Science.gov

Sample records for inconsistent research findings

  1. 43 CFR 2568.106 - In what situations could a CSU manager generally find an allotment to be inconsistent with the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false In what situations could a CSU manager generally find an allotment to be inconsistent with the purposes of a CSU...2568.106 In what situations could a CSU manager generally find an allotment to be inconsistent with the purposes of a...

  2. Breast Cancer Research Finding Answers. Finding Cures.

    E-print Network

    Kowalczykowski, Stephen C.

    Breast Cancer Research Finding Answers. Finding Cures. Thanks to improvements in treatment and early detection, more and more women are surviving breast cancer. In fact, the five-year survival rate for women with breast cancer today is 90%, up from only 63% in the 1960s. While progress has clearly been

  3. Parental Inconsistency: A Third Cross-Cultural Research on Parenting and Psychological Adjustment of Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwairy, Marwan

    2010-01-01

    Inconsistency in parenting is a factor that may influence children's mental health. A questionnaire, measuring three parental inconsistencies (temporal, situational, and father-mother inconsistency) was administered to adolescents in nine countries to assess its association with adolescents' psychological disorders. The results show that parental…

  4. Finding Explanations of Inconsistency in Multi-Context Systems Thomas Eiter and Michael Fink and Peter Schuller and Antonius Weinzierl

    E-print Network

    Fink, Michael

    (called contexts) that exchange information via bridge rules such as (c1 : h) (c2 : a), not (c3 : d-contextual information exchange are es- sential properties. MCSs enable knowledge integration at a general level, like, e, information exchange can have unforeseen effects, and in particular cause an MCS to be inconsistent

  5. Finding a Voice through Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobo, Jose; Vizcaino, Alida

    2006-01-01

    One question guided this experimental study: What impact does the change from teacher training to educational research have on university teachers' methodology and attitudes to teaching? To find answers to this question, the researchers selected five teachers of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) at the language centre of a private university on…

  6. Knowledge translation of research findings

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background One of the most consistent findings from clinical and health services research is the failure to translate research into practice and policy. As a result of these evidence-practice and policy gaps, patients fail to benefit optimally from advances in healthcare and are exposed to unnecessary risks of iatrogenic harms, and healthcare systems are exposed to unnecessary expenditure resulting in significant opportunity costs. Over the last decade, there has been increasing international policy and research attention on how to reduce the evidence-practice and policy gap. In this paper, we summarise the current concepts and evidence to guide knowledge translation activities, defined as T2 research (the translation of new clinical knowledge into improved health). We structure the article around five key questions: what should be transferred; to whom should research knowledge be transferred; by whom should research knowledge be transferred; how should research knowledge be transferred; and, with what effect should research knowledge be transferred? Discussion We suggest that the basic unit of knowledge translation should usually be up-to-date systematic reviews or other syntheses of research findings. Knowledge translators need to identify the key messages for different target audiences and to fashion these in language and knowledge translation products that are easily assimilated by different audiences. The relative importance of knowledge translation to different target audiences will vary by the type of research and appropriate endpoints of knowledge translation may vary across different stakeholder groups. There are a large number of planned knowledge translation models, derived from different disciplinary, contextual (i.e., setting), and target audience viewpoints. Most of these suggest that planned knowledge translation for healthcare professionals and consumers is more likely to be successful if the choice of knowledge translation strategy is informed by an assessment of the likely barriers and facilitators. Although our evidence on the likely effectiveness of different strategies to overcome specific barriers remains incomplete, there is a range of informative systematic reviews of interventions aimed at healthcare professionals and consumers (i.e., patients, family members, and informal carers) and of factors important to research use by policy makers. Summary There is a substantial (if incomplete) evidence base to guide choice of knowledge translation activities targeting healthcare professionals and consumers. The evidence base on the effects of different knowledge translation approaches targeting healthcare policy makers and senior managers is much weaker but there are a profusion of innovative approaches that warrant further evaluation. PMID:22651257

  7. Research Findings on Overactive Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Phani B.; Patra, Sayani

    2015-01-01

    Several physiopathologic conditions lead to the manifestation of overactive bladder (OAB). These conditions include ageing, diabetes mellitus, bladder outlet obstruction, spinal cord injury, stroke and brain injury, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, interstitial cystitis, stress and depression. This review has discussed research findings in human and animal studies conducted on the above conditions. Several structural and functional changes under these conditions have not only been observed in the lower urinary tract, but also in the brain and spinal cord. Significant changes were observed in the following areas: neurotransmitters, prostaglandins, nerve growth factor, Rho-kinase, interstitial cells of Cajal, and ion and transient receptor potential channels. Interestingly, alterations in these areas showed great variation in each of the conditions of the OAB, suggesting that the pathophysiology of the OAB might be different in each condition of the disease. It is anticipated that this review will be helpful for further research on new and specific drug development against OAB. PMID:26195957

  8. Moving animal research findings to human application

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    Moving animal research findings to human application Minda Lynch NIDA #12;Translation of Animal are the obstacles that impede moving animal research findings to the "next step" in a translational process? #12;One Behavioral Research from NIH How much animal model research in behavior does NIH support? How much

  9. 76 FR 47589 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has taken... Research Center: Based on the Respondent's acceptance of ORI's research misconduct findings, ORI found...

  10. 76 FR 68460 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ...Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY...that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI...University of Virginia Medical Center: Based on...Resident Physician at UVA Medical Center, engaged in research misconduct by...

  11. Finding translation in stress research.

    PubMed

    Hariri, Ahmad R; Holmes, Andrew

    2015-10-01

    In our ongoing efforts to advance understanding of human diseases, translational research across rodents and humans on stress-related mental disorders stands out as a field that is producing discoveries that illuminate mechanisms of risk and pathophysiology at a brisk rate. Here we offer a Perspective on how a productive translational research dialog between preclinical models and clinical studies of these disorders is being powered by an ever-developing appreciation of the shared neural circuits and genetic architecture that moderate the response to stress across species. Working from these deep foundations, we discuss the approaches, both traditional and innovative, that have the potential to deliver a new generation of risk biomarkers and therapeutic strategies for stress-related disorders. PMID:26404709

  12. 76 FR 80371 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has taken... research misconduct in research supported by National Center for Research Resources (NCRR),...

  13. Predictors of token-to-token inconsistency in preschool children with typical speech-language development.

    PubMed

    Macrae, Toby; Sosa, Anna V

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine potential concurrent predictors and replicate rates of token-to-token inconsistency (inconsistency in repeated productions of the same word) in 43 children with typical speech-language development, ages 2;6 to 4;2. A standard linear regression was used to determine which variables, if any, among age, expressive and receptive vocabulary, and speech sound production abilities predicted token-to-token inconsistency. Inconsistency rates in children from one research site, reported elsewhere, were compared to rates in children from a second research site. The results revealed that expressive vocabulary was the only significant predictor of token-to-token inconsistency in these children. Furthermore, inconsistency rates were similarly high across the two research sites. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for our theoretical understanding of token-to-token inconsistency and its role in the differential diagnosis of speech sound disorders in children. PMID:26308586

  14. Finding Fault? Exploring Legal Duties to Return Incidental Findings in Genomic Research

    PubMed Central

    Pike, Elizabeth R.; Rothenberg, Karen H.; Berkman, Benjamin E.

    2014-01-01

    The use of whole-genome sequencing in biomedical research is expected to produce dramatic advances in human health. The increasing use of this powerful, data-rich new technology in research, however, will inevitably give rise to incidental findings (IFs)—findings with individual health or reproductive significance that are beyond the aims of the particular research—and the related questions of whether and to what extent researchers have an ethical obligation to return IFs. Many have concluded that researchers have an ethical obligation to return some findings in some circumstances but have provided vague or context-dependent approaches to determining which IFs must be returned and when. As a result, researchers have started returning IFs inconsistently, giving rise to concerns about legal liability in circumstances in which notification could have potentially prevented injury. Although it is clear that ethical guidance should not be automatically codified as law and that crafting ethical obligations around legal duties can be inappropriate, the ethical debate should not proceed unaware of the potential legal ramifications of advancing and implementing an ethical obligation to return IFs. This Article assesses the legal claims that could be brought for a researcher’s failure to return IFs. The potential for researchers to be held liable in tort is still uncertain and turns largely on a number of factors—including customary practice and guidance documents—that are still in flux. Unlike medical care, which has a well-defined duty into which evolving scientific knowledge about genetics and genomics can readily be incorporated, a researcher’s duty to return IFs is less well defined, making it difficult to determine at the outset whether and when legal liability will attach. This Article advocates for a clearer, ethically sound standard of requiring that researchers disclose in the informed consent document which approach to offering IFs will be taken. This approach enables participants to know at the outset which findings, if any, will be returned, allows researchers to ascertain when their failure to appropriately return incidental findings will give rise to liability, and enables courts to make determinations that will produce more consistent legal guidance. PMID:25346543

  15. 77 FR 5254 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has taken... from Creighton University (CU) and additional evidence gathered by the Office of Research...

  16. 76 FR 23599 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has taken... analysis conducted by the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) during its oversight review, ORI found...

  17. 78 FR 72892 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has... INFORMATION CONTACT: David E. Wright, Ph.D., Director, Office of Research Integrity, 1101 Wootton...

  18. 78 FR 5454 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has taken..., Department of Neurological Surgery, UW, engaged in research misconduct by falsifying results in...

  19. 75 FR 18837 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) and...

  20. 78 FR 47699 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary..., Department of Dermatology, Case Western Reserve University (CWRU), engaged in research misconduct in...

  1. 78 FR 8148 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... fellow, Department of Dermatology, Case Western Reserve University (CWRU), engaged in research...

  2. Learning from Inconsistency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easterbrook, Steve

    1996-01-01

    This position paper argues that inconsistencies that occur during the development of a software specification offer an excellent way of learning more about the development process. We base this argument on our work on inconsistency management. Much attention has been devoted recently to the need to allow inconsistencies to occur during software development, to facilitate flexible development strategies, especially for collaborative work. Recent work has concentrated on reasoning in the presence of inconsistency, tracing inconsistencies with 'pollution markers' and supporting resolution. We argue here that one of the most important aspects of inconsistency is the learning opportunity it provides. We are therefore concerned with how to capture this learning outcome so that its significance is not lost. We present a small example of how apprentice software engineers learn from their mistakes, and outline how an inconsistency management tool could support this learning. We then argue that the approach can be used more generally as part of continuous process improvement.

  3. Incidental findings found in “healthy” volunteers during imaging performed for research: current legal and ethical implications

    PubMed Central

    Booth, T C; Jackson, A; Wardlaw, J M; Taylor, S A; Waldman, A D

    2010-01-01

    Incidental findings found in “healthy” volunteers during research imaging are common and have important implications for study design and performance, particularly in the areas of informed consent, subjects' rights, clinical image analysis and disclosure. In this study, we aimed to determine current practice and regulations concerning information that should be given to research subjects when obtaining consent, reporting of research images, who should be informed about any incidental findings and the method of disclosure. We reviewed all UK, European and international humanitarian, legal and ethical agencies' guidance. We found that the guidance on what constitutes incidental pathology, how to recognise it and what to do about it is inconsistent between agencies, difficult to find and less complete in the UK than elsewhere. Where given, guidance states that volunteers should be informed during the consent process about how research images will be managed, whether a mechanism exists for identifying incidental findings, arrangements for their disclosure, the potential benefit or harm and therapeutic options. The effects of incidentally discovered pathology on the individual can be complex and far-reaching. Radiologist involvement in analysis of research images varies widely; many incidental findings might therefore go unrecognised. In conclusion, guidance on the management of research imaging is inconsistent, limited and does not address the interests of volunteers. Improved standards to guide management of research images and incidental findings are urgently required. PMID:20335427

  4. Turning research find ings and scientific infor

    E-print Network

    Brown, Sally

    is the age old challenge for the scientific community. While some scientists are content to merely adTurning research find ings and scientific infor mation into usable forms and applications vance our knowledge of a certain subject, we at ONRC are tasked with actually applying scientific

  5. 77 FR 125 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ...., Chuang, L.-Y., Ke, C.-H., Yang, C.-H., International Journal of Computer Science, International...., Baumgartner, C., Sittampalam, S., Lushington, G., International Journal of Computational Biology and Drug... SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary,...

  6. Inconsistent condom use by male clients during anal intercourse with occasional and regular female sex workers (FSWs): survey findings from southern states of India

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Shreena; Nagarajan, Karikalan; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmi; Mainkar, Mandar K; Goswami, Prabuddhagopal; Yadav, Diwakar; Sen, Shrabanti; George, Bitra; Rachakulla, Harikumar; Subramanian, Thilakavathi; Paranjape, Ramesh S

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Self-reported anal intercourse by female sex workers (FSWs) documented in recent studies from India range between 11.9% and 22%. However, comparable data on anal intercourse and condom use from male clients of FSWs is lacking. Using data from a bio-behavioural survey (2009–2010), we examined prevalence of anal intercourse, male clients’ self-reported inconsistent condom use during anal intercourse with FSWs, and correlates of this behaviour in India's high HIV prevalence southern states (Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu combined). Methods Using two-stage time location cluster sampling, we recruited 4803 clients of FSWs, ages 18–60?years, who had purchased sex from an FSW in the past month. After obtaining informed consent, respondents were interviewed and tested for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (syphilis, gonorrhoea and chlamydia). Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with inconsistent condom use during anal intercourse (in the past 6?months) with FSWs. Results Overall, 12.3% clients reported anal intercourse in the past 6?months, of whom 48.4% used condoms inconsistently. Clients of FSWs who were ages 26?years or older (AOR 2.68, p=0.032); employed as manual labourers (AOR 2.43, p=0.013); consumed alcohol (AOR 2.63, p=0.001); reported five or more sex acts with FSWs in the past month (AOR 2.53, p=0.031); and perceived themselves to be at higher risk for HIV (AOR 4.82, p=0.001) were more likely to inconsistently use condoms during anal intercourse. Conclusions The results suggest that sex workers and their clients commonly practice anal intercourse, but a relatively high proportion of clients do not consistently use condoms, leading to a greater risk of acquiring HIV and its further transmission to other male and female sexual partners. Given the multidirectional risk, safer sex communication on heterosexual anal intercourse must be incorporated into HIV prevention programmes. PMID:25410604

  7. Researcher perspectives on disclosure of incidental findings in genetic research.

    PubMed

    Meacham, Meredith C; Starks, Helene; Burke, Wylie; Edwards, Kelly

    2010-09-01

    Genetic research can produce information that is beyond the aims of the research study yet may be of clinical or personal interest to study participants. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 44 researchers who were asked to describe how they would respond to a hypothetical vignette regarding the disclosure of findings with unanticipated clinical significance to research study participants. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using content and thematic analyses. Researchers' decision-making processes about whether to disclose incidental findings were governed by potentially conflicting duties in three primary domains: information quality, adherence to rules, and participant welfare. There are several actions researchers can take to prepare for incidental findings, including: adding specific language in informed consent documents to state clearly how investigators will handle disclosure; exploring how prepared participants might be during the consent process to make decisions about how they would like to be approached in the event of incidental findings; developing procedures for appropriately communicating individual results and providing follow-up support based on participant preferences; and, in genetic research, having an awareness of the range of traits expressed by the genes under study. PMID:20831419

  8. Researcher Perspectives on Disclosure of Incidental Findings in Genetic Research

    PubMed Central

    Meacham, Meredith C.; Starks, Helene; Burke, Wylie; Edwards, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    Genetic research can produce information that is beyond the aims of the research study yet may be of clinical or personal interest to study participants. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 44 researchers who were asked to describe how they would respond to a hypothetical vignette regarding the disclosure of findings with unanticipated clinical significance to research study participants. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using content and thematic analyses. Researchers’ decision-making processes about whether to disclose incidental findings were governed by potentially conflicting duties in three primary domains: information quality, adherence to rules, and participant welfare. There are several actions researchers can take to prepare for incidental findings, including: adding specific language in informed consent documents to state clearly how investigators will handle disclosure; exploring how prepared participants might be during the consent process to make decisions about how they would like to be approached in the event of incidental findings; developing procedures for appropriately communicating individual results and providing follow-up support based on participant preferences; and, in genetic research, having an awareness of the range of traits expressed by the genes under study. PMID:20831419

  9. Inconsistencies in Everyday Patterns of School Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornberg, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate and explain inconsistencies within the social constructions of school rules as they take shape in everyday interactions between teachers and students, and to explore how students interpret these inconsistencies. An ethnographic study is conducted in two primary schools in Sweden. According to the findings,…

  10. 78 FR 72892 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ...in research misconduct in research supported by National Cancer...the Respondent engaged in research misconduct by fabricating...were done. Thus, the main conclusions of the CEBP paper are based...2013: (1) To have his research supervised; Respondent...

  11. 77 FR 46438 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ...in research misconduct in research supported by National Cancer...the Respondent engaged in research misconduct by falsifying results reported for research supported by U.S. Public...double-blind study reported in the paper Ravindranath,...

  12. 77 FR 40059 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ...research misconduct in research supported by National...Oversight, Office of Research Integrity, 1101 Wootton...Respondent engaged in research misconduct by falsifying...with human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to...

  13. 77 FR 54917 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ...additional analysis conducted by ORI in its oversight review, ORI found that Dr. Marc Hauser, former Professor, Department of Psychology, Harvard, engaged in research misconduct in research supported by National Center for Research Resources (NCRR),...

  14. Russian research capabilities: Findings of site visits

    SciTech Connect

    Wester, D.W.

    1994-02-01

    In June 1993, a proposal was presented to the International Environmental Institute (IEI) in Kennewick, Washington, to establish cooperation and coordination to further pursue the interests of the United States of America and the Republic of Russia in the application and promotion of environmental technology; characterization, treatment, handling, isolation, and disposal of hazardous and radioactive materials; conversion of defense sites to other purposes; and technology transfer, cooperative programs, joint technology development and contractual research. In response to this proposal, IEI and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) jointly provided funding to send Dr. Dennis W. Wester on a fact-finding mission to Novosibirsk, Moscow, and St. Petersburg, Russia. The trip covered a period of eight weeks, six of which were spent in Novosibirsk and adjoining or related cities and one of which was spent in each of Moscow and St. Petersburg. The general objectives of the trip were to establish a basis for cooperation between IEI and the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) for future coordination of mutual interests and objectives such as technology acquisition, development, demonstration, application, and commercialization; use of capabilities and assets developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the RAS; and expediting of cooperative agreements, personnel exchanges, joint ventures and other contractual relationships. The particular objectives of this trip were to evaluate the capabilities of the RAS to satisfy the technology needs associated with the cleanup of the Hanford Site and similar sites in the U.S. and to evaluate the expediency of establishing an IEI presence in Russia.

  15. Judging social issues: difficulties, inconsistencies, and consistencies.

    PubMed

    Turiel, E; Hildebrandt, C; Wainryb, C

    1991-01-01

    The three studies reported in this Monograph examine high school and college students' reasoning about the issues of abortion, homosexuality, pornography, and incest. The studies stemmed from previous research on reasoning in the "prototypical" moral, social conventional, and personal domains. We postulated that abortion, homosexuality, pornography, and incest are nonprototypical issues. We expected that reasoning about nonprototypical and prototypical issues would differ and that reasoning about nonprototypical issues would be inconsistent and involve ambiguities in informational assumptions. Two groups were preselected in Study 1, those who negatively and those who positively evaluated the nonprototypical issues. Assessments were made of criterion judgments (evaluations, rule contingency, and generalizability) and justifications regarding moral, personal, and nonprototypical issues. The groups differed in judgments about the nonprototypical issues but not the moral issues. Both groups gave noncontigent and generalized judgments about moral issues, with justifications of justice and rights. Subjects who evaluated nonprototypical acts negatively used varied and often inconsistent configurations of criterion judgments. Responses coded for general reasoning types often entailed juxtapositions of prescriptive judgments and assertions of personal choice. Subjects who evaluated nonprototypical acts positively judged that they should be legal and nongeneralized and gave justifications based on personal choice. Using similar procedures, Study 2 was conducted with practicing Catholics attending parochial high schools. The findings paralleled those of Study 1, including a split among subjects in their evaluations of the nonprototypical issues. The results suggested a bidirectional relation between individual judgments and group positions. The findings of Studies 1 and 2 suggested that variations in evaluations and judgments about the nonprototypical issues were associated with variations in ambiguously held informational assumptions. Study 3 examined the role of such informational assumptions. It was found that assumptions associated with judgments about abortion and homosexuality were ambiguous and inconsistently applied. Thus, we propose that ambiguity around assumptions is a central component of the nonprototypicality of these issues. PMID:1766444

  16. 78 FR 14797 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ...Louis (WUSTL) and Respondent's admission, ORI found that Mr. Adam C. Savine, former doctoral student, Department of Psychology, WUSTL, engaged in research misconduct in research supported by National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH),...

  17. 75 FR 77641 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ...institution that submits an application for PHS support for a research project on which the...proposed or that uses him in any capacity on PHS-supported research, or that submits a report of PHS-funded research in which he is...

  18. 78 FR 47699 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ...application for U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) support for a research project on which...to her participation in any capacity on PHS- supported research, Respondent shall...agreed that she shall not participate in any PHS- supported research until such a...

  19. 78 FR 25274 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ...application for U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) support for a research project on which...to his participation in any capacity on PHS- supported research, Respondent shall...agreed that he shall not participate in any PHS- supported research until such a...

  20. 77 FR 11538 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ...application for U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) support for a research project on which...Respondent's participation in any capacity on PHS-supported research, Respondent shall...agrees that he shall not participate in any PHS-supported research until such a...

  1. 78 FR 8148 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ...application for U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) support for a research project on which...to his participation in any capacity on PHS- supported research, Respondent shall...agreed that he shall not participate in any PHS- supported research until such a...

  2. 78 FR 67363 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ...application for U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) support for a research project on which...Respondent's participation in any capacity on PHS-supported research, Respondent shall...agreed that he shall not participate in any PHS-supported research until such a...

  3. 77 FR 76491 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ...institution that submits an application for PHS support for a research project on which the...that uses the Respondent in any capacity on PHS supported research, or that submits a report of PHS-funded research in which the Respondent...

  4. Finding the Middle Ground in Violent Video Game Research: Lessons From Ferguson (2015).

    PubMed

    Markey, Patrick M

    2015-09-01

    Ferguson's comprehensive meta-analysis provides convincing data that violent video games have almost no effect on children's aggression. Although this finding is unlikely to bring unity to a divided field, Ferguson's article (2015, this issue) provides important rules that should aid all researchers. First, we need to be more accepting of results that are inconsistent with our own theories. Second, extraneous variables are often responsible for the relations previous studies have found between violent media and aggression. Third, we should avoid using unstandardized assessments of important variables whenever possible. Finally, caution is warranted when generalizing laboratory research findings to severe acts of violent in the "real world." It is hoped that, by accepting these basic rules, researchers and others will adopt less extreme positions concerning the effects of violent video games. PMID:26386003

  5. 78 FR 79460 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ...given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has...readers of a published paper,\\1\\ additional review...referred to as the ``PNAS paper...The questioned research involves a Western blot...Figure 6 of the published paper and Figure S4 of...

  6. 77 FR 32116 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-31

    .../+ mouse lung cancer cells compared with KRAS induced lung cancer cells, there were reduced Tsc1 and Tsc2..., engaged in research misconduct in research supported by National Cancer Institute (NCI), National... synergizes with KRAS activation in lung cancer development and confers rapamycin sensitivity'' by M.-C....

  7. 76 FR 7568 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-10

    ...the U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) found that Meleik Goodwill, Ph.D...grant R21 ES013269-02. Specifically, PHS found that the Respondent engaged in research...institution that submits an application for PHS support for a research project on...

  8. 76 FR 63621 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ...and the U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) are desirous of concluding this matter...to the submission of an application for PHS support for a research project on which...to her participation in this capacity on PHS-supported research, Respondent...

  9. 77 FR 124 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ...applies for U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) funding; Respondent agrees that prior to the submission of an application for PHS support for a research project on which...Respondent's participation in any capacity on PHS-supported research, Respondent...

  10. 76 FR 23600 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ...review, the U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) found that Junghee J. Shin, PhD, former...grants R01 AI048856 and R01 AI043063. PHS found that the Respondent engaged in research...institution that submits an application for PHS support for a research project on...

  11. Bibliotherapy as a Counseling Adjunct: Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrank, Frederick A.; Engels, Dennis W.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews research relating to various aspects of bibliotherapy, including academic achievement, assertiveness, attitude change, behavioral change, fear reduction, helper effectiveness, marital accord, self-development, and therapeutic gains. Discusses implications for using bibliotherapy as an adjunct to counseling. (RC)

  12. 78 FR 5454 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ...statistical data obtained from purported scans of the films. The research studied the effect of cerebral ischemia on phospholipid homeostasis in an experimental animal model (SHR rat) of stroke during the course of reperfusion of the ischemic cortex. The...

  13. 77 FR 52034 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ...Department of Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, Joslin, engaged in research...ageing and rejuventation of blood stem cell niches.'' Nature 463:495-500...niche cells initiate hemotopoietic stem cell mobilization.'' Blood...

  14. 76 FR 23599 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ...in research funded by National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institutes...switched the labels on four (4) cell culture dishes for cells used in the same type of experiments...adding ethanol to his colleague's cell culture media, with the...

  15. 75 FR 77641 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ...Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has taken final action in the following case: Sagar S. Mungekar, PhD, New York University School of Medicine: Based on the Respondent's written admission and set forth below, the New York University School of Medicine (NYUSOM) and the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) found that Sagar S. Mungekar, PhD, former MD/ PhD student......

  16. 76 FR 7568 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-10

    ...Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has taken final action in the following case: Meleik Goodwill, Ph.D., Wadsworth Center, N.Y.S. Department of Health: Based on the Wadsworth Center report and the oversight review conducted by the Office of Research Integrity (ORI), the U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) found that Meleik Goodwill, Ph.D., former postdoctoral......

  17. 78 FR 14797 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... Mr. Adam C. Savine, former doctoral student, Department of Psychology, WUSTL, engaged in research... of motivation on cognitive control.'' Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci. 12(4):692-718, 2012 Dec. (hereafter... Psychol Gen. 2012). 3. Savine, A.C., & Braver, T.S. ``Motivated cognitive control: Reward...

  18. Researching Women's Groups Findings, Limitations, and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Nancy L.; Kees, Nathalie L.

    2005-01-01

    There is not a "typical" women's group, nor are there "typical" women's issues. Every women's group is diverse, with as many viewpoints and perspectives as there are members in the group. Using the group format for women is common practice with many counselors. It is interesting that there has been little empirical research reported on women's…

  19. 78 FR 25274 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ...Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has taken final action in the following case: Matthew Poore, Advanced Liquid Logic Inc.: Based on the report of an inquiry conducted by Advanced Liquid Logic Inc. (Liquid Logic), the Respondent's admission, and additional analysis conducted by ORI, ORI found that Mr. Matthew Poore, former Technician, Liquid Logic, engaged in......

  20. 76 FR 62807 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ...position in which he receives or applies for PHS support on or after the effective date of...position in which he receives or applies for PHS support within three (3) years of the...to the submission of an application for PHS support for a research project on...

  1. 77 FR 76491 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ...Agreement Respondent does receive or apply for PHS support, Respondent agrees to have his...position in which he receives or applies for PHS support and to notify his employer(s...to the submission of an application for PHS support for a research project on...

  2. 77 FR 125 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ...supported by U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) funds, specifically the INBRE program...on December 20, 2011: (1) To have any PHS-supported research supervised; ORI acknowledges...ensure that a plan for supervision of his PHS-related duties is submitted to ORI...

  3. 78 FR 21125 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ...research supported by National Cancer Institute (NCI), National...human promyelocytic (HL-60) cells transfected with NE mutants...impaired survival of human myeloid cells. 3. Falsified NE and [szlig...mutant NE transfect HL-60 cells was due to the mutation...

  4. 76 FR 62807 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ...Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has taken final action in the following case: Shamarendra Sanyal, PhD Duke University: Based on an inquiry conducted by Duke University (Duke), admissions by the Respondent, and additional analysis conducted by ORI in its oversight review, ORI and Duke found that Dr. Shamarendra Sanyal, former postdoctoral scholar, Duke,......

  5. 75 FR 18836 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ...Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) and the Assistant Secretary for Health have taken final action in the following case: Emily M. Horvath, Indiana University: Based on the Respondent's own admissions in sworn testimony and as set forth below, Indiana University (IU) and the U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) found that Ms. Emily M. Horvath, former graduate......

  6. 75 FR 39530 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... Respondent engaged in research misconduct by falsifying and fabricating retinal gene profile data that he... gene expression profiles in retinal tissue from three-week old normal dogs and dogs with X-linked...\\ Paez, G.L., Zangerl, B., Acland, G.M., & Aguirre, G.D. ``Abnormal gene expression profile in...

  7. 78 FR 79460 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ...Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has taken final action in the following case: Baoyan Xu, M.D., Ph.D., National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health: Based on allegations made by readers of a published paper,\\1\\ additional review by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and ORI, and a limited admission by the Respondent that ``some......

  8. 77 FR 76491 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ...Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has taken final action in the following case: Martin Biosse-Duplan, D.D.S., Ph.D., Harvard School of Dental Medicine: Based on the report of an investigation conducted by the Harvard School of Medicine (HSM) and Harvard School of Dental Medicine (HSDM), the admission of the Respondent, and additional analysis conducted by ORI......

  9. Human lead exposure: Some recent research findings

    SciTech Connect

    Saryan, L.A.

    1999-09-01

    One of the practical problems facing industrial hygienists and safety managers in the lead industry is finding new ways to limit or reduce lead intake in order to protect workers from the deleterious effects of this metal. Exposure to lead generally takes place by inhalation of airborne particles and by ingestion. Airborne exposure is comparatively well understood and methods for the control of airborne lead have been developed and put into place in industrial facilities. Both for the general public and for workers, however, it is thought that a significant fraction of the total lead intake occurs by ingestion as opposed to inhalation. Furthermore, factors such as personal hygiene, hand washing, diet, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, use of medications, bone injury, existing disease, and others may also have positive or negative effects on lead absorption and blood lead levels. How these variables actually operate in practice for lead-exposed workers is unfortunately not very well understood. As scientific and medical knowledge increases, progress has been made in the understanding of some of the factors affecting blood lead levels. In this article, the author summarizes the findings of a few interesting recent reports that point the way toward future progress in this area.

  10. Editorial Decisions May Perpetuate Belief in Invalid Research Findings

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Kimmo; Simpson, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Social psychology and related disciplines are seeing a resurgence of interest in replication, as well as actual replication efforts. But prior work suggests that even a clear demonstration that a finding is invalid often fails to shake acceptance of the finding. This threatens the full impact of these replication efforts. Here we show that the actions of two key players – journal editors and the authors of original (invalidated) research findings – are critical to the broader public’s continued belief in an invalidated research conclusion. Across three experiments, we show that belief in an invalidated finding falls sharply when a critical failed replication is published in the same – versus different – journal as the original finding, and when the authors of the original finding acknowledge that the new findings invalidate their conclusions. We conclude by discussing policy implications of our key findings. PMID:24023863

  11. Debugging Inconsistent Answer Set Programs Tommi Syrjanen

    E-print Network

    . For this reason a practical Answer Set Programming (ASP) system should have support for program debuggingDebugging Inconsistent Answer Set Programs Tommi Syrj¨anen Helsinki University of Technology, Dept Set Programs (ASP). One of the most impor- tant phases of programming is debugging, finding errors

  12. Research finds brain link for words, music ability

    E-print Network

    Kraus, Nina

    research suggests that intensive musical therapy may help improve speech in stroke patients, researchers sing, he said. Now, they are doing trials to see if music can be used as a therapy. But, he cautionedResearch finds brain link for words, music ability RANDOLPH E. SCHMID Published: Feb 20, 2010 SAN

  13. Researchers Find Essential Brain Circuit in Visual Development

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 2013 Researchers find essential brain circuit in visual development NIH-funded study could lead to new treatments ... adulthood. “Our study identifies a mechanism for visual development in the young brain and shows that it’s ...

  14. Research Articles RAP: Accurate and Fast Motif Finding Based

    E-print Network

    Shamir, Ron

    Research Articles RAP: Accurate and Fast Motif Finding Based on Protein-Binding Microarray Data between in vitro and in vivo binding prediction. The software is available on acgt.cs.tau.ac.il/rap. Key

  15. Researchers Say They Find Genes Linked to Alzheimer's Timing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... news/fullstory_156063.html Researchers Say They Find Genes Linked to Alzheimer's Timing Some sped up disease, ... say they have discovered a network of nine genes that may play a role in the development ...

  16. Research Finds Link Between Statin Use and Progressive Muscle Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Research Finds Link Between Statin Use and Progressive Muscle Disease Each year, millions of Americans take statins, ... people these benefits come at a cost: widespread muscle pain that persists as long as the drugs ...

  17. Multiple Perpetrator Rape: Naming an Offence and Initial Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Miranda Angel Helena; Kelly, Liz

    2009-01-01

    Multiple perpetrator rape presents a significant problem nationally and internationally. However, previous research is limited and findings are often contradictory. The details of 101 rape allegations recorded in a six-month period in a large police force in England were analysed. Findings are presented about case classification, victim and…

  18. Environmentally Mediated Risks for Psychopathology: Research Strategies and Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To consider the research design requirements needed to provide a rigorous test of environmental mediation hypotheses and to summarize the main findings from research using such designs. Method: Selective review of empirical evidence dealing with psychopathology. Results: There is robust evidence of environmentally mediated risks for…

  19. In Search of New Ideas, Research Findings, and Emerging Technologies? Here's Where To Find Them.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Gary C.

    There are many avenues available to computer-assisted instruction (CAI) practitioners and developers in search of access to new ideas, research findings, and emerging technologies that will assist them in developing CAI products. Seven such avenues are described in detail: (1) graduate student interns, who bring unique insights, theory, and…

  20. Inconsistencies in Autism-Specific Emotion Interventions: Cause for Concern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldeira, Monica; Edmunds, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Precise educational interventions are the sine qua non of services for students with exceptionalities. Applying interventions riddled with inconsistencies, therefore, interferes with the growth and learning potential of students who need these interventions. This research synthesis documents the inconsistencies revealed during a critical analysis…

  1. An Application of Vygotsky's Theory to Children's Awareness of Inconsistencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chletsos, Peter N.

    This research study used Vygotsky's (1978) "zone of proximal development" and Wertsch's (1979) "levels of social interaction" as an alternative to Markham's method for describing a child's awareness of implicit inconsistencies in an essay. Two different essays with implicit inconsistencies were read to 30 third-grade and 30 sixth-grade students in…

  2. Researcher finds some bees evolved to shout at competitors

    E-print Network

    Nieh, James

    Researcher finds some bees evolved to shout at competitors July 7, 2014 Certain species of stingless bees in Brazil have been found to protect their sources of nectar and pollen from potential in other bee species. Dr. Elinor Lichtenberg from Washington State University made this discovery during

  3. The Children's Hearings Project Research Findings. A Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merry, Sally E.; And Others

    Since 1980 the Children's Hearings Project (CHP) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, has offered status offenders and their families mediation as an alternative to the courts. This report describes CPH's origins and summarizes the results of an extensive research study conducted during the first 2 years of its operation. The key findings were: (1)…

  4. Relationships Always Matter: Findings from a Phenomenological Research Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, David L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on findings from a hermeneutic phenomenological research inquiry which explored the nature of relational experiences in teacher education. Stories of the lived experience of relationships in an educational context were hermeneutically interpreted against the philosophical writings of Heidegger, Gadamer, Levinas, and Buber. The…

  5. Hearing loss and aging: new research findings and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Gordon-Salant, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    This review provides an overview of recent research that addressed hearing loss and auditory processing problems among elderly people. It focuses on research from the University of Maryland on problems in auditory temporal processing by elderly listeners as assessed in speech perception experiments using temporally altered signals and in psycho-acoustic experiments of duration and rhythm discrimination for simple and complex signals. Some recent studies of perceived hearing disability are also reviewed. The clinical implications of the research findings are discussed in relation to hearing aid performance and use by elderly people as well as potential signal processing strategies that may prove to be beneficial for this population. PMID:16470462

  6. Informed Consent for Return of Incidental Findings in Genomic Research

    PubMed Central

    Appelbaum, Paul S.; Waldman, Cameron R.; Fyer, Abby; Klitzman, Robert; Parens, Erik; Martinez, Josue; Price, W. Nicholson; Chung, Wendy K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Researchers face the dilemma of how to obtain consent for return of incidental findings (IFs) from genomic research. We surveyed and interviewed investigators and study participants, with the goal of providing suggestions for how to shape the consent process. Methods We performed an online survey of 254 US genetic researchers identified through the NIH RePORTER database and abstracts from the 2011 American Society of Human Genetics meeting; and qualitative semi-structured interviews with 28 genomic researchers and 20 research participants. Results Most researchers and participants endorsed disclosure of a wide range of information about return of IFs, including: risks, benefits, impact on family members, data security, and procedures for return of results in the event of death or incapacity and for recontact. However, most researchers were willing to devote 30 minutes or less to this process, and expressed concerns that disclosed information would overwhelm participants, a concern shared by many participants themselves. Conclusion There is a disjunction between the views of investigators and participants about the amount of information that should be disclosed and the practical realities of the research setting, including time available for consent discussions. This strongly suggests the need for innovative approaches to the informed consent process. PMID:24158054

  7. Experimental economics' inconsistent ban on deception.

    PubMed

    Hersch, Gil

    2015-08-01

    According to what I call the 'argument from public bads', if a researcher deceived subjects in the past, there is a chance that subjects will discount the information that a subsequent researcher provides, thus compromising the validity of the subsequent researcher's experiment. While this argument is taken to justify an existing informal ban on explicit deception in experimental economics, it can also apply to implicit deception, yet implicit deception is not banned and is sometimes used in experimental economics. Thus, experimental economists are being inconsistent when they appeal to the argument from public bads to justify banning explicit deception but not implicit deception. PMID:26193784

  8. Research Infusion Collaboration: Finding Defect Patterns in Reused Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, Robyn R.; Morgan, Scott; Do, Tuan; Mikulski, Carmen; Berg Strain, Martha; Rockwell, Steve; Wilkinson, Belinda

    2004-01-01

    The 'Finding Defect Patterns in Reused Code' Research Infusion Collaboration was performed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory/Caltech under Contract 104-07-02.679 102 197 08.14.4. This final report describes the collaboration and documents the findings, including lessons learned.The research infusion collaboration characterized, using Orthogonal Defect Classification, defect reports for code that will be reused in mission-critical software on Deep Space Network Antenna controllers. Code reuse is estimated to be 90%, so it is important to identify systemic defects, or patterns, prior to reuse of this code. The work also identified ways to avoid certain types of defects and to test more efficiently.The primary objectives of the project were:to analyze defect patterns of the code to be reused based on the defects'Orthogonal Defect Classification (ODC)and to achieve a successful infusion of ODC to a project.

  9. Research findings can change attitudes about corporal punishment.

    PubMed

    Holden, George W; Brown, Alan S; Baldwin, Austin S; Croft Caderao, Kathryn

    2014-05-01

    Positive attitudes toward the use of corporal punishment (CP) predict subsequent spanking behavior. Given that CP has frequently been associated with behavior problems in children and child maltreatment, this prevention work was designed to test whether adults' attitudes could be changed by informing participants about the research findings on problematic behaviors associated with CP. Two random assignment studies are reported. In Study 1, we tested whether an active reading condition would result in more attitude change than a passive condition. With a sample of 118 non-parent adults, we found that after reading very brief research summaries on the problems associated with CP, there was a significant decrease in favorable attitudes toward CP. Contrary to expectations, the magnitude of the change was comparable for active and passive processing conditions. In Study 2, we extended our approach to a sample of 520 parents and included a control group. A significant decrease in positive attitudes toward spanking was observed in the intervention group, but no change for the control group. Parents who were unaware of the research showed more change after reading the summaries. Thus, these studies demonstrate that a brief and cost-effective approach to raise awareness of research findings can reduce positive attitudes toward CP. Implications for prevention and intervention are discussed. PMID:24246718

  10. Gradient Phonological Inconsistency Affects Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muench, Kristin L.; Creel, Sarah C.

    2013-01-01

    Learners frequently experience phonologically inconsistent input, such as exposure to multiple accents. Yet, little is known about the consequences of phonological inconsistency for language learning. The current study examines vocabulary acquisition with different degrees of phonological inconsistency, ranging from no inconsistency (e.g., both…

  11. Clinical physical therapists research activity reality and barriers to their utilizing research findings.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyungyeon; Choi, Boram; Han, Dongwook

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] This research study was performed to investigate the barriers to using the research findings of physical therapists on evidence-based practice. [Subjects] The subjects of this research were physical therapists employed by hospitals that agreed to cooperate with the research in B city. [Methods] A questionnaire made up of 6 research items, 8 physical therapist items, 6 presentation items, and 8 setting items, for a total of 28 items, was distributed. The responses were scored so the higher result scores indicate a higher barrier level to using research findings. Differences in barrier levels related to the likelihood of therapists using research findings in their practice varied according to the general characteristics of the result as according to the t-test and ANOVA. Scheffe's test was used as a post hoc test. [Results] The analysis of 158 returned questionnaires revealed that there were significant relationships between the age, educational level, and professional satisfaction of the therapists and the barriers to using research finding. Significant relationships were also found between the items of "Research participation in clinical research", "Frequency of reading research articles", and "Support of manager to use research" and the barrier level. No relationship was demonstrated between the recognition level of evidence-based practice and the performance level with the barrier score to using research findings. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that to improve the utilization of research findings, there is a need to provide therapists with continual education and opportunities to participate in research, and environments and ways in which the research results can be given practical applications. PMID:26311932

  12. Clinical physical therapists research activity reality and barriers to their utilizing research findings

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyungyeon; Choi, Boram; Han, Dongwook

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This research study was performed to investigate the barriers to using the research findings of physical therapists on evidence-based practice. [Subjects] The subjects of this research were physical therapists employed by hospitals that agreed to cooperate with the research in B city. [Methods] A questionnaire made up of 6 research items, 8 physical therapist items, 6 presentation items, and 8 setting items, for a total of 28 items, was distributed. The responses were scored so the higher result scores indicate a higher barrier level to using research findings. Differences in barrier levels related to the likelihood of therapists using research findings in their practice varied according to the general characteristics of the result as according to the t-test and ANOVA. Scheffe’s test was used as a post hoc test. [Results] The analysis of 158 returned questionnaires revealed that there were significant relationships between the age, educational level, and professional satisfaction of the therapists and the barriers to using research finding. Significant relationships were also found between the items of “Research participation in clinical research”, “Frequency of reading research articles”, and “Support of manager to use research” and the barrier level. No relationship was demonstrated between the recognition level of evidence-based practice and the performance level with the barrier score to using research findings. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that to improve the utilization of research findings, there is a need to provide therapists with continual education and opportunities to participate in research, and environments and ways in which the research results can be given practical applications. PMID:26311932

  13. Inconsistency of topologically massive hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aragone, C.; Deser, S.

    1985-01-01

    The coupled topologically massive spin-5/2 gravity system in D = 3 dimensions whose kinematics represents dynamical propagating gauge invariant massive spin-5/2 and spin-2 excitations, is shown to be inconsistent, or equivalently, not locally hypersymmetric. In contrast to D = 4, the local constraints on the system arising from failure of the fermionic Bianchi identities do not involve the 'highest spin' components of the field, but rather the auxiliary spinor required to construct a consistent massive model.

