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1

Gastric hypersensitivity in nonulcer dyspepsia: an inconsistent finding.  

PubMed

Visceral hypersensitivity is claimed to be involved in the pathogenesis of nonulcer dyspepsia (NUD). We evaluated whether gastric hypersensitivity is a consistent finding in an unselected group of NUD patients. In 11 patients and 20 healthy controls, a standardized gastric distension was performed using a gastric barostat. Perception was scored by a questionnaire and compared between the two groups. There was a linear pressure/volume relationship during gastric distension in both groups. The pain threshold in NUD patients was significantly lower compared to controls [5.5 +/- 4.0 mm Hg above minimal distending pressure (mdp) and 10.2 +/- 2.2 mm Hg above mdp, respectively, P < 0.004], irrespective of the H. pylori status. However, more than 50% of the NUD perception scores were in the control range at most distension levels. Gastric hypersensitivity could be confirmed in NUD patients as a group. However, there is a considerable overlap concerning perception in response to distension between unselected NUD patients and controls. PMID:9125638

Klatt, S; Pieramico, O; Guethner, C; Glasbrenner, B; Beckh, K; Adler, G

1997-04-01

2

Inconsistent findings for the eyes closed effect in children: the implications for interviewing child witnesses  

PubMed Central

A child who alleges that they have been the victim of a crime will be interviewed by police officers. During a police interview it is important that the interviewer obtains the most accurate testimony possible from the child. Previous studies have shown that if children have their eyes closed during an interview they sometimes report more correct information. This paper includes two studies. In Experiment 1 156 children experienced an event and were then questioned about it. Half the children answered with their eyes open and half with their eyes closed. The participants with eyes closed provided more correct information. In Experiment 2 152 children answered questions in different conditions including eyes open and eyes closed conditions. In contrast to Experiment 1 there was no beneficial effect for the eyes closed condition. These inconsistent results are discussed with reference to actual police interviews. It is suggested that until there has been more research into eyes closed procedures caution should be taken in recommending such procedures for police interviews with children. PMID:24999333

Kyriakidou, Marilena; Blades, Mark; Carroll, Dan

2014-01-01

3

43 CFR 2568.106 - In what situations could a CSU manager generally find an allotment to be inconsistent with the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false In what situations could a CSU manager generally find an allotment to be inconsistent with the purposes of a CSU...2568.106 In what situations could a CSU manager generally find an allotment to be inconsistent with the purposes of a...

2011-10-01

4

43 CFR 2568.106 - In what situations could a CSU manager generally find an allotment to be inconsistent with the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false In what situations could a CSU manager generally find an allotment to be inconsistent with the purposes of a CSU...2568.106 In what situations could a CSU manager generally find an allotment to be inconsistent with the purposes of a...

2014-10-01

5

43 CFR 2568.106 - In what situations could a CSU manager generally find an allotment to be inconsistent with the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false In what situations could a CSU manager generally find an allotment to be inconsistent with the purposes of a CSU...2568.106 In what situations could a CSU manager generally find an allotment to be inconsistent with the purposes of a...

2013-10-01

6

43 CFR 2568.106 - In what situations could a CSU manager generally find an allotment to be inconsistent with the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false In what situations could a CSU manager generally find an allotment to be inconsistent with the purposes of a CSU...2568.106 In what situations could a CSU manager generally find an allotment to be inconsistent with the purposes of a...

2012-10-01

7

Breast Cancer Research Finding Answers. Finding Cures.  

E-print Network

Breast Cancer Research Finding Answers. Finding Cures. Thanks to improvements in treatment and early detection, more and more women are surviving breast cancer. In fact, the five-year survival rate for women with breast cancer today is 90%, up from only 63% in the 1960s. While progress has clearly been

Kowalczykowski, Stephen C.

8

Humor, Laughter, and Physical Health: Methodological Issues and Research Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

All published research examining effects of humor and laughter on physical health is reviewed. Potential causal mechanisms and methodological issues are discussed. Laboratory experiments have shown some effects of exposure to comedy on several components of immunity, although the findings are inconsistent and most of the studies have methodological problems. There is also some evidence of analgesic effects of exposure

Rod A. Martin

2001-01-01

9

Inconsistencies in Quality of Life Data Collection in Clinical Trials: A Potential Source of Bias? Interviews with Research Nurses and Trialists  

PubMed Central

Background Patient-reported outcomes (PROs), such as health-related quality of life (HRQL) are increasingly used to evaluate treatment effectiveness in clinical trials, are valued by patients, and may inform important decisions in the clinical setting. It is of concern, therefore, that preliminary evidence, gained from group discussions at UK-wide Medical Research Council (MRC) quality of life training days, suggests there are inconsistent standards of HRQL data collection in trials and appropriate training and education is often lacking. Our objective was to investigate these reports, to determine if they represented isolated experiences, or were indicative of a potentially wider problem. Methods And Findings We undertook a qualitative study, conducting 26 semi-structured interviews with research nurses, data managers, trial coordinators and research facilitators involved in the collection and entry of HRQL data in clinical trials, across one primary care NHS trust, two secondary care NHS trusts and two clinical trials units in the UK. We used conventional content analysis to analyze and interpret our data. Our study participants reported (1) inconsistent standards in HRQL measurement, both between, and within, trials, which appeared to risk the introduction of bias; (2), difficulties in dealing with HRQL data that raised concern for the well-being of the trial participant, which in some instances led to the delivery of non-protocol driven co-interventions, (3), a frequent lack of HRQL protocol content and appropriate training and education of trial staff, and (4) that HRQL data collection could be associated with emotional and/or ethical burden. Conclusions Our findings suggest there are inconsistencies in the standards of HRQL data collection in some trials resulting from a general lack of HRQL-specific protocol content, training and education. These inconsistencies could lead to biased HRQL trial results. Future research should aim to develop HRQL guidelines and training programmes aimed at supporting researchers to carry out high quality data collection. PMID:24124580

Kyte, Derek; Ives, Jonathan; Draper, Heather; Keeley, Thomas; Calvert, Melanie

2013-01-01

10

Teacher Retirement Systems: Research Findings. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This policy brief summarizes findings presented at a February 2009 research conference on teacher retirement systems hosted by the National Center on Performance Incentives (NCPI) at Vanderbilt University's Peabody College. The 2009 conference was the second in a series of NCPI events focusing on findings from recent research on issues related to…

Hansen, Janet S.; Podgursky, Michael J.; Costrell, Robert M.

2009-01-01

11

Knowledge translation of research findings  

PubMed Central

Background One of the most consistent findings from clinical and health services research is the failure to translate research into practice and policy. As a result of these evidence-practice and policy gaps, patients fail to benefit optimally from advances in healthcare and are exposed to unnecessary risks of iatrogenic harms, and healthcare systems are exposed to unnecessary expenditure resulting in significant opportunity costs. Over the last decade, there has been increasing international policy and research attention on how to reduce the evidence-practice and policy gap. In this paper, we summarise the current concepts and evidence to guide knowledge translation activities, defined as T2 research (the translation of new clinical knowledge into improved health). We structure the article around five key questions: what should be transferred; to whom should research knowledge be transferred; by whom should research knowledge be transferred; how should research knowledge be transferred; and, with what effect should research knowledge be transferred? Discussion We suggest that the basic unit of knowledge translation should usually be up-to-date systematic reviews or other syntheses of research findings. Knowledge translators need to identify the key messages for different target audiences and to fashion these in language and knowledge translation products that are easily assimilated by different audiences. The relative importance of knowledge translation to different target audiences will vary by the type of research and appropriate endpoints of knowledge translation may vary across different stakeholder groups. There are a large number of planned knowledge translation models, derived from different disciplinary, contextual (i.e., setting), and target audience viewpoints. Most of these suggest that planned knowledge translation for healthcare professionals and consumers is more likely to be successful if the choice of knowledge translation strategy is informed by an assessment of the likely barriers and facilitators. Although our evidence on the likely effectiveness of different strategies to overcome specific barriers remains incomplete, there is a range of informative systematic reviews of interventions aimed at healthcare professionals and consumers (i.e., patients, family members, and informal carers) and of factors important to research use by policy makers. Summary There is a substantial (if incomplete) evidence base to guide choice of knowledge translation activities targeting healthcare professionals and consumers. The evidence base on the effects of different knowledge translation approaches targeting healthcare policy makers and senior managers is much weaker but there are a profusion of innovative approaches that warrant further evaluation. PMID:22651257

2012-01-01

12

78 FR 79460 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office...given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has taken...Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chonqing, China, engaged in research misconduct in research...

2013-12-30

13

Volumetric MRI studies of the hippocampus in major depressive disorder: Meanings of inconsistency and directions for future research.  

PubMed

There are numerous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies investigating the hippocampal volumetric differences between depressed and healthy subjects. Although there are inconsistencies among study results, a smaller hippocampal volume in depressed patients is thought to be related to the pathophysiology of the disease. Many factors appear to affect hippocampal volumes in major depressive disorder patients. Among these factors, recurrency, severity and the individual patient are the most pronounced. Patient groups with a mean age older than 40 years, or samples consisting of patients who have had severe or multiple episodes are more likely to demonstrate smaller hippocampal volumes. The possible causes of this relationship are discussed to give new perspectives to future research. PMID:19347777

Eker, Cagdas; Gonul, Ali Saffet

2010-02-01

14

Humor, laughter, and physical health: methodological issues and research findings.  

PubMed

All published research examining effects of humor and laughter on physical health is reviewed. Potential causal mechanisms and methodological issues are discussed. Laboratory experiments have shown some effects of exposure to comedy on several components of immunity, although the findings are inconsistent and most of the studies have methodological problems. There is also some evidence of analgesic effects of exposure to comedy, although similar findings are obtained with negative emotions. Few significant correlations have been found between trait measures of humor and immunity, pain tolerance, or self-reported illness symptoms. There is also little evidence of stress-moderating effects of humor on physical health variables and no evidence of increased longevity with greater humor. More rigorous and theoretically informed research is needed before firm conclusions can be drawn about possible health benefits of humor and laughter. PMID:11439709

Martin, R A

2001-07-01

15

76 FR 68460 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY...that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI...University of Virginia Medical Center: Based on...Resident Physician at UVA Medical Center, engaged in research misconduct by...

2011-11-04

16

76 FR 23599 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has taken final...Bhrigu, PhD, University of Michigan Medical School: Based on the findings of...analysis conducted by the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) during its...

2011-04-27

17

Final Boundary Layer Research and Findings Report Draft Boundary Layer Research and Findings Report  

E-print Network

IV Final Boundary Layer Research and Findings Report #12;Draft Boundary Layer Research and Findings Cases Associated with Boundary Layer Model Problems ............. 6 1.1 Problems Related to Atmospheric ......................................................... 9 2.1.3 Boundary Layer Formulation Factors

18

Prejudice Reduction and the Findings of Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research studies that have investigated the effects of interventions aimed at reducing prejudice are reviewed, and a synthesis of their findings is presented. Some generalizations are offered that have the potential to lead towards a less prejudiced society. Research is summarized according to the intervention approaches used in the following…

Pate, Glenn S.

19

Applications of classroom management research findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the long?term effects of providing a research?based approach to classroom management through a two?phase staff development process. Findings indicate that teachers identified specific benefits they gained from implementing group development and cooperative learning strategies. The findings also indicate that classrooms of high implementors differed from classrooms of low implementors. Finally, specific characteristics

Joyce G. Putnam

1985-01-01

20

Learning from Inconsistency  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This position paper argues that inconsistencies that occur during the development of a software specification offer an excellent way of learning more about the development process. We base this argument on our work on inconsistency management. Much attention has been devoted recently to the need to allow inconsistencies to occur during software development, to facilitate flexible development strategies, especially for collaborative work. Recent work has concentrated on reasoning in the presence of inconsistency, tracing inconsistencies with 'pollution markers' and supporting resolution. We argue here that one of the most important aspects of inconsistency is the learning opportunity it provides. We are therefore concerned with how to capture this learning outcome so that its significance is not lost. We present a small example of how apprentice software engineers learn from their mistakes, and outline how an inconsistency management tool could support this learning. We then argue that the approach can be used more generally as part of continuous process improvement.

Easterbrook, Steve

1996-01-01

21

National Opinion Research Center: Data and Findings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Opinion Research Center (NORC) was created in 1941 with a mission "to conduct high-quality social science research in the public interest." Its work is quite broad and includes studies of public school system performance, economic development projects, and other germane matters. On the Data and Findings page, visitors can peruse and explore hundreds of NORC's papers from past months and years. Interested parties can search through all of these documents as they see fit or perhaps just scroll through to find something that strikes some interest. Some recent titles include "Promising Practices to Improve Access to Oral Health Care in Rural Communities" and "The State of Our Nation's Youth."

22

Researchers Find Genetic Response to Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

University of Alberta biologist Stan Boutin and his research team have recently published findings that North American red squirrels exhibit genetic changes in response to a warming climate. This Web site contains a University of Alberta press release detailing this first-ever demonstration of genetic adaptation to global warming. With implications that extend far beyond the immediate research concerns of geneticists and environmental scientists, Boutin's work as presented in this Web site should be interesting to wide audience.

Dey, Phoebe.

23

Space Situational Awareness (SSA) research findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space Situational Awareness (SSA) is the foundation for space superiority and has become a national priority. Providing full SSA requires knowledge of space and ground assets along with communication links between these assets. It also requires an understanding of potential events and threats that may affect these assets. This paper summarizes the findings resulting from a research environment established to

David Richmond; Valley Forge PA

2008-01-01

24

Inconsistency in Classical Electrodynamics?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a recent issue of this journal, M. Frisch claims to have proven that classical elec- trodynamics is an inconsistent physical theory. We argue that he has applied classical electrodynamics inconsistently. Frisch also claims that all other classical theories of electromagnetic phenomena, when consistent and in some sense an approximation of classical electrodynamics, are haunted by \\

F. A. Muller

2007-01-01

25

Researchers Find Japanese Submarine at Pearl Harbor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earlier this week, researchers from the University of Hawaii and the Hawaii Underwater Research Lab located the remains of a Japanese midget submarine. Found in 1200 feet of water, the submarine was sunk by the USS Ward just an hour before the aerial attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. Most important, the discovery of the midget submarine offers concrete physical evidence that the United States did fire the first shot against the Japanese. Previous expeditions to locate the sub, including an effort made in 2000 by the National Geographic Society, had been unsuccessful, largely due to the fact that the area is a military "junkyard" with tons of debris on the ocean floor.For more in-depth information on this story, readers may find the first four news links particularly helpful. The fifth link leads to the Hawaii Underwater Research Lab's Web site that features photographs of the midget sub from the expedition earlier this week. The sixth link is to a Web site dealing with the history and missions of the USS Ward. The final link contains detailed information about the 2000 expedition led by Robert Ballard, with support from the National Geographic Society, to find the midget submarine.

Green, Marcia.

2002-01-01

26

77 FR 52034 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI...Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, Joslin, engaged in research misconduct in research...Respondent engaged in research misconduct involving...rejuventation of blood stem cell niches.''...

2012-08-28

27

77 FR 40059 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...research misconduct in research supported by National...Oversight, Office of Research Integrity, 1101 Wootton...Respondent engaged in research misconduct by falsifying...with human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to...

2012-07-06

28

Finding Market Research on the Web MarketResearch.com Copyright 2001 MarketResearch.com  

E-print Network

Finding Market Research on the Web MarketResearch.com Copyright © 2001 MarketResearch of market research firms. These are publishers that study and produce reports on consumer, industrial in between. But there is a certain segment of market #12;Finding Market Research on the Web MarketResearch

Haykin, Simon

29

77 FR 22320 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has...Institute, OHSU, engaged in research misconduct in research reported in two grant...pigment epithelial (RPE) cells obtained from Rhesus monkey embryonic stem cells (ECS) into a...

2012-04-13

30

75 FR 77641 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Medicine (NYUSOM) and the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) found that Sagar...Biomedical Sciences at NYUSOM, engaged in research misconduct in research supported by National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), National...

2010-12-13

31

77 FR 124 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has...of New York, Upstate Medical University: Based on...SUNY US, engaged in research misconduct in research supported by National Institute of General Medical Sciences...

2012-01-03

32

Space Situational Awareness (SSA) research findings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space Situational Awareness (SSA) is the foundation for space superiority and has become a national priority. Providing full SSA requires knowledge of space and ground assets along with communication links between these assets. It also requires an understanding of potential events and threats that may affect these assets. This paper summarizes the findings resulting from a research environment established to explore SSA issues. Non-traditional data sources available on the internet are identified along with methods to mine relevant data. Algorithms to augment this data with value added processing were evaluated and key features are presented. These include all-on-all conjunction analysis utilizing analytical distributed processing approaches and maneuver detection utilizing an approach described in the AMOS 2007 paper "Satellite Maneuver Detection Using Two-line Elements". Data fusion techniques are presented which were utilized to evaluate space launches, enhance maneuver detection capabilities, characterize events and determine possible intent. Several visualization approaches were explored and the key features/limitations are discussed to include performance consideration, event models between visualization components, and data needs at the tactical, operational, and strategic levels. Data dissemination approaches utilizing a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) are highlighted along with challenges such as Multiple Levels of Security associated with the data. Dependencies between visualization and dissemination that impact the system's performance are discussed. Alternatives to balance system performance and application of a User Defined Operational Picture (UDOP) are explored.

Richmond, D.

33

Animal Research: Finding Cures, Saving Lives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides an online and a printable brochure that provides information on why researchers study animals, how research animals are cared for, the ethics of animal research, cosmetic testing on animals, and how animal research helps people in the context of a diabetes patient.

2010-06-24

34

Russian research capabilities: Findings of site visits  

SciTech Connect

In June 1993, a proposal was presented to the International Environmental Institute (IEI) in Kennewick, Washington, to establish cooperation and coordination to further pursue the interests of the United States of America and the Republic of Russia in the application and promotion of environmental technology; characterization, treatment, handling, isolation, and disposal of hazardous and radioactive materials; conversion of defense sites to other purposes; and technology transfer, cooperative programs, joint technology development and contractual research. In response to this proposal, IEI and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) jointly provided funding to send Dr. Dennis W. Wester on a fact-finding mission to Novosibirsk, Moscow, and St. Petersburg, Russia. The trip covered a period of eight weeks, six of which were spent in Novosibirsk and adjoining or related cities and one of which was spent in each of Moscow and St. Petersburg. The general objectives of the trip were to establish a basis for cooperation between IEI and the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) for future coordination of mutual interests and objectives such as technology acquisition, development, demonstration, application, and commercialization; use of capabilities and assets developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the RAS; and expediting of cooperative agreements, personnel exchanges, joint ventures and other contractual relationships. The particular objectives of this trip were to evaluate the capabilities of the RAS to satisfy the technology needs associated with the cleanup of the Hanford Site and similar sites in the U.S. and to evaluate the expediency of establishing an IEI presence in Russia.

Wester, D.W.

1994-02-01

35

77 FR 5254 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings...National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), National Institutes...Respondent's intentionally deceptive behavior, including false statements made to...

2012-02-02

36

77 FR 76491 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...redone. Specifically, ORI finds that Respondent: Falsified Powerpoint slides and spreadsheets for histomorphometric and microCT results by using the values of HS1 knockout (KO) mice and their controls to represent the CathepsinK cre- Cortactin KO...

2012-12-28

37

76 FR 7568 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...or that submits a report of PHS-funded research...for PHS funds, or report, manuscript, or abstract involving PHS-funded...are based on actual experiments or are otherwise legitimately...the application or report; and (3) To...

2011-02-10

38

78 FR 5454 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...conducted by ORI in its oversight review, ORI found that Dr. Rao M. Adibhatla, Assistant Professor, Department of Neurological Surgery, UW, engaged in research misconduct by falsifying results in two publications supported by National Institute of...

2013-01-25

39

Animal Research: Finding Cures, Saving Lives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The U.S. Public Health Service acknowledges that "virtually every medical achievement of the last century has depended directly or indirectly on research with animals." Created by the American Physiological Society, this website helps students learn about and explore the ethics and particulars of animal research. It answers common questions in a straight-forward and accessible manner. It also includes links to other resources to aid in a deeper exploration of the subject.

The American Physiological Society

40

Psychosocial and pharmacological treatment of eating disorders: a review of research findings.  

PubMed

Research on the treatment of eating disorders has focused primarily on cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and, more recently, interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT). Numerous studies have shown that CBT is helpful in reducing symptoms of bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder. In addition, CBT has been found to be superior or comparable to other psychotherapies in reducing bulimic symptoms. Preliminary findings indicate that CBT and IPT produce similar results at follow-up for bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder. Antidepressant medications are also useful in the treatment of bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder, but are less likely to result in remission of symptoms than CBT. The results from comparison studies are inconsistent, with modest evidence that combining antidepressant medication and psychotherapy produces greater improvement in bulimic symptoms. Limited research has been conducted on the treatment of anorexia nervosa, although preliminary studies suggest that psychotherapy and fluoxetine may be helpful in preventing relapse after weight restoration. PMID:10445860

Peterson, C B; Mitchell, J E

1999-06-01

41

The Benefits of Undergraduate Research Finding a Faculty Sponsor  

E-print Network

The Benefits of Undergraduate Research And Finding a Faculty Sponsor Why do undergraduate research? Participating in an undergraduate research experience will provide you with many benefits. These include: Hands Establishing a good working relationship with a faculty member is a key element in a successful research

Weinberger, Hans

42

Finding Intercultural Business Communication Research Sites in Companies (Doing Research).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes important resources for discovering sites for communication research related to the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), to help identify appropriate companies and contact them. (SR)

Driskill, Linda; Shaw, Peggy

1994-01-01

43

Editorial Decisions May Perpetuate Belief in Invalid Research Findings  

PubMed Central

Social psychology and related disciplines are seeing a resurgence of interest in replication, as well as actual replication efforts. But prior work suggests that even a clear demonstration that a finding is invalid often fails to shake acceptance of the finding. This threatens the full impact of these replication efforts. Here we show that the actions of two key players – journal editors and the authors of original (invalidated) research findings – are critical to the broader public’s continued belief in an invalidated research conclusion. Across three experiments, we show that belief in an invalidated finding falls sharply when a critical failed replication is published in the same – versus different – journal as the original finding, and when the authors of the original finding acknowledge that the new findings invalidate their conclusions. We conclude by discussing policy implications of our key findings. PMID:24023863

Eriksson, Kimmo; Simpson, Brent

2013-01-01

44

An arguable inconsistency in ZF  

E-print Network

Classical theory proves that every primitive recursive function is strongly representable in PA; that formal Peano Arithmetic, PA, and formal primitive recursive arithmetic, PRA, can both be interpreted in Zermelo-Fraenkel Set Theory, ZF; and that if ZF is consistent, then PA+PRA is consistent. We show that PA+PRA is inconsistent; it follows that ZF, too, is inconsistent.

Bhupinder Singh Anand

2005-02-26

45

Researchers Find Gene Mutation That May Protect Against Heart Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Researchers Find Gene Mutation That May Protect Against Heart Disease Rare ... Preidt Wednesday, November 12, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Genes and Gene Therapy Heart Diseases WEDNESDAY, Nov. 12, ...

46

Finding \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different data mining algorithms applied to the same data can result in similar findings, typically in the form of rules. These similarities can be exploited to identify especially powerful rules, in particular those that are common to the different algorithms. This research focuses on the independent application of association and classification mining algorithms to the same data to discover common

Karthik Rajasethupathy; Anthony Scime; Kulathur S. Rajasethupathy; Gregg R. Murray

2009-01-01

47

Multiple Perpetrator Rape: Naming an Offence and Initial Research Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiple perpetrator rape presents a significant problem nationally and internationally. However, previous research is limited and findings are often contradictory. The details of 101 rape allegations recorded in a six-month period in a large police force in England were analysed. Findings are presented about case classification, victim and…

Horvath, Miranda Angel Helena; Kelly, Liz

2009-01-01

48

Environmentally Mediated Risks for Psychopathology: Research Strategies and Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To consider the research design requirements needed to provide a rigorous test of environmental mediation hypotheses and to summarize the main findings from research using such designs. Method: Selective review of empirical evidence dealing with psychopathology. Results: There is robust evidence of environmentally mediated risks for…

Rutter, Michael

2005-01-01

49

Case Western researchers present new findings for glioblastoma  

Cancer.gov

Physician-scientists from University Hospitals (UH), Case Medical Center's Seidman Cancer Center and Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine presented new research findings this week at the Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) in Chicago. One study sought to identify protein biomarkers that can help physicians determine which patients may benefit from standard treatment for GBM.

50

Researchers Find Stem Cells That Help Nails Regenerate  

MedlinePLUS

... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Researchers Find Stem Cells That Help Nails Regenerate Normal function helps with ... November 24, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Nail Diseases Stem Cells MONDAY, Nov. 24, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Researchers have ...

51

Recruiting Underserved Mothers to Medical Research: Findings from North Carolina  

PubMed Central

Representative samples are required for ethical, valid, and useful health research. Yet, recruiting participants, especially from historically underserved communities, can be challenging. This paper presents findings from in-depth interviews with 40 mothers about factors that might influence their willingness to participate or allow their children to participate in medical research. Saliency analysis organizes the findings. Frequent and important salient themes about research participation included concerns that it might cause participants harm, hope that participants might gain a health benefit, and recognition that time and transportation resources could limit participation. Ultimately, we propose that a theoretical model, such as the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), will facilitate more systematic evaluation of effective methods for recruitment and retention of participants in medical research. Future research should explore the utility of such a model for development of effective recruitment and retention strategies. PMID:24185171

Spears, Chaya R.; Sandberg, Joanne C.; O’Neill, Jenna L.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Howard, Timothy D.; Feldman, Steven R.; Arcury, Thomas A.

2014-01-01

52

In Search of New Ideas, Research Findings, and Emerging Technologies? Here's Where To Find Them.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are many avenues available to computer-assisted instruction (CAI) practitioners and developers in search of access to new ideas, research findings, and emerging technologies that will assist them in developing CAI products. Seven such avenues are described in detail: (1) graduate student interns, who bring unique insights, theory, and…

Powell, Gary C.

53

Inconsistencies in Autism-Specific Emotion Interventions: Cause for Concern  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Precise educational interventions are the sine qua non of services for students with exceptionalities. Applying interventions riddled with inconsistencies, therefore, interferes with the growth and learning potential of students who need these interventions. This research synthesis documents the inconsistencies revealed during a critical analysis…

Caldeira, Monica; Edmunds, Alan

2012-01-01

54

Researchers’ views on return of incidental genomic research results: qualitative and quantitative findings  

PubMed Central

Purpose Comprehensive genomic analysis including exome and genome sequencing is increasingly being utilized in research studies, leading to the generation of incidental genetic findings. It is unclear how researchers plan to deal with incidental genetic findings. Methods We conducted a survey of the practices and attitudes of 234 members of the US genetic research community and performed qualitative semistructured interviews with 28 genomic researchers to understand their views and experiences with incidental genetic research findings. Results We found that 12% of the researchers had returned incidental genetic findings, and an additional 28% planned to do so. A large majority of researchers (95%) believe that incidental findings for highly penetrant disorders with immediate medical implications should be offered to research participants. However, there was no consensus on returning incidental results for other conditions varying in penetrance and medical actionability. Researchers raised concerns that the return of incidental findings would impose significant burdens on research and could potentially have deleterious effects on research participants if not performed well. Researchers identified assistance needed to enable effective, accurate return of incidental findings. Conclusion The majority of the researchers believe that research participants should have the option to receive at least some incidental genetic research results. PMID:23807616

Klitzman, Robert; Appelbaum, Paul S.; Fyer, Abby; Martinez, Josue; Buquez, Brigitte; Wynn, Julia; Waldman, Cameron R.; Phelan, Jo; Parens, Erik; Chung, Wendy K.

2013-01-01

55

September 17, 2010 LSUHSC research finds cause & remedy for learning &  

E-print Network

of medical marijuana LSUHSC research finds combo of plant nutrients kills breast cancer cells Chancellor on the main component of marijuana, delta-9- tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), for some cancer patients to treat a study that identified the cause of learning and memory deficits associated with medical marijuana use

56

Researcher finds some bees evolved to shout at competitors  

E-print Network

Researcher finds some bees evolved to shout at competitors July 7, 2014 Certain species of stingless bees in Brazil have been found to protect their sources of nectar and pollen from potential in other bee species. Dr. Elinor Lichtenberg from Washington State University made this discovery during

Nieh, James

57

Educational Financing in Developing Countries: Research Findings and Contemporary Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focuses on contemporary issues of educational financing in developing countries and on available research findings as these relate, or can be related, to these issues. The first two chapters are analytical, examining common educational finance issues and testing the conventional wisdom of certain usual proposals. Chapter 1, "Issues in…

Schiefelbein, Ernesto

58

Recreation ecology research findings: Implications for wilderness and park managers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recreationists unintentionally trample vegetation, erode soil, and disturb wildlife. Such human-related impacts present a dilemma for managers charged with the dual objectives of providing recreational opportunities and preserving natural environments. This paper presents some of the principal findings and management implications from research on visitor impacts to protected areas, termed recreation ecology research. This field of study seeks to identify the type and extent of resource impacts and to evaluate relationships between use-related, environmental, and managerial factors. The capabilities and managerial utility of recreation impact monitoring are also described.

Marion, J.L.

1998-01-01

59

Research Infusion Collaboration: Finding Defect Patterns in Reused Code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 'Finding Defect Patterns in Reused Code' Research Infusion Collaboration was performed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory/Caltech under Contract 104-07-02.679 102 197 08.14.4. This final report describes the collaboration and documents the findings, including lessons learned.The research infusion collaboration characterized, using Orthogonal Defect Classification, defect reports for code that will be reused in mission-critical software on Deep Space Network Antenna controllers. Code reuse is estimated to be 90%, so it is important to identify systemic defects, or patterns, prior to reuse of this code. The work also identified ways to avoid certain types of defects and to test more efficiently.The primary objectives of the project were:to analyze defect patterns of the code to be reused based on the defects'Orthogonal Defect Classification (ODC)and to achieve a successful infusion of ODC to a project.

Lutz, Robyn R.; Morgan, Scott; Do, Tuan; Mikulski, Carmen; Berg Strain, Martha; Rockwell, Steve; Wilkinson, Belinda

2004-01-01

60

Reporting back research findings: a case study of community-based tourism research in northern Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, experiences of reporting back research results to three communities in northern Canada (Churchill, Manitoba, Cambridge Bay and Pond Inlet, both in Nunavut) are described. The research examined residents' attitude towards tourism development. Reporting of initial findings was integral to the research process to ensure that results made sense from a local perspective. The research engaged a variety

Emma J. Stewart; Dianne Draper

2009-01-01

61

Vanderbilt researchers find a protein family key to aging, cancer:  

Cancer.gov

The list of aging-associated proteins known to be involved in cancer is growing longer, according to research by investigators at Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center and the National Institutes of Health. The new study, published Oct. 17 in Cancer Cell, identifies the protein SIRT2 as a tumor suppressor linked to gender-specific tumor development in mice. Along with two other "sirtuin" proteins previously linked to cancer, the new finding suggests the existence of a rare "family" of tumor suppressors.

62

Bayesian Approach for Inconsistent Information  

PubMed Central

In engineering situations, we usually have a large amount of prior knowledge that needs to be taken into account when processing data. Traditionally, the Bayesian approach is used to process data in the presence of prior knowledge. Sometimes, when we apply the traditional Bayesian techniques to engineering data, we get inconsistencies between the data and prior knowledge. These inconsistencies are usually caused by the fact that in the traditional approach, we assume that we know the exact sample values, that the prior distribution is exactly known, etc. In reality, the data is imprecise due to measurement errors, the prior knowledge is only approximately known, etc. So, a natural way to deal with the seemingly inconsistent information is to take this imprecision into account in the Bayesian approach – e.g., by using fuzzy techniques. In this paper, we describe several possible scenarios for fuzzifying the Bayesian approach. Particular attention is paid to the interaction between the estimated imprecise parameters. In this paper, to implement the corresponding fuzzy versions of the Bayesian formulas, we use straightforward computations of the related expression – which makes our computations reasonably time-consuming. Computations in the traditional (non-fuzzy) Bayesian approach are much faster – because they use algorithmically efficient reformulations of the Bayesian formulas. We expect that similar reformulations of the fuzzy Bayesian formulas will also drastically decrease the computation time and thus, enhance the practical use of the proposed methods. PMID:24089579

Stein, M.; Beer, M.; Kreinovich, V.

2013-01-01

63

Finding qualitative research: an evaluation of search strategies  

PubMed Central

Background Qualitative research makes an important contribution to our understanding of health and healthcare. However, qualitative evidence can be difficult to search for and identify, and the effectiveness of different types of search strategies is unknown. Methods Three search strategies for qualitative research in the example area of support for breast-feeding were evaluated using six electronic bibliographic databases. The strategies were based on using thesaurus terms, free-text terms and broad-based terms. These strategies were combined with recognised search terms for support for breast-feeding previously used in a Cochrane review. For each strategy, we evaluated the recall (potentially relevant records found) and precision (actually relevant records found). Results A total yield of 7420 potentially relevant records was retrieved by the three strategies combined. Of these, 262 were judged relevant. Using one strategy alone would miss relevant records. The broad-based strategy had the highest recall and the thesaurus strategy the highest precision. Precision was generally poor: 96% of records initially identified as potentially relevant were deemed irrelevant. Searching for qualitative research involves trade-offs between recall and precision. Conclusions These findings confirm that strategies that attempt to maximise the number of potentially relevant records found are likely to result in a large number of false positives. The findings also suggest that a range of search terms is required to optimise searching for qualitative evidence. This underlines the problems of current methods for indexing qualitative research in bibliographic databases and indicates where improvements need to be made. PMID:15070427

Shaw, Rachel L; Booth, Andrew; Sutton, Alex J; Miller, Tina; Smith, Jonathan A; Young, Bridget; Jones, David R; Dixon-Woods, Mary

2004-01-01

64

Managing Incidental Findings and Research Results in Genomic Research Involving Biobanks & Archived Datasets  

PubMed Central

Biobanks and archived datasets collecting samples and data have become crucial engines of genetic and genomic research. Unresolved, however, is what responsibilities biobanks should shoulder to manage incidental findings (IFs) and individual research results (IRRs) of potential health, reproductive, or personal importance to individual contributors (using “biobank” here to refer to both collections of samples and collections of data). This paper reports recommendations from a 2-year, NIH-funded project. The authors analyze responsibilities to manage return of IFs and IRRs in a biobank research system (primary research or collection sites, the biobank itself, and secondary research sites). They suggest that biobanks shoulder significant responsibility for seeing that the biobank research system addresses the return question explicitly. When re-identification of individual contributors is possible, the biobank should work to enable the biobank research system to discharge four core responsibilities: to (1) clarify the criteria for evaluating findings and roster of returnable findings, (2) analyze a particular finding in relation to this, (3) re-identify the individual contributor, and (4) recontact the contributor to offer the finding. The authors suggest that findings that are analytically valid, reveal an established and substantial risk of a serious health condition, and that are clinically actionable should generally be offered to consenting contributors. The paper specifies 10 concrete recommendations, addressing new biobanks and biobanks already in existence. PMID:22436882

Wolf, Susan M.; Crock, Brittney N.; Van Ness, Brian; Lawrenz, Frances; Kahn, Jeffrey P.; Beskow, Laura M.; Cho, Mildred K.; Christman, Michael F.; Green, Robert C.; Hall, Ralph; Illes, Judy; Keane, Moira; Knoppers, Bartha M.; Koenig, Barbara A.; Kohane, Isaac S.; LeRoy, Bonnie; Maschke, Karen J.; McGeveran, William; Ossorio, Pilar; Parker, Lisa S.; Petersen, Gloria M.; Richardson, Henry S.; Scott, Joan A.; Terry, Sharon F.; Wilfond, Benjamin S.; Wolf, Wendy A.

2013-01-01

65

Disclosure and management of research findings in stem cell research and banking: policy statement.  

PubMed

Prompted by an increased interest of both research participants and the patient advocacy community in obtaining information about research outcomes and on the use of their biological samples; the international community has begun to debate the emergence of an ethical 'duty' to return research results to participants. Furthermore, the use of new technologies (e.g., whole-genome and -exome sequencing) has revealed both genetic data and incidental findings with possible clinical significance. These technologies together with the proliferation of biorepositories, provide a compelling rationale for governments and scientific institutions to adopt prospective policies. Given the scarcity of policies in the context of stem cell research, a discussion on the scientific, ethical and legal implications of disclosing research results for research participants is needed. We present the International Stem Forum Ethics Working Party's Policy Statement and trust that it will stimulate debate and meet the concerns of researchers and research participants alike. PMID:22594334

Isasi, Rosario; Knoppers, Bartha M; Andrews, Peter W; Bredenoord, Annelien; Colman, Alan; Hin, Lee Eng; Hull, Sara; Kim, Ock-Joo; Lomax, Geoffrey; Morris, Clive; Sipp, Douglas; Stacey, Glyn; Wahlstrom, Jan; Zeng, Fanyi

2012-05-01

66

Test Response Inconsistency in Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These studies indicated preschool children show a high degree of variability when responding to the same test questions within short time intervals. In two studies, children were inconsistent in responding. In a third, one-third of the children responded inconsistently. Studies with standardized test items revealed inconsistency among most…

Vane, Julia R.; Motta, Robert W.

1980-01-01

67

If N is inconsistent, then N | | N {} | | .  

E-print Network

Fairness Problem: If N is inconsistent, then N | | N {} | | . Does this imply that every derivation starting from an inconsistent set N eventually produces ? No: a clause could be kept in PPP to guarantee fairness). With this additional requirement, we get a stronger result: If N is inconsistent

Waldmann, Uwe

68

48 CFR 335.071 - Special determinations and findings affecting research and development contracting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...findings affecting research and development contracting. 335.071...Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 335.071 ...findings affecting research and development contracting. OPDIV...

2010-10-01

69

48 CFR 335.071 - Special determinations and findings affecting research and development contracting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...findings affecting research and development contracting. 335.071...Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 335.071 ...findings affecting research and development contracting. OPDIV...

2011-10-01

70

NIAMS-Supported Research Finds New Genetic Links to Juvenile Arthritis  

MedlinePLUS

... on Research 2013 June 2013 NIAMS-Supported Research Finds New Genetic Links to Juvenile Arthritis New research ... two important implications, said Thompson. “If we can find a novel disease mechanism, that can inform drug ...

71

Columbia University Medical Center researchers find that a new computational approach finds gene that drives aggressive brain cancer  

Cancer.gov

Columbia University Medical Center researchers have combined existing computational tools with a new algorithm called DIGGIT, which 'walks' backward from the master regulators to find the genetic events that drive brain cancer.

72

1998 National Gun Policy Survey of the National Opinion Research Center: Research Findings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Opinion Research Center (NORC) at the University of Chicago in collaboration with the Johns Hopkins Center for Gun Policy and Research in 1999 released a final report based on the research findings of a national survey on gun policies. The 64-page study reports on topics such as the regulation of firearms, gun ownership and use, knowledge and attitudes toward guns, gun violence, and safety issues. The report includes thirteen statistical tables and concludes that the American public strongly supports "legislation to regulate firearms, make guns safer, and reduce the accessibility of firearms to criminals and children."

Smith, Tom W.

