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Sample records for incommensurate magnetic structure

  1. Incommensurate Magnetic Structure in the Cubic Noncentrosymmetric Ternary Compound Pr5Ru3Al2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, Koya; Okuyama, Daisuke; Avdeev, Maxim; Sato, Taku J.

    2016-07-01

    Magnetic susceptibility and neutron powder diffraction experiments have been performed on the noncentrosymmetric ternary compound Pr5Ru3Al2. The previously reported ferromagnetic transition at 24 K was not detected in our improved-quality samples. Instead, magnetic ordering was observed in the DC magnetic susceptibility at T{c} ≃ 3.8 K. The neutron powder diffraction experiment further indicates that an incommensurate magnetic structure is established below Tc with the magnetic modulation vector {{q}} ≃ (0.066,0.066,0.066) (r.l.u.). A candidate for the magnetic structure is proposed using representation analysis.

  2. The incommensurate magnetic structure of a tetragonal antiferromagnet with antisymmetric exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Martynov, S. N.

    2009-12-15

    Analysis of the incommensurate magnetic structure that emerges for two coexisting types of the antisymmetric Dzyaloshinski-Moriya exchange interaction (the weakly ferromagnetic component of vector D along the tetragonal axis and the helicoidal component distributed in the tetragonal plane) is carried out for the first time for a tetragonal antiferromagnet. The helicoidal component for each pair of interacting spins has a 2D distribution; its direction in the tetragonal plane depends on the direction of the exchange bond in each pair. The Lifshits invariant of the Ginzburg-Landau functional is obtained, which is responsible for the formation of an incommensurate magnetic structure for such a distribution. It is shown in the mean field approximation that the incommensurate magnetic structure that forms in this case is a nonlinear double helicoid with a modulation vector lying in the tetragonal plane and with a varying angle between the polarization planes of quasi-antiferromagnetic sublattices. The ground state of the magnet is degenerate in the orientation of the modulation vector in the tetragonal plane. The rate of variation in the orientations of moments in the polarization planes passing through the tetragonal axis is controlled by the angle between the directions of the moments and the tetragonal axis. The local weakly ferromagnetic moment remaining in the polarization plane varies in magnitude and sign. The relation between the orientations of the modulation and polarization vectors is derived for the cases of simple and inversion tetragonal axes in the space symmetry group of the crystal.

  3. Cationic superstructures and incommensurate magnetic structure in SbVO4 catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Velasco, J.; Vilanova-Martínez, P.; García-García, J.; Landa-Cánovas, A. R.

    2014-11-01

    Chemical and magnetic structure modulations in antimony vanadium mixed oxide with composition Sb0.92V1.08O4 prepared in reducing conditions are studied using diffraction techniques, mainly nuclear and magnetic neutron scattering, electron and X-ray powder diffraction. Magnetic susceptibility measurements show possible magnetic order of V3+ magnetic moments that is confirmed with neutron diffraction at TN ~50K. The average commensurate nuclear cell belongs to the tetragonal rutile structural type with cell constants: a=4.6066(11)Å and c=3.0812(8)Å at 60K. However the nature of the magnetic structure is incommensurate with propagation vector k= [0, 0, ± 0.266(1)] related to short range order phenomena and V-Sb alternating occupancy along the crystallographic c-axis.

  4. Linear spin wave theory for single-Q incommensurate magnetic structures.

    PubMed

    Toth, S; Lake, B

    2015-04-29

    Linear spin wave theory provides the leading term in the calculation of the excitation spectra of long-range ordered magnetic systems as a function of 1/√S. This term is acquired using the Holstein-Primakoff approximation of the spin operator and valid for small δS fluctuations of the ordered moment. We propose an algorithm that allows magnetic ground states with general moment directions and single-Q incommensurate ordering wave vector using a local coordinate transformation for every spin and a rotating coordinate transformation for the incommensurability. Finally we show, how our model can determine the spin wave spectrum of the magnetic C-site langasites with incommensurate order. PMID:25817594

  5. Incommensurate Structure of Phosphorus Phase IV

    SciTech Connect

    Fujihisa, Hiroshi; Gotoh, Yoshito; Yamawaki, Hiroshi; Sakashita, Mami; Takeya, Satoshi; Honda, Kazumasa; Akahama, Yuichi; Kawamura, Haruki; Ohishi, Yasuo

    2007-04-27

    There are six known phases for phosphorus at room temperature under high pressure. Only the structure of phase IV, which exists from 107 GPa to 137 GPa, remains unsolved. We performed a powder x-ray diffraction experiment and a Rietveld analysis and successfully determined its structure to be an incommensurately modulated structure by only 1 site of atomic position. High-pressure phases of halogens and chalcogens have previously been shown to have a similar modulated structure; however, phosphorus phase IV is different from them and was shown to be the third case.

  6. Complex incommensurate helicoidal magnetic ordering of EuNiGe3.

    PubMed

    Ryan, D H; Cadogan, J M; Rejali, Rasa; Boyer, C D

    2016-07-01

    (151)Eu Mössbauer spectroscopy and neutron powder diffraction are combined to show that the tetragonal (I4mm #107) compound EuNiGe3 orders magnetically below [Formula: see text] K and adopts a complex incommensurate helicoidal magnetic structure at 3.6 K, with a propagation vector [Formula: see text] and a Eu moment of 7.1(2) [Formula: see text]. On warming through 6 K an incommensurate sinusoidal modulation develops and dominates the magnetic order by 12 K. PMID:27173847

  7. Complex incommensurate helicoidal magnetic ordering of EuNiGe3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, D. H.; Cadogan, J. M.; Rejali, Rasa; Boyer, C. D.

    2016-07-01

    151Eu Mössbauer spectroscopy and neutron powder diffraction are combined to show that the tetragonal (I4mm #107) compound EuNiGe3 orders magnetically below {{T}\\text{N}}∼ 14 K and adopts a complex incommensurate helicoidal magnetic structure at 3.6 K, with a propagation vector \\mathbf{k}=≤ft[0.255(1),~0.054(14),~0\\right] and a Eu moment of 7.1(2) {μ\\text{B}} . On warming through 6 K an incommensurate sinusoidal modulation develops and dominates the magnetic order by 12 K.

  8. Detailed structure of the low-energy magnetic dispersion of the diagonal incommensurate phase in La1.975Sr0.025CuO4

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuda, Masaaki; Fernandez-Baca, Jaime A; Fujita, M.; Yamada, K.; Tranquada, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering experiments have been performed on lightly doped La{sub 1.975}Sr{sub 0.025}CuO{sub 4}, which contains a hole concentration slightly higher than the critical concentration for three-dimensional long-range antiferromagnetic order. We previously found that the magnetic excitation spectrum in the insulating phase with a diagonal incommensurate spin modulation has similarities to that in the superconducting regime, where the spin modulation is bond parallel. In this study, we investigate the excitations in detail around E{sub cross}, at which the excitations become most nearly commensurate. It is found that both the magnitude and the anisotropy of the momentum width of the excitations change abruptly at E{sub cross}. Our experimental results suggest that the magnetic excitations rising from the pair of (diagonally) incommensurate wave vectors merge at E{sub cross} into isotropic excitations.

  9. Temperature dependences of the electric polarization and wave number of incommensurate structures in multiferroics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikin, S. A.

    2016-05-01

    It is shown that the electric polarization and wave number of incommensurate modulations, proportional to each other, increase according to the Landau law in spin multiferroic cycloids near the Néel temperature. In this case, the constant magnetization component (including the one for a conical spiral) is oriented perpendicular to the spin incommensurability wave vector. A similar temperature behavior should manifest itself for spin helicoids, the axes of which are oriented parallel to the polarization vector but their spin rotation planes are oriented perpendicular to the antiferromagnetic order plane. When the directions of axes of the magnetization helicoid and polarization vector coincide, the latter is quadratic with respect to magnetization and linearly depends on temperature, whereas the incommensurate-modulation wave number barely depends on temperature. Structural distortions of unit cells for multiferroics of different types determine their axial behavior.

  10. Strain induced incommensurate structures in vicinity of reconstructive phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korzhenevskii, A. L.; Dmitriev, V.

    2015-09-01

    General conditions controlling the formation of incommensurate phases in crystals undergoing reconstructive phase transitions are analyzed in the framework of a model-free phenomenological approach. A universal trend to stabilizing such intermediate phases in the vicinity of reconstructive phase transitions stems from the fact that certain high-order improper Lifshitz invariants reduce at such transformations to ones bi-linearly coupling critical displacement gradients and strains or even to the proper Lifshitz invariant. The approach developed here introduces a universal mechanism for the formation both of premartensite incommensurate phases and complex structures with giant unit cells, as found in some elemental crystals at high pressure.

  11. Nuclear and incommensurate magnetic structure of NaFeGe2O6 between 5 K and 298 K and new data on multiferroic NaFeSi2O6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redhammer, Günther J.; Senyshyn, Anatoliy; Meven, Martin; Roth, Georg; Prinz, Sebastian; Pachler, Astrid; Tippelt, Gerold; Pietzonka, Clemens; Treutmann, Werner; Hoelzel, Markus; Pedersen, Björn; Amthauer, Georg

    2011-02-01

    The compound NaFeGe2O6 was grown synthetically as polycrystalline powder and as large single crystals suitable for X-ray and neutron-diffraction experiments to clarify the low temperature evolution of secondary structural parameters and to determine the low temperature magnetic spins structure. NaFeGe2O6 is isotypic to the clinopyroxene-type compound aegirine and adopts the typical H T- C2/ c clinopyroxene structure down to 2.5 K. The Na-bearing M2 polyhedra were identified to show the largest volume expansion between 2.5 K and room temperature, while the GeO4 tetrahedra behave as stiff units. Magnetic susceptibility measurements show a broad maximum around 33 K, which marks the onset of low-dimensional magnetic ordering. Below 12 K NaFeGe2O6 transforms to an incommensurately modulated magnetic spin state, with k = [0.323, 1.0, 0.080] and a helical order of spins within the M1-chains of FeO6 octahedra. This is determined by neutron-diffraction experiments on a single crystal. Comparison of NaFeGe2O6 with NaFeSi2O6 is given and it is shown that the magnetic ordering in the latter compound, aegirine, also is complex and is best described by two different spin states, a commensurate one with C2'/ c' symmetry and an incommensurate one, best being described by a spin density wave, oriented within the (1 0 1) plane.

  12. Modelling of magnetic satellite intensity in the neutron diffraction of an incommensurate helical structure: NiBr 2 and Ni 0.9Fe 0.1Br 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, P.; Moore, M. W.; Wilkinson, C.; Ziebeck, K. R. A.

    1986-02-01

    We describe the application of a neutron multidetector diffractometer (D16, ILL) to study the incommensurate helical magnetic structure of pure and Fe 2+ -doped single crystals of NiBr 2. Detailed mapping of satellite intensity around (0, 0, 3/2) yields the magnitude and direction of the helix propagation vector τ. τ moves from [110] in NiBr 2 to [100] in Ni 09Fe 0.1Br 2 with only a 5% increase in magnitude. The incommensurate-commensurate transition temperature is unchanged. The measured intensity profiles in (2ϑ, ω, v) space are fitted to model profiles constructed by superimposing profiles measured in the collinear phase at 28 K on a ring with radius τ, and optimizing the weighting of intensity around the ring. Based on the models optimized for these two crystals data from single detector instruments has been analysed for a range of Ni 1-xFe xBr 2 crystals and the magnetic phase diagram derived.

  13. Coexistence of Incommensurate Magnetism and Superconductivity in the Two-Dimensional Hubbard Model.

    PubMed

    Yamase, Hiroyuki; Eberlein, Andreas; Metzner, Walter

    2016-03-01

    We analyze the competition of magnetism and superconductivity in the two-dimensional Hubbard model with a moderate interaction strength, including the possibility of incommensurate spiral magnetic order. Using an unbiased renormalization group approach, we compute magnetic and superconducting order parameters in the ground state. In addition to previously established regions of Néel order coexisting with d-wave superconductivity, the calculations reveal further coexistence regions where superconductivity is accompanied by incommensurate magnetic order. PMID:26991188

  14. Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Magnetic Properties of Sr1.31Co0.63Mn0.37O3: A Derivative of the Incommensurate Composite Hexagonal Perovskite Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Mandal,T.; Abakumov, A.; Hadermann, J.; Van Tendeloo, G.; Croft, M.; Greenblatt, M.

    2007-01-01

    We report the synthesis, structural investigation, and magnetic property studies of Sr1.31Co0.63Mn0.37O3 that adopts an incommensurate composite hexagonal perovskite-related structure. The crystal structure has been solved using a (3 + 1)-dimensional superspace approach from powder X-ray and neutron diffraction data (SSG Rm(00 )0s, a = 9.5548(1) Angstroms, c = 2.5599(1) Angstroms, q = 0.65581(4)c*, RB = 0.041, RP = 0.059). The structure consists of face-sharing chains of octahedra and trigonal prisms, wherein the trigonal prismatic sites are preferentially occupied by Co with some cation disorder. A combination of electron diffraction and high-resolution electron microscopic analysis has demonstrated that the compound possesses a complicated microstructure related to the formation of domains with slightly different lengths of the modulation vector. X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopic (XAS) studies clearly indicate the presence of Mn in the 4+ and Co in the 3+ oxidation state. While the magnetic susceptibility data indicates the presence of antiferromagnetic correlations in the system, the calculation of effective paramagnetic moment ({mu}cal = 3.561 {mu}B), assuming the metal oxidation states as obtained from XAS and the cation distribution as obtained from neutron refinement, is in agreement with the value obtained experimentally ({mu}exp = 3.676 {mu}B).

  15. Modelling of magnetic satellite intensity in the neutron diffraction of an incommensurate helical structure: NiBr 2 and Ni 0.91Fe 0.09Br 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, P.; Moore, M. W.; Wilkinson, C.; Ziebeck, K. R. A.

    1985-05-01

    We describe the application of a neutron multidetector diffractometer (D16, I.L.L.) to the study of the incommensurate helical magnetic structure of pure and Fe 2+-doped single crystals of NiBr 2. Use of the multidetector permits detailed mapping of satellite intensity around 003 M arising from three magnetic domains, from which the magnitude and direction of the helix propagation vector τ are deduced. τ moves from [110] (0.0138(5) Å -1) in NiBr 2 to [100] (0.0151(5) Å -1) in Ni 0.91 Fe 0.09Br 2. The measured intensity profiles in (2θ, ω, v space are fitted to model profiles constructed by superimposing profiles measured at 003 M in the collinear phase at 28 K on a ring with radius τ, and optimizing the weighting of intensity around the ring.

  16. New type of incommensurate magnetic ordering in Mn{sub 3}TeO{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, S.A.; Nordblad, P.; Mathieu, R.; Tellgren, R.; Ritter, C.; Golubko, N.V.; Politova, E.D.; Weil, M.

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} Mn{sub 3}TeO{sub 6} has a corundum related structure and orders magnetically below 23 K. {yields} The magnetic structure consists of several types of Mn-chains. {yields} The unique Mn site is split into two magnetically different orbits. {yields} One orbit forms a perfect helix with the spiral axis along the c-axis. {yields} The other orbit has a sine wave character along the c-axis. -- Abstract: The complex metal oxide Mn{sub 3}TeO{sub 6} exhibits a corundum related structure and has been prepared both in forms of single crystals by chemical transport reactions and of polycrystalline powders by a solid state reaction route. The crystal structure and magnetic properties have been investigated using a combination of X-ray and neutron powder diffraction, electron microscopy, calorimetric and magnetic measurements. At room temperature this compound adopts a trigonal structure, space group R3{sup -bar} with a = 8.8679(1) A, c = 10.6727(2) A. A long-range magnetically ordered state is identified below 23 K. An unexpected feature of this magnetic structure is several types of Mn-chains. Under the action of the incommensurate magnetic propagation vector k = [0, 0, 0.4302(1)] the unique Mn site is split into two magnetically different orbits. One orbit forms a perfect helix with the spiral axis along the c-axis while the other orbit has a sine wave character along the c-axis.

  17. Field-induced spin-flop in antiferromagnetic semiconductors with commensurate and incommensurate magnetic structures: Li2FeGeS4 (LIGS) and Li2FeSnS4 (LITS).

    PubMed

    Brant, Jacilynn A; dela Cruz, Clarina; Yao, Jinlei; Douvalis, Alexios P; Bakas, Thomas; Sorescu, Monica; Aitken, Jennifer A

    2014-12-01

    Li2FeGeS4 (LIGS) and Li2FeSnS4 (LITS), which are among the first magnetic semiconductors with the wurtz-kesterite structure, exhibit antiferromagnetism with TN ≈ 6 and 4 K, respectively. Both compounds undergo a conventional metamagnetic transition that is accompanied by a hysteresis; a reversible spin-flop transition is dominant. On the basis of constant-wavelength neutron powder diffraction data, we propose that LIGS and LITS exhibit collinear magnetic structures that are commensurate and incommensurate with propagation vectors km = [1/2, 1/2, 1/2] and [0, 0, 0.546(1)], respectively. The two compounds exhibit similar magnetic phase diagrams, as the critical fields are temperature-dependent. The nuclear structures of the bulk powder samples were verified using time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction along with synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction. (57)Fe and (119)Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy confirmed the presence of Fe(2+) and Sn(4+) as well as the number of crystallographically unique positions. LIGS and LITS are semiconductors with indirect and direct bandgaps of 1.42 and 1.86 eV, respectively, according to optical diffuse-reflectance UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy. PMID:25397682

  18. Incommensurate-commensurate magnetic phase transition in SmRu2Al10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takai, Shun; Matsumura, Takeshi; Tanida, Hiroshi; Sera, Masafumi

    2015-11-01

    Magnetic properties of single crystalline SmRu2Al10 have been investigated by electrical resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, and specific heat. We have confirmed the successive magnetic phase transitions at TN=12.3 K and TM=5.6 K. Resonant x-ray diffraction has also been performed to study the magnetic structures. Below TN, the Sm3 + moments order in an incommensurate structure with q1=(0 ,0.759 ,0 ) . The magnetic moments are oriented along the orthorhombic b axis, which coincides with the magnetization easy axis in the paramagnetic phase. A very weak third harmonic peak is also observed at q3=(0 ,0.278 ,0 ) . The transition at TM is a lock-in transition to the commensurate structure described by q1=(0 ,0.75 ,0 ) . A well-developed third harmonic peak is observed at q3=(0 ,0.25 ,0 ) . From the discussion of the magnetic structure, we propose that the long-range RKKY interaction plays an important role, in addition to the strong nearest-neighbor antiferromagnetic interaction.

  19. New insight on bismuth cuprates with incommensurate modulated structures.

    PubMed

    Mironov, Andrei V; Petříček, Vaclav; Khasanova, Nellie R; Antipov, Evgeny V

    2016-06-01

    The incommensurate modulated crystal structure of Bi2.27Sr1.73CuO6 + δ (2201) phase [a = 5.3874 (5), b = 5.3869 (4), c = 24.579 (3) Å; β = 90.01 (1)°, q = 0.2105 (3)a(*) + 0.538 (4)c(*), Z = 4, the (3 + 1)-dimensional monoclinic A2/a(α0γ) group] has been refined with R = 0.041, wR = 0.052 from X-ray single-crystal data including up to third-order satellite reflections. The same structure has also been considered as incommensurate composite with a2 = 2.437, b2 = 5.387, c2 = 24.614, β2 = 93.06, q2 = 0.4524a2(*)-0.243c2(*) and the (3 + 1)-dimensional A2/m(α0γ)0s group for the second component. Both approaches give quite similar results. The structure possesses oxygen disorder in the oxygen-rich region of the BiO layer. An extra O atom is determined in the bridging position shifted ∼ 0.6 Å from BiO towards the SrO layer. Its presence is the cause of the tremendous increase of the bismuth U(11) atomic displacement parameter in ∼ 20% of the unit cells (t = -0.05-0.15). Vacancies are determined in the oxygen site of the SrO layer, which may result in the oxygen content variation with annealing at different oxygen pressures. The total refined oxygen content 6.18 (1) corresponds to the results of chemical analysis. PMID:27240771

  20. Crystal structure, incommensurate magnetic order, and ferroelectricity in Mn1 -xCuxWO 4 (0 ≤x ≤ 0.19 )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, C. M. N.; Xiao, Y.; Lunkenheimer, P.; Loidl, A.; Ohl, M.

    2015-06-01

    We have carried out a systematic study on the effect of Cu doping on nuclear, magnetic, and dielectric properties in Mn1 -xCuxWO4 for 0 ≤x ≤0.19 by a synergic use of different techniques, viz, heat capacity, magnetization, dielectric, and neutron powder diffraction measurements. Via heat capacity and magnetization measurements we show that with increasing Cu concentration magnetic frustration decreases, which leads to the stabilization of commensurate magnetic ordering. This was further verified by temperature-dependent unit cell volume changes derived from neutron diffraction measurements which was modeled by the Grüneisen approximation. Dielectric measurements show a low temperature phase transition below about 9-10 K. Furthermore, magnetic refinements reveal no changes below this transition indicating a possible spin-flop transition which is unique to the Cu doped system. From these combined studies we have constructed a magnetoelectric phase diagram of this compound.

  1. Commensurate Dy magnetic ordering associated with incommensurate lattice distortion in multiferroic DyMnO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Feyerherm, R.; Dudzik, E.

    2006-05-01

    Synchrotron x-ray diffraction and resonant magnetic scattering experiments on a single crystal of orthorhombic DyMnO{sub 3} have been carried out between 4 and 40 K. Below T{sub N}{sup Dy}=5 K, the Dy magnetic moments order in a commensurate structure with propagation vector 0.5 b{sup *}. Simultaneous with the Dy magnetic ordering, an incommensurate lattice modulation with propagation vector 0.905 b{sup *} evolves while the original Mn induced modulation is suppressed and shifts from 0.78 b{sup *} to 0.81 b{sup *}. This points to a strong interference of Mn and Dy induced structural distortions in DyMnO{sub 3} besides a magnetic coupling between the Mn and Dy magnetic moments.

  2. Incommensurate counterrotating magnetic order stabilized by Kitaev interactions in the layered honeycomb α -Li2IrO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, S. Â. C.; Johnson, R. Â. D.; Freund, F.; Choi, Sungkyun; Jesche, A.; Kimchi, I.; Manni, S.; Bombardi, A.; Manuel, P.; Gegenwart, P.; Coldea, R.

    2016-05-01

    The layered honeycomb magnet α -Li2IrO3 has been theoretically proposed as a candidate to display unconventional magnetic behaviour associated with Kitaev interactions between spin-orbit entangled jeff=1 /2 magnetic moments on a honeycomb lattice. Here we report single crystal magnetic resonant x-ray diffraction combined with powder magnetic neutron diffraction to reveal an incommensurate magnetic order in the honeycomb layers with Ir magnetic moments counterrotating on nearest-neighbor sites. This unexpected type of magnetic structure for a honeycomb magnet cannot be explained by a spin Hamiltonian with dominant isotropic (Heisenberg) couplings. The magnetic structure shares many key features with the magnetic order in the structural polytypes β - and γ -Li2IrO3 , understood theoretically to be stabilized by dominant Kitaev interactions between Ir moments located on the vertices of three-dimensional hyperhoneycomb and stripyhoneycomb lattices, respectively. Based on this analogy and a theoretical soft-spin analysis of magnetic ground states for candidate spin Hamiltonians, we propose that Kitaev interactions also dominate in α -Li2IrO3 , indicative of universal Kitaev physics across all three members of the harmonic honeycomb family of Li2IrO3 polytypes.

  3. Modeling of Incommensurate ω Structure in the Zr-Nb Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Bin; Cui, Y.-W.; Chang, Hui; Kou, Hongchao; Li, Jinshan; Zhou, Lian

    2012-08-01

    Kanzaki force induced by substitutional solutes was introduced as a composition-dependent oscillating defect field in the Ginzburg-Landau model to simulate the pre-transition structure preceding the β-to- ω phase transformation. A three-dimensional (3-D) modulated incommensurate structure of the ω phase composed of alternating ω and β phases was predicted to be present in the moderately concentrated Zr-Nb alloys. The modeling work suggests that the Kanzaki force acts as a resistance that generates and retains the incommensurate structure of the ω phase.

  4. Incommensurate magnetism in non-superconducting PrBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6.92}

    SciTech Connect

    Boothroyd, A.T.; Hill, J.P.; McMorrow, D.F.; Andersen, N.H.; Stunault, A.; Vettier, C.; Wolf, T.

    1998-12-31

    The authors report the discovery of incommensurate magnetic order in non-superconducting single crystals PrBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6.92}. Resonant x-ray magnetic scattering at the Pr L{sub II} and L{sub III} edges and high resolution neutron diffraction were used to characterize the magnetic order on the different magnetic sublattices. The data reveal that the Pr sublattice orders at a temperature of 19 K in an incommensurate structure with ordering wavevector (0.5 {+-} {delta}, 0.5, 0) or (0.5, 0.5 {+-} {delta}, p), {delta} {approx} 0.006--0.008. A spin reorientation in the Pr sublattice to a commensurate antiferromagnetic structures with ordering wavevector (0.5, 0.5, 0.5) takes place at a temperature close to 9 K.

  5. Mössbauer study of spin structure transformation from an incommensurate to a commensurate state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kang Ryong; Park, Seung-Iel; Kim, Sam Jin; Kim, Chul Sung

    2009-01-01

    We present crystallographic and magnetic properties of NiCr1.98 57Fe0.02O4 by using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The lattice constants a0 were determined to be 8.318 Å. The ferrimagnetic Neel temperature ( T N) for NiCr1.98 57Fe0.02O4 is determined to be 90 K. The Mössbauer absorption spectra for all chromites at 4.2 K show two well developed sextets superposed with small difference of hyperfine fields ( H hf) caused by Cr3 + ions in two different magnetic sites. The values of the isomer shifts show that the charge states of Fe are Fe3 + for all temperature range. Ni-chromites Mössbauer spectra below T N present aline broadening due to a Jahn-Teller distortion and show that spin structure behavior of Cr ions change from an incommensurate to a commensurate state.

  6. Incommensurate host-guest structures in compressed elements: Hume—Rothery effects as origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degtyareva, V. F.

    2015-11-01

    Discovery of the incommensurate structure in the element Ba under pressure 15 years ago was followed by findings of a series of similar structures in other compressed elements. Incommensurately modulated structures of the host-guest type consist of a tetragonal host structure and a guest structure. The guest structure forms chains of atoms embedded in the channels of host atoms so that the axial ratio of these subcells along the c axis is not rational. Two types of the host-guest structures have been found so far: with the host cells containing 8 atoms and 16 atoms; in these both types the guest cells contain 2 atoms. These crystal structures contain a non-integer number of atoms in their unit cell: tI11* in Bi, Sb, As, Ba, Sr, Sc and tI19* in Na, K, Rb. We consider here a close structural relationship of these host-guest structures with the binary alloy phase Au3Cd5-tI32. This phase is related to the family of the Hume-Rothery phases that is stabilized by the Fermi sphere-Brillouin zone interaction. From similar considerations for alkali and alkaline-earth elements a necessary condition for structural stability emerges in which the valence electrons band overlaps with the upper core electrons and the valence electron count increases under compression.

  7. Incommensurate-commensurate transitions in the monoaxial chiral helimagnet driven by the magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laliena, Victor; Campo, Javier; Kishine, Jun-Ichiro; Ovchinnikov, Alexander S.; Togawa, Yoshihiko; Kousaka, Yusuke; Inoue, Katsuya

    2016-04-01

    The zero-temperature phase diagram of the monoaxial chiral helimagnet in the magnetic-field plane formed by the components parallel and perpendicular to the helical axis is thoroughly analyzed. The nature of the transition to the commensurate state depends on the angle between the field and the helical axis. For field directions close to the directions parallel or perpendicular to the helical axis the transition is continuous, while for intermediate angles the transition is discontinuous and the incommensurate and commensurate states coexist on the transition line. The continuous and discontinuous transition lines are separated by two tricritical points with specific singular behavior. The location of the continuous and discontinuous lines and of the tricritical points depend strongly on the easy-plane anisotropy, the effect of which is analyzed. For high anisotropy the conical approximation locates the transition line very accurately, although it does not predict the continuous transitions and the tricritical behavior. It is shown that for high anisotropy, as in CrNb3S6 , the form of the transition line is universal, that is, independent of the sample, and obeys a simple equation. The position of the tricritical points, which is not universal, is theoretically estimated for a sample of CrNb3S6 .

  8. Incommensurability and Multiple Models: Representations of the Structure of Matter in Undergraduate Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores-Camacho, Fernando; Gallegos-Cazares, Leticia; Garritz, Andoni; Garcia-Franco, Alejandra

    2007-01-01

    The notion of incommensurability has provided a rationality criterion for the development of scientific theories, as well as some insight into theories developed by students while learning science. However, the relationship between the multiple models held by students and incommensurability requires further discussion. We present the results of…

  9. Large coincidence lattice on Au/Fe3O4 incommensurate structure for spintronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Noval, Alvaro; Rubio-Zuazo, Juan; Salas-Colera, Eduardo; Serrano, Aida; Rubio-Marcos, Fernando; Castro, Germán R.

    2015-11-01

    The design of metallic hybrid systems for spintronics has been widely studied during the past decade, motivated by the promising technological applications of these materials. Nevertheless, the importance of preserving the native structure and properties of the interfaces is often ignored. Here, we present the fabrication of nanocrystalline Au (0 0 1) onto a single oriented Fe3O4 (0 0 1) thin film as a promising hybrid system to develop spintronic devices by growing Au over the Fe3O4 by using a simple one-pot Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) approach. The structural coupling between Au nanocrystals and Fe3O4 layer results in the development of an incommensurate structure based on a coincidence lattice of order 35, which preserves the intrinsic properties of the Au nanocrystals, the Fe3O4 matrix and the interface between them. The general strategy described in the present work preserves the structure and main intrinsic properties of the constituting materials, being a fundamental issue for the future development of spintronic devices.

  10. Commensurate and incommensurate magnetic order in spin-1 chains stacked on the triangular lattice in Li2NiW2O8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjith, K. M.; Nath, R.; Majumder, M.; Kasinathan, D.; Skoulatos, M.; Keller, L.; Skourski, Y.; Baenitz, M.; Tsirlin, A. A.

    2016-07-01

    We report the thermodynamic properties, magnetic ground state, and microscopic magnetic model of the spin-1 frustrated antiferromagnet Li2NiW2O8 , showing successive transitions at TN 1≃18 K and TN 2≃12.5 K in zero field. Nuclear magnetic resonance and neutron diffraction reveal collinear and commensurate magnetic order with the propagation vector k =(1/2 ,0 ,1/2 ) below TN 2. The ordered moment of 1.8 μB at 1.5 K is directed along [0.89 (9 ),-0.10 (5 ),-0.49 (6 )] and matches the magnetic easy axis of spin-1 Ni2 + ions, which is determined by the scissor-like distortion of the NiO6 octahedra. Incommensurate magnetic order, presumably of spin-density-wave type, is observed in the region between TN 2 and TN 1. Density-functional band-structure calculations put forward a three-dimensional spin lattice with spin-1 chains running along the [01 1 ¯] direction and stacked on a spatially anisotropic triangular lattice in the a b plane. We show that the collinear magnetic order in Li2NiW2O8 is incompatible with the triangular lattice geometry and thus driven by a pronounced easy-axis single-ion anisotropy of Ni2 +.

  11. Neutron diffraction and electrical transport studies on the incommensurate magnetic phase transition in holmium at high pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Sarah; Uhoya, Walter; Tsoi, Georgiy; Wenger, Lowell E; Vohra, Yogesh; Chesnut, Gary Neal; Weir, S. T.; Tulk, Christopher A; Moreira Dos Santos, Antonio F

    2012-01-01

    Neutron diffraction and electrical transport measurements have been made on the heavy rare earth metal holmium at high pressures and low temperatures in order to elucidate its transition from a paramagnetic (PM) to a helical antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordered phase as a function of pressure. The electrical resistance measurements show a change in the resistance slope as the temperature is lowered through the antiferromagnetic Neel temperature. The temperature of this antiferromagnetic transition decreases from approximately 122 K at ambient pressure at a rate of -4.9 K GPa(-1) up to a pressure of 9 GPa, whereupon the PM-to-AFM transition vanishes for higher pressures. Neutron diffraction measurements as a function of pressure at 89 and 110 K confirm the incommensurate nature of the phase transition associated with the antiferromagnetic ordering of the magnetic moments in a helical arrangement and that the ordering occurs at similar pressures as determined from the resistance results for these temperatures.

  12. (3+1)-Incommensurately modulated crystal structure of Cs3ScSi6O15.

    PubMed

    Hejny, Clivia; Kahlenberg, Volker; Schmidmair, Daniela; Dabić, Predrag

    2016-02-01

    Single-crystal X-ray diffraction of Cs3ScSi6O15 shows the presence of main reflections and satellite reflections up to the fourth order along the c* direction. The (3+1)-dimensional incommensurately modulated structure was solved in superspace group X3m1(00gamma)0s0 [a = 13.861 (1), c = 6.992 (1) Å, V = 1163.4 (2) Å(3)] with a modulation wavevector q = 0.14153 (2)c*. Refinement of three modulation waves for positional and anisotropic displacement parameter values for all atoms converged to R(obs) values for all, main and satellite reflections of first, second and third order of 0.0200, 0.0166, 0.0181, 0.0214 and 0.0303, respectively. Cs3ScSi6O15 forms a mixed tetrahedral-octahedral framework with prominent six-membered rings of [SiO4]-tetrahedra interconnected by [ScO6]-octahedra. Apart from Sc, all atoms are strongly affected by positional modulation with maximum atomic displacements of up to 0.93 Å causing rigid polyhedral arrangements to perform tilt and twist movements relative to each other, such as a rotation of the Sc-octahedra around the 3-axis by over 38°. Cs has an irregular coordination environment; however, considering distances up to 3.5 Å, the bond-valence sum changes by no more than 0.02 as a function of t and thus overall kept at a level of ca 1.075. PMID:26830802

  13. Anomalous fast dynamics of adsorbate overlayers near an incommensurate structural transition.

    PubMed

    Granato, Enzo; Ying, S C; Elder, K R; Ala-Nissila, T

    2013-09-20

    We investigate the dynamics of a compressively strained adsorbed layer on a periodic substrate via a simple two-dimensional model that admits striped and hexagonal incommensurate phases. We show that the mass transport is superfast near the striped-hexagonal phase boundary and in the hexagonal phase. For an initial step profile separating a bare substrate region (or "hole") from the rest of a striped incommensurate phase, the superfast domain wall dynamics leads to a bifurcation of the initial step profile into two interfaces or profiles propagating in opposite directions with a hexagonal phase in between. This yields a theoretical understanding of the recent experiments for the Pb/Si(111) system. PMID:24093278

  14. Incommensurate structure of GdBaCo2O5+δ(δ˜0.38)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizawa, N.; Asaka, T.; Kudo, T.; Fukuda, K.; Abe, N.; Arima, T.

    2013-02-01

    The incommensurate structure of the GdBaCo2O5+δ (δ˜0.38) paramagnetic phase was studied using the single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The basic structure of the compound is a double-layered perovskite with an alternating layer sequence of [GdOδ]-[CoO2]-[BaO]-[CoO2] along the c axis. The crystal belongs to the five-dimensional superspace group P4/mmm(α00)0000(0α0)0000, α=0.3368(1), with a 1×1×2-type tetragonal fundamental unit cell of a=3.8934(1) Å and c=7.5267(1) Å. The structure was refined to R=0.028 for all the observed 2216 reflections with I>3σ(I), including 331 main reflections (R=0.017), 1039 observed first-order satellites (R=0.033), and 846 observed second-order satellites (R=0.045). The crystal has oxygen deficiency that occurs only in the [GdOδ] layer; however, it causes many positional modulations of the constituent atoms throughout the crystal in association with a valence fluctuation of Co between the divalent and trivalent states. Because the value of α was very close to 1/3, the structure was also investigated using both the commensurately modulated approach and the conventional three-dimensional approach assuming a 3×3×2 supercell of P4/mmm symmetry. These approaches successfully reproduced a prime structure of the compound that consists of intersecting CoO5 pyramidal arrays parallel to a or b axes. The bond valence sum and the charge neutrality principle suggested that the divalent and trivalent cobalt cations are distributed in an ordered way. The incommensurate approach also indicated the possible presence of a local disorder having a structural similarity with that of a high-temperature modification.

  15. Electronic Properties of Incommensurate Atomic Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshino, Mikito; Moon, Pilkyung

    2015-12-01

    We present a brief theoretical overview of electronic properties of incommensurate multilayer systems, i.e., a pair of two-dimensional atomic layers stacked in an arbitrary orientation. We introduce the general theoretical scheme to describe the interlayer interaction between incommensurate crystal structures, and apply the formula to two specific examples, the twisted bilayer graphene and graphene-hBN composite bilayer. In each case, we calculate the electronic band structure and demonstrate that the low-energy electronic properties are significantly modified by the interlayer interaction, particularly when the two lattice structures are close to each other. We also study the energy spectrum and the quantum Hall effect in magnetic fields, where we see that the spectral structure exhibits a fractal nature, as known as the Hofstadter butterfly. We argue about the optical absorption properties of the twisted bilayer graphene and show that the interlayer interaction gives rise to the characteristic spectroscopic features in zero magnetic field and also in strong magnetic field.

  16. Incommensurate structure of GdBaCo{sub 2}O{sub 5+{delta}}({delta}{approx}0.38)

    SciTech Connect

    Ishizawa, N.; Asaka, T.; Kudo, T.; Fukuda, K.; Abe, N.; Arima, T.

    2013-02-15

    The incommensurate structure of the GdBaCo{sub 2}O{sub 5+{delta}} ({delta}{approx}0.38) paramagnetic phase was studied using the single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The basic structure of the compound is a double-layered perovskite with an alternating layer sequence of [GdO{sub {delta}}]-[CoO{sub 2}]-[BaO]-[CoO{sub 2}] along the c axis. The crystal belongs to the five-dimensional superspace group P4/mmm({alpha}00)0000(0{alpha}0)0000, {alpha}=0.3368(1), with a 1 Multiplication-Sign 1 Multiplication-Sign 2-type tetragonal fundamental unit cell of a=3.8934(1) A and c=7.5267(1) A. The structure was refined to R=0.028 for all the observed 2216 reflections with I>3{sigma}(I), including 331 main reflections (R=0.017), 1039 observed first-order satellites (R=0.033), and 846 observed second-order satellites (R=0.045). The crystal has oxygen deficiency that occurs only in the [GdO{sub {delta}}] layer; however, it causes many positional modulations of the constituent atoms throughout the crystal in association with a valence fluctuation of Co between the divalent and trivalent states. Because the value of {alpha} was very close to 1/3, the structure was also investigated using both the commensurately modulated approach and the conventional three-dimensional approach assuming a 3 Multiplication-Sign 3 Multiplication-Sign 2 supercell of P4/mmm symmetry. These approaches successfully reproduced a prime structure of the compound that consists of intersecting CoO{sub 5} pyramidal arrays parallel to a or b axes. The bond valence sum and the charge neutrality principle suggested that the divalent and trivalent cobalt cations are distributed in an ordered way. The incommensurate approach also indicated the possible presence of a local disorder having a structural similarity with that of a high-temperature modification. - Graphical abstract: Changes in the Co-O3 bond length and bond valence sum of Co on the t-u section in the five-dimensional superspace and the local distortion of Co

  17. An incommensurately modulated structure of η'-phase of Cu(3+x)Si determined by quantitative electron diffraction tomography.

    PubMed

    Palatinus, Lukáš; Klementová, Mariana; Dřínek, Vladislav; Jarošová, Markéta; Petříček, Václav

    2011-04-18

    The diffraction data of η'-Cu(3+x)(Si,Ge) were collected by 3D quantitative electron diffraction tomography on a submicrometer-sized sample, and the structure was solved by the charge-flipping algorithm in superspace. It is shown that the structure is trigonal, and it is incommensurately modulated with two modulation vectors q(1) = (α, α, 1/3) and q(2) = (-2α, α, 1/3), superspace group P31m(α, α, 1/3)000(-2α, α, 1/3)000. The modulation functions of some atoms are very complicated and reach amplitudes comparable with the unit cell dimensions. The modulated structure can be described as sheets of Cu clusters separated by honeycomb layers of mixed Si/Ge positions. The shape of the Cu clusters in the sheets strongly varies with the modulation phase, and the predominant form is an icosahedron. The striving of the Cu layers to form icosahedral clusters is deemed to be the main driving force of the modulation. The combination of methods used in this work can be applied to other structures that are difficult to crystallize in large crystals and opens new perspectives, especially for investigations of aperiodic or otherwise complex metallic alloys. PMID:21438499

  18. Structures of incommensurate and commensurate composite crystals RbxMnO2 (x = 1.3711, 1.3636).

    PubMed

    Nuss, Jürgen; Pfeiffer, Steffen; van Smaalen, Sander; Jansen, Martin

    2010-02-01

    Rb(1.3711)MnO(2) (Rb(11)Mn(8)O(16)) has been synthesized via the azide/nitrate route from a stoichiometric mixture of the precursors Mn(2)O(3), RbNO(3) and RbN(3). The structure of this extremely air- and moisture-sensitive compound can best be described in terms of an incommensurate composite structure, built up by a honeycomb-like framework of Rb ions, as one subsystem and by a second subsystem of chains, consisting of edge-sharing MnO(4/2) tetrahedra. These two composite substructures interpenetrate in such a way that the manganate chain polyanions centre the channels of the Rb-honeycomb framework. Crystals transform by an aging process into Rb(1.3636)MnO(2) (Rb(15)Mn(11)O(22)), which has a similar structure but a different commensurate modulation. Two reasons can be established for the origin of the modulations: the charge ordering of Mn(2+)/Mn(3+) on one hand, and the incompatibility of the Mn-Mn and Rb-Rb separations on the other. PMID:20101080

  19. Structures of incommensurate and commensurate composite crystals NaxCuO2 (x=1.58, 1.6, 1.62).

    PubMed

    van Smaalen, Sander; Dinnebier, Robert; Sofin, Mikhail; Jansen, Martin

    2007-02-01

    NaxCuO2 (x approximately 1.6) has been synthesized for different compositions x, resulting in both commensurate and incommensurate composite crystals. The crystal structures are reported for two incommensurate compounds (x=1.58 and 1.62) determined by Rietveld refinements against X-ray powder diffraction data. The incommensurate compounds and commensurate Na8Cu5O10 (x=1.6) are found to possess similar structures, with valence fluctuations of Cu2+/Cu3+ as the origin of the modulations of the CuO2 subsystems; the displacive modulations of Na being defined by the closest Na-O contacts between the subsystems. A comparison of the structure models obtained from single-crystal X-ray diffraction, synchrotron-radiation X-ray powder diffraction and X-ray powder diffraction with Cu Kalpha1 radiation indicates that single-crystal X-ray diffraction is by far the most accurate method, while powder diffraction with radiation from an X-ray tube provides the least accurate structure model. PMID:17235190

  20. Incommensurate and commensurate modulations of Ba{sub 5}RTi{sub 3}Nb{sub 7}O{sub 30} (R = La, Nd) tungsten bronzes and the ferroelectric domain structures

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Min Min; Li, Kun; Zhu, Xiao Li; Chen, Xiang Ming

    2015-04-07

    Incommensurate and commensurate structural modulations of Ba{sub 5}RTi{sub 3}Nb{sub 7}O{sub 30} (R = La, Nd) tungsten bronze ceramics were investigated by using a cooling holder equipped transmission electron microscopy in the temperature range from 100 K to 363 K. The incommensurate modulation was observed in both Ba{sub 5}LaTi{sub 3}Nb{sub 7}O{sub 30} and Ba{sub 5}NdTi{sub 3}Nb{sub 7}O{sub 30} at room temperature, while there was a transition from incommensurate tilted structure to commensurate superstructure for Ba{sub 5}NdTi{sub 3}Nb{sub 7}O{sub 30} with decreasing temperature. The incommensurate and commensurate modulations were determined by the A-site occupancy of Ba and R cations. The A-site disorder resulted in larger incommensurability parameter δ and the diffusion of the satellite reflection spots. The effect of A-site disorder on the coupling between long-range dipolar order and the commensurate modulation was also discussed. The obvious ferroelectric 180° domains with spike-like shape parallel to c axis were observed for Ba{sub 5}NdTi{sub 3}Nb{sub 7}O{sub 30}, while no macro ferroelectric domain was determined for Ba{sub 5}LaTi{sub 3}Nb{sub 7}O{sub 30}.

  1. Two-dimensional incommensurately modulated structure of (Sr0.13Ca0. 87)2CoSi2O7 crystals.

    PubMed

    Bagautdinov, B; Hagiya, K; Kusaka, K; Ohmasa, M; Iishi, K

    2000-10-01

    The incommensurate structure of (Sr(0.13)Ca(0.87))(2)CoSi(2)O(7) at room temperature has been determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. The compound has a non-centrosymmetric tetragonal basic cell of a = 7.8743 (4) and c = 5.0417 (2) A with the space group P4;2(1)m. The refinements of the basic structure converged to R = 0.038 for 757 main reflections. The two-dimensional incommensurate structure is characterized by the wavevectors q(1) = 0.286 (3)(a* + b*) and q(2) = 0.286 (3)(-a* + b*), where a*, b* are the reciprocal lattice vectors of the basic structure. With the (3 + 2)-dimensional superspace group P(p4mg)(P4;2(1)(m)), the refinements converged to R = 0.071 for 1697 observed reflections (757 main and 940 satellite reflections). The structure is described in terms of displacement of the atoms, rotation, distortion of CoO(4) and SiO(4) tetrahedra, and the partial ordering of the Sr and Ca atoms accompanied with the modulation. Correlated evolution of these features throughout the crystal gives rise to various oxygen coordination around Ca/Sr. Comparison of the derived modulated structure to that of Ca(2)CoSi(2)O(7) clarified that the partial substitution of Ca by large alkaline-earth atoms such as Sr should decrease the distortion of the polyhedra around the cations. PMID:11006557

  2. Incommensurate spin correlations in highly oxidized cobaltates La2-xSrxCoO4.

    PubMed

    Li, Z W; Drees, Y; Kuo, C Y; Guo, H; Ricci, A; Lamago, D; Sobolev, O; Rütt, U; Gutowski, O; Pi, T W; Piovano, A; Schmidt, W; Mogare, K; Hu, Z; Tjeng, L H; Komarek, A C

    2016-01-01

    We observe quasi-static incommensurate magnetic peaks in neutron scattering experiments on layered cobalt oxides La2-xSrxCoO4 with high Co oxidation states that have been reported to be paramagnetic. This enables us to measure the magnetic excitations in this highly hole-doped incommensurate regime and compare our results with those found in the low-doped incommensurate regime that exhibit hourglass magnetic spectra. The hourglass shape of magnetic excitations completely disappears given a high Sr doping. Moreover, broad low-energy excitations are found, which are not centered at the incommensurate magnetic peak positions but around the quarter-integer values that are typically exhibited by excitations in the checkerboard charge ordered phase. Our findings suggest that the strong inter-site exchange interactions in the undoped islands are critical for the emergence of hourglass spectra in the incommensurate magnetic phases of La2-xSrxCoO4. PMID:27117928

  3. Incommensurate spin correlations in highly oxidized cobaltates La2−xSrxCoO4

    PubMed Central

    Li, Z. W.; Drees, Y.; Kuo, C. Y.; Guo, H.; Ricci, A.; Lamago, D.; Sobolev, O.; Rütt, U.; Gutowski, O.; Pi, T. W.; Piovano, A.; Schmidt, W.; Mogare, K.; Hu, Z.; Tjeng, L. H.; Komarek, A. C.

    2016-01-01

    We observe quasi-static incommensurate magnetic peaks in neutron scattering experiments on layered cobalt oxides La2−xSrxCoO4 with high Co oxidation states that have been reported to be paramagnetic. This enables us to measure the magnetic excitations in this highly hole-doped incommensurate regime and compare our results with those found in the low-doped incommensurate regime that exhibit hourglass magnetic spectra. The hourglass shape of magnetic excitations completely disappears given a high Sr doping. Moreover, broad low-energy excitations are found, which are not centered at the incommensurate magnetic peak positions but around the quarter-integer values that are typically exhibited by excitations in the checkerboard charge ordered phase. Our findings suggest that the strong inter-site exchange interactions in the undoped islands are critical for the emergence of hourglass spectra in the incommensurate magnetic phases of La2−xSrxCoO4. PMID:27117928

  4. Magnetic structures in the magnetic phase diagram of Ho2RhIn8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čermák, Petr; Prokeš, Karel; Ouladdiaf, Bachir; Boehm, Martin; Kratochvílová, Marie; Javorský, Pavel

    2015-04-01

    The magnetic phase diagram of the tetragonal Ho2RhIn8 compound has similar features to many related systems, revealing a zero magnetic field AF1 and a field-induced AF2 phases. Details of the magnetic order in the AF2 phase were not reported yet for any of the related compounds. In addition, only the Ho2RhIn8 phase diagram contains a small region of the incommensurate zero-field AF3 phase. We have performed a number of neutron diffraction experiments on single crystals of Ho2RhIn8 using several diffractometers including experiments in both horizontal and vertical magnetic fields up to 4 T. We present details of the magnetic structures in all magnetic phases of the rich phase diagram of Ho2RhIn8 . The Ho magnetic moments point along the tetragonal c axis in every phase. The ground-state AF1 phase is characterized by propagation vector k =(1 /2 ,0 ,0 ) . The more complex ferrimagnetic AF2 phase is described by four propagation vectors k0=(0 ,0 ,0 ) ,k1=(1 /2 ,0 ,0 ) ,k2=(0 ,1 /2 ,1 /2 ) ,k3=(1 /2 ,1 /2 ,1 /2 ) . The magnetic structure in the AF3 phase is incommensurate with kA F 3=(0.5 ,δ ,0 ) . Our results are consistent with theoretical calculations based on crystal field theory.

  5. Unique magnetic structure of YbCo2Si2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mufti, N.; Kaneko, K.; Hoser, A.; Gutmann, M.; Geibel, C.; Krellner, C.; Stockert, O.

    2016-07-01

    We report on the results of powder and single-crystal neutron diffraction to investigate the magnetic order in YbCo2Si2 below the Néel temperature TN=1.7 K in detail. Two different magnetically ordered phases can clearly be distinguished. At lowest temperatures a commensurate magnetic structure with a propagation vector k1=(0.25 0.25 1 ) is found, while the intermediate phase (T >0.9 K) is characterized by an incommensurate magnetic structure with k2=(0.25 0.086 1 ) . The magnetic structure in YbCo2Si2 is in marked contrast to all other known R Co2Si2 compounds (R = rare earth element) likely due to some itineracy of the Yb 4 f states being responsible for the magnetism.

  6. Magnetic multilayer structure

    DOEpatents

    Herget, Philipp; O'Sullivan, Eugene J.; Romankiw, Lubomyr T.; Wang, Naigang; Webb, Bucknell C.

    2016-07-05

    A mechanism is provided for an integrated laminated magnetic device. A substrate and a multilayer stack structure form the device. The multilayer stack structure includes alternating magnetic layers and diode structures formed on the substrate. Each magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure is separated from another magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure by a diode structure.

  7. Inelastic neutron scattering studies on the incommensurate-to-commensurate transformation of low energy magnetic excitations in Fe1 + δ - y(Ni / Cu) y Te1 - x Sex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhijun; Wen, Jinsheng; Schneeloch, John; Zhao, Yang; Matsuda, Masaaki; Ku, Wei; Liu, Xuerong; Gu, Genda; Lee, D.-H.; Birgeneau, R. J.; Tranquada, J. M.; Xu, Guangyong

    2013-03-01

    We have performed a series of neutron scattering and magnetization measurements on Fe1 + δ - y(Ni / Cu) y Te1 - x Sex system to study the interplay between magnetism and superconductivity. Both non-superconducting and superconducting samples with Tc 8 ~15K are studied. The low energy magnetic excitations of all samples at T > >Tc consist of two incommensurate vertical columns. They change to a distinctly different U-shaped dispersion at T >Tc for the superconducting samples and the transition temperature depend on the composition. On the other hand, for all non-superconducting samples, there is no clear temperature dependence, and the low energy magnetic excitations remain two columns for temperatures down to 1.5 K. Work is supported by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, DOE.

  8. Magnetic structure and multiferroic coupling in pyroxene NaFeSi2O6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baum, M.; Komarek, A. Â. C.; Holbein, S.; Fernández-Díaz, M. Â. T.; André, G.; Hiess, A.; Sidis, Y.; Steffens, P.; Becker, P.; Bohatý, L.; Braden, M.

    2015-06-01

    By comprehensive neutron diffraction measurements we have studied the magnetic structure of aegirine (NaFeSi2O6) in and above its multiferroic phase. Natural aegirine exhibits two magnetic transitions into incommensurate magnetic order with a propagation vector of k⃗inc=(0 ,˜0.78 ,0 ) . Between 9 and 6 K, we find a transverse spin-density wave with moments pointing near the c direction. Below 6 K, magnetic order becomes helical and spins rotate in the a c plane. The same irreducible representation is involved in the two successive transitions. In addition, the ferroelectric polarization P ⃗ appearing along the b direction cannot be described by the most common multiferroic mechanism but follows P ⃗∝S⃗i×S⃗j . Synthetic NaFeSi2O6 does not exhibit the pure incommensurate helical order but shows coexistence of this order with a commensurate magnetic structure. By applying moderate pressure to natural aegirine, we find that the incommensurate magnetic ordering partially transforms to the commensurate one, underlining the nearly degenerate character of the two types of order in NaFeSi2O6 .

  9. Elastic lattice in an incommensurate background

    SciTech Connect

    Dickman, R.; Chudnovsky, E.M. )

    1995-01-01

    We study a harmonic triangular lattice, which relaxes in the presence of an incommensurate short-wavelength potential. Monte Carlo simulations reveal that the elastic lattice exhibits only short-ranged translational correlations, despite the absence of defects in either lattice. Extended orientational order, however, persists in the presence of the background. Translational correlation lengths exhibit approximate power-law dependence upon cooling rate and background strength. Our results may be relevant to Wigner crystals, atomic monolayers on crystals surfaces, and flux-line and magnetic bubble lattices.

  10. Spin Incommensurability and Two Phase Competition in Cobaltites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelan, D.; Louca, Despina; Kamazawa, K.; Lee, S.-H.; Ancona, S. N.; Rosenkranz, S.; Motome, Y.; Hundley, M. F.; Mitchell, J. F.; Moritomo, Y.

    2006-12-01

    The perovskite LaCoO3 evolves from a nonmagnetic Mott insulator to a spin cluster ferromagnet (FM) with the substitution of Sr2+ for La3+ in La1-xSrxCoO3. The clusters increase in size and number with x and the charge percolation through the clusters leads to a metallic state. Using elastic neutron scattering on La1-xSrxCoO3 single crystals, we show that an incommensurate spin superstructure coexists with the FM spin clusters. The incommensurability increases continuously with x, with the intensity rising in the insulating phase and dropping in the metallic phase as it directly competes with the commensurate FM, itinerant clusters. The spin incommensurability arises from local order of Co3+-Co4+ clusters but no long-range static or dynamic spin stripes develop. The coexistence and competition of the two magnetic phases explain the residual resistivity at low temperatures in samples with metalliclike transport.

  11. Spin structure and magnetic frustration in multiferroic RMn{sub 2}O{sub 5} (R=Tb,Ho,Dy)

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, G.R.; Chapon, L.C.; Radaelli, P.G.; Park, S.; Hur, N.; Cheong, S-W.; Rodriguez-Carvajal, J.

    2005-06-01

    We have studied the crystal and magnetic structures of the magnetoelectric materials RMn{sub 2}O{sub 5} (R=Tb,Ho,Dy) using neutron diffraction as a function of temperature. All three materials display incommensurate antiferromagnetic ordering below 40 K, becoming commensurate on further cooling. For R=Tb,Ho, a commensurate-incommensurate transition takes place at low temperatures. The commensurate magnetic structures have been solved and are discussed in terms of competing exchange interactions. The spin configuration within the ab plane is essentially the same for each system, and the radius of R determines the sign of the magnetic exchange between adjacent planes. The inherent magnetic frustration in these materials is lifted by a small lattice distortion, primarily involving shifts of the Mn{sup 3+} cations and giving rise to a canted antiferroelectric phase.

  12. Crystal Structure and Thermoelectric Properties of the Incommensurate Chimney-Ladder Compound VGeγ (γ ~1.82)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Haruki; Kikuchi, Yuta; Hayashi, Kei; Miyazaki, Yuzuru

    2016-03-01

    A single-phase sample of a Nowotny chimney-ladder phase known as V17Ge31 has been prepared and its modulated crystal structure has been determined by means of a (3+1)-dimensional superspace approach. As in the case of higher manganese silicides (HMSs) MnSiγ, the compound consists of two tetragonal subsystems of [V] and [Ge] with an irrational c-axis ratio γ = c_{{V}}/c_{{Ge}} ˜ 1.82, and hence the structure formula is represented as VGe γ . As expected from the valence electron count estimated from the refined γ, the present germanide exhibits a metallic behavior with the electrical conductivity σ = 6.25 × 103 S/cm and the Seebeck coefficient S = 10.2 μV/K at 900 K. The resulting thermoelectric power factor of S^2σ = 6.56 × 10-5 W/mK2 and the dimensionless figure-of-merit, ZT, = 3.7 × 10-3 at 900 K demonstrate that the germanide is not a promising thermoelectric material. However, as the determined lattice thermal conductivity is comparable to that of HMSs, thermoelectric properties can be maximized through the partial substitution of V with group 6-8 elements to decrease hole carrier concentration.

  13. Modulated spin helicity stabilized by incommensurate orbital density waves in a quadruple perovskite manganite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. D.; Khalyavin, D. D.; Manuel, P.; Bombardi, A.; Martin, C.; Chapon, L. C.; Radaelli, P. G.

    2016-05-01

    Through a combination of neutron diffraction and Landau theory we describe the spin ordering in the ground state of the quadruple perovskite manganite CaMn7O12 —a magnetic multiferroic supporting an incommensurate orbital density wave that onsets above the magnetic ordering temperature, TN 1=90 K. The multi-k magnetic structure in the ground state was found to be a nearly-constant-moment helix with modulated spin helicity, which oscillates in phase with the orbital occupancies on the Mn3 + sites via trilinear magneto-orbital coupling. Our phenomenological model also shows that, above TN 2=48 K, the primary magnetic order parameter is locked into the orbital wave by an admixture of helical and collinear spin density wave structures. Furthermore, our model naturally explains the lack of a sharp dielectric anomaly at TN 1 and the unusual temperature dependence of the electrical polarization.

  14. Structural and magnetic dynamics in the magnetic shape-memory alloy Ni2MnGa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariager, S. O.; Dornes, C.; Johnson, J. A.; Ferrer, A.; Grübel, S.; Huber, T.; Caviezel, A.; Johnson, S. L.; Eichhorn, T.; Jakob, G.; Elmers, H. J.; Beaud, P.; Quitmann, C.; Ingold, G.

    2014-10-01

    Magnetic shape-memory Heusler alloys are multiferroics stabilized by the correlations between electronic, magnetic, and structural order. To study these correlations we use time-resolved x-ray diffraction and magneto-optical Kerr effect experiments to measure the laser induced dynamics in a Heusler alloy Ni2MnGa film and reveal a set of time scales intrinsic to the system. We observe a coherent phonon which we identify as the amplitudon of the modulated structure and an ultrafast phase transition leading to a quenching of the incommensurate modulation within 300 fs with a recovery time of a few ps. The thermally driven martensitic transition to the high temperature cubic phase proceeds via nucleation within a few ps and domain growth limited by the speed of sound. The demagnetization time is 320 fs, which is comparable to the quenching of the structural modulation.

  15. Magnetic microhelix coil structures.

    PubMed

    Smith, Elliot J; Makarov, Denys; Sanchez, Samuel; Fomin, Vladimir M; Schmidt, Oliver G

    2011-08-26

    Together with the well-known ferro- and antiferromagnetic ordering, nature has created a variety of complex helical magnetic configurations. Here, we design and investigate three-dimensional microhelix coil structures that are radial-, corkscrew-, and hollow-bar-magnetized. The magnetization configurations of the differently magnetized coils are experimentally revealed by probing their specific dynamic response to an external magnetic field. Helix coils offer an opportunity to realize microscale geometries of the magnetic toroidal moment, observed so far only in bulk multiferroic materials. PMID:21929266

  16. Magnetic Microhelix Coil Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Elliot J.; Makarov, Denys; Sanchez, Samuel; Fomin, Vladimir M.; Schmidt, Oliver G.

    2011-08-01

    Together with the well-known ferro- and antiferromagnetic ordering, nature has created a variety of complex helical magnetic configurations. Here, we design and investigate three-dimensional microhelix coil structures that are radial-, corkscrew-, and hollow-bar-magnetized. The magnetization configurations of the differently magnetized coils are experimentally revealed by probing their specific dynamic response to an external magnetic field. Helix coils offer an opportunity to realize microscale geometries of the magnetic toroidal moment, observed so far only in bulk multiferroic materials.

  17. Phase diagram and incommensurate antiferroelectric structure in (Pb1-1.5xLax)(Zr0.42Sn0.40Ti0.18)O3 ceramics discovered by band-to-band optical transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, X. J.; Xu, L. P.; Hu, Z. G.; Chen, X. F.; Wang, G. S.; Dong, X. L.; Chu, J. H.

    2014-09-01

    Optical properties and phase transitions of (Pb1-1.5xLax)(Zr0.42Sn0.40Ti0.18)O3 (PLZST 100x/42/40/18) ceramics with different compositions have been investigated by temperature dependent spectroscopic ellipsometry. Two interband critical points ( E c p 1 and E c p 2) located at about 3.9 and 5.1 eV can be obtained by fitting standard line shapes to the second derivatives of the complex dielectric functions. Based on the band-to-band transitions, the phase diagram of PLZST ceramics can be well presented. Moreover, a peculiar incommensurate antiferroelectric state has been found to exist above the temperature of the normal commensurate antiferroelectric tetragonal structure. It can be stable below Curie temperature, evolving slowly with decreasing temperature towards the commensurate structure, which is due to strong pinning of incommensurate domain walls. The phenomena can result from a competition between ferroelectric ordering and antiferroelectric ordering caused by the lanthanum modification.

  18. Imprinting artificial magnetic structures.

    SciTech Connect

    Lohstroh, W.

    1998-09-25

    Recently we created La/Fe multilayers with a helical magnetic structure imprinted from the conditions of growth rather than by the magnetic interactions between layers. Each sublayer was 30{angstrom} thick, and during deposition the sample was rotated in an external field of 3 Oe. a field strong enough to magnetize the Fe layer being deposited but not sufficient to perturb the magnetization of the Fe layers already grown. As a result adjacent Fe layers formed a helical structure with a chirality and periodicity determined by the rotational direction and speed of the substrate and the rate of deposition. Following this discovery, an extensive set of experiments (mainly using Kerr effect magnetometry and polarized neutron reflectivity) was undertaken to ascertain the stability of imprinted magnetic structures, and to understand the onset of magnetization during growth. La/Fe imprinted helical magnetic structures (of different La and Fe thicknesses) were found to be stable in time and to be permanently erased only by magnetic fields larger than 90 Oe.

  19. Thermally induced structural changes in incommensurate calcium barium niobate Ca{sub 0.28}Ba{sub 0.72}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6} (CBN28)

    SciTech Connect

    Graetsch, H.A.; Schreuer, J.; Burianek, M.; Muehlberg, M.

    2012-12-15

    The incommensurately modulated crystal structure of relaxor ferroelectric CBN28 was refined at elevated temperatures up to 330 Degree-Sign C in the 3+2 dimensional superspace group P4bm({alpha}{alpha}1/2,-{alpha}{alpha}1/2). The structural modulations mainly consisting of cooperative tilting of NbO{sub 6} octahedra and an occupational modulation of the large cation site Me2 persist beyond the diffuse ferroelectric transition with slightly reduced amplitudes. A change of symmetry was not observed. Both symmetrically non-equivalent NbO{sub 6} octahedra are distorted by off center shifts of the Nb atoms in the same direction along the tetragonal c-axis. The displacements of the Nb atoms are gradually reduced with increasing temperatures until one of the Nb atoms crosses the center of its coordination polyhedron near the transition temperature T{sub M} adopting an uncompensated anti-ferroelectric configuration. This change is accompanied by enhanced thermal motions of the Nb atoms along the c-axis. Structural distortions and electric polarization do not completely vanish at T{sub M} but may persist in fluctuating polar nanodomains. - Graphical abstract: Cross-over of the off-center shifts of both symmetrically non-equivalent niobium atoms from parallel to anti-parallel configuration in the incommensurately modulated crystal structure of relaxor ferroelectric Ca{sub 0.28}Ba{sub 0.72}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6} (CBN28) at elevated temperatures (left side). The arrows point to columns of octahedra containing Nb1. The remaining octahedra are occupied by Nb2 atoms. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The incommensurate structure of relaxor ferroelectric CBN28 was refined at high temperatures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The modulations consist of a wave-like occupation of cation sites and displacements of the O atoms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The modulations survive the ferroelectric phase transition and no change of symmetry was found. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Atomic

  20. Incommensurate Systems as Model Compounds for Disorder Revealing Low-Temperature Glasslike Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reményi, G.; Sahling, S.; Biljaković, K.; Starešinić, D.; Lasjaunias, J.-C.; Lorenzo, J. E.; Monceau, P.; Cano, A.

    2015-05-01

    We show that the specific heat of incommensurately modulated crystals with broken translational periodicity presents similar features at low temperatures to those of amorphous and glass materials. Here we demonstrate that the excess to the constant Cp(T )/T3 law (or Debye limit) is made up of an upturn below 1 K and of a broad bump at T ≈10 K that directly originates from the gapped phase and amplitude modes of the incommensurate structure. We argue that the low-energy dynamics of incommensurate systems constitute a plausible simplification of the landscape of interactions present in glasses, giving rise to their low-temperature anomalies.

  1. Transformation between spin-Peierls and incommensurate fluctuating phases of Sc-doped TiOCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian; Wölfel, Alexander; Bykov, Maxim; Schönleber, Andreas; van Smaalen, Sander; Kremer, Reinhard K.; Williamson, Hailey L.

    2014-07-01

    Single crystals of ScxTi1-xOCl(x=0.005) have been grown by the vapor phase transport technique. Specific heat measurements prove the absence of phase transitions for 4-200 K. Instead, an excess entropy is observed over a range of temperatures that encompasses the incommensurate phase transition at 90 K and the spin-Peierls transition at 67 K of pure TiOCl. Temperature-dependent x-ray diffraction on ScxTi1-xOCl gives broadened diffraction maxima at incommensurate positions between Tc1=61.5(3) and ˜90 K, and at commensurate positions below 61.5 K. These results are interpreted as due to the presence of an incommensurate phase without long-range order at intermediate temperatures, and of a highly disturbed commensurate phase without long-range order at low temperatures. The commensurate phase is attributed to a fluctuating spin-Peierls state on an orthorhombic lattice. The monoclinic symmetry and local structure of the fluctuations are equal to the symmetry and structure of the ordered spin-Peierls state of TiOCl. A novel feature of ScxTi1-xOCl(x =0.005) is a transformation from one fluctuating phase (the incommensurate phase at intermediate temperatures) to another fluctuating phase (the spin-Peierls-like phase). This transformation is not a phase transition occurring at a critical temperature, but it proceeds gradually over a temperature range of ˜10 K wide. The destruction of long-range order requires much lower levels of doping in TiOCl than in other low-dimensional electronic crystals, like the canonical spin-Peierls compound CuGeO3. An explanation for the higher sensitivity to doping has not been found, but it is noticed that it may be the result of an increased two-dimensional character of the doped magnetic system. The observed fluctuating states with long correlation lengths are reminiscent of Kosterlitz-Thouless-type phases in two-dimensional systems.

