care. We searched Medline, Embase, Cinahl, PsychINFO, HMIC, CENTRAL, DARE, MIDIRS and a number of online resources to identify relevant randomised and observational studies. We assessed effects on infant mortality and its major medical causes (preterm birth, congenital anomalies and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)) Results We identified 36 distinct eligible studies covering a wide range of interventions, including group antenatal care, clinic-based augmented care, teenage clinics, prenatal substance abuse programmes, home visiting programmes, maternal care coordination and nutritional programmes. Fifteen studies had adequate internal validity: of these, only one was considered to demonstrate a beneficial effect on an outcome of interest. Six interventions were considered 'promising'. Conclusions There was insufficient evidence of adequate quality to recommend routine implementation of any of the programmes as a means of reducing infant mortality in disadvantaged/vulnerable women. Several interventions merit further more rigorous evaluation. PMID:21314944

  7. History, haldanes and health inequities: exploring phenotypic changes in body size by generation and income level in the US-born White and Black non-Hispanic populations 1959–1962 to 2005–2008

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, Nancy; Chen, Jarvis T; Waterman, Pamela D; Kosheleva, Anna; Beckfield, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Background Most public health literature on trends in population health and health inequities pertains to observed or targeted changes in rates or proportions per year or decade. We explore, in novel analyses, whether additional insight can be gained by using the ‘haldane’, a metric developed by evolutionary biologists to measure change in traits in standard deviations per generation, thereby enabling meaningful comparisons across species and time periods. Methods We analysed the phenotypic embodied traits of body height, weight and body mass index of US-born White and Black non-Hispanic adults ages 20 to 44 as measured in six large nationally representative population samples spanning from the 1959–1962 National Health Examination Survey I to the 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Setting the former as baseline, we computed the haldane for each outcome for each racial/ethnic group for each survey, overall and stratified by family income quintile. Results For height, high rates of phenotypic change (haldane ≥ 0.3) occurred chiefly between 1960 and 1980, especially for the Black population in the higher income quintiles. By contrast, for weight, high rates of phenotypic change became evident for both the White and Black populations in the late 1980s and increased thereafter; for body mass index, the shift to high rates of change started in both groups in the late 1990s, especially in the middle income quintiles. Conclusions Our results support use of the haldane as a supplemental metric to place changes in population health and health inequities in a larger biological and historical context. PMID:23220719

  8. Financial incentives to influence maternal mortality in a low-income setting: making available ‘money to transport’ – experiences from Amarpatan, India

    PubMed Central

    De Costa, Ayesha; Patil, Rajkumar; Kushwah, Surgiv Singh; Diwan, Vinod Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Only 40.7% women in India deliver in an institution; leaving many vulnerable to maternal morbidity and mortality (India has 22% of global maternal deaths). While limited accessibility to functioning institutions may account in part, a common reason why women deliver at home is poverty. A lack of readily available financial resources for families to draw upon at the time of labor to transport the mother to an institution, is often observed. This paper reports a yearlong collaborative intervention (between the University and Department of Health) to study if providing readily available and easily accessible funds for emergency transportation would reduce maternal deaths in a rural, low income, and high maternal mortality setting in central India. It aimed to obviate a deterrent to emergency obstetric care; the non-availability of resources with mothers when most needed. Issues in implementation are also discussed. Methods Maternal deaths were actively identified in block Amarpatan (0.2 million population) over a 2-year period. The project, with participation from local government and other groups, trained 482 local health care providers (public and private) to provide antenatal care. Emergency transport money (in cash) was placed with one provider in each village. Maternal mortality in the adjacent block (Maihar) was followed (as a ‘control’ block). Results Maternal deaths in Amarpatan decreased during the project year relative to the previous year, or in the control block the same year. Discussion and conclusions Issues in implementation of the cash incentive scheme are discussed. Although the intervention reduced maternal deaths in this low-income setting, chronic poverty and malnutrition are underlying structural problems that need to be addressed. PMID:20027276

  9. Early Mortality in Adults Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMIC): A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Amita; Nadkarni, Girish; Yang, Wei-Teng; Chandrasekhar, Aditya; Gupte, Nikhil; Bisson, Gregory P.; Hosseinipour, Mina; Gummadi, Naveen

    2011-01-01

    Background We systematically reviewed observational studies of early mortality post-antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) in Asia, Africa, and Central and South America, as defined by the World Bank, to summarize what is known. Methods and Findings Studies published in English between January 1996 and December 2010 were searched in Medline and EMBASE. Three independent reviewers examined studies of mortality within one year post-ART. An article was included if the study was conducted in a LMIC, participants were initiating ART in a non-clinical trial setting and were ≥15 years. Fifty studies were included; 38 (76%) from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), 5 (10%) from Asia, 2 (4%) from the Americas, and 5 (10%) were multi-regional. Median follow-up time and pre-ART CD4 cell count ranged from 3–55 months and 11–192 cells/mm3, respectively. Loss-to-follow-up, reported in 40 (80%) studies, ranged from 0.3%–27%. Overall, SSA had the highest pooled 12-month mortality probability of 0.17 (95% CI 0.11–0.24) versus 0.11 (95% CI 0.10–0.13) for Asia, and 0.07 (95% CI 0.007–0.20) for the Americas. Of 14 (28%) studies reporting cause-specific mortality, tuberculosis (TB) (5%–44%), wasting (5%–53%), advanced HIV (20%–37%), and chronic diarrhea (10%–25%) were most common. Independent factors associated with early mortality in 30 (60%) studies included: low baseline CD4 cell count, male sex, advanced World Health Organization clinical stage, low body mass index, anemia, age greater than 40 years, and pre-ART quantitative HIV RNA. Conclusions Significant heterogeneity in outcomes and in methods of reporting outcomes exist among published studies evaluating mortality in the first year after ART initiation in LMIC. Early mortality rates are highest in SSA, and opportunistic illnesses such as TB and wasting syndrome are the most common reported causes of death. Strategies addressing modifiable risk factors associated with early

  10. Secular changes in mortality disparities in New York City: a reexamination.

    PubMed

    Althoff, Keri N; Karpati, Adam; Hero, Joachim; Matte, Thomas D

    2009-09-01

    Previously published analyses showed that inequalities in mortality rates between residents of poor and wealthy neighborhoods in New York City (NYC) narrowed between 1990 and 2000, but these trends may have been influenced by population in-migration and gentrification. The NYC public housing population has been less subject to these population shifts than those in other NYC neighborhoods. We compared changes in mortality rates (MRs) from 1989-1991 to 1999-2001 among residents of NYC census blocks consisting entirely of public housing residences with residents of nonpublic housing low-income and higher-income blocks. Public housing and nonpublic housing low-income blocks were those in census block groups with > or =50% of residents living at <1.5 times the federal poverty level (FPL); nonpublic housing higher-income blocks were those in census block groups with <50% of residents living at <1.5 times the FPL. Information on deaths was obtained from NYC's vital registry, and US Census data were used for denominators. Age-standardized all-cause MRs in public housing, low-income, and higher-income residents decreased between the decades by 16%, 28%, and 22%, respectively. While mortality rate ratios between low-income and higher-income residents narrowed by 8%, the relative disparity between public housing and low-income residents widened by 21%. Diseases amenable to prevention including malignancies, diabetes, and chronic lung disease contributed to the increased overall mortality disparity between public housing and lower-income residents. These findings temper previous findings that inequalities in the health of poor and wealthier NYC neighborhood residents have narrowed. NYC public housing residents should be a high-priority population for efforts to reduce health disparities. PMID:19557518

  11. Widening Socioeconomic and Racial Disparities in Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in the United States, 1969-2013

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gopal K.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Azuine, Romuladus E.; Williams, Shanita D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined trends and socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in the United States between 1969 and 2013. Methods: National vital statistics data and the National Longitudinal Mortality Study were used to estimate racial/ethnic and area- and individual-level socioeconomic disparities in CVD mortality over time. Rate ratios and log-linear regression were used to model mortality trends and differentials. Results: Between 1969 and 2013, CVD mortality rates decreased by 2.66% per year for whites and 2.12% for blacks. Racial disparities and socioeconomic gradients in CVD mortality increased substantially during the study period. In 2013, blacks had 30% higher CVD mortality than whites and 113% higher mortality than Asians/Pacific Islanders. Compared to those in the most affluent group, individuals in the most deprived area group had 11% higher CVD mortality in 1969 but 40% higher mortality in 2007-2011. Education, income, and occupation were inversely associated with CVD mortality in both men and women. Men and women with low education and incomes had 46-76% higher CVD mortality risks than their counterparts with high education and income levels. Men in clerical, service, farming, craft, repair, construction, and transport occupations, and manual laborers had 30-58% higher CVD mortality risks than those employed in executive and managerial occupations. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Socioeconomic and racial disparities in CVD mortality are marked and have increased over time because of faster declines in mortality among the affluent and majority populations. Disparities in CVD mortality may reflect inequalities in the social environment, behavioral risk factors such as smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, disease prevalence, and healthcare access and treatment. With rising prevalence of many chronic disease risk factors, the global burden of cardiovascular diseases is expected to increase

  12. [Inequalities in health in Italy].

    PubMed

    Caiazzo, Antonio; Cardano, Mario; Cois, Ester; Costa, Giuseppe; Marinacci, Chiara; Spadea, Teresa; Vannoni, Francesca; Venturini, Lorenzo

    2004-01-01

    Socioeconomic inequality and its impact on health is a growing concern in the European public health debate. In many countries, the issue is moving away from description towards the identification of the determinants of inequalities and the development of policies explicitly aimed at reducing inequalities in health. In Italy, ten years after the publication of the first report on inequalities in health, this topic is seldom present on the agenda of public policy makers. The purpose of this report is to update the Italian profile of social variation in health and health care in order to stimulate the debate on ways to tackle inequalities in health that are preventable. In the first section of this book, the threefold objective is to describe the principal mechanisms involved in the generation of social inequalities in health (Introduction); to report Italian data on the distribution and magnitude of this phenomenon in the last decade; and to evaluate policies and interventions in both the social (chapter 1.9, Section I) and the health sector (chapter 2.3, Section I), which are potentially useful to reduce health inequalities. It is intended for anyone who is in a position to contribute t o decision-making that will benefit the health of communities. For this reason, chapters are organized by specific determinants of inequalities on which interentions may have an impact. The methodological approach in the second section focuses on the best methods to monitor social inequalities including recommendations on social indicators, sources of information and study models, based on European guidelines revised for the Italian situation. According to data from national and local studies, mortality increases linearly with social disadvantage for a wide range of indicators at both the individual (education, social class, income, quality of housing) and the geographical level (deprivation indexes computed at different levels of aggregation). This positive correlation is evident

  13. Universal patterns of inequality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Anand; Yakovenko, Victor M.

    2010-07-01

    Probability distributions of money, income and energy consumption per capita are studied for ensembles of economic agents. The principle of entropy maximization for partitioning of a limited resource gives exponential distributions for the investigated variables. A non-equilibrium difference of money temperatures between different systems generates net fluxes of money and population. To describe income distribution, a stochastic process with additive and multiplicative components is introduced. The resultant distribution interpolates between exponential at the low end and power law at the high end, in agreement with the empirical data for the USA. We show that the increase in income inequality in the USA originates primarily from the increase in the income fraction going to the upper tail, which now exceeds 20% of the total income. Analyzing the data from the World Resources Institute, we find that the distribution of energy consumption per capita around the world can be approximately described by the exponential function. Comparing the data for 1990, 2000 and 2005, we discuss the effect of globalization on the inequality of energy consumption.

  14. The demographics of inequality.

    PubMed

    Pestieau, P

    1989-01-01

    "This paper presents a survey of recent literature on the effects of demographic variables on economic inequality. First, a number of conceptual and methodological questions are raised and discussed. They pertain to what is meant by inequality, what the range of demographic variables is, and how variable and endogenous are the demographic variables most widely used. The paper then turns to a review of empirical works on the distributive incidence of the following demographic variables: baby boomers entering the job market, aging population, variable fertility and mortality rates, internal and external migrations, divorce and widowhood, and finally donations and bequests. It appears that a lot of caution is needed when assessing the incidence of any demographic variable changing the size of the population because in this case standard inequality measures yield conflicting signals." The geographical focus is on developed countries. PMID:12315947

  15. A population-based, multifaceted strategy to implement antenatal corticosteroid treatment versus standard care for the reduction of neonatal mortality due to preterm birth in low-income and middle-income countries: the ACT cluster-randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Althabe, Fernando; Belizán, José M; McClure, Elizabeth M; Hemingway-Foday, Jennifer; Berrueta, Mabel; Mazzoni, Agustina; Ciganda, Alvaro; Goudar, Shivaprasad S; Kodkany, Bhalachandra S; Mahantshetti, Niranjana S; Dhaded, Sangappa M; Katageri, Geetanjali M; Metgud, Mrityunjay C; Joshi, Anjali M; Bellad, Mrutyunjaya B; Honnungar, Narayan V; Derman, Richard J; Saleem, Sarah; Pasha, Omrana; Ali, Sumera; Hasnain, Farid; Goldenberg, Robert L; Esamai, Fabian; Nyongesa, Paul; Ayunga, Silas; Liechty, Edward A; Garces, Ana L; Figueroa, Lester; Hambidge, K Michael; Krebs, Nancy F; Patel, Archana; Bhandarkar, Anjali; Waikar, Manjushri; Hibberd, Patricia L; Chomba, Elwyn; Carlo, Waldemar A; Mwiche, Angel; Chiwila, Melody; Manasyan, Albert; Pineda, Sayury; Meleth, Sreelatha; Thorsten, Vanessa; Stolka, Kristen; Wallace, Dennis D; Koso-Thomas, Marion; Jobe, Alan H; Buekens, Pierre M

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Antenatal corticosteroids for pregnant women at risk of preterm birth are among the most effective hospital-based interventions to reduce neonatal mortality. We aimed to assess the feasibility, effectiveness, and safety of a multifaceted intervention designed to increase the use of antenatal corticosteroids at all levels of health care in low-income and middle-income countries. Methods In this 18-month, cluster-randomised trial, we randomly assigned (1:1) rural and semi-urban clusters within six countries (Argentina, Guatemala, India, Kenya, Pakistan, and Zambia) to standard care or a multifaceted intervention including components to improve identification of women at risk of preterm birth and to facilitate appropriate use of antenatal corticosteroids. The primary outcome was 28-day neonatal mortality among infants less than the 5th percentile for birthweight (a proxy for preterm birth) across the clusters. Use of antenatal corticosteroids and suspected maternal infection were additional main outcomes. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01084096. Findings The ACT trial took place between October, 2011, and March, 2014 (start dates varied by site). 51 intervention clusters with 47 394 livebirths (2520 [5%] less than 5th percentile for birthweight) and 50 control clusters with 50 743 livebirths (2258 [4%] less than 5th percentile) completed follow-up. 1052 (45%) of 2327 women in intervention clusters who delivered less-than-5th-percentile infants received antenatal corticosteroids, compared with 215 (10%) of 2062 in control clusters (p<0·0001). Among the less-than-5th-percentile infants, 28-day neonatal mortality was 225 per 1000 livebirths for the intervention group and 232 per 1000 livebirths for the control group (relative risk [RR] 0·96, 95% CI 0·87–1·06, p=0·65) and suspected maternal infection was reported in 236 (10%) of 2361 women in the intervention group and 133 (6%) of 2094 in the control group (odds ratio

  16. Are tuition-free primary education policies associated with lower infant and neonatal mortality in low- and middle-income countries?

    PubMed

    Quamruzzaman, Amm; Mendoza Rodríguez, José M; Heymann, Jody; Kaufman, Jay S; Nandi, Arijit

    2014-11-01

    Robust evidence from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) suggests that maternal education is associated with better child health outcomes. However, whether or not policies aimed at increasing access to education, including tuition-free education policies, contribute to lower infant and neonatal mortality has not been empirically tested. We joined country-level data on national education policies for 37 LMICs to information on live births to young mothers aged 15-21 years, who were surveyed as part of the population-based Demographic and Health Surveys. We used propensity scores to match births to mothers who were exposed to a tuition-free primary education policy with births to mothers who were not, based on individual-level, household, and country-level characteristics, including GDP per capita, urbanization, and health expenditures per capita. Multilevel logistic regression models, fitted using generalized estimating equations, were used to estimate the effect of exposure to tuition-free primary education policies on the risk of infant and neonatal mortality. We also tested whether this effect was modified by household socioeconomic status. The propensity score matched samples for analyses of infant and neonatal mortality comprised 24,396 and 36,030 births, respectively, from 23 countries. Multilevel regression analyses showed that, on average, exposure to a tuition-free education policy was associated with 15 (95% CI=-32, 1) fewer infant and 5 (95% CI=-13, 4) fewer neonatal deaths per 1000 live births. We found no strong evidence of heterogeneity of this effect by socioeconomic level. PMID:25243641

  17. INEQUITY IN THE FACE OF DEATH.

    PubMed

    García-Gómez, Pilar; Schokkaert, Erik; Van Ourti, Tom; Bago d'Uva, Teresa

    2014-07-30

    We apply the theory of inequality of opportunity to the measurement of inequity in mortality. Using a rich data set linking records of mortality and health events to survey data on lifestyles for the Netherlands (1998-2007), we test the sensitivity of estimated inequity to different normative choices and conclude that the location of the responsibility cut is of vital importance. Traditional measures of inequity (such as socioeconomic and regional inequalities) only capture part of more comprehensive notions of unfairness. We show that distinguishing between different routes via which variables might be associated to mortality is essential to the application of different normative positions. Using the fairness gap (direct unfairness), measured inequity according to our implementation of the 'control' and 'preference' approaches ranges between 0.0229 and 0.0239 (0.0102-0.0218), while regional and socioeconomic inequalities are smaller than 0.0020 (0.0001). The usual practice of standardizing for age and gender has large effects on measured inequity. Finally, we use our model to measure inequity in simulated counterfactual situations. While it is a big challenge to identify all causal relationships involved in this empirical context, this does not affect our main conclusions regarding the importance of normative choices in the measurement of inequity. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25073459

  18. Vaccination greatly reduces disease, disability, death and inequity worldwide.

    PubMed

    Andre, F E; Booy, R; Bock, H L; Clemens, J; Datta, S K; John, T J; Lee, B W; Lolekha, S; Peltola, H; Ruff, T A; Santosham, M; Schmitt, H J

    2008-02-01

    In low-income countries, infectious diseases still account for a large proportion of deaths, highlighting health inequities largely caused by economic differences. Vaccination can cut health-care costs and reduce these inequities. Disease control, elimination or eradication can save billions of US dollars for communities and countries. Vaccines have lowered the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma and will control cervical cancer. Travellers can be protected against "exotic" diseases by appropriate vaccination. Vaccines are considered indispensable against bioterrorism. They can combat resistance to antibiotics in some pathogens. Noncommunicable diseases, such as ischaemic heart disease, could also be reduced by influenza vaccination. Immunization programmes have improved the primary care infrastructure in developing countries, lowered mortality in childhood and empowered women to better plan their families, with consequent health, social and economic benefits. Vaccination helps economic growth everywhere, because of lower morbidity and mortality. The annual return on investment in vaccination has been calculated to be between 12% and 18%. Vaccination leads to increased life expectancy. Long healthy lives are now recognized as a prerequisite for wealth, and wealth promotes health. Vaccines are thus efficient tools to reduce disparities in wealth and inequities in health. PMID:18297169

  19. The Geography of Gender Inequality

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Brendan; Naidoo, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Reducing gender inequality is a major policy concern worldwide, and one of the Sustainable Development Goals. However, our understanding of the magnitude and spatial distribution of gender inequality results either from limited-scale case studies or from national-level statistics. Here, we produce the first high resolution map of gender inequality by analyzing over 689,000 households in 47 countries. Across these countries, we find that male-headed households have, on average, 13% more asset wealth and 303% more land for agriculture than do female-headed households. However, this aggregate global result masks a high degree of spatial heterogeneity, with bands of both high inequality and high equality apparent in countries and regions of the world. Further, areas where inequality is highest when measured by land ownership generally are not the same areas that have high inequality as measured by asset wealth. Our metrics of gender inequality in land and wealth are not strongly correlated with existing metrics of poverty, development, and income inequality, and therefore provide new information to increase the understanding of one critical dimension of poverty across the globe. PMID:26930356

  20. The Geography of Gender Inequality.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Brendan; Naidoo, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Reducing gender inequality is a major policy concern worldwide, and one of the Sustainable Development Goals. However, our understanding of the magnitude and spatial distribution of gender inequality results either from limited-scale case studies or from national-level statistics. Here, we produce the first high resolution map of gender inequality by analyzing over 689,000 households in 47 countries. Across these countries, we find that male-headed households have, on average, 13% more asset wealth and 303% more land for agriculture than do female-headed households. However, this aggregate global result masks a high degree of spatial heterogeneity, with bands of both high inequality and high equality apparent in countries and regions of the world. Further, areas where inequality is highest when measured by land ownership generally are not the same areas that have high inequality as measured by asset wealth. Our metrics of gender inequality in land and wealth are not strongly correlated with existing metrics of poverty, development, and income inequality, and therefore provide new information to increase the understanding of one critical dimension of poverty across the globe. PMID:26930356

  1. Inequalities in care in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, Shabnam; Simms, Alexander; Batin, Phillip; Kurian, John; Gale, Chris P

    2015-01-01

    Coronary heart disease is the single largest cause of death in developed countries. Guidelines exist for the management of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), yet despite these, significant inequalities exist in the care of these patients. The elderly, deprived socioeconomic groups, females and non-caucasians are the patient populations where practice tends to deviate more frequently from the evidence base. Elderly patients often had higher mortality rates after having an AMI compared to younger patients. They also tended to present with symptoms that were not entirely consistent with an AMI, thus partially contributing to the inequalities in care that is seen between younger and older patients. Furthermore the lack of guidelines in the elderly age group presenting with AMI can often make decision making challenging and may account for the discrepancies in care that are prevalent between younger and older patients. Other patients such as those from a lower socioeconomic group, i.e., low income and less than high school education often had poorer health and reduced life expectancy compared to patients from a higher socioeconomic group after an AMI. Lower socioeconomic status was also seen to be contributing to racial and geographical variation is the care in AMI patients. Females with an AMI were treated less aggressively and had poorer outcomes when compared to males. However even when females were treated in the same way they continued to have higher in hospital mortality which suggests that gender may well account for differences in outcomes. The purpose of this review is to identify the inequalities in care for patients who present with an AMI and explore potential reasons for why these occur. Greater attention to the management and a better understanding of the root causes of these inequalities in care may help to reduce morbidity and mortality rates associated with AMI. PMID:26730295

  2. Socioeconomic differences in alcohol-attributable mortality compared with all-cause mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Probst, Charlotte; Roerecke, Michael; Behrendt, Silke; Rehm, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Factors underlying socioeconomic inequalities in mortality are not well understood. This study contributes to our understanding of potential pathways to result in socioeconomic inequalities, by examining alcohol consumption as one potential explanation via comparing socioeconomic inequalities in alcohol-attributable mortality and all-cause mortality. Methods: Web of Science, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and ETOH were searched systematically from their inception to second week of February 2013 for articles reporting alcohol-attributable mortality by socioeconomic status, operationalized by using information on education, occupation, employment status or income. The sex-specific ratios of relative risks (RRRs) of alcohol-attributable mortality to all-cause mortality were pooled for different operationalizations of socioeconomic status using inverse-variance weighted random effects models. These RRRs were then combined to a single estimate. Results: We identified 15 unique papers suitable for a meta-analysis; capturing about 133 million people, 3 741 334 deaths from all causes and 167 652 alcohol-attributable deaths. The overall RRRs amounted to RRR = 1.78 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.43 to 2.22) and RRR = 1.66 (95% CI 1.20 to 2.31), for women and men, respectively. In other words: lower socioeconomic status leads to 1.5–2-fold higher mortality for alcohol-attributable causes compared with all causes. Conclusions: Alcohol was identified as a factor underlying higher mortality risks in more disadvantaged populations. All alcohol-attributable mortality is in principle avoidable, and future alcohol policies must take into consideration any differential effect on socioeconomic groups. PMID:24618188

  3. Educational Inequalities in the Transition to Adulthood in Belgium: The Impact of Intergenerational Mobility on Young-Adult Mortality in 2001-2009

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have focused on the association between parental and personal socioeconomic position (SEP) and health, with mixed results depending on the specific health outcome, research methodology and population under study. In the last decades, a growing interest is given to the influence of intergenerational mobility on several health outcomes at young ages. This study addresses the following research question: Is educational intergenerational mobility associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in young adulthood? To this end, the Belgian 1991 and 2001 censuses are used, providing characteristics of young persons at two time points (T1 = 01/03/91;T2 = 01/10/01) and follow-up information on mortality and emigration between T2 and 31/12/09 (T3). The study population consists of all official inhabitants of Flanders and the Brussels-Capital Region at T2, born between 1972 and 1982 and alive at T2. Parental and personal education are divided into primary (PE), lower secondary (LSE), higher secondary (HSE) and higher education (HE). We analyse mortality between T2 and T3 calculating age-standardised mortality rates (ASMRs) and using Cox regression (hazard ratios = HR). Personal rather than parental education determines the observed mortality rates, with high all-cause mortality rates among those with PE, irrespective of parental education (e.g., among men ASMRPE-PE = 200.0 [95% CI 158.0–241.9]; ASMRHE-PE = 319.7 [183.2–456.3]) and low all-cause mortality among those in higher education, regardless of parental education (ASMRPE-HE = 41.7 [30.8–52.6]; ASMRHE-HE = 38.0 [33.2–42.8]). There is some variation by gender and according to cause of death. This study shows the strong association between personal education and young-adult mortality. PMID:26657691

  4. Non-Medical Risk Factors as Avoidable Determinants of Excess Mortality in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease. A Prospective Cohort Study in Nicaragua, a Model Low Income Country