73

School-Based Performance Awards: Research Findings and Future Directions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper synthesizes research on how motivation influenced teachers at two school-based performance award (SBPA) programs in Kentucky and in North Carolina. The research was conducted between 1995 and 1998 by the Consortium for Policy Research in Education. SBPA programs provide teachers and other school staff with pay bonuses for the…

Kelley, Carolyn; Heneman, Herbert, III; Milanowski, Anthony

74

Exploring accuracy in journalism stories reporting on neuroscience research findings: A comparative case study.  

E-print Network

??Abstract Neuroscience has seen explosive growth in research and public interest, but research findings are often reported inaccurately, impacting public understanding. Exploratory descriptive case study… (more)

Campbell-Davison, Andrea M

2013-01-01

75

Review of inconsistency of quantum adiabatic theorem  

E-print Network

In this paper, we note that there are two different types of inconsistencies of quantum adiabatic theorem in work of K. P. Marzlin and B. C. Sanders [Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 160408, 2004], MS inconsistency and MS counterexample. Nevertheless, these two types are often confused as one by many authors. We shall point out that the inconsistencies of quantum adiabatic theorem raised by the relevant references just can be classified as these two types.

Yong Tao

2010-10-07

76

Applying Ad Hoc Institutional Research Findings to College Strategic Planning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Environmental scanning, enrollment forecasting, budget analyses, and institutional effectiveness assessment are examples of the explicit contributions institutional research offices make to campus strategic planning.

Clagett, Craig A.

2004-01-01

77

USC researchers find new target for prostate cancer treatment  

Cancer.gov

Scientists have found a promising new therapeutic target for prostate cancer. The findings offer evidence that a newly discovered member of a family of cell surface proteins called G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) promotes prostate cancer cell growth.

78

"Response to Comments": Finding the Narrative in Narrative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author responds to comments by Barone (2009), Clandinin and Murphy (2009), and M. W. Smith (2009) on "The Construction Zone: Literary Elements in Narrative Research" (Coulter & M. L. Smith, 2009). She clarifies issues regarding point of view, authorial surplus, narrative coherence, and the relational qualities of narrative research. She…

Coulter, Cathy A.

2009-01-01

79

Survey of Undergraduate Research Experiences (SURE): First Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, I examined the hypothesis that undergraduate research enhances the educational experience of science undergraduates, attracts and retains talented students to careers in science, and acts as a pathway for minority students into science careers. Undergraduates from 41 institutions participated in an online survey on the benefits of undergraduate research experiences. Participants indicated gains on 20 potential benefits

David Lopatto

2004-01-01

80

Finding Nexus: Connecting Youth Work and Research Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participation in educational and social research helps to develop understanding of how young people learn and to consider wider aspects of their lives to enable their voices to be heard and acted upon. Research also facilitates the articulation and sharing of methodologies across a range of professional practices. We assert that theory and…

Gormally, Sinéad; Coburn, Annette

2014-01-01

81

Seeking Renewal, Finding Community: Participatory Action Research in Teacher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This narrative study describes the experiences of a group of teacher educators as they worked together in a collaborative research activity investigating theories of literacy and the preparation of secondary teachers. The collaboration was organized around the precepts associated with participatory action research (PAR). After four years of…

Draper, Roni Jo; Adair, Marta; Broomhead, Paul; Gray, Sharon; Grierson, Sirpa; Hendrickson, Scott; Jensen, Amy P.; Nokes, Jeffery D.; Shumway, Steven; Siebert, Daniel; Wright, Geoffrey

2011-01-01

82

Concordance between Clinical Practice and Published Evidence: Findings from The National Dental Practice-Based Research Network  

PubMed Central

Background. Documenting the gap between what is occurring in clinical practice and what published research suggests is an important step toward improving care. This study quantified concordance between clinical practice and published evidence across preventive, diagnostic and treatment procedures among a sample of dentists in the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network. Methods. Network dentists completed one questionnaire about their demographic characteristics and another about how they treat patients across 12 scenarios/clinical practice behaviors. Responses to each clinical practice were coded as consistent (i.e., ‘1’) or inconsistent (i.e., ‘0’) with published evidence, summed, and divided by the number of all non-missing to create an overall ‘concordance’ score, calculated as the mean percent of responses that were consistent with published evidence. Results. Analyses were limited to participants in the United States (N = 591). Mean concordance at the practitioner level was 62% (SD = 18); procedure-specific concordance ranged from 8-100%. Affiliation with a large group practice, being a female practitioner, and receiving a dental degree before 1990 were independently associated with high concordance (?75%). Conclusions. Dentists reported a medium-range concordance between practice and evidence. Clinical Implications. Efforts to bring research findings into routine practice are needed. PMID:24379327

Norton, Wynne E.; Funkhouser, Ellen; Makhija, Sonia K.; Gordan, Valeria V.; Bader, James D.; Rindal, D. Brad; Pihlstrom, Daniel J.; Hilton, Thomas J.; Frantsve-Hawley, Julie; Gilbert, Gregg H.

2013-01-01

83

Roswell Park researchers find prognostic biomarker candidates for ovarian cancer  

Cancer.gov

Cancer researchers at Roswell Park Cancer Institute have identified two independent classes of novel candidate prognostic markers for ovarian cancer, advancing efforts to develop targeted therapies for the disease.

84

77 FR 33737 - Findings of Research Misconduct; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the first line to read ``Jian Ma, Ph.D.'' 2. On page 32117...change the name ``Dr. Juan Ma'' to read ``Dr. Jian Ma.'' Dated: May 31, 2012. John...Investigative Oversight, Office of Research Integrity. [FR Doc....

2012-06-07

85

MD Anderson researchers find that yoga regulates stress hormones  

Cancer.gov

Through a grant from the National Cancer Institute, researchers are now conducting a Phase III clinical trial in women with breast cancer to further determine the mechanisms of yoga that lead to improvement in physical functioning and quality of life.

86

Findings of the International Road Tunnel Fire Detection Research Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract\\u000a   Fire detection systems play a crucial role in ensuring safe evacuation and firefighting operations in road tunnels, but information\\u000a on the performance of these systems in tunnels has been limited and guidelines for their application in tunnel environments\\u000a are not fully developed. Recently, the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) and the Fire Protection Research Foundation\\u000a completed a 2-year

Z. G. Liu; A. Kashef; G. Crampton; G. Lougheed; Y. Ko; G. Hadjisophocleous; Kathleen H. Almand

2010-01-01

87

Findings of the International Road Tunnel Fire Detection Research Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire detection systems are essential fire protection elements for road tunnels to detect fires, activate safety systems and\\u000a direct evacuation and firefighting. However, information on the performance of these systems is limited and guidelines for\\u000a application of tunnel fire detection systems are not fully developed. The National Research Council of Canada and the Fire\\u000a Protection Research Foundation, with support of

A. Kashef; Z. G. Liu; G. Lougheed; G. Crampton; K. Yoon; G. Hadjisophocleous; Kathleen H. Almand

2009-01-01

88

MD Anderson researchers find coupling of proteins promotes glioblastoma development:  

Cancer.gov

Two previously unassociated proteins known to be overly active in a variety of cancers bind together to ignite and sustain malignant brain tumors, a research team led by scientists at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center reports this week in the journal Cancer Cell. This research is the first to connect FoxM1 to a molecular signaling cascade that regulates normal neural stem cells...

89

Finding and Managing Information: Generic Information Literacy and Management Skills for Postgraduate Researchers  

E-print Network

A gap in the linking of information literacy skills and bibliographic software usage was identified in the postgraduate researcher cohort. While the provision was available, many researchers were not integrating the finding of research information...

Heading, David; Siminson, Nicola; Purcell, Christine; Pears, Richard

2010-01-01

90

42 CFR 93.404 - Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the...Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.404...

2011-10-01

91

42 CFR 93.411 - Final HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct. 93.411 Section 93...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the...Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.411...

2011-10-01

92

42 CFR 93.404 - Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the...Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.404...

2010-10-01

93

42 CFR 93.411 - Final HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct. 93.411 Section 93...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the...Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.411...

2010-10-01

94

42 CFR 93.411 - Final HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct. 93.411 Section 93...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the...Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.411...

2014-10-01

95

Incorporating Research Findings into Standards and Requirements for Space Medicine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Vision for Exploration has been the catalyst for NASA to refocus its life sciences research. In the future, life sciences research funded by NASA will be focused on answering questions that directly impact setting physiological standards and developing effective countermeasures to the undesirable physiological and psychological effects of spaceflight for maintaining the health of the human system. This, in turn, will contribute to the success of exploration class missions. We will show how research will impact setting physiologic standards, such as exposure limits, outcome limits, and accepted performance ranges. We will give examples of how a physiologic standard can eventually be translated into an operational requirement, then a functional requirement, and eventually spaceflight hardware or procedures. This knowledge will be important to the space medicine community as well as to vehicle contractors who, for the first time, must now consider the human system in developing and constructing a vehicle that can achieve the goal of success.

Duncan, J. Michael

2006-01-01

96

Ontology Inconsistency Handling: Ranking and Rewriting Axioms  

E-print Network

Abstract. Ontology reasoners are able to detect inconsistencies in ontologies; however, there is relatively limited support for resolving the problems. Existing approaches either pinpoint axioms which are responsible for inconsistencies or calculate maximal consistent/coherent sub-ontologies of inconsistent/incoherent ontologies. These approaches simply remove problematic axioms from the ontology, the support for correcting the axioms is still limited. In this paper, we identify two typical scenarios of inconsistent/incoherent ontologies and extend existing approaches by proposing some methods for ranking and rewriting axioms in ontologies, so as to provide users with guidelines on how to achieve a consistent/coherent ontology. We implement these methods in a prototype system, aiming at enabling non-expert users to resolve inconsistencies. 1

unknown authors

97

Dental Laboratory Technology. Project Report Phase I with Research Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of dental laboratory technology, established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to train dental laboratory technicians. Section 1 contains general information:…

Sappe', Hoyt; Smith, Debra S.

98

A Normative Study of Children's Drawings: Preliminary Research Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes methodology, data analysis, and initial results of a research study with the long-term goal of establishing contemporary normative data on drawings from children living in the United States. The pool of participants was composed of 316 fourth graders (mean age 9.69 years) and 151 second graders (mean age 7.56 years) who each…

Deaver, Sarah P.

2009-01-01

99

Research on Tactual Communication of Speech: Ideas, Issues, and Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research review on tactual communication of speech discusses methods of communication intended for the tactual sense alone, issues related to tactual input as a supplement for speechreading, and issues related to developing new synthetic tactual aids and the roles such aids could play in treating people with profound hearing loss. (Author/JDD)

Reed, Charlotte M.; And Others

1989-01-01

100

Urban Delinquency and Substance Abuse. Initial Findings. Research Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In collaborative efforts three research teams have investigated the problems of urban delinquency and substance abuse in longitudinal studies that have gone on since 1986. The Denver Youth Study is a longitudinal survey that involves annual interviews with probability samples of five different birth cohorts and their parents from areas of Denver…

Huizinga, David; Loeber, Rolf; Thornberry, Terence P.

101

Youth Sports: Implementing Findings and Moving Forward with Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the literature, outlines practical implications, and discusses future studies in youth sport research. The literature is discussed in light of three potential benefits of youth sport participation 1) physical health, 2) psycho-social development, and 3) motor skills acquisition. The ultimate objective of youth sport programs is to consider all the benefits of youth sport participation rather than

Jessica Fraser-Thomas; Jean Côté

102

Conducting research Training scientists Finding applications Sharing knowledge and resources  

E-print Network

are working on issues of major global importance today: global warming, emerging diseases, biodiversity with universities and other research bodies. This allows us to mobilise a wealth of scientific and human potential to study problems of importance for Southern countries. This potential was further strengthened by two new

103

Vanderbilt researchers find that an enzyme affects tumor metastasis  

Cancer.gov

Researchers have established a role for MMP2 in the development of lung metastases from primary breast cancer. Using mice without the Mmp2 gene, the team found that metastatic tumors in the lung proliferate less in the absence of fibroblast MMP2.

104

Research on Interest in Science: Theories, Methods, and Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an overview of interest research and describes the theoretical and methodological background for the assessment of interest in science in large-scale assessments like the "Programme for International Student Assessment" (PISA). The paper starts with a short retrospective on the history of interest, bringing out theoretical…

Krapp, Andreas; Prenzel, Manfred

2011-01-01

105

Researchers Find That Childhood Sarcoma Increases Risk of Blood Clots  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, have determined that children and young adults with a form of cancer called sarcoma are at increased risk of having a thromboembolic event (TE) in their veins.

106

UT Southwestern researchers find new gene mutations for Wilms Tumor  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center and the Gill Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders at Children’s Medical Center, Dallas, have made significant progress in defining new genetic causes of Wilms tumor, a type of kidney cancer found only in children.

107

FINDING THE BALANCE - QUALITY ASSURANCE REQUIREMENTS VS. RESEARCH NEEDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Investigators often misapply quality assurance (QA) procedures and may consider QA as a hindrance to developing test plans for sampling and analysis. If used properly, however, QA is the driving force for collecting the right kind and proper amount of data. Researchers must...

108

FINDING THE BALANCE - QUALITY ASSURANCE REQUIREMENTS VS. RESEARCH NEEDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Investigators often misapply quality assurance (QA) procedures and may consider QA as a hindrance to developing test plans for sampling and analysis. If used properly, however, QA is the driving force for collecting the right kind and proper amount of data. Researchers must use Q...

109

Becoming a Scientist: Research Findings on STEM Students' Gains from Conducting Undergraduate Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Undergraduate research is widely believed to enhance STEM students' education and increase their persistence to graduate education and careers in the sciences. Yet until very recently, little evidence from research and evaluation studies was available to substantiate such claims and document what students gain from doing undergraduate research or how these gains come about. We have conducted a three-year qualitative research study of STEM students participating in UR at four liberal arts colleges with a strong tradition of faculty-led summer research apprenticeships. Benefits to students reported by both students and their faculty advisors are categorized into six main categories of gains in skills, knowledge, "thinking like a scientist," career preparation, career development, and personal and professional growth. Student and faculty observations are strongly corroborative, but also differ in interesting ways that reflect the distinct perspectives of each group: students are still in the midst of discovering their own career paths while faculty advisors have observed the later career development of their past research students. While not all students find UR to heighten their interest in graduate school, they do find it a powerful growth experience that clarifies their career ambitions by providing a "real world" experience of science. For students whose interest in science is reinforced, UR has a significant role in their professional socialization into the culture and norms of science, which we call "becoming a scientist," through interactions that draw them into the scientific community and experiences that deepen their understanding of the nature of research. Cumulatively, the qualitative data set of nearly 350 interviews offers a rich portrayal of the UR enterprise from a variety of perspectives. Longitudinal data enable us to track the influence of UR on students' career and education trajectories in the years after college, and comparative data from a group of students who did not undertake UR or pursued alternate experiences reveal the extent to which some benefits of UR may be derived from other experiences. Faculty interviews reveal the costs and benefits to faculty of participating in this intensive form of science education. The presentation will highlight key findings and emphasize their relevance to faculty and program directors undertaking UR or seeking to generate its benefits through other activities.

Hunter, A.; Laursen, S.; Thiry, H.; Seymour, E.

2006-12-01

110

Research Findings on Radiation Hormesis and Radon Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Radiation hormesis research in Japan to determine the validity of Luckey's claims has revealed information on the health effects of low-level radiation. The scientific data of animal tests we obtained and successful results actually brought by radon therapy on human patients show us a clearer understanding of the health effects of low-level radiation. We obtained many animal test results and epidemiological survey data through our research activities cooperating with more than ten universities in Japan, categorized as follows: 1. suppression of cancer by enhancement of the immune system based on gene activation; 2. rejuvenation and suppression of aging by increasing cell membrane permeability and enzyme syntheses; 3. adaptive response by activation of gene expression on DNA repair and cell apoptosis; 4. pain relief and stress moderation by hormone formation in the brain and central nervous system; 5. avoidance and therapy of obstinate diseases by enhancing damage control systems and form one formation.

Hattori, Sadao

1999-06-06

111

Alcoholics Anonymous: Key Research Findings from 2002–2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and other 12-step programs represent an affordable and widely accessible community-based resource for the estimated 18 million Americans with alcohol-related disorders. While substantiating information regarding 12-step programs remains challenging due to their autonomous structure and emphasis on anonymity, an ever increasing body of research provides a wealth of data regarding AA's efficacy, mechanisms of change, and viability

Shulamith Lala Ashenberg Straussner; Helga Byrne

2009-01-01

112

Pain, Nicotine, and Smoking: Research Findings and Mechanistic Considerations  

PubMed Central

Tobacco addiction and chronic pain represent two highly prevalent and comorbid conditions that engender substantial burdens upon individuals and systems. Although interrelations between pain and smoking have been of clinical and empirical interest for decades, research on the topic of pain, nicotine, and tobacco smoking has increased dramatically over the past five years. We conceptualize the interaction of pain and smoking as a prototypical example of the biopsychosocial model. Accordingly, the current review extrapolated from behavioral, cognitive, affective, biomedical, and social perspectives to propose causal mechanisms that may contribute to the observed comorbidity between these two conditions. Research in the broad area of pain and smoking was first dichotomized into investigations of either "effects of smoking on pain" or "effects of pain on smoking." We then integrated the extant literature to present a reciprocal model of pain and smoking that is hypothesized to interact in the manner of a positive feedback loop, resulting in greater pain, increased smoking, and the maintenance of tobacco addiction. Finally, we proposed directions for future research, and discussed clinical implications for smokers with comorbid pain disorders. We observed modest evidence to support the notions that smoking may be a risk factor in the multifactorial etiology of some chronically painful conditions, and that the experience of pain may come to serve as a potent motivator of smoking. We also found that whereas animal studies yielded consistent support for direct pain-inhibitory effects of nicotine and tobacco smoke, results from human studies were much less consistent. Future research in the emerging area of pain and smoking has the potential to inform theoretical and clinical applications with respect to tobacco smoking, chronic pain, and their comorbid presentation. PMID:21967450

Ditre, Joseph W.; Brandon, Thomas H.; Zale, Emily L.; Meagher, Mary M.

2011-01-01

113

Research team finds a new breast cancer susceptibility gene  

Cancer.gov

A team of researchers led by co-principal investigators from the Hunstman Cancer Institute, the University of Utah, and the University of Melbourne, Australia, have found that mutations in a gene called XRCC2 cause increased breast cancer risk, according to a study published online in the American Journal of Human Genetics. The study looked at families that have a history of the disease but do not have mutations in the currently known breast cancer susceptibility genes.

114

Gate valve and motor-operator research findings  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an update on the valve research being sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The research addresses the need to provide assurance that motor-operated valves can perform their intended safety function, usually to open or close against specified (design basis) flow and pressure loads. This report describes several important developments: Two methods for estimating or bounding the design basis stem factor (in rising-stem valves), using data from tests less severe than design basis tests; a new correlation for evaluating the opening responses of gate valves and for predicting opening requirements; an extrapolation method that uses the results of a best effort flow test to estimate the design basis closing requirements of a gate valve that exhibits atypical responses (peak force occurs before flow isolation); and the extension of the original INEL closing correlation to include low- flow and low-pressure loads. The report also includes a general approach, presented in step-by-step format, for determining operating margins for rising-stem valves (gate valves and globe valves) as well as quarter-turn valves (ball valves and butterfly valves).

Steele, R. Jr.; DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; Russell, M.J.; Bramwell, D.

1995-09-01

115

Remote ergonomic research in space: spacelab findings and a proposal.  

PubMed

This paper discusses ergonomics research using remotely situated video cameras in spacecraft. Two prototype studies of crewmembers working in the micro-G environments aboard the first two flights of Spacelab are described. Various aspects of crew restraint, stabilization, manipulation of controls, and mobilization were observed, operationally defined, and quantified by observing videotaped scenes of Spacelab crewmembers. In the first study, four performance behaviors were quantified to provide estimates of their frequency of occurrence and variation over the course of each of the flights. The behaviors and their mean percent of observed times were: Hand-Hold 32.2%, Foot Restraint 35.3%, Translation 9.4%, and Struggle 3.7%. Because we observed that nearly a third of a crewmember's time was spent inefficiently holding on with one hand while trying to work with the other, a second study was conducted exploring the use of foot restraints and hand stabilization. During 18 episodes of single-foot restraint, for example, there were 52 instances of hand stabilization and 135 instances of stabilization attempts with the other foot. The paper concludes with some defining characteristics of adequate foot restraints, and a proposal for extending this research model to future spacecraft studies. PMID:8834945

Wichman, H A; Donaldson, S I

1996-02-01

116

Research based empathic knowledge for nursing: A translational strategy for disseminating phenomenological research findings to provide evidence for caring practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are interested in the kind of knowledge that is particularly relevant to caring practice and the way in which qualitative research findings can serve such knowledge. As phenomenological researchers we have been engaged with the question of how findings from such research can be re-presented and expressed more aesthetically. Such a movement towards a more aesthetic phenomenology may serve

Kathleen T. Galvin; Les Todres

2011-01-01

117

Bioethanol from Lignocellulosic Biomass: Current Findings Determine Research Priorities  

PubMed Central

“Second generation” bioethanol, with lignocellulose material as feedstock, is a promising alternative for first generation bioethanol. This paper provides an overview of the current status and reveals the bottlenecks that hamper its implementation. The current literature specifies a conversion of biomass to bioethanol of 30 to ~50% only. Novel processes increase the conversion yield to about 92% of the theoretical yield. New combined processes reduce both the number of operational steps and the production of inhibitors. Recent advances in genetically engineered microorganisms are promising for higher alcohol tolerance and conversion efficiency. By combining advanced systems and by intensive additional research to eliminate current bottlenecks, second generation bioethanol could surpass the traditional first generation processes. PMID:25614881

Kang, Qian; Appels, Lise; Tan, Tianwei

2014-01-01

118

New Research Findings on Emotionally Focused Therapy: Introduction to Special Section  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article introduces the special section "New Research Findings on Emotionally Focused Therapy." Emotionally focused couple therapy researchers have a strong tradition of outcome and process research and this special section presents new findings from three recent studies. The first study furthers the goal of determining the kinds of clients…

Johnson, Susan M.; Wittenborn, Andrea K.

2012-01-01

119

Exploiting multimedia in reproductive science education: research findings.  

PubMed

Education in reproductive science is operating from an outdated paradigm of teaching and learning. Traditionally, reproductive education follows the pattern where students read a textbook, listen to instructor presentations, re-read the textbook and class notes and then complete a test. This paradigm is inefficient, costly and has not incorporated the potential that technology can offer with respect to increases in student learning. Further, teachers of reproductive science (and all of science for that matter) have little training in the use of documented methods of instructional design and cognitive psychology. Thus, most of us have learned to teach by repeating the approaches our mentors used (both good and bad). The technology now exists to explain complex topics using multimedia presentations in which digital animation and three-dimensional anatomical reconstructions greatly reduce time required for delivery while at the same time improving student understanding. With funding from the Small Business Innovation Research program through the U.S. Department of Education, we have developed and tested a multimedia approach to teaching complex concepts in reproductive physiology. The results of five separate experiments involving 1058 university students and 122 patients in an OB/GYN clinic indicate that students and patients learned as much or more in less time when viewing the multimedia presentations when compared to traditional teaching methodologies. PMID:22827348

Senger, P L; Oki, A C; Trevisan, M S; McLean, D J

2012-08-01

120

Detecting Marker Inconsistencies in Human Gene Mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

When an inconsistency occurs in a pedigree, it may not be apparent which individual(s) are causing it. Here, a statistical method is described which identifies individuals most likely to have caused an inconsistency. The method is based on the sum of squared deviations between two predictors of an individual’s genotypes: (1) that given an individual’s own phenotype, and (2) that

Jurg Ott

1993-01-01

121

Researching the meaning of life: finding new sources of hope.  

PubMed

The purpose of the paper is to discuss means of assisting terminally ill patients in seeking for sources of meaning and hope, alongside the acknowledgment that their lifespan is short.Psycho-spiritual aspects make a substantial component patients suffering from incurable illness have to deal with. Evaluating and mapping the causes and expressions of psychological--spiritual suffering may assist in tailoring appropriate strategies of distress relief. Therefore, interventions should be given in accordance with their specific focus of difficulties, as well as with wishes and needs. Appropriate interventions in palliative psychotherapeutic rapport are inspired by identifying new sources for meaning in current life (sometimes, aided by past experiences or future visions). Reinforcing sources for meaning may attempt in providing patients amongst:--equilibrium, between suffering and sorrow (which sometimes take over the patient's world), and on the other hand, new experiences, sense of satisfaction and fulfillment. Individual's acknowledgment that he is not completely withdrawn from the circle of life, and yet significance and fulfillment in life still exists. For a holistic meaning ? centered intervention it is advisable to simultaneously integrate two central axes: the existential analysis, inspired by concepts driven from Frenkl's Logotherapy, such as freedom of choice, personal responsibility, inner truth, hope and transcendentalism; the operative axis, enhancing meaning and hope by assisting patient's wishes come true. Patients are aware, many times, that those wishes may be their last one, therefore perceive their fulfillment as crucial for their sense of meaning. Moreover, those wishes may elevate patient and family's spirit and reduce risk of demoralization. Whereas existential--spiritual interventions are recommended to be given by qualified professional therapists, the operation of fulfilling wishes is feasible by everyone, from family members to multi-disciplinary staff. Case illustrations for meaning--centered interventions will be discussed in the course of the paper. Cultural and traditional differences within the Israeli society, expressed in themes of work with patients, will lead to the conclusion, that there are many creative ways for researching meaning of life and sources for hope. PMID:20590354

Alon, Shirly

2010-01-01

122

Recent research related to juvenile sex offending: findings and directions for further research.  

PubMed

Serious scholarly inquiry into juvenile sex offending represents a relatively new field, dating from the mid 1940s. During the next 4 decades, a mere handful of articles exploring aspects of juvenile sex offending were added to the available literature. By the 1980s, however, the literature began to increase rapidly, a trend that continues today. The purpose of this article is a focused review of the juvenile sex offender literature cited in PubMed over the last 5 years (2009-2013). The authors have chosen studies that will bring readers up to date on research they believe impacts our current understanding of best practices in the management of juvenile sex offending. For convenience, our review is organized into topical categories including research into characteristics and typologies of juvenile sex offenders, risk assessment and recidivism, assessment and treatment, the ongoing debate about mandatory registration of sex offenders as it applies to juveniles, and other thought provoking studies that do not fit neatly into the aforementioned categories. The studies included contain findings that both reinforce and challenge currently held notions about best practices concerning treatment and public policy, suggesting that our knowledge of the field continues to evolve in important ways. PMID:24562765

Malin, H Martin; Saleh, Fabian M; Grudzinskas, Albert J

2014-04-01

123

Fox Chase analysis finds more cutting-edge cancer research supported by industry  

Cancer.gov

Nearly half of the research presented at ASCO’s annual meeting last year came from researchers with ties to companies, and the amount appears to be increasing every year, according to new findings from Fox Chase Cancer Center. The new findings will be presented this year at the 2012 American Society of Clinical Oncology Annual Meeting on Monday, June 4.

124

Anthropomorphic Agents as a UI Paradigm: Experimental Findings and a Framework for Research  

E-print Network

Anthropomorphic Agents as a UI Paradigm: Experimental Findings and a Framework for Research@prism.gatech.edu, stasko@cc.gatech.edu, junxiao@cc.gatech.edu Abstract Research on anthropomorphic agent propose a framework for studying anthropomorphic agents that can systematize the research. The framework

Stasko, John T.

125

Theme: Research Findings--Using What We Know to Improve Teaching and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seven theme articles explore use of research findings to enhance agricultural education (including supervised agricultural experience and Future Farmers of America research), teaching for higher level cognition in adult education, using research to plan curriculum, and improving leadership development in agricultural student organizations. (SK)

Cheek, Jimmy G.; And Others

1994-01-01

126

Do Researchers Have an Obligation to Actively Look for Genetic Incidental Findings?  

PubMed Central

The rapid growth of next-generation genetic sequencing has prompted debate about the responsibilities of researchers toward genetic incidental findings. Assuming there is a duty to disclose significant incidental findings, might there be an obligation for researchers to actively look for these findings? We present an ethical framework for analyzing whether there is a positive duty to look for genetic incidental findings. Using the ancillary care framework as a guide, we identify three main criteria that must be present to give rise to an obligation to look: high benefit to participants, lack of alternative access for participants, and reasonable burden on researchers. Our analysis indicates that there is no obligation to look for incidental findings today, but during the ongoing translation of genomic analysis from research to clinical care, this obligation may arise. PMID:23391059

Gliwa, Catherine; Berkman, Benjamin E.

2014-01-01

127

Motivated Sensitivity to Preference-Inconsistent Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

If preference-inconsistent information initiates more effortful cognitive analysis than does preference-consistent information, then people should be more sensitive processors of information they do not want to believe than of information they do want to believe. Three studies supported this prediction. Study 1 found that inferences drawn from favorable interpersonal feedback revealed a correspondence bias, whereas inferences drawn from unfavorable feedback

Peter H. Ditto; James A. Scepansky; Geoffrey D. Munro; Anne Marie Apanovitch; Lisa K. Lockhart

1998-01-01

128

Composing Features by Managing Inconsistent Requirements  

E-print Network

Composing Features by Managing Inconsistent Requirements Robin Laney, Thein T. Tun, Michael Jackson, UK {r.c.laney, t.t.tun, m.jackson, b.nuseibeh}@open.ac.uk Abstract. One approach to system do we deal with interference between the effects of features #12;2 Laney, Tun, Jackson and Nuseibeh

Tun, Thein

129

Sharing the Knowledge: Sharing Aggregate Genomic Findings with Research Participants in Developing Countries.  

PubMed

Returning research results to participants is recognised as an obligation that researchers should always try to fulfil. But can we ascribe the same obligation to researchers who conduct genomics research producing only aggregated findings? And what about genomics research conducted in developing countries? This paper considers Beskow's et?al. argument that aggregated findings should also be returned to research participants. This recommendation is examined in the context of genomics research conducted in developing countries. The risks and benefits of attempting such an exercise are identified, and suggestions on ways to avoid some of the challenges are proposed. I argue that disseminating the findings of genomic research to participating communities should be seen as sharing knowledge rather than returning results. Calling the dissemination of aggregate, population level information returning results can be confusing and misleading as participants might expect to receive individual level information. Talking about sharing knowledge is a more appropriate way of expressing and communicating the outcome of population genomic research. Considering the knowledge produced by genomics research a worthwhile output that should be shared with the participants and approaching the exercise as a 'sharing of knowledge', could help mitigate the risks of unrealistic expectations and misunderstanding of findings, whilst promoting trusting and long lasting relationships with the participating communities. PMID:25292263

Kerasidou, Angeliki

2014-10-01

130

NIH Researchers Find Resveratrol Helps Protect against Cardiovascular Disease in Animal Study  

MedlinePLUS

NIH researchers find Resveratrol helps protect against cardiovascular disease in animal study June 3, 2014 Resveratrol, a compound found in nuts, grapes, and wine, may protect against certain cardiovascular problems, according to ...

131

Alcohol Use Disorders, Research Findings | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Alcohol Use and Abuse Alcohol Use Research Findings Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table ... and adolescents years after they were exposed to alcohol in the womb. That is according to a ...

132

U of Minnesota researchers find that microRNA is tied to colon cancer tumor growth  

Cancer.gov

Researchers have identified microRNAs that may cause colon polyps from turning cancerous. The finding could help physicians provide more specialized, and earlier, treatment before colon cancer develops.

133

Researcher Tales and Research Ethics: The Spaces in Which We Find Ourselves  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The tales we tell here focus on the ethical issues arising from our research practice with vulnerable young participants and those for whom research has been inextricably linked with European imperialism and colonialism. The importance of relational obligations, temporality and potential for a continuing narrative approach to ethical research

White, Julie; Fitzgerald, Tanya

2010-01-01

134

A Transdisciplinary Approach to Training: Preliminary Research Findings Based on a Case Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the benefits, barriers and challenges of the transdisciplinary approach to training, and to present findings of a case analysis. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on the research findings of an experimental training program for Greek local government managers co-funded by the European…

Bimpitsos, Christos; Petridou, Eugenia

2012-01-01

135

School Effectiveness Research Findings in the Portuguese Speaking Countries: Brazil and Portugal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides findings of research on school effectiveness and discusses implications for evaluation in Brazil and Portugal. Most findings reported over the last decade have been published in Brazilian or Portuguese refereed journals. Thus, a brief literature review of such studies enables that knowledge to reach international scholars and…

Ferrão, Maria Eugénia

2014-01-01

136

Human Microbiome Project Researchers Find Vast Individual Differences in Our Bacteria  

E-print Network

Human Microbiome Project Researchers Find Vast Individual Differences in Our Bacteria When by NIH, the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) has announced first genomic compilation of the generalized that carry out metabolic activities, researchers estimate that the microbiome contributes some 8 million

Howitt, Ivan

137

Communicating pesticide neurotoxicity research findings and risks to decision-makers and the public.  

PubMed

The extensive research findings on neurotoxic risks of pesticides tend to remain in academic publications rather than being comprehensibly communicated to decision-makers and the public. Protecting health and promoting risk reduction, particularly in developing countries, requires access to current findings in a format that can inform policy, regulations, behaviour change and risk reduction. Successfully communicating research findings may require multiple strategies depending on the target audience's varying comprehension skills (e.g., numeracy literacy, visual literacy) and ability to interpret scientific data. To illustrate the complexities of risk communication, a case study of exposure to neurotoxic street pesticides amongst poor, urban South African communities attempting to control poverty related pests, is presented. What remains a challenge is how to communicate neurotoxicity research findings consistently and in a meaningful manner for a lay audience, consisting of both the general public and decision makers. A further challenge is to identify who will monitor and evaluate the ways in which these findings are communicated to ensure quality is maintained. Ultimately, researchers should carry the responsibility of knowledge translation and engaging with communication specialists when appropriate. Additionally, institutions should reward this as part of promotion and academic accolade systems, and funders should fund the translational process. Ethics review boards should also play an instrumental role in ensuring that knowledge translation is part of the ethics review requirement, while professional societies should take more responsibility for disseminating research findings to non-academics. PMID:24642183

Rother, Hanna-Andrea

2014-12-01

138

Examining inconsistencies in student reasoning approaches  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Student-centered instruction can lead to strong gains in physics learning. However, even after targeted instruction, many students still struggle to systematically analyze unfamiliar situations. We have been identifying sequences of questions that allow for an in-depth examination of inconsistencies in student reasoning approaches. On these sequences, many students demonstrate that they possess the abilities to perform the required reasoning, yet they fail to apply this reasoning to arrive at a correct answer. In certain contexts, students tend to âabandonâ suitable formal reasoning in favor of reasoning that was (perhaps) more intuitively appealing at that moment. In other cases, erroneous student reasoning approaches can be attributed to the relative salience of specific features of the problem. We present results from one sequence revealing inconsistencies in student reasoning in the context of capacitors. This sequence was administered in an introductory course in which Tutorials in Introductory Physics were implemented as interactive lectures.

Kryjevskaia, Mila; Stetzer, Mackenzie R.

2014-04-11

139

FRESHWATER FINDINGS, 1979-1982: RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY, DULUTH, MINNESOTA  

EPA Science Inventory

This report contains citations of publications for the years 1979-1982 on research conducted or supported by the Environmental Research Laboratory-Duluth. All published material has been organized into two major categories: (1) Journal Articles, Book Chapters, Proceedings, etc., ...

140

Researchers Find that Tumor Stem Cells are Good Models for Brain Tumor Research  

Cancer.gov

Researchers have found that tumor stem cell lines derived directly from human glioblastoma brain tumors are a better model to study the biology and physiology of glioblastomas than are cancer cell lines that have been commonly used in cancer research laboratories.

141

Research education: findings of a study of teaching-learning research using multiple analytical perspectives.  

PubMed

This multimethod, qualitative study provides results for educators of nursing doctoral students to consider. Combining the expertise of an empirical analytical researcher (who uses statistical methods) and an interpretive phenomenological researcher (who uses hermeneutic methods), a course was designed that would place doctoral students in the midst of multiparadigmatic discussions while learning fundamental research methods. Field notes and iterative analytical discussions led to patterns and themes that highlight the value of this innovative pedagogical application. Using content analysis and interpretive phenomenological approaches, together with one of the students, data were analyzed from field notes recorded in real time over the period the course was offered. This article describes the course and the study analysis, and offers the pedagogical experience as transformative. A link to a sample syllabus is included in the article. The results encourage nurse educators of doctoral nursing students to focus educational practice on multiple methodological perspectives. [J Nurs Educ. 2014;53(12):673-677.]. PMID:25406843

Vandermause, Roxanne; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; Fritz, Roschelle

2014-12-01

142

Clique-Finding for Heterogeneity and Multidimensionality in Biomarker Epidemiology Research: The CHAMBER Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Commonly-occurring disease etiology may involve complex combinations of genes and exposures resulting in etiologic heterogeneity. We present a computational algorithm that employs clique-finding for heterogeneity and multidimensionality in biomedical and epidemiological research (the ''CHAMBER'' algorithm). Methodology\\/Principal Findings: This algorithm uses graph-building to (1) identify genetic variants that influence disease risk and (2) predict individuals at risk for disease based

Richard A. Mushlin; Stephen Gallagher; Aaron Kershenbaum; Timothy R. Rebbeck

2009-01-01

143

Nutrition and Growth: Recent Research Findings and Research Priorities. Matrix No. 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research indicates that low income adults and infants in the United States are more likely to be overweight than undernourished. Very possibly, the assumptions upon which food supplement programs are based are ill-founded. While many of the currently operating broadly conceived supplemental food programs achieve desirable collateral…

Graham, George G.

144

Translating research findings to promote peace: moving from "field to forum" with verbatim theatre.  

PubMed

Peace, both personal and global, resides in understanding. Verbatim theatre is introduced as a vehicle for translating research findings to promote understanding and thereby, promote health. By shifting our translation lens from "bench to bedside" to "field to forum," new opportunities arise for moving nursing research-findings to an engaged audience. Stories from Pearl Harbor and Hiroshima survivors were woven into the verbatim performance, With Their Voices Raised. Analysis of audience members' reflections after the performance suggests that verbatim theatre created a connection based in openness, engagement, and trust that informed understanding and raised awareness about peace processes. PMID:23907299

Liehr, Patricia; Morris, Kate; Leavitt, Mary Ann; Takahashi, Ryutaro

2013-01-01

145

Disclosure of incidental findings in cancer genomic research: investigators' perceptions on obligations and barriers.  