  2. Incommensurate lattice modulations in Potassium Vanadate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakoumakos, Bryan; Banerjee, Arnab; Mark, Lumsden; Cao, Huibo; Kim, Jong-Woo; Hoffman, Christina; Wang, Xiaoping

    Potassium Vanadate (K2V3O8) is an S = 1/2 2D square lattice antiferromagnet that shows spin reorientation indicating a strong coupling between the magnetism and its dielectric properties with a promise of rich physics that promises multiferroicity. These tangible physical properties are strongly tied through a spin-lattice coupling to the underlying lattice and superlattice behavior. It has a superlattice (SL) onsetting below Tc = 115 K with an approximate [3 x 3 x 2] modulation. Here we present our recent experiments at TOPAZ beamline at SNS which for the first time proves conclusively that the lattice modulations are incommensurate, with an in-plane Q of 0.315. We will also show our attempts to refine the data using JANA which requires a redefinition of the lattice, as well as the temperature and Q dependence of the superlattice modulation measured using neutrons at HFIR and synchrotron x-rays at APS. Our results are not only relevant for the ongoing search of multifunctional behavior in K2V3O8 but also generally for the superlattice modulations observed in a large family of fresnoites. Work performed at ORNL and ANL is supported by U.S. Dept. of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences and Office of User Facilities Division.

  3. Kinetic control of structural and magnetic states in LuBaCo4O7.

    SciTech Connect

    Avci, S.; Chmaissem, O.; Zheng, H.; Huq, A.; Khalyavin, D.; Stephens, P.; Suchomel, M.; Manuel, P.; Mitchell, J.

    2012-01-01

    The RBaCo{sub 4}O{sub 7} (R = Ca, Y, Tb, Ho, Tm, Yb, Lu) compounds provide a novel topology for studying the competition between triangular geometry and magnetic order. Here, we report the structural and magnetic behavior of the Lu member of this series via neutron and synchrotron x-ray diffraction, magnetization, and resistivity measurements. We determined sequential phase transitions and a strong competition between a stable and a metastable low-temperature state that critically depends on controlled cooling rates and the associated heat removal kinetics. No evidence for long-range ordered magnetism was detected by neutron diffraction at any temperature. However, very slow spin dynamics are evidenced by time-dependent neutron diffraction measurements and can be explained by several competing magnetic phases with incommensurate short-range correlations coexisting in this material.

  4. Modeling solar magnetic structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, B. C.

    1985-01-01

    Some ideas in the theoretical study of force-free magnetic fields and magnetostatic fields, which are relevant to the effort of using magnetograph data as inputs to model the quasi-static, large-scale magnetic structures in the solar atmosphere are discussed. Basic physical principles will be emphasized. An attempt will be made to assess what we may learn, physically, from the models based on these ideas. There is prospect for learning useful physics and this ought to be an incentive for intensifying the efforts to improve vector magnetograph technology and to solve the basic radiative-transfer problems encountered in the interpretation of magnetograph raw data.

  5. Magnetic structure of holmium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pechan, M. J.; Stassis, C.

    1984-03-01

    The magnetic structure of high purity single crystals of holmium has been studied by neutron diffraction techniques. Although the general characteristics of the magnetic structure have been found to agree with earlier measurements, some discrepancies have been resolved and new features have been observed. The magnetic form factor has been measured and compared with relativistic atomic calculations. The low temperature structure (T<20 K) is that of a conical ferromagnet with wave vector (1/6)(2π/c) along the c axis. The basal plane moment is 9.7 μB and the c-axis ferromagnetic component is 1.6 μB at T=6 K. Bunching of the basal plane moments around the easy hexagonal direction has been observed below T=50 K. Evidence for asphericity in the magnetization density is presented and discussed. The wave vector of the basal plane modulation decreases monotonically with temperature in general accordance with the Elliott-Wedgewood theory. Several inflection points were observed, however, which correspond to commensurability with the chemical lattice. The measured temperature dependence of the c- and a-axis lattice constants shows significant magnetostriction. The possibility of a c-axis modulated moment is discussed.

  6. Magnetic and crystallographic structures in UTX intermetallic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, R.A.; Lawson, A.C.; Sechovsky, V.; Havela, L.; Kergadallan, Y.; Nakotte, H.; de Boer, F.R.

    1993-08-01

    Uranium, along with other actinides and lanthanides, forms a large group of ternary intermetallic compounds of stoichiometry UTX (T = transition metal, X = p-electron metal). These compounds are formed in several structure types and the occurrence and stability of particular structures with respect to the transition metal content suggests reasonable systematics. The authors have also investigated the magnetic structures of selected UTX compounds and it is revealing to relate the crystallographic and magnetic structures, because of the relationship between the magnetic symmetry and that of the U-atom environment produced by the 5f-ligand hybridization, and the consequent anisotropic exchange. Those of ZrNiAl structure type are collinear, with moments along the hexagonal c-axis. In the orthorhombic NiSiTi structure type, the moments are confined to the b- c plane (perpendicular to the uranium chains) and the structures are often incommensurate. In the hexagonal CaIn{sub 2} (or GaGeLi) structure type, the magnetic structures form in an orthorhombic cell, and at least in the disordered centric group, again the moments lie perpendicular to the nearest-neighbor uranium spacing. This work presents a phenomenology of trends in UTX ternary compounds. It is shown that there is an apparent strong hybridization parallel to nearest neighbor U-U directions, with ferromagnetic coupling in the same directions. There may be a systematic relationship between the hybridization anisotropy and the magnetic anisotropy, in which the quantization axes are the same and the moments point along directions of relatively weak hybridization.

  7. Determination of the zero-field magnetic structure of the helimagnet MnSi at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalmas de Réotier, P.; Maisuradze, A.; Yaouanc, A.; Roessli, B.; Amato, A.; Andreica, D.; Lapertot, G.

    2016-04-01

    Below a temperature of approximately 29 K the manganese magnetic moments of the cubic binary compound MnSi order to a long-range incommensurate helical magnetic structure. Here we quantitatively analyze a high-statistic zero-field muon spin rotation spectrum recorded in the magnetically ordered phase of MnSi by exploiting the result of representation theory as applied to the determination of magnetic structures. Instead of a gradual rotation of the magnetic moments when moving along a <111 > axis, we find that the angle of rotation between the moments of certain subsequent planes is essentially quenched. It is the magnetization of pairs of planes which rotates when moving along a <111 > axis, thus preserving the overall helical structure.

  8. Magnetic structures in RNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C (R = Ho, Er) superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Stassis, C.; Goldman, A.I.; Dervenagas, P.; Zarestky, J.; Canfield, P.C.; Cho, B.K.; Johnston, D.C.; Sternlieb, B.; Sternlieb, B.

    1994-12-31

    Single crystal neutron diffraction techniques have been employed to study the evolution of magnetic structures in RNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C compounds in an attempt to understand the relationship between magnetic ordering and superconductivity in several members of this series. For HoNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C, below the superconducting transition (T{sub c} = 8 K), an incommensurate magnetic structure characterized by two wave vectors (0.585 a* and 0.915 c*) is found in a narrow temperature range between 4.7 K and 6 K. This is the same temperature range where bulk measurements find a deep minimum in the upper critical field, H{sub c2}. Below 4.7 K, HoNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C is a simple collinear antiferromagnet. ErNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C ({Tc} = 11 K) orders in an incommensurate modulated antiferromagnetic state characterized by an ordering wave vector 0.553 a* below 7 K, which coexists with superconductivity.

  9. Direct imaging of incommensurate wave pockets in the charge-density-wave state of LaTe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H. X.; Cai, Y.; Ma, C.; Li, J.; Long, Y. J.; Chen, G. F.; Tian, H. F.; Wei, L. L.; Li, J. Q.

    2016-06-01

    We herein report the study of the atomic structure for a fully incommensurate CDW in LaTe2 using Cs-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). It is directly revealed for the first time that the atomic displacements adopt an incommensurate wave-pocket structure along each Te chain. This pocket structure has a long periodicity determined by the CDW incommensurability. We can use the sinusoidal waves as the first-order approximation to characterize the atomic motions within the pocket pattern, which can yield atomic displacements in good agreement with the theoretical model commonly used for studying CDW. These facts demonstrate that the incommensurate pocket patterns should be an essential structural nature in the CDW states and play a critical role for developing the mechanism of the CDW transitions.

  10. Single crystal neutron diffraction study of the magnetic structure of TmNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C

    SciTech Connect

    Sternlieb, B.; Shapiro, S.; Stassis, C.; Goldman, A.I.; Canfield, P.

    1997-02-01

    Neutron diffraction techniques have been used to study the magnetic structure of single crystals of the magnetic superconductor (T{sub c} {congruent} 11K) TmNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C. We find that below approximately 1.5K the magnetic moments order in an incommensurate spin wave with propagation vector q{sub m} = q{sub m} (a* +b*) (or q{sub m} = q{sub m} (a* + b*)) with q{sub m} = 0.094 {+-} 0.001. The spin wave is transverse with the moments aligned along the c-axis, and the observation of relatively intense higher order harmonics shows that the modulation is not purely sinusoidal but considerably squared. This incommensurate magnetic structure, which coexists with superconductivity below T{sub N} {congruent} 1.5K, is quite different from those observed in the magnetic superconductors HoNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C and ErNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C. The origin of diffraction peaks observed in scans parallel to a* is briefly discussed.

  11. Extending the range of low energy electron diffraction (LEED) surface structure determination: Co-adsorbed molecules, incommensurate overlayers and alloy surface order studied by new video and electron counting LEED techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Ogletree, D.F.

    1986-11-01

    LEED multiple scattering theory is briefly summarized, and aspects of electron scattering with particular significance to experimental measurements such as electron beam coherence, instrument response and phonon scattering are analyzed. Diffuse LEED experiments are discussed. New techniques that enhance the power of LEED are described, including a real-time video image digitizer applied to LEED intensity measurements, along with computer programs to generate I-V curves. The first electron counting LEED detector using a ''wedge and strip'' position sensitive anode and digital electronics is described. This instrument uses picoampere incident beam currents, and its sensitivity is limited only by statistics and counting times. Structural results on new classes of surface systems are presented. The structure of the c(4 x 2) phase of carbon monoxide adsorbed on Pt(111) has been determined, showing that carbon monoxide molecules adsorb in both top and bridge sites, 1.85 +- 0.10 A and 1.55 +- 0.10 A above the metal surface, respectively. The structure of an incommensurate graphite overlayer on Pt(111) is analyzed. The graphite layer is 3.70 +- 0.05 A above the metal surface, with intercalated carbon atoms located 1.25 +- 0.10 A above hollow sites supporting it. The (2..sqrt..3 x 4)-rectangular phase of benzene and carbon monoxide coadsorbed on Pt(111) is analyzed. Benzene molecules adsorb in bridge sites parallel to and 2.10 +- 0.10 A above the surface. The carbon ring is expanded, with an average C-C bond length of 1.72 +- 0.15 A. The carbon monoxide molecules also adsorb in bridge sites. The structure of the (..sqrt..3 x ..sqrt..3) reconstruction on the (111) face of the ..cap alpha..-CuAl alloy has been determined.

  12. The Hypothesis of Incommensurability and Multicultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonough, Tim

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the logical and rhetorical grounds for a multicultural pedagogy that teaches students the knowledge and skills needed to interact creatively in the public realm betwixt and between cultures. I begin by discussing the notion of incommensurability. I contend that this hypothesis was intended to perform a particular rhetorical…

  13. Magnetic cellulose-derivative structures

    DOEpatents

    Walsh, Myles A.; Morris, Robert S.

    1986-09-16

    Structures to serve as selective magnetic sorbents are formed by dissolving a cellulose derivative such as cellulose triacetate in a solvent containing magnetic particles. The resulting solution is sprayed as a fine mist into a chamber containing a liquid coagulant such as n-hexane in which the cellulose derivative is insoluble but in which the coagulant is soluble or miscible. On contact with the coagulant, the mist forms free-flowing porous magnetic microspheric structures. These structures act as containers for the ion-selective or organic-selective sorption agent of choice. Some sorbtion agents can be incorporated during the manufacture of the structure.

  14. Magnetic cellulose-derivative structures

    DOEpatents

    Walsh, M.A.; Morris, R.S.

    1986-09-16

    Structures to serve as selective magnetic sorbents are formed by dissolving a cellulose derivative such as cellulose triacetate in a solvent containing magnetic particles. The resulting solution is sprayed as a fine mist into a chamber containing a liquid coagulant such as n-hexane in which the cellulose derivative is insoluble but in which the coagulant is soluble or miscible. On contact with the coagulant, the mist forms free-flowing porous magnetic microspheric structures. These structures act as containers for the ion-selective or organic-selective sorption agent of choice. Some sorption agents can be incorporated during the manufacture of the structure. 3 figs.

  15. Crystal growth of incommensurate members of 2H-hexagonal perovskite related oxides: Ba4MzPt3-zO9 (M=Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mg, Pt)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Timothy; Morrison, Gregory; Yeon, Jeongho; zur Loye, Hans-Conrad

    2016-04-01

    Millimeter sized crystals of six oxides of approximate composition Ba4MzPt3-zO9 (M=Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mg, Pt) were grown from molten K2CO3 fluxes and found to crystallize in a 2H hexagonal perovskite-related structure type. The compositions of these incommensurate structures, which belong to the A3n+3mA‧nB3m+nO9m+6n family of 2H hexagonal perovskite related oxides, were characterized by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The specific synthetic considerations, crystal growth conditions, and magnetic susceptibility measurements are discussed.

  16. Spin reorientation and magnetic structure of HoCo12B6 ferrimagnetic compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diop, L. V. B.; Isnard, O.

    2015-01-01

    The magnetic phase diagram is determined by combining magnetization measurements, ac susceptibility and neutron diffraction. The crystal and magnetic structures are also investigated. The HoCo12B6 compound exhibits ferrimagnetic behavior below TC = 147 K. Two antiferromagnetically coupled sublattices cancel out at the compensation temperature TComp = 46 K. HoCo12B6 undergoes a spin reorientation transition at TSR = 76 K the easy magnetization axis changes from axial to basal plane upon heating. The magnitude of the magnetic moments and their orientation are described and discussed. It is revealed that HoCo12B6 compound exhibits a commensurate magnetic structure below TSR and an incommensurate one slightly above TSR. Significantly different magnetic moments have been observed on the two Co crystal sites, a very low magnetic moment of 0.14 μB being refined on the Co 18 g position. In addition, the second order crystal electric-field parameter A20 at the rare-earth site is determined. This result is discussed and used to explain the observed spin reorientation transition by a competition between the Co and Ho sublattice anisotropy.

  17. Are Allopathic and Holistic Medicine Incommensurable?

    PubMed

    Evangelatos, Nikolaos; Eliadi, Irini

    2016-01-01

    The shift from the Aristotelian to the Newtonian scientific paradigm gave birth to progresses in the natural, hard sciences and contributed to the emergence of modernity. Allopathic medicine gradually implemented those progresses, transforming itself into contemporary biomedicine. In the early 20th century, replacement of Newtonian physics by quantum mechanics and Einstein's theory of relativity resulted in a new paradigm shift in the natural, hard sciences. This shift gave birth to post-modern perceptions, which attempt to put those changes in context. Within this new context, holistic therapeutic approaches are considered more compatible with the new paradigm. Different paradigms in the natural, hard sciences are considered to be incommensurable (in the Kuhnian sense). This incommensurability is also transferred to the different societal contexts, the different «Weltanschauungen» that rely on different scientific paradigms. However, drawing on arguments that range from historical and philosophical to practical and sociological ones, we argue that, although based on different scientific paradigms, allopathic and holistic medicine are not incommensurable, but rather complementary. This may be related to the inherent attributes of medicine, a fact that reinforces the debate on its epistemological status. PMID:26978563

  18. Magnetic field structure of Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiremath, K. M.

    2012-04-01

    Recently planet Mercury - an unexplored territory in our solar system - has been of much interest to the scientific community due to recent flybys of the spacecraft MESSENGER that discovered its intrinsic stationary and large-scale dipole like magnetic field structure with an intensity of ˜300nT confirming Mariner 10 observations. In the present study, with the observed constraint of Mercury's atmospheric magnetic field structure, internal magnetic field structure is modeled as a solution of magnetic diffusion equation. In this study, Mercury's internal structure mainly consists of a stable stratified fluid core and the convective mantle. For simplicity, magnetic diffusivity in both parts of the structure is considered to be uniform and constant with a value represented by a suitable averages. It is further assumed that vigorous convection in the mantle disposes of the electric currents leading to a very high diffusivity in that region. Thus, in order to satisfy observed atmospheric magnetic field structure, Mercury's most likely magnetic field structure consists of a solution of MHD diffusion equation in the core and a combined multipolar (dipole and quadrupole like magnetic field structures embedded in the uniform field) solution of a current free like magnetic field structure in the mantle and in the atmosphere. With imposition of appropriate boundary conditions at the core-mantle boundary for the first two diffusion eigen modes, in order to satisfy the observed field structure, present study puts the constraint on Mercury's core radius to be ˜2000km. From the estimated magnetic diffusivity and the core radius, it is also possible to estimate the two diffusion eigen modes with their diffusion time scales of ˜8.6 and 3.7 billion years respectively suggesting that the planet inherits its present-day magnetic field structure from the solar Nebula. It is proposed that permanency of such a large-scale magnetic field structure of the planet is attained during

  19. Microwave sol-gel synthesis and upconversion photoluminescence properties of CaGd2(WO4)4:Er3+/Yb3+ phosphors with incommensurately modulated structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Chang Sung; Aleksandrovsky, Aleksandr; Molokeev, Maxim; Oreshonkov, Aleksandr; Atuchin, Victor

    2015-08-01

    CaGd2-x(WO4)4:Er3+/Yb3+ phosphors with the doping concentrations of Er3+ and Yb3+ (x=Er3++Yb3+, Er3+=0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and Yb3+=0.2, 0.45) have been successfully synthesized by the microwave sol-gel method. The crystal structure of CaGd2-x(WO4)4:Er3+/Yb3+ tungstates have been refined, and upconversion photoluminescence properties have been investigated. The synthesized particles, being formed after the heat-treatment at 900 °C for 16 h, showed a well crystallized morphology. Under the excitation at 980 nm, CaGd2(WO4)4:Er3+/Yb3+ particles exhibited a strong 525-nm and a weak 550-nm emission bands in the green region and a very weak 655-nm emission band in the red region. The Raman spectrum of undoped CaGd2(WO4)4 revealed about 12 narrow lines. The strongest band observed at 903 cm-1 was assigned to the ν1 symmetric stretching vibration of WO4 tetrahedrons. The spectra of the samples doped with Er and Yb obtained under the 514.5 nm excitation were dominated by Er3+ luminescence preventing the recording of these samples Raman spectra. Concentration quenching of the erbium luminescence at 2H11/2→4I15/2 transition is weak in the range of erbium doping level xEr=0.05-0.2, while, for transition 4S3/2→4I15/2, the signs of concentration quenching become pronounced at xEr=0.2.

  20. Magnetic structure of the crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasilewski, P.

    1985-01-01

    The bibuniqueness aspect of geophysical interpretation must be constrained by geological insight to limit the range of theoretically possible models. An additional step in depth understanding of the relationship between rock magnetization and geological circumstances on a grand scale is required. Views about crustal structure and the distribution of lithologies suggests a complex situation with lateral and vertical variability at all levels in the crust. Volcanic, plutonic, and metamorphic processes together with each of the observed anomalies. Important questions are addressed: (1) the location of the magnetic bottom; (2) whether the source is a discrete one or are certain parts of the crust cumulatively contributing to the overall magnetization; (3) if the anomaly to some recognizable surface expression is localized, how to arrive at a geologically realistic model incorporating magnetization contrasts which are realistic; (3) in the way the primary mineralogies are altered by metamorphism and the resulting magnetic contracts; (4) the effects of temperature and pressure on magnetization.

  1. Chemical Pressure-Driven Incommensurability in CaPd5: Clues to High-Pressure Chemistry Offered by Complex Intermetallics.

    PubMed

    Kilduff, Brandon J; Fredrickson, Daniel C

    2016-07-01

    While composition and pressure are generally considered orthogonal parameters in the synthesis and optimization of solid state materials, their distinctness is blurred by the concept of chemical pressure (CP): microscopic pressure arising from lattice constraints rather than an externally applied force. In this article, we describe the first cycle of an iterative theoretical/experimental investigation into this connection. We begin by theoretically probing the ability of physical pressure to promote structural transitions in CaCu5-type phases that are driven by CP in other systems. Our results point to the instability of the reported CaCu5-type CaPd5 phase to such a transition even at ambient pressure, suggesting that new structural chemistry should arise at only modest pressures. We thus attempted to synthesize CaPd5 as a starting material for high-pressure experiments. However, rather than obtaining the expected CaCu5-type phase, we encountered crystals of an incommensurately modulated variant CaPd5+q/2, whose composition is related to its satellite spacing, q = qbbasic* with q ≈ 0.44. Its structure was solved and refined in the (3 + 1)D superspace group Cmcm(0β0)s00, revealing CaCu5-type slabs separated by distorted Pd hexagonal nets with an incommensurate periodicity. DFT-CP analysis on a commensurate model for CaPd5+q/2 indicates that the new Pd nets serve to relieve intense negative CPs that the Ca atoms would experience in a CaCu5-type CaPd5 phase but suffer from a desire to contract relative to the rest of the structure. In this way, both the Pd layer substitution and incommensurability in CaPd5+q/2 are anticipated by the CP schemes of simpler model systems, with CP quadrupoles tracing the paths of the favorable atomic motions. This picture offers predictions for how elemental substitution and physical pressure should affect these structural motifs, which could be applicable to the magnetic phase Zr2Co11 whose previously proposed structures show close

  2. Magnetic structure and domain conversion of the quasi-2D frustrated antiferromagnet CuCrO{sub 2} probed by NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Sakhratov, Yu. A.; Svistov, L. E.; Kuhns, P. L.; Zhou, H. D.; Reyes, A. P.

    2014-11-15

    We have carried out {sup 63,65}Cu NMR spectra measurements in a magnetic field up to about 15.5 T on a single crystal of the multiferroic triangular-lattice antiferromagnet CuCrO{sub 2}. The measurements were performed for perpendicular and parallel orientations of the magnetic field with respect to the c axis of the crystal, and the detailed angle dependence of the spectra on the magnetic field direction in the ab plane was studied. The shape of the spectra can be well described in the model of spiral spin structure proposed by recent neutron diffraction experiments. When the field is rotated perpendicular to the crystal c axis, we observed, directly for the first time, a remarkable reorientation of the spin plane simultaneous with rotation of the incommensurate wavevector, by quantitatively deducing the conversion of the energetically less favorable domain to a more favorable one. At high enough fields parallel to the c axis, the data are consistent with either a field-induced commensurate spiral magnetic structure or an incommensurate spiral magnetic structure with a disorder in the c direction, suggesting that high fields may have influence on interplanar ordering.

  3. Plated lamination structures for integrated magnetic devices

    DOEpatents

    Webb, Bucknell C.

    2014-06-17

    Semiconductor integrated magnetic devices such as inductors, transformers, etc., having laminated magnetic-insulator stack structures are provided, wherein the laminated magnetic-insulator stack structures are formed using electroplating techniques. For example, an integrated laminated magnetic device includes a multilayer stack structure having alternating magnetic and insulating layers formed on a substrate, wherein each magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure is separated from another magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure by an insulating layer, and a local shorting structure to electrically connect each magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure to an underlying magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure to facilitate electroplating of the magnetic layers using an underlying conductive layer (magnetic or seed layer) in the stack as an electrical cathode/anode for each electroplated magnetic layer in the stack structure.

  4. Incommensurate to commensurate antiferromagnetism in CeRhAl4Si2 : An 27Al NMR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, H.; Hattori, T.; Tokunaga, Y.; Kambe, S.; Ghimire, N. J.; Ronning, F.; Bauer, E. D.; Thompson, J. D.

    2016-01-01

    27Al nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments have been performed on a single crystal of CeRhAl4Si2 , which is an antiferromagnetic Kondo-lattice compound with successive antiferromagnetic transitions of TN 1=14 K and TN 2=9 K at zero external field. In the paramagnetic state, the Knight shifts, quadrupolar frequency, and asymmetric parameter of electrical field gradient on the Al sites have been determined, which have local orthorhombic symmetry. The transferred hyperfine coupling constants are also determined. Analysis of the NMR spectra indicates that a commensurate antiferromagnetic structure exists below TN 2, but an incommensurate modulation of antiferromagnetic moments is present in the antiferromagnetic state between TN 1 and TN 2. The spin-lattice relaxation rate suggests that the 4 f electrons behave as local moments at temperatures above TN 1.

  5. Atomistic mechanism leading to complex antiferroelectric and incommensurate perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Kinnary; Prosandeev, Sergey; Yang, Yurong; Xu, Bin; Íñiguez, Jorge; Bellaiche, L.

    2016-08-01

    An atomic interaction is identified in all perovskite compounds, such as A B O3 oxides, that can potentially result in unconventional structures. The term is harmonic in nature and couples the motions of the A cations with the rotations of the oxygen octahedra in the perovskite lattice. When strong enough, this coupling leads to hybrid normal modes that present both (anti)polar and rotational characters, which are keys to understand a variety of exotic phases. For example, we show that not only does this new coupling explain the long-period soft phonons characterizing prototype antiferroelectric PbZrO3, but it also provides us with an unified description of the complex antipolar structures of a variety of perovskites, including the possible occurrence of incommensurate phases. This coupling is further demonstrated to result, in the continuum limit, in an energy invariant adopting an analytical form that has been previously overlooked, to the best of our knowledge.

  6. Field dependence of the magnetic structure of TbMn{sub 2}O{sub 5}

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterji, T.; Brown, P. J.

    2014-11-28

    The evolution of the magnetic propagation vector of the magnetically ordered phases of TbMn{sub 2}O{sub 5} has been studied as a function of magnetic field applied parallel to both [010] and [100] axes. The results have been used to construct (H, T) phase diagrams showing the regions of stability of the three distinct phases IC1, C, and IC2 known to exist in zero field. Application of magnetic field along [010] increases the stability range of the commensurate C phase at the expense of the two incommensurate phases IC1 and IC2, whereas applying the field along [100] has the opposite effect. The evolution with field of the magnetic structure of the C phase has been determined from the integrated intensities of sets of magnetic reflections measured with different field values. With the field along [010], there are no significant changes in structure in fields up to 6 T. Applying the field parallel to [100] leads to an apparently continuous increase in the z component of the propagation vector from 0.25 in zero field to ≈0.3 in 6 T. This change is accompanied by increasing ferromagnetic polarisation of the Tb sublattices. Polarised neutron measurements made on the fundamental reflections show that there is no significant ferromagnetic polarisation of any the Mn sublattices in fields of up to 6 T.

  7. Structure and magnetism of cobalt intercalated graphene/Ir(111) via spin-polarized STM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decker, Regis; Brede, Jens; Atodiresei, Nicolae; Caciuc, Vasile; Bluegel, Stefan; Wiesendanger, Roland

    2013-03-01

    The presence of intercalation compounds in graphite, i.e. impurities or layer(s) trapped between carbon sheets, can lead to changes in the transport, optical and catalytic properties compared to bulk graphite, or even superconductivity. Here, we present the local structure and magnetic properties of graphene on a magnetic substrate, resolved by spin-polarized STM. The magnetic substrate is obtained by the intercalation of a cobalt layer between graphene and an Ir(111) surface. The atomic structure of the graphene layer is dominated by a highly corrugated Moiré pattern, which arises due to the incommensurability and/or twisting angle of the graphene lattice and the Co/Ir(111) surface. Within the Moiré unit cell three different regions, i.e. top, fcc, and hcp regions are identified. Interestingly, these regions show very different electronic and magnetic signatures in the experiments, defining an atomic-scale magnetic Moiré pattern. The observed spin polarization is compared to density functional theory calculations. The calculations reveal that the bonding between the graphene layer and intercalated Co layer varies from weak to strong within the Moiré unit cell. Moreover, the interaction between the graphene and the intercalated cobalt layer leads to a spin dependent charge rearrangement, which induces magnetism in graphene as observed in experiment.

  8. Synthesis, structures and magnetic properties of the dimorphic Mn2CrSbO6 oxide.

    PubMed

    Dos santos-García, Antonio J; Solana-Madruga, Elena; Ritter, Clemens; Ávila-Brande, David; Fabelo, Oscar; Sáez-Puche, Regino

    2015-06-21

    The perovskite polymorph of Mn(2)CrSbO(6) compound has been synthesized at 8 GPa and 1473 K. It crystallizes in the monoclinic P21/n space group with cell parameters a = 5.2180 (2) Å, b = 5.3710(2) Å, c = 7.5874(1) Å and β = 90.36(1)°. Magnetic susceptibility and magnetization measurements show the simultaneous antiferromagnetic ordering of Mn(2+) and Cr(3+) sublattices below TN = 55 K with a small canting. Low temperature powder neutron diffraction reveals a commensurate magnetic structure with spins confined to the ac-plane and a propagation vector κ = [1/2 0 1/2]. The thermal treatment of this compound induces an irreversible phase transition to the ilmenite polymorph, which has been isolated at 973 K and crystallizes in R3[combining macron] space group with cell parameters a = 5.2084 (4) Å and c = 14.4000 (11) Å. Magnetic susceptibility, magnetization and powder neutron diffraction data confirm the antiferromagnetic helical ordering of spins in an incommensurate magnetic structure with κ = [00 0.46] below 60 K, and the temperature dependence of the propagation vector up to κ = [00 0.54] at about 10 K. PMID:25623228

  9. Variable defect structures cause the magnetic low-temperature transition in natural monoclinic pyrrhotite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koulialias, D.; Kind, J.; Charilaou, M.; Weidler, P. G.; Löffler, J. F.; Gehring, A. U.

    2016-02-01

    Non-stoichiometric monoclinic 4C pyrrhotite (Fe7S8) is a major magnetic remanence carrier in the Earth's crust and in extraterrestrial materials. Because of its low-temperature magnetic transition around 30 K also known as Besnus transition, which is considered to be an intrinsic property, this mineral phase is easily detectable in natural samples. Although the physical properties of pyrrhotite have intensively been studied, the mechanism behind the pronounced change in magnetization at the low-temperature transition is still debated. Here we report magnetization experiments on a pyrrhotite crystal (Fe6.6S8) that consists of a 4C and an incommensurate 5C* superstructure that are different in their defect structure. The occurrence of two superstructures is magnetically confirmed by symmetric inflection points in hysteresis measurements above the transition at about 30 K. The disappearance of the inflection points and the associated change of the hysteresis parameters indicate that the two superstructures become strongly coupled to form a unitary magnetic anisotropy system at the transition. From this it follows that the Besnus transition in monoclinic pyrrhotite is an extrinsic magnetic phenomenon with respect to the 4C superstructure and therefore the physics behind it is in fact different from that of the well-known Verwey transition.

  10. Magnetic and electronic structure of Mn nanostructures on Ag(111) and Au(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardias, R.; Bezerra-Neto, M. M.; Ribeiro, M. S.; Bergman, A.; Szilva, A.; Eriksson, O.; Klautau, A. B.

    2016-01-01

    We present results of the electronic and magnetic structure of Mn nanowires adsorbed on Ag(111) and Au(111) surfaces. For finite Mn nanowires on Ag(111) and Au(111) surfaces, our ab initio results show that the large difference between the spin-orbit splitting of these two surfaces leads to completely different magnetic configurations. The magnetic ordering for Mn nanowires adsorbed on Ag(111) is governed by the strong exchange interaction between Mn adatoms. For Mn nano-chains on Au(111), the competition between Heisenberg and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions leads to a complex magnetic structure of the clusters considered here. Among the more conspicuous results we note a spin-spiral helical type for the nanowire with seven atoms, and a complex magnetic configuration incommensurate with the substrate lattice for a double-sized Mn wire. The effect of the structural relaxation is also investigated, showing sensitivity of the exchange interactions to the bond distance to the substrate. We also demonstrate that small changes in the band filling of these Mn chains results in drastically different changes of the interatomic exchange. Finally, we show that dispersion of the electronic energy spectrum is possible even in nanostructures with bounded spatial extension.

  11. Step Coalescence by Collective Motion at an Incommensurate Grain Boundary.

    PubMed

    Bowers, M L; Ophus, C; Gautam, A; Lançon, F; Dahmen, U

    2016-03-11

    Using extended time series scanning transmission electron microscopy, we investigate structural fluctuations at an incommensurate grain boundary in Au. Atomic-resolution imaging reveals the coalescence of two interfacial steps, or disconnections, of different height via coordinated motion of atoms along close-packed directions. Numerical simulations uncover a transition pathway that involves constriction and expansion of a characteristic stacking fault often associated with grain boundaries in face-centered cubic materials. It is found that local atomic fluctuations by enhanced point defect diffusion may play a critical role in initiating this transition. Our results offer new insights into the collective motion of atoms underlying the lateral advance of steps that control the migration of faceted grain boundaries. PMID:27015493

  12. Phase diagram and incommensurate antiferroelectric structure in (Pb{sub 1−1.5x}La{sub x})(Zr{sub 0.42}Sn{sub 0.40}Ti{sub 0.18})O{sub 3} ceramics discovered by band-to-band optical transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, X. J.; Xu, L. P.; Hu, Z. G. Chu, J. H.; Chen, X. F.; Wang, G. S.; Dong, X. L.

    2014-09-29

    Optical properties and phase transitions of (Pb{sub 1−1.5x}La{sub x})(Zr{sub 0.42}Sn{sub 0.40}Ti{sub 0.18})O{sub 3} (PLZST 100x/42/40/18) ceramics with different compositions have been investigated by temperature dependent spectroscopic ellipsometry. Two interband critical points (E{sub cp1} and E{sub cp2}) located at about 3.9 and 5.1 eV can be obtained by fitting standard line shapes to the second derivatives of the complex dielectric functions. Based on the band-to-band transitions, the phase diagram of PLZST ceramics can be well presented. Moreover, a peculiar incommensurate antiferroelectric state has been found to exist above the temperature of the normal commensurate antiferroelectric tetragonal structure. It can be stable below Curie temperature, evolving slowly with decreasing temperature towards the commensurate structure, which is due to strong pinning of incommensurate domain walls. The phenomena can result from a competition between ferroelectric ordering and antiferroelectric ordering caused by the lanthanum modification.

  13. Cryogenic structural materials for superconducting magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Dalder, E.N.C.; Morris, J.W. Jr.

    1985-02-22

    This paper reviews research in the United States and Japan on structural materials for high-field superconducting magnets. Superconducting magnets are used for magnetic fusion energy devices and for accelerators that are used in particle-physics research. The cryogenic structural materials that we review are used for magnet cases and support structures. We expect increased materials requirements in the future.

  14. Pressure-induced normal-incommensurate and incommensurate-commensurate phase transitions in CrOCl

    PubMed Central

    Bykov, Maxim; Bykova, Elena; Dubrovinsky, Leonid; Hanfland, Michael; Liermann, Hanns-Peter; van Smaalen, Sander

    2015-01-01

    The high-pressure behavior of layered CrOCl is shown to be governed by non-bonded interactions between chlorine atoms in relation to a rigid framework composed of Cr and O atoms. The competition between optimizing intra- and interlayer Cl–Cl distances and the general trend towards denser packing defines a novel mechanism for high-pressure phase transitions of inorganic materials. CrOCl possesses an incommensurate phase for 16–51 GPa. Single-crystal x-ray diffraction in a diamond anvil cell provides an accurate description of the evolution of the incommensurate wave with pressure. It thus demonstrates a continuous increase of the amplitude up to 30 GPa, followed by a decrease of the wavelength until a lock-in transition occurs at 51 GPa. PMID:25999303

  15. Solitary waves in nonlinear coupled incommensurate chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikandé, A. M.; Kofané, T. C.

    1994-01-01

    We present dynamical theory of soliton excitations in nonlinear coupled incommensurate chains which consists of two deformable chains of different atomic species, each with its own chemical potential, on the same substrate. In the continuum approximation, the motion equations are a set of coupled Sine-Gordon equations. The soliton solutions of these coupled equations are studied in detail. It has been shown that the frequency of the internal oscillations depends on the coupling parameter. The interaction energy between the two weakly coupled Sine-Gordon systems has been found. Results of the dynamical theory have been related to the transport properties in organic conductors such as TTF-TCNQ, KCP and others. Indeed, we have calculated some meaningful physical parameters of these compounds within the soliton limit, and discussed different types of behaviors shown at the transition with respect to variations of the physical parameters.

  16. Magnetic transition from the paramagnetic to long-period structure in RMn{sub 2}O{sub 5} multiferroics: Renormalization group analysis of critical behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Men'shenin, V. V.

    2013-06-15

    A transition from the paramagnetic state to a long-period magnetic structure with an incommensurate wave vector along one crystallographic axis in RMn{sub 2}O{sub 5} multiferroics is considered. An effective Hamiltonian for these oxides is constructed with allowance for spin fluctuations. Critical points are found, and their stability is analyzed using the renormalization group approach. It is shown that critical fluctuations in these compounds admit a second-order phase transition with respect to a multicomponent order parameter.

  17. Anisotropic Magnetism in Field-Structured Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Robert A.; Martin, James E.; Odinek, Judy; Venturini, Eugene

    1999-06-24

    Magnetic field-structured-composites (FSCs) are made by structuring magnetic particle suspensions in uniaxial or biaxial (e.g. rotating) magnetic fields, while polymerizing the suspending resin. A uniaxial field produces chain-like particle structures, and a biaxial field produces sheet-like particle structures. In either case, these anisotropic structures affect the measured magnetic hysteresis loops, with the magnetic remanence and susceptibility increased significantly along the axis of the structuring field, and decreased slightly orthogonal to the structuring field, relative to the unstructured particle composite. The coercivity is essentially unaffected by structuring. We present data for FSCs of magnetically soft particles, and demonstrate that the altered magnetism can be accounted for by considering the large local fields that occur in FSCs. FSCS of magnetically hard particles show unexpectedly large anisotropies in the remanence, and this is due to the local field effects in combination with the large crystalline anisotropy of this material.

  18. Domain structure and magnetic resonance studies of ferroelastic BiVO4 revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choh, Sung Ho; Jang, Min Su

    2016-04-01

    Bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) is a ferroelastic material undergoing a reversible second order phase transition at 528 K(T c) between the tetragonal and monoclinic structure. There have been experimental studies on the incommensurate domain wall (W‧) which reported different orientation angles. In order to clarify this we have tried to calculate it numerically in terms of lattice constants above and below T c by employing the theory of Sapriel, and obtained it to be either 35.9° or 54.1°. It also turns out that the shear strain (S 21) in the ferroelastic phase depends on the crystal growing condition. The remaining internal stress appears to be responsible for the formation of W‧ wall. The host atom nuclear magnetic resonance and the S-state impurity electron magnetic resonance are also reviewed. The nuclear electric quadrupole interaction of 51V and 209Bi in BiVO4 was evaluated in terms of the point charge model based on the crystal structure. The result of electric field gradient tensor turns out to be reasonable with experimental values. The zero-field splitting tensor of Mn2+, Fe3+ and Gd3+ are also compared, and the deduced local environment of these ions in the host are confirmed. Finally the second-order phase transition according to the Landau’s framework is found in this crystal from the temperature dependence of magnetic resonance parameters. Supported by The National Academy of Sciences, Republic of Korea (2014) through SHC.

  19. Defects, Strain, Incommensurability and Polymorphism in Graphene on Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altman, Michael; Yu, Ka Man; Wang, Feifei

    The prevalence of defects in large-area graphene fabricated on metal substrates may undermine the unique properties that are vital to its use in technological applications. Although efforts to mitigate these imperfections have met with some success, they may alternatively be harnessed to tailor graphene's properties or alter its functionality. We have studied the growth/defect structure of graphene/metals using low energy electron microscopy (LEEM) and micro-low energy electron diffraction (μ-LEED). These investigations reveal the proliferation of small-angle lattice orientational disorder and small angle grain boundaries in graphene/Ru (0001) prepared by conventional ethylene CVD at high temperature. Although orientationally uniform graphene could be produced by a hybrid CVD/segregation method, this layer exhibits significant incommensurability and polymorphism, i.e. several commensurate structures. Two-dimensional strain mapping in graphene/Ir(111) obtained from scanning μ-LEED measurements using a 250nm probe beam reveals inhomogeneous strain relaxation by wrinkles. This suggests that it may be possible to strain engineer the properties of graphene if wrinkling can be controlled to form desirable wrinkle networks . Coupling of lattice rotation and strain is also observed by the same approach in graphene on other metal substrates.

  20. Structural and magnetic states in layered manganites: An expanding view of the phase diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, J. F.; Millburn, J. E.; Ling, C.; Argyriou, D. N.; Bordallo, H. N.

    2000-01-05

    Colossal magnetoresistive (CMR) manganites display a spectacular range of structural, magnetic, and electronic phases as a function of hole concentration, temperature, magnetic field, etc. A1though the bulk of research has concentrated on the 3-D perovskite manganites, the ability to study anisotropic magnetic and electronic interactions made available in reduced dimensions has accelerated interest in the layered Ruddlesden-Popper (R-P) phases of the manganite class. The quest for understanding the coupling among lattice, spin, and electronic degrees of freedom (and dimensionality) is driven by the availability of high quality materials. In this talk, the authors will present recent results on synthesis and magnetic properties of layered manganites from the La{sub 2{minus}2x}Sr{sub 1+2x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 7} series in the Mn{sup 4+}-rich regime x >0.5. This region of the composition diagram is populated by antiferromagnetic structures that evolve from the A-type layered order to G-type ''rocksalt'' order as x increases. Between these two regimes is a wide region (0.7 < x < 0.9) where an incommensurate magnetic structure is observed. The IC structure joins spin canting and phase separation as a mode for mixed-valent manganites to accommodate FM/AF competition. Transport in these materials is dominated by highly insulating behavior, although a region close to x = 0.5 exhibits metal-nonmetal transitions and an extreme sensitivity to oxygen content. They suggest two possible explanations for this transport behavior at doping just above x = O.5: localization by oxygen defects or charge ordering of Mn{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 4+}sites.

  1. Structural and magnetic phase transitions in CeCu6 -xTx (T =Ag ,Pd )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poudel, L.; de la Cruz, C.; Payzant, E. A.; May, A. F.; Koehler, M.; Garlea, V. O.; Taylor, A. E.; Parker, D. S.; Cao, H. B.; McGuire, M. A.; Tian, W.; Matsuda, M.; Jeen, H.; Lee, H. N.; Hong, T.; Calder, S.; Zhou, H. D.; Lumsden, M. D.; Keppens, V.; Mandrus, D.; Christianson, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    The structural and the magnetic properties of CeCu6 -xAgx (0 ≤x ≤0.85 ) and CeCu6 -xPdx (0 ≤x ≤0.4 ) have been studied using neutron diffraction, resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS), x-ray diffraction measurements, and first principles calculations. The structural and magnetic phase diagrams of CeCu6 -xAgx and CeCu6 -xPdx as a function of Ag/Pd composition are reported. The end member, CeCu6, undergoes a structural phase transition from an orthorhombic (P n m a ) to a monoclinic (P 21/c ) phase at 240 K. In CeCu6 -xAgx , the structural phase transition temperature (Ts) decreases linearly with Ag concentration and extrapolates to zero at xS ≈0.1 . The structural transition in CeCu6 -xPdx remains unperturbed with Pd substitution within the range of our study. The lattice constant b slightly decreases with Ag/Pd doping, whereas a and c increase with an overall increase in the unit cell volume. Both systems, CeCu6 -xAgx and CeCu6 -xPdx , exhibit a magnetic quantum critical point (QCP), at x ≈0.2 and x ≈0.05 , respectively. Near the QCP, long range antiferromagnetic ordering takes place at an incommensurate wave vector (δ10 δ2), where δ1˜0.62 ,δ2˜0.25 ,x =0.125 for CeCu6 -xPdx and δ1˜0.64 ,δ2˜0.3 ,x =0.3 for CeCu6 -xAgx . The magnetic structure consists of an amplitude modulation of the Ce moments which are aligned along the c axis of the orthorhombic unit cell.

  2. Charge Order in LuFe2O4: Antiferroelectric Ground State and Coupling to Magnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Angst, Manuel; Hermann, Raphael P.; Christianson, Andrew D; Lumsden, Mark D; Lee, C; Whangbo, M.-H.; Kim, J.-W.; Ryan, P J; Nagler, Stephen E; Tian, Wei; Jin, Rongying; Sales, Brian C; Mandrus, David

    2008-11-01

    X-ray scattering by multiferroic LuFe2O4 is reported. Below 320 K, superstructure reflections indicate an incommensurate charge order with propagation close to 1 3 1 3 3 2 . The corresponding charge configuration, also found by electronic structure calculations as most stable, contains polar Fe=O double layers with antiferroelectric stacking. Diffuse scattering at 360 K, with 1 3 1 3 0 propagation, indicates ferroelectric short-range correlations between neighboring double layers. The temperature dependence of the incommensuration indicates that charge order and magnetism are coupled.

  3. Incommensurate phase of a triangular frustrated Heisenberg model studied via Schwinger-boson mean-field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peng; Su, Haibin; Dong, Hui-Ning; Shen, Shun-Qing

    2009-08-01

    We study a triangular frustrated antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model with nearest-neighbor interactions J1 and third-nearest-neighbor interactions J3 by means of Schwinger-boson mean-field theory. By setting an antiferromagnetic J3 and varying J1 from positive to negative values, we disclose the low-temperature features of its interesting incommensurate phase. The gapless dispersion of quasiparticles leads to the intrinsic T2 law of specific heat. The magnetic susceptibility is linear in temperature. The local magnetization is significantly reduced by quantum fluctuations. We address possible relevance of these results to the low-temperature properties of NiGa2S4. From a careful analysis of the incommensurate spin wavevector, the interaction parameters are estimated as J1≈-3.8755 K and J3≈14.0628 K, in order to account for the experimental data.

  4. Temperature-dependent multi-k magnetic structure in multiferroic Co{sub 3}TeO{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, S.A.; Tellgren, R.; Ritter, C.; Nordblad, P.; Mathieu, R.; Andre, G.; Golubko, N.V.; Politova, E.D.; Weil, M.

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co{sub 3}TeO{sub 6} with corundum-related structure orders antiferromagnetically below 26 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A field-driven electrical polarization was observed in the antiferromagnetic state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NPD data was collected and refined for ceramics and crushed single crystals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Successive magnetic phase transformations are observed as a function of temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The complex magnetic structure reflects the competing interactions in Co{sub 3}TeO{sub 6}. -- Abstract: A complex magnetic order of the multiferroic compound Co{sub 3}TeO{sub 6} has been revealed by neutron powder diffraction studies on ceramics and crushed single crystals. The compound adopts a monoclinic structure (s.g. C2/c) in the studied temperature range 2-300 K but exhibits successive antiferromagnetic transitions at low temperature. Incommensurate antiferromagnetic order with the propagation vector k{sub 1} = (0, 0.485, 0.055) sets in at 26 K. A transition to a second antiferromagnetic structure with k{sub 2} = (0, 0, 0) takes place at 21.1 K. Moreover, a transition to a commensurate antiferromagnetic structure with k{sub 3} = (0, 0.5, 0.25) occurs at 17.4 K. The magnetic structures have been determined by neutron powder diffraction using group theory analysis as a preliminary tool. Different coordinations of the Co{sup 2+} ions involved in the low-symmetry C2/c structure of Co{sub 3}TeO{sub 6} render the exchange-interaction network very complex by itself. The observed magnetic phase transformations are interpreted as an evidence of competing magnetic interactions. The temperature dependent changes in the magnetic structure, derived from refinements of high-resolution neutron data, are discussed and possible mechanisms connected with the spin reorientations are described.

  5. Magnetic order tuned by Cu substitution in Fe1.1–zCuzTe

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wen, Jinsheng; Xu, Zhijun; Xu, Guangyong; Lumsden, M. D.; Valdivia, P. N.; Bourret-Courchesne, E.; Gu, Genda; Lee, Dung-Hai; Tranquada, J. M.; Birgeneau, R. J.

    2012-07-02

    We study the effects of Cu substitution in Fe₁.₁Te, the nonsuperconducting parent compound of the iron-based superconductor, Fe₁₊yTe₁₋xSex, utilizing neutron scattering techniques. It is found that the structural and magnetic transitions, which occur at ~60 K without Cu, are monotonically depressed with increasing Cu content. By 10% Cu for Fe, the structural transition is hardly detectable, and the system becomes a spin glass below 22 K, with a slightly incommensurate ordering wave vector of (0.5–δ, 0, 0.5) with δ being the incommensurability of 0.02, and correlation length of 12 Å along the a axis and 9 Å along the cmore » axis. With 4% Cu, both transition temperatures are at 41 K, though short-range incommensurate order at (0.42, 0, 0.5) is present at 60 K. With further cooling, the incommensurability decreases linearly with temperature down to 37 K, below which there is a first-order transition to a long-range almost-commensurate antiferromagnetic structure. A spin anisotropy gap of 4.5 meV is also observed in this compound. Our results show that the weakly magnetic Cu has a large effect on the magnetic correlations; it is suggested that this is caused by the frustration of the exchange interactions between the coupled Fe spins.« less

  6. Generic incommensurate transition in the two-dimensional boson Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alet, Fabien; Sørensen, Erik S.

    2004-07-01

    The generic transition in the boson Hubbard model, occurring at an incommensurate chemical potential, is studied in the link-current representation using the recently developed directed geometrical worm algorithm. We find clear evidence for a multipeak structure in the energy distribution for finite lattices, usually indicative of a first-order phase transition. However, this multipeak structure is shown to disappear in the thermodynamic limit, revealing that the true phase transition is second order. These findings cast doubts over the conclusion drawn in a number of previous works considering the relevance of disorder at this transition.

  7. Engineered Magnetic Core-Shell Structures.

    PubMed

    Alavi Nikje, Mir Mohammad; Vakili, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, engineered magnetic core-shell structures are playing an important role in the wide range of various applications. These magnetic core-shell structures have attracted considerable attention because of their unique properties and various applications. Also, the synthesis of engineered magnetic core-shell structures has attracted practical interest because of potential applications in areas such as ferrofluids, medical imaging, drug targeting and delivery, cancer therapy, separations, and catalysis. So far a large number of engineered magnetic core-shell structures have been successfully synthesized. This review article focuses on the recent progress in synthesis and characterization of engineered magnetic core-shell structures. Also, this review gives a brief description of the various application of these structures. It is hoped that this review will play some small part in helping future developments in important field. PMID:26377655

  8. Nuclear magnetic resonance in magnets with a helicoidal magnetic structure in an external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tankeyev, A. P.; Borich, M. A.; Smagin, V. V.

    2014-11-01

    In this review, the static and dynamic properties of a magnet with a helicoidal magnetic structure placed in an external magnetic field are discussed. The results of the investigation of its ground state and spectra, as well as the amplitudes of the spin excitations are presented. The temperature and field dependences of the basic thermodynamic characteristics (heat capacity, magnetization, and magnetic susceptibility) have been calculated in the spin-wave approximation. The results of calculating the local and integral dynamic magnetic susceptibility are given. This set of data represents a methodical basis for constructing a consistent (in the framework of unified approximations) picture of the NMR absorption in the magnet under consideration. Both local NMR characteristics (resonance frequency, line broadening, enhancement coefficient) and integral characteristics (resultant shape of the absorption line with its specific features) have been calculated. The effective Hamiltonian of the Suhl-Nakamura interaction of nuclear spins through spin waves has been constructed. The second moment and the local broadening of the line of the NMR absorption caused by this interaction have been calculated. The role of the basic local inhomogeneities in the formation of the integral line of the NMR absorption has been analyzed. The opportunities for the experimental NMR investigations in magnets with a chiral spin structure are discussed.

  9. Twokink excitation in a spiral magnetic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiselev, V. V.; Raskovalov, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Twokink excitations in the spiral structures of magnets and multiferroics are found and analyzed within the framework for the sine-Gordon model. It is shown that the movement and interaction of the kinks is accompanied by macroscopic translations of the spiral structure. The ways of observing and exciting kinks in the external magnetic field are discussed.

  10. Processing incommensurately modulated protein diffraction data with Eval15

    SciTech Connect

    Porta, Jason; Lovelace, Jeffrey J.; Schreurs, Antoine M. M.; Kroon-Batenburg, Loes M. J.; Borgstahl, Gloria E. O.

    2011-07-01

    Data processing of an incommensurately modulated profilin–actin crystal is described. Recent challenges in biological X-ray crystallography include the processing of modulated diffraction data. A modulated crystal has lost its three-dimensional translational symmetry but retains long-range order that can be restored by refining a periodic modulation function. The presence of a crystal modulation is indicated by an X-ray diffraction pattern with periodic main reflections flanked by off-lattice satellite reflections. While the periodic main reflections can easily be indexed using three reciprocal-lattice vectors a*, b*, c*, the satellite reflections have a non-integral relationship to the main lattice and require a q vector for indexing. While methods for the processing of diffraction intensities from modulated small-molecule crystals are well developed, they have not been applied in protein crystallography. A recipe is presented here for processing incommensurately modulated data from a macromolecular crystal using the Eval program suite. The diffraction data are from an incommensurately modulated crystal of profilin–actin with single-order satellites parallel to b*. The steps taken in this report can be used as a guide for protein crystallographers when encountering crystal modulations. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the processing of data from an incommensurately modulated macromolecular crystal.

  11. On the dielectric susceptibility calculation in the incommensurate phase of K2SeO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslanyan, T. A.

    2010-10-01

    It is shown that the thermodynamic potential of the domain-like incommensurate (IC) phase of the K2SeO4crystal (viewed as a model for the IC-C transition) should be supplemented with a term, taking into account the local, Lorentz electric field. The latter qualitatively changes the result of calculation of the dielectric susceptibility for this IC structure by Nattermann and Trimper, J. Phys. C: Solid State Phys. 14, 1603, (1981), and gives phase transition to the ferroelectric IC phase obtained by Aslanyan, Phys. Rev. B 70, 024102, (2004).

  12. Magnetic structures of the M {sub 2}TbF{sub 6} (M=Li, K, Rb) fluorides: A complex behavior resulting from frustration

    SciTech Connect

    Josse, M.; El-Ghozzi, M. Avignant, D.; Andre, G.; Bouree, F.

    2007-05-15

    Neutron powder diffraction has been performed on Li{sub 2}TbF{sub 6}, K{sub 2}TbF{sub 6} and Rb{sub 2}TbF{sub 6} fluoroterbates. Incommensurate long-range magnetic order is observed below T {sub N}=2.02, 1.60 and 2.07 K. The square-modulating of the magnetic structures can be correlated with the geometric frustration induced by the pseudo-hexagonal packing of the [TbF{sub 6}]{sup 2-} chains in these hexafluorides. This frustration and the magnetic interactions are discussed on the basis of experimental data and topological considerations. The magnetic structures encountered in this series, and the particular thermal evolution of the Li{sub 2}TbF{sub 6} magnetic structure may result from the competition between the magnetic interactions taking place in the chains and the magnetic interactions coupling the chains. - Graphical abstract: Pseudo-hexagonal packing of the [TbF{sub 6}]{sup 2-} chains in Li{sub 2}TbF{sub 6}.

  13. Mesoscale Magnetic Structures in Spiral Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukurov, Anvar

    Virtually all spiral galaxies host magnetic fields ordered at scales comparable to the galactic size (Beck et al., 1996; Beck, 2000, 2001). Observations of polarized radio emission at improved resolution and sensitivity have revealed details of the global magnetic structures that can shed new light on the problem of their origin. Reversals of the regular magnetic field along radius and/or azimuth and magnetic arms are such features, whose scale exceeds significantly the correlation scale of interstellar turbulence but remains smaller than the overall galactic dimension. Despite a few decades of debate, there remains doubt as to what features of the observed field could have been inherited from the pre-galactic past, and which have been formed and maintained more recently in a relatively mature galaxy. In what follows, we briefly review the current understanding of the origin of the mesoscale magnetic structures and their implications for the origin of galactic magnetic fields.

  14. The sun's magnetic sector structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svalgaard, L.; Wilcox, J. M.; Scherrer, P. H.; Howard, R.

    1975-01-01

    The synoptic appearance of solar magnetic sectors is studied using 454 sector boundaries observed at earth during 1959-1973. The sectors are clearly visible in the photospheric magnetic field. Sector boundaries can be clearly identified as north-south running demarcation lines between regions of persistent magnetic polarity imbalances. These regions extend up to about 35 deg of latitude on both sides of the equator. They generally do not extend into the polar caps. The polar cap boundary can be identified as an east-west demarcation line marking the poleward limit of the sectors. The typical flux imbalance for a magnetic sector is about 4 x 10 to the 21st power Maxwells.

  15. Observation of atomic scale compositional and displacive modulations in incommensurate melilite electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Fengxia; Williams, Tim; An, Tao; Baikie, Tom; Kloc, Christian; Wei, Jun; White, Tim

    2013-07-15

    The paradigm that functional materials are adequately described as three-dimensional crystal structures is not universally tenable. Gallate melilites are efficient oxide ion conductors at intermediate temperatures (∼750 °C) with non-rational crystallographic modulations presumed to play a key role in significantly enhancing oxygen mobility. Lattice distortions associated with incommensuration are usually extrapolated from diffraction analysis of volumes greatly exceeding the scale of modulation. Therefore, opportunities for making direct nanometric measurements are exceptionally valuable for correlating structure with function. In [CaLn]{sub 2}[Ga]{sub 2}[Ga{sub 2}O{sub 7}]{sub 2} (Ln=Nd, La) melilites, atomic displacive and compositional modulation waves can be imaged by high angle annular dark field and bright field scanning transmission electron microscopy with contrast quantified through electron scattering simulation. Here, we present atomic scale observations of (3+2)-dimensional modulations in gallate melilites which expands our understanding of the ion conduction mechanism and provides guidance for enhancing the performance of solid oxide fuel cells through crystal chemical tailoring. - Highlights: • Characterise the (3+2)-dimensional melilite electrolytes using STEM technique. • Direct observation on displacive and compositional modulation in melilites. • Structural flexibility reduces when increasing interstitial oxygen. • Domain-like incommensurate modulation model is proposed.

  16. Magnetic order tuned by Cu substitution in Fe1.1–zCuzTe

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Jinsheng; Xu, Zhijun; Xu, Guangyong; Lumsden, M. D.; Valdivia, P. N.; Bourret-Courchesne, E.; Gu, Genda; Lee, Dung-Hai; Tranquada, J. M.; Birgeneau, R. J.

    2012-07-02

    We study the effects of Cu substitution in Fe₁.₁Te, the nonsuperconducting parent compound of the iron-based superconductor, Fe₁₊yTe₁₋xSex, utilizing neutron scattering techniques. It is found that the structural and magnetic transitions, which occur at ~60 K without Cu, are monotonically depressed with increasing Cu content. By 10% Cu for Fe, the structural transition is hardly detectable, and the system becomes a spin glass below 22 K, with a slightly incommensurate ordering wave vector of (0.5–δ, 0, 0.5) with δ being the incommensurability of 0.02, and correlation length of 12 Å along the a axis and 9 Å along the c axis. With 4% Cu, both transition temperatures are at 41 K, though short-range incommensurate order at (0.42, 0, 0.5) is present at 60 K. With further cooling, the incommensurability decreases linearly with temperature down to 37 K, below which there is a first-order transition to a long-range almost-commensurate antiferromagnetic structure. A spin anisotropy gap of 4.5 meV is also observed in this compound. Our results show that the weakly magnetic Cu has a large effect on the magnetic correlations; it is suggested that this is caused by the frustration of the exchange interactions between the coupled Fe spins.

  17. Twisted magnetic structures emerging from buoyancy instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouve, L.; Silvers, L. J.; Proctor, M. R. E.

    2012-12-01

    We here report calculations of magnetic buoyancy instabilities of a sheared magnetic layer where two separate zones are unstable. The idea is to study the possible generation of large-scale helical structures which could then rise through a stellar convection zone and emerge at the surface to create active regions. The calculations shown here are a follow-up of the work of Favier et al. (2012) where the instability developed in a weakly magnetized atmosphere, consisting of a uniform field oriented in a different direction from the unstable layer below. Here, the top layer representing the atmosphere is itself unstable to buoyancy instabilities and thus quickly creates a more complex magnetic configuration with which the layer below will interact. We also find in this case that the accumulation of magnetic tension between the two unstable layers favors the creation of large-scale helical structures.

  18. Magnetic field structure evolution in rotating magnetic field plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, Yuri; Yang Xiaokang; Huang, T.-S.

    2008-07-15

    A study of magnetic field structure evolution during 40-ms plasma discharge has been performed in a new device with 80 cm long/40 cm diameter cylindrical chamber, in which a plasma current I{sub p}{approx_equal}2 kA was driven and sustained by a rotating magnetic field. The main focus of the experiments is on how the changes in externally applied magnetic field affect the current profile and magnetic field in plasma. During plasma discharge, a pulse current was briefly fed to a magnetic coil located at the midplane (middle coil). The magnetic field in cross section of plasma was scanned with pickup probes. Two regimes were studied: without and with an external toroidal field (TF) produced by axial I{sub z} current. With a relatively small current (I{sub m} {<=} 600 A) in the middle coil, the plasma current is boosted up to 5 kA. The magnetic flux surfaces become extended along the axial Z direction, sometimes with the formation of doublet shape plasma. The regime without TF appears to be less stable, presumably due to the reversal of plasma current in central area of plasma column.

  19. Structural alloys for high field superconducting magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, J.W. Jr.

    1985-08-01

    Research toward structural alloys for use in high field superconducting magnets is international in scope, and has three principal objectives: the selection or development of suitable structural alloys for the magnet support structure, the identification of mechanical phenomena and failure modes that may influence service behavior, and the design of suitable testing procedures to provide engineering design data. This paper reviews recent progress toward the first two of these objectives. The structural alloy needs depend on the magnet design and superconductor type and differ between magnets that use monolithic and those that employ force-cooled or ICCS conductors. In the former case the central requirement is for high strength, high toughness, weldable alloys that are used in thick sections for the magnet case. In the latter case the need is for high strength, high toughness alloys that are used in thin welded sections for the conductor conduit. There is productive current research on both alloy types. The service behavior of these alloys is influenced by mechanical phenomena that are peculiar to the magnet environment, including cryogenic fatigue, magnetic effects, and cryogenic creep. The design of appropriate mechanical tests is complicated by the need for testing at 4/sup 0/K and by rate effects associated with adiabatic heating during the tests. 46 refs.

  20. One-Dimensional Quasicrystals from Incommensurate Charge Order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flicker, Felix; van Wezel, Jasper

    2015-12-01

    Artificial quasicrystals are nowadays routinely manufactured, yet only two naturally occurring examples are known. We present a class of systems with the potential to be realized both artificially and in nature, in which the lowest energy state is a one-dimensional quasicrystal. These systems are based on incommensurately charge-ordered materials, in which the quasicrystalline phase competes with the formation of a regular array of discommensurations as a way of interpolating between incommensurate charge order at high temperatures and commensurate order at low temperatures. The nonlocal correlations characteristic of the quasicrystalline state emerge from a free-energy contribution localized in reciprocal space. We present a theoretical phase diagram showing that the required material properties for the appearance of such a ground state allow for one-dimensional quasicrystals to form in real materials. The result is a potentially wide class of one-dimensional quasicrystals.

  1. Thermal conductivity of solid thiophene in an incommensurate orientational state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolyuk, O. A.; Krivchikov, A. I.; Vdovichenko, G. A.; Romantsova, O. O.; Horbatenko, Yu. V.

    2016-01-01

    The thermal conductivity of solid thiophene at equilibrium vapor pressure between 2 K < T < 170 K, has been measured in a sequence of incommensurate metastable orientationally disordered phases II, II1, II2, and II2g with different degrees of orientational ordering of the molecules. It is found that in phase states II, II1 and II2 with dynamic orientational disorder of the molecules, the thermal conductivity does not depend on the temperature. It is shown that the temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity κ(T) of orientational glass Vg and II2g (incommensurate) does not have any of the anomalies that are typical for amorphous materials and glasses. The temperature dependence κ(T) of the incommensurate state of orientational glass II2g is bell-shaped, which is typical for the thermal conductivity of crystals with long-range orientational order. In the II2g state, as temperature drops from Tg to almost 10 K, the thermal conductivity increases according to κ(T) = A/T + B, where the first term describes the input of the propagating phonons, wherein the average length of their mean free path is greater than half of the phonon wavelength. The B term is associated with the input of localized short-wave, or "diffuse" vibrational modes. At low temperatures T ≤ 7 K, κ(T) ∝ T3 is observed with increasing temperatures, which corresponds to the boundary scattering of phonons.

  2. Structural and magnetic phase transitions in CeCu6-xTx (T = Ag,Pd)

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Poudel, Lekhanath N.; De la cruz, Clarina; Payzant, E. Andrew; Koehler, Michael R.; May, Andrew F.; Garlea, Vasile O.; Taylor, Alice E.; Parker, David S.; Cao, Huibo B.; McGuire, Michael A.; et al

    2015-12-15

    The structural and the magnetic properties of CeCu6-xAgx (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.85) and CeCu6-xPdx (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.4) have been studied using neutron diffraction, resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS), x-ray diffraction measurements, and first principles calculations. The structural and magnetic phase diagrams of CeCu6-xAgx and CeCu6-xPdx as a function of Ag/Pd composition are reported. The end member, CeCu6, undergoes a structural phase transition from an orthorhombic (Pnma) to a monoclinic (P21/c) phase at 240 K. In CeCu6-xAgx, the structural phase transition temperature (Ts) decreases linearly with Ag concentration and extrapolates to zero at xS ≈ 0.1. The structural transitionmore » in CeCu6-xPdx remains unperturbed with Pd substitution within the range of our study. The lattice constant b slightly decreases with Ag/Pd doping, whereas a and c increase with an overall increase in the unit cell volume. Both systems, CeCu6-xAgx and CeCu6-xPdx, exhibit a magnetic quantum critical point (QCP), at x ≈ 0.2 and x ≈ 0.05, respectively. Near the QCP, long range antiferromagnetic ordering takes place at an incommensurate wave vector (δ1 0 δ2), where δ1 ~ 0.62, δ2 ~ 0.25, x = 0.125 for CeCu6-xPdx and δ1 ~ 0.64, δ2 ~ 0.3, x = 0.3 for CeCu6-xAgx. As a result, the magnetic structure consists of an amplitude modulation of the Ce moments which are aligned along the c axis of the orthorhombic unit cell.« less

  3. Incommensurate growth of Co thin film on close-packed Ag(111) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barman, Sukanta; Menon, Krishna Kumar S. R.

