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The method is the messageExplaining inconsistent findings in gender and news production research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whether, and how, gender affects the news product is one of the most challenging areas in the field of gender and the media. This article analyzes the impact of specific research methodologies on findings regarding gender news influence - based on survey questionnaires and in-depth interviews of female and male editors working in Israeli public radio, as well as on

Aliza Lavie; Sam Lehman-Wilzig



Inconsistent use of terminology in whole body vibration exercise research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole body vibration exercise (WBV) intensity can be manipulated by altering the frequency of oscillations and\\/or its magnitude. The inconsistencies and inaccuracies reported within the literature that at times challenge the replication and advancement of whole body vibration exercise research are discussed. Although frequency is regularly reported, inconsistency exists with the definition of vibration amplitude which has been interchangeably used

Christian Lorenzen; Wayne Maschette; Michael Koh; Cameron Wilson



Inconsistency Management in Software Engineering: Survey and Open Research Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of complex software systems is a complex and lengthy activity that involves the participation and collaboration of many stakeholders (e.g. customers, users, analysts, designers, and developers). This results in many partial models of the developing system. These models can be inconsistent with each other since they describe the system from different perspectives and reflects the views of the

George Spanoudakis; Andrea Zisman



Parental Inconsistency: A Third Cross-Cultural Research on Parenting and Psychological Adjustment of Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inconsistency in parenting is a factor that may influence children’s mental health. A questionnaire, measuring three parental\\u000a inconsistencies (temporal, situational, and father-mother inconsistency) was administered to adolescents in nine countries\\u000a to assess its association with adolescents’ psychological disorders. The results show that parental inconsistency varies across\\u000a cultures. Temporal inconsistency is not correlated with the other two inconsistencies. Temporal and father–mother

Marwan Dwairy



Breast Cancer Research Finding Answers. Finding Cures.  

E-print Network

Breast Cancer Research Finding Answers. Finding Cures. Thanks to improvements in treatment and early detection, more and more women are surviving breast cancer. In fact, the five-year survival rate for women with breast cancer today is 90%, up from only 63% in the 1960s. While progress has clearly been

Kowalczykowski, Stephen C.


Parental Inconsistency: A Third Cross-Cultural Research on Parenting and Psychological Adjustment of Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inconsistency in parenting is a factor that may influence children's mental health. A questionnaire, measuring three parental inconsistencies (temporal, situational, and father-mother inconsistency) was administered to adolescents in nine countries to assess its association with adolescents' psychological disorders. The results show that parental…

Dwairy, Marwan



Inconsistency in the strength testing of dental resin-based composites among researchers  

PubMed Central

The aims of this paper were to review the current strength testing methods of the dental resin-based composites (RBCs) and to explore the inconsistencies with regard to strength testing among researchers. Data selection/extraction: An outline of the most relevant aspects of RBCs was created, and a subsequent literature search for articles published during last four decades (1970-2010) was conducted using the databases, namely PubMed, Science Direct and ISI Web of Knowledge. Conclusion: The literature review highlighted a lack of consensus among researchers regarding the reliability of ISO recommended three-point flexure strength testing method. Several investigators have used Weibull statistics for the analysis of RBCs strength data, however their applicability might be questioned as many RBCs contain greater resin content and may exhibit sufficient viscous deformation prior to brittle failure. In addition, variability in the selection of cross-head speed and mould material for strength testing was evident which may lead to variation in the strength data and render the interpretation difficult among researchers. PMID:24353541

Kumar, Naresh



Knowledge translation of research findings  

PubMed Central

Background One of the most consistent findings from clinical and health services research is the failure to translate research into practice and policy. As a result of these evidence-practice and policy gaps, patients fail to benefit optimally from advances in healthcare and are exposed to unnecessary risks of iatrogenic harms, and healthcare systems are exposed to unnecessary expenditure resulting in significant opportunity costs. Over the last decade, there has been increasing international policy and research attention on how to reduce the evidence-practice and policy gap. In this paper, we summarise the current concepts and evidence to guide knowledge translation activities, defined as T2 research (the translation of new clinical knowledge into improved health). We structure the article around five key questions: what should be transferred; to whom should research knowledge be transferred; by whom should research knowledge be transferred; how should research knowledge be transferred; and, with what effect should research knowledge be transferred? Discussion We suggest that the basic unit of knowledge translation should usually be up-to-date systematic reviews or other syntheses of research findings. Knowledge translators need to identify the key messages for different target audiences and to fashion these in language and knowledge translation products that are easily assimilated by different audiences. The relative importance of knowledge translation to different target audiences will vary by the type of research and appropriate endpoints of knowledge translation may vary across different stakeholder groups. There are a large number of planned knowledge translation models, derived from different disciplinary, contextual (i.e., setting), and target audience viewpoints. Most of these suggest that planned knowledge translation for healthcare professionals and consumers is more likely to be successful if the choice of knowledge translation strategy is informed by an assessment of the likely barriers and facilitators. Although our evidence on the likely effectiveness of different strategies to overcome specific barriers remains incomplete, there is a range of informative systematic reviews of interventions aimed at healthcare professionals and consumers (i.e., patients, family members, and informal carers) and of factors important to research use by policy makers. Summary There is a substantial (if incomplete) evidence base to guide choice of knowledge translation activities targeting healthcare professionals and consumers. The evidence base on the effects of different knowledge translation approaches targeting healthcare policy makers and senior managers is much weaker but there are a profusion of innovative approaches that warrant further evaluation. PMID:22651257



ReportingResearchFindings 44Reporting Research Findings  

E-print Network

that an overwhelming percentage of the respondents -- 83% -- feel that punishing cyberbullies is not necessary of reporting findings Yes No 21% 79% Yes No 21% 79% Figure 2: Percentage of respondents who know how to do CPR of knowledge of CPR As can be seen from Figure 2, only 21% of the respondents reported knowing how

Chaudhuri, Sanjay


75 FR 18836 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct...falsifying the original research data when entering values into computer programs for statistical analysis with the goal of...



77 FR 52034 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...that Respondent engaged in research misconduct involving two...and HHS want to conclude this matter without further expenditure...Settlement Agreement to resolve this matter. Respondent neither admits nor denies ORI's finding of research misconduct. This...



Use of nursing practice research findings.  


Fourteen nursing research findings that meet the Conduct and Utilization of Research in Nursing (CURN) Project (1982) criteria for clinical use were identified from research journals and CURN publications. Data collected from 216 practicing nurses in small, medium, and large hospitals were analyzed to determine their awareness of, persuasion about, and use of the findings. The majority of nurses were aware of the average innovation, were persuaded about it, and used the average innovation at least sometimes. Use of the innovations had no relationship to hospital policies or procedures concerning the nursing research findings. PMID:3671121

Brett, J L



Finding Fault? Exploring Legal Duties to Return Incidental Findings in Genomic Research  

PubMed Central

The use of whole-genome sequencing in biomedical research is expected to produce dramatic advances in human health. The increasing use of this powerful, data-rich new technology in research, however, will inevitably give rise to incidental findings (IFs)—findings with individual health or reproductive significance that are beyond the aims of the particular research—and the related questions of whether and to what extent researchers have an ethical obligation to return IFs. Many have concluded that researchers have an ethical obligation to return some findings in some circumstances but have provided vague or context-dependent approaches to determining which IFs must be returned and when. As a result, researchers have started returning IFs inconsistently, giving rise to concerns about legal liability in circumstances in which notification could have potentially prevented injury. Although it is clear that ethical guidance should not be automatically codified as law and that crafting ethical obligations around legal duties can be inappropriate, the ethical debate should not proceed unaware of the potential legal ramifications of advancing and implementing an ethical obligation to return IFs. This Article assesses the legal claims that could be brought for a researcher’s failure to return IFs. The potential for researchers to be held liable in tort is still uncertain and turns largely on a number of factors—including customary practice and guidance documents—that are still in flux. Unlike medical care, which has a well-defined duty into which evolving scientific knowledge about genetics and genomics can readily be incorporated, a researcher’s duty to return IFs is less well defined, making it difficult to determine at the outset whether and when legal liability will attach. This Article advocates for a clearer, ethically sound standard of requiring that researchers disclose in the informed consent document which approach to offering IFs will be taken. This approach enables participants to know at the outset which findings, if any, will be returned, allows researchers to ascertain when their failure to appropriately return incidental findings will give rise to liability, and enables courts to make determinations that will produce more consistent legal guidance.

Pike, Elizabeth R.; Rothenberg, Karen H.; Berkman, Benjamin E.



77 FR 38632 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct...altering in multiple ways a single stereology ``.dat'' computer file generated on August 18, 2002, and renaming it to...



Applications of classroom management research findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the long?term effects of providing a research?based approach to classroom management through a two?phase staff development process. Findings indicate that teachers identified specific benefits they gained from implementing group development and cooperative learning strategies. The findings also indicate that classrooms of high implementors differed from classrooms of low implementors. Finally, specific characteristics

Joyce G. Putnam



Learning from Inconsistency  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This position paper argues that inconsistencies that occur during the development of a software specification offer an excellent way of learning more about the development process. We base this argument on our work on inconsistency management. Much attention has been devoted recently to the need to allow inconsistencies to occur during software development, to facilitate flexible development strategies, especially for collaborative work. Recent work has concentrated on reasoning in the presence of inconsistency, tracing inconsistencies with 'pollution markers' and supporting resolution. We argue here that one of the most important aspects of inconsistency is the learning opportunity it provides. We are therefore concerned with how to capture this learning outcome so that its significance is not lost. We present a small example of how apprentice software engineers learn from their mistakes, and outline how an inconsistency management tool could support this learning. We then argue that the approach can be used more generally as part of continuous process improvement.

Easterbrook, Steve



Tools for Finding Indexed Accounting Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Accounting Association (AAA) lists the print resources and electronic databases where AAA journals are indexed and abstracted at this Tools for Finding Indexed Accounting Research page. The detailed list includes indexing and abstracting devices for a number of journals -- Accounting Horizons, The Accounting Review, Auditing: A Journal of Practice & Theory, Behavioral Research in Accounting, Issues in Accounting Education, Journal of the American Taxation Association, Journal of Information Systems, and the Journal of Management Accounting Research -- with date coverage and full-text information included for each.


Inconsistent condom use by male clients during anal intercourse with occasional and regular female sex workers (FSWs): survey findings from southern states of India  

PubMed Central

Objectives Self-reported anal intercourse by female sex workers (FSWs) documented in recent studies from India range between 11.9% and 22%. However, comparable data on anal intercourse and condom use from male clients of FSWs is lacking. Using data from a bio-behavioural survey (2009–2010), we examined prevalence of anal intercourse, male clients’ self-reported inconsistent condom use during anal intercourse with FSWs, and correlates of this behaviour in India's high HIV prevalence southern states (Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu combined). Methods Using two-stage time location cluster sampling, we recruited 4803 clients of FSWs, ages 18–60?years, who had purchased sex from an FSW in the past month. After obtaining informed consent, respondents were interviewed and tested for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (syphilis, gonorrhoea and chlamydia). Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with inconsistent condom use during anal intercourse (in the past 6?months) with FSWs. Results Overall, 12.3% clients reported anal intercourse in the past 6?months, of whom 48.4% used condoms inconsistently. Clients of FSWs who were ages 26?years or older (AOR 2.68, p=0.032); employed as manual labourers (AOR 2.43, p=0.013); consumed alcohol (AOR 2.63, p=0.001); reported five or more sex acts with FSWs in the past month (AOR 2.53, p=0.031); and perceived themselves to be at higher risk for HIV (AOR 4.82, p=0.001) were more likely to inconsistently use condoms during anal intercourse. Conclusions The results suggest that sex workers and their clients commonly practice anal intercourse, but a relatively high proportion of clients do not consistently use condoms, leading to a greater risk of acquiring HIV and its further transmission to other male and female sexual partners. Given the multidirectional risk, safer sex communication on heterosexual anal intercourse must be incorporated into HIV prevention programmes. PMID:25410604

Ramanathan, Shreena; Nagarajan, Karikalan; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmi; Mainkar, Mandar K; Goswami, Prabuddhagopal; Yadav, Diwakar; Sen, Shrabanti; George, Bitra; Rachakulla, Harikumar; Subramanian, Thilakavathi; Paranjape, Ramesh S



Utilization of research findings: A matter of research tradition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences between the realist and pragmatist research traditions are seen to explain different levels of utilization of\\u000a research findings.\\u000a \\u000a The realist tradition, which views knowledge as a true representation of reality with the role of research being to reveal\\u000a its underlying causal relations, is less associated with high levels of utilization. In the pragmatist tradition, on the other\\u000a hand, knowledge

Ruth Zuzovsky



Researchers Find Japanese Submarine at Pearl Harbor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earlier this week, researchers from the University of Hawaii and the Hawaii Underwater Research Lab located the remains of a Japanese midget submarine. Found in 1200 feet of water, the submarine was sunk by the USS Ward just an hour before the aerial attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. Most important, the discovery of the midget submarine offers concrete physical evidence that the United States did fire the first shot against the Japanese. Previous expeditions to locate the sub, including an effort made in 2000 by the National Geographic Society, had been unsuccessful, largely due to the fact that the area is a military "junkyard" with tons of debris on the ocean floor.For more in-depth information on this story, readers may find the first four news links particularly helpful. The fifth link leads to the Hawaii Underwater Research Lab's Web site that features photographs of the midget sub from the expedition earlier this week. The sixth link is to a Web site dealing with the history and missions of the USS Ward. The final link contains detailed information about the 2000 expedition led by Robert Ballard, with support from the National Geographic Society, to find the midget submarine.

Green, Marcia.



Researcher Perspectives on Disclosure of Incidental Findings in Genetic Research  

PubMed Central

Genetic research can produce information that is beyond the aims of the research study yet may be of clinical or personal interest to study participants. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 44 researchers who were asked to describe how they would respond to a hypothetical vignette regarding the disclosure of findings with unanticipated clinical significance to research study participants. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using content and thematic analyses. Researchers’ decision-making processes about whether to disclose incidental findings were governed by potentially conflicting duties in three primary domains: information quality, adherence to rules, and participant welfare. There are several actions researchers can take to prepare for incidental findings, including: adding specific language in informed consent documents to state clearly how investigators will handle disclosure; exploring how prepared participants might be during the consent process to make decisions about how they would like to be approached in the event of incidental findings; developing procedures for appropriately communicating individual results and providing follow-up support based on participant preferences; and, in genetic research, having an awareness of the range of traits expressed by the genes under study. PMID:20831419

Meacham, Meredith C.; Starks, Helene; Burke, Wylie; Edwards, Kelly



The return of individual research findings in paediatric genetic research.  


The combination of the issue of return of individual genetic results/incidental findings and paediatric biobanks is not much discussed in ethical literature. The traditional arguments pro and con return of such findings focus on principles such as respect for persons, autonomy and solidarity. Two dimensions have been distilled from the discussion on return of individual results in a genetic research context: the respect for a participant's autonomy and the duty of the researcher. Concepts such as autonomy and solidarity do not fit easily in the discussion when paediatric biobanks are concerned. Although parents may be allowed to enrol children in minimal risk genetic research on stored tissue samples, they should not be given the option to opt out of receiving important health information. Also, children have a right to an open future: parents do not have the right to access any genetic data that a biobank holds on their children. In this respect, the guidelines on genetic testing of minors are applicable. With regard to the duty of the researcher the question of whether researchers have a more stringent duty to return important health information when their research subjects are children is more difficult to answer. A researcher's primary duty is to perform useful research, a policy to return individual results must not hamper this task. The fact that vulnerable children are concerned, is an additional factor that should be considered when a policy of returning results is laid down for a specific collection or research project. PMID:21059631

Hens, Kristien; Nys, Herman; Cassiman, Jean-Jacques; Dierickx, Kris



76 FR 68460 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...awards and by NIH intramural research funds from the National...Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR). ORI found that the Respondent engaged in research misconduct by including...T32 CA09677, Radiation Biology Training Grant,''...



Animal Research: Finding Cures, Saving Lives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides an online and a printable brochure that provides information on why researchers study animals, how research animals are cared for, the ethics of animal research, cosmetic testing on animals, and how animal research helps people in the context of a diabetes patient.



76 FR 61361 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...research misconduct by (1) plagiarizing text and falsifying data from two publications...significant portions of that plagiarized text in two grant applications to the research misconduct by plagiarizing text, falsifying data and references,...



78 FR 67363 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...WU) and ORI's subsequent oversight analysis, ORI found that Dr. Hao Wang, former Associate Professor of Surgery and Pathology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, WU, engaged in research misconduct in research supported by National...



Translating research findings into health policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence of the influence of research on health policy is paradoxical. While there is scant evidence that research has had any impact on the direction or implementation of widespread health reforms, research on evidence-based medicine has dramatically increased, despite limited evidence that it has affected clinical practice. These developments have occurred in the context of a general decline in state

Peter Davis; Philippa Howden-Chapman



Symptoms of Eating Disorders Among Female Distance Runners: Can the Inconsistencies Be Unraveled?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on eating disorders among female distance runners has produced a modest, but inconsistent body of findings. To unravel the confusion, we hypothesized a model whereby studies finding greater symptomatology have involved obligatory runners or elite national\\/international competitors. Studies not finding greater symptomatology have involved a more typical group of athletes. To test our hypothesis, we used the Eating Disorders

Donald H. Ryujin; Cynthia Breaux; Amanda D. Marks



Drugs and sport. Research findings and limitations.  