    PubMed Central

    Edefonti, Alberto; Galán, Yajaira Silva; Sandoval Díaz, Mabel; Medina Manzanarez, Marta; Marra, Giuseppina; Robusto, Fabio; Tognoni, Gianni; Sereni, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Background The widely recognized clinical and epidemiological relevance of the socioeconomic determinants of health-disease conditions is expected to be specifically critical in terms of chronic diseases in fragile populations in low-income countries. However, in the literature, there is a substantial gap between the attention directed towards the medical components of these problems and the actual adoption of strategies aimed at providing solutions for the associated socioeconomic determinants, especially in pediatric populations. We report a prospective outcome study on the independent contribution and reciprocal interaction of the medical and socioeconomic factors to the hard end-point of mortality in a cohort of children with chronic kidney disease in Nicaragua. Methods and Findings Every child (n = 309) diagnosed with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and referred to the tertiary unit of Pediatric Nephrology in Managua (Nicaragua) from a network of nine hospitals serving 80% of the country’s pediatric population was registered between January 2005 and December 2013. The three main socioeconomic determinants evaluated were family income, living conditions and the family’s level of education. Further potential determinants of the outcomes included duration of exposure to disease, CKD stage at the first visit as suggested by the KDOQI guidelines in children, the time it took the patients to reach the reference centre and rural or urban context of life. Well-defined and systematically collected medical and socioeconomic data were available for 257 children over a mean follow-up period of 2.5±2.5 years. Mortality and lost to follow-up were considered as outcome end-points both independently and in combination, because of the inevitably progressive nature of the disease. A high proportion (55%) of children presented in the advanced stages of CKD (CKD stage IV and V) at the first visit. At the end of follow-up, 145 (57%) of the 257 cohort children were alive, 47 (18

  5. Poverty and health sector inequalities.

    PubMed Central

    Wagstaff, Adam

    2002-01-01

    Poverty and ill-health are intertwined. Poor countries tend to have worse health outcomes than better-off countries. Within countries, poor people have worse health outcomes than better-off people. This association reflects causality running in both directions: poverty breeds ill-health, and ill-health keeps poor people poor. The evidence on inequalities in health between the poor and non-poor and on the consequences for impoverishment and income inequality associated with health care expenses is discussed in this article. An outline is given of what is known about the causes of inequalities and about the effectiveness of policies intended to combat them. It is argued that too little is known about the impacts of such policies, notwithstanding a wealth of measurement techniques and considerable evidence on the extent and causes of inequalities. PMID:11953787

  6. Trends in child mortality in India.

    PubMed

    Behl, A S

    2013-01-01

    To assess Indias recent trends in child mortality rates and disparities and identify ways to reduce child mortality and wealth-related health disparities, we analyzed three years of data from Indias National Family Health Survey related to child mortality. Nationally, declines in average child mortality were statistically significant, but declines in inequality were not. Urban areas had lower child mortality rates than rural areas but higher inequalities. Interstate differences in child mortality rates were significant, with rates in the highest-mortality states four to six times higher than in the lowest-mortality states. However, child mortality in most states declined. PMID:23396786

  7. Impact of Education on the Income of Different Social Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yue, Changjun; Liu, Yanping

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates, statistically and econometrically, the income level, income inequality, education inequality, and the relationship between education and income of different social groups, on the basis of the Chinese Urban Household Survey conducted in 2005, the Gini coefficient and the quartile regression method. Research findings…

  8. From cradle to grave: tracking socioeconomic inequalities in mortality in a cohort of 11 868 men and women born in Uppsala, Sweden, 1915–1929

    PubMed Central

    Juárez, Sol P; Koupil, Ilona

    2016-01-01

    Background Ample evidence has shown that early-life social conditions are associated with mortality later in life. However, little attention has been given to the strength of these effects across specific age intervals from birth to old age. In this paper, we study the effect of the family's socioeconomic position and mother's marital status at birth on all-cause mortality at different age intervals in a Swedish cohort of 11 868 individuals followed across their lifespan. Methods Using the Uppsala Birth Cohort Multigenerational Study, we fitted Cox regression models to estimate age-varying HRs of all-cause mortality according to mother's marital status and family's socioeconomic position. Results Mother's marital status and family's socioeconomic position at birth were associated with higher mortality rates throughout life (HR 1.18 (95% CI 1.12 to 1.26) for unmarried mothers; 1.19 (95% CI 1.12 to 1.25) for low socioeconomic position). While the effect of family's socioeconomic position showed little variation across different age groups, the effect of marital status was stronger for infant mortality (HR 1.47 (95% CI 1.23 to 1.76); p=0.04 for heterogeneity). The results remained robust when early life and adult mediator variables were included. Conclusions Family's socioeconomic position and mother's marital status involve different dimensions of social stratification with independent effects on mortality throughout life. Our findings support the importance of improving early-life conditions in order to enhance healthy ageing. PMID:26733672

  9. Economic Inequalities in Latin America at the Base of Adverse Health Indicators.

    PubMed

    Ferre, Juan Cruz

    2016-07-01

    There is increasing evidence supporting the existence of a link between income inequalities and health outcomes. The main purpose of this article is to test whether economic inequalities are associated with poor population health in Latin American countries. Multi-country data from 1970 to 2012 were used to assess this question. The results show that the Gini coefficient has a strong correlation with health outcomes. Moreover, multiple linear regression analysis using fixed effects shows that after controlling for gross national income per capita, literacy rate, and health expenditure, the Gini coefficient is independently negatively associated with health outcomes. In Latin American countries, for every percentage point increase in the Gini coefficient, the infant mortality rate grows by 0.467 deaths per 1,000 live births, holding all other variables constant. Additionally, an ordinary least squares estimation model suggests that countries that do not use International Monetary Fund loans perform better on health outcomes. These findings should alert policymakers, elected officials, and the public of the need to fight income inequalities and rethink the role of international financial institutions that dictate state policies. PMID:27287670

  10. Inequality aversion and voting on redistribution☆

    PubMed Central

    Höchtl, Wolfgang; Sausgruber, Rupert; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    2012-01-01

    Some people have a concern for a fair distribution of incomes while others do not. Does such a concern matter for majority voting on redistribution? Fairness preferences are relevant for redistribution outcomes only if fair-minded voters are pivotal. Pivotality, in turn, depends on the structure of income classes. We experimentally study voting on redistribution between two income classes and show that the effect of inequality aversion is asymmetric. Inequality aversion is more likely to matter if the “rich” are in majority. With a “poor” majority, we find that redistribution outcomes look as if all voters were exclusively motivated by self-interest. PMID:23564967

  11. Are the Poor Dying Younger in Malaysia? An Examination of the Socioeconomic Gradient in Mortality

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Socioeconomic inequalities in health represent unfairness in the health distribution of a population. Efforts to produce information on mortality distributions in many low and middle income countries (LMICs) are mostly hampered by lack of data disaggregated by socioeconomic groups. In this paper we describe how mortality statistics obtained from multiple data sources were combined to provide an evaluation of the socioeconomic distribution of mortality in Malaysia, a LMIC located in the Asia Pacific region. Methods This study has an ecological design. As a measure of socioeconomic status, we used principal component analysis to construct a socioeconomic index using census data. Districts were ranked according to the standardised median index of households and assigned to each individual in the 5-year mortality data. The mortality indicators of interest were potential years of life lost (PYLL), standardised mortality ratio (SMR), infant mortality rate (IMR) and under-5 mortality rate (U5MR). Both socioeconomic status and mortality outcomes were used compute the concentration index which provided the summary measure of the magnitude of inequality. Results Socially disadvantaged districts were found to have worse mortality outcomes compared to more advantaged districts. The values of the concentration index for the overall population of the Peninsula are C = -0.1334 (95% CI: -0.1605 to -0.1063) for the PYLL, C = -0.0685 (95% CI: -0.0928 to -0.0441) for the SMR, C = -0.0997 (95% CI: -0.1343 to -0.0652) for the IMR and C = -0.1207 (95% CI: -0.1523 to -0.0891) for the U5MR. Mortality outcomes within ethnic groups were also found to be less favourable among the poor. Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that socioeconomic inequalities disfavouring the poor exist in Malaysia. PMID:27362581

  12. Visualizing inequality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2016-07-01

    The study of socioeconomic inequality is of substantial importance, scientific and general alike. The graphic visualization of inequality is commonly conveyed by Lorenz curves. While Lorenz curves are a highly effective statistical tool for quantifying the distribution of wealth in human societies, they are less effective a tool for the visual depiction of socioeconomic inequality. This paper introduces an alternative to Lorenz curves-the hill curves. On the one hand, the hill curves are a potent scientific tool: they provide detailed scans of the rich-poor gaps in human societies under consideration, and are capable of accommodating infinitely many degrees of freedom. On the other hand, the hill curves are a powerful infographic tool: they visualize inequality in a most vivid and tangible way, with no quantitative skills that are required in order to grasp the visualization. The application of hill curves extends far beyond socioeconomic inequality. Indeed, the hill curves are highly effective 'hyperspectral' measures of statistical variability that are applicable in the context of size distributions at large. This paper establishes the notion of hill curves, analyzes them, and describes their application in the context of general size distributions.

  13. Ecological context of infant mortality in high-focus states of India

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This goal of this study was to shed light on the ecological context as a potential determinant of the infant mortality rate in nine high-focus states in India. METHODS: Data from the Annual Health Survey (2010-2011), the Census of India (2011), and the District Level Household and Facility Survey 3 (2007-08) were used in this study. In multiple regression analysis explanatory variable such as underdevelopment is measured by the non-working population, and income inequality, quantified as the proportion of households in the bottom wealth quintile. While, the trickle-down effect of education is measured by female literacy, and investment in health, as reflected by neonatal care facilities in primary health centres. RESULTS: A high spatial autocorrelation of district infant mortality rates was observed, and ecological factors were found to have a significant impact on district infant mortality rates. The result also revealed that non-working population and income inequality were found to have a negative effect on the district infant mortality rate. Additionally, female literacy and new-born care facilities were found to have an inverse association with the infant mortality rate. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions at the community level can reduce district infant mortality rates. PMID:26971696

  14. 50-year trends in US socioeconomic inequalities in health: US-born Black and White Americans, 1959–2008

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, Nancy; Kosheleva, Anna; Waterman, Pamela D; Chen, Jarvis T; Beckfield, Jason; Kiang, Mathew V

    2014-01-01

    Background: Debates exist over whether health inequities are bound to rise as population health improves, due to health improving more quickly among the better off, with most analyses focused on mortality data. Methods: We analysed 50 years of socioeconomic inequities in measured health status among US-born Black and White Americans, using data from the National Health Examination Surveys (NHES) I-III (1959–70), National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) I-III (1971–94) and NHANES 1999–2008. Results: Absolute US socioeconomic health inequities for income percentile and education variously decreased (serum cholesterol; childhood height), stagnated [systolic blood pressure (SBP)], widened [body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC)] and in some cases reversed (age at menarche), even as on-average values rose (BMI, WC), idled (childhood height) and fell (SBP, serum cholesterol, age at menarche), with patterns often varying by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic measure; similar results occurred for relative inequities. For example, for WC, the adverse 20th (low) vs 80th (high) income percentile gap increased only among Whites (NHES I: 0.71 cm [95% confidence interval (CI) −0.74, 2.16); NHANES 2005–08: 2.10 (95% CI 0.96, 3.62)]. By contrast, age at menarche for girls in the 20th vs 80th income percentile among Black girls remained consistently lower, by 0.34 years (95% CI 0.12, 0.55) whereas among White girls the initial null difference became inverse [NHANES 2005–08: −0.49 years (95% CI −0.86, −0.12; overall P = 0.0015)]. Adjusting for socioeconomic position only modestly altered Black/White health inequities. Conclusions: Health inequities need not rise as population health improves. PMID:24639440

  15. The syndemics of childhood diarrhoea: A biosocial perspective on efforts to combat global inequities in diarrhoea-related morbidity and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Bulled, Nicola; Singer, Merrill; Dillingham, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Diarrhoea remains the second leading cause of death in children under 5 years. Moreover, morbidity as a result of diarrhoea is high particularly in marginalized communities. Frequent bouts of diarrhoea have deleterious and irreversible effects on physical and cognitive development. Children are especially vulnerable given their inability to mount an active immune response to pathogen exposure. Biological limitations are exacerbated by the long term effects of poverty, including reduced nutrition, poor hygiene, and deprived home environments. Drawing from available literature, this paper uses syndemic theory to explore the role of adverse biosocial interactions in increasing the total disease burden of enteric infections in low-resources populations and assess the limitations of recent global calls to action. The syndemic perspective describes situations in which adverse social conditions, including inequality, poverty, and other forms of political and economic oppression, play a critical role in facilitating disease-disease interactions. Given the complex micro and macro nature of childhood diarrhoea including interactions between pathogens, disease conditions and social environments, the syndemic perspective offers a way forward. While rarely the focus of health interventions, technologically advanced biomedical strategies are likely to be more effective if coupled with interventions that address the social conditions of disparity. PMID:25005132

  16. Health inequalities in Germany: do regional-level variables explain differentials in cardiovascular risk?

    PubMed Central

    Breckenkamp, Juergen; Mielck, Andreas; Razum, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic status is a predictor not only of mortality, but also of cardiovascular risk and morbidity. An ongoing debate in the field of social inequalities and health focuses on two questions: 1) Is individual health status associated with individual income as well as with income inequality at the aggregate (e. g. regional) level? 2) If there is such an association, does it operate via a psychosocial pathway (e.g. stress) or via a "neo-materialistic" pathway (e.g. systematic under-investment in societal infrastructures)? For the first time in Germany, we here investigate the association between cardiovascular health status and income inequality at the area level, controlling for individual socio-economic status. Methods Individual-level explanatory variables (age, socio-economic status) and outcome data (body mass index, blood pressure, cholesterol level) as well as the regional-level variable (proportion of relative poverty) were taken from the baseline survey of the German Cardiovascular Prevention Study, a cross-sectional, community-based, multi-center intervention study, comprising six socio-economically diverse intervention regions, each with about 1800 participants aged 25–69 years. Multilevel modeling was used to examine the effects of individual and regional level variables. Results Regional effects are small compared to individual effects for all risk factors analyzed. Most of the total variance is explained at the individual level. Only for diastolic blood pressure in men and for cholesterol in both men and women is a statistically significant effect visible at the regional level. Conclusion Our analysis does not support the assumption that in Germany cardiovascular risk factors were to a large extent associated with income inequality at regional level. PMID:17603918

  17. Disaggregating health inequalities within Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2002-2010, by applying an urban health inequality index

    PubMed Central

    Bortz, Martin; Kano, Megumi; Ramroth, Heribert; Barcellos, Christovam; Weaver, Scott R.; Rothenberg, Richard; Magalhães, Monica

    2016-01-01

    An urban health index (UHI) was used to quantify health inequalities within Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, for the years 2002-2010. Eight main health indicators were generated at the ward level using mortality data. The indicators were combined to form the index. The distribution of the rank ordered UHI-values provides information on inequality among wards, using the ratio of the extremes and the gradient of the middle values. Over the decade the ratio of extremes in 2010 declined relative to 2002 (1.57 vs. 1.32) as did the slope of the middle values (0.23 vs. 0.16). A spatial division between the affluent south and the deprived north and east is still visible. The UHI correlated on an ecological ward-level with socioeconomic and urban environment indicators like square meter price of apartments (0.54, p < 0.01), low education of mother (-0.61, p < 0.01), low income (-0.62, p < 0.01) and proportion of black ethnicity (-0.55, p < 0.01). The results suggest that population health and equity have improved in Rio de Janeiro in the last decade though some familiar patterns of spatial inequality remain. PMID:26648367

  18. Inequity in Access to Guideline-Recommended Colorectal Cancer Treatment in Nova Scotia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Maddison, André R.; Asada, Yukiko; Urquhart, Robin; Johnston, Grace; Burge, Frederick; Porter, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    Cancer continues to be one of the heaviest burdens of disease in Canada, and assessing potential inequities in access to cancer care may serve as a barometer of the health of Canadian health systems. This study tackled three limitations of the current literature by clearly differentiating between inequality and inequity, by assessing inequity in receipt of care and wait times for care, and by taking advantage of inequity indices to enhance comparability of inequities between studies and populations. We measured income-, age-, sex- and distance-related inequities among colorectal cancer (CRC) patients in Nova Scotia by accounting for clinical guidelines and patient need. Results reveal statistically significant inequity in access to chemotherapy and radiotherapy for CRC by age, sex and distance, but not income. This study demonstrates the importance of carefully examining inequity in access to cancer care and highlights one method to report and compare inequities with conceptual clarity. PMID:23968617

  19. Inequality measures perform differently in global and local assessments: An exploratory computational experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Yen-Sheng

    2015-11-01

    Inequality measures are widely used in both the academia and public media to help us understand how incomes and wealth are distributed. They can be used to assess the distribution of a whole society-global inequality-as well as inequality of actors' referent networks-local inequality. How different is local inequality from global inequality? Formalizing the structure of reference groups as a network, the paper conducted a computational experiment to see how the structure of complex networks influences the difference between global and local inequality assessed by a selection of inequality measures. It was found that local inequality tends to be higher than global inequality when population size is large; network is dense and heterophilously assorted, and income distribution is less dispersed. The implications of the simulation findings are discussed.

  20. Ways by Which Comparable Income Affects Life Satisfaction in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Chau-kiu; Leung, Kwan-kwok

    2008-01-01

    Proponents of social equality attribute low life satisfaction to income inequality in society, an inequality which occurs when most people have relatively low income and only a few have high income. In contrast, range-frequency theory and other social comparison theories predict that when most people have low income, they are satisfied because of…

  1. Mortality Risk Among Black and White Working Women: The Role of Perceived Work Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Shippee, Tetyana P.; Rinaldo, Lindsay; Ferraro, Kenneth F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Drawing from cumulative inequality theory, the authors examine the relationship between perceived work trajectories and mortality risk among Black and White women over 36 years. Method Panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women (1967-2003) are used to evaluate how objective and subjective elements of work shape mortality risk for Black and White women born between 1923 and 1937. Results Estimates from Cox proportional hazards models reveal that Black working women manifest higher mortality risk than White working women even after accounting for occupation, personal income, and household wealth. Perceived work trajectories were also associated with mortality risk for Black women but not for White women. Discussion The findings reveal the imprint of women’s work life on mortality, especially for Black women, and illustrate the importance of considering personal meanings associated with objective work characteristics. PMID:21956101

  2. Institutional contexts and mortality: the case of Peru.

    PubMed

    Andes, N

    1992-10-01

    "This analysis examines the institutional context of infant mortality in Peru using economic, social, health care, and public health measures as indicators of development and equity. Using linked data from population and economic censuses, government agencies, and health surveys on twenty-four Peruvian provinces, I explore how economic development and institutional contexts influence health outcomes. Regional inequities based on rural population, subsistence activity, women's illiteracy, monthly income, Gross Domestic Product, medical care, and health facilities are compared. Then a cluster analysis identifies institutional contexts that have internal similarities.... My conclusion is that understanding regional inequities--defined in terms of economic development, social institutions, and health services--leads to enhanced explanations of disparities in health outcomes." PMID:12318543

  3. Beyond inequality: Acknowledging the complexity of social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Eckersley, Richard

    2015-12-01

    The impact of inequality on health is gaining more attention as public and political concern grows over increasing inequality. The income inequality hypothesis, which holds that inequality is detrimental to overall population health, is especially pertinent. However the emphasis on inequality can be challenged on both empirical and theoretical grounds. Empirically, the evidence is contradictory and contested; theoretically, it is inconsistent with our understanding of human societies as complex systems. Research and discussion, both scientific and political, need to reflect better this complexity, and give greater recognition to other social determinants of health. PMID:26560411

  4. Income Elasticity Literature Review

    EPA Science Inventory

    Following advice from the SAB Council, when estimating the economic value of reductions in air pollution-related mortality and morbidity risk, EPA accounts for the effect of personal income on the willingness to pay to reduce the risk of adverse health outcomes. These income grow...

  5. Associations between hair cortisol concentration, income, income dynamics and status incongruity in healthy middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Serwinski, Bianca; Salavecz, Gyöngyvér; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    A body of research demonstrates that financial disadvantage is associated with general health inequalities and higher mortality rates. Most studies make use of cross-sectional analyses, although income can also be viewed as a dynamic concept. The use of endocrine-markers as proxies for health can provide information about the pathways involved in these associations. Hair cortisol analysis has been developed as a method for assessing sustained cortisol output as it provides an estimate of cumulative cortisol secretion over a prolonged time. The present study assessed income and income trajectory over a 4-year period in 164 working women (aged 26-65) in relation to hair cortisol in a longitudinal design. A negative association between hair cortisol and concurrent income was found (p=0.025) and hair cortisol and changes in income over 4 years (p<0.001), after adjustment for age, BMI, smoking status, hair treatment and country. Status incongruity, a mismatch between educational status and income group, was related to higher cortisol levels compared with status congruity (p=0.009). These findings suggest that psychoneuroendocrinological pathways might partially explain the relationship between lower socio-economic status and adverse health outcomes. Future longitudinal research using hair cortisol analysis is warranted to clarify the time course of social mobility in relation to long-term cortisol, to investigate other underlying psychosocial factors implicated in these associations, and to determine the exact health implications of the neuroendocrine perturbations in individuals with limited economic resources. PMID:26923848

  6. Symbolic Capital, Consumption, and Health Inequality

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Research on economic inequalities in health has been largely polarized between psychosocial and neomaterial approaches. Examination of symbolic capital—the material display of social status and how it is structurally constrained—is an underutilized way of exploring economic disparities in health and may help to resolve the existing theoretical polarization. In contemporary society, what people do with money and how they consume and display symbols of wealth may be as important as income itself. After tracing the historical rise of consumption in capitalist society and its interrelationship with economic inequality, I discuss evidence for the role of symbolic capital in health inequalities and suggest directions for future research. PMID:21164087

  7. Noncontextuality Inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spekkens, Robert

    2010-03-01

    The Bell-Kochen-Specker theorem demonstrates that the predictions of quantum theory are inconsistent with a noncontextual hidden variable model. Significantly, the notion of noncontextuality to which it appeals is only well-defined for models of quantum theory as opposed to models of an arbitrary physical theory and then only for projective measurements and deterministic models thereof. By contrast, the notion of local causality introduced by Bell is not so restricted in its scope. In this talk, I present an operational definition of noncontextuality that recovers the traditional notion as a special case and allows one to define ``noncontextuality inequalities'' for experimental statistics. I will demonstrate that a particular two-party information-processing task, ``parity-oblivious multiplexing,'' is powered by contextuality in the sense that there is an inequality that bounds its performance in noncontextual models, and I will report on an experimental violation of this inequality in good agreement with the quantum predictions. Joint work with Daniel Buzacott, Tony Keehn, Ben Toner and Geoff Pryde.

  8. STRUCTURAL RACISM AND HEALTH INEQUITIES

    PubMed Central

    Gee, Gilbert C.; Ford, Chandra L.

    2014-01-01

    Racial minorities bear a disproportionate burden of morbidity and mortality. These inequities might be explained by racism, given the fact that racism has restricted the lives of racial minorities and immigrants throughout history. Recent studies have documented that individuals who report experiencing racism have greater rates of illnesses. While this body of research has been invaluable in advancing knowledge on health inequities, it still locates the experiences of racism at the individual level. Yet, the health of social groups is likely most strongly affected by structural, rather than individual, phenomena. The structural forms of racism and their relationship to health inequities remain under-studied. This article reviews several ways of conceptualizing structural racism, with a focus on social segregation, immigration policy, and intergenerational effects. Studies of disparities should more seriously consider the multiple dimensions of structural racism as fundamental causes of health disparities. PMID:25632292

  9. Inequality reversal: Effects of the savings propensity and correlated returns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Anindya S.; Chakrabarti, Bikas K.

    2010-09-01

    In the last decade, a large body of literature has been developed to explain the universal features of inequality in terms of income and wealth. By now, it is established that the distributions of income and wealth in various economies show a number of statistical regularities. There are several models to explain such static features of inequality in a unifying framework, and the kinetic exchange models in particular provide one such framework. Here we focus on the dynamic features of inequality. In the process of development and growth, inequality in an economy in terms of income and wealth follows a particular pattern of rising in the initial stage followed by an eventual fall. This inverted U-shaped curve is known as the Kuznets Curve. We examine the possibilities of such behavior of an economy in the context of a generalized kinetic exchange model. It is shown that under some specific conditions, our model economy indeed shows inequality reversal.

  10. Deepening Disparity: Income Equality in New York City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Mark; Grote, Mae Watson; Levin-Waldman, Oren M.

    Analysis of the Current Population Survey data for New York City reveals that the economic growth of the 1990s increased the income of families across the earnings spectrum nationally; however, earnings among families in the top quintile outpaced other quintiles, leading to an increase in income inequality. This inequality was substantially…

  11. Poverty, inequality and a political economy of mental health.

    PubMed

    Burns, J K

    2015-04-01

    The relationship between poverty and mental health is indisputable. However, to have an influence on the next set of sustainable global development goals, we need to understand the causal relationships between social determinants such as poverty, inequality, lack of education and unemployment; thereby clarifying which aspects of poverty are the key drivers of mental illness. Some of the major challenges identified by Lund (2014) in understanding the poverty-mental health relationship are discussed including: the need for appropriate poverty indicators; extending this research agenda to a broader range of mental health outcomes; the need to engage with theoretical concepts such as Amartya Sen's capability framework; and the need to integrate the concept of income/economic inequality into studies of poverty and mental health. Although income inequality is a powerful driver of poor physical and mental health outcomes, it features rarely in research and discourse on social determinants of mental health. This paper interrogates in detail the relationships between poverty, income inequality and mental health, specifically: the role of income inequality as a mediator of the poverty-mental health relationship; the relative utility of commonly used income inequality metrics; and the likely mechanisms underlying the impact of inequality on mental health, including direct stress due to the setting up of social comparisons as well as the erosion of social capital leading to social fragmentation. Finally, we need to interrogate the upstream political, social and economic causes of inequality itself, since these should also become potential targets in efforts to promote sustainable development goals and improve population (mental) health. In particular, neoliberal (market-oriented) political doctrines lead to both increased income inequality and reduced social cohesion. In conclusion, understanding the relationships between politics, poverty, inequality and mental health

  12. Neonatal mortality: an invisible and marginalised trauma

    PubMed Central

    Målqvist, Mats

    2011-01-01

    Neonatal mortality is a major health problem in low and middle income countries and the rate of improvement of newborn survival is slow. This article is a review of the PhD thesis by Mats Målqvist, titled ‘Who can save the unseen – Studies on neonatal mortality in Quang Ninh province, Vietnam,’ from Uppsala University. The thesis aims to investigate structural barriers to newborn health improvements and determinants of neonatal death. The findings reveal a severe under-reporting of neonatal deaths in the official health statistics in Quang Ninh province in northern Vietnam. The neonatal mortality rate (NMR) found was four times higher than what was reported to the Ministry of Health. This underestimation of the problem inhibits adequate interventions and efforts to improve the survival of newborns and highlights the invisibility of this vulnerable group. The findings of the thesis also point at an inequity in survival chances based on ethnicity of the mother. Newborns of ethnic minority mothers were at a twofold risk of dying within the first 4 weeks of life compared to their peers belonging to the hegemonic group of Kinh (OR 2.08, 95% CI: 1.39–3.10). This increased risk was independent of maternal education and household economic status. Neonatal mortality was also associated with home deliveries, non-attendance to antenatal care and distance to the health care facilities. However, ethnic minority mothers still had an increased risk of experiencing a neonatal death even if they attended antenatal care, delivered at, or lived close to a health facility. This example of ethnic inequity highlights the importance to target those most in need. PMID:21423597

  13. [Social inequalities in maternal health].