    2016-05-01

    Growth of ultrathin Co layers on close-packed Ag(111)were investigated by means of Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Angle-resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy(ARPES) techniques. The close-packed hexagonal face of Co(0001), exhibits a lattice misfit about 13% with Ag(111) surface which manipulates the growth to be incommensurate up to a certain thickness. The strain field causes aperiodic height undulation in the sub-angstrom regime of the film which was confirmed by p(1 × 1) LEED pattern along with a 6-fold moiré reconstruction pattern in the lower film thickness (up to ˜2ML). The evolution of the LEED pattern was studied with increasing film coverage. Lattice strain was measured with respect to the relative positions of these double spots as a functionof film thickness. Almost a constant strain (˜13%) in the full range of film thickness explains the moiré pattern formation in order to stabilize the incommensurate growth. For higher film coverages, an epitaxial well-ordered commensurate growth was observed. Core level and valance band electronic structures of these films were studied by XPS and ARPES techniques.

  4. Incommensurate spin-density-wave antiferromagnetism in CeRu2Al2B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, A.; Khalyavin, D. D.; Krüger, F.; Adroja, D. T.; Strydom, A. M.; Kockelmann, W. A.; Hillier, A. D.

    2016-02-01

    The newly discovered Ising-type ferromagnet CeRu2Al2B exhibits an additional phase transition at TN=14.2 K before entering the ferromagnetic ground state at TC=12.8 K. We clarify the nature of this transition through high resolution neutron diffraction measurements. The data reveal the presence of a longitudinal incommensurate spin-density wave (SDW) in the temperature range of TCmagnetic frustration.

  5. Second order incommensurate phase transition in 25L-Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}

    SciTech Connect

    Audier, M.; Chenevier, B.; Roussel, H.; Lintanf Salauen, A.

    2010-09-15

    A new structural state 25L-Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}, obtained from sintering and annealing treatments of a Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} powder, is identified both by electron diffraction and high resolution imaging on a transmission electron microscope (TEM). According to general rules for the different L-Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} structures proposed by Grey et al. (J. Solid State Chem. 178 (2005) 3308), a structural model is derived from their crystallographic data on 19L-Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}. This model yields simulated images in agreement with high resolution TEM observations of the structure oriented along its [001] zone axis, but only for a very thin crystal thickness of less than 1.2 nm. Such a limitation is shown to be due to a modulation of the structure along its [001] axis. Actually, from an analysis of a diffuse scattering and of its evolution into satellites reflections as a function of the cooling rate, a second order incommensurate phase transition can be assumed to occur in this compound. The property of single phase samples observed by TEM is also verified by X-ray powder diffraction. In a discussion about studies performed by different authors on incommensurate structures in the system Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}-WO{sub 3}, it is noticed that TEM results, similar to ours, indicate that phase transitions could be expected in these structures. - Graphical Abstract: Electron diffraction patterns of [100] zone axis, showing a structural change of the 25L-Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} phase through a variation of the cooling rate from 1000 {sup o}C.

  6. Nanoscale Magnetic Structure of Non-Joulian Magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasena, Ravini; Yang, Weibing; Scholl, Andreas; Minar, Jan; Shafer, Padraic; Arenholz, Elke; Ebert, Hubert; Gray, Alexander; Chopra, Harsh Deep

    Strain dependence of magnetic anisotropy energy produces Joule magnetostriction that is a volume conserving process, whereas sensitivity of isotropic exchange energy to interatomic distance is the cause of volume magnetostriction. In a typical magnet, Joule magnetostriction dominates as the volume fraction occupied by regions of uniform spin alignment (domains) is 2-4 orders of magnitude higher than that which is occupied by regions with magnetoelastic gradients (domain walls). Recently, `giant' non-volume conserving or non-Joulian magnetostriction has been discovered in iron-gallium alloys. Here we show using high-resolution polarization-dependent photoelectron microscopy that non-Joulian magnetism arises from an unusual partition of the crystal into nm-scale lamellar domains and domain walls within highly periodic magnetic microcells. High-resolution x-ray circular dichroism measurements at the Fe and Ga L absorption edges further provide evidence of weak iron-induced magnetism on gallium atoms via negative exchange. The results are in excellent agreement with the state-of-the-art theoretical electronic-structure calculations.

  7. Core-Shell Structured Magnetic Ternary Nanocubes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lingyan; Wang, Xin; Luo, Jin; Wanjala, Bridgid N.; Wang, Chong M.; Chernova, Natalya; Engelhard, Mark H.; Liu, Yao; Bae, In-Tae; Zhong, Chuan-Jian

    2010-12-01

    While transition metal-doped ferrite nanoparticles constitute an important class of soft magnetic nanomaterials with spinel structures, the ability to control the shape and composition would enable a wide range of applications in homogeneous or heterogeneous reactions such as catalysis and magnetic separation of biomolecules. This report describes novel findings of an investigation of core-shell structured MnZn ferrite nanocubes synthesized in organic solvents by manipulating the reaction temperature and capping agent composition in the absence of the conventionally-used reducing agents. The core-shell structure of the highly-monodispersed nanocubes (~20 nm) are shown to consist of an Fe3O4 core and an (Mn0.5Zn0.5)(Fe0.9, Mn1.1)O4 shell. In comparison with Fe3O4 and other binary ferrite nanoparticles, the core-shell structured nanocubes were shown to display magnetic properties regulated by a combination of the core-shell composition, leading to a higher coercivity (~350 Oe) and field-cool/zero-field-cool characteristics drastically different from many regular MnZn ferrite nanoparticles. The findings are discussed in terms of the unique core-shell composition, the understanding of which has important implication to the exploration of this class of soft magnetic nanomaterials in many potential applications such as magnetic resonance imaging, fuel cells, and batteries.

  8. Seismic probes of solar interior magnetic structure.

    PubMed

    Hanasoge, Shravan; Birch, Aaron; Gizon, Laurent; Tromp, Jeroen

    2012-09-01

    Sun spots are prominent manifestations of solar magnetoconvection, and imaging their subsurface structure is an outstanding problem of wide physical importance. Travel times of seismic waves that propagate through these structures are typically used as inputs to inversions. Despite the presence of strongly anisotropic magnetic waveguides, these measurements have always been interpreted in terms of changes to isotropic wave speeds and flow-advection-related Doppler shifts. Here, we employ partial-differential-equation-constrained optimization to determine the appropriate parametrization of the structural properties of the magnetic interior. Seven different wave speeds fully characterize helioseismic wave propagation: the isotropic sound speed, a Doppler-shifting flow-advection velocity, and an anisotropic magnetic velocity. The structure of magnetic media is sensed by magnetoacoustic slow and fast modes and Alfvén waves, each of which propagates at a different wave speed. We show that even in the case of weak magnetic fields, significant errors may be incurred if these anisotropies are not accounted for in inversions. Translation invariance is demonstrably lost. These developments render plausible the accurate seismic imaging of magnetoconvection in the Sun. PMID:23005276

  9. Fermi surface and magnetic structure of rare-earth-Ga3 compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biasini, Maurizio; Kontrym-Sznajd, Grazyna; Ferro, Gianclaudio; Czopnik, Andrzej

    2002-03-01

    The measurement of the 2-dimensional angular correlation of the positron annihilation radiation (2D-ACAR), providing a 2D projection of the two-photon electron-positron momentum density, ρ(p), is a powerful tool to investigate the electronic structure of intermetallic compounds. Utilising tomographic reconstruction techniques (G Kontrym-Sznajd et al Mat. Scie. Forum 255-257) 754 (1997) and references therein., the experiment has the unique ability to sample the Brillouin Zone of truly 3-dimensional systems in a cartesian mesh, thus determining their Fermi surface (FS). Our studies have addressed the commensurate and incommensurate antiferromagnetic structures of TmGa3 and ErGa_3, respectively. For both compounds the FSs resulting from the 2D-ACAR experiments are in fair agreement with de Haas van Alphen measurements and with band structure calculations which constrain the 4f electrons to retain a local atomic character (M Biasini at al Phys. Rev. Lett 86), 4616, (2001).. Nevertheless, we discover different nesting features along the [110] directions which can account for the magnetic structures of the two compounds. Moreover, we propose methods to estimate the density of states at the Fermi energy (E_F) and the electronic contribution to the specific heat, γ. We obtain N(E_F)=17 states/ (Ryd cell), γ=2.8 (mJ/mole K^2) and N(E_F)=16 states/ (Ryd cell), γ=2.7 (mJ/mole K^2) for TmGa3 and ErGa_3, respectively.

  10. Investigations of surface structural, dynamical, and magnetic properties of systems exhibiting multiferroicity, and topological phases by helium scattering spectroscopies

    SciTech Connect

    El-Batanouny, Maged

    2015-08-03

    We propose to investigate the surface structural, dynamics and magnetic properties of the novel class of topological insulator crystals, as well as crystals that exhibit multiferroicity, magnetoelectricity and thermoelectricity. Topological insulators (TIs) are a new class of insulators in which a bulk gap for electronic excitations is generated because of the strong spin-orbit coupling inherent to these systems. These materials are distinguished from ordinary insulators by the presence of gapless metallic surface states, resembling chiral edge modes in quantum Hall systems, but with unconventional spin textures. These exotic metallic states are formed by topological conditions that also render the electrons travelling on such surfaces insensitive to scattering by impurities. The electronic quasi-particles populating the topological surface state are Dirac fermions; they have a linear dispersion and thus are massless just like photons. We propose to investigate the interaction of these massless Dirac fermions with the massive lattice in the newly discovered crystals, Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3. We shall use inelastic helium beam scattering from surfaces to search for related signatures in surface phonon dispersions mappings that cover the entire surface Brillouin zone of these materials. Our recent investigations of the (001) surface of the multiferroic crystals (Li/Na)Cu2O2 revealed an anomalous surface structural behavior where surface Cu$^{2+}$ row rise above the surface plane as the crystal was cooled. Subsequent worming revealed the onset of a thermally activated incommensurate surface phase, driven by the elevated rows. We are currently investigating the structure of the magnetic phases in these quasi-one-dimensional magnetic rows. Multiferroics are excellent candidates for large magnetoelectric response. We propose to extend this investigation to the class of delafossites which are also multiferroics and have been investigated as good candidates for

  11. Coherent Structures in Magnetic Confinement Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, W.

    2006-04-01

    Coherent structures are long-lived, nonlinear localized solutions of the selfconsistient plasma-electromagnetic field equations. They contain appreciable energy density and control various transport and magnetic reconnection processes in plasmas. These structures are self-binding from the nonlinearity balancing, or overcoming, the wave dispersion of energy in smaller amplitude structures. The structures evolve out of the nonlinear interactions in various instabilities or external driving fields. The theoretical basis for these structures are reviewed giving examples from various plasma instabilities and their reduced descriptions from the appropriate partial differential equations. A classic example from drift waves is the formation of monopole, dipole and tripolar vortex structures which have been created in both laboratory and simulation experiments. For vortices, the long life-time and nonlinear interactions of the structures can be understood with conservation laws of angular momentum given by the vorticity field associated with dynamics. Other morphologies include mushrooms, Kelvin-Helmholtz vorticity roll-up, streamers and blobs. We show simulation movies of various examples drawn from ETG modes in NSTX, H-mode like shear flow layers in LAPD and the vortices measured with soft x-ray tomography in the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror. Coherent current-sheet structures form in driven magnetic reconnection layers and control the rate of transformation of magnetic energy to flow and thermal energy.

  12. Structural characterization of copolymer embedded magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedelcu, G. G.; Nastro, A.; Filippelli, L.; Cazacu, M.; Iacob, M.; Rossi, C. Oliviero; Popa, A.; Toloman, D.; Dobromir, M.; Iacomi, F.

    2015-10-01

    Small magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4) were synthesized by co-precipitation and coated by emulsion polymerization with poly(methyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) (PMMA-co-AAc) to create surface functional groups that can attach drug molecules and other biomolecules. The coated and uncoated magnetite nanoparticles were stored for two years in normal closed ships and than characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometry, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The solid phase transformation of magnetite to maghemite, as well as an increase in particle size were evidenced for the uncoated nanoparticles. The coated nanoparticles preserved their magnetite structure and magnetic properties. The influences of monomers and surfactant layers on interactions between the magnetic nanoparticles evidenced that the thickness of the polymer has a significant effect on magnetic properties.

  13. Multiscale Dynamics of Solar Magnetic Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uritsky, Vadim M.; Davila, Joseph M.

    2012-01-01

    Multiscale topological complexity of the solar magnetic field is among the primary factors controlling energy release in the corona, including associated processes in the photospheric and chromospheric boundaries.We present a new approach for analyzing multiscale behavior of the photospheric magnetic flux underlying these dynamics as depicted by a sequence of high-resolution solar magnetograms. The approach involves two basic processing steps: (1) identification of timing and location of magnetic flux origin and demise events (as defined by DeForest et al.) by tracking spatiotemporal evolution of unipolar and bipolar photospheric regions, and (2) analysis of collective behavior of the detected magnetic events using a generalized version of the Grassberger-Procaccia correlation integral algorithm. The scale-free nature of the developed algorithms makes it possible to characterize the dynamics of the photospheric network across a wide range of distances and relaxation times. Three types of photospheric conditions are considered to test the method: a quiet photosphere, a solar active region (NOAA 10365) in a quiescent non-flaring state, and the same active region during a period of M-class flares. The results obtained show (1) the presence of a topologically complex asymmetrically fragmented magnetic network in the quiet photosphere driven by meso- and supergranulation, (2) the formation of non-potential magnetic structures with complex polarity separation lines inside the active region, and (3) statistical signatures of canceling bipolar magnetic structures coinciding with flaring activity in the active region. Each of these effects can represent an unstable magnetic configuration acting as an energy source for coronal dissipation and heating.

  14. MULTISCALE DYNAMICS OF SOLAR MAGNETIC STRUCTURES

    SciTech Connect

    Uritsky, Vadim M.; Davila, Joseph M.

    2012-03-20

    Multiscale topological complexity of the solar magnetic field is among the primary factors controlling energy release in the corona, including associated processes in the photospheric and chromospheric boundaries. We present a new approach for analyzing multiscale behavior of the photospheric magnetic flux underlying these dynamics as depicted by a sequence of high-resolution solar magnetograms. The approach involves two basic processing steps: (1) identification of timing and location of magnetic flux origin and demise events (as defined by DeForest et al.) by tracking spatiotemporal evolution of unipolar and bipolar photospheric regions, and (2) analysis of collective behavior of the detected magnetic events using a generalized version of the Grassberger-Procaccia correlation integral algorithm. The scale-free nature of the developed algorithms makes it possible to characterize the dynamics of the photospheric network across a wide range of distances and relaxation times. Three types of photospheric conditions are considered to test the method: a quiet photosphere, a solar active region (NOAA 10365) in a quiescent non-flaring state, and the same active region during a period of M-class flares. The results obtained show (1) the presence of a topologically complex asymmetrically fragmented magnetic network in the quiet photosphere driven by meso- and supergranulation, (2) the formation of non-potential magnetic structures with complex polarity separation lines inside the active region, and (3) statistical signatures of canceling bipolar magnetic structures coinciding with flaring activity in the active region. Each of these effects can represent an unstable magnetic configuration acting as an energy source for coronal dissipation and heating.

  15. Hyperfine field and magnetic structure in the B phase of CeCoIn5

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, Matthias J; Curro, Nicholas J; Young, Ben - Li; Urbano, Ricardo R

    2009-01-01

    We re-analyze Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectra observed at low temperatures and high magnetic fields in the field-induced B-phase of CeCoIn{sub 5}. The NMR spectra are consistent with incommensurate antiferromagnetic order of the Ce magnetic moments. However, we find that the spectra of the In(2) sites depend critically on the direction of the ordered moments, the ordering wavevector and the symmetry of the hyperfine coupling to the Ce spins. Assuming isotropic hyperfine coupling, the NMR spectra observed for H {parallel} [100] are consistent with magnetic order with wavevector Q = {pi}(1+{delta}/a, 1/a, 1/c) and Ce moments ordered antiferromagnetically along the [100] direction in real space. If the hyperfine coupling has dipolar symmetry, then the NMR spectra require Ce moments along the [001] direction. The dipolar scenario is also consistent with recent neutron scattering measurements that find an ordered moment of 0.15{micro}{sub B} along [001] and Q{sub n} = {pi}(1+{delta}/a, 1+{delta}c, 1/c) with incommensuration {delta} = 0.12 for field H {parallel} [1{bar 1}0]. Using these parameters, we find that the hyperfine field is consistent with both experiments. We speculate that the B phase of CeCoIn{sub 5} represents an intrinsic phase of modulated superconductivity and antiferromagnetism that can only emerge in a highly clean system.

  16. Magnetic structure of DyFe3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Long-huan; W, J. James; J, Rhyne; R, Lemaire

    1985-06-01

    Powder neutron diffraction measurements have been carried out on the intermetallic compound DyFe3 at 4 and 295K. The magnetic structure of the compound at 4 and 295K are noncollinear but coplanar in the a-c plane, and the moments of the Dy and Fe ions lie closer to the basal plane.

  17. Localization in momentum space of ultracold atoms in incommensurate lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Larcher, M.; Dalfovo, F.; Modugno, M.

    2011-01-15

    We characterize the disorder-induced localization in momentum space for ultracold atoms in one-dimensional incommensurate lattices, according to the dual Aubry-Andre model. For low disorder the system is localized in momentum space, and the momentum distribution exhibits time-periodic oscillations of the relative intensity of its components. The behavior of these oscillations is explained by means of a simple three-mode approximation. We predict their frequency and visibility by using typical parameters of feasible experiments. Above the transition the system diffuses in momentum space, and the oscillations vanish when averaged over different realizations, offering a clear signature of the transition.

  18. High performance hybrid magnetic structure for biotechnology applications

    DOEpatents

    Humphries, David E.; Pollard, Martin J.; Elkin, Christopher J.

    2006-12-12

    The present disclosure provides a high performance hybrid magnetic structure made from a combination of permanent magnets and ferromagnetic pole materials which are assembled in a predetermined array. The hybrid magnetic structure provides for separation and other biotechnology applications involving holding, manipulation, or separation of magnetic or magnetizable molecular structures and targets. Also disclosed are: a method of assembling the hybrid magnetic plates, a high throughput protocol featuring the hybrid magnetic structure, and other embodiments of the ferromagnetic pole shape, attachment and adapter interfaces for adapting the use of the hybrid magnetic structure for use with liquid handling and other robots for use in high throughput processes.

  19. Magnetic structure and magnetization process of the glass-coated Fe-based amorphous microwire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlova, N. N.; Aronin, A. S.; Bozhko, S. I.; Kabanov, Yu. P.; Gornakov, V. S.

    2012-04-01

    Magnetic structure of amorphous Fe73,9B13,2Si10,9C2 microwires was studied. The magnetic structure of the as-prepared microwire was found to consist of a magnetic core and a ring-shaped surface magnetic layer made up by radially magnetized small ring domains. The geometric characteristics of microwire magnetic structure were first experimentally determined. The width of the surface ring domains is about 5 μm, and the thickness of the surface magnetic layer is 2 μm. The magnetic core of the as-prepared microwire has been shown to consist of extensive domains, no less than 500 μm in size, and their spontaneous magnetization vector deviating from the microwire axis. The effect of magnetostriction on magnetic structure and its changes induced by magnetization has been established. The magnetic structure model for microwires with positive magnetostriction constant is proposed.

  20. Symmetry theory of the incommensurate phase transition in TTF-TCNQ

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Hao; Zhou Shixun

    1987-07-01

    By means of representation theory of the constructed superspace group, the symmetry change and critical behavior in the incommensurate modulated phase transition at 47 K in TTF-TCNQ is analyzed in the frame of the Landau theory and the Wilson theory. It is proved rigorously that this incommensurate phase transition is of second order.

  1. Detailed study of the magnetic ordering in FeMnP{sub 0.75}Si{sub 0.25}

    SciTech Connect

    Höglin, Viktor; Hudl, Matthias; Caron, Luana; Beran, Premysl; Sørby, Magnus H.; Nordblad, Per; Andersson, Yvonne; Sahlberg, Martin

    2015-01-15

    Magnetic and crystallographic properties of FeMnP{sub 0.75}Si{sub 0.25} in the hexagonal Fe{sub 2}P-type structure have been investigated by X-ray powder diffraction, neutron powder diffraction and magnetic measurements. The room temperature diffractograms reveal co-existence of two distinct structural phases in the samples with small, but significant, differences only in the unit cell dimensions. The volume ratio between the two phases is governed by the annealing conditions. One of the phases orders ferromagnetically (T{sub C}=250 K) and the other in an incommensurate antiferromagnetic structure at low temperatures (q{sub x}=0.363(1), T{sub N}=150 K). - Graphical abstract: The ferromagnetic structure of sample I (a) and the antiferromagnetic and incommensurate (q{sub x}=0.363(1)) low temperature structure of sample II (b). The magnetic moments of the Mn and Fe atoms in (b) are aligned in the basal plane along the a- and the b-axis, respectively, and the amplitude of the moments propagates sinusoidally along the a-axis. - Highlights: • Magnetic and crystallographic properties of FeMnP{sub 0.75}Si{sub 0.25} have been investigated. • Co-existing ferro- and antiferromagnetic ordering arise from two phases of Fe{sub 2}P-type. • A low temperature incommensurate antiferromagnetic structure is revealed.

  2. Method and apparatus for control of a magnetic structure

    DOEpatents

    Challenger, Michael P.; Valla, Arthur S.

    1996-06-18

    A method and apparatus for independently adjusting the spacing between opposing magnet arrays in charged particle based light sources. Adjustment mechanisms between each of the magnet arrays and the supporting structure allow the gap between the two magnet arrays to be independently adjusted. In addition, spherical bearings in the linkages to the magnet arrays permit the transverse angular orientation of the magnet arrays to also be adjusted. The opposing magnet arrays can be supported above the ground by the structural support.

  3. Electronic and magnetic structures of chain structured iron selenide compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Setty, Chandan; Chen, X. H.; Hu, Jiangping

    2014-08-01

    Electronic and magnetic structures of iron selenide compounds Ce2O2FeSe2 (2212*) and BaFe2Se3 (123*) are studied by the first-principles calculations. We find that while all these compounds are composed of one-dimensional (1D) Fe chain (or ladder) structures, their electronic structures are not close to be quasi-1D. The magnetic exchange couplings between two nearest-neighbor (NN) chains in 2212* and between two NN two-leg-ladders in 123* are both antiferromagnetic (AFM), which is consistent with the presence of significant third NN AFM coupling, a common feature shared in other iron-chalcogenides, FeTe (11*) and K y Fe2- x Se2 (122*). In magnetic ground states, each Fe chain of 2212* is ferromagnetic and each two-leg ladder of 123* form a block-AFM structure. We suggest that all magnetic structures in iron-selenide compounds can be unified into an extended J 1- J 2- J 3 model. Spin-wave excitations of the model are calculated and can be tested by future experiments on these two systems.

  4. Incommensurate spin resonance in URu2Si2

    SciTech Connect

    Balatsky, A V; Chantis, A; Dahal, Hari; Zhu, J X; Parker, David

    2008-01-01

    We propose to search for the spin resonance in URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} at {omega}{sub res} = 4-6meV at the incommensurate wavector Q* = (1 {+-} 0.4, 0, 0). We expect that this spin resonance will set in at temperatures below HO transition and the intensity of this peak will scale as {approx} {Delta}{sub HO} {approx} (T{sub HO} - T). The resonance peak is know to occur in the states with superconducting gap and results in the gapping of the electronic spectrum add ref on SrruO and cel 15. In the case of HO the gap {Delta}{sub HO} results in the partially gapped electron spectrum. That appears to be a sufficient condition, as shown by Wiebe et al to produce a gap in spin excitation spectrum. In addition, we predict a peak in the spin excitation spectrum, as spectral weight redistribution produces the resonance feature. To the best of our knowledge, if the predicted resonance peak indeed occurs, it would be the first case where the spin resonance occurs at an incommensurate vector Q*.

  5. Topological Structure of the Magnetic Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maclean, R. C.

    2007-12-01

    The solar corona is a highly complex and active plasma environment, containing many exotic phenomena such as solar flares, coronal mass ejections, prominences, coronal loops, and bright points. The fundamental element giving coherence to all this apparent diversity is the strong coronal magnetic field, the dominant force shaping the plasma there. In this thesis, I model the 3D magnetic fields of various coronal features using the techniques of magnetic charge topology (MCT) in a potential field. Often the real coronal field has departures from its potential state, but these are so small that the potential field method is accurate enough to pick out the essential information about the structure and evolution of the magnetic field. First I perform a topological analysis of the magnetic breakout model for an eruptive solar flare. Breakout is represented by a topological bifurcation that allows initially enclosed flux from the newly emerging region in my MCT model of a delta sunspot to reconnect out to large distances. I produce bifurcation diagrams showing how this behaviour can be caused by changing the strength or position of the emerging flux source, or the force-free parameter α. I also apply MCT techniques to observational data of a coronal bright point, and compare the results to 3D numerical MHD simulations of the effects of rotating the sources that underlie the bright point. The separatrix surfaces that surround each rotating source are found to correspond to locations of high parallel electric field in the simulations, which is a signature of magnetic reconnection. The large-scale topological structure of the magnetic field is robust to changes in the method of deriving point magnetic sources from the magnetogram. Next, I use a Green's function expression for the magnetic field to relax the standard topological assumption of a flat photosphere and extend the concept of MCT into a spherical geometry, enabling it to be applied to the entire global coronal

  6. Observation of a new incommensurate phase in the spinel MnV2 O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Pena Munoz, Gilberto; Lee, Sangjun; Gleason, Samuel; Byrum, Taylor; Fang, Xinyue; Weng, Shih-Chang; Abbamonte, Peter

    Using x-ray scattering, we studied the temperature dependence of a large volume of reciprocal space in a MnV2O4 spinel crystal. In addition to the known cubic to tetragonal phase transition at around 56 K, we observed previously unreported incommensurate modulation peaks at delta q = 0.33 0.33 -0.16. We measured the temperature dependence of these modulations and, while they exhibit a shift or splitting in momentum space analogous to that of the structural phase transition, they do so at higher temperature than the Bragg reflections (100K). Our results suggest that MnV2O4 has an additional phase transition that may a precursor for the V t2g orbital ordering, which is closely related to the cubic to tetragonal transition. This work was supported by the DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-06ER46285.

  7. Lattice study of the incommensurate ω phase transition in Zr-Nb alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, H.; Farjami, S.

    2011-04-01

    The stability of the incommensurate ω phase has been studied in the scheme of the Landau-Lifshitz (L-L) free-energy model reformed for the weak first-order phase transition. It is revealed that the negative third-order term of the L-L expansion drives the transition and works, in competition with the second-harmonic term, to form the modulated ω phase; moreover, it functions to maintain soliton walls with constant width against temperature changes. The modulated ω phase is elucidated to have a microstructure with the sequence of subvariants—ω1-ω3-ω2—separated by soliton walls of anti-ω structure. A series of primitive activation units of the modulated ω phase, which can be depicted in a phase diagram, is obtained in the Zr-20 wt% Nb-alloy system by analyzing the L-L free-energy function with the appropriate numerical calculations.

  8. Magnetic structure of sunspot under the photosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirichek, Elena A.; Solov'ev, Alexandr A.

    2010-11-01

    In recent years, the local helioseismology has become a highly effective tool for investigating subphotospheric layers of the Sun, which can yield fairly detailed distributions of the subphotospheric temperatures and large-scale plasma flows based on the spectra of the oscillations observed at the photospheric layers and the observed peculiarities of propagation of magnetoacoustic waves in this medium (Zhao et al. (2001), Kosovichev (2006)). Unfortunately, the effects of temperature and the magnetic field on the wave propagation speed have not yet been separated Kosovichev (2006), so that the structure of the sunspot magnetic field in deep layers, beneath the photosphere, remains a subject of purely theoretical analysis. In his analysis of some theoretical models of the subphotospheric layers of sunspots based on recent helioseismological data, Kosovichev (2006) concluded that Parker's (“spaghetti”) cluster model Parker (1979) is most appropriate. In this model, the magnetic flux in the sunspot umbra is concentrated into separate, strongly compressed, vertical magnetic flux tubes that are interspaced with plasma that is almost free of magnetic field; the plasma can move between these tubes.

  9. Open magnetic structures on the sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, R. H.; Altschuler, M. D.; Harvey, J. W.; Jackson, B. V.

    1977-01-01

    High-resolution harmonic analysis of the solar magnetic field has been used succesfully to calculate the geometry of open magnetic field lines in the solar corona. Comparison of the loci of open-field-line footpoints with solar X-ray photographs shows that all the coronal holes during two solar rotations are successfully represented, including details of their evolution. Some open magnetic configurations derived in the calculations precede by up to one solar rotation the manifestation of coincident dark areas on the X-ray photographs. The only other areas that contribute open field lines to the corona are separations between active-region loop systems. By varying the radius at which field lines are forced to be open in the calculation, it is possible to reproduce more closely the surface configuration of particular coronal holes. Comparison of the size of X-ray holes with the fraction of the solar surface covered by open field lines leads to the conclusion that a significant part of the area of coronal holes must contain closed magnetic fields. Comparison of open field lines which lie in the equatorial plane of the sun with solar-wind data indicates that eventual high-speed solar-wind streams are associated with those parts of open magnetic structures that diverge the least.

  10. Microwave sol–gel synthesis and upconversion photoluminescence properties of CaGd{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 4}:Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} phosphors with incommensurately modulated structure

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Chang Sung; Aleksandrovsky, Aleksandr; Molokeev, Maxim; Oreshonkov, Aleksandr; Atuchin, Victor

    2015-08-15

    CaGd{sub 2−x}(WO{sub 4}){sub 4}:Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} phosphors with the doping concentrations of Er{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} (x=Er{sup 3+}+Yb{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+}=0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and Yb{sup 3+}=0.2, 0.45) have been successfully synthesized by the microwave sol–gel method. The crystal structure of CaGd{sub 2−x}(WO{sub 4}){sub 4}:Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} tungstates have been refined, and upconversion photoluminescence properties have been investigated. The synthesized particles, being formed after the heat-treatment at 900 °C for 16 h, showed a well crystallized morphology. Under the excitation at 980 nm, CaGd{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 4}:Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} particles exhibited a strong 525-nm and a weak 550-nm emission bands in the green region and a very weak 655-nm emission band in the red region. The Raman spectrum of undoped CaGd{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 4} revealed about 12 narrow lines. The strongest band observed at 903 cm{sup −1} was assigned to the ν{sub 1} symmetric stretching vibration of WO{sub 4} tetrahedrons. The spectra of the samples doped with Er and Yb obtained under the 514.5 nm excitation were dominated by Er{sup 3+} luminescence preventing the recording of these samples Raman spectra. Concentration quenching of the erbium luminescence at {sup 2}H{sub 11/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} transition is weak in the range of erbium doping level x{sub Er}=0.05–0.2, while, for transition {sup 4}S{sub 3/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 15/2}, the signs of concentration quenching become pronounced at x{sub Er}=0.2. - Graphical abstract: CaGd{sub 2−x}(WO{sub 4}){sub 4}:Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} phosphors with the doping concentrations of Er{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} (x=Er{sup 3+}+Yb{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+}=0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and Yb{sup 3+}=0.2, 0.45) have been successfully synthesized by the microwave sol–gel method and the crystal structure refinement, and upconversion photoluminescence properties have been investigated. - Highlights: • CaGd{sub 2−x}(WO{sub 4}){sub 4}:Er{sup 3+}/Yb

  11. High performance hybrid magnetic structure for biotechnology applications

    DOEpatents

    Humphries, David E.; Pollard, Martin J.; Elkin, Christopher J.

    2009-02-03

    The present disclosure provides a high performance hybrid magnetic structure made from a combination of permanent magnets and ferromagnetic pole materials which are assembled in a predetermined array. The hybrid magnetic structure provides means for separation and other biotechnology applications involving holding, manipulation, or separation of magnetic or magnetizable molecular structures and targets. Also disclosed are further improvements to aspects of the hybrid magnetic structure, including additional elements and for adapting the use of the hybrid magnetic structure for use in biotechnology and high throughput processes.

  12. High performance hybrid magnetic structure for biotechnology applications

    DOEpatents

    Humphries, David E; Pollard, Martin J; Elkin, Christopher J

    2005-10-11

    The present disclosure provides a high performance hybrid magnetic structure made from a combination of permanent magnets and ferromagnetic pole materials which are assembled in a predetermined array. The hybrid magnetic structure provides means for separation and other biotechnology applications involving holding, manipulation, or separation of magnetizable molecular structures and targets. Also disclosed are: a method of assembling the hybrid magnetic plates, a high throughput protocol featuring the hybrid magnetic structure, and other embodiments of the ferromagnetic pole shape, attachment and adapter interfaces for adapting the use of the hybrid magnetic structure for use with liquid handling and other robots for use in high throughput processes.

  13. Low Temperature Magnetic Ordering of the Magnetic Ionic Plastic Crystal, Choline[FeCl4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pedro, I.; García-Saiz, A.; Andreica, D.; Fernández Barquín, L.; Fernández-Díaz, M. T.; Blanco, J. A.; Amato, A.; Rodríguez Fernández, J.

    2015-11-01

    We report on the nature of the low temperature magnetic ordering of a magnetic ionic plastic crystal, Choline[FeCl4]. This investigation was carried out using heat capacity measurements, neutron diffraction experiments and muon spin relaxation (μSR) spectroscopy. The calorimetric measurements show the onset of an unusual magnetic ordering below 4 K with a possible second magnetic phase transition below 2 K. Low temperature neutron diffraction data reveal a three dimensional antiferromagnetic ordering at 2 K compatible with the previous magnetometry results. The analysis of μSR spectra indicates a magnetic phase transition below 2.2 K. At 1.6 K, the analysis of the shape of the μSR spectra suggests the existence of an additional magnetic phase with features of a possible incommensurate magnetic structure.

  14. Symmetry-Based Computational Tools for Magnetic Crystallography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Mato, J. M.; Gallego, S. V.; Tasci, E. S.; Elcoro, L.; de la Flor, G.; Aroyo, M. I.

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, two important advances have opened new doors for the characterization and determination of magnetic structures. Firstly, researchers have produced computer-readable listings of the magnetic or Shubnikov space groups. Secondly, they have extended and applied the superspace formalism, which is presently the standard approach for the description of nonmagnetic incommensurate structures and their symmetry, to magnetic structures. These breakthroughs have been the basis for the subsequent development of a series of computer tools that allow a more efficient and comprehensive application of magnetic symmetry, both commensurate and incommensurate. Here we briefly review the capabilities of these computation instruments and present the fundamental concepts on which they are based, providing various examples. We show how these tools facilitate the use of symmetry arguments expressed as either a magnetic space group or a magnetic superspace group and allow the exploration of the possible magnetic orderings associated with one or more propagation vectors in a form that complements and goes beyond the traditional representation method. Special focus is placed on the programs available online at the Bilbao Crystallographic Server ( http://www.cryst.ehu.es ).

  15. Magnetic Micro/Nano Structures for Biological Manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chen-Yu; Hsieh, Teng-Fu; Chang, Wei-Chieh; Yeh, Kun-Chieh; Hsu, Ming-Shinn; Chang, Ching-Ray; Chen, Jiann-Yeu; Wei, Zung-Hang

    2016-05-01

    Biomanipulation based on micro/nano structures is an attractive approach for biotechnology. To manipulate biological systems by magnetic forces, the magnetic labeling technology utilized magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as a common rule. Ferrofluid, well-dispersed MNPs, can be used for magnetic modification of the surface or as molds to form organized microstructures. For magnetic-based micro/nano structures, different methods to modulate magnetic field at the microscale have been developed. Specifically, this review focused on a new strategy which uses the concept of micromagnetism of patterned magnetic thin film with specific domain walls configurations to generate stable magnetic poles for cell patterning.

  16. Incommensurability Effects on Dipolar Bosons in Optical Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinti, Fabio

    2016-03-01

    We present a study that investigated a quantum dipolar gas in continuous space where a potential lattice was imposed. Employing exact quantum Monte Carlo techniques, we analysed the ground-state properties of the scrutinised system, varying the lattice depth and the dipolar interaction. For system densities corresponding to a commensurate filling with respect to the optical lattice, we observed a simple crystal-to-superfluid quantum phase transition, being consistent with the physics of dipolar bosons in continuous space. In contrast, an incommensurate density showed the presence of a supersolid phase. Indeed, such a result opens up the tempting opportunity to observe a defect-induced supersolidity with dipolar gases in combination with a tunable optical lattice. Finally, the stability of the condensate was analysed at finite temperature.

  17. Method of using triaxial magnetic fields for making particle structures

    DOEpatents

    Martin, James E.; Anderson, Robert A.; Williamson, Rodney L.

    2005-01-18

    A method of producing three-dimensional particle structures with enhanced magnetic susceptibility in three dimensions by applying a triaxial energetic field to a magnetic particle suspension and subsequently stabilizing said particle structure. Combinations of direct current and alternating current fields in three dimensions produce particle gel structures, honeycomb structures, and foam-like structures.

  18. Density Functional Theory insights into the mechanism of noncollinear incommensurate spin density waves in Iron Arsenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoonmaker, Robert; Clark, Stewart; Lancaster, Tom; Frawley, Thomas; Hatton, Peter

    Iron arsenide intersects interesting physics between novel superconductors and other helical magnetic ordering in Pnma metal arsenide materials. Recent diffraction data has found a more complex ordering than a simple helical incommensurate spin density wave. Instead iron arsenide exhibits a definite chirality to the helimagnetism, an ellipticity in the spiral not aligned with the crystal axis, and resonant diffraction peaks forbidden by the Pnma symmetry. From non-magnetic and collinear density functional theory calculations we present insight into the mechanisms for the formation of this helimagnetic state. We find that ferromagnetic superexchange is a likely mechanism for the spin ordering and that the noncollinear ordering under this regime is caused by the spins on neighbouring irons arranging to minimise direct exchange between iron atoms, and also minimize disruption of the ferromagnetic superexchange between priveleged iron-arsenic pairs. To explain the forbidden peaks in the diffraction we have performed second-order spin-orbit perturbation calculations on the nonmagnetic calculation, which finds that the orbital ordering on the iron atoms coupled to the helimagnetism will lead to the otherwise symmetry-forbidden peaks.

  19. Unusual Urbach tail in TlGaSe2 ferroelectric-semiconductor with incommensurate phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyidov, Ð.œirHasan Yu.; Suleymanov, Rauf A.; Şale, Yasin

    2012-11-01

    An analysis of temperature behavior of optical absorption edge is performed for TlGaSe2 ferroelectric-semiconductor with incommensurate phase. Unusual behavior of the Urbach tail manifested by the shift of the absorption edge toward the higher energies with increasing temperature was observed. It was shown that such behavior is due to the specific temperature interval where Urbach energy decreases with the temperature. This interval corresponds to the incommensurate phase-commensurate phase transition region. Unusual behavior of the Urbach energy can be explained interpreting the incommensurate phase as some type of disordered state, and TlGaSe2 crystal as a disordered semiconductor with controllable disorder.

  20. Coronal magnetic structure at a solar sector boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, J. M.; Svalgaard, L.

    1973-01-01

    The persistent large-scale coronal magnetic structure associated with a sector boundary appears to consist of a magnetic arcade loop structure extending from one solar polar region to the other in approximately the North-South direction. This structure was inferred from computer coronal magnetic field maps for days on which a stable magnetic sector boundary was near central meridian, based on an interplanetary sector boundary observed to recur during much of 1968 and 1969.

  1. Direct evidence of an incommensurate phase in NaNbO{sub 3} and its implication in NaNbO{sub 3}-based lead-free antiferroelectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Hanzheng; Randall, Clive A.; Shimizu, Hiroyuki

    2015-09-14

    Hot-stage in situ transmission electron microscopy was employed to investigate the temperature-induced complex sequence of phase transitions in NaNbO{sub 3} polycrystalline. In addition to the commonly recognized P (Pbma) → R (Pmnm) → S (Pnmm) phase transitions, incommensurate phases were observed to exist in P and R phase regions. The former (in the P → R transition region) is coincident with a diffused dielectric peak appearing at ∼170 °C, and the latter (in the R → S transition region) serves as an intermediate structure to bridge the two sub-phases in the R phase region. The incommensurate phase in the P phase region can be inferred from the polarization current density and differential dielectric permittivity anomalies, and it provides the bridge structure during the electric field-induced polarization reversal and antiferroelectric-to-ferroelectric transition in NaNbO{sub 3} solid solutions.

  2. Crustal structure interpreted from magnetic anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Frey, Herbert

    1991-01-01

    This review, discusses publications during the last quadrennium (1987-1990) that used aeromagnetic data, marine magnetic data, satellite magnetic data, and rock magnetic and petrologic data to provide information on the sources of magnetic anomalies. The publications reviewed reflect increased integration of rock magnetic property and petrologic studies with magnetic anomaly interpretation studies, particularly in deep crustal magnetization, exploration for hydrocarbons, and inversion of marine magnetic anomalies. Interpretations of aeromagnetic data featuring image display techniques and using the horizontal gradient method for locating magnetization boundaries became standard.

  3. Chemical pressure effects on structural, dielectric and magnetic properties of solid solutions Mn{sub 3−x}Co{sub x}TeO{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, S.A.; Mathieu, R.; Nordblad, P.; Ritter, C.; Tellgren, R.; Golubko, N.; Mosunov, A.; Politova, E.D.; Weil, M.

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: • Mn{sub 3}TeO{sub 6} and Co{sub 3}TeO{sub 6} are antiferromagnets with corundum related structures. • The structural and magnetic properties of Mn{sub 3−x}Co{sub x}TeO{sub 6} ceramics were investigated. • All compounds adopt the trigonal structure of Mn{sub 3}TeO{sub 6} up to at least x = 2.4. • The antiferromagnetic transition temperature monotonously increases with x. • NPD data evidences the magnetic structure of the Mn{sub 3−x}Co{sub x}TeO{sub 6} ceramics. - Abstract: The effects of Co{sup 2+} doping on the structural, magnetic and dielectric properties of the multiferroic frustrated antiferromagnet Mn{sub 3}TeO{sub 6} have been investigated. Ceramic samples of the solid solution series Mn{sub 3−x}Co{sub x}TeO{sub 6} were prepared by a solid-state reaction route. X-ray and neutron powder diffraction and electron microscopy techniques were combined with calorimetric, dielectric and magnetic measurements to investigate the dependence of the crystal structure and physical properties on temperature and composition. It is shown that the compounds with x ≤ 2.4 adopt the trigonal corundum-related structure of pure Mn{sub 3}TeO{sub 6} (space group R3{sup ¯}) in the temperature range 5–295 K and that the lattice parameters a and c and the unit-cell volume V decrease linearly with increasing Co{sup 2+} concentration. The low-temperature magnetic susceptibility and heat capacity data evidence the antiferromagnetic ordering of all samples. The Neel temperature linearly increases with Co{sup 2+} concentration x. Curie–Weiss fits of the high temperature susceptibility indicate that the magnetic frustration decreases with x. The derived magnetic structure of Mn{sub 3}TeO{sub 6} can be described as an incommensurately modulated magnetic spin state with k = [0, 0, k{sub z}] and an elliptical spin-spiral order of spins within the chains of MnO{sub 6} octahedra. With increasing Co{sup 2+} concentration the propagation vector k{sub z} changes

  4. Molecular structure and motion in zero field magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvie, T.P.

    1989-10-01

    Zero field magnetic resonance is well suited for the determination of molecular structure and the study of motion in disordered materials. Experiments performed in zero applied magnetic field avoid the anisotropic broadening in high field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. As a result, molecular structure and subtle effects of motion are more readily observed.

  5. Deviations from soft mode behaviour in the Raman spectrum of incommensurate BaMnF 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, A. F.; Brims, G.; Sprunt, S.

    1981-09-01

    New measurements of the Raman spectrum of incommensurate BaMnF 4 reveal that there is not a classically 'soft' amplitude mode as has hitherto been assumed. This finding questions the validity of predictions based on straightforward Landau theory.

  6. Neutron Study of the Magnetic Structures and Phase Transitions in RCuAs2 (R=Pr, Nd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Yb)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yang; Lynn, J. W.; Thakur, Gohil S.; Haque, Zeba; Gupta, L. C.; Ganguli, A. K.

    2015-03-01

    Neutron diffraction and inelastic scattering studies have been carried out on polycrystalline samples of the above titled materials as a function of temperature and applied magnetic field to determine the magnetic structures, order parameters, and overall spin dynamics. The space group of these compound is P4/nmm with typical (tetragonal) lattice parameters a ~ 3.9 Å and c ~ 10.0 Å. PrCuAs2 develops commensurate magnetic order at TN=6.4 K with an ordered moment of 1.24 μB oriented along the c-axis. The ordering wave vector is (0,0,1/2), with a Γ31 representation. NdCuAs2 orders at TN=3.54 K with the same ordering wave vector (with the Γ102 or Γ92 representations), but with the moment direction in the a-b plane along [110] of magnitude 3.5 μB. TbCuAs2 and HoCuAs2 exhibit incommensurate order at TN=9.1 and 4.0 K, respectively. The results for the inelastic scattering will be discussed.

  7. Partial Spin Ordering and Complex Magnetic Structure in BaYFeO4: A Neutron Diffraction and High Temperature Susceptibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Corey; Greedan, John; Garlea, Vasile O; Flacau, Roxana; Tan, Malinda; Derakhshan, Shahab

    2014-01-01

    The novel iron-based compound, BaYFeO4, crystallizes in the Pnma space group with two distinct Fe3+ sites, that are alternately corner-shared [FeO5]7 square pyramids and [FeO6]9 octahedra, forming into [Fe4O18]24 rings, which propagate as columns along the b-axis. A recent report shows two discernible antiferromagnetic (AFM) transitions at 36 and 48 K in the susceptibility, yet heat capacity measurements reveal no magnetic phase transitions at these temperatures. An upturn in the magnetic susceptibility measurements up to 400 K suggests the presence of shortrange magnetic behavior at higher temperatures. In this Article, variable-temperature neutron powder diffraction and hightemperature magnetic susceptibility measurements were performed to clarify the magnetic behavior. Neutron powder diffraction confirmed that the two magnetic transitions observed at 36 and 48 K are due to long-range magnetic order. Below 48 K, the magnetic structure was determined as a spin-density wave (SDW) with a propagation vector, k = (0, 0, 1/3), and the moments along the b-axis, whereas the structure becomes an incommensurate cycloid [k = (0, 0, 0.35)] below 36 K with the moments within the bc-plane. However, for both cases the ordered moments on Fe3+ are only of the order 3.0 B, smaller than the expected values near 4.5 B, indicating that significant components of the Fe moments remain paramagnetic to the lowest temperature studied, 6 K. Moreover, new high-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements revealed a peak maximum at 550 K indicative of short-range spin correlations. It is postulated that most of the magnetic entropy is thus removed at high temperatures which could explain the absence of heat capacity anomalies at the long-range ordering temperatures. Published spin dimer calculations, which appear to suggest a k = (0, 0, 0) magnetic structure, and allow for neither low dimensionality nor geometric frustration, are inadequate to explain the observed complex magnetic

  8. Complex magnetic ordering in CeFe1.76 studied by neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Jayasekara, Wageesha T; Tian, W; Hodovanets, Halyna; Canfield, Paul C; Bud'ko, Serguei L; Kreyssig, Andreas; Goldman, Alan I

    2014-10-01

    Neutron diffraction measurements on a single crystal of CeGe1.76 reveal a complex series of magnetic transitions at low temperature. At TN≈7 K, there is a transition from a paramagnetic state at higher temperature to an incommensurate magnetic structure characterized by a magnetic propagation vector (0 0 τ) with τ≈1/4 and the magnetic moment along the a axis of the orthorhombic unit cell. Below TLI≈5 K, the magnetic structure locks in to a commensurate structure with τ=1/4 and the magnetic moment remains along the a axis. Below T≈4 K, we find additional half-integer and integer indexed magnetic Bragg peaks consistent with a second commensurately ordered antiferromagnetic state.

  9. Influence Of Nanoparticles Diameter On Structural Properties Of Magnetic Fluid In Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kúdelčík, Jozef; Bury, Peter; Hardoň, Štefan; Kopčanský, Peter; Timko, Milan

    2015-07-01

    The properties of magnetic fluids depend on the nanoparticle diameter, their concentration and the carrier liquid. The structural changes in magnetic fluids with different nanoparticle diameter based on transformer oils TECHNOL and MOGUL under the effect of a magnetic field and temperature were studied by acoustic spectroscopy. At a linear and jump changes of the magnetic field at various temperatures a continuous change was observed of acoustic attenuation caused by aggregation of the magnetic nanoparticles to structures. From the anisotropy of acoustic attenuation and using the Taketomi theory the basic parameters of the structures are calculated and the impact of nanoparticle diameters on the size of structures is confirmed.

  10. Scanning Magnetoresistance Microscopy Studies of Small Magnetic and Electrical Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Gang

    2004-03-01

    Many physical objects generate microscopic magnetic-field images near their surfaces. Such images reveal important signatures of inherent electrical and magnetic processes within the objects. For example, the image of a magnetic thin film discloses its internal magnetic domain structure. Electrical currents inside an semiconductor chip generate surface magnetic field images, which not only contain information about the electrical current distribution, but also the frequencies with which various components on a chip operates. A type II superconductor also creates an image of threading magnetic flux lines, whose structure and dynamics are fundamental properties. We have developed a sensitive and high-resolution magnetic microscope that is capable of non-invasively imaging, characterizing, and investigating spatial magnetic field patterns. At the heart of the microscope is a miniaturized magnetic-tunnel-junction (MTJ) or giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensor, capable to work at high speed, under ambient conditions, and over a wide bandwidth. This type of MR microscopy (MRM) offers many advantages over the magnetic force microscopy (MFM) and others. It measures the absolute local magnetic field, and its sensor does not generate invasive field as a magnetic tip would. The MRM can also measure dynamic magnetic images in a time varying external field. We will present results obtained from a wide range of structures using MRM, including small magnetic structures and state-of-the-art integrated circuits. This work supported by NSF is a collaboration with B. Schrag, X.Y. Liu, and G. Singh.

  11. Structuralization induced by the photothermal effect in magnetic fluid film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timko, M.; Kopčanský, P.; Repašan, M.; Koneracká, M.; Hnatič, M.; Džarová, A.; Štelina, J.; Musil, C.; Ayrjan, E.

    2008-05-01

    The structuralization of magnetic particles after illumination was experimentally observed in two types of a magnetic fluid based on mineral oil with the magnetite particles covered by monolayer surfactant and kerosene-based magnetic fluid sterically stabilized by a double layer consisting of oleic acid and dodecylbenzensulphonic acid (DBS). This contribution presents a detailed theoretical description of the thermodiffusion process in magnetic fluids, simulation of the structuralization in magnetic fluid with a negative Soret constant, and confirmaton of the negative value of this constant for a kerosene-based magnetic fluid.

  12. Hard magnetism in structurally engineered silica nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyon-Min; Zink, Jeffrey I

    2016-09-21

    Creation of structural complexity by simple experimental control will be an attractive approach for the preparation of nanomaterials, as a classical bottom-up method is supplemented by a more efficient and more direct artificial engineering method. In this study, structural manipulation of MCM-41 type mesoporous silica is investigated by generating and imbedding hard magnetic CoFe2O4 nanoparticles into mesoporous silica. Depending on the heating rate and target temperature, mesoporous silica undergoes a transformation in shape to form hollow silica, framed silica with interior voids, or melted silica with intact mesostructures. Magnetism is governed by the major CoFe2O4 phase, and it is affected by antiferromagnetic hematite (α-Fe2O3) and olivine-type cobalt silicate (Co2SiO4), as seen in its paramagnetic behavior at the annealing temperature of 430 °C. The early formation of Co2SiO4 than what is usually observed implies the effect of the partial substitution of Fe in the sites of Co. Under slow heating (2.5 °C min(-1)) mesostructures are preserved, but with significantly smaller mesopores (d100 = 1.5 nm). In addition, nonstoichiometric CoxFe1-xO with metal vacancies at 600 °C, and spinel Co3O4 at 700 °C accompany major CoFe2O4. The amorphous nature of silica matrix is thought to contribute significantly to these structurally diverse and rich phases, enabled by off-stoichiometry between Si and O, and accelerated by the diffusion of metal cations into SiO4 polyhedra at an elevated temperature. PMID:27537252

  13. Mapping the magnetic and crystal structure in cobalt nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Cantu-Valle, Jesus; Betancourt, Israel; Sanchez, John E.; Ruiz-Zepeda, Francisco; Mendoza-Santoyo, Fernando; Ponce, Arturo; Maqableh, Mazin M.; Stadler, Bethanie J. H.

    2015-07-14

    Using off-axis electron holography under Lorentz microscopy conditions to experimentally determine the magnetization distribution in individual cobalt (Co) nanowires, and scanning precession-electron diffraction to obtain their crystalline orientation phase map, allowed us to directly visualize with high accuracy the effect of crystallographic texture on the magnetization of nanowires. The influence of grain boundaries and disorientations on the magnetic structure is correlated on the basis of micromagnetic analysis in order to establish the detailed relationship between magnetic and crystalline structure. This approach demonstrates the applicability of the method employed and provides further understanding on the effect of crystalline structure on magnetic properties at the nanometric scale.

  14. Mapping the magnetic and crystal structure in cobalt nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Cantu-Valle, Jesus; Betancourt, Israel; Sanchez, John E.; Ruiz-Zepeda, Francisco; Maqableh, Mazin M.; Mendoza-Santoyo, Fernando; Stadler, Bethanie J. H.; Ponce, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Using off-axis electron holography under Lorentz microscopy conditions to experimentally determine the magnetization distribution in individual cobalt (Co) nanowires, and scanning precession-electron diffraction to obtain their crystalline orientation phase map, allowed us to directly visualize with high accuracy the effect of crystallographic texture on the magnetization of nanowires. The influence of grain boundaries and disorientations on the magnetic structure is correlated on the basis of micromagnetic analysis in order to establish the detailed relationship between magnetic and crystalline structure. This approach demonstrates the applicability of the method employed and provides further understanding on the effect of crystalline structure on magnetic properties at the nanometric scale. PMID:26221057

  15. Computational and experimental investigations of magnetic domain structures in patterned magnetic thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yulan; Xu, Ke; Hu, Shenyang; Suter, Jon; Schreiber, Daniel K.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Johnson, Bradley R.; McCloy, John

    2015-08-01

    The use of nondestructive magnetic signatures for continuous monitoring of the degradation of structural materials in nuclear reactors is a promising yet challenging application for advanced functional materials behavior modeling and measurement. In this work, a numerical model, which is based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation of magnetization dynamics and the phase field approach, was developed to study the impact of defects such as nonmagnetic precipitates and/or voids, free surfaces and crystal orientation on magnetic domain structures and magnetic responses in magnetic materials, with the goal of exploring the correlation between microstructures and magnetic signatures. To validate the model, single crystal iron thin films (~240 nm thickness) were grown on MgO substrates and a focused ion beam was used to pattern micrometer-scale specimens with different geometries. Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) was used to measure magnetic domain structure and its field-dependence. Numerical simulations were constructed with the same geometry as the patterned specimens and under similar applied magnetic field conditions as tested by MFM. The results from simulations and experiments show that 1) magnetic domain structures strongly depend on the film geometry and the external applied field and 2) the predicted magnetic domain structures from the simulations agree quantitatively with those measured by MFM. The results demonstrate the capability of the developed model, used together with key experiments, for improving the understanding of the signal physics in magnetic sensing, thereby providing guidance to the development of advanced nondestructive magnetic techniques.

  16. Magnetic sensor for building structural vibrations.

    PubMed

    García, Alfonso; Morón, Carlos; Tremps, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows a new displacement-to-frequency transducer based on the variation of a coil inductance when a magnetic core is partially or completely inserted inside. This transducer is based on a Colpitts oscillator due its low manufacturing price, behavior and immunity to noise. A tank circuit with a configuration in parallel was used because it can be employed at lower frequencies and it enables it to make a direct analysis. The sensor has a dynamic range equal to the length of the coil. The cores can exchange sensors (coils with its ferromagnetic core) using the same electronic measuring system. In this way, with only an electronic circuit, the core sensor determines the measurement range. The obtained resolution is higher than 1/100,000, and the sensor also allows the measurement and knowing in real time the effect of vibration, thermal expansion, referred overload movements, etc.., that can occur in the structural elements of a building. PMID:24504104

  17. Magnetic Sensor for Building Structural Vibrations

    PubMed Central

    García, Alfonso; Morón, Carlos; Tremps, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows a new displacement-to-frequency transducer based on the variation of a coil inductance when a magnetic core is partially or completely inserted inside. This transducer is based on a Colpitts oscillator due its low manufacturing price, behavior and immunity to noise. A tank circuit with a configuration in parallel was used because it can be employed at lower frequencies and it enables it to make a direct analysis. The sensor has a dynamic range equal to the length of the coil. The cores can exchange sensors (coils with its ferromagnetic core) using the same electronic measuring system. In this way, with only an electronic circuit, the core sensor determines the measurement range. The obtained resolution is higher than 1/100,000, and the sensor also allows the measurement and knowing in real time the effect of vibration, thermal expansion, referred overload movements, etc.., that can occur in the structural elements of a building. PMID:24504104

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging structured reporting in infertility.

    PubMed

    Montoliu-Fornas, Guillermina; Martí-Bonmatí, Luis

    2016-06-01

    Our objective was to define and propose a standardized magnetic resonance (MR) imaging structured report in patients with infertility to have clinical completeness on possible diagnosis and severity. Patients should be studied preferable on 3T equipment with a surface coil. Standard MR protocol should include high-resolution fast spin-echo T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted images and gradient-echo T1-weighted fat suppression images. The report should include ovaries (polycystic, endometrioma, tumor), oviduct (hydrosalpinx, hematosalpinx, pyosalpinx, peritubal anomalies), uterus (agenesia, hypoplasia, unicornuate, uterus didelphys, bicornuate, septate uterus), myometrium (leiomyomas, adenomyosis), endometrium (polyps, synechia, atrophy, neoplasia), cervix and vagina (isthmoceles, mucosal-parietal irregularity, stenosis, neoplasia), peritoneum (deep endometriosis), and urinary system-associated abnormalities. To be clinically useful, radiology reports must be structured, use standardized terminology, and convey actionable information. The structured report must comprise complete, comprehensive, and accurate information, allowing radiologists to continuously interact with patients and referring physicians to confirm that the information is used properly to affect the decision making process. PMID:27105717

  19. Magnetic control of waveguide modes of Bragg structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylgacheva, D. A.; Khokhlov, N. E.; Kalish, A. N.; Belotelov, V. I.

    2016-05-01

    We present the study of the waveguide modes of one-dimensional magnetic photonic crystals with in-plane-magnetized layers. There is a magneto-optical effect of nonreciprocity for the TM-modes propagating along the layers perpendicularly to the magnetization. Due to the non-reciprocity the phase velocity of the modes changes with magnetization reversal. Comparison of the effect in the non-magnetic photonic crystal with additional magnetic layer on top and a magnetophotonic crystal with altering magnetic layers shows that the effect is greater in the first case due to the higher asymmetry of the claddings of the magnetic layer. This effect is important for the light modulation with external magnetic field in waveguide structures and may be used for design of novel types of the magneto-optical devices, sensors of magnetic field or biosensors.

  20. The History and Significance of the Incommensurability Thesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, James Jacob

    The incommensurability thesis (IT) maintains that there are no non-prejudicial means of choosing between competing theories in the empirical sciences. If true, IT would entail that natural science is a fundamentally subjective or irrational activity. Should this latter claim prove justifiable, then empirical science cannot be regarded as an organ of objective knowledge, and "scientific realism" is eo ipso false. I follow the origin of IT from its pre-history in Logical Positivism, through certain preliminary philosophical developments in the work of Karl Popper, W. V. O. Quine, Stephen Toulmin and N. R. Hanson, to the eventual formulation and introduction of IT by Thomas Kuhn and Paul Feyerabend. I then examine the rigorous criticism of IT by various philosophers since about 1964, and discuss different methods of objective theory comparison which have been advanced by such philosophers as Hilary Putnam, W. H. Newton-Smith, Michael Devitt, Hartry Field, Philip Kitcher and Howard Sankey. I conclude by arguing for two counterintuitive claims: (1) Even if true, IT fails to provide evidence against scientific realism. (2) In fact, the truth of IT actually furnishes evidence for a necessary condition for scientific realism, and hence evidence which can be construed as indirectly favorable to scientific realism.

  1. Re-direction of dc magnetic flux in magnetically isotropic multilayered structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarkhanyan, Roland H.; Niarchos, Dimitris G.

    2016-07-01

    Analytical design of a periodic composite structure allowing re-direction (bending) of dc magnetic flux with respect to applied external field is presented using methods of transformation optics. The composite structure is made of micrometer scale alternating layers of two different homogeneous and magnetically isotropic materials. Dependence of the magnetic flux bending angle on geometrical orientation of the layers as well as on the magnetic permeability ratio is examined. Such structures can find use in various devices based on the control and manipulations of the magnetic flux.

  2. Melting of a frustration-induced dimer crystal and incommensurability in the J1-J2 two-leg ladder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavarélo, Arthur; Roux, Guillaume; Laflorencie, Nicolas

    2011-10-01

    The phase diagram of an antiferromagnetic ladder with frustrating next-nearest-neighbor couplings along the legs is determined using numerical methods (exact diagonalization and density-matrix renormalization group) supplemented by strong-coupling and mean-field analysis. Interestingly, this model displays remarkable features, bridging the physics of the J1-J2 chain and of the unfrustrated ladder. The phase diagram as a function of the transverse coupling J⊥ and the frustration J2 exhibits an Ising transition between a columnar phase of dimers and the usual rung-singlet phase of two-leg ladders. The transition is driven by resonating valence bond fluctuations in the singlet sector while the triplet spin gap remains finite across the transition. In addition, frustration brings incommensurability in the real-space spin-correlation functions, the onset of which evolves smoothly from the J1-J2 chain value to zero in the large-J⊥ limit. The onset of incommensurability in the spin structure factor and in the dispersion relation is also analyzed. The physics of the frustrated rung-singlet phase is well understood using perturbative expansions and mean-field theories in the large-J⊥ limit. Last, we discuss the effect of the nontrivial magnon dispersion relation on the thermodynamical properties of the system. The relation of this model and its physics to experimental observations on compounds that are currently investigated, such as BiCu2PO6, is eventually addressed.

  3. Effect of interlayer exchange coupling on magnetic chiral structures

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, S. P.; Kwon, H. Y.; Kim, H. S.; Shim, J. H.; Won, C.

    2015-07-28

    We numerically investigated the effect of interlayer exchange coupling on magnetic chiral structures, such as a helical/cycloidal spin structure and magnetic skyrmion crystal (SkX), which are produced in a magnetic system involving the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). We report the existence of a phase transition where the length scale of magnetic structure discontinuously changes, and that there can be a novel magnetic structure around the phase boundary that exhibits double-ordering lengths of magnetic structure. Therefore, the system has multiple ground phases determined by the ratio of interlayer exchange coupling strength and DMI strength. Furthermore, we investigated the critical condition of the external perpendicular field required for the SkX. The critical field is significantly reduced under the effect of interlayer exchange coupling, which can stabilize the SkX without the external field.

  4. Crystal structure and magnetic properties of Bi{sub 0.8}A{sub 0.2}FeO{sub 3} (A = La, Ca, Sr, Ba) multiferroics using neutron diffraction and Mossbauer spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Rangi, Manisha; Agarwal, Ashish Sanghi, Sujata; Singh, Ripandeep; Meena, S. S.; Das, A.

    2014-08-15

    Bi{sub 0.8}A{sub 0.2}FeO{sub 3} (A = La, Ca, Sr, Ba) multiferroics were studied using x-ray, neutron diffraction and magnetization techniques. All the samples crystallized in rhombohedral structure with space group R3c. The compounds exhibit antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordering at 300 K and no evidence of further structural or magnetic transition was observed on lowering of temperature below it. The magnetic structure of these substituted compounds are found to be collinear G-type AFM structure as against the non collinear incommensurate magnetic structure reported in the case of parent compound. The moments on Fe at 6 K are aligned along the a-axis in the case of Ca-doped sample. With increase in the ionic radii of dopant, the moments are found to be aligned in the ac plane and the angle of tilt away from the a-axis increases. The observed change in the magnetic structure with substitution is attributed to the intrinsic structural distortion as evidenced by the change in the bond angle (Fe-O-Fe) and bond distances (Bi-O, Fe-O). It has been found that heterovalent substitution A{sup 2+} results in the formation of oxygen vacancies in the parent lattices as the possibility of Fe{sup 4+} ruled out by Mössbauer spectra recorded at room temperature. Higher value of remnant magnetization (0.4187 emu/g) and coercivity (4.7554kOe) is observed in Bi{sub 0.8}Ba{sub 0.2}FeO{sub 3} sample in comparison to other substituted samples revealing a strong correlation between ionic radii and magnetization.

  5. Photographic observation of magnetic domain structure with three-dimensional local magnetization direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meguro, Sakae; Akahane, Koichi; Saito, Shin

    2016-07-01

    The direction of magnetization of a magnetic material is possibly oriented three-dimensionally because of the presence of magnetic anisotropy field, self-demagnetizing field, and stray field. Therefore, the three-dimensional detection of the direction of magnetization is required. The method of magnetic domain observation by photographic imaging utilizing the Kerr effect is widely used. If the perpendicular magnetization components exist, there is a problem that obliquely incident light has superimposed longitudinal Kerr and polar Kerr effects. To perform the three-dimensional detection of magnetization direction, it is necessary to eliminate the influence of the polar Kerr effect from the Kerr effect of obliquely incident light. We report the photographic observation of the magnetic domain structure and the detection of the three-dimensional local magnetization direction using the Kerr effect, applying only an in-plane saturation magnetic field.

  6. Oxocuprates: A structural and magnetic zoo

    SciTech Connect

    Ramakrishna, B.L.; Ong, E.W.

    1988-11-15

    We have attempted a magnetostructural correlation for the oxocuprates: Y/sub 2/Cu/sub 2/O/sub 5/, BaCuO/sub 2/, Y/sub 2/BaCuO/sub 5/, and YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 6/, all of which are closely related to the new high-T/sub c/ superconductors. It was found that this series of compounds has interesting combinations of ferro- and antiferromagnetic interactions as a consequence of the structural and electronic variety of copper. Y/sub 2/Cu/sub 2/O/sub 5/ and Y/sub 2/BaCuO/sub 5/ were shown to be chain and layer magnetic systems, respectively. BaCuO/sub 2/, a complicated 3D structure, has interesting effects of exchange interaction manifested in the temperature-dependent EPR spectrum. YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 6/ has been shown to possess a Neel point at 450 K from EPR intensity variation with temperature.