  14. Inconsistency and its automated proving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orzeszek, Piotr

    Formal theories are based on sets of axioms. Philosophers as mathematicians may accept desired axioms and get some different incompatible theorems. Consequently, the truth of such theorem is conditional. The ultimate test for a philosophical system is logical consistency. If we want to treat philosophy as more scientific we first need to test philosophical systems for mentioned property. The method described in this paper is an elegant solution to automatically check for inconsistency of philosophical theories.

  15. Inconsistency of speech in children with childhood apraxia of speech, phonological disorders, and typical speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iuzzini, Jenya

    There is a lack of agreement on the features used to differentiate Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS) from Phonological Disorders (PD). One criterion which has gained consensus is lexical inconsistency of speech (ASHA, 2007); however, no accepted measure of this feature has been defined. Although lexical assessment provides information about consistency of an item across repeated trials, it may not capture the magnitude of inconsistency within an item. In contrast, segmental analysis provides more extensive information about consistency of phoneme usage across multiple contexts and word-positions. The current research compared segmental and lexical inconsistency metrics in preschool-aged children with PD, CAS, and typical development (TD) to determine how inconsistency varies with age in typical and disordered speakers, and whether CAS and PD were differentiated equally well by both assessment levels. Whereas lexical and segmental analyses may be influenced by listener characteristics or speaker intelligibility, the acoustic signal is less vulnerable to these factors. In addition, the acoustic signal may reveal information which is not evident in the perceptual signal. A second focus of the current research was motivated by Blumstein et al.'s (1980) classic study on voice onset time (VOT) in adults with acquired apraxia of speech (AOS) which demonstrated a motor impairment underlying AOS. In the current study, VOT analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between age and group with the voicing distribution for bilabial and alveolar plosives. Findings revealed that 3-year-olds evidenced significantly higher inconsistency than 5-year-olds; segmental inconsistency approached 0% in 5-year-olds with TD, whereas it persisted in children with PD and CAS suggesting that for child in this age-range, inconsistency is a feature of speech disorder rather than typical development (Holm et al., 2007). Likewise, whereas segmental and lexical inconsistency were moderately-highly correlated, even the most highly-related segmental and lexical measures agreed on only 76% of classifications (i.e., to CAS and PD). Finally, VOT analyses revealed that CAS utilized a distinct distribution pattern relative to PD and TD. Discussion frames the current findings within a profile of CAS and provides a validated list of criteria for the differential diagnosis of CAS and PD.

  16. Inconsistencies in the Understanding of Solder Joint Reliability Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wen, L.; Mon, G. R.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Over the years, many analytical and experimental research studies have aimed to improve the state-of-the-art assessment of solder joint integrity from a physics-of-failure perspective. Although much progress has been made, there still exist many inconsistent and even contradictory correlations and conclusions. Before discussing some of the prominent inconsistencies found in the literature, this paper reviews the fundamental physics underlying the nature of solder failure...Using the complex constitutive properties of solder, fundamental mechanical and thermomechanical proccesses can be modeled to demonstrate some of the inconsistencies in the literature.

  17. Major Research Findings of The University of Kansas Institute for Research in Learning Disabilities

    E-print Network

    Clark, Frances L.

    1981-10-01

    This report presents abstracts of all research studies conducted during Years II and Ill of the University of Kansas LD Institute. Issues and assumptions addressed. major findings of completed studies, and implications are presented in three areas...

  18. Findings

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Issue All Issues Explore Findings by Topic Cell Biology Cellular Structures, Functions, Processes, Imaging, Stress Response Chemistry ... Glycobiology, Synthesis, Natural Products, Chemical Reactions Computers in Biology Bioinformatics, Modeling, Systems Biology, Data Visualization Diseases Cancer, ...

  19. 'Project launch': from research finding to therapeutic product.

    PubMed

    Cevc, Gregor

    2014-01-23

    Only 0.1-0.5% of new therapy candidates gains marketing approval; just 10-20% of the approved ones ultimately recoup the ~0.6-0.9$USbn invested into their R&D until marketing authorisation. One reason is the high inherent risk of new therapeutic products development. Further reasons are suboptimal decisions during R&D and, too often, lack of adequate experience. To bridge the latter gap, this article succinctly reviews identification of new product opportunities and their patent protection, the resulting commercial opportunity and portfolio valuation, planning and conduct of the ensuing preclinical and clinical tests, as well as therapeutic product registration and price reimbursement, covering risk management as an aside. The article also clarifies the key terms, identifies the main pit falls, highlights the essential requirements for and the goals of different product development steps, to facilitate communication between researchers and developers. By combining public information with personal experience and recommendations the article aims at informing more broadly those who are familiar mainly with some of the (strictly regulated) activities involved in design, development and launch of new therapeutic products, be it that they are medicinal products or medical devices. Taken together, this should support initiation and evolution of new therapeutic products and assist researchers in finding-and better and more smoothly co-operating with-consultants or partners in development and marketing. PMID:23948554

  20. 2007 Telecommunications Policy Research Conference (TPRC) Finding an Effective Sustainable Model for a Wireless

    E-print Network

    Peha, Jon M.

    2007 Telecommunications Policy Research Conference (TPRC) 1 Finding an Effective Sustainable Model;2007 Telecommunications Policy Research Conference (TPRC) 2 1 Introduction As wireless technologies become increasingly

  1. Applying Ad Hoc Institutional Research Findings to College Strategic Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clagett, Craig A.

    2004-01-01

    Environmental scanning, enrollment forecasting, budget analyses, and institutional effectiveness assessment are examples of the explicit contributions institutional research offices make to campus strategic planning.

  2. "Response to Comments": Finding the Narrative in Narrative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, Cathy A.

    2009-01-01

    The author responds to comments by Barone (2009), Clandinin and Murphy (2009), and M. W. Smith (2009) on "The Construction Zone: Literary Elements in Narrative Research" (Coulter & M. L. Smith, 2009). She clarifies issues regarding point of view, authorial surplus, narrative coherence, and the relational qualities of narrative research. She…

  3. Training Methods; An Analysis of the Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royal Air Force (England). Technical Training Command.

    To report research on different instructional methods and variables, to indicate limitations of the research, and to suggest criteria for methods for particular learning goals, this review discusses and evaluates several major instructional methods: lectures, lesson-demonstration, programed instruction, case studies, tutorials, brainstorming,…

  4. Language Proficiency Assessment: Research Findings and Their Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Charlene; Simich, Carmen

    Current research is reviewed for implications for language proficiency assessment practices. Research is discussed concerning adult language proficiency testing, cognitive studies which attempt to conceptualize the construct of language proficiency, development of theoretical models of communicative competence, studies investigating the validity…

  5. Finding Nexus: Connecting Youth Work and Research Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gormally, Sinéad; Coburn, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Participation in educational and social research helps to develop understanding of how young people learn and to consider wider aspects of their lives to enable their voices to be heard and acted upon. Research also facilitates the articulation and sharing of methodologies across a range of professional practices. We assert that theory and…

  6. Inconsistent handers show higher psychopathy than consistent handers.

    PubMed

    Shobe, Elizabeth; Desimone, Kailey

    2016-03-01

    Three hundred and forty-two university students completed the Short Dark Triad (SD3) and the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory (EHI). Inconsistent handers showed higher psychopathy scores than consistent handers, and no handedness differences were observed for narcissism or Machiavellianism. Participants were further subdivided by quartile into low, moderately low, moderately high, and high psychopathy groups (non-clinical). Absolute EHI scores were equally distributed among low and moderate groups, but were significantly lower for the high psychopathy group. These findings suggest that inconsistent handedness is only associated with the upper quartile of psychopathy scores. Also, males showed significantly higher psychopathy scores than females, and the ratio of male to female inconsistent handers decreased as psychopathy score increased. No gender?×?handedness interaction indicated that both female and male inconsistent handers have higher psychopathy scores than consistent handers. Although significant, the effects were small and 99.6% of participants were not in the range of a potential clinical diagnosis. The reader, therefore, is strongly cautioned against equating inconsistent handedness with psychopathy. PMID:26430938

  7. Media Often Overplays Cancer Drug Research, Study Finds

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 36 different cancer drugs, researchers found by combing Google. Unfortunately, half of the "marvel" drugs had not ... For the study, Prasad and his colleagues scanned Google news for 10 specific superlatives used in conjunction ...

  8. Concordance between Clinical Practice and Published Evidence: Findings from The National Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Wynne E.; Funkhouser, Ellen; Makhija, Sonia K.; Gordan, Valeria V.; Bader, James D.; Rindal, D. Brad; Pihlstrom, Daniel J.; Hilton, Thomas J.; Frantsve-Hawley, Julie; Gilbert, Gregg H.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Documenting the gap between what is occurring in clinical practice and what published research suggests is an important step toward improving care. This study quantified concordance between clinical practice and published evidence across preventive, diagnostic and treatment procedures among a sample of dentists in the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network. Methods. Network dentists completed one questionnaire about their demographic characteristics and another about how they treat patients across 12 scenarios/clinical practice behaviors. Responses to each clinical practice were coded as consistent (i.e., ‘1’) or inconsistent (i.e., ‘0’) with published evidence, summed, and divided by the number of all non-missing to create an overall ‘concordance’ score, calculated as the mean percent of responses that were consistent with published evidence. Results. Analyses were limited to participants in the United States (N = 591). Mean concordance at the practitioner level was 62% (SD = 18); procedure-specific concordance ranged from 8-100%. Affiliation with a large group practice, being a female practitioner, and receiving a dental degree before 1990 were independently associated with high concordance (?75%). Conclusions. Dentists reported a medium-range concordance between practice and evidence. Clinical Implications. Efforts to bring research findings into routine practice are needed. PMID:24379327

  9. Incorporating Research Findings into Standards and Requirements for Space Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, J. Michael

    2006-01-01

    The Vision for Exploration has been the catalyst for NASA to refocus its life sciences research. In the future, life sciences research funded by NASA will be focused on answering questions that directly impact setting physiological standards and developing effective countermeasures to the undesirable physiological and psychological effects of spaceflight for maintaining the health of the human system. This, in turn, will contribute to the success of exploration class missions. We will show how research will impact setting physiologic standards, such as exposure limits, outcome limits, and accepted performance ranges. We will give examples of how a physiologic standard can eventually be translated into an operational requirement, then a functional requirement, and eventually spaceflight hardware or procedures. This knowledge will be important to the space medicine community as well as to vehicle contractors who, for the first time, must now consider the human system in developing and constructing a vehicle that can achieve the goal of success.

  10. Finding Collaborators: Toward Interactive Discovery Tools for Research Network Systems

    PubMed Central

    Schleyer, Titus K; Becich, Michael J; Hochheiser, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Background Research networking systems hold great promise for helping biomedical scientists identify collaborators with the expertise needed to build interdisciplinary teams. Although efforts to date have focused primarily on collecting and aggregating information, less attention has been paid to the design of end-user tools for using these collections to identify collaborators. To be effective, collaborator search tools must provide researchers with easy access to information relevant to their collaboration needs. Objective The aim was to study user requirements and preferences for research networking system collaborator search tools and to design and evaluate a functional prototype. Methods Paper prototypes exploring possible interface designs were presented to 18 participants in semistructured interviews aimed at eliciting collaborator search needs. Interview data were coded and analyzed to identify recurrent themes and related software requirements. Analysis results and elements from paper prototypes were used to design a Web-based prototype using the D3 JavaScript library and VIVO data. Preliminary usability studies asked 20 participants to use the tool and to provide feedback through semistructured interviews and completion of the System Usability Scale (SUS). Results Initial interviews identified consensus regarding several novel requirements for collaborator search tools, including chronological display of publication and research funding information, the need for conjunctive keyword searches, and tools for tracking candidate collaborators. Participant responses were positive (SUS score: mean 76.4%, SD 13.9). Opportunities for improving the interface design were identified. Conclusions Interactive, timeline-based displays that support comparison of researcher productivity in funding and publication have the potential to effectively support searching for collaborators. Further refinement and longitudinal studies may be needed to better understand the implications of collaborator search tools for researcher workflows. PMID:25370463

  11. 76 FR 33763 - Findings of Misconduct in Science/Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Misconduct in Science/Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of... final notice of debarment based on the misconduct in science and research misconduct findings of the... misconduct in science and research misconduct in research funded by National Institute of General...

  12. Instrumentation Technology. Project Report Phase I with Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sappe', Hoyt; Squires, Sheila S.

    This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of instrumentation technology, established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to train instrumentation technicians. Section 1 contains general information: purpose of…

  13. Urban Delinquency and Substance Abuse. Initial Findings. Research Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huizinga, David; Loeber, Rolf; Thornberry, Terence P.

    In collaborative efforts three research teams have investigated the problems of urban delinquency and substance abuse in longitudinal studies that have gone on since 1986. The Denver Youth Study is a longitudinal survey that involves annual interviews with probability samples of five different birth cohorts and their parents from areas of Denver…

  14. FINDING THE BALANCE - QUALITY ASSURANCE REQUIREMENTS VS. RESEARCH NEEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Investigators often misapply quality assurance (QA) procedures and may consider QA as a hindrance to developing test plans for sampling and analysis. If used properly, however, QA is the driving force for collecting the right kind and proper amount of data. Researchers must use Q...

  15. FINDING THE BALANCE - QUALITY ASSURANCE REQUIREMENTS VS. RESEARCH NEEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Investigators often misapply quality assurance (QA) procedures and may consider QA as a hindrance to developing test plans for
    sampling and analysis. If used properly, however, QA is the driving force for collecting the right kind and proper amount of data.
    Researchers must...

  16. Commercial Art. Project Report Phase I with Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ted; Sappe', Hoyt

    This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of commercial art, established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to train commercial artists. Section 1 contains general information: purpose of Phase I; description…

  17. Electrical Distribution. Project Report Phase I with Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sappe', Hoyt; Kirkpatrick, Thomas

    This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of electrical distribution, established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to train apprentice line workers. Section 1 contains general information: purpose of Phase…

  18. Journals Find Many Images in Research Are Faked

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2008-01-01

    Kristin Roovers was a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Pennsylvania with a bright career ahead of her--a trusted member of a research laboratory at the medical school studying the role of cell growth in diabetes. When an editor of "The Journal of Clinical Investigation" did a spot-check on one of her images for an article in 2005, Roovers'…

  19. Outward Bound--An Adjunctive Psychiatric Therapy: Preliminary Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stich, Thomas F.; Sussman, Lewis R.

    According to a small study, Outward Bound can enhance the treatment of hospitalized psychiatric patients. Researchers measured the effect of a therapeutic Outward Bound program of prescribed physical and social tasks on the contentment and self-esteem of seven patients undergoing short-term treatment at the Veterans Administration Hospital in…

  20. Emerging Answers: Research Findings on Programs To Reduce Teen Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Douglas

    This report summarizes three bodies of research on teenage pregnancy and programs to reduce the risk of teenage pregnancy. Studies included in this report were completed in 1980 or later, conducted in the United States or Canada, targeted adolescents, employed an experimental or quasi-experimental design, had a sample size of at least 100 in the…

  1. Research on Interest in Science: Theories, Methods, and Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krapp, Andreas; Prenzel, Manfred

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an overview of interest research and describes the theoretical and methodological background for the assessment of interest in science in large-scale assessments like the "Programme for International Student Assessment" (PISA). The paper starts with a short retrospective on the history of interest, bringing out theoretical…

  2. Finding Community: A Guide to Community Research and Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, W. Ron; And Others

    For those concerned with contemporary social problems, whether as students, members of community groups, or individual citizens, this book attempts not only to describe the issues, but also to offer some starting points for local research and action. As an educational tool, it is based on the belief that a good way to learn about a community is to…

  3. Dental Laboratory Technology. Project Report Phase I with Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sappe', Hoyt; Smith, Debra S.

    This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of dental laboratory technology, established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to train dental laboratory technicians. Section 1 contains general information:…

  4. Environmental Horticulture. Project Report Phase I with Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachler, Mike; Sappe', Hoyt

    This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of environmental horticulture, established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to address the needs of the horticulture field. Section 1 contains general information:…

  5. Pain, Nicotine, and Smoking: Research Findings and Mechanistic Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditre, Joseph W.; Brandon, Thomas H.; Zale, Emily L.; Meagher, Mary M.

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco addiction and chronic pain represent 2 highly prevalent and comorbid conditions that engender substantial burdens upon individuals and systems. Interrelations between pain and smoking have been of clinical and empirical interest for decades, and research in this area has increased dramatically over the past 5 years. We conceptualize the…

  6. A Normative Study of Children's Drawings: Preliminary Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaver, Sarah P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes methodology, data analysis, and initial results of a research study with the long-term goal of establishing contemporary normative data on drawings from children living in the United States. The pool of participants was composed of 316 fourth graders (mean age 9.69 years) and 151 second graders (mean age 7.56 years) who each…

  7. Research on Tactual Communication of Speech: Ideas, Issues, and Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Charlotte M.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This research review on tactual communication of speech discusses methods of communication intended for the tactual sense alone, issues related to tactual input as a supplement for speechreading, and issues related to developing new synthetic tactual aids and the roles such aids could play in treating people with profound hearing loss. (Author/JDD)

  8. Reconciling (Seemingly) Discrepant Findings: Implications for Practice and Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Nicholas A.; Herzog, Serge

    2011-01-01

    Decades of research in survey methodology and psychology have yielded important insights about how to create effective and valid survey instruments. As Porter (in press) has argued convincingly, college student surveys often fall well short of these standards by placing unrealistic demands on students' memory and by assuming that students readily…

  9. 42 CFR 93.411 - Final HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct. 93.411 Section 93...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the...Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.411...

  10. 42 CFR 93.411 - Final HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct. 93.411 Section 93...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the...Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.411...

  11. 42 CFR 93.404 - Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the...Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.404...

  12. Research Findings on Radiation Hormesis and Radon Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hattori, Sadao

    1999-06-06

    Radiation hormesis research in Japan to determine the validity of Luckey's claims has revealed information on the health effects of low-level radiation. The scientific data of animal tests we obtained and successful results actually brought by radon therapy on human patients show us a clearer understanding of the health effects of low-level radiation. We obtained many animal test results and epidemiological survey data through our research activities cooperating with more than ten universities in Japan, categorized as follows: 1. suppression of cancer by enhancement of the immune system based on gene activation; 2. rejuvenation and suppression of aging by increasing cell membrane permeability and enzyme syntheses; 3. adaptive response by activation of gene expression on DNA repair and cell apoptosis; 4. pain relief and stress moderation by hormone formation in the brain and central nervous system; 5. avoidance and therapy of obstinate diseases by enhancing damage control systems and form one formation.

  13. Becoming a Scientist: Research Findings on STEM Students' Gains from Conducting Undergraduate Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, A.; Laursen, S.; Thiry, H.; Seymour, E.

    2006-12-01

    Undergraduate research is widely believed to enhance STEM students' education and increase their persistence to graduate education and careers in the sciences. Yet until very recently, little evidence from research and evaluation studies was available to substantiate such claims and document what students gain from doing undergraduate research or how these gains come about. We have conducted a three-year qualitative research study of STEM students participating in UR at four liberal arts colleges with a strong tradition of faculty-led summer research apprenticeships. Benefits to students reported by both students and their faculty advisors are categorized into six main categories of gains in skills, knowledge, "thinking like a scientist," career preparation, career development, and personal and professional growth. Student and faculty observations are strongly corroborative, but also differ in interesting ways that reflect the distinct perspectives of each group: students are still in the midst of discovering their own career paths while faculty advisors have observed the later career development of their past research students. While not all students find UR to heighten their interest in graduate school, they do find it a powerful growth experience that clarifies their career ambitions by providing a "real world" experience of science. For students whose interest in science is reinforced, UR has a significant role in their professional socialization into the culture and norms of science, which we call "becoming a scientist," through interactions that draw them into the scientific community and experiences that deepen their understanding of the nature of research. Cumulatively, the qualitative data set of nearly 350 interviews offers a rich portrayal of the UR enterprise from a variety of perspectives. Longitudinal data enable us to track the influence of UR on students' career and education trajectories in the years after college, and comparative data from a group of students who did not undertake UR or pursued alternate experiences reveal the extent to which some benefits of UR may be derived from other experiences. Faculty interviews reveal the costs and benefits to faculty of participating in this intensive form of science education. The presentation will highlight key findings and emphasize their relevance to faculty and program directors undertaking UR or seeking to generate its benefits through other activities.

  14. Pain, Nicotine, and Smoking: Research Findings and Mechanistic Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Ditre, Joseph W.; Brandon, Thomas H.; Zale, Emily L.; Meagher, Mary M.

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco addiction and chronic pain represent two highly prevalent and comorbid conditions that engender substantial burdens upon individuals and systems. Although interrelations between pain and smoking have been of clinical and empirical interest for decades, research on the topic of pain, nicotine, and tobacco smoking has increased dramatically over the past five years. We conceptualize the interaction of pain and smoking as a prototypical example of the biopsychosocial model. Accordingly, the current review extrapolated from behavioral, cognitive, affective, biomedical, and social perspectives to propose causal mechanisms that may contribute to the observed comorbidity between these two conditions. Research in the broad area of pain and smoking was first dichotomized into investigations of either "effects of smoking on pain" or "effects of pain on smoking." We then integrated the extant literature to present a reciprocal model of pain and smoking that is hypothesized to interact in the manner of a positive feedback loop, resulting in greater pain, increased smoking, and the maintenance of tobacco addiction. Finally, we proposed directions for future research, and discussed clinical implications for smokers with comorbid pain disorders. We observed modest evidence to support the notions that smoking may be a risk factor in the multifactorial etiology of some chronically painful conditions, and that the experience of pain may come to serve as a potent motivator of smoking. We also found that whereas animal studies yielded consistent support for direct pain-inhibitory effects of nicotine and tobacco smoke, results from human studies were much less consistent. Future research in the emerging area of pain and smoking has the potential to inform theoretical and clinical applications with respect to tobacco smoking, chronic pain, and their comorbid presentation. PMID:21967450

  15. Gate valve and motor-operator research findings

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, R. Jr.; DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; Russell, M.J.; Bramwell, D.

    1995-09-01

    This report provides an update on the valve research being sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The research addresses the need to provide assurance that motor-operated valves can perform their intended safety function, usually to open or close against specified (design basis) flow and pressure loads. This report describes several important developments: Two methods for estimating or bounding the design basis stem factor (in rising-stem valves), using data from tests less severe than design basis tests; a new correlation for evaluating the opening responses of gate valves and for predicting opening requirements; an extrapolation method that uses the results of a best effort flow test to estimate the design basis closing requirements of a gate valve that exhibits atypical responses (peak force occurs before flow isolation); and the extension of the original INEL closing correlation to include low- flow and low-pressure loads. The report also includes a general approach, presented in step-by-step format, for determining operating margins for rising-stem valves (gate valves and globe valves) as well as quarter-turn valves (ball valves and butterfly valves).

  16. Bioethanol from Lignocellulosic Biomass: Current Findings Determine Research Priorities

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Qian; Appels, Lise; Tan, Tianwei

    2014-01-01

    “Second generation” bioethanol, with lignocellulose material as feedstock, is a promising alternative for first generation bioethanol. This paper provides an overview of the current status and reveals the bottlenecks that hamper its implementation. The current literature specifies a conversion of biomass to bioethanol of 30 to ~50% only. Novel processes increase the conversion yield to about 92% of the theoretical yield. New combined processes reduce both the number of operational steps and the production of inhibitors. Recent advances in genetically engineered microorganisms are promising for higher alcohol tolerance and conversion efficiency. By combining advanced systems and by intensive additional research to eliminate current bottlenecks, second generation bioethanol could surpass the traditional first generation processes. PMID:25614881

  17. Discovery research: the scientific challenge of finding new antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Livermore, David M

    2011-09-01

    The dwindling supply of new antibiotics largely reflects regulatory and commercial challenges, but also a failure of discovery. In the 1990s the pharmaceutical industry abandoned its classical ways of seeking antibiotics and instead adopted a strategy that combined genomics with high-throughput screening of existing compound libraries. Too much emphasis was placed on identifying targets and molecules that bound to them, and too little emphasis was placed on the ability of these molecules to permeate bacteria, evade efflux and avoid mutational resistance; moreover, the compound libraries were systematically biased against antibiotics. The sorry result is that no antibiotic found by this strategy has yet entered clinical use and many major pharmaceutical companies have abandoned antibiotic discovery. Although a raft of start-up companies-variously financed by venture capital, charity or public money--are now finding new antibiotic compounds (some of them very promising in vitro or in early trials), their development through Phase III depends on financial commitments from large pharmaceutical companies, where the discouraging regulatory environment and the poor likely return on investment remain paramount issues. PMID:21700626

  18. New Research Findings on Emotionally Focused Therapy: Introduction to Special Section

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Susan M.; Wittenborn, Andrea K.

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces the special section "New Research Findings on Emotionally Focused Therapy." Emotionally focused couple therapy researchers have a strong tradition of outcome and process research and this special section presents new findings from three recent studies. The first study furthers the goal of determining the kinds of clients…

  19. Current Mathematics Appears to Be Inconsistent

    E-print Network

    Guang-Liang Li; Victor O. K. Li

    2007-08-15

    We show that some mathematical results and their negations are both deducible. The derived contradictions indicate the inconsistency of current mathematics. This paper is an updated version of arXiv:math/0606635v3 with additional results and proofs.

  20. Clustering and Inconsistent Information: A Kernelization Approach 

    E-print Network

    Cao, Yixin

    2012-07-16

    Clustering is the unsupervised classification of patterns into groups, which is easy provided the data of patterns are consistent. However, real data are almost always tempered with inconsistencies, which make it a hard ...

  1. Inconsistency of Measure-Theoretic Probability

    E-print Network

    Guang-Liang Li; Victor O. K. Li

    2014-12-06

    We reveal a contradiction in measure-theoretic probability. The contradiction is an "equation" $1/2 = 0$ with its two sides representing probabilities. Unlike known paradoxes in mathematics, the revealed contradiction cannot be explained away and actually indicates that measure-theoretic probability is inconsistent. Appearing only in the theory, the contradiction does not exist in the physical world. So practical applications of measure-theoretic probability will not be affected by the inconsistency as long as "ideal events" in the theory (which will never occur physically) are not mistaken for real events in the physical world. Nevertheless, the inconsistency must be resolved. Constructive mathematics can avoid such inconsistency. There is no contradiction reported in constructive mathematics.

  2. Substance abuse treatment providers’ involvement in research is associated with willingness to use findings in practice

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Rogério M.; Yu, Gary; Spector, Anya Y.; Gorroochurn, Prakash; McCarty, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    Using a national sample (n = 571) of substance abuse treatment providers affiliated with the Clinical Trials Network, we examined the contribution of several factors – demographic, attitudes and involvement in research – toward providers’ willingness to use research findings in practice. The sample included medical staff, social workers, psychologists and counselors. Using a multiple linear regression model, we examined the impact of involvement in research and willingness to use research findings in practice. Providers involved in research were more willing to use findings in practice (p<.001). Latino/as were less willing (p<.05). Providers with favorable attitudes toward evidence-based practices and whose agencies supported professional growth were more willing to use findings (p<.01). Involvement in research may enhance providers’ willingness to use findings in practice and improve quality of services. Results underscore the need for providing opportunities for all providers to engage in substance abuse treatment research, particularly racial/ethnic minority providers. PMID:20659649

  3. Highlighting inconsistencies regarding metal biosorption.

    PubMed

    Robalds, Artis; Naja, Ghinwa Melodie; Klavins, Maris

    2016-03-01

    Thousands of articles have been devoted to examine different types of biosorbents and their use in cleaning polluted waters. An important objective of some studies has been the identification of the biosorption mechanisms. This type of investigation is not always performed, as it can only be done if scientists are aware of all mechanisms that, at least theoretically, control the removal of the target substances. Mistakes are often made, even in highly cited review articles, where biosorption mechanisms are named and/or grouped. The aim of this article is to highlight errors and inaccuracies as well as to discuss different classification systems of the biosorption mechanisms. This article serves as a guide, as well as a platform for discussion among researchers involved in the investigation of biosorbents, in an effort to avoid reproducing errors in subsequent articles. PMID:26607871

  4. Word Production Inconsistency of Singaporean-English-Speaking Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Betty; Brebner, Chris; McCormack, Paul; Butcher, Andy

    2015-01-01

    Background: The nature of speech disorders in individuals with Down Syndrome (DS) remains controversial despite various explanations put forth in the literature to account for the observed speech profiles. A high level of word production inconsistency in children with DS has led researchers to query whether the inconsistency continues into…

  5. Measuring Graduate Students' Teaching and Research Skills through Self-Report: Descriptive Findings and Validity Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Joanna; Feldon, David

    2010-01-01

    This study extends research on graduate student development by examining descriptive findings and validity of a self-report survey designed to capture graduate students' assessments of their teaching and research skills. Descriptive findings provide some information about areas of growth among graduate students' in the first years of their…

  6. Humor Scholarship and TESOL: Applying Findings and Establishing a Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Nancy D.

    2011-01-01

    Research in the areas of second language (L2) pragmatics and of conversational humor has increased in recent decades, resulting in a strong base of knowledge from which applied linguists can draw information for teaching purposes and undertake future research. Yet, whereas empirical findings in L2 pragmatics are beginning to find their way into…

  7. Top 10 Greatest "Hits": Important Findings and Future Directions for Intimate Partner Violence Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author highlights her choice of the 10 most important recent findings from the intimate partner violence research literature, which include (a) the creation of the Conflict Tactics Scale; (b) the finding that violent acts are most often perpetrated by intimates; (c) a series of findings that indicate that women also engage in…

  8. Heterogeneity in Choice Inconsistencies among the Elderly: Evidence from Prescription Drug Plan Choice

    E-print Network

    Abaluck, Jason

    This paper investigates the degree to which choice inconsistencies documented in the context of Medicare Part D plan choice vary across consumers and geographic regions. Our main finding is that there is surprisingly little ...

  9. Practice-Based Research Networks, Part I: Clinical Laboratories to Generate and Translate Research Findings Into Effective Patient Care

    PubMed Central

    Sauers, Eric L.; McLeod, Tamara C. Valovich; Bay, R. Curtis

    2012-01-01

    Context To improve patient care, athletic training clinicians and researchers should work together to translate research findings into clinical practice. Problems with patient care observed in clinical practice should be translated into research frameworks, where they can be studied. Practice-based research networks (PBRNs) provide a compelling model for linking clinicians and researchers so they can conduct translational research to improve patient care. Objective To describe (1) the translational research model, (2) practice-based research as a mechanism for translating research findings into clinical practice, (3) the PBRN model and infrastructure, (4) the research potential using the PBRN model, and (5) protection of human participants in PBRN research. Description Translational research is the process of transforming research findings into health behavior that ultimately serves the public and attempts to bridge the gap between research and clinical practice. Practice-based research represents the final step in the translational research continuum and describes research conducted by providers in clinical practices. The PBRNs are characterized by an organizational framework that transcends a single site or study and serves as the clinical research “laboratory” for conducting comparative-effectiveness studies using patient-oriented measures. The PBRN approach to research has many benefits, including enhanced generalizability of results, pooling of resources, rapid patient recruitment, and collaborative opportunities. However, multisite research also brings challenges related to the protection of human participants and institutional review board oversight. Clinical and Research Advantages Athletic training studies frequently include relatively few participants and, consequently, are able to detect only large effects. The incidence of injury at a single site is sufficiently low that gathering enough data to adequately power a treatment study may take many years. Collaborative efforts across diverse clinical practice environments can yield larger patient samples to overcome the limitations inherent in single-site research efforts. PMID:23068593

  10. Early Literacy Research: Findings Primary-Grade Teachers Will Want to Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reutzel, D. Ray

    2015-01-01

    This article shares recent research findings in early literacy that every primary grade teacher has had questions about at one time or another ranging from handwriting to phonemic awareness, writing to concepts about print, and more. The article reports research that elaborates upon and extends early literacy research that was reported by the…

  11. Applying Effective Instruction Research Findings in Teacher Education: Six Influencing Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, Elsie W.

    This preliminary report provides an overview of the Applying Research to Teacher Education (ARTE) Research Utilization in Elementary Teacher Education (RUETE) study which began in 1982 and will continue through 1985. ARTE: RUETE explores specific processes for incorporating recent research findings of effective instruction into preservice…

  12. Building Consistent Transactions with Inconsistent Replication

    E-print Network

    without consistency Design TAPIR (Transactional Application Protocol for IR) new distributed transaction protocol linearizable transaction ordering using IR (Spanner) Build/evaluate TAPIR-KV high-performance transactional storage (TAPIR + IR) #12;Inconsistent Replication Fault tolerance without consistency ordered op

  13. Consistent Query Answers in Inconsistent Jan Chomicki

    E-print Network

    Chomicki, Jan

    Consistent Query Answers in Inconsistent Databases Jan Chomicki Dept. CSE University at Buffalo State University of New York http://www.cse.buffalo.edu/~chomicki Joint work with Marcelo Arenas, Leo constraints: "every ship has to be in a body of water." The constraints are formulated in first-order logic: n

  14. The reinstatement model of drug relapse: recent neurobiological findings, emerging research topics, and translational research

    PubMed Central

    Bossert, Jennifer M.; Marchant, Nathan J.; Calu, Donna J.; Shaham, Yavin

    2013-01-01

    Background and Rationale Results from many clinical studies suggest that drug relapse and craving are often provoked by acute exposure to the self-administered drug or related drugs, drug-associated cues or contexts, or certain stressors. During the last two decades, this clinical scenario has been studied in laboratory animals by using the reinstatement model. In this model, reinstatement of drug seeking by drug priming, drug cues or contexts, or certain stressors is assessed following drug self-administration training and subsequent extinction of the drug-reinforced responding. Objective In this review, we first summarize recent (2009-present) neurobiological findings from studies using the reinstatement model. We then discuss emerging research topics, including the impact of interfering with putative reconsolidation processes on cue- and context-induced reinstatement of drug seeking, and similarities and differences in mechanisms of reinstatement across drug classes. We conclude by discussing results from recent human studies that were inspired by results from rat studies using the reinstatement model. Conclusions Main conclusions from the studies reviewed highlight: (1) the ventral subiculum and lateral hypothalamus as emerging brain areas important for reinstatement of drug seeking, (2) the existence of differences in brain mechanisms controlling reinstatement of drug seeking across drug classes, (3) the utility of the reinstatement model for assessing the effect of reconsolidation-related manipulations on cue-induced drug seeking, and (4) the encouraging pharmacological concordance between results from rat studies using the reinstatement model and human laboratory studies on cue- and stress-induced drug craving. PMID:23685858

  15. Sharing the Knowledge: Sharing Aggregate Genomic Findings with Research Participants in Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Kerasidou, Angeliki

    2015-12-01

    Returning research results to participants is recognised as an obligation that researchers should always try to fulfil. But can we ascribe the same obligation to researchers who conduct genomics research producing only aggregated findings? And what about genomics research conducted in developing countries? This paper considers Beskow's et?al. argument that aggregated findings should also be returned to research participants. This recommendation is examined in the context of genomics research conducted in developing countries. The risks and benefits of attempting such an exercise are identified, and suggestions on ways to avoid some of the challenges are proposed. I argue that disseminating the findings of genomic research to participating communities should be seen as sharing knowledge rather than returning results. Calling the dissemination of aggregate, population level information returning results can be confusing and misleading as participants might expect to receive individual level information. Talking about sharing knowledge is a more appropriate way of expressing and communicating the outcome of population genomic research. Considering the knowledge produced by genomics research a worthwhile output that should be shared with the participants and approaching the exercise as a 'sharing of knowledge', could help mitigate the risks of unrealistic expectations and misunderstanding of findings, whilst promoting trusting and long lasting relationships with the participating communities. PMID:25292263

  16. 75 FR 62892 - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor Environmental Assessment and Finding of No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ...COMMISSION [Docket No. 50-020; NRC-2010-0313] Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Correction In notice document 2010-24809 beginning on page 61220 in the...

  17. Alcohol Use Disorders, Research Findings | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Alcohol Use and Abuse Alcohol Use Research Findings Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table ... and adolescents years after they were exposed to alcohol in the womb. That is according to a ...

  18. 05 August 2015 UCT researchers find ways to reduce goose poo on golf courses

    E-print Network

    Tadross, Mark

    05 August 2015 UCT researchers find ways to reduce goose poo on golf courses Goose poo on golf, is the trick to making them stay away from it. Many methods that have been used in the past to control goose

  19. Return of Individual Research Results & Incidental Findings: Facing the Challenges of Translational Science

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    The debate over return of individual research results and incidental findings to research participants is a key frontier in research ethics and practice. Fundamentally, this is a problem of translational science, a question of when information about an individual that is generated in research should be communicated for clinical attention, as the technology itself is moving into clinical care. There is growing consensus that investigators should offer participants at least those individual findings of high clinical importance and actionability. Increasing attention to what information biobanks and secondary researchers owe people who provide data and samples offers an opportunity to treat these source individuals as research partners. Cutting-edge issues include return of results in pediatric populations and return to kin and family, including after death of the proband. Progress will require facing the continuum linking research and clinical care and developing standards and models for return. PMID:23875796

  20. School Effectiveness Research Findings in the Portuguese Speaking Countries: Brazil and Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrão, Maria Eugénia

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides findings of research on school effectiveness and discusses implications for evaluation in Brazil and Portugal. Most findings reported over the last decade have been published in Brazilian or Portuguese refereed journals. Thus, a brief literature review of such studies enables that knowledge to reach international scholars and…

  1. Impact of problem finding on the quality of authentic open inquiry science research projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labanca, Frank

    2008-11-01

    Problem finding is a creative process whereby individuals develop original ideas for study. Secondary science students who successfully participate in authentic, novel, open inquiry studies must engage in problem finding to determine viable and suitable topics. This study examined problem finding strategies employed by students who successfully completed and presented the results of their open inquiry research at the 2007 Connecticut Science Fair and the 2007 International Science and Engineering Fair. A multicase qualitative study was framed through the lenses of creativity, inquiry strategies, and situated cognition learning theory. Data were triangulated by methods (interviews, document analysis, surveys) and sources (students, teachers, mentors, fair directors, documents). The data demonstrated that the quality of student projects was directly impacted by the quality of their problem finding. Effective problem finding was a result of students using resources from previous, specialized experiences. They had a positive self-concept and a temperament for both the creative and logical perspectives of science research. Successful problem finding was derived from an idiosyncratic, nonlinear, and flexible use and understanding of inquiry. Finally, problem finding was influenced and assisted by the community of practicing scientists, with whom the students had an exceptional ability to communicate effectively. As a result, there appears to be a juxtaposition of creative and logical/analytical thought for open inquiry that may not be present in other forms of inquiry. Instructional strategies are suggested for teachers of science research students to improve the quality of problem finding for their students and their subsequent research projects.

  2. Improving Student Achievement in Mathematics, Part 1: Research Findings. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grouws, Douglas A.; Cebulla, Kristin J.

    This digest summarizes research findings on best teacher practices in mathematics education. Among the findings are: students can learn both concepts and skills by solving problems; whole-class discussion following individual and group work improves student achievement; and using calculators in the learning of mathematics can result in increased…

  3. A Transdisciplinary Approach to Training: Preliminary Research Findings Based on a Case Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bimpitsos, Christos; Petridou, Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the benefits, barriers and challenges of the transdisciplinary approach to training, and to present findings of a case analysis. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on the research findings of an experimental training program for Greek local government managers co-funded by the European…

  4. Researcher Tales and Research Ethics: The Spaces in Which We Find Ourselves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Julie; Fitzgerald, Tanya

    2010-01-01

    The tales we tell here focus on the ethical issues arising from our research practice with vulnerable young participants and those for whom research has been inextricably linked with European imperialism and colonialism. The importance of relational obligations, temporality and potential for a continuing narrative approach to ethical research

  5. THE TEN MOST SIGNIFICANT EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH FINDINGS IN THE PAST TEN YEARS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DAVIES, DANIEL R.; GRIFFITHS, DANIEL E.

    TO ASCERTAIN THE SIGNIFICANCE OF RESEARCH IN EDUCATION, THREE QUESTIONS MAY BE ASKED--(1) TO WHAT EXTENT HAS THE BEHAVIOR OF INDIVIDUALS IN EDUCATION BEEN CHANGED. (2) HOW MANY ARTICLES HAVE BEEN WRITTEN AS A RESULT OF THE FINDINGS. (3) TO WHAT EXTENT DO EDUCATORS TALK ABOUT OR USE THE CONCEPTS GENERATED BY THE RESEARCH IN DISCUSSING THEIR OWN…

  6. Technology to Support Writing by Students with Learning and Academic Disabilities: Recent Research Trends and Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson-Karlan, George R.

    2011-01-01

    The trends and findings from a descriptive analysis of 25 years of research studies examining the effectiveness of technology to support the compositional writing of students with learning and academic disabilities are presented. A corpus of 85 applied research studies of writing technology effectiveness was identified from among 249 items in the…

  7. Methods, Findings, and History in Attitude-Behavior Research: A Rejoinder to Hanson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piliavin, Jane Allyn

    1981-01-01

    Reviews Hanson's findings that laboratory research tends to demonstrate a positive correlation between attitudes and behavior while field research does not. This article, by adding date of publication, shows that the trend over time, presumably because of improved methodology, is toward more positive correlations in both settings. (Author/JAC)

  8. Current Research Findings on End-of-Life Decision Making among Racially or Ethnically Diverse Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwak, Jung; Haley, William E.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: We reviewed the research literature on racial or ethnic diversity and end-of-life decision making in order to identify key findings and provide recommendations for future research. Design and Methods: We identified 33 empirical studies in which race or ethnicity was investigated as either a variable predicting treatment preferences or…

  9. Looking Back To Find a Vision: Exploring the Emancipatory Potential of Teacher Research. Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Patricia A.; Cornett, Jeffrey

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the limitations of experimental studies of learning and the emergence of alternative paradigms such as constructivism. Examines the growth of teacher research and its historical influences, including Montessori, Dewey's Progressive Movement, and Lucy Sprague Mitchell. Discusses current trends in teacher research, asserting that it is…

  10. From research to control: Translating research findings into health policies, operational guidelines and health products.