PubMed

Although there has been significant research surrounding incidental findings (IFs), the guidelines and information provided to investigators remain unspecific, unclear, and often generalize the course of action to everyone in the field. We explored the perceptions and experiences of investigators regarding the return of IFs in genetic research. Researchers and clinician-researchers were invited to participate in semi-structured telephone interviews in Quebec and Ontario. Twenty professionals participated, and thematic analysis was used to analyze the transcriptions. Four contextual elements emerged: (i) degree of significance of results, (ii) respect for persons, (iii) infrastructure implications, and (iv) professional responsibilities. Our findings demonstrate that all investigators raised similar contextual elements surrounding the return of IFs. However, some nuances in participants' experiences of the understanding of professional responsibilities also emerged. Because of the existing nuances, a one-size-fits-all approach is inappropriate, suggesting that context ought to be considered in decisions about IFs. PMID:25492269

Kleiderman, E; Avard, D; Besso, A; Ali-Khan, S; Sauvageau, G; Hébert, J

2014-12-01

146

New Findings and Future Directions for Subjective Well-Being Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent findings on subjective well-being (SWB) are presented, and I describe the important questions for future research that these raise. Worldwide predictors of SWB such as social support and fulfillment of basic needs have been uncovered, and there are large differences in SWB between societies. A number of culture-specific predictors of SWB…

Diener, Ed

2012-01-01

147

How Do Psychology Researchers Find Studies to Include in Meta-Analyses?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Meta-analysis is a technique used in a variety of disciplines to combine and summarize the findings of previous research. One step in the production of a meta-analysis is a thorough literature search for relevant studies. A variety of methods can be used to increase the number of studies that are found. This study examines the extent to which some…

Arendt, Julie

2007-01-01

148

Public Understanding of Cognitive Neuroscience Research Findings: Trying to Peer beyond Enchanted Glass  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article considers the appeal of cognitive neuroscience research to the general public within the context of the deep puzzles involved in using our minds to understand how our minds work. It offers a few promising examples of findings that illuminate the ways of the mind and reveal these workings to be counter-intuitive with our subjective…

Grotzer, Tina A.

2011-01-01

149

Undersea researchers find little oil spill damage so far By KRISTA KLAUS | News Channel 8  

E-print Network

Undersea researchers find little oil spill damage so far By KRISTA KLAUS | News Channel 8 Published of the Gulf of Mexico in the wake of BP's massive Deepwater Horizon oil spill made a brief stopover today life before and after the largest oil spill in the history of the Gulf of Mexico. #12;"This

Belogay, Eugene A.

150

Genetically Informative Research on Adolescent Substance Use: Methods, Findings, and Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To provide an overview of the genetic epidemiology of substance use and misuse in adolescents. Method: A selective review of genetically informative research strategies, their limitations, and key findings examining issues related to the heritability of substance use and substance use disorders in children and adolescents is presented.…

Lynskey, Michael T.; Agrawal, Arpana; Heath, Andrew C.

2010-01-01

151

A Simple Syllogism-Solving Test: Empirical Findings and Implications for "g" Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been reported that the ability to solve syllogisms is highly "g"-loaded. In the present study, using a self-administered shortened version of a syllogism-solving test, the "BAROCO Short," we examined whether robust findings generated by previous research regarding IQ scores were also applicable to "BAROCO Short" scores. Five…

Shikishima, Chizuru; Yamagata, Shinji; Hiraishi, Kai; Sugimoto, Yutaro; Murayama, Kou; Ando, Juko

2011-01-01

152

Kimmel Cancer Center researchers find biomarker links clinical outcome with new model of lethal tumor metabolism  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at the Kimmel Cancer Center at Jefferson have demonstrated for the first time that the metabolic biomarker MCT4 directly links clinical outcomes with a new model of tumor metabolism that has patients “feeding” their cancer cells. Their findings were published online March 15 in Cell Cycle.

153

Finding links to cancer Masonic Cancer Center researchers work to identify carcinogens  

E-print Network

Finding links to cancer Masonic Cancer Center researchers work to identify carcinogens in the world around us--as well as ways to avoid them When scientists talk about "environmental" causes of cancer are linked to as many as two out of every three cancers diagnosed. DeAnn Lazovich, Ph.D., M.P.H., is one

Minnesota, University of

154

Researchers Find Abnormal Cells in the Blood Years before Leukemia is Diagnosed  

Cancer.gov

Researchers have shown that abnormal white blood cells can be present in patients' blood more than six years prior to the diagnosis of a chronic form of lymphocytic leukemia. This finding may lead to a better understanding of the cellular changes that characterize the earliest stages of the disease and how it progresses.

155

Managing innovation and change processes: Findings from the Minnesota innovation research program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes how innovations develop over time based on findings emerging from seven innovations included in the Minnesota Innovation Research Program. These observations are very different from typical models in the literature of the innovation process. The actual process is fluid, and includes an initial shock to propel the innovation into being, proliferation of the original idea, setbacks and

Roger Schroeder; Andrew Van de Ven; Gary Scudder; Douglas Polley

1986-01-01

156

Can Research Findings Help School Systems Obtain the Most Bang from the Construction Bucks?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on educational facilities is important to help industry and school districts make decisions on funding and maintaining good educational environments for their students. This paper presents findings from three syntheses of 232 studies on educational facilities and funding decisions, followed by discussions of practical solutions designed…

Earthman, Glen I.; Lemasters, Linda K.

157

Anthropomorphic Agents as a User Interface Paradigm: Experimental Findings and a Framework for Research  

E-print Network

Anthropomorphic Agents as a User Interface Paradigm: Experimental Findings and a Framework on anthropomorphic agent interfaces has produced widely divergent results. We suggest that this is due-based interfaces. We propose a framework for studying anthropomorphic agents that can systematize the research

Stasko, John T.

158

Research-Doctorate Programs in the Biomedical Sciences: Selected Findings from the NRC Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Research Doctorate Programs in the Biomedical Sciences: Selected Findings from the NRC Assessment" examines data on the biomedical sciences programs to gather additional insight about the talent, training environment, outcomes, diversity, and international participation in the biomedical sciences workforce. This report supports an earlier…

Lorden, Joan F., Ed.; Kuh, Charlotte V., Ed.; Voytuk, James A., Ed.

2011-01-01

159

Fox Chase researchers find a compound that targets a key mechanism behind lymphoma  

Cancer.gov

Scientists at Fox Chase Cancer Center in Philadelphia have come one step closer to developing the first treatment to target a key pathway in lymphoma. The new findings were announced at the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2012 on Tuesday, April 3.

160

Student Engagement and Student Outcomes: Key Findings from "CCSSE" Validation Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The findings from 20 years of research on undergraduate education have been unequivocal: The more actively engaged students are--with college faculty and staff, with other students, and with the subject matter they study--the more likely they are to learn, to stick with their studies, and to attain their academic goals. The existing literature,…

McClenney, Kay; Marti, C. Nathan; Adkins, Courtney

2012-01-01

161

[What happens to children and adolescents with mental disorders? Findings from long-term outcome research].  

PubMed

Research on the long-term outcome of mental disorders originating in childhood and adolescence is an important part of developmental psychopathology. After a brief sketch of relevant terms of outcome research, the first part of this review reports findings based on heterotypic cohort studies. The major second part of this review presents findings based on long-term outcome studies dealing with homotypic diagnostic groups. In particular, the review focuses on the course and prognosis of ADHD, anxiety disorders, depression, conduct disorders, eating disorders, autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, and selective mutism. Findings mainly support the vulnerability hypothesis regarding mental disorders with early manifestation in childhood and adolescence as frequent precursors of mental disorders in adulthood. The discussion focuses on the impact of early manifesting disorders in the frame of general mental morbidity and of the effect of interventions, which is not yet sufficiently discernible. PMID:24240498

Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph

2013-11-01

162

Effects of Inconsistent Behaviors on Person Impressions: A Multidimensional Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined effects of unexpected behavioral information on person impressions. Inconsistency was manipulated with respect to Implicit Personality Theory. Found that behaviors with inconsistent evaluation implications did not affect impressions and that effects of inconsistent information depended on dimension of contrast, valence of initial…

Vonk, Roos

1995-01-01

163

New research findings on emotionally focused therapy: introduction to special section.  

PubMed

This article introduces the special section "New Research Findings on Emotionally Focused Therapy." Emotionally focused couple therapy researchers have a strong tradition of outcome and process research and this special section presents new findings from three recent studies. The first study furthers the goal of determining the kinds of clients for which EFT is effective (Denton, Wittenborn, & Golden, this issue) and the next two studies (Furrow, Edwards, Choi, & Bradley, this issue; Wittenborn, this issue) focus on the person of the therapist and provide some implications for EFT intervention and training. Together, these three studies provide valuable lessons on how to deepen our knowledge of the application of EFT for different populations and therapists. PMID:22765321

Johnson, Susan M; Wittenborn, Andrea K

2012-06-01

164

Positive Effects of Utilizing Relationships Between Inconsistencies for more Effective Inconsistency  

E-print Network

Inconsistency Resolution (NIER Track) Alexander Nöhrer Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria alexander.noehrer@jku.at Alexander Reder Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria alexander.reder@jku.at Alexander Egyed Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria alexander.egyed@jku.at ABSTRACT State-of-the-art modeling tools can help

Egyed, Alexander

165

New findings and future directions for subjective well-being research.  

PubMed

Recent findings on subjective well-being (SWB) are presented, and I describe the important questions for future research that these raise. Worldwide predictors of SWB such as social support and fulfillment of basic needs have been uncovered, and there are large differences in SWB between societies. A number of culture-specific predictors of SWB have also been found. Research on social comparison suggests that a world standard for a desirable income has developed. New findings on adaptation indicate that habituation to conditions is not always complete and that circumstances in some cases can have a large and lasting effect on SWB. An important finding is that high SWB benefits health, longevity, citizenship, and social relationships. Because of the benefits of SWB as well as the strong effects societal conditions can have on it, I proposed national accounts of SWB, which are now being seriously considered by nations. Finally, I review advances in methodology that are needed to move beyond conclusions based on simple cross-sectional correlations based on global self-report scales. Each of the findings raises new and important questions for future research. PMID:23163434

Diener, Ed

2012-11-01

166

U-M researchers find driver of breast cancer stem cell metastasis  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center have found that a cancer gene linked to aggressive spread of the disease promotes breast cancer stem cells. The finding implies a new way to target the behavior of these lethal cells. The finding involves the cancer gene RhoC, which has previously been shown to promote metastasis of many types of cancer. RhoC levels increase as breast cancer progresses and high levels of RhoC are associated with worse patient survival.

167

HESS Opinions "On forecast (in)consistency in a hydro-meteorological chain: curse or blessing?"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood forecasting increasingly relies on Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) forecasts to achieve longer lead times (see Cloke et al., 2009; Cloke and Pappenberger, 2009). One of the key difficulties that is emerging in constructing a decision framework for these flood forecasts is when consecutive forecasts are different, leading to different conclusions regarding the issuing of forecasts, and hence inconsistent. In this opinion paper we explore some of the issues surrounding such forecast inconsistency (also known as "jumpiness", "turning points", "continuity" or number of "swings"; Zoster et al., 2009; Mills and Pepper, 1999; Lashley et al., 2008). We begin by defining what forecast inconsistency is; why forecasts might be inconsistent; how we should analyse it; what we should do about it; how we should communicate it and whether it is a totally undesirable property. The property of consistency is increasingly emerging as a hot topic in many forecasting environments (for a limited discussion on NWP inconsistency see Persson, 2011). However, in this opinion paper we restrict the discussion to a hydro-meteorological forecasting chain in which river discharge forecasts are produced using inputs from NWP. In this area of research (in)consistency is receiving recent interest and application (see e.g., Bartholmes et al., 2008; Pappenberger et al., 2011).

Pappenberger, F.; Cloke, H. L.; Persson, A.; Demeritt, D.

2011-01-01

168

Repackaging Prostate Cancer Support Group Research Findings: An e-KT Case Study.  

PubMed

In the context of psychosocial oncology research, disseminating study findings to a range of knowledge "end-users" can advance the well-being of diverse patient subgroups and their families. This article details how findings drawn from a study of prostate cancer support groups were repackaged in a knowledge translation website-www.prostatecancerhelpyourself.ubc.ca-using Web 2.0 features. Detailed are five lessons learned from developing the website: the importance of pitching a winning but feasible idea, keeping a focus on interactivity and minimizing text, negotiating with the supplier, building in formal pretests or a pilot test with end-users, and completing formative evaluations based on data collected through Google™ and YouTube™ Analytics. The details are shared to guide the e-knowledge translation efforts of other psychosocial oncology researchers and clinicians. PMID:24713522

Oliffe, John L; Han, Christina S; Lohan, Maria; Bottorff, Joan L

2015-01-01

169

UNC researchers find new genetic target for a different kind of cancer drug  

Cancer.gov

Researchers from the UNC School of Medicine have discovered that the protein RBM4, a molecule crucial to the process of gene splicing, is drastically decreased in multiple forms of human cancer, including lung and breast cancers. The finding, published in the journal Cancer Cell, offers a new route toward therapies that can thwart the altered genetic pathways that allow cancer cells to proliferate and spread.

170

UCSD researchers find enzyme accelerates malignant stem cell cloning in chronic myeloid leukemia  

Cancer.gov

An international team, headed by researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, has identified a key enzyme in the reprogramming process that promotes malignant stem cell cloning and the growth of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), a cancer of the blood and marrow that experts say is increasing in prevalence. The findings are published in the Dec. 24 online early edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). UCSD is home to the Moores Comprehensive Cancer Center.

171

Addressing inconsistencies in black carbon literature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The literature describing black carbon (BC) emissions, and their effect on Earth’s climate, is growing rapidly. Unfortunately, inconsistencies in definitions; data collection and characterization; system boundaries; and time horizons have led to confusion about the relative importance of BC compared to other climate-active pollutant (CAPs). We discuss three sources of confusion: 1) Currently available BC inventories are not directly comparable to those used by the IPCC to track the greenhouse gases (GHGs) considered in the Kyoto Protocol (CO2, CH4, N2O). In particular, BC inventories often include all emissions: natural and anthropogenic in origin, controllable and non-controllable. IPCC inventories include only anthropogenic emissions. This BC accounting is appropriate for atmospheric science deliberations, but risks being interpreted as an overstatement against official Kyoto GHG inventories in a policy or control context. The IPCC convention of using 1750 as the starting year for emission inventories further complicates matters: significant BC emissions were emitted previous to that date by both human and natural sources. Though none of the pre-1750 BC emissions remain in the atmosphere today, their legacy presents challenges in assigning historical responsibility for associated global warming among sectors and regional populations. 2) Inconsistencies exist in the specific emissions sources considered in atmospheric models used to predict net BC forcing often lead to widely varying climate forcing estimates. For example, while some analyses consider only fossil fuel 1, others include both open biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion 2, and yet others include sources beyond biomass and fossil fuel burning 3. 3) Inconsistencies exist in how analyses incorporate the relationship between BC emissions and the associated cooling aerosols and processes, such as organic carbon (OC), and aerosol indirect effects (AIE). Unlike Kyoto GHGs, BC is rarely emitted in pure form and always with significant emissions of OC aerosols. The OC/BC ratio, however, is quite variable by emission source and often poorly characterized both in its current state and under intervention scenarios. In contrast, sulfur emissions, which become cooling sulfate (SO4) aerosols, are less intrinsically linked to other emissions, i.e., they can be controlled separately. Comparisons often ignore the substantial differences in uncertainties across the CAPs. These sources of confusion operate in a landscape of shifting scientific understanding of the RF from BC, including the work by Ramanathan and Carmichael (2008) indicating a BC RF that is roughly double the IPCC AR4 1 value for BC without organic carbon (OC). Doubling the impact of BC has a major impact on the relative importance of sectors for interventions. An approach is to consider post-AR4 estimates for BC, methane, etc. as part of sensitivity analyses, until a full new assessment becomes available. 1. Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, et al. Working Group I Report: "The Physical Science Basis". Cambridge, UK and New York, NY, US: IPCC; 2007. 2. Jacobson MZ. Strong radiative heating due to the mixing state of black carbon in atmospheric aerosols. Nature 2001;409:695-7. 3. Ramanathan V, Carmichael G. Global and regional climate changes due to black carbon. Nature Geoscience 2008;1:221-7.

Shonkoff, S. B.; Chafe, Z.; Smith, K. R.

2010-12-01

172

Language of instruction in Tanzania: Why are research findings not heeded?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The issue of language of instruction (LOI) and its effects on education in Tanzanian secondary education has been widely researched since the early 1980s. In 2009, the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training proposed a new education and training policy that allows English to be used as LOI from nursery school to tertiary education. The proposed policy goes against what researchers in this area have recommended over the years. In the light of the proposed policy, the author of this article felt the need to review studies done on LOI in Tanzania from 1974 to date, aiming to eliminate or greatly reduce the negative effects of the policy on education in Tanzania. Quoting examples, the paper demonstrates students' levels of proficiency in English; suggests reasons why governmental policy has over time ignored research findings; and recommends as well as proposes the way forward.

Qorro, Martha A. S.

2013-06-01

173

Management of incidental findings during imaging research in “healthy” volunteers: current UK practice  

PubMed Central

Objectives Incidental findings (IF) are becoming increasingly common due to the proliferation of imaging research. IFs can be life-changing for “healthy” volunteers. This study examined variation in IF management in UK research studies of healthy volunteers, including comparison with ethical and legal guidelines, thus providing baseline data and informing future practice. Methods Questionnaire of participant background [medical/non-medical; radiologist/non-radiologist; years as principal investigator (PI)], type of research (involving children or not), institutional policy, volunteer information, radiologist involvement in reporting scans and IF disclosure mechanisms. Investigator's current and perceived “ideal” practice was examined. Participants were PIs performing imaging research of healthy volunteers approved by UK ethics committees (2006–2009). Results 63/146 (43%) surveys completed. 54/61 (88.5%) had site-specific guidelines. Information commonly provided to volunteers should IF be found: personal data (51/62; 82%), contingency plans (54/62; 87%) and disclosure to general practitioner (GP)/treating physician (47/62; 76%). PIs used different strategies for image review. Commonest: radiologist reports research scans only when researcher suspicious of IF [15/57 (26%) compared with 5/28 (16%) in ideal practice]. Commonest ideal reporting strategy: routine reporting by specialist radiologists [9/28 (29%) compared with 8/57 (14%) in current practice]. 49/56 (87.5%) have a standardised disclosure contingency plan, usually involving GP. PIs most commonly disclosed IFs to volunteers when judged relevant (27/58; 47%), most commonly face to face (22/54; 41%), by volunteer's GP (26/60; 43%). Background of PI influenced consent, reporting and disclosure practice. Conclusion There is wide variation in handling IFs in UK imaging research. Much of the current practice contravenes the vague existing legal and ethical guidelines, and is unlikely to be in the best interests of volunteers or researchers. PMID:21937616

Booth, T C; Waldman, A D; Wardlaw, J M; Taylor, S A; Jackson, A

2012-01-01

174

Childhood leukaemia risks: from unexplained findings near nuclear installations to recommendations for future research.  

PubMed

Recent findings related to childhood leukaemia incidence near nuclear installations have raised questions which can be answered neither by current knowledge on radiation risk nor by other established risk factors. In 2012, a workshop was organised on this topic with two objectives: (a) review of results and discussion of methodological limitations of studies near nuclear installations; (b) identification of directions for future research into the causes and pathogenesis of childhood leukaemia. The workshop gathered 42 participants from different disciplines, extending widely outside of the radiation protection field. Regarding the proximity of nuclear installations, the need for continuous surveillance of childhood leukaemia incidence was highlighted, including a better characterisation of the local population. The creation of collaborative working groups was recommended for consistency in methodologies and the possibility of combining data for future analyses. Regarding the causes of childhood leukaemia, major fields of research were discussed (environmental risk factors, genetics, infections, immunity, stem cells, experimental research). The need for multidisciplinary collaboration in developing research activities was underlined, including the prevalence of potential predisposition markers and investigating further the infectious aetiology hypothesis. Animal studies and genetic/epigenetic approaches appear of great interest. Routes for future research were pointed out. PMID:24938793

Laurier, D; Grosche, B; Auvinen, A; Clavel, J; Cobaleda, C; Dehos, A; Hornhardt, S; Jacob, S; Kaatsch, P; Kosti, O; Kuehni, C; Lightfoot, T; Spycher, B; Van Nieuwenhuyse, A; Wakeford, R; Ziegelberger, G

2014-09-01

175

Visual context and abstract language A well-documented finding in psycholinguistic research is that visual context rapidly affects  

E-print Network

Visual context and abstract language A well-documented finding in psycholinguistic research. It is an attempt to bridge between evidence coming from psycholinguistic and embodied language research on the role

Moeller, Ralf

176

Involving Scientists in Outreach: Incentives, Barriers, and Recommendations from Research Findings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Public agencies that fund scientific research are increasingly requiring that researchers invest some of their funding in education or outreach activities that have a "broader impact." Yet barriers exist that inhibit scientists' motivation to participate in K-12 outreach. We will share findings from a quantitative and qualitative study that examined the motivations, rewards, and obstacles for scientists who participate in outreach. We found that most researchers became interested in doing outreach out of a desire to contribute and an expectation of having fun and enjoying the experience. They typically gave outreach presentations away from work, acted as a resource for school teachers, or helped with teacher professional development. However, scientists viewed outreach as a form of volunteer work that was auxiliary to their other responsibilities. Thus, time constraints, a lack of information about outreach opportunities, and the lower value placed on outreach by departments constituted significant barriers to their participation. Scientists involved in outreach typically found their efforts to be rewarding, but occasionally factors left a negative impression, such as poor audience response, classroom management difficulties, organizational problems, or demonstrations not going as planned. Based upon our findings, we offer recommendations on how scientists' participation and experiences in K-12 outreach can be improved, including how to successfully recruit scientists, create a positive outreach experience, and increase institutional support for outreach work.

Melton, G.; Laursen, S.; Andrews, E.; Weaver, A.; Hanley, D.; Shamatha, J. H.

2004-12-01

177

A decade of research with dyslexic college students: A summary of findings.  

PubMed

The major findings of several research projects that investigated dyslexic college students are summarized in this paper. Consistent findings of these investigations led to the following conclusions. 1) Developmental dyslexia is a syndrome made up of the following four symptoms: slow rate of reading, error-prone oral reading, poor written spelling, and grammatically incorrect writing; 2) all these symptoms could be traced to a poor mastery of the grapheme-phoneme relational rules; 3) developmental dyslexia can be found in subjects who appear to have adequate oral language skills; 4) ex-dyslexics who appear to be "poor spellers but good readers" have subtle reading deficits; and 5) the 20 dyslexic subjects investigated appear to constitute a homogeneous group which raises questions regarding dyslexia subtypes. PMID:24243451

Aaron, P G; Phillips, S

1986-01-01

178

Research on the Caretaking of Children of Incarcerated Parents: Findings and Their Service Delivery Implications  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews research findings on caretaking-related problems associated with the absence of parents from the home following incarceration. It focuses on the impact of incarceration on the welfare and adjustment of urban African American children and on the assumption of caretaking responsibilities by other caretakers, principally maternal grandmothers. Noting the complex situational difficulties involved and the potential burdens associated with surrogate parenting in general, and with this population in particular, the service-provider implications of this parenting arrangement are considered in this review. Findings indicate that problems associated with incarceration of parents tend to be intergenerational and vary considerably in complexity and severity. To the extent that they impact the children involved, these issues should be addressed in coordinated service delivery focusing on prevention. PMID:18311320

Hanlon, Thomas E.; Carswell, Steven B.; Rose, Marc

2007-01-01

179

Dana-Farber researchers find new culprit in castration-resistant prostate cancer  

Cancer.gov

Scientists at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute have discovered a molecular switch that enables advanced prostate cancers to spread without stimulation by male hormones, which normally are needed to spur the cancer's growth. They say the finding could lead to a new treatment for prostate cancers that are no longer controlled by hormone-blocking drugs. The researchers report in the Dec. 14 issue of Science that the molecular switch occurs in a protein, EZH2, which is increased in these tumors, termed castration-resistant prostate cancers (CRPC).

180

Inconsistencies and open questions regarding low-dose health effects of ionizing radiation.  

PubMed Central

The effects on human health of exposures to ionizing radiation at low doses have long been the subject of dispute. In this paper we focus on open questions regarding the health effects of low-dose exposures that require further investigations. Seemingly contradictory findings of radiation health effects have been reported for the same exposed populations, or inconsistent estimates of radiation risks were found when different populations and exposure conditions were compared. Such discrepancies may be indicative of differences in sensitivities among the applied methods of epidemiological analysis or indicative of significant discrepancies in health consequences after comparable total exposures of different populations under varying conditions. We focus first on inconsistencies and contradictions in presentations of the state of knowledge by different authoritative experts. We then review studies that found positive associations between exposure and risks in dose ranges where traditional notions (generalized primarily from high-dose studies of A-bomb survivors or exposed animals) would have predicted negligible effects. One persistent notion in many reviews of low-dose effects is the hypothesis of reduced biological effectiveness of fractionated low-dose exposures, compared to that of the same acute dose. This assumption is not supported by data on human populations. From studies of populations that live in contaminated areas, more and more evidence is accumulating on unusual rates of various diseases other than radiation-induced malignancies, health effects that are suspected to be associated with relatively low levels of internal exposures originating from radioactive fallout. Such effects include congenital defects, neonatal mortality, stillbirths, and possibly genetically transmitted disease. A range of open questions challenges scientists to test imaginative hypotheses about induction of disease by radiation with novel research strategies. Images Figure 1. PMID:7895705

Nussbaum, R H; Köhnlein, W

1994-01-01

181

Addressing mathematical inconsistency: Cantor and Godel refuted  

E-print Network

This article critically reappraises arguments in support of Cantor's theory of transfinite numbers. The following results are reported: i) Cantor's proofs of nondenumerability are refuted by analyzing the logical inconsistencies in implementation of the reductio method of proof and by identifying errors. Particular attention is given to the diagonalization argument and to the interpretation of the axiom of infinity. ii) Three constructive proofs have been designed that support the denumerability of the power set of the natural numbers, P(N), thus implying the denumerability of the set of the real numbers R. These results lead to a Theorem of the Continuum that supersedes Cantor's Continuum Hypothesis and establishes the countable nature of the real number line, suggesting that all infinite sets are denumerable. Some immediate implications of denumerability are discussed: i) Valid proofs should not include inconceivable statements, defined as statements that can be found to be false and always lead to contradiction. This is formalized in a Principle of Conceivable Proof. ii) Substantial simplification of the axiomatic principles of set theory can be achieved by excluding transfinite numbers. To facilitate the comparison of sets, infinite as well as finite, the concept of relative cardinality is introduced. iii) Proofs of incompleteness that use diagonal arguments (e.g. those used in Godel's Theorems) are refuted. A constructive proof, based on the denumerability of P(N), is presented to demonstrate the existence of a theory of first-order arithmetic that is consistent, sound, negation-complete, decidable and (assumed p.r. adequate) able to prove its own consistency. Such a result reinstates Hilbert's Programme and brings arithmetic completeness to the forefront of mathematics.

J. A. Perez

2010-02-24

182

DEMOGRAPHIC AND CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CONSISTENT AND INCONSISTENT LONGITUDINAL REPORTERS OF LIFETIME SUICIDE ATTEMPTS IN ADOLESCENCE THROUGH YOUNG ADULTHOOD  

PubMed Central

Background Within the context of the recent release of the 2012 National Suicide Prevention Strategy, and as the third leading cause of death for individuals 10- to 24-years-old, suicide prevention is a national priority. A consistently reported and robust risk factor for suicide is a prior suicide attempt; however few studies have investigated the consistency of self-reported lifetime suicide attempts. The goal of this study is to describe the prevalence and characteristics of inconsistent reporting of suicide attempt in a longitudinal cohort of participants annually assessed in 12 waves of data collected from middle school (age 12) to early adulthood (age 22). Methods Among this cohort (n = 678), we compared those who consistently, inconsistently, and never reported a suicide attempt according to demographic and clinical variables. Results Almost 90% (88.5%) of our sample inconsistently reported a lifetime suicide attempt. Consistent and inconsistent reporters of lifetime suicide attempt did not differ on demographic or clinical variables with the exception of higher rates of lifetime suicidal ideation among consistent reporters (P < .001). Significant clinical differences were evident between inconsistent reporters and nonattempters. Conclusions Some level of inconsistent reporting of suicide attempt is inevitable when schools or health care systems systematically screen for suicide risk in adolescents. Inconsistent and consistent reporters of suicide attempt differ on few demographic or clinical variables; further prospective research should investigate the reasons for inconsistent reporting as well as the validity and stability of reporting in predicting future suicidal behavior. PMID:23804209

Hart, Shelley R.; Musci, Rashelle J.; Ialongo, Nicholas; Ballard, Elizabeth D.; Wilcox, Holly C.

2014-01-01

183

Science in the Eyes of Preschool Children: Findings from an Innovative Research Tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How do young children view science? Do these views reflect cultural stereotypes? When do these views develop? These fundamental questions in the field of science education have rarely been studied with the population of preschool children. One main reason is the lack of an appropriate research instrument that addresses preschool children's developmental competencies. Extensive body of research has pointed at the significance of early childhood experiences in developing positive attitudes and interests toward learning in general and the learning of science in particular. Theoretical and empirical research suggests that stereotypical views of science may be replaced by authentic views following inquiry science experience. However, no preschool science intervention program could be designed without a reliable instrument that provides baseline information about preschool children's current views of science. The current study presents preschool children's views of science as gathered from a pioneering research tool. This tool, in the form of a computer "game," does not require reading, writing, or expressive language skills and is operated by the children. The program engages children in several simple tasks involving picture recognition and yes/no answers in order to reveal their views about science. The study was conducted with 120 preschool children in two phases and found that by the age of 4 years, participants possess an emergent concept of science. Gender and school differences were detected. Findings from this interdisciplinary study will contribute to the fields of early childhood, science education, learning technologies, program evaluation, and early childhood curriculum development.

Dubosarsky, Mia D.

184

When Learners Surpass Their Models: The Acquisition of American Sign Language from Inconsistent Input  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examines the impact of highly inconsistent input on language acquisition. The American deaf community provides a unique opportunity to observe children exposed to nonnative language models as their only linguistic input. This research is a detailed case study of one child acquiring his native language in such circumstances. It…

Singleton, Jenny L.; Newport, Elissa L.

2004-01-01

185

Feminism, status inconsistency, and women's intimate partner victimization in heterosexual relationships.  

PubMed

This study used a random community sample of 303 women in romantic relationships to investigate the role of educational and employment status inconsistency and patriarchal family ideology as risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization, while considering demographic factors and relationship context variables. Sequential multivariate logistic regression models demonstrated a decrease in the odds of IPV victimization for Hispanic women and women who were older as compared with their counterparts. In addition, increased relationship distress, family-of-origin violence, and employment status inconsistency significantly increased the odds of IPV. Clinical intervention strategies and future research directions are discussed. PMID:25031363

Franklin, Cortney A; Menaker, Tasha A

2014-07-01

186

Application of research findings and summary of research needs: Bud Britton Memorial Symposium on Metabolic Disorders of Feedlot Cattle.  

PubMed

Updated research findings with acidosis, feedlot bloat, liver abscesses, and sudden death syndromes were presented at the Bud Britton Memorial Symposium on Metabolic Disorders of Feedlot Cattle. Possible industry applications include the need to establish guidelines for use of clostridial vaccines in feedlot cattle, further assessment of the relationship between acidosis and polioencephalomalacia, examination of the effects of various ionophores on the incidence of metabolic disorders, and evaluation of the effects of feed bunk management and limit- and restricted-feeding programs on the incidence of metabolic disorders. A multidisciplinary approach among researchers, consulting nutritionists and veterinarians, and feedlot managers will be required for effective progress in research and in the application of research findings. Areas suggested for further research include 1) assessment of feed consumption patterns and social behavior of cattle in large-pen, feedlot settings; 2) evaluation of the relationship between feed intake management systems (feed bunk management programs, limit- and programmed-feeding) and the incidence of metabolic disorders, including delineation of the role of variability in feed intake in the etiology of such disorders; 3) efforts to improve antemortem and postmortem diagnosis, and to establish standardized regional or national epidemiological databases for various metabolic disorders; 4) ascertaining the accuracy of diagnosis of metabolic disorders and determining the relationship of previous health history of animals to the incidence of metabolic disorders; 5) further defining ruminal and intestinal microbiology as it relates to metabolic disorders and deeper evaluation of metabolic changes that occur with such disorders; 6) continued appraisal of the effects of grain processing and specific feed ingredients and nutrients on metabolic disorders, and development of new feed additives to control or prevent these disorders; and 7) application of biotechnology to develop grain varieties with altered nutrient degradation profiles that decrease the propensity for disastrous acid loads in the rumen, feed-grade enzymes and probiotics that modify nutrient digestion or microbial profiles in the rumen and intestine, and specific strains of ruminal bacteria and protozoa that alter ruminal and metabolic conditions that may precipitate metabolic disorders. PMID:9464915

Galyean, M L; Eng, K S

1998-01-01

187

Reducing Inconsistency in Integrating Data From Different Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main problems in integrating databases into a common repository is the possible inconsistency of the values stored in them, i.e., the very same term may have different values, due to misspelling, a permuted word order, spelling variants and so on. The authors present an automatic method for reducing inconsistency found in existing databases, and thus, improving data

Sergio Luján-mora; Manuel Palomar

2001-01-01

188

Lexicographical Inference over Inconsistent DL-Based Ontologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Logical inconsistency may often occur throughout the development stage of a DL-based ontology. We apply the lexicographic inference to reason over inconsistent DL-based ontologies without repairing them first. We address the problem of checking consequences in a SHIQ ontology that are classically inferred from every consistent (or coherent) subontology having the highest lex- icographic precedence. We propose a method for

Jianfeng Du; Guilin Qi; Yi-dong Shen

2008-01-01

189

DETECTING DIGITAL IMAGE FORGERIES BY MEASURING INCONSISTENCIES OF BLOCKING ARTIFACT  

E-print Network

DETECTING DIGITAL IMAGE FORGERIES BY MEASURING INCONSISTENCIES OF BLOCKING ARTIFACT Shuiming Ye 1. These inconsistencies, if detected, could be used to check image integrity. Besides, forgeries creation process would blocking artifacts are then checked as a trace of image forgery. Our proposed approach is able to detect

Sun, Qibin

190

Intra-Word Inconsistency in Apraxic Hebrew-Speaking Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intra-word inconsistency in a child is perceived as an indicator of speech impairment. Because the speech of typically developing children is highly variable, the extent and nature of the inconsistency must be defined when used as a diagnostic marker of speech impairment (McLeod, S., & Hewett, S. R. (2008). Variability in the production of words…

Tubul-Lavy, Gila

2012-01-01

191

Contrastive Reasoning with Inconsistent Ontologies School of Automation  

E-print Network

Contrastive Reasoning with Inconsistent Ontologies Jun Fang School of Automation Northwestern by using contrastive reasoning, the reasoning of contrasts which are expressed as contrary conjunctions for reasoning with inconsistent ontologies, as compared with the usual simple boolean answer, i.e., either "yes

van Harmelen, Frank

192

Findings of the US Research Needs Workshop on the Topic of Fusion Power  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES) conducted a Research Needs Workshop, referred to as ReNeW, in June 2009. The information developed at this workshop will help OFES develop a plan for US fusion research during the ITER era, roughly the next two decades. The workshop was organized in five Themes, one of which was Harnessing Fusion Power (or Fusion Power for short). The top level goal of the Fusion Power Theme was to identify the research needed to develop the knowledge to design and build, with high confidence, robust and reliable systems that can convert fusion products to useful forms of energy in a reactor environment, including a self-sufficient supply of tritium fuel. Each Theme was subsequently subdivided into Panels to address specific topics. The Fusion Power Panel topics were: fusion fuel cycle; power extraction; materials science; safety and environment; and reliability, availability, maintainability and inspectability (RAMI). Here we present the key findings of the Fusion Power Theme.

Meier, W R; Raffray, A R; Kurtz, R J; Morley, N B; Reiersen, W T; Sharpe, P; Willms, S

2009-09-16

193

Findings of the US research needs workshop on the topic of fusion power  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES) conducted a Research Needs Workshop, referred to as ReNeW, in June 2009. The information developed at this workshop will help OFES develop a plan for US fusion research during the ITER era, roughly the next two decades. The workshop was organized in five Themes, one of which was Harnessing Fusion Power (or Fusion Power for short). The top level goal of the Fusion Power Theme was to identify the research needed to develop the knowledge to design and build, with high confidence, robust and reliable systems that can convert fusion products to useful forms of energy in a reactor environment, including a self-sufficient supply of tritium fuel. Each Theme was subsequently subdivided into Panels to address specific topics. The Fusion Power Panel topics were: Fusion Fuel Cycle; Power Extraction; Materials Science; Safety and Environment; and Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Inspectability (RAMI). Here we present the key findings of the Fusion Power Theme.

W. R. Meier; A. R. Raffray; R. J. Kurtz; N. B. Morley; W. T. Reiersen; Phil Sharpe; S. Willms

2010-12-01

194

Exome Sequencing and Unrelated Findings in the Context of Complex Disease Research: Ethical and Clinical Implications  

PubMed Central

Exome sequencing has identified the causes of several Mendelian diseases, although it has rarely been used in a clinical setting to diagnose the genetic cause of an idiopathic disorder in a single patient. We performed exome sequencing on a pedigree with several members affected with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), in an effort to identify candidate variants predisposing to this complex disease. While we did identify some rare variants that might predispose to ADHD, we have not yet proven the causality for any of them. However, over the course of the study, one subject was discovered to have idiopathic hemolytic anemia (IHA), which was suspected to be genetic in origin. Analysis of this subject’s exome readily identified two rare non-synonymous mutations in PKLR gene as the most likely cause of the IHA, although these two mutations had not been documented before in a single individual. We further confirmed the deficiency by functional biochemical testing, consistent with a diagnosis of red blood cell pyruvate kinase deficiency. Our study implies that exome and genome sequencing will certainly reveal additional rare variation causative for even well-studied classical Mendelian diseases, while also revealing variants that might play a role in complex diseases. Furthermore, our study has clinical and ethical implications for exome and genome sequencing in a research setting; how to handle unrelated findings of clinical significance, in the context of originally planned complex disease research, remains a largely uncharted area for clinicians and researchers. PMID:21794208

Lyon, Gholson J.; Jiang, Tao; Van Wijk, Richard; Wang, Wei; Bodily, Paul Mark; Xing, Jinchuan; Tian, Lifeng; Robison, Reid J.; Clement, Mark; Lin, Yang; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Ying; Moore, Barry; Glessner, Joseph T.; Elia, Josephine; Reimherr, Fred; van Solinge, Wouter W.; Yandell, Mark; Hakonarson, Hakon; Wang, Jun; Johnson, William Evan; Wei, Zhi; Wang, Kai

2012-01-01

195

Detecting and Characterizing Semantic Inconsistencies in Ported Code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Adding similar features and bug fixes often requires porting program patches from reference implementations and adapting them to target implementations. Porting errors may result from faulty adaptations or inconsistent updates. This paper investigates (1) the types of porting errors found in practice, and (2) how to detect and characterize potential porting errors. Analyzing version histories, we define five categories of porting errors, including incorrect control- and data-flow, code redundancy, inconsistent identifier renamings, etc. Leveraging this categorization, we design a static control- and data-dependence analysis technique, SPA, to detect and characterize porting inconsistencies. Our evaluation on code from four open-source projects shows that SPA can detect porting inconsistencies with 65% to 73% precision and 90% recall, and identify inconsistency types with 58% to 63% precision and 92% to 100% recall. In a comparison with two existing error detection tools, SPA improves precision by 14 to 17 percentage points.