  7. First principles-based moiré model for incommensurate graphene on BN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spataru, Catalin; Thurmer, Konrad

    Various properties of supported graphene films depend strongly on the exact positions of carbon atoms with respect to the underlying substrate. While density functional theory (DFT) can predict atom position in many systems, it cannot be applied straightforwardly to systems that are incommensurate or have large unit cells, such as graphene on a BN surface. We address these limitations by developing a simple moiré model with parameters derived from DFT calculations for systems strained into commensurate structures with manageable unit cell sizes. Our moiré model, which takes into account the flexural rigidity of graphene and includes the influence of the substrate, is able to reproduce the DFT-relaxed carbon positions with an accuracy of <0.01 Å. We then apply this model to the unstrained C/BN system and predict how structure and energy vary with azimuthal orientation of the graphene sheet with respect to the BN substrate. Work supported by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program at Sandia National Laboratories, a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Co., for the U.S. DOE under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  8. Band Gap Engineering of PbI2 by Incommensurate Van der Waals Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yiping; Shi, Jian

    Van der Waals epitaxial growth had been thought to have trivial contribution on inducing substantial epitaxial strain in thin films due to its weak nature of Van der Waals interfacial energy. Due to this, electrical and optical structure engineering via Van der Waals epitaxial strain has been rarely studied. However, by appropriate film-substrate selection, we show that significant band structure engineering could be achieved in a soft thin film material PbI2 via Van der Waals epitaxy. The thickness dependent photoluminescence of single crystal PbI2 flakes was studied and attributed to the substrate-film coupling effect via incommensurate Van der Waals epitaxy. It is proposed that the Van der Waals strain is resulted from the soft nature of PbI2 and large Van der Waals interaction due to the involvement of heavy elements. Such strain plays vital roles in modifying the band gap of PbI2. The deformation potential theory is used to quantitatively unveil the correlation between thickness, strain and band gap change. Our hypothesis is confirmed by the subsequent mechanical bending test and Raman characterization.

  9. Magnetism and surface structure of atomically controlled ultrathin metal films.

    SciTech Connect

    Shiratsuchi, Yu.; Yamamoto, M.; Bader, S. D.; Materials Science Division; Osaka Univ.

    2007-01-01

    We review the correlation of magnetism and surface structure in ultrathin metal films, including the tailoring of novel magnetic properties using atomic scale control of the nanostructure. We provide an overview of modern fabrication and characterization techniques used to create and explore these fascinating materials, and highlight important phenomena of interest. We also discuss techniques that control and characterize both the magnetic and structural properties on an atomic scale. Recent advances in the development and applications of these techniques allow nanomagnetism to be investigated in an unprecedented manner. A system cannot necessarily retain a two-dimensional structure as it enters the ultrathin region, but it can transform into a three-dimensional, discontinuous structure due to the Volmer-Weber growth mechanism. This structural transformation can give rise to superparamagnetism. During this evolution, competing factors such as interparticle interactions and the effective magnetic anisotropy govern the magnetic state. These magnetic parameters are influenced by the nanostructure of the film. In particular, controlling the magnetic anisotropy is critical for determining the magnetic properties. Surface effects play especially important roles in influencing both the magnitude and direction of the magnetic anisotropy in ultrathin films. By properly altering the surface structure, the strength and direction of the magnetic anisotropy are controlled via spin-orbit and/or dipole interactions.

  10. A permalloy zigzag structure based magnetic bio-sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ger, Tzong-Rong; Xu, You-Ren; Huang, Hao-Ting; Wei, Zung-Hang

    2012-04-01

    A magnetic fluid consisting of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles is embedded inside cells by intracellular uptake. A micro-fabricated magnetic zigzag-shaped surface structure is studied for use as a biosensor. We have developed a MOKE magnetometer based methodology to measure the different hysteresis loop signals between cells with and without being placed on zigzag sensors. Adding the magnetic cells on the structure decreases the coercivity from the magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) signal of zigzag magnetic thin films because of the magnetic properties of superparamagnetic nanoparticles. The magnetoresistance measurement observed is that the switching fields of the zigzag structure with magnetic cells are significantly increased compared to the case without cells in the hard axis of the external field applied.

  11. Magnetic structure of NiS2 -xSex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, S.; Louca, Despina; Yang, J.; Chatterjee, U.; Bugaris, D. E.; Chung, D. Y.; Peng, L.; Grayson, M.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2016-01-01

    NiS2 -2 xSex is revisited to determine the magnetic structure using neutron diffraction and magnetic representational analysis. Upon cooling, the insulating parent compound, NiS2, becomes antiferromagnetic with two successive magnetic transitions. The first transition (M 1 ) occurs at TN˜39 K with Γ1ψ1 symmetry and a magnetic propagation vector of k =(000 ) . The second transition (M 2 ) occurs at TN˜30 K with k =(0.5 ,0.5 ,0.5 ) and a Γ1ψ2 symmetry with face-centered translations, giving rise to four possible magnetic domains. With doping, the system becomes metallic. The transition to the M 2 state is suppressed prior to x =0.4 while the M 1 state persists. The M 1 magnetic structure gradually vanishes by x ˜0.8 at a lower concentration than previously reported. The details of the magnetic structures are provided.

  12. Neutron diffraction study of the magnetic structures of CeMn{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} and CeMn{sub 2}Si{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Baca, J.A.; Chakoumakos, B.C.; Hill, P.; Ali, N.

    1995-12-31

    The magnetic properties of the layered compounds of the form RMn{sub 2}X{sub 2} (R = Rare Earth, X = Si, Ge) have been thought to be sensitive to the intralayer Mn-Mn distance. Thus it has been reported that the Mn moments in CeMn{sub 2}Si{sub 2} are aligned antiferromagnetically (AF) below T{sub N} = 380K, while the Mn moments in CeMn{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} are ferromagnetic (FM) below T{sub C} = 316K. Recently, however, there has been some debate about the actual magnetic structures of this family of compounds, and for this reason the authors have performed high-resolution neutron powder diffraction measurements on these compounds for temperatures between 12K and 550K. The measurements indicate that at high temperatures both compounds are paramagnetic. Below T{sub N} = 380K CeMn{sub 2}Si{sub 2} becomes a collinear AF, with a structure similar to that reported by Siek et al. in which the magnetic propagation vector is {tau} = (0 0 1). CeMn{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} on the other hand, exhibits two different magnetic transitions. At T{sub N} {approx} 415K there is a transition to a collinear AF phase characterized by the commensurate propagation wavevector {tau} = (1 0 1). At T{sub C} = 318K there is a transition to a conical structure with a ferromagnetic component along the c-axis and a helical component in the ab plane. The helical component is characterized by the incommensurate propagation vector {tau} = (1 0 1-q{sub z}), where q{sub z} is temperature dependent. These findings are consistent with the recent results of Welter et al.

  13. A New Mechanism for Magnetic Hole Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodrich, K.; Ergun, R.

    2014-12-01

    Finite moments of decreased magnetic field strength, dubbed magnetic holes, are observed in-situ in the Earth's magnetosphere, particularly in the bursty bulk flow braking region. The generation mechanism of magnetic holes has been investigated and multiple theories have been proposed. There are two popular theories: magnetic holes are the product of the mirror instability (Southwood and Kivelson 1993) or the product of the shear instability in the tail of the magnetosphere (Balikhin et al 2012). These theories are contingent on instabilities on the MHD scale. This study investigates THEMIS electric field and electron temperature observations of small magnetic holes in the bursty bulk flow region. An analysis of these observations indicate that smaller magnetic holes ( < ion Larmor radius) require a physical mechanism on the kinetic scale. We propose that these particular holes are maintained by a current carried by electrons, which are in turn generated by a self -consistent potential drop within the magnetic hole.

  14. Nonlinear dynamics of breathers in the spiral structures of magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiselev, V. V.; Raskovalov, A. A.

    2016-06-01

    The structure and properties of pulsating solitons (breathers) in the spiral structures of magnets are analyzed within the sine-Gordon model. The breather core pulsations are shown to be accompanied by local shifts and oscillations of the spiral structure with the formation of "precursors" and "tails" in the moving soliton. The possibilities for the observation and excitation of breathers in the spiral structures of magnets and multiferroics are discussed.

  15. Magnetic field modulation of chirooptical effects in magnetoplasmonic structures.

    PubMed

    Armelles, Gaspar; Caballero, Blanca; Prieto, Patricia; García, Fernando; Cebollada, Alfonso; González, Maria Ujué; García-Martin, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    In this work we analyse the magnetic field effects on the chirooptical properties of magnetoplasmonic chiral structures. The structures consist of two-dimensional arrays of Au gammadions in which thin layers of Co have been inserted. Due to the magnetic properties of the Au/Co interface the structures have perpendicular magnetic anisotropy which favours magnetic saturation along the surface normal, allowing magnetic field modulation of the chirooptical response with moderate magnetic fields. These structures have two main resonances. The resonance at 850 nm has a larger chirooptical response than the resonance at 650 nm, which, on the other hand, exhibits a larger magnetic field modulation of its chirooptical response. This dissimilar behaviour is due to the different physical origin of the chirooptical and magneto-optical responses. Whereas the chirooptical effects are due to the geometry of the structures, the magneto-optical response is related to the intensity of the electromagnetic field in the magnetic (Co) layers. We also show that the optical chirality can be modulated by the applied magnetic field, which suggests that magnetoplasmonic chiral structures could be used to develop new strategies for chirooptical sensing. PMID:24569696

  16. Magnetic Cycles and Buoyant Magnetic Structures in a Rapidly Rotating Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Nicholas J.; Brown, B. P.; Brun, S.; Miesch, M. S.; Toomre, J.

    2011-01-01

    Observations of sun-like stars rotating faster than our current sun show that they exhibit solar-like magnetic cycles and features, such as star spots. Using global 3-D simulations to study the coupling of large-scale convection, rotation, and magnetism in a younger sun, we have probed the effects of more rapid rotation on stellar dynamos and the nature of magnetic cycles. Our anelastic spherical harmonics (ASH) code allows study of the convective envelope, occupying the outer 30% by radius of a sun-like star. Major MHD simulations carried out at three times the current solar rotation rate reveal magnetic dynamo action that can produce wreaths of strong toroidal magnetic field at low latitudes, often with opposite polarity in the two hemispheres. The presence of the wreaths is quite surprising, for they arise as quite persistent global structures amidst the vigorous and turbulent convection. We have recently explored behavior in systems with considerably lower diffusivities, achieved with a dynamic Smagorinsky treatment of unresolved turbulence. The lower levels of diffusion create magnetic wreaths that undergo prominent variations in field strength, even exhibiting global magnetic cycles that involve polarity reversals. Additionally, during the cycle maximum, when magnetic energies and mean magnetic fields peak, the wreaths possess buoyant magnetic structures that rise coherently through much of the convective envelope via a combination of advection by convective upflows and magnetic buoyancy. We explore aspects of these rising magnetic structures and the evolving global dynamo action which produces them.

  17. Dislocations in stacking and commensurate-incommensurate phase transition in bilayer graphene and hexagonal boron nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedeva, Irina V.; Lebedev, Alexander V.; Popov, Andrey M.; Knizhnik, Andrey A.

    2016-06-01

    Dislocations corresponding to a change of stacking in two-dimensional hexagonal bilayers, graphene and boron nitride, and associated with boundaries between commensurate domains are investigated using the two-chain Frenkel-Kontorova model on top of ab initio calculations. Structural transformations of bilayers in which the bottom layer is stretched and the upper one is left to relax freely are considered for gradually increased elongation of the bottom layer. Formation energies of dislocations, dislocation width, and orientation of the boundary between commensurate domains are analyzed depending on the magnitude and direction of elongation. The second-order phase transition from the commensurate phase to the incommensurate one with multiple dislocations is predicted to take place at some critical elongation. The order parameter for this transition corresponds to the density of dislocations, which grows continuously upon increasing the elongation of the bottom layer above the critical value. In graphene and metastable boron nitride with the layers aligned in the same direction, where elementary dislocations are partial, this transition, however, is preceded by formation of the first dislocation at the elongation smaller than the critical one. The phase diagrams including this intermediate state are plotted in coordinates of the magnitude and direction of elongation of the bottom layer.

  18. Incommensurability and Multi-paradigm Grounding in Design Science Research: Implications for Creating Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovorka, Dirk S.

    The problem identification-design-build-evaluate-theorize structure of design science research has been proposed as an approach to creating knowledge in information systems and in broader organizational and social domains. Although the approach has merit, the philosophical foundations of two specific components warrant attention. First, the grounding of design theory on potentially incommensurate kernel theories may produce incoherent design theory. In addition, design theory has no strong logical connection to kernel theories, and so cannot be used to test or validate the contributing kernel theories. Second, the philosophical grounding of evaluation may inadvertently shift from functionally based measures of utility and efficiency, to evaluation based on the pragmatic fulfillment of multidimensional human actions as people encounter information systems, resulting in evaluation errors. Although design and evaluation from a single paradigm is not desirable, sufficient, or representative of design science research, multi-paradigm grounding of design and evaluation must be realized and used consciously by the research community if the design science approach is to remain a legitimate approach to knowledge creation.

  19. Spinful fermionic ladders at incommensurate filling: Phase diagram, local perturbations, and ionic potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, Sam T.; Narozhny, Boris N.; Nersesyan, Alexander A.

    2013-12-15

    We study the effect of external potential on transport properties of the fermionic two-leg ladder model. The response of the system to a local perturbation is strongly dependent on the ground state properties of the system and especially on the dominant correlations. We categorize all phases and transitions in the model (for incommensurate filling) and introduce “hopping-driven transitions” that the system undergoes as the inter-chain hopping is increased from zero. We also describe the response of the system to an ionic potential. The physics of this effect is similar to that of the single impurity, except that the ionic potential can affect the bulk properties of the system and in particular induce true long range order. -- Highlights: •We study low temperature electronic properties of a two leg ladder. •We find a wide variety of phase transitions as a function of model parameters. •We study the effect of impurities on these models. •Conductance may be very sensitive to the structure of these impurities.

  20. Chromium Substitution Effect on the Magnetic Structure of Iron Oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osman Murat, Ozkendir

    2012-05-01

    The local magnetic and electronic structures of chromium substituted iron oxide polycrystalline samples are investigated via Fe L-edge x-ray absorption near-edge structural and magnetic circular dichroism measurements. A strong dependence of atomic magnetic levels on the applied external magnetic field is observed. The magnetic behavior of Cr-doped iron oxides are determined to be dominantly governed by the d—d hybridization between Fe and Cr valence levels. In addition, the formation of CrO2 and Cr2O3 chromium oxide clusters in the sample are observed to determine the magnetic ordering, i.e. anti-ferromagnetic or ferromagnetic with the changing external magnetic fields. The results highly agree with the previous studies.

  1. Magnetic Structure Determinations at NBS/NIST

    PubMed Central

    Lynn, J. W.; Borchers, J. A.; Huang, Q.; Santoro, A.; Erwin, R. W.

    2001-01-01

    Magnetic neutron scattering plays a central role in determining and understanding the microscopic properties of a vast variety of magnetic systems, from the fundamental nature, symmetry, and dynamics of magnetically ordered materials to elucidating the magnetic characteristics essential in technological applications. From the early days of neutron scattering measurements at NBS/NIST, magnetic diffraction studies have been a central theme involving many universities, industrial and government labs from around the United States and worldwide. Such measurements have been used to determine the spatial arrangement and directions of the atomic magnetic moments, the atomic magnetization density of the individual atoms in the material, and the value of the ordered moments as a function of thermodynamic parameters such as temperature, pressure, and applied magnetic field. These types of measurements have been carried out on single crystals, powders, thin films, and artificially grown multilayers, and often the information collected can be obtained by no other experimental technique. This article presents, in an historical perspective, a few examples of work carried out at the NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCNR), and discusses the key role that the Center can expect to play in future magnetism research.

  2. Helicity, anisotropies, and their competition in a multiferroic magnet: Insight from the phase diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvozdikova, M. V.; Ziman, T.; Zhitomirsky, M. E.

    2016-07-01

    Motivated by the complex phase diagram of MnWO4, we investigate the competition between anisotropy, magnetic field, and helicity for the anisotropic next-nearest-neighbor Heisenberg model. Apart from two competing exchanges, which favor a spiral magnetic structure, the model features the biaxial single-ion anisotropy. The model is treated in the real-space mean-field approximation and the phase diagram containing various incommensurate and commensurate states is obtained for different field orientations. We discuss the similarities and differences of the theoretical phase diagram and the experimental diagram of MnWO4.

  3. Plane and hemispherical potential structures in magnetically expanding plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Kazunori; Igarashi, Yuichi; Fujiwara, Tamiya

    2010-07-26

    Two-dimensional potential structures are measured for different gas pressure in expanding argon plasma using permanent magnets, where the magnetic field is about 100 G in the source and several gauss in the diffusion chamber. The plane potential drop is observed near the source exit for 0.35 mTorr, while the potential structure becomes hemispherical when increasing up to 1 mTorr; the hemispherical structure results in the radial divergence of the ion beam. It is found that the trajectories of the accelerated ions and the electrons overcoming the potential drop are dominated by the potential structure and magnetic-field lines, respectively.

  4. Structural and magnetic etch damage in CoFeB

    SciTech Connect

    Krayer, L.; Lau, J. W.; Kirby, B. J.

    2014-05-07

    A detailed understanding of the interfacial properties of thin films used in magnetic media is critical for the aggressive component scaling required for continued improvement in storage density. In particular, it is important to understand how common etching and milling processes affect the interfacial magnetism. We have used polarized neutron reflectometry and transmission electron microscopy to characterize the structural and magnetic properties of an ion beam etched interface of a CoFeB film. We found that the etching process results in a sharp magnetic interface buried under a nanometer scale layer of non-magnetic, compositionally distinct material.

  5. Magnetic coupling at perovskite and rock-salt structured interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Matvejeff, M.; Ahvenniemi, E.; Takahashi, R.; Lippmaa, M.

    2015-10-05

    We study magnetic coupling between hole-doped manganite layers separated by either a perovskite or a rock-salt barrier of variable thickness. Both the type and the quality of the interface have a strong impact on the minimum critical barrier thickness where the manganite layers become magnetically decoupled. A rock-salt barrier layer only 1 unit cell (0.5 nm) thick remains insulating and is able to magnetically de-couple the electrode layers. The technique can therefore be used for developing high-performance planar oxide electronic devices such as magnetic tunnel junctions and quantum well structures that depend on magnetically and electronically sharp heterointerfaces.

  6. Modulated anharmonic ADPs are intrinsic to aperiodic crystals: a case study on incommensurate Rb2ZnCl4

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liang; Wölfel, Alexander; Schönleber, Andreas; Mondal, Swastik; Schreurs, Antoine M. M.; Kroon-Batenburg, Loes M. J.; van Smaalen, Sander

    2011-01-01

    A combination of structure refinements, analysis of the superspace MEM density and interpretation of difference-Fourier maps has been used to characterize the incommensurate modulation of rubidium tetrachlorozincate, Rb2ZnCl4, at a temperature of T = 196 K, close to the lock-in transition at T lock-in = 192 K. The modulation is found to consist of a combination of displacement modulation functions, modulated atomic displacement parameters (ADPs) and modulated third-order anharmonic ADPs. Up to fifth-order Fourier coefficients could be refined against diffraction data containing up to fifth-order satellite reflections. The center-of-charge of the atomic basins of the MEM density and the displacive modulation functions of the structure model provide equivalent descriptions of the displacive modulation. Modulations of the ADPs and anharmonic ADPs are visible in the MEM density, but extracting quantitative information about these modulations appears to be difficult. In the structure refinements the modulation parameters of the ADPs form a dependent set, and ad hoc restrictions had to be introduced in the refinements. It is suggested that modulated harmonic ADPs and modulated third-order anharmonic ADPs form an intrinsic part, however small, of incommensurately modulated structures in general. Refinements of alternate models with and without parameters for modulated ADPs lead to significant differences between the parameters of the displacement modulation in these two types of models, thus showing the modulation of ADPs to be important for a correct description of the displacive modulation. The resulting functions do not provide evidence for an interpretation of the modulation by a soliton model. PMID:21586828

  7. Short Large-Amplitude Magnetic Structures (SLAMS) at Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collinson, G. A.; Wilson, L. B.; Sibeck, D. G.; Shane, N.; Zhang, T. L.; Moore, T. E.; Coates, A. J.; Barabash, S.

    2012-01-01

    We present the first observation of magnetic fluctuations consistent with Short Large-Amplitude Magnetic Structures (SLAMS) in the foreshock of the planet Venus. Three monolithic magnetic field spikes were observed by the Venus Express on the 11th of April 2009. The structures were approx.1.5->11s in duration, had magnetic compression ratios between approx.3->6, and exhibited elliptical polarization. These characteristics are consistent with the SLAMS observed at Earth, Jupiter, and Comet Giacobini-Zinner, and thus we hypothesize that it is possible SLAMS may be found at any celestial body with a foreshock.

  8. Structural and magnetic properties of Mg substituted Co nanoferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Jyoti; Sharma, Neha; Yadav, Premlata; Parashar, Jyoti; Jadoun, Priya; Saxena, V. K.; Bhatnagar, D.; Sharma, K. B.

    2016-05-01

    The structural and magnetic properties of magnesium substituted cobalt nano ferrites CoxMg1-xFe2O4 (x= 0.2, 0.4 and 1.0) have been investigated. The structural characterization has been done by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The magnetic studies indicate that the samples show ferromagnetic behaviour at room temperature as well as at low temperature. The magnetization decreases with Mg content in both the cases due to the less magnetic nature of Mg ions than that of the Co ions.

  9. Magnetic domain structure and thermal stabilization of laser treatment zones in soft magnetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudov, V. I.; Dragoshanskii, Yu. N.

    2016-02-01

    A combined effect of laser treatment and introduced fine-grained weakly magnetic impurity Mg-P-B defects on the magnetic structure and physical properties of anisotropic electrotechnical materials has been investigated. Specific features of changes in the type and behavior of the magnetic domain structure under different types of deformation (laser irradiation, scratching, and introduction of interstitial defects) have been revealed. The physical basis and optimum conditions of increase in thermal stability of local laser treatment zones in soft magnetic alloys have been determined. The obtained results open the prospects of decreasing magnetic losses in soft magnetic alloys and producing magnetic materials with a high level of physical and mechanical properties that are more resistant to operating conditions.

  10. Structural magnetic loss of vertical aligned carbon fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Wen; Xiao, Peng; Luo, Heng

    2013-06-01

    The electromagnetic spectroscopy of vertical aligned carbon fibres (VACF) reinforced epoxy resin has been performed in the frequency range from 8.2 to 12.4 GHz. The composite was prepared by conventional epoxy polymerization. The results indicate VACF could possess magnetic loss and the structural magnetic properties could be tailored by adjusting the forest structure. The corresponding mechanism of the structural magnetic properties is proposed by the Faradays' law of induction. The structural magnetism is further confirmed by measuring VACF reinforced Al2O3 composites in 1073 K environment. The measurement agrees well with the trend predicted by the parallel fibres model. These results represent a crucial step towards high temperature microwave absorber design and open a new avenue for realizing magnetic losses in the dielectric material.

  11. Magnetoelectric effect and phase transitions in CuO in external magnetic fields

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhaosheng; Qureshi, Navid; Yasin, Shadi; Mukhin, Alexander; Ressouche, Eric; Zherlitsyn, Sergei; Skourski, Yurii; Geshev, Julian; Ivanov, Vsevolod; Gospodinov, Marin; Skumryev, Vassil

    2016-01-01

    Apart from being so far the only known binary multiferroic compound, CuO has a much higher transition temperature into the multiferroic state, 230 K, than any other known material in which the electric polarization is induced by spontaneous magnetic order, typically lower than 100 K. Although the magnetically induced ferroelectricity of CuO is firmly established, no magnetoelectric effect has been observed so far as direct crosstalk between bulk magnetization and electric polarization counterparts. Here we demonstrate that high magnetic fields of ≈50 T are able to suppress the helical modulation of the spins in the multiferroic phase and dramatically affect the electric polarization. Furthermore, just below the spontaneous transition from commensurate (paraelectric) to incommensurate (ferroelectric) structures at 213 K, even modest magnetic fields induce a transition into the incommensurate structure and then suppress it at higher field. Thus, remarkable hidden magnetoelectric features are uncovered, establishing CuO as prototype multiferroic with abundance of competitive magnetic interactions. PMID:26776921

  12. Magnetoelectric effect and phase transitions in CuO in external magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaosheng; Qureshi, Navid; Yasin, Shadi; Mukhin, Alexander; Ressouche, Eric; Zherlitsyn, Sergei; Skourski, Yurii; Geshev, Julian; Ivanov, Vsevolod; Gospodinov, Marin; Skumryev, Vassil

    2016-01-01

    Apart from being so far the only known binary multiferroic compound, CuO has a much higher transition temperature into the multiferroic state, 230 K, than any other known material in which the electric polarization is induced by spontaneous magnetic order, typically lower than 100 K. Although the magnetically induced ferroelectricity of CuO is firmly established, no magnetoelectric effect has been observed so far as direct crosstalk between bulk magnetization and electric polarization counterparts. Here we demonstrate that high magnetic fields of ≈ 50 T are able to suppress the helical modulation of the spins in the multiferroic phase and dramatically affect the electric polarization. Furthermore, just below the spontaneous transition from commensurate (paraelectric) to incommensurate (ferroelectric) structures at 213 K, even modest magnetic fields induce a transition into the incommensurate structure and then suppress it at higher field. Thus, remarkable hidden magnetoelectric features are uncovered, establishing CuO as prototype multiferroic with abundance of competitive magnetic interactions. PMID:26776921

  13. Magnetic Structure of NiCr2O4 Studied by Neutron Scattering and Magnetization Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomiyasu, Keisuke; Kagomiya, Isao

    2004-09-01

    The magnetic ordering of the normal spinel ferrimagnet NiCr2O4 below TC = 74 K was reinvestigated by neutron scattering and magnetization measurements on a powder specimen. We found another magnetic transition at TS = 31 K besides TC in both experiments. The ordering of a ferrimagnetic (longitudinal) component and that of an antiferromagnetic (transverse) component occur at TC and TS, separately. A new magnetic structure model of NiCr2O4 below TS with a spontaneous magnetization of about 0.3 μB/formula is proposed based on experimental neutron scattering intensity.

  14. A Magnetic Field Sensor Based on a Magnetic Fluid-Filled FP-FBG Structure.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ji; Wang, Fuyin; Luo, Hong; Wang, Qi; Xiong, Shuidong

    2016-01-01

    Based on the characteristic magnetic-controlled refractive index property, in this paper, a magnetic fluid is used as a sensitive medium to detect the magnetic field in the fiber optic Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity. The temperature compensation in fiber Fabry-Perot magnetic sensor is demonstrated and achieved. The refractive index of the magnetic fluid varies with the applied magnetic field and external temperature, and a cross-sensitivity effect of the temperature and magnetic field occurs in the Fabry-Perot magnetic sensor and the accuracy of magnetic field measurements is affected by the thermal effect. In order to overcome this problem, we propose a modified sensor structure. With a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) written in the insert fiber end of the Fabry-Perot cavity, the FBG acts as a temperature compensation unit for the magnetic field measurement and it provides an effective solution to the cross-sensitivity effect. The experimental results show that the sensitivity of magnetic field detection improves from 0.23 nm/mT to 0.53 nm/mT, and the magnetic field measurement resolution finally reaches 37.7 T. The temperature-compensated FP-FBG magnetic sensor has obvious advantages of small volume and high sensitivity, and it has a good prospect in applications in the power industry and national defense technology areas. PMID:27136564

  15. A Magnetic Field Sensor Based on a Magnetic Fluid-Filled FP-FBG Structure

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Ji; Wang, Fuyin; Luo, Hong; Wang, Qi; Xiong, Shuidong

    2016-01-01

    Based on the characteristic magnetic-controlled refractive index property, in this paper, a magnetic fluid is used as a sensitive medium to detect the magnetic field in the fiber optic Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity. The temperature compensation in fiber Fabry-Perot magnetic sensor is demonstrated and achieved. The refractive index of the magnetic fluid varies with the applied magnetic field and external temperature, and a cross-sensitivity effect of the temperature and magnetic field occurs in the Fabry-Perot magnetic sensor and the accuracy of magnetic field measurements is affected by the thermal effect. In order to overcome this problem, we propose a modified sensor structure. With a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) written in the insert fiber end of the Fabry-Perot cavity, the FBG acts as a temperature compensation unit for the magnetic field measurement and it provides an effective solution to the cross-sensitivity effect. The experimental results show that the sensitivity of magnetic field detection improves from 0.23 nm/mT to 0.53 nm/mT, and the magnetic field measurement resolution finally reaches 37.7 T. The temperature-compensated FP-FBG magnetic sensor has obvious advantages of small volume and high sensitivity, and it has a good prospect in applications in the power industry and national defense technology areas. PMID:27136564

  16. Static and dynamic properties of incommensurate smectic-A(IC) liquid crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lubensky, T. C.; Ramaswamy, Sriram; Toner, John

    1988-01-01

    The elasticity, topological defects, and hydrodynamics of the incommensurate smectic A(IC) phase liquid crystals are studied. The phase is characterized by two colinear mass density waves of incommensurate spatial frequency. The elastic free energy is formulated in terms of a displacement field and a phason field. It is found that the topological defects of the system are dislocations with a nonzero phason field and phason field components. A two-dimensional Burgers lattice for these dislocations is introduced. It is shown that the hydrodynamic modes of the phase include first- and second-sound modes whose direction-dependent velocities are identical to those in ordinary smectics.

  17. Commensurate-incommensurate transition of monolayer krypton on graphite by helium-atom scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, S.; Kara, A.; Larese, J. Z.; Leung, W. Y.; Frankl, And D.

    1987-04-01

    The commensurate-incommensurate transition of monolayer krypton films on a graphite single-crystal substrate is observed by helium-atom diffraction for transition temperatures in the range 50-60 K. The change in lattice spacing appears continuous, with an upper limit of 0.3% on a possible jump, with no detectable hysteresis. The slightly incommensurate phase is disordered but apparently well correlated. The spatial correlation length changes in a possibly discontinuous manner. A decrease of specular and diffracted intensities while the film is still commensurate is observed. This may be due to incoherent elastic scattering from isolated defects, or possibly to increased inelastic scattering.

  18. Fractal structure of the interplanetary magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlaga, L. F.; Klein, L. W.

    1985-01-01

    Under some conditions, time series of the interplanetary magnetic field strength and components have the properties of fractal curves. Magnetic field measurements made near 8.5 AU by Voyager 2 from June 5 to August 24, 1981 were self-similar over time scales from approximately 20 sec to approximately 3 x 100,000 sec, and the fractal dimension of the time series of the strength and components of the magnetic field was D = 5/3, corresponding to a power spectrum P(f) approximately f sup -5/3. Since the Kolmogorov spectrum for homogeneous, isotropic, stationary turbulence is also f sup -5/3, the Voyager 2 measurements are consistent with the observation of an inertial range of turbulence extending over approximately four decades in frequency. Interaction regions probably contributed most of the power in this interval. As an example, one interaction region is discussed in which the magnetic field had a fractal dimension D = 5/3.

  19. Unusual Structure and Magnetism in MnO Nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, Shreemoyee; Kabir, Mukul; Sanyal, Biplab; Mookerjee, Abhijit

    2011-03-01

    We report an unusual structural and magnetic evolution in stoichiometric MnO nanoclusters by an extensive and unbiased search through the potential energy surface within density functional theory. The (MnO)n nanoclusters adopt two-dimensional structures in size ranges in which Mnn nanoclusters are three-dimensional and regardless of the size of the nanocluster, the magnetic coupling is found to be antiferromagnetic, and is strikingly different from Mn-based molecular magnets. Both of these features are explained through the inherent electronic structures of the nanoclusters. We gratefully acknowledge financial support from Swedish Research Links program funded by VR/SIDA and Carl Tryggers Foundation, Sweden.

  20. Influence of magnetic fields on structural martensitic transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Lashley, J C; Cooley, J C; Smith, J L; Fisher, R A; Modic, K A; Yang, X- D; Riseborough, P S; Opeil, C P; Finlayson, T R; Goddard, P A; Silhanek, A V

    2009-01-01

    We show evidence that a structural martensitic transition is related to significant changes in the electronic structure, as revealed in thermodynamic measurements made in high-magnetic fields. The magnetic field dependence is considered unusual as many influential investigations of martensitic transitions have emphasized that the structural transitions are primarily lattice dynamical and are driven by the entropy due to the phonons. We provide a theoretical framework which can be used to describe the effect of magnetic field on the lattice dynamics in which the field dependence originates from the dielectric constant.

  1. Structuralization of Magnetic Nanoparticles Induced by Laser Heating in Magnetic Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopčanský, P.; Timko, M.; Tomčo, L.; Koneracká, M.; Štelina, J.; Musil, C.

    2010-01-01

    The structuralization of magnetic particles in magnetic fluids due to the thermodiffusion induced by laser light illumination was experimentally observed in two types of magnetic fluids: one based on a mineral oil with magnetite particles covered by a monolayer of oleic acid as a surfactant and the other a kerosene-based magnetic fluid sterically stabilized by a double layer consisting of oleic acid and dodecylbenzenesulphonic acid (DBS). Forced Rayleigh scattering (FRS) showed different behaviors of magnetic particle structuralization in the observed magnetic fluids. While for the case of mineral oil-based magnetic fluids, there was observed a positive thermodiffusion ( S > 0), an indication of negative thermodiffusion ( S < 0) was observed in magnetic fluids based on kerosene. This was also confirmed by the time-dependent decay of a grating of magnetic particles. Numerical simulation of aggregation for the case of negative thermodiffusion was confirmed by the observed aggregation after laser illumination in kerosene-based magnetic fluids and enabled an estimated value of the negative Soret constant in the magnetic fluid studied ( S ≈ -10-2 K -1).

  2. Defective graphene and nanoribbons: electronic, magnetic and structural properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, Thiago; Azevedo, Sérgio; Machado, Marcelo

    2016-03-01

    We make use of first-principles calculations, based on the density functional theory (DFT), to investigate the alterations at the structural, energetic, electronic and magnetic properties of graphene and zigzag graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs) due to the inclusion of different types of line and punctual defects. For the graphene it is found that the inclusion of defects breaks the translational symmetry of the crystal with drastic changes at its electronic structure, going from semimetallic to semiconductor and metallic. Regarding the magnetic properties, no magnetization is observed for the defective graphene. We also show that the inclusion of defects at ZGNRs is a good way to create and control pronounced peaks at the Fermi level. Furthermore, defective ZGNRs structures show magnetic moment by supercell up to 2.0 μ B . For the non defective ZGNRs is observed a switch of the magnetic coupling between opposite ribbon edges from the antiferromagnetic to the ferrimagnetic and ferromagnetic configurations.

  3. Local magnetic structure determination using polarized neutron holography

    SciTech Connect

    Szakál, Alex Markó, Márton Cser, László

    2015-05-07

    A unique and important property of the neutron is that it possesses magnetic moment. This property is widely used for determination of magnetic structure of crystalline samples observing the magnetic components of the diffraction peaks. Investigations of diffraction patterns give information only about the averaged structure of a crystal but for discovering of local spin arrangement around a specific (e.g., impurity) nucleus remains still a challenging problem. Neutron holography is a useful tool to investigate the local structure around a specific nucleus embedded in a crystal lattice. The method has been successfully applied experimentally in several cases using non-magnetic short range interaction of the neutron and the nucleus. A mathematical model of the hologram using interaction between magnetic moment of the atom and the neutron spin for polarized neutron holography is provided. Validity of a polarized neutron holographic experiment is demonstrated by applying the proposed method on model systems.

  4. Vertical Structure of Magnetized Accretion Disks around Young Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizano, S.; Tapia, C.; Boehler, Y.; D'Alessio, P.

    2016-01-01

    We model the vertical structure of the magnetized accretion disks that are subject to viscous and resistive heating and irradiation by the central star. We apply our formalism to the radial structure of the magnetized accretion disks that are threaded by the poloidal magnetic field dragged during the process of star formation, which was developed by Shu and coworkers. We consider disks around low-mass protostars, T Tauri, and FU Orionis stars, as well as two levels of disk magnetization: {λ }{sys}=4 (strongly magnetized disks) and {λ }{sys}=12 (weakly magnetized disks). The rotation rates of strongly magnetized disks have large deviations from Keplerian rotation. In these models, resistive heating dominates the thermal structure for the FU Ori disk, and the T Tauri disk is very thin and cold because it is strongly compressed by magnetic pressure; it may be too thin compared with observations. Instead, in the weakly magnetized disks, rotation velocities are close to Keplerian, and resistive heating is always less than 7% of the viscous heating. In these models, the T Tauri disk has a larger aspect ratio, which is consistent with that inferred from observations. All the disks have spatially extended hot atmospheres where the irradiation flux is absorbed, although most of the mass (˜90%-95%) is in the disk midplane. With the advent of ALMA one expects direct measurements of magnetic fields and their morphology at disk scales. It will then be possible to determine the mass-to-flux ratio of magnetized accretion disks around young stars, an essential parameter for their structure and evolution. Our models contribute to the understanding of the vertical structure and emission of these disks.

  5. Vertical Structure of Magnetized Accretion Disks Around Young Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapia, Carlos; Lizano, Susana

    2016-01-01

    We model the vertical structure of magnetized accretion disks subject to viscous and resistive heating, and irradiation by the central star. We apply our formalism to the radial structure of magnetized accretion disks threaded by a poloidal magnetic field dragged during the process of star formation developed by Shu and coworkers. We consider disks around low mass protostars, T Tauri, and FU Orionis stars. We consider two levels of disk magnetization, λsys = 4 (strongly magnetized disks), and λsys = 12 (weakly magnetized disks). The rotation rates of strongly magnetized disks have large deviations from Keplerian rotation. In these models, resistive heating dominates the thermal structure for the FU Ori disk. The T Tauri disk is very thin and cold because it is strongly compressed by magnetic pressure; it may be too thin compared with observations. Instead, in the weakly magnetized disks, rotation velocities are close to Keplerian, and resistive heating is always less than 7% of the viscous heating. In these models, the T Tauri disk has a larger aspect ratio, consistent with that inferred from observations. All the disks have spatially extended hot atmospheres where the irradiation flux is absorbed, although most of the mass (~ 90 - 95 %) is in the disk midplane.

  6. Spontaneous phase transitions in magnetic films with a modulated structure

    SciTech Connect

    Arzamastseva, G. V.; Evtikhov, M. G.; Lisovskii, F. V. Mansvetova, E. G.

    2011-09-15

    The influence of monoperiodic and biperiodic bias fields on the nucleation of domain structures in quasi-uniaxial magnetic films near the Curie point has been studied experimentally. The main types of observed nonuniform magnetic moment distributions have been established and chains of a devil's staircase phase transitions are shown to be realized when the films are slowly cooled.

  7. Time evolution of a single, quiet-Sun magnetic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Requerey, Iker S.; Bonet, José Antonio; Solanki, Sami K.; Bellot Rubio, L. R.; Del Toro Iniesta, Jose Carlos

    Isolated flux tubes are considered to be fundamental magnetic building blocks of the solar photosphere. Their formation is usually attributed to the concentration of magnetic field to kG strengths by the convective instability mechanism. However, the small size of the magnetic elements in quiet-Sun areas has prevented this scenario from being studied in fully resolved structures. Here we report on the formation and subsequent evolution of a photospheric magnetic flux tube, observed in the quiet Sun with unprecedented spatial resolution (0. ('') 15 - 0. ('') 18) and high temporal cadence (33 s). The observations were acquired by the Imaging Magnetograph Experiment (IMaX) aboard the textsc{Sunrise} balloon-borne solar observatory. The equipartition field strength magnetic element is reached from the merging of several magnetic flux patches in a mesogranule-sized sink. The magnetic structure is then further intensified to kG field strengths by convective collapse and granular compression. The fine structure found within the flux concentration reveal that the scenario is more complex than a canonical flux tube model. After a subsequent weakening process, the field is further intensified to kG strengths. Seen as a whole, the evolution of the magnetic structure is compatible with oscillations in all basic physical quantities. A discussion on whether this evolution fits to the current theoretical descriptions is also presented.

  8. Magnetic structure and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline and amorphous Fe-Zr-N films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheftel, Elena N.; Harin, Eugene V.; Tedzhetov, Valentin A.; Kiryukhantsev-Korneev, Philipp V.; Levashov, Evgeny A.; Perov, Nikolai S.; Titova, Alexandra O.

    2016-08-01

    Data on the magnetic structure and magnetic properties of Fe-Zr-N films, which were prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering of a heated target and deposited on glass substrates, are reported. Depending on the Zr content (from 3 to 35 at%), the film compositions are characterized by Zr-to-N (at%) ratio from 0.3 to 36.5. The magnetic properties (saturation magnetization Ms, coercive field Hc) and magnetic structure (effective local magnetic anisotropy field D1/2Ha, grain size 2Rc, effective anisotropy field of stochastic domain D1/2, relative stochastic domain size RL/Rc) of the films are discussed in interrelation with their phase and structural states. The coercive field of the studied ferromagnetic nanocrystalline films was shown to obey the relationship Hc~(2Rc)6 and depends on not only the grain size but also the local magnetic anisotropy field D1/2Ha. As the grain size of ferromagnetic phase decreases, the contribution of the magnetoelastic component to the coercive field decreases. It was shown, by examples of weak ferromagnetic and superparamagnetic films with amorphous and mixed (amorphous+nanocrystalline) structures containing a nonferromagnetic phase, that the magnetic properties reflect the real structural and phase state of the films, which cannot be revealed by the X-ray diffraction analysis.

  9. Three-Dimensional EMHD Simulation Studies of Nonlinear Magnetic Structures in Magnetized Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Eliasson, B.; Shukla, P. K.

    2008-10-15

    We present a numerical study of strongly nonlinear magnetic vortex-like structures, denoted whistler spheromaks, which have recently been observed in laboratory experiments. The whistler spheromaks are excited with a ring antenna immersed in the magnetized plasma, and are propagating away from the antenna with a constant speed along the ambient magnetic field lines. The wave magnetic field of the spheromaks are of the same order or larger than the ambient magnetic field, and consists of two parts, the poloidal field which is strong enough to reverse the magnetic field in the center of the spheromak, and the toroidal field. We demonstrate numerically that the latter is crucial for the propagation speed and direction of the spheromak, and that the whistler spheromaks are long-lived structures.

  10. MAGNETIC FIELD STRUCTURES TRIGGERING SOLAR FLARES AND CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kusano, K.; Bamba, Y.; Yamamoto, T. T.; Iida, Y.; Toriumi, S.; Asai, A.

    2012-11-20

    Solar flares and coronal mass ejections, the most catastrophic eruptions in our solar system, have been known to affect terrestrial environments and infrastructure. However, because their triggering mechanism is still not sufficiently understood, our capacity to predict the occurrence of solar eruptions and to forecast space weather is substantially hindered. Even though various models have been proposed to determine the onset of solar eruptions, the types of magnetic structures capable of triggering these eruptions are still unclear. In this study, we solved this problem by systematically surveying the nonlinear dynamics caused by a wide variety of magnetic structures in terms of three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations. As a result, we determined that two different types of small magnetic structures favor the onset of solar eruptions. These structures, which should appear near the magnetic polarity inversion line (PIL), include magnetic fluxes reversed to the potential component or the nonpotential component of major field on the PIL. In addition, we analyzed two large flares, the X-class flare on 2006 December 13 and the M-class flare on 2011 February 13, using imaging data provided by the Hinode satellite, and we demonstrated that they conform to the simulation predictions. These results suggest that forecasting of solar eruptions is possible with sophisticated observation of a solar magnetic field, although the lead time must be limited by the timescale of changes in the small magnetic structures.

  11. The magnetic and thermodynamical structure of a coronal hole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osherovich, V. A.; Gliner, E. B.; Tzur, I.; Kuhn, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    A nonpolytropic model of a polar coronal hole of 2-5 solar radii constructed. The main assumptions are: (1) the magnetic structure of the sun can be described by a combination of dipole-like and radial fields; (2) in the magnetically dominated region rho(nu sq/2) much less than B sq/8 pi the influence of the outflow on the magnetic structure is negligible. The magnetic and thermodynamic structures are obtained by solving the force balance equation for plasma with the observationally derived electron density. Profiles of velocities in the acceleration regime are presented and the influence of the outflow on the thermodynamic structure of the solar corona above the polar region is discussed.

  12. Magnetic structures of nanometer scale Dy, Cr and Ni

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzsimmons, M.R.; Robinson, R.A.; Lawson, A.C.; Kwei, G.H.; Sickafus, K.E.; Eastman, J.A.; Burkel, E.

    1992-10-01

    Materials composed of nanometer-sized structures are becoming technologically relevant as the sizes of electronic devices approach the nanometer scale. Questions as to the performance and durability of these devices can be partially addressed through the characterization and understanding of the magnetic structures and properties of nanometer-sized materials. The purpose of the present work is to understand the relationship between the microstructure of nanocrystalline materials and their magnetic structures and properties. This paper summarizes three separate experiments: (1) an X-ray diffraction and anomalous absorption (XANES) study of nanocrystalline Dy, (2) neutron diffraction measurements of the magnetic structure of nanocrystalline Cr, and (3) the measurement of the magnetization density of a single twist grain boundary in Ni.

  13. On Possible Existence of Elongated Magnetical Structure in Circumsolar Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volodichev, N. N.; Grigorjeva, V. P.; Prokudina, V. D.

    1988-02-01

    The proton events, observed from "Prognoz-8" and connected with the flares of April 28 and 30, 1981 were analyzed. The temporal profiles of proton flux were characterized by discrete structure, and from bursts' duration the total sizes of the magnetic structure (L = 3.5×106km) and characteristic sizes of the fine structure (L = 25 - 30×103km) were evaluated.

  14. Electronic band structure of magnetic bilayer graphene superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Pham, C. Huy; Nguyen, T. Thuong

    2014-09-28

    Electronic band structure of the bilayer graphene superlattices with δ-function magnetic barriers and zero average magnetic flux is studied within the four-band continuum model, using the transfer matrix method. The periodic magnetic potential effects on the zero-energy touching point between the lowest conduction and the highest valence minibands of pristine bilayer graphene are exactly analyzed. Magnetic potential is shown also to generate the finite-energy touching points between higher minibands at the edges of Brillouin zone. The positions of these points and the related dispersions are determined in the case of symmetric potentials.

  15. Freestanding single-crystalline magnetic structures fabricated by ion bombardment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenherr, P.; Bischof, A.; Boehm, B.; Eib, P.; Grimm, S.; Alvarado, S. F.; Gross, L.; Allenspach, R.

    2015-01-01

    Starting from an ultrathin Fe film grown epitaxially on top of a GaAs(001) substrate, we show that freestanding structures can be created by ion-beam treatment. These structures are single-crystalline blisters and only a few nanometers thick. Anisotropic stress in the rim of a blister induces magnetic domain states magnetized in the direction normal to the blister edge. Experimental evidence is provided that the lateral size can be confined by starting from a nanostructured template.

  16. Freestanding single-crystalline magnetic structures fabricated by ion bombardment

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenherr, P.; Bischof, A.; Boehm, B.; Eib, P.; Grimm, S.; Gross, L.; Allenspach, R.; Alvarado, S. F.

    2015-01-19

    Starting from an ultrathin Fe film grown epitaxially on top of a GaAs(001) substrate, we show that freestanding structures can be created by ion-beam treatment. These structures are single-crystalline blisters and only a few nanometers thick. Anisotropic stress in the rim of a blister induces magnetic domain states magnetized in the direction normal to the blister edge. Experimental evidence is provided that the lateral size can be confined by starting from a nanostructured template.

  17. Manipulation by exchange coupling in layered magnetic structures

    SciTech Connect

    Moskalenko, M. A.; Uzdin, V. M.; Zabel, H.

    2014-02-07

    Exchange coupling in magnetic heterostructures can be modified via introduction of additional magnetic spacer layers at the interfaces. The magnetic characteristics and the spacer layer thickness determine the functional properties of the whole system. We show that the hysteresis loop area of trilayer spring magnets with two different soft magnetic layers (s1, s2) and one hard magnetic layer (h) with the sequence s1/s2/h can be increased as compared to both bilayer structures s1/h and s2/h with the same total thickness of the soft layers and for definite thickness ratios of the soft layers and their sequences. For ferrimagnetic spin valves, the perpendicular exchange bias effect can be tuned via the thickness of non-magnetic spacer layers at the interface, which determine the exchange coupling between ferrimagnets. A simple quasi one-dimensional phenomenological model is able to describe the magnetic hysteresis of even complex layered structures and to predict optimal geometrical and magnetic parameters of such heterostructures.

  18. Phase transitions and magnetic structures in MnW1‑x Mo x O4 compounds (x  ⩽  0.2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Vincent; Payen, Christophe; Damay, Françoise; Meddar, Lynda; Josse, Michaël; Andre, Gilles

    2016-08-01

    Temperature-dependent specific heat, magnetization and neutron diffraction data have been collected in zero magnetic field for polycrystalline samples of MnW1‑x Mo x O4 (x  ⩽  0.2) solid solution whose end-member MnWO4 exhibits a magnetoelectric multiferroic phase (AF2 phase) between T 1  ≈  8 K and T 2  =  12.5 K. In MnW1‑x Mo x O4, diamagnetic W6+ are replaced with diamagnetic Mo6+ cations and magnetic couplings among Mn2+ (3d 5, S  =  5/2) ions are modified due the doping-induced tuning of the orbital hybridization between Mn 3d and O 2p states. It was observed that magnetic phase transition temperatures which are associated with the second-order AF3-to-paramagnetic (T N) and AF2-to-AF3 (T 2) transitions in pure MnWO4 slightly increase with the Mo content x. Magnetic specific heat data also indicate that the first-order AF1-to-AF2 phase transition at T 1 survives a weak doping x  ⩽  0.05. This latter phase transition becomes invisible above the base temperature 2 K for higher level of doping x  ⩾  0.10. Neutron powder diffraction datasets collected above 1.5 K for a sample of MnW0.8Mo0.2O4 were analyzed using the Rietveld method. The magnetic structure below  ≈  14 K is a helical incommensurate spin order with a temperature-independent propagation vector k  =  (‑0.217(6), 0.5, 0.466(4)). This cycloidal magnetic structure is similar to the polar AF2 structure observed in MnWO4. The AF1 up-up-down-down collinear spin arrangement observed in MnWO4 is absent in our MnW0.8Mo0.2O4 sample.

  19. Phase transitions and magnetic structures in MnW1-x Mo x O4 compounds (x  ⩽  0.2).

    PubMed

    Hardy, Vincent; Payen, Christophe; Damay, Françoise; Meddar, Lynda; Josse, Michaël; Andre, Gilles

    2016-08-24

    Temperature-dependent specific heat, magnetization and neutron diffraction data have been collected in zero magnetic field for polycrystalline samples of MnW1-x Mo x O4 (x  ⩽  0.2) solid solution whose end-member MnWO4 exhibits a magnetoelectric multiferroic phase (AF2 phase) between T 1  ≈  8 K and T 2  =  12.5 K. In MnW1-x Mo x O4, diamagnetic W(6+) are replaced with diamagnetic Mo(6+) cations and magnetic couplings among Mn(2+) (3d (5), S  =  5/2) ions are modified due the doping-induced tuning of the orbital hybridization between Mn 3d and O 2p states. It was observed that magnetic phase transition temperatures which are associated with the second-order AF3-to-paramagnetic (T N) and AF2-to-AF3 (T 2) transitions in pure MnWO4 slightly increase with the Mo content x. Magnetic specific heat data also indicate that the first-order AF1-to-AF2 phase transition at T 1 survives a weak doping x  ⩽  0.05. This latter phase transition becomes invisible above the base temperature 2 K for higher level of doping x  ⩾  0.10. Neutron powder diffraction datasets collected above 1.5 K for a sample of MnW0.8Mo0.2O4 were analyzed using the Rietveld method. The magnetic structure below  ≈  14 K is a helical incommensurate spin order with a temperature-independent propagation vector k  =  (-0.217(6), 0.5, 0.466(4)). This cycloidal magnetic structure is similar to the polar AF2 structure observed in MnWO4. The AF1 up-up-down-down collinear spin arrangement observed in MnWO4 is absent in our MnW0.8Mo0.2O4 sample. PMID:27351522

  20. The magnetic field structure in the active solar corona.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, K. H.

    1971-01-01

    The structure of the magnetic field of the active solar corona is discussed with reference to optical and radio observations of the solar atmosphere. Eclipse observations provide evidence of fine scale structures in the solar atmosphere that appear to relate to the coronal magnetic field. The coronal magnetic field used for comparison is calculated from potential theory; the influence of solar activity upon the potential theory field is discussed with reference to observations of the Faraday rotation of a microwave signal from Pioneer 6 as it was occulted by the solar atmosphere. Evidence has been found suggesting the existence of expanding magnetic bottles located at 10 solar radii above flaring active regions. The dynamics of these events is discussed. It is further suggested that these magnetic bottles are an important component in the solar corona.

  1. Imaging magnetic structures with a transmission X-ray microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, P.; Eimüller, T.; Schütz, G.; Guttmann, P.; Schmahl, G.; Bayreuther, G.

    2000-05-01

    The X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (X-MCD), i.e., the dependence of the absorption of circularly polarized X-rays on the magnetization of the absorber exhibits at L-edges of transition metals values up to 25%. This can serve as a huge magnetic contrast mechanism in combination with a transmission X-ray microscope (TXM) to image magnetic domains providing a lateral resolution down to about 30 nm. The inherent element-specificity, the possibility to record images in varying external fields within a complete hysteresis loop, the relation of the contrast to local magnetic spin and orbital moments, etc. demonstrate the unique applicability to study the magnetic domain structure in current technical relevant systems like magneto-optics for high density storage media, multilayers for GMR applications or nanostructures for MRAM technology.

  2. Two-dimensional chiral asymmetry in unidirectional magnetic anisotropy structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perna, P.; Ajejas, F.; Maccariello, D.; Cuñado, J. L.; Guerrero, R.; Niño, M. A.; Muñoz, M.; Prieto, J. L.; Miranda, R.; Camarero, J.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the symmetry-breaking effects of magnetic nanostructures that present unidirectional (one-fold) magnetic anisotropy. Angular and field dependent transport and magnetic properties have been studied in two different exchange-biased systems, i.e. ferromagnetic (FM)/ antiferromagnetic (AFM) bilayer and spin-valve structures. We experimentally show the direct relationships between the magnetoresistance (MR) response and the magnetization reversal pathways for any field value and direction. We demonstrate that even though the MR signals are related to different transport phenomena, namely anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) and giant magnetoresistance (GMR), chiral asymmetries are found around the magnetization hard-axis direction, in both cases originated from the one-fold symmetry of the interfacial exchange coupling. Our results indicate that the chiral asymmetry of transport and magnetic behaviors are intrinsic of systems with an unidirectional contribution.

  3. Muslim Education and Its (In)commensurability with Multiculturalism: Some Thoughts on the Imaginative Madrassah

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waghid, Yusef; Davids, Nuraan

    2014-01-01

    Muslim education is not incommensurate with multiculturalism and, hence, does not pose a threat to multiculturalism at all. If Muslim education were to be perceived as a risk to multiculturalism then either such a form of education is not conceived appropriately or the claims of multiculturalism are false. Instead, the authors argue that Muslim…

  4. Observation of nonequilibrium behavior near the Lifshitz point in ferroelectrics with incommensurate phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushchanskii, K. Z.; Molnar, A.; Bilanych, R.; Yevych, R.; Kohutych, A.; Vysochanskii, Yu. M.; Samulionis, V.; Banys, J.

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated nonequilibrium properties of proper uniaxial Sn2P2(SexS1-x) 6 ferroelectrics with the type II incommensurate phase above Lifshitz point xLP˜0.28 . We performed measurements of dielectric susceptibility in cooling and heating regimes with the rate ranging 0.002-0.1 K/min, as well as high-resolution ultrasound investigation and hypersound Brillouin scattering experiments. For samples with x ≥0.28 clear anomalies are observed at incommensurate second-order transition (Ti) and at first-order lock-in transition (Tc) in the regime of very slow cooling rate, whereas the intermediate incommensurate phase is not observed when the rate is faster than 0.1 K/min. In general, increasing the cooling rate leads to smearing of the anomaly at Tc. We relate this effect to cooling rate dependence of domain-wall concentration and their size: domain width decreases when cooling rate increases. At certain conditions, the size of domain is comparable to the incommensurate phase modulation period, which is in the micrometer range in the vicinity of Lifshitz point and leads to pinning of the modulation period by domain walls.

  5. Model for dynamic self-assembled magnetic surface structures.

    SciTech Connect

    Belkin, M.; Glatz, A.; Snezhko, A.; Aranson, I. S.; Materials Science Division; Northwestern Univ.

    2010-07-07

    We propose a first-principles model for the dynamic self-assembly of magnetic structures at a water-air interface reported in earlier experiments. The model is based on the Navier-Stokes equation for liquids in shallow water approximation coupled to Newton equations for interacting magnetic particles suspended at a water-air interface. The model reproduces most of the observed phenomenology, including spontaneous formation of magnetic snakelike structures, generation of large-scale vortex flows, complex ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic ordering of the snake, and self-propulsion of bead-snake hybrids.

  6. Synthesis, Structural, Electrical and Magnetic Studies of Ni- Ferrite Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godbole, Bhavana; Badera, Nitu; Shrivastava, S. B.; Jain, Deepti; Chandra, L. S. Sharath; Ganesan, V.

    Mono-dispersed NiFe2O4 nanoparticles have been synthesized using a stable ferric salt of FeCl3 with co-precipitation technique, for study of their structural, morphological and magnetic properties. The XRD pattern conforms the formation of FCC structure with the lattice constant 8.31Ao. The crystallite size was found to increase with the bath temperature ranging from 33 nm to 55 nm. The AFM results revealed that uniform disc shaped particles were obtained. The resistivity measurements show a metal like to semiconductor transition, which depends on the size of the grains. The magnetic study reveals that saturation magnetization increases with the grain thickness.

  7. Magnetic field-aligned coupling effects on ionospheric plasma structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heelis, R. A.; Vickrey, J. F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical description of the electrical coupling and dynamics of plasma structure in the E and F regions. The scale size dependence of the electric field coupling along the magnetic field is examined for a realistic background ionosphere and atmosphere. It is shown that, while normalized potentials map reciprocally between two altitudes, the potential disturbance caused by a fixed amplitude plasma density perturbation does not. The magnitude of electrostatic potential created by structured ionization is also shown to be strongly dependent on the altitude of the structure. The role of diffusion parallel to the magnetic field in the redistribution and decay of plasma structure is illustrated.

  8. X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.; Lima, E.; Huang, X.; Krupin, O.; Seu, K.; Parks, D.; Kevan, S.; Kisslinger, K.; McNulty, I.; Gambino, R.; Mangin, S.; Roy, S. and Fischer, P.

    2011-07-14

    We report the first proof-of-principle experiment of iterative phase retrieval from magnetic x-ray diffraction. By using the resonant x-ray excitation process and coherent x-ray scattering, we show that linearly polarized soft x rays can be used to image both the amplitude and the phase of magnetic domain structures. We recovered the magnetic structure of an amorphous terbium-cobalt thin film with a spatial resolution of about 75 nm at the Co L{sub 3} edge at 778 eV. In comparison with soft x-ray microscopy images recorded with Fresnel zone plate optics at better than 25 nm spatial resolution, we find qualitative agreement in the observed magnetic structure.

  9. Structure and magnetism of FeMnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayaprol, S.; Kaushik, S. D.; Babu, P. D.; Siruguri, V.

    2013-02-01

    The compound FeMnO3 crystallizing in the mineral bixbyite structure has been prepared by mechanochemical synthesis achieved by high energy ball milling of starting compounds. The structure and magnetism have been studied using powder neutron diffraction and magnetization measurements. Magnetization measurements exhibits ferrimagnetism at 300 K and antiferromagnetic (TN) ordering around 36 K. Magnetic structure has been determined from the Rietveld analysis of the neutron diffraction pattern recorded at 300 K. Fe and Mn occupy both 8b and 24d sites in 1:1 ratio. Interaction between Fe and Mn atoms is antiferromagnetic. The ferrimagnetism arises due to anti-parallel alignment of unequal moments on 8b and 24d sites.

  10. Structure and magnetism in novel group IV element-based magnetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Tsui, Frank

    2013-08-14

    The project is to investigate structure, magnetism and spin dependent states of novel group IV element-based magnetic thin films and heterostructures as a function of composition and epitaxial constraints. The materials systems of interest are Si-compatible epitaxial films and heterostructures of Si/Ge-based magnetic ternary alloys grown by non-equilibrium molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) techniques, specifically doped magnetic semiconductors (DMS) and half-metallic Heusler alloys. Systematic structural, chemical, magnetic, and electrical measurements are carried out, using x-ray microbeam techniques, magnetotunneling spectroscopy and microscopy, and magnetotransport. The work is aimed at elucidating the nature and interplay between structure, chemical order, magnetism, and spin-dependent states in these novel materials, at developing materials and techniques to realize and control fully spin polarized states, and at exploring fundamental processes that stabilize the epitaxial magnetic nanostructures and control the electronic and magnetic states in these complex materials. Combinatorial approach provides the means for the systematic studies, and the complex nature of the work necessitates this approach.

  11. Synthesis, structure and magnetism in copper chalcochromite spinels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neulinger, Janell Rebecca

    The copper chalcochromites (CuCr2X4 (X = S, Se, Te)) possess a rare combination of magnetic and electronic properties compared to other chalcogenide spinet materials. A precise structural and magnetic investigation of these materials was undertaken in order to facilitate technological exploitation of these unusual properties. CuCr2Se4, several halogenated derivatives of the form CuCr2Se4 -xXx (with X = Cl, Br, or I), and CuCr2S3Cl were prepared via powder methods and chemical vapor transport growth of single crystals. A variety of X-ray diffraction techniques were employed to determine the crystal structures of the synthesis products. The materials adopt a trigonal variation of the spinet structure type; the lower-symmetry structure includes a single threefold roto-inversion axis. Halogen doping introduces systematic changes in the properties of the chalcochromites, and the effects of halogen doping were monitored by magnetometry, soft X-ray spectroscopy, and magnetic microscopy techniques. Bulk magnetic properties were characterized by SQUID and vibrating sample magnetometry, at temperatures from 5 K to above the Curie temperatures. Soft X-ray spectroscopic measurements performed at the Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory included X-ray absorption (XAS) and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) experiments. Dichroic spectra at the Cr L2,3 and Cu L 2,3 absorption edges confirm a ferrimagnetic model of opposing magnetic sub-lattices localized on the Cr and Cu centers; increasing levels of halogen doping suppress the contribution from the copper sublattice and reduce T C. Magnetic domain imaging using the Photoelectron Electron Microscope (PEEM) at the Advanced Light Source indicates the presence of a variety of domain morphologies, including predominantly stripe domains reflecting the uniaxial symmetry of the trigonal spinel structure. The magnetic and structural features of the copper chalcochromites mark them as robust, tunable, and

  12. High-resolution synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction study of the incommensurate modulation in the martensite phase of Ni2MnGa: Evidence for nearly 7M modulation and phason broadening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sanjay; Petricek, V.; Rajput, Parasmani; Hill, Adrian H.; Suard, E.; Barman, S. R.; Pandey, Dhananjai

    2014-07-01

    The modulated structure of the martensite phase of Ni2MnGa is revisited using high-resolution synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction measurements, which reveal higher-order satellite reflections up to the third order and phason broadening of the satellite peaks. The structure refinement, using the (3+1) dimensional superspace group approach, shows that the modulated structure of Ni2MnGa can be described by orthorhombic superspace group Immm(00γ)s00 with lattice parameters a=4.218 61(2)Å,b=5.546 96(3)Å, and c=4.187 63(2) Å, and an incommensurate modulation wave vector q =0.43160(3)c*=(3/7+δ)c*, where δ =0.00303(3) is the degree of incommensuration of the modulated structure. Additional satellite peak broadening, which could not be accounted for in terms of the anisotropic strain broadening based on a lattice parameter distribution, has been modeled in terms of phasons using fourth-rank covariant strain-tensor representation for incommensurate structures. The simulation of single-crystal diffraction patterns from the refined structural parameters unambiguously reveals a rational approximant structure with 7M modulation. The inhomogeneous displacement of different atomic sites on account of incommensurate modulation and the presence of phason broadening clearly rule out the adaptive phase model proposed recently by Kaufmann et al. [S. Kaufmann, U. K. Rößler, O. Heczko, M. Wuttig, J. Buschbeck, L. Schultz, and S. Fähler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 145702 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.145702] and suggest that the modulation in Ni2MnGa originates from soft-mode phonons.

  13. Regular and chaotic precession of magnetization in magnetic films with a stripe domain structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shutyĭ, A. M.

    2008-12-01

    Based on a numerical solution of the equations of motion found over a wide range of frequencies of an alternating magnetic field, the nonlinear precession dynamics of magnetization are studied in thin-film structures of the (100) type with a stripe domain structure in a perpendicular bias field. The conditions are determined under which high-amplitude regular and chaotic dynamic regimes occur. Bifurcational variations in the precession of coupled magnetic moments and dynamic-bistability states are detected. The specific features of the spectrum of Lyapunov exponents and of time analogs of Poincaré cross sections of trajectories in chaotic regimes are considered.

  14. Oxygen octahedra distortion induced structural and magnetic phase transitions in Bi{sub 1−x}Ca{sub x}Fe{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 3} ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Pawan; Kar, Manoranjan; Shankhwar, Nisha; Srinivasan, A.

    2015-05-21

    The co-doping of Ca and Mn in respective Bi and Fe-sites of BiFeO{sub 3} lattice leads to structural transition from rhombohedral (R3c space group) to orthorhombic (Pbnm space group) crystal symmetry. The tilt angle for anti-phase rotation of the oxygen octahedra of BiFeO{sub 3} at room temperature is observed to be ∼13.8°. It decreases with the increase in the co-doping percentage which suggests the composition-driven structural phase transition. The remnant magnetization for sample with 15% of co-doping becomes about 16 times that of BiFeO{sub 3}. It may be attributed to the suppression of cycloid spin structure and uncompensated spins at the surface of nanocrystallites. Further increase in co-doping percentage results in the sharp reduction of remnant magnetization due to the dominant contribution from the collinear antiferromagnetic ordering in the Pbnm space group. The Arrott plot analysis clearly indicates the composition-driven crossover from the antiferromagnetic to weak ferromagnetic ordering and vice versa. Electron spin resonance results provide the evidence for the composition-driven phase transitions from an incommensurate spin cycloidal modulated state to one with nearly homogeneous spin order. The band gap (2.17 eV) of BiFeO{sub 3} measured using UV-Vis spectra was supported by the resonance Raman spectra.