    PubMed

    Kilama, Wen

    2009-11-01

    Although Africa's health research capacity is still weak, African R&D institutions are contributing immensely to the development of health policies, guidelines and products essential for diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of Africa's leading health problems. In order to increase Africa's contributions, all health research stakeholders should participate in setting health research priorities and agenda, followed by establishing health research networks and consortia, holistic capacity strengthening, and gathering of baseline data. The evaluation of candidate tools, and the research preceding it, must abide by international scientific and ethical standards, and must involve institutional and national regulatory authorities. The funding of product development and product availability in Africa benefits from national governments, bilateral, multilateral, and philanthropic agencies. When a trial is over poses many social and ethical issues, and not infrequently existing guidelines may not be adequate. Mechanisms for making products available in resource constrained countries are presented, as are problems relating to manufacturing, markets and procurement. So are obligations to trial and research communities. The paper concludes by outlining the obligations of each stakeholder, in order to make research products readily available in resource constrained settings. PMID:19686696

  11. Academic detailing can play a key role in assessing and implementing comparative effectiveness research findings.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Michael A; Avorn, Jerry

    2012-10-01

    Comparative effectiveness research evaluates the relative effectiveness, safety, and value of competing treatment options in clinically realistic settings. Such evaluations can be methodologically complex and difficult to interpret. There will be a growing need for critical evaluation of comparative effectiveness studies to assess the adequacy of their design and to put new information into a broader context. Equally important, this knowledge will have to be communicated to clinicians in a way that will actually change practice. We identify three challenges to effective dissemination of comparative effectiveness research findings: the difficulty of interpreting comparative effectiveness research data, the need for trusted sources of information, and the challenge of turning research results into clinical action. We suggest that academic detailing-direct outreach education that gives clinicians an accurate and unbiased synthesis of the best evidence for practice in a given clinical area-can translate comparative effectiveness research findings into actions that improve health care decision making and patient outcomes. PMID:23048098

  12. Translating research findings to promote peace: moving from "field to forum" with verbatim theatre.

    PubMed

    Liehr, Patricia; Morris, Kate; Leavitt, Mary Ann; Takahashi, Ryutaro

    2013-01-01

    Peace, both personal and global, resides in understanding. Verbatim theatre is introduced as a vehicle for translating research findings to promote understanding and thereby, promote health. By shifting our translation lens from "bench to bedside" to "field to forum," new opportunities arise for moving nursing research-findings to an engaged audience. Stories from Pearl Harbor and Hiroshima survivors were woven into the verbatim performance, With Their Voices Raised. Analysis of audience members' reflections after the performance suggests that verbatim theatre created a connection based in openness, engagement, and trust that informed understanding and raised awareness about peace processes. PMID:23907299

  13. Research on Self-Determination in Physical Education: Key Findings and Proposals for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van den Berghe, Lynn; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Cardon, Greet; Kirk, David; Haerens, Leen

    2014-01-01

    Background: During the last 30 years, several theories of motivation have generated insights into the motives underlying learners' behavior in physical education. Self-determination theory (SDT), a general theory on social development and motivation, has enjoyed increasing popularity in physical education research during the past decade. SDT…

  14. Nutrition and Growth: Recent Research Findings and Research Priorities. Matrix No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, George G.

    Recent research indicates that low income adults and infants in the United States are more likely to be overweight than undernourished. Very possibly, the assumptions upon which food supplement programs are based are ill-founded. While many of the currently operating broadly conceived supplemental food programs achieve desirable collateral…

  15. New Directions for Early Child Development Programs: Some Findings from Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datta, Lois-ellin

    Information on the preschool years, which has emerged from the pioneering studies and programs of the 60's, is reviewed and interpreted with regard to implications for current and future policy. Limitations of knowledge in this area are noted and attributed to inadequacies in the related research. Four general findings are reviewed and discussed:…

  16. A Simple Syllogism-Solving Test: Empirical Findings and Implications for "g" Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shikishima, Chizuru; Yamagata, Shinji; Hiraishi, Kai; Sugimoto, Yutaro; Murayama, Kou; Ando, Juko

    2011-01-01

    It has been reported that the ability to solve syllogisms is highly "g"-loaded. In the present study, using a self-administered shortened version of a syllogism-solving test, the "BAROCO Short," we examined whether robust findings generated by previous research regarding IQ scores were also applicable to "BAROCO Short" scores. Five…

  17. The Effective Elementary School Principal: Theoretical Bases, Research Findings and Practical Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, I. Emett, Jr.; Pankake, Anita M.

    Although much of the current school reform movement relies on the basic assumption of effective elementary school administration, insufficient effort has been made to synthesize key concepts found in organizational theory and management studies with relevant effective schools research findings. This paper attempts such a synthesis to help develop…

  18. Public Understanding of Cognitive Neuroscience Research Findings: Trying to Peer beyond Enchanted Glass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grotzer, Tina A.

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the appeal of cognitive neuroscience research to the general public within the context of the deep puzzles involved in using our minds to understand how our minds work. It offers a few promising examples of findings that illuminate the ways of the mind and reveal these workings to be counter-intuitive with our subjective…

  19. Research-Doctorate Programs in the Biomedical Sciences: Selected Findings from the NRC Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorden, Joan F., Ed.; Kuh, Charlotte V., Ed.; Voytuk, James A., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Research Doctorate Programs in the Biomedical Sciences: Selected Findings from the NRC Assessment" examines data on the biomedical sciences programs to gather additional insight about the talent, training environment, outcomes, diversity, and international participation in the biomedical sciences workforce. This report supports an earlier…

  20. Undersea researchers find little oil spill damage so far By KRISTA KLAUS | News Channel 8

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    Undersea researchers find little oil spill damage so far By KRISTA KLAUS | News Channel 8 Published of the Gulf of Mexico in the wake of BP's massive Deepwater Horizon oil spill made a brief stopover today life before and after the largest oil spill in the history of the Gulf of Mexico. #12;"This

  1. New Findings and Future Directions for Subjective Well-Being Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diener, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Recent findings on subjective well-being (SWB) are presented, and I describe the important questions for future research that these raise. Worldwide predictors of SWB such as social support and fulfillment of basic needs have been uncovered, and there are large differences in SWB between societies. A number of culture-specific predictors of SWB…

  2. Summary of Research Findings on the Military General Educational Development Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Earl A.

    This report summarizes and integrates the finding of research studies dealing with the military General Educational Development (GED) program. The major areas covered include (1) the field conduct of the GED program, (2) characteristics of GED program participants, (3) a comparison of the utility of the GED certificate with that of the high school…

  3. Genetically Informative Research on Adolescent Substance Use: Methods, Findings, and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynskey, Michael T.; Agrawal, Arpana; Heath, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To provide an overview of the genetic epidemiology of substance use and misuse in adolescents. Method: A selective review of genetically informative research strategies, their limitations, and key findings examining issues related to the heritability of substance use and substance use disorders in children and adolescents is presented.…

  4. Internet Consumer Catalog Shopping: Findings from an Exploratory Study and Directions for Future Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Joseph M.; Vijayasarathy, Leo R.

    1998-01-01

    Presents findings from an exploratory, empirical investigation of perceptions of Internet catalog shopping compared to more traditional print catalog shopping. Two factors that might influence perceptions, personality, and important other people are examined, and directions for further research are suggested. (Author/LRW)

  5. A Synthesis of Research Findings on Teacher Planning and Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, L. James

    Several generalizations are made from a review of research findings on teachers' instructional planning methods. Teachers do not, as a rule, follow the advocated model of identifying student outcomes before considering activities or means of instruction. Rather, they focus on content to be taught and the activities in which they will engage the…

  6. Divergent hemispheric reasoning strategies: reducing uncertainty versus resolving inconsistency

    PubMed Central

    Marinsek, Nicole; Turner, Benjamin O.; Gazzaniga, Michael; Miller, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    Converging lines of evidence from diverse research domains suggest that the left and right hemispheres play distinct, yet complementary, roles in inferential reasoning. Here, we review research on split-brain patients, brain-damaged patients, delusional patients, and healthy individuals that suggests that the left hemisphere tends to create explanations, make inferences, and bridge gaps in information, while the right hemisphere tends to detect conflict, update beliefs, support mental set-shifts, and monitor and inhibit behavior. Based on this evidence, we propose that the left hemisphere specializes in creating hypotheses and representing causality, while the right hemisphere specializes in evaluating hypotheses, and rejecting those that are implausible or inconsistent with other evidence. In sum, we suggest that, in the domain of inferential reasoning, the left hemisphere strives to reduce uncertainty while the right hemisphere strives to resolve inconsistency. The hemispheres’ divergent inferential reasoning strategies may contribute to flexible, complex reasoning in the healthy brain, and disruption in these systems may explain reasoning deficits in the unhealthy brain. PMID:25374526

  7. Scalable and Systematic Detection of Buggy Inconsistencies in Source Code

    E-print Network

    Su, Zhendong

    inconsistently. This paper presents DejaVu, a highly scalable system for detecting these general syntactic inconsistency bugs. DejaVu operates in two phases. Given a target code base, a parallel inconsistent clone+ million line pre-production commercial code base, DejaVu executed in under five hours and produced

  8. Research based empathic knowledge for nursing: a translational strategy for disseminating phenomenological research findings to provide evidence for caring practice.

    PubMed

    Galvin, Kathleen T; Todres, Les

    2011-04-01

    We are interested in the kind of knowledge that is particularly relevant to caring practice and the way in which qualitative research findings can serve such knowledge. As phenomenological researchers we have been engaged with the question of how findings from such research can be re-presented and expressed more aesthetically. Such a movement towards a more aesthetic phenomenology may serve the communicative concern to express phenomena relevant to caring practice in ways that appeal to the 'head, hand and heart'. The paper first offers some thoughts about the complex kind of knowledge relevant to caring that is not only technical or propositional, but actionable and aesthetically moving as well. We call this kind of knowledge 'embodied relational understanding'. Further, the paper outlines the development of one way of serving a more aesthetic phenomenology whereby research findings can be faithfully and evocatively translated into more empathically impactful expressions. We call this process 'embodied interpretation'. It is guided by an epistemological framework grounded in the philosophies of Gadamer and Gendlin. We finally illustrate the process with reference to the experience of living after Stroke, and consider the value of this translational process for nursing education and practice. PMID:20863496

  9. Finding paradigms for the future of alcoholism research: an interdisciplinary perspective.

    PubMed

    Meyer, R E

    2001-09-01

    This is a review article and critique of current research strategies in the alcohol field. Although the alcohol field is proud of its multidisciplinary tradition and scientific findings within specific disciplines, there are very few models of cross-disciplinary research and communication. Currently, the favored model of risk is genetic; the favored model of pathophysiology is molecular neuroscience; and the favored model of clinical investigation is narrowly categorical. If there is a hierarchy within science that is based on explanatory power, then models of alcoholism emerging from neuroscience, molecular biology, and genetics should be able to accommodate (if not account for) the findings on clinical aspects of alcohol dependence, as well as data on differential risk, course, and recovery that come from the behavioral and social sciences. The first section of this article reviews the most popular models of alcohol dependence over the past 40 years. I argue that the currently fashionable categorical approach to diagnosis in DSM-IV (and ICD-10) has failed to serve as a framework for interdisciplinary research and has failed to meet the needs of human geneticists, population-based researchers, psychosocial researchers, basic scientists working in animal models, and patient-oriented researchers. I argue for a return to the dimensional approach to diagnosis in the alcohol dependence syndrome construct. In the second section of the article, I lay out an agenda for revitalized patient-oriented research in the alcohol field, as a bridge between basic biological research and innovations in clinical practice, as well as the key to a valid diagnostic system that can inform research strategies in genetics and population-based research. In the third section of the article, I highlight the interface between genetic and psychosocial models of risk and propose a possible structure for future collaboration. I conclude with a plea to funding agencies and investigators to translate discipline-based scientific findings into a science relevant to alcoholism by addressing the challenges and opportunities of an interdisciplinary research agenda on the pathophysiology of alcohol dependence and the multidimensional sources of risk. PMID:11584161

  10. Funding considerations for the disclosure of genetic incidental findings in biobank research

    PubMed Central

    Black, L; Avard, D; Zawati, MH; Knoppers, BM; Hébert, J; Sauvageau, G

    2013-01-01

    The use of biobanks in biomedical research has grown considerably in recent years. As a result of the increasing analysis of tissue samples stored in biobanks, there has also been an increase in the probability of discovering—in addition to the research target—incidental findings (IF). We identified 23 laws, policies and guidelines from international, regional and national organizations that provide guidance or identify the need for the disclosure of IF to research participants. We analyzed these instruments to determine their contemplation of the funding considerations for the disclosure of IF, examining their guidance for who discloses and the extent of researcher responsibilities. We found that the available normative documents provide little guidance to researchers and biobanks for how they should address cost and funding concerns associated with IF disclosure. It is therefore essential that the research and policy communities think through the financial implications of imposing an ethical responsibility to disclose IF. Concerted efforts should be made by policymakers, ethicists, researchers, clinicians and research institutions to develop detailed funding recommendations, potentially universal in application, to aid in the disclosure of IF, and we provide recommendations on steps that can be taken to ensure full consideration of these issues. PMID:23662709

  11. Models of Consent to Return of Incidental Findings in Genomic Research

    PubMed Central

    Appelbaum, Paul S.; Parens, Erik; Waldman, Cameron R.; Klitzman, Robert; Fyer, Abby; Martinez, Josue; Price, W. Nicholson; Chung, Wendy K.

    2014-01-01

    Genomic research has the capacity to generate a wide array of findings that go beyond the goals of the study—usually referred to as “incidental findings.” The evolving consensus of researchers, participants, and expert panels is that at least some incidental results should be made available to participants. However, there are a number of challenges to discussing these issues with participants and ascertaining their preferences, including the complexity and magnitude of the relevant information. Believing that usual models of informed consent are not likely to be effective in this context, we identify four approaches that investigators and IRBs might consider: traditional consent, staged consent, mandatory return, and outsourcing. Each has advantages and disadvantages compared with the other options, and which one is selected for a given project will depend on a mix of practical and normative considerations that are described in this paper. PMID:24919982

  12. Research findings from the use of probiotics in tilapia aquaculture: A review.

    PubMed

    Hai, Ngo Van

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to present research findings from the use of probiotics in tilapia aquaculture. In omnivorous species of tilapia aquaculture, intestines and gonads, rearing water and sediments or even commercial products, can be sources for acquiring appropriate probiotics. Administration of probiotics varies from direct oral/water routine to feed additives, of which the latter is most commonly used. Probiotic applications can be either mono or multiple strains. Dosage and duration of time are significant factors in providing desired results. As probiotics have been proven to be either immune enhancers and/or growth promoters in aquatic animals, several modes of actions of probiotics in enhancement of immune responses, and an improvement of growth and survival rates of tilapia are presented, while the effects of others are not yet understood to the same degree as for other fish species. Some points extracted from the research findings are emphasised for further investigation and development. PMID:26003738

  13. Addressing inconsistencies in black carbon literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shonkoff, S. B.; Chafe, Z.; Smith, K. R.

    2010-12-01

    The literature describing black carbon (BC) emissions, and their effect on Earth’s climate, is growing rapidly. Unfortunately, inconsistencies in definitions; data collection and characterization; system boundaries; and time horizons have led to confusion about the relative importance of BC compared to other climate-active pollutant (CAPs). We discuss three sources of confusion: 1) Currently available BC inventories are not directly comparable to those used by the IPCC to track the greenhouse gases (GHGs) considered in the Kyoto Protocol (CO2, CH4, N2O). In particular, BC inventories often include all emissions: natural and anthropogenic in origin, controllable and non-controllable. IPCC inventories include only anthropogenic emissions. This BC accounting is appropriate for atmospheric science deliberations, but risks being interpreted as an overstatement against official Kyoto GHG inventories in a policy or control context. The IPCC convention of using 1750 as the starting year for emission inventories further complicates matters: significant BC emissions were emitted previous to that date by both human and natural sources. Though none of the pre-1750 BC emissions remain in the atmosphere today, their legacy presents challenges in assigning historical responsibility for associated global warming among sectors and regional populations. 2) Inconsistencies exist in the specific emissions sources considered in atmospheric models used to predict net BC forcing often lead to widely varying climate forcing estimates. For example, while some analyses consider only fossil fuel 1, others include both open biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion 2, and yet others include sources beyond biomass and fossil fuel burning 3. 3) Inconsistencies exist in how analyses incorporate the relationship between BC emissions and the associated cooling aerosols and processes, such as organic carbon (OC), and aerosol indirect effects (AIE). Unlike Kyoto GHGs, BC is rarely emitted in pure form and always with significant emissions of OC aerosols. The OC/BC ratio, however, is quite variable by emission source and often poorly characterized both in its current state and under intervention scenarios. In contrast, sulfur emissions, which become cooling sulfate (SO4) aerosols, are less intrinsically linked to other emissions, i.e., they can be controlled separately. Comparisons often ignore the substantial differences in uncertainties across the CAPs. These sources of confusion operate in a landscape of shifting scientific understanding of the RF from BC, including the work by Ramanathan and Carmichael (2008) indicating a BC RF that is roughly double the IPCC AR4 1 value for BC without organic carbon (OC). Doubling the impact of BC has a major impact on the relative importance of sectors for interventions. An approach is to consider post-AR4 estimates for BC, methane, etc. as part of sensitivity analyses, until a full new assessment becomes available. 1. Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, et al. Working Group I Report: "The Physical Science Basis". Cambridge, UK and New York, NY, US: IPCC; 2007. 2. Jacobson MZ. Strong radiative heating due to the mixing state of black carbon in atmospheric aerosols. Nature 2001;409:695-7. 3. Ramanathan V, Carmichael G. Global and regional climate changes due to black carbon. Nature Geoscience 2008;1:221-7.

  14. Language of instruction in Tanzania: Why are research findings not heeded?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qorro, Martha A. S.

    2013-06-01

    The issue of language of instruction (LOI) and its effects on education in Tanzanian secondary education has been widely researched since the early 1980s. In 2009, the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training proposed a new education and training policy that allows English to be used as LOI from nursery school to tertiary education. The proposed policy goes against what researchers in this area have recommended over the years. In the light of the proposed policy, the author of this article felt the need to review studies done on LOI in Tanzania from 1974 to date, aiming to eliminate or greatly reduce the negative effects of the policy on education in Tanzania. Quoting examples, the paper demonstrates students' levels of proficiency in English; suggests reasons why governmental policy has over time ignored research findings; and recommends as well as proposes the way forward.

  15. Self-reported cognitive inconsistency in older adults.

    PubMed

    Vanderhill, Susan; Hultsch, David F; Hunter, Michael A; Strauss, Esther

    2010-01-01

    Insight into one's own cognitive abilities, or metacognition, has been widely studied in developmental psychology. Relevance to the clinician is high, as memory complaints in older adults show an association with impending dementia, even after controlling for likely confounds. Another candidate marker of impending dementia under study is inconsistency in cognitive performance over short time intervals. Although there has been a recent proliferation of studies of cognitive inconsistency in older adults, to date, no one has examined adults' self-perceptions of cognitive inconsistency. Ninety-four community-dwelling older adults (aged 70-91) were randomly selected from a parent longitudinal study of short-term inconsistency and long-term cognitive change in aging. Participants completed a novel 40-item self-report measure of everyday cognitive inconsistency, including parallel scales indexing perceived inconsistency 5 years ago and at present, yielding measures of past, present, and 5-year change in inconsistency. The questionnaire showed acceptable psychometric characteristics. The sample reported an increase in perceived inconsistency over time. Higher reported present inconsistency and greater 5-year increase in inconsistency were associated with noncognitive (e.g., older age, poorer ADLs, poorer health, higher depression), metacognitive (e.g., poorer self-rated memory) and neuropsychological (e.g., poorer performance and greater 5-year decline in global cognitive status, vocabulary, and memory) measures. Correlations between self-reported inconsistency and neuropsychological performance were attenuated, but largely persisted when self-rated memory and age were controlled. Observed relationships between self-reported inconsistency and measures of neuropsychological (including memory) status and decline suggest that self-perceived inconsistency may be an area of relevance in evaluating older adults for memory disorders. PMID:19851899

  16. Inconsistent reporting of minimally invasive surgery errors.

    PubMed

    White, A D; Skelton, M; Mushtaq, F; Pike, T W; Mon-Williams, M; Lodge, Jpa; Wilkie, R M

    2015-11-01

    Introduction Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is a complex task requiring dexterity and high level cognitive function. Unlike surgical 'never events', potentially important (and frequent) manual or cognitive slips ('technical errors') are underresearched. Little is known about the occurrence of routine errors in MIS, their relationship to patient outcome, and whether they are reported accurately and/or consistently. Methods An electronic survey was sent to all members of the Association of Surgeons of Great Britain and Ireland, gathering demographic information, experience and reporting of MIS errors, and a rating of factors affecting error prevalence. Results Of 249 responses, 203 completed more than 80% of the questions regarding the surgery they had performed in the preceding 12 months. Of these, 47% reported a significant error in their own performance and 75% were aware of a colleague experiencing error. Technical skill, knowledge, situational awareness and decision making were all identified as particularly important for avoiding errors in MIS. Reporting of errors was variable: 15% did not necessarily report an intraoperative error to a patient while 50% did not consistently report at an institutional level. Critically, 12% of surgeons were unaware of the procedure for reporting a technical error and 59% felt guidance is needed. Overall, 40% believed a confidential reporting system would increase their likelihood of reporting an error. Conclusion These data indicate inconsistent reporting of operative errors, and highlight the need to better understand how and why technical errors occur in MIS. A confidential 'no blame' reporting system might help improve patient outcomes and avoid a closed culture that can undermine public confidence. PMID:26492908

  17. Cost-effectiveness analysis and formulary decision making in England: findings from research.

    PubMed

    Williams, Iestyn P; Bryan, Stirling

    2007-11-01

    In a context of rapid technological advances in health care and increasing demand for expensive treatments, local formulary committees are key players in the management of scarce resources. However, little is known about the information and processes used when making decisions on the inclusion of new treatments. This paper reports research on the use of economic evaluations in technology coverage decisions in England, although the findings have a relevance to other health care systems with devolved responsibility for resource allocation. It reports a study of four local formulary committees in which both qualitative and quantitative data were collected. Our main research finding is that it is an exception for cost-effectiveness analysis to inform technology coverage decisions. Barriers to use include access and expertise levels, concerns relating to the independence of analyses and problems with implementation of study recommendations. Further barriers derive from the constraints on decision makers, a lack of clarity over functions and aims of local committees, and the challenge of disinvestment in medical technologies. The relative weakness of the research-practice dynamics in this context suggests the need for a rethinking of the role of both analysts and decision makers. Our research supports the view that in order to be useful, analysis needs to better reflect the constraints of the local decision-making environment. We also recommend that local decision-making committees and bodies in the National Health Service more clearly identify the 'problems' which they are charged with solving and how their outputs contribute to broader finance and commissioning functions. This would help to establish the ways in which the routine use of cost-effectiveness analysis might become a reality. PMID:17698271

  18. Science in the Eyes of Preschool Children: Findings from an Innovative Research Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubosarsky, Mia D.

    How do young children view science? Do these views reflect cultural stereotypes? When do these views develop? These fundamental questions in the field of science education have rarely been studied with the population of preschool children. One main reason is the lack of an appropriate research instrument that addresses preschool children's developmental competencies. Extensive body of research has pointed at the significance of early childhood experiences in developing positive attitudes and interests toward learning in general and the learning of science in particular. Theoretical and empirical research suggests that stereotypical views of science may be replaced by authentic views following inquiry science experience. However, no preschool science intervention program could be designed without a reliable instrument that provides baseline information about preschool children's current views of science. The current study presents preschool children's views of science as gathered from a pioneering research tool. This tool, in the form of a computer "game," does not require reading, writing, or expressive language skills and is operated by the children. The program engages children in several simple tasks involving picture recognition and yes/no answers in order to reveal their views about science. The study was conducted with 120 preschool children in two phases and found that by the age of 4 years, participants possess an emergent concept of science. Gender and school differences were detected. Findings from this interdisciplinary study will contribute to the fields of early childhood, science education, learning technologies, program evaluation, and early childhood curriculum development.

  19. Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Global Environmental Change: Research findings and policy implications

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Baggethun, Erik; Corbera, Esteve; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the special feature of Ecology and Society entitled “Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Global Environmental Change. The special feature addresses two main research themes. The first theme concerns the resilience of Traditional Ecological Knowledge (hereafter TEK) and the conditions that might explain its loss or persistence in the face of global change. The second theme relates to new findings regarding the way in which TEK strengthens community resilience to respond to the multiple stressors of global environmental change. Those themes are analyzed using case studies from Africa, Asia, America and Europe. Theoretical insights and empirical findings from the studies suggest that despite the generalized worldwide trend of TEK erosion, substantial pockets of TEK persist in both developing and developed countries. A common trend on the studies presented here is hybridization, where traditional knowledge, practices, and beliefs are merged with novel forms of knowledge and technologies to create new knowledge systems. The findings also reinforce previous hypotheses pointing at the importance of TEK systems as reservoirs of experiential knowledge that can provide important insights for the design of adaptation and mitigation strategies to cope with global environmental change. Based on the results from papers in this feature, we discuss policy directions that might help to promote maintenance and restoration of living TEK systems as sources of social-ecological resilience. PMID:26097492

  20. Exposing Digital Forgeries by Detecting Inconsistencies in Lighting

    E-print Network

    Bucci, David J.

    Exposing Digital Forgeries by Detecting Inconsistencies in Lighting Micah K. Johnson Department the lighting conditions from the individual photographs. Light- ing inconsistencies can therefore be a useful of computer vision, we describe how the di- rection of a point light source can be estimated from only

  1. Intra-Word Inconsistency in Apraxic Hebrew-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tubul-Lavy, Gila

    2012-01-01

    Intra-word inconsistency in a child is perceived as an indicator of speech impairment. Because the speech of typically developing children is highly variable, the extent and nature of the inconsistency must be defined when used as a diagnostic marker of speech impairment (McLeod, S., & Hewett, S. R. (2008). Variability in the production of words…

  2. TECHNICAL CONTRIBUTION Measuring Inconsistency in Multi-Agent Systems

    E-print Network

    Woolridge, Mike

    believes taxes are good), or in the form of inconsistent preferences (I prefer the family to holiday in California; my spouse prefers the family to holiday in France). Resolving inconsistencies between beliefs is is in conflict with other members of the society. These metrics are based on power indices, which were developed

  3. Inconsistencies in Constituent Theories of World Views : Quantum Mechanical Examples

    E-print Network

    Aerts, Diederik

    Inconsistencies in Constituent Theories of World Views : Quantum Mechanical Examples Diederik Aerts, "Inconsistencies in constituent theories of world views: quantum mechanical examples", Foundations of Science, 3, 2 Brussels, Belgium e-mails: diraerts@vub.ac.be, jbroekae@vub.ac.be, sonsmets@vub.ac.be keywords: world views

  4. Findings of the US Research Needs Workshop on the Topic of Fusion Power

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W R; Raffray, A R; Kurtz, R J; Morley, N B; Reiersen, W T; Sharpe, P; Willms, S

    2009-09-16

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES) conducted a Research Needs Workshop, referred to as ReNeW, in June 2009. The information developed at this workshop will help OFES develop a plan for US fusion research during the ITER era, roughly the next two decades. The workshop was organized in five Themes, one of which was Harnessing Fusion Power (or Fusion Power for short). The top level goal of the Fusion Power Theme was to identify the research needed to develop the knowledge to design and build, with high confidence, robust and reliable systems that can convert fusion products to useful forms of energy in a reactor environment, including a self-sufficient supply of tritium fuel. Each Theme was subsequently subdivided into Panels to address specific topics. The Fusion Power Panel topics were: fusion fuel cycle; power extraction; materials science; safety and environment; and reliability, availability, maintainability and inspectability (RAMI). Here we present the key findings of the Fusion Power Theme.

  5. Exome Sequencing and Unrelated Findings in the Context of Complex Disease Research: Ethical and Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, Gholson J.; Jiang, Tao; Van Wijk, Richard; Wang, Wei; Bodily, Paul Mark; Xing, Jinchuan; Tian, Lifeng; Robison, Reid J.; Clement, Mark; Lin, Yang; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Ying; Moore, Barry; Glessner, Joseph T.; Elia, Josephine; Reimherr, Fred; van Solinge, Wouter W.; Yandell, Mark; Hakonarson, Hakon; Wang, Jun; Johnson, William Evan; Wei, Zhi; Wang, Kai

    2012-01-01

    Exome sequencing has identified the causes of several Mendelian diseases, although it has rarely been used in a clinical setting to diagnose the genetic cause of an idiopathic disorder in a single patient. We performed exome sequencing on a pedigree with several members affected with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), in an effort to identify candidate variants predisposing to this complex disease. While we did identify some rare variants that might predispose to ADHD, we have not yet proven the causality for any of them. However, over the course of the study, one subject was discovered to have idiopathic hemolytic anemia (IHA), which was suspected to be genetic in origin. Analysis of this subject’s exome readily identified two rare non-synonymous mutations in PKLR gene as the most likely cause of the IHA, although these two mutations had not been documented before in a single individual. We further confirmed the deficiency by functional biochemical testing, consistent with a diagnosis of red blood cell pyruvate kinase deficiency. Our study implies that exome and genome sequencing will certainly reveal additional rare variation causative for even well-studied classical Mendelian diseases, while also revealing variants that might play a role in complex diseases. Furthermore, our study has clinical and ethical implications for exome and genome sequencing in a research setting; how to handle unrelated findings of clinical significance, in the context of originally planned complex disease research, remains a largely uncharted area for clinicians and researchers. PMID:21794208

  6. Detecting and Characterizing Semantic Inconsistencies in Ported Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Baishakhi; Kim, Miryung; Person, Suzette J.; Rungta, Neha

    2013-01-01

    Adding similar features and bug fixes often requires porting program patches from reference implementations and adapting them to target implementations. Porting errors may result from faulty adaptations or inconsistent updates. This paper investigates (I) the types of porting errors found in practice, and (2) how to detect and characterize potential porting errors. Analyzing version histories, we define five categories of porting errors, including incorrect control- and data-flow, code redundancy, inconsistent identifier renamings, etc. Leveraging this categorization, we design a static control- and data-dependence analysis technique, SPA, to detect and characterize porting inconsistencies. Our evaluation on code from four open-source projects shows thai SPA can dell-oct porting inconsistencies with 65% to 73% precision and 90% recall, and identify inconsistency types with 58% to 63% precision and 92% to 100% recall. In a comparison with two existing error detection tools, SPA improves precision by 14 to 17 percentage points

  7. Detecting and Characterizing Semantic Inconsistencies in Ported Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Baishakhi; Kim, Miryung; Person,Suzette; Rungta, Neha

    2013-01-01

    Adding similar features and bug fixes often requires porting program patches from reference implementations and adapting them to target implementations. Porting errors may result from faulty adaptations or inconsistent updates. This paper investigates (1) the types of porting errors found in practice, and (2) how to detect and characterize potential porting errors. Analyzing version histories, we define five categories of porting errors, including incorrect control- and data-flow, code redundancy, inconsistent identifier renamings, etc. Leveraging this categorization, we design a static control- and data-dependence analysis technique, SPA, to detect and characterize porting inconsistencies. Our evaluation on code from four open-source projects shows that SPA can detect porting inconsistencies with 65% to 73% precision and 90% recall, and identify inconsistency types with 58% to 63% precision and 92% to 100% recall. In a comparison with two existing error detection tools, SPA improves precision by 14 to 17 percentage points.

  8. Structuring Professional Learning to Develop a Culture of Data Use: Aligning Knowledge from the Field and Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerzon, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Background: This research review provides an analysis of current research related to school and district data use, with a particular focus on identifying key characteristics of schools and districts with effective "data using cultures." The research review identifies and analyzes findings in five key areas of practice: communicating…

  9. Judging Social Issues: Difficulties, Inconsistencies, and Consistencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turiel, Elliot; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Three studies examined high school and college students' reasoning about issues of abortion, homosexuality, pornography, and incest. In the first study, groups differed in judgments about these issues but not about moral issues in general. Findings of second study paralleled those of first. Third study showed that assumptions associated with…

  10. Dilemmas in Youth Employment Programming: Findings from the Youth Research and Technical Assistance Project. Volumes I and II. Research and Evaluation Report Series 92-C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment and Training Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This 2-volume set contains 10 papers, 5 in each volume, that review and evaluate findings from the Youth Research and Technical Assistance Project, whose purpose was not only to explore studies and evaluations related to youth training and employment programs but also to provide a broader synthesis of evidence, findings, and research from related…

  11. The Role of Serotonin (5-HT) in Behavioral Control: Findings from Animal Research and Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, CL; Biskup, CS; Herpertz, S; Gaber, TJ; Kuhn, CM; Hood, SH

    2015-01-01

    The neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine both have a critical role in the underlying neurobiology of different behaviors. With focus on the interplay between dopamine and serotonin, it has been proposed that dopamine biases behavior towards habitual responding, and with serotonin offsetting this phenomenon and directing the balance toward more flexible, goal-directed responding. The present focus paper stands in close relationship to the publication by Worbe et al. (2015), which deals with the effects of acute tryptophan depletion, a neurodietary physiological method to decrease central nervous serotonin synthesis in humans for a short period of time, on the balance between hypothetical goal-directed and habitual systems. In that research, acute tryptophan depletion challenge administration and a following short-term reduction in central nervous serotonin synthesis were associated with a shift of behavioral performance towards habitual responding, providing further evidence that central nervous serotonin function modulates the balance between goal-directed and stimulus-response habitual systems of behavioral control. In the present focus paper, we discuss the findings by Worbe and colleagues in light of animal experiments as well as clinical implications and discuss potential future avenues for related research. PMID:25991656

  12. Edinburgh Research Explorer Between destitution and a hard place: finding the strength to

    E-print Network

    Millar, Andrew J.

    people find strength to survive the experience of destitution following a refusal from the asylum system of people in the North East of England who find themselves destitute following the asylum process that people find strength to cope wit

  13. A graphical tool for locating inconsistency in network meta-analyses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In network meta-analyses, several treatments can be compared by connecting evidence from clinical trials that have investigated two or more treatments. The resulting trial network allows estimating the relative effects of all pairs of treatments taking indirect evidence into account. For a valid analysis of the network, consistent information from different pathways is assumed. Consistency can be checked by contrasting effect estimates from direct comparisons with the evidence of the remaining network. Unfortunately, one deviating direct comparison may have side effects on the network estimates of others, thus producing hot spots of inconsistency. Methods We provide a tool, the net heat plot, to render transparent which direct comparisons drive each network estimate and to display hot spots of inconsistency: this permits singling out which of the suspicious direct comparisons are sufficient to explain the presence of inconsistency. We base our methods on fixed-effects models. For disclosure of potential drivers, the plot comprises the contribution of each direct estimate to network estimates resulting from regression diagnostics. In combination, we show heat colors corresponding to the change in agreement between direct and indirect estimate when relaxing the assumption of consistency for one direct comparison. A clustering procedure is applied to the heat matrix in order to find hot spots of inconsistency. Results The method is shown to work with several examples, which are constructed by perturbing the effect of single study designs, and with two published network meta-analyses. Once the possible sources of inconsistencies are identified, our method also reveals which network estimates they affect. Conclusion Our proposal is seen to be useful for identifying sources of inconsistencies in the network together with the interrelatedness of effect estimates. It opens the way for a further analysis based on subject matter considerations. PMID:23496991

  14. Human Performance Optimization Metrics: Consensus Findings, Gaps, and Recommendations for Future Research.

    PubMed

    Nindl, Bradley C; Jaffin, Dianna P; Dretsch, Michael N; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Wesensten, Nancy J; Kent, Michael L; Grunberg, Neil E; Pierce, Joseph R; Barry, Erin S; Scott, Jonathan M; Young, Andrew J; O?Connor, Francis G; Deuster, Patricia A

    2015-11-01

    Nindl, BC, Jaffin, DP, Dretsch, MN, Cheuvront, SN, Wesensten, NJ, Kent, ML, Grunberg, NE, Pierce, JR, Barry, ES, Scott, JM, Young, AJ, O'Connor, FG, and Deuster, PA. Human performance optimization metrics: consensus findings, gaps, and recommendations for future research. J Strength Cond Res 29(11S): S221-S245, 2015-Human performance optimization (HPO) is defined as "the process of applying knowledge, skills and emerging technologies to improve and preserve the capabilities of military members, and organizations to execute essential tasks." The lack of consensus for operationally relevant and standardized metrics that meet joint military requirements has been identified as the single most important gap for research and application of HPO. In 2013, the Consortium for Health and Military Performance hosted a meeting to develop a toolkit of standardized HPO metrics for use in military and civilian research, and potentially for field applications by commanders, units, and organizations. Performance was considered from a holistic perspective as being influenced by various behaviors and barriers. To accomplish the goal of developing a standardized toolkit, key metrics were identified and evaluated across a spectrum of domains that contribute to HPO: physical performance, nutritional status, psychological status, cognitive performance, environmental challenges, sleep, and pain. These domains were chosen based on relevant data with regard to performance enhancers and degraders. The specific objectives at this meeting were to (a) identify and evaluate current metrics for assessing human performance within selected domains; (b) prioritize metrics within each domain to establish a human performance assessment toolkit; and (c) identify scientific gaps and the needed research to more effectively assess human performance across domains. This article provides of a summary of 150 total HPO metrics across multiple domains that can be used as a starting point-the beginning of an HPO toolkit: physical fitness (29 metrics), nutrition (24 metrics), psychological status (36 metrics), cognitive performance (35 metrics), environment (12 metrics), sleep (9 metrics), and pain (5 metrics). These metrics can be particularly valuable as the military emphasizes a renewed interest in Human Dimension efforts, and leverages science, resources, programs, and policies to optimize the performance capacities of all Service members. PMID:26506192

  15. NIH Researchers Find Vitamin D Binding Protein May Help to Assess Vitamin D Deficiency in African and White Americans

    MedlinePLUS

    ... here Home NIH researchers find vitamin D binding protein may help to assess vitamin D deficiency in ... Americans November 21, 2013 Measuring vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) may be important for accurately determining vitamin ...

  16. Summaries of Conference Papers, Theme 1, Research Findings. International Conference on Evaluation and Research in Educational Television and Radio (Milton Keynes, England, April 9-13, 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Open Univ., Walton, Bletchley, Bucks (England).

    Educational television and radio research and evaluation findings are the subject of 25 papers summarized in this document. Seven papers deal with evaluation of research projects in educational television and radio. Four papers on adult education and two on educational technology in teacher training are also summarized. Research in teaching with…

  17. February 28, 2001 1 Managing Process Inconsistency using Viewpoints

    E-print Network

    Sommerville, Ian

    improvement #12;February 28, 2001 2 Managing Process Inconsistency using Viewpoints 1. Introduction Over productivity improvements by improving their business processes. Software development processes are one class on business process re-engineering [3] although software process improvement programmes tend

  18. Problems Teachers Face When Doing Action Research and Finding Possible Solutions: Three Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Through case studies, this paper explores problems teachers face when doing action research: for instance, teachers may misunderstand the research, mistrust university researchers, lack the time or adequate library resources to conduct research, lack theoretical guidance or knowledge of research methodology, and feel pressure or frustration during…

  19. Research on the effect of noise at different times of day: Models, methods and findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Social surveys of residents' responses to noise at different times of day are reviewed. Some of the discrepancies in published reports about the importance of noise at different times of day are reduced when the research findings are classified according to the type of time of day reaction model, the type of time of day weight calculated and the method which is used to estimate the weight. When the estimates of nighttime weights from 12 studies are normalized, it is found that they still disagree, but do not support stronger nighttime weights than those used in existing noise indices. Challenges to common assumptions in nighttime response models are evaluated. Two of these challenges receive enough support to warrant further investigation: the impact of changes in numbers of noise events may be less at night than in the day and nighttime annoyance may be affected by noise levels in other periods. All existing social survey results in which averages of nighttime responses were plotted by nighttime noise levels are reproduced.

  20. Fostering implementation of health services research findings into practice: a consolidated framework for advancing implementation science

    PubMed Central

    Damschroder, Laura J; Aron, David C; Keith, Rosalind E; Kirsh, Susan R; Alexander, Jeffery A; Lowery, Julie C

    2009-01-01

    Background Many interventions found to be effective in health services research studies fail to translate into meaningful patient care outcomes across multiple contexts. Health services researchers recognize the need to evaluate not only summative outcomes but also formative outcomes to assess the extent to which implementation is effective in a specific setting, prolongs sustainability, and promotes dissemination into other settings. Many implementation theories have been published to help promote effective implementation. However, they overlap considerably in the constructs included in individual theories, and a comparison of theories reveals that each is missing important constructs included in other theories. In addition, terminology and definitions are not consistent across theories. We describe the Consolidated Framework For Implementation Research (CFIR) that offers an overarching typology to promote implementation theory development and verification about what works where and why across multiple contexts. Methods We used a snowball sampling approach to identify published theories that were evaluated to identify constructs based on strength of conceptual or empirical support for influence on implementation, consistency in definitions, alignment with our own findings, and potential for measurement. We combined constructs across published theories that had different labels but were redundant or overlapping in definition, and we parsed apart constructs that conflated underlying concepts. Results The CFIR is composed of five major domains: intervention characteristics, outer setting, inner setting, characteristics of the individuals involved, and the process of implementation. Eight constructs were identified related to the intervention (e.g., evidence strength and quality), four constructs were identified related to outer setting (e.g., patient needs and resources), 12 constructs were identified related to inner setting (e.g., culture, leadership engagement), five constructs were identified related to individual characteristics, and eight constructs were identified related to process (e.g., plan, evaluate, and reflect). We present explicit definitions for each construct. Conclusion The CFIR provides a pragmatic structure for approaching complex, interacting, multi-level, and transient states of constructs in the real world by embracing, consolidating, and unifying key constructs from published implementation theories. It can be used to guide formative evaluations and build the implementation knowledge base across multiple studies and settings. PMID:19664226

  1. Salt intake and cardiovascular disease: why are the data inconsistent?

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, M J; Mente, A; Smyth, A; Yusuf, S

    2013-04-01

    Effective population-based interventions are required to reduce the global burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Reducing salt intake has emerged as a leading target, with many guidelines recommending sodium intakes of 2.3 g/day or lower. These guideline thresholds are based largely on clinical trials reporting a reduction in blood pressure with low, compared with moderate, intake. However, no large-scale randomized trials have been conducted to determine the effect of low sodium intake on CV events. Prospective cohort studies evaluating the association between sodium intake and CV outcomes have been inconsistent and a number of recent studies have reported an association between low sodium intake (in the range recommended by current guidelines) and an increased risk of CV death. In the largest of these studies, a J-shaped association between sodium intake and CV death and heart failure was found. Despite a large body of research in this area, there are divergent interpretations of these data, with some advocating a re-evaluation of the current guideline recommendations. In this article, we explore potential reasons for the differing interpretations of existing evidence on the association between sodium intake and CVD. Similar to other areas in prevention, the controversy is likely to remain unresolved until large-scale definitive randomized controlled trials are conducted to determine the effect of low sodium intake (compared to moderate intake) on CVD incidence. PMID:23257945

  2. Parental inconsistency, impulsive choice and neural value representations in healthy adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, S; Peters, J; Peth, J M; Büchel, C

    2014-01-01

    A well-characterized potential marker for addiction is impulsive choice, stably measured by delay discounting (DD) paradigms. While genetic influences partly account for inter-individual variance in impulsivity, environmental factors such as parenting practices may have an important role. The present study investigates how inconsistent fulfillment of delayed reward promises impacts on DD. A combined correlational and experimental functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) design was performed in a sample of 48 healthy adolescents (13–15 years). More specifically, neural activation during a DD task was investigated at two assessment points (T0 and T1). Adolescents' self-reports of parenting and substance use were assessed at T0. Between assessment points, we experimentally varied the reliability of delayed reward promises, measuring the impact of this intervention on DD and neural value processing at T1. In the correlational part, same-sex parent reward inconsistency was associated with steeper DD and an attenuated subjective value (SV) representation in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Steeper DD was in turn associated with alcohol use during the past year. In the experimental part, the reward inconsistency manipulation resulted in an attenuation of the NAcc SV representation, similar to the parental inconsistency effect. Together, our correlational and experimental findings raise new light on how parents may influence their children's degree of impulsivity, making parenting a potential target in addiction prevention. PMID:24736798

  3. Preprocessing Inconsistent Linear System for a Meaningful Least Squares Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, Syamal K.; Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical models of many physical/statistical problems are systems of linear equations. Due to measurement and possible human errors/mistakes in modeling/data, as well as due to certain assumptions to reduce complexity, inconsistency (contradiction) is injected into the model, viz. the linear system. While any inconsistent system irrespective of the degree of inconsistency has always a least-squares solution, one needs to check whether an equation is too much inconsistent or, equivalently too much contradictory. Such an equation will affect/distort the least-squares solution to such an extent that renders it unacceptable/unfit to be used in a real-world application. We propose an algorithm which (i) prunes numerically redundant linear equations from the system as these do not add any new information to the model, (ii) detects contradictory linear equations along with their degree of contradiction (inconsistency index), (iii) removes those equations presumed to be too contradictory, and then (iv) obtain the minimum norm least-squares solution of the acceptably inconsistent reduced linear system. The algorithm presented in Matlab reduces the computational and storage complexities and also improves the accuracy of the solution. It also provides the necessary warning about the existence of too much contradiction in the model. In addition, we suggest a thorough relook into the mathematical modeling to determine the reason why unacceptable contradiction has occurred thus prompting us to make necessary corrections/modifications to the models - both mathematical and, if necessary, physical.