    PubMed

    Azria, E; Stewart, Z; Gonthier, C; Estellat, C; Deneux-Tharaux, C

    2015-10-01

    Although medical literature on social inequalities in perinatal health is qualitatively heterogeneous, it is quantitatively important and reveals the existence of a social gradient in terms of perinatal risk. However, published data regarding maternal health, if also qualitatively heterogeneous, are relatively less numerous. Nevertheless, it appears that social inequalities also exist concerning severe maternal morbidity as well as maternal mortality. Analyses are still insufficient to understand the mechanisms involved and explain how the various dimensions of the women social condition interact with maternal health indicators. Inadequate prenatal care and suboptimal obstetric care may be intermediary factors, as they are related to both social status and maternal outcomes, in terms of maternal morbidity, its worsening or progression, and maternal mortality. PMID:26433316

  14. Economic Inequality and Higher Education: Access, Persistence, and Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickert-Conlin, Stacy, Ed.; Rubenstein, Ross, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    The vast disparities in college attendance and graduation rates between students from different class backgrounds is a growing social concern. "Economic Inequality and Higher Education" investigates the connection between income inequality and unequal access to higher education, and proposes solutions that the state and federal governments and…

  15. The Sources of American Inequality, 1896-1948.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Jeffrey G.

    This paper discusses American long-term experience with changes in the distribution of income since the turn of the century. It supplies quantitative documentation of a pronunced secular swing in inequality. Inequality indicators were on the rise up to 1914, exhibited no trend to 1926 or 1929, and traced out a well known egalitatian leveling up to…

  16. New report highlights epidemic of tobacco and global health inequalities

    Cancer.gov

    A new set of 11 global health studies calls attention to the burden of tobacco-related inequalities in low- and middle-income countries and finds that socioeconomic inequalities are associated with increased tobacco use, second-hand smoke exposure and tob

  17. Stillbirths: recall to action in high-income countries.

    PubMed

    Flenady, Vicki; Wojcieszek, Aleena M; Middleton, Philippa; Ellwood, David; Erwich, Jan Jaap; Coory, Michael; Khong, T Yee; Silver, Robert M; Smith, Gordon C S; Boyle, Frances M; Lawn, Joy E; Blencowe, Hannah; Leisher, Susannah Hopkins; Gross, Mechthild M; Horey, Dell; Farrales, Lynn; Bloomfield, Frank; McCowan, Lesley; Brown, Stephanie J; Joseph, K S; Zeitlin, Jennifer; Reinebrant, Hanna E; Ravaldi, Claudia; Vannacci, Alfredo; Cassidy, Jillian; Cassidy, Paul; Farquhar, Cindy; Wallace, Euan; Siassakos, Dimitrios; Heazell, Alexander E P; Storey, Claire; Sadler, Lynn; Petersen, Scott; Frøen, J Frederik; Goldenberg, Robert L

    2016-02-13

    Variation in stillbirth rates across high-income countries and large equity gaps within high-income countries persist. If all high-income countries achieved stillbirth rates equal to the best performing countries, 19,439 late gestation (28 weeks or more) stillbirths could have been avoided in 2015. The proportion of unexplained stillbirths is high and can be addressed through improvements in data collection, investigation, and classification, and with a better understanding of causal pathways. Substandard care contributes to 20-30% of all stillbirths and the contribution is even higher for late gestation intrapartum stillbirths. National perinatal mortality audit programmes need to be implemented in all high-income countries. The need to reduce stigma and fatalism related to stillbirth and to improve bereavement care are also clear, persisting priorities for action. In high-income countries, a woman living under adverse socioeconomic circumstances has twice the risk of having a stillborn child when compared to her more advantaged counterparts. Programmes at community and country level need to improve health in disadvantaged families to address these inequities. PMID:26794070

  18. Health, Wealth and Wisdom: Exploring Multidimensional Inequality in a Developing Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Therese

    2010-01-01

    Despite a broad theoretical literature on multidimensional inequality and a widespread belief that welfare is not synonymous to income--not the least in a developing context--empirical inequality examinations rarely includes several welfare attributes. We explore three techniques on how to evaluate multidimensional inequality using Zambian…

  19. Inequality--"Wicked Problems", Labour Market Outcomes and the Search for Silver Bullets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keep, Ewart; Mayhew, Ken

    2014-01-01

    In recent years concerns about inequality have been growing in prominence within UK policy debates. The many causes of inequality of earnings and income are complex in their interactions and their tendency to reinforce one another. This makes inequality an intractable or "wicked" policy problem, particularly within a contemporary context…

  20. Neonatal mortality and coverage of essential newborn interventions 2010 - 2013: a prospective, population-based study from low-middle income countries

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Approximately 3 million neonatal deaths occur each year worldwide. Simple interventions have been tested and found to be effective in reducing the neonatal mortality. In order to effectively implement public health interventions, it is important to know the rates of neonatal mortality and understand the contributing risk factors. Hence, this prospective, population-based, observational study was carried out to inform these needs. Methods The Global Network’s Maternal Newborn Health Registry was initiated in the seven sites in 2008. Registry administrators (RAs) attempt to identify and enroll all eligible women by 20 weeks gestation and collect basic health data, and outcomes after delivery and at 6 weeks post-partum. All study data were collected, reviewed, and edited by staff at each study site. The study was reviewed and approved by each sites’ ethics review committee. Results Overall, the 7-day neonatal mortality rate (NMR) was 20.6 per 1000 live births and the 28-day NMR was 25.7 per 1000 live births. Higher neonatal mortality was associated with maternal age > 35 and <20 years relative to women 20-35 years of age. Preterm births were at increased risk of both early and 28-day neonatal mortality (RR 8.1, 95% CI 7.5-8.8 and 7.5, 95% CI 6.9-8.1) compared to term as were those with low birth weight (<2500g). Neonatal resuscitation rates were 4.8% for hospital deliveries compared to 0.9% for home births. In the hospital, 26.5% of deliveries were by cesarean section with an overall cesarean section rate of 12.5%. Neonatal mortality rates were highest in the Pakistan site and lowest in Argentina. Conclusions Using prospectively collected data with high follow up rates (99%), we documented characteristics associated with neonatal mortality. Low birth weight and prematurity are among the strongest predictors of neonatal mortality. Other risk factors for neonatal deaths included male gender, multiple gestation and major congenital anomalies. Breech

  1. Quantum Griffiths Inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyao, Tadahiro

    2016-07-01

    We present a general framework of Griffiths inequalities for quantum systems. Our approach is based on operator inequalities associated with self-dual cones and provides a consistent viewpoint of the Griffiths inequality. As examples, we discuss the quantum Ising model, quantum rotor model, Bose-Hubbard model, and Hubbard model. We present a model-independent structure that governs the correlation inequalities.

  2. Quantum Griffiths Inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyao, Tadahiro

    2016-06-01

    We present a general framework of Griffiths inequalities for quantum systems. Our approach is based on operator inequalities associated with self-dual cones and provides a consistent viewpoint of the Griffiths inequality. As examples, we discuss the quantum Ising model, quantum rotor model, Bose-Hubbard model, and Hubbard model. We present a model-independent structure that governs the correlation inequalities.

  3. The Association Between Income and Life Expectancy in the United States, 2001–2014

    PubMed Central

    Chetty, Raj; Stepner, Michael; Abraham, Sarah; Lin, Shelby; Scuderi, Benjamin; Turner, Nicholas; Bergeron, Augustin; Cutler, David

    2016-01-01

    Importance The relationship between income and mortality is well established but remains poorly understood. Objectives To measure the level, temporal trend, and geographic variability in the association between income and life expectancy, and identify factors related to small area variation in this association. Design and Setting Income data for the US population were obtained from 1.4 billion de-identified tax records between 1999 and 2014. Mortality data were obtained from Social Security Administration death records. These data were used to estimate race- and ethnicity-adjusted life expectancy at 40 years of age by household income percentile, sex, and geographic area, and to evaluate factors associated with differences in life expectancy. Main Outcomes and Measures Relationship between income and life expectancy; trends in life expectancy by income group; geographic variation in life expectancy levels and trends by income group; and factors associated with differences in life expectancy across areas. Results The sample consisted of 1 408 287 218 person-year observations (mean age at which individuals were analyzed, 53.0 years; median household earnings among working individuals, $61 175 per year [mean, $97 725 per year]). Among those aged 40 to 76 years, there were 4 114 380 deaths among men (mortality rate, 596.3 per 100 000) and 2 694 808 deaths among women (mortality rate, 375.1 per 100 000). The analysis yielded four results. First, higher income was associated with greater longevity throughout the income distribution. The gap in life expectancy between the richest 1% and poorest 1% of individuals was 14.6 years (95% CI, 14.4 to 14.8 years) for men and 10.1 years (95% CI, 9.9 to 10.3 years) for women. Second, inequality in life expectancy increased over time. Between 2001 and 2014, life expectancy increased by 2.34 years for men and 2.91 years for women in the top 5% of the income distribution, but increased by only 0.32 years for men and 0.04 years for

  4. Education, Inequality and Erosion of Social Cohesion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Andy

    2009-01-01

    Income inequality has been rising in Britain for two decades and wealth is also more unequally distributed now than when New Labour first came to power. Various factors have contributed to this, including education which, according to the PISA 2006 data, has more unequal outcomes in the UK than in all but 2 of the 29 tested countries. Comparative…

  5. Home-based neonatal care by community health workers for preventing mortality in neonates in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gogia, S; Sachdev, H P S

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this review is to assess the effect of home-based neonatal care provided by community health workers (CHWs) for preventing neonatal, infant and perinatal mortality in resource-limited settings with poor access to health facility-based care. The authors conducted a systematic review, including meta-analysis and meta-regression of controlled trials. The data sources included electronic databases, with a hand search of reviews, abstracts and proceedings of conferences to search for randomized, or cluster randomized, controlled trials evaluating the effect of home-based neonatal care provided by CHWs for preventing neonatal, infant and perinatal mortality. Among the included trials, all from South Asian countries, information on neonatal, infant and perinatal mortality was available in five, one and three trials, respectively. The intervention package comprised three components, namely, home visits during pregnancy (four trials), home-based preventive and/or curative neonatal care (all trials) and community mobilization efforts (four trials). Intervention was associated with a reduced risk of mortality during the neonatal (random effects model relative risk (RR) 0.75; 95% confidence intervals (CIs) 0.61 to 0.92, P=0.005; I(2)=82.2%, P<0.001 for heterogeneity; high-quality evidence) and perinatal periods (random effects model RR 0.78; 95% CI 0.64 to 0.94, P=0.009; I(2)=79.6%, P=0.007 for heterogeneity; high-quality evidence). In one trial, a significant decline in infant mortality (RR 0.85; 95% CI 0.77 to 0.94) was documented. Subgroup and meta-regression analyses suggested a greater effect with a higher baseline neonatal mortality rate. The authors concluded that home-based neonatal care is associated with a reduction in neonatal and perinatal mortality in South Asian settings with high neonatal-mortality rates and poor access to health facility-based care. Adoption of a policy of home-based neonatal care provided by CHWs is justified in such settings

  6. Home-based neonatal care by community health workers for preventing mortality in neonates in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Gogia, S; Sachdev, H P S

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this review is to assess the effect of home-based neonatal care provided by community health workers (CHWs) for preventing neonatal, infant and perinatal mortality in resource-limited settings with poor access to health facility-based care. The authors conducted a systematic review, including meta-analysis and meta-regression of controlled trials. The data sources included electronic databases, with a hand search of reviews, abstracts and proceedings of conferences to search for randomized, or cluster randomized, controlled trials evaluating the effect of home-based neonatal care provided by CHWs for preventing neonatal, infant and perinatal mortality. Among the included trials, all from South Asian countries, information on neonatal, infant and perinatal mortality was available in five, one and three trials, respectively. The intervention package comprised three components, namely, home visits during pregnancy (four trials), home-based preventive and/or curative neonatal care (all trials) and community mobilization efforts (four trials). Intervention was associated with a reduced risk of mortality during the neonatal (random effects model relative risk (RR) 0.75; 95% confidence intervals (CIs) 0.61 to 0.92, P=0.005; I2=82.2%, P<0.001 for heterogeneity; high-quality evidence) and perinatal periods (random effects model RR 0.78; 95% CI 0.64 to 0.94, P=0.009; I2=79.6%, P=0.007 for heterogeneity; high-quality evidence). In one trial, a significant decline in infant mortality (RR 0.85; 95% CI 0.77 to 0.94) was documented. Subgroup and meta-regression analyses suggested a greater effect with a higher baseline neonatal mortality rate. The authors concluded that home-based neonatal care is associated with a reduction in neonatal and perinatal mortality in South Asian settings with high neonatal-mortality rates and poor access to health facility-based care. Adoption of a policy of home-based neonatal care provided by CHWs is justified in such settings

  7. Wealth and mortality at older ages: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Demakakos, Panayotes; Biddulph, Jane P; Bobak, Martin; Marmot, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the importance of socioeconomic position for survival, total wealth, which is a measure of accumulation of assets over the life course, has been underinvestigated as a predictor of mortality. We investigated the association between total wealth and mortality at older ages. Methods We estimated Cox proportional hazards models using a sample of 10 305 community-dwelling individuals aged ≥50 years from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Results 2401 deaths were observed over a mean follow-up of 9.4 years. Among participants aged 50–64 years, the fully adjusted HRs for mortality were 1.21 (95% CI 0.92 to 1.59) and 1.77 (1.35 to 2.33) for those in the intermediate and lowest wealth tertiles, respectively, compared with those in the highest wealth tertile. The respective HRs were 2.54 (1.27 to 5.09) and 3.73 (1.86 to 7.45) for cardiovascular mortality and 1.36 (0.76 to 2.42) and 2.53 (1.45 to 4.41) for other non-cancer mortality. Wealth was not associated with cancer mortality in the fully adjusted model. Similar but less strong associations were observed among participants aged ≥65 years. The use of repeated measurements of wealth and covariates brought about only minor changes, except for the association between wealth and cardiovascular mortality, which became less strong in the younger participants. Wealth explained the associations between paternal occupation at age 14 years, education, occupational class, and income and mortality. Conclusions There are persisting wealth inequalities in mortality at older ages, which only partially are explained by established risk factors. Wealth appears to be more strongly associated with mortality than other socioeconomic position measures. PMID:26511887

  8. Asset Inequality and Economic Activity in Artificial Societies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Toshiko

    In this paper, using multi-agent simulations, the effect asset inequality has on an artificial society is analyzed. It is shown that it is possible for a sustainable society to decrease in asset inequality and at the same time increase economic activity. In sustainable societies, the asset inequality increases as the consumption tax rate is raised, and in artificial societies where the tax rate is the same, inequality increases in the society in which agents with even small a surplus undertake unselfish actions. In sustainable societies which employ both income and consumption tax, an increase in asset inequalities leads to an increase economic activity. But, in sustainable societies which levy only the income tax, this result does not necessarily hold. These results show that if economic activity is increased in sustainable societies where the consumption tax rate is raised for the fiscal stability, an inequality expansion is an acceptable consequence. However, the sustainable society with the highest economic activity is realized when only the income tax is levied. In sustainable societies which levy only the income tax, it is possible to decrease inequality while simultaneously increasing economic activity.

  9. Econophysics of Income and Wealth Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Bikas K.; Chakraborti, Anirban; Chakravarty, Satya R.; Chatterjee, Arnab

    2013-03-01

    1. Introduction; 2. Income and wealth distribution data for different countries; 3. Major socio-economic modellings; 4. Market exchanges and scattering process; 5. Analytic structure of the kinetic exchange market models; 6. Microeconomic foundation of the kinetic exchange models; 7. Dynamics: generation of income, inequality and development; 8. Outlook; References; Index.

  10. CROSS-NATIONAL SOURCES OF HEALTH INEQUALITY: EDUCATION AND TOBACCO USE IN THE WORLD HEALTH SURVEY*

    PubMed Central

    Pampel, Fred C.; Denney, Justin T.; Krueger, Patrick M.

    2012-01-01

    The spread of tobacco use from the West to other parts of the world, especially among disadvantaged socioeconomic groups, raises concerns not only about the indisputable harm to global health but also about worsening health inequality. Arguments relating to economic cost and diffusion posit that rising educational disparities in tobacco use—and associated disparities in health and premature mortality—are associated with higher national income and more advanced stages of cigarette diffusion, particularly among younger persons and males. To test these arguments, we use World Health Survey data for 99,661 men and 123,953 women from 50 low-income to upper-middle-income nations. Multilevel logistic regression models show that increases in national income and cigarette diffusion widen educational disparities in smoking among young persons and men, but have weaker influences among older persons and women. The results suggest that the social and economic patterns of cigarette adoption across low- and middle-income nations foretell continuing, perhaps widening disparities in mortality. PMID:21491184

  11. From general discrimination to segmented inequality: Migration and inequality in urban China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yao; Wang, Feng

    2013-11-01

    Internal migration in China during the last three decades, the largest in human history, offers a rare opportunity to understand inequalities in the making. Using data spanning 10years from China's largest metropolis, Shanghai, this study assesses how enduring state institutions interplay with the spread of market forces to shape income inequality between migrants and native urban workers. Though the wages of both Chinese migrants and urban workers rose considerably, economic restructuring during the decade under study resulted in diminished privileges for urbanites and subsequently increased collision between migrants and urban workers in the private sectors. These shifts, rather than substantially reducing inequality, have led to an evolving form of inequality, from an initial general blatant discrimination against migrants across the board, to a new and more subtle form of inequality characterized by substantial segmented discrimination against migrants within economic sectors, with the degree of inequality varying from sector to sector. We discuss how this changing inequality reflects complementary rather than competing roles of the state and market institutions in inequality creation and maintenance. PMID:24090844

  12. Meeting the emerging challenge of breast and cervical cancer in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Knaul, Felicia M; Bhadelia, Afsan; Gralow, Julie; Arreola-Ornelas, Héctor; Langer, Ana; Frenk, Julio

    2012-10-01

    Cancer, particularly when it affects women and reproductive health, epitomizes the complexities and inequities of the epidemiological challenge faced by low- and middle-income countries. Women in resource-poor settings face a double cancer burden: the backlog of preventable cancer, and the emerging challenge of cancers that cannot be prevented but whose impact could be dramatically reduced through early detection and treatment. Disparities in cancer incidence, mortality, and other health and non-health outcomes are exacerbated by gender inequity and compounded by discrimination and stigma. The combination of these barriers implies a multiplicative challenge for women who face cancer, particularly when the disease is associated with reproduction. The horizons of maternal and reproductive health should extend to include the life cycle of healthy changes and illness that are embodied in longer life for women. Numerous opportunities exist to strengthen health systems through sexual and reproductive and women and health platforms and better meet the challenge of cancer. PMID:22883910

  13. Trends in the Family Income Distribution by Race/Ethnicity and Income Source, 1988–2009

    PubMed Central

    Monnat, Shannon M.; Raffalovich, Lawrence E.; Tsao, Hui-shien

    2015-01-01

    The recent dramatic rise in U.S. income inequality has prompted a great deal of research on trends in overall family income and changes in sources of family income, especially among the highest income earners. However, less is known about changes in sources of income among the bottom 99% or about racial/ethnic differences in those trends. The present research contributes to the literatures on income trends and racial economic inequality by using family-level data from the 1988–2009 Current Population Survey to examine changes in overall family income and the proportion of income coming from employment, property/assets, and transfers across five different levels of family income for white-, black, and Hispanic-headed families. We find that at all income levels above the 25th percentile, employment income is by far the largest contributor to family income for all racial/ethnic groups. Employment income trended upward over the period in both real dollars and as a percentage of total family income. In this respect, white, black and Hispanic families are remarkably similar. The racial gap in total family income has remained fairly stable over the period, but this trend conceals a narrowing of racial differences in property income, mostly as a function of the decline in property income among whites, a widening of racial differences in transfer income among the bottom 25%, and a widening of racial differences in employment income, particularly at the top of the family income distribution. Income accrued from wealth is a very small component of overall family income for all three racial groups, even for the highest-income families (top 1%). PMID:26180265

  14. Widening Geographical Disparities in Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in the United States, 1969-2011

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gopal K.; Azuine, Romuladus E.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Williams, Shanita D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined trends in geographical disparities in cardiovascular-disease (CVD) mortality in the United States between 1969 and 2011. Methods: National vital statistics data and the National Longitudinal Mortality Study were used to estimate regional, state, and county-level disparities in CVD mortality over time. Log-linear, weighted least squares, and Cox regression were used to analyze mortality trends and differentials. Results: During 1969-2011, CVD mortality rates declined fastest in New England and Mid-Atlantic regions and slowest in the Southeast and Southwestern regions. In 1969, the mortality rate was 9% higher in the Southeast than in New England, but the differential increased to 48% in 2011. In 2011, Southeastern states, Mississippi and Alabama, had the highest CVD mortality rates, nearly twice the rates for Minnesota and Hawaii. Controlling for individual-level covariates reduced state differentials. State- and county-level differentials in CVD mortality rates widened over time as geographical disparity in CVD mortality increased by 50% between 1969 and 2011. Area deprivation, smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, diabetes prevalence, urbanization, lack of health insurance, and lower access to primary medical care were all significant predictors of county-level CVD mortality rates and accounted for 52.7% of the county variance. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Although CVD mortality has declined for all geographical areas in the United States, geographical disparity has widened over time as certain regions and states, particularly those in the South, have lagged behind in mortality reduction. Geographical disparities in CVD mortality reflect inequalities in socioeconomic conditions and behavioral risk factors. With the global CVD burden on the rise, monitoring geographical disparities, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, could indicate the extent to which reductions in CVD mortality are achievable and may

  15. Whither Opportunity? Rising Inequality, Schools, and Children's Life Chances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J., Ed.; Murnane, Richard, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    As the incomes of affluent and poor families have diverged over the past three decades, so too has the educational performance of their children. But how exactly do the forces of rising inequality affect the educational attainment and life chances of low-income children? In "Whither Opportunity?" a distinguished team of economists,…

  16. Whither Opportunity? Rising Inequality, Schools, and Children's Life Chances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J., Ed.; Murnane, Richard, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    As the incomes of affluent and poor families have diverged over the past three decades, so too has the educational performance of their children. But how exactly do the forces of rising inequality affect the educational attainment and life chances of low-income children? In "Whither Opportunity?" a distinguished team of economists, sociologists,…

  17. Family Development Cycle, Social Class, and Inequality in Rwanda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, Daniel C.; McAllister, Jim

    1991-01-01

    A national survey of 1,019 rural Rwanda households found that social class differences and stages of the family development cycle had roughly equal effects on family income. Effects of land scarcity and absence of alternative nonfarm employment on income inequality were also examined. Contains 36 references. (Author/SV)

  18. Health inequalities and social group differences: what should we measure?

    PubMed Central

    Murray, C. J.; Gakidou, E. E.; Frenk, J.

    1999-01-01

    Both health inequalities and social group health differences are important aspects of measuring population health. Despite widespread recognition of their magnitude in many high- and low-income countries, there is considerable debate about the meaning and measurement of health inequalities, social group health differences and inequities. The lack of standard definitions, measurement strategies and indicators has and will continue to limit comparisons--between and within countries, and over time--of health inequalities, and perhaps more importantly comparative analyses of their determinants. Such comparative work, however, will be essential to find effective policies for governments to reduce health inequalities. This article addresses the question of whether we should be measuring health inequalities or social group health differences. To help clarify the strengths and weaknesses of these two approaches, we review some of the major arguments for and against each of them. PMID:10444876

  19. Trends in Global Gender Inequality (Forthcoming, Social Forces)

    PubMed Central

    Dorius, Shawn F.; Firebaugh, Glenn

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates trends in gender inequality for the world as a whole. Using data encompassing a large majority of the world’s population, we examine world trends over recent decades for key indicators of gender inequality in education, mortality, political representation, and economic activity. We find that gender inequality is declining in virtually all major domains, that the decline is occurring across diverse religious and cultural traditions, and that population growth is slowing the decline because populations are growing faster in countries where there is the greatest gender inequality. PMID:21643494

  20. Exploring why Costa Rica outperforms the United States in life expectancy: A tale of two inequality gradients.

    PubMed

    Rosero-Bixby, Luis; Dow, William H

    2016-02-01

    Mortality in the United States is 18% higher than in Costa Rica among adult men and 10% higher among middle-aged women, despite the several times higher income and health expenditures of the United States. This comparison simultaneously shows the potential for substantially lowering mortality in other middle-income countries and highlights the United States' poor health performance. The United States' underperformance is strongly linked to its much steeper socioeconomic (SES) gradients in health. Although the highest SES quartile in the United States has better mortality than the highest quartile in Costa Rica, US mortality in its lowest quartile is markedly worse than in Costa Rica's lowest quartile, providing powerful evidence that the US health inequality patterns are not inevitable. High SES-mortality gradients in the United States are apparent in all broad cause-of-death groups, but Costa Rica's overall mortality advantage can be explained largely by two causes of death: lung cancer and heart disease. Lung cancer mortality in the United States is four times higher among men and six times higher among women compared with Costa Rica. Mortality by heart disease is 54% and 12% higher in the United States than in Costa Rica for men and women, respectively. SES gradients for heart disease and diabetes mortality are also much steeper in the United States. These patterns may be partly explained by much steeper SES gradients in the United States compared with Costa Rica for behavioral and medical risk factors such as smoking, obesity, lack of health insurance, and uncontrolled dysglycemia and hypertension. PMID:26729886

  1. Exploring why Costa Rica outperforms the United States in life expectancy: A tale of two inequality gradients

    PubMed Central

    Rosero-Bixby, Luis; Dow, William H.