Many types of drugs are used by athletes to improve performance. This paper reviews the literature on 3 categories of drugs: those that enhance performance as stimulants (amphetamines, ephedrine, and cocaine), those that are used to reduce tremor and heart rate (beta-blockers) and those involved in bodyweight gain or loss (anabolic-androgenic steroids, growth hormone, beta 2-agonists, and diuretics). Limitations of research on these drugs as they relate to performance enhancement are also discussed. The numerous studies that have assessed the effects of amphetamines on performance report equivocal results. This may be due to the large interindividual variability in the response to the drug and the small sample sizes used. Most studies, however, show that some individuals do improve exercise performance when taking amphetamines, which may be attributed to their role in masking fatigue. As a stimulant, ephedrine has not been found to improve performance in the few studies available. More recently, ephedrine has been purported to be effective as a fat burner and used by athletes to maintain or improve muscle mass. Although research on individuals with obesity supports the use of ephedrine for fat loss, no studies have been done on athletes. The few studies of cocaine and exercise suggest that little to no performance gains are incurred from cocaine use. Moreover, the sense of euphoria may provide the illusion of better performance when, in actuality, performance was not improved or was impaired. beta-Blockers have been found to reduce heart rate and tremor and to improve performance in sports that are not physiologically challenging but require accuracy (e.g. pistol shooting). However, there is evidence that some individuals may be high responders to beta-blockers to the extent that their heart rate response is so blunted as to impair performance. Although equivocal, several studies have reported that anabolic-androgenic steroids increase muscle size and strength. However, most studies are not well controlled and use insufficient drug doses. One recent well controlled study did find an increase in muscle mass and strength with supraphysiological doses, and the improvements were greater in participants who were also resistance training. There is little information available on the effects of growth hormone on muscle mass or performance in athletes, although data suggest that growth hormone administration does not increase muscle protein synthesis. beta 2-Agonists, such as clenbuterol and salbutamol, when administered orally appear to improve muscular strength due to their potential role in increasing muscle mass. However, studies have not been done using athletes. Diuretics results in a loss of body water and hence bodyweight that can be advantageous for sports with strict bodyweight classifications. There is insufficient evidence on possible performance decrements in the field that could result from dehydration induced by the diuretics. Overall, the most significant concern in studies of drug use is the large inter-individual variability in responses to a drug. Further studies are needed to understand why some individuals are more responsive than others and to assess whether the responses are consistent for a given individual. Most studies of drug effectiveness have not used athletes. The effectiveness of many drugs may be reduced in highly trained athletes because there is a lower margin for improvement. PMID:9421862

Clarkson, P M; Thompson, H S



Time-Inconsistent Preferences And Social Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we examine the role of social security in an economy populated by overlapping generations of individuals with time-inconsistent preferences who face mortality risk, individual income risk, and borrowing constraints. We find that unfunded social security lowers the capital stock, output, and consumption for consumers with time-consistent or time-inconsistent preferences. However, it may raise or lower welfare depending

Ayse Imrohoroglu; Selahattin Imrohoroglu; Douglas H. Joines



78 FR 14797 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office...doctoral student, Department of Psychology, WUSTL, engaged in research...National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), National Institutes of Health (NIH), grant R56...



78 FR 72892 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...research supported by National Cancer Institute (NCI), National...Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, NCI. ORI found that the Respondent...supported data in Table 1 included in Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev...



77 FR 46438 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...investigation conducted by the John Wayne Cancer Institute (JWCI) and research supported by National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institutes...gangliosides in patients with confined prostate cancer.'' Int. J. Cancer...



Animal Research: Finding Cures, Saving Lives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The U.S. Public Health Service acknowledges that "virtually every medical achievement of the last century has depended directly or indirectly on research with animals." Created by the American Physiological Society, this website helps students learn about and explore the ethics and particulars of animal research. It answers common questions in a straight-forward and accessible manner. It also includes links to other resources to aid in a deeper exploration of the subject.

Society, The A.


Researching Women's Groups Findings, Limitations, and Recommendations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is not a "typical" women's group, nor are there "typical" women's issues. Every women's group is diverse, with as many viewpoints and perspectives as there are members in the group. Using the group format for women is common practice with many counselors. It is interesting that there has been little empirical research reported on women's…

Leech, Nancy L.; Kees, Nathalie L.



76 FR 23599 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...blot experiments and switched the labels on four (4) cell culture dishes for cells used in the same type of experiments to cause...research materials by adding ethanol to his colleague's cell culture media, with the deliberate intent to effectuate the...



76 FR 63621 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...desirous of concluding this matter without further expenditure...Settlement Agreement to resolve this matter. This settlement is not an...and ORI agreed to settle this matter as follows: (1) Respondent...application for PHS support for a research project on which her...



Step I: Find Your InterestStep I: Find Your InterestStep I: Find Your InterestStep I: Find Your Interest A Research Opportunity Fair is  

E-print Network

interest through your current biology courses and pro- fessors. · Reading scientific journals may alsoStep I: Find Your InterestStep I: Find Your InterestStep I: Find Your InterestStep I: Find Your Interest · A Research Opportunity Fair is usually held each year in April. All current research

Kelly, John J.


Human lead exposure: Some recent research findings  

SciTech Connect

One of the practical problems facing industrial hygienists and safety managers in the lead industry is finding new ways to limit or reduce lead intake in order to protect workers from the deleterious effects of this metal. Exposure to lead generally takes place by inhalation of airborne particles and by ingestion. Airborne exposure is comparatively well understood and methods for the control of airborne lead have been developed and put into place in industrial facilities. Both for the general public and for workers, however, it is thought that a significant fraction of the total lead intake occurs by ingestion as opposed to inhalation. Furthermore, factors such as personal hygiene, hand washing, diet, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, use of medications, bone injury, existing disease, and others may also have positive or negative effects on lead absorption and blood lead levels. How these variables actually operate in practice for lead-exposed workers is unfortunately not very well understood. As scientific and medical knowledge increases, progress has been made in the understanding of some of the factors affecting blood lead levels. In this article, the author summarizes the findings of a few interesting recent reports that point the way toward future progress in this area.

Saryan, L.A.



Television Advertising and Children: Issues, Research and Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume consists of 10 papers dealing with issues, research and research findings regarding the effects of television advertising on children. The first paper critically examines recent research literature which bears on policy questions related to the effects of television advertising on children. Findings from a study designed to examine…

Esserman, June F., Ed.


The application of qualitative research findings to oncology nursing practice.  


The Oncology Nursing Society (ONS) has established an ambitious research agenda and professional priorities based on a survey by LoBiondo-Wood et al. (2014). With the overall goal to "improve cancer care and the lives of individuals with cancer" (Moore & Badger, 2014, p. 93) through research activities, translating those research findings to direct clinical practice can be overwhelming. As clinicians, understanding how to critique research for quality prior to incorporating research findings into practice is important. The ultimate goal in this critique is to ensure that decisions made about patient care are based on strong evidence. However, the process for appraisal of qualitative research can be ambiguous and often contradictory as a result of the elusive aspect of quality in qualitative research methods (Seale, 1999). In addition, with more than 100 tools available to evaluate qualitative research studies (Higgins & Green, 2011), a lack of consensus exists on how to critically appraise research findings. PMID:25355024

Cuthbert, Colleen Ann; Moules, Nancy



Editorial Decisions May Perpetuate Belief in Invalid Research Findings  

PubMed Central

Social psychology and related disciplines are seeing a resurgence of interest in replication, as well as actual replication efforts. But prior work suggests that even a clear demonstration that a finding is invalid often fails to shake acceptance of the finding. This threatens the full impact of these replication efforts. Here we show that the actions of two key players – journal editors and the authors of original (invalidated) research findings – are critical to the broader public’s continued belief in an invalidated research conclusion. Across three experiments, we show that belief in an invalidated finding falls sharply when a critical failed replication is published in the same – versus different – journal as the original finding, and when the authors of the original finding acknowledge that the new findings invalidate their conclusions. We conclude by discussing policy implications of our key findings. PMID:24023863

Eriksson, Kimmo; Simpson, Brent



Inconsistency Management in Software Engineering 1 INCONSISTENCY MANAGEMENT IN SOFTWARE  

E-print Network

in their construction. Inconsistent software models can have negative and positive effects in the software development have both positive and negative effects on the system development life­cycle. On the negative side life­cycle. On the negative side, inconsistencies can delay and increase the cost of system development

Spanoudakis, George


Inconsistency in large pharmacogenomic studies  

PubMed Central

Cancer cell line studies have long been used to test efficacy of therapeutic agents and to explore genomic factors predictive of response1,2. Two large-scale pharmacogenomic studies were published recently3,4; each assayed a panel of several hundred cancer cell lines for gene expression, copy number, genome sequence, and pharmacological response to multiple anti-cancer drugs. The resulting datasets present a unique opportunity to characterize mechanisms associated with drug response, with 471 cell lines and 15 drugs assayed in both. However, while gene expression is well correlated between studies, the measured pharmacologic drugs response is highly discordant. This poor correspondence is surprising as both studies assessed drug response using common estimators: the IC50 (concentration at which the drug inhibited 50% of the maximal cellular growth), and the AUC (area under the activity curve measuring dose response)5. For drugs screened in both studies, only one had a Spearman correlation coefficient in measured response greater than 0.6. Importantly these results are also reflected in inconsistent associations between genomic features and drug response. Although the source of inconsistencies in drug response measures between these two well-controlled studies remains uncertain, it makes drawing firm conclusions about response very difficult and has potential implications for using these outcome measures to assess gene-drug relationships or select potential anti-cancer drugs based on their reported results. Our findings suggest standardization of response measurement protocols in pharmacogenomic studies is essential before such studies can live up to their promise. PMID:24284626

El-Hachem, Nehme; Birkbak, Nicolai Juul; Jin, Andrew C.; Beck, Andrew H.; Aerts, Hugo J.W.L.; Quackenbush, John



Prisons Research Centre Annual Report on Research Findings 2010  

E-print Network

, Susie Hulley and Clare McLean This research had two main components: an interview, survey in the two sectors; and to provide an analysis of motivations, orientations and attitudes among senior, organisation and consistency, and personal development. The emphasis in staff training on interpersonal skills

Travis, Adrian


Researchers Find Gene Mutation That May Protect Against Heart Disease  


... Researchers Find Gene Mutation That May Protect Against Heart Disease Rare genetic variation appears to cut the risk ... 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Genes and Gene Therapy Heart Diseases WEDNESDAY, Nov. 12, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Mutations that ...


Multiple Perpetrator Rape: Naming an Offence and Initial Research Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiple perpetrator rape presents a significant problem nationally and internationally. However, previous research is limited and findings are often contradictory. The details of 101 rape allegations recorded in a six-month period in a large police force in England were analysed. Findings are presented about case classification, victim and…

Horvath, Miranda Angel Helena; Kelly, Liz




NSDL National Science Digital Library

Starting in February 2001, the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) began publishing "Findings" magazine. The publication features research and findings from scholars doing work with funding from the NIGMS. Visitors can browse the archive of the publication by topic or date, and they can also check out the sample articles from the latest edition on the homepage. Recent pieces have included "Drugs from Deep Down", "Mesmerized by Metals", and "Just Found", which talks about potential sunburn treatments. The site also has the "Find More" area, which contains an image gallery, school resources, free slide kits, and interactive games. Also, the "Watch" area contains interviews with scientists like Dr. Kevin Tracey talking about his investigations into sepsis. Finally, visitors can also sign up to receive Findings via email.


A system for addressing incidental findings in neuroimaging research.  


When healthy subjects undergo brain imaging, incidental findings are not rare. The optimal response to such findings has been the focus of considerable discussion. The current report describes the operations and results of a system that provides a review of incidental findings by an appropriate medical professional. A web-based system was created whereby investigators performing brain MRI scans on healthy subjects could refer images with suspected concerns to a board certified radiologist who had a Certificate of Added Qualification in Neuroradiology. The specific details of this system are described. Among 27 scans suspected by an investigator of having a significant finding, all but one were referred by a researcher with a PhD. The most common concerns described by these investigators were for the possible presence of a cyst or of enlarged ventricles. The most common findings reported by the radiologist were Virchow-Robin spaces and cysts. Findings were generally of low clinical significance, with 1 major exception. Identifying the optimal response to incidental findings in neuroimaging research remains a challenge. The current report describes a system for providing expert assistance and so addresses these issues in the setting of suspected incidental findings. To our knowledge the current system is the first to provide a specific means for evaluation of incidental findings in neuroimaging research. PMID:21224007

Cramer, Steven C; Wu, Jennifer; Hanson, Joseph A; Nouri, Sarvenaz; Karnani, Diraj; Chuang, Tony M; Le, Vu



A System for Addressing Incidental Findings in Neuroimaging Research  

PubMed Central

When healthy subjects undergo brain imaging, incidental findings are not rare. The optimal response to such findings has been the focus of considerable discussion. The current report describes the operations and results of a system that provides review of incidental findings by an appropriate medical professional. A web-based system was created whereby investigators performing brain MRI scans on healthy subjects could refer images with suspected concerns to a board certified radiologist who had a Certificate of Added Qualification in Neuroradiology. The specific details of this system are described. Among 27 scans suspected by an investigator of having a significant finding, all but one were referred by a researcher with a PhD. The most common concerns described by these investigators were for the possible presence of a cyst or of enlarged ventricles. The most common findings reported by the radiologist were Virchow-Robin spaces and cysts. Findings were generally of low clinical significance, with 1 major exception. Identifying the optimal response to incidental findings in neuroimaging research remains a challenge. The current report describes a system for providing expert assistance and so addresses these issues in the setting of suspected incidental findings. To our knowledge the current system is the first to provide a specific means for evaluation of incidental findings in neuroimaging research. PMID:21224007

Cramer, Steven C.; Wu, Jennifer; Hanson, Joseph A.; Nouri, Sarvenaz; Karnani, Diraj; Chuang, Tony M.; Le, Vu



Case Western researchers present new findings for glioblastoma

Physician-scientists from University Hospitals (UH), Case Medical Center's Seidman Cancer Center and Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine presented new research findings this week at the Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) in Chicago. One study sought to identify protein biomarkers that can help physicians determine which patients may benefit from standard treatment for GBM.


Stem Cell Research and Applications: Findings and Recommendations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These resources are findings and recommendations to stem cell research and applications. Human stem cell research holds enormous potential for contributing to our understanding of fundamental human biology. Although it is not possible to predict the outcomes from basic research, such studies will offer the real possibility for treatments and ultimately for cures for many diseases for which adequate therapies do not exist. This resource is provided by AAAS and ICS.




Recruiting underserved mothers to medical research: findings from North Carolina.  


Representative samples are required for ethical, valid, and useful health research. Yet, recruiting participants, especially from historically underserved communities, can be challenging. This paper presents findings from in-depth interviews with 40 mothers about factors that might influence their willingness to participate or allow their children to participate in medical research. Saliency analysis organizes the findings. Frequent and important salient themes about research participation included concerns that it might cause participants harm, hope that participants might gain a health benefit, and recognition that time and transportation resources could limit participation. Ultimately, we propose that a theoretical model, such as the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), will facilitate more systematic evaluation of effective methods for recruitment and retention of participants in medical research. Future research should explore the utility of such a model for development of effective recruitment and retention strategies. PMID:24185171

Spears, Chaya R; Sandberg, Joanne C; O'Neill, Jenna L; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Howard, Timothy D; Feldman, Steven R; Arcury, Thomas A



Recruiting Underserved Mothers to Medical Research: Findings from North Carolina  

PubMed Central

Representative samples are required for ethical, valid, and useful health research. Yet, recruiting participants, especially from historically underserved communities, can be challenging. This paper presents findings from in-depth interviews with 40 mothers about factors that might influence their willingness to participate or allow their children to participate in medical research. Saliency analysis organizes the findings. Frequent and important salient themes about research participation included concerns that it might cause participants harm, hope that participants might gain a health benefit, and recognition that time and transportation resources could limit participation. Ultimately, we propose that a theoretical model, such as the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), will facilitate more systematic evaluation of effective methods for recruitment and retention of participants in medical research. Future research should explore the utility of such a model for development of effective recruitment and retention strategies. PMID:24185171

Spears, Chaya R.; Sandberg, Joanne C.; O'Neill, Jenna L.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Howard, Timothy D.; Feldman, Steven R.; Arcury, Thomas A.