  4. Impact of Problem Finding on the Quality of Authentic Open Inquiry Science Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBanca, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Problem finding is a creative process whereby individuals develop original ideas for study. Secondary science students who successfully participate in authentic, novel, open inquiry studies must engage in problem finding to determine viable and suitable topics. This study examined problem finding strategies employed by students who successfully…

  5. Finding my ground in public health research: lessons from my Grandmother's kitchen.

    PubMed

    Koolmatrie, Tanya

    2011-01-01

    Research has a 'bad name' in Aboriginal communities. Too often, researchers have come, gathered information and taken it away from Aboriginal people, with no benefit for the communities taking part in the research. This history has implications for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal researchers planning research with Aboriginal communities. An in depth interview study will be conducted in one region of Victoria. Participants will be Aboriginal women who have had a baby within the previous five years. Processes that have been used in preparing to 'step out' into the community to conduct this research are the focus of the paper. PMID:22168372

  6. Inconsistencies in the hypophagic action of intracerebroventricular insulin in mice.

    PubMed

    Mc Allister, Eugenia; Pacheco-Lopez, Gustavo; Woods, Stephen C; Langhans, Wolfgang

    2015-11-01

    Insulin inhibits eating after its intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration in multiple species and under a variety of conditions. Nevertheless, the results across reports are inconsistent in that ICV insulin does not always reduce food intake. The reasons for this variability are largely unknown. Using mice as a model, we performed several crossover trials with insulin vs. vehicle when infused into the third cerebral ventricle (i3vt) to test the hypothesis that recent experience with the i3vt procedure contributes to the variability in the effect of ICV insulin on food intake. Using a cross-over design with two days between injections, we found that insulin (0.4?U/mouse) significantly reduced food intake relative to vehicle in mice that received vehicle on the first and insulin on the second trial, whereas this effect was absent in mice that received insulin on the first and vehicle on the second trial. Higher doses (i3vt 4.0 and 40.0?U/mouse) had no effect on food intake in this paradigm. When injections were spaced 7days apart, insulin reduced food intake with no crossover effect. Mice that did not reduce food intake in response to higher doses of i3vt insulin did so in response to i3vt infusion of the melanocortin receptor agonist melanotan-II (MT-II), indicating that the function of the hypothalamic melanocortin system, which mediates the effect of insulin on eating, was not impaired by whatever interfered with the insulin effect, and that this interference occurred upstream of the melanocortin receptors. Overall, our findings suggest that associative effects based on previous experience with the experimental situation can compromise the eating inhibition elicited by i3vt administered insulin. PMID:26344647

  7. English-Language Teachers' Engagement with Research: Findings from Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anwaruddin, Sardar M.; Pervin, Nasrin

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we report on a small-scale study in which we investigated English-language teachers' engagement with educational research. We conceptualized engagement with research as reading and systematically using research for professional development. Using questionnaires and in-depth interviews, we gathered empirical materials from 40…

  8. Research Activities for the G/C/T Classroom: Finding the Right Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shade, Richard

    1983-01-01

    The article describes five research activities designed to expose elementary gifted students to the resources available for historical and descriptive research. Activities include describing the day of their birth, investigating origins of their street name, examining objects from the past, and researching the lives of famous people. (CL)

  9. 99 Jumpstarts to Research: Topic Guides for Finding Information on Current Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitley, Peggy; Olson, Catherine; Goodwin, Susan Williams

    This book, created by three reference librarians, teaches the beginning researcher good research habits. It provides names of tools students should consult for a well-rounded, well-researched paper on a controversial issue in the news. Books, specialized databases, online resources, and agencies to contact are all included. Each "jumpstart" has…

  10. Research in Online and Blended Learning in the Business Disciplines: Key Findings and Possible Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbaugh, J. B.; Godfrey, Michael R.; Johnson, Marianne; Pollack, Birgit Leisen; Niendorf, Bruce; Wresch, William

    2009-01-01

    In this literature review, we examine and assess the state of research of online and blended learning in the business disciplines with the intent of assessing the state of the field and identifying opportunities for meaningful future research. We review research from business disciplines such as Accounting, Economics, Finance, Information Systems…

  11. Thinking Languages in L2 Writing: Research Findings and Pedagogical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Jim

    2003-01-01

    This article reports the findings of part of a major study exploring the disciplinary writing processes and perceptions of 15 Chinese graduate students in sciences and engineering at a major Canadian university. The findings relate to the thinking languages of the participants in writing disciplinary assignments. The study reveals that whether an…

  12. Challenge: Reframing, communicating, and finding relevance. Solution: Teachers on the research team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholow, S.; Warburton, J.

    2013-12-01

    PolarTREC (Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating) is a program in which K-12 teachers spend 2-6 weeks participating in hands-on field research experiences in the polar regions. The goal of PolarTREC is to invigorate polar science education and understanding by bringing K-12 educators and polar researchers together. Program data has illuminated a crucial dynamic that increases the potential for a successful climate change science campaign. We contend that the inclusion of a teacher into the field research campaign can tackle challenges such as reframing climate change science to better address the need for a particular campaign, as well as garnering the science project the necessary support through effective, authentic, and tangible communication efforts to policymakers, funders, students, and the public. The program evaluation queried researchers on a.) the teachers' primary roles in the field b.) the impact teachers on the team's field research, and c.) the teachers' role conducting outreach. Additionally, researchers identified the importance of the facilitator, the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS), as an integral component to the challenge of providing a meaningful broader impact statement to the science proposal. Researchers reported the value of explaining their science, in-situ, allowed them to reframe and rework the objectives of the science project to attain meaningful outcomes. More than half of the researchers specifically noted that one of the strengths of the PolarTREC project is its benefit to the scientific process. The researchers also viewed PolarTREC as an essential outreach activity for their research project. Other researchers said that the outreach provided by their teacher also improved the research project's public image and articulated complex ideas to the public at large. This presentation will speak to the practices within the PolarTREC program and how researchers can meet outreach expectations, impact the public, and refine their science with teachers in the field.

  13. 26 CFR 1.1311(b)-1 - Maintenance of an inconsistent position.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...1311(b)-1 Maintenance of an inconsistent...1312-7, the maintenance of an inconsistent position is a condition necessary...regard to the maintenance of an inconsistent...deficiency for 1955 based upon other...

  14. 26 CFR 1.1311(b)-1 - Maintenance of an inconsistent position.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...1311(b)-1 Maintenance of an inconsistent...1312-7, the maintenance of an inconsistent position is a condition necessary...regard to the maintenance of an inconsistent...deficiency for 1955 based upon other...

  15. 26 CFR 1.1311(b)-1 - Maintenance of an inconsistent position.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...1311(b)-1 Maintenance of an inconsistent...1312-7, the maintenance of an inconsistent position is a condition necessary...regard to the maintenance of an inconsistent...deficiency for 1955 based upon other...

  16. 26 CFR 1.1311(b)-1 - Maintenance of an inconsistent position.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...1311(b)-1 Maintenance of an inconsistent...1312-7, the maintenance of an inconsistent position is a condition necessary...regard to the maintenance of an inconsistent...deficiency for 1955 based upon other...

  17. 26 CFR 1.1311(b)-1 - Maintenance of an inconsistent position.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...1311(b)-1 Maintenance of an inconsistent...1312-7, the maintenance of an inconsistent position is a condition necessary...regard to the maintenance of an inconsistent...deficiency for 1955 based upon other...

  18. 48 CFR 52.225-14 - Inconsistency between English Version and Translation of Contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Inconsistency between English Version and Translation of Contract... 52.225-14 Inconsistency between English Version and Translation of Contract...following clause: Inconsistency Between English Version and Translation of...

  19. Nine Theorems of Inconsistency in GRT with Resolutions via Isogravitation

    E-print Network

    Ruggero Maria Santilli

    2006-01-18

    This paper presents nine inconsistency theorems for general relativity theory (GRT), and shows that they ultimately originate from the use of Riemannian curvature and the abandonment of universal invariance (which is stronger than the customary covariance). These features cause GRT to be non-canonical at the classi-cal level and non-unitary at the operator level, resulting under time evolution in catastrophic structural prob-lems, such as lack of invariant basic measurement units, loss of stable numerical predictions, absence of reliable observables, etc. The nine inconsistency theorems are re-inspected via isotopic methods and the related new theory of gravitation known as isogravitation. This new theory offers swift and simple resolutions for all the in-consistencies identified in GRT.

  20. NIH Researchers Find Resveratrol Helps Protect against Cardiovascular Disease in Animal Study

    MedlinePLUS

    ... find Resveratrol helps protect against cardiovascular disease in animal study June 3, 2014 Resveratrol, a compound found ... translatable to humans. Multiple studies on resveratrol in animal models, however, have presented ample evidence to support ...

  1. Hostility and withdrawal in marital conflict: effects on parental emotional unavailability and inconsistent discipline.

    PubMed

    Sturge-Apple, Melissa L; Davies, Patrick T; Cummings, E Mark

    2006-06-01

    This study examined the nature of pathways between marital hostility and withdrawal, parental disagreements about child rearing issues, and subsequent changes in parental emotional unavailability and inconsistent discipline in a sample of 225 mothers, fathers, and 6-year-old children. Results of autoregressive, structural equation models indicated that marital withdrawal and hostility were associated with increases in parental emotional unavailability over the one-year period, whereas marital hostility and withdrawal did not predict changes in parental inconsistency in discipline. Additional findings supported the role of child rearing disagreements as an intervening or mediating mechanism in links between specific types of marital conflict and parenting practices. Implications for clinicians and therapists working with maritally distressed parents and families are discussed. PMID:16756398

  2. Hostility and Withdrawal in Marital Conflict: Effects on Parental Emotional Unavailability and Inconsistent Discipline

    PubMed Central

    Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.; Davies, Patrick T.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the nature of pathways between marital hostility and withdrawal, parental disagreements about child rearing issues, and subsequent changes in parental emotional unavailability and inconsistent discipline in a sample of 225 mothers, fathers, and 6-year-old children. Results of autoregressive, structural equation models indicated that marital withdrawal and hostility were associated with increases in parental emotional unavailability over the one-year period, whereas marital hostility and withdrawal did not predict changes in parental inconsistency in discipline. Additional findings supported the role of child rearing disagreements as an intervening or mediating mechanism in links between specific types of marital conflict and parenting practices. Implications for clinicians and therapists working with maritally distressed parents and families are discussed. PMID:16756398

  3. Detecting Inconsistencies in Large Biological Networks with Answer Set Programming

    E-print Network

    Gebser, Martin; Thiele, Sven; Veber, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    We introduce an approach to detecting inconsistencies in large biological networks by using Answer Set Programming (ASP). To this end, we build upon a recently proposed notion of consistency between biochemical/genetic reactions and high-throughput profiles of cell activity. We then present an approach based on ASP to check the consistency of large-scale data sets. Moreover, we extend this methodology to provide explanations for inconsistencies by determining minimal representations of conflicts. In practice, this can be used to identify unreliable data or to indicate missing reactions.

  4. Belief, its inconsistency, and the implications for the teaching faculty

    PubMed Central

    Fraley, Lawrence E.

    1984-01-01

    The traditional concept of belief is analyzed and compared with a behavior analytic concept of belief. Beliefs and belief statements are differentiated and relationships between them are examined. The often troublesome inconsistencies in people's beliefs are examined in general and explained, including the phenomena of compartmentalization and repression. Social implications are pursued relative to both punishment for inconsistency in belief and counter-controls thwarting such punishment. The role of teachers in shaping beliefs is analyzed, and appropriate teaching strategies are reviewed. PMID:22478593

  5. InSITEs into Practitioner Research: Findings from a Research-Based ESOL Teacher Professional Development Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Matt; Kiely, Richard; Askham, James

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an innovative continuing professional development (CPD) programme for experienced English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) teachers, and a research study into its impact. The programme incorporates the principles of Practitioner Research (PR) and focuses in particular on the skills of data analysis and situated…

  6. 36 CFR 223.40 - Cancellation for environmental protection or inconsistency with plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false Cancellation for environmental protection or inconsistency with plans...40 Cancellation for environmental protection or inconsistency with plans...order to prevent serious environmental damage or when they...

  7. 36 CFR 223.40 - Cancellation for environmental protection or inconsistency with plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false Cancellation for environmental protection or inconsistency with plans...40 Cancellation for environmental protection or inconsistency with plans...order to prevent serious environmental damage or when they...

  8. Development of CAI Presentations for Science Teaching and Overview of Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranade, Mridula D.

    2006-01-01

    Research suggests that information and communication technologies (ICT) used in the form of computer assisted instruction (CAI) may benefit student learning. There is, however, limited research about the application of CAI in non-Western educational contexts. Here I describe the use of CAI in the learning of science in India. Evaluation of student…

  9. Broad Claims from Slender Findings: Early Literacy Research and Educational Policy Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allington, Richard L.

    A study of state educational policymaking revealed a number of instances where assertions have been made about what the "research says" in offering support for particular policies; however, in many of these instances the available research seems to have been distorted or exaggerated in order to better leverage particular policy proposals. The role…

  10. Longitudinal Changes in Adaptive Behaviors of Movers and Stayers: Findings from a Controlled Research Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerman, Paul; Apgar, Dawn Hall; Jordan,Tameeka

    2005-01-01

    Reviews of research on deinstitutionalization show that investigators have focused primarily on adaptive behavior changes of "movers," while paying minimal attention to "stayers." Analysis of their research also revealed some methodological problems. We assessed 150 movers and 150 stayers in 1994, before deinstitutionalization began in 1997. We…

  11. PRELIMINARY FINDINGS FROM THE NERL RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK PARTICULATE MATTER PANEL STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is currently conducting the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Research Triangle Park (RTP) Particulate Matter (PM) Panel Study. This study represents a one year investigation of PM and related co-pollutants involving two dist...

  12. Research: Value-Added Assessment Findings--Poor Kids Get Poor Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2004-01-01

    The Summer 2004 issue of Research Points, a four-page flier from the American Educational Research Association, opens with the fundamental case for value-added assessment: Today's accountability systems place the blame on schools for inadequate student academic achievement, which seems unfair to many people. They believe that family background and…

  13. What They Take with Them: Findings from the Peer Writing Tutor Alumni Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Bradley; Gillespie, Paula; Kail, Harvey

    2010-01-01

    Through the Peer Writing Tutor Alumni Research Project (PWTARP), the authors have set out to explore and document what peer tutors take with them from their training and experience. The Peer Writing Tutor Alumni Research Project has made it possible for the authors to sample and analyze more systematically the reflections of 126 former tutors from…

  14. Making Life Easier with Effort: Basic Findings and Applied Research on Response Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friman, Patrick C.; Poling, Alan

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes basic research on response effort in diverse applied areas including deceleration of aberrant behavior, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, oral habits, littering, and problem solving. The paper concludes that response effort as an independent variable has potent effects, and research exploring the applied benefits of…

  15. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE NIHfunded research leads to thousands of new scientific findings every year. These incremental

    E-print Network

    Ungerleider, Leslie G.

    research. Ebola Research ­ The Ebola outbreak that began in 2014 in West Africa is the largest to identify the origin and track transmission of the Ebola virus and used computer model projections to successfully treat a nurse who had contracted the Ebola virus. A large NIHsponsored clinical trial to assess

  16. Research foci for career and technical education: findings from a national Delphi study 

    E-print Network

    Lambeth, Jeanea Marie

    2009-05-15

    is to be chosen depends on the problems that are to be solved? (Heylighen, 1993). Gall, Gall, and Borg (2003) contended that ?behavioral researchers in education and psychology exemplify an approach to scientific inquiry that is grounded in positivist...

  17. The European antibody network's practical guide to finding and validating suitable antibodies for research.

    PubMed

    Roncador, Giovanna; Engel, Pablo; Maestre, Lorena; Anderson, Amanda P; Cordell, Jacqueline L; Cragg, Mark S; Šerbec, Vladka ?; Jones, Margaret; Lisnic, Vanda J; Kremer, Leonor; Li, Demin; Koch-Nolte, Friedrich; Pascual, Núria; Rodríguez-Barbosa, Jose-Ignacio; Torensma, Ruurd; Turley, Helen; Pulford, Karen; Banham, Alison H

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies are widely exploited as research/diagnostic tools and therapeutics. Despite providing exciting research opportunities, the multitude of available antibodies also offers a bewildering array of choice. Importantly, not all companies comply with the highest standards, and thus many reagents fail basic validation tests. The responsibility for antibodies being fit for purpose rests, surprisingly, with their user. This paper condenses the extensive experience of the European Monoclonal Antibody Network to help researchers identify antibodies specific for their target antigen. A stepwise strategy is provided for prioritising antibodies and making informed decisions regarding further essential validation requirements. Web-based antibody validation guides provide practical approaches for testing antibody activity and specificity. We aim to enable researchers with little or no prior experience of antibody characterization to understand how to determine the suitability of their antibody for its intended purpose, enabling both time and cost effective generation of high quality antibody-based data fit for publication. PMID:26418356

  18. NIH Researchers Find Resveratrol Helps Protect Against Diabetes in Animal Study

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the body cannot regulate its blood sugar. Rhesus monkeys were fed either a standard diet, a high ... 24 months. Researchers found that the islets of monkeys on a high fat/high sugar diet supplemented ...

  19. PRELIMINARY FINDINGS FROM THE DETROIT EXPOSURE AND AEROSOL RESEARCH STUDY (DEARS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) has completed its first monitoring season (summer 2005) and is progressing toward initiation of its second season (February 2005). The assistance obtained from the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality has been instr...

  20. Statement Summarizing Research Findings on the Issue of the Relationship Between Food-Additive-Free Diets and Hyperkinesis in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipton, Morris; Wender, Esther

    The National Advisory Committee on Hyperkinesis and Food Additives paper summarized some research findings on the issue of the relationship between food-additive-free diets and hyperkinesis in children. Based on several challenge studies, it is concluded that the evidence generally refutes Dr. B. F. Feingold's claim that artificial colorings in…

  1. An Example of the Use of Research Methods and Findings as an Experiential Learning Exercise in an Accounting Theory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bublitz, Bruce; Philipich, Kirk; Blatz, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this teaching note is to describe an experiential learning exercise used in a master's level financial accounting theory course. The experiential exercise illustrates how order effects can affect user's judgments, a long-standing research finding. This experiential exercise was used in an attempt to make students more cognizant of…

  2. Bonus Awards for Teachers in Texas' Performance Pay Program: Findings from the First Round of TEEG Schools. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Performance Incentives, 2009

    2009-01-01

    A recent report published by the National Center on Performance Incentives (NCPI) presents findings from the second-year of a multi-year evaluation of the Texas Educator Excellence Grant (TEEG) program, a statewide educator incentive program that operated in Texas. As part of this evaluation report, researchers examined how first-year TEEG schools…

  3. Conclusions: Overview of Findings from the ERA Study, Inferences, and Research Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.

    2010-01-01

    In this monograph, the authors have brought the findings of the English and Romanian Adoptee (ERA) study up to age 15 years and, in so doing, have focused especially on the question of whether there are deprivation-specific psychological patterns (DSPs) that differ meaningfully from other forms of psychopathology. For this purpose, their main…

  4. Research Methods into Language/Code Switching and Synthesis of Findings into Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitch, Kristine L.

    While language switching among multilinguals has been studied in a wide variety of contexts, few attempts have been made to generalize or to integrate findings into useful communication theory. Since language switching is an important part of personal as well as group identity and since issues surrounding language identity are often a focal point…

  5. Transforming Public Schools: A Synthesis of Research Findings from UCLA's Center X

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quartz, Karen Hunter; Priselac, Jody; Franke, Megan Loef

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how one university-based center, UCLA's Center X, has worked to prepare and sustain urban educators over the past 16 years. Synthesizing findings from more than 20 articles, papers, books, and dissertations that report on Center X's work, we argue that three key activities are necessary to spur change and ensure a…

  6. Status Inconsistency: A Reformulation of a Theoretical Problem 

    E-print Network

    Kimberly, James C.

    2015-07-19

    James C. Kimberly’s theory is an alternate to the theory developed in TR#7 and to other theories of status inconsistency. Kimberly posits that individuals take their least changeable (ascribed) rank as the focal rank and compare all other ranks...

  7. Decision Making for Inconsistent Expert Judgments Using Negative Probabilities

    E-print Network

    J. Acacio de Barros

    2013-09-26

    In this paper we provide a simple random-variable example of inconsistent information, and analyze it using three different approaches: Bayesian, quantum-like, and negative probabilities. We then show that, at least for this particular example, both the Bayesian and the quantum-like approaches have less normative power than the negative probabilities one.

  8. Reconciling Requirements: a method for managing interference, inconsistency and conflict

    E-print Network

    Finkelstein, Anthony

    Reconciling Requirements: a method for managing interference, inconsistency and conflict George Spanoudakis & Anthony Finkelstein Department of Computer Science, City University Northampton Square, London, or assert properties of common aspects of the system under development and its domain. This is a particular

  9. Inconsistency with Prior Knowledge Triggers Children's Causal Explanatory Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legare, Cristine H.; Gelman, Susan A.; Wellman, Henry M.

    2010-01-01

    What events trigger causal explanatory reasoning in young children? Children's explanations could be triggered by either consistent events (suggesting that explanations serve a confirmatory function) or inconsistent events (suggesting that they promote discovery of new information). In 2 studies with preschool children (N = 80), events that were…

  10. Detecting Inconsistencies in Large Biological Networks with Answer Set Programming

    E-print Network

    Schaub, Torsten

    with the analysis of high-throughput measurements in molec- ular biology, like microarray data or metabolic profiles of magnitude more data than was procurable before. Furthermore, there is an increas- ing number of biologicalDetecting Inconsistencies in Large Biological Networks with Answer Set Programming Martin Gebser1

  11. Removing Redundancy and Inconsistency in Memory-Based Collaborative Filtering

    E-print Network

    Tresp, Volker

    Removing Redundancy and Inconsistency in Memory- Based Collaborative Filtering Kai Yu Siemens AG, Corporate Technology & University of Munich, Germany kai.yu.external@mchp.siemens. de Xiaowei Xu Information Science Department University of Arkansas at Little Rock xwxu@ualr.edu Anton Schwaighofer Siemens AG

  12. Removing Partial Inconsistency in Valuation-Based Systems*

    E-print Network

    de Campos, Luis M.

    Removing Partial Inconsistency in Valuation- Based Systems* Luis M. de Campos and Serafi ´ n Moral concept of valuation, which can be considered as the mathematical representation of a piece of information. A valuation may be particularized to a possibility distribution, a probability distribution, a belief function

  13. Camera calibration correction in shape from inconsistent silhouette

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of shape from silhouette for reconstruction tasks is plagued by two types of real-world errors: camera calibration error and silhouette segmentation error. When either error is present, we call the problem the Shape from Inconsistent Silhouette (SfIS) problem. In this paper, we show how sm...

  14. Scaling Factor Inconsistencies in Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    E-print Network

    S. Cowell

    2005-12-05

    The modern theory of neutrinoless double beta decay includes a scaling factor that has often been treated inconsistently in the literature. The nuclear contribution to the decay half life can be suppressed by 15-20% when scaling factors are mismatched. Correspondingly, $$ is overestimated.

  15. Informed Consent for Exome Sequencing Research in Families with Genetic Disease: The Emerging Issue of Incidental Findings

    PubMed Central

    Bergner, Amanda L.; Bollinger, Juli; Raraigh, Karen S.; Tichnell, Crystal; Murray, Brittney; Blout, Carrie Lynn; Telegrafi, Aida Bytyci; James, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    Genomic sequencing technology is increasingly used in genetic research. Studies of informed consent for exome and genome sequencing (ES/GS) research have largely involved hypothetical scenarios or healthy individuals enrolling in population-based studies. Studies have yet to explore the consent experiences of adults with inherited disease. We conducted a qualitative interview study of 15 adults recently enrolled in a large-scale ES/GS study (11 affected adults, four parents of affected children). Our study had two goals: (1) to explore three theoretical barriers to consent for ES/GS research (interpretive/technical complexity, possibility of incidental findings, and risks of loss of privacy); and (2) to explore how interviewees experienced the consent process. Interviewees could articulate study goals and processes, describe incidental findings, discuss risks of privacy loss, and reflect on their consent experience. Few expected the study would identify the genetic cause of their condition. All elected to receive incidental findings. Interviewees acknowledged paying little attention to potential implications of incidental findings in light of more pressing goals of supporting research regarding their own medical conditions. Interviewees suggested that experience living with a genetic condition prepared them to adjust to incidental findings. Interviewees also expressed little concern about loss of confidentiality of study data. Some experienced the consent process as very long. None desired reconsent prior to return of study results. Families with inherited disease likely would benefit from a consent process in which study risks and benefits were discussed in the context of prior experiences with genetic research and genetic disease. PMID:25251809

  16. Steps to Strengthen Ethics in Organizations: Research Findings, Ethics Placebos, and What Works

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Kenneth S.

    2015-01-01

    Research shows that many organizations overlook needs and opportunities to strengthen ethics. Barriers can make it hard to see the need for stronger ethics and even harder to take effective action. These barriers include the organization’s misleading use of language, misuse of an ethics code, culture of silence, strategies of justification, institutional betrayal, and ethical fallacies. Ethics placebos tend to take the place of steps to see, solve, and prevent problems. This article reviews relevant research and specific steps that create change. PMID:25602131

  17. Can We Find Solutions with People? Participatory Action Research with Small Organic Producers in Andalusia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuellar-Padilla, Mamen; Calle-Collado, Angel

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on an experiment linking science with people. Taking as a paradigm the holistic scientific approach fostered by agroecology, we present a methodological proposal for the implementation of participatory action research in rural areas. Our aims were various: to solve a specific problem, i.e. the exclusion of small- and…

  18. What Teacher Characteristics Affect Student Achievement? Findings from Los Angeles Public Schools. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giglio, Kate

    2010-01-01

    Teacher effectiveness is typically measured by traditional teacher qualification standards, such as experience, education, and scores on licensure examinations. RAND researchers found no evidence that these standards have a substantial effect on student achievement in Los Angeles public elementary, middle, and high schools. Alternative measures of…

  19. An Attachment Perspective on the Child--Dog Bond: Interdisciplinary and International Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalongo, Mary Renck

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the process of attachment formation in young children has been a focal point in child development research for decades. However, young children's attachments are not only with human beings; they also form bonds with companion animals, particularly dogs ("Canis familiaris"). Given the number of dogs that are kept by families…

  20. Standardization in EU Education and Training Policy: Findings from a European Research Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertl, Hubert; Phillips, David

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an EU-funded project under the Training and Mobility of Researchers (TMR) Programme, with a particular emphasis on the Oxford-based part. Involving six European universities, the overarching investigation was concerned with the tensions between standardization and tradition in education. In Oxford the focus was on aspects of…

  1. Census of Institutional Repositories in the United States: MIRACLE Project Research Findings. CLIR Publication No. 140

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markey, Karen; Rieh, Soo Young; St. Jean, Beth; Kim, Jihyun; Yakel, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    In this report, the authors describe results of a nationwide census of institutional repositories in U.S. academic institutions. The census is one of several activities of the MIRACLE Project, an Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS)-funded research program based at the University of Michigan. The acronym MIRACLE means "Making…

  2. The Meaning of Work among Chinese University Students: Findings from Prototype Research Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Sili; Leung, S. Alvin; Li, Xu

    2012-01-01

    This study examined Chinese university students' conceptualization of the meaning of work. One hundred and ninety students (93 male, 97 female) from Beijing, China, participated in the study. Prototype research methodology (J. Li, 2001) was used to explore the meaning of work and the associations among the identified meanings. Cluster analysis was…

  3. Finding Voice through Teacher-Student Collaboration in a Feminist Research Project: Long-Term Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fey, Marion Harris

    In a feminist classroom an instructor who acts as an "interested party" rather than an authority, fosters an environment of care and connection which can result in life-changing discoveries for the participants. Drawing on David Bleich's conception of a "socially generous research" that removes hierarchical barriers between teacher and student, a…

  4. The Challenge of Finding Faculty Time for Applied Research Activities in Ontario Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenkrantz, Otte

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how the role of Ontario college faculty has evolved since the advent of the Post-Secondary Education Choice and Excellence Act of 2000 and the Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology Act of 2002 in terms of whether or not the decision to create a research culture at the colleges included making time…

  5. Better Together: Research Findings on the Relationship between Racial Justice Organizations and LGBT Communities. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen, Rinku; Wessler, Seth; Apollon, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    In partnership with the Arcus Foundation, the Applied Research Center (ARC) has undertaken a study of the relationship between racial justice organizations and lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender (LGBT) constituencies and issues, with the understanding that communities of color themselves, including their LGBT members, have a good deal at stake in…

  6. Research on College Science Teaching. Part II: Findings and Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koran, John J.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Identifies and discusses some areas of research and practice that are of current interest or utility at the college level. Areas discussed include instructional objectives, advance organizers, self-pacing and audio-tutorial systems, teacher behavior, and evaluation instrumentation. (GS)

  7. Designing for Dissemination Among Public Health Researchers: Findings From a National Survey in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Julie A.; Tabak, Rachel G.; Hoehner, Christine M.; Stamatakis, Katherine A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We have described the practice of designing for dissemination among researchers in the United States with the intent of identifying gaps and areas for improvement. Methods. In 2012, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 266 researchers using a search of the top 12 public health journals in PubMed and lists available from government-sponsored research. The sample involved scientists at universities, the National Institutes of Health, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States. Results. In the pooled sample, 73% of respondents estimated they spent less than 10% of their time on dissemination. About half of respondents (53%) had a person or team in their unit dedicated to dissemination. Seventeen percent of all respondents used a framework or theory to plan their dissemination activities. One third of respondents (34%) always or usually involved stakeholders in the research process. Conclusions. The current data and the existing literature suggest considerable room for improvement in designing for dissemination. PMID:23865659

  8. Social and Emotional Distress among American Indian and Alaska Native Students: Research Findings. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Ardy SixKiller

    Many American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth are repeatedly exposed to opportunities to participate in self-destructive and illegal behaviors. This digest examines risk factors associated with four contexts: peers, family, school, and community. Recent research has shown that, relative to national averages, AI/AN youth have higher rates of…

  9. Strategies for Improving Rehearsal Technique: Using Research Findings to Promote Better Rehearsals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvey, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    Music education researchers and conducting pedagogues have identified numerous behaviors that contribute to increased verbal and nonverbal teaching effectiveness of conductors on the podium. This article is a review of literature concerning several conductor behaviors that may (a) increase the effectiveness of rehearsals, (b) enhance the…

  10. Socioeconomic Status and the Undergraduate Engineering Experience: Preliminary Findings from Four American Universities. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Krista; Lichtenstein, Gary; Sheppard, Sheri

    2008-01-01

    Students of lower socioeconomic status (SES) tend to be underrepresented in American higher education, particularly at four-year institutions and more selective universities. Education researchers have shown that in the four year period following high school, low SES students are less likely to persist to a bachelor's degree or have graduate…

  11. Reporting and Interpreting Quantitative Research Findings: What Gets Reported and Recommendations for the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson-Hall, Jenifer; Plonsky, Luke

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a set of guidelines for reporting on five types of quantitative data issues: (1) Descriptive statistics, (2) Effect sizes and confidence intervals, (3) Instrument reliability, (4) Visual displays of data, and (5) Raw data. Our recommendations are derived mainly from various professional sources related to L2 research but…

  12. Building a Successful Adult Life: Findings from Youth-Directed Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Laurie E.; Garner, Tracee; Valnes, Betsy; Squire, Peter; Turner, Alison; Couture, Todd; Dertinger, Rocky

    2007-01-01

    Although transition outcomes for youth with disabilities have shown some improvement and transition support practices have been identified, many young people continue to face transition barriers that preclude their full participation in key adult life activities. While research efforts have largely been professionally driven, there is emerging…

  13. A Preview of Recent Findings About EMH Students to Films. Research Report No. 744.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Jack H.

    The model developed by the Computer Based Project for the Evaluation of Media for the Handicapped in Syracuse, New York to evaluate the use of captioned films for the deaf with mentally handicapped and emotionally disturbed children is briefly described, followed by a review of recent research conducted by the project staff. Among the areas which…

  14. Teachers' Commitment To, and Experiences of, the Teaching Profession in Tanzania: Findings of Focus Group Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mkumbo, Kitila A. K.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examined teachers' commitment to, and experiences of, the teaching profession in six regions of Tanzania. The study used focus group discussions as research method and data collection tool. Twenty four groups were conducted, with group membership ranging from five to nine participants. The results show that the teachers'…

  15. Finding the right doctoral thesis – an innovative research fair for medical students

    PubMed Central

    Steffen, Julius; Grabbert, Markus; Pander, Tanja; Gradel, Maximilian; Köhler, Lisa-Maria; Fischer, Martin R.; von der Borch, Philip; Dimitriadis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The importance of research, as promoted by the CanMEDS framework, is widely acknowledged. Many medical students in Germany work on a research project as part of their doctoral thesis whilst still going to medical school. However, a significant amount of projects are abandoned unfinished, which leads to substantial wastage of resources. One reason for this is an information deficit concerning undergraduate research projects. Project description: To counteract this, we introduced an annual event at LMU Munich called DoktaMed with more than 600 visitors each year. It combines medical convention and research fair including keynote lectures, workshops and poster sessions as well as an exhibition of research groups and institutes. DoktaMed is a peer-to-peer event organized by a team of 40 students. Results: A needs analysis before its implementation underlined the information deficit as a possible cause for the high rate of abandoned projects. In the annual evaluation, visitors of DoktaMed rate the event with an average grade of 2.1 on a six-level Likert scale (n=558, SD=1.06, with "1=very good", "6=poor"). They stated to now feel better informed about the topic and regarded visiting DoktaMed as a worthwhile investment of time. Discussion: Students are generally satisfied with the event and feel better informed after visiting DoktaMed. However, many students never visit DoktaMed for various reasons. A possible improvement would be to present a greater number of clinical studies in addition to the laboratory work that DoktaMed focuses on now. Conclusion: Evaluation after six years of DoktaMed is very promising. Visitors seem to be better informed. Nevertheless there is space for improvement in order to get more students and more faculty members involved. More studies are needed to assess long-term effects. PMID:26413167

  16. Making life easier with effort: Basic findings and applied research on response effort

    PubMed Central

    Friman, Patrick C.; Poling, Alan

    1995-01-01

    Early basic research showed that increases in required response effort (or force) produced effects that resembled those produced by punishment. A recent study by Alling and Poling determined some subtle differences between the two behavior-change strategies, but also confirmed that increasing required effort is an effective response-reduction procedure with enduring effects. In this paper we summarize basic research on response effort and explore the role of effort in diverse applied areas including deceleration of aberrant behavior, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oral habits, health care appointment keeping, littering, indexes of functional disability, and problem solving. We conclude that renewed interest in response effort as an independent variable is justified because of its potent effects and because the political constraints imposed on punishment- and reinforcement-based procedures have yet to be imposed on procedures that entail manipulations of response effort. PMID:16795886

  17. Toward a sustainable biomedical research enterprise: Finding consensus and implementing recommendations.

    PubMed

    Pickett, Christopher L; Corb, Benjamin W; Matthews, C Robert; Sundquist, Wesley I; Berg, Jeremy M

    2015-09-01

    The US research enterprise is under significant strain due to stagnant funding, an expanding workforce, and complex regulations that increase costs and slow the pace of research. In response, a number of groups have analyzed the problems and offered recommendations for resolving these issues. However, many of these recommendations lacked follow-up implementation, allowing the damage of stagnant funding and outdated policies to persist. Here, we analyze nine reports published since the beginning of 2012 and consolidate over 250 suggestions into eight consensus recommendations made by the majority of the reports. We then propose how to implement these consensus recommendations, and we identify critical issues, such as improving workforce diversity and stakeholder interactions, on which the community has yet to achieve consensus. PMID:26195768

  18. Making life easier with effort: Basic findings and applied research on response effort.

    PubMed

    Friman, P C

    1995-01-01

    Early basic research showed that increases in required response effort (or force) produced effects that resembled those produced by punishment. A recent study by Alling and Poling determined some subtle differences between the two behavior-change strategies, but also confirmed that increasing required effort is an effective response-reduction procedure with enduring effects. In this paper we summarize basic research on response effort and explore the role of effort in diverse applied areas including deceleration of aberrant behavior, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oral habits, health care appointment keeping, littering, indexes of functional disability, and problem solving. We conclude that renewed interest in response effort as an independent variable is justified because of its potent effects and because the political constraints imposed on punishment- and reinforcement-based procedures have yet to be imposed on procedures that entail manipulations of response effort. PMID:16795886

  19. Toward a sustainable biomedical research enterprise: Finding consensus and implementing recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Pickett, Christopher L.; Corb, Benjamin W.; Matthews, C. Robert; Sundquist, Wesley I.; Berg, Jeremy M.

    2015-01-01

    The US research enterprise is under significant strain due to stagnant funding, an expanding workforce, and complex regulations that increase costs and slow the pace of research. In response, a number of groups have analyzed the problems and offered recommendations for resolving these issues. However, many of these recommendations lacked follow-up implementation, allowing the damage of stagnant funding and outdated policies to persist. Here, we analyze nine reports published since the beginning of 2012 and consolidate over 250 suggestions into eight consensus recommendations made by the majority of the reports. We then propose how to implement these consensus recommendations, and we identify critical issues, such as improving workforce diversity and stakeholder interactions, on which the community has yet to achieve consensus. PMID:26195768

  20. Dental unit waterline contamination: a review of research and findings from a clinic setting.

    PubMed

    Wirthlin, M Robert; Roth, Mollie

    2015-03-01

    The interior of small-diameter tubing in dental unit waterlines (DUWLs) creates an attractive environment for the growth of biofilm and bacteria. Substantial research shows that troublesome and potentially pathogenic bacteria have been found in DUWLs, and scant peer-reviewed information from which to evaluate chemical treatment options has been historically available. The authors' research compares three DUWL cleaners-an alkaline peroxide product, a freshly mixed chlorine dioxide product, and a buffer-stabilized chlorine dioxide product-in 16 dental units with self-contained water systems over a 10-day working period to determine the optimal chemical treatment option. The study found chlorine dioxide waterline cleaners to be most effective in containing DUWL contaminations. PMID:25822748

  1. Contributions to Cancer Research: Finding a Niche in Communication | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    This past July, I started a journey into the fields of communications and cancer research when I joined the Office of Cancer Genomics (OCG) as a fellow in the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Health Communications Internship Program (HCIP). Cancer genomics and working in an office were new and uncharted territory for me: before I came to OCG, I was finishing a Ph.D. in cell biology at Vanderbilt University in Dr. Matthew Tyska’s laboratory.

  2. The educational gradient in marital disruption: a meta-analysis of European research findings.

    PubMed

    Matysiak, Anna; Styrc, Marta; Vignoli, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    A large number of empirical studies have investigated the effects of women's education on union dissolution in Europe, but results have varied substantially. This paper seeks to assess the relationship between educational attainment and the incidence of marital disruption by systematizing the existing empirical evidence. A quantitative literature review (a meta-analysis) was conducted to investigate the temporal change in the relationship, net of inter-study differences. The results point to a weakening of the positive educational gradient in marital disruption over time and even to a reversal in the direction of this gradient in some countries. The findings also show that the change in the educational gradient can be linked to an increase in access to divorce. Finally, the results suggest that women's empowerment has played an important role in changing the educational gradient, while the liberalization of divorce laws has not. PMID:24279466

  3. New findings and setting the research agenda for soil and water conservation for sustainable land management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keesstra, Saskia; Argaman, Eli; Gomez, Jose Alfonso; Quinton, John

    2014-05-01

    The session on soil and water conservation for sustainable land management provides insights into the current research producing viable measures for sustainable land management and enhancing the lands role as provider of ecosystem services. The insights into degradation processes are essential for designing and implementing feasible measures to mitigate against degradation of the land resource and adapt to the changing environment. Land degradation occurs due to multiple pressures on the land, such as population growth, land-use and land-cover changes, climate change and over exploitation of resources, often resulting in soil erosion due to water and wind, which occurs in many parts of the world. Understanding the processes of soil erosion by wind and water and the social and economic constraints faced by farmers forms an essential component of integrated land development projects. Soil and water conservation measures are only viable and sustainable if local environmental and socio-economic conditions are taken into account and proper enabling conditions and policies can be achieved. Land degradation increasingly occurs because land use, and farming systems are subject to rapid environmental and socio-economic changes without implementation of appropriate soil and water conservation technologies. Land use and its management are thus inextricably bound up with development; farmers must adapt in order to sustain the quality of their, and their families, lives. In broader perspective, soil and water conservation is needed as regulating ecosystem service and as a tool to enhance food security and biodiversity. Since land degradation occurs in many parts of the world and threatens food production and environmental stability it affects those countries with poorer soils and resilience in the agriculture sector first. Often these are the least developed countries. Therefore the work from researchers from developing countries together with knowledge from other disciplines and places is essential if we are to develop viable measures and approaches to soil and water conservation across the globe. In this paper we will provide an overview of the topics that are addressed in this session and give an overview of the current research in this field and using the insights we will aim to present a new research agenda oriented towards a significant impact in economic and environmental sustainability.