Ray, Baishakhi; Kim, Miryung; Person,Suzette; Rungta, Neha

2013-01-01

196

Detecting and Characterizing Semantic Inconsistencies in Ported Code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Adding similar features and bug fixes often requires porting program patches from reference implementations and adapting them to target implementations. Porting errors may result from faulty adaptations or inconsistent updates. This paper investigates (I) the types of porting errors found in practice, and (2) how to detect and characterize potential porting errors. Analyzing version histories, we define five categories of porting errors, including incorrect control- and data-flow, code redundancy, inconsistent identifier renamings, etc. Leveraging this categorization, we design a static control- and data-dependence analysis technique, SPA, to detect and characterize porting inconsistencies. Our evaluation on code from four open-source projects shows thai SPA can dell-oct porting inconsistencies with 65% to 73% precision and 90% recall, and identify inconsistency types with 58% to 63% precision and 92% to 100% recall. In a comparison with two existing error detection tools, SPA improves precision by 14 to 17 percentage points

Ray, Baishakhi; Kim, Miryung; Person, Suzette J.; Rungta, Neha

2013-01-01

197

Rape Treatment Outcome Research: Empirical Findings and State of the Literature  

PubMed Central

This article reviews empirical support for treatments targeting women sexually assaulted during adolescence or adulthood. Thirty-two articles were located using data from 20 separate samples. Of the 20 samples, 12 targeted victims with chronic symptoms, three focused on the acute period post-assault, two included women with chronic and acute symptoms, and three were secondary prevention programs. The majority of studies focus on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and/or anxiety as treatment targets. Cognitive Processing Therapy and Prolonged Exposure have garnered the most support with this population. Stress Inoculation Training and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing also show some efficacy. Of the four studies that compared active treatments, few differences were found. Overall, cognitive behavioral interventions lead to better PTSD outcomes than supportive counseling does. However, even in the strongest treatments more than one-third of women retain a PTSD diagnosis at post-treatment or drop out of treatment. Discussion highlights the paucity of research in this area, methodological limitations of examined studies, generalizability of findings, and important directions for future research at various stages of trauma recovery. PMID:19442425

Vickerman, Katrina A.; Margolin, Gayla

2009-01-01

198

Wireless technologies and accessibility for people with disabilities: findings from a policy research instrument.  

PubMed

The near universal deployment in the United States of a wide variety of information and communications technologies, both wired and wireless, creates potential barriers to use for several key populations, including the poor, people with disabilities, and the aging. Equal access to wireless technologies and services can be achieved through a variety of mechanisms, including legislation and regulations, market-based solutions, and awareness and outreach-based approaches. This article discusses the results of policy research conducted by the Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center on Wireless Technologies (Wireless RERC) using policy Delphi polling methodology to probe stakeholders' opinions on key access barrier issues and to explore potential policy responses. Participants included disability advocates, disability/wireless technology policy makers, and product developers/manufacturers. Respondent input informed subsequent development of potential policy initiatives to increase access to these technologies. The findings from the Delphi suggest that awareness issues remain most important, especially manufacturer awareness of user needs and availability of consumer information for selecting the most appropriate wireless devices and services. Other key issues included the ability of people with disabilities to afford technologies and inadequacies in legislation and policy making for ensuring their general accessibility, as well as usefulness in emergencies. Technical issues, including interoperability, speech-to-text conversion, and hearing aid compatibility, were also identified by participating stakeholders as important. To address all these issues, Delphi respondents favored goals and options congruent with voluntary market-driven solutions where possible but also supported federal involvement, where necessary, to aid this process. PMID:18939655

Baker, Paul M A; Moon, Nathan W

2008-01-01

199

Can I be sued for that? Liability risk and the disclosure of clinically significant genetic research findings.  

PubMed

Genomic researchers increasingly are faced with difficult decisions about whether, under what circumstances, and how to return research results and significant incidental findings to study participants. Many have argued that there is an ethical-maybe even a legal-obligation to disclose significant findings under some circumstances. At the international level, over the last decade there has begun to emerge a clear legal obligation to return significant findings discovered during the course of research. However, there is no explicit legal duty to disclose in the United States. This creates legal uncertainty that may lead to unmanaged variation in practice and poor quality care. This article discusses liability risks associated with the disclosure of significant research findings for investigators in the United States. PMID:24676095

McGuire, Amy L; Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Zawati, Ma'n H; Clayton, Ellen Wright

2014-05-01

200

Research Interests: Outside of life (plants and animals) I find process plasmas to be the most complex and  

E-print Network

Research Interests: Outside of life (plants and animals) I find process plasmas to be the most neutralization of the ions and subsequent reflection of energetic neutrals into the gas phase. These fast

Goeckner, Matthew

201

St. Jude research finds that survivors of childhood cancer at risk for developing hormone deficiencies as adults  

Cancer.gov

St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital finds childhood cancer patients treated with cranial irradiation may have hormone deficiencies that impact health decades later; results highlight need for lifelong health screenings.

202

St. Jude researchers find that unhealthy habits more than double risk of metabolic syndrome in childhood cancer survivors  

Cancer.gov

St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital study finds that few adult survivors of childhood cancer follow a heart-healthy lifestyle that protects against heart disease, diabetes and other health problems.

203

Can I be sued for that? Liability risk and the disclosure of clinically significant genetic research findings  

PubMed Central

Genomic researchers increasingly are faced with difficult decisions about whether, under what circumstances, and how to return research results and significant incidental findings to study participants. Many have argued that there is an ethical—maybe even a legal—obligation to disclose significant findings under some circumstances. At the international level, over the last decade there has begun to emerge a clear legal obligation to return significant findings discovered during the course of research. However, there is no explicit legal duty to disclose in the United States. This creates legal uncertainty that may lead to unmanaged variation in practice and poor quality care. This article discusses liability risks associated with the disclosure of significant research findings for investigators in the United States. PMID:24676095

McGuire, Amy L.; Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Zawati, Ma’n H.; Clayton, Ellen Wright

2014-01-01

204

Research on Developing and Monitoring Progress on IEP Goals: Current Findings and Implications for Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on a system of developing and monitoring progress on individualized education program (IEP) goals has been conducted over a 5-year period at Minnesota's Institute for Research on Learning Disabilities. This research and development project is summarized by outlining the goal and rationale of the research, presenting the overall research

Wesson, Caren; And Others

205

Benchmarking Classification Models for Software Defect Prediction: A Proposed Framework and Novel Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software defect prediction strives to improve software quality and testing efficiency by constructing predictive classification models from code attributes to enable a timely identification of fault-prone modules. Several classification models have been evaluated for this task. However, due to inconsistent findings regarding the superiority of one classifier over another and the usefulness of metric-based classification in general, more research is

Stefan Lessmann; Bart Baesens; Christophe Mues; Swantje Pietsch

2008-01-01

206

Fostering implementation of health services research findings into practice: a consolidated framework for advancing implementation science  

PubMed Central

Background Many interventions found to be effective in health services research studies fail to translate into meaningful patient care outcomes across multiple contexts. Health services researchers recognize the need to evaluate not only summative outcomes but also formative outcomes to assess the extent to which implementation is effective in a specific setting, prolongs sustainability, and promotes dissemination into other settings. Many implementation theories have been published to help promote effective implementation. However, they overlap considerably in the constructs included in individual theories, and a comparison of theories reveals that each is missing important constructs included in other theories. In addition, terminology and definitions are not consistent across theories. We describe the Consolidated Framework For Implementation Research (CFIR) that offers an overarching typology to promote implementation theory development and verification about what works where and why across multiple contexts. Methods We used a snowball sampling approach to identify published theories that were evaluated to identify constructs based on strength of conceptual or empirical support for influence on implementation, consistency in definitions, alignment with our own findings, and potential for measurement. We combined constructs across published theories that had different labels but were redundant or overlapping in definition, and we parsed apart constructs that conflated underlying concepts. Results The CFIR is composed of five major domains: intervention characteristics, outer setting, inner setting, characteristics of the individuals involved, and the process of implementation. Eight constructs were identified related to the intervention (e.g., evidence strength and quality), four constructs were identified related to outer setting (e.g., patient needs and resources), 12 constructs were identified related to inner setting (e.g., culture, leadership engagement), five constructs were identified related to individual characteristics, and eight constructs were identified related to process (e.g., plan, evaluate, and reflect). We present explicit definitions for each construct. Conclusion The CFIR provides a pragmatic structure for approaching complex, interacting, multi-level, and transient states of constructs in the real world by embracing, consolidating, and unifying key constructs from published implementation theories. It can be used to guide formative evaluations and build the implementation knowledge base across multiple studies and settings. PMID:19664226

Damschroder, Laura J; Aron, David C; Keith, Rosalind E; Kirsh, Susan R; Alexander, Jeffery A; Lowery, Julie C

2009-01-01

207

Research on the effect of noise at different times of day: Models, methods and findings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Social surveys of residents' responses to noise at different times of day are reviewed. Some of the discrepancies in published reports about the importance of noise at different times of day are reduced when the research findings are classified according to the type of time of day reaction model, the type of time of day weight calculated and the method which is used to estimate the weight. When the estimates of nighttime weights from 12 studies are normalized, it is found that they still disagree, but do not support stronger nighttime weights than those used in existing noise indices. Challenges to common assumptions in nighttime response models are evaluated. Two of these challenges receive enough support to warrant further investigation: the impact of changes in numbers of noise events may be less at night than in the day and nighttime annoyance may be affected by noise levels in other periods. All existing social survey results in which averages of nighttime responses were plotted by nighttime noise levels are reproduced.

Fields, J. M.

1985-01-01

208

Parental inconsistency, impulsive choice and neural value representations in healthy adolescents  

PubMed Central

A well-characterized potential marker for addiction is impulsive choice, stably measured by delay discounting (DD) paradigms. While genetic influences partly account for inter-individual variance in impulsivity, environmental factors such as parenting practices may have an important role. The present study investigates how inconsistent fulfillment of delayed reward promises impacts on DD. A combined correlational and experimental functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) design was performed in a sample of 48 healthy adolescents (13–15 years). More specifically, neural activation during a DD task was investigated at two assessment points (T0 and T1). Adolescents' self-reports of parenting and substance use were assessed at T0. Between assessment points, we experimentally varied the reliability of delayed reward promises, measuring the impact of this intervention on DD and neural value processing at T1. In the correlational part, same-sex parent reward inconsistency was associated with steeper DD and an attenuated subjective value (SV) representation in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Steeper DD was in turn associated with alcohol use during the past year. In the experimental part, the reward inconsistency manipulation resulted in an attenuation of the NAcc SV representation, similar to the parental inconsistency effect. Together, our correlational and experimental findings raise new light on how parents may influence their children's degree of impulsivity, making parenting a potential target in addiction prevention. PMID:24736798

Schneider, S; Peters, J; Peth, J M; Büchel, C

2014-01-01

209

Thomas Jefferson University researchers find new biomarker to identify hepatitis B-infected patients at risk for liver cancer  

Cancer.gov

Hepatitis B-infected patients with significantly longer telomeres—the caps on the end of chromosomes that protect our genetic data— were found to have an increased risk of getting liver cancer compared to those with shorter ones, according to findings presented by researchers at Jefferson’s Kimmel Cancer Center at the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) Annual Meeting 2012.

210

Changing the behavior of healthcare professionals: the use of theory in promoting the uptake of research findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Objective: The uptake of research findings into routine health care is a haphazard and unpredictable process. The usefulness of the results of implementation studies is limited, due in part to the lack of an underlying framework of the important dimensions of research studies in this area and the healthcare settings within which they are conducted,and may,subsequently be used. Study

Martin Eccles; Jeremy Grimshaw; Anne Walker; Marie Johnston; Nigel Pitts

211

Impact of Problem Finding on the Quality of Authentic Open Inquiry Science Research Projects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem finding is a creative process whereby individuals develop original ideas for study. Secondary science students who successfully participate in authentic, novel, open inquiry studies must engage in problem finding to determine viable and suitable topics. This study examined problem finding strategies employed by students who successfully…

LaBanca, Frank

2008-01-01

212

Finding Tomorrow's Cures Northwestern University Plans for a Medical Research Facility  

E-print Network

Chicago and the city's economic development plans by bringing jobs, research, innovation, technology of Medicine conducts lifesaving research, creates jobs, fuels the Chicago economy and ensures the health of these research and patient care facilities, the hub of a world-class research and development enterprise

Contractor, Anis

213

“Information is Information”: A public perspective on incidental findings in clinical and research genome-based testing  

PubMed Central

Background The potential for genomic incidental findings is increasing with the use of genome-based testing. At the same time approaches to clinical decision making are shifting to shared decision-making models involving both the healthcare community and the public. The public’s voice has been nearly absent in discussions on managing incidental findings. Methods We conducted 9 focus groups and 9 interviews (N=63) with a broad cross-section of lay public groups to elucidate public viewpoints on incidental findings that could occur as a result of genome-based testing in clinical and research situations. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results Participants wanted incidental findings disclosed to them whether or not these were clinical or research findings. Participants used different terms to define and describe incidental findings; they wanted to know that incidental findings are possible and be given a choice to learn about them. Personal utility was an important reason for disclosure, and participants believed that managing information is a shared responsibility between professionals and themselves. Conclusion Broad public input is needed in order to understand and incorporate the public’s perspective on management of incidental findings as disclosure guidelines and policies are developed in clinical and research settings. PMID:23590238

Daack-Hirsch, Sandra; Driessnack, Martha; Hanish, Alyson; Johnson, Vanessa A.; Shah, Lisa L.; Simon, Christian M.; Williams, Janet K.

2015-01-01

214

Research findings working with the p53 and Rb1 targeted osteosarcoma mouse model  

PubMed Central

Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common bone cancer in children and young adults. The etiology of osteosarcoma is currently unknown. Besides the predominant osteoblasts, the presence of cartilage forming chondrocytes within its tumor tissues suggests a role of chondrogenesis in osteosarcoma development. Runx2 is a master transcription factor both for osteoblast differentiation and for chondrocyte maturation. Interestingly, RUNX2 has been shown to directly interact with p53 and Rb1, two genes essential for osteosarcoma development in mice. However the in vivo relevance of Runx2 during osteosarcoma progression has not been elucidated. We have recently shown that targeting Runx2 expression in hypertrophic chondrocytes delays chondrocyte maturation. It has also been shown that osteoblast-specific deletion of p53 and Rb1 genes developed osteosarcoma in mice. Here, we report our recent research findings using these osteosarcoma mouse models as well as human osteosarcoma tissues. We have detected high-level RUNX2 expression in human osteoblastic osteosarcoma, while chondroblastic osteosarcoma is predominant with chondroid matrix. To minimize the effect of strain difference, we have backcrossed osterix-Cre mice onto congenic FVB/N genetic background. We also detected low-GC content (36%) in sequence around the floxed Rb1 gene and demonstrated that addition of BSA into the reaction system increases the efficiency of PCR genotyping of floxed Rb1 gene. Finally, we successfully generated multiple osteosarcoma mouse models with or without Runx2 transgenic background. These mice showed heterogeneous osteosarcoma phenotypes and marker gene expression. Characterization of these mice will facilitate understanding the role of Runx2 in osteosarcoma pathogenesis and possibly, for osteosarcoma treatment. PMID:24959378

Lu, Yaojuan; Gitelis, Steven; Lei, Guanghua; Ding, Ming; Maki, Carl; Mira, Ranim R; Zheng, Qiping

2014-01-01

215

Purdue study finds "label-free" imaging tool tracks nanotubes in cells, blood for biomedical research:  

Cancer.gov

Purdue University researchers have demonstrated a new imaging tool for tracking structures called carbon nanotubes in living cells and the bloodstream, which could aid efforts to perfect their use in biomedical research and clinical medicine.

216

Sanford-Burnham researchers find RNA molecules in urine, tissue that detect prostate cancer  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute have identified a set of RNA molecules that are detectable in tissue samples and urine of prostate cancer patients, but not in normal healthy individuals.

217

Everyday research in the knowledge society: who uses ICTs to find job and health information  

Microsoft Academic Search

If we take a broad definition of'research'such as'to search or examine with continued care', or'close careful study'(widely accepted meanings), then those who'research outside the walls'includes just about everyone: both those following a'academic'mode such as industrial research staff or public\\/civil servants, and those involved in other research modes, like service workers, consultants and ordinary people in'everyday life'. This report focuses on

Ben Anderson

2004-01-01

218

99 Jumpstarts to Research: Topic Guides for Finding Information on Current Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book, created by three reference librarians, teaches the beginning researcher good research habits. It provides names of tools students should consult for a well-rounded, well-researched paper on a controversial issue in the news. Books, specialized databases, online resources, and agencies to contact are all included. Each "jumpstart" has…

Whitley, Peggy; Olson, Catherine; Goodwin, Susan Williams

219

Teachers' Approaches to Finding and Using Research Evidence: An Information Literacy Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The use of research evidence produced by others is seen as central to the reflective practice of school teachers. There have been many recent UK initiatives aimed at improving access to research evidence, but there are still concerns about the lack of engagement by teachers. Previous research has looked at this issue from different…

Williams, Dorothy; Coles, Louisa

2007-01-01

220

Teachers' approaches to finding and using research evidence: an information literacy perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background The use of research evidence produced by others is seen as central to the reflective practice of school teachers. There have been many recent UK initiatives aimed at improving access to research evidence, but there are still concerns about the lack of engagement by teachers. Previous research has looked at this issue from different perspectives, including the content and

Dorothy Williams; Louisa Coles

2007-01-01

221

English-Language Teachers' Engagement with Research: Findings from Bangladesh  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we report on a small-scale study in which we investigated English-language teachers' engagement with educational research. We conceptualized engagement with research as reading and systematically using research for professional development. Using questionnaires and in-depth interviews, we gathered empirical materials from 40…

Anwaruddin, Sardar M.; Pervin, Nasrin

2015-01-01

222

The Ethical Maze: Finding an Inclusive Path towards Gaining Children's Agreement to Research Participation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the UK, the ethics of engaging in sociological research directly involving children have primarily been shaped by definitions of "competence". While this has been a crucial guideline for researchers in shaping the concept of informed consent, it has also acted, perhaps inadvertently, as a way of excluding particular children from the research

Cocks, Alison J.

2006-01-01

223

Research in Online and Blended Learning in the Business Disciplines: Key Findings and Possible Future Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this literature review, we examine and assess the state of research of online and blended learning in the business disciplines with the intent of assessing the state of the field and identifying opportunities for meaningful future research. We review research from business disciplines such as Accounting, Economics, Finance, Information Systems…

Arbaugh, J. B.; Godfrey, Michael R.; Johnson, Marianne; Pollack, Birgit Leisen; Niendorf, Bruce; Wresch, William

2009-01-01

224

44 CFR 5.9 - Inconsistent issuances of FEMA and its predecessor agencies superseded.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Inconsistent issuances of FEMA and its predecessor agencies superseded...Provisions § 5.9 Inconsistent issuances of FEMA and its predecessor agencies superseded. Policies and procedures of any of FEMA's predecessor agencies inconsistent...

2014-10-01

225

44 CFR 5.9 - Inconsistent issuances of FEMA and its predecessor agencies superseded.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2011-10-01 true Inconsistent issuances of FEMA and its predecessor agencies superseded...Provisions § 5.9 Inconsistent issuances of FEMA and its predecessor agencies superseded. Policies and procedures of any of FEMA's predecessor agencies inconsistent...

2012-10-01

226

44 CFR 5.9 - Inconsistent issuances of FEMA and its predecessor agencies superseded.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Inconsistent issuances of FEMA and its predecessor agencies superseded...Provisions § 5.9 Inconsistent issuances of FEMA and its predecessor agencies superseded. Policies and procedures of any of FEMA's predecessor agencies inconsistent...

2011-10-01

227

44 CFR 5.9 - Inconsistent issuances of FEMA and its predecessor agencies superseded.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Inconsistent issuances of FEMA and its predecessor agencies superseded...Provisions § 5.9 Inconsistent issuances of FEMA and its predecessor agencies superseded. Policies and procedures of any of FEMA's predecessor agencies inconsistent...

2010-10-01

228

44 CFR 5.9 - Inconsistent issuances of FEMA and its predecessor agencies superseded.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Inconsistent issuances of FEMA and its predecessor agencies superseded...Provisions § 5.9 Inconsistent issuances of FEMA and its predecessor agencies superseded. Policies and procedures of any of FEMA's predecessor agencies inconsistent...

2013-10-01

229

48 CFR 52.225-14 - Inconsistency between English Version and Translation of Contract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Inconsistency between English Version and Translation of Contract. 52.225-14 Section...Inconsistency between English Version and Translation of Contract. As prescribed in 25...Inconsistency Between English Version and Translation of Contract (FEB 2000) In the...

2012-10-01

230

48 CFR 52.225-14 - Inconsistency between English Version and Translation of Contract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Inconsistency between English Version and Translation of Contract. 52.225-14 Section...Inconsistency between English Version and Translation of Contract. As prescribed in 25...Inconsistency Between English Version and Translation of Contract (FEB 2000) In the...

2011-10-01

231

48 CFR 52.225-14 - Inconsistency between English Version and Translation of Contract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Inconsistency between English Version and Translation of Contract. 52.225-14 Section...Inconsistency between English Version and Translation of Contract. As prescribed in 25...Inconsistency Between English Version and Translation of Contract (FEB 2000) In the...

2013-10-01

232

48 CFR 52.225-14 - Inconsistency between English Version and Translation of Contract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Inconsistency between English Version and Translation of Contract. 52.225-14 Section...Inconsistency between English Version and Translation of Contract. As prescribed in 25...Inconsistency Between English Version and Translation of Contract (FEB 2000) In the...

2010-10-01

233

Thinking Languages in L2 Writing: Research Findings and Pedagogical Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports the findings of part of a major study exploring the disciplinary writing processes and perceptions of 15 Chinese graduate students in sciences and engineering at a major Canadian university. The findings relate to the thinking languages of the participants in writing disciplinary assignments. The study reveals that whether an…

Hu, Jim

2003-01-01

234

The crystalline revolution :ISO's finding opens a new research field, "astro-mineralogy"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicate minerals were known to be a main component of dust in space, but detecting them in a crystallised state has been a surprise. It allows the identification of precise silicates in astronomical objects, which will open "a totally new field in astronomy: astro-mineralogy. This is the crystalline revolution", said the author, Dutch astronomer Rens Waters of Amsterdam university. "It's really fantastic, this possibility of identifying the silicates. Before ISO everybody thought that all silicates in space were amorphous, without a well-ordered internal structure; that means you cannot differentiate among the many different silicates existing. Now we can try to identify them and track their presence in different regions. A whole new research field is starting", said Rens Waters, who brought to the press conference samples of several terrestrial crystalline silicates: olivine and pyroxene, the most common silicates on Earth. Crystals give key clues about the physical conditions and evolutionary history of crystal-bearing objects. The precise mechanisms for crystal-making are now being researched now very actively in the laboratories, although some working-hypotheses are already being used. For instance, crystals can be made by heating the material to temperatures above 1 300 degrees Centigrade and then cooling it down slowly. Those found so far by ISO are at -170 degrees Centigrade, both in stellar envelopes and in protoplanetary discs. In the case of the old stars -red giant stars, where crystals are found to account for as much as 20% of all the surrounding dust, astronomers think that that the high temperatures near the star triggered the crystallisation of the silicates. In the protoplanetary discs some experts postulate that electric shocks - like lightning flashes - heated the dust, which cooled afterwards. "The crystals detected by ISO in these discs have a size of about a thousandth of a millimetre. They collide with each other, forming bigger and bigger bodies. Models predict that in about ten to one hundred million years they will make planets", Waters says. "In fact, crystalline silicates are very common in our own Solar System. You also have them in the comet Hale Bopp!". The reason why crystalline silicates had not been detected before in stars has to do with their low temperatures. Cold material emits mostly infrared light, which means an infrared space telescope like ESA's ISO was needed. The two high-resolution spectrometers on-board the satellite, able to detect the 'chemical fingerprint' of the crystals, did the rest. Astronomers are sure about the discovery because those chemical fingerprints, the spectra, can be compared in laboratories with spectra from crystalline silicates found on Earth. This method has demonstrated the crystalline structure and has even already allowed the identification of some of the crystals, such as forsterite and enstatite. However, crystalline silicates are a large family and their chemical signatures can be very similar; to enlarge the list of precise crystals more work will be needed, say experts in space chemistry. That is just one of the open questions requiring lab work. There's at least another one: crystalline silicates are found around old stars, in protoplanetary disks and in our own Solar System, but not in the space among the stars; astronomers can't explain it yet. "Crystalline silicates are synthesised around the stars; then that dust goes into the interstellar space, and enriches the raw material out of which more stars and planets will form. So you would expect crystals also to be in the interstellar medium! Crystals will certainly make us learn a lot...", says Waters. "This finding shows that ISO is really unveiling the chemistry of the Universe", says ESA astronomer Alberto Salama, chairman of the workshop about ISO results in spectroscopy held this week at ESA's Villafranca station in Madrid where the results were presented to the scientific community. "This is becoming more and more a 'hot

2000-02-01

235

Turning a negative into a positive: Researchers find promising use for excessive nitrate  

E-print Network

for excessive nitrate For 30 years, farmers in northwest central Texas have known that high level of nitrates in irrigation water from the Seymour Aquifer is a problem. Now, with research conducted by Texas AgriLife Research scientists, that problem may... drinking water standard of 10 parts per million, according to Texas Water Devel- opment Board data. Although that level is too high for drinking water, AgriLife researchers recently found that excess nitrate in irrigation water can be a source...

Wythe, Kathy

2009-01-01

236

Returning incidental findings from genetic research to children: views of parents of children affected by rare diseases  

PubMed Central

Purpose To explore parental perceptions and experiences regarding the return of genomic incidental research findings in children with rare diseases. Methods Parents of children affected by various rare diseases were invited to participate in focus groups or individual telephone interviews in Montreal and Ottawa. Fifteen participants were interviewed and transcriptions were analysed using thematic analysis. Results Four emergent themes underscored parental enthusiasm for receiving incidental findings concerning their child's health: (1) right to information; (2) perceived benefits and risks; (3) communication practicalities: who, when, and how; and (4) service needs to promote the communication of incidental findings. Parents believed they should be made aware of all results pertaining to their child's health status, and that they are responsible for transmitting this information to their child, irrespective of disease severity. Despite potential negative consequences, respondents generally perceived a favourable risk-benefit ratio in receiving all incidental findings. Conclusions Understanding how parents assess the risks and benefits of returning incidental findings is essential to genomic research applications in paediatric medicine. The authors believe the study findings will contribute to establishing future best practices, although further research is needed to evaluate the impact of parental decisions on themselves and their child. PMID:24356209

Kleiderman, Erika; Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Fernandez, Conrad V; Boycott, Kym M; Ouellette, Gail; Wong-Rieger, Durhane; Adam, Shelin; Richer, Julie; Avard, Denise

2014-01-01

237

Clique-Finding for Heterogeneity and Multidimensionality in Biomarker Epidemiology Research: The CHAMBER Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Not Available Bibtex entry for this abstract Preferred format for this abstract (see Preferences) Find Similar Abstracts: Use: Authors Title Return: Query Results Return items starting with number Query Form Database: Astronomy Physics arXiv e-prints

Richard A. Mushlin; Stephen Gallagher; Aaron Kershenbaum; Timothy R. Rebbeck; Jonatan R. Ruiz

2009-01-01

238

PRELIMINARY FINDINGS FROM THE NERL RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK PARTICULATE MATTER PANEL STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is currently conducting the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Research Triangle Park (RTP) Particulate Matter (PM) Panel Study. This study represents a one year investigation of PM and related co-pollutants involving two dist...

239

Roswell Park-led study finds most cancer research trials do not assess participants’ tobacco use  

Cancer.gov

While tobacco use can significantly hamper cancer treatment, few cancer researchers are incorporating tobacco assessment into their clinical studies. That’s the conclusion a group of investigators led by researchers at Roswell Park Cancer Institute drew from a recent survey of cancer clinical trials.

240

Challenges and Solutions for Libraries in Serving Entrepreneurship Needs: Findings from ProQuest Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many variations in programs and stages of development exist with regard to entrepreneurship in higher education academic institutions; however, there do appear to be common areas of information needed to support study, teaching, and research. To identify the information needs necessary to support the study of entrepreneurship, ProQuest undertook a comprehensive research effort in late 2006 with higher education institutions

Karen Resch Mckeown

2010-01-01

241

Fostering implementation of health services research findings into practice: a consolidated framework for advancing implementation science  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Many interventions found to be effective in health services research studies fail to translate into meaningful patient care outcomes across multiple contexts. Health services researchers recognize the need to evaluate not only summative outcomes but also formative outcomes to assess the extent to which implementation is effective in a specific setting, prolongs sustainability, and promotes dissemination into other settings.

Laura J Damschroder; David C Aron; Rosalind E Keith; Susan R Kirsh; Jeffery A Alexander; Julie C Lowery

2009-01-01

242

Classroom Teaching Skills. The Research Findings of the Teacher Education Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book describes some of the research undertaken during the Teacher Education Project, a four and one-half year research and development project undertaken by the Universities of Nottingham, Leicester, and Exeter (Great Britain) and funded by the Department of Education and Science. This project involved observation of over 1,000 lessons and…

Wragg, E. C., Ed.

243

Research foci for career and technical education: findings from a national Delphi study  

E-print Network

for relevant and focused research for the CTE profession. The primary purpose of this study was to identify consensus among CTE experts using a Delphi technique regarding problems, objectives, and activities that serve as a research agenda for CTE. The study...

Lambeth, Jeanea Marie

2009-05-15

244

A Comparative Study of International Cultural and Ethical Values: Preliminary Findings and Research Agenda  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the preliminary results of an ongoing international research project to identify the cultural values and beliefs of business students and executives in several different countries and analyze the relationship between culture and reasons behind business decisions. First, we describe a research project to assess business decisions, based on established theories of ethics. Second, we describe a model

Stephen J. J. McGuire; Angeles Lillian; Y. Fok; Kern Kwong

245

How College Affects Students: Findings and Insights from Twenty Years of Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 14 chapters of this book review and synthesize research on the influence of college on students. Chapter 1 provides a detailed discussion of the evolution of research on college outcomes as an area of study, outlines the conceptual framework that guided the review, and provides a general overview of the study. Chapter 2 summarizes the major…

Pascarella, Ernest T.; Terenzini, Patrick T.

246

Anthropomorphic Agents as a User Interface Paradigm: Experimental Findings and a Framework for Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on anthropomorphic agent interfaces has produced widely divergent results. We suggest that this is due to insufficient consideration of key factors that influence the perception and effectiveness of agent-based interfaces. We propose a framework for studying anthropomorphic agents that can systematize the research. The framework emphasizes features of the agent, the user, and the task the user is performing.

Richard Catrambone

247

6- Homeless Youth in the United States: Recent Research Findings and Intervention Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the authors cite research indicating that youth may be the single age group most at risk of becoming homeless, yet comparatively little research has been done in the past decade on this vulnerable population. Some important progress has been made, including longitudinal studies on youth \\

Paul A. Toro; Amy Dworsky; Patrick J. Fowler

248

Nurse Practitioner competency standards: Findings from collaborative Australian and New Zealand research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The title, Nurse Practitioner, is protected in most jurisdictions in Australia and New Zealand and the number of nurse practitioners is increasing in health services in both countries. Despite this expansion of the role, there is scant national or international research to inform development of nurse practitioner competency standards.Objectives: The aim of this study was to research nurse practitioner

Glenn Gardner; Jenny Carryer; Anne Gardner; Sandra Dunn

2006-01-01

249

What women who use drugs have to say about ethical research: findings of an exploratory qualitative study.  

PubMed

Drug users are generally seen as a vulnerable population requiring special protection in research; however, to date there has been little empirical research into the ethics of research with illicit drug users. Moreover, the available research has tended to treat "drug users" as a homogeneous category, and has failed to consider potential gender differences in users' experiences. Drawing on focus groups with twenty-seven female drug users in Vancouver, Canada, this study examines women's experiences of research and what they see as ethical and respectful engagement. Many study participants talked about feeling dehumanized as a result of prior research participation. Women were critical of the assumption that drug users lack the capacity to take part in research, and affirmed the appropriateness of financial incentives. A variety of motivations for research participation were identified, including a desire for financial gain and altruistic concerns such as a desire to help others. These findings suggest that women drug users' views on ethical research differ from prevailing assumptions among institutional review boards about how research with such populations should proceed. PMID:22228063

Bell, Kirsten; Salmon, Amy

2011-12-01

250

Bonus Awards for Teachers in Texas' Performance Pay Program: Findings from the First Round of TEEG Schools. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent report published by the National Center on Performance Incentives (NCPI) presents findings from the second-year of a multi-year evaluation of the Texas Educator Excellence Grant (TEEG) program, a statewide educator incentive program that operated in Texas. As part of this evaluation report, researchers examined how first-year TEEG schools…

National Center on Performance Incentives, 2009

2009-01-01

251

Statement Summarizing Research Findings on the Issue of the Relationship Between Food-Additive-Free Diets and Hyperkinesis in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Advisory Committee on Hyperkinesis and Food Additives paper summarized some research findings on the issue of the relationship between food-additive-free diets and hyperkinesis in children. Based on several challenge studies, it is concluded that the evidence generally refutes Dr. B. F. Feingold's claim that artificial colorings in…

Lipton, Morris; Wender, Esther

252

UTSW researchers find that inherited mutated gene raises lung cancer risk for women, those who never smoked  

Cancer.gov

People who have an inherited mutation of a certain gene have a high chance of getting lung cancer — higher, even, than heavy smokers with or without the inherited mutation, according to new findings by cancer researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center.

253

Finding Context: What Today's College Students Say about Conducting Research in the Digital Age. Project Information Literacy Progress Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A report of preliminary findings and analysis from student discussion groups held on 7 U.S. campuses in Fall 2008, as part of Project Information Literacy. Qualitative data from discussions with higher education students across the country suggest that conducting research is particularly challenging. Students' greatest challenges are related to…

Head, Alison J.; Eisenberg, Michael B.

2009-01-01

254

Duke researchers find that combining treatments boosts some smokers’ ability to quit  

Cancer.gov

Combining two smoking cessation therapies is more effective than using just one for male and highly nicotine-dependent smokers who weren't initially helped by the nicotine patch, according to researchers at Duke Medicine.

255

Columbia U researchers find that generic medications boost adherence to breast cancer therapy  

Cancer.gov

A study by Columbia University Medical Center researchers has found that the introduction of generic aromatase inhibitors, which are considerably less expensive than their brand-name counterparts, increased treatment adherence by 50 percent.

256

Duke researchers find that new immune therapy successfully treats brain tumors in mice  

Cancer.gov

Using an artificial protein that stimulates the body's natural immune system to fight cancer, a research team at Duke Medicine has engineered a lethal weapon that kills brain tumors in mice while sparing other tissue.

257

Hopkins researchers find that a vaccine can reprogram pancreatic cancers to respond to immunotherapy  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center have developed and tested a vaccine that triggered the growth of immune cell nodules within pancreatic tumors, essentially reprogramming these intractable cancers and potentially making them vulnerable to immune-based therapies.

258

UCSD researchers find that anti-psychotic medications offer new hope in the battle against glioblastoma  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have discovered that FDA-approved anti-psychotic drugs possess tumor-killing activity against the most aggressive form of primary brain cancer, glioblastoma.

259

MIT researchers find a new way to model cancer using mice  

Cancer.gov

One way to discover the role of the mutations is to breed a strain of mice that carry the genetic flaw — but breeding such mice is an expensive, time-consuming process. Now, MIT researchers have found an alternative.

260

PRELIMINARY FINDINGS FROM THE DETROIT EXPOSURE AND AEROSOL RESEARCH STUDY (DEARS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) has completed its first monitoring season (summer 2005) and is progressing toward initiation of its second season (February 2005). The assistance obtained from the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality has been instr...

261

UPenn researchers find radiation plus hormone therapy prolongs survival for older men with prostate cancer  

Cancer.gov

Adding radiation treatment to hormone therapy saves more lives among older men with locally advanced prostate therapy than hormone therapy alone, according to a new study in the Journal of Clinical Oncology this week from Penn Medicine researchers.

262

UC Davis research finds newer radiation therapy technology improves patients' quality of life:  

Cancer.gov

Patients with head and neck cancers who have been treated with newer, more sophisticated radiation therapy technology enjoy a better quality of life than those treated with older radiation therapy equipment, a study by UC Davis researchers has found.

263

Money for Research, Not Energy Bills: Finding Energy and Cost Savings in  

E-print Network

machines also rise--sometimes to startling levels. For example, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE, energy-efficiency, Computational Research and Theory Facility, CRTF, University of California, facility. Just as residen

264

UCLA researchers find intestinal bacteria are linked to white blood cell cancer  

Cancer.gov

Researchers from UCLA's Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center have discovered that specific types of bacteria that live in the gut are major contributors to lymphoma, a cancer of the white blood cells that are part of the human immune system.

265

Washington University researchers find key genetic error in family of blood cancers:  

Cancer.gov

Researchers used whole-genome sequencing to identify a critical mutation in some patients with myelodysplastic syndromes that appears to increase the likelihood they will develop acute myeloid leukemia.

266

Moffitt researchers find potential new therapeutic target for treating non-small cell lung cancer  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at Moffitt Cancer Center have found a potential targeted therapy for patients with tobacco-associated non-small cell lung cancer. It is based on the newly identified oncogene IKBKE, which helps regulate immune response.

267

Harvard and Baylor researchers find new target for aggressive cancer gene:  

Cancer.gov

Researchers have found a way to kill human cells hijacked by a genetic accelerator that puts cancer cells into overdrive: the Myc oncogene. The discovery reveals new drug targets for Myc-driven cancers, which tend to be particularly aggressive.

268

UTHSC researchers find that improved screening means new targets for pediatric neuroblastoma therapies  

Cancer.gov

A researcher at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio unveils the important role of microRNAs in regulating neuroblastoma development, pointing to new therapeutic possibilities.

269

UCLA researchers find that lens-free microscope can detect cancer at the cellular level  

Cancer.gov

UCLA researchers have developed a lens-free microscope that can be used to detect the presence of cancer or other cell-level abnormalities with the same accuracy as larger and more expensive optical microscopes.

270

Hopkins researchers find that a new cancer-fighting strategy would harden cells to prevent metastasis  

Cancer.gov

Existing cancer therapies are geared toward massacring tumor cells, but Johns Hopkins researchers propose a different strategy: subtly hardening cancer cells to prevent them from invading new areas of the body.

271

Hunstman researchers find that a rare cancer exposes possible route to new treatments  

Cancer.gov

Researchers from Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah discovered the unusual role of lactate in the metabolism of alveolar soft part sarcoma, a rare, aggressive cancer that primarily affects adolescents and young adults.

272

UCLA researchers develop new screening system to find brain cancer stem cell killers:  

Cancer.gov

Researchers with UCLA’s Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center have developed and used a high-throughput molecular screening approach that identifies and characterizes chemical compounds that can target the stem cells that are responsible for creating deadly brain tumors.

273

Columbia University researchers find that severing nerves in mice may shrink stomach cancers  

Cancer.gov

Research from Columbia University Medical Center shows that nerves may play a critical role in stomach cancer growth and that blocking nerve signals using surgery or Botox (onabotulinumtoxinA) could be an effective treatment for the disease.

274

NIH Researchers Find Resveratrol Helps Protect Against Diabetes in Animal Study  

MedlinePLUS

... the body cannot regulate its blood sugar. Rhesus monkeys were fed either a standard diet, a high ... 24 months. Researchers found that the islets of monkeys on a high fat/high sugar diet supplemented ...

275

Emerging Answers: Research Findings on Programs to Reduce Teen Pregnancy (Summary)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released on May 30, 2001, by the National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, this new report by Dr. Douglas Kirby reviews some 250 studies on teen pregnancy programs. The review finds that long-term programs have made a genuine difference in teen pregnancy, abortion, and birth rates, the last of which is now at its lowest level recorded. Kirby's study also finds no evidence that "abstinence-only" programs are effective or that sex education that covers contraception increases sexual activity. At the site, visitors may download a 21-page summary of the report, the press release, a FAQ, and related information.