    2016-01-01

    Mortality in the United States is 18% higher than in Costa Rica among adult men and 10% higher among middle-aged women, despite the several times higher income and health expenditures of the United States. This comparison simultaneously shows the potential for substantially lowering mortality in other middle-income countries and highlights the United States’ poor health performance. The United States’ underperformance is strongly linked to its much steeper socioeconomic (SES) gradients in health. Although the highest SES quartile in the United States has better mortality than the highest quartile in Costa Rica, US mortality in its lowest quartile is markedly worse than in Costa Rica’s lowest quartile, providing powerful evidence that the US health inequality patterns are not inevitable. High SES-mortality gradients in the United States are apparent in all broad cause-of-death groups, but Costa Rica’s overall mortality advantage can be explained largely by two causes of death: lung cancer and heart disease. Lung cancer mortality in the United States is four times higher among men and six times higher among women compared with Costa Rica. Mortality by heart disease is 54% and 12% higher in the United States than in Costa Rica for men and women, respectively. SES gradients for heart disease and diabetes mortality are also much steeper in the United States. These patterns may be partly explained by much steeper SES gradients in the United States compared with Costa Rica for behavioral and medical risk factors such as smoking, obesity, lack of health insurance, and uncontrolled dysglycemia and hypertension. PMID:26729886

  2. On measuring inequalities in health.

    PubMed Central

    Wolfson, M.; Rowe, G.

    2001-01-01

    In a recent series of papers, Murray et al. have put forward a number of important ideas regarding the measurement of inequalities in health. In this paper we agree with some of these ideas but draw attention to one key aspect of their approach--measuring inequalities on the basis of small area data--which is flawed. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the problem. An alternative approach drawing on longitudinal data is outlined, which preserves and enhances the most desirable aspects of their proposal. These include the use of a life course perspective, and the consideration of non-fatal health outcomes as well as the more usual information on mortality patterns. PMID:11436478

  3. Mortality in Adult Offspring of Immigrants: A Swedish National Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Manhica, Hélio; Toivanen, Susanna; Hjern, Anders; Rostila, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Background Higher risks of psychiatric disorders and lower-than-average subjective health in adulthood have been demonstrated in offspring of immigrants in Sweden compared with offspring of native Swedes, and linked to relative socioeconomic disadvantage. The present study investigated mortality rates in relation to this inequity from a gender perspective. Methods We used data from national registers covering the entire Swedish population aged 18-65 years. Offspring of foreign-born parents who were either Swedish born or had received residency in Sweden before school age (<7 years) were defined as “offspring of immigrants.” We used Cox regression models to examine the association between parental country of birth and mortality between 1990 and 2008, with adjustment for education, income, age and family type. Results Male offspring of immigrants from the Middle East (HR:2.00, CI:1.66-2.26), other non-European countries (HR:1.80, CI:1.36-2.36) and Finland (HR:1.56, CI:1.48-1.65) showed an age-adjusted excess mortality risk from all causes of death when compared to offspring with Swedish-born parents. Income, but not education, greatly attenuated these increased mortality risks. No excess mortality rates were found among female offspring of immigrants, with the exception of external cause of death among offspring of Finnish immigrants. Conclusion The study demonstrates high mortality rates in male offspring of immigrants from Finland and non-European countries that are associated with economic, but not educational, disadvantage. No increased mortality rates were found among female offspring of immigrants. Future studies are needed to explain this gender differential and why income, but not education, predicts mortality in male offspring of immigrants. PMID:25706297

  4. Changes in Child Mortality Over Time Across the Wealth Gradient in Less-Developed Countries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether inequalities in under-5 mortality by wealth in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are growing or declining. METHODS: All Demographic and Health Surveys conducted between 2002 and 2012 were used to measure under-5 mortality trends in 3 wealth tertiles. Two approaches were used to estimate changes in under-5 mortality: within-survey changes from all 54 countries, and between-survey changes for 29 countries with repeated survey waves. The principal outcome measures include annual decline in mortality, and the ratio of mortality between the poorest and least-poor wealth tertiles. RESULTS: Mortality information in 85 surveys from 929 224 households and 1 267 167 women living in 54 countries was used. In the subset of 29 countries with repeat surveys, mortality declined annually by 4.36, 3.36, and 2.06 deaths per 1000 live births among the poorest, middle, and least-poor tertiles, respectively (P = .031 for difference). The mortality ratio declined from 1.68 to 1.48 during the study period (P = .006 for trend). In the complete set of 85 surveys, the mortality ratio declined in 64 surveys (from 2.11 to 1.55), and increased in 21 surveys (from 1.58 to 1.88). Multivariate analyses suggest that convergence was associated with good governance (P ≤ .03 for 4 governance indicators: government effectiveness, rule of law, regulatory quality, and control of corruption). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, under-5 mortality in low- and middle-income countries has decreased faster among the poorest compared with the least poor between 1995 and 2012, but progress in some countries has lagged, especially with poor governance. PMID:25384496

  5. The Price of Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Arthur R.

    1975-01-01

    Some of the key problems of educational equality -- equality of opportunities and inequality of performance; individual differences vs. group differences, coping with group inequality -- are made explicit. (Author/KM)

  6. An explanatory analysis of economic and health inequality changes among Mexican indigenous people, 2000-2010

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Mexico faces important problems concerning income and health inequity. Mexico’s national public agenda prioritizes remedying current inequities between its indigenous and non-indigenous population groups. This study explores the changes in social inequalities among Mexico’s indigenous and non-indigenous populations for the time period 2000 to 2010 using routinely collected poverty, welfare and health indicator data. Methods We described changes in socioeconomic indicators (housing condition), poverty (Foster-Greer-Thorbecke and Sen-Shorrocks-Sen indexes), health indicators (childhood stunting and infant mortality) using diverse sources of nationally representative data. Results This analysis provides consistent evidence of disparities in the Mexican indigenous population regarding both basic and crucial developmental indicators. Although developmental indicators have improved among the indigenous population, when we compare indigenous and non-indigenous people, the gap in socio-economic and developmental indicators persists. Conclusions Despite a decade of efforts to promote public programs, poverty persists and is a particular burden for indigenous populations within Mexican society. In light of the results, it would be advisable to review public policy and to specifically target future policy to the needs of the indigenous population. PMID:24576113

  7. Unemployment, informal work, precarious employment, child labor, slavery, and health inequalities: pathways and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Muntaner, Carles; Solar, Orielle; Vanroelen, Christophe; Martínez, José Miguel; Vergara, Montserrat; Santana, Vilma; Castedo, Antía; Kim, Il-Ho; Benach, Joan

    2010-01-01

    The study explores the pathways and mechanisms of the relation between employment conditions and health inequalities. A significant amount of published research has proved that workers in several risky types of labor--precarious employment, unemployment, informal labor, child and bonded labor--are exposed to behavioral, psychosocial, and physio-pathological pathways leading to physical and mental health problems. Other pathways, linking employment to health inequalities, are closely connected to hazardous working conditions (material and social deprivation, lack of social protection, and job insecurity), excessive demands, and unattainable work effort, with little power and few rewards (in salaries, fringe benefits, or job stability). Differences across countries in the social contexts and types of jobs result in varying pathways, but the general conceptual model suggests that formal and informal power relations between employees and employers can determine health conditions. In addition, welfare state regimes (unionization and employment protection) can increase or decrease the risk of mortality, morbidity, and occupational injury. In a multilevel context, however, these micro- and macro-level pathways have yet to be fully studied, especially in middle- and low-income countries. The authors recommend some future areas of study on the pathways leading to employment-related health inequalities, using worldwide standard definitions of the different forms of labor, authentic data, and a theoretical framework. PMID:20440971

  8. Inequalities in health and social policy.

    PubMed

    Zieliński, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    WHO and the European Commission impart great importance to promoting activities aimed at reducing inequalities in health. The article raised methodological problems of studies on the causes of inequalities in health. Author draws attention to the need for field studies focused on comparing well-specified population groups in order to achieve greater accuracy of studies to obtain preventive actions better fit to the specific needs of a given population. He also indicates the difficulties related to the comparisons made on an international scale due to the large number of variables that could interfere with investigated exposure. A significant part of the article is devoted to the interpretation of the measurement of poverty and the relationship between economic inequality and inequities in health. The author points out that there are no simple relations in this area, but the impact of economic inequality is particularly pronounced where inequalities in income of families bring large fractions of a society below the threshold of poverty. PMID:27139342

  9. Graphing Inequalities, Connecting Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Switzer, J. Matt

    2014-01-01

    Students often have difficulty with graphing inequalities (see Filloy, Rojano, and Rubio 2002; Drijvers 2002), and J. Matt Switzer's students were no exception. Although students can produce graphs for simple inequalities, they often struggle when the format of the inequality is unfamiliar. Even when producing a correct graph of an…

  10. Risk Factors for Mortality from Acute Lower Respiratory Infections (ALRI) in Children under Five Years of Age in Low and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sonego, Michela; Pellegrin, Maria Chiara; Becker, Genevieve; Lazzerini, Marzia

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate risk factors for death from acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) in children in low- and middle-income countries. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Study selection Observational studies reporting on risk factors for death from ALRI in children below five years in low- and middle income countries. Data sources Medline, Embase, Global Health Library, Lilacs, and Web of Science to January 2014 Risk of bias assessment Quality In Prognosis Studies tool with minor adaptations to assess the risk of bias; funnel plots and Egger's test to evaluate publication bias. Results Out of 10655 papers retrieved, 77 studies from 39 countries (198359 children) met the inclusion criteria. Host and disease characteristics more strongly associated with ALRI mortality were: diagnosis of very severe pneumonia as per WHO definition (odds ratio 9.42, 95% confidence interval 6.37‒13.92); age below two months (5.22, 1.70‒16.03); diagnosis of Pneumocystis Carinii (4.79, 2.67 ‒ 8.61), chronic underlying diseases (4.76, 3.27‒ 6.93); HIV/AIDS (4.68, 3.72‒5.90); and severe malnutrition (OR 4.27, 3.47‒5.25). Socio-economic and environmental factors significantly associated with increased odds of death from ALRI were: young maternal age (1.84, 1.03‒3.31); low maternal education (1.43, 1.13‒1.82); low socio-economic status (1.62, 1.32‒2.00); second-hand smoke exposure (1.52, 1.20 to 1.93); indoor air pollution (3.02, 2.11‒4.31). Immunisation (0.46, 0.36‒0.58) and good antenatal practices (0.50, 0.31‒0.81) were associated with decreased odds of death. Conclusions Host and disease characteristics as well as socio-economic and environmental determinants affect the risk of death from ALRI in children. Together with the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases, interventions to modify underlying risk factors such as poverty, lack of female education, and poor environmental conditions, should be considered among the strategies to reduce ALRI

  11. Associations between hair cortisol concentration, income, income dynamics and status incongruity in healthy middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Serwinski, Bianca; Salavecz, Gyöngyvér; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    A body of research demonstrates that financial disadvantage is associated with general health inequalities and higher mortality rates. Most studies make use of cross-sectional analyses, although income can also be viewed as a dynamic concept. The use of endocrine-markers as proxies for health can provide information about the pathways involved in these associations. Hair cortisol analysis has been developed as a method for assessing sustained cortisol output as it provides an estimate of cumulative cortisol secretion over a prolonged time. The present study assessed income and income trajectory over a 4-year period in 164 working women (aged 26–65) in relation to hair cortisol in a longitudinal design. A negative association between hair cortisol and concurrent income was found (p = 0.025) and hair cortisol and changes in income over 4 years (p < 0.001), after adjustment for age, BMI, smoking status, hair treatment and country. Status incongruity, a mismatch between educational status and income group, was related to higher cortisol levels compared with status congruity (p = 0.009). These findings suggest that psychoneuroendocrinological pathways might partially explain the relationship between lower socio-economic status and adverse health outcomes. Future longitudinal research using hair cortisol analysis is warranted to clarify the time course of social mobility in relation to long-term cortisol, to investigate other underlying psychosocial factors implicated in these associations, and to determine the exact health implications of the neuroendocrine perturbations in individuals with limited economic resources. PMID:26923848

  12. Inequity aversion and the evolution of cooperation.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Asrar; Karlapalem, Kamalakar

    2014-02-01

    Evolution of cooperation is a widely studied problem in biology, social science, economics, and artificial intelligence. Most of the existing approaches that explain cooperation rely on some notion of direct or indirect reciprocity. These reciprocity based models assume agents recognize their partner and know their previous interactions, which requires advanced cognitive abilities. In this paper we are interested in developing a model that produces cooperation without requiring any explicit memory of previous game plays. Our model is based on the notion of inequity aversion, a concept introduced within behavioral economics, whereby individuals care about payoff equality in outcomes. Here we explore the effect of using income inequality to guide partner selection and interaction. We study our model by considering both the well-mixed and the spatially structured population and present the conditions under which cooperation becomes dominant. Our results support the hypothesis that inequity aversion promotes cooperative relationship among nonkin. PMID:25353529

  13. Inequity aversion and the evolution of cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Asrar; Karlapalem, Kamalakar

    2014-02-01

    Evolution of cooperation is a widely studied problem in biology, social science, economics, and artificial intelligence. Most of the existing approaches that explain cooperation rely on some notion of direct or indirect reciprocity. These reciprocity based models assume agents recognize their partner and know their previous interactions, which requires advanced cognitive abilities. In this paper we are interested in developing a model that produces cooperation without requiring any explicit memory of previous game plays. Our model is based on the notion of inequity aversion, a concept introduced within behavioral economics, whereby individuals care about payoff equality in outcomes. Here we explore the effect of using income inequality to guide partner selection and interaction. We study our model by considering both the well-mixed and the spatially structured population and present the conditions under which cooperation becomes dominant. Our results support the hypothesis that inequity aversion promotes cooperative relationship among nonkin.

  14. Inequality aversion, health inequalities and health achievement.

    PubMed

    Wagstaff, Adam

    2002-07-01

    This paper addresses two issues. The first is how health inequalities can be measured in such a way as to take into account policymakers' attitudes towards inequality. The Gini coefficient and the related concentration index embody one particular set of value judgements. By generalising these indices, alternative sets of value judgements can be reflected. The other issue addressed is how information on health inequality can be used together with information on the mean of the relevant distribution to obtain an overall measure of health "achievement". PMID:12146594

  15. The Spread of Inequality

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Deborah S.; Deshpande, Omkar; Feldman, Marcus W.

    2011-01-01

    The causes of socioeconomic inequality have been debated since the time of Plato. Many reasons for the development of stratification have been proposed, from the need for hierarchical control over large-scale irrigation systems to the accumulation of small differences in wealth over time via inheritance processes. However, none of these explains how unequal societies came to completely displace egalitarian cultural norms over time. Our study models demographic consequences associated with the unequal distribution of resources in stratified societies. Agent-based simulation results show that in constant environments, unequal access to resources can be demographically destabilizing, resulting in the outward migration and spread of such societies even when population size is relatively small. In variable environments, stratified societies spread more and are also better able to survive resource shortages by sequestering mortality in the lower classes. The predictions of our simulation are provided modest support by a range of existing empirical studies. In short, the fact that stratified societies today vastly outnumber egalitarian societies may not be due to the transformation of egalitarian norms and structures, but may instead reflect the more rapid migration of stratified societies and consequent conquest or displacement of egalitarian societies over time. PMID:21957457

  16. Health inequalities after austerity in Greece.

    PubMed

    Karanikolos, Marina; Kentikelenis, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of economic crisis, Greece has been experiencing unprecedented levels of unemployment and profound cuts to public budgets. Health and welfare sectors were subject to severe austerity measures, which have endangered provision of as well as access to services, potentially widening health inequality gap. European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions data show that the proportion of individuals on low incomes reporting unmet medical need due to cost doubled from 7 % in 2008 to 13.9 % in 2013, while the relative gap in access to care between the richest and poorest population groups increased almost ten-fold. In addition, austerity cuts have affected other vulnerable groups, such as undocumented migrants and injecting drug users. Steps have been taken in attempt to mitigate the impact of the austerity, however addressing the growing health inequality gap will require persistent effort of the country's leadership for years to come. PMID:27245588

  17. Regional Inequalities in Lung Cancer Mortality in Belgium at the Beginning of the 21st Century: The Contribution of Individual and Area-Level Socioeconomic Status and Industrial Exposure.

    PubMed

    Hagedoorn, Paulien; Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Willaert, Didier; Vanthomme, Katrien; Gadeyne, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Being a highly industrialized country with one of the highest male lung cancer mortality rates in Europe, Belgium is an interesting study area for lung cancer research. This study investigates geographical patterns in lung cancer mortality in Belgium. More specifically it probes into the contribution of individual as well as area-level characteristics to (sub-district patterns in) lung cancer mortality. Data from the 2001 census linked to register data from 2001-2011 are used, selecting all Belgian inhabitants aged 65+ at time of the census. Individual characteristics include education, housing status and home ownership. Urbanicity, unemployment rate, the percentage employed in mining and the percentage employed in other high-risk industries are included as sub-district characteristics. Regional variation in lung cancer mortality at sub-district level is estimated using directly age-standardized mortality rates. The association between lung cancer mortality and individual and area characteristics, and their impact on the variation of sub-district level is estimated using multilevel Poisson models. Significant sub-district variations in lung cancer mortality are observed. Individual characteristics explain a small share of this variation, while a large share is explained by sub-district characteristics. Individuals with a low socioeconomic status experience a higher lung cancer mortality risk. Among women, an association with lung cancer mortality is found for the sub-district characteristics urbanicity and unemployment rate, while for men lung cancer mortality was associated with the percentage employed in mining. Not just individual characteristics, but also area characteristics are thus important determinants of (regional differences in) lung cancer mortality. PMID:26760040

  18. Regional Inequalities in Lung Cancer Mortality in Belgium at the Beginning of the 21st Century: The Contribution of Individual and Area-Level Socioeconomic Status and Industrial Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Hagedoorn, Paulien; Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Willaert, Didier; Vanthomme, Katrien; Gadeyne, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Being a highly industrialized country with one of the highest male lung cancer mortality rates in Europe, Belgium is an interesting study area for lung cancer research. This study investigates geographical patterns in lung cancer mortality in Belgium. More specifically it probes into the contribution of individual as well as area-level characteristics to (sub-district patterns in) lung cancer mortality. Data from the 2001 census linked to register data from 2001–2011 are used, selecting all Belgian inhabitants aged 65+ at time of the census. Individual characteristics include education, housing status and home ownership. Urbanicity, unemployment rate, the percentage employed in mining and the percentage employed in other high-risk industries are included as sub-district characteristics. Regional variation in lung cancer mortality at sub-district level is estimated using directly age-standardized mortality rates. The association between lung cancer mortality and individual and area characteristics, and their impact on the variation of sub-district level is estimated using multilevel Poisson models. Significant sub-district variations in lung cancer mortality are observed. Individual characteristics explain a small share of this variation, while a large share is explained by sub-district characteristics. Individuals with a low socioeconomic status experience a higher lung cancer mortality risk. Among women, an association with lung cancer mortality is found for the sub-district characteristics urbanicity and unemployment rate, while for men lung cancer mortality was associated with the percentage employed in mining. Not just individual characteristics, but also area characteristics are thus important determinants of (regional differences in) lung cancer mortality. PMID:26760040

  19. About the modified Gaussian family of income distributions with applications to individual incomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarabia, José María; Prieto, Faustino; Trueba, Carmen; Jordá, Vanesa

    2013-03-01

    In a recent paper in this journal [Q. Guo, L. Gao, Distribution of individual incomes in China between 1992 and 2009, Physica A 391 (2012) 5139-5145], a new family of distributions for modeling individual incomes in China was proposed. This family is the so-called Modified Gaussian (MG) distribution, which depends on two parameters. The MG distribution shows a satisfactory fit for the individual income data between 1992 and 2009. However, for the practical use of this model with individual incomes, it is necessary to know its probabilistic and statistical properties, especially the corresponding inequality measures. In this paper, probabilistic functions and inequality measures of the MG distribution are obtained in closed form, including the normalizing constant, probability functions, moments, first-degree stochastic dominance conditions, relationships with other families of distributions and standard tools for inequality measurement (Lorenz and generalized Lorenz curves and Gini, Donaldson-Weymark-Kakwani and Pietra indices). Several methods for parameter estimation are also discussed. In order to illustrate all the previous formulations, we have fitted individual incomes of Spain for three years using the European community household panel survey, concluding a static pattern of inequality, since the Gini index and other inequality measures remain constant over the study period.

  20. [Inequalities in health: definitions, concepts, and theories].

    PubMed

    Arcaya, Mariana C; Arcaya, Alyssa L; Subramanian, S V

    2015-10-01

    Individuals from different backgrounds, social groups, and countries enjoy different levels of health. This article defines and distinguishes between unavoidable health inequalities and unjust and preventable health inequities. We describe the dimensions along which health inequalities are commonly examined, including across the global population, between countries or states, and within geographies, by socially relevant groupings such as race/ethnicity, gender, education, caste, income, occupation, and more. Different theories attempt to explain group-level differences in health, including psychosocial, material deprivation, health behavior, environmental, and selection explanations. Concepts of relative versus absolute; dose response versus threshold; composition versus context; place versus space; the life course perspective on health; causal pathways to health; conditional health effects; and group-level versus individual differences are vital in understanding health inequalities. We close by reflecting on what conditions make health inequalities unjust, and to consider the merits of policies that prioritize the elimination of health disparities versus those that focus on raising the overall standard of health in a population. PMID:26758216

  1. Inequalities in health: definitions, concepts, and theories.

    PubMed

    Arcaya, Mariana C; Arcaya, Alyssa L; Subramanian, S V

    2015-01-01

    Individuals from different backgrounds, social groups, and countries enjoy different levels of health. This article defines and distinguishes between unavoidable health inequalities and unjust and preventable health inequities. We describe the dimensions along which health inequalities are commonly examined, including across the global population, between countries or states, and within geographies, by socially relevant groupings such as race/ethnicity, gender, education, caste, income, occupation, and more. Different theories attempt to explain group-level differences in health, including psychosocial, material deprivation, health behavior, environmental, and selection explanations. Concepts of relative versus absolute; dose-response versus threshold; composition versus context; place versus space; the life course perspective on health; causal pathways to health; conditional health effects; and group-level versus individual differences are vital in understanding health inequalities. We close by reflecting on what conditions make health inequalities unjust, and to consider the merits of policies that prioritize the elimination of health disparities versus those that focus on raising the overall standard of health in a population. PMID:26112142

  2. Inequalities in health: definitions, concepts, and theories

    PubMed Central

    Arcaya, Mariana C.; Arcaya, Alyssa L.; Subramanian, S. V.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals from different backgrounds, social groups, and countries enjoy different levels of health. This article defines and distinguishes between unavoidable health inequalities and unjust and preventable health inequities. We describe the dimensions along which health inequalities are commonly examined, including across the global population, between countries or states, and within geographies, by socially relevant groupings such as race/ethnicity, gender, education, caste, income, occupation, and more. Different theories attempt to explain group-level differences in health, including psychosocial, material deprivation, health behavior, environmental, and selection explanations. Concepts of relative versus absolute; dose–response versus threshold; composition versus context; place versus space; the life course perspective on health; causal pathways to health; conditional health effects; and group-level versus individual differences are vital in understanding health inequalities. We close by reflecting on what conditions make health inequalities unjust, and to consider the merits of policies that prioritize the elimination of health disparities versus those that focus on raising the overall standard of health in a population. PMID:26112142

  3. Income distribution trends and future food demand

    PubMed Central

    Cirera, Xavier; Masset, Edoardo

    2010-01-01

    This paper surveys the theoretical literature on the relationship between income distribution and food demand, and identifies main gaps of current food modelling techniques that affect the accuracy of food demand projections. At the heart of the relationship between income distribution and food demand is Engel's law. Engel's law establishes that as income increases, households' demand for food increases less than proportionally. A consequence of this law is that the particular shape of the distribution of income across individuals and countries affects the rate of growth of food demand. Our review of the literature suggests that existing models of food demand fail to incorporate the required Engel flexibility when (i) aggregating different food budget shares among households; and (ii) changing budget shares as income grows. We perform simple simulations to predict growth in food demand under alternative income distribution scenarios taking into account nonlinearity of food demand. Results suggest that (i) distributional effects are to be expected from changes in between-countries inequality, rather than within-country inequality; and (ii) simulations of an optimistic and a pessimistic scenario of income inequality suggest that world food demand in 2050 would be 2.7 per cent higher and 5.4 per cent lower than distributional-neutral growth, respectively. PMID:20713387

  4. The evolution of inequality.

    PubMed

    Mattison, Siobhán M; Smith, Eric A; Shenk, Mary K; Cochrane, Ethan E

    2016-07-01

    Understanding how systems of political and economic inequality evolved from relatively egalitarian origins has long been a focus of anthropological inquiry. Many hypotheses have been suggested to link socio-ecological features with the rise and spread of inequality, and empirical tests of these hypotheses in prehistoric and extant societies are increasing. In this review, we synthesize several streams of theory relevant to understanding the evolutionary origins, spread, and adaptive significance of inequality. We argue that while inequality may be produced by a variety of localized processes, its evolution is fundamentally dependent on the economic defensibility and transmissibility of wealth. Furthermore, these properties of wealth could become persistent drivers of inequality only following a shift to a more stable climate in the Holocene. We conclude by noting several key areas for future empirical research, emphasizing the need for more analyses of contemporary shifts toward institutionalized inequality as well as prehistoric cases. PMID:27519458

  5. High Mortality Risk in Hypoglycemic and Dysglycemic Children Admitted at a Referral Hospital in a Non Malaria Tropical Setting of a Low Income Country

    PubMed Central

    Barennes, Hubert; Sayavong, Eng; Pussard, Eric

    2016-01-01

    higher risk of death (OR: 132; 95%CI: 29.0–596.5; p = 0.001; and OR: 4.2; 95%CI: 1.1–15.6; p = 0.02; respectively). In multivariate analyses, hypoglycemia (OR: 197; 95%CI: 33–1173.9), hypoxemia (OR: 5.3; 95%CI: 1.4–20), presence of hepatomegaly (OR: 8.7; 95%CI: 2.0–37.6) and having an illiterate mother (OR: 25.9; 95%CI: 4.2–160.6) were associated with increased risk of death. Conclusion Hypoglycemia is linked with a high risk of mortality for children in non malaria tropical settings. Blood sugar should be monitored and treatment provided for sick children, especially with danger signs and prolonged fasting. Further evaluations of intervention using thresholds including low glycemia is recommended in resource-limited settings. Research is also needed to determine the significance, prognosis and care of hyperglycemia. PMID:26910320

  6. Life expectancy, economic inequality, homicide, and reproductive timing in Chicago neighbourhoods.

    PubMed

    Wilson, M; Daly, M

    1997-04-26

    In comparisons among Chicago neighbourhoods, homicide rates in 1988-93 varied more than 100-fold, while male life expectancy at birth ranged from 54 to 77 years, even with effects of homicide mortality removed. This "cause deleted" life expectancy was highly correlated with homicide rates; a measure of economic inequality added significant additional prediction, whereas median household income did not. Deaths from internal causes (diseases) show similar age patterns, despite different absolute levels, in the best and worst neighbourhoods, whereas deaths from external causes (homicide, accident, suicide) do not. As life expectancy declines across neighbourhoods, women reproduce earlier; by age 30, however, neighbourhood no longer affects age specific fertility. These results support the hypothesis that life expectancy itself may be a psychologically salient determinant of risk taking and the timing of life transitions. PMID:9154035

  7. Inequalities in Science

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Inequalities in scientists’ contributions to science and their rewards have always been very high. There are good reasons to propose that inequalities in science across research institutions and across individual scientists have increased in recent years. In the meantime, however, globalization and internet technology have narrowed inequalities in science across nations and facilitated the expansion of science and rapid production of scientific discoveries through international collaborative networks. PMID:24855244

  8. A κ-generalized statistical mechanics approach to income analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clementi, F.; Gallegati, M.; Kaniadakis, G.