  4. Electromagnetic similitude and inconsistency of laser scattering for scale model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhensen; Liu, Baoqian

    1995-07-01

    In this paper the electromagnetic similitudes for lossy and dispersive system are discussed. If both the geometric size of an object and incident wavelength are scaling-down simultaneously by analogy with microwave band, the inconsistencies exist for laser scattering in visible and near infrared bands. Another method of measurements and simulation for laser scattering in the geometric model is analyzed. That is, the geometric size of the object is only scaled down but the incident wavelength, material and configuration are keeping to not change. Although this way does not satisfy the principles of the electrodynamic similitude, it can overcome the electromagnetic inconsistencies for laser scattering. It is possible that the LRCS of the full-scale tested object are evaluated by those of the corresponding scaling-down model at identical frequency to establish theoretical models and data basis for LRCS of objects.

  5. A decade of research using the CASP scale: key findings and future directions.

    PubMed

    Hyde, M; Higgs, P; Wiggins, R D; Blane, D

    2015-07-01

    Since the publication of A Measure of Quality of Life in Early Old Age: The Theory, Development and Properties of a Needs Satisfaction Model (CASP-19) just over 10 years ago, the scale has gone on to be used in a wide variety of studies in over 20 countries across the world and the original paper has become the most highly cited paper for Aging and Mental Health. Therefore it was felt that it was a good time to look back and reflect on the developments in the use of the scale as well as to look forward to what new research is being done and could be done with the measure. To this end we are extremely grateful for the editors for allowing us to bring together a collection of papers that represent cutting edge research using the CASP scale. These papers cover a wide variety of issues, from working conditions to religiosity, from a range of countries, covering Western and Eastern Europe as well as Africa. Each makes an important individual contribution to our understanding of the factors that influence quality of life in later life as well as pointing to the limitations of the measure and future work that can be done in this area. PMID:25847497

  6. PLUME-FEATHER, Referencing and Finding Software for Research and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bénassy, O.; Caron, C.; Ferret-Canape, C.; Cheylus, A.; Courcelle, E.; Dantec, C.; Dayre, P.; Dostes, T.; Durand, A.; Facq, A.; Gambini, G.; Geahchan, E.; Helft, C.; Hoffmann, D.; Ingarao, M.; Joly, P.; Kieffer, J.; Larré, J.-M.; Libes, M.; Morris, F.; Parmentier, H.; Pérochon, L.; Porte, O.; Romier, G.; Rousse, D.; Tournoy, R.; Valeins, H.

    2014-06-01

    PLUME-FEATHER is a non-profit project created to Promote economicaL, Useful and Maintained softwarEFor theHigher Education And THE Research communities. The site references software, mainly Free/Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS) from French universities and national research organisations, (CNRS, INRA...), laboratories or departments as well as other FLOSS software used and evaluated by users within these institutions. Each software is represented by a reference card, which describes origin, aim, installation, cost (if applicable) and user experience from the point of view of an academic user for academic users. Presently over 1000 programs are referenced on PLUME by more than 900 contributors. Although the server is maintained by a French institution, it is open to international contributions in the academic domain. All contained and validated contents are visible to anonymous public, whereas (presently more than 2000) registered users can contribute, starting with comments on single software reference cards up to help with the organisation and presentation of the referenced software products. The project has been presented to the HEP community in 2012 for the first time [1]. This is an update of the status and a call for (further) contributions.

  7. Factors predicting the use of technology: findings from the Center for Research and Education on Aging and Technology Enhancement (CREATE).

    PubMed

    Czaja, Sara J; Charness, Neil; Fisk, Arthur D; Hertzog, Christopher; Nair, Sankaran N; Rogers, Wendy A; Sharit, Joseph

    2006-06-01

    The successful adoption of technology is becoming increasingly important to functional independence. The present article reports findings from the Center for Research and Education on Aging and Technology Enhancement (CREATE) on the use of technology among community-dwelling adults. The sample included 1,204 individuals ranging in age from 18-91 years. All participants completed a battery that included measures of demographic characteristics, self-rated health, experience with technology, attitudes toward computers, and component cognitive abilities. Findings indicate that the older adults were less likely than younger adults to use technology in general, computers, and the World Wide Web. The results also indicate that computer anxiety, fluid intelligence, and crystallized intelligence were important predictors of the use of technology. The relationship between age and adoption of technology was mediated by cognitive abilities, computer self-efficacy, and computer anxiety. These findings are discussed in terms of training strategies to promote technology adoption. PMID:16768579

  8. Factors Predicting the Use of Technology: Findings From the Center for Research and Education on Aging and Technology Enhancement (CREATE)

    PubMed Central

    Czaja, Sara J.; Charness, Neil; Fisk, Arthur D.; Hertzog, Christopher; Nair, Sankaran N.; Rogers, Wendy A.; Sharit, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    The successful adoption of technology is becoming increasingly important to functional independence. The present article reports findings from the Center for Research and Education on Aging and Technology Enhancement (CREATE) on the use of technology among community-dwelling adults. The sample included 1,204 individuals ranging in age from 18–91 years. All participants completed a battery that included measures of demographic characteristics, self-rated health, experience with technology, attitudes toward computers, and component cognitive abilities. Findings indicate that the older adults were less likely than younger adults to use technology in general, computers, and the World Wide Web. The results also indicate that computer anxiety, fluid intelligence, and crystallized intelligence were important predictors of the use of technology. The relationship between age and adoption of technology was mediated by cognitive abilities, computer self-efficacy, and computer anxiety. These findings are discussed in terms of training strategies to promote technology adoption. PMID:16768579

  9. The impact of migration on gender roles: findings of field research in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kadioglu, A

    1994-01-01

    "This article suggests an alternative approach to unravel the impact of migration experiences on gender roles of women [in Turkey].... Analysis of the pre-migration settings of women included in this study involves an attempt to delineate background characteristics, including types of marriage and family arrangements, levels of education and work experiences outside the household in order to assess relative impact on their post-migration characteristics.... Differences among the women in terms of their exposure to migration have also been taken into account as part of their migration experiences.... The main focus of the research is changing gender roles of women rather than their emancipation." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) PMID:12346405

  10. Disaster Media Coverage and Psychological Outcomes: Descriptive Findings in the Extant Research

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Elana; Nelson, Summer D.; Nitiéma, Pascal; Pfefferbaum, Rose L.; Rahman, Ambreen

    2014-01-01

    This review of the literature on disaster media coverage describes the events, samples, and media formats studied and examines the association between media consumption and psychological outcomes. A total of 36 studies representing both natural and man-made events met criteria for review in this analysis. Most studies examined disaster television viewing in the context of terrorism and explored a range of outcomes including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) caseness and posttraumatic stress (PTS), depression, anxiety, stress reactions, and substance use. There is good evidence establishing a relationship between disaster television viewing and various psychological outcomes, especially PTSD caseness and PTS, but studies are too few to draw definitive conclusions about the other media formats—newspapers, radio, and internet (including social media)—that have been examined. As media technology continues to advance, future research is needed to investigate these additional formats especially newer formats such as social media. PMID:25064691

  11. The prevalence of questionable occlusal caries lesions: findings from The Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Makhija, Sonia K; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Funkhouser, Ellen; Bader, James D; Gordan, Valeria V.; Rindal, D. Brad; Bauer, Michael; Pihlstrom, Daniel J.; Qvist, Vibeke

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Questionable occlusal caries (QOC) can be defined as clinically-suspected caries with no cavitation or radiographic evidence of occlusal caries. To our knowledge, its prevalence has not been quantified; this was the objective of this study. Methods A total of 82 dentist and hygienist practitioner-investigators from “The Dental Practice-Based Research Network” (DPBRN) participated. When patients presented with at least one unrestored occlusal surface, their number of unrestored occlusal surfaces and QOC were quantified. Information also was recorded about patient characteristics on consented patients who had QOC. Data analysis adjusted for patient clustering within practices. Results Overall, 6,910 patients had at least one unrestored occlusal surface, with a total of 50,445 unrestored surfaces. Thirty-four percent of all patients and 11% of unrestored surfaces among all patients had QOC. Patient- and surface-level QOC prevalence varied significantly by region (p<0.001; p<0.03). The highest percent for patient-and surface-level prevalence was in Florida/Georgia (42%; 16%). Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to quantify the prevalence of QOC in routine clinical practice. These results document a high prevalence overall, with wide variation in prevalence among DPBRN’s five main regions. Clinical Implications QOC lesions are common in routine practice and warrant further investigation regarding how best to manage them. PMID:23204090

  12. Self-disturbances in Schizophrenia: History, Phenomenology, and Relevant Findings From Research on Metacognition

    PubMed Central

    Mishara, Aaron L.

    2014-01-01

    With a tradition of examining self-disturbances (Ichstörungen) in schizophrenia, phenomenological psychiatry studies the person’s subjective experience without imposing theoretical agenda on what is reported. Although this tradition offers promising interface with current neurobiological models of schizophrenia, both the concept of Ichstörung and its history are not well understood. In this article, we discuss the meaning of Ichstörung, the role it played in the development of the concept of schizophrenia, and recent research on metacognition that allows for the quantitative study of the link between self-disturbance and outcome in schizophrenia. Phenomenological psychiatrists such as Blankenburg, Binswanger, and Conrad interpreted the Ichstörung as disturbed relationship to self and others, thus challenging recent efforts to interpret self-disturbance as diminished pure passive self-affection, which putatively “explains” schizophrenia and its various symptoms. Narrative is a reflective, embodied process, which requires a dynamic shifting of perspectives which, when compromised, may reflect disrupted binding of the components of self-experience. The Metacognition Assessment Scale—abbreviated as MAS-A—suggests that persons with schizophrenia tend to produce narratives with reductions in the binding processes required to produce an integrated, embodied self within narrated life stories, and in interactive relationships with others. PMID:24319117

  13. Gene-sodium interaction and blood pressure: findings from genomics research of blood pressure salt sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Tanika N; He, Jiang

    2012-01-01

    High blood pressure (BP) is a complex trait determined by both genetic and environmental factors, as well as the interactions between these factors. Over the past few decades, there has been substantial progress in elucidating the genetic determinants underlying the BP response to sodium intake, or BP salt sensitivity. Research of monogenic BP disorders has highlighted the importance of renal salt handling in BP regulation, implicating genes and biological pathways related to salt sensitivity. Candidate gene studies have contributed important information toward understanding the genomic mechanisms underlying the BP response to salt intake, identifying genes in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, renal sodium channels/transporters, and the endothelial system related to this phenotype. Despite these advancements, genome-wide association studies are still needed to uncover novel mechanisms underlying salt sensitivity, while future sequencing efforts promise the discovery of functional variants related to this complex trait. Delineating the genetic architecture of salt sensitivity will be critical to understanding how genes and dietary sodium interact to influence BP. PMID:22656380

  14. Rubber dam use during root canal treatment: findings from The Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Anabtawi, Mona F.; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Bauer, Michael R.; Reams, Gregg; Makhija, Sonia K.; Benjamin, Paul L.; Williams, O. Dale

    2012-01-01

    Background The Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) provides a venue to investigate whether certain procedures are performed routinely. Study objectives were to: (1) quantify rubber dam use during root canal treatment (RCT) among general dentists; (2) test the hypothesis that certain dentist or practice characteristics are associated with its use. Methods DPBRN practitioner-investigators participated in a questionnaire that included items about rubber dam use and other forms of isolation during root RCT. DPBRN Enrollment Questionnaire data provided certain practitioner and practice characteristics. Results A total of 729 practitioners responded (74%); 524 were general dentists and indicated they do RCT and the percentage of RCT in which they use a rubber dam. Of these 524, 44% use rubber dam for all RCTs; 24% use it for 51%–99% of RCTs; 17% use it for 1%–50%; 15% never use it during RCT. Usage varied significantly by geographic region and practice type. Cotton rolls and other forms of isolation were also reported. Conclusions Similar to other reports in the literature, not all DPBRN general dentists use a rubber dam during RCT. Clinical implications Because the current clinical standard of care is to use a rubber dam during RCT, increasing its use may be important. PMID:23372134

  15. Participatory Action Research in Public Mental Health and a School of Nursing: Qualitative Findings from an Academic-Community Partnership

    PubMed Central

    Mahone, Irma H.; Farrell, Sarah P.; Hinton, Ivora; Johnson, Robert; Moody, David; Rifkin, Karen; Moore, Kenneth; Becker, Marcia; Barker, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Summary An academic-community partnership between a school of nursing (SON) at a public university (the University of Virginia, or UVA) and a public mental health clinic developed around a shared goal of finding an acceptable shared decision making (SDM) intervention targeting medication use by persons with serious mental illness. The planning meetings of the academic-community partnership were recorded and analyzed. Issues under the partnership process included 1) clinic values and priorities, 2) research agenda, 3) ground rules, and 4) communication. Issues under the SDM content included: 1) barriers, 2) information exchange, 3) positive aspects of shared decision making, and 4) technology. Using participatory-action research (PAR), the community clinic was able to raise questions and concerns throughout the process, be actively involved in research activities (such as identifying stakeholders and co-leading focus groups), participate in the reflective activities on the impact of SDM on practice and policy, and feel ownership of the SDM intervention. PMID:22163075

  16. Identifying Trustworthy Experts: How Do Policymakers Find and Assess Public Health Researchers Worth Consulting or Collaborating With?

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, Abby S.; Derrick, Gemma E.; Redman, Sally; Hall, Wayne D.; Gillespie, James A.; Chapman, Simon; Sturk, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports data from semi-structured interviews on how 26 Australian civil servants, ministers and ministerial advisors find and evaluate researchers with whom they wish to consult or collaborate. Policymakers valued researchers who had credibility across the three attributes seen as contributing to trustworthiness: competence (an exemplary academic reputation complemented by pragmatism, understanding of government processes, and effective collaboration and communication skills); integrity (independence, “authenticity”, and faithful reporting of research); and benevolence (commitment to the policy reform agenda). The emphases given to these assessment criteria appeared to be shaped in part by policymakers' roles and the type and phase of policy development in which they were engaged. Policymakers are encouraged to reassess their methods for engaging researchers and to maximise information flow and support in these relationships. Researchers who wish to influence policy are advised to develop relationships across the policy community, but also to engage in other complementary strategies for promoting research-informed policy, including the strategic use of mass media. PMID:22403693

  17. Use of Caries Prevention Agents in Children: Findings from the Dental Practice-based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Joseph L.; Richman, Joshua S.; Rindal, D. Brad; Fellows, Jeffrey L.; Qvist, Vibeke; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Gordan, Valeria V.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Scientific evidence supports the application of caries preventive agents in children and this knowledge must transfer into the practice of dentistry. There is little multi-region data that allow for comparisons of practice patterns between types of dental practices and geographic regions. The aim of this study was to characterize the use of caries preventive agents in pediatric patients in a large multi-region sample of dental practices. Methods This study surveyed Dental Practice-based Research Network dentists who perform restorative dentistry in their practices. The survey asked a range of questions about caries risk assessment and use of prevention techniques in children ages 6-18. Results Dental sealants (69%) or in-office fluoride (82%) were the most commonly used of the caries preventive regimens. The recommendation of at-home caries preventive agents ranged from 36%-7%, with non-prescription fluoride rinse the most common. Dentists who practiced in a large group practice model and dentists from the Scandinavian region more frequently use caries risk assessment than regions that were predominately dentists in private practice. Whether or not dentists used caries risk assessment with their pediatric patients was poorly correlated with the likelihood of actually using caries preventive treatments on patients. Conclusion Although dentists reported the use of some form of in-office caries prevention, there was considerable variability across practices. These differences could represent a lack of consensus across practicing dentists about the benefits of caries preventive agents or a function of differing financial incentives or patient pools with differing levels of overall caries risk. PMID:21180672

  18. On Distribution Reduction and Algorithm Implementation in Inconsistent Ordered Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanqin

    2014-01-01

    As one part of our work in ordered information systems, distribution reduction is studied in inconsistent ordered information systems (OISs). Some important properties on distribution reduction are studied and discussed. The dominance matrix is restated for reduction acquisition in dominance relations based information systems. Matrix algorithm for distribution reduction acquisition is stepped. And program is implemented by the algorithm. The approach provides an effective tool for the theoretical research and the applications for ordered information systems in practices. For more detailed and valid illustrations, cases are employed to explain and verify the algorithm and the program which shows the effectiveness of the algorithm in complicated information systems. PMID:25258721

  19. Increasing Capacity for Stewardship of Oceans and Coasts: Findings of the National Research Council Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, S. J.; Feeley, M. H.

    2008-05-01

    With the increasing stress on ocean and coastal resources, ocean resource management will require greater capacity in terms of people, institutions, technology and tools. Successful capacity-building efforts address the needs of a specific locale or region and include plans to maintain and expand capacity after the project ends. In 2008, the US National Research Council published a report that assesses past and current capacity-building efforts to identify barriers to effective management of coastal and marine resources. The report recommends ways that governments and organizations can strengthen marine conservation and management capacity. Capacity building programs instill the tools, knowledge, skills, and attitudes that address: ecosystem function and change; processes of governance that influence societal and ecosystem change; and assembling and managing interdisciplinary teams. Programs require efforts beyond traditional sector-by-sector planning because marine ecosystems range from the open ocean to coastal waters and land use practices. Collaboration among sectors, scaling from local community-based management to international ocean policies, and ranging from inland to offshore areas, will be required to establish coordinated and efficient governance of ocean and coastal ecosystems. Barriers Most capacity building activities have been initiated to address particular issues such as overfishing or coral reef degradation, or they target a particular region or country facing threats to their marine resources. This fragmentation inhibits the sharing of information and experience and makes it more difficult to design and implement management approaches at appropriate scales. Additional barriers that have limited the effectiveness of capacity building programs include: lack of an adequate needs assessment prior to program design and implementation; exclusion of targeted populations in decision- making efforts; mismanagement, corruption, or both; incomplete or inappropriate evaluation procedures; and, lack of a coordinated and strategic approach among donors. A New Framework Improving ocean stewardship and ending the fragmentation of current capacity building programs will require a new, broadly adopted framework for capacity building that emphasizes cooperation, sustainability, and knowledge transfer within and among communities. The report identifies four specific features of capacity building that would increase the effectiveness and efficiency of future programs: 1. Regional action plans based on periodic program assessments to guide investments in capacity and set realistic milestones and performance measures. 2. Long-term support to establish self-sustaining programs. Sustained capacity building programs require a diversity of sources and coordinated investments from local, regional, and international donors. 3. Development of leadership and political will. One of the most commonly cited reasons for failure and lack of progress in ocean and coastal governance initiatives is lack of political will. One strategy for strengthening support is to identify, develop, mentor, and reward leaders. 4. Establishment of networks and mechanisms for regional collaboration. Networks bring together those working in the same or similar ecosystems with comparable management or governance challenges to share information, pool resources, and learn from one another. The report also recommends the establishment of regional centers to encourage and support collaboration among neighboring countries.

  20. What would you do if you lost your research data tomorrow? Take the research data health check... and find help to secure, share and exploit your valuable research.

    E-print Network

    Banaji,. Murad

    being selective: which data to discard and when as well as what to keep and for how long? how securely to produce new research? share data with your collaborators securely and effectively? Whether buildingWhat would you do if you lost your research data tomorrow? Take the research data health check

  1. Managing misaligned paternity findings in research including sickle cell disease screening in Kenya: ‘Consulting communities’ to inform policy?

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Vicki; Kombe, Francis; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Molyneux, Sassy; Parker, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The management of misaligned paternity findings raises important controversy worldwide. It has mainly, however, been discussed in the context of high-income countries. Genetic and genomics research, with the potential to show misaligned paternity, are becoming increasingly common in Africa. During a genomics study in Kenya, a dilemma arose over testing and sharing information on paternal sickle cell disease status. This dilemma may be paradigmatic of challenges in sharing misaligned paternity findings in many research and health care settings. Using a deliberative approach to community consultation to inform research practice, we explored residents' views on paternal testing and sharing misaligned paternity information. Between December 2009 and November 2010, 63 residents in Kilifi County were engaged in informed deliberative small group discussions, structured to support normative reflection within the groups, with purposive selection to explore diversity. Analysis was based on a modified framework analysis approach, drawing on relevant social science and bioethics literature. The methods generated in-depth individual and group reflection on morally important issues and uncovered wide diversity in views and values. Fundamental and conflicting values emerged around the importance of family interests and openness, underpinned by disagreement on the moral implications of marital infidelity and withholding truth. Wider consideration of ethical issues emerging in these debates supports locally-held reasoning that paternal sickle cell testing should not be undertaken in this context, in contrast to views that testing should be done with or without the disclosure of misaligned paternity information. The findings highlight the importance of facilitating wider testing of family members of affected children, contingent on the development and implementation of national policies for the management of this inherited disorder. Their richness also illustrates the potential for the approach adopted in this study to strengthen community consultation. PMID:24034967

  2. Inconsistency in precipitation measurements across Alaska and Yukon border

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaff, L.; Yang, D.; Li, Y.; Mekis, E.

    2015-07-01

    This study quantifies the inconsistency in gauge precipitation observations across the border of Alaska and Yukon. It analyses the precipitation measurements by the national standard gauges (NWS 8-in gauge and Nipher gauge), and the bias-corrected data to account for wind effect on the gauge catch, wetting loss and trace events. The bias corrections show a significant amount of errors in the gauge records due to the windy and cold environment in the northern areas of Alaska and Yukon. Monthly corrections increase solid precipitation by 135 % in January, 20 % for July at the Barter Island in Alaska, and about 31 % for January and 4 % for July at the Yukon stations. Regression analyses of the monthly precipitation data show a stronger correlation for the warm months (mainly rainfall) than for cold month (mainly snowfall) between the station pairs, and small changes in the precipitation relationship due to the bias corrections. Double mass curves also indicate changes in the cumulative precipitation over the study periods. This change leads to a smaller and inverted precipitation gradient across the border, representing a significant modification in the precipitation pattern over the northern region. Overall, this study discovers significant inconsistency in the precipitation measurements across the US and Canada border. This discontinuity is greater for snowfall than for rainfall, as gauge snowfall observations have large errors in the windy and cold conditions. This result will certainly impact regional, particularly cross borders, climate and hydrology investigations.

  3. 45 CFR 1151.5 - Inconsistent State laws and effect of employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Inconsistent State laws and effect of employment... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE... § 1151.5 Inconsistent State laws and effect of...

  4. 30 CFR 730.11 - Inconsistent and more stringent State laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Inconsistent and more stringent State laws and regulations. 730.11 Section 730...730.11 Inconsistent and more stringent State laws and regulations. (a) No State law or regulation shall be superseded by any...

  5. 30 CFR 730.11 - Inconsistent and more stringent State laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Inconsistent and more stringent State laws and regulations. 730.11 Section 730...730.11 Inconsistent and more stringent State laws and regulations. (a) No State law or regulation shall be superseded by any...

  6. 30 CFR 730.11 - Inconsistent and more stringent State laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Inconsistent and more stringent State laws and regulations. 730.11 Section 730...730.11 Inconsistent and more stringent State laws and regulations. (a) No State law or regulation shall be superseded by any...

  7. 30 CFR 730.11 - Inconsistent and more stringent State laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Inconsistent and more stringent State laws and regulations. 730.11 Section 730...730.11 Inconsistent and more stringent State laws and regulations. (a) No State law or regulation shall be superseded by any...

  8. 26 CFR 1.1311(b)-1 - Maintenance of an inconsistent position.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Maintenance of an inconsistent position. 1.1311... Limitations § 1.1311(b)-1 Maintenance of an inconsistent position. (a) In general. Under the circumstances..., the maintenance of an inconsistent position is a condition necessary for adjustment. The...

  9. 26 CFR 1.1311(b)-1 - Maintenance of an inconsistent position.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Maintenance of an inconsistent position. 1.1311... Limitations § 1.1311(b)-1 Maintenance of an inconsistent position. (a) In general. Under the circumstances..., the maintenance of an inconsistent position is a condition necessary for adjustment. The...

  10. 26 CFR 1.1311(b)-1 - Maintenance of an inconsistent position.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Maintenance of an inconsistent position. 1.1311... Limitations § 1.1311(b)-1 Maintenance of an inconsistent position. (a) In general. Under the circumstances..., the maintenance of an inconsistent position is a condition necessary for adjustment. The...

  11. 26 CFR 1.1311(b)-1 - Maintenance of an inconsistent position.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Maintenance of an inconsistent position. 1.1311....1311(b)-1 Maintenance of an inconsistent position. (a) In general. Under the circumstances stated in... maintenance of an inconsistent position is a condition necessary for adjustment. The requirement in...

  12. Employee Commitment and Well-Being: A Critical Review, Theoretical Framework and Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, John P.; Maltin, Elyse R.

    2010-01-01

    Although a great deal is known about the implications of employee commitment for organizations, less attention has been paid to its ramifications for employees themselves. Previous research has been unsystematic and the findings have sometimes been inconsistent. The most consistent findings pertain to the positive links between affective…

  13. The closed-mindedness that wasn’t: need for structure and expectancy-inconsistent information

    PubMed Central

    Kemmelmeier, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Social-cognitive researchers have typically assumed that individuals high in need for structure or need for closure tend to be closed-minded: they are motivated to resist or ignore information that is inconsistent with existing beliefs but instead they rely on category-based expectancies. The present paper argues that this conclusion is not necessarily warranted because previous studies did not allow individual differences in categorical processing to emerge and did not consider different distributions of category-relevant information. Using a person memory paradigm, Experiments 1 and 2 shows that, when categorical processing is optional, high need-for-structure individuals are especially likely to use this type processing to reduce uncertainty, which results in superior recall for expectancy-inconsistent information. Experiment 2 demonstrates that such information is also more likely to be used in judgment making, leading to judgmental moderation among high need-for-structure individuals. Experiments 3 and 4 used a person memory paradigm which requires categorical processing regardless of levels of need for structure. Experiments 3 and 4 demonstrate that, whether expectancy-consistent or -inconsistent information is recalled better is a function of whether the majority of available information is compatible or incompatible with an initial category-based expectancy. Experiment 4 confirmed that the extent to which high need-for-structure individuals attend to different types of information varies with their distribution. The discussion highlights that task affordances have a critical influence on the consequences of categorical processing for memory and social judgment. Thus, high need for structure does not necessarily equate closed-mindedness. PMID:26191017

  14. Motivations, concerns and preferences of personal genome sequencing research participants: Baseline findings from the HealthSeq project.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Saskia C; Linderman, Michael D; Suckiel, Sabrina A; Diaz, George A; Zinberg, Randi E; Ferryman, Kadija; Wasserstein, Melissa; Kasarskis, Andrew; Schadt, Eric E

    2016-01-01

    Whole exome/genome sequencing (WES/WGS) is increasingly offered to ostensibly healthy individuals. Understanding the motivations and concerns of research participants seeking out personal WGS and their preferences regarding return-of-results and data sharing will help optimize protocols for WES/WGS. Baseline interviews including both qualitative and quantitative components were conducted with research participants (n=35) in the HealthSeq project, a longitudinal cohort study of individuals receiving personal WGS results. Data sharing preferences were recorded during informed consent. In the qualitative interview component, the dominant motivations that emerged were obtaining personal disease risk information, satisfying curiosity, contributing to research, self-exploration and interest in ancestry, and the dominant concern was the potential psychological impact of the results. In the quantitative component, 57% endorsed concerns about privacy. Most wanted to receive all personal WGS results (94%) and their raw data (89%); a third (37%) consented to having their data shared to the Database of Genotypes and Phenotypes (dbGaP). Early adopters of personal WGS in the HealthSeq project express a variety of health- and non-health-related motivations. Almost all want all available findings, while also expressing concerns about the psychological impact and privacy of their results. PMID:26036856

  15. How intergenerational interaction affects attitude-behavior inconsistency.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Takuya; Nakamaru, Mayuko

    2014-04-01

    Social norms play an important role in maintaining social order, but at the same time, they can act as a constraint that compels people to take specific actions which run contrary to their attitudes. This paper treats the latter case: we investigate conditions in which attitude-behavior inconsistency persists, constructing mathematical models combining evolutionary games and cultural transmissions. In particular, we focus on the effect of intergenerational interactions. Our models show that both information about others' attitude (e.g., through social surveys) and the combination of intra- and inter-generational interactions are key factors to generate the situation where all people adopt the same behavior but different people have different attitudes. PMID:24389394

  16. All that glitters is not BOLD: inconsistencies in functional MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renvall, Ville; Nangini, Cathy; Hari, Riitta

    2014-01-01

    The blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal is a widely-accepted marker of brain activity. The acquisition parameters (APs) of fMRI aim at maximizing the signals related to neuronal activity while minimizing unrelated signal fluctuations. Currently, a diverse set of APs is used to acquire BOLD fMRI data. Here we demonstrate that some fMRI responses are alarmingly inconsistent across APs, ranging from positive to negative, or disappearing entirely, under identical stimulus conditions. These discrepancies, resulting from non-BOLD effects masquerading as BOLD signals, have remained largely unnoticed because studies rarely employ more than one set of APs. We identified and characterized non-BOLD responses in several brain areas, including posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus, as well as AP-dependence of both the signal time courses and of seed-based functional networks, noticing that AP manipulation can inform about the origin of the measured signals.

  17. Peer assessment of aviation performance: inconsistent for good reasons.

    PubMed

    Roth, Wolff-Michael; Mavin, Timothy J

    2015-03-01

    Research into expertise is relatively common in cognitive science concerning expertise existing across many domains. However, much less research has examined how experts within the same domain assess the performance of their peer experts. We report the results of a modified think-aloud study conducted with 18 pilots (6 first officers, 6 captains, and 6 flight examiners). Pairs of same-ranked pilots were asked to rate the performance of a captain flying in a critical pre-recorded simulator scenario. Findings reveal (a) considerable variance within performance categories, (b) differences in the process used as evidence in support of a performance rating, (c) different numbers and types of facts (cues) identified, and (d) differences in how specific performance events affect choice of performance category and gravity of performance assessment. Such variance is consistent with low inter-rater reliability. Because raters exhibited good, albeit imprecise, reasons and facts, a fuzzy mathematical model of performance rating was developed. The model provides good agreement with observed variations. PMID:25052893

  18. [Great discoveries: from the painstaking efforts of researchers to the contribution of accidental findings and the dissemination of study results].

    PubMed

    Garattini, Silvio

    2015-06-01

    This article takes its cue from the original work of sir Alexander Fleming on penicillin, published in the first issue of Recenti Progressi in Medicina in 1946 and reproduced here on the occasion of the approaching 70-year anniversary of the journal. The path that brought Fleming to the discovery of penicillin, one of the major milestones in the history of clinical pharmacology, provides insight for a range of considerations: the painstaking efforts of researchers, the contribution from accidental findings, and the dissemination of study results. Although the discovery of penicillin has changed the course of medicine, the benefits deriving from such an important advance are most likely to be offset by the overprescription of antibiotics, which is the leading cause of antimicrobial resistance and one of the most serious public health problems of our time. PMID:26076415

  19. Drug-related harm among people who inject drugs in Thailand: summary findings from the Mitsampan Community Research Project

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background For decades, Thailand has experienced high rates of illicit drug use and related harms. In response, the Thai government has relied on drug law enforcement to address this problem. Despite these efforts, high rates of drug use persist, and Thailand has been contending with an enduring epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among people who inject drugs (IDU). Methods In response to concerns regarding drug-related harm in Thailand and a lack of research focused on the experiences and needs of Thai IDU, the Mitsampan Community Research Project was launched in 2008. The project involved administering surveys capturing a range of behavioral and other data to community-recruited IDU in Bangkok in 2008 and 2009. Results In total, 468 IDU in Bangkok were enrolled in the project. Results revealed high rates of midazolam injection, non-fatal overdose and incarceration. Syringe sharing remained widespread among this population, driven primarily by problems with access to syringes and methamphetamine injection. As well, reports of police abuse were common and found to be associated with high-risk behavior. Problems with access to evidence-based drug treatment and HIV prevention programs were also documented. Although compulsory drug detention centers are widely used in Thailand, data suggested that these centers have little impact on drug use behaviors among IDU in Bangkok. Conclusions The findings from this project highlight many ongoing health and social problems related to illicit drug use and drug policies in Bangkok. They also suggest that the emphasis on criminal justice approaches has resulted in human rights violations at the hands of police, and harms associated with compulsory drug detention and incarceration. Collectively, the findings indicate the urgent need for the implementation of evidence-based policies and programs in this setting. PMID:24099081

  20. Development and Validation of Culture-Specific Variable Response Inconsistency and True Response Inconsistency Scales for Use with the Korean MMPI-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketterer, Holly L.; Han, Kyunghee; Hur, Jaehong; Moon, Kyungjoo

    2010-01-01

    In response to the concern that Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2; J. N. Butcher, W. Dahlstrom, J. R. Graham, A. Tellegen, & B. Kaemmer, 1989; J. N. Butcher et al., 2001) Variable Response Inconsistency (VRIN) and True Response Inconsistency (TRIN) score invalidity criteria recommended for use with American samples results in…

  1. A Review of Humor in Educational Settings: Four Decades of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banas, John A.; Dunbar, Norah; Rodriguez, Dariela; Liu, Shr-Jie

    2011-01-01

    The primary goal of this project is to provide a summary of extant research regarding humor in the classroom, with an emphasis on identifying and explaining inconsistencies in research findings and offering new directions for future studies in this area. First, the definitions, functions, and main theories of humor are reviewed. Next, the paper…

  2. Artificial grammar learning of melody is constrained by melodic inconsistency: Narmour's principles affect melodic learning.

    PubMed

    Rohrmeier, Martin; Cross, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that people acquire artificial grammars incidentally and implicitly, an indispensable capacity for the acquisition of music or language. However, less research has been devoted to exploring constraints affecting incidental learning. Within the domain of music, the extent to which Narmour's (1990) melodic principles affect implicit learning of melodic structure was experimentally explored. Extending previous research (Rohrmeier, Rebuschat & Cross, 2011), the identical finite-state grammar is employed having terminals (the alphabet) manipulated so that melodies generated systematically violated Narmour's principles. Results indicate that Narmour-inconsistent melodic materials impede implicit learning. This further constitutes a case in which artificial grammar learning is affected by prior knowledge or processing constraints. PMID:23874388

  3. Change and Continuity in the Primary School: The Research Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galton, Maurice

    1987-01-01

    This article reviews findings from a 1975 through 1980 study called ORACLE (Observational Research and Classroom Learning Evaluation). Maintains that the data showed only partial implementation of the Plowden report recommendations. Seeks to explain the reasons for inconsistencies in implementation and offers suggestions for redefining progressive…

  4. Knowledge, ignorance and priorities for research in key areas of cancer survivorship: findings from a scoping review

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, A; Addington-Hall, J; Amir, Z; Foster, C; Stark, D; Armes, J; Brearley, S G; Hodges, L; Hook, J; Jarrett, N; Stamataki, Z; Scott, I; Walker, J; Ziegler, L; Sharpe, M

    2011-01-01

    Background: Patients who have completed initial cancer treatment (cancer survivors) have been relatively neglected. We need data to help us better understand the needs of this group and to underpin evidence-based service development. Methods: Scoping reviews of research published in the last two decades focussing on the problems faced by cancer survivors, and the effectiveness of interventions for these problems were undertaken. The aim was to identify what we know, what we do not know and opportunities where research could provide new information. We searched for, retrieved and rapidly appraised systematic reviews sourced from the most common electronic databases supplemented by more recently published individual studies. Results: The research evidence is surprisingly limited. We have some knowledge of the prevalence and nature of depression, pain and fatigue in cancer survivors. We know much less about cognitive and physical impairment, employment, financial well-being and relationships. Even where we have evidence, it is mostly of only moderate quality, is most often only for breast cancer and focuses almost exclusively on the early phase of survivorship. We have good evidence for the effectiveness of drug treatments for pain and moderate evidence for fatigue and depression, but not for other symptoms. Interventions based on rehabilitative and self-management approaches remain in the early stages of evaluation. Interpretation: There has been a substantial amount of research describing many of the problems experienced by the cancer survivors. This is strongest in the area of symptoms in the period soon after treatment. However, the quality of the evidence is often poor, and some topics have been little examined. We urgently need data on the natural evolution and scale of the problems of cancer survivors obtained from well-designed, large-scale cohort studies and the robust testing of interventions in clinical trials. Given the current financially constrained research funding environment, we suggest areas in which strategic investment might give findings that have the potential to make a major impact on patient well-being in a 5-year time scale. PMID:22048036

  5. Inconsistent handedness is linked to more successful foreign language vocabulary learning.

    PubMed

    Kempe, Vera; Brooks, Patricia J; Christman, Stephen D

    2009-06-01

    The study examined correlations between incidental learning of foreign words and interhemispheric connectivity, operationalized as consistency of hand preference, using pooled data of five experiments on adult foreign language learning (N = 242). Inconsistent hand preference was found to be positively correlated with vocabulary learning even after effects of cognitive variables (verbal working memory capacity and nonverbal IQ), identified previously as predictive of successful foreign-language vocabulary learning, were partialled out. This observed relationship between handedness consistency and vocabulary learning persisted when left-handed and right-handed individuals were analyzed separately, and there was no overall difference in performance between left- and right-handers. The findings confirm an association between degree of handedness and verbal episodic memory. PMID:19451372

  6. Carbohydrate supplementation and prolonged intermittent high-intensity exercise in adolescents: research findings, ethical issues and suggestions for the future.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Shaun M

    2012-10-01

    In the last decade, research has begun to investigate the efficacy of carbohydrate supplementation for improving aspects of physical capacity and skill performance during sport-specific exercise in adolescent team games players. This research remains in its infancy, and further study would be beneficial considering the large youth population actively involved in team games. Literature on the influence of carbohydrate supplementation on skill performance is scarce, limited to shooting accuracy in adolescent basketball players and conflicting in its findings. Between-study differences in the exercise protocol, volume of fluid and carbohydrate consumed, use of prior fatiguing exercise and timing of skill tests may contribute to the different findings. Conversely, initial data supports carbohydrate supplementation in solution and gel form for improving intermittent endurance running capacity following soccer-specific shuttle running. These studies produced reliable data, but were subject to limitations including lack of quantification of the metabolic response of participants, limited generalization of data due to narrow participant age and maturation ranges, use of males and females within the same sample and non-standardized pre-exercise nutritional status between participants. There is a lack of consensus regarding the influence of frequently consuming carbohydrate-containing products on tooth enamel erosion and the development of obesity or being overweight in adolescent athletes and non-athletes. These discrepancies mean that the initiation or exacerbation of health issues due to frequent consumption of carbohydrate-containing products by adolescents cannot be conclusively refuted. Coupled with the knowledge that consuming a natural, high-carbohydrate diet -3-8 hours before exercise can significantly alter substrate use and improve exercise performance in adults, a moral and ethical concern is raised regarding the direction of future research in order to further knowledge while safeguarding the health and well-being of young participants. It could be deemed unethical to continue study into carbohydrate supplementation while ignoring the potential health concerns and the possibility of generating similar performance enhancements using natural dietary interventions. Therefore, future work should investigate the influence of pre-exercise dietary intake on the prolonged intermittent, high-intensity exercise performance of adolescents. This would enable quantification of whether pre-exercise nutrition can modulate exercise performance and, if so, the optimum dietary composition to achieve this. Research could then combine this knowledge with ingestion of carbohydrate-containing products during exercise to facilitate ethical and healthy nutritional guidelines for enhancing the exercise performance of adolescents. This article addresses the available evidence regarding carbohydrate supplementation and prolonged intermittent, high-intensity exercise in adolescent team games players. It discusses the potential health concerns associated with the frequent use of carbohydrate-containing products by adolescents and how this affects the research ethics of the field, and considers directions for future work. PMID:22901040

  7. Estimating nonrigid motion from inconsistent intensity with robust shape features

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wenyang; Ruan, Dan; Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095; Department of Biomedical Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: To develop a nonrigid motion estimation method that is robust to heterogeneous intensity inconsistencies amongst the image pairs or image sequence. Methods: Intensity and contrast variations, as in dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, present a considerable challenge to registration methods based on general discrepancy metrics. In this study, the authors propose and validate a novel method that is robust to such variations by utilizing shape features. The geometry of interest (GOI) is represented with a flexible zero level set, segmented via well-behaved regularized optimization. The optimization energy drives the zero level set to high image gradient regions, and regularizes it with area and curvature priors. The resulting shape exhibits high consistency even in the presence of intensity or contrast variations. Subsequently, a multiscale nonrigid registration is performed to seek a regular deformation field that minimizes shape discrepancy in the vicinity of GOIs. Results: To establish the working principle, realistic 2D and 3D images were subject to simulated nonrigid motion and synthetic intensity variations, so as to enable quantitative evaluation of registration performance. The proposed method was benchmarked against three alternative registration approaches, specifically, optical flow, B-spline based mutual information, and multimodality demons. When intensity consistency was satisfied, all methods had comparable registration accuracy for the GOIs. When intensities among registration pairs were inconsistent, however, the proposed method yielded pronounced improvement in registration accuracy, with an approximate fivefold reduction in mean absolute error (MAE = 2.25 mm, SD = 0.98 mm), compared to optical flow (MAE = 9.23 mm, SD = 5.36 mm), B-spline based mutual information (MAE = 9.57 mm, SD = 8.74 mm) and mutimodality demons (MAE = 10.07 mm, SD = 4.03 mm). Applying the proposed method on a real MR image sequence also provided qualitatively appealing results, demonstrating good feasibility and applicability of the proposed method. Conclusions: The authors have developed a novel method to estimate the nonrigid motion of GOIs in the presence of spatial intensity and contrast variations, taking advantage of robust shape features. Quantitative analysis and qualitative evaluation demonstrated good promise of the proposed method. Further clinical assessment and validation is being performed.