  15. Magnetic and structural properties of Mn-Ga thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Siqian; Suzuki, Takao

    2016-05-01

    A systematic experimental work has been conducted to understand the magnetic properties of Mn-Ga thin films. Multilayer structured thin films of [MnGa 2 nm/Mn x nm]×25 (x = 0.2˜3.5, which corresponds to Mn at%56˜86) were sputter-deposited onto silica glass substrates, followed by annealing in vacuum. It is found that the magnetic properties strongly depend on x. For x = 0.5, the high magnetization values are found, where the nanocrystalline L10 structure is present. The samples with x = 2.0-3.0 exhibit the coercivity Hc higher than 10 kOe at room temperature where the nanocrystalline D022 structures are found to form. The correlation between the magnetic anisotropy constant K and saturation magnetization Ms is also discussed. The nth power dependence of magnetic anisotropy constant K on Ms is found, where the values of n are 7.8 and 1.9 for x = 0.5 and 2.5, respectively. The present result of the power dependence of n equals about 8 for the L10 MnGa suggests that the magnetic anisotropy in a nanocrystalline L10 MnGa phase is much different from the ordered FePt phase. On the other hand, the power dependence of the D022 nanocrystalline phase suggests the two-ion mechanism.

  16. Electronic correlation in magnetic contributions to structural energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haydock, Roger

    For interacting electrons the density of transitions [see http://arxiv.org/abs/1405.2288] replaces the density of states in calculations of structural energies. Extending previous work on paramagnetic metals, this approach is applied to correlation effects on the structural stability of magnetic transition metals. Supported by the H. V. Snyder Gift to the University of Oregon.

  17. Three-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Velopharyngeal Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Youkyung; Kuehn, David P.; Sutton, Bradley P.; Conway, Charles A.; Perry, Jamie L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To report the feasibility of using a 3-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol for examining velopharyngeal structures. Using collected 3D MRI data, the authors investigated the effect of sex on the midsagittal velopharyngeal structures and the levator veli palatini (levator) muscle configurations. Method: Ten Caucasian…

  18. Growth, structure, morphology, and magnetic properties of Ni ferrite films

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The morphology, structure, and magnetic properties of nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4) films fabricated by radio frequency magnetron sputtering on Si(111) substrate have been investigated as functions of film thickness. Prepared films that have not undergone post-annealing show the better spinel crystal structure with increasing growth time. Meanwhile, the size of grain also increases, which induces the change of magnetic properties: saturation magnetization increased and coercivity increased at first and then decreased. Note that the sample of 10-nm thickness is the superparamagnetic property. Transmission electron microscopy displays that the film grew with a disorder structure at initial growth, then forms spinel crystal structure as its thickness increases, which is relative to lattice matching between substrate Si and NiFe2O4. PMID:23622034

  19. Structure, micromechanical and magnetic properties of polycarbonate nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maniks, J.; Zabels, R.; Merijs Meri, R.; Zicans, J.

    2013-12-01

    The current study evaluates the applicability of polycarbonate (PC) for development of magnetic polymer nanocomposites with CoFe2O4 nanofiller, the amount of which was changed from 0 to 5 wt. %. Ethylene-vinyl acetate elastomer in the amount of 10 wt. % was added as toughener. Upon introduction of the magnetic filler a magnetic hysteresis loop was observed: at 5 wt.% of CoFe2O4 saturation magnetization of the nanocomposite was 2,2 emu/g, remanent magnetization was 0,8 emu/g and coercivity is 1200 G. Nanoindentation tests showed that nanofiller-reinforced samples maintain reasonable plasticity characterized by work of plastic indentation, while their modulus and hardness were improved by up to 14% and 20%, correspondingly. Structural study revealed clustering of the nanofiller at the contents above 2 wt.% that led to reduction of strengthening effect.

  20. Magnetization processes in core/shell exchange-spring structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, J. S.

    2015-05-01

    The magnetization reversal processes in cylindrical and spherical soft core/hard shell exchange-spring structures are investigated via the analytical nucleation theory and are verified with numerical micromagnetic simulations. At small core sizes, the nucleation of magnetic reversal proceeds via the modified bulging mode, where the transverse component of the magnetization is only semi-coherent in direction and the nucleation field contains a contribution from self-demagnetization. For large core sizes, the modified curling mode, where the magnetization configuration is vortex-like, is favored at nucleation. The preference for the modified curling mode is beneficial in that the flux-closure allows cylindrical and spherical core/shell exchange-spring elements to be densely packed into bulk permanent magnets without affecting the nucleation field, thereby offering the potential for high energy product.

  1. Diagnosing the Magnetic Structure of the Sustained Spheromak Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, Hillary; Romero Talamas, Carlos

    2005-10-01

    Unlike in traditional fusion devices, SSPX plasmas are confined by a magnetic field that is predominately generated by the plasma itself. The process by which plasma creates and changes the magnetic field is complicated and therefore makes it difficult to know its exact structure everywhere in the plasma at any point in time. This poster describes three different methods of studying the magnetic structure of the experiment; using edge probes in conjunction with Corsica- an equilibrium fitting code, imaging the plasma with a high-speed intensified CCD camera, and inserting an array of magnetic probes internal to the plasma. The research was performed under appointment to the Fusion Energy Sciences Fellowship Program and supported by US DOE. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  2. Structural and magnetic phase transitions in CeCu6-xTx (T = Ag,Pd)

    SciTech Connect

    Poudel, Lekhanath N.; De la cruz, Clarina; Payzant, E. Andrew; Koehler, Michael R.; May, Andrew F.; Garlea, Vasile O.; Taylor, Alice E.; Parker, David S.; Cao, Huibo B.; McGuire, Michael A.; Tian, Wei; Matsuda, Masaaki; Jeen, Hyoung Jeen; Lee, Ho Nyung; Hong, Tao; Calder, Stuart A.; Lumsden, Mark D.; Zhou, Haidong; Keppens, Veerle; Mandrus, D.; Christianson, Andrew D.

    2015-12-15

    The structural and the magnetic properties of CeCu6-xAgx (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.85) and CeCu6-xPdx (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.4) have been studied using neutron diffraction, resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS), x-ray diffraction measurements, and first principles calculations. The structural and magnetic phase diagrams of CeCu6-xAgx and CeCu6-xPdx as a function of Ag/Pd composition are reported. The end member, CeCu6, undergoes a structural phase transition from an orthorhombic (Pnma) to a monoclinic (P21/c) phase at 240 K. In CeCu6-xAgx, the structural phase transition temperature (Ts) decreases linearly with Ag concentration and extrapolates to zero at xS ≈ 0.1. The structural transition in CeCu6-xPdx remains unperturbed with Pd substitution within the range of our study. The lattice constant b slightly decreases with Ag/Pd doping, whereas a and c increase with an overall increase in the unit cell volume. Both systems, CeCu6-xAgx and CeCu6-xPdx, exhibit a magnetic quantum critical point (QCP), at x ≈ 0.2 and x ≈ 0.05, respectively. Near the QCP, long range antiferromagnetic ordering takes place at an incommensurate wave vector (δ1 0 δ2), where δ1 ~ 0.62, δ2 ~ 0.25, x = 0.125 for CeCu6-xPdx and δ1 ~ 0.64, δ2 ~ 0.3, x = 0.3 for CeCu6-xAgx. As a result, the magnetic structure consists of an amplitude modulation of the Ce moments which are aligned along the c axis of the orthorhombic unit cell.

  3. Repetitive formation and decay of current sheets in magnetic loops: An origin of diverse magnetic structures

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Dinesh; Bhattacharyya, R.; Smolarkiewicz, P. K.

    2015-01-15

    In this work, evolution of an incompressible, thermally homogeneous, infinitely conducting, viscous magnetofluid is numerically explored as the fluid undergoes repeated events of magnetic reconnection. The initial magnetic field is constructed by a superposition of two linear force-free fields and has similar morphology as the magnetic loops observed in the solar corona. The results are presented for computations with three distinct sets of footpoint geometries. To onset reconnection, we rely on numerical model magnetic diffusivity, in the spirit of implicit large eddy simulation. It is generally expected that in a high Lundquist number fluid, repeated magnetic reconnections are ubiquitous and hence can lead to a host of magnetic structures with considerable observational importance. In particular, the simulations presented here illustrate formations of magnetic islands, rotating magnetic helices and rising flux ropes—depending on the initial footpoint geometry but through the common process of repeated magnetic reconnections. Further, we observe the development of extended current sheets in two case studies, where the footpoint reconnections generate favorable dynamics.

  4. Commensurate - Incommensurate vortex phase in a nanopatterned superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Gorky; Banerjee, S. S.; Tamegai, T.; Suderow, Hermann

    2015-09-01

    Magneto-optical imaging studies on a high-quality Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 single crystal partially patterned with a triangular array of holes reveal enhanced flux shielding in the patterned region of the sample. By mapping local magnetic field and shielding current density distributions at different applied magnetic fields and temperatures we determine the regime where pinning from the patterned holes dominates over the intrinsic pinning in the sample. In this regime, the flux density near the center of the patterned region is observed to increase when the applied field is varied from below the matching field to just above it, while significant magnetic field gradients are sustained in the patterned region. Our measurements indicate heterogeneous pinning properties of the vortex population, exhibiting signatures of both weak and strong pinning, in the nanopatterned region of the superconductor.

  5. The effect of internal magnetic structure on the fishbone instability

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D.W.; Powell, E.; Kaita, R.; Bell, R.; Chance, M.; Hatcher, R.; Holland, A.; Kaye, S.; Kessel, C.; Kugel, H.; LeBlanc, B.; Manickam, J.; Okabayashi, M.; Paul, S.; Pomphrey, N.; Sauthoff, N.; Sesnic, S.; Takahashi, H.; White, R.; Levinton, F.; Asakura, N.; Duperrex, P.; Gammel, G.

    1992-01-01

    Plasmas exhibiting the ``fishbone`` instability studied on the PBX-M tokamak show a distinct relationship between the plasma shape, the internal magnetic structure, and the presence or absence of fast ion losses associated with the fishbone mode. We have, for the first time, carried out measurements of the magnetic safety factor profile in fishbone-unstable plasmas, and used the knowledge of the associated experimental equilibria to compare the stability and fast ion loss properties of these plasmas with experimental observations.

  6. The effect of internal magnetic structure on the fishbone instability

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D.W.; Powell, E. ); Kaita, R.; Bell, R.; Chance, M.; Hatcher, R.; Holland, A.; Kaye, S.; Kessel, C.; Kugel, H.; LeBlanc, B.; Manickam, J.; Okabayashi, M.; Paul, S.; Pomphrey, N.; Sauthoff, N.; Sesnic, S.; Takahashi, H.; White, R. . Plasma Physics Lab.); Levinton, F. (Fusion Physics and Technologies, Torrance, CA (Uni

    1992-01-01

    Plasmas exhibiting the fishbone'' instability studied on the PBX-M tokamak show a distinct relationship between the plasma shape, the internal magnetic structure, and the presence or absence of fast ion losses associated with the fishbone mode. We have, for the first time, carried out measurements of the magnetic safety factor profile in fishbone-unstable plasmas, and used the knowledge of the associated experimental equilibria to compare the stability and fast ion loss properties of these plasmas with experimental observations.

  7. Dual-function magnetic structure for toroidal plasma devices

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Robert L.

    1978-01-01

    This invention relates to a support system wherein the iron core and yoke of the plasma current system of a tokamak plasma containment device is redesigned to support the forces of the magnet coils. The containment rings, which occupy very valuable space around the magnet coils, are utilized to serve as yokes for the core such that the conventional yoke is eliminated. The overall result is an improved aspect ratio, reduction in structure, smaller overall size, and improved access to the plasma ring.

  8. The interplanetary and solar magnetic field sector structures, 1962 - 1968

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    The interplanetary magnetic field sector structure was observed from late 1962 through 1968. During this time it has been possible to study the manner in which the sector pattern and its relation to the photospheric magnetic field configuration changes from solar minimum to solar maximum. Observations were also made relating sector boundaries to specific regions on the solar disk. These and other observations related to the solar origin of the interplanetary field are briefly reviewed.

  9. Interplay between magnetic interactions in spin-valve structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Suárez, R. L.; Oliveira, A. B.; Rezende, S. M.; Azevedo, A.

    2006-04-01

    In this work we report on the experimental and theoretical investigations of the effects of various magnetic couplings existing in spin-valve structures. Magnetic interactions such as the exchange bias that occurs at the ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic interface and the indirect coupling between ferromagnetic (FM) layers mediated by a nonmagnetic metal spacer as well as the interchange between both kinds of interactions were investigated. The unidirectional anisotropy that pins the magnetization of the pinned layer transmits to the free layer throughout the nonmagnetic spacer. Also, the resonance fields of the FM layers show an upward (downward) shift for an antiferromagnetic (ferromagnetic) bilinear coupling.

  10. SEPs Dropout Events Associated with Advected Interplanetary Magnetic Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, R.; Trenchi, L.; Telloni, D.; D'Amicis, R.; Marcucci, F.; Zurbuchen, T.; Weberg, M. J.

    2013-05-01

    The intensity profile of energetic particles from impulsive solar flares (SEP) often shows abrupt dropouts affecting all energies simultaneously, without time-dispersion. Part of the community thinks that these modulations are directly related to the presence of magnetic structures with a different magnetic topology advected by the wind, a sort of magnetic flux tubes. During the expansion, following the dynamical interaction between plasma regions travelling at different speed, these structures would be partially tangled up in a sort of spaghetti-like bundle. These flux tubes would be alternatively connected or not connected with the flare site and, consequently, they would be filled or devoid of SEPs. When the observer passes through them, he would observe clear particles dropout signatures. We will report about results from a detailed analysis of SEP events which showed several signatures in the local magnetic field and/or plasma parameters associated with SEP modulations. These findings corroborate the idea of a possible link between these particles events observed at the Earth's orbit and magnetic connection or disconnection of the ambient magnetic field with the flare region at the Sun. We will also discuss the advantages represented by future Solar Orbiter in-situ observations. As a matter of fact, Solar Orbiter, from its orbital vantage point during the quasi corotation phase, will be a priviledged observer of this kind of phenomenon since it will observe the advected structure of the solar wind not yet reprocessed by dynamical interaction due to wind expansion.

  11. Generation of magnetic structures on the solar photosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Gangadhara, R. T.; Krishan, V.; Bhowmick, A. K.; Chitre, S. M.

    2014-06-20

    The lower solar atmosphere is a partially ionized plasma consisting of electrons, ions, and neutral atoms. In this, which is essentially a three-fluid system, the Hall effect arises from the treatment of the electrons and ions as two separate fluids and the ambipolar diffusion arises from the inclusion of neutrals as the third fluid. The Hall effect and ambipolar diffusion have been shown to be operational in a region beginning from near the photosphere up to the chromosphere. In a partially ionized plasma, the magnetic induction is subjected to ambipolar diffusion and the Hall drift in addition to the usual resistive dissipation. These nonlinear effects create sharp magnetic structures which then submit themselves to various relaxation mechanisms. A first-principles derivation of these effects in a three-fluid system and an analytic solution to the magnetic induction equation in a stationary state are presented, which in the general case includes the Hall effect, ambipolar diffusion, and ohmic dissipation. The temporal evolution of the magnetic field is then investigated under the combined as well as the individual effects of the Hall drift and ambipolar diffusion to demonstrate the formation of steep magnetic structures and the resultant current sheet formation. These structures have just the right features for the release of magnetic energy into the solar atmosphere.

  12. Predicting the magnetic structure of interplanetary magnetic clouds and their sheath regions: Space weather perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilpua, Emilia

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic clouds and their turbulent sheath regions drive the majority of intense space weather storms. The magnitude and the details of the magnetic storm (timing, affected current systems, response of the high energy radiation belt electron fluxes, etc.) depend strongly on the magnetic topology of the CME flux rope and whether the sheath region makes a significant contribution. Sheath regions are particularly geoeffective due to their large-amplitude magnetic field fluctuations and high Alfven Mach numbers, which may enhance solar wind - magnetospheric coupling efficiency. In this presentation I will present examples of space weather responses driven by different CME structures to demonstrate the necessity to develop detailed prediction models/scenarios for different magnetic field configurations and characteristics. The constraints for solar observations and models will be also discussed.

  13. Microstructural, Magnetic Anisotropy, and Magnetic Domain Structure Correlations in Epitaxial FePd Thin Films with Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skuza, J. R.; Clavero, C.; Yang, K.; Wincheski, B.; Lukaszew, R. A.

    2009-01-01

    L1(sub 0)-ordered FePd epitaxial thin films were prepared using dc magnetron sputter deposition on MgO (001) substrates. The films were grown with varying thickness and degree of chemical order to investigate the interplay between the microstructure, magnetic anisotropy, and magnetic domain structure. The experimentally measured domain size/period and magnetic anisotropy in this high perpendicular anisotropy system were found to be correlated following the analytical energy model proposed by Kooy and Enz that considers a delicate balance between the domain wall energy and the demagnetizing stray field energy.

  14. Aeromagnetic map of Korea; Magnetic patterns and structural features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yeong-Sue; Rim, Hyoungrea; Lim, Mutaek; Shin, Young Hong

    2014-05-01

    Regional airborne magnetic survey is very cost-effective mapping tool. Magnetic anomaly maps have abundant information, which are an important tool for understanding the geological evolution and mineral exploration. The pattern of magnetic anomaly map is a powerful indicator of geologic structure and rock formation. Magnetic anomaly patterns primarily reflect the distribution and structural setting of magnetized material within the crust. These features including amplitude and orientation of individual anomalies or the texture of anomalous regions can provide useful constraints for geological interpretation. KIGAM has conducted airborne magnetic mapping programme since 1982, and has coverage of almost whole the country. The latest version of airborne magnetic anomaly map was published by compiling data acquired from 1982 to 2012. The helicopter-borne surveys were flown by a line spacing 1~2 km with control lines of 5~8 km. The flight altitude was tried to keep 100~150 m above ground surface with sampling distance of 30m. The data were continued to the reference level of 300 m above ground level, and regional field was reduced by 11th generation IGRF. This paper introduced the latest version of magnetic anomaly map of Korea, and briefly examined the magnetic characteristics, with geologic characteristics and structural features of tectonic zones. Furthermore, magnetic patterns were quantitatively analyzed by using skeletonization technique. Korea, southern part of the Korean peninsula, could be divided in 5 tectonic provinces, such as, Gyeonggi massif, Okcheon fold belt, Sobaeksan massif, Gyeongsang basin, and circum-Pacific alkali volcanic zone. Magnetic anomalies in Gyeonggi massif zone are broadly distributed with moderately high amplitude, and the dominant trend is NE, but not strong. Okcheon fold belt can be magnetically characterized as strong dominant NE trend (Sinian direction) and linear positive anomalies of high amplitude. Sobaeksan massif is magnetically

  15. Self-Organizing Knotted Magnetic Structures in Plasma.

    PubMed

    Smiet, C B; Candelaresi, S; Thompson, A; Swearngin, J; Dalhuisen, J W; Bouwmeester, D

    2015-08-28

    We perform full-magnetohydrodynamics simulations on various initially helical configurations and show that they reconfigure into a state where the magnetic field lines span nested toroidal surfaces. This relaxed configuration is not a Taylor state, as is often assumed for relaxing plasma, but a state where the Lorentz force is balanced by the hydrostatic pressure, which is lowest on the central ring of the nested tori. Furthermore, the structure is characterized by a spatially slowly varying rotational transform, which leads to the formation of a few magnetic islands at rational surfaces. We then obtain analytic expressions that approximate the global structure of the quasistable linked and knotted plasma configurations that emerge, using maps from S^{3} to S^{2} of which the Hopf fibration is a special case. The knotted plasma configurations have a highly localized magnetic energy density and retain their structure on time scales much longer than the Alfvénic time scale. PMID:26371659

  16. Magnetic structure of Sr2CuWO6.

    PubMed

    Vasala, S; Avdeev, M; Danilkin, S; Chmaissem, O; Karppinen, M

    2014-12-10

    Magnetic structure of the double perovskite Sr2CuWO6 was determined from neutron powder diffraction data. At 3 K the material is magnetically long-range ordered into a collinear antiferromagnetic structure described by a propagation vector k = (0, 1/2, 1/2) with the Cu(II) moments of 0.57(1) μB parallel to the a-axis. The result is in agreement with our previous prediction (Vasala et al 2014 Phys. Rev. B 89 134419) based on electronic structure calculations, showing that the three-dimensional magnetic long-range order is caused by relatively strong antiferromagnetic next-nearest-neighbor interactions. PMID:25390820

  17. Validation and Benchmarking of a Practical Free Magnetic Energy and Relative Magnetic Helicity Budget Calculation in Solar Magnetic Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraitis, K.; Tziotziou, K.; Georgoulis, M. K.; Archontis, V.

    2014-12-01

    In earlier works we introduced and tested a nonlinear force-free (NLFF) method designed to self-consistently calculate the coronal free magnetic energy and the relative magnetic helicity budgets of observed solar magnetic structures. In principle, the method requires only a single, photospheric or low-chromospheric, vector magnetogram of a quiet-Sun patch or an active region and performs calculations without three-dimensional magnetic and velocity-field information. In this work we strictly validate this method using three-dimensional coronal magnetic fields. Benchmarking employs both synthetic, three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations and nonlinear force-free field extrapolations of the active-region solar corona. Our time-efficient NLFF method provides budgets that differ from those of more demanding semi-analytical methods by a factor of approximately three, at most. This difference is expected to come from the physical concept and the construction of the method. Temporal correlations show more discrepancies that are, however, soundly improved for more complex, massive active regions, reaching correlation coefficients on the order of, or exceeding, 0.9. In conclusion, we argue that our NLFF method can be reliably used for a routine and fast calculation of the free magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity budgets in targeted parts of the solar magnetized corona. As explained in this article and in previous works, this is an asset that can lead to valuable insight into the physics and triggering of solar eruptions.

  18. Spectropolarimetry of fine magnetized structures in the upper solar atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schad, Thomas Anthony

    2013-12-01

    One of the earliest indications of magnetic fields acting in the solar atmosphere came at the beginning of the 20th century when George Hale noted a "decided definiteness of structure" in photographs within the Hydrogen Balmer-alpha line core. Fine structure both in the chromosphere and in the corona result from processes that are not well understood but accepted as a consequence of the solar magnetic field. Our knowledge of this field is lacking, and until recently, the assumed relationship between fine thermal structure and the magnetic field remained untested. Here, spectropolarimetric diagnostics of fine structures in the solar chromosphere and cool corona are advanced using the infrared He I triplet at 1083 nm. Precise calibration procedures are developed for the Facility Infrared Spectropolarimeter (FIRS), recently commissioned at the Dunn Solar Telescope. Together with high-order adaptive optics, we simultaneously map fine structures while obtaining a polarimetric sensitivity of up to 2 x 10--4 of the incoming intensity. These instrument improvements result in the first maps of the He I polarized signatures within an active region superpenumbra, where Hale first recognized fine-structuring. Selective absorption and emission processes due to non-equilibrium optical pumping are recognized. Our interpretation, using advanced inversions of the He I triplet, provides confirmation of Hale's initial suspicion---the fine structures of the solar chromosphere are visual markers for the magnetic field. Yet, the fine chromospheric thermal structure is not matched by an equivalently fine magnetic structure. Our ability to measure this field suggests the utility of the He I triplet as an inner boundary condition for the inner heliospheric magnetic field. In the corona itself, we infer the vector properties of a catastrophically-cooled coronal loop, uniting space-based and ground-based instrumentation. We determine how fine loops are anchored in the photosphere via a

  19. Electron vortex magnetic holes: A nonlinear coherent plasma structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynes, Christopher T.; Burgess, David; Camporeale, Enrico; Sundberg, Torbjorn

    2015-01-01

    We report the properties of a novel type of sub-proton scale magnetic hole found in two dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of decaying turbulence with a guide field. The simulations were performed with a realistic value for ion to electron mass ratio. These structures, electron vortex magnetic holes (EVMHs), have circular cross-section. The magnetic field depression is associated with a diamagnetic azimuthal current provided by a population of trapped electrons in petal-like orbits. The trapped electron population provides a mean azimuthal velocity and since trapping preferentially selects high pitch angles, a perpendicular temperature anisotropy. The structures arise out of initial perturbations in the course of the turbulent evolution of the plasma, and are stable over at least 100 electron gyroperiods. We have verified the model for the EVMH by carrying out test particle and PIC simulations of isolated structures in a uniform plasma. It is found that (quasi-)stable structures can be formed provided that there is some initial perpendicular temperature anisotropy at the structure location. The properties of these structures (scale size, trapped population, etc.) are able to explain the observed properties of magnetic holes in the terrestrial plasma sheet. EVMHs may also contribute to turbulence properties, such as intermittency, at short scale lengths in other astrophysical plasmas.

  20. Electron vortex magnetic holes: A nonlinear coherent plasma structure

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, Christopher T. Burgess, David; Sundberg, Torbjorn; Camporeale, Enrico

    2015-01-15

    We report the properties of a novel type of sub-proton scale magnetic hole found in two dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of decaying turbulence with a guide field. The simulations were performed with a realistic value for ion to electron mass ratio. These structures, electron vortex magnetic holes (EVMHs), have circular cross-section. The magnetic field depression is associated with a diamagnetic azimuthal current provided by a population of trapped electrons in petal-like orbits. The trapped electron population provides a mean azimuthal velocity and since trapping preferentially selects high pitch angles, a perpendicular temperature anisotropy. The structures arise out of initial perturbations in the course of the turbulent evolution of the plasma, and are stable over at least 100 electron gyroperiods. We have verified the model for the EVMH by carrying out test particle and PIC simulations of isolated structures in a uniform plasma. It is found that (quasi-)stable structures can be formed provided that there is some initial perpendicular temperature anisotropy at the structure location. The properties of these structures (scale size, trapped population, etc.) are able to explain the observed properties of magnetic holes in the terrestrial plasma sheet. EVMHs may also contribute to turbulence properties, such as intermittency, at short scale lengths in other astrophysical plasmas.

  1. The thermal structure of the magnetized solar transition region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mok, Y.; Van Hoven, G.

    1993-01-01

    The detailed thermal structure of the magnetized solar transition region, as measured by its differential emission measure DEM(T), is unknown. Proposals have been made that envision a significant lower-temperature contribution to the energy balance from cross-field (ion) heat flux. In this paper, we describe a self-consistent 2D MHD simulation (including the full effects of anisotropic thermal conduction) of a conceptual model due to Athay (1990). We display the detailed irregular thermal and magnetic structure of the transition region and demonstrate that the predicted DEM agrees with observations, particularly in the T less than 10 exp 5 K regime where previous theories had difficulty.

  2. Structure of Magnetic Tower Jets in Stratified Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Masanori; Li, Hui; Li, Shengtai

    2006-12-01

    Using a new approach to modeling the magnetically dominated outflows from active galactic nuclei, we study the propagation of magnetic tower jets in gravitationally stratified atmospheres (such as a galaxy cluster environment) at large scales (more than tens of kiloparsecs) by performing three-dimensional MHD simulations. We present the detailed analysis of the MHD waves, the cylindrical radial force balance, and the collimation of magnetic tower jets. As magnetic energy is injected into a small central volume over a finite amount of time, the magnetic fields expand down the background density gradient, forming a collimated jet and an expanded ``lobe'' due to the gradually decreasing background density and pressure. Both the jet and lobes are magnetically dominated. In addition, the injection and expansion produce a hydrodynamic shock wave that moves ahead of and encloses the magnetic tower jet. This shock can eventually break the hydrostatic equilibrium in the ambient medium and cause a global gravitational contraction. This contraction produces a strong compression at the head of the magnetic tower front and helps to collimate the jet radially to produce a slender body. At the outer edge of the jet, the magnetic pressure is balanced by the background (modified) gas pressure, without any significant contribution from the hoop stress. On the other hand, along the central axis of the jet, hoop stress is the dominant force in shaping the central collimation of the poloidal current. The system, which possesses a highly wound helical magnetic configuration, never quite reaches a force-free equilibrium state, although the evolution becomes much slower at late stages. The simulations were performed without any initial perturbations, so the overall structures of the jet remain mostly axisymmetric.

  3. Structure and evolution of the heliospheric magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdos, Geza

    Global structure of the heliospheric magnetic field is investigated through several solar cycles. The study includes magnetic field measurements by space probes located in various spaces in the heliosphere. The latitudinal extent of the heliospheric current sheet is determined from the off-ecliptic observation by Ulysses during the declining phase of solar cycles 22 and 23. The results are compared to the latitudinal excursion of the neutral line on the source surface maps, the deviations are interpreted in relation with the characteristics of the solar cycles. The open magnetic flux of the sun, as determined from interplanetary measurements is best characterized by the radial component of the magnetic field. It is shown that the distribution of the radial component is a complex function of the location in the heliosphere, of the type of solar wind (i.e., slow or fast), and of the phase of the solar cycle. We demonstrate that this complexity is due to fluctuations of the magnetic field, the effect of which can be largely reduced by exploiting the symmetry features of the waves. Two methods are presented for the corrections of the interplanetary flux measurements. It is shown that the corrected magnetic flux density measured by the Ulysses around its solar polar orbit from 1990 to 2009 matches that calculated from the OMNI in-ecliptic, 1 AU data set over the same interval. This result shows that the sun's magnetic flux is generally distributed uniformly in the heliosphere and depends only on the total open magnetic flux of the sun. We calculate the open magnetic flux of the sun from the OMNI data base covering four solar cycles and the values are compared to the total open magnetic flux of the sun as determined from source surface models. The match is fairly good except for the raising phase of the solar cycles. The possible reasons are discussed.

  4. Structure organization and magnetic properties of microscale ferrogels: The effect of particle magnetic anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Ryzhkov, Aleksandr V; Melenev, Petr V; Balasoiu, Maria; Raikher, Yuriy L

    2016-08-21

    The equilibrium structure and magnetic properties of a ferrogel object of small size (microferrogel(MFG)) are investigated by coarse-grained molecular dynamics. As a generic model of a microferrogel (MFG), a sample with a lattice-like mesh is taken. The solid phase of the MFG consists of magnetic (e.g., ferrite) nanoparticles which are mechanically linked to the mesh making some part of its nodes. Unlike previous models, the finite uniaxial magnetic anisotropy of the particles, as it is the case for real ferrogels, is taken into account. For comparison, two types of MFGs are considered: MFG-1, which dwells in virtually non-aggregated state independently of the presence of an external magnetic field, and MFG-2, which displays aggregation yet under zero field. The structure states of the samples are analyzed with the aid of angle-resolved radial distribution functions and cluster counts. The results reveal the crucial role of the matrix elasticity on the structure organization as well as on magnetization of both MFGs. The particle anisotropy, which plays insignificant role in MFG-1 (moderate interparticle magnetodipole interaction), becomes an important factor in MFG-2 (strong interaction). There, the restrictions imposed on the particle angular freedom by the elastic matrix result in notable diminution of the particle chain lengths as well as the magnetization of the sample. The approach proposed enables one to investigate a large variety of MFGs, including those of capsule type and to purposefully choose the combination of their magnetoelastic parameters. PMID:27544124

  5. ARIES-CS Magnet Conductor and Structure Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X. R.; Raffary, A. R.; Bromberg, L.; Schultz, J. H.; Ku, L. P.; Lyon, J. F.; Mulang, L.; Waganer, L.; El-GuebalyUniv. Wisco, L.; MartinUniv Wiscons, C.

    2008-10-01

    The ARIES-CS study focusing on the conceptual design and assessment of a compact stellarator power plant identified the important advantages and key issues associated with such a design. The coil configuration and structural support approach represent key design challenges, with the final design and material choices affected by a number of material and geometry constraints. This paper describes the design configuration and analysis and material choices for the ARIES-CS magnets and its structure. To meet aggressive cost and assembly/maintenance goals, the magnets are designed as lifetime components. Due to the very complex geometry, one of the goals of the study was to provide a robust operational design. This decision has significant implications on cost and manufacturing requirements. Concepts with both conventional and advanced superconductors have been explored. The coil structure design approach adopted is to wind all six modular coils of one field period in grooves in one monolithic coil structural shell (one per field period). The coil structural shells are then bolted together to form a strong structural shell to react the net radial forces. Extensive engineering analyses of the coil system have been performed using ANSYS shell and solid modeling. These include electromagnetic (EM) analyses to calculate the magnetic fields and EM forces and structural analyses to evaluate the structural responses and optimize the coil support system, which has a considerable impact on the cost of the ARIES-CS power plant.

  6. Magnetic structure and magnetocalorics of GdPO4

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Palacios, E; Rodr´ıguez-Velamaz´an,,; Evangelisti, Marco; McIntyre, G; Lorusso, G; Visser, Dirk; De Jongh, L. Jos; Boatner, Lynn A

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic ordering structure of GdPO4 is determined at T = 60 mK by diffraction of hot neutrons with wavelength = 0.4696 A. It corresponds to a non-collinear antiferromagnetic arrangement of the Gd moments with propagation vector k = (1/2, 0, 1/2). This arrangement is found to minimize the dipole-dipole interaction and the crystal field anisotropy energy, the magnetic superexchange being much smaller. The intensity of the magnetic reflections decreases with increasing temperature and vanishes at T 0.8 K, in agreement with the magnetic ordering temperature TN = 0.77 K, as reported in previous works based on heat capacity andmore » magnetic susceptibility measurements. The magnetocaloric parameters have been determined from heat capacity data at constant applied fields up to 7 T, as well as from isothermal magnetization data. The magnetocaloric effect reaches ST = 375.8 mJ cm3 K 1 at T = 2.1 K, largely exceeding the maximum values reported to date for Gd-based magnetic refrigerants.« less

  7. Magnetic structure and magnetocalorics of GdPO4

    SciTech Connect

    Palacios, E; Rodr´ıguez-Velamaz´an,,; Evangelisti, Marco; McIntyre, G; Lorusso, G; Visser, Dirk; De Jongh, L. Jos; Boatner, Lynn A

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic ordering structure of GdPO4 is determined at T = 60 mK by diffraction of hot neutrons with wavelength = 0.4696 A. It corresponds to a non-collinear antiferromagnetic arrangement of the Gd moments with propagation vector k = (1/2, 0, 1/2). This arrangement is found to minimize the dipole-dipole interaction and the crystal field anisotropy energy, the magnetic superexchange being much smaller. The intensity of the magnetic reflections decreases with increasing temperature and vanishes at T 0.8 K, in agreement with the magnetic ordering temperature TN = 0.77 K, as reported in previous works based on heat capacity and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The magnetocaloric parameters have been determined from heat capacity data at constant applied fields up to 7 T, as well as from isothermal magnetization data. The magnetocaloric effect reaches ST = 375.8 mJ cm3 K 1 at T = 2.1 K, largely exceeding the maximum values reported to date for Gd-based magnetic refrigerants.

  8. Structural, magnetic, and transport properties of Permalloy for spintronic experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Nahrwold, Gesche; Scholtyssek, Jan M.; Motl-Ziegler, Sandra; Albrecht, Ole; Merkt, Ulrich; Meier, Guido

    2010-07-15

    Permalloy (Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20}) is broadly used to prepare magnetic nanostructures for high-frequency experiments where the magnetization is either excited by electrical currents or magnetic fields. Detailed knowledge of the material properties is mandatory for thorough understanding its magnetization dynamics. In this work, thin Permalloy films are grown by dc-magnetron sputtering on heated substrates and by thermal evaporation with subsequent annealing. The specific resistance is determined by van der Pauw methods. Point-contact Andreev reflection is employed to determine the spin polarization of the films. The topography is imaged by atomic-force microscopy, and the magnetic microstructure by magnetic-force microscopy. Transmission-electron microscopy and transmission-electron diffraction are performed to determine atomic composition, crystal structure, and morphology. From ferromagnetic resonance absorption spectra the saturation magnetization, the anisotropy, and the Gilbert damping parameter are determined. Coercive fields and anisotropy are measured by magneto-optical Kerr magnetometry. The sum of the findings enables optimization of Permalloy for spintronic experiments.

  9. Structure of a Magnetic Flux Annihilation Layer Formed by the Collision of Supersonic, Magnetized Plasma Flows.

    PubMed

    Suttle, L G; Hare, J D; Lebedev, S V; Swadling, G F; Burdiak, G C; Ciardi, A; Chittenden, J P; Loureiro, N F; Niasse, N; Suzuki-Vidal, F; Wu, J; Yang, Q; Clayson, T; Frank, A; Robinson, T S; Smith, R A; Stuart, N

    2016-06-01

    We present experiments characterizing the detailed structure of a current layer, generated by the collision of two counterstreaming, supersonic and magnetized aluminum plasma flows. The antiparallel magnetic fields advected by the flows are found to be mutually annihilated inside the layer, giving rise to a bifurcated current structure-two narrow current sheets running along the outside surfaces of the layer. Measurements with Thomson scattering show a fast outflow of plasma along the layer and a high ion temperature (T_{i}∼Z[over ¯]T_{e}, with average ionization Z[over ¯]=7). Analysis of the spatially resolved plasma parameters indicates that the advection and subsequent annihilation of the inflowing magnetic flux determines the structure of the layer, while the ion heating could be due to the development of kinetic, current-driven instabilities. PMID:27314720

  10. Layered manganites : magnetic structure at extreme doping levels.

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, J. F.

    1998-09-11

    We report powder neutron diffraction results on the crystal and magnetic structures of the bilayer Ruddlesden-Popper phase Sr{sub 3}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} ({delta} = 0.0, 0.45) and correlate these structures with their magnetic and transport properties. The {delta} = 0.45 compound contains a large number of oxygen vacancies that are disordered in the MnO{sub 2} planes. As a result of this disordered vacancy structure, Sr{sub 3}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 6.55} is a nonmagnetic insulator. Sr{sub 3}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 7.0} ({delta} = 0) is an antiferromagnetic insulator whose magnetic structure is related to that of the SrMnO{sub 3} perovskite. Comparison of this end-member compound to its doped congeners in the La{sub 2{minus}2x}Sr{sub 1+2x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 7} series highlights the extreme sensitivity of magnetic structure to dopant concentration in these layered materials.

  11. High temperature structural and magnetic properties of cobalt nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Ait Atmane, Kahina; Zighem, Fatih; Soumare, Yaghoub; Ibrahim, Mona; Boubekri, Rym; Maurer, Thomas; Margueritat, Jeremie; Piquemal, Jean-Yves; Ott, Frederic; Chaboussant, Gregory; Schoenstein, Frederic; Jouini, Noureddine; Viau, Guillaume

    2013-01-15

    We present in this paper the structural and magnetic properties of high aspect ratio Co nanoparticles ({approx}10) at high temperatures (up to 623 K) using in-situ X ray diffraction (XRD) and SQUID characterizations. We show that the anisotropic shapes, the structural and texture properties are preserved up to 500 K. The coercivity can be modelled by {mu}{sub 0}H{sub C}=2(K{sub MC}+K{sub shape})/M{sub S} with K{sub MC} the magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant, K{sub shape} the shape anisotropy constant and M{sub S} the saturation magnetization. H{sub C} decreases linearly when the temperature is increased due to the loss of the Co magnetocrystalline anisotropy contribution. At 500 K, 50% of the room temperature coercivity is preserved corresponding to the shape anisotropy contribution only. We show that the coercivity drop is reversible in the range 300-500 K in good agreement with the absence of particle alteration. Above 525 K, the magnetic properties are irreversibly altered either by sintering or by oxidation. - Graphical abstract: We present in this paper the structural and magnetic properties of high aspect ratio Co nanorods ({approx}10) at high temperatures (up to 623 K) using in-situ X-ray diffraction and SQUID characterizations. We show that the anisotropic shapes, the structural and texture properties are preserved up to 500 K. Above 525 K, the magnetic properties are irreversibly altered either by sintering or by oxidation. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ferromagnetic Co nanorods are prepared using the polyol process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structural and texture properties of the Co nanorods are preserved up to 500 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The magnetic properties of the Co nanorods are irreversibly altered above 525 K.

  12. Magnetic and Crystal Structure of α-RuCl3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sears, Jennifer

    The layered honeycomb material α-RuCl3 has been proposed as a candidate material to show significant bond-dependent Kitaev type interactions. This has prompted several recent studies of magnetism in this material that have found evidence for multiple magnetic transitions in the temperature range of 8-14 K. We will present elastic neutron scattering measurements collected using a co-aligned array of α-RuCl3 crystals, identifying zigzag magnetic order within the honeycomb planes with an ordering temperature of ~8 K. It has been reported that the ordering temperature depends on the c axis periodicity of the layered structure, with ordering temperatures of 8 and 14 K for three and two-layer periodicity respectively. While the in-plane magnetic order has been identified, it is clear that a complete understanding of magnetic ordering and interactions will depend on the three dimensional structure of the crystal. Evidence of a structural transition at ~150 K has been reported and questions remain about the structural details, in particular the stacking of the honeycomb layers. We will present x-ray diffraction measurements investigating the low and high temperature structures and stacking disorder in α-RuCl3. Finally, we will present inelastic neutron scattering measurements of magnetic excitations in this material. Work done in collaboration with K. W. Plumb (Johns Hopkins University), J. P. Clancy, Young-June Kim (University of Toronto), J. Britten (McMaster University), Yu-Sheng Chen (Argonne National Laboratory), Y. Qiu, Y. Zhao, D. Parshall, and J. W. Lynn (NCNR).

  13. The magnetic-field structure in a stationary accretion disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotrovich, M. Yu.; Silant'ev, N. A.; Gnedin, Yu. N.; Natsvlishvili, T. M.; Buliga, S. D.

    2016-05-01

    The magnetic-field structure in regions of stationary, planar accretion disks around active galactic nuclei where general-relativistic effects can be neglected (from 10 to 200 gravitational radii) is considered. It is assumed that the magnetic field in the outer edges of the disk, which forms in the magnetosphere of the central black hole during the creation of the relativisitic jets, corresponds to the field of a magnetic dipole perpendicular to the plane of the disk. In this case, the azimuthal field component B φ in the disk arises due to the presence of the radial field B ρ and the azimuthal velocity component U φ . The value of the magnetic field at the inner radius of the disk is taken to correspond to the solution of the induction equation in a diffusion approximation. Numerical solutions of the induction equation are given for a number of cases.

  14. Micro-magnetic Structures for Biological Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howdyshell, Marci L.

    Developments in single-molecule and single-cell experiments over the past century have provided researchers with many tools to probe the responses of cells to stresses such as physical force or to the injection of foreign genes. Often these techniques target the cell membrane, although many are now advancing to probe within the cell. As these techniques are improved upon and the investigations advance toward clinical applications, it has become more critical to achieve high-throughput outcomes which in turn lead to statistically significant results. The technologies developed in this thesis are targeted at transfecting large populations of cells with controlled doses of specific exogenic material without adversely affecting cell viability. Underlying this effort is a platform of lithographically patterned ferromagnetic thin films capable of remotely manipulating and localizing magnetic microbeads attached to biological entities. A novel feature of this approach, as demonstrated here with both DNA and cells, is the opportunity for multiplexed operations on targeted biological specimens. This thesis includes two main thrusts: (1) the advancement of the trapping platforms through experimental verification of mathematical models providing the energy landscapes associated with the traps and (2) implementation of the platform as a basis for rapid and effective high-throughput microchannel and nanochannel cell electroporation devices. The electroporation devices have, in our studies, not only been demonstrated to sustain cell viability with extremely low cell mortality rates, but are also found to be effective for various types of cells. The advances over current electroporation technologies that are achieved in these efforts demonstrate the potential for detection of mRNA expression in heterogeneous cell populations and probing intracellular responses to the introduction of foreign genes into cells.

  15. Patient experience and the psychiatric discourse: Attempting to bridge incommensurable worlds

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, K. S.

    2015-01-01

    Divergent worldviews, incommensurable frameworks, contrasting models, distinct foci, dissimilar logic, different realities, disparate cultures, and complex patient-physician interaction impact the clinical process and problematize decision-making. Attempting to understand the disease-illness divide, engage patient perspectives, go beyond the traditional biomedical understanding of mental illness and negotiate a shared plan for treatment are serious challenges for psychiatry. The challenge for psychiatrists is to appreciate patient reality and negotiate a shared plan of treatment. PMID:26816435

  16. Wave structures excited in compressible Petschek-type magnetic reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penz, T.; Semenov, V. S.; Heyn, M. F.; Ivanova, V. V.; Ivanov, I. B.; Biernat, H. K.

    We present a method to analyze the wave and shock structures arising from Petschek-type magnetic reconnection Based on a time-dependent analytical approach developed by Heyn and Semenov 1996 and Semenov et al 2004 we calculate the perturbations caused by a delta function-shaped reconnection magnetic field which allows to achieve a representation of the plasma variables in the form of Green s functions Different configurations for the initial conditions are considered In the case of symmetric antiparallel magnetic fields and symmetric plasma density the well-known structure of an Alfvén discontinuity a fast volume wave a slow shock a slow wave and a tube wave occurs In the case of asymmetric antiparallel magnetic fields additionally surface waves are found We also discuss the case of symmetric antiparallel magnetic fields and asymmetric densities which leads to a faster propagation in the lower half plane causing side waves forming a Mach cone in the upper half plane Complex effects like anisotropic propagation characteristics intrinsic wave coupling and the generation of different non-linear and linear wave modes in a finite beta plasma are retained The temporal evolution of these wave and shock structures is shown

  17. Stability of magnetic nano-structures against erroneous shape modifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blachowicz, T.; Ehrmann, A.

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic nano-structures can be used in various applications. Due to their possible utilization in data storage media, examinations of nano-structured systems often aim at decreasing the pattern size, in order to enhance the possible information density in a given area. Since this scaling process is limited by the resolution of the lithography process which is used to produce the nano-particles, it is important to determine the influence of erroneous shape modifications on the magnetic properties, such as magnetization reversal processes and coercive fields. For this, a square nano-wire system from permalloy has been simulated using Magpar. In a former work, changes of the wire diameter have been shown to result in different magnetization reversal mechanisms and significantly altered coercive fields. In a new project, the intersections of the wires - which are most susceptible to undesired shape modifications - have been changed by adding or subtracting parts. Additionally, the wire intersections have been separated step by step, resulting in a qualitatively changed angular dependence of the coercive fields. Similar experiments have been performed for nano-squares with walls of rectangular cross-section. This study allows for estimation of the reliability of magnetic properties of nano-structures with respect to undesired shape modifications in the lithography process.

  18. Structural characterization and magnetic properties of steels subjected to fatigue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, C. C. H.; Tang, F.; Biner, S. B.; Jiles, D. C.

    2000-05-01

    Studies have been made on the effects of residual stress and microstructure on the variations of magnetic properties of steels during fatigue. Strain-controlled fatigue tests have been conducted on 0.2wt% C steel samples which were (1) cold-worked, (2) cold-worked and annealed at 500 °C to relieve residual stress, and (3) annealed at 905 °C to produce a ferrite/pearlite structure. The changes of surface microstructure were studied by SEM replica technique. The dislocation structures of samples fatigued for different numbers of cycle were studied by TEM. In the initial stage of fatigue coercivity was found to behave differently for samples which have different residual stress levels. In the intermediate stage the magnetic hysteresis parameters became stable as the dislocation cell structure developed in the samples. In the final stage the magnetic parameters decreased dramatically. The decrease rate is related to the propagation rate of fatigue cracks observed in the SEM study, which was found to be dependent on the sample microstructure. The present results indicate that the magnetic inspection technique is able to differentiate the residual stress effects from the fatigue damage induced by cyclic loading, and therefore it is possible to detect the onset of fatigue failure in steel components via measurements of the changes in magnetic properties.—This work was sponsored by the National Science Foundation, under grant number CMS-9532056.

  19. Controllability of brushite structural parameters using an applied magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, V N; Yanovska, A A; Stanislavov, A S; Danilchenko, S N; Kalinkevich, A N; Sukhodub, L F

    2016-03-01

    The paper studies the influence of low intensity static magnetic field on brushite structural and microstructural parameters using the X-ray diffraction and the transmission electron microscopy. This effect was shown to have various influences on DCPD (Dicalcium Phosphate Dihydrate) structure depending on a magnetic field configuration or time of synthesis, which allows achieving controllability of the main properties of an obtained material. The influence of the magnetic field leads mostly to the decrease of crystallite sizes with no impact on the crystal lattice parameters. In (0 2 0) and (1 5 0) planes the growth of crystallite sizes is observed after 2 and 3 days of crystallization, respectively. The analysis of different contributions to peak broadening in [0 b 0] direction showed a similar trend for the crystallite sizes with the lower lattice microstrains after 2 days of synthesis. The effect similar to the preferred orientation was observed and classified with the Harris method. PMID:26706562

  20. Structure of magnetic resonance in 87Rb atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, A. N.; Zibrov, S. A.; Zibrov, A. A.; Yudin, V. I.; Taichenachev, A. V.; Yakovlev, V. P.; Tsygankov, E. A.; Zibrov, A. S.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Velichansky, V. L.

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic resonance at the F g = 1 rightleftarrows F e = 1 transition of the D 1 line in 87Rb has been studied with pumping and detection by linearly polarized radiation and detection at the double frequency of the radiofrequency field. The intervals of allowed values of the static and alternating magnetic fields in which magnetic resonance has a single maximum have been found. The structure appearing beyond these intervals has been explained. It has been shown that the quadratic Zeeman shift is responsible for the three-peak structure of resonance; the radiofrequency shift results in the appearance of additional extrema in resonance, which can be used to determine the relaxation constant Γ2. The possibility of application in magnetometry has been discussed.

  1. Magnetic Field in Atypical Prominence Structures: Bubble, Tornado, and Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levens, P. J.; Schmieder, B.; López Ariste, A.; Labrosse, N.; Dalmasse, K.; Gelly, B.

    2016-08-01

    Spectropolarimetric observations of prominences have been obtained with the THEMIS telescope during four years of coordinated campaigns. Our aim is now to understand the conditions of the cool plasma and magnetism in “atypical” prominences, namely when the measured inclination of the magnetic field departs, to some extent, from the predominantly horizontal field found in “typical” prominences. What is the role of the magnetic field in these prominence types? Are plasma dynamics more important in these cases than the magnetic support? We focus our study on three types of “atypical” prominences (tornadoes, bubbles, and jet-like prominence eruptions) that have all been observed by THEMIS in the He i D3 line, from which the Stokes parameters can be derived. The magnetic field strength, inclination, and azimuth in each pixel are obtained by using the inversion method of principal component analysis on a model of single scattering in the presence of the Hanle effect. The magnetic field in tornadoes is found to be more or less horizontal, whereas for the eruptive prominence it is mostly vertical. We estimate a tendency toward higher values of magnetic field strength inside the bubbles than outside in the surrounding prominence. In all of the models in our database, only one magnetic field orientation is considered for each pixel. While sufficient for most of the main prominence body, this assumption appears to be oversimplified in atypical prominence structures. We should consider these observations as the result of superposition of multiple magnetic fields, possibly even with a turbulent field component.

  2. Magnetic Excitations in the Geometric Frustrated Multiferroic CuCrO2

    SciTech Connect

    Frontzek, Matthias D; Barilo, Sergei; Christianson, Andrew D; Ehlers, Georg; Fishman, Randy Scott; Haraldsen, Jason T; Podlesnyak, Andrey A; Sefat, A. S.; Matsuda, Masaaki; Shiryaev, Sergei; Qiu, Y.; Copley, J.R.D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper detailed neutron scattering measurements of the magnetic excitation spectrum of \\CCO\\ in the ordered state below $T_{\\rm{N1}}=24.2$~K are presented. The spectra are analyzed using a model Hamiltonian which includes intralayer-exchange up to the next-next-nearest neighbor and interlayer-exchange. We obtain a definite parameter set and show that exchange interaction terms beyond the next-nearest neighbor are important to describe the inelastic excitation spectrum. The magnetic ground state structure generated with our parameter set is in agreement with the structure proposed for \\CCO\\ from the results of single crystal diffraction experiments previously published. We argue that the role of the interlayer exchange is crucial to understand the incommensurability of the magnetic structure as well as the spin-charge coupling mechanism.

  3. Possible magnetic structures of EuZrO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ai-Yuan; Qin, Guo-Ping; Wu, Zhi-Min; Cui, Yu-Ting

    2015-06-01

    A comprehensive research of the antiferromagnetic (AFM) structures of perovskite-type EuZrO3 is carried out by use of the double-time Green’s function. Two possible types of AFM configurations are considered, and theoretical results are compared with experimental results to extract the values of parameters J1, J2, and D. The obtained exchanges are employed to calculate the magnetic susceptibility, which is then in turn compared with the experimental one. Therefore, we think that the magnetic structure of EuZrO3 may be an isotropic G-type structure or an anisotropic A-type structure. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11404046, 11347217, and 61201119), the Basic Research Foundation of Chongqing Education Committee, China (Grant No. KJ130615), and the Chongqing Science & Technology Committee, China (Grant Nos. cstc2014jcyjA50013 and cstc2013jjB50001).

  4. Superconducting magnetic energy storage apparatus structural support system

    DOEpatents

    Withers, Gregory J.; Meier, Stephen W.; Walter, Robert J.; Child, Michael D.; DeGraaf, Douglas W.

    1992-01-01

    A superconducting magnetic energy storage apparatus comprising a cylindrical superconducting coil; a cylindrical coil containment vessel enclosing the coil and adapted to hold a liquid, such as liquefied helium; and a cylindrical vacuum vessel enclosing the coil containment vessel and located in a restraining structure having inner and outer circumferential walls and a floor; the apparatus being provided with horizontal compression members between (1) the coil and the coil containment vessel and (2) between the coil containment vessel and the vacuum vessel, compression bearing members between the vacuum vessel and the restraining structure inner and outer walls, vertical support members (1) between the coil bottom and the coil containment vessel bottom and (2) between the coil containment vessel bottom and the vacuum vessel bottom, and external supports between the vacuum vessel bottom and the restraining structure floor, whereby the loads developed by thermal and magnetic energy changes in the apparatus can be accommodated and the structural integrity of the apparatus be maintained.

  5. Magnetic Structure, Magnetization Reversal and Spin Dynamics of Micron-sized Permalloy Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaobin; Liu, Zhigang; Malac, Marek; Qian, Hui; Freeman, Mark; Metlushko, Vitali; Ilic, Bojan

    2004-03-01

    The magnetic ring structure is currently of great interest due to its potential application for magnetic storage and sensors [1]. In this talk, we present a study of 2 μm sized Permalloy rings on 25 nm SiN membrane prepared by electron beam lithography. The magnetic structures are examined by Lorentz microscopy. The Lorentz microscopy images indicate that the demagnetized state is the expected circulation of the magnetization. The head-to-head or tail-to-tail domains in the onion states (remanence after saturation) are found to be vortices. Diffractional magnetooptic Kerr effect magnetometry [2] is used (in zero, first, and second orders) to study the magnetization reversal, and the results are compared to the micromagnetic modeling based on Landau-Liftshitz-Gilbert equation. Finally, ultrafast scanning Kerr microscopy in spectroscopic mode is used to study the spin dynamics of the ring [3]. The ultrafast transient field is applied perpendicular to the rings, while a dc bias is applied in the plane. We find that the processional frequency in the circulating magnetization state is almost bias field-independent, while it splits into two field-dependent frequencies at larger bias (>100 Oe). These results will also be discussed in relation to micromagnetic modeling. [1] J.-G. Zhu, et al., JAP 87, 6668 (2000). [2] P. Vavassori, et al., PRB 67, 134429 (2003). [3] W. K. Hiebert, et al., PRL 79, 1134 (1997).

  6. Structural and magnetic characterization of YIG particles prepared using microemulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldomir, D.; Teijeiro, A. G.; Rivas, J.; Vaqueiro, P.; Paz, S. B.; López Quintela, A.

    1995-02-01

    Yttrium-iron-garnet (YIG) particles have been synthesized using the microemulsion technique. A comparison of ferrite powders obtained by this method and those prepared by sol-gel and solid state reactions is reported. We have studied both the magnetic and structural properties and have found a dependence on annealing temperatures.

  7. Magnetic design for structural stiffness - The tailored railgun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Dennis R.

    1993-01-01

    It is shown that tailoring the magnetic design of a railgun to nullify the rail-repulsion load greatly simplifies railgun structural design. Hydraulically assembled tailored railguns are inherently stiffer, lighter, and less expensive, and, for arc-driven railguns, well-suited to accommodate effective plasma seals. The effect of relative tube size on forces for the railgun is illustrated.

  8. New magnetic structures in novel and conventional manganites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daoud-Aladine, Aziz; Rodríguez-Carvajal, Juan; Perca, Cristian; Pinsard-Gaudart, Loreynne

    2011-03-01

    The determination of the magnetic structures of manganites has always been at the root of their fundamental understanding. We studied the magnetic structures of half-doped charge ordered manganites that are either show the prototype CE-type magnetic structure (Pr 1/2 Ca 1/2 Mn O3), or variants of this order (YBaMn 2 O6 and Pr 0.6 Ca 0.4 Mn O3) with neutron diffraction. The study of Pr 1/2 Ca 1/2 Mn O3 (ILL, France) is the first ever done on a single crystal and it essentially confirms the pioneering picture, whereas the NPD studies of YBaMn 2 O6 (PSI, Switzerland) and Pr 0.6 Ca 0.4 Mn O3 (ISIS, UK), give two unprecedented results. The YBaMn 2 O6 magnetic structure corroborates the hotly debated ordering of Zener Polarons, and high resolution NPD data evidence a new spin reorientation transition around T ~ 20 K far below its TN ~ 170 K in Pr 0.6 Ca 0.4 Mn O3 that has so far only been vaguely observed. We will discuss the consequences that these results have on the still hotly debated understanding of the connection between charge/orbital and spin orderings in the manganites.

  9. A magnetically levitated synchronous permanent magnet planar motor with concentric structure winding used for lithography machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lu; Kou, Baoquan; Xing, Feng; Jin, Yinxi; Zhang, Hailin; Zhu, Jianguo

    2015-05-01

    A novel magnetically levitated synchronous permanent magnet planar motor (MLSPMPM) with concentric structure winding, which can be used in lithography machine, is proposed in this paper. Topology and principle of the new MLSPMPM are introduced. The scalar magnetic potential is used to solve the magnetic system, and the differential equations are solved by the separation of variables method according to the boundary conditions. Characteristics, such as flux density, electromagnetic force, and back-EMF of the MLSPMPM, are obtained analytically. All of the results are validated by the finite element method. A prototype of the MLSPMPM is manufactured. Based on the prototype motor, some experiments are carried out. The measured results are used to showcase the validity of the analytical analysis.

  10. Structures and magnetic properties of Co-Zr-B magnets studied by first-principles calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Xin; Ke, Liqin; Nguyen, Manh Cuong; Wang, Cai-Zhuang Ho, Kai-Ming

    2015-06-28

    The structures and magnetic properties of Co-Zr-B alloys near the composition of Co{sub 5}Zr with B at. % ≤6% were studied using adaptive genetic algorithm and first-principles calculations. The energy and magnetic moment contour maps as a function of chemical composition were constructed for the Co-Zr-B magnet alloys through extensive structure searches and calculations. We found that Co-Zr-B system exhibits the same structure motif as the “Co{sub 11}Zr{sub 2}” polymorphs, and such motif plays a key role in achieving strong magnetic anisotropy. Boron atoms were found to be able to substitute cobalt atoms or occupy the “interruption” sites. First-principles calculations showed that the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energies of the boron-doped alloys are close to that of the high-temperature rhombohedral Co{sub 5}Zr phase and larger than that of the low-temperature Co{sub 5.25}Zr phase. Our calculations provide useful guidelines for further experimental optimization of the magnetic performances of these alloys.

  11. Structures and magnetic properties of Co-Zr-B magnets studied by first-principles calculations

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhao, Xin; Ke, Liqin; Nguyen, Manh Cuong; Wang, Cai -Zhuang; Ho, Kai -Ming

    2015-06-23

    The structures and magnetic properties of Co-Zr-B alloys near the composition of Co5Zr with B at. % ≤6% were studied using adaptive genetic algorithm and first-principles calculations. The energy and magnetic moment contour maps as a function of chemical composition were constructed for the Co-Zr-B magnet alloys through extensive structure searches and calculations. We found that Co-Zr-B system exhibits the same structure motif as the “Co11Zr2” polymorphs, and such motif plays a key role in achieving strong magnetic anisotropy. Boron atoms were found to be able to substitute cobalt atoms or occupy the “interruption” sites. First-principles calculations showed that themore » magnetocrystalline anisotropy energies of the boron-doped alloys are close to that of the high-temperature rhombohedral Co5Zr phase and larger than that of the low-temperature Co5.25Zr phase. As a result, our calculations provide useful guidelines for further experimental optimization of the magnetic performances of these alloys.« less

  12. Magnetic domain structure and magnetization reversal in submicron-scale Co dots

    SciTech Connect

    Cerjan, C J; Fernandez, A; Gibbons, M; Wall, M A

    1998-09-24

    We present a magnetic force microscopy (MFM) analysis of arrays of submicron-scale Co dots fabricated by interference lithography. The dots are thin (180--300 Å) and elliptical in shape. MFM reveals that these structures relax into highly ordered remanent states whose symmetry and configuration are governed by their shape anisotropy. In particular, when the dots are saturated along their long-axis, a uniformly magnetized state persists at remanence. However, when the dots are saturated along their short-axis, they relax into a single-vortex state in which the circulation can have either sign. Both states are characterized by smoothly varying magnetization patterns and a high degree of uniformity across the array. We attribute the ordered behavior of these.structures to the film microstructure, which allows the shape anisotropy to dominate over magnetocrystalline anjsotropy. By imaging a series of minor-loop remanent states, we show that magnetization reversal in these structures occurs via the nucleation and annihilation of a single vortex. Magnetic hysteresis loop measurements are consistent with these observations and provide additional details. Furthermore, we present the results of micromagnetic simulations, which are in excellent agreement with both the MFM images and the hysteresis loop measurements. © 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Structures and magnetic properties of Co-Zr-B magnets studied by first-principles calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Xin; Ke, Liqin; Nguyen, Manh Cuong; Wang, Cai -Zhuang; Ho, Kai -Ming

    2015-06-23

    The structures and magnetic properties of Co-Zr-B alloys near the composition of Co5Zr with B at. % ≤6% were studied using adaptive genetic algorithm and first-principles calculations. The energy and magnetic moment contour maps as a function of chemical composition were constructed for the Co-Zr-B magnet alloys through extensive structure searches and calculations. We found that Co-Zr-B system exhibits the same structure motif as the “Co11Zr2” polymorphs, and such motif plays a key role in achieving strong magnetic anisotropy. Boron atoms were found to be able to substitute cobalt atoms or occupy the “interruption” sites. First-principles calculations showed that the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energies of the boron-doped alloys are close to that of the high-temperature rhombohedral Co5Zr phase and larger than that of the low-temperature Co5.25Zr phase. As a result, our calculations provide useful guidelines for further experimental optimization of the magnetic performances of these alloys.

  14. Anisotropic magnetic properties and magnetic structure of YbPdSi.

    PubMed

    Tsujii, Naohito; Keller, Lukas; Dönni, Andreas; Kitazawa, Hideaki

    2016-08-24

    YbPdSi with orthorhombic crystal structure (space group Pmmn) exhibits a magnetic transition at [Formula: see text] K, below which a ferromagnetic moment develops with an enhanced electronic specific-heat coefficient [Formula: see text] mJ K(-2) mol(-1). We have investigated the magnetization, electrical resistivity, and specific heat of YbPdSi using single crystalline samples as functions of temperature and magnetic field. It has been found that the ferromagnetic moment points to the c-direction, although the magnetic moments have an Ising-like anisotropy along the b-direction above the magnetic-transition temperature. Field dependence of the magnetization and electrical resistivity shows a metamagnetic-like transition at [Formula: see text] T when field is applied along the b-axis below T  =  3 K, suggesting the existence of an antiferromagnetic component along this direction. The magnetic structure has been investigated by neutron diffraction using powder samples. The magnetic unit cell is identical to the crystal unit cell. The Rietveld fitting has revealed that Yb at the 2a and 2b positions exhibit a collinear ferromagnetic order along the c-axis, whereas Yb at the 4e position undergoes a non-collinear order, involving the ferromagnetic moment along the c-axis and an antiferromagnetic component along the b-axis. The ferromagnetic moments determined by the neutron diffraction are 0.26, 1.3, and 0.15 [Formula: see text] for Yb at the 4e, 2b, and 2a sites, respectively. The reduced moments for the 4e and the 2a sites suggest that the Kondo screening effect is important in YbPdSi. PMID:27351383

  15. Anisotropic magnetic properties and magnetic structure of YbPdSi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujii, Naohito; Keller, Lukas; Dönni, Andreas; Kitazawa, Hideaki

    2016-08-01

    YbPdSi with orthorhombic crystal structure (space group Pmmn) exhibits a magnetic transition at {{T}\\text{m}}=8 K, below which a ferromagnetic moment develops with an enhanced electronic specific-heat coefficient γ ∼ 200 mJ K‑2 mol‑1. We have investigated the magnetization, electrical resistivity, and specific heat of YbPdSi using single crystalline samples as functions of temperature and magnetic field. It has been found that the ferromagnetic moment points to the c-direction, although the magnetic moments have an Ising-like anisotropy along the b-direction above the magnetic-transition temperature. Field dependence of the magnetization and electrical resistivity shows a metamagnetic-like transition at {{H}\\text{m}}=0.3 T when field is applied along the b-axis below T  =  3 K, suggesting the existence of an antiferromagnetic component along this direction. The magnetic structure has been investigated by neutron diffraction using powder samples. The magnetic unit cell is identical to the crystal unit cell. The Rietveld fitting has revealed that Yb at the 2a and 2b positions exhibit a collinear ferromagnetic order along the c-axis, whereas Yb at the 4e position undergoes a non-collinear order, involving the ferromagnetic moment along the c-axis and an antiferromagnetic component along the b-axis. The ferromagnetic moments determined by the neutron diffraction are 0.26, 1.3, and 0.15 {μ\\text{B}} for Yb at the 4e, 2b, and 2a sites, respectively. The reduced moments for the 4e and the 2a sites suggest that the Kondo screening effect is important in YbPdSi.

  16. Structural and magnetic properties of sonoelectrocrystallized magnetite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosivand, S.; Monzon, L. M. A.; Ackland, K.; Kazeminezhad, I.; Coey, J. M. D.

    2014-02-01

    The effect of ultrasound power on the morphology, structure and magnetic properties of magnetite nanoparticles synthesized from iron electrodes by the electro-oxidation method was investigated. Samples made in aqueous solution in the absence or presence of an organic stabilizer (thiourea, tetramethylammonium chloride, sodium butanoate or β-cyclodextrine) were characterized by x-ray diffraction, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, magnetometry and Mössbauer spectrometry. The iron is almost all in the form of 20-85 nm particles of slightly nonstoichiometric Fe3-δO4, with δ ≈ 0.10. Formation of a paramagnetic secondary phase in the presence of sodium butanoate or β-cyclodextrine is supressed by ultrasound. Specific magnetization of the magnetite nanoparticles ranges from 19 to 90 A m2 kg-1 at room temperature, and it increases with particle size in each series. The particles show no sign of superparamagnetism, and the anhysteretic and practically temperature-independent magnetization curves are associated with a stable magnetic vortex state throughout the size range. The spin structure of the particles and the use of magnetization measurements to detect magnetite in unknown mixtures are discussed.