    2009-02-01

    This paper proposes a statistical mechanics approach to the analysis of income distribution and inequality. A new distribution function, having its roots in the framework of κ-generalized statistics, is derived that is particularly suitable for describing the whole spectrum of incomes, from the low-middle income region up to the high income Pareto power-law regime. Analytical expressions for the shape, moments and some other basic statistical properties are given. Furthermore, several well-known econometric tools for measuring inequality, which all exist in a closed form, are considered. A method for parameter estimation is also discussed. The model is shown to fit remarkably well the data on personal income for the United States, and the analysis of inequality performed in terms of its parameters is revealed as very powerful.

  9. Can food vouchers improve nutrition and reduce health inequalities in low-income mothers and young children: a multi-method evaluation of the experiences of beneficiaries and practitioners of the Healthy Start programme in England

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Good nutrition is important during pregnancy, breastfeeding and early life to optimise the health of women and children. It is difficult for low-income families to prioritise spending on healthy food. Healthy Start is a targeted United Kingdom (UK) food subsidy programme that gives vouchers for fruit, vegetables, milk, and vitamins to low-income families. This paper reports an evaluation of Healthy Start from the perspectives of women and health practitioners. Methods The multi-method study conducted in England in 2011/2012 included focus group discussions with 49 health practitioners, an online consultation with 620 health and social care practitioners, service managers, commissioners, and user and advocacy groups, and qualitative participatory workshops with 85 low-income women. Additional focus group discussions and telephone interviews included the views of 25 women who did not speak English and three women from Traveller communities. Results Women reported that Healthy Start vouchers increased the quantity and range of fruit and vegetables they used and improved the quality of family diets, and established good habits for the future. Barriers to registration included complex eligibility criteria, inappropriate targeting of information about the programme by health practitioners and a general low level of awareness among families. Access to the programme was particularly challenging for women who did not speak English, had low literacy levels, were in low paid work or had fluctuating incomes. The potential impact was undermined by the rising price of food relative to voucher value. Access to registered retailers was problematic in rural areas, and there was low registration among smaller shops and market stalls, especially those serving culturally diverse communities. Conclusions Our evaluation of the Healthy Start programme in England suggests that a food subsidy programme can provide an important nutritional safety net and potentially improve

  10. Mortality and development revisited.

    PubMed

    Preston, S H

    1985-01-01

    This paper attempts to update results reported in 2 earlier papers about the role of socioeconomic factors in worldwide mortality declines since the 1930s. Preston (1975) demonstrated that the relationship between life expectancy at birth and per capita income (in constant dollars) had shifted between the 1930s and the 1960s. A country at a particular level of national income per capita was estimated to have a level of life expectancy at birth that was, on average, 9.7 years higher in the 1960s than it would have been in the 1930s at the same level of income. That shift clearly was attributable to factors other than measured income gains. To identify the contribution of advances in literacy and nutrition to the apparent shift, Preston (1980) added those variables to income in regression equations estimated with data on 36 countries around 1940 and 120 countries around 1970. For the less developed countries (LDCs), the shift in the relationship between 1940-70 was estimated to be 8.8 years after those variables were introduced along with income. Thus, literacy and nutritional gains were responsible for relatively little of the shift. The goal here is to estimate the amount of shift in the relation between mortality and other development indicators during the 1965-69 to 1975-79 period. The focus is on the 70% of the developing world (exclude China) where, in the aggregate, there are indications of a slowdown in the pace of mortality change during the 1960s and the early 1970s. In all cases a mortality indicator was used as the dependent variable in a cross-national regression analysis that includes data from LDCs and from developed countries. Also, in all cases, the set of independent variables included some transformation of the following: the percentage of adults who were literate, gross domestic product per capita in constant dollars, and the excess of per capita daily calories supplied above 1500. Data were drawn from the standard UN, UNESCO, and World Bank

  11. Lies, Damned Lies, and Health Inequality Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Gerdtham, Ulf-G; Petrie, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Measuring and monitoring socioeconomic health inequalities are critical for understanding the impact of policy decisions. However, the measurement of health inequality is far from value neutral, and one can easily present the measure that best supports one’s chosen conclusion or selectively exclude measures. Improving people’s understanding of the often implicit value judgments is therefore important to reduce the risk that researchers mislead or policymakers are misled. While the choice between relative and absolute inequality is already value laden, further complexities arise when, as is often the case, health variables have both a lower and upper bound, and thus can be expressed in terms of either attainments or shortfalls, such as for mortality/survival. We bring together the recent parallel discussions from epidemiology and health economics regarding health inequality measurement and provide a deeper understanding of the different value judgments within absolute and relative measures expressed both in attainments and shortfalls, by graphically illustrating both hypothetical and real examples. We show that relative measures in terms of attainments and shortfalls have distinct value judgments, highlighting that for health variables with two bounds the choice is no longer only between an absolute and a relative measure but between an absolute, an attainment- relative and a shortfall-relative one. We illustrate how these three value judgments can be combined onto a single graph which shows the rankings according to all three measures, and illustrates how the three measures provide ethical benchmarks against which to judge the difference in inequality between populations. PMID:26133019

  12. Cross-Temporal and Cross-National Poverty and Mortality Rates among Developed Countries

    PubMed Central

    Fritzell, Johan; Kangas, Olli; Bacchus Hertzman, Jennie; Blomgren, Jenni; Hiilamo, Heikki

    2013-01-01

    A prime objective of welfare state activities is to take action to enhance population health and to decrease mortality risks. For several centuries, poverty has been seen as a key social risk factor in these respects. Consequently, the fight against poverty has historically been at the forefront of public health and social policy. The relationship between relative poverty rates and population health indicators is less self-evident, notwithstanding the obvious similarity to the debated topic of the relationship between population health and income inequality. In this study we undertake a comparative analysis of the relationship between relative poverty and mortality across 26 countries over time, with pooled cross-sectional time series analysis. We utilize data from the Luxembourg Income Study to construct age-specific poverty rates across countries and time covering the period from around 1980 to 2005, merged with data on age- and gender-specific mortality data from the Human Mortality Database. Our results suggest not only an impact of relative poverty but also clear differences by welfare regime that partly goes beyond the well-known differences in poverty rates between welfare regimes. PMID:23840235

  13. Income and heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Lemstra, Mark; Rogers, Marla; Moraros, John

    2015-01-01

    income was strongly and independently associated with heart disease; its main disease intermediary, high blood pressure; and its main behavioural risk factors, smoking and physical inactivity. Income inequality is a neglected risk factor worthy of appropriate public debate and policy intervention. PMID:26836056

  14. The influence of income on health: views of an epidemiologist.

    PubMed

    Marmot, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Income is related to health in three ways: through the gross national product of countries, the income of individuals, and the income inequalities among rich nations and among geographic areas. A central question is the degree to which these associations reflect a causal association. If so, redistribution of income would improve health. This paper discusses two ways in which income could be causally related to health: through a direct effect on the material conditions necessary for biological survival, and through an effect on social participation and opportunity to control life circumstances. The fewer goods and services are provided publicly by the community, the more important individual income is for health. Under present U.S. circumstances, a policy of counteracting growing income inequalities through the tax and benefit system and of public provision appears justified. PMID:11900185

  15. Health Inequality and Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Structural explanations of career choice and development are well established. Socioeconomic inequality represents a powerful factor shaping career trajectories and economic outcomes achieved by individuals. However, a robust and growing body of evidence demonstrates a strong link between socioeconomic inequality and health outcomes. Work is a key…

  16. A Quality Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloyer, Clifford W.

    1975-01-01

    The inequality involving the arithmetic and geometric means is a powerful tool in dealing with applications of mathematics. It is very important in geometric programming. The article discusses this inequality and demonstrates two real world applications accessible to secondary teachers and students. (Author/KM)

  17. Schooling for Inequality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Dorothy E.

    2000-01-01

    Inequalities produced by the school system are an important topic for feminist thought and debate. Schools are an integral part of the institutional processes for the differential allocation of agency. They reproduce the social organization of inequality and exclusion at multiple levels. School systems are well-insulated from change initiatives…

  18. The Price of Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Arthur R.

    1975-01-01

    An examination of the implications of attempting to reconcile philosophical beliefs concerning equality of opportunity with observed differences in equality of performance, which argues that there can be no real escape from inequality. Efforts to ignore, deny, or cope with the issue of group differences and group inequality must exact a price,…

  19. Explaining levels of within-group wage inequality in U.S. labor markets.

    PubMed

    McCall, L

    2000-11-01

    Most research on earnings inequality has focused on the growing gap between workers of different races and at different education, age, and income levels, but a large portion of the increasing inequality has actually occurred within these groups. This article focuses on the extent and sources of "within-group" wage inequality in more than 500 labor markets in the United States in 1990. In addition to documenting that within-group wage inequality across regions varies more widely today than over the past several decades, the analysis reveals that two frequently cited explanations of rising wage inequality over time have little impact on within-group wage inequality when measured at the local labor market level: (1) industrial shifts and (2) increased technology and trade. By contrast, flexible and insecure employment conditions (e.g., unemployment, contingent work, and immigration) are associated strongly with high local levels of within-group wage inequality, especially among women. PMID:11086568

  20. The Interplay between socioeconomic inequalities and clinical oral health.

    PubMed

    Steele, J; Shen, J; Tsakos, G; Fuller, E; Morris, S; Watt, R; Guarnizo-Herreño, C; Wildman, J

    2015-01-01

    Oral health inequalities associated with socioeconomic status are widely observed but may depend on the way that both oral health and socioeconomic status are measured. Our aim was to investigate inequalities using diverse indicators of oral health and 4 socioeconomic determinants, in the context of age and cohort. Multiple linear or logistic regressions were estimated for 7 oral health measures representing very different outcomes (2 caries prevalence measures, decayed/missing/filled teeth, 6-mm pockets, number of teeth, anterior spaces, and excellent oral health) against 4 socioeconomic measures (income, education, Index of Multiple Deprivation, and occupational social class) for adults aged ≥21 y in the 2009 UK Adult Dental Health Survey data set. Confounders were adjusted and marginal effects calculated. The results showed highly variable relationships for the different combinations of variables and that age group was critical, with different relationships at different ages. There were significant income inequalities in caries prevalence in the youngest age group, marginal effects of 0.10 to 0.18, representing a 10- to 18-percentage point increase in the probability of caries between the wealthiest and every other quintile, but there was not a clear gradient across the quintiles. With number of teeth as an outcome, there were significant income gradients after adjustment in older groups, up to 4.5 teeth (95% confidence interval, 2.2-6.8) between richest and poorest but none for the younger groups. For periodontal disease, income inequalities were mediated by other socioeconomic variables and smoking, while for anterior spaces, the relationships were age dependent and complex. In conclusion, oral health inequalities manifest in different ways in different age groups, representing age and cohort effects. Income sometimes has an independent relationship, but education and area of residence are also contributory. Appropriate choices of measures in relation to age

  1. Exploring geographic variation in US mortality rates using a spatial Durbin approach

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tse-Chuan; Noah, Aggie; Shoff, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies focused on identifying the determinants of mortality in US counties have examined the relationships between mortality and explanatory covariates within a county only, and have ignored the well-documented spatial dependence of mortality. We challenge earlier literature by arguing that the mortality rate of a certain county may also be associated with the features of its neighboring counties beyond its own features. Drawing from both the spillover (i.e., same direction effect) and social relativity (i.e., opposite direction effect) perspectives, our spatial Durbin modeling results indicate that both theoretical perspectives provide valuable frameworks to guide the modeling of mortality variation in US counties. Our empirical findings support that mortality rate of a certain county is associated with the features of its neighbors beyond its own features. Specifically, we found support for the spillover perspective in which the percentage of the Hispanic population, concentrated disadvantage, and the social capital of a specific county are negatively associated with the mortality rate in the specific county and also in neighboring counties. On the other hand, the following covariates fit the social relativity process: health insurance coverage, percentage of non-Hispanic other races, and income inequality. Their direction of the associations with mortality in the specific county is opposite to that of the relationships with mortality in neighboring counties. Methodologically, spatial Durbin modeling addresses the shortcomings of traditional analytic approaches used in ecological mortality research such as ordinary least squares, spatial error, and spatial lag regression. Our results produce new insights drawn from unbiased estimates. PMID:25642156

  2. Remittances and inequality: a question of migration stage and geographic scale.

    PubMed

    Jones, R C

    1998-01-01

    The impact of migrant remittances on the place of migrant origin is examined using data from a 1988 household study undertaken in central Zacatecas state, Mexico. The focus is on whether remittances tend to increase or to decrease income inequalities. "Interfamilial inequalities are found first to decrease and then to increase as a place's migration experience deepens. Throughout this experience, however, rural incomes improve relative to urban ones, since remittances are targeted to the predominantly rural areas of origin." PMID:12321333

  3. Growth and inequality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2015-11-01

    How are growth and inequality related? Evidently, this question is of prime importance in the social sciences, as socioeconomic inequality is one of the major forces shaping the course of human history. Moreover, this question is of importance also in the physical sciences, as the notion of socioeconomic inequality can be applied to analyze physical growth. In this paper we consider general growth processes whose dynamics are governed by ordinary differential equations, and present a comprehensive inequality-based socioeconophysical study of their evolutions. From a social-sciences perspective, the results established describe the inequality that will be generated by different types of economic growth. From a physical-sciences perspective, the results established provide a socioeconomic classification of growth processes.

  4. The Social Determinants of Infant Mortality and Birth Outcomes in Western Developed Nations: A Cross-Country Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Daniel; Saada, Adrianna

    2013-01-01

    Infant mortality (IM) and birth outcomes, key population health indicators, have lifelong implications for individuals, and are unequally distributed globally. Even among western industrialized nations, striking cross-country and within-country patterns are evident. We sought to better understand these variations across and within the United States of America (USA) and Western Europe (WE), by conceptualizing a social determinants of IM/birth outcomes framework, and systematically reviewing the empirical literature on hypothesized social determinants (e.g., social policies, neighbourhood deprivation, individual socioeconomic status (SES)) and intermediary determinants (e.g., health behaviours). To date, the evidence suggests that income inequality and social policies (e.g., maternal leave policies) may help to explain cross-country variations in IM/birth outcomes. Within countries, the evidence also supports neighbourhood SES (USA, WE) and income inequality (USA) as social determinants. By contrast, within-country social cohesion/social capital has been underexplored. At the individual level, mixed associations have been found between individual SES, race/ethnicity, and selected intermediary factors (e.g., psychosocial factors) with IM/birth outcomes. Meanwhile, this review identifies several methodological gaps, including the underuse of prospective designs and the presence of residual confounding in a number of studies. Ultimately, addressing such gaps including through novel approaches to strengthen causal inference and implementing both health and non-health policies may reduce inequities in IM/birth outcomes across the western developed world. PMID:23739649

  5. Education, Income Distribution and Intergenerational Mobility: Findings from Field Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohanty, Alekha Chandra

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of widespread poverty and the increasing inequality in income distribution across nations point to the failure of the trickle-down theory. The long-held faith in the growth of income as the sole policy instrument to achieve the national objective of growth with equity has been put to the test. The increasing numbers of the poor,…

  6. Inequality indicators and distinguishability in economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenblatt, J.; Martinás, K.

    2008-03-01

    Money has a material counterpart, such as banknotes or coins, and an ideal expression, monetary units. In the latter case, it is boson-like: individual incomes have no a priori limit, and their units are not distinguishable from each other in economic processes. Individuals, on the other hand, usually occupy one job at a time which makes them akin to fermions. We apply to individual incomes down-to-earth statistical calculations, similar to those for quantum particles, and obtain expressions for the cumulative distribution function, probability density and Lorenz function resulting from the simultaneous use of both statistics. They provide extremely good fits to corresponding data on French income distributions. On this basis, we propose a new entropic inequality indicator.

  7. Social inequalities and health inequity in Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Boutayeb, Abdesslam

    2006-01-01

    Background According to the last census, Morocco has a population approaching 30 million people. The country has made good progress in the control of preventable childhood diseases but social inequalities and health inequities remain major problems for the third millennium. Despite the progress achieved during the last decade, the country still ranks at the 125th place according to the Human Development Index. This unpleasant position is mainly explained by illiteracy, education and health indicators. Method Our study was based mainly on annual reports and regular publications released by the United Nations (UN), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), World Health Organisation (WHO), The Moroccan Health Ministry and related papers published in international journals. Results and discussion As indicated by the last Arab Human Development Reports (AHDR 2002, AHDR 2003, AHDR 2004) and implicitly confirmed by the "National Initiative for Human Development" (NIHD) launched in May 2005 by the King of Morocco, many districts and shanty towns, urban or peri-urban, and a multitude of rural communes live in situations characterized by difficult access to basic social services of which education and health are examples. Conclusion Recent evidence showed that improved health is more than a consequence of development. It is a central input into economic and social development and poverty reduction. Serious initiatives for human development should consider the reduction of social inequalities and health inequities as a first priority. Otherwise, the eventual development achieved cannot be sustained. PMID:16522204

  8. Leggett-Garg inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emary, Clive; Lambert, Neill; Nori, Franco

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to the spatial Bell's inequalities which probe entanglement between spatially separated systems, the Leggett-Garg inequalities test the correlations of a single system measured at different times. Violation of a genuine Leggett-Garg test implies either the absence of a realistic description of the system or the impossibility of measuring the system without disturbing it. Quantum mechanics violates the inequalities on both accounts and the original motivation for these inequalities was as a test for quantum coherence in macroscopic systems. The last few years has seen a number of experimental tests and violations of these inequalities in a variety of microscopic systems such as superconducting qubits, nuclear spins, and photons. In this article, we provide an introduction to the Leggett-Garg inequalities and review these latest experimental developments. We discuss important topics such as the significance of the non-invasive measurability assumption, the clumsiness loophole, and the role of weak measurements. Also covered are some recent theoretical proposals for the application of Leggett-Garg inequalities in quantum transport, quantum biology and nano-mechanical systems.

  9. Neighborhood Selection and the Social Reproduction of Concentrated Racial Inequality

    PubMed Central

    SAMPSON, ROBERT J.; SHARKEY, PATRICK

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we consider neighborhood selection as a social process central to the reproduction of racial inequality in neighborhood attainment. We formulate a multilevel model that decomposes multiple sources of stability and change in longitudinal trajectories of achieved neighborhood income among nearly 4,000 Chicago families followed for up to seven years wherever they moved in the United States. Even after we adjust for a comprehensive set of fixed and time-varying covariates, racial inequality in neighborhood attainment is replicated by movers and stayers alike. We also study the emergent consequences of mobility pathways for neighborhood-level structure. The temporal sorting by individuals of different racial and ethnic groups combines to yield a structural pattern of flows between neighborhoods that generates virtually nonoverlapping income distributions and little exchange between minority and white areas. Selection and racially shaped hierarchies are thus mutually constituted and account for an apparent equilibrium of neighborhood inequality. PMID:18390289

  10. Economic inequality is linked to biased self-perception.

    PubMed

    Loughnan, Steve; Kuppens, Peter; Allik, Jüri; Balazs, Katalin; de Lemus, Soledad; Dumont, Kitty; Gargurevich, Rafael; Hidegkuti, Istvan; Leidner, Bernhard; Matos, Lennia; Park, Joonha; Realo, Anu; Shi, Junqi; Sojo, Victor Eduardo; Tong, Yuk-Yue; Vaes, Jeroen; Verduyn, Philippe; Yeung, Victoria; Haslam, Nick

    2011-10-01

    People's self-perception biases often lead them to see themselves as better than the average person (a phenomenon known as self-enhancement). This bias varies across cultures, and variations are typically explained using cultural variables, such as individualism versus collectivism. We propose that socioeconomic differences among societies--specifically, relative levels of economic inequality--play an important but unrecognized role in how people evaluate themselves. Evidence for self-enhancement was found in 15 diverse nations, but the magnitude of the bias varied. Greater self-enhancement was found in societies with more income inequality, and income inequality predicted cross-cultural differences in self-enhancement better than did individualism/collectivism. These results indicate that macrosocial differences in the distribution of economic goods are linked to microsocial processes of perceiving the self. PMID:21948855

  11. On social inequality: Analyzing the rich-poor disparity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo; Cohen, Morrel H.

    2014-05-01

    From the Old Testament to the Communist Manifesto, and from the French Revolution to the Occupy Wall Street protests, social inequality has always been at the focal point of public debate, as well as a major driver of political change. Although being of prime interest since Biblical times, the scientific investigation of the distributions of wealth and income in human societies began only at the close of the nineteenth century, and was pioneered by Pareto, Lorenz, Gini, and Pietra. The methodologies introduced by these trailblazing scholars form the bedrock of the contemporary science of social inequality. Based on this bedrock we present a new quantitative approach to the analysis of wealth and income distributions, which sets its spotlight on the most heated facet of the current global debate on social inequality-the rich-poor disparity. Our approach offers researchers highly applicable quantitative tools to empirically track and statistically analyze the growing gap between the rich and the poor.

  12. Changing health inequalities in east and west Germany since unification.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Ellen; McKee, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The unification of Germany in 1990 brought about substantial social and economic changes in its eastern part, with new uncertainties and, despite increasing overall income, rising inequality. This paper explores the potential impact on health of these changes during the 1990s, looking specifically at income-related health inequalities in east and west Germany and its modulation by psychosocial factors. We used data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) for the years 1992 and 1997, including individuals aged 25+. We investigated changes in self-perceived health in the two parts of Germany and its socio-economic and psychosocial determinants. Analyses estimated odds ratios of less than good health using logistic regression. In 1992, 47% of east Germans rated their health worse than good compared with 54% in the west. By 1997, the east-west gap in self-rated health had disappeared, with the prevalence of poor health increasing to 56% in both parts. Income and education were important determinants of health in east and west, with, in the age-sex-adjusted model, those having available less than 60% of median equivalent income being at increased risk of poor health in 1992 (OR(east) 2.39, 1.45-3.94; OR(west) 2.04, 1.65-2.52). Addition of education reduced the strength of this relationship only slightly. In the west, income-related health inequalities widened between 1992 and 1997 yet the initially stronger gradient declined in the east, despite an overall increase in income inequality (OR(east) 1.63, 1.04-2.56; OR(west) 2.65, 2.19-3.21). The impact of education remained stable. Psychosocial variables were important determinants, mediating the effects of income, with leisure-cultural social involvement exerting the strongest effect in both east and west.The results show that, unlike in the west, the overall increase in income inequality in east Germany between 1992 and 1997 was not accompanied by a simultaneous increase in income-related health inequalities. This

  13. Temporal steering inequality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yueh-Nan; Li, Che-Ming; Lambert, Neill; Chen, Shin-Liang; Ota, Yukihiro; Chen, Guang-Yin; Nori, Franco

    2014-03-01

    Quantum steering is the ability to remotely prepare different quantum states by using entangled pairs as a resource. Very recently, the concept of steering has been quantified with the use of inequalities, leading to substantial applications in quantum information and communication science. Here, we highlight that there exists a natural temporal analog of the steering inequality when considering measurements on a single object at different times. We give nontrivial operational meaning to violations of this temporal inequality by showing that it is connected to the security bound in the Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol and thus may have applications in quantum communication.