Delinquent-Oriented Attitudes Mediate the Relation Between Parental Inconsistent Discipline and Early Adolescent Behavior  

PubMed Central

Although substantial research supports the association between parental inconsistent discipline and early adolescent behaviors, less is understood on mechanisms underlying this relation. This study examined the mediating influence of delinquent-oriented attitudes in early adolescence. Using a longitudinal sample of 324 rural adolescents and their parents, findings revealed that inconsistent discipline in 6th grade predicted an increase in adolescent delinquent-oriented attitudes by 7th grade which, in turn, predicted both an increase in early adolescent antisocial behaviors and a decrease in socially competent behaviors by 8th grade. Therefore, it appears that accepting attitudes toward delinquency may in part develop from experiencing inconsistent discipline at home and may offer a possible explanation as to why early adolescents later engage in more antisocial and less socially competent behaviors. Findings may inform family-based preventive intervention programs that seek to decrease behavior problems and promote social competence in early adolescents. PMID:23544924

Halgunseth, Linda C.; Perkins, Daniel F.; Lippold, Melissa A.; Nix, Robert L.



Where do UK health services researchers publish their findings?  

PubMed Central

Health services research has emerged as the third vital requirement for understanding and improving health care, alongside basic science and clinical research. This has coincided with more stringent management of research, in particular by funding bodies. The latter are seeking to use bibliographic databases to aid the monitoring of the output of their investments. The principal source of data in the UK is the Research Outputs Database (ROD) set up by the Wellcome Trust primarily to monitor basic and clinical research. Health services researchers' output is difficult to monitor in view of the large number and wide variety of journals in which they publish. In addition, nearly half the journals (representing 35% of the articles) are not currently covered by the ROD. Funding bodies will underestimate the quantity of health services researchers' output unless they take these findings into account. PMID:10396256

Black, N; Davies, S C



Medical practice employee selection: application of recent research findings.  


Findings based on recent research are presented to support the universal use of tests measuring general mental ability (GMA) and the Big Five personality factor of conscientiousness to evaluate applicants for all medical practice and health care system clerical, nursing, and office management positions. Widely validated measures of both of these factors are identified. These findings simplify the process of identifying employment methods for jobs in medical practices. This research also suggests that for some jobs, Work Samples, Structured Interviews, or other Big Five personality factors may add some incremental validity to the GMA + Conscientiousness combination. This should be determined based on job analysis. PMID:12661485

Solomon, Robert J



Attributions for Inconsistencies Between Online and Offline Self-Presentations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated how people make sense of self-portrayals in social media that are inconsistent with impressions formed through other interpersonal interactions. The research focused on how inconsistent online information affects interpersonal impressions and how motivation to manage impressions influences the types of attributions that actors and observers make for the misleading online behavior. Results show that the relationship between

David C. DeAndrea; Joseph B. Walther



Inconsistencies in Autism-Specific Emotion Interventions: Cause for Concern  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Precise educational interventions are the sine qua non of services for students with exceptionalities. Applying interventions riddled with inconsistencies, therefore, interferes with the growth and learning potential of students who need these interventions. This research synthesis documents the inconsistencies revealed during a critical analysis…

Caldeira, Monica; Edmunds, Alan



Researcher finds some bees evolved to shout at competitors  

E-print Network

Researcher finds some bees evolved to shout at competitors July 7, 2014 Certain species of stingless bees in Brazil have been found to protect their sources of nectar and pollen from potential in other bee species. Dr. Elinor Lichtenberg from Washington State University made this discovery during

Nieh, James


Educational Financing in Developing Countries: Research Findings and Contemporary Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focuses on contemporary issues of educational financing in developing countries and on available research findings as these relate, or can be related, to these issues. The first two chapters are analytical, examining common educational finance issues and testing the conventional wisdom of certain usual proposals. Chapter 1, "Issues in…

Schiefelbein, Ernesto


Summary of Findings and Recommendations Mountain Bongo Ecological Research  

E-print Network

processing remote-sensing imagery to create habitat-structure maps, which was the only practical way interventions based on these findings. The primary goal of this research was to understand bongo habitat, the Kenya Wildlife Service, and the Rhino Ark Charitable Trust. The aim of this report is to highlight our


Disability travel in the United States: recent research and findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to report and compare the salient findings of recent research on travel by Americans with disabilities. Until 2002, when Open Doors Organization (ODO) sponsored its first nationwide study on travel by adults with disabilities (ODO 2002), conducted by Harris Interactive, there had never been a major, statistically reliable survey on the US disability travel

Laurel Van Horn



September 17, 2010 LSUHSC research finds cause & remedy for learning &  

E-print Network

of medical marijuana LSUHSC research finds combo of plant nutrients kills breast cancer cells Chancellor a study that identified the cause of learning and memory deficits associated with medical marijuana use that inhibit COX-2 prevented these debilitating side effects. The results suggest the use of medical marijuana


Discovery and Disclosure of Incidental Findings in Neuroimaging Research  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine different protocols for handling incidental findings on brain research MRIs, and provide a platform for establishing formal discussions of related ethical and policy issues. Materials and Methods Corresponding authors identified from a database of peer-reviewed publications in 1991–2002 involving functional MRI (fMRI), alone or in combination with other imaging modalities, were invited to participate in this web-based survey. The survey asked questions regarding knowledge and handling of incidental findings, as well as characteristics of the scanning environment, training required, IRB protocol requirements, and neuroradiologist involvement. Results Seventy-four investigators who conduct MRI studies in the United States and abroad responded. Eighty-two percent (54/66) reported discovering incidental findings in their studies, such as arteriovenous malformations, brain tumors, and developmental abnormalities. Substantial variability was found in the procedures for handling and communicating findings to subjects, neuroradiologist involvement, personnel permitted to operate equipment, and training. Conclusion Guidelines for minimum and optimum standards for detecting and communicating incidental findings on brain MRI research are needed. PMID:15503329

Illes, Judy; Kirschen, Matthew P.; Karetsky, Kim; Kelly, Megan; Saha, Arnold; Desmond, John E.; Raffin, Thomas A.; Glover, Gary H.; Atlas, Scott W.



Research Infusion Collaboration: Finding Defect Patterns in Reused Code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 'Finding Defect Patterns in Reused Code' Research Infusion Collaboration was performed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory/Caltech under Contract 104-07-02.679 102 197 08.14.4. This final report describes the collaboration and documents the findings, including lessons learned.The research infusion collaboration characterized, using Orthogonal Defect Classification, defect reports for code that will be reused in mission-critical software on Deep Space Network Antenna controllers. Code reuse is estimated to be 90%, so it is important to identify systemic defects, or patterns, prior to reuse of this code. The work also identified ways to avoid certain types of defects and to test more efficiently.The primary objectives of the project were:to analyze defect patterns of the code to be reused based on the defects'Orthogonal Defect Classification (ODC)and to achieve a successful infusion of ODC to a project.

Lutz, Robyn R.; Morgan, Scott; Do, Tuan; Mikulski, Carmen; Berg Strain, Martha; Rockwell, Steve; Wilkinson, Belinda



Vanderbilt researchers find a protein family key to aging, cancer:

The list of aging-associated proteins known to be involved in cancer is growing longer, according to research by investigators at Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center and the National Institutes of Health. The new study, published Oct. 17 in Cancer Cell, identifies the protein SIRT2 as a tumor suppressor linked to gender-specific tumor development in mice. Along with two other "sirtuin" proteins previously linked to cancer, the new finding suggests the existence of a rare "family" of tumor suppressors.


Research findings can change attitudes about corporal punishment.  


Positive attitudes toward the use of corporal punishment (CP) predict subsequent spanking behavior. Given that CP has frequently been associated with behavior problems in children and child maltreatment, this prevention work was designed to test whether adults' attitudes could be changed by informing participants about the research findings on problematic behaviors associated with CP. Two random assignment studies are reported. In Study 1, we tested whether an active reading condition would result in more attitude change than a passive condition. With a sample of 118 non-parent adults, we found that after reading very brief research summaries on the problems associated with CP, there was a significant decrease in favorable attitudes toward CP. Contrary to expectations, the magnitude of the change was comparable for active and passive processing conditions. In Study 2, we extended our approach to a sample of 520 parents and included a control group. A significant decrease in positive attitudes toward spanking was observed in the intervention group, but no change for the control group. Parents who were unaware of the research showed more change after reading the summaries. Thus, these studies demonstrate that a brief and cost-effective approach to raise awareness of research findings can reduce positive attitudes toward CP. Implications for prevention and intervention are discussed. PMID:24246718

Holden, George W; Brown, Alan S; Baldwin, Austin S; Croft Caderao, Kathryn



Managing incidental findings and research results in genomic research involving biobanks and archived data sets.  


Biobanks and archived data sets collecting samples and data have become crucial engines of genetic and genomic research. Unresolved, however, is what responsibilities biobanks should shoulder to manage incidental findings and individual research results of potential health, reproductive, or personal importance to individual contributors (using "biobank" here to refer both to collections of samples and collections of data). This article reports recommendations from a 2-year project funded by the National Institutes of Health. We analyze the responsibilities involved in managing the return of incidental findings and individual research results in a biobank research system (primary research or collection sites, the biobank itself, and secondary research sites). We suggest that biobanks shoulder significant responsibility for seeing that the biobank research system addresses the return question explicitly. When reidentification of individual contributors is possible, the biobank should work to enable the biobank research system to discharge four core responsibilities to (1) clarify the criteria for evaluating findings and the roster of returnable findings, (2) analyze a particular finding in relation to this, (3) reidentify the individual contributor, and (4) recontact the contributor to offer the finding. We suggest that findings that are analytically valid, reveal an established and substantial risk of a serious health condition, and are clinically actionable should generally be offered to consenting contributors. This article specifies 10 concrete recommendations, addressing new biobanks as well as those already in existence. PMID:22436882

Wolf, Susan M; Crock, Brittney N; Van Ness, Brian; Lawrenz, Frances; Kahn, Jeffrey P; Beskow, Laura M; Cho, Mildred K; Christman, Michael F; Green, Robert C; Hall, Ralph; Illes, Judy; Keane, Moira; Knoppers, Bartha M; Koenig, Barbara A; Kohane, Isaac S; Leroy, Bonnie; Maschke, Karen J; McGeveran, William; Ossorio, Pilar; Parker, Lisa S; Petersen, Gloria M; Richardson, Henry S; Scott, Joan A; Terry, Sharon F; Wilfond, Benjamin S; Wolf, Wendy A



Bayesian Approach for Inconsistent Information  

PubMed Central

In engineering situations, we usually have a large amount of prior knowledge that needs to be taken into account when processing data. Traditionally, the Bayesian approach is used to process data in the presence of prior knowledge. Sometimes, when we apply the traditional Bayesian techniques to engineering data, we get inconsistencies between the data and prior knowledge. These inconsistencies are usually caused by the fact that in the traditional approach, we assume that we know the exact sample values, that the prior distribution is exactly known, etc. In reality, the data is imprecise due to measurement errors, the prior knowledge is only approximately known, etc. So, a natural way to deal with the seemingly inconsistent information is to take this imprecision into account in the Bayesian approach – e.g., by using fuzzy techniques. In this paper, we describe several possible scenarios for fuzzifying the Bayesian approach. Particular attention is paid to the interaction between the estimated imprecise parameters. In this paper, to implement the corresponding fuzzy versions of the Bayesian formulas, we use straightforward computations of the related expression – which makes our computations reasonably time-consuming. Computations in the traditional (non-fuzzy) Bayesian approach are much faster – because they use algorithmically efficient reformulations of the Bayesian formulas. We expect that similar reformulations of the fuzzy Bayesian formulas will also drastically decrease the computation time and thus, enhance the practical use of the proposed methods. PMID:24089579

Stein, M.; Beer, M.; Kreinovich, V.



Inconsistencies in the Understanding of Solder Joint Reliability Physics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the years, many analytical and experimental research studies have aimed to improve the state-of-the-art assessment of solder joint integrity from a physics-of-failure perspective. Although much progress has been made, there still exist many inconsistent and even contradictory correlations and conclusions. Before discussing some of the prominent inconsistencies found in the literature, this paper reviews the fundamental physics underlying the nature of solder failure...Using the complex constitutive properties of solder, fundamental mechanical and thermomechanical proccesses can be modeled to demonstrate some of the inconsistencies in the literature.

Wen, L.; Mon, G. R.; Ross, R. G., Jr.



Inconsistency of speech in children with childhood apraxia of speech, phonological disorders, and typical speech  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a lack of agreement on the features used to differentiate Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS) from Phonological Disorders (PD). One criterion which has gained consensus is lexical inconsistency of speech (ASHA, 2007); however, no accepted measure of this feature has been defined. Although lexical assessment provides information about consistency of an item across repeated trials, it may not capture the magnitude of inconsistency within an item. In contrast, segmental analysis provides more extensive information about consistency of phoneme usage across multiple contexts and word-positions. The current research compared segmental and lexical inconsistency metrics in preschool-aged children with PD, CAS, and typical development (TD) to determine how inconsistency varies with age in typical and disordered speakers, and whether CAS and PD were differentiated equally well by both assessment levels. Whereas lexical and segmental analyses may be influenced by listener characteristics or speaker intelligibility, the acoustic signal is less vulnerable to these factors. In addition, the acoustic signal may reveal information which is not evident in the perceptual signal. A second focus of the current research was motivated by Blumstein et al.'s (1980) classic study on voice onset time (VOT) in adults with acquired apraxia of speech (AOS) which demonstrated a motor impairment underlying AOS. In the current study, VOT analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between age and group with the voicing distribution for bilabial and alveolar plosives. Findings revealed that 3-year-olds evidenced significantly higher inconsistency than 5-year-olds; segmental inconsistency approached 0% in 5-year-olds with TD, whereas it persisted in children with PD and CAS suggesting that for child in this age-range, inconsistency is a feature of speech disorder rather than typical development (Holm et al., 2007). Likewise, whereas segmental and lexical inconsistency were moderately-highly correlated, even the most highly-related segmental and lexical measures agreed on only 76% of classifications (i.e., to CAS and PD). Finally, VOT analyses revealed that CAS utilized a distinct distribution pattern relative to PD and TD. Discussion frames the current findings within a profile of CAS and provides a validated list of criteria for the differential diagnosis of CAS and PD.

Iuzzini, Jenya


A network perspective on metabolic inconsistency  

PubMed Central

Background Integrating gene expression profiles and metabolic pathways under different experimental conditions is essential for understanding the coherence of these two layers of cellular organization. The network character of metabolic systems can be instrumental in developing concepts of agreement between expression data and pathways. A network-driven interpretation of gene expression data has the potential of suggesting novel classifiers for pathological cellular states and of contributing to a general theoretical understanding of gene regulation. Results Here, we analyze the coherence of gene expression patterns and a reconstruction of human metabolism, using consistency scores obtained from network and constraint-based analysis methods. We find a surprisingly strong correlation between the two measures, demonstrating that a substantial part of inconsistencies between metabolic processes and gene expression can be understood from a network perspective alone. Prompted by this finding, we investigate the topological context of the individual biochemical reactions responsible for the observed inconsistencies. On this basis, we are able to separate the differential contributions that bear physiological information about the system, from the unspecific contributions that unravel gaps in the metabolic reconstruction. We demonstrate the biological potential of our network-driven approach by analyzing transcriptome profiles of aldosterone producing adenomas that have been obtained from a cohort of Primary Aldosteronism patients. We unravel systematics in the data that could not have been resolved by conventional microarray data analysis. In particular, we discover two distinct metabolic states in the adenoma expression patterns. Conclusions The methodology presented here can help understand metabolic inconsistencies from a network perspective. It thus serves as a mediator between the topology of metabolic systems and their dynamical function. Finally, we demonstrate how physiologically relevant insights into the structure and dynamics of metabolic networks can be obtained using this novel approach. PMID:22583819



Putting Research Findings to Work. ANPA News Research Report No. 31.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty-six American Newspaper Publishers Association research reports published since 1978 are reviewed in this paper. The paper analyzes each of the reports in order to provide an overview of what their findings really say and what newspapers can do in their own market areas to use the findings to improve their product. Among the topics covered…

Mauro, John B.; Bonney, Christopher F.


Using the time and motion method to study clinical work processes and workflow: methodological inconsistencies and a call for standardized research  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo identify ways for improving the consistency of design, conduct, and results reporting of time and motion (T&M) research in health informatics.Materials and methodsWe analyzed the commonalities and divergences of empirical studies published 1990–2010 that have applied the T&M approach to examine the impact of health IT implementation on clinical work processes and workflow. The analysis led to the development

Kai Zheng; Michael H Guo; David A Hanauer



'Project launch': from research finding to therapeutic product.  


Only 0.1-0.5% of new therapy candidates gains marketing approval; just 10-20% of the approved ones ultimately recoup the ~0.6-0.9$USbn invested into their R&D until marketing authorisation. One reason is the high inherent risk of new therapeutic products development. Further reasons are suboptimal decisions during R&D and, too often, lack of adequate experience. To bridge the latter gap, this article succinctly reviews identification of new product opportunities and their patent protection, the resulting commercial opportunity and portfolio valuation, planning and conduct of the ensuing preclinical and clinical tests, as well as therapeutic product registration and price reimbursement, covering risk management as an aside. The article also clarifies the key terms, identifies the main pit falls, highlights the essential requirements for and the goals of different product development steps, to facilitate communication between researchers and developers. By combining public information with personal experience and recommendations the article aims at informing more broadly those who are familiar mainly with some of the (strictly regulated) activities involved in design, development and launch of new therapeutic products, be it that they are medicinal products or medical devices. Taken together, this should support initiation and evolution of new therapeutic products and assist researchers in finding-and better and more smoothly co-operating with-consultants or partners in development and marketing. PMID:23948554

Cevc, Gregor



Summary of EL Research Findings to Date. What Works. Research: The Implications for Professional Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summaries of research findings on the following topics are compiled in this document: (1) students in schools with well-equipped resource centers and teacher-librarians perform better on achievement tests; (2) developing student competence in research and study skills is most effective when integrated with classroom instruction through cooperative…

Haycock, Ken, Comp.