  17. Structural origin of low temperature glassy relaxation in magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laha, Suvra; Regmi, Rajesh; Lawes, Gavin

    2013-03-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles often exhibit glass-like relaxation features at low temperatures. Here we discuss the effects of doping boron, cobalt, gadolinium and lanthanum on the low temperature magnetic properties of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. We investigated the structure of the nanoparticles using both X-ray diffraction and Raman studies, and find evidence for secondary phase formation in certain samples. We acquired Transmission Electron Microscopic images to give direct information on the morphology and microstructure of these doped nanoparticles. We measured the ac out-of-phase susceptibility (χ//) vs temperature (T) to parameterize the low temperature glassy magnetic relaxation. All samples show low temperature magnetic relaxation, but the amplitude of the signal increases dramatically for certain dopants. We attribute these low temperature frequency-dependent magnetic relaxation features to structural defects, which are enhanced in some of the doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles. These studies also confirm that the low temperature relaxation in nanoparticles arises from single particle effects and are not associated with interparticle interactions.

  18. Growth-related magnetic and physical structures in CMR films

    SciTech Connect

    Hawley, M.E.; Brown, G.W.; Hundley, M.F.

    1997-09-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and magnetic force microscopy (MFM) have proven to be powerful tools for revealing property-sensitive structures in magnetic materials. With the renewed interest in perovskite films as materials for read-heads in high density magnetic data storage, the same challenges faced by high temperature superconductor (HTS) film fabrication are repeated for these materials. To begin addressing these challenges, we used vapor phase epitaxy to fabricate La (Sr, Ca,) based manganate films on single crystal perovskite substrates under different conditions and characterized them with scanning probe microscopies, x-ray diffraction, and temperature-dependent magnetization and resistivity measurements (M(T) and {rho}(T)). The as-grown films were polygranular with grain sizes increasing with increasing temperature (T). The post-deposition annealed films consisted of coalesced layers with improved transport properties. The room temperature magnetic structure of the Sr-based films appeared to be related to defects and/or strain.

  19. Structure of current sheets in magnetic holes at 1 AU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzenreiter, R. J.; Burlaga, L. F.

    1978-01-01

    Current density profiles in several types of interplanetary magnetic holes have been calculated using high-resolution Imp 6 magnetic field data (12.5 vector measurements/s), assuming that the currents flow in planar sheets and that the magnetic field varies only in the direction normal to the sheet. The planarity was verified in four holes which were observed by two suitably spaced spacecraft. Four types of simple magnetic holes are discussed, in which B varies nearly monotonically on each side of the hole. In two of the holes, B varies in intensity but not in direction as a result of currents normal to B. In the other two holes, B changes in both magnitude and direction as a result of currents both normal and parallel to B. The observed structures are found to be qualitatively consistent with the models of Burlaga and Lemaire (1978). Examples of complex irregular magnetic holes are also presented, and they are shown to contain multiple current sheets in which currents flow parallel to one another at various angles with respect to B. There is no model of such magnetic holes at present.

  20. Structure of a Magnetic Flux Annihilation Layer Formed by the Collision of Supersonic, Magnetized Plasma Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suttle, L. G.; Hare, J. D.; Lebedev, S. V.; Swadling, G. F.; Burdiak, G. C.; Ciardi, A.; Chittenden, J. P.; Loureiro, N. F.; Niasse, N.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Wu, J.; Yang, Q.; Clayson, T.; Frank, A.; Robinson, T. S.; Smith, R. A.; Stuart, N.

    2016-06-01

    We present experiments characterizing the detailed structure of a current layer, generated by the collision of two counterstreaming, supersonic and magnetized aluminum plasma flows. The antiparallel magnetic fields advected by the flows are found to be mutually annihilated inside the layer, giving rise to a bifurcated current structure—two narrow current sheets running along the outside surfaces of the layer. Measurements with Thomson scattering show a fast outflow of plasma along the layer and a high ion temperature (Ti˜Z ¯ Te , with average ionization Z ¯=7 ). Analysis of the spatially resolved plasma parameters indicates that the advection and subsequent annihilation of the inflowing magnetic flux determines the structure of the layer, while the ion heating could be due to the development of kinetic, current-driven instabilities.

  1. Magnetic Field Sensing Based on Magnetic-Fluid-Clad Multimode-Singlemode-Multimode Fiber Structures

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jiali; Pu, Shengli; Dong, Shaohua; Luo, Longfeng

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic field sensing based on magnetic-fluid-clad multimode-singlemode-multimode fiber structures is proposed and experimentalized. The structures are fabricated out using fiber fusion splicing techniques. The sensing principle is based on the interference between the core mode and cladding modes. Two interference dips are observed in our spectral range. Experimental results indicate that the magnetic field sensing sensitivities of 215 pm/mT and 0.5742 dB/mT are obtained for interference dip around 1595 nm. For interference dip around 1565 nm, the sensitivities are 60.5 pm/mT and 0.4821 dB/mT. The response of temperature is also investigated. The temperature sensitivity for the dip around 1595 nm is obtained to be 9.93 pm/°C. PMID:25317761

  2. Structural and magnetic characterization of actinide materials

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, B.; Allen, T.H.; Lawson, A.C.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The authors have successfully used neutron scattering techniques to investigate physicochemical properties of elements, compounds, and alloys of the light actinides. The focus of this work is to extend the fundamental research capability and to address questions of practical importance to stockpile integrity and long-term storage of nuclear material. Specific subject areas are developing neutron diffraction techniques for smaller actinide samples; modeling of inelastic scattering data for actinide metal hydrides; characterizing actinide oxide structures; and investigating aging effects in actinides. These studies utilize neutron scattering supported by equilibrium studies, kinetics, and x-ray diffraction. Major accomplishments include (1) development of encapsulation techniques for small actinide samples and neutron diffraction studies of AmD{sub 2.4} and PuO{sub 2.3}; (2) refinement of lattice dynamics model to elucidate hydrogen-hydrogen and hydrogen-metal interactions in rare-earth and actinide hydrides; (3) kinetic studies with PuO{sub 2} indicating that the recombination reaction is faster than radiolytic decomposition of adsorbed water but a chemical reaction produces H{sub 2}; (4) PVT studies of the reaction between PuO{sub 2} and water demonstrate that PuO{sub 2+x} and H{sub 2} form and that PuO{sub 2} is not the thermodynamically stable form of the oxide in air; and (5) model calculations of helium in growth in aged plutonium predicting bubble formation only at grain boundaries at room temperature. The work performed in this project has application to fundamental properties of actinides, aging, and long-term storage of plutonium.

  3. Evidence for coexisting magnetic order in frustrated three-dimensional honeycomb iridates Li2IrO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breznay, Nicholas; Ruiz, Alejandro; Frano, Alex; Analytis, James

    The search for unconventional magnetism has found a fertile hunting ground in 5d iridium oxide (iridate) materials. The competition between coulomb, spin-orbit, and crystal field energy scales in honeycomb iridates leads to a quantum magnetic system with localized spin-1/2 moments communicating through spin-anisotropic Kitaev exchange interactions. Although early and ongoing work has focused on layered two-dimensional honeycomb compounds such as Na2IrO3 and a 4d analog, RuCl3, recently discovered polytypes of Li2IrO3 take on three-dimensional honeycomb structures. Bulk thermodynamic studies, as well as recent resonant x-ray diffraction and absorption spectroscopy experiments, have uncovered a rich phase diagram for these three-dimensional honeycomb iridates. Low temperature incommensurate and commensurate magnetic orders can be stabilized by tuning the applied magnetic field, displaying a delicate coexistence that signals highly frustrated magnetism.

  4. Electronic and magnetic structures of CeTe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, J. H.; Youn, S. J.; Park, Min Sik; Min, B. I.

    2005-05-01

    We have investigated electronic structures of CeTe2 to explore the correlation between the magnetic, charge density wave, and superconducting phases by using the local spin density approximation (LSDA) and LSDA +U (U =on-site Coulomb interaction) methods. We have found that the contribution near EF from Ce 4f states is negligible, suggesting that Ce 4f electrons are not the superconducting carriers. The total energy calculation indicates that the ABBA-type antiferromagnetic configuration is the most stable, while the stability is weakened by pressure. We have discussed the possible superconducting mechanism in the magnetic phase of CeTe1.82.

  5. Ulysses Data Analysis: Magnetic Topology of Heliospheric Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crooker, Nancy

    2001-01-01

    In this final technical report on research funded by a NASA grant, a project overview is given by way of summaries on nine published papers. Research has included: 1) Using suprathermal electron data to study heliospheric magnetic structures; 2) Analysis of magnetic clouds, coronal mass ejections (CME), and the heliospheric current sheet (HCS); 3) Analysis of the corotating interaction region (CIR) which develop from interactions between solar wind streams of different velocities; 4) Use of Ulysses data in the interpretation of heliospheric events and phenomena.

  6. Tunable conductance of magnetic nanowires with structured domain walls.

    PubMed

    Dugaev, V K; Berakdar, J; Barnaś, J

    2006-02-01

    We show that in a magnetic nanowire with double magnetic domain walls, quantum interference results in spin-split quasistationary states localized mainly between the domain walls. Spin-flip-assisted transmission through the domain structure increases strongly when these size-quantized states are tuned on resonance with the Fermi energy, e.g., upon varying the distance between the domain walls which results in resonance-type peaks of the wire conductance. This novel phenomenon is shown to be utilizable to manipulate the spin density in the domain vicinity. The domain wall parameters are readily controllable, and the predicted effect is hence exploitable in spintronic devices. PMID:16486888

  7. Electronic structure and magnetic properties of zigzag blue phosphorene nanoribbons

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Tao; Hong, Jisang

    2015-08-07

    We investigated the electronic structure and magnetism of zigzag blue phosphorene nanoribbons (ZBPNRs) using first principles density functional theory calculations by changing the widths of ZBPNRs from 1.5 to 5 nm. In addition, the effect of H and O passivation was explored as well. The ZBPNRs displayed intra-edge antiferromagnetic ground state with a semiconducting band gap of ∼0.35 eV; and this was insensitive to the edge structure relaxation effect. However, the edge magnetism of ZBPNRs disappeared with H-passivation. Moreover, the band gap of H-passivated ZBPNRs was greatly enhanced because the calculated band gap was ∼1.77 eV, and this was almost the same as that of two-dimensional blue phosphorene layer. For O-passivated ZBPNRs, we also found an intra-edge antiferromagnetic state. Besides, both unpassivated and O-passivated ZBPNRs preserved almost the same band gap. We predict that the electronic band structure and magnetic properties can be controlled by means of passivation. Moreover, the edge magnetism can be also modulated by the strain. Nonetheless, the intrinsic physical properties are size independent. This feature can be an advantage for device applications because it may not be necessary to precisely control the width of the nanoribbon.

  8. The Origins of Magnetic Structure in the Corona and Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antiochos, Spiro K.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important and most puzzling features of the coronal magnetic field is that it appears to have smooth magnetic structure with little evidence for non-potentiality except at two special locations: photospheric polarity inversions lines. (non-potentiality observed as a filament channel) and coronal hole boundaries, (observed as the slow solar wind). This characteristic feature of the closed-field corona is highly unexpected given that its magnetic field is continuously tangled by photospheric motions. Although reconnection can eliminate some of the injected structure, it cannot destroy the helicity, which should build up to produce observable complexity. I propose that an inverse cascade process transports the injected helicity from the interior of closed flux regions to their boundaries inversion lines and coronal holes, creating both filament channels and the slow wind. We describe how the helicity is injected and transported and calculate the relevant rates. I argue that one process, helicity transport, can explain both the observed lack and presence of structure in the coronal magnetic field. This work has been supported by the NASA HTP, SR&T, and LWS programs.

  9. Magnetic and structural instabilities of ultrathin Fe(100) wedges

    SciTech Connect

    Bader, S.D.; Li, Dongqi; Qiu, Z.Q.

    1994-05-01

    An overview is provided of recent efforts to explore magnetic and related structural issues for ultrathin Fe films grown epitaxially as wedge structures onto Ag(100) and Cu(100). Experiments were carried out utilizing the surface magneto-optic Kerr effect (SMOKE). Ordinary bcc Fe is lattice-matched to the primitive unit cell of the Ag(100) surface. Fe wedges on Ag(100) can be fabricated whose thick end has in-plane magnetic easy axes due to the shape anisotropy, and whose thin end has perpendicular easy axes due to the surface magnetic anisotrophy. A spin-reorientation transition can thus be studied in the center of the wedge where the competing anisotropies cancel. The goal is to test the Mermin-Wagner theorem which states that long-range order is lost at finite temperatures in an isotropic two-dimensional Heisenberg system. Fe wedges on Cu(100) can be studied in like manner, but the lattice matching permits fcc and tetragonally-distorted fcc phases to provide structural complexity in addition to the interplay of competing magnetic anisotropies. The results of these studies are new phase identifications that help both to put previous work into perspective and to define issues to pursue in the future.

  10. Effective field model of roughness in magnetic nano-structures

    SciTech Connect

    Lepadatu, Serban

    2015-12-28

    An effective field model is introduced here within the micromagnetics formulation, to study roughness in magnetic structures, by considering sub-exchange length roughness levels as a perturbation on a smooth structure. This allows the roughness contribution to be separated, which is found to give rise to an effective configurational anisotropy for both edge and surface roughness, and accurately model its effects with fine control over the roughness depth without the explicit need to refine the computational cell size to accommodate the roughness profile. The model is validated by comparisons with directly roughened structures for a series of magnetization switching and domain wall velocity simulations and found to be in excellent agreement for roughness levels up to the exchange length. The model is further applied to vortex domain wall velocity simulations with surface roughness, which is shown to significantly modify domain wall movement and result in dynamic pinning and stochastic creep effects.

  11. Magnetic field and electric current structure in the chromosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dravins, D.

    1974-01-01

    The three-dimensional vector magnetic field structure in the chromosphere above an active region is deduced by using high-resolution H-alpha filtergrams together with a simultaneous digital magnetogram. An analog model of the field is made with 400 metal wires representing field lines that outline the H-alpha structure. The height extent of the field is determined from vertical field-gradient observations around sunspots, from observed fibril heights, and from an assumption that the sources of the field are largely local. The computed electric currents (typically 10 mA/sq m) are found to flow in patterns not similar to observed features and not parallel to magnetic fields. Force structures correspond to observed solar features; the dynamics to be expected include: downward motion in bipolar areas in the lower chromosphere, an outflow of the outer chromosphere into the corona with radially outward flow above bipolar plage regions, and motion of arch filament systems.

  12. Magnetic Field Structure of Pressure Balanced Structures from Ulysses High Latitudes Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamauchi, Y.; Suess, S. T.; Sakurai, T.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Ulysses observations showed that pressure balance structures (PBSs) are a common feature in the high-latitude solar winds near the solar minimum. On the other hand, coronal plumes are common in polar coronal holes near the solar minimum. It is therefore considered that the PBSs would be remnants of plumes. Several detailed studies of the PBSs have been made from Ulysses/SWOOPS observations, but study of their magnetic structures has not yet been done. The study of the magnetic structure is important because previous observations and theoretical models of plumes indicate that they are related to the network activity such as magnetic reconnection on the photosphere. We have investigated the magnetic structures of the PBSs with Ulysses magnetometer and SWOOPS data. We have found that magnetic reversals in radial magnetic field take place while the spacecraft passes through most of the PBSs These magnetic reversals have been interpreted as large amplitude Alfv/'enic fluctuations but our results suggest that Ulysses is also traversing current sheets of plasmoids associated with network activity at the base of plumes.

  13. Numerical simulations and stability of magnetic structures in the heliosheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, S.; Avinash, K.; Shaikh, D.; Zank, G. P.

    2008-12-01

    We extend the three fluid model of Avinash and Zank [2007] for magnetic structures in the heliosheath to a four fluid model consisting of electrons, pick-up ions (PUIs), solar wind ions (SWI), and neutral hydrogen. The PUIs are generated by neutrals via charge exchange with SWI. Since the kinetic pressure of PUIs is nearly three to four times the pressure of SWI, these are more suited to mediate small scale structures in the heliosheath such as magnetic holes/humps etc. The constant energy exchange between these two fluids drives them non-adiabatic. The PUIs are isothermal while SWI are non adiabatic with an index ~1.25. The four fluid model captures these effects via a modified equation of state for PUI and SWI. The phase space of time independent solutions in terms of the Mach numbers of PUI and SWI is constructed to delineate the parameter space which allows structure formation in the heliosheath. We examine the stability of the time independent solutions by evolving them via a full system of Hall -MHD equations. The simulation results show that these solutions are not quite stable. As the structure propagates it develops growing oscillations in the wings. Concomitantly, there are changes in the amplitude and width of the structure. This instability could be due to local changes in the velocity of the structure and reflects an exchange between the kinetic and magnetic parts of the total energy. Our results showing the presence of growing oscillations in the wings of solitary wave solutions are consistent with the recent analysis of magnetic holes in the heliosheth by Burlaga et al [2007].

  14. Concentric Magnetic Structures for Magnetophoretic Bead Collection, Cell Trapping and Analysis of Cell Morphological Changes Caused by Local Magnetic Forces

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chen-Yu; Wei, Zung-Hang

    2015-01-01

    Concentric magnetic structures (ring and square) with domain wall (DW) pinning geometry are designed for biological manipulation. Magnetic beads collection was firstly demonstrated to analyse the local magnetic field generated by DWs and the effective regions to capture magnetic targets of size 1 μm. Primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) are magnetically labeled by internalizing poly (styrene sulfonic acid) stabilized magnetic nanoparticles (PSS-MNPs) and then are selectively trapped by head-to-tail DWs (HH DWs) or tail-to-tail DWs (TT DWs) to be arranged into linear shape or cross shape. The morphologies and the nuclear geometry of the cells growing on two kinds of concentric magnetic structures are shown to be distinctive. The intracellular magnetic forces generated by the local magnetic field of DWs are found to influence the behaviour of cells. PMID:26270332

  15. Band gap engineering of a soft inorganic compound PbI2 by incommensurate van der Waals epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yiping; Sun, Yi-Yang; Zhang, Shengbai; Lu, Toh-Ming; Shi, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Van der Waals epitaxial growth had been thought to have trivial contribution on inducing substantial epitaxial strain in thin films due to its weak nature of van der Waals interfacial energy. Due to this, electrical and optical structure engineering via van der Waals epitaxial strain has been rarely studied. In this report, we show that significant band structure engineering could be achieved in a soft thin film material PbI2 via van der Waals epitaxy. The thickness dependent photoluminescence of single crystal PbI2 flakes was studied and attributed to the substrate-film coupling effect via incommensurate van der Waals epitaxy. It is proposed that the van der Waals strain is resulted from the soft nature of PbI2 and large van der Waals interaction due to the involvement of heavy elements. Such strain plays vital roles in modifying the band gap of PbI2. The deformation potential theory is used to quantitatively unveil the correlation between thickness, strain, and band gap change. Our hypothesis is confirmed by the subsequent mechanical bending test and Raman characterization.

  16. Structural and Magnetic Transitions in UPd_2Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, R. A.; Nakotte, H.; Dilley, N. R.; Maple, M. B.; Lynn, J. W.; Skanthakumar, S. K.

    1997-03-01

    The uranium Heusler alloy UPd_2Pb (γ = 98 mJ mol-1K-2) has been studied by means of neutron diffraction and spectroscopy. At room temperature, it has the standard Cu_2MnAl Heusler structure, but there is a previously unreported martensitic transformation at 210K, to an orthorhombic or monoclinic structure. At 40K, it then orders antiferromagnetically to a state very much like the classic Type I FCC antiferromagnetic structure. We will discuss the relationship between the crystallographic and magnetic symmetries, and compare with similar transitions in other uranium Heusler systems.

  17. Selective formation of turbulent structures in magnetized cylindrical plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kasuya, Naohiro; Itoh, Kimitaka; Yagi, Masatoshi; Itoh, Sanae-I

    2008-05-15

    The mechanism of nonlinear structural formation has been studied with a three-field reduced fluid model, which is extended to describe the resistive drift wave turbulence in magnetized cylindrical plasmas. In this model, ion-neutral collisions strongly stabilize the resistive drift wave, and the formed structure depends on the collision frequency. If the collision frequency is small, modulational coupling of unstable modes generates a zonal flow. On the other hand, if the collision frequency is large, a streamer, which is a localized vortex in the azimuthal direction, is formed. The structure is generated by nonlinear wave coupling and is sustained for a much longer duration than the drift wave oscillation period. This is a minimal model for analyzing the turbulent structural formation mechanism by mode coupling in cylindrical plasmas, and the competitive nature of structural formation is revealed. These turbulent structures affect particle transport.

  18. Magnetic structures of actinide materials by pulsed neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, A.C.; Goldstone, J.A.; Huber, J.G.; Giorgi, A.L.; Conant, J.W.; Severing, A.; Cort, B.; Robinson, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    We describe some attempts to observe magnetic structure in various actinide (5f-electron) materials. Our experimental technique is neutron powder diffraction as practiced at a spallation (pulsed) neutron source. We will discuss our investigations of {alpha}-Pu, {delta}-Pu, {alpha}-UD{sub 3} and {beta}-UD{sub 3}. {beta}-UD{sub 3} is a simple ferromagnet: surprisingly, the moments on the two non-equivalent uranium atoms are the same within experimental error. {alpha}-UD{sub 3}, {alpha}-Pu and {delta}-Pu are non-magnetic, within the limits of our observations. Our work with pulsed neutron diffraction shows that it is a useful technique for research on magnetic materials.

  19. The equilibrium structure of thin magnetic flux tubes. I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrari, A.; Massaglia, S.; Kalkofen, W.; Rosner, R.; Bodo, G.

    1985-01-01

    A model atmosphere within a thin magnetic flux tube that is embedded in an arbitrarily stratified medium is presently constructed by solving the radiative transfer equation in the two-stream approximation for gray opacity, under the assumption that the magnetic field is sufficiently strong to warrant the neglect of both thermal conduction and convective diffusion; energy inside the flux tube therefore being transported solely by radiation. The structure of the internal atmosphere is determined on the basis of the hydrostatic and radiative equilibrium conditions of the tube embedded in an external atmosphere. The gas temperature along the axis of the tube is computed, and the geometry of the flux tube is determined on the basis of magnetic flux conservation and total pressure equilibrium.

  20. Nanoscale Magnetic Structure of Ferromagnet/Antiferromagnet Manganite Multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Niebieskikwiat, D.; Hueso, L. E.; Borchers, J. A.; Mathur, N. D.; Salamon, M. B.

    2007-12-14

    We use polarized neutron reflectometry and dc magnetometry to obtain a comprehensive picture of the magnetic structure of a series of La{sub 2/3}Sr{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3}/Pr{sub 2/3}Ca{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3} (LSMO/PCMO) superlattices, with varying thickness of the antiferromagnetic (AFM) PCMO layers (0{<=}t{sub A}{<=}7.6 nm). While LSMO presents a few magnetically frustrated monolayers at the interfaces with PCMO, in the latter a magnetic contribution due to ferromagnetic (FM) inclusions within the AFM matrix is maximized at t{sub A}{approx}3 nm. This enhancement of FM moment occurs at the matching between layer thickness and cluster size, implying the possibility of tuning phase separation by imposing appropriate geometrical constraints which favor the accommodation of FM nanoclusters within the ''non-FM'' material.

  1. Magnetic apatite for structural insights on the plasma membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanca, Sarmiza E.; Müller, Robert; Dellith, Jan; Nietzsche, Sandor; Stöckel, Stephan; Biskup, Christoph; Deckert, Volker; Krafft, Christoph; Popp, Jürgen; Fritzsche, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The iron oxide-hydroxyapatite (FeOxHA) nanoparticles reported here differ from those reported before by their advantage of homogeneity and simple preparation; moreover, the presence of carboxymethyldextran (CMD), together with hydroxyapatite (HA), allows access to the cellular membrane, which makes our magnetic apatite unique. These nanoparticles combine magnetic behavior, Raman label ability and the property of interaction with the cellular membrane; they therefore represent an interesting material for structural differentiation of the cell membrane. It was observed by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence microscopy that FeOxHA adheres to the plasma membrane and does not penetrate the membrane. These insights make the nanoparticles a promising material for magnetic cell sorting, e.g. in microfluidic device applications.

  2. Low-degree Structure in Mercury's Planetary Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Brian J.; Johnson, Catherine L.; Korth, Haje; Winslow, Reka M.; Borovsky, Joseph E.; Purucker, Michael E.; Slavin, James A.; Solomon, Sean C.; Zuber, Maria T.; McNutt, Ralph L. Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The structure of Mercury's internal magnetic field has been determined from analysis of orbital Magnetometer measurements by the MESSENGER spacecraft. We identified the magnetic equator on 531 low-altitude and 120 high-altitude equator crossings from the zero in the radial cylindrical magnetic field component, Beta (sub rho). The low-altitude crossings are offset 479 +/- 6 km northward, indicating an offset of the planetary dipole. The tilt of the magnetic pole relative to the planetary spin axis is less than 0.8 deg.. The high-altitude crossings yield a northward offset of the magnetic equator of 486 +/- 74 km. A field with only nonzero dipole and octupole coefficients also matches the low-altitude observations but cannot yield off-equatorial Beta (sub rho) = 0 at radial distances greater than 3520 km. We compared offset dipole and other descriptions of the field with vector field observations below 600 km for 13 longitudinally distributed, magnetically quiet orbits. An offset dipole with southward directed moment of 190 nT-R-cube (sub M) yields root-mean-square (RMS) residuals below 14 nT, whereas a field with only dipole and octupole terms tuned to match the polar field and the low-altitude magnetic equator crossings yields RMS residuals up to 68 nT. Attributing the residuals from the offset-dipole field to axial degree 3 and 4 contributions we estimate that the Gauss coefficient magnitudes for the additional terms are less than 4% and 7%, respectively, relative to the dipole. The axial alignment and prominent quadrupole are consistent with a non-convecting layer above a deep dynamo in Mercury's fluid outer core.

  3. Magnetic Structure and Formation of On-disk Coronal Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonsson, S.; Tiwari, S. K.; Moore, R. L.; Winebarger, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    "Plumes" are feather-like features found on the solar disk, in the plage-like field concentrations of quiet regions. On-disk plumes are analogous to polar/coronal-hole plumes but have not been studied in detail in the past. We research their formation and characteristics, such as lifetime, intensity and magnetic setting at the feet. Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) images in the 171 Å filter and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) line-of-sight magnetograms, both from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), are analyzed with the IDL SolarSoftWare package and used to study the plumes. We find that on-disk plumes form at the places of converging magnetic fields, and disappear when those fields disperse. However, plumes disappear after nearby events, such as flares, or with the emergence of opposite polarity. The lifetime of each plume tends to be several days, although some appear and disappear within several hours. On-disk plumes outline magnetic fields close to the sun, allowing a better understanding of fine magnetic structures than before. Additionally, since plumes must be heated to around 600,000 K to be visible in 171 Å, their formation and characteristics could tell about how they, and therefore the corona, are heated.

  4. Structural and magnetic properties of nickel antimony ferrospinels

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, S. A.; Tellgren, R.; Porcher, F.; Andre, G.; Ericsson, T.; Nordblad, P; Sadovskaya, N.; Kaleva, G.; Politova, E.; Baldini, M.; Sun, C.; Arvanitis, D.; Kumar, P. Anil; Mathieu, R.

    2015-05-05

    Spinel-type compounds of Fe–Ni–Sb–O system were synthesized as polycrystalline powders. The crystal and magnetic properties were investigated using X-ray and neutron powder diffraction, Mössbauer and X-ray absorption spectroscopy and magnetization measurements. The samples crystallize in the cubic system, space group Fd – 3 m. The distribution of cations between octahedral and tetrahedral sites was refined from the diffraction data sets using constraints imposed by the magnetic, Mössbauer and EDS results and the ionic radii. The cation distribution and the temperature dependence of the lattice parameter (a) and the oxygen positional parameter (u) were obtained. A chemical formula close to Fe0.8Ni1.8Sb0.4O4 was determined, with Sb5+ cations occupying octahedral sites, and Fe3+ and Ni2+ occupying both tetrahedral and octahedral sites. Fe3+ mainly (85/15 ratio) occupy tetrahedral sites, and conversely Ni2+ mainly reside on octahedral ones. The magnetic unit cell is the same as the crystallographic one, having identical symmetry relations. The results indicate that the compounds have a collinear ferrimagnetic structure with antiferromagnetic coupling between the tetrahedral (A) and octahedral (B) sites. Uniquely, the temperature dependence of the net magnetization of this rare earth free ferrimagnet exhibits a compensation point.

  5. Shifting the Starspot Paradigm: Imaging Global Magnetic Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roettenbacher, Rachael M.; Monnier, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Stellar magnetism exists in stars across the HR diagram and fuels stellar activity (e.g. flares and starspots). This magnetism affects measurements of fundamental stellar parameters, such as radius and temperature, leading to inaccurate mass and age estimates. In order to better determine stellar parameters, we aim to understand how magnetically-suppressed convection presents as cool regions across the stellar surface. In the standard "spot paradigm" of localized starspots blemishing an otherwise featureless surface, we use precision Kepler data and light curve inversion to study stellar differential rotation and starspot evolution. Contrastingly, by imaging interferometric data collected with the Michigan Infrared Combiner (MIRC) at GSU's Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy (CHARA) Array, we detect large-scale magnetic structures across the surface of ζ Andromedae. These global regions of suppressed convection cover a large fraction of the surface, likely changing the atmospheric structure of the photosphere and impacting stellar parameter estimates. The large-scale features are at best ambiguous to interpret via established techniques that rely on rotational modulation of spots (e.g. light curve inversion and Doppler imaging). We seek to identify a class of targets where the "spot paradigm" breaks down and gives new insights into a range of phenomena such as long-term changes in flux for active stars, anomalous proper motion of spots derived from precision photometry, and the nature of the stellar dynamo of stars with large convective envelopes.

  6. Magnetic and structural properties of MnRh thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, Anurag; Sepehri-Amin, Hossein; Ohkubo, Tadakatsu; Hono, Kazuhiro; Suzuki, Takao

    2016-03-01

    A systematic study of magnetic and structural properties of MnRh thin films fabricated by sputter-deposition onto silica glass has been conducted. The MnRh thin films are found to be of the CsCl-type structure, and ferromagnetic at room temperature. The MnRh thin film undergoes the magnetic phase transition between antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic states at a temperature around 175 K and 310 K during the cooling and heating process, respectively. The temperature dependence of the magnetization shows a thermal hysteresis of about 120 K. An exchange bias field of about 450 Oe at 5 K was observed with the coercivity of 900 Oe and unidirectional anisotropy constant of about 0.45 erg/cm2. The magnetic field dependence of M-T shows that the transition temperature of about 230 K remains unchanged with increasing field during the temperature variation process. A detailed STEM-EDS analysis indicates a non-uniform compositional distribution of Mn and Rh with an average composition of Mn58Rh42 at%. A high resolution STEM-HAADF analysis reveals the compositional variations within the CsCl-type MnRh grains. It is proposed that the origin of exchange bias effect is resulted from the exchange coupling between the ferromagnetic region with Mn-rich and the antiferromagnetic region with nearly the equiatomic composition.

  7. Ultrahigh energy cosmic rays in a structured and magnetized universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigl, Günter; Miniati, Francesco; Ensslin, Torsten A.

    2003-08-01

    We simulate propagation of cosmic ray nucleons above 1019 eV in scenarios where both the source distribution and magnetic fields within about 50 Mpc from us are obtained from an unconstrained large scale structure simulation. We find that a consistency of predicted sky distributions with current data above 4×1019 eV requires magnetic fields of ≃0.1 μG in our immediate environment, and a nearby source density of ˜10-4-10-3 Mpc-3. Radio galaxies could provide the required sources, but only if both high- and low-luminosity radio galaxies are very efficient cosmic ray accelerators. Moreover, at ≃1019 eV an additional isotropic flux component, presumably of cosmological origin, should dominate over the local flux component by about a factor of 3 in order to explain the observed isotropy. This argues against the scenario in which local astrophysical sources of cosmic rays above ≃1019 eV reside in a strongly magnetized (B≃0.1 μG) and structured intergalactic medium. Finally we discuss how future large scale full-sky detectors such as the Pierre Auger project will allow us to put much more stringent constraints on source and magnetic field distributions.

  8. High frequency magnetization dynamics of ferromagnetic nano-structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zohar, Sioan

    effects of magnetization motion in opposite layers of a NiFe/Cu/CoZr "spin valve" have been isolated using ultrafast time-resolved x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (TR-XMCD), a layer-specific probe of dynamics. We first describe our instrumental advances in TR-XMCD, in which we have applied synchronous detection techniques to speed data acquisition, enabling measurements of weak coupling. In these measurements, we observe the CoZr responds to the NiFe precession with an in phase component, typically attributed to interlayer dipolar coupling, and a pi/2 out of phase component which has been attributed to coupling via pure spin currents. We estimate an effective interface mixing conductance of g↑↓eff of 8.68 +/- 1.74 nm-2, very close to what has been observed in epitaxial Fe-based structures. This identification is made subject to the assumption of a phase offset in the Co layer precession, not explained at present. We close with experiments demonstrating the feasibility of TR-XMCD in sub-micron and patterned structures. Synchronous detection techniques have been applied for the first time to measure domain wall motion in micron scale Ni81Fe19 squares.

  9. Electronic structure, noncollinear magnetism, and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism in the Mn3ZnC perovskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonov, V. N.; Harmon, B. N.; Yaresko, A. N.; Shpak, A. P.

    2007-04-01

    Mn3ZnC possesses a magnetic phase transition at Tt=233K from a ferromagnetic phase to a ferrimagnetic one with a noncollinear magnetic structure. The transition is accompanied by a structural change from cubic to tetragonal. The experimentally measured x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) at the MnK edge shows a drastic change at the magnetic phase transition, which is associated with the appearance of the noncollinear magnetic structure. The electronic structure and XMCD spectra of the Mn3ZnC were investigated theoretically from first principles, using the fully relativistic Dirac linear muffin-tin orbital band-structure method for both the high-temperature cubic and low-temperature tetragonal noncollinear phases. Densities of valence states, spin, and orbital magnetic moments are analyzed and discussed. The origin of the XMCD spectra in the Mn3ZnC compound is examined. The calculated results are compared with the experimental data.

  10. Effect of substrate rotation on domain structure and magnetic relaxation in magnetic antidot lattice arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Mallick, Sougata; Mallik, Srijani; Bedanta, Subhankar

    2015-08-28

    Microdimensional triangular magnetic antidot lattice arrays were prepared by varying the speed of substrate rotation. The pre-deposition patterning has been performed using photolithography technique followed by a post-deposition lift-off. Surface morphology taken by atomic force microscopy depicted that the growth mechanism of the grains changes from chain like formation to island structures due to the substrate rotation. Study of magnetization reversal via magneto optic Kerr effect based microscopy revealed reduction of uniaxial anisotropy and increase in domain size with substrate rotation. The relaxation measured under constant magnetic field becomes faster with rotation of the substrate during deposition. The nature of relaxation for the non-rotating sample can be described by a double exponential decay. However, the relaxation for the sample with substrate rotation is well described either by a double exponential or a Fatuzzo-Labrune like single exponential decay, which increases in applied field.

  11. Magnetic structure and Magnetic transport Properties of Graphene Nanoribbons With Sawtooth Zigzag Edges

    PubMed Central

    Wang, D.; Zhang, Z.; Zhu, Z.; Liang, B.

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic structure and magnetic transport properties of hydrogen-passivated sawtooth zigzag-edge graphene nanoribbons (STGNRs) are investigated theoretically. It is found that all-sized ground-state STGNRs are ferromagnetic and always feature magnetic semiconductor properties, whose spin splitting energy gap Eg changes periodically with the width of STGNRs. More importantly, for the STGNR based device, the dual spin-filtering effect with the perfect (100%) spin polarization and high-performance dual spin diode effect with a rectification ratio about 1010 can be predicted. Particularly, a highly effective spin-valve device is likely to be realized, which displays a giant magnetoresistace (MR) approaching 1010%, which is three orders magnitude higher than the value predicted based on the zigzag graphene nanoribbons and six orders magnitude higher than previously reported experimental values for the MgO tunnel junction. Our findings suggest that STGNRs might hold a significant promise for developing spintronic devices. PMID:25533701

  12. Mirror Domain Structures Induced by Interlayer Magnetic Wall Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lew, W. S.; Li, S. P.; Lopez-Diaz, L.; Hatton, D. C.; Bland, J. A.

    2003-05-01

    We have found that during giant magnetoresistance measurements in ˜10×10 mm2 NiFe/Cu/Co continuous film spin-valve structures, the resistance value suddenly drops to its absolute minimum during the NiFe reversal. The results reveal that the alignment of all magnetic domains in the NiFe film follow exactly that of corresponding domains in the Co film for an appropriate applied field strength. This phenomenon is caused by trapping of the NiFe domain walls through the magnetostatic interaction with the Co domain-wall stray fields. Consequently, the interlayer domain-wall coupling induces a mirror domain structure in the magnetic trilayer.

  13. Multipoint observations of planar interplanetary magnetic field structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrugia, C. J.; Lepping, R. P.; Dunlop, M. W.; Elliott, S.; Balogh, A.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Freeman, M. P.; Sibeck, D. G.

    1991-01-01

    IMF data made on November 1, 1984, by three spatially well-separated spacecraft in the solar wind are presented. The IMF measured by each of the spacecraft is found to consist of a multiplicity of structures within which the magnetic field varies in parallel planes. The orientations of these planes at the three spacecraft locations are similar. The planes are inclined at a large angle to the ecliptic, and they lie almost perpendicular to the nominal Parker spiral direction in the ecliptic. Intercomparisons of the measurements at the various spacecraft show that the IMF features at one spacecraft are clearly reproduced at another, with time delays required for signal propagation. From these time delays and the mutual separations of the spacecraft, it is inferred that the structures are convecting with the ambient flow. Simultaneous observations made downstream of the bow shock in the magnetosheath reveal that the magnetosheath magnetic field, too, is planar.

  14. Structural, optical, and magnetic properties of FeVO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Pooja; Gupta, Anurag; Dogra, Anjana

    2016-05-01

    We report the structural, optical, and magnetic properties of polycrystalline FeVO3 synthesized by solid state reaction technique.While FeVO3 has rhombohedral crystal structure with space group R-3c (167) identical to the parentα-Fe2O3, the lattice volume reduces due to the replacement of Fe3+ with V3+ having smaller ionic radii. The most remarkable outcome of doping is reduction in band gap from 2.1 (α-Fe2O3) to 1.5 eV (FeVO3), which is favorable for photo-electrochemical applications. Although the canted ferromagnetism persists in FeVO3, an enhancement in magnetic moment is observed as compared to the parent compound.

  15. Geometric, electronic, and magnetic structure of FexOy+ clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logemann, R.; de Wijs, G. A.; Katsnelson, M. I.; Kirilyuk, A.

    2015-10-01

    Correlation between geometry, electronic structure, and magnetism of solids is both intriguing and elusive. This is particularly strongly manifested in small clusters, where a vast number of unusual structures appear. Here, we employ density functional theory in combination with a genetic search algorithm GGA +U and a hybrid functional to determine the structure of gas phase FexOy+/0 clusters. For FexOy+ cation clusters we also calculate the corresponding vibration spectra and compare them with experiments. We successfully identify Fe3O4+ , Fe4O5+ , Fe4O6+ , Fe5O7+ and propose structures for Fe6O8+ . Within the triangular geometric structure of Fe3O4+ , a noncollinear, ferrimagnetic, and ferromagnetic state are comparable in energy. Fe4O5+ and Fe4O6+ are ferrimagnetic with a residual magnetic moment of 1 μB due to ionization. Fe5O7+ is ferrimagnetic due to the odd number of Fe atoms. We compare the electronic structure with bulk magnetite and find Fe4O5+ , Fe4O6+ , Fe6O8+ to be mixed valence clusters. In contrast, in Fe3O4+ and Fe5O7+ , all Fe are found to be trivalent.

  16. Unusual Strong Incommensurate Modulation in a Tungsten-Bronze-Type Relaxor PbBiNb5O15.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kun; Zhou, Zhengyang; Liu, Laijun; Ma, Hongqiang; Chen, Jun; Deng, Jinxia; Sun, Junliang; You, Li; Kasai, Hidetaka; Kato, Kenichi; Takata, Masaki; Xing, Xianran

    2015-10-28

    Pb- or Bi-based perovskite oxides have been widely studied and used because of their large ferroelectric polarization features induced by stereochemically active 6s(2) lone pair electrons. It is intriguing whether this effect could exist in other related systems. Herein, we designed and synthesized a mixed Pb and Bi A site polar compound, PbBiNb5O15, with the TTB framework. The as-synthesized material turns out to be a relaxor with weak macroscopic ferroelectricity but adopts strong local polarizations. What's more, unusual five orders of incommensurate satellite reflections with strong intensities were observed under the electron diffraction, suggesting that the modulation is highly developed with large amplitudes. The structural modulation was solved with a (3 + 1)D superspace group using high-resolution synchrotron radiation combined with anomalous dispersion X-ray diffraction technique to distinguish Pb from Bi. We show that the strong modulation mainly originates from lone-pair driven Pb(2+)-Bi(3+) ordering in the large pentagonal caves, which can suppress the local polarization in x-y plane in long ranges. Moreover, the as-synthesized ceramics display strong relaxor ferroelectric feature with transition temperature near room temperature and moderate dielectric properties, which could be functionalized to be electromechanical device materials. PMID:26474121

  17. Magnetic and Structural Properties of Ultra-Thin Cobalt Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedmann, Michael Helmut

    In situ polar Kerr effect measurements have been used to study the magnetic anisotropy of Au(111)/Co/X, Pd(111)/Co/X, Cu(111)/Co/X, and Pd(100)/Co/X sandwiches, where X is the nonmagnetic metal Ag, Au, Cu, Ir, and Pd or the insulator MgO. The films were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). For the metals, we found that the magnitude of the Co/X perpendicular interface anisotropy is strongly peaked at ~1 atomic layer (1.5-2.5 A) coverage. To investigate structural influences on the anisotropy, we have used reflection high energy diffraction (RHEED) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED) to measure changes resulting from overlayer coverage. Analysis of digitized RHEED images captured every ~ 1 A during metal overlayer coverage shows no abrupt change of the in-plane lattice constant. We have also investigated the out-of-plane lattice spacing as a function of nonmagnetic metal coverage by measuring LEED I-V curves along the (0,0) rod. In the case of Cu, where the LEED behavior is nearly kinematic, we see no evidence of any abrupt structural changes at ~1 atomic layer coverage. These results suggest the observed peak in magnetic anisotropy is not structural in origin. The influence of an insulating overlayer, MgO, on the perpendicular magnetic properties was also investigated.

  18. Structural investigation of magnetic FeRh epitaxial films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castiella, M.; Gatel, C.; Bobo, J. F.; Ratel-Ramond, N.; Tan, R.; Respaud, M.; Casanove, M. J.

    2015-08-01

    We report on the structural investigation of FeRh thin films exhibiting a magnetic transition from an antiferromagnetic (AF) to a ferromagnetic (FM) state when heated above ≈350 K. The transition lying in a very narrow range of composition, close to the equiatomic one, and in a given chemically ordered phase (of B2-type), the composition and the growth conditions were carefully adjusted in the epitaxial growth process of the films on (001)MgO. Magnetic measurements confirmed the presence of the AF-FM transition. High-angle x-ray diffraction and electron microscopy experiments were used to characterize the FeRh structural details at different scales from statistical to highly localized information. Special attention was paid to the quality of the chemical order and the presence of defects, which condition the characteristics of the magnetic transition. Interestingly, the results reveal the presence of nanograins, displaying another structure in the equiatomic FeRh films, such grains having previously been observed in strained bulk specimens.

  19. Magnetic phase transitions and magnetization reversal in MnRuP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampen-Kelley, P.; Mandrus, D.

    The ternary phosphide MnRuP is an incommensurate antiferromagnetic metal crystallizing in the non-centrosymmetric Fe2P-type crystal structure. Below the Neel transition at 250 K, MnRuP exhibits hysteretic anomalies in resistivity and magnetic susceptibility curves as the propagation vectors of the spiral spin structure change discontinuously across T1 = 180 K and T2 = 100 K. Temperature-dependent X-ray diffraction data indicate that the first-order spin reorientation occurs in the absence of a structural transition. A strong magnetization reversal (MR) effect is observed upon cooling the system through TN in moderate dc magnetic fields. Positive magnetization is recovered on further cooling through T1 and maintained in subsequent warming curves. The field dependence and training of the MR effect in MnRuP will be discussed in terms of the underlying magnetic structures and compared to anomalous MR observed in vanadate systems. This work is supported by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation GBMF4416 and U.S. DOE, Office of Science, BES, Materials Science and Engineering Division.

  20. Interplay between structural symmetry and magnetism in Ag-Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Tsung-Wen; Lai, S. K.

    2016-01-01

    We present first-principles theoretical calculations of the magnetic properties of bimetallic clusters Ag-Cu. The calculations proceeded by combining a previously developed state-of-the-art optimization algorithm (P.J. Hsu, S.K. Lai, J. Chem. Phys. 124 (2006) 0447110) with an empirical potential and applied this numerical scheme to determine first the lowest energy structures of pure clusters Ag38 and Cu38, and also their different atomic compositions AgnCu38-n for n=1,2,…,37. Then, we carried out the Kohn-Sham spin unrestricted density functional theory calculations on the optimized atomic structures obtained in the preceding step. Given the minimized structures from the first step as input configurations, the results of these re-optimized structures by full density functional theory calculations yield more refined electronic and atomic structures. A thorough comparison of the structural differences between these two sets of atomic geometries, one from using an empirical potential in which the electronic degrees of freedom were included approximately and another from subsequent minimization using the spin unrestricted density functional theory, sheds light on how the electronic charges disperse near atoms in clusters AgnCu38-n, and hence the distributions of electronic spin and charge densities at re-optimized sites of the cluster. These data of the electronic dispersion and the ionic configuration give clue to the mystery of the unexpected net magnetic moments which were found in some of the clusters AgnCu38-n at n=1-4, 24 as well as the two pure clusters. Possible origins for this unanticipated magnetism were explained in the context of the point group theory in much the same idea as the Clemenger-Nilsson model applied to simple metal clusters except that we draw particular attention to the atomic topologies and stress the bearing that they have on valence electrons in inducing them to disperse and occupy different molecular orbital energy levels.

  1. Structure and magnetism in Cr-embedded Co nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, S. H.; Kurt, M. S.; Roy, M.; Lees, M. R.; Binns, C.

    2016-02-01

    We present the results of an investigation into the atomic structure and magnetism of 2 nm diameter Co nanoparticles embedded in an antiferromagnetic Cr matrix. The nanocomposite films used in this study were prepared by co-deposition directly from the gas phase, using a gas aggregation source for the Co nanoparticles and a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) source for the Cr matrix material. Co K and Cr K edge extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) experiments were performed in order to investigate atomic structure in the embedded nanoparticles and matrix respectively, while magnetism was investigated by means of a vibrating sample magnetometer. The atomic structure type of the Co nanoparticles is the same as that of the Cr matrix (bcc) although with a degree of disorder. The net Co moment per atom in the Co/Cr nanocomposite films is significantly reduced from the value for bulk Co, and decreases as the proportion of Co nanoparticles in the film is decreased; for the sample with the most dilute concentration of Co nanoparticles (4.9% by volume), the net Co moment was 0.25 μ B/atom. After field cooling to below 30 K all samples showed an exchange bias, which was largest for the most dilute sample. Both the structural and magnetic results point towards a degree of alloying at the nanoparticle/matrix interface, leading to a core/shell structure in the embedded nanoparticles consisting of an antiferromagnetic CoCr alloy shell surrounding a reduced ferromagnetic Co core.

  2. Structure and magnetism in Cr-embedded Co nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Baker, S H; Kurt, M S; Roy, M; Lees, M R; Binns, C

    2016-02-01

    We present the results of an investigation into the atomic structure and magnetism of 2 nm diameter Co nanoparticles embedded in an antiferromagnetic Cr matrix. The nanocomposite films used in this study were prepared by co-deposition directly from the gas phase, using a gas aggregation source for the Co nanoparticles and a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) source for the Cr matrix material. Co K and Cr K edge extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) experiments were performed in order to investigate atomic structure in the embedded nanoparticles and matrix respectively, while magnetism was investigated by means of a vibrating sample magnetometer. The atomic structure type of the Co nanoparticles is the same as that of the Cr matrix (bcc) although with a degree of disorder. The net Co moment per atom in the Co/Cr nanocomposite films is significantly reduced from the value for bulk Co, and decreases as the proportion of Co nanoparticles in the film is decreased; for the sample with the most dilute concentration of Co nanoparticles (4.9% by volume), the net Co moment was 0.25 μ B/atom. After field cooling to below 30 K all samples showed an exchange bias, which was largest for the most dilute sample. Both the structural and magnetic results point towards a degree of alloying at the nanoparticle/matrix interface, leading to a core/shell structure in the embedded nanoparticles consisting of an antiferromagnetic CoCr alloy shell surrounding a reduced ferromagnetic Co core. PMID:26740510

  3. Magnetic mirror structure for testing shell-type quadrupole coils

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Chlachidze, G.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Nobrega, F.; Novitski, I.; Tartaglia, N.; Turrioni, D.; /Fermilab

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents magnetic and mechanical designs and analyses of the quadrupole mirror structure to test single shell-type quadrupole coils. Several quadrupole coils made of different Nb{sub 3}Sn strands, cable insulation and pole materials were tested using this structure at 4.5 and 1.9 K. The coils were instrumented with voltage taps, spot heaters, temperature sensors and strain gauges to study their mechanical and thermal properties and quench performance. The results of the quadrupole mirror model assembly and test are reported and discussed.

  4. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of lysine-vasopressin: structural constraints.

    PubMed

    Von Dreele, P H; Brewster, A I; Bovey, F A; Scheraga, H A; Ferger, M F; Du Vigneaud, V

    1971-12-01

    The 220-MHz proton NMR spectra of lysine-vasopressin and some related compounds are examined in deuterated dimethyl sulfoxide to obtain structural information that must be satisfied by any proposed conformation of the molecule. This structural information is in the form of dihedral angles (for rotation about the NH-C(alpha)H bonds) from coupling constants, possible hydrogen bonding of the CONH(2) and backbone amide groups from the temperature-dependence of the chemical shift, and aromatic ring-aromatic ring interaction from the effect of the magnetically anisotropic groups on the chemical shift. PMID:5289251

  5. Structural, electronic, and magnetic characteristics of Np2Co17

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halevy, I.; Hen, A.; Orion, I.; Colineau, E.; Eloirdi, R.; Griveau, J.-C.; Gaczyński, P.; Wilhelm, F.; Rogalev, A.; Sanchez, J.-P.; Winterrose, M. L.; Magnani, N.; Shick, A. B.; Caciuffo, R.

    2012-01-01

    A previously unknown neptunium-transition-metal binary compound Np2Co17 has been synthesized and characterized by means of powder x-ray diffraction, 237Np Mössbauer spectroscopy, superconducting-quantum-interference-device magnetometry, and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). The compound crystallizes in a Th2Ni17-type hexagonal structure with room-temperature lattice parameters a=8.3107(1) Å and c=8.1058(1) Å. Magnetization curves indicate the occurrence of ferromagnetic order below TC>350 K. Mössbauer spectra suggest a Np3+ oxidation state and give an ordered moment of μNp=1.57(4) μB and μNp=1.63(4) μB for the Np atoms located, respectively, at the 2b and 2d crystallographic positions of the P63/mmc space group. Combining these values with a sum-rule analysis of the XMCD spectra measured at the neptunium M4,5 absorption edges, one obtains the spin and orbital contributions to the site-averaged Np moment [μS=-1.88(9) μB, μL=3.48(9) μB]. The ratio between the expectation value of the magnetic-dipole moment and the spin magnetic moment (mmd/μS=+1.36) is positive as predicted for localized 5f electrons and lies between the values calculated in intermediate-coupling (IC) and jj approximations. The expectation value of the angular part of the spin-orbit-interaction operator is in excellent agreement with the IC estimate. The ordered moment averaged over the four inequivalent Co sites, as obtained from the saturation value of the magnetization, is μCo≃1.6 μB. The experimental results are discussed against the predictions of first-principles electronic-structure calculations based on the spin-polarized local-spin-density approximation plus the Hubbard interaction.

  6. Solitary waves and nonlinear dynamic coherent structures in magnetic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tankeyev, A. P.; Smagin, V. V.; Borich, M. A.; Zhuravlev, A. S.

    2009-03-01

    Within the framework of the extended nonlinear Schrödinger equation (ENSE), two types of nonlinear states of magnetization in a ferromagnet-dielectric-metal metamagnetic structure have been obtained and investigated. These states have an internal structure; e.g., a periodic sequence of compound solitons is formed by kink-antikink pairs (shock waves), and coherent periodic breather structures are formed by “bright” quasi-solitons. Conditions have been found under which the envelope of these states is described by a modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation. It is shown that the compound solitons are described by an mKdV equation with repulsion, and the breather structures, by an mKdV equation with attraction. It is shown also that the characteristic properties of the solutions are determined by the sign of the group-velocity dispersion rather than by the sign of the group velocity itself. The results obtained can be used for searching new nonlinear dynamic coherent structures, e.g., compound solitons and breathers in high-dispersion magnetic metamaterials.

  7. Magnetic structure map for face-centered tetragonal iron: Appearance of a collinear spin structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reith, D.; Podloucky, R.; Marsman, M.; Bedolla-Velazquez, P. O.; Mohn, P.

    2014-07-01

    For fcc and tetragonal distorted fct iron a large number of magnetic configurations as a function of crystal structural parameters were studied by means of density functional theory concepts. The stability of magnetic structures was defined by the magnetic reorientation energy ΔEreori as the difference of the total energy of configuration i and that of the fcc ferromagnetic state. The cluster expansion technique was applied to six volumes deriving ΔEreor for more than 90 000 collinear spin structures at each volume. Structures with low ΔEreor were tetragonally distorted according to a two-dimensional mesh defined by volume per atom V and c /a ratio. At each mesh point ΔEreor for all collinear structures were compared to results for spin spirals (SSs) which were calculated on a grid of propagation directions, and then the lowest ΔEreor defined the magnetic structure map. Three local minima were identified and for each of the minima SSs were calculated on a fine grid of propagation vectors. At the minimum with V =10.6 Å3 and 0.94≤c/a≤1.01 a hitherto unknown simple collinear spin structure with four atoms per fct unit cell was the most stable one. It consists of two atoms with antiferromagnetically ordered local moments of ±1.8μB and of two atoms with zero local moment.

  8. Superlubric to stick-slip sliding of incommensurate graphene flakes on graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wijk, M. M.; Dienwiebel, M.; Frenken, J. W. M.; Fasolino, A.

    2013-12-01

    We calculate the friction of fully mobile graphene flakes sliding on graphite. For incommensurately stacked flakes, we find a sudden and reversible increase in friction with load, in agreement with experimental observations. The transition from smooth sliding to stick-slip and the corresponding increase in friction is neither due to rotations to commensurate contact nor to dislocations but to a pinning caused by vertical distortions of edge atoms also when they are saturated by hydrogen. This behavior should apply to all layered materials with strong in-plane bonding.

  9. Incommensurate superstructure in heavily doped fullerene layer on Bi/Si(111) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruznev, D. V.; Bondarenko, L. V.; Tupchaya, A. Y.; Matetskiy, A. V.; Zotov, A. V.; Saranin, A. A.

    2015-08-01

    Cs adsorption onto the C60-covered Si(111)-β- √{ 3 } × √{ 3 } -Bi reconstruction has been studied by means of scanning tunneling microscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy. Unexpected increase in apparent size of every second C60 molecule has been detected, hereupon the close packed molecular array almost doubles its periodicity. The change affects only the fullerenes that are in direct contact with the metal-induced reconstruction and takes no place already in the second layer. Photoelectron studies have revealed that this incommensurate "2 × 2" superstructure of a heavily doped C60 monolayer remains in an insulating state regardless of doping level.

  10. Non-superconducting magnet structures for near-term, large fusion experimental devices

    SciTech Connect

    File, J.; Knutson, D.S.; Marino, R.E.; Rappe, G.H.

    1980-10-01

    This paper describes the magnet and structural design in the following American tokamak devices: the Princeton Large Torus (PLT), the Princeton Divertor Experiment (PDX), and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The Joint European Torus (JET), also presented herein, has a magnet structure evolved from several European programs and, like TFTR, represents state of the art magnet and structure design.

  11. Thermal and structural coupling analysis of magnetically suspended flywheel rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuna; Han, Bangcheng; Li, Hong; Fang, Jiancheng

    2006-11-01

    Magnetically suspended flywheel (MSFW) is used in spacecraft to control the attitude. The mechanical structure of MSFW must accommodate thermal strains due to the temperature differences. And both the thermal stresses and the thermal loads change as the size and shape of the structure changes. Therefore, coupling exists between the heat transfer and the static stress analysis problems. In this paper finite element method (FEM) is used to process the thermal and structural analysis of the MSFW rotor and motor stator. The solution is performed by ANSYS software code. The temperature distribution is determined by the steady state thermal analysis. Based on the temperature field results, the thermal stress and deformation fields are calculated as well. The results provide the theoretical basis for the thermal design and can also be a guide for the structural optimization of the MSFW.

  12. Feedback magnetization of ultra-low index irradiative structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybin, Oleg; Shulga, Sergey

    2015-10-01

    Ultra-low refractive index irradiative structure is considered. The structure consists of a patch antenna with the metamaterial slab located on top of the antenna, as superstrate. In this study, ultra-low index phenomenon of the irradiative system is associated with improving the directivity of the patch antenna by putting the metamaterial slab on top of the antenna. The last phenomenon, in turn, is associated with the feedback partial magnetization of Iron inclusions of the slab caused by the radiation from the antenna. Mathematical model for evaluating the complex effective relative permittivity of the irradiative structure is developed. Numerical calculations for complex effective relative permittivity of the irradiative structure and real part of the complex effective relative permeability of the metamaterial slab are done in the study.

  13. Structure of Prominence Legs: Plasma and Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levens, P. J.; Schmieder, B.; Labrosse, N.; López Ariste, A.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the properties of a “solar tornado” observed on 2014 July 15, and aim to link the behavior of the plasma to the internal magnetic field structure of the associated prominence. We made multi-wavelength observations with high spatial resolution and high cadence using SDO/AIA, the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) spectrograph, and the Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) instrument. Along with spectropolarimetry provided by the Télescope Héliographique pour l’Etude du Magnétisme et des Instabilités Solaires telescope we have coverage of both optically thick emission lines and magnetic field information. AIA reveals that the two legs of the prominence are strongly absorbing structures which look like they are rotating, or oscillating in the plane of the sky. The two prominence legs, which are both very bright in Ca ii (SOT), are not visible in the IRIS Mg ii slit-jaw images. This is explained by the large optical thickness of the structures in Mg ii, which leads to reversed profiles, and hence to lower integrated intensities at these locations than in the surroundings. Using lines formed at temperatures lower than 1 MK, we measure relatively low Doppler shifts on the order of ±10 km s‑1 in the tornado-like structure. Between the two legs we see loops in Mg ii, with material flowing from one leg to the other, as well as counterstreaming. It is difficult to interpret our data as showing two rotating, vertical structures that are unrelated to the loops. This kind of “tornado” scenario does not fit with our observations. The magnetic field in the two legs of the prominence is found to be preferentially horizontal.

  14. Structure of Prominence Legs: Plasma and Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levens, P. J.; Schmieder, B.; Labrosse, N.; López Ariste, A.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the properties of a “solar tornado” observed on 2014 July 15, and aim to link the behavior of the plasma to the internal magnetic field structure of the associated prominence. We made multi-wavelength observations with high spatial resolution and high cadence using SDO/AIA, the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) spectrograph, and the Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) instrument. Along with spectropolarimetry provided by the Télescope Héliographique pour l’Etude du Magnétisme et des Instabilités Solaires telescope we have coverage of both optically thick emission lines and magnetic field information. AIA reveals that the two legs of the prominence are strongly absorbing structures which look like they are rotating, or oscillating in the plane of the sky. The two prominence legs, which are both very bright in Ca ii (SOT), are not visible in the IRIS Mg ii slit-jaw images. This is explained by the large optical thickness of the structures in Mg ii, which leads to reversed profiles, and hence to lower integrated intensities at these locations than in the surroundings. Using lines formed at temperatures lower than 1 MK, we measure relatively low Doppler shifts on the order of ±10 km s-1 in the tornado-like structure. Between the two legs we see loops in Mg ii, with material flowing from one leg to the other, as well as counterstreaming. It is difficult to interpret our data as showing two rotating, vertical structures that are unrelated to the loops. This kind of “tornado” scenario does not fit with our observations. The magnetic field in the two legs of the prominence is found to be preferentially horizontal.

  15. CHARACTERISTIC DEPENDENCE OF UMBRAL DOTS ON THEIR MAGNETIC STRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, H.; Kitai, R.; Ichimoto, K.

    2009-09-10

    Umbral dots (UDs) were observed in a stable sunspot in NOAA 10944 by the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope on 2007 March 1. The observation program consisted of blue continuum images and spectropolarimetric profiles of Fe I 630 nm line. An automatic detection algorithm for UDs was applied to the 2 hr continuous blue continuum images, and using the obtained data, the lifetime, size, and proper motion of UDs were calculated. The magnetic structure of the sunspot was derived through the inversion of the spectropolarimetric profiles. We calculated the correlations between UD's parameters (size, lifetime, occurrence rate, proper motion) and magnetic fields (field strength, inclination, azimuth), and obtained the following results. (1) Both the lifetime and size of UDs are almost constant regardless of the magnetic field strength at their emergence site. (2) The speed of UDs increases as the field inclination angle at their emergence site gets larger. (3) The direction of movement of UDs is nearly parallel to the direction of the horizontal component of magnetic field in the region with strongly inclined field, while UDs in the region with weakly inclined field show virtually no proper motion. Our results describe the basic properties of magnetoconvection in sunspots. We will discuss our results in comparison to recent magnetohydrodynamic simulations by Schuessler and Voegler and Rempel et al.

  16. Nano-structured magnetic metamaterial with enhanced nonlinear properties

    PubMed Central

    Kobljanskyj, Yuri; Melkov, Gennady; Guslienko, Konstantin; Novosad, Valentyn; Bader, Samuel D.; Kostylev, Michael; Slavin, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    Nano-structuring can significantly modify the properties of materials. We demonstrate that size-dependent modification of the spin-wave spectra in magnetic nano-particles can affect not only linear, but also nonlinear magnetic response. The discretization of the spectrum removes the frequency degeneracy between the main excitation mode of a nano-particle and the higher spin-wave modes, having the lowest magnetic damping, and reduces the strength of multi-magnon relaxation processes. This reduction of magnon-magnon relaxation for the main excitation mode leads to a dramatic increase of its lifetime and amplitude, resulting in the intensification of all the nonlinear processes involving this mode. We demonstrate this experimentally on a two-dimensional array of permalloy nano-dots for the example of parametric generation of a sub-harmonic of an external microwave signal. The characteristic lifetime of this sub-harmonic is increased by two orders of magnitude compared to the case of a continuous magnetic film, where magnon-magnon relaxation limits the lifetime. PMID:22745899

  17. Dynamical structure of magnetized dissipative accretion flow around black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Biplob; Das, Santabrata

    2016-06-01

    We study the global structure of optically thin, advection dominated, magnetized accretion flow around black holes. We consider the magnetic field to be turbulent in nature and dominated by the toroidal component. With this, we obtain the complete set of accretion solutions for dissipative flows where bremsstrahlung process is regarded as the dominant cooling mechanism. We show that rotating magnetized accretion flow experiences virtual barrier around black hole due to centrifugal repulsion that can trigger the discontinuous transition of the flow variables in the form of shock waves. We examine the properties of the shock waves and find that the dynamics of the post-shock corona (PSC) is controlled by the flow parameters, namely viscosity, cooling rate and strength of the magnetic field, respectively. We separate the effective region of the parameter space for standing shock and observe that shock can form for wide range of flow parameters. We obtain the critical viscosity parameter that allows global accretion solutions including shocks. We estimate the energy dissipation at the PSC from where a part of the accreting matter can deflect as outflows and jets. We compare the maximum energy that could be extracted from the PSC and the observed radio luminosity values for several super-massive black hole sources and the observational implications of our present analysis are discussed.

  18. Dynamical structure of magnetized dissipative accretion flow around black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Biplob; Das, Santabrata

    2016-09-01

    We study the global structure of optically thin, advection dominated, magnetized accretion flow around black holes. We consider the magnetic field to be turbulent in nature and dominated by the toroidal component. With this, we obtain the complete set of accretion solutions for dissipative flows where bremsstrahlung process is regarded as the dominant cooling mechanism. We show that rotating magnetized accretion flow experiences virtual barrier around black hole due to centrifugal repulsion that can trigger the discontinuous transition of the flow variables in the form of shock waves. We examine the properties of the shock waves and find that the dynamics of the post-shock corona (PSC) is controlled by the flow parameters, namely viscosity, cooling rate and strength of the magnetic field, respectively. We separate the effective region of the parameter space for standing shock and observe that shock can form for wide range of flow parameters. We obtain the critical viscosity parameter that allows global accretion solutions including shocks. We estimate the energy dissipation at the PSC from where a part of the accreting matter can deflect as outflows and jets. We compare the maximum energy that could be extracted from the PSC and the observed radio luminosity values for several supermassive black hole sources and the observational implications of our present analysis are discussed.

  19. Electrostatic structure of a magnetized laser-produced plasma.

    PubMed

    Bonde, Jeffrey; Vincena, Stephen; Gekelman, Walter

    2015-11-01

    Measurements of the structure of the electrostatic fields produced by the expansion of a laser-produced plasma into a background magnetized plasma are presented. The three-dimensional measurements of the electrostatic field are made using an emissive probe that measures the time-varying plasma potential on two orthogonal planes, one across and one containing the background magnetic field. The inductive electric field is also calculated from probe measurements of the time-varying magnetic fields. Deviations from local charge neutrality at the level of 10(-4) generate a radial electrostatic field with peak strength an order of magnitude larger than the corresponding inductive field. The electrostatic energy density near full expansion is over an order of magnitude larger than that of the induced azimuthal electric field. These measurements show that electrostatic fields must be included in theoretical and computational models of collisionless coupling in magnetized point explosions of laser-produced plasmas and their relation to similar phenomena such as magnetospheric chemical releases. PMID:26651639

  20. Progressive Transformation between Two Magnetic Ground States for One Crystal Structure of a Chiral Molecular Magnet.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Nishihara, Sadafumi; Inoue, Katsuya; Kurmoo, Mohamedally

    2016-03-21

    We report the exceptional observation of two different magnetic ground states (MGS), spin glass (SG, T(B) = 7 K) and ferrimagnet (FI, T(C) = 18 K), for one crystal structure of [{Mn(II)(D/L-NH2ala)}3{Mn(III)(CN)6}]·3H2O obtained from [Mn(CN)6](3-) and D/L-aminoalanine, in contrast to one MGS for [{Mn(II)(L-NH2ala)}3{Cr(III)(CN)6}]·3H2O. They consist of three Mn(NH2ala) helical chains bridged by M(III)(CN)6 to give the framework with disordered water molecules in channels and between the M(III)(CN)6. Both MGS are characterized by a negative Weiss constant, bifurcation in ZFC-FC magnetizations, blocking of the moments, both components of the ac susceptibilities, and hysteresis. They differ in the critical temperatures, absolute magnetization for 5 Oe FC (lack of spontaneous magnetization for the SG), and the shapes of the hysteresis and coercive fields. While isotropic pressure increases both T(crit) and the magnetizations linearly and reversibly in each case, dehydration progressively transforms the FI into the SG as followed by concerted in situ magnetic measurements and single-crystal diffraction. The relative strengths of the two moderate Mn(III)-CN-Mn(II) antiferromagnetic (J1 and J2), the weak Mn(II)-OCO-Mn(II) (J3), and Dzyaloshinkii-Moriya antisymmetric (DM) interactions generate the two sets of characters. Examination of the bond lengths and angles for several crystals and their corresponding magnetic properties reveals a correlation between the distortion of Mn(III)(CN)6 and the MGS. SG is favored by higher magnetic anisotropy by less distorted Mn(III)(CN)6 in good accordance with the Mn-Cr system. This conclusion is also born out of the magnetization measurements on orientated single crystals with fields parallel and perpendicular to the unique c axis of the hexagonal space group. PMID:26893217

  1. Structural, Magnetic and Spectroscopic Studies of Thin Manganite Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyson, T. A.