Kirby, Douglas

2001-01-01

276

AUTOMATICALLY DETECTING STYLISTIC INCONSISTENCIES IN COMPUTER-SUPPORTED COLLABORATIVE WRITING  

E-print Network

- sode, then write a summary of each half. Automatically generated syntactic information was used only one name appears as author of this work, writing a thesis is indeed a collaborative effort. IAUTOMATICALLY DETECTING STYLISTIC INCONSISTENCIES IN COMPUTER-SUPPORTED COLLABORATIVE WRITING

Stevenson, Suzanne

277

Crisis in the Southwest: Bilingual Education Program Inconsistencies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Staff development is too often inadequate or overlooked in bilingual education. Rather, bilingual educators are forced to seek outside resources and strategies because of inconsistencies in school district bilingual programs. These authors offer a "crash" course for other teachers who may be looking for solid information about bilingual education.…

Gallo, Yadira; Garcia, Martha; Pinuelas, Lucia; Youngs, Irene

2008-01-01

278

Using Inconsistency Detection to Overcome Structural Ambiguity in Language Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes the Inconsistency Detection Learner (IDL), an algorithm for language acquisition intended to address the problem of structural ambiguity. An overt, acoustically audible form is structurally ambiguous if different languages admitting the overt form would assign it different linguistic structural analyses. Because the learner has to be capable of learning any possible human language, and because the learner

279

Using Inconsistency Detection to Overcome Structural Ambiguity in Language Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes the Inconsistency Detection Learner (IDL), an algorithm for language acquisition intended to address the problem of structural ambiguity. An overt, acoustically audible form is structurally ambiguous if different languages admitting the overt form would assign it different linguistic structural analyses. Because the learner has to be capable of learning any possible human language, and because the learner

Bruce Tesar

2000-01-01

280

Exposing Digital Forgeries by Detecting Inconsistencies in Lighting  

E-print Network

Exposing Digital Forgeries by Detecting Inconsistencies in Lighting Micah K. Johnson Department a single image. We show the efficacy of this approach in real-world settings. Categories and Subject Descriptors I.4 [Image Processing]: Miscellaneous Keywords Digital Tampering, Digital Forensics 1

Farid, Hany

281

Time-Inconsistent Stochastic LinearQuadratic Control Hanqing Jin  

E-print Network

, France. This author is partially supported by the Marie Curie ITN Grant, "Controlled Systems", GA no at the initial time); see, e.g., [20] and all the follow-up works to date on the Markowitz problem, as wellTime-Inconsistent Stochastic Linear­Quadratic Control Ying Hu Hanqing Jin Xun Yu Zhou November 3

282

An Empirical Case for Residual Measures of Status Inconsistency Effects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Properly manipulated residuals resulting from "status predicting status" regressions constitute a precise and unique measurement of status inconsistency without the definitional and methodological problems and limitations of simple and simultaneous cross-classification techniques associated with the typical "dummy variable regression" approach.…

Brod, Rodney L.; Lutz, Gene M.

283

Self-Reported Cognitive Inconsistency in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insight into one's own cognitive abilities, or metacognition, has been widely studied in developmental psychology. Relevance to the clinician is high, as memory complaints in older adults show an association with impending dementia, even after controlling for likely confounds. Another candidate marker of impending dementia under study is inconsistency in cognitive performance over short time intervals. Although there has been

Susan Vanderhill; David F. Hultsch; Michael A. Hunter; Esther Strauss

2010-01-01

284

Decision Making for Inconsistent Expert Judgments Using Negative Probabilities  

E-print Network

In this paper we provide a simple random-variable example of inconsistent information, and analyze it using three different approaches: Bayesian, quantum-like, and negative probabilities. We then show that, at least for this particular example, both the Bayesian and the quantum-like approaches have less normative power than the negative probabilities one.

J. Acacio de Barros

2013-09-26

285

Informed consent for exome sequencing research in families with genetic disease: the emerging issue of incidental findings.  

PubMed

Genomic sequencing technology is increasingly used in genetic research. Studies of informed consent for exome and genome sequencing (ES/GS) research have largely involved hypothetical scenarios or healthy individuals enrolling in population-based studies. Studies have yet to explore the consent experiences of adults with inherited disease. We conducted a qualitative interview study of 15 adults recently enrolled in a large-scale ES/GS study (11 affected adults, four parents of affected children). Our study had two goals: (1) to explore three theoretical barriers to consent for ES/GS research (interpretive/technical complexity, possibility of incidental findings, and risks of loss of privacy); and (2) to explore how interviewees experienced the consent process. Interviewees could articulate study goals and processes, describe incidental findings, discuss risks of privacy loss, and reflect on their consent experience. Few expected the study would identify the genetic cause of their condition. All elected to receive incidental findings. Interviewees acknowledged paying little attention to potential implications of incidental findings in light of more pressing goals of supporting research regarding their own medical conditions. Interviewees suggested that experience living with a genetic condition prepared them to adjust to incidental findings. Interviewees also expressed little concern about loss of confidentiality of study data. Some experienced the consent process as very long. None desired reconsent prior to return of study results. Families with inherited disease likely would benefit from a consent process in which study risks and benefits were discussed in the context of prior experiences with genetic research and genetic disease. PMID:25251809

Bergner, Amanda L; Bollinger, Juli; Raraigh, Karen S; Tichnell, Crystal; Murray, Brittney; Blout, Carrie Lynn; Telegrafi, Aida Bytyci; James, Cynthia A

2014-11-01

286

Conclusions: Overview of Findings from the ERA Study, Inferences, and Research Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this monograph, the authors have brought the findings of the English and Romanian Adoptee (ERA) study up to age 15 years and, in so doing, have focused especially on the question of whether there are deprivation-specific psychological patterns (DSPs) that differ meaningfully from other forms of psychopathology. For this purpose, their main…

Rutter, Michael; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.

2010-01-01

287

Private Equity vs. PLC Boards: A Comparison of Practices and Effectiveness - Summary of Research Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We interview 20 executives in the UK who have been members of both PE and PLC boards of relatively large companies. The main difference we find in PE and PLC board modus operandi is in the single-minded value creation focus of PE boards versus governance compliance and risk management focus of PLC boards. PE boards see their role as \\

Viral V. Acharya; Conor Kehoe; Michael Reyner

2009-01-01

288

Job Placement Systems for Older Workers. Volume One: Research Findings, Case Studies, Program Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a study that was undertaken to examine placement techniques and strategies that are effective in helping older workers find jobs. The study presents 23 case studies on successful older worker programs in 12 states. The information was gathered through on-site interviews and assembly of quantitative data. These case studies…

National Caucus and Center on Black Aged, Inc., Washington, DC.

289

Fox Chase researchers find that most Medicare patients wait weeks before breast cancer surgery  

Cancer.gov

Although patients may feel anxious waiting weeks from the time of their first doctor visit to evaluate their breast until they have breast cancer surgery, new findings from Fox Chase Cancer Center show that these waits are typical in the United States. Results were published on Monday, November 19 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

290

Preliminary Findings of Learning Gains for Adult Learners with Developmental Disabilities. Research Brief No. 6  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public perception of adults with developmental disabilities realizing learning gains often remains illusive. This paper highlights key findings in achievement in basic skills for adults with mental retardation on a functional assessment in a life skills context for three program years (2003-2006). In this study the time period between the pre- and…

Posey, Virginia; Jacobsen, Jared

2007-01-01

291

Inconsistent Condom Use among Iranian Male Drug Injectors  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of inconsistent condom use among Iranian male injecting drug users (IDUs). Materials and Methods: Data came from the national Iranian behavioral survey of drug dependence, which sampled 7743 individuals with drug dependence, from medical centers, prisons, and streets in 29 provinces in Iran, in 2007. This study included all individuals who were male, IDUs, and were sexually active (n?=?1131). The main outcome was inconsistent condom use which was assessed using a single item. A logistic regression was used to determine the association between socio-economic data, drug use data, and high risk injection behaviors with inconsistent condom use. Result: 83.3% of sexually active IDUs (n?=?965) reported inconsistent condom use. Based on the logistic regression, likelihood of inconsistent condom use was higher among those with a history of syringe sharing [Odds Ratio (OR); 1.63, 95% Confidence Interval (CI); 1.13–2.34], but lower among those with higher education levels (OR; 0.34, 95% CI; 0.14–0.82), those who mostly inject at home (OR; 0.09, 95% CI; 0.02–0.47), and those with a history of treatment (OR; 0.54, 95% CI; 0.31–0.94). Conclusion: Because of the link between unsafe sex and risky injecting behaviors among Iranian IDUs, combined programs targeting both sexual and injection behavior may be more appropriate than programs that target sexual or injection behavior. The efficacy of combined programs should be, however, compared with traditional programs that only target sexual or injection behavior of IDUs. PMID:24772093

Assari, Shervin; Yarmohmmadi Vasel, Mosaieb; Tavakoli, Mahmood; Sehat, Mahmoud; Jafari, Firoozeh; Narenjiha, Hooman; Rafiey, Hassan; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh

2014-01-01

292

Advancing care for traumatic brain injury: findings from the IMPACT studies and perspectives on future research.  

PubMed

Research in traumatic brain injury (TBI) is challenging for several reasons; in particular, the heterogeneity between patients regarding causes, pathophysiology, treatment, and outcome. Advances in basic science have failed to translate into successful clinical treatments, and the evidence underpinning guideline recommendations is weak. Because clinical research has been hampered by non-standardised data collection, restricted multidisciplinary collaboration, and the lack of sensitivity of classification and efficacy analyses, multidisciplinary collaborations are now being fostered. Approaches to deal with heterogeneity have been developed by the IMPACT study group. These approaches can increase statistical power in clinical trials by up to 50% and are also relevant to other heterogeneous neurological diseases, such as stroke and subarachnoid haemorrhage. Rather than trying to limit heterogeneity, we might also be able to exploit it by analysing differences in treatment and outcome between countries and centres in comparative effectiveness research. This approach has great potential to advance care in patients with TBI. PMID:24139680

Maas, Andrew I R; Murray, Gordon D; Roozenbeek, Bob; Lingsma, Hester F; Butcher, Isabella; McHugh, Gillian S; Weir, James; Lu, Juan; Steyerberg, Ewout W

2013-12-01

293

The North American long-term soil productivity experiment: Findings from the first decade of research  

Microsoft Academic Search

First decade findings on the impacts of organic matter removal and soil compaction are reported for the 26 oldest installations in the nation-wide network of long-term soil productivity sites. Complete removal of surface organic matter led to declines in soil C concentration to 20cm depth and to reduced nutrient availability. The effect is attributed mainly to the loss of the

Robert F. Powers; D. Andrew Scott; Felipe G. Sanchez; Richard A. Voldseth; Deborah Page-Dumroese; John D. Elioff; Douglas M. Stone

2005-01-01

294

Georgetown researchers examine nipple sparing mastectomy cases and find no recurrent or new cancers:  

Cancer.gov

A new study suggests some women needing a lumpectomy or mastectomy to treat their breast cancer have another potential option that is safe and effective, say researchers at Georgetown. They say the procedure known as a nipple sparing mastectomy is also a viable surgical option for women who choose to have their breasts removed because of their increased risk of developing the disease.

295

Stress, Coping and Burnout in Mental Health Nurses: Findings From Three Research Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present data from three research studies on stress, coping and burnout in mental health nurses. All three studies used a range of self report questionnaires. Measures included a demographic checklist, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the DCL Stress Scale and the Cooper Coping Skills Scale. In all, 648 ward based mental health

Leonard Fagin; Jerome Carson; John Leary; Nicolette De Villiers; Heather Bartlett; Patty OMalley; Maria West; Stephen Mcelfatrick; Daniel Brown

1996-01-01

296

U of Michigan researchers find that new sequencing technique reveals genetic clues to rare breast tumors  

Cancer.gov

A new study from researchers at the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center characterizes the genetic underpinnings of a rare type of breast tumor called phyllodes tumors, offering the first comprehensive analysis of the molecular alterations at work in these tumors.

297

Better Together: Research Findings on the Relationship between Racial Justice Organizations and LGBT Communities. Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In partnership with the Arcus Foundation, the Applied Research Center (ARC) has undertaken a study of the relationship between racial justice organizations and lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender (LGBT) constituencies and issues, with the understanding that communities of color themselves, including their LGBT members, have a good deal at stake in…

Sen, Rinku; Wessler, Seth; Apollon, Dominique

2010-01-01

298

The ABCs of Keeping on Track to Graduation: Research Findings from Baltimore  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study of graduation outcomes in Baltimore uses multivariate analysis of longitudinal student cohort data to examine the impact of factors identified in previous research as early warning indicators of a dropout outcome. Student cohort files were constructed from longitudinal administrative data (following all first-time 2004-2005 and…

Mac Iver, Martha Abele; Messel, Matthew

2013-01-01

299

Column: Two examples of researchers finding amazing things by reconsidering the fundamentals.  

E-print Network

did that with cement, it found that what scientists thought they knew about the fundamental structure on the use of magnetic materials. Think computer hard drives. In spelling out the details of this research Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Add water to cement powder and it forms a paste called cement

300

Census of Institutional Repositories in the United States: MIRACLE Project Research Findings. CLIR Publication No. 140  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this report, the authors describe results of a nationwide census of institutional repositories in U.S. academic institutions. The census is one of several activities of the MIRACLE Project, an Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS)-funded research program based at the University of Michigan. The acronym MIRACLE means "Making…

Markey, Karen; Rieh, Soo Young; St. Jean, Beth; Kim, Jihyun; Yakel, Elizabeth

2007-01-01

301

Building a Successful Adult Life: Findings from Youth-Directed Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although transition outcomes for youth with disabilities have shown some improvement and transition support practices have been identified, many young people continue to face transition barriers that preclude their full participation in key adult life activities. While research efforts have largely been professionally driven, there is emerging…

Powers, Laurie E.; Garner, Tracee; Valnes, Betsy; Squire, Peter; Turner, Alison; Couture, Todd; Dertinger, Rocky

2007-01-01

302

Cost-effectiveness analysis and formulary decision making in England: Findings from research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a context of rapid technological advances in health care and increasing demand for expensive treatments, local formulary committees are key players in the management of scarce resources. However, little is known about the information and processes used when making decisions on the inclusion of new treatments. This paper reports research on the use of economic evaluations in technology coverage

Iestyn P. Williams; Stirling Bryan

2007-01-01

303

Jefferson researchers find that cancer information on Wikipedia is accurate, but not very readable:  

Cancer.gov

It is a commonly held that information on Wikipedia should not be trusted, since it is written and edited by non-experts without professional oversight. But researchers from the Kimmel Cancer Center at Jefferson have found differently, according to a study published online Sept. 15 in the Journal of Oncology Practice.

304

Social and Emotional Distress among American Indian and Alaska Native Students: Research Findings. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth are repeatedly exposed to opportunities to participate in self-destructive and illegal behaviors. This digest examines risk factors associated with four contexts: peers, family, school, and community. Recent research has shown that, relative to national averages, AI/AN youth have higher rates of…

Clarke, Ardy SixKiller

305

Kimmel Cancer Center researchers find drugs targeting chromosomal instability may fight a particular breast cancer subtype  

Cancer.gov

A team of researchers at Jefferson's Kimmel Cancer Center has shown in a study published online Feb. 6 in the Journal of Clinical Investigation that the oncogene cyclin D1 may promote a genetic breakdown known as chromosomal instability (CIN). CIN is a known, yet poorly understood culprit in tumor progression.

306

Penn researchers find contralateral prophylactic mastectomy offers limited gains to life expectancy for breast cancer patients:  

Cancer.gov

Contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM), a procedure that removes the unaffected breast in patients with cancer in one breast, provides only a modest increase in life expectancy, according to a new study by researchers from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania.

307

Georgetown researchers find that landmark Medicare law had little impact on reducing chemotherapy cost  

Cancer.gov

Legislation passed in 2003 to slow the spiraling costs of drugs paid for by the federal government to treat Medicare patients has had no meaningful impact on cancer chemotherapy drug costs, say a team of researchers in the Journal of Clinical Oncology published online today.

308

UNC and other researchers find that gene expression improves the definition of a breast cancer subtype  

Cancer.gov

A study conducted by the Vall d'Hebron Institute of Oncology in conjunction with the GEICAM cooperative group and other American and Canadian researchers, including UNC, has led to a change in the definition of hormone-sensitive breast tumors

309

Moffitt research finds no survival advantage for stem cell versus bone marrow transplant  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at Moffitt Cancer Center, and colleagues in the Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network conducted a two-year clinical trial comparing two-year survival probabilities for patients transplanted with peripheral blood stem cells or bone marrow stem cells from unrelated donors and found no survival advantage for one method over the other.

310

University of Wisconsin researchers find a new form of cell division  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at the University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center have discovered a new form of cell division in human cells. They believe it serves as a natural back-up mechanism during faulty cell division, preventing some cells from going down a path that can lead to cancer.

311

Resources. Some Findings and Conjectures from Recent Research into Resource Development and Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The triannual newsletter, "Resources", published by Resources for the Future (RfF) typically contains excerpts from recent research in the area of natural resource development, conservation, and use. Announcements are also made of recent publications by RfF. Those interested in receiving the newsletter regularly should request that their name be…

Resources for the Future, Inc., Washington, DC.

312

University of Washington researchers find community effort brings lasting drop in smoking, delinquency, drug use:  

Cancer.gov

Tenth graders in towns using Communities That Care [a prevention system developed by University of Washington researchers] were less likely to have tried drinking or smoking compared with teens living in towns that had not adopted the system. Delinquent behavior, including stealing, vandalism and physical fights, decreased too.

313

UCSD researchers find that chili peppers may inhibit gut tumors in mice  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine report that dietary capsaicin – the active ingredient in chili peppers – produces chronic activation of a receptor on cells lining the intestines of mice, triggering a reaction that ultimately reduces the risk of colorectal tumors.

314

Hopkins researchers find that blood test for 'nicked' protein predicts prostate cancer treatment response  

Cancer.gov

Prostate cancer patients whose tumors contain a shortened protein called AR-V7, which can be detected in the blood, are less likely to respond to two widely used drugs for metastatic prostate cancer, according to results of a study led by researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center.

315

The Meaning of Work among Chinese University Students: Findings from Prototype Research Methodology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined Chinese university students' conceptualization of the meaning of work. One hundred and ninety students (93 male, 97 female) from Beijing, China, participated in the study. Prototype research methodology (J. Li, 2001) was used to explore the meaning of work and the associations among the identified meanings. Cluster analysis was…

Zhou, Sili; Leung, S. Alvin; Li, Xu

2012-01-01

316

Finding Voice through Teacher-Student Collaboration in a Feminist Research Project: Long-Term Effects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a feminist classroom an instructor who acts as an "interested party" rather than an authority, fosters an environment of care and connection which can result in life-changing discoveries for the participants. Drawing on David Bleich's conception of a "socially generous research" that removes hierarchical barriers between teacher and student, a…

Fey, Marion Harris

317

Domestic Violence Between Same-Gender Partners: Recent Findings and Future Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Empirical literature about same-gender domestic violence was relatively nonexistent until the past 20 years, and conducting research with this population about a sensitive topic remains a daunting endeavor. Existing studies reveal similarities between opposite- and same-gender domestic violence in prevalence, types of abuse, and various dynamics,…

McClennen, Joan C.

2005-01-01

318

Northwestern researchers find lower dosage CT-guided lung biopsy protocol maintains quality, minimizes exposure  

Cancer.gov

New guidelines for CT-guided biopsies of lung nodules significantly reduce radiation exposure allowing individuals the benefit of the procedure, which may cut down on overall lung cancer deaths. This research is being presented at the Society of Interventional Radiology's 37th Annual Scientific Meeting in San Francisco, Calif.

319

MD Anderson researchers find that chemotherapy is as effective before breast cancer surgery as after  

Cancer.gov

Whether chemotherapy is given before or after breast-conserving therapy does not have an impact on long-term local-regional outcomes, suggesting treatment success is due more to biologic factors than chemotherapy timing, according to a study by researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center.

320

The influence of organic production on food quality - research findings, gaps and future challenges.  

PubMed

Although several meta-analysis studies have been published comparing the quality of food derived from organic and non-organic origin, it is still not clear if food from organic production per se can guarantee product-related added value to consumers. This paper aims to summarize the status quo in order to identify research gaps and suggest future research challenges. Organic food is described according to a quality model already published. The influence of organic production on food quality is structured in primary production and processing. Furthermore, organic food authentication is discussed. Organic food seems to contain fewer pesticide residues and statistically more selected health-related compounds such as polyphenols in plant products and polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk and meat products, but the health relevance for consumers is not clear yet. Comparing food from organic origin with so called 'conventional' food seems not to be appropriate, because 'conventional' is not defined. In organic food quality research a system approach is needed from which systemic markers can be selected. Research on the impact of processing technologies on the quality according to organic principles seems of high relevance, since most of the food is processed. PMID:24436145

Za??cka, Aneta; Bügel, Susanne; Paoletti, Flavio; Kahl, Johannes; Bonanno, Adriana; Dostalova, Anne; Rahmann, Gerold

2014-10-01

321

Strategies for Improving Rehearsal Technique: Using Research Findings to Promote Better Rehearsals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Music education researchers and conducting pedagogues have identified numerous behaviors that contribute to increased verbal and nonverbal teaching effectiveness of conductors on the podium. This article is a review of literature concerning several conductor behaviors that may (a) increase the effectiveness of rehearsals, (b) enhance the…

Silvey, Brian A.

2014-01-01

322

Penn researchers find Epstein Barr-like virus infects and may cause cancer in dogs  

Cancer.gov

...A team of researchers from the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine and Penn's Perelman School of Medicine has the first evidence that an Epstein Barr-like virus can infect and may also be responsible for causing lymphomas in man's best friend.

323

Key Events and Lessons for Managers in a Diverse Workforce: A Report on Research and Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research documented in this report builds on earlier work in the 1980s in the area of on-the-job experiences in developing effective leaders. The current study was designed to answer the following: (1) What are the significant events from which African American managers learn and develop? (2) Are the key events and lessons learned different…

Douglas, Christina A.

324

Washington University researchers find that mass prostate cancer screenings don’t reduce death:  

Cancer.gov

There’s new evidence that annual prostate cancer screening does not reduce deaths from the disease, even among men in their 50s and 60s and those with underlying health conditions, according to new research led by Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis.

325

A Visitor's Guide to Effect Sizes – Statistical Significance Versus Practical (Clinical) Importance of Research Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect Sizes (ES) are an increasingly important index used toquantify the degree of practical significanceof study results. This paper gives anintroduction to the computation andinterpretation of effect sizes from theperspective of the consumer of the researchliterature. The key points made are:1. ES is a useful indicator of the practical(clinical) importance of research resultsthat can be operationally defined frombeing ``negligible'' to

Mohammadreza Hojat; Gang Xu

2004-01-01

326

Johns Hopkins researchers find that chronic inflammation is linked to high-grade prostate cancer  

Cancer.gov

Men who show signs of chronic inflammation in non-cancerous prostate tissue may have nearly twice the risk of actually having prostate cancer than those with no inflammation, according to results of a new study led by researchers from the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center.

327

NASA Research Focuses on Yellowstone's Hot Springs and Compares Findings to Rocks from Mars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA Astrobiology Institute website features an article by the Yellowstone Park Foundation focusing on NASA's latest thermophile research and its contributions to outreach education in Yellowstone National Park. The site also provides a number of useful links through the NAI portal site including a teacher's page, student's page, and additional NAI articles and newsletters.

Foundation, Yellowstone P.; Institute, Nasa A.

328

New Study Finds Increasing Gender Equity at U.S. Research Institutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Women and men faculty in science, engineering, and mathematics for the most part have comparable opportunities within major U.S. research universities, according to a report released 2 June by the U.S. National Research Council (NRC). The report found that gender does not appear to have been a factor in a number of important career transitions and outcomes, including hiring for tenure track and tenure positions and promotions. “That is probably going to be surprising to many people. It was surprising to our own panel. And it may not have been the case if we had done the study in 1985 instead of 2005,” said Claude Canizares, cochair of the NRC committee that prepared the report, entitled Gender Differences at Critical Transitions in the Careers of Science, Engineering and Mathematics Faculty.

Showstack, Randy

2009-06-01

329

The meaning of work among Chinese university students: findings from prototype research methodology.  

PubMed

This study examined Chinese university students' conceptualization of the meaning of work. One hundred and ninety students (93 male, 97 female) from Beijing, China, participated in the study. Prototype research methodology (J. Li, 2001) was used to explore the meaning of work and the associations among the identified meanings. Cluster analysis was used to organize the identified meanings into a structure consisting of lateral and hierarchical levels. The themes that emerged fell into 2 large categories named "ideal" and "reality." A series of superordinate-level and basic-level prototypes were found under each of these 2 categories. These prototypes reflected influences from both Chinese traditional and Western value orientations, as well as perceptions that are to be understood in the contemporary social and economic contexts of China. Implications for career development theory, research, and practice are discussed. PMID:22774866

Zhou, Sili; Leung, S Alvin; Li, Xu

2012-07-01

330

Hopkins researchers find that cancer cells feed on sugar-free diet:  

Cancer.gov

Cancer cells have been long known to have a “sweet tooth,” using vast amounts of glucose for energy and for building blocks for cell replication.   Now, a study by a team of researchers at Johns Hopkins and elsewhere shows that lymph gland cancer cells called B cells can use glutamine in the absence of glucose for cell replication and survival, particularly under low-oxygen conditions, which are common in tumors.

331

Emory University researchers find new pathway for regulation of blood vessel growth in cancer  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University have identified a new function for a gene that normally prevents the development of cancer. Scientists had known that the gene, which encodes a protein called p14 ARF, works inside the cell to control proliferation and division. The Winship team discovered that p14 ARF also regulates tumor-induced angiogenesis, the process by which growing cancers attract new blood vessels.

332

Stanford University researchers find that dual-action protein better restricts blood vessel formation:  

Cancer.gov

In a paper published online Aug. 8 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, researchers at Stanford University describe the creation of a new type of engineered protein that is significantly more effective at preventing the formation of blood vessels by targeting not one, but two of the chemical receptors that control the creation of new capillaries -- a process known as angiogenesis. The study shows that the new protein blocks both receptors.

333

UCBerkeleyNews: Cables Hold Promise in Protecting Existing Buildings from Bombs, Researchers Find  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A civil engineering professor at the University of California at Berkeley is working on a novel way of maintaining a building's structural stability after an earthquake or terrorist bomb. The team of researchers working with the professor have designed and tested a system that uses cables for backup support in case main support beams failed. An overview of the system is provided in a February 20, 2003 news article.

Yang, Sarah.

2003-01-01

334

UC San Diego researchers find an enzyme that offers new therapeutic target for cancer drugs  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have uncovered a new signal transduction pathway specifically devoted to the regulation of alternative RNA splicing, a process that allows a single gene to produce or code multiple types of protein variants. The discovery, published in the June 27, 2012 issue of Molecular Cell, suggests the new pathway might be a fruitful target for new cancer drugs. The University of California, San Diego is home to the Moores Comprehensive Cancer Center.

335

Johns Hopkins researchers find key to lymph node metastasis in mice  

Cancer.gov

In a study reported Sept. 10 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Online Early Edition, researchers at Johns Hopkins describe their discovery of how a protein responsible for cell survival in low oxygen can trigger the spread of cancer cells into the lymphatic system in a mouse model of breast cancer. Johns Hopkins is home to the Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center.

336

Findings of the US research needs workshop on the topic of fusion power  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy, Of?ce of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES) conducted a Research Needs Workshop, referred to as ReNeW, in June 2009. The information developed at this workshop will help OFES develop a plan for US fusion research during the ITER era, roughly the next two decades. The workshop was organized in ?ve Themes, one of which was Harnessing Fusion Power (or Fusion Power for short). The top level goal of the Fusion Power Theme was to identify the research needed to develop the knowledge to design and build, with high con?dence, robust and reliable systems that can convert fusion products to useful forms of energy in a reactor environment, including a self-suf?cient supply of tritium fuel. Each Theme was subsequently subdivided into Panels to address speci?c topics. The Fusion Power Panel topics were: Fusion Fuel Cycle; Power Extraction; Materials Science; Safety and Environment; and Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Inspectability (RAMI). Here we present the key ?ndings of the Fusion Power Theme.

Meier, Wayne R.; Raffray, R.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Morley, Neil B.; Reiersen, Wayne T.; Sharpe, Phil; Willms, Scott

2010-12-01

337

Turning Points in the Life Course: Current Findings and Future Directions in Drug Use Research  

PubMed Central

Turning point, a key concept in the developmental life course approach, is currently understudied in the field of substance abuse, but merits further research. A turning point often involves a particular event, experience, or awareness that results in changes in the direction of a pathway or persistent trajectory over the long-term. This article (1) provides an overview of the relevant literature on the concept of turning points from the life course and developmental criminology perspectives, (2) reviews literature on turning points in substance use, (3) discusses methodological considerations, and (4) suggests areas for future research on turning points in drug use. The influence of life course concepts related to drug use trajectories and turning points (including, for example, timing and sequencing of life events, individual characteristics, human agency, and social and historical context) offers a potentially fruitful area of investigation that may increase our understanding of why and how drug users stop and resume using over the long-term. Further research on turning points may be particularly valuable in unpacking the multifaceted and complex underlying mechanisms and factors involved in lasting changes in drug use. PMID:20298174

Teruya, Cheryl; Hser, Yih-Ing

2010-01-01

338

New findings and setting the research agenda for soil and water conservation for sustainable land management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The session on soil and water conservation for sustainable land management provides insights into the current research producing viable measures for sustainable land management and enhancing the lands role as provider of ecosystem services. The insights into degradation processes are essential for designing and implementing feasible measures to mitigate against degradation of the land resource and adapt to the changing environment. Land degradation occurs due to multiple pressures on the land, such as population growth, land-use and land-cover changes, climate change and over exploitation of resources, often resulting in soil erosion due to water and wind, which occurs in many parts of the world. Understanding the processes of soil erosion by wind and water and the social and economic constraints faced by farmers forms an essential component of integrated land development projects. Soil and water conservation measures are only viable and sustainable if local environmental and socio-economic conditions are taken into account and proper enabling conditions and policies can be achieved. Land degradation increasingly occurs because land use, and farming systems are subject to rapid environmental and socio-economic changes without implementation of appropriate soil and water conservation technologies. Land use and its management are thus inextricably bound up with development; farmers must adapt in order to sustain the quality of their, and their families, lives. In broader perspective, soil and water conservation is needed as regulating ecosystem service and as a tool to enhance food security and biodiversity. Since land degradation occurs in many parts of the world and threatens food production and environmental stability it affects those countries with poorer soils and resilience in the agriculture sector first. Often these are the least developed countries. Therefore the work from researchers from developing countries together with knowledge from other disciplines and places is essential if we are to develop viable measures and approaches to soil and water conservation across the globe. In this paper we will provide an overview of the topics that are addressed in this session and give an overview of the current research in this field and using the insights we will aim to present a new research agenda oriented towards a significant impact in economic and environmental sustainability.

Keesstra, Saskia; Argaman, Eli; Gomez, Jose Alfonso; Quinton, John

2014-05-01

339

Incidental findings in data-intensive postgenomics science and legal liability of clinician-researchers: ready for vaccinomics?  

PubMed

Vaccinomics encompasses a host of multiomics approaches to characterize variability in host-environment (including pathogens) interactions, with a view to a more directed or personalized use of vaccine-based health interventions. Although vaccinomics has the potential to reduce adverse effects and increase efficacy of vaccines, the use of high-throughput, data-intensive technologies may also lead to unanticipated discoveries beyond the initial aims of a vaccinomics study--discoveries that could be highly significant to the health of the research participants. How do clinician-researchers faced with such information have to act? What are the attendant legal duties in such circumstances and how do they differ from the duties of non-clinician researchers? Together with a critical analysis of the international laws and policies framing researchers' duties with regard to incidental findings, this article also draws from Quebec's civil law--with its rich jurisprudence on clinician and researcher liability--as a case study to evaluate the potential legal implications associated with vaccinomics investigations. Given previous lessons learned from other data-intensive sciences, the education of clinician-researchers with regard to their roles, limitations, and legal obligations remains an important strategy to prevent potential legal complications and civil liability in vaccinomics research in the postgenomics era. PMID:21728813

Zawati, Ma'n H; Hendy, Matthew; Joly, Yann

2011-09-01

340

Communicating Experimental Findings in Single Case Design Research: How to Use Celeration Values and Celeration Multipliers to Measure Direction, Magnitude, and Change of Slope  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The accumulation of scientific knowledge greatly depends upon the critical review of experimental findings by ones peers. In single case design research, experimenters present findings with graphical displays of data and narrative description of a visual analysis. To aid in efficient and accurate description of experimental findings, the research

Datchuk, Shawn M.; Kubina, Richard M., Jr.

2011-01-01

341

The educational gradient in marital disruption: a meta-analysis of European research findings.  

PubMed

A large number of empirical studies have investigated the effects of women's education on union dissolution in Europe, but results have varied substantially. This paper seeks to assess the relationship between educational attainment and the incidence of marital disruption by systematizing the existing empirical evidence. A quantitative literature review (a meta-analysis) was conducted to investigate the temporal change in the relationship, net of inter-study differences. The results point to a weakening of the positive educational gradient in marital disruption over time and even to a reversal in the direction of this gradient in some countries. The findings also show that the change in the educational gradient can be linked to an increase in access to divorce. Finally, the results suggest that women's empowerment has played an important role in changing the educational gradient, while the liberalization of divorce laws has not. PMID:24279466

Matysiak, Anna; Styrc, Marta; Vignoli, Daniele

2014-01-01

342

Microdialysis in equine research: a review of clinical and experimental findings.  

PubMed

Microdialysis is a method for sampling compounds from extracellular fluid with minimal tissue trauma. Small hollow probes that are 0.2-0.5mm in diameter are inserted into the tissue and slowly perfused. The probe membrane is semi-permeable and a flux of the solutes occurs exclusively according to the concentration gradients. The recovered dialysate reflects changes in the composition of the extracellular water phase with a minor time delay. Because microdialysis is a continuous sampling method, it differs from point sample methods, such as blood sampling. The ability to obtain local measurements in the tissues has led to important discoveries in the detection of tissue changes within the areas of pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, pathology and pathophysiology. New technological solutions, such as transportable pumps, fluid collectors and bedside analysers, have made microdialysis an indispensable tool for the surveillance of critically ill human patients, such as after brain injuries and reconstructive surgeries. The use of microdialysis in equine medicine has been sparingly described with only 14 published studies within muscle, pulmonary and hoof lamellar tissue, nasal mucosa, intestinal wall, uterine, allantoic and cerebrospinal fluid and blood. Only a few papers have been published within each area, indicating that few equine researchers are aware of the unique opportunities provided by the technique. This review discusses the theory and applications of microdialysis with a special emphasis on clinical and experimental equine studies, which may be useful to veterinary experimental and clinical researchers. PMID:23660155

Sørensen, M A; Jacobsen, S; Petersen, L J

2013-09-01

343

PLUME-FEATHER, Referencing and Finding Software for Research and Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PLUME-FEATHER is a non-profit project created to Promote economicaL, Useful and Maintained softwarEFor theHigher Education And THE Research communities. The site references software, mainly Free/Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS) from French universities and national research organisations, (CNRS, INRA...), laboratories or departments as well as other FLOSS software used and evaluated by users within these institutions. Each software is represented by a reference card, which describes origin, aim, installation, cost (if applicable) and user experience from the point of view of an academic user for academic users. Presently over 1000 programs are referenced on PLUME by more than 900 contributors. Although the server is maintained by a French institution, it is open to international contributions in the academic domain. All contained and validated contents are visible to anonymous public, whereas (presently more than 2000) registered users can contribute, starting with comments on single software reference cards up to help with the organisation and presentation of the referenced software products. The project has been presented to the HEP community in 2012 for the first time [1]. This is an update of the status and a call for (further) contributions.

Bénassy, O.; Caron, C.; Ferret-Canape, C.; Cheylus, A.; Courcelle, E.; Dantec, C.; Dayre, P.; Dostes, T.; Durand, A.; Facq, A.; Gambini, G.; Geahchan, E.; Helft, C.; Hoffmann, D.; Ingarao, M.; Joly, P.; Kieffer, J.; Larré, J.-M.; Libes, M.; Morris, F.; Parmentier, H.; Pérochon, L.; Porte, O.; Romier, G.; Rousse, D.; Tournoy, R.; Valeins, H.

2014-06-01

344

PLUME-FEATHER, Referencing and Finding Software for Research and Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PLUME-FEATHER is a non-profit project created to Promote economicaL, Useful and Maintained softwarE For the Higher Education And THE Research communities. The site references software, mainly Free/Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS) from French universities and national research organisations, (CNRS, INRA…), laboratories or departments as well as other FLOSS software used and evaluated by users within these institutions. Each software is represented by a reference card, which describes origin, aim, installation, cost (if applicable) and user experience from the point of view of an academic user for academic users. Presently over 1000 programs are referenced on PLUME. Although the server is maintained by a french institution, it is completely open to international contributions in the academic domainb. All contained and validated contents are visible to anonymous public, whereas registered users can contribute, starting with comments on single software reference cards up to help with the organisation and presentation of the referenced software products. This first presentation is call for (further) contributions from the HEP community.

Hoffmann, Dirk; Romier, Geneviève

2012-12-01

345

Disaster media coverage and psychological outcomes: descriptive findings in the extant research.  

PubMed

This review of the literature on disaster media coverage describes the events, samples, and forms of media coverage (television, newspapers, radio, internet) studied and examines the association between media consumption and psychological outcomes. A total of 36 studies representing both man-made and natural events met criteria for review in this analysis. Most studies examined disaster television viewing in the context of terrorism and explored a range of outcomes including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) caseness and posttraumatic stress (PTS), depression, anxiety, stress reactions, and substance use. There is good evidence establishing a relationship between disaster television viewing and various psychological outcomes, especially PTSD caseness and PTS, but studies are too few to draw definitive conclusions about the other forms of media coverage that have been examined. As media technology continues to advance, future research is needed to investigate these additional media forms especially newer forms such as social media. PMID:25064691

Pfefferbaum, Betty; Newman, Elana; Nelson, Summer D; Nitiéma, Pascal; Pfefferbaum, Rose L; Rahman, Ambreen

2014-09-01

346

Enhancing the Participation of African Americans in Health-Related Genetic Research: Findings of a Collaborative Academic and Community-Based Research Study  

PubMed Central

The involvement of African Americans in research has long been expressed as a concern by the scientific community. While efforts have been undertaken to identify factors inhibiting the participation of African Americans in health-related research, few efforts have been undertaken to have highlight factors associated with their engagement of health-related research. An exploratory study of factors presumed to be associated with participation in health-related research was conducted among a nonprobability sample of African Americans (n = 212) from a large urban community in the Midwest. The study was guided by a framework that hypothesized the influence of knowledge, beliefs, and perceptions about genetics and the involvement of providers in decision-making on willingness to participate in health-related genetic research. The results revealed that knowledge, beliefs, and perceptions about genetics and the involvement of providers were associated with willingness to engage in health-related genetic research (P < .05). The most interesting, however, was that 88.7% of the participants who had not previously been involved in a health-related study who expressed a willingness to participate reported that they “had never been asked.” Study findings suggest the need for research that further examines factors associated with the involvement of African Americans in health-related genetic research. PMID:24369499

Millon Underwood, Sandra; Buseh, Aaron G.; Kelber, Sheryl T.; Stevens, Patricia E.; Townsend, Leolia

2013-01-01

347

Assessing the Health Needs of Chinese Older Adults: Findings from a Community-Based Participatory Research Study in Chicago's Chinatown.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to examine the cultural views of healthy aging, knowledge and barriers to services, and perception of health sciences research among community-dwelling Chinese older adults in Chicago's Chinatown. This qualitative study is guided by the Precede-Proceed conceptual model with community-based participatory research design. Data analysis is based on eight focus group interviews with Chinese older (age 60+) adults (n = 78). We used a grounded theory framework to systematically guide the thematic structure of our data. Findings show participants described cultural conception of health in terms of physical function, psychological well-being, social support, and cognitive function. The availability, affordability, and cultural barriers towards health care services were major negative enabling factors that inhibit participants from fulfilling health needs. Perception and knowledge of health sciences research were also discussed. This study has implications for the delivery of culturally appropriate health care services to the Chinese aging population. PMID:21253522

Dong, Xinqi; Chang, E-Shien; Wong, Esther; Wong, Bernarda; Skarupski, Kimberly A; Simon, Melissa A

2011-01-01

348

Identifying Trustworthy Experts: How Do Policymakers Find and Assess Public Health Researchers Worth Consulting or Collaborating With?  