Cognitive Performance Inconsistency: Intraindividual Change and Variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many studies have examined inconsistency of cognitive performance, few have examined how inconsistency changes over time. 91 older adults (age 52 to 79) were tested weekly for 36 consecutive weeks on a series of multitrial memory speed (i.e., letter recognition) tasks. A number of multivariate techniques were used to examine how individuals' level of inconsistency changed across weeks and

Nilam Ram; Patrick Rabbitt; Brian Stollery; John R. Nesselroade



A practical approach to incidental findings in neuroimaging research  

PubMed Central

Objective: We describe the systematic approach to incidental findings (IFs) used at the Mind Research Network (MRN) where all MRI scans receive neuroradiologist interpretation and participants are provided results. Methods: From 2004 to 2011, 8,545 MRI scans were acquired by 45 researchers. As mandated by MRN?s external institutional review board, all structural sequences were evaluated by a clinical neuroradiologist who generated a report that included recommendations for referral if indicated. Investigators received a copy of their participants' reports, which were also mailed to participants unless they specifically declined. To better understand the impact of the radiology review process, a financial analysis was completed in addition to a follow-up phone survey to characterize participant perceptions regarding receiving their MRI scan results. Results: The radiologist identified IFs in 34% of the 4,447 participants. Of those with IFs (n = 1,518), the radiologist recommended urgent or immediate referral for 2.5% and routine referral for 17%. For 80.5%, no referral was recommended. Estimated annual cost for this approach including support for the neuroradiologist, medical director, and ancillary staff is approximately $60,000 or $24/scan. The results of the retrospective phone survey showed that 92% of participants appreciated receiving their MRI report, and the majority stated it increased their likelihood of volunteering for future studies. Conclusions: Addressing IFs in a cost-effective and consistent manner is possible by adopting a policy that provides neuroradiology interpretation and offers participant assistance with clinical follow-up when necessary. Our experience suggests that an ethical, institution-wide approach to IFs can be implemented with minimal investigator burden. PMID:22131543

Holdsworth, M.T.; Aine, C.; Calhoun, V.D.; de La Garza, R.; Feldstein Ewing, S.W.; Hayek, R.; Mayer, A.R.; Kiehl, K.A.; Petree, L.E.; Sanjuan, P.; Scott, A.; Stephen, J.; Phillips, J.P.



42 CFR 93.410 - Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § settlement or finding of research misconduct. When the final...a settlement or finding of research misconduct, ORI may: ...other actions authorized by...



48 CFR 335.071 - Special determinations and findings affecting research and development contracting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...findings affecting research and development contracting. 335.071...CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 335.071 ...findings affecting research and development contracting. OPDIV heads shall sign individual and...



Taking aims seriously: repository research and limits on the duty to return individual research findings  

PubMed Central

Most discussions of researchers’ duties to return incidental findings or research results to research participants or repository contributors fail to provide an adequate theoretical grounding for such duties. Returning findings is a positive duty, a duty to help somebody. Typically, such duties are specified narrowly such that helping is only a duty when it poses little or no risk or burden to the helper and does not interfere with her legitimate aims. Under current budgetary and personnel constraints, and with currently available information technology, routine return of individual findings from research using repository materials would constitute a substantial burden on the scientific enterprise and would seriously frustrate the aims of both scientists and specimen/data contributors. In most cases, researchers’ limited duties to help repository contributors probably can be fulfilled by some action less demanding than returning individual findings. Furthermore, the duty-to-return issue should be analyzed as a conflict between (possibly) helping some contributors now and (possibly) helping a greater number of people who would benefit in the future from the knowledge produced by research. PMID:22402758

Ossorio, Pilar




E-print Network

). Students can work on research related to obesity, diabetes and kidney diseases. Medical Student Alcohol Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases supports summer research for LSU medical students research for LSU medical students in clinical or laboratory research related to diseases caused by alcohol


Freshwater findings, 1976-1978. Research publications of the Environmental Research Laboratory, Duluth, Minnesota. Bibliography report  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography, inclusive from 1976 through 1978 lists all publications authored by personnel of the Environmental Research Laboratory-Duluth. Some of the research findings were to determine how physical and chemical pollution affects aquatic life; to assess the effects of ecosystems on pollutants; to predict effects of pollutants on large lakes through use of models; to measure bioaccumulation of pollutants in aquatic organisms that are consumed by other animals, including man.

Russom, C.



Columbia University Medical Center researchers find that a new computational approach finds gene that drives aggressive brain cancer

Columbia University Medical Center researchers have combined existing computational tools with a new algorithm called DIGGIT, which 'walks' backward from the master regulators to find the genetic events that drive brain cancer.


Research finds brain link for words, music ability  

E-print Network

research suggests that intensive musical therapy may help improve speech in stroke patients, researchers. In addition, researchers said, music education can help children with developmental dyslexia or autism more sing, he said. Now, they are doing trials to see if music can be used as a therapy. But, he cautioned

Kraus, Nina


Applying Ad Hoc Institutional Research Findings to College Strategic Planning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Environmental scanning, enrollment forecasting, budget analyses, and institutional effectiveness assessment are examples of the explicit contributions institutional research offices make to campus strategic planning.

Clagett, Craig A.



Action Research Project: Prof 190-191 Finding Journal Articles  

E-print Network

education databases. PPhhrraasseess "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder" BBoooolleeaann OOppeerraattoorrss:: OORR,, NNOOTT ((ddeeffaauulltt iiss AANNDD)) adhd OR "attention deficit" "differentiated by Queen's. use the Cited by feature to find related articles. PPhhrraasseess "attention deficit

Abolmaesumi, Purang


Finding the Fabulous Few: Why Your Program Needs Sophisticated Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fund raising, it is argued, needs sophisticated prospect research. Professional prospect researchers play an important role in helping to identify prospective donors and also in helping to stimulate interest in gift giving. A sample of an individual work-up on a donor and a bibliography are provided. (MLW)

Pfizenmaier, Emily



Findings from research on divorce: implications for professionals' skill development.  


Results from research on divorce are synthesized, and practical implications for the development of conceptual, perceptual, and executive skills for educators, lawyers, mental health clinicians, health care professionals, social policy planners, and the media are presented. An interdisciplinary approach to intervention is proposed, and recommendations for future research on divorce are made. PMID:6610363

Leahey, M



Training Methods; An Analysis of the Research Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To report research on different instructional methods and variables, to indicate limitations of the research, and to suggest criteria for methods for particular learning goals, this review discusses and evaluates several major instructional methods: lectures, lesson-demonstration, programed instruction, case studies, tutorials, brainstorming,…

Royal Air Force (England). Technical Training Command.


Reform Programs Backed by Research Find Fewer Takers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the waning interests on research-based models. Some experts and program developers say "research proven" programs are getting a smaller and smaller share of the pie under the 7-year-old initiative now called the Comprehensive School Reform program, as schools opt instead for home-grown and commercial programs with weaker…

Viadero, Debra



Finding Nexus: Connecting Youth Work and Research Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participation in educational and social research helps to develop understanding of how young people learn and to consider wider aspects of their lives to enable their voices to be heard and acted upon. Research also facilitates the articulation and sharing of methodologies across a range of professional practices. We assert that theory and…

Gormally, Sinéad; Coburn, Annette



"Response to Comments": Finding the Narrative in Narrative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author responds to comments by Barone (2009), Clandinin and Murphy (2009), and M. W. Smith (2009) on "The Construction Zone: Literary Elements in Narrative Research" (Coulter & M. L. Smith, 2009). She clarifies issues regarding point of view, authorial surplus, narrative coherence, and the relational qualities of narrative research. She…

Coulter, Cathy A.



Dabrowski's Theory of Positive Disintegration and Giftedness: Overexcitability Research Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the past 20 years, a significant body of literature has emerged focusing on the application of Dabrowski's theory of positive disintegration (TPD) to the study of gifted individuals. Although much of this literature is prescriptive, some research reports spanning this time period are available. A perusal of research on TPD's applicability…

Mendaglio, Sal; Tillier, William



Researchers find nanodiamonds could improve effectiveness of breast cancer treatment

UCLA researchers and collaborators have developed a potentially more effective treatment for "triple-negative" breast cancer that uses nanoscale, diamond-like particles called nanodiamonds. Nanodiamonds are between 4 and 6 nanometers in diameter and are shaped like tiny soccer balls. Byproducts of conventional mining and refining operations, the particles can form clusters following drug binding and have the ability to precisely deliver cancer drugs to tumors, significantly improving the drugs' desired effect. UCLA is home to the Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center. The research team included contributors from the NanoCarbon Research Institute in Nagano, Japan and UC San Francisco, home of the Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center.


MD Anderson researchers find that yoga regulates stress hormones

Through a grant from the National Cancer Institute, researchers are now conducting a Phase III clinical trial in women with breast cancer to further determine the mechanisms of yoga that lead to improvement in physical functioning and quality of life.


Roswell Park researchers find prognostic biomarker candidates for ovarian cancer

Cancer researchers at Roswell Park Cancer Institute have identified two independent classes of novel candidate prognostic markers for ovarian cancer, advancing efforts to develop targeted therapies for the disease.


Findings of the International Road Tunnel Fire Detection Research Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract\\u000a   Fire detection systems play a crucial role in ensuring safe evacuation and firefighting operations in road tunnels, but information\\u000a on the performance of these systems in tunnels has been limited and guidelines for their application in tunnel environments\\u000a are not fully developed. Recently, the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) and the Fire Protection Research Foundation\\u000a completed a 2-year

Z. G. Liu; A. Kashef; G. Crampton; G. Lougheed; Y. Ko; G. Hadjisophocleous; Kathleen H. Almand



Findings of the International Road Tunnel Fire Detection Research Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire detection systems are essential fire protection elements for road tunnels to detect fires, activate safety systems and\\u000a direct evacuation and firefighting. However, information on the performance of these systems is limited and guidelines for\\u000a application of tunnel fire detection systems are not fully developed. The National Research Council of Canada and the Fire\\u000a Protection Research Foundation, with support of

A. Kashef; Z. G. Liu; G. Lougheed; G. Crampton; K. Yoon; G. Hadjisophocleous; Kathleen H. Almand



Find the Expert at the Agricultural Research Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United States Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service now offers a feature where users can directly ask questions of Agricultural experts. Searching is possible in three ways: Keyword, Broad Subject Area, or Research Area. Typical search results include lists of experts with contact addresses, including email. With subject areas ranging from Air Quality and Mitigation to Weeds, this service adds a nice notch in the measuring stick of improved scientific communication.


MD Anderson researchers find coupling of proteins promotes glioblastoma development:

Two previously unassociated proteins known to be overly active in a variety of cancers bind together to ignite and sustain malignant brain tumors, a research team led by scientists at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center reports this week in the journal Cancer Cell. This research is the first to connect FoxM1 to a molecular signaling cascade that regulates normal neural stem cells...


Knowledge Mining: A Quantitative Synthesis of Research Results and Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge mining emerged as a rapidly growing interdisciplinary field that merges together databases, statistics, machine\\u000a learning and related areas in order to extract valuable information and knowledge in large volumes of data. In this paper\\u000a we present the key finding of the results achieved during the NEMIS Conference on “Knowledge Mining”.

Penelope Markellou; Maria Rigou; Spiros Sirmakessis



ERIC Educational Resources Information Center


Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.


Consistency and Inconsistency in Adolescents’ Moral Reasoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Authors in the cognitive developmental tradition (e.g. Damon & Hart, 1988; Snyder & Feldman, 1984; Turiel, 1983) have created models to explain transition between stages of development. This study introduces consistency and inconsistency of moral reasoning as patterns of moral thinking and presents implications for moral education. Consistency and inconsistency are determined by the level of “stage mixture” scored on

Júlio Rique; Cleonice Camino



42 CFR 93.411 - Final HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct. 93.411 Section 93...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the...Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.411...



42 CFR 93.411 - Final HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct. 93.411 Section 93...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the...Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.411...



42 CFR 93.404 - Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the...Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.404...



42 CFR 93.404 - Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the...Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.404...



The Atlanta Slayings: Telecommunications Research Supplies New Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares the influence of television news on the reactions of 100 Blacks in both Georgia and Iowa to the Atlanta slayings. People surveyed were examined for their reactions to live coverage, newsmaker interviews, wire service reports, and news writers and researchers. Eight references are listed. (MER)

Lehane, Stephen; Braman, Gary



Dental Laboratory Technology. Project Report Phase I with Research Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of dental laboratory technology, established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to train dental laboratory technicians. Section 1 contains general information:…

Sappe', Hoyt; Smith, Debra S.


Pain, Nicotine, and Smoking: Research Findings and Mechanistic Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tobacco addiction and chronic pain represent 2 highly prevalent and comorbid conditions that engender substantial burdens upon individuals and systems. Interrelations between pain and smoking have been of clinical and empirical interest for decades, and research in this area has increased dramatically over the past 5 years. We conceptualize the interaction of pain and smoking as a prototypical example of

Joseph W. Ditre; Thomas H. Brandon; Emily L. Zale; Mary M. Meagher



Reconciling (Seemingly) Discrepant Findings: Implications for Practice and Future Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Decades of research in survey methodology and psychology have yielded important insights about how to create effective and valid survey instruments. As Porter (in press) has argued convincingly, college student surveys often fall well short of these standards by placing unrealistic demands on students' memory and by assuming that students readily…

Bowman, Nicholas A.; Herzog, Serge




EPA Science Inventory

Investigators often misapply quality assurance (QA) procedures and may consider QA as a hindrance to developing test plans for sampling and analysis. If used properly, however, QA is the driving force for collecting the right kind and proper amount of data. Researchers must use Q...



EPA Science Inventory

Investigators often misapply quality assurance (QA) procedures and may consider QA as a hindrance to developing test plans for sampling and analysis. If used properly, however, QA is the driving force for collecting the right kind and proper amount of data. Researchers must...


Youth Sports: Implementing Findings and Moving Forward with Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the literature, outlines practical implications, and discusses future studies in youth sport research. The literature is discussed in light of three potential benefits of youth sport participation 1) physical health, 2) psycho-social development, and 3) motor skills acquisition. The ultimate objective of youth sport programs is to consider all the benefits of youth sport participation rather than

Jessica Fraser-Thomas; Jean Côté


Emerging Answers: Research Findings on Programs To Reduce Teen Pregnancy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes three bodies of research on teenage pregnancy and programs to reduce the risk of teenage pregnancy. Studies included in this report were completed in 1980 or later, conducted in the United States or Canada, targeted adolescents, employed an experimental or quasi-experimental design, had a sample size of at least 100 in the…

Kirby, Douglas


A Normative Study of Children's Drawings: Preliminary Research Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes methodology, data analysis, and initial results of a research study with the long-term goal of establishing contemporary normative data on drawings from children living in the United States. The pool of participants was composed of 316 fourth graders (mean age 9.69 years) and 151 second graders (mean age 7.56 years) who each…

Deaver, Sarah P.



Researchers Find That Childhood Sarcoma Increases Risk of Blood Clots

Researchers at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, have determined that children and young adults with a form of cancer called sarcoma are at increased risk of having a thromboembolic event (TE) in their veins.


UT Southwestern researchers find new gene mutations for Wilms Tumor

Researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center and the Gill Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders at Children’s Medical Center, Dallas, have made significant progress in defining new genetic causes of Wilms tumor, a type of kidney cancer found only in children.


The Sponsored Research Lifecycle Part I: Finding a Sponsor  

E-print Network

with relationship building, discovery of customer needs, advocacy for your solution and support of the customer Research? #12;US 2003 R&D by Source & Performer Federal Funding is the primary sustenance for academic and Library Services National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) National Council on Disability

Bieber, Michael


Survey of Undergraduate Research Experiences (SURE): First Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, I examined the hypothesis that undergraduate research enhances the educational experience of science undergraduates, attracts and retains talented students to careers in science, and acts as a pathway for minority students into science careers. Undergraduates from 41 institutions participated in an online survey on the benefits of…

Lopatto, David



Pain, Nicotine, and Smoking: Research Findings and Mechanistic Considerations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tobacco addiction and chronic pain represent 2 highly prevalent and comorbid conditions that engender substantial burdens upon individuals and systems. Interrelations between pain and smoking have been of clinical and empirical interest for decades, and research in this area has increased dramatically over the past 5 years. We conceptualize the…

Ditre, Joseph W.; Brandon, Thomas H.; Zale, Emily L.; Meagher, Mary M.