  8. Estimating nonrigid motion from inconsistent intensity with robust shape features

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenyang; Ruan, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a nonrigid motion estimation method that is robust to heterogeneous intensity inconsistencies amongst the image pairs or image sequence. Methods: Intensity and contrast variations, as in dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, present a considerable challenge to registration methods based on general discrepancy metrics. In this study, the authors propose and validate a novel method that is robust to such variations by utilizing shape features. The geometry of interest (GOI) is represented with a flexible zero level set, segmented via well-behaved regularized optimization. The optimization energy drives the zero level set to high image gradient regions, and regularizes it with area and curvature priors. The resulting shape exhibits high consistency even in the presence of intensity or contrast variations. Subsequently, a multiscale nonrigid registration is performed to seek a regular deformation field that minimizes shape discrepancy in the vicinity of GOIs. Results: To establish the working principle, realistic 2D and 3D images were subject to simulated nonrigid motion and synthetic intensity variations, so as to enable quantitative evaluation of registration performance. The proposed method was benchmarked against three alternative registration approaches, specifically, optical flow, B-spline based mutual information, and multimodality demons. When intensity consistency was satisfied, all methods had comparable registration accuracy for the GOIs. When intensities among registration pairs were inconsistent, however, the proposed method yielded pronounced improvement in registration accuracy, with an approximate fivefold reduction in mean absolute error (MAE = 2.25 mm, SD = 0.98 mm), compared to optical flow (MAE = 9.23 mm, SD = 5.36 mm), B-spline based mutual information (MAE = 9.57 mm, SD = 8.74 mm) and mutimodality demons (MAE = 10.07 mm, SD = 4.03 mm). Applying the proposed method on a real MR image sequence also provided qualitatively appealing results, demonstrating good feasibility and applicability of the proposed method. Conclusions: The authors have developed a novel method to estimate the nonrigid motion of GOIs in the presence of spatial intensity and contrast variations, taking advantage of robust shape features. Quantitative analysis and qualitative evaluation demonstrated good promise of the proposed method. Further clinical assessment and validation is being performed. PMID:24320523

  9. Public preferences regarding the return of individual genetic research results: findings from a qualitative focus group study

    PubMed Central

    Bollinger, Juli; Scott, Joan; Dvoskin, Rachel; Kaufman, David

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Studies have found that people are interested in receiving their individual research results (IRRs) in exchange for participating in genetic studies. However, it is unclear whether the public understands the nature and limitations of these results and whether they would want information with little or no clinical utility. Methods We conducted 10 focus groups in three U.S. cities to examine the types of results they would want to learn, the perceived value of results with little or no clinical utility, and how individuals might prioritize the value of different types of IRRs. Findings Nearly all focus group participants said they would want at least some IRRs returned. Priority was placed on results that are well understood. Less important to participants were magnitude of the risk conferred and actionability of the result. In addition to wanting results that will help treat or prevent disease, participants identified other potential clinical and personal reasons for wanting IRRs. Many believed the study had an obligation to return IRRs and that the study should trade off sample size to meet the perceived obligation of returning results. Although most people would prefer to receive as much information as possible, many were willing to accept the return of a limited set of results in exchange for their participation. Conclusions Members of the public understood the nuances and limitations that are likely to apply to most IRRs. Researchers and others deciding the value of returning a given result should not base their decision on actionability of the information alone. Rather, they should consider broadening their definition of clinical utility to include the possible personal utility of information. PMID:22402755

  10. Earth's Climate Sensitivity: Apparent Inconsistencies in Recent Assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Stephen E.; Charlson, Robert J.; Kahn, Ralph; Rodhe, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Earth's equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) and forcing of Earth's climate system over the industrial era have been re-examined in two new assessments: the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and a study by Otto et al. (2013). The ranges of these quantities given in these assessments and also in the Fourth (2007) IPCC Assessment are analyzed here within the framework of a planetary energy balance model, taking into account the observed increase in global mean surface temperature over the instrumental record together with best estimates of the rate of increase of planetary heat content. This analysis shows systematic differences among the several assessments and apparent inconsistencies within individual assessments. Importantly, the likely range of ECS to doubled CO2 given in AR5, 1.5-4.5 K/(3.7Wm(exp -2)) exceeds the range inferred fromthe assessed likely range of forcing, 1.2-2.9 K/(3.7 W m(exp -2)), where 3.7 W m(exp -2) denotes the forcing for doubled CO2. Such differences underscore the need to identify their causes and reduce the underlying uncertainties. Explanations might involve underestimated negative aerosol forcing, overestimated total forcing, overestimated climate sensitivity, poorly constrained ocean heating, limitations of the energy balance model, or a combination of effects.

  11. Earths Climate Sensitivity: Apparent Inconsistencies in Recent Assessments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Schwartz, Stephen E.; Charlson, Robert J.; Kahn, Ralph; Rodhe, Henning

    2014-12-08

    Earth's equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) and forcing of Earth's climate system over the industrial era have been re-examined in two new assessments: the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and a study by Otto et al. (2013). The ranges of these quantities given in these assessments and also in the Fourth (2007) IPCC Assessment are analyzed here within the framework of a planetary energy balance model, taking into account the observed increase in global mean surface temperature over the instrumental record together with best estimates of the rate of increase of planetary heat content.more »This analysis shows systematic differences among the several assessments and apparent inconsistencies within individual assessments. Importantly, the likely range of ECS to doubled CO? given in AR5, 1.5–4.5 K/(3.7 W m?²) exceeds the range inferred from the assessed likely range of forcing, 1.2–2.9 K/(3.7 W m?²), where 3.7 W ?² denotes the forcing for doubled CO?. Such differences underscore the need to identify their causes and reduce the underlying uncertainties. Explanations might involve underestimated negative aerosol forcing, overestimated total forcing, overestimated climate sensitivity, poorly constrained ocean heating, limitations of the energy balance model, or a combination of effects.« less

  12. Earths Climate Sensitivity: Apparent Inconsistencies in Recent Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Stephen E.; Charlson, Robert J.; Kahn, Ralph; Rodhe, Henning

    2014-12-08

    Earth's equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) and forcing of Earth's climate system over the industrial era have been re-examined in two new assessments: the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and a study by Otto et al. (2013). The ranges of these quantities given in these assessments and also in the Fourth (2007) IPCC Assessment are analyzed here within the framework of a planetary energy balance model, taking into account the observed increase in global mean surface temperature over the instrumental record together with best estimates of the rate of increase of planetary heat content. This analysis shows systematic differences among the several assessments and apparent inconsistencies within individual assessments. Importantly, the likely range of ECS to doubled CO? given in AR5, 1.5–4.5 K/(3.7 W m?²) exceeds the range inferred from the assessed likely range of forcing, 1.2–2.9 K/(3.7 W m?²), where 3.7 W ?² denotes the forcing for doubled CO?. Such differences underscore the need to identify their causes and reduce the underlying uncertainties. Explanations might involve underestimated negative aerosol forcing, overestimated total forcing, overestimated climate sensitivity, poorly constrained ocean heating, limitations of the energy balance model, or a combination of effects.

  13. What if Indigenous Knowledge Contradicts Accepted Scientific Findings?--The Hidden Agenda: Respect, Caring and Passion towards Aboriginal Research in the Context of Applying Western Academic Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witt, Norbert

    2007-01-01

    The statement in the title, what if Indigenous Knowledge contradicts accepted scientific findings (Fowler, 2000), is an expression of the dilemma people who research Indigenous Knowledge think they find themselves in when they are confronted with different interpretations of what it means to be human, or, as I may summarize it, with different…

  14. Using Abductive Research Logic: "The Logic of Discovery", to Construct a Rigorous Explanation of Amorphous Evaluation Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin-Rozalis, Miri

    2010-01-01

    Background: Two kinds of research logic prevail in scientific research: deductive research logic and inductive research logic. However, both fail in the field of evaluation, especially evaluation conducted in unfamiliar environments. Purpose: In this article I wish to suggest the application of a research logic--"abduction"--"the logic of…

  15. Experimental findings on actinide recovery utilizing oxidation by peroxydisulfate followed by ion exchange: Fuel cycle research & development

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D. T.; Shehee, T. C.

    2015-08-31

    Our research seeks to determine if inorganic ion-exchange materials can be exploited to provide effective minor actinide (Am, Cm) separation from lanthanides. Previous work has established that a number of inorganic and UMOF ion-exchange materials exhibit varying affinities for actinides and lanthanides, which may be exploited for effective separations. During FY15, experimental work focused on investigating methods to oxidize americium in dilute nitric and perchloric acid with subsequent ion-exchange performance measurements of ion exchangers with the oxidized americium in dilute nitric acid. Ion-exchange materials tested included a variety of alkali titanates. Americium oxidation testing sought to determine the influence that other redox active components may have on the oxidation of AmIII. Experimental findings indicated that CeIII, NpV, and RuII are oxidized by peroxydisulfate, but there are no indications that the presence of CeIII, NpV, and RuII affected the rate or extent of americium oxidation at the concentrations of peroxydisulfate being used.

  16. Experimental findings on actinide recovery utilizing oxidation by peroxydisulfate followed by ion exchange: Fuel cycle research & development

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D. T.; Shehee, T. C.

    2015-08-31

    Our research seeks to determine if inorganic ion-exchange materials can be exploited to provide effective minor actinide (Am, Cm) separation from lanthanides. Previous work has established that a number of inorganic and UMOF ion-exchange materials exhibit varying affinities for actinides and lanthanides, which may be exploited for effective separations. During FY15, experimental work focused on investigating methods to oxidize americium in dilute nitric and perchloric acid with subsequent ion-exchange performance measurements of ion exchangers with the oxidized americium in dilute nitric acid. Ion-exchange materials tested included a variety of alkali titanates. Americium oxidation testing sought to determine the influence that other redox active components may have on the oxidation of AmIII. Experimental findings indicated that CeIII, NpV, and RuII are oxidized by peroxydisulfate, but there are no indications that the presence of CeIII, NpV, and RuII affected the rate or extent of americium oxidation at the concentrations of peroxydisulfate being used.

  17. Ernst Rüdin's Unpublished 1922-1925 Study "Inheritance of Manic-Depressive Insanity": Genetic Research Findings Subordinated to Eugenic Ideology.

    PubMed

    Kösters, Gundula; Steinberg, Holger; Kirkby, Kenneth Clifford; Himmerich, Hubertus

    2015-11-01

    In the early 20th century, there were few therapeutic options for mental illness and asylum numbers were rising. This pessimistic outlook favoured the rise of the eugenics movement. Heredity was assumed to be the principal cause of mental illness. Politicians, scientists and clinicians in North America and Europe called for compulsory sterilisation of the mentally ill. Psychiatric genetic research aimed to prove a Mendelian mode of inheritance as a scientific justification for these measures. Ernst Rüdin's seminal 1916 epidemiological study on inheritance of dementia praecox featured large, systematically ascertained samples and statistical analyses. Rüdin's 1922-1925 study on the inheritance of "manic-depressive insanity" was completed in manuscript form, but never published. It failed to prove a pattern of Mendelian inheritance, counter to the tenets of eugenics of which Rüdin was a prominent proponent. It appears he withheld the study from publication, unable to reconcile this contradiction, thus subordinating his carefully derived scientific findings to his ideological preoccupations. Instead, Rüdin continued to promote prevention of assumed hereditary mental illnesses by prohibition of marriage or sterilisation and was influential in the introduction by the National Socialist regime of the 1933 "Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring" (Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses). PMID:26544949

  18. Psychological essentialism and attention allocation: preferences for stereotype-consistent versus stereotype-inconsistent information.

    PubMed

    Bastian, Brock; Haslam, Nick

    2007-10-01

    People who believe that human attributes are immutable (entity theorists) display preferences for stereotype-consistent over stereotype-inconsistent information (J. E. Plaks, S. J. Stroessner, C. S. Dweck, & J. W. Sherman, 2001). In this article, the authors argue that entity theories are components of broader sets of beliefs that represent differences between people in terms of underlying essences. Consistent with expectations, the authors found that measures of essentialist beliefs (i.e., in the biological basis, discreteness, informativeness, and inherence of human attributes) covaried with the presence of entity theories. Essentialist beliefs as a set were related to stronger preferences for stereotype-consistent information, and this effect was not reducible to the effect of entity theories. The authors propose that research on implicit person theories can be placed within an encompassing framework of psychological essentialism. PMID:18225833

  19. Differences in perceptual latency estimated from judgments of temporal order, simultaneity and duration are inconsistent

    PubMed Central

    Linares, Daniel; Holcombe, Alex O.

    2014-01-01

    Differences in perceptual latency (?L) for two stimuli, such as an auditory and a visual stimulus, can be estimated from temporal order judgments (TOJ) and simultaneity judgments (SJ), but previous research has found evidence that ?L estimated from these tasks do not coincide. Here, using an auditory and a visual stimulus we confirmed this and further show that ?L as estimated from duration judgments also does not coincide with ?L estimated from TOJ or SJ. These inconsistencies suggest that each judgment is subject to different processes that bias ?L in different ways: TOJ might be affected by sensory interactions, a bias associated with the method of single stimuli and an order difficulty bias; SJ by sensory interactions and an asymmetrical criterion bias; duration judgments by an order duration bias. PMID:26034565

  20. Factors Associated with Inconsistent Condom Use among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Siyan; Tuot, Sovannary; Chhoun, Pheak; Pal, Khuondyla; Tith, Khimuy; Brody, Carinne

    2015-01-01

    Background Compared to the general population, men who have sex with men (MSM) are at greater risk for HIV and less understood due to their more hidden and stigmatized nature. Moreover, the discrepancy in findings in the literature merits further investigations in MSM populations from different cultures and settings. We therefore conducted this study to explore factors associated with inconsistent condom use among high-risk MSM in Cambodia. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 among 367 MSM randomly selected from Battembang and Siem Reap using a two-stage cluster sampling method. A structured questionnaire was used for face-to-face interviews to collect information on characteristics of respondents, HIV testing history, self-perception of HIV risk, substance use, sexual behaviors, mental disorders, and HIV knowledge. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors independently associated with inconsistent condom use. Results On average, 62.3% of respondents reported that they always used condoms over the past three months. The rates varied with types of sexual partners; the proportion of respondents who reported always using condoms was 55.1%, 64.2%, 75.9%, 73.0%, 78.1%, and 70.3%, for sexual partners who were girlfriends, boyfriends, female sex workers, male sex workers, female clients, or male clients, respectively. After adjustment, inconsistent condom use was significantly associated with age of ?25 (AOR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.09–2.86), self-rated quality of life as good or very good (AOR = 4.37, 95% CI = 1.79–5.67), self-perception of higher HIV risk compared to the general population (AOR = 2.37, 95% CI = 1.35–4.17), illicit drug use in the past three months (AOR = 5.76, 95% CI = 1.65–10.09), and reported consistent lubricant use when selling anal sex to men in the past three months (AOR = 2.85, 95% CI = 1.07–8.12). Conclusions We found risky sexual behaviors to be considerably high among MSM in this study, especially among those who used illicit drugs or were older than 25. HIV education and social marketing should be expanded and specifically designed for MSM to better educate on the increased risk of HIV with unprotected anal sex and illicit drug use as risk factors, and the importance of the use of both condoms and lubricant during anal intercourse. PMID:26287731

  1. HOW TO FIND A GSR POSITION Students wishing to engage in research as part of their education need to secure a position

    E-print Network

    Levine, Alex J.

    HOW TO FIND A GSR POSITION Students wishing to engage in research as part of their education need to secure a position in a lab in the area where they are interested in doing research. Securing a GSR position can come about in many ways: Some applicants contact Principle Investigators (PI) during

  2. CNS tumors and exposure to acrylonitrile: inconsistency between experimental and epidemiology studies.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, J. J.; Strother, D. E.

    1999-01-01

    Acrylonitrile is a potent CNS tumorigen in rats leading to concern that it may be a tumorigen in humans. There have been 12 epidemiology studies of 37,352 workers exposed to acrylonitrile which evaluate CNS cancers. We summarize and evaluate these epidemiology studies for CNS cancers using the methods of meta-analysis. Our analyses indicate that workers with acrylonitrile exposure have null findings for CNS cancer (relative risk = 1.1, 95% confidence interval 0.8-1.5), which are in stark contrast to the projected risk to humans using the rat findings (relative risk = 3.5, 95% confidence interval 3.0-4.0). We discuss several explanations for the inconsistency between animal and human findings, including the possibility that the acrylonitrile-induced rat CNS tumors may not be relevant to humans. Given the rarity of CNS tumors in humans and a lack of understanding of the causal mechanisms of these tumors in rats, however, a more definitive conclusion will have to await additional experimental and observational data. Nevertheless, the epidemiology evidence indicates that acrylonitrile is not a potent CNS tumorigen. PMID:11550315

  3. DCCPS: Health Behavior Constructs: Theory, Measurement, & Research

    Cancer.gov

    In an effort to reduce the "literal inconsistency" problem (the inconsistency between what people say and what they do) and therefore increase the observed relation between proximal antecedents and behavior, researchers have explored other types of proximal measures.

  4. How to Use Find Reviewers on the Research.gov DesktopPrepare and submit your Final, Annual, and Interim Project Reports on Research.gov! The National Science Foundation (NSF) has transferred its existing project reporting

    E-print Network

    Alexandrova, Ivana

    . How to Use Find Reviewers on the Research.gov DesktopPrepare and submit your Final, Annual, and Interim Project Reports on Research.gov! The National Science Foundation (NSF) has transferred its existing project reporting functionality from FastLane to Research.gov. This means that Principal

  5. Factors influencing the utilization of research findings by health policy-makers in a developing country: the selection of Mali's essential medicines

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Michael A; Fretheim, Atle; Maïga, Diadié

    2007-01-01

    Background Research findings are increasingly being recognized as an important input in the formation of health policy. There is concern that research findings are not being utilized by health policy-makers to the extent that they could be. The factors influencing the utilization of various types of research by health policy-makers are beginning to emerge in the literature, however there is still little known about these factors in developing countries. The object of this study was to explore these factors by examining the policy-making process for a pharmaceutical policy common in developing countries; an essential medicines list. Methods A study of the selection and updating of Mali's national essential medicines list was undertaken using qualitative methods. In-depth semi-structured interviews and a natural group discussion were held with national policy-makers, most specifically members of the national commission that selects and updates the country's list. The resulting text was analyzed using a phenomenological approach. A document analysis was also performed. Results Several factors emerged from the textual data that appear to be influencing the utilization of health research findings for these policy-makers. These factors include: access to information, relevance of the research, use of research perceived as a time consuming process, trust in the research, authority of those who presented their view, competency in research methods, priority of research in the policy process, and accountability. Conclusion Improving the transfer of research to policy will require effort on the part of researchers, policy-makers, and third parties. This will include: collaboration between researchers and policy-makers, increased production and dissemination of relevant and useful research, and continued and improved technical support from networks and multi-national organizations. Policy-makers from developing countries will then be better equipped to make informed decisions concerning their health policy issues. PMID:17338810

  6. Using quantitative and qualitative data in health services research – what happens when mixed method findings conflict? [ISRCTN61522618

    PubMed Central

    Moffatt, Suzanne; White, Martin; Mackintosh, Joan; Howel, Denise

    2006-01-01

    Background In this methodological paper we document the interpretation of a mixed methods study and outline an approach to dealing with apparent discrepancies between qualitative and quantitative research data in a pilot study evaluating whether welfare rights advice has an impact on health and social outcomes among a population aged 60 and over. Methods Quantitative and qualitative data were collected contemporaneously. Quantitative data were collected from 126 men and women aged over 60 within a randomised controlled trial. Participants received a full welfare benefits assessment which successfully identified additional financial and non-financial resources for 60% of them. A range of demographic, health and social outcome measures were assessed at baseline, 6, 12 and 24 month follow up. Qualitative data were collected from a sub-sample of 25 participants purposively selected to take part in individual interviews to examine the perceived impact of welfare rights advice. Results Separate analysis of the quantitative and qualitative data revealed discrepant findings. The quantitative data showed little evidence of significant differences of a size that would be of practical or clinical interest, suggesting that the intervention had no impact on these outcome measures. The qualitative data suggested wide-ranging impacts, indicating that the intervention had a positive effect. Six ways of further exploring these data were considered: (i) treating the methods as fundamentally different; (ii) exploring the methodological rigour of each component; (iii) exploring dataset comparability; (iv) collecting further data and making further comparisons; (v) exploring the process of the intervention; and (vi) exploring whether the outcomes of the two components match. Conclusion The study demonstrates how using mixed methods can lead to different and sometimes conflicting accounts and, using this six step approach, how such discrepancies can be harnessed to interrogate each dataset more fully. Not only does this enhance the robustness of the study, it may lead to different conclusions from those that would have been drawn through relying on one method alone and demonstrates the value of collecting both types of data within a single study. More widespread use of mixed methods in trials of complex interventions is likely to enhance the overall quality of the evidence base. PMID:16524479

  7. 48 CFR 52.225-14 - Inconsistency between English Version and Translation of Contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... English Version and Translation of Contract. 52.225-14 Section 52.225-14 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.225-14 Inconsistency between English Version and Translation of Contract. As prescribed in 25.1103(b), insert the following clause: Inconsistency Between English...

  8. 48 CFR 52.225-14 - Inconsistency between English Version and Translation of Contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... English Version and Translation of Contract. 52.225-14 Section 52.225-14 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.225-14 Inconsistency between English Version and Translation of Contract. As prescribed in 25.1103(b), insert the following clause: Inconsistency Between English...

  9. 48 CFR 52.225-14 - Inconsistency between English Version and Translation of Contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... English Version and Translation of Contract. 52.225-14 Section 52.225-14 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.225-14 Inconsistency between English Version and Translation of Contract. As prescribed in 25.1103(b), insert the following clause: Inconsistency Between English...

  10. 48 CFR 52.225-14 - Inconsistency between English Version and Translation of Contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... English Version and Translation of Contract. 52.225-14 Section 52.225-14 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.225-14 Inconsistency between English Version and Translation of Contract. As prescribed in 25.1103(b), insert the following clause: Inconsistency Between English...

  11. Exposing Photo Manipulation with Inconsistent Reflections James F. O'Brien

    E-print Network

    O'Brien, James F.

    , Berkeley and Hany Farid Dartmouth College The advent of sophisticated photo editing software has madeExposing Photo Manipulation with Inconsistent Reflections James F. O'Brien University of California geometric or statistical inconsistencies that result from specific forms of photo manipulation

  12. 45 CFR 1151.5 - Inconsistent State laws and effect of employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Inconsistent State laws and effect of employment opportunities...Provisions § 1151.5 Inconsistent State laws and effect of employment opportunities...complying with this part as a result of state or local laws which limit the eligibility...

  13. 48 CFR 52.225-14 - Inconsistency between English Version and Translation of Contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... English Version and Translation of Contract. 52.225-14 Section 52.225-14 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.225-14 Inconsistency between English Version and Translation of Contract. As prescribed in 25.1103(b), insert the following clause: Inconsistency Between English...

  14. Parents' Attitudes about Adolescents' Premarital Sexual Activity: The Role of Inter-Parent Consistency/Inconsistency in Sexual Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Cheryl L.; Anagurthi, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Parents' values about sexuality and about premarital sex play unique roles in the development of adolescents' sexual attitudes and behaviours. However, research is scarce on the role of consistent versus inconsistent values transmission. The purpose of the present study was to examine the association between parental…

  15. An Approach for Detecting Inconsistencies between Behavioral Models of the Software Architecture and the Code

    SciTech Connect

    Ciraci, Selim; Sozer, Hasan; Tekinerdogan, Bedir

    2012-07-16

    In practice, inconsistencies between architectural documentation and the code might arise due to improper implementation of the architecture or the separate, uncontrolled evolution of the code. Several approaches have been proposed to detect the inconsistencies between the architecture and the code but these tend to be limited for capturing inconsistencies that might occur at runtime. We present a runtime verification approach for detecting inconsistencies between the dynamic behavior of the architecture and the actual code. The approach is supported by a set of tools that implement the architecture and the code patterns in Prolog, and support the automatic generation of runtime monitors for detecting inconsistencies. We illustrate the approach and the toolset for a Crisis Management System case study.

  16. Landfill aeration worldwide: Concepts, indications and findings

    SciTech Connect

    Ritzkowski, M.; Stegmann, R.

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different landfill aeration concepts and accordant application areas are described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Examples of full scale projects are provided for Europe, North-America and Asia. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Major project findings are summarised, including prospects and limitations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inconsistencies between laboratory and full scale results have been elaborated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An explanatory approach in connection with the inconsistencies is provided. - Abstract: The creation of sustainable landfills is a fundamental goal in waste management worldwide. In this connection landfill aeration contributes towards an accelerated, controlled and sustainable conversion of conventional anaerobic landfills into a biological stabilized state associated with a minimised emission potential. The technology has been successfully applied to landfills in Europe, North America and Asia, following different strategies depending on the geographical region, the specific legislation and the available financial resources. Furthermore, methodologies for the incorporation of landfill aeration into the carbon trade mechanisms have been developed in recent years. This manuscript gives an overview on existing concepts for landfill aeration; their application ranges and specifications. For all of the described concepts examples from different countries worldwide are provided, including details regarding their potentials and limitations. Some of the most important findings from these aeration projects are summarised and future research needs have been identified. It becomes apparent that there is a great demand for a systematisation of the available results and implications in order to further develop and optimise this very promising technology. The IWWG (International Waste Working Group) Task Group 'Landfill Aeration' contributes towards the achievement of this goal.

  17. NCI: SBIR & STTR - Find Funding - Contracts - 249 System to Analyze and Support Biomarker Research and Development Strategies

    Cancer.gov

    Because of the rapid expansion of the worldwide biomarker research data in volume and breadth, there is a critical need for integrating all of these data within a knowledge management system that supports automated review and evaluation of current research and development efforts, particularly within the context of all cancer research and therapeutic and diagnostic product development. Such a system permits rapid identification and decision-making to allocate resources where they can most efficiently be used to enhance product development.

  18. Procedures of recruiting, obtaining informed consent, and compensating research participants in Qatar: findings from a qualitative investigation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Very few researchers have reported on procedures of recruiting, obtaining informed consent, and compensating participants in health research in the Arabian Gulf Region. Empirical research can inform the debate about whether to adjust these procedures for culturally diverse settings. Our objective was to delineate procedures related to recruiting, obtaining informed consent, and compensating health research participants in the extremely high-density multicultural setting of Qatar. Methods During a multistage mixed methods project, field observations and qualitative interviews were conducted in a general medicine clinic of a major medical center in Qatar. Participants were chosen based on gender, age, literacy, and preferred language, i.e., Arabic, English, Hindi and Urdu. Qualitative analysis identified themes about recruitment, informed consent, compensation, and other research procedures. Results A total of 153 individuals were approached and 84 enrolled; the latter showed a diverse age range (18 to 75 years); varied language representation: Arabic (n?=?24), English (n?=?20), Hindi (n?=?20), and Urdu (n?=?20); and balanced gender distribution: women (n?=?43) and men (n?=?41). Primary reasons for 30 declinations included concern about interview length and recording. The study achieved a 74% participation rate. Qualitative analytics revealed key themes about hesitation to participate, decisions about participation with family members as well as discussions with them as “incidental research participants”, the informed consent process, privacy and gender rules of the interview environment, reactions to member checking and compensation, and motivation for participating. Vulnerability emerged as a recurring issue throughout the process among a minority of participants. Conclusions This study from Qatar is the first to provide empirical data on recruitment, informed consent, compensation and other research procedures in a general adult population in the Middle East and Arabian Gulf. This investigation illustrates how potential research participants perceive research participation. Fundamentally, Western ethical research principles were applicable, but required flexibility and culturally informed adaptations. PMID:24495499

  19. Pursuit of the “truth” about mental illness: the significance of findings in neuropsychiatric research, and lessons from the past

    PubMed Central

    DeLisi, Lynn E.

    2014-01-01

    Technology in genetics and brain imaging has advanced so rapidly that it is difficult to be knowledgeable about all the new tools being used in the pursuit of progress toward understanding and treating mental illness. While findings from new studies remain promising, caution is needed with regard to their current applicability to clinical use, both to predict who is likely to become ill and who is likely to respond to medication. A perspective on the past, using schizophrenia as an example, illustrates important findings that were published, had much visibility, and caused a flurry of new related studies, but then slowly disappeared, either to be abandoned as an artifact of the assay or study design, an epiphenomenon, or as simply nonreplicated findings not leading to further progress. Remembering that good science is “the pursuit of the truth” and not joining the latest “bandwagon fad” of “believers” is an important principle to adhere to when participating in the politics of science. PMID:25733950

  20. Finding the Words to Work Together: Developing a Research Design to Explore Risk and Adult Protection in Co-Produced Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, Ian; Archibald, Sylvia; McInnes, Kerry; Cross, Beth; Daniel, Brigid; Johnson, Fiona

    2012-01-01

    Although co-production of research with people who access support services is increasingly common, details about how people who access support services can take more of an assertive role in developing research proposals and method design remains sketchy. This article reflects on the development of a research project on adult protection practice in…

  1. Culturally Competent Research with American Indians and Alaska Natives: Findings and Recommendations of the First Symposium of the Work Group on American Indian Research and Program Evaluation Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Joyce Y.; Davis, Jamie D.; Du Bois, Barbara; Echo-Hawk, Holly; Erickson, Jill Shepard; Goins, R. Turner; Hill, Calvin; Hillabrant, Walter; Johnson, Sharon R.; Kendall, Elizabeth; Keemer, Kelly; Manson, Spero M.; Marshall, Catherine A.; Running Wolf, Paulette; Santiago, Rolando L.; Schacht, Robert; Stone, Joseph B.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the collective experience of a multidisciplinary network of researchers, practitioners, and program evaluators who support appropriate research and evaluation methods in working with Native peoples. Our experience underlines the critical importance of culture in understanding and conducting research with the diverse…

  2. Who Has Used Internal Company Documents for Biomedical and Public Health Research and Where Did They Find Them?

    PubMed Central

    Wieland, L. Susan; Rutkow, Lainie; Vedula, S. Swaroop; Kaufmann, Christopher N.; Rosman, Lori M.; Twose, Claire; Mahendraratnam, Nirosha; Dickersin, Kay

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the sources of internal company documents used in public health and healthcare research. Methods We searched PubMed and Embase for articles using internal company documents to address a research question about a health-related topic. Our primary interest was where authors obtained internal company documents for their research. We also extracted information on type of company, type of research question, type of internal documents, and funding source. Results Our searches identified 9,305 citations of which 357 were eligible. Scanning of reference lists and consultation with colleagues identified 4 additional articles, resulting in 361 included articles. Most articles examined internal tobacco company documents (325/361; 90%). Articles using documents from pharmaceutical companies (20/361; 6%) were the next most common. Tobacco articles used documents from repositories; pharmaceutical documents were from a range of sources. Most included articles relied upon internal company documents obtained through litigation (350/361; 97%). The research questions posed were primarily about company strategies to promote or position the company and its products (326/361; 90%). Most articles (346/361; 96%) used information from miscellaneous documents such as memos or letters, or from unspecified types of documents. When explicit information about study funding was provided (290/361 articles), the most common source was the US-based National Cancer Institute. We developed an alternative and more sensitive search targeted at identifying additional research articles using internal pharmaceutical company documents, but the search retrieved an impractical number of citations for review. Conclusions Internal company documents provide an excellent source of information on health topics (e.g., corporate behavior, study data) exemplified by articles based on tobacco industry documents. Pharmaceutical and other industry documents appear to have been less used for research, indicating a need for funding for this type of research and well-indexed and curated repositories to provide researchers with ready access to the documents. PMID:24800999

  3. Biomimetics for NASA Langley Research Center: Year 2000 Report of Findings From a Six-Month Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siochi, Emilie J.; Anders, John B., Jr.; Cox, David E.; Jegley, Dawn C.; Fox, Robert L.; Katzberg, Stephen J.

    2002-01-01

    This report represents an attempt to see if some of the techniques biological systems use to maximize their efficiency can be applied to the problems NASA faces in aeronautics and space exploration. It includes an internal survey of resources available at NASA Langley Research Center for biomimetics research efforts, an external survey of state of the art in biomimetics covering the Materials, Structures, Aerodynamics, Guidance and Controls areas. The Biomimetics Planning team also included ideas for potential research areas, as well as recommendations on how to implement this new program. This six-month survey was conducted in the second half of 1999.

  4. Consulting communities on feedback of genetic findings in international health research: sharing sickle cell disease and carrier information in coastal Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background International health research in malaria-endemic settings may include screening for sickle cell disease, given the relationship between this important genetic condition and resistance to malaria, generating questions about whether and how findings should be disclosed. The literature on disclosing genetic findings in the context of research highlights the role of community consultation in understanding and balancing ethically important issues from participants’ perspectives, including social forms of benefit and harm, and the influence of access to care. To inform research practice locally, and contribute to policy more widely, this study aimed to explore the views of local residents in Kilifi County in coastal Kenya on how researchers should manage study-generated information on sickle cell disease and carrier status. Methods Between June 2010 and July 2011, we consulted 62 purposively selected Kilifi residents on how researchers should manage study-generated sickle cell disease findings. Methods drew on a series of deliberative informed small group discussions. Data were analysed thematically, using charts, to describe participants’ perceptions of the importance of disclosing findings, including reasoning, difference and underlying values. Themes were derived from the underlying research questions and from issues emerging from discussions. Data interpretation drew on relevant areas of social science and bioethics literature. Results Perceived health and social benefits generated strong support for disclosing findings on sickle cell disease, but the balance of social benefits and harms was less clear for sickle cell trait. Many forms of health and social benefits and harms of information-sharing were identified, with important underlying values related to family interests and the importance of openness. The influence of micro and macro level contextual features and prioritization of values led to marked diversity of opinion. Conclusions The approach demonstrates a high ethical importance in many malaria endemic low-to-middle income country settings of disclosing sickle cell disease findings generated during research, alongside provision of effective care and locally-informed counselling. Since these services are central to the benefits of disclosure, health researchers whose studies include screening for sickle cell disease should actively promote the development of health policy and services for this condition in situations of unmet need, including through the prior development of collaborative partnerships with government health managers and providers. Community consultation can importantly enrich ethical debate on research practice where in-depth exploration of informed views and the potential for difference are taken into account. PMID:24125465

  5. Inconsistencies between reported test statistics and p-values in two psychiatry journals.

    PubMed

    Berle, David; Starcevic, Vladan

    2007-01-01

    A recent survey of the British Medical Journal (BMJ) and Nature revealed that inconsistencies in reported statistics were common. We sought to replicate that survey in the psychiatry literature. We checked the consistency of reported t-test, F-test and chi(2)-test values with their corresponding p-values in the 2005 issues of the Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry (ANZJP) and compared this with the issues of the ANZJP from 2000, and with a similar journal, Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica (APS). A reported p-value was 'inconsistent' if it differed (at its reported number of decimal places) from our calculated p-values (using three different software packages), which we based on the reported test statistic and degrees of freedom. Of the 546 results that we checked, 78 (14.3%) of the p-values were inconsistent with the corresponding degrees of freedom and test statistic. Similar rates of inconsistency were found in APS and ANZJP, and when comparing the ANZJP between 2000 and 2005. The percentages of articles with at least one inconsistency were 8.5% for ANZJP 2005, 9.9% for ANZJP 2000 and 12.1% for APS. We conclude that inconsistencies in p-values are common and may reflect errors of analysis and rounding, typographic errors or typesetting errors. Suggestions for reducing the occurrence of such inconsistencies are provided. PMID:18188836

  6. Rural-Urban Migration and Poverty: A Synthesis of Research Findings, With a Look at the Literature. Final Report, Tracor Project 073-014.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Daniel O.

    The result of a literature survey in the general area of rural-urban migration and poverty, this report presents both a synthesis of current research findings and an annotated bibliography. The synthesis includes a nine chapter discussion of: (1) the rural areas left by the migrants; (2) the decision to migrate; (3) comparative characteristics of…

  7. Interventions for Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs): Overview of Findings for Five Innovative Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertrand, Jacquelyn

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that prenatal exposure to alcohol causes damage to the developing fetus, resulting in a spectrum of disorders known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Although our understanding of the deficits and disturbances associated with FASDs is far from complete, there are consistent findings indicating these are serious,…

  8. The Impact of Performance Pay on Teacher Turnover: Findings from Year Two of the TEEG Program. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Performance Incentives, 2009

    2009-01-01

    A recent report published by the National Center on Performance Incentives (NCPI) presents findings from the second-year of a multi-year evaluation of the Texas Educator Excellence Grant (TEEG) program, a statewide educator incentive program that operated in Texas. As part of this larger study, evaluators examined how participation in the TEEG…

  9. The Design of Schools' Performance Incentive Programs in Texas: Findings from Year One of GEEG. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Performance Incentives, 2008

    2008-01-01

    A recent report published by the National Center on Performance Incentives (NCPI) presents findings from the first-year evaluation of the Governor's Educator Excellence Grant (GEEG) program, one of several statewide educator incentive programs in Texas. In this report, the authors provide an overview of 99 schools' locally designed educator…

  10. The Design of Schools' Performance Incentive Programs in Texas: Findings from Year One of TEEG. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Performance Incentives, 2008

    2008-01-01

    A recent report published by the National Center on Performance Incentives (NCPI) presents findings from the first-year evaluation of the Texas Educator Excellence Grant (TEEG) program, one of several statewide educator incentive programs in Texas. This report provides an overview of over 1,000 schools' locally designed TEEG performance incentive…

  11. An inconsistency in the standard maximum likelihood estimation of bulk flows

    SciTech Connect

    Nusser, Adi

    2014-11-01

    Maximum likelihood estimation of the bulk flow from radial peculiar motions of galaxies generally assumes a constant velocity field inside the survey volume. This assumption is inconsistent with the definition of bulk flow as the average of the peculiar velocity field over the relevant volume. This follows from a straightforward mathematical relation between the bulk flow of a sphere and the velocity potential on its surface. This inconsistency also exists for ideal data with exact radial velocities and full spatial coverage. Based on the same relation, we propose a simple modification to correct for this inconsistency.

  12. Detection and correction of inconsistency-based errors in non-rigid registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gass, Tobias; Szekely, Gabor; Goksel, Orcun

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we present a novel post-processing technique to detect and correct inconsistency-based errors in non-rigid registration. While deformable registration is ubiquitous in medical image computing, assessing its quality has yet been an open problem. We propose a method that predicts local registration errors of existing pairwise registrations between a set of images, while simultaneously estimating corrected registrations. In the solution the error is constrained to be small in areas of high post-registration image similarity, while local registrations are constrained to be consistent between direct and indirect registration paths. The latter is a critical property of an ideal registration process, and has been frequently used to asses the performance of registration algorithms. In our work, the consistency is used as a target criterion, for which we efficiently find a solution using a linear least-squares model on a coarse grid of registration control points. We show experimentally that the local errors estimated by our algorithm correlate strongly with true registration errors in experiments with known, dense ground-truth deformations. Additionally, the estimated corrected registrations consistently improve over the initial registrations in terms of average deformation error or TRE for different registration algorithms on both simulated and clinical data, independent of modality (MRI/CT), dimensionality (2D/3D) and employed primary registration method (demons/Markov-randomfield).

  13. Can Music Education Help At-Risk Students? Study Finds Positive Testimony Substantial but Quantitative Research Lacking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Catherine Applefeld

    2008-01-01

    This article reports the finding of a recent study conducted as part of a larger white paper, "Sounds of Learning: The Impact of Music Education on All Aspects of a Child's Growth and Development. The purpose of the study was to uncover what people know and what they do not know about the impact of music education on at-risk kids, in an effort to…

  14. Finding the team for Mars: a psychological and human factors analysis of a Mars Desert Research Station crew.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Benjamin D; Hancock, P A; Deaton, John; Suedfeld, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A two-week mission in March and April of 2011 sent six team members to the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS). MDRS, a research facility in the high Utah desert, provides an analogue for the harsh and unusual working conditions that will be faced by men and women who one day explore Mars. During the mission a selection of quantitative and qualitative psychological tests were administered to the international, multidisciplinary team. A selection of the results are presented along with discussion. PMID:22317591

  15. The Search for Extension: 7 Steps to Help People Find Research-Based Information on the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Paul; Rader, Heidi B.; Hino, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    For Extension's unbiased, research-based content to be found by people searching the Internet, it needs to be organized in a way conducive to the ranking criteria of a search engine. With proper web design and search engine optimization techniques, Extension's content can be found, recognized, and properly indexed by search engines and…

  16. Governance and Administrative Infrastructure in New York City Charter Schools. Going Charter Year Three Findings. Charter School Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascher, Carol; Echazarreta, Juan; Jacobowitz, Robin; McBride, Yolanda; Troy, Tammi

    In this final report of a 3-year evaluation, researchers explored the developing infrastructure in New York City charter schools and identified areas in which school stakeholders--private partners, boards of trustees, school leaders, parents, and teachers--needed support to help charter schools succeed. The study was based on monthly visits to…

  17. Research Findings on Effective Program Designs and Methodologies: Quantitative Levels of Program Acceptability by Components and Demographic Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packard, Richard D.; Dereshiwsky, Mary I.

    This report on the third year of evaluation of the Arizona career ladder research and evaluation project indicates that to a high degree, project requirements are being realized; the study is clearly determining if teachers' professional careers and instructional performance activities are enhanced by the system, and what effects these…

  18. LINKAGES ACROSS PM POLICY AND RESEARCH: EXAMINING THE POLICY RELEVANT FINDINGS FROM THE PM2.5 SUPERSITES PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The PM2.5 Supersites program was designed to complement routinely operating PM2.5 networks by providing enhanced temporal and chemical/physical composition data in addressing three overarching objectives: supporting health effects and exposure research, advanced monitoring meth...

  19. Achieving School Effectiveness. Process Steps and Variables. A Ready Reference Guide to Research Findings and Action Steps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island Educational Leadership Academy, Cranston.

    This resource guide is designed to summarize the relevant research and practical information currently available to administrators on school effectiveness. The guide consists of two major sections to aid in the development of planning skills and the implementation of programs to increase student and teacher performance. The first section details…

  20. Young Children's Research Behaviour? Children Aged Four to Eight Years Finding Solutions at Home and at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Jane M.