  14. Children's Education and the Intergenerational Transmission of Inequality: A Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birdsall, Nancy; Meesook, Oey Astra

    1986-01-01

    Data from the 1970 Brazilian Census are used to explore the effects of parents' investments in their children's education on the pattern of future income distribution and on the intergenerational transmission of inequality, using a simulation model. Appended are 21 references. (Author)

  15. Second Modernity, (In)equality, and Social (In)justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, John; George, Rosalyn

    2016-01-01

    It is important to realize that the economic climate since the banking crisis in 2007 has seen the rate of income and wealth inequality accelerate. This has reached the point where concerns for political, economic, and social stability have been raised by those representing the pillars and foundations of institutions that represent the market…

  16. Education and Earnings Inequality in Mexico. Policy Research Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lachler, Ulrich

    Educational attainment levels increased dramatically for Mexico's labor force in the 1980s and early 1990s. In parallel, the country experienced a pronounced increase in earnings inequality from 1984 to 1994, reflected in a higher dispersion of wages and an absolute decline in the real incomes of less educated, poorer Mexicans. This situation…

  17. The Inequality Implications of Highly Selective Promotion Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mete, Cem

    2004-01-01

    Faced with the evident impossibility of providing free or significantly subsidized secondary and higher education to all, many poor and middle income countries choose to educate only those students who are most promising, using public examinations as means of distributing scarce resources. This paper investigates the inequality implications of…

  18. Inequality in Human Development: An Empirical Assessment of 32 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimm, Michael; Harttgen, Kenneth; Klasen, Stephan; Misselhorn, Mark; Munzi, Teresa; Smeeding, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    One of the most frequent critiques of the HDI is that is does not take into account inequality within countries in its three dimensions. In this paper, we apply a simply approach to compute the three components and the overall HDI for quintiles of the income distribution. This allows a comparison of the level in human development of the poor with…

  19. Longitudinal methods to investigate the role of health determinants in the dynamics of income-related health inequality☆

    PubMed Central

    Allanson, Paul; Petrie, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    The usual starting point for understanding changes in income-related health inequality (IRHI) over time has been regression-based decomposition procedures for the health concentration index. However the reliance on repeated cross-sectional analysis for this purpose prevents both the appropriate specification of the health function as a dynamic model and the identification of important determinants of the transition processes underlying IRHI changes such as those relating to mortality. This paper overcomes these limitations by developing alternative longitudinal procedures to analyse the role of health determinants in driving changes in IRHI through both morbidity changes and mortality, with our dynamic modelling framework also serving to identify their contribution to long-run or structural IRHI. The approach is illustrated by an empirical analysis of the causes of the increase in IRHI in Great Britain between 1999 and 2004. PMID:24036199

  20. Measuring and decomposing oral health inequalities in an UK population

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jing; Wildman, John; Steele, Jimmy

    2013-01-01

    Objectives With health inequalities high on the policy agenda, this study measures oral health inequalities in the UK. Methods We compare an objective clinical measure of oral health (number of natural teeth) with a self-reported measure of the impact of oral health (the Oral Health Impact Profile, OHIP) to establish whether the type of measure affects the scale of inequality measured. Gini coefficients and Concentration Indices (CIs) are calculated with subsequent decompositions using data from the 1998 UK Adult Dental Health Survey. Because the information on OHIP is only available on dentate individuals, analyses on the number of natural teeth are conducted for two samples – the entire sample and the sample with dentate individuals only, the latter to allow direct comparison with OHIP. Results We find considerable overall pure oral health inequalities (number of teeth: Gini = 0.68 (including edentate), Gini = 0.40 (excluding edentate); OHIP: Gini = 0.33) and income-related inequalities for both measures (number of teeth: CI = 0.35 (including edentate), CI = 0.15 (excluding edentate); OHIP: CI = 0.03), and the CI is generally higher for the number of teeth than for OHIP. There are differences across age groups, with CI increasing with age for the number of teeth (excluding edentate: 16–30 years: CI = 0.01, 65 + years: CI = 0.11; including edentate: 16–30 years: CI = 0.01, 65 + years: CI = 0.19). However, inequalities for OHIP were highest in the youngest age group (CI = 0.05). Number of teeth reflects the accumulation of damage over a lifetime, while OHIP records more immediate concerns. Conclusions There are considerable pure oral health inequalities and income-related oral health inequalities in the UK. Using sophisticated methods to measure oral health inequality, we have been able to compare inequality in oral health with inequality in general health. The results provide a benchmark for future comparisons but also indicate that the type of health

  1. [Infant mortality in Peru].

    PubMed

    Ramos Padilla, M A

    1987-01-01

    Bolivia, Haiti, and Peru have infant mortality levels as high as those of the developed countries a century ago. The decline of general and especially infant mortality experienced in Latin America beginning in the 1940s was uneven throughout the continent. Cuba's infant mortality rate declined by 86% between 1940-80, but Peru's declined by only 48% despite its higher initial level. In 1984, 34% of all deaths in Peru were to children under 1 year and about 21% were to children 1-5 years old. Socioeconomic factors are the major explanation of Peru's poor infant mortality levels. Regional and social disparities in access to housing, food, urban infrastructure, and other vital goods and services are reflected in infant mortality statistics. Infant mortality has declined in both rural and urban areas, but the magnitude of the decline was much greater in urban areas. Between 1960-75, the infant mortality rate declined from 133 to 80/1000 live births in urban areas, but only from 180 to 150/1000 in rural areas. Investment in the infrastructure and services of the cities during the 1950s and 60s was not matched by any significant investment in rural infrastructure. Rural-urban mortality differentials are not as profound in countries which distribute public investment more evenly between rural and urban areas. Cuba's rural infant mortality rate is only 16% greater than its urban rate, while Peru's rural rate is 47% higher. The rural-urban differential in Peru hides a steep gap between the metropolitan zone of Lima-Callao, which has an infant mortality rate of 55/1000, and that of all cities, which have a rate 45% higher. Metropolitan Lima has the highest levels of living in Peru, including the highest incomes and best housing and service infrastructure. A majority of Peru's economic and industrial development has been concentrated in Lima. Peru's infant mortality differentials are also striking at the departmental level. The 5 departments with the highest infant mortality

  2. Generalized quasi variational inequalities

    SciTech Connect

    Noor, M.A.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we establish the equivalence between the generalized quasi variational inequalities and the generalized implicit Wiener-Hopf equations using essentially the projection technique. This equivalence is used to suggest and analyze a number of new iterative algorithms for solving generalized quasi variational inequalities and the related complementarity problems. The convergence criteria is also considered. The results proved in this paper represent a significant improvement and refinement of the previously known results.

  3. Boole and Bell inequality

    SciTech Connect

    Michielsen, K.; De Raedt, H.; Hess, K.

    2011-03-28

    We discuss the relation between Bell's and Boole's inequality. We apply both to the analysis of measurement results in idealized Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiments. We present a local realist model that violates Bell's and Boole's inequality due to the absence of Boole's one-to-one correspondence between the two-valued variables of the mathematical description and the two-valued measurement results.

  4. Global Oral Health Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, I.; Tabak, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite impressive worldwide improvements in oral health, inequalities in oral health status among and within countries remain a daunting public health challenge. Oral health inequalities arise from a complex web of health determinants, including social, behavioral, economic, genetic, environmental, and health system factors. Eliminating these inequalities cannot be accomplished in isolation of oral health from overall health, or without recognizing that oral health is influenced at multiple individual, family, community, and health systems levels. For several reasons, this is an opportune time for global efforts targeted at reducing oral health inequalities. Global health is increasingly viewed not just as a humanitarian obligation, but also as a vehicle for health diplomacy and part of the broader mission to reduce poverty, build stronger economies, and strengthen global security. Despite the global economic recession, there are trends that portend well for support of global health efforts: increased globalization of research and development, growing investment from private philanthropy, an absolute growth of spending in research and innovation, and an enhanced interest in global health among young people. More systematic and far-reaching efforts will be required to address oral health inequalities through the engagement of oral health funders and sponsors of research, with partners from multiple public and private sectors. The oral health community must be “at the table” with other health disciplines and create opportunities for eliminating inequalities through collaborations that can harness both the intellectual and financial resources of multiple sectors and institutions. PMID:21490232

  5. Measurement confounding affects the extent to which verbal IQ explains social gradients in mortality

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Benjamin; Fiscella, Kevin; Duberstein, Paul; Kawachi, Ichiro; Muennig, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background IQ is thought to explain social gradients in mortality. IQ scores are based roughly equally on Verbal IQ (VIQ) and Performance IQ tests. VIQ tests, however, are suspected to confound true verbal ability with socioeconomic status (SES), raising the possibility that associations between SES and IQ scores might be overestimated. We examined, first, whether two of the most common types of VIQ tests exhibited differential item functioning (DIF) favouring persons of higher SES and/or majority race/ethnicity. Second, we assessed what impact, if any, this had on estimates of the extent to which VIQ explains social gradients in mortality. Methods Data from the General Social Survey-National Death Index cohort, a US population representative dataset, was used. Item response theory models queried social-factor DIF on the Thorndike Verbal Intelligence Scale and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales, Revised Similarities test. Cox models examined mortality associations among SES and VIQ scores corrected and uncorrected for DIF. Results When uncorrected for DIF, VIQ was correlated with income, education, occupational prestige and race, with correlation coefficients ranging between |0.12| and |0.43|. After correcting for DIF, correlations ranged from |0.06| to |0.16|. Uncorrected VIQ scores explained 11–40% of the Relative Index of Inequalities in mortality for social factors, while DIF-corrected scores explained 2–29%. Conclusions Two of the common forms of VIQ tests appear confound verbal intelligence with SES. Since these tests appear in most IQ batteries, circumspection may be warranted in estimating the amount of social inequalities in mortality attributable to IQ. PMID:24729404

  6. Worldwide inequality in production of systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    Jamali, Arsia; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Heidari, Kazem; Jamali, Raika; Hassanpour, Kiana; Nedjat, Sima; Anvari, Pasha; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Investment in science is vital for the development and well-being of societies. This study aims to assess the scientific productivity of countries by quantifying their publication of systematic reviews taking the gross national income per capita (GNIPC) into account. Methods: Medline and ISI Web of Science were searched for systematic reviews published between 1st January 2006 and 31st December 2010. The productivity of each country was quantified by exploring the authors’ affiliation. The GNIPC was used according to the World Bank Report. Concentration index (CI) was calculated as the index of inequality. Results: CI of percentage of systematic reviews as a function of percentage of countries ranked by GNIPC was 0.82 which indicates inequality in production of systematic reviews in pro rich countries. Countries with high income produced 206.23 times more systematic reviews than low income countries, while this ratio for lower middle and upper middle countries was 9.67 and 12.97, respectively. The highest concentration index was observed in clinical sciences (0.76) and the lowest in public health (0.61). Conclusion: This study demonstrates a significant gap between industrialized and nonindustrialized countries in the production of systematic reviews. Addressing this gap needs tremendous national and international efforts. PMID:26913272

  7. Reduction of social inequalities in life expectancy in a city of Southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Around the world the life expectancy at birth has risen steadily over time. However, this increase in life years is not equally distributed among different social segments of the population. Studies have demonstrated that social groups living in deprived areas have a shorter life expectancy at birth in comparison to affluent ones. The aim of this study was to evaluate inequalities in life expectancy by socioeconomic strata in a city with one million inhabitants in Southeastern Brazil, in 2000 and 2005. Methods Through an ecological approach, the 49 areas of health care units of the city were classified into three socioeconomic strata, defined according to variables of income and educational level of the heads of household obtained from the 2000 Census. Life tables were constructed by sex for each of the three socioeconomic strata in 2000 and 2005. Results The life expectancy at birth for men and women living in poor areas was 6.9 and 5.5 years lower in comparison to the affluent ones in 2000. Between 2000 and 2005, these social inequalities in life expectancy at birth reduced, since the groups with lower socioeconomic level had gained more life years. The increase in life expectancy at birth experienced by areas with worse living conditions was 3 times higher than the increment estimated for prosperous areas for both sexes. Males had the greatest gain in life years, leading to a narrowing of gender differentials in life expectancy between 2000 and 2005. Conclusions The reduction of social inequalities in life expectancy suggests that living and health conditions have improved over time, due to social and health policies. The expansion of both health care coverage and cash transfer policies could have had positive effects on mortality reduction and on the consequent increase in the life expectancy, especially for the poor population. PMID:21871100

  8. Science for Reducing Health Inequalities Emerges From Social Justice Movements.

    PubMed

    Wing, Steve

    2016-05-01

    Although the health sciences have investigated economic and social inequalities in morbidity and mortality for hundreds of years, health inequalities persist and are, by some measures, increasing. This is not simply a situation in which the knowledge exists but is not implemented. Rather, science in general and epidemiology in particular have focused on quantifying the effects of specific agents considered in isolation. This approach is powerful, but, in the absence of ecological concepts that connect parts and wholes, contributes to maintaining health inequalities. By joining movements for human rights and social justice, health scientists can identify research questions that are relevant to public health, develop methods that are appropriate to answering those questions, and contribute to efforts to reduce health inequalities. PMID:26936957

  9. Visible and Invisible Trends in Black Men's Health: Pitfalls and Promises for Addressing Racial, Ethnic, and Gender Inequities in Health.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Keon L; Ray, Rashawn; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Shetty, Shivan; Baker, Elizabeth A; Elder, Keith; Griffith, Derek M

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two decades, there has been growing interest in improving black men's health and the health disparities affecting them. Yet, the health of black men consistently ranks lowest across nearly all groups in the United States. Evidence on the health and social causes of morbidity and mortality among black men has been narrowly concentrated on public health problems (e.g., violence, prostate cancer, and HIV/AIDS) and determinants of health (e.g., education and male gender socialization). This limited focus omits age-specific leading causes of death and other social determinants of health, such as discrimination, segregation, access to health care, employment, and income. This review discusses the leading causes of death for black men and the associated risk factors, as well as identifies gaps in the literature and presents a racialized and gendered framework to guide efforts to address the persistent inequities in health affecting black men. PMID:26989830

  10. Hierarchical cluster analysis of labour market regulations and population health: a taxonomy of low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An important contribution of the social determinants of health perspective has been to inquire about non-medical determinants of population health. Among these, labour market regulations are of vital significance. In this study, we investigate the labour market regulations among low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and propose a labour market taxonomy to further understand population health in a global context. Methods Using Gross National Product per capita, we classify 113 countries into either low-income (n = 71) or middle-income (n = 42) strata. Principal component analysis of three standardized indicators of labour market inequality and poverty is used to construct 2 factor scores. Factor score reliability is evaluated with Cronbach's alpha. Using these scores, we conduct a hierarchical cluster analysis to produce a labour market taxonomy, conduct zero-order correlations, and create box plots to test their associations with adult mortality, healthy life expectancy, infant mortality, maternal mortality, neonatal mortality, under-5 mortality, and years of life lost to communicable and non-communicable diseases. Labour market and health data are retrieved from the International Labour Organization's Key Indicators of Labour Markets and World Health Organization's Statistical Information System. Results Six labour market clusters emerged: Residual (n = 16), Emerging (n = 16), Informal (n = 10), Post-Communist (n = 18), Less Successful Informal (n = 22), and Insecure (n = 31). Primary findings indicate: (i) labour market poverty and population health is correlated in both LMICs; (ii) association between labour market inequality and health indicators is significant only in low-income countries; (iii) Emerging (e.g., East Asian and Eastern European countries) and Insecure (e.g., sub-Saharan African nations) clusters are the most advantaged and disadvantaged, respectively, with the remaining clusters experiencing levels of population health consistent

  11. Poverty and inequity in adolescent health care.

    PubMed

    Girard, Gustavo A

    2009-12-01

    Although poverty is not a new phenomenon, currently it has peculiar characteristics: globalization, inequity, new features in education, exclusion, gender inequalities, marginalization of native peoples and migrations, difficulties found by different sectors to have access to technology, and unemployment. These characteristics are seen not only in countries considered to be developing nations, but affect the whole world. The present international financial crisis, this time originating in industrialized countries, represents an aggravating factor, the consequences of which are still difficult to estimate. It has a particular impact on adolescents and young people in terms of health as a whole, mortality rates, violence, nutrition, reproductive health, HIV/AIDS, substance abuse, mental health, and disabilities, all being aggravated by the difficulties of access to ap propriate health services. Social capital is seriously affected, and this entails a strong and deleterious impact not only on present generations but also on future ones. It is a challenge that cannot be ignored. PMID:20653207

  12. Inequality and inequity in healthcare utilization in urban Nepal: a cross-sectional observational study.

    PubMed

    Saito, Eiko; Gilmour, Stuart; Yoneoka, Daisuke; Gautam, Ghan Shyam; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Shrestha, Pradeep Krishna; Shibuya, Kenji

    2016-09-01

    Inequality in access to quality healthcare is a major health policy challenge in many low- and middle-income countries. This study aimed to identify the major sources of inequity in healthcare utilization using a population-based household survey from urban Nepal. A cross-sectional survey was conducted covering 9177 individuals residing in 1997 households in five municipalities of Kathmandu valley between 2011 and 2012. The concentration index was calculated and a decomposition method was used to measure inequality in healthcare utilization, along with a horizontal inequity index (HI) to estimate socioeconomic inequalities in healthcare utilization. Results showed a significant pro-rich distribution of general healthcare utilization in all service providers (Concentration Index: 0.062, P < 0.001; HI: 0.029, P < 0.05) and private service providers (Concentration Index: 0.070, P < 0.001; HI: 0.030, P < 0.05). The pro-rich distribution of probability in general healthcare utilization was attributable to inequalities in the level of household economic status (percentage contribution: 67.8%) and in the self-reported prevalence of non-communicable diseases such as hypertension (36.7%) and diabetes (14.4%). Despite the provision of free services by public healthcare providers, our analysis found no evidence of the poor making more use of public health services (Concentration Index: 0.041, P = 0.094). Interventions to reduce the household economic burden of major illnesses, coupled with improvement in the management of public health facilities, warrant further attention by policy-makers. PMID:26856362

  13. Inequality and inequity in healthcare utilization in urban Nepal: a cross-sectional observational study

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Eiko; Gilmour, Stuart; Yoneoka, Daisuke; Gautam, Ghan Shyam; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Shrestha, Pradeep Krishna; Shibuya, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Inequality in access to quality healthcare is a major health policy challenge in many low- and middle-income countries. This study aimed to identify the major sources of inequity in healthcare utilization using a population-based household survey from urban Nepal. A cross-sectional survey was conducted covering 9177 individuals residing in 1997 households in five municipalities of Kathmandu valley between 2011 and 2012. The concentration index was calculated and a decomposition method was used to measure inequality in healthcare utilization, along with a horizontal inequity index (HI) to estimate socioeconomic inequalities in healthcare utilization. Results showed a significant pro-rich distribution of general healthcare utilization in all service providers (Concentration Index: 0.062, P < 0.001; HI: 0.029, P < 0.05) and private service providers (Concentration Index: 0.070, P < 0.001; HI: 0.030, P < 0.05). The pro-rich distribution of probability in general healthcare utilization was attributable to inequalities in the level of household economic status (percentage contribution: 67.8%) and in the self-reported prevalence of non-communicable diseases such as hypertension (36.7%) and diabetes (14.4%). Despite the provision of free services by public healthcare providers, our analysis found no evidence of the poor making more use of public health services (Concentration Index: 0.041, P = 0.094). Interventions to reduce the household economic burden of major illnesses, coupled with improvement in the management of public health facilities, warrant further attention by policy-makers. PMID:26856362

  14. Utility and limitations of measures of health inequities: a theoretical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Alonge, Olakunle; Peters, David H.

    2015-01-01

    health (outcomes, services, or both) or income/wealth between groups; 4) Could it be used to capture inequalities in relation to other population groupings (other than socioeconomic status)? The measures assessed include: before and after measures within only the disadvantaged population, range, Gini coefficient, Pseudo-Gini coefficient, index of dissimilarity, concentration index, slope and relative indices of inequality, and regression techniques. None of these measures satisfied all the four criteria, except the range. Whereas each measure quantifies a different perspective in health inequities, using a measure within only the disadvantaged population does not measure health inequities in a meaningful way, even using before and after changes. For a more complete assessment of how programs affect health inequities, it may be useful to use more than one measure. PMID:26361347

  15. "Healthy Men" and High Mortality: Contributions from a Population-Based Study for the Gender Paradox Discussion

    PubMed Central

    Bastos, Tássia Fraga; Canesqui, Ana Maria; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo

    2015-01-01

    Background Inequalities between men and women in morbidity and mortality show a contrast, which has been called gender paradox. Most studies evaluating this paradox were conducted in high-income countries and, until now, few investigations have been performed in Brazil. This study aims to estimate the magnitude of inequalities between adult men and women in several dimensions: demographic and socioeconomic, health behaviors, morbidity, use of health services and mortality. Methods The data were obtained from population-based household survey carried out in Campinas (Campinas Health Survey 2008/09) corresponding to 957 people, and data from the Mortality Information System (MIS) between 2009 and 2011. Prevalences and prevalence ratios were analyzed in order to verify the differences between men and women regarding socioeconomic and demographic variables, health behaviors, morbidities and consultations in the last two weeks. Mortality rates and the ratio between coefficients considering the underlying causes of death were calculated. Results Women had a greater disadvantage in socioeconomic indicators, chronic diseases diagnosed by a health professional and referred health problems as well as make more use of health services, while men presented higher frequency of most unhealthy behaviors and excessive mortality for all causes investigated. Conclusions The findings contribute to the discussion of gender paradox and demonstrate the need to employ health actions that consider the differences between men and women in the various health dimensions analyzed. The premature male mortality from preventable causes was outstanding, making clear the need for more effective prevention and health promotion directed to this segment of the population. PMID:26641245

  16. Infant Mortality

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infant Mortality Infant Mortality: What is CDC Doing? Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Teen Pregnancy Contraception CDC Contraceptive Guidance for ... and low birth weight Maternal complications of pregnancy Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) Injuries (e.g., suffocation). The top ...

  17. Infant mortality and crisis in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Bronfman, M

    1992-01-01

    Data derived from the Encuesta Nacional de Fecundidad y Salud (ENFES) confirm that overall levels of infant mortality in Mexico have been steadily declining. However, a more specific analysis furnishes evidence that this decline has occurred at varying rates within different social groups, reflecting an increase in social inequalities. The analytical strategy used in this article leads to three basic conclusions: (1) the impact of the economic crisis on infant mortality is reflected not in a reversal of the declining trend but an increase in social inequalities; (2) certain variables universally accepted as determinants of infant mortality, such as mother's education, seem nonsignificant for some social sectors; and (3) certain biodemographic characteristics assumed to have a uniform mortality-related behavior vary among sectors, suggesting that even these constants are determined by social factors. PMID:1735623

  18. Dependency denied: health inequalities in the neo-liberal era.

    PubMed

    Peacock, Marian; Bissell, Paul; Owen, Jenny

    2014-10-01

    The ways in which inequality generates particular population health outcomes remains a major source of dispute within social epidemiology and medical sociology. Wilkinson and Pickett's The Spirit Level (2009), undoubtedly galvanised thinking across the disciplines, with its emphasis on how income inequality shapes the distribution of health and social problems. In this paper, we argue that their focus on income inequality, whilst important, understates the role of neoliberal discourses and practises in making sense of contemporary inequality and its health-related consequences. Many quantitative studies have demonstrated that more neoliberal countries have poorer health compared to less neoliberal countries, but there are few qualitative studies which explore how neoliberal discourses shape accounts and experiences and what protections and resources might be available to people. This article uses findings from a qualitative psycho-social study employing biographical-narrative interviews with women in Salford (England) to understand experiences of inequality as posited in The Spirit Level. We found evidence for the sorts of damages resulting from inequality as proposed in The Spirit Level. However, in addition to these, the most striking finding was the repeated articulation of a discourse which we have termed "no legitimate dependency". This was something both painful and damaging, where dependency of almost any sort was disavowed and responsibility was assumed by the self or "othered" in various ways. No legitimate dependency, we propose, is a partial (and problematic) internalisation of neoliberal discourses which becomes naturalised and unquestioned at the individual level. We speculate that these sorts of discourses in conjunction with a destruction of protective resources (both material and discursive), lead to an increase in strain and account in part for well-known damages consequent on life in an unequal society. We conclude that integrating understandings

  19. A graph-based approach to inequality assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palestini, Arsen; Pignataro, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    In a population consisting of heterogeneous types, whose income factors are indicated by nonnegative vectors, policies aggregating different factors can be represented by coalitions in a cooperative game, whose characteristic function is a multi-factor inequality index. When it is not possible to form all coalitions, the feasible ones can be indicated by a graph. We redefine Shapley and Banzhaf values on graph games to deduce some properties involving the degrees of the graph vertices and marginal contributions to overall inequality. An example is finally provided based on a modified multi-factor Atkinson index.

  20. [Social inequality and health in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Neri, Marcelo; Soares, Wagner

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between social inequality and health in Brazil. The strategy adopted by the authors was to analyze needs and uses of medical care as well as access to health insurance plans according to income distribution. Determinants of health care consumption were also studied by means of logistic regression. The main source of data was the 1998 National Sample Household Survey of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (PNAD-IBGE). In general, individuals in the lowest income distribution deciles had less access to health insurance, greater need for medical care, and lower consumption of such services. Other determinants of health care consumption were heavily associated with the most privileged social strata (greater access to schooling, water supply, sewerage, electricity, garbage collection, and health insurance) and with factors pointing to the capacity to supply these services in country. PMID:12563503

  1. Drivers of Inequality in Millennium Development Goal Progress: A Statistical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Stuckler, David; Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Background Many low- and middle-income countries are not on track to reach the public health targets set out in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). We evaluated whether differential progress towards health MDGs was associated with economic development, public health funding (both overall and as percentage of available domestic funds), or health system infrastructure. We also examined the impact of joint epidemics of HIV/AIDS and noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), which may limit the ability of households to address child mortality and increase risks of infectious diseases. Methods and Findings We calculated each country's distance from its MDG goals for HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and infant and child mortality targets for the year 2005 using the United Nations MDG database for 227 countries from 1990 to the present. We studied the association of economic development (gross domestic product [GDP] per capita in purchasing-power-parity), the relative priority placed on health (health spending as a percentage of GDP), real health spending (health system expenditures in purchasing-power-parity), HIV/AIDS burden (prevalence rates among ages 15–49 y), and NCD burden (age-standardised chronic disease mortality rates), with measures of distance from attainment of health MDGs. To avoid spurious correlations that may exist simply because countries with high disease burdens would be expected to have low MDG progress, and to adjust for potential confounding arising from differences in countries' initial disease burdens, we analysed the variations in rates of change in MDG progress versus expected rates for each country. While economic development, health priority, health spending, and health infrastructure did not explain more than one-fifth of the differences in progress to health MDGs among countries, burdens of HIV and NCDs explained more than half of between-country inequalities in child mortality progress (R2-infant mortality  = 0.57, R2-under 5 mortality  = 0

  2. Inequality from the Get Go.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews two recent books on different aspects of socioeconomic-status-based inequalities in the school readiness of children entering kindergarten: Lee and Burkam's "Inequality at the Starting Gate" and Coley's "An Uneven Start: Indicators of Inequality in School Readiness." Also discusses "America's Children: Key National Indicators of Well-Being…

  3. Lorentz-invariant Bell's inequality

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Won Tae; Son, Edwin J.

    2005-01-01

    We study Bell's inequality in relation to the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox in the relativistic regime. For this purpose, a relativistically covariant analysis is used in the calculation of the Bell's inequality, which results in the maximally violated Bell's inequality in any reference frame.