Research on Faculty Networks Network findings page 1  

E-print Network

faculty, especially women and racial minorities. We do this by asking four general categories of research and gender. It is also unknown how department network structure and actor positions within those networks's perception of his or her environment. Network analysis is a set of statistical methods for systematically

Farritor, Shane


Electrical Distribution. Project Report Phase I with Research Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of electrical distribution, established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to train apprentice line workers. Section 1 contains general information: purpose of Phase…

Sappe', Hoyt; Kirkpatrick, Thomas


Becoming a Scientist: Research Findings on STEM Students' Gains from Conducting Undergraduate Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Undergraduate research is widely believed to enhance STEM students' education and increase their persistence to graduate education and careers in the sciences. Yet until very recently, little evidence from research and evaluation studies was available to substantiate such claims and document what students gain from doing undergraduate research or how these gains come about. We have conducted a three-year qualitative research study of STEM students participating in UR at four liberal arts colleges with a strong tradition of faculty-led summer research apprenticeships. Benefits to students reported by both students and their faculty advisors are categorized into six main categories of gains in skills, knowledge, "thinking like a scientist," career preparation, career development, and personal and professional growth. Student and faculty observations are strongly corroborative, but also differ in interesting ways that reflect the distinct perspectives of each group: students are still in the midst of discovering their own career paths while faculty advisors have observed the later career development of their past research students. While not all students find UR to heighten their interest in graduate school, they do find it a powerful growth experience that clarifies their career ambitions by providing a "real world" experience of science. For students whose interest in science is reinforced, UR has a significant role in their professional socialization into the culture and norms of science, which we call "becoming a scientist," through interactions that draw them into the scientific community and experiences that deepen their understanding of the nature of research. Cumulatively, the qualitative data set of nearly 350 interviews offers a rich portrayal of the UR enterprise from a variety of perspectives. Longitudinal data enable us to track the influence of UR on students' career and education trajectories in the years after college, and comparative data from a group of students who did not undertake UR or pursued alternate experiences reveal the extent to which some benefits of UR may be derived from other experiences. Faculty interviews reveal the costs and benefits to faculty of participating in this intensive form of science education. The presentation will highlight key findings and emphasize their relevance to faculty and program directors undertaking UR or seeking to generate its benefits through other activities.

Hunter, A.; Laursen, S.; Thiry, H.; Seymour, E.



Mental health epidemiological research in South America: recent findings  

PubMed Central

This paper aims to review the recent mental health epidemiological research conducted in South America. The Latin American and the Caribbean (LILACS) database was searched from 1999 to 2003 using a specific strategy for identification of cohort, case-control and cross-sectional population-based studies in South America. The authors screened references and identified relevant studies. Further studies were obtained contacting local experts in epidemiology. 140 references were identified, and 12 studies were selected. Most selected studies explored the prevalence and risk factors for common mental disorders, and several of them used sophisticated methods of sample selection and analysis. There is a need for improving the quality of psychiatric journals in Latin America, and for increasing the distribution and access to research data. Regionally relevant problems such as violence and substance abuse should be considered in designing future investigations in this area. PMID:16633474

Silva de Lima, Mauricio; Garcia de Oliveira Soares, Bernardo; de Jesus Mari, Jair



Alcoholics Anonymous: Key Research Findings from 2002–2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and other 12-step programs represent an affordable and widely accessible community-based resource for the estimated 18 million Americans with alcohol-related disorders. While substantiating information regarding 12-step programs remains challenging due to their autonomous structure and emphasis on anonymity, an ever increasing body of research provides a wealth of data regarding AA's efficacy, mechanisms of change, and viability

Shulamith Lala Ashenberg Straussner; Helga Byrne



Tobacco cessation in dental settings: research findings and future directions.  


The hazards associated with cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use have been well documented. In addition to its association with many cancers and coronary conditions, tobacco plays a role in the aetiology of a number of oral morbidities. Dental care practitioners are a largely untapped resource for providing advice and brief counselling to tobacco-using patients, and there are good reasons to believe that they can be effective. Data from seven randomised trials indicate there is ample evidence for the efficacy of dental office-based interventions, but adoption of these tobacco cessation activities into practice has been slow. The limited research on dissemination of tobacco interventions is promising, but there is a need to develop and evaluate new methods for encouraging adoption, implementation and maintenance of tobacco interventions into routine dental care. Several studies currently under way may help to increase the effectiveness and dissemination of office-based tobacco cessation programmes into routine dental care. If dental practitioners provided cessation assistance routinely to their patients and achieved even modest success rates, the public health impact would be enormous. Researchers and clinicians must continue to work together towards universal adoption of effective tobacco cessation interventions at each clinical encounter. PMID:16492575

Gordon, Judith S; Lichtenstein, Edward; Severson, Herbert H; Andrews, Judy A



Gate valve and motor-operator research findings  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an update on the valve research being sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The research addresses the need to provide assurance that motor-operated valves can perform their intended safety function, usually to open or close against specified (design basis) flow and pressure loads. This report describes several important developments: Two methods for estimating or bounding the design basis stem factor (in rising-stem valves), using data from tests less severe than design basis tests; a new correlation for evaluating the opening responses of gate valves and for predicting opening requirements; an extrapolation method that uses the results of a best effort flow test to estimate the design basis closing requirements of a gate valve that exhibits atypical responses (peak force occurs before flow isolation); and the extension of the original INEL closing correlation to include low- flow and low-pressure loads. The report also includes a general approach, presented in step-by-step format, for determining operating margins for rising-stem valves (gate valves and globe valves) as well as quarter-turn valves (ball valves and butterfly valves).

Steele, R. Jr.; DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; Russell, M.J.; Bramwell, D.



GOChase-II: correcting semantic inconsistencies from Gene Ontology-based annotations for gene products  

PubMed Central

Background The Gene Ontology (GO) provides a controlled vocabulary for describing genes and gene products. In spite of the undoubted importance of GO, several drawbacks associated with GO and GO-based annotations have been introduced. We identified three types of semantic inconsistencies in GO-based annotations; semantically redundant, biological-domain inconsistent and taxonomy inconsistent annotations. Methods To determine the semantic inconsistencies in GO annotation, we used the hierarchical structure of GO graph and tree structure of NCBI taxonomy. Twenty seven biological databases were collected for finding semantic inconsistent annotation. Results The distributions and possible causes of the semantic inconsistencies were investigated using twenty seven biological databases with GO-based annotations. We found that some evidence codes of annotation were associated with the inconsistencies. The numbers of gene products and species in a database that are related to the complexity of database management are also in correlation with the inconsistencies. Consequently, numerous annotation errors arise and are propagated throughout biological databases and GO-based high-level analyses. GOChase-II is developed to detect and correct both syntactic and semantic errors in GO-based annotations. Conclusions We identified some inconsistencies in GO-based annotation and provided software, GOChase-II, for correcting these semantic inconsistencies in addition to the previous corrections for the syntactic errors by GOChase-I. PMID:21342572



Pigeon-Talk > Pigeon Daily > News New research finds people and pigeons see  

E-print Network

#1 Pigeon-Talk > Pigeon Daily > News New research finds people and pigeons see eye to eye User Name New research finds people and pigeons see eye to eye DURHAM, N.H. ­ Pigeons to the development of flying robots and unmanned helicopters," the researchers say. So a software engineer who wants

Gosselin, Frédéric


Practicing Psychologists’ Knowledge of General Psychotherapy Research Findings: Implications for Science–Practice Relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

If you are a therapist, how knowledgeable are you and how knowledgeable do you need to be about psychotherapy research findings? In this study, the authors examined practicing psychologists’ knowledge of general psychotherapy research findings. Results revealed that some psychologists showed excellent familiarity with this body of outcome research, but many did not achieve this standard. Not infrequently, psychologists believed

Charles M. Boisvert; David Faust



Inconsistencies in steady-state thermodynamics.  


We address the issue of extending thermodynamics to nonequilibrium steady states. Using driven stochastic lattice gases, we ask whether consistent definitions of an effective chemical potential ?, and an effective temperature Te, are possible. ? and Te are determined via coexistence, i.e., zero flux of particles and energy between the driven system and a reservoir. In the lattice gas with nearest-neighbor exclusion, temperature is not relevant, and we find that the effective chemical potential, a function of density and drive strength, satisfies the zeroth law, and correctly predicts the densities of coexisting systems. In the Katz-Lebowitz-Spohn driven lattice gas both ? and Te need to be defined. We show analytically that in this case the zeroth law is violated for Metropolis exchange rates, and determine the size of the violations numerically. The zeroth law appears to be violated for generic exchange rates. Remarkably, the system-reservoir coupling proposed by Sasa and Tasaki [J. Stat. Phys. 125, 125 (2006)] is free of inconsistencies, and the zeroth law holds. This is because the rate depends only on the state of the donor system, and is independent of that of the acceptor. PMID:24730817

Dickman, Ronald; Motai, Ricardo



Current Mathematics Appears to Be Inconsistent  

E-print Network

We show that some mathematical results and their negations are both deducible. The derived contradictions indicate the inconsistency of current mathematics. This paper is an updated version of arXiv:math/0606635v3 with additional results and proofs.

Guang-Liang Li; Victor O. K. Li



NIAMS-Supported Research Finds New Genetic Links to Juvenile Arthritis  


... 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 Spotlight on Research 2013 June 2013 NIAMS-Supported Research Finds New Genetic Links to ... susceptibility loci for juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Nat Genet. 2013 Apr 21. doi: 10.1038/ng.2614. [Epub ...


The impact of the 1991 Gulf War on the mind and brain: findings from neuropsychological and neuroimaging research  

PubMed Central

Many veterans of the 1991 Gulf War (GW) have complained of somatic and cognitive symptoms that may be neurological in nature. However, whether or not changes in brain function are associated with GW service continues to be debated. Studies of GW veterans using objective, performance-based neuropsychological measures have yielded inconsistent findings, with those indicating deficits among GW veterans typically revealing only relatively mild levels of neuropsychological impairment. Further, performances on objective neuropsychological tasks show little correspondence to subjective perceptions of cognitive functioning. Although preliminary magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies demonstrate reduced N-acetylaspartate-to-creatine (NAA/Cr) ratio in select brain regions among GW veterans who report health concerns, this work requires further replication with larger, more representative samples. There is no evidence from neuroimaging studies of a non-specific effect of GW service or of changes in brain structure or function related to health status when conventional radiological methods are used. Owing to the paucity of objective exposure, baseline health data, and the now significant time elapsed since the GW, aetiological issues may never be fully resolved. Therefore, research addressing clinical management of GW veterans with neuropsychological dysfunction and neuroimaging abnormalities may prove more fruitful than exclusive focus on aetiology. PMID:16687264

Vasterling, Jennifer J; Bremner, J. Douglas



Incidental Computer Tomography Radiologic Findings through Research Participation in the North Texas Healthy Heart Study  

PubMed Central

Background Although variation exists in the classification and practice of managing clinical findings in research, emerging views suggest that researchers bear some responsibility in the management of incidental findings. This study contributes to the documentation of the population characteristics and prevalence of medical findings incidental to research participation, specifically findings related to coronary calcium scores and computed tomography (CT) scans that investigated cardiovascular disparities in an asymptomatic population. Methods A total of 571 asymptomatic adult participants were recruited in the North Texas Healthy Heart Study. Participants completed a 16-slice CT scan of the heart and abdomen. Findings of radiology reports and 3 years of follow-up documentation were reviewed. Results A total of 246 clinically apparent findings were identified in 169 asymptomatic participants (32.9% of participants who completed a CT scan). Another 245 participants (48%) had findings of unknown significance, a total of 307 findings. At least 4 cases in this study led to a clinically significant intervention. Conclusion Although CT scans were completed for research purposes, study procedures resulted in the diagnosis and treatment of individuals who were previously asymptomatic. Potential clinical benefits in imaging research are moderated by considerations regarding possible harm and costs resulting from uncertain findings and the use of CT scans for nonclinical purposes. The continued development of protocols for the handling of incidental findings in research and the establishment of guidelines are needed to ensure that research procedures mirror the best interests of participants. PMID:24808109

Espinoza, Anna; Malone, Kendra; Balyakina, Elizabeth; Fulda, Kimberly G.; Cardarelli, Roberto



Recent research related to juvenile sex offending: findings and directions for further research.  


Serious scholarly inquiry into juvenile sex offending represents a relatively new field, dating from the mid 1940s. During the next 4 decades, a mere handful of articles exploring aspects of juvenile sex offending were added to the available literature. By the 1980s, however, the literature began to increase rapidly, a trend that continues today. The purpose of this article is a focused review of the juvenile sex offender literature cited in PubMed over the last 5 years (2009-2013). The authors have chosen studies that will bring readers up to date on research they believe impacts our current understanding of best practices in the management of juvenile sex offending. For convenience, our review is organized into topical categories including research into characteristics and typologies of juvenile sex offenders, risk assessment and recidivism, assessment and treatment, the ongoing debate about mandatory registration of sex offenders as it applies to juveniles, and other thought provoking studies that do not fit neatly into the aforementioned categories. The studies included contain findings that both reinforce and challenge currently held notions about best practices concerning treatment and public policy, suggesting that our knowledge of the field continues to evolve in important ways. PMID:24562765

Malin, H Martin; Saleh, Fabian M; Grudzinskas, Albert J



Money for Research, Not Energy Bills: Finding Energy and Cost Savings in  

E-print Network

, to meet national security, materials design, climate protection, and energy goals, among othersLBNL-4282E Money for Research, Not Energy Bills: Finding Energy and Cost Savings in High of California. #12;1 Money for Research, Not for Energy Bills: Finding Energy and Cost Savings in High


Integrating findings of traditional medicine with modern pharmaceutical research: the potential role of linked open data  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the biggest obstacles to progress in modern pharmaceutical research is the difficulty of integrating all available research findings into effective therapies for humans. Studies of traditionally used pharmacologically active plants and other substances in traditional medicines may be valuable sources of previously unknown compounds with therapeutic actions. However, the integration of findings from traditional medicines can be fraught

Matthias Samwald; Michel Dumontier; Jun Zhao; Joanne S Luciano; Michael Scott Marshall; Kei Cheung



Symptoms of eating disorders among female distance runners: can the inconsistencies be unraveled?  


Research on eating disorders among female distance runners has produced a modest, but inconsistent body of findings. To unravel the confusion, we hypothesized a model whereby studies finding greater symptomatology have involved obligatory runners or elite national/international competitors. Studies not finding greater symptomatology have involved a more typical group of athletes. To test our hypothesis, we used the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2) to compare 20 typical female collegiate distance runners to 35 female undergraduate psychology students. Comparisons were also made with norms in the EDI-2 Manual. Consistent with our model, the distance runners showed no enhanced symptomatology. Indeed, they seemed to be comparatively healthy. Operational definitions to further test the model are discussed. PMID:10813268

Ryujin, D H; Breaux, C; Marks, A D



Impact of problem finding on the quality of authentic open inquiry science research projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem finding is a creative process whereby individuals develop original ideas for study. Secondary science students who successfully participate in authentic, novel, open inquiry studies must engage in problem finding to determine viable and suitable topics. This study examined problem finding strategies employed by students who successfully completed and presented the results of their open inquiry research at the 2007

Frank Labanca



Top 10 Greatest "Hits": Important Findings and Future Directions for Intimate Partner Violence Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author highlights her choice of the 10 most important recent findings from the intimate partner violence research literature, which include (a) the creation of the Conflict Tactics Scale; (b) the finding that violent acts are most often perpetrated by intimates; (c) a series of findings that indicate that women also engage in…

Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer



Heterogeneity in Choice Inconsistencies among the Elderly: Evidence from Prescription Drug Plan Choice  

E-print Network

This paper investigates the degree to which choice inconsistencies documented in the context of Medicare Part D plan choice vary across consumers and geographic regions. Our main finding is that there is surprisingly little ...

Abaluck, Jason


Research off Limits and Underground: Street Corner Methods for Finding Invisible Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates research methods for studies of school drop-outs and push-outs, populations that are very difficult to find since they no longer have an institutional affiliation. The work argues that street corner research, which was in favor among the early urban researchers of the Chicago school, may have a renewed role in these…

Simmons, Lizbet



Enhancing the Interpretation of "Significant" Findings: The Role of Mixed Methods Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present essay outlines how mixed methods research can be used to enhance the interpretation of significant findings. First, we define what we mean by significance in educational evaluation research. With regard to quantitative-based research, we define the four types of significance: statistical significance, practical significance, clinical…

Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Leech, Nancy L.



Redefining disability: maleficent, unjust and inconsistent.  


Disability activists' redefinition of "disability" as a social, rather than a medical, problem attempts to reassign causality. We explicate the untenable implications of this approach and argue this definition is maleficent, unjust, and inconsistent. Thus, redefining disability as a socially caused phenomenon is, from a moral point of view, ill-advised. PMID:19074236

Cox-White, Becky; Boxall, Susanna Flavia



Niacin Doesn't Reduce Heart Problems, May Create Some, Research Finds  


... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Niacin Doesn't Reduce Heart Problems, May Create Some, Research Finds ... News) -- Niacin, a commonly used cholesterol treatment, doesn't reduce the risk of heart attack or stroke ...


U of Minnesota researchers find that microRNA is tied to colon cancer tumor growth

Researchers have identified microRNAs that may cause colon polyps from turning cancerous. The finding could help physicians provide more specialized, and earlier, treatment before colon cancer develops.