    2013-01-01

    Children's research abilities have become increasingly recognised by adults, yet children remain excluded from the academy. This restricts children's freedom to make choices in matters affecting them, underestimates their capabilities and denies children particular rights. The present paper reports on young children's…

  1. Education Markets, School Competition, and Parental Choice in the U.K.: A Report of Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen J.; Gewirtz, Sharon

    1996-01-01

    Summarizes a study examining the dynamics of a set of (British) education markets over a 39-month period. Secondary schools in three adjacent local education authorities served as laboratories for researching choice and competition. The market's disciplinary effects are clear. The education market reinforces opportunity advantages of middle-class…

  2. The Relationship of Family Support to Family Outcomes: A Synthesis of Key Findings from Research on Severe Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyzar, Kathleen B.; Turnbull, Ann P.; Summers, Jean Ann; Gomez, Viviana Aya

    2012-01-01

    There has been a gradual shift from a deficit to a support model for understanding disability over the last two decades. Although more attention is focused on supports at the individual level, policy has provided for the provision of family support. Despite this policy, families' needs for support are on the rise; and research suggests that…

  3. Men and Women in Outdoor Play--Changing the Concepts of Caring Findings from Norwegian and Austrian Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emilsen, Kari; Koch, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    In many countries there are very few men in professional care for young children. In this paper we will focus on the different perspectives of male and female workers to outdoor play and discuss the role of outdoor activities in recruiting more men to pre-schools. The article is based on research in Norway and Austria. The results draw the…

  4. Student Evaluation of Teaching (SET) in Web-Based Classes: Preliminary Findings and a Call for Further Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveland, Karen A.

    2007-01-01

    Student evaluation of teaching (SET) is important to faculty because SET ratings help faculty improve performance and are often used as the basis for evaluations of teaching effectiveness in administrative decisions (e.g., tenure). Researchers have conducted over 2,000 studies on SET during the past 70 years. However, despite the explosive growth…

  5. Community Needs, Concerns, and Perceptions About Health Research: Findings From the Clinical and Translational Science Award Sentinel Network

    PubMed Central

    McCloskey, Donna Jo; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Bennett, Nancy M.; Strelnick, Hal; Dwyer-White, Molly; Collyar, Deborah E.; Ajinkya, Shaun; Seifer, Sarena D.; O’Leary, Catina Callahan; Striley, Catherine W.; Evanoff, Bradley

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We used results generated from the first study of the National Institutes of Health Sentinel Network to understand health concerns and perceptions of research among underrepresented groups such as women, the elderly, racial/ethnic groups, and rural populations. Methods. Investigators at 5 Sentinel Network sites and 2 community-focused national organizations developed a common assessment tool used by community health workers to assess research perceptions, health concerns, and conditions. Results. Among 5979 individuals assessed, the top 5 health concerns were hypertension, diabetes, cancer, weight, and heart problems; hypertension was the most common self-reported condition. Levels of interest in research participation ranged from 70.1% among those in the “other” racial/ethnic category to 91.0% among African Americans. Overall, African Americans were more likely than members of other racial/ethnic groups to be interested in studies requiring blood samples (82.6%), genetic samples (76.9%), or medical records (77.2%); staying overnight in a hospital (70.5%); and use of medical equipment (75.4%). Conclusions. Top health concerns were consistent across geographic areas. African Americans reported more willingness to participate in research even if it required blood samples or genetic testing. PMID:23409875

  6. Education, Training and Work. Research Findings and Conclusions. Seminar Papers. (Thessaloniki, Greece, November 14, 1996.) CEDEFOP Panorama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Thessaloniki (Greece).

    These three keynote speeches from a European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (CEDEFOP) seminar "Research on Vocational Education and Training in Europe" focus on the links between education, training, work, and economic growth. "Education and Training Policies in the Transition towards a Global Information Society: Needs and…

  7. Summary of Research Findings on Children's Developmental Health = Resume des conclusions de la recherche sur la sante developpementale des effants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertrand, Jane

    This kit is comprised of bilingual resources for child caregivers related to nourishing and nurturing a child's brain for optimal neurodevelopmental health. The kit is the result of a 30-month project to synthesize research on brain development and to develop resources in support of excellent caregiver practice in Canada. The kit contains the…

  8. A design-by-treatment interaction model for network meta-analysis with random inconsistency effects

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Dan; Barrett, Jessica K; Rice, Stephen; White, Ian R; Higgins, Julian PT

    2014-01-01

    Network meta-analysis is becoming more popular as a way to analyse multiple treatments simultaneously and, in the right circumstances, rank treatments. A difficulty in practice is the possibility of ‘inconsistency’ or ‘incoherence’, where direct evidence and indirect evidence are not in agreement. Here, we develop a random-effects implementation of the recently proposed design-by-treatment interaction model, using these random effects to model inconsistency and estimate the parameters of primary interest. Our proposal is a generalisation of the model proposed by Lumley and allows trials with three or more arms to be included in the analysis. Our methods also facilitate the ranking of treatments under inconsistency. We derive R and I2 statistics to quantify the impact of the between-study heterogeneity and the inconsistency. We apply our model to two examples. © 2014 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24777711

  9. Inconsistent outcomes of heterogeneity-based management underscore importance of matching

    E-print Network

    Miller, James R.

    Inconsistent outcomes of heterogeneity-based management underscore importance of matching regimes create landscape heterogeneity (patch contrast), but outcomes of heterogene- ity-based management positive for all variables at only three of five experimental rangeland locations. No location showed

  10. Detecting Inconsistencies in the Gene Ontology Using Ontology Databases with Not-gadgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lependu, Paea; Dou, Dejing; Howe, Doug

    We present ontology databases with not-gadgets, a method for detecting inconsistencies in an ontology with large numbers of annotated instances by using triggers and exclusion dependencies in a unique way. What makes this work relevant is the use of the database itself, rather than an external reasoner, to detect logical inconsistencies given large numbers of annotated instances. What distinguishes this work is the use of event-driven triggers together with the introduction of explicit negations. We applied this approach toward the serotonin example, an open problem in biomedical informatics which aims to use annotations to help identify inconsistencies in the Gene Ontology. We discovered 75 inconsistencies that have important implications in biology, which include: (1) methods for refining transfer rules used for inferring electronic annotations, and (2) highlighting possible biological differences across species worth investigating.

  11. 41 CFR 102-75.275 - Who determines whether the proposed disposal would create or maintain a situation inconsistent...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...a situation inconsistent with antitrust laws? 102-75.275 Section 102-75...Property Disposal Applicability of Antitrust Laws § 102-75.275 Who determines...a situation inconsistent with antitrust laws? The Attorney General...

  12. 41 CFR 102-75.275 - Who determines whether the proposed disposal would create or maintain a situation inconsistent...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...a situation inconsistent with antitrust laws? 102-75.275 Section 102-75...Property Disposal Applicability of Antitrust Laws § 102-75.275 Who determines...a situation inconsistent with antitrust laws? The Attorney General...

  13. 41 CFR 102-75.275 - Who determines whether the proposed disposal would create or maintain a situation inconsistent...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...a situation inconsistent with antitrust laws? 102-75.275 Section 102-75...Property Disposal Applicability of Antitrust Laws § 102-75.275 Who determines...a situation inconsistent with antitrust laws? The Attorney General...

  14. 41 CFR 102-75.275 - Who determines whether the proposed disposal would create or maintain a situation inconsistent...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...a situation inconsistent with antitrust laws? 102-75.275 Section 102-75...Property Disposal Applicability of Antitrust Laws § 102-75.275 Who determines...a situation inconsistent with antitrust laws? The Attorney General...

  15. 41 CFR 102-75.275 - Who determines whether the proposed disposal would create or maintain a situation inconsistent...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...a situation inconsistent with antitrust laws? 102-75.275 Section 102-75...Property Disposal Applicability of Antitrust Laws § 102-75.275 Who determines...a situation inconsistent with antitrust laws? The Attorney General...

  16. An unexplored ethical issue in clinical research: disclosure of individual findings in the Creando Posibilidades [Creating Possibilities] study.

    PubMed

    Stein, Karen Farchaus; Keller, Colleen; Fishstrom, Astrid

    2013-06-01

    Individual disclosure refers to the presumptive ethical responsibility of an investigator to communicate to a study participant information that was collected as a part of a research study protocol and is specific to the individual. Currently, there are no federal regulatory guidelines specifying the conditions and management of disclosure of health-related individual-specific information. In this report, the authors discuss the challenges associated with individual disclosure in the context of a longitudinal descriptive study. Arguments favoring disclosure and those challenging disclosure as a general ethical duty are presented. Finally, strategies for addressing individual disclosure are discussed using a research exemplar in which risk behaviors related to health outcomes were measured. PMID:23408475

  17. Finding research information on the web: how to make the most of Google and other free search tools.

    PubMed

    Blakeman, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The Internet and the World Wide Web has had a major impact on the accessibility of research information. The move towards open access and development of institutional repositories has resulted in increasing amounts of information being made available free of charge. Many of these resources are not included in conventional subscription databases and Google is not always the best way to ensure that one is picking up all relevant material on a topic. This article will look at how Google's search engine works, how to use Google more effectively for identifying research information, alternatives to Google and will review some of the specialist tools that have evolved to cope with the diverse forms of information that now exist in electronic form. PMID:23738438

  18. [Evidence-based health policy or scientifically cloaked lobbyism--the utilization of research findings in health politics].

    PubMed

    Knieps, Franz

    2009-01-01

    Like no other political field health politics has become the target of well-connected lobbyists. On the other hand, there is hardly any other area with so many different methodological and institutional consulting approaches. Since the emergence of concepts like evidence-based medicine and evidence-based healthcare now evidence-based policy seems to be cropping up at conferences and in publications. The author has been working at the various interfaces of research and politics. In this article he takes health politics as an example to look at the actual utilisation of scientific knowledge in politics. Following a brief introduction to the particularities of the healthcare sector the tense relationship between research and politics will be highlighted and specific examples will be given using both the genesis of the SHI Competition Act and the competencies and responsibilities of the Federal Joint Committee. PMID:19645341

  19. Effects of capturing and collaring on polar bears: findings from long-term research on the southern Beaufort Sea population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rode, Karyn D.; Pagano, Anthony M.; Bromaghin, Jeffrey F.; Atwood, Todd C.; Durner, George M.; Simac, Kristin; Amstrup, Steven C.

    2014-01-01

    Implications: This study provides empirical evidence that current capture-based research methods do not have long-term implications, and are not contributing to observed changes in body condition, reproduction or survival in the southern Beaufort Sea. Continued refinement of capture protocols, such as the use of low-impact dart rifles and reversible drug combinations, might improve polar bear response to capture and abate short-term reductions in activity and movement post-capture.

  20. Money for Research, Not for Energy Bills: Finding Energy and Cost Savings in High Performance Computer Facility Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Drewmark Communications; Sartor, Dale; Wilson, Mark

    2010-07-01

    High-performance computing facilities in the United States consume an enormous amount of electricity, cutting into research budgets and challenging public- and private-sector efforts to reduce energy consumption and meet environmental goals. However, these facilities can greatly reduce their energy demand through energy-efficient design of the facility itself. Using a case study of a facility under design, this article discusses strategies and technologies that can be used to help achieve energy reductions.

  1. A natural stem cell therapy? How novel findings and biotechnology clarify the ethics of stem cell research

    PubMed Central

    Patel, P

    2006-01-01

    The natural replacement of damaged cells by stem cells occurs actively and often in adult tissues, especially rapidly dividing cells such as blood cells. An exciting case in Boston, however, posits a kind of natural stem cell therapy provided to a mother by her fetus—long after the fetus is born. Because there is a profound lack of medical intervention, this therapy seems natural enough and is unlikely to be morally suspect. Nevertheless, we feel morally uncertain when we consider giving this type of therapy to patients who would not naturally receive it. Much has been written about the ethics of stem cell research and therapy; this paper will focus on how recent advances in biotechnology and biological understandings of development narrow the debate. Here, the author briefly reviews current stem cell research practices, revisits the natural stem cell therapy case for moral evaluation, and ultimately demonstrates the importance of permissible stem cell research and therapy, even absent an agreement about the definition of when embryonic life begins. Although one promising technology, blighted ovum utilisation, uses fertilised but developmentally bankrupt eggs, it is argued that utilisation of unfertilised eggs to derive totipotent stem cells obviates the moral debate over when life begins. There are two existing technologies that fulfil this criterion: somatic cell nuclear transfer and parthenogenic stem cell derivation. Although these technologies are far from therapeutic, concerns over the morality of embryonic stem cell derivation should not hinder their advancement. PMID:16574879

  2. Preprocessing in Matlab Inconsistent Linear System for a Meaningful Least Squares Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, Symal K.; Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical models of many physical/statistical problems are systems of linear equations Due to measurement and possible human errors/mistakes in modeling/data, as well as due to certain assumptions to reduce complexity, inconsistency (contradiction) is injected into the model, viz. the linear system. While any inconsistent system irrespective of the degree of inconsistency has always a least-squares solution, one needs to check whether an equation is too much inconsistent or, equivalently too much contradictory. Such an equation will affect/distort the least-squares solution to such an extent that renders it unacceptable/unfit to be used in a real-world application. We propose an algorithm which (i) prunes numerically redundant linear equations from the system as these do not add any new information to the model, (ii) detects contradictory linear equations along with their degree of contradiction (inconsistency index), (iii) removes those equations presumed to be too contradictory, and then (iv) obtain the . minimum norm least-squares solution of the acceptably inconsistent reduced linear system. The algorithm presented in Matlab reduces the computational and storage complexities and also improves the accuracy of the solution. It also provides the necessary warning about the existence of too much contradiction in the model. In addition, we suggest a thorough relook into the mathematical modeling to determine the reason why unacceptable contradiction has occurred thus prompting us to make necessary corrections/modifications to the models - both mathematical and, if necessary, physical.

  3. Perceived consequences of hypothetical identity-inconsistent sexual experiences: effects of perceiver's sex and sexual identity.

    PubMed

    Preciado, Mariana A; Johnson, Kerri L

    2014-04-01

    Most people organize their sexual orientation under a single sexual identity label. However, people may have sexual experiences that are inconsistent with their categorical sexual identity label. A man might identify as heterosexual but still experience some attraction to men; a woman might identify as lesbian yet enter into a romantic relationship with a man. Identity-inconsistent experiences are likely to have consequences. In the present study, we examined lay perceptions of the consequences of identity-inconsistent sexual experiences for self-perceived sexuality and for social relationships among a sexually diverse sample (N = 283). We found that the perceived consequences of identity-inconsistent experiences for self-perception, for social stigmatization, and for social relationships varied as a function of participant sex, participant sexual identity (heterosexual, gay, lesbian), and experience type (fantasy, attraction, behavior, love). We conclude that not all identity-inconsistent sexual experiences are perceived as equally consequential and that the perceived consequences of such experiences vary predictably as a function of perceiver sex and sexual identity. We discuss the role lay perceptions of the consequences of identity-inconsistent sexual experiences may play in guiding attitudes and behavior. PMID:23733152

  4. Studies of electromagnetic fields and cancer: how inconsistent?

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlbom, A.; Feychting, M.

    1993-06-01

    Our study was a case-control study performed on the population living within a corridor around Sweden`s 220- and 400-kV lines during a 26-year period; the corridor was defined to be wide enough so that the outer part was unaffected by EMFs generated from the line. Our study showed an association between calculated historical EMF and childhood leukemia but not with tumors in the central nervous system and not with measured fields. For adults, the study showed an association for myeloid leukemia when calculated historical fields were used, but not for other types of leukemia and not for CNS tumors. Again, actually measured fields were not associated with cancer risk. Nine available studies provide information of varying quality, and a few should be given little weight in a combination of findings across studies. The results are summarized. It would be appealing if all available evidence - from residential and occupational studies, from children and adults, and from studies on different types of cancer - fit together in an intelligible pattern, but this does not appear to be the case. However, the evidence on leukemia in children appears to be consistent. 9 refs.

  5. The use of focus groups to examine pubertal concerns in preteen girls: initial findings and implications for practice and research.

    PubMed

    Doswell, W M; Vandestienne, G

    1996-01-01

    This article presents the findings of four focus groups aimed at discovering the concerns a group of 9- to 12-year-old African American and Hispanic girls (N = 38) had about puberty, the transition to adolescence, and growing up. Among the factors these girls liked about growing up were increasing independence from parents, widening social relations with same- and opposite-sex friends, and an increase in decision making regarding clothes and activities. What they reported as not liking about growing up were an increase in peer pressure, high parental expectations, and more responsibility for their actions in home, school, and recreational activities. Health care for this group must include systematic monitoring of pubertal development and concerns in order to aggressively educate preadolescents to negotiate this period smoothly and to avoid high-risk behaviors that could have negative health and social sequelae during adolescence and adulthood. PMID:8920329

  6. The bad apple effect and social value orientation in public-goods dilemmas: replication and extension of research findings.

    PubMed

    Wu, Song; Sun, Jiaqing; Cai, Wei; Jin, Shenghua

    2014-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to replicate and extend previous findings on the effect of uncooperative behavior on group cooperation (the "bad apple" effect). Study 1 (56 women, 40 men; M age = 23.5 yr.) manipulated information about contributions from the bad apple, controlling for overall contributions to a group account. Study 2 (50 women, 34 men; M age = 20.4 yr.) compared the effects of a bad apple and a good apple on cooperation. The social value orientation of participants was measured to explore individual differences in the bad apple effect. The results revealed a bad apple (a) decreased cooperation among individuals with proself and prosocial orientations in Study 1, and (b) had a greater effect than a good apple on those who were proself compared to prosocial in Study 2. PMID:25074307

  7. Prior authorization policies in Medicaid programs: The importance of study design and analysis on findings and outcomes from research.

    PubMed

    Keast, Shellie L; Farmer, Kevin; Smith, Michael; Nesser, Nancy; Harrison, Donald

    2016-01-01

    U.S. State Medicaid programs for the medically indigent strive to deliver quality health care services with limited budgets. An often used cost management strategy is prior authorization of services or prescription medications. The goal of this strategy is to shape the pharmaceutical market share in the most efficient manner for the particular state Medicaid program, much like commercial managed care organizations. These policies are often scrutinized due to the population Medicaid serves, which in the past was largely composed of individuals with vulnerable health status. Unintended consequences can occur if these policies are not carried out in an appropriate manner or if they greatly restrict services. The data used for policy implementation research is prone to certain problems such as skewness and multimodality. Previous guidelines have been published regarding the best practices when analyzing these data. These guidelines were used to review the current body of literature regarding prior authorization in Medicaid. Further discussed are additional characteristics such as therapeutic areas researched and the outcomes identified. Finally, the importance of considering state-specific characteristics when reviewing individual policies and the usefulness of these results for other programs are also considered. PMID:25980583

  8. Generalizing the findings from group dynamics-based physical activity research to practice settings: what do we know?

    PubMed

    Harden, Samantha M; Burke, Shauna M; Haile, Amanda M; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2015-03-01

    The general purpose of this secondary analysis of a prior systematic review was to determine the degree to which group dynamics-based physical activity interventions align with research processes and outcomes that are more likely to facilitate the translation of research into practice. To accomplish this, a systematic search was conducted within Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index, Arts and Humanities Citation Index, and MEDLINE databases to identify articles published prior to 2010 that used at least one group dynamics-based strategy (e.g., group interaction, group goal setting) in physical activity promotion. These 17 intervention studies were identified and coded based on the reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintenance framework and Pragmatic-Explanatory Continuum Indicator Summary (for trial design characteristics). Reporting was infrequent for external validity factors (i.e., representativeness, adoption, cost, maintenance) but more frequent for internal validity factors (e.g., inclusion criteria). Intervention costs were not reported. Studies were more likely to be pragmatic (i.e., designed to determine the effects of an intervention under the usual conditions in which it will be applied) in areas of participant compliance and practitioner adherence and explanatory (i.e., designed to determine the effects of an intervention under ideal conditions) and in areas of practitioner expertise and flexibility of intervention protocol. While a number of these interventions were tested in more pragmatic settings, external validity factors were still underreported. PMID:23716732

  9. Family pet ownership during childhood: findings from a UK birth cohort and implications for public health research.

    PubMed

    Westgarth, Carri; Heron, Jon; Ness, Andy R; Bundred, Peter; Gaskell, Rosalind M; Coyne, Karen P; German, Alexander J; McCune, Sandra; Dawson, Susan

    2010-10-01

    In developed nations, approximately half of household environments contain pets. Studies of Human-Animal Interaction (HAI) have proposed that there are health benefits and risks associated with pet ownership. However, accurately demonstrating and understanding these relationships first requires a better knowledge of factors associated with ownership of different pet types. A UK birth cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), were used to collect pet ownership data from the mothers, from gestation to child age 10 years old. 14,663 children were included in the study, of which mothers of 13,557 reported pet information at gestation, and 7,800 by age 10. Pet types recorded include cat, dog, rabbit, rodent, bird, fish and tortoise/turtle. The dataset also contains a number of demographic, socioeconomic and behavioural variables relevant to human health behaviour. Logistic regression was used to build multivariable models for ownership of each pet type at age 7 years. Family pet ownership increased during childhood, in particular rabbits, rodents and fish. A number of socioeconomic and demographic factors were associated with ownership of different pet types and the effects differed depending on the pet type studied. Variables which require consideration by researchers include gender, presence of older siblings, ethnicity, maternal and paternal education, maternal and paternal social class, maternal age, number of people in the household, house type, and concurrent ownership of other pets. Whether the mother had pets during her childhood was a strong predictor of pet ownership in all models. In HAI studies, care should be taken to control for confounding factors, and to treat each pet type individually. ALSPAC and other similar birth cohorts can be considered a potential resource for research into the effects of pet ownership during childhood. PMID:21139856

  10. Family Pet Ownership during Childhood: Findings from a UK Birth Cohort and Implications for Public Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Westgarth, Carri; Heron, Jon; Ness, Andy R.; Bundred, Peter; Gaskell, Rosalind M.; Coyne, Karen P.; German, Alexander J.; McCune, Sandra; Dawson, Susan

    2010-01-01

    In developed nations, approximately half of household environments contain pets. Studies of Human-Animal Interaction (HAI) have proposed that there are health benefits and risks associated with pet ownership. However, accurately demonstrating and understanding these relationships first requires a better knowledge of factors associated with ownership of different pet types. A UK birth cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), were used to collect pet ownership data from the mothers, from gestation to child age 10 years old. 14,663 children were included in the study, of which mothers of 13,557 reported pet information at gestation, and 7,800 by age 10. Pet types recorded include cat, dog, rabbit, rodent, bird, fish and tortoise/turtle. The dataset also contains a number of demographic, socioeconomic and behavioural variables relevant to human health behaviour. Logistic regression was used to build multivariable models for ownership of each pet type at age 7 years. Family pet ownership increased during childhood, in particular rabbits, rodents and fish. A number of socioeconomic and demographic factors were associated with ownership of different pet types and the effects differed depending on the pet type studied. Variables which require consideration by researchers include gender, presence of older siblings, ethnicity, maternal and paternal education, maternal and paternal social class, maternal age, number of people in the household, house type, and concurrent ownership of other pets. Whether the mother had pets during her childhood was a strong predictor of pet ownership in all models. In HAI studies, care should be taken to control for confounding factors, and to treat each pet type individually. ALSPAC and other similar birth cohorts can be considered a potential resource for research into the effects of pet ownership during childhood. PMID:21139856

  11. Developing International Research Collaborations among Postdoctoral Fellows: Key Findings from the Evaluation of NSF's International Research Fellowship Program. GS-10F-0086K

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Alina; Epstein, Carter; Parsad, Amanda; Whittaker, Karla

    2012-01-01

    Over a decade ago, the National Science Board (NSB) highlighted the importance of international collaboration in its call for increased government commitment to promoting international science and engineering (S&E) research and education. The NSB also identified the National Science Foundation (NSF) as having an important leadership role in…

  12. Domestic Violence and Welfare Policy: Research Findings That Can Inform Policies on Marriage and Child Well-Being. Research Forum on Children, Families, and the New Federalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Sharmila

    Asserting that the welfare reform proposals of the mid-1990s drew attention to the problem of domestic violence among individuals receiving public assistance who are among the poorest of the poor, this report examines what is known from past research on domestic violence that may inform policies related to marriage and child well-being. In…

  13. Finding endmember classes in hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Cheng; Li, Yao; Chang, Chein-I.

    2015-05-01

    Endmember finding has received considerable interest in hyperspectral imaging. In reality an endmember finding algorithm (EFA) suffers from endmember variability which causes inaccuracy, inconsistency and instability. In this case a real endmember may not exist but rather appears as its variant, referred to as virtual signature (VS). This paper presents a new approach to finding VSs by taking endmember variability into account. It first determines a required number of endmember classes by virtual dimensionality (VD), then designs an unsupervised method to find endmember classes and finally develops an iterative algorithm to find VSs. Comprehensive experiments including synthetic and real image scenes are conducted to demonstrate effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  14. Calorie Labeling in a Rural Middle School Influences Food Selection: Findings from Community-Based Participatory Research

    PubMed Central

    McGinnis, Paul; Beamer, Beth Ann; O'Malley, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Background. Calorie labeling at the point-of-purchase in chain restaurants has been shown to reduce energy intake. Objective. To investigate the impact of point-of-purchase calorie information at one rural middle school. Methods. With a community-based participatory research framework a mixed method approach was used to evaluate the impact of point-of-purchase calorie information. Students in grades 6–8, dining at the school cafeteria January and February 2010, participated for 17 school days each month; in January a menu was offered in the usual manner without calorie labels; the same menu was prepared in February with the addition of calorie labels at point-of-purchase. Gross calories served per student were measured each day allowing for matched comparison by menu. In March/April of 2010, 32 students who ate in the cafeteria 3 or more times per week were interviewed regarding their views on menu labeling. Results. Calorie consumption decreased by an average of 47 calories/day; fat intake reduced by 2.1 grams/day. Five main themes were consistent throughout the interviews. Conclusion. Point-of-purchase calorie labels can play a role in reducing the number of calories consumed by middle school age children at the lunch. The majority of students interviewed found the calorie labels helped them choose healthier food. PMID:25874121

  15. Use of Online Sources of Information by Dental Practitioners: Findings from The Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Funkhouser, Ellen; Agee, Bonita S.; Gordan, Valeria V.; Rindal, D. Brad; Fellows, Jeffrey L.; Qvist, Vibeke; McClelland, Jocelyn; Gilbert, Gregg H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Estimate the proportion of dental practitioners who use online sources of information for practice guidance. Methods From a survey of 657 dental practitioners in The Dental Practice Based Research Network, four indicators of online use for practice guidance were calculated: read journals online, obtained continuing education (CDE) through online sources, rated an online source as most influential, and reported frequently using an online source for guidance. Demographics, journals read, and use of various sources of information for practice guidance in terms of frequency and influence were ascertained for each. Results Overall, 21% (n=138) were classified into one of the four indicators of online use: 14% (n=89) rated an online source as most influential and 13% (n=87) reported frequently using an online source for guidance; few practitioners (5%, n=34) read journals online, fewer (3%, n=17) obtained CDE through online sources. Use of online information sources varied considerably by region and practice characteristics. In general, the 4 indicators represented practitioners with as many differences as similarities to each other and to offline users. Conclusion A relatively small proportion of dental practitioners use information from online sources for practice guidance. Variation exists regarding practitioners’ use of online source resources and how they rate the value of offline information sources for practice guidance. PMID:22994848

  16. Preferences for caries prevention agents in adult patients: findings from The Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Joseph L.; Gordan, Valeria V.; Rindal, D. Brad; Fellows, Jeffrey L.; Ajmo, Craig T.; Amundson, Craig; Anderson, Gerald A.; Gilbert, Gregg H.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To identify factors that are significantly associated with dentists’ use of specific caries preventive agents in adult patients, and whether dentists who use one preventive agent are also more likely to use certain others. Methods Data were collected from 564 practitioners in The Dental Practice-Based Research Network, a multi-region consortium of participating practices and dental organizations. Results In-office topical fluoride was the method most frequently used. Regarding at-home preventive agents, there was little difference in preference between non-prescription fluoride, prescription fluoride, or chlorhexidine rinse. Dentists who most frequently used caries prevention were also those who regularly perform caries risk assessment and individualize caries prevention at the patient level. Higher percentages of patients with dental insurance were significantly associated with more use of in-office prevention modalities. Female dentists and dentists with more-recent training were more likely to recommend preventive agents that are applied by the patient. Dentists who reported more-conservative decisions in clinical treatment scenarios were also more likely to use caries preventive agents. Groups of dentist who shared a common preference for certain preventive agents were identified. One group used preventive agents selectively, whereas the other groups predominately used either in-office or at-home fluorides. Conclusions Caries prevention is commonly used with adult patients. However, these results suggest that only a subset of dentists base preventive treatments on caries risk at the individual patient level. PMID:20560997

  17. Concordance between patient satisfaction and the dentist’s view: findings from the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Joseph L.; Hudak-Boss, Susan; Fellows, Jeffery L.; Rindal, Brad; Gilbert, Gregg H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study examined the dentist’s view of the patient’s experience and concordance with the patient’s rating of satisfaction. Methods Practitioners from 197 practices in the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network recruited consecutively seen patients who had defective restorations that were replaced or repaired. At the end of the treatment visit, the treating dentist and 5,879 patients completed and returned a survey that asked about the patient’s satisfaction. Results Dentists viewed their patients as satisfied with their treatment experience (89% n=4,719) and that they had been perceived as friendly (97%, n=5,136). Dentists had less strong feelings about whether patients had a preference for the restorative material (43%, n=2,271) or an interest in information about the procedure (33%, n=1,757). Overall, patients were satisfied, and most of the time dentists correctly predicted this. Among patients who were less than satisfied, there was a substantial subset of cases where dentists were not aware. Conclusion For improved patient-centered care, patient desires, expectations and perception of the dental care experience need to be assessed by the dentist and then managed or corrected as needed. Practice implications By taking a patient-centered approach, dentists should seek to understand how patients evaluate and rate the service provided, thereby enabling themselves to focus on what each patient values most. PMID:24686969

  18. Characteristics, detection methods, and treatment of questionable occlusal carious lesions: findings from The National Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Makhija, Sonia K; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Funkhouser, Ellen; Bader, James D; Gordan, Valeria V.; Rindal, D. Brad; Pihlstrom, Daniel J.; Qvist, Vibeke

    2014-01-01

    Questionable occlusal carious lesions (QOC) can be defined as an occlusal tooth surface with no cavitation and no radiographic radiolucencies, but caries is suspected due to roughness, surface opacities, or staining. An earlier analysis of data from this study indicates ? of patients have a QOC. The objective of this report is to quantify the characteristics of these common lesions, diagnostic aids used, and treatment of QOC. A total of 82 dentist and hygienist practitioner-investigators from the United States and Denmark in The National Dental Practice-Based Research Network participated. When consented patients presented with a QOC, information was recorded about the patient, tooth, lesion, and treatments. 2,603 QOC from 1,732 patients were analyzed. Lesions were usually associated with a fissure, on molars, and varied from yellow to black in color. Half presented with a chalky luster and had a rough surface when examined with an explorer. There was an association between color and luster, 10% were chalky-light, 47% were shiny-dark, and 42% were mixtures. A higher proportion of chalky than shiny lesions were light (22% vs. 9%; p < 0.001). Lesions light in color were less common in adults than pediatric patients (9% vs. 32%; p < 0.001). Lesions that were chalky and light were more common among pediatric than adult patients (22% vs. 6%, p < 0.001). This is the first study to investigate characteristics of QOC in routine clinical practice. Clinicians commonly face this diagnostic uncertainty. Determining the characteristics of these lesions are relevant when making diagnostic and treatment decisions. PMID:24480989

  19. Random Plasma Glucose Values Measured in Community Dental Practices: Findings from The Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Barasch, Andrei; Gilbert, Gregg H; Spurlock, Noel; Funkhouser, Ellen; Persson, Lise-Lotte; Safford, Monika M

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To examine feasibility of testing and frequency of abnormal plasma glucose among dental patients in The Dental Practice-Based Research Network. Methods Eligible dental patients were >19 years old and had at least one American Diabetes Association-defined risk factor for diabetes mellitus, or an existing diagnosis of diabetes or pre-diabetes. Random (fasting not required) plasma glucose was measured in standardized fashion using a commercial glucometer. Readings <70 mg/dl or >300 mg/dl triggered re-testing. Patients with glucose >126 mg/dl were referred for medical follow up. Results Of 498 subjects in 28 dental practices, 491 (98%) consented and 418 (85.1%) qualified for testing. Fifty-one patients (12.2%) had diabetes; 24 (5.7%) had pre-diabetes. Glucose ranged from 50 – 465 mg/dl. 129 subjects (31%) had readings outside the normal range; of these, 28 (6.7%) had readings <80 mg/dl and 101 (24.2%) had readings >126 mg/dl; in 9 patients (7 with diabetes), glucose was >200 mg/dl. Conclusions A significant proportion of patients tested had abnormal blood glucose. Routine glucose testing in dental practice of populations at risk or diagnosed with diabetes may be beneficial and community dental practices hold promise as settings for diabetes and pre-diabetes screening and monitoring. Clinical Relevance Results suggest that implementation of glucose measurement in dental practice may provide important clinical and health information for both patients and practitioners. PMID:22903529

  20. Rough Evaluation Structure: Application of Rough Set Theory to Generate Simple Rules for Inconsistent Preference Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrmann, Andreas; Nagai, Yoshimitsu; Yoshida, Osamu; Ishizu, Syohei

    Since management decision-making becomes complex and preferences of the decision-maker frequently becomes inconsistent, multi-attribute decision-making problems were studied. To represent inconsistent preference relation, the concept of evaluation structure was introduced. We can generate simple rules to represent inconsistent preference relation by the evaluation structures. Further rough set theory for the preference relation was studied and the concept of approximation was introduced. One of our main aims of this paper is to introduce a concept of rough evaluation structure for representing inconsistent preference relation. We apply rough set theory to the evaluation structure, and develop a method for generating simple rules for inconsistent preference relations. In this paper, we introduce concepts of totally ordered information system, similarity class of preference relation, upper and lower approximation of preference relations. We also show the properties of rough evaluation structure and provide a simple example. As an application of rough evaluation structure, we analyze questionnaire survey of customer preferences about audio players.

  1. The Weird World of Cross-Cultural False-Belief Research: A True- and False-Belief Study among Samoan Children Based on Commands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Andreas; Träuble, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    Previous cross-cultural research using false-belief tasks has explored whether children's theory of mind develops synchronously across cultures. Success on false-belief tasks is usually interpreted as an important indicator of children's mental state understanding, but inconsistent findings have led to questions regarding the interpretation of…

  2. Developing a Workflow to Identify Inconsistencies in Volunteered Geographic Information: A Phenological Case Study.

    PubMed

    Mehdipoor, Hamed; Zurita-Milla, Raul; Rosemartin, Alyssa; Gerst, Katharine L; Weltzin, Jake F

    2015-01-01

    Recent improvements in online information communication and mobile location-aware technologies have led to the production of large volumes of volunteered geographic information. Widespread, large-scale efforts by volunteers to collect data can inform and drive scientific advances in diverse fields, including ecology and climatology. Traditional workflows to check the quality of such volunteered information can be costly and time consuming as they heavily rely on human interventions. However, identifying factors that can influence data quality, such as inconsistency, is crucial when these data are used in modeling and decision-making frameworks. Recently developed workflows use simple statistical approaches that assume that the majority of the information is consistent. However, this assumption is not generalizable, and ignores underlying geographic and environmental contextual variability that may explain apparent inconsistencies. Here we describe an automated workflow to check inconsistency based on the availability of contextual environmental information for sampling locations. The workflow consists of three steps: (1) dimensionality reduction to facilitate further analysis and interpretation of results, (2) model-based clustering to group observations according to their contextual conditions, and (3) identification of inconsistent observations within each cluster. The workflow was applied to volunteered observations of flowering in common and cloned lilac plants (Syringa vulgaris and Syringa x chinensis) in the United States for the period 1980 to 2013. About 97% of the observations for both common and cloned lilacs were flagged as consistent, indicating that volunteers provided reliable information for this case study. Relative to the original dataset, the exclusion of inconsistent observations changed the apparent rate of change in lilac bloom dates by two days per decade, indicating the importance of inconsistency checking as a key step in data quality assessment for volunteered geographic information. Initiatives that leverage volunteered geographic information can adapt this workflow to improve the quality of their datasets and the robustness of their scientific analyses. PMID:26485157

  3. Developing a Workflow to Identify Inconsistencies in Volunteered Geographic Information: A Phenological Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Rosemartin, Alyssa; Gerst, Katharine L.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2015-01-01

    Recent improvements in online information communication and mobile location-aware technologies have led to the production of large volumes of volunteered geographic information. Widespread, large-scale efforts by volunteers to collect data can inform and drive scientific advances in diverse fields, including ecology and climatology. Traditional workflows to check the quality of such volunteered information can be costly and time consuming as they heavily rely on human interventions. However, identifying factors that can influence data quality, such as inconsistency, is crucial when these data are used in modeling and decision-making frameworks. Recently developed workflows use simple statistical approaches that assume that the majority of the information is consistent. However, this assumption is not generalizable, and ignores underlying geographic and environmental contextual variability that may explain apparent inconsistencies. Here we describe an automated workflow to check inconsistency based on the availability of contextual environmental information for sampling locations. The workflow consists of three steps: (1) dimensionality reduction to facilitate further analysis and interpretation of results, (2) model-based clustering to group observations according to their contextual conditions, and (3) identification of inconsistent observations within each cluster. The workflow was applied to volunteered observations of flowering in common and cloned lilac plants (Syringa vulgaris and Syringa x chinensis) in the United States for the period 1980 to 2013. About 97% of the observations for both common and cloned lilacs were flagged as consistent, indicating that volunteers provided reliable information for this case study. Relative to the original dataset, the exclusion of inconsistent observations changed the apparent rate of change in lilac bloom dates by two days per decade, indicating the importance of inconsistency checking as a key step in data quality assessment for volunteered geographic information. Initiatives that leverage volunteered geographic information can adapt this workflow to improve the quality of their datasets and the robustness of their scientific analyses. PMID:26485157

  4. Developing a workflow to identify inconsistencies in volunteered geographic information: a phenological case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mehdipoor, Hamed; Zurita-Milla, Raul; Rosemartin, Alyssa; Gerst, Katharine L.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2015-01-01

    Recent improvements in online information communication and mobile location-aware technologies have led to the production of large volumes of volunteered geographic information. Widespread, large-scale efforts by volunteers to collect data can inform and drive scientific advances in diverse fields, including ecology and climatology. Traditional workflows to check the quality of such volunteered information can be costly and time consuming as they heavily rely on human interventions. However, identifying factors that can influence data quality, such as inconsistency, is crucial when these data are used in modeling and decision-making frameworks. Recently developed workflows use simple statistical approaches that assume that the majority of the information is consistent. However, this assumption is not generalizable, and ignores underlying geographic and environmental contextual variability that may explain apparent inconsistencies. Here we describe an automated workflow to check inconsistency based on the availability of contextual environmental information for sampling locations. The workflow consists of three steps: (1) dimensionality reduction to facilitate further analysis and interpretation of results, (2) model-based clustering to group observations according to their contextual conditions, and (3) identification of inconsistent observations within each cluster. The workflow was applied to volunteered observations of flowering in common and cloned lilac plants (Syringa vulgaris and Syringa x chinensis) in the United States for the period 1980 to 2013. About 97% of the observations for both common and cloned lilacs were flagged as consistent, indicating that volunteers provided reliable information for this case study. Relative to the original dataset, the exclusion of inconsistent observations changed the apparent rate of change in lilac bloom dates by two days per decade, indicating the importance of inconsistency checking as a key step in data quality assessment for volunteered geographic information. Initiatives that leverage volunteered geographic information can adapt this workflow to improve the quality of their datasets and the robustness of their scientific analyses.

  5. An Automated Method for Identifying Inconsistencies within Diagrammatic Software Requirements Specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Zhong

    1997-01-01

    The development of large-scale, composite software in a geographically distributed environment is an evolutionary process. Often, in such evolving systems, striving for consistency is complicated by many factors, because development participants have various locations, skills, responsibilities, roles, opinions, languages, terminology and different degrees of abstraction they employ. This naturally leads to many partial specifications or viewpoints. These multiple views on the system being developed usually overlap. From another aspect, these multiple views give rise to the potential for inconsistency. Existing CASE tools do not efficiently manage inconsistencies in distributed development environment for a large-scale project. Based on the ViewPoints framework the WHERE (Web-Based Hypertext Environment for requirements Evolution) toolkit aims to tackle inconsistency management issues within geographically distributed software development projects. Consequently, WHERE project helps make more robust software and support software assurance process. The long term goal of WHERE tools aims to the inconsistency analysis and management in requirements specifications. A framework based on Graph Grammar theory and TCMJAVA toolkit is proposed to detect inconsistencies among viewpoints. This systematic approach uses three basic operations (UNION, DIFFERENCE, INTERSECTION) to study the static behaviors of graphic and tabular notations. From these operations, subgraphs Query, Selection, Merge, Replacement operations can be derived. This approach uses graph PRODUCTIONS (rewriting rules) to study the dynamic transformations of graphs. We discuss the feasibility of implementation these operations. Also, We present the process of porting original TCM (Toolkit for Conceptual Modeling) project from C++ to Java programming language in this thesis. A scenario based on NASA International Space Station Specification is discussed to show the applicability of our approach. Finally, conclusion and future work about inconsistency management issues in WHERE project will be summarized.

  6. Consistency and inconsistency radii for solving systems of linear equations and inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murav'eva, O. V.

    2015-03-01

    Problems that reduce to consistency or inconsistency of systems of linear equations or inequalities arise in many divisions of theoretical informatics. The examples are problems in linear programming, machine learning, multicriteria optimization, etc. There exist different stability measures for the property of consistency or inconsistency, and different information constituents are possible (all the input parameters, the coefficient matrix, the vector of constraints). In this paper, variations of all parameters are examined in combination with an additional constraint important in applications, namely, the nonnegativity of feasible points.

  7. Rock Finding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the…

  8. Sources of Score Scale Inconsistency. Research Report. ETS RR-11-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberman, Shelby J.; Dorans, Neil J.

    2011-01-01

    For testing programs that administer multiple forms within a year and across years, score equating is used to ensure that scores can be used interchangeably. In an ideal world, samples sizes are large and representative of populations that hardly change over time, and very reliable alternate test forms are built with nearly identical psychometric…

  9. Encouraging A Culture Of Outreach In Astronomy Clubs: Findings From The Astronomical Society Of The Pacific, The Institute For Learning Innovation, And Inverness Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, Jim; Jones, E.; St. John, M.; Berendsen, M.; Schultz, G.; Gurton, S.; Yocco, V.; Castori, P.; Santascoy, J.; White, V.; Frank, K.

    2012-05-01

    Astronomy clubs constitute a “marching army” of knowledgeable and experienced astronomy enthusiasts deployed in a national network: an enormously valuable and important resource for engaging the public through educational outreach events and activities. The Astronomical Society of the Pacific (ASP) in partnership with the Institute for Learning Innovation (ILI) and Inverness Research, Inc., has been engaged in a multi-year NSF-supported project focusing on this network and its potential to advance common astronomy education and outreach objectives. The project has explored the culture of astronomy clubs, identified impediments to building cultures of outreach within clubs, and developed and introduced new mechanisms to overcome these impediments and enhance clubs’ abilities to encourage and sustain cultures that value and promote outreach efforts. The presenter will share initial research, development and evaluation findings of the project, and describe ongoing supplemental efforts that continue to advance project objectives.