    2003-03-01

    Starting from early experiments [1], evidence has been found for a close coupling of strain and the magnetotransport properties of manganite films. The characteristic feature found is that the metal to insulator transition temperature (TMI) is suppressed in very thin films [2]. In addition, studies show that the magnetic transition temperature (Tc) and TMI decouple in ultrathin films [3]. Systematic magnetization studies reveal that strain induces strong magnetic anisotropy [4]. Theoretical work also points to the sensitivity of Tc to biaxial strain [5]. Most studies have focused on single bulk properties. In order to understand the correlations between strain and the transport and magnetic properties we have examined the structure of films on multiple length scales. The local structure of films have been studies by x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The long -range structure has been studied by high-resolution x-ray diffraction and the microstructure has been studied by AFM measurements. These measurements are correlated with bulk magnetization and transport studies. Insight is gained on the evolution of lattice strain and Jahn-Teller distortions with thickness. Direct evidence is found for the arrest of charge ordering with strain and the existence of strain induced insulating regions of films. The magnetic ordering and transport properties as a function of strain as compared with bandstructure calculations. This work is supported by NSF Career Grant DMR-9733862 and DMR-0209243. Collaborators: Q. Qian, M. Deleon (NJIT), C. Dubourdiu (CNRS), J. Bai (ORNL), W. Prellier, A. Biswas, R. L. Greene (U. Maryland) [1] S. Jin et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 557 (1995). [2] (a) J. Z. Sun et al. Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3017 (1999). (b) F. S. Razi et al., Appl. Phys. Lett 76, 155 (2000) [3] J. Aarts et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2975 (1998). (b) R. A. Rao et al., J. Appl. Phys. 85, 4794 (1999). [4] (a) X. W. Wu et al., Phys. Rev. B 61, 501 (2000). (b) J. O'Donnell et al., Appl. Phys

  2. Coronal Magnetic Structures Observing Campaign. II - Magnetic and plasma properties of a solar active region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmelz, J. T.; Holman, G. D.; Brosius, J. W.; Gonzalez, R. D.

    1992-01-01

    Simultaneous soft X-ray, microwave, and photospheric magnetic field observations were taken during the Coronal Magnetic Structures Observing Campaign. The plasma electron temperatures and emission measures determined from the X-ray data are used to predict the intensity and structure of the thermal bremsstrahlung emission at 20 and 6 cm. Comparing these predictions with the microwave observations, it is found that the 20 cm structure is very similar to that expected from the X-rays, but a substantial amount of the 6 cm emission was resolved out. The predicted 20 cm brightness temperatures are higher than the observed, requiring cool absorbing material (not greater than 500,000 K) between the hot X-ray plasma and the observer. The absorption mechanism in the cool plasma at 20 cm is most likely thermal bremsstrahlung, requiring coronal magnetic fields as high as 150 G. 'Coronal Magnetograms', made by extrapolating the photospheric longitudinal field using the Sakurai code, show that appropriate values of the total field are reached at heights of 6000-10,000 km above the photosphere (at many but not all locations).

  3. Complex antiferromagnetic structure in the intermediate-valence intermetallic Ce2RuZn4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartwig, Steffen; Prokeš, Karel; Hansen, Thomas; Ritter, Clemens; Gerke, Birgit; Pöttgen, Rainer; Mydosh, J. A.; Förster, Tobias

    2015-07-01

    Neutron powder diffraction experiments were performed on the intermediate-valence Ce2RuZn4 intermetallic compound and combined with magnetic bulk measurements including high magnetic field experiments up to 58 T. Previous theoretical studies suggest that only one (here Ce1) out of two inequivalent Ce sites is magnetically active. Ce2RuZn4 orders antiferromagnetically at TN=2.3 K . The magnetic structure is characterized by an incommensurate propagation vector qm=(0.384 ,0.384 ,1/2 ). Assuming that the Ce2 site does not carry any substantial moment, Ce1 magnetic moments are confined to the (110)-type planes and transversely modulated with an amplitude of 1.77 (3 )μB.

  4. A facile route to synthesize core/shell structured carbon/magnetic nanoparticles hybrid and their magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, Xiaosi; Xu, Jianle; Zhong, Wei; Du, Youwei

    2015-07-15

    Graphical abstract: Controllable synthesis of core/shell structured carbon/magnetic nanoparticles hybrid and their tunable magnetic properties. - Highlights: • The paper reports a simple route for core/shell structured carbon/magnetic nanoparticles hybrid. • By controlling the temperature, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@CNCs, Fe@HCNTs and Fe@LCNTs were produced selectively. • The magnetic properties of the obtained core/shell structured hybrid could be tuned effectively. - Abstract: By controlling the pyrolysis temperature, core/shell structured Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/carbon nanocages, Fe/helical carbon nanotubes and Fe/low helicity of carbon nanotubes could be synthesized selectively over Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanotubes generated by a hydrothermal method. The transmission electron microscopic and scanning electron microscopic investigations revealed that the efficiency of generating core/shell structured hybrid was high, exceeding 90%. Because of the magnetic nanoparticles tightly wrapped in graphitic layers, the obtained core/shell structured hybrids showed high stability and good magnetic properties. And the magnetic properties of the obtained core/shell structured hybrid could be tuned by the decomposition temperature and time. Therefore, a simple, inexpensive and environment-benign route was proposed to produce magnetism-tunable core/shell structured hybrid in large quantities.

  5. Magnetic Diagnostics and Field Structure in the Madison Dynamo Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmus, A. M.; Clark, M.; Kaplan, E. J.; Kendrick, R. D.; Nornberg, M. D.; Rahbarnia, K.; Taylor, N. Z.; Forest, C. B.

    2010-11-01

    The Madison Dynamo Experiment(MDE) is expected to spontaneously self-generate a magnetic field in a two vortex flow geometry driven by counter rotating impellers in a 1 m diameter sphere filled with liquid sodium. This poster will focus on the spatial structure of the magnetic field associated with the dynamo eigenmodes and the turbulent fluctuations. A new internal array of Hall probes will increase the number of probe locations from 60 to 100 (in addition to 74 existing surface probes), including 40 spanning the center of the experiment. Three orthogonal measurements of the magnetic field are taken at each internal location, whereas previous internal probes took one directional data (2 directional after probe rotation on a different run). This will allow resolution of harmonic modes up to a poloidal order of l=7 and a toroidal order of m=5. Cross correlation analysis between the surface probes and internal probes will be used to determine the internal structure associated with each l and m. This work is supported by the NSF/DOE partnership in plasma physics.

  6. Magnetic Field Structure in the Madison Dynamo Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmus, A. M.; Clark, M.; Kaplan, E. J.; Nornberg, M. D.; Rahbarnia, K.; Taylor, N. Z.; Forest, C. B.

    2011-10-01

    The Madison Dynamo Experiment(MDE) is expected to spontaneously self-generate a magnetic field in a two vortex flow geometry driven by counter rotating impellers in a 1 m diameter sphere filled with liquid sodium. Prevoiusly an equatorial baffle was installed and has been demonstrated to reduce the largest scale turbulent-eddies. An additonal set of six rotatable baffles have been installed to optimize the helicity of the flow, lowering the critical magnetic Reynolds number. This poster will focus on the spatial structure of the magnetic field associated with the dynamo eigenmodes and the turbulent fluctuations. Singular value decomposition (SVD) and cross correlation analysis between the surface harmonics and internal probes will be used to determine the internal structure associated with each spherical harmonic. Spherical harmonic decomposition is of limited utility when analysing the equatorial array of internal probes as there is a limited angular spread (only one theta value and two phi values), whereas cross correlation and SVD allow the use of time domain data to infer internal modes excited via three-wave couplings. This work is supported by the NSF/DOE partnership in plasma physics.

  7. Ultrahigh energy nuclei propagation in a structured, magnetized universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armengaud, Eric; Sigl, Günter; Miniati, Francesco

    2005-08-01

    We compare the propagation of iron and proton nuclei above 1019 eV in a structured Universe with source and magnetic field distributions obtained from a large-scale structure simulation and source densities ˜10-5 Mpc-3. All relevant cosmic ray interactions are taken into account, including photo-disintegration and propagation of secondary products. Iron injection predicts spectral shapes different from proton injection which disagree with existing data below ≃30 EeV. Injection of light nuclei or protons must therefore contribute at these energies. However, at higher energies, existing data are consistent with injection of pure iron with spectral indices between ˜2 and ˜2.4. This allows a significant recovery of the spectrum above ≃100 EeV, especially in the case of large deflections. Significant autocorrelation and anisotropy, and considerable cosmic variance are also predicted in this energy range. The mean atomic mass fluctuates considerably between different scenarios. At energies below 60 EeV, if the observed A≳35, magnetic fields must have a negligible effect on propagation. At the highest energies the observed flux will be dominated by only a few sources whose location may be determined by next generation experiments to within 10 20° even if extra-galactic magnetic fields are important.

  8. Magnetic structures in potential multiferroic GdCrO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manuel, Pascal; Chapon, Laurent; Khalyavin, Dmitry; Xueyun, Wang; Cheong, Sang-Wook

    2015-03-01

    For the past decade, multiferroics materials have atracted a lot of attention in the condensed matter community because of potential applications for devices. A somewhat ambiguous addition to the multiferroics family was recently reported in the peroskite based GdCrO3 in both bulk and thin film samples. Indeed, ferroelectricity was evidenced by a strong enhancement of the capacitance in a field but significant leakage and no well developed P-E hysteresis blurred the picture. Our own measurements clearly indicate the existence of a polar phase below 2K. To complete the understanding of this material, the determination of the magnetic structure is required but is hampered by the fact Gd is a strong neutron absorber. We will present some neutron diffraction data collected on an isotopic 160GdCrO3 sample at the WISH diffractometer at ISIS which confirm the presence of three successive magnetic phases, previously only seen by magnetization, as a function of temperature. We will compare our determined structures against predictions based on group theoretical considerations and experimental work on other rare-earth ortho-chromates and discuss the mechanism for multiferroicity.

  9. Structuring Light by Concentric-Ring Patterned Magnetic Metamaterial Cavities.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jinwei; Gao, Jie; Luk, Ting S; Litchinitser, Natalia M; Yang, Xiaodong

    2015-08-12

    Ultracompact and tunable beam converters pose a significant potential for modern optical technologies ranging from classical and quantum communication to optical manipulation. Here we design and demonstrate concentric-ring patterned structures of magnetic metamaterial cavities capable of tailoring both polarization and phase of light by converting circularly polarized light into a vector beam with an orbital angular momentum. We experimentally illustrate the realization of both radially and azimuthally polarized vortex beams using such concentric-ring patterned magnetic metamaterials. These results contribute to the advanced complex light manipulation with optical metamaterials, making it one step closer to realizing the simultaneous control of polarization and orbital angular momentum of light on a chip. PMID:26121268

  10. Fine structure of the magnetic field in active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pustilnik, Lev; Beskrovnaya, Nina; Ikhsanov, Nazar

    High-resolution observations with SOHO, SDO, TRACE, HINODE suggest that the solar magnetic field in active regions has a complicated fine structure. There is a large number of thin magnetic arcs extended from the photosphere to corona with almost constant cross-section. We explore a possibility to model the complex of interacting arcs in terms of a dynamical percolating network. A transition of the system into flaring can be triggered by the flute instability of prominences and/or coronal condensations. We speculate around an assumption that the energy release in active regions is governed by the same scenario as dynamical current percolation through a random resistors network in which the saltatory conduction is controlled by a local current level.

  11. Magnetic field adjustment structure and method for a tapered wiggler

    DOEpatents

    Halbach, Klaus

    1988-01-01

    An improved method and structure is disclosed for adjusting the magnetic field generated by a group of electromagnet poles spaced along the path of a charged particle beam to compensate for energy losses in the charged particles which comprises providing more than one winding on at least some of the electromagnet poles; connecting one respective winding on each of several consecutive adjacent electromagnet poles to a first power supply, and the other respective winding on the electromagnet pole to a different power supply in staggered order; and independently adjusting one power supply to independently vary the current in one winding on each electromagnet pole in a group whereby the magnetic field strength of each of a group of electromagnet poles may be changed in smaller increments.

  12. Magnetic field adjustment structure and method for a tapered wiggler

    SciTech Connect

    Halbach, Klaus

    1988-03-01

    An improved method and structure is disclosed for adjusting the magnetic field generated by a group of electromagnet poles spaced along the path of a charged particle beam to compensate for energy losses in the charged particles which comprises providing more than one winding on at least some of the electromagnet poles; connecting one respective winding on each of several consecutive adjacent electromagnet poles to a first power supply, and the other respective winding on the electromagnet pole to a different power supply in staggered order; and independently adjusting one power supply to independently vary the current in one winding on each electromagnet pole in a group whereby the magnetic field strength of each of a group of electromagnet poles may be changed in smaller increments.

  13. Magnetic quantum well states in ultrathin film and wedge structures

    SciTech Connect

    Li, D.; Bader, S.D.

    1996-04-01

    Magnetic quantum-well (QW) states are probed with angle- and spin-resolved photoemission to address critical issues pertaining to the origin of the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) optimization and oscillatory coupling of magnetic multilayers. Two epitaxial systems are highlighted: Cu/Co(wedge)/Cu(100) and Cr/Fe(100)-whisker. The confinement of Cu sp-QW states by a Co barrier requires a characteristic Co thickness of 2.2 {+-} 0.6 {angstrom}, which is consistent with the interfacial Co thickness reported to optimize the GMR of permalloy-Cu structures. The controversial k-space origin of the 18-{angstrom} long period oscillation in Fe/Cr multilayers is identified by the vector that spans the d-derived lens feature of the Cr Fermi surface, based on the emergence of QW states with 17 {+-} 2 {angstrom} periodicity in this region.

  14. Numerical simulations of waves in a magnetically structured atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinola, Thomas Peter

    A physical model for simulating waves in a stellar atmosphere was developed from a combination of basic fluid mechanics, plasma physics, and electrodynamics. The model was three dimensional and included the effects of gravity, magnetic fields, and viscosity. An algorithm was developed to numerically implement this model. The resulting program used an explicit time integration scheme based on Runge-Kutta and a combination of finite difference and spectral methods to evaluate the spatial derivatives. A number of numerical boundary conditions were developed—the most successful used a modified Sommerfeld radiation condition. The program was written and coded in Fortran on a Vax computer. Additional routines were written to evaluate the required fast fourier transforms and to graph and display the data. The program was tested on a large number of one and two dimensional problems for which the solutions were known. These problems included acoustic waves, Alfvén waves, magnetoacoustic waves, shocks, rarefactions, and contact discontinuities. The numerical results agreed with the analytic solutions of the physical problems to within the precision requested of the simulation. The program proved to be stable and robust for all the problems attempted. This program was then used to simulate three problems for which analytic solutions are not known. All three simulations concerned the propagation of waves in magnetically structured atmospheres and may be applied to outstanding problems in solar physics. First, the interactions of non-linear waves and a flux slab were studied. From the result it is apparent that sources of shocks and rarefactions, such as the solar convection zone, do not concentrate the magnetic field in flux sheaths. Next I used the program to simulate the interaction of non-linear waves with a flux tube. The results suggest that the magnetic fields in flux tubes are also not concentrated by pairs of passing shocks and rarefactions; however, a complete

  15. Cryogenic expansion joint for large superconducting magnet structures

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Robert L.

    1978-01-01

    An expansion joint is provided that accommodates dimensional changes occurring during the cooldown and warm-up of large cryogenic devices such as superconducting magnet coils. Flattened tubes containing a refrigerant such as gaseous nitrogen (N.sub.2) are inserted into expansion spaces in the structure. The gaseous N.sub.2 is circulated under pressure and aids in the cooldown process while providing its primary function of accommodating differential thermal contraction and expansion in the structure. After lower temperatures are reached and the greater part of the contraction has occured, the N.sub.2 liquefies then solidifies to provide a completely rigid structure at the cryogenic operating temperatures of the device.

  16. Measurement of the Structural Unit in magnetic dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercer, T.; Bissell, P. R.

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of the Structural Unit (SU - containing both the solid phase and trapped­fluid within their associated structures) in magnetic dispersions has been carried out using Hindered Settling (HS) analysis that uses scanning column magnetometry and cone & plate rheology techniques. From this, an equivalent Stokes' particle diameter, d, of (5.2 ≤ d ≤ 8.2) microns was determined that is approximately 22 times larger than the iron oxide particles of our formulation. A previous computer simulation based on HS theory produces complete concentration­height profiles of the sedimenting system over time that compare well when using a correspondingly large trapped­liquid fraction of around the 84% of the SU volume determined here, giving confidence in the result. As interest in iron oxide suspensions for potential biomedical and chemical decontamination/catalysis applications continues to grow an understanding of their structures is likely to become increasingly important.

  17. Preparation, magnetism and electronic structures of cadmium technetates

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Efrain E.; Poineau, Frédéric; Llobet, Anna; Thompson, Joe D.; Seshadri, Ram; Cheetham, Anthony K.

    2012-02-07

    Due to the scarcity of the artificial transition metal technetium, studies on the solid-state properties of its oxides have been rarely undertaken. We have prepared a new technetium metal oxide system that include the 4d metal in two separate oxidation states and have characterized the new phases' crystal structures and magnetic properties. One phase Cd{sub 2}Tc{sub 2}O{sub 7} was prepared through the vapor-phase reaction of the heptaoxide Tc{sub 2}O{sub 7} with Cd metal; the other phase, CdTcO{sub 3}, was prepared through the solid state reaction of TcO{sub 2} with CdO. High-resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction was used to characterize the crystal structures and stoichiometries of the two new technetates. At room temperature, Cd{sub 2}Tc{sub 2}O{sub 7} takes on the pyrochlore structure with a = 10.18118(1) {angstrom}, space group, Fd{bar 3}m and Z = 8. CdTcO{sub 3} has the GdFeO{sub 3}-type structure with space group Pbnm and a = 5.38881(1) {angstrom}, b = 5.46504(1) {angstrom}, and c = 7.71272(1){angstrom}. The magnetic susceptibility behavior of Cd{sub 2}Tc{sub 2}O{sub 7} is strikingly similar to that observed in Cd{sub 2}Re{sub 2}O{sub 7}, with a broad transition close to 200 K. The magnetic behavior of Cd{sub 2}Tc{sub 2}O{sub 7} is also compared with that of isomorphous Pb{sub 2}Tc{sub 2}O{sub 6} and Bi{sub 2}Tc{sub 2}O{sub 7}, also presented in this study. The magnetic susceptibility of the distorted perovskite phase CdTcO{sub 3} is weakly temperature dependent, with no obvious signs of an ordering transition below 300 K. Electronic band structure calculations performed to simulate electronic densities of states indicate that the Fermi level is located in a 't{sub 2g}' band of the octahedrally coordinated Tc cations and therefore metallic conductivity in both CdTcO{sub 3} and Cd{sub 2}Tc{sub 2}O{sub 7}.

  18. Commensurate and incommensurate spin-density waves in heavy electron systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlottmann, P.

    2016-05-01

    The nesting of the Fermi surfaces of an electron and a hole pocket separated by a nesting vector Q and the interaction between electrons gives rise to itinerant antiferromagnetism. The order can gradually be suppressed by mismatching the nesting and a quantum critical point (QCP) is obtained as the Néel temperature tends to zero. The transfer of pairs of electrons between the pockets can lead to a superconducting dome above the QCP (if Q is commensurate with the lattice, i.e. equal to G/2). If the vector Q is not commensurate with the lattice there are eight possible phases: commensurate and incommensurate spin and charge density waves and four superconductivity phases, two of them with modulated order parameter of the FFLO type. The renormalization group equations are studied and numerically integrated. A re-entrant SDW phase (either commensurate or incommensurate) is obtained as a function of the mismatch of the Fermi surfaces and the magnitude of |Q - G/2|.

  19. Structural and magnetic properties of Co + implanted n-GaN dilute magnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husnain, G.; Tao, Fa; Yao, Shu-De

    2010-05-01

    The n-type GaN epilayer was grown on sapphire prepared by metal organic chemical vapour deposition and subsequently Co + ions implanted. The properties of Co + ions implanted GaN epilayer were investigated by structural and magnetic measurements. The results of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and channeling illustrate that an excellent crystalline quality ( χmin=1.3%) of as-grown GaN. After the implantation of 150 keV Co + ions with dose 3×10 16 cm -2 into GaN and subsequently annealed at 700, 800 and 900 °C, no secondary phase or metal related-peaks were detected by typical XRD. In addition high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) was performed to study structural related properties. The magnetization curves were obtained by SQUID and AGM measurements, a well-defined hysteresis loop was observed even at 300 K. The temperature dependence of magnetization was taken in FC and ZFC conditions showed the highest Curie temperature ( TC) ∼370 K recorded for Co + implanted GaN.

  20. Identification of an incommensurate FeAl{sub 2} overlayer on FeAl(110) using x-ray diffraction and reflectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Baddorf, A.P.; Chandavarkar, S.S.

    1995-06-30

    FeAl, like NiAl, crystallizes in the CsCl structure. Consequently the (110) planes contain equal amounts of Fe and Al distributed as interlocking rectangles. Unlike the NiAI(110) surface, which retains the (1{times}l) in-plane symmetry of the bulk, FeAl(l10) reconstructs to form an ordered, incommensurate overlayer. The reconstructed layer introduces x-ray diffraction rods at half-order positions along the [1{bar 1}0] direction, and displaced {plus_minus}0.2905 from integer positions along the [001] direction. Peak widths reveal excellent long range order. Specular reflectivity measurements above and below the Fe K{alpha} edge can be reproduced using a model containing a single reconstructed overlayer with an Fe:Al ratio of 1:2, consistent with FeA{sub I}2.

  1. Structural and magnetic properties of chromium doped zinc ferrite

    SciTech Connect

    Sebastian, Rintu Mary; Thankachan, Smitha; Xavier, Sheena; Mohammed, E. M.; Joseph, Shaji

    2014-01-28

    Zinc chromium ferrites with chemical formula ZnCr{sub x}Fe{sub 2−x}O{sub 4} (x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0) were prepared by Sol - Gel technique. The structural as well as magnetic properties of the synthesized samples have been studied and reported here. The structural characterizations of the samples were analyzed by using X – Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). The single phase spinel cubic structure of all the prepared samples was tested by XRD and FTIR. The particle size was observed to decrease from 18.636 nm to 6.125 nm by chromium doping and induced a tensile strain in all the zinc chromium mixed ferrites. The magnetic properties of few samples (x = 0.0, 0.4, 1.0) were investigated using Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM)

  2. Magnetic field-dependent spin structures of nanocrystalline holmium

    PubMed Central

    Szary, Philipp; Kaiser, Daniel; Bick, Jens-Peter; Lott, Dieter; Heinemann, André; Dewhurst, Charles; Birringer, Rainer; Michels, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The results are reported of magnetic field-dependent neutron diffraction experiments on polycrystalline inert-gas condensed holmium with a nanometre crystallite size (D = 33 nm). At T = 50 K, no evidence is found for the existence of helifan(3/2) or helifan(2) structures for the nanocrystalline sample, in contrast with results reported in the literature for the single crystal. Instead, when the applied field H is increased, the helix pattern transforms progressively, most likely into a fan structure. It is the component of H which acts on the basal-plane spins of a given nanocrystallite that drives the disappearance of the helix; for nanocrystalline Ho, this field is about 1.3 T, and it is related to a characteristic kink in the virgin magnetization curve. For a coarse-grained Ho sample, concomitant with the destruction of the helix phase, the emergence of an unusual angular anisotropy (streak pattern) and the appearance of novel spin structures are observed. PMID:27047307

  3. Synthesis, structure, and magnetic characterization of Cr4US8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Matthew D.; Chan, Ian Y.; Malliakas, Christos D.; Lee, Minseong; Choi, Eun Sang; Ibers, James A.

    2016-01-01

    The compound Cr4US8 has been synthesized at 1073 K and its crystal structure has been determined at 100 K. The structure is modulated with a two-fold commensurate supercell. The subcell may be indexed in an orthorhombic cell but weak supercell reflections lead to the monoclinic superspace group P21/c(α0γ)0s with two Cr sites, one U site, and four S sites. The structure comprises a three-dimensional framework of CrS6 octahedra with channels that are partially occupied by U atoms. Each U atom in these channels is coordinated by eight S atoms in a bicapped trigonal-prismatic arrangement. The magnetic behavior of Cr4US8 is complex. At temperatures above ~120 K at all measured fields, there is little difference between field-cooled and zero field-cooled data and χ(T) decreases monotonously with temperature, which is reminiscent of the Curie-Weiss law. At lower temperatures, the temperature dependence of χ(T) is complex and strongly dependent on the magnetic field strength.

  4. A Novel Integrated Structure with a Radial Displacement Sensor and a Permanent Magnet Biased Radial Magnetic Bearing

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jinji; Zhang, Yin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a novel integrated structure is proposed in order to reduce the axial length of the high speed of a magnetically suspended motor (HSMSM) to ensure the maximum speed, which combines radial displacement sensor probes and the permanent magnet biased radial magnetic bearing in HSMSM. The sensor probes are integrated in the magnetic bearing, and the sensor preamplifiers are placed in the control system of the HSMSM, separate from the sensor probes. The proposed integrated structure can save space in HSMSMs, improve the working frequency, reduce the influence of temperature on the sensor circuit, and improve the stability of HSMSMs. PMID:24469351

  5. Development of three-dimensional printing system for magnetic elastomer with control of magnetic anisotropy in the structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsumori, Fujio; Kawanishi, Hidenori; Kudo, Kentaro; Osada, Toshiko; Miura, Hideshi

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we report on a new system of three-dimensional (3D) printing for a magnetic elastomer that contains magnetic particles. Not only can we fabricate a three-dimensional structure, but we can also control the magnetically anisotropic property of each position in the structure using the present technique. Our new system employed photocurable poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) as the base material so that a method similar to a conventional 3D printing process with photolithography can be used. A magnetic powder was mixed with photocurable PDMS, and particle chain clusters were obtained by applying a magnetic field during the curing process. These chain clusters provide an anisotropic property in each part of the printed structure. We show some results of preliminary experiments and 3D printed samples in this paper. If the fabricated structure was placed under an applied magnetic field, each chain cluster will cause the rotational moment to be along the magnetic flux line, which can deform a soft matrix body. This deformation can be used as a magnetic actuator for the structure. Variable deformable structures could be developed using the present method.

  6. Magnetic Configurations in Co/Cu Multilayered Nanowires: Evidence of Structural and Magnetic Interplay.

    PubMed

    Reyes, D; Biziere, N; Warot-Fonrose, B; Wade, T; Gatel, C

    2016-02-10

    Off-axis electron holography experiments have been combined with micromagnetic simulations to study the remnant magnetic states of electrodeposited Co/Cu multilayered nanocylinders. Structural and chemical data obtained by transmission electron microscopy have been introduced in the simulations. Three different magnetic configurations such as an antiparallel coupling of the Co layers, coupled vortices, and a monodomain-like state have been quantitatively mapped and simulated. While most of the wires present the same remnant state whatever the direction of the saturation field, we show that some layers can present a change from an antiparallel coupling to vortices. Such a configuration can be of particular interest to design nano-oscillators with two different working frequencies. PMID:26783831

  7. Spin wave resonance detection using magnetic tunnel junction structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Chong; Fan, Xin; Pan, Liqing; Kou, Xiaoming; Wu, Jun; Yang, Qinghui; Zhang, Huaiwu; Xiao, John Q.

    2011-11-01

    We have demonstrated that spin wave resonance in a permalloy microstrip can be detected by an electrical method based on magnetic tunnel junction structures. The detection method promises high spatial resolution and sensitivity. Both even and odd spin wave resonance modes can be clearly observed in a permalloy microstrip. The spin wave induced voltage is proportional to the input microwave power at each resonance mode. Data analysis using the model of quantized dipole-exchange spin wave resonance suggests the edge pinning of spin wave sensitively depends on the order of the spin wave mode, as well as on the excitation frequency for modes of the higher order.

  8. Magnetic Field Structure of the Small Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magalhaes, A. M.; Margoniner, V. E.; Pereyra, A.; Rodrigues, C. V.; Coyne, G. V.

    1996-05-01

    We describe an on-going observational program to determine the magnetic field structure of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). The project employs CCD images which allow the determination of the linear polarization of a large number of stars in each field. The data are being collected at the CTIO 1.5m telescope using a visitor polarimetry unit on the direct CCD camera. The data are been gathered mainly in the Northeast and Wing sections of the SMC. These regions have been presumably affected by past interactions with the Large Magellanic Cloud. Support by FAPESP, CNPq, CAPES and USP is gratefully acknowledged.

  9. Structural, magnetic and optical properties of two concomitant molecular crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Manuela Ramos; Milne, Bruce; Coutinho, Joana T.; Pereira, Laura C. J.; Martín-Ramos, Pablo; Pereira da Silva, Pedro S.; Martín-Gil, Jesús

    2016-03-01

    A new 1D complex has been prepared and characterized. X-ray single crystal structure confirms that the Cu(II) ions assemble in alternating chains with Cu … Cu distances of 2.5685(4) and 3.1760(4) Å. The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility reveals an antiferromagnetic interaction between the paddle-wheel copper centers with an exchange of -300 cm-1. The exchange integral was also determined by quantum chemical ab-initio calculations, using polarised and unpolarised basis sets reproducing well the experimental value. The second harmonic generation efficiency of a concomitantly crystallized material was evaluated and was found to be comparable to urea.

  10. Magnetic and structural properties of ferrihydrite/hematite nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pariona, N.; Camacho-Aguilar, K. I.; Ramos-González, R.; Martinez, Arturo I.; Herrera-Trejo, M.; Baggio-Saitovitch, E.

    2016-05-01

    A rich variety of ferrihydrite/hematite nanocomposites (NCs) with specific size, composition and properties were obtained in transformation reactions of 2-line ferrihydrite. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations showed that the NCs consist of clusters of strongly aggregated nanoparticles (NPs) similarly to a "plum pudding", where hematite NPs "raisins" are surrounded by ferrihydrite "pudding". Magnetic measurements of the NCs correlate very well with TEM results; i.e., higher coercive fields correspond to greater hematite crystallite size. First order reversal curve (FORC) measurements were used for the characterization of the magnetic components of the NCs. FORC diagrams revealed that the NCs prepared at short times are composed by single domains with low coercivity, and NCs prepared at times larger than 60 min exhibited elongated distribution along the Hc axis. It suggested that these samples consist of mixtures of different kinds of hematite particles, ones with low coercivity and others with coercivity greater than 600 Oe. For NCs prepared at times larger than 60 min, Mossbauer spectroscopy revealed the presence of two sextets, which one was assigned to fine hematite particles and other to hematite particles with hyperfine parameters near to bulk hematite. The correlation of the structural and magnetic properties of the ferrihydrite/hematite NCs revealed important characteristics of these materials which have not been reported elsewhere.

  11. The magnetic structure of EuCu2Sb2

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ryan, D. H.; Cadogan, J. M.; Anand, V. K.; Johnston, D. C.; Flacau, R.

    2015-05-06

    Antiferromagnetic ordering of EuCu2Sb2 which forms in the tetragonal CaBe2Ge2-type structure (space group P4/nmm #129) has been studied using neutron powder diffraction and 151Eu Mössbauer spectroscopy. The room temperature 151Eu isomer shift of –12.8(1) mm/s shows the Eu to be divalent, while the 151Eu hyperfine magnetic field (Bhf) reaches 28.7(2) T at 2.1 K, indicating a full Eu2+ magnetic moment. Bhf(T) follows a smoothmore » $$S=\\frac{7}{2}$$ Brillouin function and yields an ordering temperature of 5.1(1) K. Refinement of the neutron diffraction data reveals a collinear A-type antiferromagnetic arrangement with the Eu moments perpendicular to the tetragonal c-axis. As a result, the refined Eu magnetic moment at 0.4 K is 7.08(15) μB which is the full free-ion moment expected for the Eu2+ ion with $$S=\\frac{7}{2}$$ and a spectroscopic splitting factor of g = 2.« less

  12. Octupolar out-of-plane magnetic field structure generation during collisionless magnetic reconnection in a stressed X-point collapse

    SciTech Connect

    Graf von der Pahlen, J.; Tsiklauri, D.

    2014-06-15

    The out-of-plane magnetic field, generated by fast magnetic reconnection, during collisionless, stressed X-point collapse, was studied with a kinetic, 2.5D, fully electromagnetic, relativistic particle-in-cell numerical code, using both closed (flux conserving) and open boundary conditions on a square grid. It was discovered that the well known quadrupolar structure in the out-of-plane magnetic field gains four additional regions of opposite magnetic polarity, emerging near the corners of the simulation box, moving towards the X-point. The emerging, outer, magnetic field structure has opposite polarity to the inner quadrupolar structure, leading to an overall octupolar structure. Using Ampere's law and integrating electron and ion currents, defined at grid cells, over the simulation domain, contributions to the out-of-plane magnetic field from electron and ion currents were determined. The emerging regions of opposite magnetic polarity were shown to be the result of ion currents. Magnetic octupolar structure is found to be a signature of X-point collapse, rather than tearing mode, and factors relating to potential discoveries in experimental scenarios or space-craft observations are discussed.

  13. Small magnetic structures in the photosphere, radiative properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacios, Judith; Domingo, Vicente; Cabello, Iballa; Bonet, José Antonio; Sánchez Almeida, Jorge

    The three dimensional structure of small magnetic field features in the photosphere, their dynamic behavior and their radiative properties are studied. We analyze data obtained in simultaneous observations made on Sept 29 and 30, 2007 with the HINODE spacecraft and the Swedish Solar Telescope (SST) in La Palma in different wavelengths, such as CaII (396.85 nm) and CN (388.35 nm) and other with Hinode data; and Gband (430.56 nm) with SST. Tha analysis is completed with high resolution Gband and Gcontinuum (436.39 nm) images from SST obtained on 2005 and 2006. Magnetograms have been obtained from both observatories. SST images have been processed with MOMFB code. Ribbon-like structures and "flowers" are studied in detail. Comparisons with solar atmospheric models are presented.

  14. The structures and magnetic moments of Co-C clusters.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qing-Min; Liu, Ying; Xie, Zun; Wang, Jing

    2010-08-01

    The geometries, binding energies, and magnetic moments of small CoC(N) (N = 1-8) and CO2C(N) (N = 1-6) clusters are studied systematically using all-electron density functional theory (DFT) with the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The results indicate that, for the CoC(N) (N = 1-8) and Co2C(N) (N = 1-6) clusters, the lowest-energy structures are predicted to be linear structures except for CoC2 and CoC7. The ground states of the CoC(N) (N = 1-8) clusters are linear geometries (C(v)) with Co atom at one end. The ground states of the Co2C(N) (N = 1-6) clusters are linear geometries (D(h)) with the two Co atoms located at the two ends. For all the clusters, analysis of the Mülliken population shows that charge transfers from the Co atom(s) to the C atoms. The magnetic moment lies primarily on the Co atom(s). PMID:21125925

  15. Magnetization reversal studies in structurally tailored cobalt nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Daljit; Chaudhary, Sujeet; Pandya, Dinesh K.; Gupta, Rekha; Kotnala, R. K.

    2013-10-01

    Cobalt nanowires (NWs) having hcp crystal structure are structurally tailored for different preferred orientations (PO) of (0002), (101¯0), (112¯0) and (101¯1) by varying bath temperature and bath concentration in commercially available 50 nm pore diameter polycarbonate (PCT) and 20 nm pore diameter anodic alumina (AAO) membranes. The magnetization studies show orientation dependent competition of magneto-crystalline anisotropy with shape anisotropy. The large effective anisotropy, Keff (along longitudinal direction) of 1.42×106 erg/cc is observed in (0002) PO NWs, which changes sign (-1.50×106 erg/cc) in (101¯0) PO NWs. The angular dependence of coercivity [HC(θ)] in (0002) oriented Co NWs exhibits a non-monotonic behavior in both the 50 nm and 20 nm samples. The fitting of HC(θ) data reveals that the magnetization reversal mechanism initially takes place by curling and subsequently changes to coherent rotation mode after a certain transition angle, which is higher in case of denser NW array. This increase in transition angle can be attributed to the increased magneto-static interactions in the AAO membrane array having 103 times higher NW areal-density than that in PCT membrane array. Role of dipolar/ magnetostatic anisotropy studied by varying NW areal-density and NW diameter.

  16. Gravitational Influences on Magnetic Field Structure in Accretion Disks*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneck, K.; Coppi, B.

    2009-11-01

    The structure of the magnetic fields associated with plasma disks surrounding black holes is identified when the effects of gravitational and Lorentz forces on the dynamics of the disk are comparable. The effects of corrections to the radial gravitational force% ρGM*R(R^2+z^2)^3/2 are explored within the geometry of a thin disk. A significant external magnetic field component is considered, along with an internal component due to the azimuthal current configuration. The relation of the resulting configuration to the field structure when the gravitational force can be neglectedfootnotetextB. Coppi, Phys. Plasmas 12, 057302 (2005)^,footnotetextCoppi, B. and Rousseau, F. Astrophysical Journal, 641: 458-470 (2006) is discussed. The relevant equations for the pseudo-Newtonian potentialfootnotetextPaczy'nski, B. and Wiita, P. J. Astron. Astrophys. 88: 23 (1980) describing the physics near the event horizon of the black hole are also derived and the physical consequences are explored. *Sponsored in part by the U.S. Department of Energy and the MIT Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program.

  17. Role of nonlinear localized structures and turbulence in magnetized plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Neha; Yadav, Nitin; Uma, R.; Sharma, R. P.

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, we have analyzed the field localization of kinetic Alfvén wave (KAW) due to the presence of background density perturbation, which are assumed to be originated by the three dimensionally propagating low frequency KAW. These localized structures play an important role for energy transportation at smaller scales in the dispersion range of magnetic power spectrum. For the present model, governing dynamic equations of high frequency pump KAW and low frequency KAW has been derived by considering ponderomotive nonlinearity. Further, these coupled equations have been numerically solved to analyze the resulting localized structures of pump KAW and magnetic power spectrum in the magnetopause regime. Numerically calculated spectrum exhibits inertial range having spectral index of -3/2 followed by steeper scaling; this steepening in the turbulent spectrum is a signature of energy transportation from larger to smaller scales. In this way, the proposed mechanism, which is based on nonlinear wave-wave interaction, may be useful for understanding the particle acceleration and turbulence in magnetopause.

  18. Magnetic phase structure of Saturn's 10.7 h oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, J. N.; Southwood, D. J.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2015-04-01

    A source of Saturn's magnetic 10.7 h period oscillations has yet to be identified. The oscillations are known to consist of signals with slightly different periods from separate northern and southern sources. Here we present a novel way of examining observations, focusing on signal phase. We show that although the signals are highly periodic they are usually not sinusoidal and that there are differences in both phase structure and polarization between the outer magnetosphere (on the nightside) and the inner dipolar region. Paying particular attention to the deep midtail passes of 2006, the contrasting behavior between the inner and outer regions is clear with approximate sinusoidal behavior in the dipolar region and a pulse-like signal once per cycle in the tail. The latter structure seems to indicate that tail magnetic stress is released impulsively once per cycle in the tail. After equinox, in 2010-2011, we find a different picture in the premidnight sector. The predetermined northern and southern frequencies are closer together and apparently show sudden shifts. Our signal reconstruction approach finds instances where it is likely that the narrow band filtering is not able to track completely the basic north and south periods as we find phase jumps indicating unpredicted beats.

  19. Magnetic structure and magnetic transport properties of graphene nanoribbons with sawtooth zigzag edges.

    PubMed

    Wang, D; Zhang, Z; Zhu, Z; Liang, B

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic structure and magnetic transport properties of hydrogen-passivated sawtooth zigzag-edge graphene nanoribbons (STGNRs) are investigated theoretically. It is found that all-sized ground-state STGNRs are ferromagnetic and always feature magnetic semiconductor properties, whose spin splitting energy gap E(g) changes periodically with the width of STGNRs. More importantly, for the STGNR based device, the dual spin-filtering effect with the perfect (100%) spin polarization and high-performance dual spin diode effect with a rectification ratio about 10(10) can be predicted. Particularly, a highly effective spin-valve device is likely to be realized, which displays a giant magnetoresistace (MR) approaching 10(10)%, which is three orders magnitude higher than the value predicted based on the zigzag graphene nanoribbons and six orders magnitude higher than previously reported experimental values for the MgO tunnel junction. Our findings suggest that STGNRs might hold a significant promise for developing spintronic devices. PMID:25533701

  20. Motion of observed structures calculated from multi-point magnetic field measurements: Application to Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Q. Q.; Shen, C.; Dunlop, M. W.; Pu, Z. Y.; Zong, Q.-G.; Liu, Z. X.; Lucek, E.; Balogh, A.

    2006-04-01

    A new method is described which calculates the velocity of observed, quasi-stationary structures at every moment in time from multi-point magnetic field measurements. Once the magnetic gradient tensor G = $\

  1. Electronic structure, magnetic and structural properties of Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Shalendra; Vats, Prashant; Gautam, S.; Gupta, V.P.; Verma, K.D.; Chae, K.H.; Hashim, Mohd; Choi, H.K.

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • XRD, and HR-TEM results show the single phase nature of Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles. • dc magnetization results indicate the RT-FM in Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles. • Ni L{sub 3,2} edge NEXAFS spectra infer that Ni ions are in +2 valence state. • O K edge NEXAFS spectra show that O vacancy increases with Ni doping in ZnO. - Abstract: We report structural, magnetic and electronic structural properties of Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles prepared by auto-combustion method. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy, and dc magnetization measurements. The XRD and HR-TEM results indicate that Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles have single phase nature with wurtzite lattice and exclude the presence of secondary phase. NEXAFS measurements performed at Ni L{sub 3,2}-edges indicates that Ni ions are in +2 valence state and exclude the presence of Ni metal clusters. O K-edge NEXAFS spectra indicate an increase in oxygen vacancies with Ni-doping, while Zn L{sub 3,2}-edge show the absence of Zn-vacancies. The magnetization measurements performed at room temperature shows that pure and Ni doped ZnO exhibits ferromagnetic behavior.

  2. Magnetic field structure and halo in NGC 4631

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, Silvia Carolina; Krause, Marita

    2013-12-01

    seem to be higher than the value in the disk. Conclusions: The derived distribution of rotation measures implies that NGC 4631 has a large-scale regular magnetic field configuration. Despite the strong Faraday depolarization along the galactic plane and the strong beam depolarization in the transition zone between the disk and halo, our research strongly indicates that the magnetic field orientation along the central 5-7 kpc of the disk is also plane-parallel. Therefore, we claim that NGC 4631 also has a magnetic field structure plane-parallel along its entire disk, similar to all other edge-on galaxies observed up to now. Based on observations with the 100 m telescope of the MPIfR (Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie) at Effelsberg and the VLA operated by the NRAO. The NRAO is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  3. Unconventional magnetic order stabilized by Kitaev interactions in the three-dimensional honeycomb polytypes of Li2 IrO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coldea, Radu

    2015-03-01

    Materials that realize Kitaev spin models with bond-dependent anisotropic interactions have long been searched for, as the resulting frustration effects are predicted to stabilize novel forms of magnetic order or quantum spin liquids. Here we explore the magnetism of the recently-synthesized iridates β- and γ-Li2IrO3, which have the topology of three-dimensional Kitaev lattices of inter-connected Ir honeycombs. Using single-crystal resonant magnetic x-ray diffraction we find in both cases a surprisingly complex, yet highly symmetric, incommensurate magnetic structure with non-coplanar and counter-rotating Ir moments. Our experimental results combined with a theoretical analysis of candidate spin Hamiltonians provide strong evidence that both β and γ-Li2IrO3 realize a spin Hamiltonian with dominant Kitaev interactions.

  4. Anisotropies and spin dynamics in ultrathin magnetic multilayer structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kardasz, Bartlomiej

    High quality magnetic films were prepared by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) using Thermal Deposition (TD) and Pulse Laser Deposition (PLD) techniques. Ferromagnetic Resonance (FMR) and Mossbauer studies have shown that the Fe films prepared by PLD exhibited a more intermixed interface lattice structure than those prepared by TD. Dramatic decrease of the in-plane interface uniaxial anisotropy for the PLD films compared to those prepared by TD has shown that the in-plane uniaxial anisotropy is caused by magnetoelasticity driven by the Fe/GaAs(001) interface lattice shear. Magnetization dynamics of the ultrathin Fe/Au,Ag/Fe films was studied using Time-Resolved Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect (TRMOKE) and FMR in the frequency range from 1 to 73 GHz. The Gilbert damping was studied in the Au/Fe/GaAs(001) structures as a function of the Fe and Au layer thickness, respectively. The observed increase in magnetic damping in the Fe film covered with thick Au capping layers was explained by spin pumping at the Fe/Au interface accompanied by spin relaxation and diffusion of the accumulated spin density in the Au layer. The spin diffusion length in Au was found to be 34 nm at room temperature. Significant increase of the Gilbert damping was observed in the Au/Fe/GaAs structures with decreasing Fe film thickness. Its origin lies in the additional damping at the Fe/GaAs interface. Direct detection of the spin current propagating across the Ag spacer in Fe/Ag,Au/Fe/GaAs(001) structures was carried out with stroboscopic TRMOKE measurements. The Fe layer grown on GaAs served as a spin pumping source and the Fe layer grown on the Au,Ag spacer was used as a probe for detection of the spin current propagating across the Au and Ag spacers. The experimental results were interpreted using selfconsistent solution of the Landau Lifshitz Gilbert (LLG) equations of motion with the spin diffusion equation for the accumulated spin density in the Au and Ag spacers. The spin diffusion length in Ag was

  5. Hard magnetic Sm(Fe,Si)9 carbides: Structured and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessais, L.; Djéga-Mariadassou, C.; Nandra, A.; Appay, M. D.; Burzo, E.

    2004-02-01

    The structural and magnetic properties of the metastable hexagonal SmFe9-xSixC compounds, where x is 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1, have been investigated by means of powder x-ray diffraction, Curie temperature, magnetic moment and coercivity measurements, iron-57 Mössbauer spectroscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The Rietveld analysis points out a lattice expansion after carbon insertion. Upon carbonation the Curie temperatures are systematically 26 to 70 K higher than those of the homologous Sm2(Fe,Si)17C2. The magnetic moment per iron atom increases with x but remains below that of the non-carbonated alloys. The statistical occupation of silicon in 3g site and the random distribution of the 2e dumbbell iron atoms have been taken into account to calculate the Wigner-Seitz cell volumes, which rule the hyperfine parameter assignment. The following sequence of isomer shift δ{2e}>δ{3g}>δ{6l} is used to deduce the following sequence of hyperfine field HHF{2e}>HHF{6l}>HHF{3g}. From Sm(Fe,Si)9 to their carbides, the increase of isomer shift is less pronounced for the 2e site with no carbon neighbor. The small volume effect on the weighted average isomer shift may indicate hybridization between 2p of carbon and 3d of iron stronger than that of nitrides. The best coercivity of 15 kOe is obtained for SmFe8.75Si0.25C with annealing temperature of the noncarbonated powder at 750°C. However, SmFe8.5Si0.5C, with 13 kOe and an optimal grain size around 22 nm, presents a better thermal stability and might be suitable for permanent-magnet applications.

  6. Structural and magnetic stability of Fe{sub 2}NiSi

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Dinesh C. Bhat, Idris Hamid Chauhan, Mamta

    2014-04-24

    Full-potential ab-initio calculations in the stable F-43m phase have been performed to investigate the structural and magnetic properties of Fe{sub 2}NiSi inverse Heusler alloys. The spin magnetic moment distributions show that present material is ferromagnetic in stable F-43m phase. Further, spin resolved electronic structure calculations show that the discrepancy in magnetic moments of Fe-I and Fe-II depend upon the hybridization of Fe with the main group element. It is found that the main group electron concentration is predominantly responsible in establishing the magnetic properties, formation of magnetic moments and the magnetic order for present alloy.

  7. Structural, magnetic and electronic structure properties of Co doped ZnO nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Shalendra; Song, T.K.; Gautam, Sanjeev; Chae, K.H.; Kim, S.S.; Jang, K.W.

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • XRD and HR-TEM results show the single phase nature of Co doped ZnO nanoparticles. • XMCD and dc magnetization results indicate the RT-FM in Co doped ZnO nanoparticles. • Co L{sub 3,2} NEXAFS spectra infer that Co ions are in 2+ valence state. • O K edge NEXAFS spectra show that O vacancy increases with Co doping in ZnO. - Abstract: We reported structural, magnetic and electronic structure studies of Co doped ZnO nanoparticles. Doping of Co ions in ZnO host matrix has been studied and confirmed using various methods; such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersed X-ray (EDX), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy, magnetic hysteresis loop measurements and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). From the XRD and HR-TEM results, it is observed that Co doped ZnO nanoparticles have single phase nature with wurtzite structure and exclude the possibility of secondary phase formation. FE-SEM and TEM micrographs show that pure and Co doped nanoparticles are nearly spherical in shape. O K edge NEXAFS spectra indicate that O vacancies increase with Co doping. The Co L{sub 3,2} edge NEXAFS spectra revealed that Co ions are in 2+ valence state. DC magnetization hysteresis loops and XMCD results clearly showed the intrinsic origin of temperature ferromagnetism in Co doped ZnO nanoparticles.

  8. The relationship between microstructure and magnetic properties in high-energy permanent magnets characterized by polytwinned structures

    SciTech Connect

    Soffa, W.A.

    1993-01-01

    Effort was made to understand the relation between polytwinned microstructures which develop during ordering (A1[r arrow]L1[sub o]) in Fe-Pd and Fe-Pt ferromagnets and their magnetic properties. The microcrystalline, high coercivity state mimics the structures produced by melt-spinning rare earth permanent magnets.

  9. Structural safety assessment under the low temperature of KSTAR superconducting magnet-supporting post

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Her, N. I.; Sa, J. W.; Cho, S.; Do, C. J.; Choi, C. H.; Kim, B. C.; Im, K. H.; Kyum, M.; Kim, W. C.; Kim, G. H.; Yoo, B. J.; Oh, Y. K.; Kim, D. L.; Kwon, M.; Lee, G. S.; Kstar Team

    2001-01-01

    A magnet-supporting post installed between the lower TF coil cooled by 4.5 K supercritical helium and the cryostat base is one of the most important components of the superconducting magnet-supporting structure for KSTAR Tokamak. This structure should be flexible to absorb thermal shrink of the magnet and should also be rigid to support the magnet weight and the plasma disruption load. The post was designed with stainless steel (SS) 316 LN and carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) that has low thermal conductivity and high structural strength at low temperature. In order to verify the fabricability and the structural safety, a whole scale prototype of the KSTAR magnet-supporting post was manufactured and tested. Both static and compressive cyclic load tests under the maximum plasma vertical disruption load and the magnet dead weight were performed. The test results showed that the magnet-supporting post of KSTAR Tokamak was fabricable and structurally rigid.

  10. Study of small magnetic structures in the solar photosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabello, I.; Domingo, V.; Bonet, J. A.; Blanco Rodríguez, J.; Balmaceda, L. A.

    2013-05-01

    The study of small scale magnetic structures in the solar photosphere is of great relevance for the understanding of the global behaviour of the Sun. Because of the small spatial and temporal scales involved, the use of high resolution images and fast cadence is fundamental for their study. In order to obtain such images, sophisticated computational techniques that compensate for the atmospheric degradation and telescope aberration have been developed, improving in this way the spatial resolution. In this work, we use G-band images obtained with the 1 m-Swedish Solar Telescope located at La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain). The images have been restored with MOMFBD (Multi-Object Multi-Frame Blind Deconvolution), a technique that combines multiple images acquired in a short time interval. The resulting images have a resolution close to the diffraction limit of the telescope (0.1 arcsec) allowing the study of very small bright structures present in the inter-granular lanes in the solar photosphere, known as Bright Points. It is highlighted the great presence of magnetic structures in quiet Sun regions analyzed from different observational campaigns. The density of BPs in the quiet Sun shows a decrease as we approach the limb, with values of ≃q 1% at the centre (μ ≈ 1), and ≃q 0.2% at μ ≈ 0.3. We also present the discovery of small vortexes detected in the solar surface through the movement of BPs, with radii around 241 km and lifetimes longer than 5 minutes. Further analyses, comprising longer time series and information from different solar layers, are being performed aiming at a more in-depth knowledge of these phenomena.

  11. STM Studies of TbTe3: Evidence for a Fully Incommensurate Charge Density Wave

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, A.; Ru, N.; Fisher, I.R.; Kapitulnik, A.; /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-02-15

    We observe unidirectional charge density wave ordering on the cleaved surface of TbTe{sub 3} with a Scanning Tunneling Microscope at {approx}6 K. The modulation wave-vector q{sub CDW} as determined by Fourier analysis is 0.71 {+-} 0.02 x2{pi}/c. Where c is one edge of the in-plane 3D unit cell. Images at different tip-sample voltages show the unit cell doubling effects of dimerization and the layer below. Our results agree with bulk X-ray measurements, with the addition of (1/3) x2{pi}/a ordering perpendicular to the CDW. Our analysis indicates that the CDW is incommensurate.

  12. Resonant X-ray diffraction in incommensurately modulated crystals. Symmetry consideration of anisotropic anomalous scattering.

    PubMed

    Ovchinnikova; Dmitrienko

    1999-01-01

    Symmetry restrictions on the intensities and polarization properties of main reflections and their satellites are found for incommensurately modulated crystals in the case of anisotropic anomalous X-ray diffraction near absorption edges. It is shown that the modulation becomes a source of additional anisotropy for each resonant scatterer and induces a modulated behaviour of the susceptibility tensor. The four-dimensional approach is used to calculate the set of possible reflections. It is found that additional ('forbidden') reflections may appear both in the system of main reflections and in the system of satellites. The anisotropy also results in complex azimuthal and polarization properties of each reflection. The displacive modulation is discussed in detail. The ATS reflections corresponding to the resonant X-ray diffraction near the K-edge of iron in pyrrhotite-5.5C are considered. PMID:10927227

  13. Structure, magnetic order and excitations in the 245 family of Fe-based superconductors.

    PubMed

    Bao, Wei

    2015-01-21

    Elastic neutron scattering simultaneously probes both the crystal structure and magnetic order in a material. Inelastic neutron scattering measures phonons and magnetic excitations. Here, we review the average composition, crystal structure and magnetic order in the 245 family of Fe-based superconductors and in related insulating compounds from neutron diffraction works. A three-dimensional phase-diagram summarizes various structural, magnetic and electronic properties as a function of the sample composition. A high pressure phase diagram for the superconductor is also provided. Magnetic excitations and the theoretic Heisenberg Hamiltonian are provided for the superconductor. Issues for future works are discussed. PMID:25427222

  14. Filamentary structure and magnetic field orientation in Musca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, N. L. J.; Arzoumanian, D.; André, Ph.; Rygl, K. L. J.; Prusti, T.; Men'shchikov, A.; Royer, P.; Kóspál, Á.; Palmeirim, P.; Ribas, A.; Könyves, V.; Bernard, J.-Ph.; Schneider, N.; Bontemps, S.; Merin, B.; Vavrek, R.; Alves de Oliveira, C.; Didelon, P.; Pilbratt, G. L.; Waelkens, C.

    2016-05-01

    Herschel has shown that filamentary structures are ubiquitous in star-forming regions, in particular in nearby molecular clouds associated with Gould's Belt. High dynamic range far-infrared imaging of the Musca cloud with SPIRE and PACS reveals at least two types of filamentary structures: (1) the main ~10-pc scale high column-density linear filament; and (2) low column-density striations in close proximity to the main filament. In addition, we find features with intermediate column densities (hair-like strands) that appear physically connected to the main filament. We present an analysis of this filamentary network traced by Herschel and explore its connection with the local magnetic field. We find that both the faint dust emission striations and the plane-of-the-sky (POS) magnetic field are locally oriented close to perpendicular to the high-density main filament (position angle ~25-35°). The low-density striations and strands are oriented parallel to the POS magnetic field lines, which are derived previously from optical polarization measurements of background stars and more recently from Planck observations of dust polarized emission. The position angles are 97 ± 25°, 105 ± 7°, and 105 ± 5°. From these observations, we propose a scenario in which local interstellar material in this cloud has condensed into a gravitationally-unstable filament (with "supercritical" mass per unit length) that is accreting background matter along field lines through the striations. We also compare the filamentary structure in Musca with what is seen in similar Herschel observations of the Taurus B211/3 filament system and find that there is significantly less substructure in the Musca main filament than in the B211/3 filament. We suggest that the Musca cloud may represent an earlier evolutionary stage in which the main filament has not yet accreted sufficient mass and energy to develop a multiple system of intertwined filamentary components. Herschel is an ESA space

  15. A co-crystal of polyoxometalates exhibiting single-molecule magnet behavior: the structural origin of a large magnetic anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Xikui; McCallum, Kendall; Pratt III, Harry D.; Anderson, Travis M.; Dennis, Kevin; Luban, Marshall

    2012-03-29

    A polyoxometalate-based {MnIII3MnIV} single-molecule magnet exhibits a large axial anisotropy (D = −0.86 cm−1) resulting from a near-parallel alignment of Jahn–Teller axes. Its rigorous three-fold symmetry (i.e. rhombicity E → 0) and increased intercluster separation via co-crystallization effectively hamper quantum tunnelling of the magnetization. Graphical abstract: A co-crystal of polyoxometalates exhibiting single-molecule magnet behavior: the structural origin of a large magnetic anisotropy

  16. Static and dynamic properties of incommensurate smectic-A/sub I//sub C/ liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Lubensky, T.C.; Ramaswamy, S.; Toner, J.

    1988-10-15

    We study the elasticity, topological defects, and hydrodynamics of the recently discovered incommensurate smectic (A/sub I//sub C/) phase, characterized by two collinear mass density waves of incommensurate spatial frequency. The low-energy long-wavelength excitations of the system can be described by a displacement field u(x) and a ''phason'' field w(x) associated, respectively, with collective and relative motion of the two constituent density waves. We formulate the elastic free energy in terms of these two variables and find that when w = 0, its functional dependence on u is identical to that of a conventional smectic liquid crystal, while when u = 0, its functional dependence on w is the same as that for the angle variable in a slightly anisotropic XY model. An arbitrariness in the definition of u and w allows a choice that eliminates all relevant couplings between them in the long-wavelength elastic energy. The topological defects of the system are dislocations with nonzero u and w components. We introduce a two-dimensional Burgers lattice for these dislocations, and compute the interaction between them. This has two parts: one arising from the u field that is short ranged and identical to the interaction between dislocations in an ordinary smectic liquid crystal, and one arising from the w field that is long ranged and identical to the logarithmic interaction between vortices in an XY model. The hydrodynamic modes of the A/sub I//sub C/ include first- and second-sound modes whose direction-dependent velocities are identical to those in ordinary smectics.

  17. Complex long-range magnetic ordering in the Mn-bearing dugganite Pb{sub 3}TeMn{sub 3}P{sub 2}O{sub 14}

    SciTech Connect

    Silverstein, H.J.; Sharma, A.Z.; Cruz-Kan, K.; Zhou, H.D.; Huq, A.; Flacau, R.; Wiebe, C.R.

    2013-08-15

    Spin liquids, multiferroics, and doubly-chiral helical structures are just some of the exotic magnetic states found in the langasite compounds. A subclass of the langasite group, the Te{sup 6+}-containing dugganites, has also shown exotic magnetism including magnetoelectric coupling, coexisting complex long-ranged ordered structures, and low-field induced magnetic transitions. Here, we present the first detailed structural study of Pb{sub 3}TeMn{sub 3}P{sub 2}O{sub 14} as well as the first neutron scattering measurements. This material undergoes long-range magnetic ordering, similar to the multiferroic Ba{sub 3}NbFe{sub 3}Si{sub 2}O{sub 14}, at T{sub N}=6.6 K, which is consistent with previous magnetization measurements. However unlike any other langasite or dugganite studied to date, we present evidence of a large, pseudohexagonal incommensurate supercell that alters the nuclear and magnetic structures away from the langasite ideal. - Graphical abstract: Two geometrically frustrated cationic substructures of the langasites and dugganites have profound effects on the magnetism of these compounds. In Pb{sub 3}TeMn{sub 3}P{sub 2}O{sub 14}, Mn{sup 2+} (S=5/2) isolated trinuclear units are shown in yellow, while the red distorted kagomé network is nonmagnetic. (For interpretation of the references to color the reader is referred to the web version of this article.) Highlights: • Polycrystalline Pb{sub 3}TeMn{sub 3}P{sub 2}O{sub 14} was prepared. • Found evidence of a large, pseudohexagonal supercell that is incommensurate with the subcell. • Long-range antiferromagnetic ordering is observed below T{sub N}=6.6 K similar to Ba{sub 3}NbFe{sub 3}Si{sub 2}O{sub 14}. • Broken symmetry probably causes magnetic peak splitting in this system.

  18. Nonlinear dynamics of drift structures in a magnetized dissipative plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Aburjania, G. D.; Rogava, D. L.; Kharshiladze, O. A.

    2011-06-15

    A study is made of the nonlinear dynamics of solitary vortex structures in an inhomogeneous magnetized dissipative plasma. A nonlinear transport equation for long-wavelength drift wave structures is derived with allowance for the nonuniformity of the plasma density and temperature equilibria, as well as the magnetic and collisional viscosity of the medium and its friction. The dynamic equation describes two types of nonlinearity: scalar (due to the temperature inhomogeneity) and vector (due to the convectively polarized motion of the particles of the medium). The equation is fourth order in the spatial derivatives, in contrast to the second-order Hasegawa-Mima equations. An analytic steady solution to the nonlinear equation is obtained that describes a new type of solitary dipole vortex. The nonlinear dynamic equation is integrated numerically. A new algorithm and a new finite difference scheme for solving the equation are proposed, and it is proved that the solution so obtained is unique. The equation is used to investigate how the initially steady dipole vortex constructed here behaves unsteadily under the action of the factors just mentioned. Numerical simulations revealed that the role of the vector nonlinearity is twofold: it helps the dispersion or the scalar nonlinearity (depending on their magnitude) to ensure the mutual equilibrium and, thereby, promote self-organization of the vortical structures. It is shown that dispersion breaks the initial dipole vortex into a set of tightly packed, smaller scale, less intense monopole vortices-alternating cyclones and anticyclones. When the dispersion of the evolving initial dipole vortex is weak, the scalar nonlinearity symmetrically breaks a cyclone-anticyclone pair into a cyclone and an anticyclone, which are independent of one another and have essentially the same intensity, shape, and size. The stronger the dispersion, the more anisotropic the process whereby the structures break: the anticyclone is more intense

  19. Single-molecule magnets of ferrous cubes: structurally controlled magnetic anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Oshio, Hiroki; Hoshino, Norihisa; Ito, Tasuku; Nakano, Motohiro

    2004-07-21

    Tetranuclear Fe(II) cubic complexes were synthesized with Schiff base ligands bridging the Fe(II) centers. X-ray structural analyses of six ferrous cubes, [Fe4(sap)4(MeOH)4].2H2O (1), [Fe4(5-Br-sap)4(MeOH)4] (2), [Fe4(3-MeO-sap)4(MeOH)4].2MeOH (3), [Fe4(sae)4(MeOH)4] (4), [Fe4(5-Br-sae)4(MeOH)4].MeOH (5), and [Fe4(3,5-Cl2-sae)4(MeOH)4] (6) (R-sap and R-sae were prepared by condensation of salicylaldehyde derivatives with aminopropyl alcohol and aminoethyl alcohol, respectively) were performed, and their magnetic properties were studied. In 1-6, the alkoxo groups of the Schiff base ligands bridge four Fe(II) ions in a mu3-mode forming [Fe4O4] cubic cores. The Fe(II) ions in the cubes have tetragonally elongated octahedral coordination geometries, and the equatorial coordination bond lengths in 4-6 are shorter than those in 1-3. Dc magnetic susceptibility measurements for 1-6 revealed that intramolecular ferromagnetic interactions are operative to lead an S = 8 spin ground state. Analyses of the magnetization data at 1.8 K gave the axial zero-field splitting parameters (D) of +0.81, +0.80, +1.15, -0.64, -0.66, and -0.67 cm(-1) for 1-6, respectively. Ac magnetic susceptibility measurements for 4-6 showed both frequency dependent in- and out-of-phase signals, while 1-3 did not show out-of-phase signals down to 1.8 K, meaning 4-6 are single-molecule magnets (SMMs). The energy barriers to flip the spin between up- and down-spin were estimated to 28.4, 30.5, and 26.2 K, respectively, for 4-6. The bridging ligands R-sap2- in 1-3 and R-sae2- in 4-6 form six- and five-membered chelate rings, respectively, which cause different steric strain and Jahn-Teller distortions at Fe(II) centers. The sign of the D value was discussed by using angular overlap model (AOM) calculations for irons with different coordination geometry. PMID:15250734

  20. Electronic and magnetic structure of the Cr(001) surface.

    PubMed

    Habibi, P; Barreteau, C; Smogunov, A

    2013-04-10

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are carried out to study the electronic and magnetic structure of the (001) surface of chromium. Our aim is to identify and characterize the most prominent electronic surface states and make the connection with the main experimental results. We show that a low dispersive minority spin surface state at the center of the surface Brillouin zone plays a crucial role. This surface state of Δ1 symmetry at 0.58 eV above the Fermi level exhibits a predominantly dz(2) as well as pz orbital character. Local density of states (LDOS) analysis in the vacuum above the surface shows that the sharp feature originating from this surface state persists far away above the surface because of the slow decay rate of the pz wavefunction. Finally, by artificially lowering the surface magnetic moment [Formula: see text] on the outermost surface layer we find excellent agreement with experiments for [Formula: see text]. In addition, we propose that some extra spin polarized scanning tunneling spectroscopy (SP-STS) experiments should be made at smaller tip-surface distances to reveal additional features originating from the majority spin dz(2) surface state. PMID:23478357

  1. Structure and magnetism in rare earth strontium-doped cobaltates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Michael; Morales, Liliana; Wallwork, Kia; Avdeev, Maxim; Withers, Ray; Goossens, Darren

    2006-11-01

    Substantial interest has recently been generated by rare earth cobaltate compounds as cathode materials for solid oxide fuel cells. We have synthesised a wide range of single-phase perovskite-based rare earth cobaltates (Ln 1-xSr xCoO 3-δ) (Ln=La 3+-Yb 3+). A combination of electron and X-ray diffraction of these phases reveals a complex family of tetragonal and orthorhombic superstructures. The nature of structural and magnetic ordering relies on both cation and oxygen vacancy distribution. Phase boundaries exists between compounds containing large, medium and small rare earths (between Nd 3+ and Sm 3+, and also between Gd 3+ and Dy 3+) and also at different Sr-doping levels. Powder neutron diffraction has been used in conjunction with the other techniques to reveal cation and oxygen vacancy ordering within these materials. These phases show mixed valence (3+/4+) cobalt oxidation states that increases with Sr content. A range of magnetic behaviours has been observed, including ordered antiferromagnetism at elevated temperatures (>300 K) in Ho 0.2Sr 0.8CoO 2.75.