Alcohol Use Disorders, Research Findings | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  


... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Alcohol Use and Abuse Alcohol Use Research Findings Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table ... and adolescents years after they were exposed to alcohol in the womb. That is according to a ...


U of Pittsburgh researchers find stem cells in mice in the esophagus

In an animal study published online today in Cell Reports, researchers report findings from mice that could lead to new insights into the development and treatment of esophageal cancer and the precancerous condition known as Barrett's esophagus.


Tulane Family Planning Operations Research in the English Speaking Caribbean: Final Research Findings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Operations research in the area of family planning has proved useful in identifying barriers to contraceptive use, resolving these problems, and testing new approaches to service delivery. The results of operations research in six English-speaking Caribbe...

J. T. Bertrand, P. Russell-Brown, E. Landry



Becoming a Scientist: Research Findings on STEM Students' Gains from Conducting Undergraduate Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Undergraduate research is widely believed to enhance STEM students' education and increase their persistence to graduate education and careers in the sciences. Yet until very recently, little evidence from research and evaluation studies was available to substantiate such claims and document what students gain from doing undergraduate research or how these gains come about. We have conducted a three-year qualitative

A. Hunter; S. Laursen; H. Thiry; E. Seymour



Using Research Findings to Change School and Classroom Practices: Results of an Experimental Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quasi-experimental, treatment-control group investigation was designed to test the effects of introducing research findings from effective teaching and school leadership into ongoing school settings. Research findings were translated into observable staff developer and teacher behaviors. Following 5 days of training 3 weeks prior to the beginning of school, treatment staff developers implemented self-designed plans to increase effective teaching behaviors.

Gary A. Griffin; Susan Barnes



School Effectiveness Research Findings in the Portuguese Speaking Countries: Brazil and Portugal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides findings of research on school effectiveness and discusses implications for evaluation in Brazil and Portugal. Most findings reported over the last decade have been published in Brazilian or Portuguese refereed journals. Thus, a brief literature review of such studies enables that knowledge to reach international scholars and…

Ferrão, Maria Eugénia



Published: 24 hours ago New research finds people and pigeons see eye to eye  

E-print Network

Published: 24 hours ago New research finds people and pigeons see eye to eye A pigeon in flight. Credit: Robin Freeman. Pigeons and humans use similar visual cues to identify objects, a finding. Gibson and his colleagues found that humans and pigeons, which have different visual systems, have

Gosselin, Frédéric


Teacher and Principal Value-Added: Research Findings and Implementation Practices. Final Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes research findings and implementation practices for teacher and principal value-added models (VAMs), as a first step in the Team Pennsylvania Foundation's (Team PA) pilot project to inform the development of a full, statewide model evaluation system. We have selected 21 studies that represent key issues and findings in the…

Lipscomb, Stephen; Teh, Bing-ru; Gill, Brian; Chiang, Hanley; Owens, Antoniya



Inconsistency: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inconsistency is commonplace in the real world and is an accepted part of life. Inconsistency is a multi-dimensional issue that includes: causes, types, interpretations, circumstances, desirability, detection approaches, handling strategies, and significance measures. In this paper, we focus our attention on the desirability dimension for inconsistency. It turns out that not all inconsistencies are bad, some are even desirable. We

Du Zhang



Current Research Findings on End-of-Life Decision Making among Racially or Ethnically Diverse Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: We reviewed the research literature on racial or ethnic diversity and end-of-life decision making in order to identify key findings and provide recommendations for future research. Design and Methods: We identified 33 empirical studies in which race or ethnicity was investigated as either a variable predicting treatment preferences or…

Kwak, Jung; Haley, William E.



Print Article Email Article > Dental Health Articles > Science > New Research Finds People  

E-print Network

People New Research Finds People And Pigeons See Eye To Eye Updated: 2/24/2007 5:31:19 AM 2007 Investment led to the development of flying robots and unmanned helicopters," the researchers say. So a software engineer who wants to design a program to help a robot recognize objects can get a leg up from evolution

Gosselin, Frédéric


Technology to Support Writing by Students with Learning and Academic Disabilities: Recent Research Trends and Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The trends and findings from a descriptive analysis of 25 years of research studies examining the effectiveness of technology to support the compositional writing of students with learning and academic disabilities are presented. A corpus of 85 applied research studies of writing technology effectiveness was identified from among 249 items in the…

Peterson-Karlan, George R.



Models of consent to return of incidental findings in genomic research.  


Genomic research-including whole genome sequencing and whole exome sequencing-has a growing presence in contemporary biomedical investigation. The capacity of sequencing techniques to generate results that go beyond the primary aims of the research-historically referred to as "incidental findings"-has generated considerable discussion as to how this information should be handled-that is, whether incidental results should be returned, and if so, which ones.Federal regulations governing most human subjects research in the United States require the disclosure of "the procedures to be followed" in the research as part of the informed consent process. It seems reasonable to assume-and indeed, many commentators have concluded-that genomic investigators will be expected to inform participants about, among other procedures, the prospect that incidental findings will become available and the mechanisms for dealing with them. Investigators, most of whom will not have dealt with these issues before, will face considerable challenges in framing meaningful disclosures for research participants.To help in this task, we undertook to identify the elements that should be included in the informed consent process related to incidental findings. We did this by surveying a large number of genomic researchers (n = 241) and by conducting in-depth interviews with a smaller number of researchers (n = 28) and genomic research participants (n = 20). Based on these findings, it seems clear to us that routine approaches to informed consent are not likely to be effective in genomic research in which the prospect of incidental findings exists. Ensuring that participants' decisions are informed and meaningful will require innovative approaches to dealing with the consent issue. We have identified four prototypical models of a consent process for return of incidental findings. PMID:24919982

Appelbaum, Paul S; Parens, Erik; Waldman, Cameron R; Klitzman, Robert; Fyer, Abby; Martinez, Josue; Price, W Nicholson; Chung, Wendy K



Disclosing incidental findings in genetics contexts: a review of the empirical ethical research.  


The disclosure of incidental findings, also called unsolicited findings, unexpected results, and secondary variants, is increasingly recognised as an issue in clinical and research genetics contexts. The rise of next generation sequencing methods has only intensified the issue, increasing the likelihood of incidental findings appearing. This review focuses on empirical research on the ethical issues involved. Electronic databases were searched for articles covering quantitative and qualitative research on the ethical issues involved in the disclosure of incidental findings in clinical and research genetics contexts. 16 articles were ultimately accepted for review. Data was extracted and synthesised on the factors that should be taken into account during the decision-making process surrounding the disclosure of an incidental finding in a genetics context. These factors include the possibility of disclosure, various practical and technical factors, and various ethical factors. We suggest the development of a decision-making tree, involving an exploration of the practical and ethical concerns raised by the studies. This is in our view the best way of handling the wide variety of both possible incidental findings and parties interested in the disclosure of incidental findings. PMID:24036277

Christenhusz, Gabrielle M; Devriendt, Koenraad; Dierickx, Kris



Examining inconsistencies in student reasoning approaches  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Student-centered instruction can lead to strong gains in physics learning. However, even after targeted instruction, many students still struggle to systematically analyze unfamiliar situations. We have been identifying sequences of questions that allow for an in-depth examination of inconsistencies in student reasoning approaches. On these sequences, many students demonstrate that they possess the abilities to perform the required reasoning, yet they fail to apply this reasoning to arrive at a correct answer. In certain contexts, students tend to âabandonâ suitable formal reasoning in favor of reasoning that was (perhaps) more intuitively appealing at that moment. In other cases, erroneous student reasoning approaches can be attributed to the relative salience of specific features of the problem. We present results from one sequence revealing inconsistencies in student reasoning in the context of capacitors. This sequence was administered in an introductory course in which Tutorials in Introductory Physics were implemented as interactive lectures.

Kryjevskaia, Mila; Stetzer, Mackenzie R.



Researchers Find that Tumor Stem Cells are Good Models for Brain Tumor Research

Researchers have found that tumor stem cell lines derived directly from human glioblastoma brain tumors are a better model to study the biology and physiology of glioblastomas than are cancer cell lines that have been commonly used in cancer research laboratories.



EPA Science Inventory

This report contains citations of publications for the years 1979-1982 on research conducted or supported by the Environmental Research Laboratory-Duluth. All published material has been organized into two major categories: (1) Journal Articles, Book Chapters, Proceedings, etc., ...


Disseminating research findings: what should researchers do? A systematic scoping review of conceptual frameworks  

PubMed Central

Background Addressing deficiencies in the dissemination and transfer of research-based knowledge into routine clinical practice is high on the policy agenda both in the UK and internationally. However, there is lack of clarity between funding agencies as to what represents dissemination. Moreover, the expectations and guidance provided to researchers vary from one agency to another. Against this background, we performed a systematic scoping to identify and describe any conceptual/organising frameworks that could be used by researchers to guide their dissemination activity. Methods We searched twelve electronic databases (including MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO), the reference lists of included studies and of individual funding agency websites to identify potential studies for inclusion. To be included, papers had to present an explicit framework or plan either designed for use by researchers or that could be used to guide dissemination activity. Papers which mentioned dissemination (but did not provide any detail) in the context of a wider knowledge translation framework, were excluded. References were screened independently by at least two reviewers; disagreements were resolved by discussion. For each included paper, the source, the date of publication, a description of the main elements of the framework, and whether there was any implicit/explicit reference to theory were extracted. A narrative synthesis was undertaken. Results Thirty-three frameworks met our inclusion criteria, 20 of which were designed to be used by researchers to guide their dissemination activities. Twenty-eight included frameworks were underpinned at least in part by one or more of three different theoretical approaches, namely persuasive communication, diffusion of innovations theory, and social marketing. Conclusions There are currently a number of theoretically-informed frameworks available to researchers that can be used to help guide their dissemination planning and activity. Given the current emphasis on enhancing the uptake of knowledge about the effects of interventions into routine practice, funders could consider encouraging researchers to adopt a theoretically-informed approach to their research dissemination. PMID:21092164



[Research on the method of stress assessment--from the research findings of 2010].  


The Japanese Society for Occupational Mental Health has conducted research on assessment of the psychological load (i.e., stress) among workers. Investigations were conducted three times, and those were contract research projects assigned by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. In this project, the author was the primary researcher. In the latest research, a survey utilizing the Live Event Method was performed extensively nationwide; the survey covered 10,494 subjects (including 1,977 females) from all types of industry and occupation. The objective of this research was to reevaluate the Psychological Load Assessment Sheet used as an evaluation basis for the "Certification of workers' compensation related to mental disorders from psychological load." Two previous research investigations, conducted in 2002 and 2006, had suggested the need for such reevaluation. The outcomes revealed that, the longer the monthly overtime working hours, the higher the stress scores (in the range of 0 to 10), and the lower the appearance rate of stress. Subjects who performed 140 hours or more of overtime work per month, which fell under the category of "Extremely Excessive Overtime Work," showed 6.3 points, which was markedly high, and ranked fourth in the survey with 63 assessment items. The category, "Extremely Excessive Overtime Work," includes two working hour ranges, 120 hours or more and 160 hours or more; those working hour ranges were defined in the revision based on the latest research. Monthly overtime work of 120 hours or more, but less than 140 hours, was ranked ninth and scored 6.3 points. Monthly overtime work of 80 hours or more, but less than 100 hours, scored 5.3 points with a frequency of 14.2%. Based on the above results, new assessment items were added to the Psychological Load Assessment Sheet. This paper addresses and studies the issues explained above. PMID:23346811

Natsume, Makoto



Research education: findings of a study of teaching-learning research using multiple analytical perspectives.  


This multimethod, qualitative study provides results for educators of nursing doctoral students to consider. Combining the expertise of an empirical analytical researcher (who uses statistical methods) and an interpretive phenomenological researcher (who uses hermeneutic methods), a course was designed that would place doctoral students in the midst of multiparadigmatic discussions while learning fundamental research methods. Field notes and iterative analytical discussions led to patterns and themes that highlight the value of this innovative pedagogical application. Using content analysis and interpretive phenomenological approaches, together with one of the students, data were analyzed from field notes recorded in real time over the period the course was offered. This article describes the course and the study analysis, and offers the pedagogical experience as transformative. A link to a sample syllabus is included in the article. The results encourage nurse educators of doctoral nursing students to focus educational practice on multiple methodological perspectives. [J Nurs Educ. 2014;53(12):673-677.]. PMID:25406843

Vandermause, Roxanne; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; Fritz, Roschelle



Reconciling incongruous qualitative and quantitative findings in mixed methods research: exemplars from research with drug using populations  

PubMed Central

Mixed methods research is increasingly being promoted in the health sciences as a way to gain more comprehensive understandings of how social processes and individual behaviours shape human health. Mixed methods research most commonly combines qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis strategies. Often, integrating findings from multiple methods is assumed to confirm or validate the findings from one method with the findings from another, seeking convergence or agreement between methods. Cases in which findings from different methods are congruous are generally thought of as ideal, while conflicting findings may, at first glance, appear problematic. However, the latter situation provides the opportunity for a process through which apparently discordant results are reconciled, potentially leading to new emergent understandings of complex social phenomena. This paper presents three case studies drawn from the authors’ research on HIV risk among injection drug users in which mixed methods studies yielded apparently discrepant results. We use these case studies (involving injection drug users [IDUs] using a needle/syringe exchange program in Los Angeles, California, USA; IDUs seeking to purchase needle/syringes at pharmacies in Tijuana, Mexico; and young street-based IDUs in San Francisco, CA, USA) to identify challenges associated with integrating findings from mixed methods projects, summarize lessons learned, and make recommendations for how to more successfully anticipate and manage the integration of findings. Despite the challenges inherent in reconciling apparently conflicting findings from qualitative and quantitative approaches, in keeping with others who have argued in favour of integrating mixed methods findings, we contend that such an undertaking has the potential to yield benefits that emerge only through the struggle to reconcile discrepant results and may provide a sum that is greater than the individual qualitative and quantitative parts. PMID:21680168

Wagner, Karla D.; Davidson, Peter J.; Pollini, Robin A.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Washburn, Rachel; Palinkas, Lawrence A.



Nutrition and Growth: Recent Research Findings and Research Priorities. Matrix No. 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research indicates that low income adults and infants in the United States are more likely to be overweight than undernourished. Very possibly, the assumptions upon which food supplement programs are based are ill-founded. While many of the currently operating broadly conceived supplemental food programs achieve desirable collateral…

Graham, George G.


Research on Self-Determination in Physical Education: Key Findings and Proposals for Future Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: During the last 30 years, several theories of motivation have generated insights into the motives underlying learners' behavior in physical education. Self-determination theory (SDT), a general theory on social development and motivation, has enjoyed increasing popularity in physical education research during the past decade. SDT…

Van den Berghe, Lynn; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Cardon, Greet; Kirk, David; Haerens, Leen



Findings from the National Institute of Nursing research related to neonatal care: 2005 update.  


This annotated bibliography from the National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR) presents recent findings on a variety of studies related to prenatal conditions and the benefits of prenatal care, advances in our understanding about infant care and family issues in the newborn intensive care unit (NICU), and the importance of clinicians in supporting and communicating with the family. By sharing this bibliography, we hope to increase the awareness of these valuable research findings within the nursing community and support the continued development of evidence-based practice in antenatal, postpartum, and neonatal care. PMID:16383185



Translating research findings to promote peace: moving from "field to forum" with verbatim theatre.  


Peace, both personal and global, resides in understanding. Verbatim theatre is introduced as a vehicle for translating research findings to promote understanding and thereby, promote health. By shifting our translation lens from "bench to bedside" to "field to forum," new opportunities arise for moving nursing research-findings to an engaged audience. Stories from Pearl Harbor and Hiroshima survivors were woven into the verbatim performance, With Their Voices Raised. Analysis of audience members' reflections after the performance suggests that verbatim theatre created a connection based in openness, engagement, and trust that informed understanding and raised awareness about peace processes. PMID:23907299

Liehr, Patricia; Morris, Kate; Leavitt, Mary Ann; Takahashi, Ryutaro



Managing clinically significant findings in research: the UK10K example  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in sequencing technology allow data on the human genome to be generated more quickly and in greater detail than ever before. Such detail includes findings that may be of significance to the health of the research participant involved. Although research studies generally do not feed back information on clinically significant findings (CSFs) to participants, this stance is increasingly being questioned. There may be difficulties and risks in feeding clinically significant information back to research participants, however, the UK10K consortium sought to address these by creating a detailed management pathway. This was not intended to create any obligation upon the researchers to feed back any CSFs they discovered. Instead, it provides a mechanism to ensure that any such findings can be passed on to the participant where appropriate. This paper describes this mechanism and the specific criteria, which must be fulfilled in order for a finding and participant to qualify for feedback. This mechanism could be used by future research consortia, and may also assist in the development of sound principles for dealing with CSFs. PMID:24424120

Kaye, Jane; Hurles, Matthew; Griffin, Heather; Grewal, Jasote; Bobrow, Martin; Timpson, Nic; Smee, Carol; Bolton, Patrick; Durbin, Richard; Dyke, Stephanie; Fitzpatrick, David; Kennedy, Karen; Kent, Alastair; Muddyman, Dawn; Muntoni, Francesco; Raymond, Lucy F; Semple, Robert; Spector, Tim



Translating research findings on early experience to prevention: animal and human evidence on early attachment relationships.  