  10. Encouraging A Culture Of Outreach In Astronomy Clubs: Findings From The Astronomical Society Of The Pacific, The Institute For Learning Innovation, And Inverness Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, Jim; Jones, E.; St. John, M.; Berendsen, M.; Schultz, G. R.; Gurton, S.; Yocco, V.; Castori, P.; Santascoy, J.; White, V.; FRANK, K.

    2013-01-01

    Astronomy clubs constitute a “marching army” of knowledgeable and experienced astronomy enthusiasts deployed in a national network: an enormously valuable and important resource for engaging the public through educational outreach events and activities. The Astronomical Society of the Pacific (ASP) in partnership with the Institute for Learning Innovation (ILI) and Inverness Research, Inc., has been engaged in a multiyear NSF-supported project focusing on this network and its potential to advance common astronomy education and outreach objectives. The project has explored the culture of astronomy clubs, identified impediments to building cultures of outreach within clubs, and developed and introduced new mechanisms to overcome these impediments and enhance clubs’ abilities to encourage and sustain cultures that value and promote outreach efforts. The presenter will share initial research, development and evaluation findings of the project, and describe ongoing supplemental efforts that continue to advance project objectives.

  11. RESEARCH GIVES EDGE TO FINDING

    E-print Network

    Angenent, Lars T.

    home revisited. COVER STORY Séamus Davis and the path to faculty renewal BY BILL STEELE A look at what volunteer urban foresters BY SUSAN S. LANG FOOD & WINE Any wine from any grape: Behind the scenes at Cornell on this impending renewal of Cornell's faculty ­ perhaps the most dramatic change in the face of the academic staff

  12. Some difficulties and inconsistencies when using habit strength and reasoned action variables in models of metered household water conservation.

    PubMed

    Jorgensen, Bradley S; Martin, John F; Pearce, Meryl; Willis, Eileen

    2013-01-30

    Research employing household water consumption data has sought to test models of water demand and conservation using variables from attitude theory. A significant, albeit unrecognised, challenge has been that attitude models describe individual-level motivations while consumption data is recorded at the household level thereby creating inconsistency between units of theory and measurement. This study employs structural equation modelling and moderated regression techniques to addresses the level of analysis problem, and tests hypotheses by isolating effects on water conservation in single-person households. Furthermore, the results question the explanatory utility of habit strength, perceived behavioural control, and intentions for understanding metered water conservation in single-person households. For example, evidence that intentions predict water conservation or that they interact with habit strength in single-person households was contrary to theoretical expectations. On the other hand, habit strength, self-reports of past water conservation, and perceived behavioural control were good predictors of intentions to conserve water. PMID:23246905

  13. The Inconsistently Learning Disabled Child: Identification and Management of Inattention and Some Forms of Hyperactivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kravitz, Martin

    1982-01-01

    A contract approach specifying long and short term objectives is part of an overall treatment approach for students whose learning and attention skills are inconsistent. Additional program efforts include allergy and food assessment, medication assessment and trial (if appropriate), and attention to the child's biochemical functioning. (CL)

  14. 44 CFR 6.9 - Inconsistent issuances of FEMA and/or its predecessor agencies superseded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Inconsistent issuances of FEMA and/or its predecessor agencies superseded. 6.9 Section 6.9 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 General § 6.9...

  15. Computational issues in time-inconsistent planning PINGZHONG TANG, IIIS, Tsinghua University

    E-print Network

    Tang, Pingzhong

    where agents exhibit inconsistent behaviors over time. Examples are procrastination where agents tends. There are at least two types of inconsisten- cies investigated in the literature. The first type is Procrastination in reality. Akerlof [1991] de- scribes a story of procrastination (restated in [Kleinberg and Oren 2014

  16. On the first-order reducibility of unions of conjunctive queries over inconsistent databases

    E-print Network

    Rosati, Riccardo

    On the first-order reducibility of unions of conjunctive queries over inconsistent databases- rection have only concerned subsets of conjunctive queries over databases with key dependencies dependencies to more expressive queries, in particular to unions of conjunctive queries. More specifically: (i

  17. A Study of Consistent and Inconsistent Changes to Code Clones Jens Krinke

    E-print Network

    Krinke, Jens

    A Study of Consistent and Inconsistent Changes to Code Clones Jens Krinke FernUniversit¨at in Hagen, Germany krinke@acm.org Abstract Code Cloning is regarded as a threat to software main- tenance, because it is generally assumed that a change to a code clone usually has to be applied to the other clones of the clone

  18. The Belief that Alcohol Use Is Inconsistent with Personal Autonomy: A Promotive Factor for Younger Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Kimberly L.; Shtivelband, Annette; Comello, Maria Leonora G.; Slater, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored an understudied promotive factor, a belief that alcohol use is inconsistent with personal autonomy, which may reduce adolescent intention to drink and subsequent alcohol use. Autonomy was examined as an attitudinal construct within the Theory of Reasoned Action. Longitudinal data from 2,493 seventh grade students nested in 40…

  19. To appear in ACM Transactions on Graphics Exposing Photo Manipulation with Inconsistent Reflections

    E-print Network

    Bucci, David J.

    of sophisticated photo editing software has made it increasingly easier to manipulate digital images. Often visualTo appear in ACM Transactions on Graphics Exposing Photo Manipulation with Inconsistent Reflections specific forms of photo manipulation. In this paper we describe a new forensic technique that focuses

  20. Preference-Inconsistent Recommendations: An Effective Approach for Reducing Confirmation Bias and Stimulating Divergent Thinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwind, Christina; Buder, Jurgen; Cress, Ulrike; Hesse, Friedrich W.

    2012-01-01

    The Web is a perfect backdrop for opinion formation as a multitude of different opinions is publicly available. However, the different opinions often remain unexploited: Learners prefer preference-consistent over preference-inconsistent information, a phenomenon called confirmation bias. Two experiments were designed to test whether technologies…

  1. Building Consistent Transactions with Inconsistent Replication Irene Zhang Naveen Kr. Sharma Adriana Szekeres

    E-print Network

    consistency to applications. We present TAPIR ­ the Transactional Application Proto- col for Inconsistent in the transaction protocol, TAPIR can commit transactions in a single round-trip and or- der distributed transactions without centralized coordination. We demonstrate the use of TAPIR in a transactional key

  2. A Case of Inconsistent Equatings: How the Man with Four Watches Decides What Time It Is

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Samuel A.; Antal, Judit

    2010-01-01

    A simultaneous equating of four new test forms to each other and to one previous form was accomplished through a complex design incorporating seven separate equating links. Each new form was linked to the reference form by four different paths, and each path produced a different score conversion. The procedure used to resolve these inconsistencies

  3. Exposing Image Splicing with Inconsistent Local Noise Variances Xunyu Pan Xing Zhang Siwei Lyu

    E-print Network

    Lyu, Siwei

    Exposing Image Splicing with Inconsistent Local Noise Variances Xunyu Pan Xing Zhang Siwei Lyu that images from different ori- gins tend to have different amount of noise introduced by the sensors or post splic- ing detection method is based on the fact that most digital images contain noise introduced

  4. Why is TOF PET reconstruction a more robust method in the presence of inconsistent data?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    In order to obtain an accurate and quantitative positron emission tomography (PET) image, emission data need to be corrected for random coincidences, photon attenuation and Compton scattering of photons in the tissue, and detector efficiency response or normalization. The accuracy of these corrections strongly affects the quality of the PET image. There is evidence that time-of-flight (TOF) PET reconstruction is less sensitive than non-TOF reconstruction to inconsistencies between emission data and corrections. The purpose of this study is to analyze and discuss such experimental evidence. In this work, inconsistent correction data (inconsistent normalization, absence of scatter correction and mismatched attenuation correction) are introduced in experimental phantom data. Both TOF and non-TOF reconstructed images are analyzed to examine the effect of flawed data. The behavior of TOF reconstruction in respiratory artifacts, a very common example of inconsistency in the data, is studied in patient images. TOF reconstruction is less sensitive to mismatched attenuation correction, erroneous normalization and poorly estimated scatter correction. Such robustness depends strongly on the time resolution of the TOF PET scanner. In particular, the robustness of TOF in the presence of attenuation correction inconsistencies is discussed, using a simulation of a simple model of respiratory artifacts. We expect new generations of PET scanners, with improved time resolution, to be less and less sensitive to poor quality normalization, scatter and attenuation corrections. This not only reduces artifacts in the PET image, but also opens the way to less stringent requirements for the quality of the CT image (reducing either the equipment cost or the dose to the patient), and for the normalization protocols (simplifying or shortening the normalization procedures). Moreover, TOF reconstruction can be beneficial in multimodalities such as PET/MR, where a direct attenuation measurement is not available and attenuation correction can only be approximated.

  5. The pitfall of the transient, inconsistent anticancer capacity of antiestrogens and the mechanism of apparent antiestrogen resistance

    PubMed Central

    Suba, Zsuzsanna

    2015-01-01

    Although antiestrogens have been available for breast cancer therapy since the early 1970s, neither their inconsistent anticancer capacity nor the developing antiestrogen resistance of tumors can be fully understood. Although clinical and experimental investigations revealed many tiny details concerning the link between estrogen signaling and tumor development, they yielded fairly controversial findings. Estrogen receptor (ER) overexpression in tumor cells induced by estrogen treatment was erroneously regarded as a promoter of DNA damage, genomic instability, and tumor growth. Similarly, compensatory ER overexpression caused by antiestrogen treatment or estrogen withdrawal was mistakenly evaluated as a key for rapid tumor growth attributed to acquired antiestrogen resistance. Nevertheless, ER upregulation induced by estrogen treatment is a physiologic process even in tumor cells, whereas in the case of antiestrogen administration, it is a contraregulatory action to defend the endangered estrogen signaling. Upregulation of estrogen signaling displays a unique dichotomy, ensuring the survival and safe proliferative activity of healthy cells, while inducing apoptotic death of malignant tumor cells. Analysis of the fairly controversial results justifies that whatever type of available endocrine therapies may be used, including estrogen, antiestrogen treatment, or oophorectomy, an extreme upregulation of ER signaling seems to be the crucial mechanism of successful prevention and treatment for breast cancer. The inconsistent therapeutic effects of antiestrogen administration may be explained by the different genetic capacities of patients for the compensatory upregulation of ER and aromatase enzyme expressions. The weaker the defensive counteraction against the inhibition of estrogen signaling, the poorer is the prognosis of the disease. De novo or acquired antiestrogen resistance of tumors may be associated with the missing capacity of patients for the extreme upregulation of estrogen signaling or with the exhaustion of defensive counteractions in cases that previously showed good reactivity. High-dose estrogen treatment is capable of restoring ER signaling and anticancer capacity even after heavy exposure to antiestrogen therapy. PMID:26273195

  6. Child Find

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This brochure describes "Child Find," a component of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that requires states to identify, locate, and evaluate all children with disabilities, aged birth through 21, who are in need of early intervention or special education services.

  7. Towards a cooperation between the arts, space science research and the European Space Agency - Preliminary findings of the ESA Topical Team Arts and Sciences (ETTAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pell, Sarah Jane; Imhof, Anna Barbara; Waldvogel, Christian; Kotler, J. Michelle; Peljhan, Marko

    2014-12-01

    The arts offer alternative insights into reality, which are explored by science in general, and broadened by the activities conducted by the European Space Agency [4] and other space agencies. Similar to the way the members of ESA are ambassadors for spaceflight and science, artists and cultural professionals are ambassadors for human expression, experimentation, and exploration. In June 2011, the ESA Topical Team Arts and Sciences (ETTAS) held a three-day workshop at the European Astronaut Centre in Cologne, Germany. During this workshop, topics and ideas were discussed to develop initiatives between the arts, sciences and ESA. The aim was to foster and expand the human and cultural aspects of space exploration, and at the same time offer a means of communication that aims to reach audiences beyond the scope of traditional space-related channels. The consensus of the team was that establishing and sustaining a transdisciplinary professional community consisting of ESA representatives, scientists and artists would fuel knowledge transfer, and mutual inspiration. Potential ways to provide a sustainable cooperation within and between the various groups were discussed. We present the preliminary findings including a number of measures and mechanisms to initiate and conduct such an initiative. Plausible organisational measures, procedures and consequences, as well as a proposition on how to proceed are also discussed. Overall, the involvement and cooperation between the arts, space science research and ESA will enhance in the citizens of the ESA member states the sense of public ownership of ESA results, and participation in ESA's research.

  8. Factors Associated with Inconsistent Sun Protection in First-Degree Relatives of Melanoma Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Shuk, Elyse; Burkhalter, Jack; Baguer, Carlos; Holland, Susan; Pinkhasik, Alisa; Brady, Mary Sue; Coit, Daniel; Ariyan, Charlotte; Hay, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    First-degree relatives (FDRs) of melanoma survivors are at heightened risk for developing melanoma, but sporadically use sun protection. To develop appropriate interventions, in this article we identify factors related to sun protection inconsistency in melanoma FDRs using ethnographic decision tree modeling. We conducted in-home interviews with 25 melanoma FDRs balanced across gender and sunbathing attitudes and identified factors related to daily decision making about use of sunscreen, shade seeking, hats, and clothing. Results indicated primary facilitators for sun protection involved water settings and sunny weather. Physical activities such as exercise served to promote as well as inhibit sun protection. If participants anticipated shade cover, they tended to forgo other sun protection. The use of hats and clothing was often dictated by non-sun protection goals. Understanding factors related to inconsistent sun protection with detail and nuance is an important prerequisite to interventions aimed to improve sun protection maintenance in this population. PMID:22645220

  9. Responding to surrogate requests that seem inconsistent with a patient's living will.

    PubMed

    Vig, Elizabeth K; Sudore, Rebecca L; Berg, Karina M; Fromme, Erik K; Arnold, Robert M

    2011-11-01

    Clinicians may feel conflicted when a patient's legal decision maker is making decisions that seem inconsistent with a patient's living will. We provide evidence-based information to help clinicians consider whether a surrogate's inconsistent decisions are ethically appropriate. Surrogates are not flawless translators of their loved one's preferences; they are influenced by their own hopes and the current clinical context. Patients may be aware of this, are often concerned about burdening their loved ones, and often grant their surrogates leeway in interpreting their wishes. When appropriate, clinicians should respect surrogates' interpretations of patient values and take steps to decrease surrogate stress during the decision-making process. Finally, if clinicians are cognizant of their own values and preferences, they may recognize how these may affect their responses to certain clinical cases. PMID:22045374

  10. Second-order radio frequency kinetic theory revisited: Resolving inconsistency with conventional fluid theory

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jiale; Center for Magnetic Fusion Theory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei ; Gao, Zhe; Center for Magnetic Fusion Theory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei

    2013-08-15

    The second-order velocity distribution function was calculated from the second-order rf kinetic theory [Jaeger et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 641 (2000)]. However, the nonresonant ponderomotive force in the radial direction derived from the theory is inconsistent with that from the fluid theory. The inconsistency arises from that the multiple-timescale-separation assumption fails when the second-order Vlasov equation is directly integrated along unperturbed particle orbits. A slowly ramped wave field including an adiabatic turn-on process is applied in the modified kinetic theory in this paper. Since this modification leads only to additional reactive/nonresonant response relevant with the secular resonant response from the previous kinetic theory, the correct nonresonant ponderomotive force can be obtained while all the resonant moments remain unchanged.

  11. Inconsistencies in the description of pairing effects in nuclear level densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Karl-Heinz; Jurado, Beatriz

    2012-10-01

    Pairing correlations have a strong influence on nuclear level densities. Empirical descriptions and theoretical models have been developed to take these effects into account. The present article discusses cases, where descriptions of nuclear level densities are inconsistent or in conflict with the present understanding of nuclear properties. Phenomenological approaches consider an energy-shift parameter. However, the absolute magnitude of the energy shift, which actually corresponds to the pairing condensation energy, is generally not compatible with the observation that stable pairing correlations are present in essentially all nuclei. It is also shown that in the BCS model pairing condensation energies and critical pairing energies are inconsistent for light nuclei. A modification to the composite Gilbert-Cameron level-density description is proposed, and the use of more realistic pairing theories is suggested.

  12. The Belief that Alcohol Use is Inconsistent with Personal Autonomy: A Promotive Factor for Younger Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Kimberly L.; Shtivelband, Annette; Comello, Maria Leonora G.; Slater, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored an understudied promotive factor, a belief that alcohol use is inconsistent with personal autonomy, which may reduce adolescent intention to drink and subsequent alcohol use. Autonomy was examined as an attitudinal construct within the Theory of Reasoned Action. Longitudinal data from 2,493 seventh grade students nested in 40 schools were analyzed using a structural equation model. Autonomy was negatively correlated with intention to use alcohol and subsequent alcohol use at a later wave, and intention to use fully mediated the effect of autonomy on subsequent alcohol use. These results are consistent with the proposition that when personal autonomy is perceived as inconsistent with alcohol use among younger adolescents, students indicate a lower intention to use alcohol and use less alcohol during the following school year. PMID:23519434

  13. Inconsistency of the judgment matrix in the AHP method and the decision maker’s knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczypi?ska, Anna; Piotrowski, Edward W.

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a method for a quantitative estimation of the decision maker’s knowledge in the context of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) in cases where the judgment matrix is inconsistent. We show that the matrix of deviation from the transitivity condition corresponds to the rate matrix for transaction costs in the financial market. For the quantitative estimation of the decision maker’s professionalism, we apply the Ising model and thermodynamics tools.

  14. Temporal and spatial inconsistencies of time-split finite-difference schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwoyer, D. L.; Thames, F. C.

    1981-01-01

    The properties of an implicit time-split algorithm, which utilizes locally one dimensional spatial steps, are examined using the two-dimensional heat conduction equation as the test problem. Both temporal and spatial inconsistencies inherent in the scheme are identified. A consistent, implicit splitting approach is developed. The relationship between this method and other time-split implicit schemes is explained, and stability problems encountered with the method in three dimensions are discussed.

  15. On the inconsistency of the Camassa-Holm model with the shallow water theory

    E-print Network

    Rikesh Bhatt; Alexander V Mikhailov

    2010-10-10

    In our paper we show that the Camassa-Holm equation does not represent a long wave asymptotic due to a major inconsistency with the theory of shallow water waves. We state that any solution of the Camassa-Holm equation, which is not asymptotically close to a solution of the Korteweg--de Vries equation is an artefact of the model and irrelevant to the theory of shallow water waves.

  16. The impact of the military mission in Afghanistan on mental health in the Canadian Armed Forces: a summary of research findings

    PubMed Central

    Zamorski, Mark A.; Boulos, David

    2014-01-01

    Background As Canada's mission in Afghanistan winds down, the Canadian Forces (CF) are reflecting on the psychological impact of the mission on more than 40,000 deployed personnel. Methods All major CF studies of mental health outcomes done before and during the Afghanistan era are summarized, with an eye toward getting the most complete picture of the mental health impact of the mission. Studies on traumatic brain injury (TBI), high-risk drinking, and suicidality are included given their conceptual link to mental health. Results CF studies on the mental health impact of pre-Afghanistan deployments are few, and they have inadequate detail on deployment experiences. Afghanistan era findings confirm service-related mental health problems (MHPs) in an important minority. The findings of the studies cohere, both as a group and in the context of data from our Allies. Combat exposure is the most important driver of deployment-related MHPs, but meaningful rates will be found in those in low-threat areas. Reserve service and cumulative effects of multiple deployments are not major risk factors in the CF. Many deployed personnel will seek care, but further efforts to decrease the delay are needed. Only a fraction of the overall burden of mental illness is likely deployment attributable. Deployment-related mental disorders do not translate into an overall increase in in-service suicidal behavior in the CF, but there is concerning evidence of increased suicide risk after release. TBI occurred in a distinct minority on this deployment, but severe forms were rare. Most TBI cases do not have persistent “post-concussive” symptoms; such symptoms are closely associated with MHPs. Conclusion The mental health impact of the mission in Afghanistan is commensurate with its difficult nature. While ongoing and planned studies will provide additional detail on its impacts, greater research attention is needed on preventive and therapeutic interventions. PMID:25206951

  17. Finding food

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, Ann; Lytle, Leslie; Riper, David Van

    2011-01-01

    A significant amount of travel is undertaken to find food. This paper examines challenges in measuring access to food using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), important in studies of both travel and eating behavior. It compares different sources of data available including fieldwork, land use and parcel data, licensing information, commercial listings, taxation data, and online street-level photographs. It proposes methods to classify different kinds of food sales places in a way that says something about their potential for delivering healthy food options. In assessing the relationship between food access and travel behavior, analysts must clearly conceptualize key variables, document measurement processes, and be clear about the strengths and weaknesses of data. PMID:21837264

  18. The emerging field of retinal electrophysiological measurements in psychiatric research: A review of the findings and the perspectives in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Schwitzer, Thomas; Lavoie, Joëlle; Giersch, Anne; Schwan, Raymund; Laprevote, Vincent

    2015-11-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a severe mental illness leading to long-term disabilities. One of the current challenges in psychiatric research is to develop new approaches to investigate the pathophysiology of MDD and monitor drug response in order to provide better therapeutic strategies to the patients. Since the retina is considered as part of the central nervous system, it was suggested that it constitutes an appropriate site to investigate mental illnesses. In the past years, several teams assessed the retinal function of patients with mood disorders and many relevant abnormalities have been reported. Investigation of the retinal electrophysiological abnormalities in MDD remains a young emerging field, but we believe that the current findings are very promising and we argue that objective retinal electrophysiological measurements may eventually become relevant tools to investigate the pathophysiology of MDD. Here, we review the retinal abnormalities detected with objective electrophysiological measurements such as the flash electroretinogram (fERG), the pattern electroretinogram (PERG) and the electrooculogram (EOG) in patients with MDD. We discuss how these changes might reflect the pathophysiology of MDD in both clinical and scientific points of view, according especially to the monoamine neurotransmission deficiency hypothesis. We also discuss the technical details that must be taken into consideration for a potential use of the objective retinal electrophysiological measurements as tools to investigate the pathophysiology of MDD. PMID:26424430

  19. Agreement among dentists’ restorative treatment planning thresholds for primary occlusal caries, primary proximal caries, and existing restorations: Findings from The National Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Heaven, Tim J.; Gordan, Valeria V.; Litaker, Mark S.; Fellows, Jeffrey L.; Rindal, D. Brad; Firestone, Allen R.; Gilbert, Gregg H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to quantify the agreement among individual National Dental Practice-Based Research Network dentists’ self-reported treatment decisions for primary occlusal caries, primary proximal caries, and existing restorations. Methods Five hypothetical clinical scenarios were presented: primary occlusal caries; primary proximal caries; and whether three existing restorations should be repaired or replaced. We quantified the probability that dentists who recommended later restorative intervention for primary caries were the same ones who recommended that existing restorations be repaired instead of replaced. Results Dentists who recommended later restorative treatment of primary occlusal caries and proximal caries at a more-advanced stage were significantly more likely to recommend repair instead of replacement. Agreement among dentists on a threshold stage for the treatment of primary caries ranged from 40 to 68%, while that for repair or replacement of existing restorations was 36 to 43%. Conclusions Dentists who recommended repair rather than replacement of existing restorations were significantly more likely to recommend later treatment of primary caries. Conversely, dentists who recommended treatment of primary caries at an earlier stage were significantly more likely to recommend replacement of the entire restoration. Between-dentist agreement for primary caries treatment was better than between-dentist agreement for repair or replacement of existing restorations. Clinical implications These findings suggest consistency in how individual dentists approach the treatment of primary caries and existing restorations. However, substantial variation was found between dentists in their treatment decisions about the same teeth. PMID:23743181

  20. Ernst Rüdin’s Unpublished 1922-1925 Study “Inheritance of Manic-Depressive Insanity”: Genetic Research Findings Subordinated to Eugenic Ideology

    PubMed Central

    Kösters, Gundula; Steinberg, Holger; Kirkby, Kenneth Clifford; Himmerich, Hubertus

    2015-01-01

    In the early 20th century, there were few therapeutic options for mental illness and asylum numbers were rising. This pessimistic outlook favoured the rise of the eugenics movement. Heredity was assumed to be the principal cause of mental illness. Politicians, scientists and clinicians in North America and Europe called for compulsory sterilisation of the mentally ill. Psychiatric genetic research aimed to prove a Mendelian mode of inheritance as a scientific justification for these measures. Ernst Rüdin’s seminal 1916 epidemiological study on inheritance of dementia praecox featured large, systematically ascertained samples and statistical analyses. Rüdin’s 1922–1925 study on the inheritance of “manic-depressive insanity” was completed in manuscript form, but never published. It failed to prove a pattern of Mendelian inheritance, counter to the tenets of eugenics of which Rüdin was a prominent proponent. It appears he withheld the study from publication, unable to reconcile this contradiction, thus subordinating his carefully derived scientific findings to his ideological preoccupations. Instead, Rüdin continued to promote prevention of assumed hereditary mental illnesses by prohibition of marriage or sterilisation and was influential in the introduction by the National Socialist regime of the 1933 “Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring” (Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses). PMID:26544949

  1. Inconsistencies in pedigree symbols in human genetics publications: A need for standardization

    SciTech Connect

    Steinhaus, K.A.; Bennett, R.L.; Resta, R.G.

    1995-04-10

    To determine consistency in usage of pedigree symbols by genetics professionals, we reviewed pedigrees printed in 10 human genetic and medical journals and 24 medical genetics textbooks. We found no consistent symbolization for common situations such as pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, death, or test results. Inconsistency in pedigree design can create difficulties in the interpretation of family studies and detract from the pedigree`s basic strength of simple and accurate communication of medical information. We recommend the development of standard pedigree symbols, and their incorporation into genetic publications, professional genetics training programs, pedigree software programs, and genetic board examinations. 5 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Improving Aboriginal maternal and infant health services in the ‘Top End’ of Australia; synthesis of the findings of a health services research program aimed at engaging stakeholders, developing research capacity and embedding change

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health services research is a well-articulated research methodology and can be a powerful vehicle to implement sustainable health service reform. This paper presents a summary of a five-year collaborative program between stakeholders and researchers that led to sustainable improvements in the maternity services for remote-dwelling Aboriginal women and their infants in the Top End (TE) of Australia. Methods A mixed-methods health services research program of work was designed, using a participatory approach. The study area consisted of two large remote Aboriginal communities in the Top End of Australia and the hospital in the regional centre (RC) that provided birth and tertiary care for these communities. The stakeholders included consumers, midwives, doctors, nurses, Aboriginal Health Workers (AHW), managers, policy makers and support staff. Data were sourced from: hospital and health centre records; perinatal data sets and costing data sets; observations of maternal and infant health service delivery and parenting styles; formal and informal interviews with providers and women and focus groups. Studies examined: indicator sets that identify best care, the impact of quality of care and remoteness on health outcomes, discrepancies in the birth counts in a range of different data sets and ethnographic studies of ‘out of hospital’ or health centre birth and parenting. A new model of maternity care was introduced by the health service aiming to improve care following the findings of our research. Some of these improvements introduced during the five-year research program of research were evaluated. Results Cost effective improvements were made to the acceptability, quality and outcomes of maternity care. However, our synthesis identified system-wide problems that still account for poor quality of infant services, specifically, unacceptable standards of infant care and parent support, no apparent relationship between volume and acuity of presentations and staff numbers with the required skills for providing care for infants, and an ‘outpatient’ model of care. Services were also characterised by absent Aboriginal leadership and inadequate coordination between remote and tertiary services that is essential to improve quality of care and reduce ‘system-introduced’ risk. Conclusion Evidence-informed redesign of maternity services and delivery of care has improved clinical effectiveness and quality for women. However, more work is needed to address substandard care provided for infants and their parents. PMID:24890910

  3. Educational Research for Professional Practice: More than Providing Evidence for Doing "x Rather than y" or Finding the "Size of the Effect of A on B"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Bev

    2003-01-01

    Educational research has been criticised by governments and practitioners. For some politicians and policy makers, there is a tendency to look for direct links between research and successful, effective and efficient practice. Research is needed to inform their evidence-based practice as policy makers, and to provide the kind of research teachers…

  4. Inconsistent Range Shifts within Species Highlight Idiosyncratic Responses to Climate Warming

    PubMed Central

    Gibson-Reinemer, Daniel K.; Rahel, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    Climate in part determines species’ distributions, and species’ distributions are shifting in response to climate change. Strong correlations between the magnitude of temperature changes and the extent of range shifts point to warming temperatures as the single most influential factor causing shifts in species’ distributions species. However, other abiotic and biotic factors may alter or even reverse these patterns. The importance of temperature relative to these other factors can be evaluated by examining range shifts of the same species in different geographic areas. When the same species experience warming in different geographic areas, the extent to which they show range shifts that are similar in direction and magnitude is a measure of temperature’s importance. We analyzed published studies to identify species that have documented range shifts in separate areas. For 273 species of plants, birds, mammals, and marine invertebrates with range shifts measured in multiple geographic areas, 42-50% show inconsistency in the direction of their range shifts, despite experiencing similar warming trends. Inconsistency of within-species range shifts highlights how biotic interactions and local, non-thermal abiotic conditions may often supersede the direct physiological effects of temperature. Assemblages show consistent responses to climate change, but this predictability does not appear to extend to species considered individually. PMID:26162013

  5. What Does It Mean to Be a Friendly Outsider? Critical Reflection on Finding a Role as an Action Researcher with Communities Developing Renewable Energy Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Jennifer; Convery, Ian; Simmons, Eunice; Weatherall, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a reflective account exploring the value of using action research in a relatively new context in the United Kingdom; the development of community renewable-energy projects. There is a strong rationale for using action research in this setting due to the synergies between the principles and practice of action research and localised…

  6. Humans are still evolving, scientists find Darwinian survival-of-the-fittest laws continue to shape human evolution in the modern age, research has shown.

    E-print Network

    Lummaa, Virpi

    Humans are still evolving, scientists find Darwinian survival-of-the-fittest laws continue to shape. SubscribeRegisterLog in Page 1 of 2Humans are still evolving, scientists find - Telegraph 12/05/2012http://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/science-news/9236924/Humans-are-still-evolving... #12;Although the specific pressures, the factors making some

  7. Implementing the ten steps to successful breastfeeding in multiple hospitals serving low-wealth patients in the US: innovative research design and baseline findings

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding are maternity practices proven to support successful achievement of exclusive breastfeeding. They also are the basis for the WHO/UNICEF Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI). This study explores implementation of these steps in hospitals that serve predominantly low wealth populations. Methods A quasi-experimental design with mixed methods for data collection and analysis was included within an intervention project. We compared the impact of a modified Ten Steps implementation approach to a control group. The intervention was carried out in hospitals where: 1) BFHI designation was not necessarily under consideration, and 2) the majority of the patient population was low wealth, i.e., eligible for Medicaid. Hospitals in the research aspect of this project were systematically assigned to one of two groups: Initial Intervention or Initial Control/Later Intervention. This paper includes analyses from the baseline data collection, which consisted of an eSurvey (i.e., Carolina B-KAP), Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care survey tool (mPINC), the BFHI Self-Appraisal, key informant interviews, breastfeeding data, and formatted feedback discussion. Results Comparability was ensured by statistical and non-parametric tests of baseline characteristics of the two groups. Additional findings of interest included: 1) a universal lack of consistent breastfeeding records and statistics for regular monitoring/review, 2) widespread misinterpretation of associated terminology, 3) health care providers’ reported practices not necessarily reflective of their knowledge and attitudes, and 4) specific steps were found to be associated with hospital breastfeeding rates. A comprehensive set of facilitators and obstacles to initiation of the Ten Steps emerged, and hospital-specific practice change challenges were identified. Discussion This is one of the first studies to examine introduction of the Ten Steps in multiple hospitals with a control group and in hospitals that were not necessarily interested in BFHI designation, where the population served is predominantly low wealth, and with the use of a mixed methods approach. Limitations including numbers of hospitals and inability to adhere to all elements of the design are discussed. Conclusions For improvements in quality of care for breastfeeding dyads, innovative and site-specific intervention modification must be considered. PMID:23688264

  8. An absurd inconsistency in law: Nicklinson's case and deciding to die.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Michael

    2014-03-01

    R (Nicklinson) v Ministry of Justice [2012] EWHC 2381 was a tragic case that considered a perennial question: whether voluntary active euthanasia is murder. The traditional position was affirmed, that is, it is indeed murder. The law's treatment of decisions to refuse treatment resulting in death is a stark contrast to the position in respect of voluntary, active euthanasia. In cases of refusing treatment, principles of individual autonomy are paramount. This article presents an overview of the legal distinction between refusing medical treatment and voluntary, active euthanasia. It questions the purported differences between what are described as acts of "active" or "passive" euthanasia. It also highlights the inconsistency of the law's treatment of different ways that people decide to die. PMID:24804532

  9. Decisional inconsistencies in the management of contaminated, sport-caught fish.

    PubMed

    Foran, Jeffery A; Jia, Chunrong

    2013-01-01

    Persistent toxic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls and mercury accumulate in tissues of fish that are caught and consumed by sport anglers and their families. Unlike commercially-sold fish, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate sport-caught fish that are contaminated with these and other pollutants. Instead, nearly every state in the U.S. develops and issues consumption advice for contaminated sport-caught fish. We examined fish consumption advice issued by states that border and share waters of the Mississippi River. Our examination identified numerous jurisdictional inconsistencies that threaten the receptivity and credibility of consumption advice and, more important, threaten the health of individuals who consume contaminated sport-caught fish. PMID:24350553

  10. Black hole thermodynamics: No inconsistency via the inclusion of the missing P -V terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azreg-Aïnou, Mustapha

    2015-03-01

    The early literature on black hole thermodynamics ignored the P -V term associated with the existence of a fundamental physical constant in the black hole solution. The inclusion of this constant in the first law becomes inconsistent with the Smarr relation. Once the missing P -V term is introduced, it becomes customary to introduce it only in problems where there is a negative cosmological constant. This practice is inherited from cosmological approaches which consider the quantity -? /8 ? as the constant pressure due to a cosmological fluid. However, the notions of pressure and thermodynamic volume in black hole thermodynamics are very different from their counterparts in classical thermodynamics. From this point of view, there is a priori no compelling reason to not extend this notion of pressure and associate a partial pressure with each "external" density 8? Tt t . In this work, we associate a partial pressure with a variable mass parameter as well as with each t t component of the effective stress-energy tensor Teff? ? but not with the linear component of the electromagnetic field. Using the field equations G? ?=8 ? Teff? ? , we derive universal expressions for the enthalpy, internal energy, free energies, thermodynamic volume, equation of state, law of corresponding states, criticality, and critical exponents of static (nonrotating) charged black holes, with possibly a variable mass parameter, whether they are solutions to the Einstein field equations or not. We extend the derivation to the case where the black hole is immersed in the field of a quintessence force and to the multiforce case. Many applications and extensions are considered, including applications to regular black holes derived in previous and present work. No inconsistency has been noticed in their thermodynamics.

  11. Early Care and Education Choices, Quality, and Continuity for Low-Income Families: New Findings from the Maryland-Minnesota Child Care Research Partnership. Publication #2015-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tout, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Maryland and Minnesota are two states that have been leading innovations across early care and education (ECE) policy and simultaneously investing in research and data infrastructure to ensure that their strategies are informed by evaluation and new evidence in the field. The Maryland-Minnesota Child Care Research Partnership received a grant in…

  12. Applied ReseARch At coventRy UniveRsity ISSUE 5 spRinG 2009 do you need to find an innovative solution to

    E-print Network

    and international level. Our staff have world leading and internationally excellent research expertise in a wide, education, applied mathematics, engineering, computing, information management, politics and materials developments we are making to the future of healthcare in the UK ­ and indeed globally ­ through our research

  13. PLANNED INTEGRATION OF MEASUREMENT AND SURVEY DATA FROM THE DEARS WITH LOCAL AND REGIONAL RESEARCH EFFORTS: PRELIMINARY DATA FINDINGS AND OBSERVATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Canadian-US Border Air Quality Studies represent collaborative research being performed by both parties. This abstract details the efforts of the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) to work collaboratively in this regards. A discussion of the collaborations ...

  14. Cultural Attitudes and Body Dissatisfaction: Morgan State Researchers Find that Perceptions of Body Image among Young African Americans May Be Life Threatening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, B. Denise

    2005-01-01

    Young African Americans don't appear to perceive obesity in the way the medical community does, putting them at greater risk for developing chronic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and cancer, says a first-ever study led by researchers at the Morgan State University Prevention Sciences Research Center. The pilot study, which provides a rare…

  15. Factors Associated with Inconsistent Condom Use in Adolescents with Negative or Unknown HIV status in Northwest Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Lee; Kouya, Francine; Kwalar, Rene; Pilapil, Mariecel; Saito, Kohta; Palmer, Nancy; Posada, Roberto; Tih, Pius Muffih; Welty, Thomas; Jao, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between utilization of HIV testing and condom use amongst Cameroonian youth/adolescents who are not known to be HIV-infected. Background Worldwide, HIV is spreading most quickly amongst youth/adolescents. Between 44% and 82% of sexually active youth in Cameroon report inconsistent condom use. Data regarding utilization of HIV testing and condom use is lacking. Methods A cross-sectional survey was administered to 431 youth ages 12-26 years in Cameroon from September to December 2011. Data on socio-demographics, sexual risk behaviors, self-reported HIV status, and condom use were collected. We compared rates of inconsistent condom use between those known HIV negative who utilized testing (HIV-N) versus those with unknown status due to unutilized testing (HIV-U). Inconsistent condom use was defined as responding “never,” “sometimes,” or “usually,” while consistent condom use was defined as responding “always” to questions regarding frequency of condom use. Generalized Estimating Equations were applied to assess the association between HIV testing and inconsistent condom use adjusting for other confounders. Results Of 414 eligible respondents, 205 were HIV-U and 209 HIV-N. HIV-U subjects were younger (mean age =16.4 vs. 17.9, p<0.001) and more likely to report living in an urban area (p=0.002) than HIV-N subjects. Seventy-two percent (137/191) of sexually active youth reported inconsistent condom use. After adjusting for potential confounders, HIV-U status [Odds Ratio (OR) =3.97, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) =1.68-6.01] was associated with inconsistent condom use. Similarly, female gender (OR=3.2, 95% CI=1.29-7.89) was associated with inconsistent condom use, while older age at sexual debut was associated with a decreased risk for inconsistent condom use (OR=0.67, 95% CI=0.56-0.81). Conclusion Cameroonian adolescents report high rates of inconsistent condom use which we found to be associated with self-reported unknown HIV status due to unutilized HIV testing. Successful HIV prevention programs among African youths/adolescents may benefit from expanded HIV testing programs. PMID:24865769

  16. The NIDDK Information Network: A Community Portal for Finding Data, Materials, and Tools for Researchers Studying Diabetes, Digestive, and Kidney Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Whetzel, Patricia L.; Grethe, Jeffrey S.; Banks, Davis E.; Martone, Maryann E.

    2015-01-01

    The NIDDK Information Network (dkNET; http://dknet.org) was launched to serve the needs of basic and clinical investigators in metabolic, digestive and kidney disease by facilitating access to research resources that advance the mission of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). By research resources, we mean the multitude of data, software tools, materials, services, projects and organizations available to researchers in the public domain. Most of these are accessed via web-accessible databases or web portals, each developed, designed and maintained by numerous different projects, organizations and individuals. While many of the large government funded databases, maintained by agencies such as European Bioinformatics Institute and the National Center for Biotechnology Information, are well known to researchers, many more that have been developed by and for the biomedical research community are unknown or underutilized. At least part of the problem is the nature of dynamic databases, which are considered part of the “hidden” web, that is, content that is not easily accessed by search engines. dkNET was created specifically to address the challenge of connecting researchers to research resources via these types of community databases and web portals. dkNET functions as a “search engine for data”, searching across millions of database records contained in hundreds of biomedical databases developed and maintained by independent projects around the world. A primary focus of dkNET are centers and projects specifically created to provide high quality data and resources to NIDDK researchers. Through the novel data ingest process used in dkNET, additional data sources can easily be incorporated, allowing it to scale with the growth of digital data and the needs of the dkNET community. Here, we provide an overview of the dkNET portal and its functions. We show how dkNET can be used to address a variety of use cases that involve searching for research resources. PMID:26393351

  17. Maternal Exposure to Synthetic Chemicals and Obesity in the Offspring: Recent Findings.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun; Peterson, Karen E

    2015-12-01

    Experimental studies suggest perinatal exposures to synthetic chemicals may be associated with early onset obesity, although this hypothesis has not been extensively examined in humans. This article summarizes the evidence relating maternal perinatal exposure to common persistent organic compounds (polychlorinated biphenyl, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexane), perfluoroalkyls, perfluorooctane sulfonate, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and tributyltin, and nonpersistent compounds (phthalates, bisphenol A) on child obesity during sensitive developmental periods. Twenty-two epidemiologic studies published from 2011 to 2015 offer inconsistent support for the obesogenic effects of most substances and are limited by relatively small sample sizes and indirect measures of adiposity. The clearest findings suggest an influence of maternal dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene exposure on offspring overweight and obesity. Recommendations for future epidemiological research include longer follow-up of effects of pre- and postnatal exposures in large samples; utilization of direct measures of adiposity; and consideration of effect modification by sex, birth weight, dietary fat, and maternal weight status. PMID:26403844

  18. Lo que da buen resultado en casa. Resultados de la investigacion y Actividades de aprendizaje: Sentido comun y diversion para ninos y adultos (What Works at Home. Research Findings and Learning Activities: Common Sense and Fun for Adults and Children).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, Shirley, Ed.

    As part of an effort to encourage Hispanic parents to help their children in school, this home learning guide, which can also be obtained in taped versions, provides parents with learning activities with which to engage their children. Based on research findings, the activities are divided into the following categories: curriculum of the home,…

  19. The art of smart irrigation: Researchers work to find the smartest irrigation controllers while educating auditors and homeowners to be smart too 

    E-print Network

    Lee, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Swanson are working to improve landscape irrigation practices in Texas by researching the water e?ciency of smart irrigation controllers and educating irrigation auditors. What does it take to be ?smart?? Fipps, professor of biological..., which is administered by the Texas Water Resources Institute. Researchers work to ?nd the smartest smart irrigation controllers while educating auditors and homeowners to be smart too The rt of Smart Irrigation Summer 2011 tx H2O 11...

  20. What Lives in Your Belly Button? Study Finds "Rain Forest" of Species1 Thousands of bacteria found in navels. "It's quite beautiful," researcher says.2

    E-print Network

    South Bohemia, University of

    What Lives in Your Belly Button? Study Finds "Rain Forest" of Species1 Thousands of bacteria found. The upshot? Belly buttons, it turns out, are a6 lot like rain forests. The whole thing started about two, they did so in huge numbers. "That makes the belly button a lot like rain forests," Dunn27 said. In any