PubMed Central

This paper reports data from semi-structured interviews on how 26 Australian civil servants, ministers and ministerial advisors find and evaluate researchers with whom they wish to consult or collaborate. Policymakers valued researchers who had credibility across the three attributes seen as contributing to trustworthiness: competence (an exemplary academic reputation complemented by pragmatism, understanding of government processes, and effective collaboration and communication skills); integrity (independence, “authenticity”, and faithful reporting of research); and benevolence (commitment to the policy reform agenda). The emphases given to these assessment criteria appeared to be shaped in part by policymakers' roles and the type and phase of policy development in which they were engaged. Policymakers are encouraged to reassess their methods for engaging researchers and to maximise information flow and support in these relationships. Researchers who wish to influence policy are advised to develop relationships across the policy community, but also to engage in other complementary strategies for promoting research-informed policy, including the strategic use of mass media. PMID:22403693

Haynes, Abby S.; Derrick, Gemma E.; Redman, Sally; Hall, Wayne D.; Gillespie, James A.; Chapman, Simon; Sturk, Heidi

2012-01-01

349

"The role of oxytocin in psychiatric disorders: A review of biological and therapeutic research findings"  

PubMed Central

Oxytocin is a peptide hormone integral in parturition, milk let-down, and maternal behaviors that has been demonstrated in animal studies to be important in the formation of pair bonds and in social behaviors. This hormone is increasingly recognized as an important regulator of human social behaviors, including social decision making, evaluating and responding to social stimuli, mediating social interactions, and forming social memories. In addition, oxytocin is intricately involved in a broad array of neuropsychiatric functions, and may be a common factor important in multiple psychiatric disorders such as autism, schizophrenia, mood and anxiety disorders. This review article examines the extant literature on the evidence for oxytocin dysfunction in a variety of psychiatric disorders and highlights the need for further research to understand the complex role of the oxytocin system in psychiatric disease to pave the way for developing new therapeutic modalities. Articles were selected that involved human participants with various psychiatric disorders, either comparing oxytocin biology to healthy controls or examining the effects of exogenous oxytocin administration. PMID:24651556

Cochran, David; Fallon, Daniel; Hill, Michael; Frazier, Jean A.

2014-01-01

350

[Psychotherapy of alcohol addiction--principles and new findings of therapy research].  

PubMed

The psychotherapy of alcohol dependence has for long been neglected by psychiatric research. Meanwhile a number of clinical and experimental studies have been performed to examine the efficacy of different kinds of psychotherapeutic approaches in alcoholism. Most clinical settings follow an integrative concept based on behavioural and coping skills therapy, psychodynamic or psychoanalytic and family therapy. Further therapy elements are self-help groups or muscular relaxation, among others. Most therapies are conducted as group therapy but individual therapy is a well-examined alternative. Early intervention in alcohol dependence is of special relevance. Motivational enhancement is a key goal of alcohol therapy and can already be implemented in early interventions or in the detoxification phase. Results of clinical studies suggest that after inpatient treatment 30-40% of patients remain abstinent. Outpatient treatment of alcoholism has for long been neglected, with only few prospective studies conducted so far. The most ambitious study has been the US Project Match. A difficult question remains the allocation of patients to different treatments. Current concepts of treatment for alcoholics are described and results of different treatment studies are given. PMID:11603209

Soyka, M; Helten, C; Scharfenberg, C O

2001-01-01

351

Informationist programme in support of biomedical research: a programme description and preliminary findings of an evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background The informationist programme at the Library of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, MD, USA has grown to 14 informationists working with 40 clinical and basic science research teams. Purpose This case report, intended to contribute to the literature on informationist programmes, describes the NIH informationist programme including implementation experiences, the informationists' training programme, their job responsibilities and programme outcomes. Brief description The NIH informationist programme was designed to enhance the library's service capacity. Over time, the steps for introducing the service to new groups were formalized to ensure support by leadership, the team being served and the library. Job responsibilities also evolved from traditional library roles to a wide range of knowledge management activities. The commitment by the informationist, the team and the library to continuous learning is critical to the programme's success. Results/outcomes NIH scientists reported that informationists saved them time and contributed to teamwork with expert searching and point-of-need instruction. Process evaluation helped refine the programme. Evaluation method High-level, preliminary outcomes were identified from a survey of scientists receiving informationist services, along with key informant interviews. Process evaluation examined service implementation, informationists' training, and service components. Anecdotal evidence has also indicated a favorable response to the programme. PMID:18494648

Whitmore, Susan C.; Grefsheim, Suzanne F.; Rankin, Jocelyn A.

2008-01-01

352

FEEDBACK OF RESEARCH FINDINGS FOR VACCINE TRIALS: EXPERIENCES FROM TWO MALARIA VACCINE TRIALS INVOLVING HEALTHY CHILDREN ON THE KENYAN COAST  

PubMed Central

Internationally, calls for feedback of findings to be made an ‘ethical imperative’ or mandatory have been met with both strong support and opposition. Challenges include differences in issues by type of study and context, disentangling between aggregate and individual study results, and inadequate empirical evidence on which to draw. In this paper we present data from observations and interviews with key stakeholders involved in feeding back aggregate study findings for two Phase II malaria vaccine trials among children under the age of 5 years old on the Kenyan Coast. In our setting, feeding back of aggregate findings was an appreciated set of activities. The inclusion of individual results was important from the point of view of both participants and researchers, to reassure participants of trial safety, and to ensure that positive results were not over-interpreted and that individual level issues around blinding and control were clarified. Feedback sessions also offered an opportunity to re-evaluate and re-negotiate trial relationships and benefits, with potentially important implications for perceptions of and involvement in follow-up work for the trials and in future research. We found that feedback of findings is a complex but key step in a continuing set of social interactions between community members and research staff (particularly field staff who work at the interface with communities), and among community members themselves; a step which needs careful planning from the outset. We agree with others that individual and aggregate results need to be considered separately, and that for individual results, both the nature and value of the information, and the context, including social relationships, need to be taken into account. PMID:23433355

Gikonyo, Caroline; Kamuya, Dorcas; Mbete, Bibi; Njuguna, Patricia; Olotu, Ally; Bejon, Philip; Marsh, Vicki; Molyneux, Sassy

2013-01-01

353

On Distribution Reduction and Algorithm Implementation in Inconsistent Ordered Information Systems  

PubMed Central

As one part of our work in ordered information systems, distribution reduction is studied in inconsistent ordered information systems (OISs). Some important properties on distribution reduction are studied and discussed. The dominance matrix is restated for reduction acquisition in dominance relations based information systems. Matrix algorithm for distribution reduction acquisition is stepped. And program is implemented by the algorithm. The approach provides an effective tool for the theoretical research and the applications for ordered information systems in practices. For more detailed and valid illustrations, cases are employed to explain and verify the algorithm and the program which shows the effectiveness of the algorithm in complicated information systems. PMID:25258721

Zhang, Yanqin

2014-01-01

354

X. Conclusions: overview of findings from the era study, inferences, and research implications.  

PubMed

In this monograph, we have brought the findings of the English and Romanian Adoptee (ERA) study up to age 15 years and, in so doing, have focused especially on the question of whether there are deprivation-specific psychological patterns (DSPs) that differ meaningfully from other forms of psychopathology. For this purpose, our main analytic strategy was to compare the subgroup of young people who had received institutional care in Romania that persisted up to at least the age of 6 months and a pooled comparison group that comprised the remainder of the sample. In chapter II, we presented the evidence that there were no significant variations among the three subgroups that made up the pooled comparison group. A large proportion of this pooled comparison group came from the 52 individuals adopted before the age of 6 months from within the United Kingdom, who had not experienced institutional care or other major deprivation experiences. In addition, there were 45 children who had experienced institutional care that had ceased before the age of 6 months. Finally, there was a small group of 21 Romanian individuals who had come from a severely deprived background but who had not experienced institutional care. In the young people who experienced institutional deprivation, we found that a cut-off at 6 months marked the division between those without appreciable sequelae and those with a substantial proportion of persisting deficits. Because we found that the rate of deficits in the group who had experienced institutional care for 46 months did not vary according to the duration of institutional care, we pooled the entire group of individuals experiencing institutional care up to at least the age of 6 months. We found that these two pooled groups differed substantially and significantly in the rate of maladaptive outcomes. The details of the evidence justifying this pooling and a two-way comparison are provided in chapter II. Because of our interest in exploring the possibility of DSPs, our main subdivision within the above 6-month group was between those individuals showing the putative DSPs and those showing other forms of psychopathology or not showing deficits at all. PMID:20500640

Rutter, Michael; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J

2010-04-01

355

Do Students Eventually Get to Publish their Research Findings? The Case of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Research in Cameroon  

PubMed Central

Background: Scientific publication is commonly used to communicate research findings and in most academic/research settings, to evaluate the potential of a researcher and for recruitment and promotion. It has also been said that researchers have the duty to make public, the findings of their research. As a result, researchers are encouraged to share their research findings with the scientific world through peer review publications. In this study, we looked at the characteristics and publication rate of theses that documented studies on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Cameroon. Materials and Methods: To check if a thesis resulted in a publication, we searched: A database of publications on HIV in Cameroon, African Journals Online, PubMed and Google scholar. For each publication we recorded if the student was an author, the position of the student in the author listing, the journal and where the journal was indexed. We also looked at the impact factor of the journals. Results: One hundred and thirty theses/dissertations were included in the study, 74.6% (97/130) were written as part of a medical degree (MD), 23.8% (31/130) a postgraduate (PG) degree and 1.5% (2/130) for a Doctorate/PhD. On a whole, 13.9% (18/130) of the theses resulted in at least one publication in a scientific journal with a total of 22 journal articles, giving a mean publication rate of 0.17 article/thesis, 86.4% (11/22) were indexed on PubMed, 9.1% (2/22) on African Journals Online and 4.6% (1/22) on Google scholar. One PG thesis led to two book chapters. The student was the first author in 22.7% (5/22) of the articles and not an author in 9.1% (2/22) of the articles. Student supervisor was an author in all the articles. Conclusion: This study reveals that most students in Cameroon failed to transform their theses/dissertations to scientific publications. This indicates an urgent need to sensitize students on the importance of presenting their research findings in scientific meetings and peer reviewed journals. There is also a great necessity to build capacity in scientific writing among university students in Cameroon. PMID:24971222

Munung, NS; Vidal, L; Ouwe-Missi-Oukem-Boyer, O

2014-01-01

356

St Jude researchers find that cancer diagnosis doesn’t increase a child’s risk of post-traumatic stress disorder  

Cancer.gov

St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital study suggests previous research overestimated PTSD in young cancer patients; new findings highlight the ability of children to adjust and even thrive in response to challenges.

357

Increasing Capacity for Stewardship of Oceans and Coasts: Findings of the National Research Council Report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the increasing stress on ocean and coastal resources, ocean resource management will require greater capacity in terms of people, institutions, technology and tools. Successful capacity-building efforts address the needs of a specific locale or region and include plans to maintain and expand capacity after the project ends. In 2008, the US National Research Council published a report that assesses past and current capacity-building efforts to identify barriers to effective management of coastal and marine resources. The report recommends ways that governments and organizations can strengthen marine conservation and management capacity. Capacity building programs instill the tools, knowledge, skills, and attitudes that address: ecosystem function and change; processes of governance that influence societal and ecosystem change; and assembling and managing interdisciplinary teams. Programs require efforts beyond traditional sector-by-sector planning because marine ecosystems range from the open ocean to coastal waters and land use practices. Collaboration among sectors, scaling from local community-based management to international ocean policies, and ranging from inland to offshore areas, will be required to establish coordinated and efficient governance of ocean and coastal ecosystems. Barriers Most capacity building activities have been initiated to address particular issues such as overfishing or coral reef degradation, or they target a particular region or country facing threats to their marine resources. This fragmentation inhibits the sharing of information and experience and makes it more difficult to design and implement management approaches at appropriate scales. Additional barriers that have limited the effectiveness of capacity building programs include: lack of an adequate needs assessment prior to program design and implementation; exclusion of targeted populations in decision- making efforts; mismanagement, corruption, or both; incomplete or inappropriate evaluation procedures; and, lack of a coordinated and strategic approach among donors. A New Framework Improving ocean stewardship and ending the fragmentation of current capacity building programs will require a new, broadly adopted framework for capacity building that emphasizes cooperation, sustainability, and knowledge transfer within and among communities. The report identifies four specific features of capacity building that would increase the effectiveness and efficiency of future programs: 1. Regional action plans based on periodic program assessments to guide investments in capacity and set realistic milestones and performance measures. 2. Long-term support to establish self-sustaining programs. Sustained capacity building programs require a diversity of sources and coordinated investments from local, regional, and international donors. 3. Development of leadership and political will. One of the most commonly cited reasons for failure and lack of progress in ocean and coastal governance initiatives is lack of political will. One strategy for strengthening support is to identify, develop, mentor, and reward leaders. 4. Establishment of networks and mechanisms for regional collaboration. Networks bring together those working in the same or similar ecosystems with comparable management or governance challenges to share information, pool resources, and learn from one another. The report also recommends the establishment of regional centers to encourage and support collaboration among neighboring countries.

Roberts, S. J.; Feeley, M. H.

2008-05-01

358

Factors contributing to inconsistent condom use among heterosexual men in Curaçao.  

PubMed

This study explored, from a public health perspective, factors that contribute to inconsistent condom use by men in Curaçao through semi-structured face-to-face interviews with 21 heterosexual men. The findings show that there is an important disconnect between what is considered culturally appropriate sexual behaviour for men and women and condom use, that diverging from prescribed notions of masculinity and femininity in order to use condoms consistently is difficult, and that condom use is particularly problematic in the context of concurrent partnerships and sexual economic exchanges. Participants further reported that Caribbean family structures, whereby mothers assume the role as primary caregiver and fathers contribute biologically but, to a much lesser extent socially, also have an impact on condom use. Additionally, consistent condom use was reported to be impeded by a cultural taboo on talking seriously about sex and sexual health. In their totality, findings provide important input from men for the development of sexual health promotion interventions that are cognizant of the cultural context in which inconsistent condom use occurs, and that are geared not only to the individual level but also to the interpersonal and structural levels. PMID:23350609

Stutterheim, Sarah E; Bertens, Madelief G B C; Mevissen, Fraukje E F; Schaalma, Herman P

2013-01-01

359

Managing misaligned paternity findings in research including sickle cell disease screening in Kenya: ‘Consulting communities’ to inform policy?  

PubMed Central

The management of misaligned paternity findings raises important controversy worldwide. It has mainly, however, been discussed in the context of high-income countries. Genetic and genomics research, with the potential to show misaligned paternity, are becoming increasingly common in Africa. During a genomics study in Kenya, a dilemma arose over testing and sharing information on paternal sickle cell disease status. This dilemma may be paradigmatic of challenges in sharing misaligned paternity findings in many research and health care settings. Using a deliberative approach to community consultation to inform research practice, we explored residents' views on paternal testing and sharing misaligned paternity information. Between December 2009 and November 2010, 63 residents in Kilifi County were engaged in informed deliberative small group discussions, structured to support normative reflection within the groups, with purposive selection to explore diversity. Analysis was based on a modified framework analysis approach, drawing on relevant social science and bioethics literature. The methods generated in-depth individual and group reflection on morally important issues and uncovered wide diversity in views and values. Fundamental and conflicting values emerged around the importance of family interests and openness, underpinned by disagreement on the moral implications of marital infidelity and withholding truth. Wider consideration of ethical issues emerging in these debates supports locally-held reasoning that paternal sickle cell testing should not be undertaken in this context, in contrast to views that testing should be done with or without the disclosure of misaligned paternity information. The findings highlight the importance of facilitating wider testing of family members of affected children, contingent on the development and implementation of national policies for the management of this inherited disorder. Their richness also illustrates the potential for the approach adopted in this study to strengthen community consultation. PMID:24034967

Marsh, Vicki; Kombe, Francis; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Molyneux, Sassy; Parker, Michael

2013-01-01

360

RESEARCH FINDINGS BASIC NEUROSCIENCES RESEARCH  

E-print Network

Receptor Subunits in the Ventral Tegmental Area Enhances Motivation for Cocaine Chronic cocaine use produces numerous biological changes in brain, but relatively few are functionally associated with cocaine reinforcement. Here the authors show that daily intravenous cocaine self-administration, but not passive cocaine

Bandettini, Peter A.

361

If N is inconsistent, then N | # | # # # N # # {#} | | . Does this imply that every derivation starting from an  

E-print Network

Fairness Problem: If N is inconsistent, then N | # | # # # N # # {#} | | . Does this imply that every derivation starting from an inconsistent set N eventually produces # ? No: a clause could be kept to guarantee fairness). With this additional requirement, we get a stronger result: If N is inconsistent

Waldmann, Uwe

362

Inconsistencies in surface anatomy: The need for an evidence-based reappraisal.  

PubMed

Accurate surface anatomy is a key component of safe clinical practice. But how consistent are modern clinical and surface anatomy texts in their reporting of common surface anatomy landmarks? Thirteen popular texts in common use were analyzed in detail: one clinical and anatomical reference text; seven clinical anatomy texts; two surface anatomy texts; and three clinical examination texts. Content relating to surface anatomy was reviewed, summarized, and assessed for consistency. Four main findings emerged: (i) there are numerous inconsistencies in clinically important surface markings (e.g., the femoral artery in the groin, superficial and deep inguinal rings, and accessory nerve in the posterior triangle), including inconsistencies within some texts; (ii) there is a consensus on many surface markings, e.g., the spleen and termination of the spinal cord; (iii) few texts address variation in surface anatomy related to age, sex, body mass, posture, respiration, and ethnicity; and (iv) the three standard clinical examination texts included in this review contain comparatively little surface anatomy. Seven surface anatomy landmarks were redefined within an evidence-based framework: termination of the spinal cord, supracristal plane, base of the appendix, renal length, the deep inguinal ring, the femoral artery in the groin, and the accessory nerve in the posterior triangle of the neck. An evidence-based framework is essential if surface anatomy is to be accurate and clinically relevant. PMID:20830790

Hale, Samuel J M; Mirjalili, S Ali; Stringer, Mark D

2010-11-01

363

Peer Assessment of Aviation Performance: Inconsistent for Good Reasons.  

PubMed

Research into expertise is relatively common in cognitive science concerning expertise existing across many domains. However, much less research has examined how experts within the same domain assess the performance of their peer experts. We report the results of a modified think-aloud study conducted with 18 pilots (6 first officers, 6 captains, and 6 flight examiners). Pairs of same-ranked pilots were asked to rate the performance of a captain flying in a critical pre-recorded simulator scenario. Findings reveal (a) considerable variance within performance categories, (b) differences in the process used as evidence in support of a performance rating, (c) different numbers and types of facts (cues) identified, and (d) differences in how specific performance events affect choice of performance category and gravity of performance assessment. Such variance is consistent with low inter-rater reliability. Because raters exhibited good, albeit imprecise, reasons and facts, a fuzzy mathematical model of performance rating was developed. The model provides good agreement with observed variations. PMID:25052893

Roth, Wolff-Michael; Mavin, Timothy J

2014-07-23

364

Change and Continuity in the Primary School: The Research Evidence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews findings from a 1975 through 1980 study called ORACLE (Observational Research and Classroom Learning Evaluation). Maintains that the data showed only partial implementation of the Plowden report recommendations. Seeks to explain the reasons for inconsistencies in implementation and offers suggestions for redefining progressive…

Galton, Maurice

1987-01-01

365

Artificial grammar learning of melody is constrained by melodic inconsistency: Narmour's principles affect melodic learning.  

PubMed

Considerable evidence suggests that people acquire artificial grammars incidentally and implicitly, an indispensable capacity for the acquisition of music or language. However, less research has been devoted to exploring constraints affecting incidental learning. Within the domain of music, the extent to which Narmour's (1990) melodic principles affect implicit learning of melodic structure was experimentally explored. Extending previous research (Rohrmeier, Rebuschat & Cross, 2011), the identical finite-state grammar is employed having terminals (the alphabet) manipulated so that melodies generated systematically violated Narmour's principles. Results indicate that Narmour-inconsistent melodic materials impede implicit learning. This further constitutes a case in which artificial grammar learning is affected by prior knowledge or processing constraints. PMID:23874388

Rohrmeier, Martin; Cross, Ian

2013-01-01

366

All that glitters is not BOLD: inconsistencies in functional MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal is a widely-accepted marker of brain activity. The acquisition parameters (APs) of fMRI aim at maximizing the signals related to neuronal activity while minimizing unrelated signal fluctuations. Currently, a diverse set of APs is used to acquire BOLD fMRI data. Here we demonstrate that some fMRI responses are alarmingly inconsistent across APs, ranging from positive to negative, or disappearing entirely, under identical stimulus conditions. These discrepancies, resulting from non-BOLD effects masquerading as BOLD signals, have remained largely unnoticed because studies rarely employ more than one set of APs. We identified and characterized non-BOLD responses in several brain areas, including posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus, as well as AP-dependence of both the signal time courses and of seed-based functional networks, noticing that AP manipulation can inform about the origin of the measured signals.

Renvall, Ville; Nangini, Cathy; Hari, Riitta

2014-01-01

367

How intergenerational interaction affects attitude-behavior inconsistency.  

PubMed

Social norms play an important role in maintaining social order, but at the same time, they can act as a constraint that compels people to take specific actions which run contrary to their attitudes. This paper treats the latter case: we investigate conditions in which attitude-behavior inconsistency persists, constructing mathematical models combining evolutionary games and cultural transmissions. In particular, we focus on the effect of intergenerational interactions. Our models show that both information about others' attitude (e.g., through social surveys) and the combination of intra- and inter-generational interactions are key factors to generate the situation where all people adopt the same behavior but different people have different attitudes. PMID:24389394

Sekiguchi, Takuya; Nakamaru, Mayuko

2014-04-01

368

Inconsistencies in the Notions of Acoustic Stress and Streaming  

E-print Network

Inviscid hydrodynamics mediates forces through pressure and other, typically irrotational, external forces. Acoustically induced forces must be consistent with arising from such a pressure field. The use of "acoustic stress" is shown to have inconsistencies with such an analysis and generally arise from mathematical expediency but poor overall conceptualization of such systems. This contention is further supported by the poor agreement of experiment in many such approaches. The notion of momentum as being an intrinsic property of sound waves is similarly found to be paradoxical. Through an analysis that includes viscosity and attenuation, we conclude that all acoustic streaming must arise from vorticity introduced by viscous forces at the driver or other solid boundaries and that calculations with acoustic stress should be replaced with ones using a nonlinear correction to the overall pressure field.

Chafin, Clifford

2014-01-01

369

Global Energy Technology Strategy: Addressing Climate Change Phase 2 Findings from an international Public-Private Sponsored Research Program  

SciTech Connect

This book examines the role of global energy technology in addressing climate change. The book considers the nature of the climate change challenge and the role of energy in the issue. It goes on to consider the implications for the evolution of the global energy system and the potential value of technology availability, development and deployment. Six technology systems are identified for special consideration: CO2 capture and storage, Biotechnology, Hydrogen systems, Nuclear energy, Wind and solar energy, and End-use energy technologies. In addition, consideration is given to the role of non-CO2 gases in climate change as well as the potential of technology development and deployment to reduce non-CO2 emissions. Present trends in energy R&D are examined and potentially fruitful avenues for research. The book concludes with a set of key findings.

Edmonds, James A.; Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.; Kim, Son H.; Smith, Steven J.; Runci, Paul J.; Clarke, Leon E.; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Stokes, Gerald M.

2007-05-01

370

Finding Canadian Government Pubs.  

E-print Network

Finding Canadian Government Pubs. Econ 773 Peggy Findlay Reference Librarian Mills Research Help 2 Objectives Finding print Canadian government publications Electronic Canadian government publications Census Information/ Survey Data #12;Finding Canadian Documents ­ Econ 773 Finding Print Canadian Government

Haykin, Simon

371

Health effects of tropospheric ozone: review of recent research findings and their implications to ambient air quality standards.  

PubMed

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator proposed (on August 3, 1992) to retain the current National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone (O3) on the basis of data assembled in a draft Criteria Document (1986) and its Addendum (1988) which, together with a draft Staff Paper (1988), received public comment and review comments by the EPA's Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC). This paper summarizes and discusses research findings presented since 1988 which, based on the author's experience as a Chairman of CASAC, are most relevant to the promulgation of a primary (health based) NAAQS for O3. These newer findings include substantial evidence from controlled chamber exposure studies and field studies in natural settings that the current NAAQS contains no margin of safety against short-term effects that the EPA has considered to be adverse. They also include evidence from epidemiologic studies that current ambient exposures are associated with reduced baseline lung function, exacerbation of asthma and premature mortality, as well as evidence from chronic animal exposure studies at concentrations within current ambient peak levels that indicate progressive and persistent lung function and structural abnormalities. The current NAAQS, if retained, may therefore also be inadequate to protect the public from effects resulting from chronic exposure to O3. PMID:8518544

Lippmann, M

1993-01-01

372

Interventions for children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs): overview of findings for five innovative research projects.  

PubMed

It is well established that prenatal exposure to alcohol causes damage to the developing fetus, resulting in a spectrum of disorders known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Although our understanding of the deficits and disturbances associated with FASDs is far from complete, there are consistent findings indicating these are serious, lifelong disabilities-especially when these disabilities result from central nervous system damage. Until recently, information and strategies for interventions specific to individuals with FASDs have been gleaned from interventions used with people with other disabilities and from the practical wisdom gained by parents and clinicians through trial and error or shared through informal networks. Although informative to a limited degree, such interventions have been implemented without being evaluated systematically or scientifically. The purpose of this article is to provide a brief overview of a general intervention framework developed for individuals with FASDs and the methods and general findings of five specific intervention research studies conducted within this framework. The studies evaluated five different interventions in five diverse locations in the United States, with different segments of the FASD population. Nonetheless, all participants showed improvement in the target behaviors or skills, with four studies achieving statistical significance in treatment outcomes. Important lessons emerged from these five interventions that may explain success: including parent education or training, teaching children specific skills they would usually learn by observation or abstraction, and integration into existing systems of treatment. A major implication of these research studies for families dealing with FASDs is that there are now interventions available that can address their children's needs and that can be presented as scientifically validated and efficacious to intervention agents such as schools, social services, and mental health providers. In the field of FASD research and clinical service, a common theme reported by families has been that clinicians and professionals have been reluctant to diagnose their children because there were no known effective treatments. Results of these five studies dispel that concern by demonstrating several interventions that have been shown to improve the lives of individuals with FASDs and their families. PMID:19327965

Bertrand, Jacquelyn

2009-01-01

373

Estimating nonrigid motion from inconsistent intensity with robust shape features  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To develop a nonrigid motion estimation method that is robust to heterogeneous intensity inconsistencies amongst the image pairs or image sequence. Methods: Intensity and contrast variations, as in dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, present a considerable challenge to registration methods based on general discrepancy metrics. In this study, the authors propose and validate a novel method that is robust to such variations by utilizing shape features. The geometry of interest (GOI) is represented with a flexible zero level set, segmented via well-behaved regularized optimization. The optimization energy drives the zero level set to high image gradient regions, and regularizes it with area and curvature priors. The resulting shape exhibits high consistency even in the presence of intensity or contrast variations. Subsequently, a multiscale nonrigid registration is performed to seek a regular deformation field that minimizes shape discrepancy in the vicinity of GOIs. Results: To establish the working principle, realistic 2D and 3D images were subject to simulated nonrigid motion and synthetic intensity variations, so as to enable quantitative evaluation of registration performance. The proposed method was benchmarked against three alternative registration approaches, specifically, optical flow, B-spline based mutual information, and multimodality demons. When intensity consistency was satisfied, all methods had comparable registration accuracy for the GOIs. When intensities among registration pairs were inconsistent, however, the proposed method yielded pronounced improvement in registration accuracy, with an approximate fivefold reduction in mean absolute error (MAE = 2.25 mm, SD = 0.98 mm), compared to optical flow (MAE = 9.23 mm, SD = 5.36 mm), B-spline based mutual information (MAE = 9.57 mm, SD = 8.74 mm) and mutimodality demons (MAE = 10.07 mm, SD = 4.03 mm). Applying the proposed method on a real MR image sequence also provided qualitatively appealing results, demonstrating good feasibility and applicability of the proposed method. Conclusions: The authors have developed a novel method to estimate the nonrigid motion of GOIs in the presence of spatial intensity and contrast variations, taking advantage of robust shape features. Quantitative analysis and qualitative evaluation demonstrated good promise of the proposed method. Further clinical assessment and validation is being performed.

Liu, Wenyang [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)] [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Ruan, Dan, E-mail: druan@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States) [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Department of Biomedical Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

2013-12-15

374

Estimating nonrigid motion from inconsistent intensity with robust shape features  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To develop a nonrigid motion estimation method that is robust to heterogeneous intensity inconsistencies amongst the image pairs or image sequence. Methods: Intensity and contrast variations, as in dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, present a considerable challenge to registration methods based on general discrepancy metrics. In this study, the authors propose and validate a novel method that is robust to such variations by utilizing shape features. The geometry of interest (GOI) is represented with a flexible zero level set, segmented via well-behaved regularized optimization. The optimization energy drives the zero level set to high image gradient regions, and regularizes it with area and curvature priors. The resulting shape exhibits high consistency even in the presence of intensity or contrast variations. Subsequently, a multiscale nonrigid registration is performed to seek a regular deformation field that minimizes shape discrepancy in the vicinity of GOIs. Results: To establish the working principle, realistic 2D and 3D images were subject to simulated nonrigid motion and synthetic intensity variations, so as to enable quantitative evaluation of registration performance. The proposed method was benchmarked against three alternative registration approaches, specifically, optical flow, B-spline based mutual information, and multimodality demons. When intensity consistency was satisfied, all methods had comparable registration accuracy for the GOIs. When intensities among registration pairs were inconsistent, however, the proposed method yielded pronounced improvement in registration accuracy, with an approximate fivefold reduction in mean absolute error (MAE = 2.25 mm, SD = 0.98 mm), compared to optical flow (MAE = 9.23 mm, SD = 5.36 mm), B-spline based mutual information (MAE = 9.57 mm, SD = 8.74 mm) and mutimodality demons (MAE = 10.07 mm, SD = 4.03 mm). Applying the proposed method on a real MR image sequence also provided qualitatively appealing results, demonstrating good feasibility and applicability of the proposed method. Conclusions: The authors have developed a novel method to estimate the nonrigid motion of GOIs in the presence of spatial intensity and contrast variations, taking advantage of robust shape features. Quantitative analysis and qualitative evaluation demonstrated good promise of the proposed method. Further clinical assessment and validation is being performed. PMID:24320523

Liu, Wenyang; Ruan, Dan

2013-01-01

375

Gender Research in the National Institute on Drug Abuse National Treatment Clinical Trials Network: A Summary of Findings  

PubMed Central

Background The NIDA National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN) was established to foster translation of research into practice in substance abuse treatment settings. The CTN provides a unique opportunity to examine in multi-site, translational clinical trials, the outcomes of treatment interventions targeting vulnerable sub-groups of women; the comparative effectiveness of gender-specific protocols to reduce risk behaviors; and gender differences in clinical outcomes. Objectives To review gender-related findings from published CTN clinical trials and related studies from January, 2000 through March, 2010. Methods CTN studies were selected for review if they focused on treatment outcomes or services for special populations of women with substance use disorders (SUDs) including those with trauma histories, pregnancy, co-occurring eating and other psychiatric disorders and HIV risk behaviors; or implemented gender-specific protocols. Results The CTN has randomized 11,500 participants (41% women) across 200 clinics in 24 randomized clinical trials in community settings, of which 4 have been gender-specific. This paper summarizes gender-related findings from CTN clinical trials and related studies, focusing on trauma histories, pregnancy, co-occurring eating and other psychiatric disorders, and HIV risk behaviors. Conclusions These published studies have expanded the evidence base regarding interventions for vulnerable groups of women with SUDs as well as gender-specific interventions to reduce HIV risk behaviors in substance using men and women. The results also underscore the complexity of accounting for gender in the design of clinical trials and analysis of results. Scientific Relevance To fully understand the relevance of gender-specific moderators and mediators of outcome, it is essential that future translational studies adopt more sophisticated approaches to understanding and measuring gender-relevant factors and plan sample sizes that are adequate to support more nuanced analytic methods. PMID:21854272

Greenfield, Shelly F.; Rosa, Carmen; Putnins, Susan I.; Green, Carla A.; Brooks, Audrey J.; Calsyn, Donald A.; Cohen, Lisa R.; Erickson, Sarah; Gordon, Susan M.; Haynes, Louise; Killeen, Therese; Miele, Gloria; Tross, Susan; Winhusen, Theresa

2011-01-01

376

Healthy Universities: current activity and future directions--findings and reflections from a national-level qualitative research study.  

PubMed

This qualitative study used questionnaires to scope and explore 'healthy universities' activity taking place within English higher education institutions (HEIs). The findings revealed a wealth of health-related activity and confirmed growing interest in the healthy universities approach--reflecting an increasing recognition that investment for health within the sector will contribute not only to health targets but also to mainstream agendas such as staff and student recruitment, experience and retention; and institutional and societal productivity and sustainability. However, they also suggested that, while there is growing understanding of the need for a comprehensive whole system approach to improving health within higher education settings, there are a number of very real challenges--including a lack of rigorous evaluation, the difficulty of integrating health into a 'non-health' sector and the complexity of securing sustainable cultural change. Noting that health and well-being remain largely marginal to the core mission and organization of higher education, the article goes on to reflect on the wider implications for future research and policy at national and international levels. Within England, whereas there are Healthy Schools and Healthy Further Education Programmes, there is as yet no government-endorsed programme for universities. Similarly, at an international level, there has been no systematic investment in higher education mirroring the comprehensive and multifaceted Health Promoting Schools Programme. Key issues highlighted are: securing funding for evaluative research within and across HEIs to enable the development of a more robust evidence base for the approach; advocating for an English National Healthy Higher Education Programme that can help to build consistency across the entire spectrum of education; and exploring with the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Union for Health Promotion and Education (IUHPE) the feasibility of developing an international programme. PMID:21495435

Dooris, Mark; Doherty, Sharon

2010-09-01

377

NICE's selective application of differential discounting: ambiguous, inconsistent, and unjustified.  

PubMed

The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) recently recommended differential discounting of costs and health effects in the economic appraisal of health care interventions in certain circumstances. The recommendation was published in an amendment to NICE's Guide to the Methods of Technology Appraisal. The amendment states that differential discounting should be applied where "treatment effects are both substantial in restoring health and sustained over a very long period (normally at least 30 years)." Renewed interest in differential discounting from NICE is welcome; however, the recommendation's selective application of differential discounting raises a number of concerns. The stated criteria for applying differential discounting are ambiguous. The rationale for the selective application of differential discounting has not been articulated by NICE and is questionable. The selective application of differential discounting leads to several inconsistencies, the most concerning of which is the lower valuation of health gains for those with less than 30 years remaining life expectancy, which can be interpreted as age discrimination. Furthermore, the discount rates chosen by NICE do not appear to be informed by recent advances in the theoretical understanding of differential discounting. NICE's apparent motivation for recommending differential discounting was to ensure a favorable cost-effectiveness ratio for a pediatric oncology drug. While flexibility may be appropriate to allow some interventions that exceed conventional cost-effectiveness thresholds to be adopted, the selective adjustment of appraisal methods is problematic and without justification. PMID:25128041

O'Mahony, James F; Paulden, Mike

2014-07-01

378

Decomposition-Based Optimization for Debugging of Inconsistent OWL DL Ontologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Ontology debugging plays an important role in tackling inconsistency in OWL DL ontologies. It computes all minimal inconsistent\\u000a sub-ontologies (MISs) of an inconsistent ontology. However, the computation of all MISs is costly. Existing module extraction\\u000a methods that optimize the debugging of ontology entailments are not sufficient to optimize the computation of all MISs, because\\u000a a module (i.e. a sub-ontology) that

Jianfeng Du; Guilin Qi

2010-01-01

379

DCCPS: Health Behavior Constructs: Theory, Measurement, & Research  

Cancer.gov

In an effort to reduce the "literal inconsistency" problem (the inconsistency between what people say and what they do) and therefore increase the observed relation between proximal antecedents and behavior, researchers have explored other types of proximal measures.

380

Some inconsistencies in NICE's consideration of social values.  

PubMed

The UK's National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recently proposed amendments to its methods for the appraisal of health technologies. Previous amendments in 2009 and 2011 placed a greater value on the health of patients at the "end of life" and in cases where "treatment effects are both substantial in restoring health and sustained over a very long period". Drawing lessons from these previous amendments, we critically appraise NICE's proposals. The proposals repeal "end of life" considerations but add consideration of the "proportional" and "absolute" quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) loss from illness. NICE's cost-effectiveness threshold may increase from £20,000 to £50,000 per QALY on the basis of these and four other considerations: the "certainty of the ICER [incremental cost-effectiveness ratio]"; whether health-related quality of life is "inadequately captured"; the "innovative nature" of the technology; and "non-health objectives of the NHS". We demonstrate that NICE's previous amendments are flawed; they contain logical inconsistencies which can result in different values being placed on health gains for identical patients, and they do not apply value weights to patients bearing the opportunity cost of NICE's recommendations. The proposals retain both flaws and are also poorly justified. Applying value weights to patients bearing the opportunity cost would lower NICE's threshold, in some cases to below £20,000 per QALY. Furthermore, this baseline threshold is higher than current estimates of the opportunity cost. NICE's proposed threshold range is too high, for empirical and methodological reasons. NICE's proposals will harm the health of unidentifiable patients, whilst privileging the identifiable beneficiaries of new health technologies. PMID:25145802

Paulden, Mike; O'Mahony, James F; Culyer, Anthony J; McCabe, Christopher

2014-11-01

381

Inconsistencies of the Evaluation of Home Advantage in Sports Competitions Under the Three Points Per Victory System  

PubMed Central

A recent letter sent to the Journal of Human Kinetics’ editor (Gómez & Pollard, 2014) warned about a supposed methodology error in the calculation of home advantage in football leagues used in Saavedra et al. (2013) and took the liberty of modifying the research’s data. The aim of this letter is to demonstrate that the evaluation system of the home advantage proposed by Pollard (1986) contains serious inconsistencies when applied to competitions which give three points for a win and one point for a draw, as it is the case of the UEFA football leagues in the 21th century. PMID:25414734

García, Miguel Saavedra; Aguilar, Óscar Gutiérrez; Fernández Romero, Juan J.