  4. Modeling the Origin and Possible Control of the Wealth Inequality Surge.

    PubMed

    Berman, Yonatan; Shapira, Yoash; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2015-01-01

    The rapid increase of wealth inequality in the past few decades is a most disturbing social and economic issue of our time. In order to control, and even reverse that surge, its origin and underlying mechanisms should be revealed. One of the challenges in studying these mechanisms is to incorporate realistic individual dynamics in the population level in a self-consistent manner. Our theoretical approach meets the challenge by using interacting multi-agent master-equations to model the dynamics of wealth inequality. The model is solved using stochastic multi-agent iterated maps. Taking into account growth rate, return on capital, private savings and economic mobility, we were able to capture the historical dynamics of wealth inequality in the United States during the course of the 20th century. We show that the fraction of capital income in the national income and the fraction of private savings are the critical factors that govern the wealth inequality dynamics. In addition, we found that economic mobility plays a crucial role in wealth accumulation. Notably, we found that the major decrease in private savings since the 1980s could be associated primarily with the recent surge in wealth inequality and if nothing changes in this respect we predict further increase in wealth inequality in the future. However, the 2007-08 financial crisis brought an opportunity to restrain the wealth inequality surge by increasing private savings. If this trend continues, it may lead to prevention, and even reversing, of the ongoing inequality surge. PMID:26107388

  5. Modeling the Origin and Possible Control of the Wealth Inequality Surge

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Yonatan; Shapira, Yoash; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2015-01-01

    The rapid increase of wealth inequality in the past few decades is a most disturbing social and economic issue of our time. In order to control, and even reverse that surge, its origin and underlying mechanisms should be revealed. One of the challenges in studying these mechanisms is to incorporate realistic individual dynamics in the population level in a self-consistent manner. Our theoretical approach meets the challenge by using interacting multi-agent master-equations to model the dynamics of wealth inequality. The model is solved using stochastic multi-agent iterated maps. Taking into account growth rate, return on capital, private savings and economic mobility, we were able to capture the historical dynamics of wealth inequality in the United States during the course of the 20th century. We show that the fraction of capital income in the national income and the fraction of private savings are the critical factors that govern the wealth inequality dynamics. In addition, we found that economic mobility plays a crucial role in wealth accumulation. Notably, we found that the major decrease in private savings since the 1980s could be associated primarily with the recent surge in wealth inequality and if nothing changes in this respect we predict further increase in wealth inequality in the future. However, the 2007–08 financial crisis brought an opportunity to restrain the wealth inequality surge by increasing private savings. If this trend continues, it may lead to prevention, and even reversing, of the ongoing inequality surge. PMID:26107388

  6. Race, gender and the econophysics of income distribution in the USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaikh, Anwar; Papanikolaou, Nikolaos; Wiener, Noe

    2014-12-01

    The econophysics “two-class” theory of Yakovenko and his co-authors shows that the distribution of labor incomes is roughly exponential. This paper extends this result to US subgroups categorized by gender and race. It is well known that Males have higher average incomes than Females, and Whites have higher average incomes than African-Americans. It is also evident that social policies can affect these income gaps. Our surprising finding is that nonetheless intra-group distributions of pre-tax labor incomes are remarkably similar and remain close to exponential. This suggests that income inequality can be usefully addressed by taxation policies, and overall income inequality can be modified by also shifting the balance between labor and property incomes.

  7. Grouping for Inequity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macqueen, Suzanne Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The inequity of streaming as a method of organising classes was established by research conducted in the 1960s and 1970s. While the practice produces small advantages for limited groups of students, it hinders the academic and social advancement of the majority. Although streaming has declined, new forms of achievement grouping have emerged, with…

  8. Steps to defeat inequality.

    PubMed

    Cole, Elaine

    2016-06-15

    A team of nursing students has won a prestigious RCNi award for organising a conference aimed at reducing health inequalities affecting people with learning disabilities. The Learning Disability Awareness Network (LDAN) team was crowned winner of the RCNi Andrew Parker Student Nurse award 2016 at a ceremony held at London's Westminster Park Plaza on May 6. PMID:27305237

  9. Gender Inequality at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Jerry A., Ed.

    These 14 papers address many dimensions of gender inequality at work. The empirical studies include examinations of original surveys, secondary analyses of large data sets, and historical reports assaying the significance of personal, family, and structural factors with regard to gender in the workplace. An introduction (Jacobs) sketches how sex…

  10. Racial Inequality in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troyna, Barry, Ed.

    Contributors to this book are united in their commitment to combating racial inequality in education and in outlining the extent and manner in which racism and its associated practices have become embedded in the institutional and sociopolitical structures of the United Kingdom. The following chapters are included: (1) "A Conceptual Overview of…

  11. The Future in Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melamed, David; North, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    Recently an article in "Personality and Social Psychology Review" urged social psychologists to reacquire their "sociological imagination" and incorporate broader, structural factors in their work (Oishi, Kesebir, and Snyder 2009). Studies of social inequality in particular seem ripe for this kind of collaboration. Psychological investigations…

  12. The Inequality Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Faustine C.

    1973-01-01

    Critically reviews the current combined writing of Moynihan, Glazer, Herrnstein, Armor, Banfield, Jensen and others, discussing historical perspectives on inequality, the idea of equality, access to schooling as a means toward equality, unequal economic opportunity, and misrepresentations of the adequacies of the Black family. (JM)

  13. Marginality and Triangle Inequality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nánásiová, O. L̆ga; Valášková, L̆ubica

    2010-12-01

    In this paper we study conditions for the existence of a 3-dimensional s-map on a quantum logic under assumption that marginal s-maps are known. We show that the existence of such a 3-dimensional s-map depends on the triangle inequality of d-map, which on a Boolean algebra represents a measure of symmetric difference.

  14. Looking for symmetric Bell inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Gisin, Nicolas; Pironio, Stefano

    2010-09-01

    Finding all Bell inequalities for a given number of parties, measurement settings and measurement outcomes is in general a computationally hard task. We show that all Bell inequalities which are symmetric under the exchange of parties can be found by examining a symmetrized polytope which is simpler than the full Bell polytope. As an illustration of our method, we generate 238 885 new Bell inequalities and 1085 new Svetlichny inequalities. We find, in particular, facet inequalities for Bell experiments involving two parties and two measurement settings that are not of the Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu type.

  15. Defining health inequality: why Rawls succeeds where social welfare theory fails.

    PubMed

    Bommier, Antoine; Stecklov, Guy

    2002-05-01

    While there has been an important increase in methodological and empirical studies on health inequality, not much has been written on the theoretical foundation of health inequality measurement. We discuss several reasons why the classic welfare approach, which is the foundation of income inequality analysis, fails to provide a satisfactory foundation for health inequality analysis. We propose an alternative approach which is more closely linked to the WHO concept of equity in health and is also consistent with the ethical principles espoused by Rawls [A Theory of Justice. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1971]. This approach in its simplest form, is shown to be closely related to the concentration curve when health and income are positively related. Thus, the criteria presented in our paper provide an important theoretical foundation for empirical analysis using the concentration curve. We explore the properties of these approaches by developing policy scenarios and examining how various ethical criteria affect government strategies for targeting health interventions. PMID:12022270

  16. How a universal health system reduces inequalities: lessons from England

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Shehzad; Doran, Tim; Ferguson, Brian; Fleetcroft, Robert; Goddard, Maria; Goldblatt, Peter; Laudicella, Mauro; Raine, Rosalind; Cookson, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background Provision of universal coverage is essential for achieving equity in healthcare, but inequalities still exist in universal healthcare systems. Between 2004/2005 and 2011/2012, the National Health Service (NHS) in England, which has provided universal coverage since 1948, made sustained efforts to reduce health inequalities by strengthening primary care. We provide the first comprehensive assessment of trends in socioeconomic inequalities of primary care access, quality and outcomes during this period. Methods Whole-population small area longitudinal study based on 32 482 neighbourhoods of approximately 1500 people in England from 2004/2005 to 2011/2012. We measured slope indices of inequality in four indicators: (1) patients per family doctor, (2) primary care quality, (3) preventable emergency hospital admissions and (4) mortality from conditions considered amenable to healthcare. Results Between 2004/2005 and 2011/2012, there were larger absolute improvements on all indicators in more-deprived neighbourhoods. The modelled gap between the most-deprived and least-deprived neighbourhoods in England decreased by: 193 patients per family doctor (95% CI 173 to 213), 3.29 percentage points of primary care quality (3.13 to 3.45), 0.42 preventable hospitalisations per 1000 people (0.29 to 0.55) and 0.23 amenable deaths per 1000 people (0.15 to 0.31). By 2011/2012, inequalities in primary care supply and quality were almost eliminated, but socioeconomic inequality was still associated with 158 396 preventable hospitalisations and 37 983 deaths amenable to healthcare. Conclusions Between 2004/2005 and 2011/2012, the NHS succeeded in substantially reducing socioeconomic inequalities in primary care access and quality, but made only modest reductions in healthcare outcome inequalities. PMID:26787198

  17. Wage Inequality and Violent Protests in Oil/Gas Producing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuraliyev, Nurlan

    This work examines contrasting claims made by academic scholars on the relationship between income inequality and political discontent. Does income inequality directly cause social unrest or is this relationship conditional on the level of democratic development? Using the data from 55 oil/gas producing countries between 2010-2013, the author finds: 1) income disparity between an average income per capita of local population and an average income of foreign labor employed in the oil/gas industry results in higher number of violent protests in more democratic oil/gas producing societies; 2) wage disparity between local and foreign labor in the oil/gas industry is associated with higher number of protests in this industry in more democratic oil/gas producing states.

  18. Greater inequalities in dental treatment than in disease experience.

    PubMed

    Mejia, G; Jamieson, L M; Ha, D; Spencer, A J

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to (1) describe social gradients in dental caries in a population-level survey and (2) examine whether inequalities are greater in disease experience or in its treatment. Using data from Australia's National Survey of Adult Oral Health 2004-2006, we examined absolute and relative income inequalities for DMFT and its separate components (DT, MT, FT) using adjusted proportions, means, and health disparity indices [Slope Index of Inequality (SII) and Relative Index of Inequality (RII)]. Approximately 90% of Australian adults had experienced caries, with prevalence ranging from 89.7% in the highest to 96.6% in the lowest income group. Social gradients in caries were evident across all components of DMFT, but particularly notable in Missing (SII = -15.5, RII = -0.3) and untreated Decay (SII = -23.7, RII = -0.9). Analysis of age- and gender-adjusted data indicated less variation in levels of disease experienced (DMFT) than in the health outcomes of its management (missing teeth). The findings indicate that social gradients for dental caries have a greater effect on how the disease was treated than on lifetime disease experience. PMID:25081039

  19. Socioeconomic Inequality in Disability Among Adults: A Multicountry Study Using the World Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinpoor, Ahmad R.; Stewart Williams, Jennifer A.; Gautam, Jeny; Posarac, Aleksandra; Officer, Alana; Verdes, Emese; Kostanjsek, Nenad

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We compared national prevalence and wealth-related inequality in disability across a large number of countries from all income groups. Methods. Data on 218 737 respondents participating in the World Health Survey 2002–2004 were analyzed. A composite disability score (0–100) identified respondents who experienced significant disability in physical, mental, and social functioning irrespective of their underlying health condition. Disabled persons had disability composite scores above 40. Wealth was evaluated using an index of economic status in households based on ownership of selected assets. Socioeconomic inequalities were measured using the slope index of inequality and the relative index of inequality. Results. Median age-standardized disability prevalence was higher in the low- and lower middle-income countries. In all the study countries, disability was more prevalent in the poorest than in the richest wealth quintiles. Pro-rich inequality was statistically significant in 43 of 49 countries, with disability prevalence higher among populations with lower wealth. Median relative inequality was higher in the high- and upper middle-income countries. Conclusions. Integrating equity components into the monitoring of disability trends would help ensure that interventions reach and benefit populations with greatest need. PMID:23678901

  20. Social Class, Economic Inequality, and the Convergence of Policy Preferences: Evidence from 24 Modern Democracies.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Robert; Curtis, Josh

    2015-08-01

    Using data from the World Values Survey and national-level indicators for 24 modern democracies, we assess the influence of social class and economic inequality on preferences for government responsibility. We improve on previous research by using multilevel models that account for differences in attitudes both within (i.e., over time) and across countries. Our findings are consistent with the economic self-interest hypothesis. Specifically, working class individuals, who tend to gain the most from government intervention because of their low and often more precarious economic position, are more likely than others to support government intervention. We also find a positive relationship between national-level income inequality and support for government intervention. As income inequality rises, its social ills tend to be more pervasive, resulting in public opinion becoming more supportive of governments taking responsibility for their citizens. We further demonstrate that inequality moderates the relationship between social class and attitudes. Although the effect of income inequality is positive for all social classes, attitudes across social classes become more similar as inequality rises. PMID:26286958

  1. Polynomial Bell Inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaves, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    It is a recent realization that many of the concepts and tools of causal discovery in machine learning are highly relevant to problems in quantum information, in particular quantum nonlocality. The crucial ingredient in the connection between both fields is the mathematical theory of causality, allowing for the representation of arbitrary causal structures and providing a rigorous tool to reason about probabilistic causation. Indeed, Bell's theorem concerns a very particular kind of causal structure and Bell inequalities are a special case of linear constraints following from such models. It is thus natural to look for generalizations involving more complex Bell scenarios. The problem, however, relies on the fact that such generalized scenarios are characterized by polynomial Bell inequalities and no current method is available to derive them beyond very simple cases. In this work, we make a significant step in that direction, providing a new, general, and conceptually clear method for the derivation of polynomial Bell inequalities in a wide class of scenarios. We also show how our construction can be used to allow for relaxations of causal constraints and naturally gives rise to a notion of nonsignaling in generalized Bell networks.

  2. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), "Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities-Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015", we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  3. Affine Isoperimetry and Information Theoretic Inequalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lv, Songjun

    2012-01-01

    There are essential connections between the isoperimetric theory and information theoretic inequalities. In general, the Brunn-Minkowski inequality and the entropy power inequality, as well as the classical isoperimetric inequality and the classical entropy-moment inequality, turn out to be equivalent in some certain sense, respectively. Based on…

  4. Development of a Deprivation Index and its relation to premature mortality due to diseases of the circulatory system in Hungary, 1998-2004.

    PubMed

    Juhász, Attila; Nagy, Csilla; Páldy, Anna; Beale, Linda

    2010-05-01

    An association between health and socio-economic status is well known. Based on international and national studies, the aims of this study were to develop a multi-dimensional index at the municipality level, to provide information about socio-economic deprivation in Hungary and to investigate the association between socio-economic status and the spatial distribution of premature mortality due to diseases of the circulatory system. Seven municipality level socio-economic indicators were used from the National Information System of Spatial Development (income, low qualification, unemployment, one-parent families, large families, density of housing and car ownership). After normalisation and standardisation, indicator weights were evaluated using factor analysis. A risk analysis study was conducted using the Rapid Inquiry Facility software to evaluate the association between deprivation and the spatial distribution of premature mortality due to diseases of the circulatory system for the years 1998-2004. Areas of significantly high deprivation were identified in the northeastern, eastern and southwestern parts of Hungary. A statistically significant association was found between premature cardiovascular mortality and deprivation status in both genders. The Deprivation Index is the first composite index at the municipality level in Hungary and includes key factors that affect socio-economic status. The identified association highlighted the fact that inequalities in socio-economic status may reflect the spatial distribution of health status in a population. The results can be used to inform prevention strategies and help plan local health promotion programs aimed at reducing health inequalities. PMID:20199838

  5. Income Inequality and Employment. R&D Monograph 66.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Mary

    This monograph is a review and analysis of over fifty research and development projects sponsored by the Office of Research and Development which have dealt with welfare recipients and the low-wage employed. The author examines the process by which welfare recipients move into the employed ranks and the extent to which this is accomplished through…

  6. Income, Inequality, Market Potential, and Diffusion of Mobile Telephony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sungjoong

    2009-01-01

    The diffusion of many previous innovations eventually slowed down and reached an equilibrium level. Despite continued rapid growth, it is possible that the diffusion of mobile telephony will also begin to decelerate and reach a saturation level. Whether universal service can be achieved with the help of mobile telephony will therefore depend…

  7. Socioeconomic inequalities in adult obesity prevalence in South Africa: a decomposition analysis.

    PubMed

    Alaba, Olufunke; Chola, Lumbwe

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, there has been a dramatic increase in obesity in low and middle income countries. However, there is limited research in these countries showing the prevalence and determinants of obesity. In this study, we examine the socioeconomic inequalities in obesity among South African adults. We use nationally representative data from the South Africa National Income Dynamic Survey of 2008 to: (1) construct an asset index using multiple correspondence analyses (MCA) as a proxy for socioeconomic status; (2) estimate concentration indices (CI) to measure socioeconomic inequalities in obesity; and (3) perform a decomposition analysis to determine the factors that contribute to socioeconomic related inequalities. Consistent with other studies, we find that women are more obese than men. The findings show that obesity inequalities exist in South Africa. Rich men are more likely to be obese than their poorer counterparts with a concentration index of 0.27. Women on the other hand have similar obesity patterns, regardless of socioeconomic status with CI of 0.07. The results of the decomposition analysis suggest that asset index contributes positively and highly to socio-economic inequality in obesity among females; physical exercise contributes negatively to the socio-economic inequality. In the case of males, educational attainment and asset index contributed more to socio-economic inequalities in obesity. Our findings suggest that focusing on economically well-off men and all women across socioeconomic status is one way to address the obesity problem in South Africa. PMID:24662998

  8. Horizontal Inequity in Elderly Health Care Utilization: Evidence from India.

    PubMed

    Joe, William; Rudra, Shalini; Subramanian, S V

    2015-11-01

    Against the backdrop of population aging, this paper presents the analysis of need-standardised health care utilization among elderly in India. Based on nationally representative morbidity and health care survey 2004, we demonstrate that the need for health care utilization is indeed pro-poor in nature. However, the actual health care utilization is concentrated among richer sections of the population. Further, the decomposition analysis reveals that income has a very strong role in shifting the distribution of health care away from the poor elderly. The impact of income on utilization is well-demonstrated even at the ecological-level as states with higher per capita incomes have higher elderly health care utilization even as the levels of need-predicted distribution across these states are similar. We also find that the distribution of elderly across social groups and their educational achievements favours the rich and significantly contributes to overall inequality. Nevertheless, contribution of need-related self-assessed health clearly favours pro-poor inequality. In concluding, we argue that to reduce such inequities in health care utilization it is necessary to increase public investments in health care infrastructure including geriatric care particularly in rural areas and underdeveloped regions to enhance access and quality of health care for the elderly. PMID:26617450

  9. The wider determinants of inequalities in health: a decomposition analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The common starting point of many studies scrutinizing the factors underlying health inequalities is that material, cultural-behavioural, and psycho-social factors affect the distribution of health systematically through income, education, occupation, wealth or similar indicators of socioeconomic structure. However, little is known regarding if and to what extent these factors can assert systematic influence on the distribution of health of a population independent of the effects channelled through income, education, or wealth. Methods Using representative data from the German Socioeconomic Panel, we apply Fields' regression based decomposition techniques to decompose variations in health into its sources. Controlling for income, education, occupation, and wealth, we assess the relative importance of the explanatory factors over and above their effect on the variation in health channelled through the commonly applied measures of socioeconomic status. Results The analysis suggests that three main factors persistently contribute to variance in health: the capability score, cultural-behavioural variables and to a lower extent, the materialist approach. Of the three, the capability score illustrates the explanatory power of interaction and compound effects as it captures the individual's socioeconomic, social, and psychological resources in relation to his/her exposure to life challenges. Conclusion Models that take a reductionist perspective and do not allow for the possibility that health inequalities are generated by factors over and above their effect on the variation in health channelled through one of the socioeconomic measures are underspecified and may fail to capture the determinants of health inequalities. PMID:21791075

  10. Horizontal Inequity in Elderly Health Care Utilization: Evidence from India

    PubMed Central

    Rudra, Shalini; Subramanian, S V

    2015-01-01

    Against the backdrop of population aging, this paper presents the analysis of need-standardised health care utilization among elderly in India. Based on nationally representative morbidity and health care survey 2004, we demonstrate that the need for health care utilization is indeed pro-poor in nature. However, the actual health care utilization is concentrated among richer sections of the population. Further, the decomposition analysis reveals that income has a very strong role in shifting the distribution of health care away from the poor elderly. The impact of income on utilization is well-demonstrated even at the ecological-level as states with higher per capita incomes have higher elderly health care utilization even as the levels of need-predicted distribution across these states are similar. We also find that the distribution of elderly across social groups and their educational achievements favours the rich and significantly contributes to overall inequality. Nevertheless, contribution of need-related self-assessed health clearly favours pro-poor inequality. In concluding, we argue that to reduce such inequities in health care utilization it is necessary to increase public investments in health care infrastructure including geriatric care particularly in rural areas and underdeveloped regions to enhance access and quality of health care for the elderly. PMID:26617450

  11. Social inequalities and perceived health.

    PubMed

    Hunt, S M; McEwen, J; McKenna, S P

    1985-01-01

    The association between morbidity and mortality indicators and low socio-economic status has been observed for many centuries. In 1980 the publication of the Black Report in Britain drew attention to the failure of the National Health Service to close the gap between rich and poor in relation to health status. The gradients of morbidity and mortality which are linked to social class have been observed throughout Europe, in the U.S.A. and Australia. However, information on how people feel, as opposed to how they become ill, and the cause of their death, is scarce. Measures of perceived need can provide important additions to routinely collected data because they give access to the experiential status of respondents and thus provide vital data on which to base planning, provision and evaluation of health services. A standard reliable and valid measure of perceived health, the Nottingham Health Profile, was used to conduct a postal survey of differential status in subjective health between social classes in England. The results showed statistically significant differences between social classes in the age group 20-44 years only. For both men and women these were in their experience of sleep problems, emotional problems and lack of energy. In all cases the lower the social class the greater the amount and severity of perceived distress. After the age of 45 these differences, although still present, were not so marked, perhaps because of the excess mortality rates in lower socio-economic groups and the lowering of expectations with age. It is suggested that younger people from unskilled and semi-skilled occupations and, of course, the unemployed, are more vulnerable than their better off compatriots because of a kind of psychic susceptibility which is a consequence of social circumstances and the inability to cushion the effects of ill health. A type of Marxian "immiseration' may occur whereby in contemporary society health status is undermined by spiritual and social

  12. Why do Americans have shorter life expectancy and worse health than people in other high-income countries?

    PubMed Central

    Avendano, Mauricio; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Americans lead shorter and less healthy lives than people in other high-income countries. We review the evidence and explanations for these variations in longevity and health. Our overview suggests that the US health disadvantage applies to multiple mortality and morbidity outcomes. The American health disadvantage begins at birth and extends across the life-course, and it is particularly marked for American women and for regions in the US South and Midwest. Proposed explanations include differences in health care, individual behaviors, socioeconomic inequalities, and the physical and built environment. While these factors may contribute to poorer health in America, a focus on proximal causes fails to adequately account for the ubiquity of the US health disadvantage across the life-course. We discuss the role of specific public policies and conclude that while multiple causes are implicated, crucial differences in social policy might underlie an important part of the US health disadvantage. PMID:24422560

  13. Relative deprivation and mortality in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Salti, Nisreen

    2010-03-01

    This paper tests the relative income hypothesis by considering the relationship between mortality, income and relative deprivation in South Africa using individual-level data on income and five measures of relative deprivation each with a different reference group. We find that income tends to be protective of, and relative deprivation detrimental to health, but the latter often gives a better account of mortality than does income alone. For some population groups the fit is improved in specifications which include both income and relative deprivation. Overall, there seems to be solid evidence in support of the relative income hypothesis, particularly for the more economically disadvantaged population groups. Relative deprivation is especially significant when age is the reference group, suggesting that the comparison of socio-economic standing that has an impact on health tends to happen within cohorts. The results are robust to splitting the sample into urban/rural subsamples and to looking at the incidence of illness as the health outcome rather than mortality. While little is known about the mechanisms underlying the effect of relative deprivation on health and mortality, the consistent evidence in favor of age as a reference group, particularly in a context like South Africa's suggests that intra-cohort comparisons should be an avenue for more in depth investigation. PMID:20045239

  14. Unification of multiqubit polygamy inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeong San

    2012-03-01

    I establish a unified view of polygamy of multiqubit entanglement. I first introduce a two-parameter generalization of the entanglement of assistance, namely, the unified entanglement of assistance for bipartite quantum states, and provide an analytic lower bound in two-qubit systems. I show a broad class of polygamy inequalities of multiqubit entanglement in terms of the unified entanglement of assistance that encapsulates all known multiqubit polygamy inequalities as special cases. I further show that this class of polygamy inequalities can be improved into tighter inequalities for three-qubit systems.

  15. Multisetting Bell inequality for qudits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Se-Wan; Lee, Jinhyoung; Lim, James; Nagata, Koji; Lee, Hai-Woong

    2008-11-01

    We propose a generalized Bell inequality for two three-dimensional systems with three settings in each local measurement. It is shown that this inequality is maximally violated if local measurements are configured to be mutually unbiased and a composite state is maximally entangled. This feature is similar to Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality for two qubits but is in contrast with the two types of inequalities, Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu and Son-Lee-Kim, for high-dimensional systems. The generalization to aribitrary prime-dimensional systems is discussed.

  16. Reducing inequalities from injuries in Europe.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Dinesh; Racioppi, Francesca; Baumgarten, Inge; Bertollini, Roberto

    2006-12-23

    Injuries cause 9% of deaths and 14% of ill health in the WHO European Region. This problem is neglected; injuries are often seen as part of everyday life. However, although western Europe has good safety levels, death and disability from injury are rising in eastern Europe. People in low-to-middle-income countries in the Region are 3.6 times more likely to die from injuries than those in high-income countries. Economic and political change have led to unemployment, income inequalities, increased traffic, reduced restrictions on alcohol, and loss of social support. Risks such as movement of vulnerable populations and transfer of lifestyles and products between countries also need attention. In many countries, the public-health response has been inadequate, yet the cost is devastating to individuals and health-service budgets. More than half a million lives could be saved annually in the Region if recent knowledge could be used to prevent injuries and thus redress social injustice in this area. PMID:17189036

  17. A Refined Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, Peter R.

    2007-01-01

    The author presents a refinement of the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality. He shows his computations in which refinements of the triangle inequality and its reverse inequality are obtained for nonzero x and y in a normed linear space.