Recent studies provide a wealth of findings on the mechanisms by which early stress exposure, particularly within the early child-parent attachment relationship, may influence long-term adaptation. Translating these findings to clinical practice and social policy is now underway. In this review, some key considerations in this translational task are examined, specifically, the conceptual bases underlying the research designs, the putative mechanisms involved, and the degree to which currently available findings might shape interventions. Although the primary focus is on depression, a broader range of phenotypes associated with poor early caregiving environments is also considered. PMID:17175412

O'Connor, Thomas G; Cameron, Judy L



Researchers Find Genetic Response to Global Warming: Changing Climate Prompts Genetic Change in Squirrels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

University of Alberta biologist Stan Boutin and his research team have recently published findings that North American red squirrels exhibit genetic changes in response to a warming climate. This Web site contains a University of Alberta press release detailing this first-ever demonstration of genetic adaptation to global warming. With implications that extend far beyond the immediate research concerns of geneticists and environmental scientists, Boutin's work as presented in this Web site should be interesting to wide audience.

Dey, Phoebe.



Myalgic encephalomyelitis: a review with emphasis on key findings in biomedical research  

PubMed Central

This review examines research findings in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis in light of the current debate about this chronic multiple?symptom, multiorgan, multisystem illness and the conflicting views in medicine. These issues cannot be separated from the political opinions and assertions that conflict with science and medicine, and will be part of this review as they have enormous consequences for scientific and medical research, patients, clinicians, carers and policy makers. PMID:16935967

Hooper, M



Family structure and depression in female college students: Effects of parental conflict, decision-making power, and inconsistency of love  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on earlier findings that maladjusted Ss come from families with high interparental conflict and dominance by the parent opposite in sex to the S's, a model was developed that predicted depression in female college students. Depression was predicted to depend on parental conflict, inconsistent love from the father, and the Conflict?×?Dominance?×?Father's Inconsistency interaction. Questionnaire measures of father's and mother's

J. Conrad Schwarz; David C. Zuroff



Embodiment of the interpersonal nexus: revealing qualitative research findings on shoulder surgery patients  

PubMed Central

Background The paper reports on the importance of the interpersonal nexus within qualitative research processes, from a recent research project on patient experiences of shoulder surgery. Our aim is to reveal the importance of qualitative research processes and specifically the role of the interpersonal nexus in generating quality data. Literature related to the importance of human interactions and interpersonal communication processes in health-related research remains limited. Shoulder surgery has been reported to be associated with significant postoperative pain. While shoulder surgery research has investigated various analgesic techniques to determine key efficacy and minimization of adverse side effects, little has been reported from the patient perspective. Methods Following institutional ethics approval, this project was conducted in two private hospitals in Victoria, Australia, in 2010. The methods included a survey questionnaire, semistructured interviews, and researcher-reflective journaling. Researcher-reflective journaling was utilized to highlight and discuss the interpersonal nexus. Results This research specifically addresses the importance of the contributions of qualitative methods and processes to understanding patient experiences of analgesic efficacy and shoulder surgery. The results reveal the importance of the established research process and the interwoven interpersonal nexus between the researcher and the research participants. The interpersonal skills of presencing and empathetic engagement are particularly highlighted. Conclusion The authors attest the significance of establishing an interpersonal nexus in order to reveal patient experiences of shoulder surgery. Interpersonal emotional engagement is particularly highlighted in data collection, in what may be otherwise understated and overlooked qualitative findings in patient experiences of shoulder surgery. PMID:22442632

Glass, Nel; Ogle, K Robyn



Human Microbiome Project Researchers Find Vast Individual Differences in Our Bacteria  

E-print Network

female), collecting tissues from 15 body sites in men and 18 body sites in women (including three vaginal population differences both between areas in each body and between similar areas in different bodies. EachHuman Microbiome Project Researchers Find Vast Individual Differences in Our Bacteria When

Howitt, Ivan


A framework for analyzing the ethics of disclosing genetic research findings.  


Whether researchers have an obligation to disclose secondary genetic research findings, and, if so, in what circumstances, remains a matter of heated debate. This paper suggests that much of this confusion is definitional or conceptual in nature. That is, there is significant variability in the way that threshold terms and concepts such as "incidental," "analytic validity," "clinical validity," "clinical relevance," "clinical utility," "clinical significance," and "actionability," are used in the literature, which is impeding efforts to clarify the scope of an obligation to return findings. This paper analyzes the definitional muddle underlying the debate about returning genetic research findings, first, to explain the range of definitions being used in this debate. We go on to propose that, underlying all the seeming confusion and disagreement, three central and widely agreed upon concepts are at work in this debate - validity, value, and volition. Refocusing attention on these core concepts, and their appropriate conceptualizations, can produce a more productive debate regarding the return of genetic research findings. PMID:25040383

Eckstein, Lisa; Garrett, Jeremy R; Berkman, Benjamin E



Student Engagement and Student Outcomes: Key Findings from "CCSSE" Validation Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The findings from 20 years of research on undergraduate education have been unequivocal: The more actively engaged students are--with college faculty and staff, with other students, and with the subject matter they study--the more likely they are to learn, to stick with their studies, and to attain their academic goals. The existing literature,…

McClenney, Kay; Marti, C. Nathan; Adkins, Courtney



Kimmel Cancer Center researchers find biomarker links clinical outcome with new model of lethal tumor metabolism

Researchers at the Kimmel Cancer Center at Jefferson have demonstrated for the first time that the metabolic biomarker MCT4 directly links clinical outcomes with a new model of tumor metabolism that has patients “feeding” their cancer cells. Their findings were published online March 15 in Cell Cycle.


Fox Chase researchers find a compound that targets a key mechanism behind lymphoma

Scientists at Fox Chase Cancer Center in Philadelphia have come one step closer to developing the first treatment to target a key pathway in lymphoma. The new findings were announced at the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2012 on Tuesday, April 3.


Finding links to cancer Masonic Cancer Center researchers work to identify carcinogens  

E-print Network

Finding links to cancer Masonic Cancer Center researchers work to identify carcinogens in the world around us--as well as ways to avoid them When scientists talk about "environmental" causes of cancer are linked to as many as two out of every three cancers diagnosed. DeAnn Lazovich, Ph.D., M.P.H., is one

Minnesota, University of


Research report Stress eating and health. Findings from MIDUS, a national study  

E-print Network

Research report Stress eating and health. Findings from MIDUS, a national study of US adults q Vera 2013 Keywords: Stress eating Diabetes Obesity National study a b s t r a c t The epidemic of obesity balance by describing pathways to energy imbalance. Studies on triggers of eating behaviors document

Wisconsin at Madison, University of


Research on the caretaking of children of incarcerated parents: Findings and their service delivery implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews research findings on caretaking-related problems associated with the absence of parents from the home following incarceration. It focuses on the impact of incarceration on the welfare and adjustment of urban African American children and on the assumption of caretaking responsibilities by other caretakers, principally maternal grandmothers. Noting the complex situational difficulties involved and the potential burdens associated

Thomas E. Hanlon; Steven B. Carswell; Marc Rose



Researchers Find Abnormal Cells in the Blood Years before Leukemia is Diagnosed

Researchers have shown that abnormal white blood cells can be present in patients' blood more than six years prior to the diagnosis of a chronic form of lymphocytic leukemia. This finding may lead to a better understanding of the cellular changes that characterize the earliest stages of the disease and how it progresses.


Indiana U researchers find that blood test could help to diagnose pancreatic cancer

Indiana U researchers find that a blood test could help to diagnose pancreatic cancer. The disease is difficult to diagnose in early stages because the pancreas is hidden behind other organs such as the stomach, small intestine, liver, gallbladder, spleen and bile ducts.


Undersea researchers find little oil spill damage so far By KRISTA KLAUS | News Channel 8  

E-print Network

Undersea researchers find little oil spill damage so far By KRISTA KLAUS | News Channel 8 Published of the Gulf of Mexico in the wake of BP's massive Deepwater Horizon oil spill made a brief stopover today life before and after the largest oil spill in the history of the Gulf of Mexico. #12;"This

Belogay, Eugene A.


Edinburgh Research Explorer Epidemiological and postmortem findings in 262 red squirrels  

E-print Network

Edinburgh Research Explorer Epidemiological and postmortem findings in 262 red squirrels (Sciurus squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) in Scotland, 2005 to 2009' Veterinary Record, vol 167, no. 8, pp. 297-302., 10 on 262 red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) found dead or moribund in Scotland between September 2005

Swain, Peter


Genetically Informative Research on Adolescent Substance Use: Methods, Findings, and Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To provide an overview of the genetic epidemiology of substance use and misuse in adolescents. Method: A selective review of genetically informative research strategies, their limitations, and key findings examining issues related to the heritability of substance use and substance use disorders in children and adolescents is presented.…

Lynskey, Michael T.; Agrawal, Arpana; Heath, Andrew C.



Public Understanding of Cognitive Neuroscience Research Findings: Trying to Peer beyond Enchanted Glass  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article considers the appeal of cognitive neuroscience research to the general public within the context of the deep puzzles involved in using our minds to understand how our minds work. It offers a few promising examples of findings that illuminate the ways of the mind and reveal these workings to be counter-intuitive with our subjective…

Grotzer, Tina A.



Divergent hemispheric reasoning strategies: reducing uncertainty versus resolving inconsistency  

PubMed Central

Converging lines of evidence from diverse research domains suggest that the left and right hemispheres play distinct, yet complementary, roles in inferential reasoning. Here, we review research on split-brain patients, brain-damaged patients, delusional patients, and healthy individuals that suggests that the left hemisphere tends to create explanations, make inferences, and bridge gaps in information, while the right hemisphere tends to detect conflict, update beliefs, support mental set-shifts, and monitor and inhibit behavior. Based on this evidence, we propose that the left hemisphere specializes in creating hypotheses and representing causality, while the right hemisphere specializes in evaluating hypotheses, and rejecting those that are implausible or inconsistent with other evidence. In sum, we suggest that, in the domain of inferential reasoning, the left hemisphere strives to reduce uncertainty while the right hemisphere strives to resolve inconsistency. The hemispheres’ divergent inferential reasoning strategies may contribute to flexible, complex reasoning in the healthy brain, and disruption in these systems may explain reasoning deficits in the unhealthy brain. PMID:25374526

Marinsek, Nicole; Turner, Benjamin O.; Gazzaniga, Michael; Miller, Michael B.



Repackaging Prostate Cancer Support Group Research Findings: An e-KT Case Study.  


In the context of psychosocial oncology research, disseminating study findings to a range of knowledge "end-users" can advance the well-being of diverse patient subgroups and their families. This article details how findings drawn from a study of prostate cancer support groups were repackaged in a knowledge translation Web 2.0 features. Detailed are five lessons learned from developing the website: the importance of pitching a winning but feasible idea, keeping a focus on interactivity and minimizing text, negotiating with the supplier, building in formal pretests or a pilot test with end-users, and completing formative evaluations based on data collected through Google™ and YouTube™ Analytics. The details are shared to guide the e-knowledge translation efforts of other psychosocial oncology researchers and clinicians. PMID:24713522

Oliffe, John L; Han, Christina S; Lohan, Maria; Bottorff, Joan L



UNC researchers find new genetic target for a different kind of cancer drug

Researchers from the UNC School of Medicine have discovered that the protein RBM4, a molecule crucial to the process of gene splicing, is drastically decreased in multiple forms of human cancer, including lung and breast cancers. The finding, published in the journal Cancer Cell, offers a new route toward therapies that can thwart the altered genetic pathways that allow cancer cells to proliferate and spread.


UCSD researchers find enzyme accelerates malignant stem cell cloning in chronic myeloid leukemia

An international team, headed by researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, has identified a key enzyme in the reprogramming process that promotes malignant stem cell cloning and the growth of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), a cancer of the blood and marrow that experts say is increasing in prevalence. The findings are published in the Dec. 24 online early edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). UCSD is home to the Moores Comprehensive Cancer Center.


Addressing inconsistencies in black carbon literature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The literature describing black carbon (BC) emissions, and their effect on Earth’s climate, is growing rapidly. Unfortunately, inconsistencies in definitions; data collection and characterization; system boundaries; and time horizons have led to confusion about the relative importance of BC compared to other climate-active pollutant (CAPs). We discuss three sources of confusion: 1) Currently available BC inventories are not directly comparable to those used by the IPCC to track the greenhouse gases (GHGs) considered in the Kyoto Protocol (CO2, CH4, N2O). In particular, BC inventories often include all emissions: natural and anthropogenic in origin, controllable and non-controllable. IPCC inventories include only anthropogenic emissions. This BC accounting is appropriate for atmospheric science deliberations, but risks being interpreted as an overstatement against official Kyoto GHG inventories in a policy or control context. The IPCC convention of using 1750 as the starting year for emission inventories further complicates matters: significant BC emissions were emitted previous to that date by both human and natural sources. Though none of the pre-1750 BC emissions remain in the atmosphere today, their legacy presents challenges in assigning historical responsibility for associated global warming among sectors and regional populations. 2) Inconsistencies exist in the specific emissions sources considered in atmospheric models used to predict net BC forcing often lead to widely varying climate forcing estimates. For example, while some analyses consider only fossil fuel 1, others include both open biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion 2, and yet others include sources beyond biomass and fossil fuel burning 3. 3) Inconsistencies exist in how analyses incorporate the relationship between BC emissions and the associated cooling aerosols and processes, such as organic carbon (OC), and aerosol indirect effects (AIE). Unlike Kyoto GHGs, BC is rarely emitted in pure form and always with significant emissions of OC aerosols. The OC/BC ratio, however, is quite variable by emission source and often poorly characterized both in its current state and under intervention scenarios. In contrast, sulfur emissions, which become cooling sulfate (SO4) aerosols, are less intrinsically linked to other emissions, i.e., they can be controlled separately. Comparisons often ignore the substantial differences in uncertainties across the CAPs. These sources of confusion operate in a landscape of shifting scientific understanding of the RF from BC, including the work by Ramanathan and Carmichael (2008) indicating a BC RF that is roughly double the IPCC AR4 1 value for BC without organic carbon (OC). Doubling the impact of BC has a major impact on the relative importance of sectors for interventions. An approach is to consider post-AR4 estimates for BC, methane, etc. as part of sensitivity analyses, until a full new assessment becomes available. 1. Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, et al. Working Group I Report: "The Physical Science Basis". Cambridge, UK and New York, NY, US: IPCC; 2007. 2. Jacobson MZ. Strong radiative heating due to the mixing state of black carbon in atmospheric aerosols. Nature 2001;409:695-7. 3. Ramanathan V, Carmichael G. Global and regional climate changes due to black carbon. Nature Geoscience 2008;1:221-7.

Shonkoff, S. B.; Chafe, Z.; Smith, K. R.



Language of instruction in Tanzania: Why are research findings not heeded?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The issue of language of instruction (LOI) and its effects on education in Tanzanian secondary education has been widely researched since the early 1980s. In 2009, the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training proposed a new education and training policy that allows English to be used as LOI from nursery school to tertiary education. The proposed policy goes against what researchers in this area have recommended over the years. In the light of the proposed policy, the author of this article felt the need to review studies done on LOI in Tanzania from 1974 to date, aiming to eliminate or greatly reduce the negative effects of the policy on education in Tanzania. Quoting examples, the paper demonstrates students' levels of proficiency in English; suggests reasons why governmental policy has over time ignored research findings; and recommends as well as proposes the way forward.

Qorro, Martha A. S.



A Study of Probabilistic Information Retrieval Systems in the Case of Inconsistent Expert Judgments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the maximum entropy principle (MEP) and applies it to the design of probabilistic retrieval systems. Inconsistent expert judgments and the resulting optimization problem are examined, a linear programing problem is presented that checks the consistency of the expert judgments, and four schemes are proposed to find revised judgments. (12…

Lee, Jung Jin; Kantor, Paul B.



Dana-Farber researchers find new culprit in castration-resistant prostate cancer

Scientists at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute have discovered a molecular switch that enables advanced prostate cancers to spread without stimulation by male hormones, which normally are needed to spur the cancer's growth. They say the finding could lead to a new treatment for prostate cancers that are no longer controlled by hormone-blocking drugs. The researchers report in the Dec. 14 issue of Science that the molecular switch occurs in a protein, EZH2, which is increased in these tumors, termed castration-resistant prostate cancers (CRPC).


Stanford researchers find antibody hinders growth of Gleevec-resistant gastrointestinal tumors in lab tests

An antibody that binds to a molecule on the surface of a rare but deadly tumor of the gastrointestinal tract inhibits the growth of the cancer cells in mice, according to researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine (home of the Stanford Cancer Institute). The effect remains even when the cancer cells have become resistant to other treatments, and the findings may one day provide a glimmer of hope for people with the cancer, known as gastrointestinal stromal tumor, or GIST. The scientists hope to move into human clinical trials of the antibody within two years.