2014-01-01

382

Inconsistencies among European Union Pharmaceutical Regulator Safety Communications: A Cross-Country Comparison  

PubMed Central

Background The European Medicines Agency (EMA) and national regulators share the responsibility to communicate to healthcare providers postmarketing safety events but little is known about the consistency of this process. We aimed to compare public availability of safety-related communications and drug withdrawals from the EMA and European Union member countries for novel medicines. Methods and Findings We performed a cross-sectional analysis using public Dear Healthcare Professional Communications (DHPCs) for all novel medicines authorized between 2001 and 2010 by the EMA and available for use in France, Netherlands, Spain, and the United Kingdom. Between 2001 and 2010, the EMA approved 185 novel medicines. DHPCs could not be ascertained for the EMA. Among the 4 national regulators, as of April 30, 2013, at least one safety DHPC or withdrawal occurred for 53 (28.6%) medicines, totaling 90 DHPCs and 5 withdrawals. Among these 53 medicines, all 4 national agencies issued at least one communication for 17 (32.1%), three of the four for 25 (47.2%), two of the four for 6 (11.3%), and one of the four for 5 (9.4%). Five drugs were reported to be withdrawn, three by all four countries, one by three and one by two. Among the 95 DHPCs and withdrawals, 20 (21.1%) were issued by all 4 national regulators, 37 (38.9%) by 3 of the 4, 22 (23.2%) by 2 of the 4, and 16 (16.8%) by one. Consistency of making publicly available all identified safety DHPC or withdrawal across regulator pairs varied from 33% to 73% agreement. Conclusions Safety communications were not made publicly available by the EMA. Among the 4 European member countries with national regulators that make DHPCs publicly available since at least 2001, there were substantial inconsistencies in safety communications for novel medicines. The impact of those inconsistencies in terms of public health remains to be determined. PMID:25333986

Zeitoun, Jean-David; Lefèvre, Jérémie H.; Downing, Nicholas; Bergeron, Henri; Ross, Joseph S.

2014-01-01

383

Factors influencing the utilization of research findings by health policy-makers in a developing country: the selection of Mali's essential medicines  

PubMed Central

Background Research findings are increasingly being recognized as an important input in the formation of health policy. There is concern that research findings are not being utilized by health policy-makers to the extent that they could be. The factors influencing the utilization of various types of research by health policy-makers are beginning to emerge in the literature, however there is still little known about these factors in developing countries. The object of this study was to explore these factors by examining the policy-making process for a pharmaceutical policy common in developing countries; an essential medicines list. Methods A study of the selection and updating of Mali's national essential medicines list was undertaken using qualitative methods. In-depth semi-structured interviews and a natural group discussion were held with national policy-makers, most specifically members of the national commission that selects and updates the country's list. The resulting text was analyzed using a phenomenological approach. A document analysis was also performed. Results Several factors emerged from the textual data that appear to be influencing the utilization of health research findings for these policy-makers. These factors include: access to information, relevance of the research, use of research perceived as a time consuming process, trust in the research, authority of those who presented their view, competency in research methods, priority of research in the policy process, and accountability. Conclusion Improving the transfer of research to policy will require effort on the part of researchers, policy-makers, and third parties. This will include: collaboration between researchers and policy-makers, increased production and dissemination of relevant and useful research, and continued and improved technical support from networks and multi-national organizations. Policy-makers from developing countries will then be better equipped to make informed decisions concerning their health policy issues. PMID:17338810

Albert, Michael A; Fretheim, Atle; Maïga, Diadié

2007-01-01

384

Inconsistent impacts of decomposer diversity on the stability of aboveground and belowground ecosystem functions  

PubMed Central

The intensive discussion on the importance of biodiversity for the stability of essential processes in ecosystems has prompted a multitude of studies since the middle of the last century. Nevertheless, research has been extremely biased by focusing on the producer level, while studies on the impacts of decomposer diversity on the stability of ecosystem functions are lacking. Here, we investigate the impacts of decomposer diversity on the stability (reliability) of three important aboveground and belowground ecosystem functions: primary productivity (shoot and root biomass), litter decomposition, and herbivore infestation. For this, we analyzed the results of three laboratory experiments manipulating decomposer diversity (1–3 species) in comparison to decomposer-free treatments in terms of variability of the measured variables. Decomposer diversity often significantly but inconsistently affected the stability of all aboveground and belowground ecosystem functions investigated in the present study. While primary productivity was mainly destabilized, litter decomposition and aphid infestation were essentially stabilized by increasing decomposer diversity. However, impacts of decomposer diversity varied between plant community and fertility treatments. There was no general effect of the presence of decomposers on stability and no trend toward weaker effects in fertilized communities and legume communities. This indicates that impacts of decomposers are based on more than effects on nutrient availability. Although inconsistent impacts complicate the estimation of consequences of belowground diversity loss, underpinning mechanisms of the observed patterns are discussed. Impacts of decomposer diversity on the stability of essential ecosystem functions differed between plant communities of varying composition and fertility, implicating that human-induced changes of biodiversity and land-use management might have unpredictable effects on the processes mankind relies on. This study therefore points to the necessity of also considering soil feedback mechanisms in order to gain a comprehensive and holistic understanding of the impacts of current global change phenomena on the stability of essential ecosystem functions. PMID:20878188

Schädler, Martin

2010-01-01

385

Neuroimaging findings in primary insomnia.  

PubMed

State-of-the-art neuroimaging techniques have accelerated progress in the study and understanding of sleep in humans. Neuroimaging studies in primary insomnia remain relatively few, considering the important prevalence of this disorder in the general population. This review examines the contribution of functional and structural neuroimaging to our current understanding of primary insomnia. Functional studies during sleep provided support for the hyperarousal theory of insomnia. Functional neuroimaging also revealed abnormalities in cognitive and emotional processing in primary insomnia. Results from structural studies suggest neuroanatomical alterations in primary insomnia, mostly in the hippocampus, anterior cingulate cortex and orbitofrontal cortex. However, these results are not well replicated across studies. A few magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies revealed abnormalities in neurotransmitter concentrations and bioenergetics in primary insomnia. The inconsistencies among neuroimaging findings on insomnia are likely due to clinical heterogeneity, differences in imaging and overall diversity of techniques and designs employed. Larger samples, replication, as well as innovative methodologies are necessary for the progression of this perplexing, yet promising area of research. PMID:25129873

O'Byrne, J N; Berman Rosa, M; Gouin, J-P; Dang-Vu, T T

2014-10-01

386

44 CFR 6.9 - Inconsistent issuances of FEMA and/or its predecessor agencies superseded.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Inconsistent issuances of FEMA and/or its predecessor agencies superseded...General § 6.9 Inconsistent issuances of FEMA and/or its predecessor agencies superseded...policies and procedures in any issuances of FEMA or any of its predecessor agencies...

2010-10-01

387

44 CFR 6.9 - Inconsistent issuances of FEMA and/or its predecessor agencies superseded.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2011-10-01 true Inconsistent issuances of FEMA and/or its predecessor agencies superseded...General § 6.9 Inconsistent issuances of FEMA and/or its predecessor agencies superseded...policies and procedures in any issuances of FEMA or any of its predecessor agencies...

2012-10-01

388

44 CFR 6.9 - Inconsistent issuances of FEMA and/or its predecessor agencies superseded.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Inconsistent issuances of FEMA and/or its predecessor agencies superseded...General § 6.9 Inconsistent issuances of FEMA and/or its predecessor agencies superseded...policies and procedures in any issuances of FEMA or any of its predecessor agencies...

2014-10-01

389

44 CFR 6.9 - Inconsistent issuances of FEMA and/or its predecessor agencies superseded.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Inconsistent issuances of FEMA and/or its predecessor agencies superseded...General § 6.9 Inconsistent issuances of FEMA and/or its predecessor agencies superseded...policies and procedures in any issuances of FEMA or any of its predecessor agencies...

2011-10-01

390

44 CFR 6.9 - Inconsistent issuances of FEMA and/or its predecessor agencies superseded.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Inconsistent issuances of FEMA and/or its predecessor agencies superseded...General § 6.9 Inconsistent issuances of FEMA and/or its predecessor agencies superseded...policies and procedures in any issuances of FEMA or any of its predecessor agencies...

2013-10-01

391

Ambient Particulate Matter during MILAGRO in Mexico City: Main Findings, Impacts (on AQ and Climate), and Future Research Needs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MILAGRO campaign was a large international field experiments conduced in Mexico City and Central Mexico during March 2006. We present an overview of the main findings related to particulate matter and aerosol radiative properties. PM levels inside Mexico City were similar or higher than those in the most polluted North American cities, but ~5 times lower than levels in the most polluted Asian megacities During the study, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations in the urban area of were about double the concentrations in the rural areas surrounding Mexico City. PM2.5 made up about half of the PM10 concentrations, with small amounts of mass in the PM2.5-PM1.0 range. Mineral matter made up approximately 25% of the PM10 and on average 15% and 28% of the PM2.5 in the urban and rural areas, respectively. Approximately 25% of the PM2.5 was secondary inorganic ions with the remaining PM2.5 mass being comprised of largely carbonaceous aerosol. Except for surface measurements at the central sampling sites in Mexico city, the elemental carbon mass absorption efficiency was relatively constant for aircraft and surface measurements throughout the study, contrary to expectations. Although different organic aerosol (OA) source apportionment methods had some differences, there was agreement that the dominant sources of carbonaceous aerosol were secondary OA (SOA), biomass burning, and mobile sources. The impact of biomass burning to the aerosol outflow from the region was much larger than to the surface concentrations inside the city. SOA formation from primary semivolatile and intermediate volatility precursors has the potential to close the gap in predicted vs. measured SOA, while formation from glyoxal also makes an important contribution, especially to organic oxygen. Biogenic SOA advected from the coastal mountain ranges contributes about 1 ?g m-3 to concentrations in the MCMA. Primary OA from anthropogenic and biomass burning sources was found to be semivolatile, while secondary OA was less volatile than POA and aged SOA was essentially non-volatile, in contradiction with current models. Growth rates of new particle formation in Mexico City was very large and found to be impacted by nitrogen containing organic compounds, organic acids, and hydroxyl organic acids, with only a smaller fraction of sulfate aerosol. Some open research questions include the following: additional work is needed to fully quantify the sources of substantial (30-45%) modern carbon in organic aerosols during low biomass burning periods. Discrepancies between the two modern carbon datasets deserve further study. The impact of regional dust vs. road resuspension, as well as heterogeneous reactions of HNO3 with dust need to be quantified. The impact of some POA sources such as food cooking, biofuel use, and open trash burning may be important, but remains poorly characterized. Some differences in the apportionment of biomass burning PM between different approaches were observed and need further research, as these techniques together represent the state of the art for source apportionment. Anthropogenic SOA predictions are improving in terms of magnitude but are poorly constrained by the data. More specific precursor, intermediate, and tracer measurements are needed in future campaigns. SOA from biomass burning sources, although not dominant in the city, remains poorly characterized and appears to be underpredicted by traditional models.

Jimenez, Jose-Luis; Schauer, James J.; Molina, Luisa T.; MILAGRO Pm Team

2010-05-01

392

An Approach for Detecting Inconsistencies between Behavioral Models of the Software Architecture and the Code  

SciTech Connect

In practice, inconsistencies between architectural documentation and the code might arise due to improper implementation of the architecture or the separate, uncontrolled evolution of the code. Several approaches have been proposed to detect the inconsistencies between the architecture and the code but these tend to be limited for capturing inconsistencies that might occur at runtime. We present a runtime verification approach for detecting inconsistencies between the dynamic behavior of the architecture and the actual code. The approach is supported by a set of tools that implement the architecture and the code patterns in Prolog, and support the automatic generation of runtime monitors for detecting inconsistencies. We illustrate the approach and the toolset for a Crisis Management System case study.

Ciraci, Selim; Sozer, Hasan; Tekinerdogan, Bedir

2012-07-16

393

Landfill aeration worldwide: Concepts, indications and findings  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different landfill aeration concepts and accordant application areas are described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Examples of full scale projects are provided for Europe, North-America and Asia. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Major project findings are summarised, including prospects and limitations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inconsistencies between laboratory and full scale results have been elaborated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An explanatory approach in connection with the inconsistencies is provided. - Abstract: The creation of sustainable landfills is a fundamental goal in waste management worldwide. In this connection landfill aeration contributes towards an accelerated, controlled and sustainable conversion of conventional anaerobic landfills into a biological stabilized state associated with a minimised emission potential. The technology has been successfully applied to landfills in Europe, North America and Asia, following different strategies depending on the geographical region, the specific legislation and the available financial resources. Furthermore, methodologies for the incorporation of landfill aeration into the carbon trade mechanisms have been developed in recent years. This manuscript gives an overview on existing concepts for landfill aeration; their application ranges and specifications. For all of the described concepts examples from different countries worldwide are provided, including details regarding their potentials and limitations. Some of the most important findings from these aeration projects are summarised and future research needs have been identified. It becomes apparent that there is a great demand for a systematisation of the available results and implications in order to further develop and optimise this very promising technology. The IWWG (International Waste Working Group) Task Group 'Landfill Aeration' contributes towards the achievement of this goal.

Ritzkowski, M., E-mail: m.ritzkowski@tu-harburg.de [Institute of Environmental Technology and Energy Economics, Hamburg University of Technology, Harburger Schlossstr. 36, 21079 Hamburg (Germany); Stegmann, R., E-mail: info@ifas-hamburg.de [Consultants for Waste Management, Prof. R. Stegmann and Partner, Schellerdamm 19-21, 21079 Hamburg (Germany)

2012-07-15

394

Phage-Finding Using Mycobacteria: A Secondary School or Undergraduate Research Module with the Potential to Gain Scientific Authorship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mycobacteriophages are in the limelight of biomedical science (Pedulla et al., 2003), and new phage can be discovered and studied in a variety of high school and undergraduate educational settings. Simple methods for finding and studying new mycobacteriophage are described.

Schwebach, James Reid; Jacobs, William R., Jr.

2006-01-01

395

Overview of research on finding semantic meanings from low-level features in content-based image retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

Content-based image retrieval is a bottleneck of research in multimedia systems. The research has proved extremely difficult because of the inherent problems in proper automated analysis and feature extraction of the image to facilitate proper classification of various objects. An image may contain more than one objects and to segment the image in line with object features to extract meaningful

Sagarmay Deb

2009-01-01

396

Critical Thinking: A Statement of Expert Consensus for Purposes of Educational Assessment and Instruction. Research Findings and Recommendations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a qualitative research methodology, known as the Delphi Method, an interactive panel of experts was convened to work toward a consensus on the role of critical thinking (CT) in educational assessment and instruction. In Delphi research, experts participate in several rounds of questions that require thoughtful and detailed responses.…

Facione, Peter A.

397

St. Jude researchers find a childhood eye tumor is made up of hybrid cells with jumbled development:  

Cancer.gov

A research team led by St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital scientists has identified a potential new target for treatment of the childhood eye tumor retinoblastoma. Their work also settles a scientific debate by showing the cancer’s cellular origins are as scrambled as the developmental pathways at work in the tumor.

398

Women in Science Award Winners Women scientists at the Medical College of Wisconsin are advancing biomedical research and finding innovative  

E-print Network

Women in Science Award Winners Women scientists at the Medical College of Wisconsin are advancing care. The College celebrates their accomplishments with the Women Pioneers in Research Award. 2007 in the Department of Medicine. She is researching the role of fatty acids in the body and the affect these acids

399

Procedures of recruiting, obtaining informed consent, and compensating research participants in Qatar: findings from a qualitative investigation  

PubMed Central

Background Very few researchers have reported on procedures of recruiting, obtaining informed consent, and compensating participants in health research in the Arabian Gulf Region. Empirical research can inform the debate about whether to adjust these procedures for culturally diverse settings. Our objective was to delineate procedures related to recruiting, obtaining informed consent, and compensating health research participants in the extremely high-density multicultural setting of Qatar. Methods During a multistage mixed methods project, field observations and qualitative interviews were conducted in a general medicine clinic of a major medical center in Qatar. Participants were chosen based on gender, age, literacy, and preferred language, i.e., Arabic, English, Hindi and Urdu. Qualitative analysis identified themes about recruitment, informed consent, compensation, and other research procedures. Results A total of 153 individuals were approached and 84 enrolled; the latter showed a diverse age range (18 to 75 years); varied language representation: Arabic (n?=?24), English (n?=?20), Hindi (n?=?20), and Urdu (n?=?20); and balanced gender distribution: women (n?=?43) and men (n?=?41). Primary reasons for 30 declinations included concern about interview length and recording. The study achieved a 74% participation rate. Qualitative analytics revealed key themes about hesitation to participate, decisions about participation with family members as well as discussions with them as “incidental research participants”, the informed consent process, privacy and gender rules of the interview environment, reactions to member checking and compensation, and motivation for participating. Vulnerability emerged as a recurring issue throughout the process among a minority of participants. Conclusions This study from Qatar is the first to provide empirical data on recruitment, informed consent, compensation and other research procedures in a general adult population in the Middle East and Arabian Gulf. This investigation illustrates how potential research participants perceive research participation. Fundamentally, Western ethical research principles were applicable, but required flexibility and culturally informed adaptations. PMID:24495499

2014-01-01

400

Integration of Research and Practice in Substance Use Disorder Treatment: Findings from Focus Groups of Clinicians, Researchers, Educators, Administrators, and Policy Makers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Clinicians, researchers, educators, administrators, and policy makers, who represented stakeholders in the substance abuse treatment field, participated in 5 focus groups. Four general areas regarding integration of research and practice were investigated: definition of research, training/education, current integration, and future integration.…

Campbell, Todd C.; Daood, Christopher; Catlin, Lynn; Abelson, Alissa

2005-01-01

401

Photoelectron spectroscopy in heavy fermions: Inconsistencies with the Kondo model  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated a number of Ce and Yb heavy fermion compounds via photoelectron spectroscopy and compared the results to the predictions of the Imurity Anderson Hamiltonian within the Gunnarson-Schonhammer approach. For the low T{sub K} materials investigated we find little or no correlation with T{sub K}, the only parameter that can be determined independent of photoemission.

Arko, A.J.; Joyce, J.J.; Blyth, R.R.; Canfield, P.C.; Thompson, J.D.; Bartlett, R.J.; Fisk, Z. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Lawrence, J.; Tang, J. [California Univ., Irvine, CA (United States); Riseborough, P. [Polytechnic Univ., Brooklyn, NY (United States)

1992-09-01

402

Consulting communities on feedback of genetic findings in international health research: sharing sickle cell disease and carrier information in coastal Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background International health research in malaria-endemic settings may include screening for sickle cell disease, given the relationship between this important genetic condition and resistance to malaria, generating questions about whether and how findings should be disclosed. The literature on disclosing genetic findings in the context of research highlights the role of community consultation in understanding and balancing ethically important issues from participants’ perspectives, including social forms of benefit and harm, and the influence of access to care. To inform research practice locally, and contribute to policy more widely, this study aimed to explore the views of local residents in Kilifi County in coastal Kenya on how researchers should manage study-generated information on sickle cell disease and carrier status. Methods Between June 2010 and July 2011, we consulted 62 purposively selected Kilifi residents on how researchers should manage study-generated sickle cell disease findings. Methods drew on a series of deliberative informed small group discussions. Data were analysed thematically, using charts, to describe participants’ perceptions of the importance of disclosing findings, including reasoning, difference and underlying values. Themes were derived from the underlying research questions and from issues emerging from discussions. Data interpretation drew on relevant areas of social science and bioethics literature. Results Perceived health and social benefits generated strong support for disclosing findings on sickle cell disease, but the balance of social benefits and harms was less clear for sickle cell trait. Many forms of health and social benefits and harms of information-sharing were identified, with important underlying values related to family interests and the importance of openness. The influence of micro and macro level contextual features and prioritization of values led to marked diversity of opinion. Conclusions The approach demonstrates a high ethical importance in many malaria endemic low-to-middle income country settings of disclosing sickle cell disease findings generated during research, alongside provision of effective care and locally-informed counselling. Since these services are central to the benefits of disclosure, health researchers whose studies include screening for sickle cell disease should actively promote the development of health policy and services for this condition in situations of unmet need, including through the prior development of collaborative partnerships with government health managers and providers. Community consultation can importantly enrich ethical debate on research practice where in-depth exploration of informed views and the potential for difference are taken into account. PMID:24125465

2013-01-01

403

Who Has Used Internal Company Documents for Biomedical and Public Health Research and Where Did They Find Them?  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the sources of internal company documents used in public health and healthcare research. Methods We searched PubMed and Embase for articles using internal company documents to address a research question about a health-related topic. Our primary interest was where authors obtained internal company documents for their research. We also extracted information on type of company, type of research question, type of internal documents, and funding source. Results Our searches identified 9,305 citations of which 357 were eligible. Scanning of reference lists and consultation with colleagues identified 4 additional articles, resulting in 361 included articles. Most articles examined internal tobacco company documents (325/361; 90%). Articles using documents from pharmaceutical companies (20/361; 6%) were the next most common. Tobacco articles used documents from repositories; pharmaceutical documents were from a range of sources. Most included articles relied upon internal company documents obtained through litigation (350/361; 97%). The research questions posed were primarily about company strategies to promote or position the company and its products (326/361; 90%). Most articles (346/361; 96%) used information from miscellaneous documents such as memos or letters, or from unspecified types of documents. When explicit information about study funding was provided (290/361 articles), the most common source was the US-based National Cancer Institute. We developed an alternative and more sensitive search targeted at identifying additional research articles using internal pharmaceutical company documents, but the search retrieved an impractical number of citations for review. Conclusions Internal company documents provide an excellent source of information on health topics (e.g., corporate behavior, study data) exemplified by articles based on tobacco industry documents. Pharmaceutical and other industry documents appear to have been less used for research, indicating a need for funding for this type of research and well-indexed and curated repositories to provide researchers with ready access to the documents. PMID:24800999

Wieland, L. Susan; Rutkow, Lainie; Vedula, S. Swaroop; Kaufmann, Christopher N.; Rosman, Lori M.; Twose, Claire; Mahendraratnam, Nirosha; Dickersin, Kay

2014-01-01

404

Developing a Culture of Enquiry-Based, Independent Learning in a Research-Led Institution: Findings from a Survey of Pedagogic Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports select findings from an institutional survey designed to support long-term strategic developments at a research-led institution in the UK. These developments include a revised Learning and Teaching Strategy that has at its core the promotion of a "cross-institutional culture of enquiry-based, independent learning". The survey…

McLinden, Mike; Edwards, Corony

2011-01-01

405

Everything in Its Place: Researchers Identify Brain Cells Used to Categorize Findings Shed Light on the Brain Processes Behind Learning and Memory  

E-print Network

Everything in Its Place: Researchers Identify Brain Cells Used to Categorize Images Findings Shed Light on the Brain Processes Behind Learning and Memory Boston, MA-August 27,2006-Socks in the sock in youth. But what parts of the brain are used to encode such categories as socks, shirts, or any other

Freedman, David J.

406

Home Practice Areas Jurisdictions Cases & Codes News CLE Market Center Research a Lawyer FindLaw | For Legal Professionals | For Corporate Counsel | For Law Students  

E-print Network

Home Practice Areas Jurisdictions Cases & Codes News CLE Market Center Research a Lawyer Find | Newsletters U.S. 4th Circuit Court of Appeals PEOPLE FOR ETHICAL v DOUGHNEY PUBLISHED UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE FOURTH CIRCUIT PEOPLE FOR THE ETHICAL TREATMENT OF ANIMALS, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. No. 00

Shamos, Michael I.

407

Finding new sources of copper in Zambia The Zambian Copperbelt is the largest known source of copper on Earth. Research at the  

E-print Network

Finding new sources of copper in Zambia The Zambian Copperbelt is the largest known source of copper on Earth. Research at the University of Southampton has challenged conventional thinking about. There is great demand for copper throughout the world, particularly to supply fast-growing economies in countries

Anderson, Jim

408

St. Jude researchers find that improved risk identification will aid fertility preservation in young male cancer patients  

Cancer.gov

St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital study has identified the cumulative dose of a widely used class of chemotherapy drugs that leaves young male cancer patients at risk for impaired sperm production as adults.

409

Dana-Farber researchers find that revamped radiation treatment schedule for common form of brain cancer can extend survival  

Cancer.gov

An altered radiation treatment schedule for the most common and lethal form of brain cancer extended survival times, a new study by researchers at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and other organizations has shown.

410

U of Michigan researchers find that 25 percent of breast cancer survivors report financial decline due to treatment  

Cancer.gov

Researchers surveyed women in Detroit and Los Angeles who had been diagnosed with early stage breast cancer, based on data obtained from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results population-based registry.

411

Wayne State researcher presents findings on drugs that lead to killing of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma tumors:  

Cancer.gov

A Wayne State University School of Medicine researcher believes he has found a safer, more effective way to keep cancer cells from protecting themselves against tumor-killing drugs in cases of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.

412

Dana-Farber researchers find that a narrow subset of cells is responsible for metastasis in multiple myeloma  

Cancer.gov

Dana-Farber researchers report that multiple myeloma is driven to spread by a subset of the myeloma cells within a patient’s body, and that attacking those specific subsets with targeted drugs may be better targets for therapy.

413

Washington U researchers find that many older people have mutations linked to leukemia, lymphoma in their blood cells  

Cancer.gov

At least 2 percent of people over age 40 and 5 percent of people over 70 have mutations linked to leukemia and lymphoma in their blood cells, according to new research at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis.

414

Dana-Farber researchers find that drug combination delays worsening of disease in women with recurrent ovarian cancer  

Cancer.gov

Researchers from the Susan F. Smith Center for Women’s Cancers at Dana-Farber report that for some women with recurrent ovarian cancer, a new drug combination has been found to stall the progression of the disease.

415

NCI and Georgetown researchers find that a single gene separates aggressive and non-aggressive lymphatic system cancer  

Cancer.gov

For a rare form of cancer called thymoma, researchers have discovered a single gene defining the difference between a fast-growing tumor requiring aggressive treatment and a slow-growing tumor that doesn’t require extensive therapy.

416

St. Jude researchers find that an inherited gene variation is tied to treatment-related hearing loss in cancer patients  

Cancer.gov

St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital scientists have identified inherited genetic variations associated with hearing loss in young cancer patients treated with cisplatin, a drug widely used to treat adults with cancer.

417

Dana-Farber and other researchers find that silencing the speech gene FOXP2 causes breast cancer cells to metastasize  

Cancer.gov

A research team led by investigators at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center has identified an unexpected link between a transcription factor known to regulate speech and language development and metastatic colonization of breast cancer.

418

Mayo and NCI researchers find that trastuzumab continues to show life for HER2-positve early stage breast cancer  

Cancer.gov

After following breast cancer patients for an average of eight-plus years, researchers say that adding trastuzumab (Herceptin) to chemotherapy significantly improved the overall and disease-free survival of women with early stage HER2-positive breast cancer.

419

Penn Medicine researchers find that a metabolic enzyme stops progression of most common type of kidney cancer  

Cancer.gov

Researchers found that an enzyme called FBP1 -- essential for regulating metabolism -- binds to a transcription factor in the nucleus of certain kidney cells and restrains energy production in the cell body.

420

Information Infrastructure for Public Health and Health Research: Findings from a Large-Scale HIE Stakeholder Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the information infrastructure to support public health and health research has been dramatically improving, comprehensive, nation-wide, longitudinal, person-centered information has been generally nonexistent. Yet, having such information for large populations is essential to public health and health research. The coupling of internet access, information standards and emerging electronic health records is beginning to provide an enabling infrastructure for population-wide

Alan F. Dowling; Judah Thornewill; Barbara Cox; Robert J. Esterhay

2010-01-01

421

Nonadditive entropy maximization is inconsistent with Bayesian updating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The maximum entropy method—used to infer probabilistic models from data—is a special case of Bayes's model inference prescription which, in turn, is grounded in basic propositional logic. By contrast to the maximum entropy method, the compatibility of nonadditive entropy maximization with Bayes's model inference prescription has never been established. Here we demonstrate that nonadditive entropy maximization is incompatible with Bayesian updating and discuss the immediate implications of this finding. We focus our attention on special cases as illustrations.

Pressé, Steve

2014-11-01

422

Educator Attitudes and Beliefs about Performance Pay in Schools: Findings from Year Two of the TEEG Program. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent report published by the National Center on Performance Incentives (NCPI) presents findings from the second-year evaluation of the Texas Educator Excellence Grant (TEEG) program, a statewide educator incentive program that operated in Texas. As part of that larger study, evaluators examined educators' attitudes about performance pay.…

National Center on Performance Incentives, 2009

2009-01-01

423

The Design of Schools' Performance Incentive Programs in Texas: Findings from Year One of TEEG. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent report published by the National Center on Performance Incentives (NCPI) presents findings from the first-year evaluation of the Texas Educator Excellence Grant (TEEG) program, one of several statewide educator incentive programs in Texas. This report provides an overview of over 1,000 schools' locally designed TEEG performance incentive…

National Center on Performance Incentives, 2008

2008-01-01

424

The Design of Schools' Performance Incentive Programs in Texas: Findings from Year One of GEEG. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent report published by the National Center on Performance Incentives (NCPI) presents findings from the first-year evaluation of the Governor's Educator Excellence Grant (GEEG) program, one of several statewide educator incentive programs in Texas. In this report, the authors provide an overview of 99 schools' locally designed educator…

National Center on Performance Incentives, 2008

2008-01-01

425

The Impact of Performance Pay on Teacher Turnover: Findings from Year Two of the TEEG Program. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent report published by the National Center on Performance Incentives (NCPI) presents findings from the second-year of a multi-year evaluation of the Texas Educator Excellence Grant (TEEG) program, a statewide educator incentive program that operated in Texas. As part of this larger study, evaluators examined how participation in the TEEG…

National Center on Performance Incentives, 2009

2009-01-01

426

Dana-Farber researchers find that a novel compound prevents metastasis of multiple myeloma in mouse studies  

Cancer.gov

In a significant advance against the problem of cancer metastasis, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute scientists have shown that a specially developed compound can impede multiple myeloma from spreading to the bones in mice. The findings, published in the Sept. 25 issue of Cell Reports, suggest the technique can protect human patients, as well, from one of the most deadly aspects of cancer.

427

NIH Researchers Find Vitamin D Binding Protein May Help to Assess Vitamin D Deficiency in African and White Americans  

MedlinePLUS

... finding of this study. Reference “Vitamin D Binding Protein and Vitamin D Status of Community Dwelling Black and White Americans” by Powe, C.E., Evans, M.K., et al. New England Journal of Medicine . DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1306357 (November 21, 2013). Printer-friendly Send to friend Share this: ?

428

The Survey of Employers of 1986 Howard Community College Graduates: A Report of the Findings. Research Report Number 53.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted at Howard Community College (HCC) to determine employers' perceptions of the employment preparation and job training provided by HCC. Questionnaires were mailed to the employers of 38 1986 graduates, who had previously granted permission for their employers to be contacted. Study findings, based on a 68% response rate,…

Livieratos, Barbara B.

429

Detection and correction of inconsistency-based errors in non-rigid registration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a novel post-processing technique to detect and correct inconsistency-based errors in non-rigid registration. While deformable registration is ubiquitous in medical image computing, assessing its quality has yet been an open problem. We propose a method that predicts local registration errors of existing pairwise registrations between a set of images, while simultaneously estimating corrected registrations. In the solution the error is constrained to be small in areas of high post-registration image similarity, while local registrations are constrained to be consistent between direct and indirect registration paths. The latter is a critical property of an ideal registration process, and has been frequently used to asses the performance of registration algorithms. In our work, the consistency is used as a target criterion, for which we efficiently find a solution using a linear least-squares model on a coarse grid of registration control points. We show experimentally that the local errors estimated by our algorithm correlate strongly with true registration errors in experiments with known, dense ground-truth deformations. Additionally, the estimated corrected registrations consistently improve over the initial registrations in terms of average deformation error or TRE for different registration algorithms on both simulated and clinical data, independent of modality (MRI/CT), dimensionality (2D/3D) and employed primary registration method (demons/Markov-randomfield).

Gass, Tobias; Szekely, Gabor; Goksel, Orcun

2014-03-01

430

Finding the team for Mars: a psychological and human factors analysis of a Mars Desert Research Station crew.  

PubMed

A two-week mission in March and April of 2011 sent six team members to the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS). MDRS, a research facility in the high Utah desert, provides an analogue for the harsh and unusual working conditions that will be faced by men and women who one day explore Mars. During the mission a selection of quantitative and qualitative psychological tests were administered to the international, multidisciplinary team. A selection of the results are presented along with discussion. PMID:22317591

Sawyer, Benjamin D; Hancock, P A; Deaton, John; Suedfeld, Peter

2012-01-01

431

Nonadditive entropy maximization is inconsistent with Bayesian updating.  

PubMed

The maximum entropy method-used to infer probabilistic models from data-is a special case of Bayes's model inference prescription which, in turn, is grounded in basic propositional logic. By contrast to the maximum entropy method, the compatibility of nonadditive entropy maximization with Bayes's model inference prescription has never been established. Here we demonstrate that nonadditive entropy maximization is incompatible with Bayesian updating and discuss the immediate implications of this finding. We focus our attention on special cases as illustrations. PMID:25493781

Pressé, Steve

2014-11-01

432

MD Anderson researchers find that a more targeted form of radiation improves survival in patients with head, neck cancers  

Cancer.gov

Researchers on the population-based retrospective study used the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Medicare database, compiled by the National Cancer Institute, to identify 3,172 patients treated for head and neck cancer between 1999 -- 2007 who received either conventional radiation therapy or IMRT.

433

MD Anderson researchers find that the number of younger patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer may nearly double by 2030  

Cancer.gov

In the next 15 years, more than one in 10 colon cancers and nearly one in four rectal cancers will be diagnosed in patients younger than the traditional screening age, according to researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center.

434

A systematic review of research on the epidemiology of mental health disorders in prison populations: a summary of findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brooker et al. (2002) conducted a systematic review of research into the mental health of prisoners. Their final report included a review of the epidemiology of the prison population, an overview of the interventions used to treat the major mental health disorders in both the general and prison populations, and a review of service delivery and organisation for prisoners with

Coral Sirdifield; Dina Gojkovic; Charlie Brooker; Michael Ferriter

2009-01-01

435

Governance and Administrative Infrastructure in New York City Charter Schools. Going Charter Year Three Findings. Charter School Research Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this final report of a 3-year evaluation, researchers explored the developing infrastructure in New York City charter schools and identified areas in which school stakeholders--private partners, boards of trustees, school leaders, parents, and teachers--needed support to help charter schools succeed. The study was based on monthly visits to…

Ascher, Carol; Echazarreta, Juan; Jacobowitz, Robin; McBride, Yolanda; Troy, Tammi

436

USC researchers find that a single genetic change can cause cancerous tumors in a child’s eyes  

Cancer.gov

Researchers have answered the long-standing question of why mutations to a particular gene primarily cause tumors of the retina and not of other cell types. Led by experts at the USC Eye Institute, the study could reveal new cellular signaling pathways relevant to retinal development, cancer development and the development of novel therapies.

437

The Search for Extension: 7 Steps to Help People Find Research-Based Information on the Internet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For Extension's unbiased, research-based content to be found by people searching the Internet, it needs to be organized in a way conducive to the ranking criteria of a search engine. With proper web design and search engine optimization techniques, Extension's content can be found, recognized, and properly indexed by search engines and…

Hill, Paul; Rader, Heidi B.; Hino, Jeff

2012-01-01

438

Huntsman researchers find that reduced kidney function is associated with higher risk of renal and urothelial cancer  

Cancer.gov

Researchers who investigated the level of kidney function and subsequent cancer risk in more than one million adults have found that reduced glomerular filtration rate is a key measure of reduced kidney function and chronic kidney disease is an independent risk factor for renal and urothelial cancer but not other cancer types.

439

MD Anderson researchers find that breast cancer patients with BRCA gene are diagnosed almost 8 years earlier than generation before  

Cancer.gov

Women with a deleterious gene mutation are diagnosed with breast cancer almost eight years earlier than relatives of the previous generation who also had the disease and/or ovarian cancer, according to new research from the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center.

440

Harvard researchers find that red meat consumption is linked to increased risk of total, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality  

Cancer.gov

A new study from Harvard School of Public Health researchers has found that red meat consumption is associated with an increased risk of total, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality. The results also showed that substituting other healthy protein sources, such as fish, poultry, nuts, and legumes, was associated with a lower risk of mortality.

441

LINKAGES ACROSS PM POLICY AND RESEARCH: EXAMINING THE POLICY RELEVANT FINDINGS FROM THE PM2.5 SUPERSITES PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The PM2.5 Supersites program was designed to complement routinely operating PM2.5 networks by providing enhanced temporal and chemical/physical composition data in addressing three overarching objectives: supporting health effects and exposure research, advanced monitoring meth...

442

U Pittsburgh researchers find that NSAIDs prevent colon cancer by inducing death of intestinal stem cells that have mutation  

Cancer.gov

Aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) protect against the development of colorectal cancer by inducing cell suicide pathways in intestinal stem cells that carry a certain mutated and dysfunctional gene, according to a new study led by researchers at the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute and the School of Medicine.

443

UC Davis researchers find that a double-headed motor protein offers new targets in cancer treatment  

Cancer.gov

The structure of a key part of the machinery that allows cells to divide has been identified by researchers at the University of California, Davis, opening new possibilities for throwing a wrench in the machine and blocking runaway cell division in cancer.

444

The Relationship of Family Support to Family Outcomes: A Synthesis of Key Findings from Research on Severe Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been a gradual shift from a deficit to a support model for understanding disability over the last two decades. Although more attention is focused on supports at the individual level, policy has provided for the provision of family support. Despite this policy, families' needs for support are on the rise; and research suggests that…

Kyzar, Kathleen B.; Turnbull, Ann P.; Summers, Jean Ann; Gomez, Viviana Aya

2012-01-01

445

A design-by-treatment interaction model for network meta-analysis with random inconsistency effects  

PubMed Central

Network meta-analysis is becoming more popular as a way to analyse multiple treatments simultaneously and, in the right circumstances, rank treatments. A difficulty in practice is the possibility of ‘inconsistency’ or ‘incoherence’, where direct evidence and indirect evidence are not in agreement. Here, we develop a random-effects implementation of the recently proposed design-by-treatment interaction model, using these random effects to model inconsistency and estimate the parameters of primary interest. Our proposal is a generalisation of the model proposed by Lumley and allows trials with three or more arms to be included in the analysis. Our methods also facilitate the ranking of treatments under inconsistency. We derive R and I2 statistics to quantify the impact of the between-study heterogeneity and the inconsistency. We apply our model to two examples. © 2014 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24777711

Jackson, Dan; Barrett, Jessica K; Rice, Stephen; White, Ian R; Higgins, Julian PT

2014-01-01

446

Results on the bias and inconsistency of ordinary least squares for the linear probability model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This note formalizes bias and inconsistency results for ordinary least squares (OLS) on the linear probability model and provides sufficient conditions for unbiasedness and consistency to hold. The conditions suggest that a “trimming estimator” may reduce OLS bias.