  18. Inequity of access to ACE inhibitors in Swedish heart failure patients: a register-based study

    PubMed Central

    Lindahl, Bertil; Hanning, Marianne; Westerling, Ragnar

    2016-01-01

    Background Several international studies suggest inequity in access to evidence-based heart failure (HF) care. Specifically, studies of ACE inhibitors (ACEIs) point to reduced ACEI access related to female sex, old age and socioeconomic position. Thus far, most studies have either been rather small, lacking diagnostic data, or lacking the possibility to account for several individual-based sociodemographic factors. Our aim was to investigate differences, which could reflect inequity in access to ACEIs based on sex, age, socioeconomic status or immigration status in Swedish patients with HF. Methods Individually linked register data for all Swedish adults hospitalised for HF in 2005–2010 (n=93 258) were analysed by multivariate regression models to assess the independent risk of female sex, high age, low employment status, low income level, low educational level or foreign country of birth, associated with lack of an ACEI dispensation within 1 year of hospitalisation. Adjustment for possible confounding was made for age, comorbidity, Angiotensin receptor blocker therapy, period and follow-up time. Results Analysis revealed an adjusted OR for no ACEI dispensation for women of 1.31 (95% CI 1.27 to 1.35); for the oldest patients of 2.71 (95% CI 2.53 to 2.91); and for unemployed patients of 1.59 (95% CI 1.46 to 1.73). Conclusions Access to ACEI treatment was reduced in women, older patients and unemployed patients. We conclude that access to ACEIs is inequitable among Swedish patients with HF. Future studies should include clinical data, as well as mortality outcomes in different groups. PMID:26261264

  19. [Inequities in access to information and inequities in health].

    PubMed

    Filho, Alberto Pellegrini

    2002-01-01

    This piece presents evidence that inequities in information are an important determinant of health inequities and that eliminating these inequities in access to information, especially by using new information and communication technologies (ICTs), could represent a significant advance in terms of guaranteeing the right to health for all. The piece reviews the most important international scientific research findings on the determinants of the health of populations, emphasizing the role of socioeconomic inequities and of deteriorating social capital as factors that worsen health conditions. It is noteworthy that Latin America has both socioeconomic inequities and major sectors of the population living in poverty. Among the fundamental strategies for overcoming the inequalities and the poverty are greater participation by the poor in civic life and the strengthening of social capital. The contribution that the new ICTs could make to these strategies is analyzed, and the Virtual Health Library (VHL) is discussed. Coordinated by the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences Information (BIREME), the VHL is a contribution by the Pan American Health Organization that takes advantage of the potential of ICTs to democratize information and knowledge and consequently promote equity in health. The "digital gap" is discussed as something that can produce inequity itself and also increase other inequities, including ones in health. Prospects are discussed for overcoming this gap, emphasizing the role that governments and international organizations should play in order to expand access to the global public good that information for social development is. PMID:12162837

  20. Dances of death, occupational mortality statistics, and social critique.

    PubMed Central

    Mackenbach, J. P.

    1996-01-01

    In the late middle ages and early renaissance dances of death were a popular art form. Despite important differences in outlook, the moral messages of these art forms and of modern analyses of socioeconomic inequalities in mortality overlap considerably. This theme has survived in modern dances of death, which are popular in certain parts of Europe, especially in Germany and other German speaking countries in central Europe, and are clearly inspired by the late medieval and early renaissance examples. In the modern dances of death, however, unlike their historical counterparts, social critique (criticism of social inequality) is almost absent, although they include representations of differences between people in social position. Remarkably, references to socioeconomic inequalities in mortality, which have been documented extensively, are also uncommon in the modern examples. This raises important questions about public perception of social inequality in general and socioeconomic inequalities in mortality in particular, and it suggests that modern Western society has not developed the cultural means of conveying the moral message that follows from research into socioeconomic inequalities in health. Images p1587-a Fig 3 p1591-a PMID:8990994

  1. Promoting health equity: WHO health inequality monitoring at global and national levels

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinpoor, Ahmad Reza; Bergen, Nicole; Schlotheuber, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Background Health equity is a priority in the post-2015 sustainable development agenda and other major health initiatives. The World Health Organization (WHO) has a history of promoting actions to achieve equity in health, including efforts to encourage the practice of health inequality monitoring. Health inequality monitoring systems use disaggregated data to identify disadvantaged subgroups within populations and inform equity-oriented health policies, programs, and practices. Objective This paper provides an overview of a number of recent and current WHO initiatives related to health inequality monitoring at the global and/or national level. Design We outline the scope, content, and intended uses/application of the following: Health Equity Monitor database and theme page; State of inequality: reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health report; Handbook on health inequality monitoring: with a focus on low- and middle-income countries; Health inequality monitoring eLearning module; Monitoring health inequality: an essential step for achieving health equity advocacy booklet and accompanying video series; and capacity building workshops conducted in WHO Member States and Regions. Conclusions The paper concludes by considering how the work of the WHO can be expanded upon to promote the establishment of sustainable and robust inequality monitoring systems across a variety of health topics among Member States and at the global level. PMID:26387506

  2. Excluding Institutionalized Elderly from Surveys: Consequences for Income and Poverty Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peeters, Hans; Debels, Annelies; Verpoorten, Rika

    2013-01-01

    Growing life expectancy and changes in financial, marriage and labour markets have placed the income position of the elderly at the center of scientific and political discourse. As a consequence, the last decades witnessed the publication of various influential reports that contained comparative statistics on old age income inequalities on the…

  3. Paediatric cardiac surgery in low-income and middle-income countries: a continuing challenge.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nguyenvu; Leon-Wyss, Juan; Iyer, Krishna S; Pezzella, A Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Despite advances in surgical and catheter-based treatment for congenital heart disease (CHD), there remain wide disparities across the globe. Ongoing international humanitarian and in-country programmes are working to address these issues with the ultimate goal to increase the quality and quantity of paediatric cardiac care, particularly in under-served regions of the world. This review aims to illustrate the reasons for these inequalities and suggests novel ways of improving access and sustainability of CHD programmes in low-income and middle-income countries. PMID:26359507

  4. Association of Socioeconomic Status with Overall and Cause Specific Mortality in the Republic of Seychelles: Results from a Cohort Study in the African Region

    PubMed Central

    Stringhini, Silvia; Rousson, Valentin; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Gedeon, Jude; Paccaud, Fred; Bovet, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Background Low socioeconomic status (SES) is consistently associated with higher mortality in high income countries. Only few studies have assessed this association in low and middle income countries, mainly because of sparse reliable mortality data. This study explores SES differences in overall and cause-specific mortality in the Seychelles, a rapidly developing small island state in the African region. Methods All deaths have been medically certified over more than two decades. SES and other lifestyle-related risk factors were assessed in a total of 3246 participants from three independent population-based surveys conducted in 1989, 1994 and 2004. Vital status was ascertained using linkage with vital statistics. Occupational position was the indicator of SES used in this study and was assessed with the same questions in the three surveys. Results During a mean follow-up of 15.0 years (range 0–23 years), 523 participants died (overall mortality rate 10.8 per 1000 person-years). The main causes of death were cardiovascular disease (CVD) (219 deaths) and cancer (142 deaths). Participants in the low SES group had a higher mortality risk for overall (HR = 1.80; 95% CI: 1.24–2.62), CVD (HR = 1.95; 1.04–3.65) and non-cancer/non-CVD (HR = 2.14; 1.10–4.16) mortality compared to participants in the high SES group. Cancer mortality also tended to be patterned by SES (HR = 1.44; 0.76–2.75). Major lifestyle-related risk factors (smoking, heavy drinking, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia) explained a small proportion of the associations between low SES and all-cause, CVD, and non-cancer/non-CVD mortality. Conclusions In this population-based study assessing social inequalities in mortality in a country of the African region, low SES (as measured by occupational position) was strongly associated with overall, CVD and non-cancer/non-CVD mortality. Our findings support the view that the burden of non-communicable diseases may

  5. Language and unintentional injury mortality in Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Stephanie; Auger, Nathalie; Lo, Ernest

    2016-02-01

    Language-based differences in unintentional injury are poorly understood, despite the importance of language as a determinant of health. This study assessed inequalities in unintentional injury mortality between Francophones and Anglophones of Quebec, Canada. We calculated age-standardised rates of death by period, region, residential deprivation and cause of injury, and estimated rate ratios for Francophones relative to Anglophones. Francophones had higher unintentional injury mortality rates than Anglophones. Inequalities decreased over time for men, but rates remained 50% higher for Francophones at the end of the study period. Rates were stable for women, but were 30% higher for Francophones compared with Anglophones. Inequalities were larger at age 15-44 years, in urban areas, and for MVCs. Better understanding of risk factors for MVCs may benefit injury prevention in Quebec. Language-based differences in injury mortality warrant attention in other multilingual populations, especially across different demographic, temporal, regional and cause-of-injury groups. PMID:25740938

  6. On New Proofs of Fundamental Inequalities with Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Partha

    2010-01-01

    By using the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality a new proof of several standard inequalities is given. A new proof of Young's inequality is given by using Holder's inequality. A new application of the above inequalities is included.

  7. Inequalities, Assessment and Computer Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sangwin, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to examine single variable real inequalities that arise as tutorial problems and to examine the extent to which current computer algebra systems (CAS) can (1) automatically solve such problems and (2) determine whether students' own answers to such problems are correct. We review how inequalities arise in…

  8. An analytic approach for describing and prioritizing health inequalities at the local level in Canada: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Neudorf, Cory; Fuller, Daniel; Cushon, Jennifer; Glew, Riley; Turner, Hollie; Ugolini, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Background: We present the health inequalities analytic approach used by the Saskatoon Health Region to examine health equity. Our aim was to develop a method that will enable health regions to prioritize action on health inequalities. Methods: Data from admissions to hospital, physician billing, reportable diseases, vital statistics and childhood immunizations in the city of Saskatoon were analyzed for the years ranging from 1995 to 2011. Data were aggregated to the dissemination area level. The Pampalon deprivation index was used as the measure of socioeconomic status. We calculated annual rates per 1000 people for each outcome. Rate ratios, rate differences, area-level concentration curves and area-level concentration coefficients quantified inequality. An Inequalities Prioritization Matrix was developed to prioritize action for the outcomes showing the greatest inequality. The outcomes measured were cancer, intentional self-harm, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, mental illness, heart disease, diabetes, injury, stroke, chlamydia, tuberculosis, gonorrhea, hepatitis C, high birth weight, low birth weight, teen abortion, teen pregnancy, infant mortality and all-cause mortality. Results: According to the Inequalities Prioritization Matrix, injuries and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were the first and second priorities, respectively, that needed to be addressed related to inequalities in admissions to hospital. For physician billing, mental disorders and diabetes were high-priority areas. Differences in teen pregnancy and all-cause mortality were the most unequal in the vital statistics data. For communicable diseases, hepatitis C was the highest priority. Interpretation: Our findings show that health inequalities exist at the local level and that a method can be developed to prioritize action on these inequalities. Policies should consider health inequalities and adopt population-based and targeted actions to reduce inequalities. PMID:27022600

  9. Is globalization reducing poverty and inequality?

    PubMed

    Wade, Robert Hunter

    2004-01-01

    Over the past 20 years or so, India, China, and the rest of East Asia experienced fast economic growth and falls in the poverty rate, Latin America stagnated, and the former Soviet Union, Central and Eastern Europe, and sub-Saharan Africa regressed. But what are the net trends? The neoliberal argument says that world poverty and income inequality fell over the past two decades for the first time in more than a century and a half, thanks to the rising density of economic integration across national borders. The evidence therefore confirms that globalization in the context of the world economic regime in place since the end of Bretton Woods generates more "mutual benefit" than "conflicting interests." This article questions the empirical basis of the neoliberal argument. PMID:15346677

  10. Black-White Health Inequalities in Canada.

    PubMed

    Veenstra, Gerry; Patterson, Andrew C

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about Black-White health inequalities in Canada or the applicability of competing explanations for them. To address this gap, we used nine cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey to analyze multiple health outcomes in a sample of 3,127 Black women, 309,720 White women, 2,529 Black men and 250,511 White men. Adjusting for age, marital status, urban/rural residence and immigrant status, Black women and men were more likely than their White counterparts to report diabetes and hypertension, Black women were less likely than White women to report cancer and fair/poor mental health and Black men were less likely than White men to report heart disease. These health inequalities persisted after controlling for education, household income, smoking, physical activity and body-mass index. We conclude that high rates of diabetes and hypertension among Black Canadians may stem from experiences of racism in everyday life, low rates of heart disease and cancer among Black Canadians may reflect survival bias and low rates of fair/poor mental health among Black Canadian women represent a mental health paradox similar to the one that exists for African Americans in the United States. PMID:25894533

  11. Widening health inequalities among U.S. military retirees since 1974.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Ryan

    2008-12-01

    I explore trends in mortality among U.S. military retirees using a new dataset of payroll records that include pay grade. Trends in mortality by pay grade reveal that health inequalities steadily widened between 1974 and 2004. Additive differentials in mortality rates remained stable, but since mortality declined exponentially, by a factor of about one third, proportional differentials in mortality and thus additive differentials in life expectancy have widened. The advantage in life expectancy enjoyed by retired officers grew roughly from 3 to 4 years. The sources of these trends remain unclear and are beyond the ability of the data to inform, but the results bear implications for trends in inequality and for policy. PMID:18708275

  12. Economic inequalities in dental care utilizations in Iran: Evidence from an urban region

    PubMed Central

    Homaie Rad, Enayatollah; Kavosi, Zahra; Arefnezhad, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background: Health utilization inequality is a major concern for health policymakers. Equality in utilization of services is very important for having a healthy society. The aim of this study was to describe inequality in dental care utilization in Iran, Therefore, concentration index, its curve, and the predictors of inequality in utilization of dental services and their spending were calculated. Methods: Data of a health utilization survey which previously had been gathered in Shiraz, Iran were used for this study. Tobit and Poisson estimators were used to estimate utilization and out of pocket models. Furthermore, concentration index and curve was calculated to show inequality in dental care utilization. Results: High inequalities was found in dental care utilization in Iran (concentration index=0.19). In the utilization model, the relationship between income and utilization was positive. People with higher income could utilize more services. Being covered by insurance increased the probability of dental care utilizations too. Conclusion: Policy makers must find solutions like increase the coverage of dental insurances to decrease inequality in dental care utilization. PMID:27493927

  13. Socioeconomic inequalities in breast and cervical screening coverage in England: are we closing the gap?

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Elaine; Waller, Jo; Duffy, Stephen W

    2015-01-01

    Objective Health policy in the UK is committed to tackling inequalities in cancer screening participation. We examined whether socioeconomic inequalities in breast and cervical cancer screening participation in England have reduced over five years. Methods Cross-sectional analyses compared cervical and breast screening coverage between 2007/8 and 2012/13 in Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) in England in relation to area-level income deprivation. Results At the start and the end of this five year period, there were socioeconomic inequalities in screening coverage for breast and cervical screening. Inequalities were highest for breast screening. Over time, the coverage gap between the highest and lowest quintiles of income deprivation significantly reduced for breast screening (from 12.3 to 8.3 percentage points), but not for cervical screening (5.3 to 4.9 percentage points). Conclusions Efforts to reduce screening inequalities appear to have resulted in a significant improvement in equitable delivery of breast screening, although not of cervical screening. More work is needed to understand the differences, and see whether broader lessons can be learned from the reduction of inequalities in breast screening participation. PMID:26377810

  14. Rising Inequality and Intergenerational Mobility: The Role of Public Investments in Human Capital.

    PubMed

    Aizer, Anna

    2014-06-01

    One consequence of the rise in inequality witnessed over the past 40 years is its potentially negative impact on intergenerational mobility if parents at the bottom of the income distribution invest significantly less in their children's human capital. I consider whether public investments in children can potentially offset the inequality of private investments. Specifically, examining changes in public spending in 25 Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries over the period 2000-2009, I find that increases in spending on health are most strongly associated with reductions in the importance of family background and declines in inequality in the production of child human capital as measured by the Program for International Student Assessment test scores among 15-year-olds. Public spending on family support, housing, and education are also moderately related. In contrast, increased spending on the elderly is associated with increases in the importance of parental background and inequality of child test scores. These results suggest that public investments in child human capital have the potential to offset the potentially negative impact of increasing income inequality on intergenerational mobility and inequality of the next generation. Further research firmly establishing a causal relationship is needed. PMID:25419203

  15. Rising Inequality and Intergenerational Mobility: The Role of Public Investments in Human Capital

    PubMed Central

    Aizer, Anna

    2014-01-01

    One consequence of the rise in inequality witnessed over the past 40 years is its potentially negative impact on intergenerational mobility if parents at the bottom of the income distribution invest significantly less in their children's human capital. I consider whether public investments in children can potentially offset the inequality of private investments. Specifically, examining changes in public spending in 25 Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries over the period 2000–2009, I find that increases in spending on health are most strongly associated with reductions in the importance of family background and declines in inequality in the production of child human capital as measured by the Program for International Student Assessment test scores among 15-year-olds. Public spending on family support, housing, and education are also moderately related. In contrast, increased spending on the elderly is associated with increases in the importance of parental background and inequality of child test scores. These results suggest that public investments in child human capital have the potential to offset the potentially negative impact of increasing income inequality on intergenerational mobility and inequality of the next generation. Further research firmly establishing a causal relationship is needed. PMID:25419203

  16. Absolute Income, Relative Income, and Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Richard; Chernova, Kateryna

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses data from the World Values Survey to investigate how an individual's self-reported happiness is related to (i) the level of her income in absolute terms, and (ii) the level of her income relative to other people in her country. The main findings are that (i) both absolute and relative income are positively and significantly…

  17. The social organization of nutritional inequities.

    PubMed

    Travers, K D

    1996-08-01

    An institutional ethnography, a qualitative research methodology grounded in critical social science, was undertaken with the purpose of explicating the social organization of nutritional inequities among socially/economically disadvantaged women and their families living in an urban centre in Nova Scotia, Canada. Methods included participant observation of food and nutrition practices in the homes of five socially disadvantaged families and at a community drop-in center in a low-income neighborhood; in-depth individual interviews with family members; and group interviews with an additional 28 participants at the community center. Tape recordings and field observation notes were analyzed thematically, preserving the perspectives of the research participants. The explication began with the examination of the everyday household work of feeding the family which provided an entry point to broader social relations working outside of the households, but evident within them. At the household level, the gendered, 'invisible' nature of feeding work became readily apparent. The class context of feeding work became particularly evident upon examination of the practice of procuring food. The apparently simple act of buying groceries was complicated by limited access to inexpensive stores. The families developed innovative strategies to enhance their abilities to procure food within their limited means. However, because of inadequacies of subsistence welfare policies, they frequently were sufficiently short of funds to necessitate reliance on charity for food. Analysis of such social policy revealed that public and professional discourses organizing nutritional inequities were informed by individualistic ideology. Yet, individualistic discourses could not provide an adequate understanding of the experiences of the research participants. The impact of individualistic professional discourse included the irrelevance of nutrition education practices based upon information

  18. Health and social inequities in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, P; Mamboury, C; Minder, C E

    1990-01-01

    Despite standards of living and life expectancy amongst the highest in Europe, Switzerland exhibits fairly substantial social inequities in health. As regards male mortality by socio-economic group, these differentials are both marked and independent of cause of death. There is a wealth of information on morbidity and disability supporting the hypothesis that people in lower socio-economic groups tend to age faster and suffer more at younger ages. It is similarly evident that infants of low class mothers, particularly those unwed, underprivileged immigrant, are at excess risk. The Swiss results are of political and scientific interest in that they suggest that the average wealth of a community does not determine health differentials. PMID:2218617

  19. Generalized convexity and inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, G. D.; Vamanamurthy, M. K.; Vuorinen, M.

    2007-11-01

    Let and let be the family of all mean values of two numbers in (some examples are the arithmetic, geometric, and harmonic means). Given , we say that a function is (m1,m2)-convex if f(m1(x,y))[less-than-or-equals, slant]m2(f(x),f(y)) for all . The usual convexity is the special case when both mean values are arithmetic means. We study the dependence of (m1,m2)-convexity on m1 and m2 and give sufficient conditions for (m1,m2)-convexity of functions defined by Maclaurin series. The criteria involve the Maclaurin coefficients. Our results yield a class of new inequalities for several special functions such as the Gaussian hypergeometric function and a generalized Bessel function.

  20. Economic Inequality and Intergenerational Transfers: Evidence from Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Mejía-Guevara, Iván

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence of the National Transfer Accounts (NTA) of Mexico reveals that asset-based reallocations play a significant role in the financing of the expenditures by elderly Mexicans, whereas private and public transfers are used to support most of the expenditures for children. What that evidence does not consider, however, is the fact that differences in socioeconomic status (SES) may seriously distort the reallocation of intergenerational flows. Mexico has long been a country permeated by high levels of inequality, it is then necessary to include its effects in the analysis of intergenerational transfers. Furthermore, age reallocations of economic flows do change over time and such changes might also involve greater economic inequality. In this paper, I assess the effects of SES inequality on the reallocation of intergenerational flows using NTA estimates for two particular years, 1994 and 2004. I show that the reallocation of economic resources, mainly to children and the elderly, by SES changed substantially within this period. The main intergenerational effects associated with SES inequality are: a) equalizing effects of labor income and remittances, b) higher progressivity of public cash and educational transfers, and c) crowding-out effects between private and public transfers among the elderly. PMID:26120556

  1. Measuring the Level and Inequality of Wealth: An Application to China

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    We construct and compare three distinct measures of household asset wealth that complement traditional income- or expenditure-based measures of socioeconomic status. We apply these measures to longitudinal household survey data from China and demonstrate that household asset wealth has been increasing over time, a theme consistent with many previous studies on the process of development in China. Unlike other studies that have shown rising income inequality over time, however, we show that asset wealth inequality has actually been declining in recent years, indicating widespread participation in the benefits of economic reforms. Furthermore, the evolution in the cumulative distribution of household welfare is such that social welfare has been increasing with the passage of time, despite rising inequality in the early years of the survey. PMID:25641989

  2. Labor markets and economic inequality in the United States since the end of the 1970s.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, John

    2005-01-01

    By most measures, the United States is the most unequal of the world's advanced capitalist economies, and inequality has increased substantially over the past 30 years. This article documents trends in the inequality of three key economic distributions--hourly earnings, annual incomes, and net wealth--and relates these developments to changes in economic and social policy over the past three decades. The primary cause of high and rising inequality is the systematic erosion of the bargaining power of lower- and middle-income workers relative to their employers, reflected in the erosion of the real value of the minimum wage, the decline in unions, widescale deregulation of industries such as airlines and trucking, the privatization and outsourcing of many state and local government activities, increasing international competition, and periods of restrictive macroeconomic policy. PMID:16320897

  3. Model-based patterns in prostate cancer mortality worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Fontes, F; Severo, M; Castro, C; Lourenço, S; Gomes, S; Botelho, F; La Vecchia, C; Lunet, N

    2013-01-01

    Background: Prostate cancer mortality has been decreasing in several high income countries and previous studies analysed the trends mostly according to geographical criteria. We aimed to identify patterns in the time trends of prostate cancer mortality across countries using a model-based approach. Methods: Model-based clustering was used to identify patterns of variation in prostate cancer mortality (1980–2010) across 37 European, five non-European high-income countries and four leading emerging economies. We characterised the patterns observed regarding the geographical distribution and gross national income of the countries, as well as the trends observed in mortality/incidence ratios. Results: We identified three clusters of countries with similar variation in prostate cancer mortality: pattern 1 (‘no mortality decline'), characterised by a continued increase throughout the whole period; patterns 2 (‘later mortality decline') and 3 (‘earlier mortality decline') depict mortality declines, starting in the late and early 1990s, respectively. These clusters are also homogeneous regarding the variation in the prostate cancer mortality/incidence ratios, while are heterogeneous with reference to the geographical region of the countries and distribution of the gross national income. Conclusion: We provide a general model for the description and interpretation of the trends in prostate cancer mortality worldwide, based on three main patterns. PMID:23660943

  4. Welfare state, labour market inequalities and health. In a global context: an integrated framework. SESPAS report 2010.

    PubMed

    Muntaner, Carles; Benach, Joan; Chung, Haejoo; Edwin, N G; Schrecker, Ted

    2010-12-01

    Since the nineteen seventies, high- and low-income countries have undergone a pattern of transnational economic and cultural integration known as globalization. The weight of the available evidence suggests that the effects of globalization on labor markets have increased economic inequality and various forms of economic insecurity that negatively affect workers' health. Research on the relation between labor markets and health is hampered by the social invisibility of many of these health inequalities. Empirical evidence of the impact of employment relations on health inequalities is scarce for low-income countries, small firms, rural settings, and sectors of the economy in which "informality" is widespread. Information is also scarce on the effectiveness of labor market interventions in reducing health inequalities. This pattern is likely to continue in the future unless governments adopt active labor market policies. Such policies include creating jobs through state intervention, regulating the labor market to protect employment, supporting unions, and ensuring occupational safety and health standards. PMID:21075490

  5. Government as Anti-Poverty Facilitator in the USA: Static Inequality Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musgrave, Frank W.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores issues of persistent poverty and income inequality. The major focus is that of the alleviation of poverty. Is there a framework that delineates the roles for government, market forces and self-reliance that can effect a reduction in the level of poverty? The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act…

  6. Poverty, Inequality and the Future of Social Policy: Western States in the New World Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFate, Katherine, Ed.; Lawson, Roger, Ed.; Wilson, William Julius, Ed.

    This book analyzes forces fraying the social fabric of many countries, and the reasons why some Western countries have been more successful than others in addressing these trends. Part 1, "Poverty, Income Inequality, and Labor Market Insecurity: A Comparative Perspective," includes (1) "Markets and States: Poverty Trends and Transfer System…

  7. The Rise and Fall of Worldwide Education Inequality from 1870 to 2010: Measurement and Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorius, Shawn F.

    2013-01-01

    This research documents long-run trends in between-country education inequality and proposes a method for doing so that accounts for the ways in which most education variables differ from continuous variables such as income. Historical, national-level estimates of primary schooling enrollment rates and years of completed primary, secondary, and…

  8. Do Survey Data Estimate Earnings Inequality Correctly? Measurement Errors among Black and White Male Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, ChangHwan; Tamborini, Christopher R.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have considered how earnings inequal