  2. Dynamical structure factor of magnetic Bloch oscillations at finite temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syljuåsen, Olav F.

    2015-10-01

    Domain-walls in one-dimensional Ising ferromagnets can undergo Bloch oscillations when subjected to a skew magnetic field. Such oscillations imply finite temperature non-dispersive low-frequency peaks in the dynamical structure factor which can be probed in neutron scattering. We study in detail the spectral weight of these peaks. Using an analytical approach based on an approximate treatment of a gas of spin-cluster excitations we give an explicit expression for the momentum- and temperature-dependence of the spectral weights. Generally the spectral weights increase with temperature T and approaches the same order of magnitude as the spin-wave spectral weights at high temperatures. We compare the analytical expression to numerical exact diagonalizations and find that it can, without any adjustable parameters, account for the T and momentum-transfer dependence of the numerically obtained spectral weights in the parameter regime where the ratio of magnetic fields h x / h z ≪ 1 and the temperature is h x < T < ˜ J z /2. We also carry out numerical calculations pertinent to the material CoNb2O6, and find qualitatively similar results.

  3. Role of structurally and magnetically modified nanoclusters in colossal magnetoresistance

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Jing; Niebieskikwiat, Dario; Jie, Qing; Schofield, Marvin A.; Wu, Lijun; Li, Qiang; Zhu, Yimei

    2011-01-01

    It is generally accepted that electronic and magnetic phase separation is the origin of many of exotic properties of strongly correlated electron materials, such as colossal magnetoresistance (CMR), an unusually large variation in the electrical resistivity under applied magnetic field. In the simplest picture, the two competing phases are those associated with the material state on either side of the phase transition. Those phases would be paramagnetic insulator and ferromagnetic metal for the CMR effect in doped manganites. It has been speculated that a critical component of the CMR phenomenon is nanoclusters with quite different properties than either of the terminal phases during the transition. However, the role of these nanoclusters in the CMR effect remains elusive because the physical properties of the nanoclusters are hard to measure when embedded in bulk materials. Here we show the unexpected behavior of the nanoclusters in the CMR compound La1-xCaxMnO3 (0.4 ≤ x < 0.5) by directly correlating transmission electron microscopy observations with bulk measurements. The structurally modified nanoclusters at the CMR temperature were found to be ferromagnetic and exhibit much higher electrical conductivity than previously proposed. Only at temperatures much below the CMR transition, the nanoclusters are antiferromagnetic and insulating. These findings substantially alter the current understanding of these nanoclusters on the material’s functionality and would shed light on the microscopic study on the competing spin-lattice-charge orders in strongly correlated systems. PMID:22160678

  4. Tuning the magnetic anisotropy in single-layer crystal structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torun, E.; Sahin, H.; Bacaksiz, C.; Senger, R. T.; Peeters, F. M.

    2015-09-01

    The effect of an applied electric field and the effect of charging are investigated on the magnetic anisotropy (MA) of various stable two-dimensional (2D) crystals such as graphene, FeCl2, graphone, fluorographene, and MoTe2 using first-principles calculations. We found that the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy of Co-on-graphene and Os-doped-MoTe2 systems change linearly with electric field, opening the possibility of electric field tuning MA of these compounds. In addition, charging can rotate the easy-axis direction of Co-on-graphene and Os-doped-MoTe2 systems from the out-of-plane (in-plane) to in-plane (out-of-plane) direction. The tunable MA of the studied materials is crucial for nanoscale electronic technologies such as data storage and spintronics devices. Our results show that controlling the MA of the mentioned 2D crystal structures can be realized in various ways, and this can lead to the emergence of a wide range of potential applications where the tuning and switching of magnetic functionalities are important.

  5. The effect of external magnetic fields on the pore structure of polyurethane foams loaded with magnetic microparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schümann, M.; Seelig, N.; Odenbach, S.

    2015-10-01

    Elastic matrices loaded with magnetic microparticles are a new kind of magnetic hybrid material gaining a lot of scientific interest during the last few years. The central advantage of those materials is given by the possibility to control the mechanical properties by external stimuli, in this case external magnetic fields. Due to their extraordinary elastic properties, polyurethane foams are a promising matrix material for a new approach to synthesize such magnetic hybrid materials. A key to a deeper understanding of this new material is the investigation on how the inner structure of the hybrid material is controllable by the application of an external magnetic field during the polymerization. This paper presents a convenient method for analysis of structural changes of magnetically influenced particle loaded polyurethane foams. The geometry and size of up to 40 000 individual pores was evaluated by means of x-ray microtomography and digital image processing. A modest impact of the magnetic field on the pore structure was found with the utilized foam material, proving the convenient applicability of this method for future investigation with magnetic hybrid foams.

  6. Effects of wear on structure-sensitive magnetic properties of ceramic ferrite in contact with magnetic tape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.; Tanaka, K.

    1985-01-01

    Wear experiments and electron microscopy and diffraction studies were conducted to examine the wear and deformed layers in single-crystal Mn-Zn (ceramic) ferrite magnetic head material in contact with magnetic tape and the effects of that contact on magnetic properties. The crystalline state of the single-crystal magnetic head was changed drastically during the sliding process. A nearly amorphous structure was produced on its wear surface. Deformation in the surficial layer of the magnetic head was a critical factor in readback signal loss above 2.5 dB. The signal output level was reduced as applied normal load was increased. Considerable plastic flow occurred on the magnetic tape surface with sliding, and the signal loss due to the tape wear was approximately 1 dB.

  7. Low cost composite structures for superconducting magnetic energy storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rix, C. ); McColskey, D. ); Acree, R. )

    1994-07-01

    As part of the Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage/Engineering Test Model (SMES-ETM) programs, design, analysis, fabrication and test programs were conducted to evaluate the low cost manufacturing of Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic (FRP) beams for usage as major components of the structural and electrical insulation systems. These studies utilized pultrusion process technologies and vinylester resins to produce large net sections at costs significantly below that of conventional materials. Demonstration articles incorporating laminate architectures and design details representative of SMES-ETM components were fabricated using the pultrusion process and epoxy, vinylester, and polyester resin systems. The mechanical and thermal properties of these articles were measured over the temperature range from 4 K to 300 K. The results of these tests showed that the pultruded, vinylester components have properties comparable to those of currently used materials, such as G-10, and are capable of meeting the design requirements for the SMES-ETM system.

  8. Low cost composite structures for superconducting magnetic energy storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rix, Craig; McColskey, David; Acree, Robert

    1994-07-01

    As part of the Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage/Engineering Test Model (SMES-ETM) program, design, analysis, fabrication and test programs were conducted to evaluate the low cost manufacturing of Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic (FRP) beams for usage as major components of the structural and electrical insulation systems. These studies utilized pultrusion process technologies and vinylester resins to produce large net sections at costs significantly below that of conventional materials. Demonstration articles incorporating laminate architectures and design details representative of SMES-ETM components were fabricated using the pultrusion process and epoxy, vinylester, and polyester resin systems. The mechanical and thermal properties of these articles were measured over the temperature range from 4 K to 300 K. The results of these tests showed that the pultruded, vinylester components have properties comparable to those of currently used materials, such as G-10, and are capable of meeting the design requirements for the SMES-ETM system.

  9. Structural, optical and magnetic behaviour of nanocrystalline Volborthite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvind, Hemant K.; Kalal, Sangeeta; Punjabi, P. B.; Choudhary, B. L.; Dolia, S. N.; Kumar, Sudhish

    2016-05-01

    Nanocrystalline sample of Volborthite (Copper Pyrovanadate: Cu3V2 (OH)2O7.2H2O) has been synthesized using wet chemical route and characterized by XRD, SEM, FTIR, UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopic and magnetization measurements. Room temperature X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the single phase monoclinic structure and nanocrystalline nature of Volborthite. The UV-Visible optical absorption spectrum displays two broad absorption peaks in the range of 200-350 nm and 400-1000 nm. The direct band gap is found to be Eg= ˜2.74 eV. Bulk Volborthite was reported to be a natural frustrated antiferromagnet, however our nanocrystalline Volborthite display week ferromagnetic hysteresis loop with very small coercivity and retentivity at room temperature.

  10. Structural and magnetic properties of barium-gadolinium hexaferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litsardakis, G.; Manolakis, I.; Serletis, C.; Efthimiadis, K. G.

    A series of Gd-substituted M-type barium hexaferrites has been prepared by the ceramic route, according to the formula (Ba 1-xGd x)O·5.25Fe 2O 3 ( x=0-0.30). XRD analysis revealed that all the samples present primarily an M-type structure. Samples x=0 and x=0.05 are single-phase. Hematite (Fe 2O 3) and GdFeO 3 were detected in the remaining samples. Coercivity ( Hc) shows remarkably high values, ˜293 kA/m for x=0.20 and 0.30 with a maximum of 322 kA/m for x=0.25. Specific saturation magnetization ( σsat) of the samples presents a small increase up to x=0.10. The microstructure examination indicates that Gd may act as a grain growth inhibitor.

  11. Structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging of autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Stigler, Kimberly A.; McDonald, Brenna C.; Anand, Amit; Saykin, Andrew J.; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    The neurobiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has become increasingly understood since the advent of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Initial observations of an above-average head circumference were supported by structural MRI studies that found evidence of increased total brain volume and early rapid brain overgrowth in affected individuals. Subsequent research revealed consistent abnormalities in cortical gray and white matter volume in ASDs. The structural integrity and orientation of white matter have been further elucidated via diffusion tensor imaging methods. The emergence of functional MRI techniques led to an enhanced understanding of the neural circuitry of ASDs, demonstrating areas of dysfunctional cortical activation and atypical cortical specialization. These studies have provided evidence of underconnectivity in distributed cortical networks integral to the core impairments associated with ASDs. Abnormalities in the default-mode network during the resting state have also been identified. Overall, structural and functional MRI research has generated important insights into the neurobiology of ASDs. Additional research is needed to further delineate the underlying brain basis of this constellation of disorders. PMID:21130750

  12. BIPOLAR MAGNETIC STRUCTURES DRIVEN BY STRATIFIED TURBULENCE WITH A CORONAL ENVELOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Warnecke, Jörn; Losada, Illa R.; Brandenburg, Axel; Kleeorin, Nathan; Rogachevskii, Igor

    2013-11-10

    We report the spontaneous formation of bipolar magnetic structures in direct numerical simulations of stratified forced turbulence with an outer coronal envelope. The turbulence is forced with transverse random waves only in the lower (turbulent) part of the domain. Our initial magnetic field is either uniform in the entire domain or confined to the turbulent layer. After about 1-2 turbulent diffusion times, a bipolar magnetic region of vertical field develops with two coherent circular structures that live during one turbulent diffusion time, and then decay during 0.5 turbulent diffusion times. The resulting magnetic field strengths inside the bipolar region are comparable to the equipartition value with respect to the turbulent kinetic energy. The bipolar magnetic region forms a loop-like structure in the upper coronal layer. We associate the magnetic structure formation with the negative effective magnetic pressure instability in the two-layer model.

  13. Radio polarization and magnetic field structure in M 101

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkhuijsen, E. M.; Urbanik, M.; Beck, R.; Han, J. L.

    2016-04-01

    We observed total and polarized radio continuum emission from the spiral galaxy M 101 at λλ 6.2 cm and 11.1 cm with the Effelsberg telescope. The angular resolutions are 2.´ 5 (=5.4 kpc) and 4.´ 4 (=9.5 kpc), respectively. We use these data to study various emission components in M 101 and properties of the magnetic field. Separation of thermal and non-thermal emission shows that the thermal emission is closely correlated with the spiral arms, while the non-thermal emission is more smoothly distributed indicating diffusion of cosmic ray electrons away from their places of origin. The radial distribution of both emissions has a break near R = 16 kpc (=7.´ 4), where it steepens to an exponential scale length of L ≃ 5 kpc, which is about 2.5 times smaller than at R< 16 kpc. The distribution of the polarized emission has a broad maximum near R = 12 kpc and beyond R = 16 kpc also decreases with L ≃ 5 kpc. It seems that near R = 16 kpc a major change in the structure of M 101 takes place, which also affects the distributions of the strength of the random and ordered magnetic field. Beyond R = 16 kpc the radial scale length of both fields is about 20 kpc, which implies that they decrease to about 0.3 μG at R = 70 kpc, which is the largest optical extent. The equipartition strength of the total field ranges from nearly 10 μG at R< 2 kpc to 4 μG at R = 22-24 kpc. As the random field dominates in M 101 (Bran/Bord ≃ 2.4), wavelength-independent polarization is the main polarization mechanism. We show that energetic events causing H i shells of mean diameter < 625 pc could partly be responsible for this. At radii < 24 kpc, the random magnetic field depends on the star formation rate/area, ΣSFR, with a power-law exponent of b = 0.28 ± 0.02. The ordered magnetic field is generally aligned with the spiral arms with pitch angles that are about 8° larger than those of H i filaments. Based on observations with the 100 m telescope of the MPIfR at Effelsberg

  14. Structure, Magnetism and Superconductivity in oxide based Superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santamaria, Jacobo

    2002-03-01

    Artificial superlattices can be used as model systems to study various condensed matter physics problems due to the possibility of matching layer thickness and /or modulation length to characteristic length scales of the phenomena under study. Many interesting new phenomena have been observed due to the reduced dimensionality in one direction; examples are giant magnetoresistance, low dimensional superconductivity, magnetic surface anisotropy, anomalous mechanical properties, etc. Since in modern growth techniques (sputtering, MBE...) film growths in conditions far from the thermodynamic equilibrium, film properties can seriously differ from those of the bulk. Additionally, depending on the constituent materials and on the growth conditions, significant disorder can appear at the interfaces like step disorder, interdiffusion, strain, etc. Consequently a detailed structural characterization is a necessary step before going into the dimensionality problems. X ray diffraction and electron microscopy are complementary techniques to obtain quantitative information at atomic scale. In the first part of this talk I will discuss dimensional effects in high Tc [YBa2Cu3O7/PrBa2Cu3O7] superconducting superlattices. Optimally doped YBa2Cu3O7 is a 3D strongly anisotropic superconductor due to the Josephson coupling of CuO planes in neighboring cells. Introducing a 5 unit cells PrBa2Cu3O7 spacer between one unit cell thick YBa2Cu3O7 layers decouples CuO blocks and the superconductor turns into 2D. The reduction of the vortex length in the c direction has important implications in the magnetotransport properties in this system which is similar to the strongly anisotropic Tl or Bi based superconductors but with a much smaller critical temperature. In a second part I will present data on [YBa2Cu3O7/ La0.7Ca0.3MnO3] superlattices showing magnetism and superconductivity. Interestingly, magnetism and superconductivity persist down to nanometric thicknesses of the individual layers

  15. Shell structure of potassium isotopes deduced from their magnetic moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papuga, J.; Bissell, M. L.; Kreim, K.; Barbieri, C.; Blaum, K.; De Rydt, M.; Duguet, T.; Garcia Ruiz, R. F.; Heylen, H.; Kowalska, M.; Neugart, R.; Neyens, G.; Nörtershäuser, W.; Rajabali, M. M.; Sánchez, R.; Smirnova, N.; Somà, V.; Yordanov, D. T.

    2014-09-01

    Background: Ground-state spins and magnetic moments are sensitive to the nuclear wave function, thus they are powerful probes to study the nuclear structure of isotopes far from stability. Purpose: Extend our knowledge about the evolution of the 1/2+ and 3/2+ states for K isotopes beyond the N =28 shell gap. Method: High-resolution collinear laser spectroscopy on bunched atomic beams. Results: From measured hyperfine structure spectra of K isotopes, nuclear spins, and magnetic moments of the ground states were obtained for isotopes from N =19 up to N =32. In order to draw conclusions about the composition of the wave functions and the occupation of the levels, the experimental data were compared to shell-model calculations using SDPF-NR and SDPF-U effective interactions. In addition, a detailed discussion about the evolution of the gap between proton 1d3/2 and 2s1/2 in the shell model and ab initio framework is also presented. Conclusions: The dominant component of the wave function for the odd-A isotopes up to K45 is a π1d3/2-1 hole. For K47,49, the main component originates from a π2s1/2-1 hole configuration and it inverts back to the π1d3/2-1 in K51. For all even-A isotopes, the dominant configuration arises from a π1d3/2-1 hole coupled to a neutron in the ν1f7/2 or ν2p3/2 orbitals. Only for K48, a significant amount of mixing with π2s1/2-1⊗ν(pf) is observed leading to a Iπ=1- ground state. For K50, the ground-state spin-parity is 0- with leading configuration π1d3/2-1⊗ν2p3/2-1.

  16. Multiferroicity and spiral magnetism in FeVO{sub 4} with quenched Fe orbital moments

    SciTech Connect

    Daoud-Aladine, A.; Chapon, L. C.; Kundys, B.; Martin, C.; Simon, C.; Radaelli, P. G.; Brown, P. J.

    2009-12-01

    FeVO{sub 4} has been studied by heat capacity, magnetic susceptibility, electric polarization and single-crystal neutron-diffraction experiments. The triclinic crystal structure is made of S-shaped clusters of six Fe{sup 3+} ions, linked by VO{sub 4}{sup 3-} groups. Two long-range magnetic ordering transitions occur at T{sub N1}=22 K and T{sub N2}=15 K. Both magnetic structures are incommensurate and below T{sub N2}, FeVO{sub 4} becomes weakly ferroelectric coincidentally with the loss of the collinearity of the magnetic structure in a very similar fashion than in the classical TbMnO{sub 3} multiferroic material. However we argue that the symmetry considerations and the mechanisms invoked to explain these properties in TbMnO{sub 3} do not straightforwardly apply to FeVO{sub 4}. First, the magnetic structures, even the collinear structure, are all acentric so that ferroelectricity in FeVO{sub 4} is not correlated with the fact magnetic ordering is breaking inversion symmetry. Regarding the mechanism, FeVO{sub 4} has quenched orbital moments that questions the exact role of the spin-orbit interactions.

  17. The interplay of long-range magnetic order and single-ion anisotropy in rare earth nickel germanides

    SciTech Connect

    Islam, Z.

    1999-05-10

    This dissertation is concerned with the interplay of long-range order and anisotropy in the tetragonal RNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} (R = rare earth) family of compounds. Microscopic magnetic structures were studied using both neutron and x-ray resonant exchange scattering (XRES) techniques. The magnetic structures of Tb, Dy, Eu and Gd members have been determined using high-quality single-crystal samples. This work has correlated a strong Fermi surface nesting to the magnetic ordering in the RNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} compounds. Generalized susceptibility, {chi}{sub 0}(q), calculations found nesting to be responsible for both incommensurate ordering wave vector in GdNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}, and the commensurate structure in EuNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}. A continuous transition from incommensurate to commensurate magnetic structures via band filling is predicted. The surprisingly higher T{sub N} in EuNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} than that in GdNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} is also explained. Next, all the metamagnetic phases in TbNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} with an applied field along the c axis have been characterized with neutron diffraction measurements. A mixed phase model for the first metamagnetic structure consisting of fully-saturated as well as reduced-moment Tb ions is presented. The moment reduction may be due to moment instability which is possible if the exchange is comparable to the low-lying CEF level splitting and the ground state is a singlet. In such a case, certain Tb sites may experience a local field below the critical value needed to reach saturation.

  18. Magnetic susceptibility, specific heat and magnetic structure of CuNi{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Escobal, Jaione; Pizarro, Jose L.; Mesa, Jose L. . E-mail: joseluis.mesa@ehu.es; Larranaga, Aitor; Fernandez, Jesus Rodriguez; Arriortua, Maria I.; Rojo, Teofilo

    2006-10-15

    CuNi{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} phosphate has been synthesized by the ceramic method at 800 deg. C in air. The crystal structure consists of a three-dimensional skeleton constructed from MO{sub 4} (M{sup II} =Cu and Ni) planar squares and M{sub 2}O{sub 8} dimers with square pyramidal geometry, which are interconnected by (PO{sub 4}){sup 3-} oxoanions with tetrahedral geometry. The magnetic behavior has been studied on powdered sample by using susceptibility, specific heat and neutron diffraction data. The bimetallic copper(II)-nickel(II) orthophosphate exhibits a three-dimensional magnetic ordering at, approximately, 29.8 K. However, its complex crystal structure hampers any parametrization of the J-exchange parameter. The specific heat measurements exhibit a three-dimensional magnetic ordering ({lambda}-type) peak at 29.5 K. The magnetic structure of this phosphate shows ferromagnetic interactions inside the Ni{sub 2}O{sub 8} dimers, whereas the sublattice of Cu(II) ions presents antiferromagnetic couplings along the y-axis. The change of the sign in the magnetic unit-cell, due to the [1/2, 0, 1/2] propagation vector determines a purely antiferromagnetic structure. - Graphical abstract: Magnetic structure of CuNi2(PO4)2.

  19. US-Japan seminar on magnetic multilayered structures held in Kauai, Hawaii on 15-17 May 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-17

    This seminar included the following topics: Advancement in soft magnetic materials by means of multilayering, Elastic moduli of metallic multilayered films measured by Brillouin Scattering method, Structural aspects of the superlattices under high pressure, Structural influence on the magnetic anisotropy of Co/Pd superlattices, Low dimensional magnetic and structural effects in single crystals grown by molecular beam epitaxy, Polarized neutron reflection and diffraction from magnetic superlattices, and Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of magnetic multilayers.

  20. Magnetic structure of Fe-based amorphous and thermal annealed microwires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivera, J.; Provencio, M.; Prida, V. M.; Hernando, B.; Santos, J. D.; Pérez, M. J.; Gorria, P.; Sánchez, M. L.; Belzunce, F. J.

    2005-07-01

    The magnetic structure of amorphous and thermal annealed glass coated microwires is studied by thermomagnetic, DSC, and Bitter domain pattern techniques. The long-range dipolar interaction between parallel aligned microwires and the appearance of large Barkhausen jumps steps in the axially magnetized loops are discussed in terms of reversal magnetization process.

  1. A magnetic-piezoelectric smart material-structure utilizing magnetic force interaction to optimize the sensitivity of current sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Po-Chen; Chung, Tien-Kan; Lai, Chen-Hung; Wang, Chieh-Min

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a magnetic-piezoelectric smart material-structure using a novel magnetic-force-interaction approach to optimize the sensitivity of conventional piezoelectric current sensing technologies. The smart material-structure comprises a CuBe-alloy cantilever beam, a piezoelectric PZT sheet clamped to the fixed end of the beam, and an NdFeB permanent magnet mounted on the free end of the beam. When the smart material-structure is placed close to an AC conductor, the magnet on the beam of the smart structure experiences an alternating magnetic attractive and repulsive force produced by the conductor. Thus, the beam vibrates and subsequently generates a strain in the PZT sheet. The strain produces a voltage output because of the piezoelectric effect. The magnetic force interaction is specifically enhanced through the optimization approach (i.e., achieved by using SQUID and machining method to reorient the magnetization to different directions to maximize the magnetic force interaction). After optimizing, the beam's vibration amplitude is significantly enlarged and, consequently, the voltage output is substantially increased. The experimental results indicated that the smart material-structure optimized by the proposed approach produced a voltage output of 4.01 Vrms with a sensitivity of 501 m Vrms/A when it was placed close to a conductor with a current of 8 A at 60 Hz. The optimized voltage output and sensitivity of the proposed smart structure were approximately 316 % higher than those (1.27 Vrms with 159 m Vrms/A) of representative piezoelectric-based current sensing technologies presented in other studies. These improvements can significantly enable the development of more self-powered wireless current sensing applications in the future.

  2. Isolated magnetic field structures in Mercury's magnetosheath as possible analogues for terrestrial magnetosheath plasmoids and jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlsson, Tomas; Liljeblad, Elisabet; Kullen, Anita; Raines, Jim M.; Slavin, James A.; Sundberg, Torbjörn

    2016-09-01

    We have investigated MESSENGER magnetic field data from the Mercury magnetosheath and near solar wind, to identify isolated magnetic field structures (defined as clear, isolated changes in the field magnitude). Their properties are studied in order to determine if they may be considered as analogues to plasmoids and jets known to exist in Earth's magnetosheath. Both isolated decreases of the magnetic field absolute value ('negative magnetic field structures') and increases ('positive structures') are found in the magnetosheath, whereas only negative structures are found in the solar wind. The similar properties of the solar wind and magnetosheath negative magnetic field structures suggests that they are analogous to diamagnetic plasmoids found in Earth's magnetosheath and near solar wind. The latter have earlier been identified with solar wind magnetic holes. Positive magnetic field structures are only found in the magnetosheath, concentrated to a region relatively close to the magnetopause. Their proximity to the magnetopause, their scale sizes, and the association of a majority of the structures with bipolar magnetic field signatures identify them as flux transfer events (which generally are associated with a decrease of plasma density in the magnetosheath). The positive magnetic field structures are therefore not likely to be analogous to terrestrial paramagnetic plasmoids but possibly to a sub-population of magnetosheath jets. At Earth, a majority of magnetosheath jets are associated with the quasi-parallel bow shock. We discuss some consequences of the findings of the present investigation pertaining to the different nature of the quasi-parallel bow shock at Mercury and Earth.

  3. Magnetization process and domain structure in the near-surface region of conventional amorphous wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiriac, Horia; Lostun, Mihaela; Óvári, Tibor-Adrian

    2011-04-01

    Results on the study of the surface magnetization process and domain structure by magneto-optical Kerr effect in conventional rapidly quenched amorphous magnetic wires are reported. Domain imaging confirms the presence of a bamboo-type structure in the near-surface region of these materials. Surface Kerr loops show that the overall magnetization in the near-surface region has a large axial component, besides the circular one. A bistable magnetic behavior on the axial direction has been emphasized. A circularly applied field leads to the disappearance of axial magnetic bistability. Kerr loops are changed by the presence of 180° interdomain walls in the near-surface region.

  4. Elusive Magnetic Structures in the Sun and Solar-Type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez Almeida, J.

    2000-12-01

    The magnetic structures of the Sun are very inhomogeneous, with irregularities smaller than the smallest sizes that we resolve from Earth. Such irregularities are not properly accounted for by standard magnetic field diagnostic techniques. We have identified a quantitatively important bias that has remained unnoticed hitherto. Intense magnetic fields embedded in inhomogeneous magnetic structures produce little light and easily escape detection. These elusive magnetic fields, which cheat standard observing techniques, seem to be common. We estimate that they carry at least half of the solar magnetic flux. Should the bias be so severe, it would cast doubts on the present interpretation of many solar magnetic phenomena. Since magnetic field measurements in solar-type stars reproduce solar methods, they are liable to the same systematic errors.

  5. Study of local structure and magnetism in high-T(sub c) copper oxide superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budnick, J. I.; Tan, Z.; Filipkowski, M.; Niedermayer, CH.; Glueckler, H.; Simon, R.; Golnik, A.; Rauer, M.; Recknagel, E.; Weidinger, A.

    1990-01-01

    The muon spin rotation (MUSR) study of local magnetism of Sr-doped La2CuO4 is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on magnetic order as detected by local and bulk probes with local atomic environments studied by x ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). Correlations between the MUSR study of local magnetic ordering and the bulk magnetization study are presented along with a discussion of the dependence upon oxygen stoichiometry. Results are presented for both superconducting phases and magnetic phases. Recent data which reveals the existence of local magnetic ordering in the hydrogen-doped YBa2Cu3O7 system are also discussed.

  6. Magnetic and structural instabilities in the stripe-phase region of La1.875Ba0.125 - ySryCuO4 (0 ≤ y≤ 0.1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lappas, Alexandros; Prassides, Kosmas; Gygax, Fredy N.; Schenck, Alexander

    2000-04-01

    Zero-field positive muon spin relaxation (ZF-µ+ SR) experiments were performed to investigate the magnetic properties of the low-temperature structural modifications of the La1.875 Ba0.125 - y Sry CuO4 ( y = 0.0, 0.025, 0.050, 0.075, 0.100) series, in which the total hole concentration is close to 1 / 8. Together with high-resolution time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction measurements, the results imply that the interplay among lattice distortions, doping and superconductivity is intimately related to the magnetic correlations of the Cu spins, which are interpreted in terms of a stripe-phase model. Materials with y≤ 0.075 exhibit an incomplete structural transition at T d 2, from a low-temperature orthorhombic (LTO, Bmab ) to a low-temperature tetragonal (LTT, P 42 / ncm ) phase. Diffraction patterns collected while approaching T d 2 reveal a rapid reduction of the orthorhombicity in the LTO phase with a residual fraction always surviving to low temperatures. Different behaviour is shown by the composition with y = 0.1. Rietveld analysis shows coexistence of the LTO phase with a less distorted low-temperature orthorhombic phase (LTO-2, Pccn ). In the LTT phase, a fraction of muons senses regions with purely static spin correlations due to an incommensurate spin-density wave. The muon spin depolarization suggests that in the spatially separated remnant LTO, hole-rich domains, dynamical correlations of charge density give rise to superconductivity. As the spin fluctuations become static at y≤ 0.075, the London penetration depth, λ calculated from the transverse-field µ+ SR depolarization rate, σ (T\\to 0)∝λ ^{-2}\\propto n_s/m^*)", reveals a decrease in the superconducting carrier density. The magnetic freezing temperature, Tf is suppressed and the magnetic phase fraction shrinks as y increases, whereas the superconducting correlations persist in a larger sample volume. The disappearance of long-range magnetic order at y = 0.1 and the growth of a quasi

  7. Magnetization reversal induced by in-plane current in Ta/CoFeB/MgO structures with perpendicular magnetic easy axis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, C.; Yamanouchi, M. Ikeda, S.; Sato, H.; Fukami, S.; Matsukura, F.; Ohno, H.

    2014-05-07

    We investigate in-plane current-induced magnetization reversal under an in-plane magnetic field in Hall bar shaped devices composed of Ta/CoFeB/MgO structures with perpendicular magnetic easy axis. The observed relationship between the directions of current and magnetization switching and Ta thickness dependence of magnetization switching current are accordance with those for magnetization reversal by spin transfer torque originated from the spin Hall effect in the Ta layer.

  8. Modeling and Measurements by Hall probes of Magnetic Structures of Undulators HU256

    SciTech Connect

    Batrakov, A.; Churkin, I.; Ilyin, I.; Steshov, A.; Vobly, P.; Briquez, F.; Chubar, O.; Dael, A.; Roux, G.; Valleau, M.

    2007-01-19

    The magnetic calculations of the individual dipoles and dipoles in 'undulator environment' were executed by means of Mermaid 3D Code and these results were confirmed by magnetic measurements of the individual dipoles and the assembled undulators. The magnetic parameters of all dipoles were estimated on basis of the mechanical measurement of the dipole characteristics (pole gap, yoke width, coil position) and the main dependences obtained from magnetic calculations and measurements. These parameters were used for optimal placing of the dipoles in undulators (sorting). The special Hall probe system was designed and manufactured for magnetic measurements of the undulators. It allowed us to observe the inner structure of the magnetic fields. At a magnetic field measurement accuracy of {+-} 15 {mu}T the accuracy of the 1st integral calculated on the basis of the measured magnetic fields is {approx} 50 {mu}Tm. All three undulators were magnetically measured at BINP and are being re-measured at Soleil after transportation.

  9. Modeling and Measurements by Hall probes of Magnetic Structures of Undulators HU256

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batrakov, A.; Briquez, F.; Chubar, O.; Dael, A.; Churkin, I.; Ilyin, I.; Roux, G.; Steshov, A.; Valleau, M.; Vobly, P.

    2007-01-01

    The magnetic calculations of the individual dipoles and dipoles in "undulator environment" were executed by means of Mermaid 3D Code and these results were confirmed by magnetic measurements of the individual dipoles and the assembled undulators. The magnetic parameters of all dipoles were estimated on basis of the mechanical measurement of the dipole characteristics (pole gap, yoke width, coil position) and the main dependences obtained from magnetic calculations and measurements. These parameters were used for optimal placing of the dipoles in undulators (sorting). The special Hall probe system was designed and manufactured for magnetic measurements of the undulators. It allowed us to observe the inner structure of the magnetic fields. At a magnetic field measurement accuracy of ± 15 μT the accuracy of the 1st integral calculated on the basis of the measured magnetic fields is ˜ 50 μTm. All three undulators were magnetically measured at BINP and are being re-measured at Soleil after transportation.

  10. Symmetry conditions for type II multiferroicity in commensurate magnetic structures.

    PubMed

    Perez-Mato, J M; Gallego, S V; Elcoro, L; Tasci, E; Aroyo, M I

    2016-07-20

    Type II multiferroics are magnetically ordered phases that exhibit ferroelectricity as a magnetic induced effect. We show that in single-k magnetic phases the presence in the paramagnetic phase of non-symmorphic symmetry combined with some specific type of magnetic propagation vector can be sufficient for the occurrence of this type of multiferroic behaviour. Other symmetry scenarios especially favourable for spin driven multiferroicity are also presented. We review and classify known type II multiferroics under this viewpoint. In addition, some other magnetic phases which due to their symmetry properties can exhibit type II multiferroicity are pointed out. PMID:27218611

  11. Symmetry conditions for type II multiferroicity in commensurate magnetic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Mato, J. M.; Gallego, S. V.; Elcoro, L.; Tasci, E.; Aroyo, M. I.

    2016-07-01

    Type II multiferroics are magnetically ordered phases that exhibit ferroelectricity as a magnetic induced effect. We show that in single-k magnetic phases the presence in the paramagnetic phase of non-symmorphic symmetry combined with some specific type of magnetic propagation vector can be sufficient for the occurrence of this type of multiferroic behaviour. Other symmetry scenarios especially favourable for spin driven multiferroicity are also presented. We review and classify known type II multiferroics under this viewpoint. In addition, some other magnetic phases which due to their symmetry properties can exhibit type II multiferroicity are pointed out.

  12. Evolution of the magnetic structure with chemical composition in spinel iron oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Muscas, G; Yaacoub, N; Concas, G; Sayed, F; Sayed Hassan, R; Greneche, J M; Cannas, C; Musinu, A; Foglietti, V; Casciardi, S; Sangregorio, C; Peddis, D

    2015-08-28

    Magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles with spinel structure are strictly related to a complex interplay between cationic distribution and the presence of a non-collinear spin structure (spin canting). With the aim to gain better insight into the effect of the magnetic structure on magnetic properties, in this paper we investigated a family of small crystalline ferrite nanoparticles of the formula CoxNi1-xFe2O4 (0 ≤x≤ 1) having equal size (≈4.5 nm) and spherical-like shape. The field dependence of magnetization at low temperatures indicated a clear increase of magnetocrystalline anisotropy and saturation magnetization (higher than the bulk value for CoFe2O4: ∼130 A m(2) kg(-1)) with the increase of cobalt content. The magnetic structure of nanoparticles has been investigated by Mössbauer spectroscopy under an intense magnetic field (8 T) at a low temperature (10 K). The magnetic properties have been explained in terms of an evolution of the magnetic structure with the increase of cobalt content. In addition a direct correlation between cationic distribution and spin canting has been proposed, explaining the presence of a noncollinear spin structure in terms of superexchange interaction energy produced by the average cationic distribution and vacancies in the spinel structure. PMID:26203789

  13. Structure of transformer oil-based magnetic fluids studied using acoustic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kúdelčík, Jozef; Bury, Peter; Drga, Jozef; Kopčanský, Peter; Závišová, Vlasta; Timko, Milan

    2013-01-01

    The structural changes in transformer oil-based magnetic fluids upon the effect of an external magnetic field and temperature were studied by acoustic spectroscopy. The attenuation of acoustic wave was measured as a function of the magnetic field in the range of 0-300 mT and in the temperature range of 15-35 °C for various magnetic nanoparticles concentrations. The effect of anisotropy of the acoustic attenuation was determined, too. The both strong influence of the magnetic field on the acoustic attenuation and its hysteresis were observed. When a magnetic field is increased, the interaction between the external magnetic field and the magnetic moments of the nanoparticles occurs, leading to the aggregation of magnetic nanoparticles and following clusters formation. However, the temperature of magnetic fluids also has very important influence on the structural changes because of the mechanism of thermal motion that acts against the cluster creation. The observed influences of both magnetic field and temperature on the investigated magnetic fluid structure are discussed.

  14. Magnetic structures of R 5Ni2In4 and R 11Ni4In9 (R  =  Tb and Ho): strong hierarchy in the temperature dependence of the magnetic ordering in the multiple rare-earth sublattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, C.; Provino, A.; Manfrinetti, P.; Pecharsky, V. K.; Gschneidner, K. A., Jr.; Dhar, S. K.

    2015-12-01

    The magnetic properties and magnetic structures of the R 5Ni2In4 and the microfibrous R 11Ni4In9 compounds with R  =  Tb and Ho have been examined using magnetization, heat capacity, and neutron diffraction data. Rare earth atoms occupy three and five symmetrically inequivalent rare earth sites in R 5Ni2In4 and R 11Ni4In9 compounds, respectively. As a result of the intra- and inter-magnetic sublattice interactions, the magnetic exchange interactions are different for various rare earth sites; this leads to a cascade of magnetic transitions with a strong hierarchy in the temperature dependence of the magnetic orderings. A transition at T C  =  125 K in Tb5Ni2In4 [κ 1  =  (0, 0, 0)] leads to a ferro/ferrimagnetic order where the magnetic ordering in one of the three R-sublattices leads to the ordering of another one; the third sublattice stays non-magnetic. New magnetic Bragg peaks appearing below T N  =  20 K can be indexed with the incommensurate magnetic propagation vector κ 2  =  (0, 0.636, ½) at T N  =  20 K a cycloidal spin order, which acts mostly upon the third R-sublattice, occurs. Ho5Ni2In4 establishes first antiferromagnetism [κ  =  (0, 0, 0)] at T N  =  31 K on two R-sublattices; then the system becomes ferro/ferrimagnetic at T C  =  25 K with the third sublattice ordering as well. Tb11Ni4In9 has three magnetic transitions at T C  =  135 K, T N1  =  35 K and at T N2  =  20 K they are respectively coupled to the appearance of different propagation vectors [κ 1  =  (0, 0, 0), κ 2  =  (0, 0, ½), κ 3  =  (0, 1, ½)], which themselves are operating differently on the five different R-sublattices. Two sublattices remain mostly ferromagnetic down to lowest temperature while the three others are predominantly coupled antiferromagnetically. In Ho11Ni4In9 a purely antiferromagnetic order, described by four different

  15. Low temperature magneto-structural transitions in Mn3Ni20P6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cedervall, Johan; Beran, Premysl; Vennström, Marie; Danielsson, Therese; Ronneteg, Sabina; Höglin, Viktor; Lindell, David; Eriksson, Olle; André, Gilles; Andersson, Yvonne; Nordblad, Per; Sahlberg, Martin

    2016-05-01

    X-ray and neutron powder diffraction has been used to determine the crystal and magnetic structure of Mn3Ni20P6. The crystal structure can be described as cubic with space group Fm 3 barm (225) without any nuclear phase transformation within studied temperature interval from room temperature down to 4 K. The magnetic structure of Mn3Ni20P6 is complex with two independent magnetic positions for the Mn atoms and the compound passes three successive magnetic phase transitions during cooling. At 30 K the spins of the Mn atoms on the Wyckoff 4a site (Mn1) order to form a primitive cubic antiferromagnetic structure with propagation vector k=(0 0 1). Between 29 and 26 K the Mn atoms on the Wyckoff 8c site (Mn2) order independently on already ordered Mn1 magnetic structure forming a commensurate antiferromagnetic structure with propagation vector k=(0 0 ½) and below 26 K, both Mn positions order to form an incommensurate helical structure with propagation vector k=(0 0 ~0.45). Magnetization vs. temperature curve of Mn3Ni20P6 shows a steep increase indicating some magnetic ordering below 230 K and a sharp field dependent anomaly in a narrow temperature range around 30 K.

  16. Magnetic structure of nickel nanowires after the high-density current pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurgazizov, N. I.; Bizyaev, D. A.; Bukharaev, A. A.

    2016-05-01

    Changes in the magnetic structure of nickel nanowires formed on a nonconductive surface after the high-density current pulse have been investigated using magnetic force microscopy and voltammetry. Based on the obtained experimental data and results of the computer simulation, it has been concluded that the main reason for the change in the magnetic structure is the heating of the nanowire by a current pulse. It has been shown that, during the subsequent cooling, the newly formed magnetic structure is pinned by surface roughnesses of the relief of the nanowire under investigation.

  17. Self-assembly of magnetic spheres in two dimensions: The relevance of onion-like structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, René; Stanković, Igor

    2015-05-01

    The self-assembly in two dimensions of spherical magnets is addressed theoretically. Minimal energy structures are obtained by optimization procedures as well as Monte Carlo computer simulations. For a small number of constitutive magnets N ≤ 17 , ring-like structures are found to be stable. In the regime of larger N ≥ 18 , the magnets form touching concentric rings that are reminiscent of the onion-like structures. At sufficiently large N, the (edgy) shells are hexagonal where dipole moments tend to align to the edge direction. All these relevant predicted shapes are experimentally reproduced by manipulating millimetric magnets.

  18. Ultrasonic propagation: a technique to reveal field induced structures in magnetic nanofluids.

    PubMed

    Parekh, Kinnari; Patel, Jaykumar; Upadhyay, R V

    2015-07-01

    The paper reports the study of magnetic field induced structures in magnetic nanofluid investigated through ultrasonic wave propagation. Modified Tarapov's theory is used to study variation in velocity anisotropy with magnetic field. The types of field induced structures depend upon the chemical structure of the carrier in which magnetic nanoparticles are dispersed. Our study indicates formation of fractals and chain respectively, in transformer oil and kerosene based fluid. This difference is explained on the basis of particle-particle interaction and particle-medium interaction. PMID:25791205

  19. Dynamic of the Dust Structures under Magnetic Field Effect in DC Glow Discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Vasiliev, M. M.; D'yachkov, L. G.; Antipov, S. N.; Petrov, O. F.; Fortov, V. E.

    2008-09-07

    In this work, we investigate dust structures in the striation of DC glow discharges under magnetic field actions. The dependence of rotation frequency of dusty plasma structures as a function of the magnetic field was investigated. For various magnetic fields kinetic temperatures of the dust particles, diffusion coefficients, and effective coupling coefficient {gamma}* have been determined. Obtained results are analyzed and compared with theoretical predictions.

  20. Bit patterned media with composite structure for microwave assisted magnetic recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eibagi, Nasim

    Patterned magnetic nano-structures are under extensive research due to their interesting emergent physics and promising applications in high-density magnetic data storage, through magnetic logic to bio-magnetic functionality. Bit-patterned media is an example of such structures which is a leading candidate to reach magnetic densities which cannot be achieved by conventional magnetic media. Patterned arrays of complex heterostructures such as exchange-coupled composites are studied in this thesis as a potential for next generation of magnetic recording media. Exchange-coupled composites have shown new functionality and performance advantages in magnetic recording and bit patterned media provide unique capability to implement such architectures. Due to unique resonant properties of such structures, their possible application in spin transfer torque memory and microwave assisted switching is also studied. This dissertation is divided into seven chapters. The first chapter covers the history of magnetic recording, the need to increase magnetic storage density, and the challenges in the field. The second chapter introduces basic concepts of magnetism. The third chapter explains the fabrication methods for thin films and various lithographic techniques that were used to pattern the devices under study for this thesis. The fourth chapter introduces the exchanged coupled system with the structure of [Co/Pd] / Fe / [Co/Pd], where the thickness of Fe is varied, and presents the magnetic properties of such structures using conventional magnetometers. The fifth chapter goes beyond what is learned in the fourth chapter and utilizes polarized neutron reflectometry to study the vertical exchange coupling and reversal mechanism in patterned structures with such structure. The sixth chapter explores the dynamic properties of the patterned samples, and their reversal mechanism under microwave field. The final chapter summarizes the results and describes the prospects for future

  1. Magnetic structure of Co(Cr0.925Fe0.075)2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ram; Padam, R.; Rayaprol, Sudhindra; Siruguri, Vasudeva; Ramakrishnan, S.; Pal, D.

    2016-05-01

    We report results of neutron diffraction (ND) measurements on Co(Cr0.925Fe0.075)2O4 compound and determination of its magnetic structure. ND data at 90 K shows ferrimagnetic structure which is consistent with the bulk magnetization transition temperature, TC (~ 120 K). Appearance of additional peaks at 20 K coincides with the view that a magnetostructural transition occurs at TS (~ 26 K) in bulk magnetization of the sample.

  2. Structural and Magnetic Study of Cu x FeCr1- x O2 Oxides Under High External Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozkendir, Osman Murat

    2013-06-01

    The structural, electronic, and magnetic behaviors of Cu x FeCr1- x O2 polycrystals are investigated. Investigations are conducted for increasing chromium substitution, according to varying x values in the formula versus copper, for x = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1. The magnetic response of polycrystalline samples under increasing external magnetic field from 0.4 T to 5 T is also studied. The partial crystal structure deformation/transition from delafossite CuFeO2 structure to corundum-type FeCrO3 structure containing CrO2 and Cr2O3 blocks is determined. The change in the crystal structure geometry with increasing Cr substitution is observed. Besides, prominent changes in magnetic ordering are observed from antiferromagnetic ( x = 1, 0.8, and 0.6) to ferromagnetic ordering ( x = 0.4 and 0.2) for high applied external magnetic fields above 2 T.

  3. Magnetic Properties of Melt Particles of Suevitic Samples From the Bosumtwi Impact Structure, Ghana.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbra, T.; Pesonen, L. J.; Lehtinen, M.

    2006-12-01

    The magnetic anomaly over Bosumtwi impact structure has recently raised a debate about its origin. Plado et al. (2000) presented a magnetic model where a strongly remanently magnetized melt or melt-rich body was proposed as a source of this anomaly. Recent deep drilling through the Bosumtwi structure, however, failed to penetrate into the expected melt body. Also, the recent investigations of petrophysical parameters of samples from deep drill cores (Elbra et al., 2006) did not yield any strongly magnetic body. In order to find out whether the current drill cores simply lack the melt or the expected highly magnetized body escaped the drilling, we separated individual melt particles from deep drill core samples and from exposed suevitic rocks, and measured their magnetic properties. Preliminary results of our investigation show differences in magnetic properties between the melt from inside and outside the crater. The melt from drill core samples shows merely a paramagnetic signal of magnetic susceptibility and only a weak intensity of remanence. The melt from exposed rocks, however, shows slightly higher magnetizations. Currently, the more detailed rock-magnetic studies of separate melt inclusions, combined with X-ray diffraction measurements, are carried out in order to identify the nature of magnetic minerals in the melt and to verify if the melt is enough highly magnetic to be the source of the magnetic anomaly. References: Elbra T., Pesonen L.J. (2006) Petrophysical and rock-magnetic properties of impactites from deep drill core of Bosumtwi impact structure. Meteoritics and Planetary Science 41, Supplement, August, A49. Plado J., Pesonen L.J., Koeberl C., Elo S. (2000) The Bosumtwi meteorite impact structure, Ghana: A magnetic model. Meteoritics and Planetary Science 35, 723-732.

  4. Wavevector filtering through single-layer and bilayer graphene with magnetic barrier structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masir, M. Ramezani; Vasilopoulos, P.; Peeters, F. M.

    2008-12-01

    We show that the angular range of the transmission through magnetic barrier structures can be efficiently controlled in single-layer and bilayer graphenes and this renders the structure's efficient wavevector filters. As the number of magnetic barriers increases, this range shrinks, the gaps in the transmission versus energy become wider, and the conductance oscillates with the Fermi energy.

  5. Effect of milling time on magnetic properties and structures of bulk Sm-Co/α-(Fe, Co) nanocomposite magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Y.; Huang, M. Q.; Turgut, Z.; Lucas, M. S.; Michel, E.; Horwath, J. C.

    2012-04-01

    Bulk Sm-Co/α-(Fe,Co) nanocomposite magnets were fabricated by hot pressing composite powders prepared by high-energy ball milling of magnetically hard SmCo5 powder and magnetically soft Fe powder. The bulk magnets had a nanocomposite structure consisting of Sm-Co matrix (1:5 H and 1:7 H phases) and α-(Fe,Co) phases. The Fe-Co particles were distributed uniformly in the Sm-Co matrix. The milling time strongly affects the structures and the magnetic properties of the bulk magnets. Increasing milling time led to a decrease of the amount of 1:5 H phase, an increase in the phase fraction of the 1:7 H phase, and a decrease in the amount of soft phase, which resulted in an increase in magnetization and a decrease in coercivity. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analyses revealed that inter-diffusion took place between the Sm-Co matrix and Fe particles during the processing.

  6. Effect of milling time on magnetic properties and structures of bulk Sm-Co/{alpha}-(Fe, Co) nanocomposite magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Y.; Huang, M. Q.; Turgut, Z.; Lucas, M. S.; Michel, E.; Horwath, J. C.

    2012-04-01

    Bulk Sm-Co/{alpha}-(Fe,Co) nanocomposite magnets were fabricated by hot pressing composite powders prepared by high-energy ball milling of magnetically hard SmCo{sub 5} powder and magnetically soft Fe powder. The bulk magnets had a nanocomposite structure consisting of Sm-Co matrix (1:5 H and 1:7 H phases) and {alpha}-(Fe,Co) phases. The Fe-Co particles were distributed uniformly in the Sm-Co matrix. The milling time strongly affects the structures and the magnetic properties of the bulk magnets. Increasing milling time led to a decrease of the amount of 1:5 H phase, an increase in the phase fraction of the 1:7 H phase, and a decrease in the amount of soft phase, which resulted in an increase in magnetization and a decrease in coercivity. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analyses revealed that inter-diffusion took place between the Sm-Co matrix and Fe particles during the processing.

  7. Study of Magnetic Structure in the Solar Photosphere and Chromosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noyes, Robert W.; Avrett, Eugene; Nisenson, Peter; Uitenbroek, Han; vanBallegooijen, Adriaan

    1998-01-01

    This grant funded an observational and theoretical program to study the structure and dynamics of the solar photosphere and low chromosphere, and the spectral signatures that result. The overall goal is to learn about mechanisms that cause heating of the overlying atmosphere, and produce variability of solar emission in spectral regions important for astrophysics and space physics. The program exploited two new ground-based observational capabilities: one using the Swedish Solar Telescope on La Palma for very high angular resolution observations of the photospheric intensity field (granulation) and proxies of the magnetic field (G-band images); and the other using the Near Infrared Magnetograph at the McMath-Pierce Solar Facility to map the spatial variation and dynamic behavior of the solar temperature minimum region using infrared CO lines. We have interpreted these data using a variety of theoretical and modelling approaches, some developed especially for this project. Previous annual reports cover the work done up to 31 May 1997. This final report summarizes our work for the entire period, including the period of no-cost extension from 1 June 1997 through September 30 1997. In Section 2 we discuss observations and modelling of the photospheric flowfields and their consequences for heating of the overlying atmosphere, and in Section 3 we discuss imaging spectroscopy of the CO lines at 4.67 mu.

  8. Growth, structure, and optical characterization of diluted magnetic semiconductor nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooley, Benjamin Joseph

    Nanowires combining the usually disparate areas of semiconductors and magnetism are of contemporary relevance within the context of semiconductor spintronics. This is a relatively new field of research that seeks to exploit electron spin within electronic and opto-electronic semiconductor devices. While much of the effort within semiconductor spintronics has been directed toward fundamental studies and applications of 3D, 2D and 0D systems, there has been little work to date on 1D systems. The distinctive change in the electronic density of states with changing dimensionality provides a strong motivation for developing and exploring semiconductor nanowires in which one might be able to probe and control spin-dependent phenomena within a 1D or quasi-1D environment. This thesis explores the crystal growth, structural properties and magneto-optical behavior of quasi-1D semiconductor nanowires in which we incorporate magnetism through two approaches: first, by synthesizing nanowires of the diluted magnetic semiconductor (Zn,Mn)Se, wherein the d-shell electrons of substitutional Mn ions interact with the band states of the ZnSe host lattice via sp--d exchange; second, by making hybrid core-shell nanostructures wherein a metallic ferromagnetic shell (MnAs) is epitaxially deposited on a semiconductor nanowire (GaAs). After an introductory overview of past work in the field and a description of the experimental techniques relevant to the thesis, we discuss our experimental results. The first set of experiments focuses on ZnSe and (Zn,Mn)Se nanowires grown in a single stage. The nanowires were grown on Si and GaAs substrates with a thin layer of gold evaporated onto them, which were then annealed before growth so that the gold formed nanoscale droplets. The growth yields samples covered in random arrays of nanowires growing out an an angle to the substrate, with an undergrowth of crooked nanowires and other small structures. The long thin nanowires vary in diameter, down to

  9. Structural and magnetic properties of Cu Ni Cr spinel oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tovar, M.; Torabi, R.; Welker, C.; Fleischer, F.

    2006-11-01

    The compounds CuCr 2O 4 and NiCr 2O 4 crystallize at room temperature in a tetragonal distorted spinel structure, s.g. I4 1/amd, with axes ratio c/ a<1 and >1, respectively. The distortion is caused by the Jahn-Teller ions Cu 2+ and Ni 2+ which flatten or elongate their surrounding oxygen tetrahedron. CuCr 2O 4 and NiCr 2O 4 form a complete solid solution series Cu 1-xNi xCr 2O 4 where for 0.825< x<0.875 members with orthorhombic symmetry were found. Using neutron powder diffraction and thermal analysis methods several members of the solid solution series were investigated. On cooling, all samples showed a temperature-dependent crystallographic phase transition from cubic to tetragonal symmetry between 865 K (CuCr 2O 4) and 310 K (NiCr 2O 4). The phase Cu 0.15Ni 0.85Cr 2O 4 undergoes a second crystallographic transition to orthorhombic symmetry, space group Fddd, at T=300 K. The neutron diffraction experiments as well as SQUID measurements reveal magnetic ordering of the ions between 150 and 50 K which partially occurs as a two-step mechanism.

  10. Structure and dynamics of the coronal magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanHoven, Gerard; Schnack, Dalton D.

    1996-01-01

    The last few years have seen a marked increase in the sophistication of models of the solar corona. This has been brought about by a confluence of three key elements. First, the collection of high-resolution observations of the Sun, both in space and time, has grown tremendously. The SOHO (Solar Heliospheric Observatory) mission is providing additional correlated high-resolution magnetic, white-light and spectroscopic observations. Second, the power and availability of supercomputers has made two- and three-dimensional modeling routine. Third, the sophistication of the models themselves, both in their geometrical realism and in the detailed physics that has been included, has improved significantly. The support from our current Space Physics Theory grant has allowed us to exploit this confluence of capabilities. We have carried out direct comparisons between observations and models of the solar corona. The agreement between simulated coronal structure and observations has verified that the models are mature enough for detailed analysis, as we will describe. The development of this capability is especially timely, since observations obtained from three space missions that are underway (Ulysses, WIND and SOHO) offer an opportunity for significant advances in our understanding of the corona and heliosphere. Through this interplay of observations and theory we can improve our understanding of the Sun. Our achievements thus far include progress modeling the large-scale structure of the solar corona, three-dimensional models of active region fields, development of emerging flux and current, formation and evolution of coronal loops, and coronal heating by current filaments.

  11. Multi-scale structures of turbulent magnetic reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, T. K. M.; Nakamura, R.; Narita, Y.; Baumjohann, W.; Daughton, W.

    2016-05-01

    We have analyzed data from a series of 3D fully kinetic simulations of turbulent magnetic reconnection with a guide field. A new concept of the guide filed reconnection process has recently been proposed, in which the secondary tearing instability and the resulting formation of oblique, small scale flux ropes largely disturb the structure of the primary reconnection layer and lead to 3D turbulent features [W. Daughton et al., Nat. Phys. 7, 539 (2011)]. In this paper, we further investigate the multi-scale physics in this turbulent, guide field reconnection process by introducing a wave number band-pass filter (k-BPF) technique in which modes for the small scale (less than ion scale) fluctuations and the background large scale (more than ion scale) variations are separately reconstructed from the wave number domain to the spatial domain in the inverse Fourier transform process. Combining with the Fourier based analyses in the wave number domain, we successfully identify spatial and temporal development of the multi-scale structures in the turbulent reconnection process. When considering a strong guide field, the small scale tearing mode and the resulting flux ropes develop over a specific range of oblique angles mainly along the edge of the primary ion scale flux ropes and reconnection separatrix. The rapid merging of these small scale modes leads to a smooth energy spectrum connecting ion and electron scales. When the guide field is sufficiently weak, the background current sheet is strongly kinked and oblique angles for the small scale modes are widely scattered at the kinked regions. Similar approaches handling both the wave number and spatial domains will be applicable to the data from multipoint, high-resolution spacecraft observations such as the NASA magnetospheric multiscale (MMS) mission.

  12. Structure and dynamics of the coronal magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanhoven, Gerard; Schnack, Dalton D.

    1996-07-01

    The last few years have seen a marked increase in the sophistication of models of the solar corona. This has been brought about by a confluence of three key elements. First, the collection of high-resolution observations of the Sun, both in space and time, has grown tremendously. The SOHO (Solar Heliospheric Observatory) mission is providing additional correlated high-resolution magnetic, white-light and spectroscopic observations. Second, the power and availability of supercomputers has made two- and three-dimensional modeling routine. Third, the sophistication of the models themselves, both in their geometrical realism and in the detailed physics that has been included, has improved significantly. The support from our current Space Physics Theory grant has allowed us to exploit this confluence of capabilities. We have carried out direct comparisons between observations and models of the solar corona. The agreement between simulated coronal structure and observations has verified that the models are mature enough for detailed analysis, as we will describe. The development of this capability is especially timely, since observations obtained from three space missions that are underway (Ulysses, WIND and SOHO) offer an opportunity for significant advances in our understanding of the corona and heliosphere. Through this interplay of observations and theory we can improve our understanding of the Sun. Our achievements thus far include progress modeling the large-scale structure of the solar corona, three-dimensional models of active region fields, development of emerging flux and current, formation and evolution of coronal loops, and coronal heating by current filaments.

  13. Saturable inductor and transformer structures for magnetic pulse compression

    DOEpatents

    Birx, Daniel L.; Reginato, Louis L.

    1990-01-01

    Saturable inductor and transformer for magnetic compression of an electronic pulse, using a continuous electrical conductor looped several times around a tightly packed core of saturable inductor material.

  14. Structural and magnetic characterization of Co partical coated with Ag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivas, J.; Sanchez, R. D.; Fondado, A.; Izco, C.; Garcia-Bastida, A. J.; Garcia-Otero, J.; Mira, J.; Baldomir, D.; Gonzalez, A.; Lado, I.

    1994-11-01

    Co fine particles coated with Ag have been synthesized through the microemulsion method in an inert atmosphere. The size of the particles is controlled by the water droplets of the microemulsions. Fine particles prepared by this method, consist of a magnetic core of Co covered by a layer of Ag. Samples containing from 3.3 to 40.5 vol % Co have been prepared. The average size of the particles obtained is in the nanometer range. The magnetic properties were studied by dc magnetization at 77 K and room temperature. The data show a strong dependence of the magnetic properties on the annealing temperature.

  15. Structural and magnetic study of dysprosium substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Hemaunt; Srivastava, R. C.; Pal Singh, Jitendra; Negi, P.; Agrawal, H. M.; Das, D.; Hwa Chae, Keun

    2016-03-01

    The present work investigates the magnetic behavior of Dy3+ substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction studies reveal presence of cubic spinel phases in these nanoparticles. Raman spectra of these nanoparticles show change in intensity of Raman bands, which reflects cation redistribution in cubic spinel lattice. Saturation magnetization and coercivity decrease with increase of Dy3+concentration in these nanoparticles. Room temperature Mössbauer measurements show the cation redistribution in these nanoparticles and corroborates the results obtained from Raman Spectroscopic measurements. Decrease in magnetization of Dy3+ substituted cobalt ferrite is attributed to the reduction in the magnetic interaction and cation redistribution.

  16. Magnetic Field Induced Changes Of Domain Structure Grating.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maziewski, A.; Stankiewicz, A.

    1987-10-01

    A stripe domain grating (SDG) has been theoretically analysed to combine some magnetic field changeable grating parameters with a magnetic sample material parameters. The alterable grating properties were discussed for different types of fiber-optic switch device. The quality and prefered directions of SDG have been quantitatively investigated using unconventional set-up based on the light diffraction effect. The gratings have been induced by the magnetic field with different orientations and values. SDG quality was significantly improved applying nontypically oriented magnetic field. We focused our attention on SDG static properties.

  17. Structural origin for low-temperature relaxation features in magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laha, S. S.; Regmi, R.; Lawes, G.

    2013-08-01

    In addition to superparamagnetic relaxation associated with coherent spin reversal, magnetic nanoparticles often also exhibit additional relaxation features in the magnetic dissipation at low temperatures. Our studies show that the incorporation of boron, gadolinium and lanthanum into iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles substantially enhances these low-temperature magnetic relaxation properties. The structural and morphological studies of these nanoparticles were conducted using x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The doped samples have retained the crystal structure of the parent Fe3O4 nanoparticles, although the shape and size of some of the nanoparticle samples have changed. Using ac magnetic susceptibility measurements, we parameterized the low-temperature magnetic features, with the amplitude of the associated magnetic relaxation showing a dramatic increase for certain dopants. The enhanced frequency-dependent magnetic relaxation features can be attributed to structural, rather than magnetic, defects in these doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles. These results strongly suggest that the low-temperature magnetic relaxation typically observed in magnetic nanoparticles is a single-particle effect produced by structural defects and is not significantly influenced by interparticle interactions.

  18. Relationships between magnetic foot points and G-band bright structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, R.; Tsuneta, S.; Kitakoshi, Y.; Katsukawa, Y.; Bonet, J. A.; Vargas Domínguez, S.; Rouppe van der Voort, L. H. M.; Sakamoto, Y.; Ebisuzaki, T.

    2007-09-01

    Aims:Magnetic elements are thought to be described by flux tube models, and are well reproduced by MHD simulations. However, these simulations are only partially constrained by observations. We observationally investigate the relationship between G-band bright points and magnetic structures to clarify conditions, which make magnetic structures bright in G-band. Methods: The G-band filtergrams together with magnetograms and dopplergrams were taken for a plage region covered by abnormal granules as well as ubiquitous G-band bright points, using the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope (SST) under very good seeing conditions. Results: High magnetic flux density regions are not necessarily associated with G-band bright points. We refer to the observed extended areas with high magnetic flux density as magnetic islands to separate them from magnetic elements. We discover that G-band bright points tend to be located near the boundary of such magnetic islands. The concentration of G-band bright points decreases with inward distance from the boundary of the magnetic islands. Moreover, G-band bright points are preferentially located where magnetic flux density is higher, given the same distance from the boundary. There are some bright points located far inside the magnetic islands. Such bright points have higher minimum magnetic flux density at the larger inward distance from the boundary. Convective velocity is apparently reduced for such high magnetic flux density regions regardless of whether they are populated by G-band bright points or not. The magnetic islands are surrounded by downflows. Conclusions: These results suggest that high magnetic flux density, as well as efficient heat transport from the sides or beneath, are required to make magnetic elements bright in G-band.

  19. Electronic structure and magnetic coupling in copper oxide superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.J. ); Newton, M.D. ); Davenport, J.W. )

    1992-11-01

    The electronic structure and magnetic coupling in La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4} and Nd{sub 2}CuO{sub 4} have been analyzed using the results of all-valence-electron calculations for (Cu{sub 2}O{sub 11}){sup 18{minus}}, (Cu{sub 4}O{sub 12}){sup 16{minus}}, and (Cu{sub 4}O{sub 20}){sup 32{minus}} clusters, and their {ital p}- and {ital n}-doped variants, embedded in a Madelung potential to represent the crystal environment. The calculations employ the semiempirical incomplete neglect of differential overlap (INDO) method, which is parametrized on the basis of atomic and molecular spectroscopic data, but which makes use of no data from copper oxide materials. The energies of the low-lying cluster spin states are fitted to a Heisenberg Hamiltonian and yield values of {ital J} (134 meV for La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4} and 117 meV for Nd{sub 2}CuO{sub 4}) in close agreement with experiment. The evaluation of {ital J} can be compactly represented in terms of the parameters ({ital t}, {ital U}, and {ital V}) of a one-band Hamiltonian that controls resonance among covalent and ionic valence-bond structures. The resonance mixing is achieved by configuration interaction (CI) among valence-band structures defined in terms of localized molecular orbitals (LMO's) obtained from self-consistent field (SCF) INDO calculations. {ital P} doping is found to involve strong hybridization of the 2{ital p}{sigma} orbitals of the in-plane oxygen ions and the 3{ital d}{sub {ital x}}{sup 2}{minus}{ital y}{sup 2} orbitals of the Cu ions, and the resulting holes are predominantly ({similar to}60%) located in the 2{ital p}{sigma} orbitals. The lowest-energy {ital n}-doped cluster states involve addition of electrons to the 4{ital s}/4{ital p} Cu atom manifolds. However, the separation of these states from low-spin (3{ital d}{sup 10}) alternatives is uncertain because of apparent sensitivity to the representation of the crystal potential, as found by Martin.

  20. Effective and accurate approach for modeling of commensurate-incommensurate transition in krypton monolayer on graphite.

    PubMed

    Ustinov, E A

    2014-10-01

    Commensurate-incommensurate (C-IC) transition of krypton molecular layer on graphite received much attention in recent decades in theoretical and experimental researches. However, there still exists a possibility of generalization of the phenomenon from thermodynamic viewpoint on the basis of accurate molecular simulation. Recently, a new technique was developed for analysis of two-dimensional (2D) phase transitions in systems involving a crystalline phase, which is based on accounting for the effect of temperature and the chemical potential on the lattice constant of the 2D layer using the Gibbs-Duhem equation [E. A. Ustinov, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 074706 (2014)]. The technique has allowed for determination of phase diagrams of 2D argon layers on the uniform surface and in slit pores. This paper extends the developed methodology on systems accounting for the periodic modulation of the substrate potential. The main advantage of the developed approach is that it provides highly accurate evaluation of the chemical potential of crystalline layers, which allows reliable determination of temperature and other parameters of various 2D phase transitions. Applicability of the methodology is demonstrated on the krypton-graphite system. Analysis of phase diagram of the krypton molecular layer, thermodynamic functions of coexisting phases, and a method of prediction of adsorption isotherms is considered accounting for a compression of the graphite due to the krypton-carbon interaction. The temperature and heat of C-IC transition has been reliably determined for the gas-solid and solid-solid system. PMID:25296827