William C. Horrace; Ronald L. Oaxaca

2006-01-01

447

Identification of Mendelian inconsistencies between SNP and pedigree information of sibs  

PubMed Central

Background Using SNP genotypes to apply genomic selection in breeding programs is becoming common practice. Tools to edit and check the quality of genotype data are required. Checking for Mendelian inconsistencies makes it possible to identify animals for which pedigree information and genotype information are not in agreement. Methods Straightforward tests to detect Mendelian inconsistencies exist that count the number of opposing homozygous marker (e.g. SNP) genotypes between parent and offspring (PAR-OFF). Here, we develop two tests to identify Mendelian inconsistencies between sibs. The first test counts SNP with opposing homozygous genotypes between sib pairs (SIBCOUNT). The second test compares pedigree and SNP-based relationships (SIBREL). All tests iteratively remove animals based on decreasing numbers of inconsistent parents and offspring or sibs. The PAR-OFF test, followed by either SIB test, was applied to a dataset comprising 2,078 genotyped cows and 211 genotyped sires. Theoretical expectations for distributions of test statistics of all three tests were calculated and compared to empirically derived values. Type I and II error rates were calculated after applying the tests to the edited data, while Mendelian inconsistencies were introduced by permuting pedigree against genotype data for various proportions of animals. Results Both SIB tests identified animal pairs for which pedigree and genomic relationships could be considered as inconsistent by visual inspection of a scatter plot of pairwise pedigree and SNP-based relationships. After removal of 235 animals with the PAR-OFF test, SIBCOUNT (SIBREL) identified 18 (22) additional inconsistent animals. Seventeen animals were identified by both methods. The numbers of incorrectly deleted animals (Type I error), were equally low for both methods, while the numbers of incorrectly non-deleted animals (Type II error), were considerably higher for SIBREL compared to SIBCOUNT. Conclusions Tests to remove Mendelian inconsistencies between sibs should be preceded by a test for parent-offspring inconsistencies. This parent-offspring test should not only consider parent-offspring pairs based on pedigree data, but also those based on SNP information. Both SIB tests could identify pairs of sibs with Mendelian inconsistencies. Based on type I and II error rates, counting opposing homozygotes between sibs (SIBCOUNT) appears slightly more precise than comparing genomic and pedigree relationships (SIBREL) to detect Mendelian inconsistencies between sibs. PMID:21988752

2011-01-01

448

A Note on Inconsistent Axioms in Rushby's Systematic Formal Verification for Fault-Tolerant Time-Triggered Algorithms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

I describe some inconsistencies in John Rushby s axiomatization of time-triggered algorithms that he presents in these transactions and that he formally specifies and verifies in a mechanical theorem-prover. I also present corrections for these inconsistencies.

Pike, Lee

2005-01-01

449

Resolving inconsistencies in trends in old-age disability: Report from a technical working group  

Microsoft Academic Search

In September 2002, a technical working group met to resolve previously published inconsistencies across national surveys in\\u000a trends in activity limitations among the older population. The 12-person panel prepared estimates from five national data\\u000a sets and investigated methodological sources of the inconsistencies among the population aged 70 and older from the early\\u000a 1980s to 2001. Although the evidence was mixed

Vicki A. Freedman; Eileen M. Crimmins; Robert F. Schoeni; Brenda C. Spillman; Hakan Aykan; Ellen Kramarow; Kenneth C. Land; James Lubitz; Kenneth G. Manton; Linda G. Martin; Diane Shinberg; Timothy Waidmann

2004-01-01

450

Inconsistencies in tape read and tape write programs on the I-100 image analysis system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The tape read and write programs currently available on the 1-100 perform their intended functions of reading and writing tapes, but are difficult to use because they contain a number of inconsistencies. These inconsistencies can often be overcome by the use of work-around procedures and by trial and error, which is an inefficient use of expensive computer systems that should not be necessary.

Hocutt, W. T. (principal investigator)

1978-01-01

451

Parental Inconsistency Versus Parental Authoritarianism: Associations with Symptoms of Psychological Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

While in western countries, such as the US and Europe, authoritarian parenting is associated with negative psycho-social outcomes.\\u000a Studies have indicated that this is not the case in collective\\/authoritarian cultures. It has been hypothesized that inconsistency\\u000a in parenting style and culture contributes to these negative outcomes. In this study a scale of authoritarian parenting and\\u000a parental inconsistency has been developed.

Marwan Adeeb Dwairy

2008-01-01

452

Inconsistency in circulating irisin levels: what is really happening?  

PubMed

The discovery of irisin as a novel and promising peptidic hormone for the treatment of obesity and diabetes has recently been reported. As a result, great hopes have been raised based on this finding, hypothesizing that irisin might provide additional benefits, not only for obesity and diabetes, but also for a wide range of pathological conditions requiring therapeutical and clinical attention. However, controversial results and conclusions on circulating irisin concentrations and correlations with other variables, including its role in metabolism, have recently been reported. Although laboratory assessment of irisin by ELISA is easily available and may provide interesting information for therapeutics and clinical practice, the heterogeneous and often discrepant results published so far, raise serious concerns about its measurement, indicating that it may still not be ready for use or whether irisin really exists. We highlight here some aspects on these discrepancies and contradictions, and put forward their implications. PMID:24459033

Sanchis-Gomar, F; Alis, R; Pareja-Galeano, H; Romagnoli, M; Perez-Quilis, C

2014-07-01

453

Finding research information on the web: how to make the most of Google and other free search tools.  

PubMed

The Internet and the World Wide Web has had a major impact on the accessibility of research information. The move towards open access and development of institutional repositories has resulted in increasing amounts of information being made available free of charge. Many of these resources are not included in conventional subscription databases and Google is not always the best way to ensure that one is picking up all relevant material on a topic. This article will look at how Google's search engine works, how to use Google more effectively for identifying research information, alternatives to Google and will review some of the specialist tools that have evolved to cope with the diverse forms of information that now exist in electronic form. PMID:23738438

Blakeman, Karen

2013-01-01

454

Traumatic stress and posttraumatic stress disorder in youth: recent research findings on clinical impact, assessment, and treatment.  

PubMed

Childhood trauma can have a profound effect on adolescent development, with a lifelong impact on physical and mental health and development. Through a review of current research on the impact of traumatic stress on adolescence, this article provides a framework for adolescent health professionals in pediatrics and primary care to understand and assess the sequelae of traumatic stress, as well as up-to-date recommendations for evidence-based treatment. We first review empirical evidence for critical windows of neurobiological impact of traumatic stress, and then we discuss the connection between these neurobiological effects and posttraumatic syndromes, including posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, aggressive behavior, and psychosis. This article concludes by considering the implications of this current research for clinical assessment and treatment in pediatric and primary care settings. PMID:23332476

Gerson, Ruth; Rappaport, Nancy

2013-02-01

455

Preprocessing in Matlab Inconsistent Linear System for a Meaningful Least Squares Solution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mathematical models of many physical/statistical problems are systems of linear equations Due to measurement and possible human errors/mistakes in modeling/data, as well as due to certain assumptions to reduce complexity, inconsistency (contradiction) is injected into the model, viz. the linear system. While any inconsistent system irrespective of the degree of inconsistency has always a least-squares solution, one needs to check whether an equation is too much inconsistent or, equivalently too much contradictory. Such an equation will affect/distort the least-squares solution to such an extent that renders it unacceptable/unfit to be used in a real-world application. We propose an algorithm which (i) prunes numerically redundant linear equations from the system as these do not add any new information to the model, (ii) detects contradictory linear equations along with their degree of contradiction (inconsistency index), (iii) removes those equations presumed to be too contradictory, and then (iv) obtain the . minimum norm least-squares solution of the acceptably inconsistent reduced linear system. The algorithm presented in Matlab reduces the computational and storage complexities and also improves the accuracy of the solution. It also provides the necessary warning about the existence of too much contradiction in the model. In addition, we suggest a thorough relook into the mathematical modeling to determine the reason why unacceptable contradiction has occurred thus prompting us to make necessary corrections/modifications to the models - both mathematical and, if necessary, physical.

Sen, Symal K.; Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

2011-01-01

456

Effects of capturing and collaring on polar bears: findings from long-term research on the southern Beaufort Sea population  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Implications: This study provides empirical evidence that current capture-based research methods do not have long-term implications, and are not contributing to observed changes in body condition, reproduction or survival in the southern Beaufort Sea. Continued refinement of capture protocols, such as the use of low-impact dart rifles and reversible drug combinations, might improve polar bear response to capture and abate short-term reductions in activity and movement post-capture.

Rode, Karyn D.; Pagano, Anthony M.; Bromaghin, Jeffrey F.; Atwood, Todd C.; Durner, George M.; Simac, Kristin; Amstrup, Steven C.

2014-01-01

457

Money for Research, Not for Energy Bills: Finding Energy and Cost Savings in High Performance Computer Facility Designs  

SciTech Connect

High-performance computing facilities in the United States consume an enormous amount of electricity, cutting into research budgets and challenging public- and private-sector efforts to reduce energy consumption and meet environmental goals. However, these facilities can greatly reduce their energy demand through energy-efficient design of the facility itself. Using a case study of a facility under design, this article discusses strategies and technologies that can be used to help achieve energy reductions.

Drewmark Communications; Sartor, Dale; Wilson, Mark

2010-07-01

458

An eight-year snapshot of geospatial cancer research (2002–2009): clinico-epidemiological and methodological findings and trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographic information systems (GIS) offer a very rich toolbox of methods and technologies, and powerful research tools that\\u000a extend far beyond the mere production of maps, making it possible to cross-link and study the complex interaction of disease\\u000a data and factors originating from a wide range of disparate sources. Despite their potential indispensable role in cancer\\u000a prevention and control programmes,

Dina N. Kamel Boulos; Ramy R. Ghali; Ezzeldin M. Ibrahim; Maged N. Kamel Boulos; Philip AbdelMalik

459

The bad apple effect and social value orientation in public-goods dilemmas: replication and extension of research findings.  

PubMed

Two studies were conducted to replicate and extend previous findings on the effect of uncooperative behavior on group cooperation (the "bad apple" effect). Study 1 (56 women, 40 men; M age = 23.5 yr.) manipulated information about contributions from the bad apple, controlling for overall contributions to a group account. Study 2 (50 women, 34 men; M age = 20.4 yr.) compared the effects of a bad apple and a good apple on cooperation. The social value orientation of participants was measured to explore individual differences in the bad apple effect. The results revealed a bad apple (a) decreased cooperation among individuals with proself and prosocial orientations in Study 1, and (b) had a greater effect than a good apple on those who were proself compared to prosocial in Study 2. PMID:25074307

Wu, Song; Sun, Jiaqing; Cai, Wei; Jin, Shenghua

2014-06-01

460

Generalizing the Findings From Group Dynamics-Based Physical Activity Research to Practice Settings: What Do We know?  

PubMed

The general purpose of this secondary analysis of a prior systematic review was to determine the degree to which group dynamics-based physical activity interventions align with research processes and outcomes that are more likely to facilitate the translation of research into practice. To accomplish this, a systematic search was conducted within Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index, Arts and Humanities Citation Index, and MEDLINE databases to identify articles published prior to 2010 that used at least one group dynamics-based strategy (e.g., group interaction, group goal setting) in physical activity promotion. These 17 intervention studies were identified and coded based on the reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintenance framework and Pragmatic-Explanatory Continuum Indicator Summary (for trial design characteristics). Reporting was infrequent for external validity factors (i.e., representativeness, adoption, cost, maintenance) but more frequent for internal validity factors (e.g., inclusion criteria). Intervention costs were not reported. Studies were more likely to be pragmatic (i.e., designed to determine the effects of an intervention under the usual conditions in which it will be applied) in areas of participant compliance and practitioner adherence and explanatory (i.e., designed to determine the effects of an intervention under ideal conditions) and in areas of practitioner expertise and flexibility of intervention protocol. While a number of these interventions were tested in more pragmatic settings, external validity factors were still underreported. PMID:23716732

Harden, Samantha M; Burke, Shauna M; Haile, Amanda M; Estabrooks, Paul A

2015-03-01

461

respirology Capital HealtH ReseaRCH focus Respirology researchers at Capital Health are finding ways to help people with lung disease  

E-print Network

is not to be taken for granted. Whether they have COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), cystic fibrosis Scotia Lung Association, Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency (ACOA), Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, Natural ways to diagnose, treat and support people living with lung disease. The research includes large

Dellaire, Graham

462

Domestic Violence and Welfare Policy: Research Findings That Can Inform Policies on Marriage and Child Well-Being. Research Forum on Children, Families, and the New Federalism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserting that the welfare reform proposals of the mid-1990s drew attention to the problem of domestic violence among individuals receiving public assistance who are among the poorest of the poor, this report examines what is known from past research on domestic violence that may inform policies related to marriage and child well-being. In…

Lawrence, Sharmila

463

Inconsistent condom use among Ugandan university students from a gender perspective: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Feminization of the HIV/AIDS epidemic has been a prominent phenomenon in sub-Saharan Africa. Inconsistent condom use among young people is one of the major risk factors in the continued propagation of the epidemic. Therefore, it is of importance to increase knowledge of gender aspects of condom use among young people. Objective To investigate whether gender differences regarding individual and social factors determine the association between condom efficacy and inconsistent condom use with a new sex partner, among Ugandan university students. Design In 2010, 1954 Ugandan students participated in a cross-sectional survey, conducted at Mbarara University of Science and Technology in southwestern Uganda. A self-administered questionnaire assessed socio-demographic factors, alcohol consumption, sexual behaviors (including condom use and condom efficacy), and peer norms. The data were stratified by sex and examined by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 1,179 (60.3%) students reported having had their sexual debut. Of these, 231 (37.4%) males and 209 (49.2%) females reported inconsistent condom use with a new sex partner. Students with low condom efficacy had a higher risk of inconsistent condom use with a new sex partner, even after adjusting for the potential confounders. A synergistic effect was observed between being a female and low condom efficacy with inconsistent condom use. Conclusion The association between inconsistent condom use and low condom efficacy was found among both males and females, but females were found to be at a higher risk of inconsistent condom use compared to their male counterparts. Therefore, gender power relations should be addressed in policies and interventions aiming at increasing condom use among young people in sub-Saharan settings. Programs could be designed with intervention strategies that focus on interactive and participatory educational activities and youth-friendly counseling of young people, which in turn may improve their interpersonal communication and condom negotiation skills with their partners. PMID:24725363

Mehra, Devika; Östergren, Per-Olof; Ekman, Björn; Agardh, Anette

2014-01-01

464

Detecting and removing inconsistencies between experimental data and signaling network topologies using integer linear programming on interaction graphs.  

PubMed

Cross-referencing experimental data with our current knowledge of signaling network topologies is one central goal of mathematical modeling of cellular signal transduction networks. We present a new methodology for data-driven interrogation and training of signaling networks. While most published methods for signaling network inference operate on Bayesian, Boolean, or ODE models, our approach uses integer linear programming (ILP) on interaction graphs to encode constraints on the qualitative behavior of the nodes. These constraints are posed by the network topology and their formulation as ILP allows us to predict the possible qualitative changes (up, down, no effect) of the activation levels of the nodes for a given stimulus. We provide four basic operations to detect and remove inconsistencies between measurements and predicted behavior: (i) find a topology-consistent explanation for responses of signaling nodes measured in a stimulus-response experiment (if none exists, find the closest explanation); (ii) determine a minimal set of nodes that need to be corrected to make an inconsistent scenario consistent; (iii) determine the optimal subgraph of the given network topology which can best reflect measurements from a set of experimental scenarios; (iv) find possibly missing edges that would improve the consistency of the graph with respect to a set of experimental scenarios the most. We demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach by interrogating a manually curated interaction graph model of EGFR/ErbB signaling against a library of high-throughput phosphoproteomic data measured in primary hepatocytes. Our methods detect interactions that are likely to be inactive in hepatocytes and provide suggestions for new interactions that, if included, would significantly improve the goodness of fit. Our framework is highly flexible and the underlying model requires only easily accessible biological knowledge. All related algorithms were implemented in a freely available toolbox SigNetTrainer making it an appealing approach for various applications. PMID:24039561

Melas, Ioannis N; Samaga, Regina; Alexopoulos, Leonidas G; Klamt, Steffen

2013-01-01

465

Rough Evaluation Structure: Application of Rough Set Theory to Generate Simple Rules for Inconsistent Preference Relation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since management decision-making becomes complex and preferences of the decision-maker frequently becomes inconsistent, multi-attribute decision-making problems were studied. To represent inconsistent preference relation, the concept of evaluation structure was introduced. We can generate simple rules to represent inconsistent preference relation by the evaluation structures. Further rough set theory for the preference relation was studied and the concept of approximation was introduced. One of our main aims of this paper is to introduce a concept of rough evaluation structure for representing inconsistent preference relation. We apply rough set theory to the evaluation structure, and develop a method for generating simple rules for inconsistent preference relations. In this paper, we introduce concepts of totally ordered information system, similarity class of preference relation, upper and lower approximation of preference relations. We also show the properties of rough evaluation structure and provide a simple example. As an application of rough evaluation structure, we analyze questionnaire survey of customer preferences about audio players.

Gehrmann, Andreas; Nagai, Yoshimitsu; Yoshida, Osamu; Ishizu, Syohei

466

Characteristics, detection methods and treatment of questionable occlusal carious lesions: findings from the national dental practice-based research network.  

PubMed

Questionable occlusal carious lesions (QOC) can be defined as an occlusal tooth surface with no cavitation and no radiographic radiolucencies, but caries is suspected due to roughness, surface opacities or staining. An earlier analysis of data from this study indicates 1/3 of patients have a QOC. The objective of this report has been to quantify the characteristics of these common lesions, the diagnostic aids used and the treatment of QOC. A total of 82 dentist and hygienist practitioner-investigators from the USA and Denmark in the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network participated. When consenting patients presented with a QOC, information was recorded about the patient, tooth, lesion and treatments. A total of 2,603 QOC from 1,732 patients were analyzed. The lesions were usually associated with a fissure, on molars, and varied from yellow to black in color. Half presented with a chalky luster and had a rough surface when examined with an explorer. There was an association between color and luster: 10% were chalky-light, 47% were shiny-dark and 42% were mixtures. A higher proportion of chalky than of shiny lesions were light (22 vs. 9%; p < 0.001). Lesions light in color were less common in adults than in pediatric patients (9 vs. 32%; p < 0.001). Lesions that were chalky and light were more common among pediatric than among adult patients (22 vs. 6%; p < 0.001). This is the first study to investigate characteristics of QOC in routine clinical practice. Clinicians commonly face this diagnostic uncertainty. Determining the characteristics of these lesions is relevant when making diagnostic and treatment decisions. PMID:24480989

Makhija, S K; Gilbert, G H; Funkhouser, E; Bader, J D; Gordan, V V; Rindal, D B; Pihlstrom, D J; Qvist, V

2014-01-01

467

An Automated Method for Identifying Inconsistencies within Diagrammatic Software Requirements Specifications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of large-scale, composite software in a geographically distributed environment is an evolutionary process. Often, in such evolving systems, striving for consistency is complicated by many factors, because development participants have various locations, skills, responsibilities, roles, opinions, languages, terminology and different degrees of abstraction they employ. This naturally leads to many partial specifications or viewpoints. These multiple views on the system being developed usually overlap. From another aspect, these multiple views give rise to the potential for inconsistency. Existing CASE tools do not efficiently manage inconsistencies in distributed development environment for a large-scale project. Based on the ViewPoints framework the WHERE (Web-Based Hypertext Environment for requirements Evolution) toolkit aims to tackle inconsistency management issues within geographically distributed software development projects. Consequently, WHERE project helps make more robust software and support software assurance process. The long term goal of WHERE tools aims to the inconsistency analysis and management in requirements specifications. A framework based on Graph Grammar theory and TCMJAVA toolkit is proposed to detect inconsistencies among viewpoints. This systematic approach uses three basic operations (UNION, DIFFERENCE, INTERSECTION) to study the static behaviors of graphic and tabular notations. From these operations, subgraphs Query, Selection, Merge, Replacement operations can be derived. This approach uses graph PRODUCTIONS (rewriting rules) to study the dynamic transformations of graphs. We discuss the feasibility of implementation these operations. Also, We present the process of porting original TCM (Toolkit for Conceptual Modeling) project from C++ to Java programming language in this thesis. A scenario based on NASA International Space Station Specification is discussed to show the applicability of our approach. Finally, conclusion and future work about inconsistency management issues in WHERE project will be summarized.

Zhang, Zhong

1997-01-01

468

Sources of Score Scale Inconsistency. Research Report. ETS RR-11-35  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six tasks, selected from assessments administered in 2007 as part of the Cognitively-Based Assessments of, for, and as Learning (CBAL) project, were revised in an effort to remove difficulties with the tasks that were unrelated to the construct being assessed. Because the revised tasks were piloted on a different population from the original…

Fife, James H.; Graf, Edith Aurora; Ohls, Sarah

2011-01-01

469

Sources of Score Scale Inconsistency. Research Report. ETS RR-11-10  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For testing programs that administer multiple forms within a year and across years, score equating is used to ensure that scores can be used interchangeably. In an ideal world, samples sizes are large and representative of populations that hardly change over time, and very reliable alternate test forms are built with nearly identical psychometric…

Haberman, Shelby J.; Dorans, Neil J.

2011-01-01

470

Inconsistency Across Time and Situations: A Decade of Research Using the Adjective Generation Technique (AGT).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Adjective Generation Technique (AGT) has been used in studies to demonstrate that subjects' responses show variations from one point in time to the next. To examine this hypothesis, longitudinal studies were undertaken where subjects were asked to generate five words to describe themselves on each of 29 days. Some conclusions drawn were that:…

Allen, Bem P.; Potkay, Charles R.

471

ULTRASONIC RANGE FINDING SENSOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the research within the MAURO (Mobile Autonomous Robot) project (1995 - 1998) the research team from the 'Robot Control Systems' Laboratory has designed and realized an ultrasonic range finding sensor intended to be used in mobile robot navigation. The sensor has been successively improved and the design was adopted also by other research teams within the Automation Department being

Gheorghe Laze; Emil Lupu; Silviu Folea

472

Encouraging A Culture Of Outreach In Astronomy Clubs: Findings From The Astronomical Society Of The Pacific, The Institute For Learning Innovation, And Inverness Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy clubs constitute a “marching army” of knowledgeable and experienced astronomy enthusiasts deployed in a national network: an enormously valuable and important resource for engaging the public through educational outreach events and activities. The Astronomical Society of the Pacific (ASP) in partnership with the Institute for Learning Innovation (ILI) and Inverness Research, Inc., has been engaged in a multiyear NSF-supported project focusing on this network and its potential to advance common astronomy education and outreach objectives. The project has explored the culture of astronomy clubs, identified impediments to building cultures of outreach within clubs, and developed and introduced new mechanisms to overcome these impediments and enhance clubs’ abilities to encourage and sustain cultures that value and promote outreach efforts. The presenter will share initial research, development and evaluation findings of the project, and describe ongoing supplemental efforts that continue to advance project objectives.

Manning, Jim; Jones, E.; St. John, M.; Berendsen, M.; Schultz, G. R.; Gurton, S.; Yocco, V.; Castori, P.; Santascoy, J.; White, V.; FRANK, K.

2013-01-01

473

Encouraging A Culture Of Outreach In Astronomy Clubs: Findings From The Astronomical Society Of The Pacific, The Institute For Learning Innovation, And Inverness Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy clubs constitute a “marching army” of knowledgeable and experienced astronomy enthusiasts deployed in a national network: an enormously valuable and important resource for engaging the public through educational outreach events and activities. The Astronomical Society of the Pacific (ASP) in partnership with the Institute for Learning Innovation (ILI) and Inverness Research, Inc., has been engaged in a multi-year NSF-supported project focusing on this network and its potential to advance common astronomy education and outreach objectives. The project has explored the culture of astronomy clubs, identified impediments to building cultures of outreach within clubs, and developed and introduced new mechanisms to overcome these impediments and enhance clubs’ abilities to encourage and sustain cultures that value and promote outreach efforts. The presenter will share initial research, development and evaluation findings of the project, and describe ongoing supplemental efforts that continue to advance project objectives.

Manning, Jim; Jones, E.; St. John, M.; Berendsen, M.; Schultz, G.; Gurton, S.; Yocco, V.; Castori, P.; Santascoy, J.; White, V.; Frank, K.

2012-05-01

474

Rock Finding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the…

Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

2006-01-01

475

INCONSISTENCIES IN HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHIC RANGE MAPS: THE GRAY WOLF AS EXAMPLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Range maps depicting historical distributions of wildlife may be inconsistent. Different maps can be based on diverse sources of evidence which may vary in reliability (e.g., specimens in Natural History Museums, trapper and hunter journals, conversations recorded in dairies) and the effort expended locating evidence may differ among map makers (Young and Goldman 1944, Seton 1953, Hall 1981). Despite these

STEPHANIE L. SHELTON; FLOYD W. WECKERLY

476

Texture Atlas Generation for Inconsistent Meshes and Point Sets Patrick Degener Reinhard Klein  

E-print Network

texture atlases with low stretch and hardly visible texture seams existing texture mapping tools pose high of these tasks in the last years with special empha- sis on quality, i.e. low parametric stretch and a low number gaps (marked yellow). Our method creates high quality texture maps for such inconsistent triangulations

Behnke, Sven

477

EMPLOYEE COMPLAINT / INCIDENT FORM Georgia Southern University takes employee complaints, unethical behavior, inconsistent  

E-print Network

Resources, Paul Michaud, or the Executive Director of Human Resources, Ale Kennedy. Please use additional to the Associate Vice President for Human Resources or the Executive Director of Human Resources, P.O. Box 8104 behavior, inconsistent management practices, or unfair conduct as a serious matter. Any employee filing

Hutcheon, James M.

478

Multiple Sources of Competence Underlying the Comprehension of Inconsistencies: A Developmental Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How do children know the sentence "the glass is empty and not empty" is inconsistent? One possibility is that they are sensitive to the formal structure of the sentences and know that a proposition and its negation cannot be jointly true. Alternatively, they could represent the 2 state of affairs referred to and realize that these are…

Morris, Bradley J.; Hasson, Uri

2010-01-01

479

The Belief that Alcohol Use Is Inconsistent with Personal Autonomy: A Promotive Factor for Younger Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored an understudied promotive factor, a belief that alcohol use is inconsistent with personal autonomy, which may reduce adolescent intention to drink and subsequent alcohol use. Autonomy was examined as an attitudinal construct within the Theory of Reasoned Action. Longitudinal data from 2,493 seventh grade students nested in 40…

Henry, Kimberly L.; Shtivelband, Annette; Comello, Maria Leonora G.; Slater, Michael D.

2011-01-01

480

The Inconsistency of Common Scale Estimators When Output Prices Are Unobserved and Engogenous  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the inconsistency of common scale estimators when output is proxied by deflated sales, based on a common output deflator across firms. The problems arise when firms operate in an imperfectly competitive environment and prices differ between firms. In particular, we show that the scale estimates will tend to be downward biased in the production function case, under

Tor Jakob Klette; Zvi Griliches

1996-01-01

481

Reprint from ACM Transactions on Graphics Exposing Photo Manipulation with Inconsistent Shadows  

E-print Network

--Miscellaneous Additional Key Words and Phrases: Shadows, image forensics, photo ma- nipulation, image manipulation, forgery College We describe a geometric technique to detect physically inconsistent ar- rangements of shadows in an image. This technique combines multiple con- straints from cast and attached shadows to constrain

O'Brien, James F.

482

To appear in ACM Transactions on Graphics Exposing Photo Manipulation with Inconsistent Shadows  

E-print Network

--Miscellaneous Additional Key Words and Phrases: Shadows, image forensics, photo ma- nipulation, image manipulation, forgery College We describe a geometric technique to detect physically inconsistent ar- rangements of shadows in an image. This technique combines multiple con- straints from cast and attached shadows to constrain

Farid, Hany

483

Accounting for surveyor inconsistency and bias in estimation of tree density from presettlement land survey records  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Presettlement land survey records provide baseline data on forest characteristics prior to major European settle- ment, but questions regarding surveyor bias and methodological consistency have limited confidence in quantitative analy- ses of this important data source. We propose new correction factors, calculated from bearings, distances, and species of bearing trees, to account for the effects of (i) inconsistency in

Barry J. Kronenfeld; Yi-Chen Wang

2007-01-01

484

TIME-INCONSISTENT STOCHASTIC LINEARQUADRATIC YING HU, HANQING JIN, AND XUN YU ZHOU  

E-print Network

); see, e.g., [22] and nearly all the follow-up works to date on the Markowitz problem, as well as [13. This author is partially supported by the Marie Curie ITN Grant, "Controlled Systems", GA no.213841TIME-INCONSISTENT STOCHASTIC LINEAR­QUADRATIC CONTROL YING HU, HANQING JIN, AND XUN YU ZHOU

485

An Integrative Strategy for Solving Inconsistency by Using Fuzzy Rules in Cooperative Teams \\Lambda  

E-print Network

An Integrative Strategy for Solving Inconsistency by Using Fuzzy Rules in Cooperative Teams \\Lambda to solve synthesis problems in non­conflict cases in dis­ tributed expert systems (DESs) based on fuzzy­conflict cases. Firstly, each model was designed separately and did not consider the comprehensive problem

Zhang, Minjie

486

Improving the Performance of Inconsistent Knowledge Bases via Combined Optimization Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the important issues when design- ing effective expert systems is the valida- tion and refinement of the acquired knowl- edge bases. The validation and refinement problem becomes more important and more difficult when the knowledge bases of expert systems consist of uncertain rules, e.g., prob- abilistic rules. In this paper, we first de- scribe one type of inconsistency

Yong Ma; David C. Wilkins

1991-01-01

487

Relational Responding and Conditional Discrimination Procedures: An Apparent Inconsistency and Clarification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses theoretical issues relating to an apparent terminological inconsistency between two recent studies involving relational responding. These studies employed a functionally similar protocol to establish contextual cues for arbitrarily applicable relational responding by using a nonarbitrary relational responding procedure;…

Stewart, Ian; McElwee, John

2009-01-01

488

Handling Inconsistency with the Universal Reference B.N. Rossiter 1 M.A. Heather 2  

E-print Network

by the professional software engineer for the construction of modern information systems. In- consistencies come about, involving the problems caused by the in- consistent treatment of times and dates. It is shown that in open consequences in medicine, law, nuclear safety, stock control, etc. The inconsistency itself arises from

Cheng, Eugenia

489

Assessing the cost-effectiveness of finding cases of hepatitis C infection in UK migrant populations and the value of further research.  

PubMed

Hepatitis C (HCV) infection can cause cirrhosis, liver cancer and death in the absence of treatment. Many people living in the UK but born overseas are believed to be infected with HCV although many are unlikely to know they are infected. The aim of this study is to assess the potential for a case-finding approach to be cost-effective and to estimate the value of further research. An economic evaluation and value of information analysis was undertaken by developing a model of HCV disease progression and by populating it with evidence from the published literature. They were performed from a UK National Health Services cost perspective, and outcomes were expressed in terms of quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). The comparator intervention was defined as the background rate of testing (i.e. no intervention). The base case results generated an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of about £23,200 per additional QALY. However, the ICER was shown to be particularly sensitive to HCV seroprevalence, the intervention effect / cost and the probability of treatment uptake. The value of information analysis suggested that approximately £4 million should be spent on further research. This evaluation demonstrates that testing UK migrants for HCV could be cost-effective. However, further research, particularly to refine estimates of the probability of treatment uptake once identified, the utility associated with sustained virological response and the cost of the intervention, would help to increase the robustness of this conclusion. PMID:24215210

Miners, A H; Martin, N K; Ghosh, A; Hickman, M; Vickerman, P

2014-09-01

490

Anticipate and communicate: Ethical management of incidental and secondary findings in the clinical, research, and direct-to-consumer contexts (December 2013 report of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues).  

PubMed

Genomic population research increases the possibility of finding genetic coding anomalies that are not the primary object of research but may have significance for the current and future medical care of research participants and progeny. The December 2013 Report of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (Anticipate and Communicate: Ethical Management of Incidental and Secondary Findings in the Clinical, Research, and Direct-to-Consumer Contexts (http://bioethics.gov/sites/default/files/FINALAnticipateCommunicate_PCSBI_0.pdf)) recommends that a researcher anticipate these findings and make a plan that addresses which findings will be communicated to research participants and how. Following these recommendations will be disruptive for both investigators and institutional review boards (IRBs) until the research community reaches consensus, or a mechanism for evolving consensus, on which results should be returned to research participants. A protocol-by-protocol approach, though laborious, makes sense for both investigators and IRBs as the research community thinks through the implications of genomic research. Epidemiologists will note that discussion of the return of results and the plan for communicating findings should be included in both the participant consent agreement and the research protocol submitted to the IRB. PMID:25150271

Weiner, Christine

2014-09-15

491

Finding potentially new multimorbidity patterns of psychiatric and somatic diseases: exploring the use of literature-based discovery in primary care research  

PubMed Central

Background Multimorbidity, the co-occurrence of two or more chronic medical conditions within a single individual, is increasingly becoming part of daily care of general medical practice. Literature-based discovery may help to investigate the patterns of multimorbidity and to integrate medical knowledge for improving healthcare delivery for individuals with co-occurring chronic conditions. Objective To explore the usefulness of literature-based discovery in primary care research through the key-case of finding associations between psychiatric and somatic diseases relevant to general practice in a large biomedical literature database (Medline). Methods By using literature based discovery for matching disease profiles as vectors in a high-dimensional associative concept space, co-occurrences of a broad spectrum of chronic medical conditions were matched for their potential in biomedicine. An experimental setting was chosen in parallel with expert evaluations and expert meetings to assess performance and to generate targets for integrating literature-based discovery in multidisciplinary medical research of psychiatric and somatic disease associations. Results Through stepwise reductions a reference set of 21?945 disease combinations was generated, from which a set of 166 combinations between psychiatric and somatic diseases was selected and assessed by text mining and expert evaluation. Conclusions Literature-based discovery tools generate specific patterns of associations between psychiatric and somatic diseases: one subset was appraised as promising for further research; the other subset surprised the experts, leading to intricate discussions and further eliciting of frameworks of biomedical knowledge. These frameworks enable us to specify targets for further developing and integrating literature-based discovery in multidisciplinary research of general practice, psychology and psychiatry, and epidemiology. PMID:23775174

Vos, Rein; Aarts, Sil; van Mulligen, Erik; Metsemakers, Job; van Boxtel, Martin P; Verhey, Frans; van den Akker, Marjan

2014-01-01

492

RESEARCH FINDINGS CHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS RESEARCH  

E-print Network

Responses By A Cannabinoid-2-Selective Agonist After Spinal Cord Injury The goal of the current investigation was to evaluate the mechanisms through which administration of a selective cannabinoid-2 (CB2, Skarica M, Zhang M, Ganea D, Tuma RF. Modulation of inflammatory responses by a cannabinoid-2-selective

Bandettini, Peter A.

493

Finding Perimeter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will explore a real world problem based on the Marilyn Burns book Spaghetti and Meatballs for All!. The problem and further practice finding the distance around rectangles will lead them to discover efficient strategies and formulas for solving perimeter.

Strickland, Susanna

2012-07-27

494

A note on inconsistent axioms in Rushby's "Systematic formal verification for fault-tolerant time-triggered algorithms"  

E-print Network

We describe some inconsistencies in John Rushby's axiomatization of time-triggered algorithms that he presented in these transactions and that he formally specifies and verifies in the mechanical theorem-prover PVS. We present corrections for these inconsistencies that have been checked for consistency in PVS.

unknown authors

2006-01-01

495

The impact of social status inconsistency on cardiovascular risk factors, myocardial infarction and stroke in the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Social inequalities in cardiovascular diseases are well documented. Yet, the relation of social status inconsistency (having different ranks in two or more status indicators like education, occupational position or income) and medical conditions of heart or vessels is not clear. Status inconsistency (SI) is assumed to be stressful, and the association of psychosocial distress and health is well known.

Stefanie Braig; Richard Peter; Gabriele Nagel; Silke Hermann; Sabine Rohrmann; Jakob Linseisen

2011-01-01

496

Second-order radio frequency kinetic theory revisited: Resolving inconsistency with conventional fluid theory  

SciTech Connect

The second-order velocity distribution function was calculated from the second-order rf kinetic theory [Jaeger et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 641 (2000)]. However, the nonresonant ponderomotive force in the radial direction derived from the theory is inconsistent with that from the fluid theory. The inconsistency arises from that the multiple-timescale-separation assumption fails when the second-order Vlasov equation is directly integrated along unperturbed particle orbits. A slowly ramped wave field including an adiabatic turn-on process is applied in the modified kinetic theory in this paper. Since this modification leads only to additional reactive/nonresonant response relevant with the secular resonant response from the previous kinetic theory, the correct nonresonant ponderomotive force can be obtained while all the resonant moments remain unchanged.

Chen, Jiale [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China) [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Center for Magnetic Fusion Theory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Gao, Zhe [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China) [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Center for Magnetic Fusion Theory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China)

2013-08-15

497

Comparing String Similarity Measures for Reducing Inconsistency in Integrating Data from Different Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Web has dramatically increased the need for efficient and flexible mechanisms to provide integrated views over multiple\\u000a heterogeneous information sources. When multiple sources need to be integrated, each source may represent data differently.\\u000a A common problem is the possible inconsistency of the data: the very same term may have different values, due to misspelling,\\u000a a permuted word order, spelling

Sergio Luján-mora; Manuel Palomar

2001-01-01

498

A network-based evolutionary method to solve inconsistent simultaneous equations approximately  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel iterative method to solve simultaneous equations with a data-flow network is proposed. The method alternately produces candidate tokens by back-calculation and selects them by the criterion of mutual consistency. Conflict between the values of tokens are gradually eliminated by these operations, and the token values finally approach towards a solution. Numerical experiments show that the proposed method can solve systems of inconsistent simultaneous equations that such differentiation-based algorithms as Newton-Raphson's method cannot solve.

Suzuki, Hideaki; Iwasa, Yoh

2013-10-01

499

On the inconsistency of the Camassa-Holm model with the shallow water theory  

E-print Network

In our paper we show that the Camassa-Holm equation does not represent a long wave asymptotic due to a major inconsistency with the theory of shallow water waves. We state that any solution of the Camassa-Holm equation, which is not asymptotically close to a solution of the Korteweg--de Vries equation is an artefact of the model and irrelevant to the theory of shallow water waves.

Rikesh Bhatt; Alexander V Mikhailov

2010-10-10

500

Inconsistent condom use among HIV-infected patients with alcohol problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Unsafe sexual behavior is common among persons with negative or unknown HIV status and it is augmented by alcohol use in some populations. We examined the association between alcohol consumption level (abstinent, moderate, at-risk) and inconsistent condom use in a cohort of HIV-infected individuals with a history of alcohol problems. Methods: Subjects (n=345) had up to seven structured interviews

Vera Ehrenstein; Nicholas J Horton; Jeffrey H Samet

2004-01-01