Addressing mathematical inconsistency: Cantor and Godel refuted  

E-print Network

This article critically reappraises arguments in support of Cantor's theory of transfinite numbers. The following results are reported: i) Cantor's proofs of nondenumerability are refuted by analyzing the logical inconsistencies in implementation of the reductio method of proof and by identifying errors. Particular attention is given to the diagonalization argument and to the interpretation of the axiom of infinity. ii) Three constructive proofs have been designed that support the denumerability of the power set of the natural numbers, P(N), thus implying the denumerability of the set of the real numbers R. These results lead to a Theorem of the Continuum that supersedes Cantor's Continuum Hypothesis and establishes the countable nature of the real number line, suggesting that all infinite sets are denumerable. Some immediate implications of denumerability are discussed: i) Valid proofs should not include inconceivable statements, defined as statements that can be found to be false and always lead to contradiction. This is formalized in a Principle of Conceivable Proof. ii) Substantial simplification of the axiomatic principles of set theory can be achieved by excluding transfinite numbers. To facilitate the comparison of sets, infinite as well as finite, the concept of relative cardinality is introduced. iii) Proofs of incompleteness that use diagonal arguments (e.g. those used in Godel's Theorems) are refuted. A constructive proof, based on the denumerability of P(N), is presented to demonstrate the existence of a theory of first-order arithmetic that is consistent, sound, negation-complete, decidable and (assumed p.r. adequate) able to prove its own consistency. Such a result reinstates Hilbert's Programme and brings arithmetic completeness to the forefront of mathematics.

J. A. Perez



Inconsistencies and open questions regarding low-dose health effects of ionizing radiation.  

PubMed Central

The effects on human health of exposures to ionizing radiation at low doses have long been the subject of dispute. In this paper we focus on open questions regarding the health effects of low-dose exposures that require further investigations. Seemingly contradictory findings of radiation health effects have been reported for the same exposed populations, or inconsistent estimates of radiation risks were found when different populations and exposure conditions were compared. Such discrepancies may be indicative of differences in sensitivities among the applied methods of epidemiological analysis or indicative of significant discrepancies in health consequences after comparable total exposures of different populations under varying conditions. We focus first on inconsistencies and contradictions in presentations of the state of knowledge by different authoritative experts. We then review studies that found positive associations between exposure and risks in dose ranges where traditional notions (generalized primarily from high-dose studies of A-bomb survivors or exposed animals) would have predicted negligible effects. One persistent notion in many reviews of low-dose effects is the hypothesis of reduced biological effectiveness of fractionated low-dose exposures, compared to that of the same acute dose. This assumption is not supported by data on human populations. From studies of populations that live in contaminated areas, more and more evidence is accumulating on unusual rates of various diseases other than radiation-induced malignancies, health effects that are suspected to be associated with relatively low levels of internal exposures originating from radioactive fallout. Such effects include congenital defects, neonatal mortality, stillbirths, and possibly genetically transmitted disease. A range of open questions challenges scientists to test imaginative hypotheses about induction of disease by radiation with novel research strategies. Images Figure 1. PMID:7895705

Nussbaum, R H; Kohnlein, W



Finding a voice: participatory research with street-involved youth in the youth injection prevention project.  


This article uses a Positive Youth Development framework to explore the experiences of six experiential youth coresearchers (YCs) in the Youth Injection Prevention (YIP) participatory research project, and the parallel track process of empowerment and capacity building that developed. The YIP project was conducted in Metro Vancouver at the BC Centre for Disease Control and community organizations serving street-involved youth. A process evaluation was conducted to explore themes in the YCs experience in the project, as well as process strengths and challenges. Semistructured interviews with the YCs, researcher field notes, and team meeting and debrief session minutes were analyzed. The YIP project appears to have exerted a positive influence on the YCs. Positive self-identities, sense of purpose, reconceptualization of intellectual ability, new knowledge and skills, supportive relationships, finding a voice, and social and self-awareness were among the positive impacts. Process strengths included team-building activities, team check-in and checkout sessions, and professional networking opportunities. Process challenges included the time required to help YCs overcome personal barriers to participation. The YIP project demonstrates that participatory research with street-involved youth is a viable research option that contributes to positive youth development and empowerment. PMID:24668583

Coser, Larissa Rodrigues; Tozer, Kira; Van Borek, Natasha; Tzemis, Despina; Taylor, Darlene; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Buxton, Jane A



Science in the Eyes of Preschool Children: Findings from an Innovative Research Tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How do young children view science? Do these views reflect cultural stereotypes? When do these views develop? These fundamental questions in the field of science education have rarely been studied with the population of preschool children. One main reason is the lack of an appropriate research instrument that addresses preschool children's developmental competencies. Extensive body of research has pointed at the significance of early childhood experiences in developing positive attitudes and interests toward learning in general and the learning of science in particular. Theoretical and empirical research suggests that stereotypical views of science may be replaced by authentic views following inquiry science experience. However, no preschool science intervention program could be designed without a reliable instrument that provides baseline information about preschool children's current views of science. The current study presents preschool children's views of science as gathered from a pioneering research tool. This tool, in the form of a computer "game," does not require reading, writing, or expressive language skills and is operated by the children. The program engages children in several simple tasks involving picture recognition and yes/no answers in order to reveal their views about science. The study was conducted with 120 preschool children in two phases and found that by the age of 4 years, participants possess an emergent concept of science. Gender and school differences were detected. Findings from this interdisciplinary study will contribute to the fields of early childhood, science education, learning technologies, program evaluation, and early childhood curriculum development.

Dubosarsky, Mia D.


Sexual Abuse and Exploitation of Boys in South Asia. A review of research findings, legislation, policy and programme responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of research findings, legislation, policy and programme responses to prevent and respond to the sexual abuse and exploitation of boys in South Asia. The background to the paper is based on the findings from previous UNICEF IRC research on child trafficking in the region, which indicated that boys enjoy less legal protection than girls from

John Frederick



When Learners Surpass Their Models: The Acquisition of American Sign Language from Inconsistent Input  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examines the impact of highly inconsistent input on language acquisition. The American deaf community provides a unique opportunity to observe children exposed to nonnative language models as their only linguistic input. This research is a detailed case study of one child acquiring his native language in such circumstances. It…

Singleton, Jenny L.; Newport, Elissa L.



Findings of the US research needs workshop on the topic of fusion power  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES) conducted a Research Needs Workshop, referred to as ReNeW, in June 2009. The information developed at this workshop will help OFES develop a plan for US fusion research during the ITER era, roughly the next two decades. The workshop was organized in five Themes, one of which was Harnessing Fusion Power (or Fusion Power for short). The top level goal of the Fusion Power Theme was to identify the research needed to develop the knowledge to design and build, with high confidence, robust and reliable systems that can convert fusion products to useful forms of energy in a reactor environment, including a self-sufficient supply of tritium fuel. Each Theme was subsequently subdivided into Panels to address specific topics. The Fusion Power Panel topics were: Fusion Fuel Cycle; Power Extraction; Materials Science; Safety and Environment; and Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Inspectability (RAMI). Here we present the key findings of the Fusion Power Theme.

W. R. Meier; A. R. Raffray; R. J. Kurtz; N. B. Morley; W. T. Reiersen; Phil Sharpe; S. Willms



Exome Sequencing and Unrelated Findings in the Context of Complex Disease Research: Ethical and Clinical Implications  

PubMed Central

Exome sequencing has identified the causes of several Mendelian diseases, although it has rarely been used in a clinical setting to diagnose the genetic cause of an idiopathic disorder in a single patient. We performed exome sequencing on a pedigree with several members affected with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), in an effort to identify candidate variants predisposing to this complex disease. While we did identify some rare variants that might predispose to ADHD, we have not yet proven the causality for any of them. However, over the course of the study, one subject was discovered to have idiopathic hemolytic anemia (IHA), which was suspected to be genetic in origin. Analysis of this subject’s exome readily identified two rare non-synonymous mutations in PKLR gene as the most likely cause of the IHA, although these two mutations had not been documented before in a single individual. We further confirmed the deficiency by functional biochemical testing, consistent with a diagnosis of red blood cell pyruvate kinase deficiency. Our study implies that exome and genome sequencing will certainly reveal additional rare variation causative for even well-studied classical Mendelian diseases, while also revealing variants that might play a role in complex diseases. Furthermore, our study has clinical and ethical implications for exome and genome sequencing in a research setting; how to handle unrelated findings of clinical significance, in the context of originally planned complex disease research, remains a largely uncharted area for clinicians and researchers. PMID:21794208

Lyon, Gholson J.; Jiang, Tao; Van Wijk, Richard; Wang, Wei; Bodily, Paul Mark; Xing, Jinchuan; Tian, Lifeng; Robison, Reid J.; Clement, Mark; Lin, Yang; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Ying; Moore, Barry; Glessner, Joseph T.; Elia, Josephine; Reimherr, Fred; van Solinge, Wouter W.; Yandell, Mark; Hakonarson, Hakon; Wang, Jun; Johnson, William Evan; Wei, Zhi; Wang, Kai



Findings of the US Research Needs Workshop on the Topic of Fusion Power  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES) conducted a Research Needs Workshop, referred to as ReNeW, in June 2009. The information developed at this workshop will help OFES develop a plan for US fusion research during the ITER era, roughly the next two decades. The workshop was organized in five Themes, one of which was Harnessing Fusion Power (or Fusion Power for short). The top level goal of the Fusion Power Theme was to identify the research needed to develop the knowledge to design and build, with high confidence, robust and reliable systems that can convert fusion products to useful forms of energy in a reactor environment, including a self-sufficient supply of tritium fuel. Each Theme was subsequently subdivided into Panels to address specific topics. The Fusion Power Panel topics were: fusion fuel cycle; power extraction; materials science; safety and environment; and reliability, availability, maintainability and inspectability (RAMI). Here we present the key findings of the Fusion Power Theme.

Meier, W R; Raffray, A R; Kurtz, R J; Morley, N B; Reiersen, W T; Sharpe, P; Willms, S



Intra-Word Inconsistency in Apraxic Hebrew-Speaking Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intra-word inconsistency in a child is perceived as an indicator of speech impairment. Because the speech of typically developing children is highly variable, the extent and nature of the inconsistency must be defined when used as a diagnostic marker of speech impairment (McLeod, S., & Hewett, S. R. (2008). Variability in the production of words…

Tubul-Lavy, Gila



Status inconsistency: an antecedent to bullying behaviour in groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bullying is a common and constantly reoccurring phenomenon in organizations. The increasing diversity of the workplace is an accepted fact, which has the potential to increase the occurrence of status inconsistency. The purpose of this paper is to examine the theory of status inconsistency and its usefulness as a predictor to identifying when bullying might occur in a work group

Joyce Thompson Heames; Michael G. Harvey; Darren Treadway



Differentiating Normal Variability from Inconsistency in Children's Speech: Normative Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: In young, typically developing children, some word production variability is expected, but highly inconsistent speech is considered a clinical marker for disorder. Speech-language pathologists need to identify variability versus inconsistency, yet these terms are not clearly differentiated. Not only is it important to identify…

Holm, Alison; Crosbie, Sharon; Dodd, Barbara



Formal inconsistency and evolutionary databases Walter A. Carnielli  

E-print Network

logical systems which axiomatize a formal representation of inconsistency (here taken to be equivalent reasoning. 1. Introduction and motivation Investigations of the formal possibilities of handling and inconsistencies can be applied to a wide vari- ety of problems, it is usually difficult to point out real

Lisboa, Universidade Técnica de


Inconsistency Management and Prioritized Syntax-Based Entailment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea of ordering plays a basic role in commonsense reasoning for addressing three inter­ related tasks: inconsistency handling, belief revi­ sion and plausible inference. We study the behavior of non-monotonic inferences induced by various methods for priority-based handling of inconsistent sets of classical formulas. One of them is based on a lexicographic ordering of maximal consistent subsets, and refines

Salem Benferhat; Claudette Cayrol; Didier Dubois; Jérôme Lang; Henri Prade



Regenerating the academic workforce: the careers, intentions and motivations of higher degree research students in Australia: findings of the National Research Student Survey (NRSS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main findings of this report are based on the outcomes from the National Research Student Survey (NRSS) conducted in June 2010 across 38 of the 39 universities in Australia. In total 11,710 Higher Degree by Research students (those enrolled in PhD and masters by research degrees, also referred to simply as ‘research students’ in this report) responded to the

Daniel Edwards; Emmaline Bexley; Sarah Richardson



Detecting and Characterizing Semantic Inconsistencies in Ported Code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Adding similar features and bug fixes often requires porting program patches from reference implementations and adapting them to target implementations. Porting errors may result from faulty adaptations or inconsistent updates. This paper investigates (I) the types of porting errors found in practice, and (2) how to detect and characterize potential porting errors. Analyzing version histories, we define five categories of porting errors, including incorrect control- and data-flow, code redundancy, inconsistent identifier renamings, etc. Leveraging this categorization, we design a static control- and data-dependence analysis technique, SPA, to detect and characterize porting inconsistencies. Our evaluation on code from four open-source projects shows thai SPA can dell-oct porting inconsistencies with 65% to 73% precision and 90% recall, and identify inconsistency types with 58% to 63% precision and 92% to 100% recall. In a comparison with two existing error detection tools, SPA improves precision by 14 to 17 percentage points

Ray, Baishakhi; Kim, Miryung; Person, Suzette J.; Rungta, Neha



Hypnotic approaches for chronic pain management: clinical implications of recent research findings.  


The empirical support for hypnosis for chronic pain management has flourished over the past two decades. Clinical trials show that hypnosis is effective for reducing chronic pain, although outcomes vary between individuals. The findings from these clinical trials also show that hypnotic treatments have a number of positive effects beyond pain control. Neurophysiological studies reveal that hypnotic analgesia has clear effects on brain and spinal-cord functioning that differ as a function of the specific hypnotic suggestions made, providing further evidence for the specific effects of hypnosis. The research results have important implications for how clinicians can help their clients experience maximum benefits from hypnosis and treatments that include hypnotic components. PMID:24547802

Jensen, Mark P; Patterson, David R



Assessing the acceptability of NORPLANT implants in four countries: findings from focus group research.  


In 1986-87, a qualitative research project was conducted in the Dominican Republic, Egypt, Indonesia, and Thailand to expand understanding of the acceptability of NORPLANT contraceptive implants beyond inferences made on the basis of continuation rates. In each of the four study sites, focus group discussions or in-depth interviews were held with potential acceptors, current NORPLANT users, discontinuers, husbands of women in these three groups, and service providers. Nonclinical participants generally had little formal education and lived primarily in urban or semi-urban areas where NORPLANT has been available for at least five years. The study focused on attitudes, perceptions, and experiences of each group regarding NORPLANT implants. Results suggest that factors having an impact on the acceptability of NORPLANT implants fall into three general categories: medical/technical, cultural/religious, and informational/educational. This article discusses each of these categories, including programmatic implications of the findings, and puts forward recommendations for enhancing NORPLANT introduction efforts on the basis of these findings. PMID:2112794

Zimmerman, M; Haffey, J; Crane, E; Szumowski, D; Alvarez, F; Bhiromrut, P; Brache, V; Lubis, F; Salah, M; Shaaban, M



Rape treatment outcome research: empirical findings and state of the literature.  


This article reviews empirical support for treatments targeting women sexually assaulted during adolescence or adulthood. Thirty-two articles were located using data from 20 separate samples. Of the 20 samples, 12 targeted victims with chronic symptoms, three focused on the acute period post-assault, two included women with chronic and acute symptoms, and three were secondary prevention programs. The majority of studies focus on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and/or anxiety as treatment targets. Cognitive Processing Therapy and Prolonged Exposure have garnered the most support with this population. Stress Inoculation Training and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing also show some efficacy. Of the four studies that compared active treatments, few differences were found. Overall, cognitive behavioral interventions lead to better PTSD outcomes than supportive counseling does. However, even in the strongest treatments more than one-third of women retain a PTSD diagnosis at post-treatment or drop out of treatment. Discussion highlights the paucity of research in this area, methodological limitations of examined studies, generalizability of findings, and important directions for future research at various stages of trauma recovery. PMID:19442425

Vickerman, Katrina A; Margolin, Gayla



A graphical tool for locating inconsistency in network meta-analyses  

PubMed Central

Background In network meta-analyses, several treatments can be compared by connecting evidence from clinical trials that have investigated two or more treatments. The resulting trial network allows estimating the relative effects of all pairs of treatments taking indirect evidence into account. For a valid analysis of the network, consistent information from different pathways is assumed. Consistency can be checked by contrasting effect estimates from direct comparisons with the evidence of the remaining network. Unfortunately, one deviating direct comparison may have side effects on the network estimates of others, thus producing hot spots of inconsistency. Methods We provide a tool, the net heat plot, to render transparent which direct comparisons drive each network estimate and to display hot spots of inconsistency: this permits singling out which of the suspicious direct comparisons are sufficient to explain the presence of inconsistency. We base our methods on fixed-effects models. For disclosure of potential drivers, the plot comprises the contribution of each direct estimate to network estimates resulting from regression diagnostics. In combination, we show heat colors corresponding to the change in agreement between direct and indirect estimate when relaxing the assumption of consistency for one direct comparison. A clustering procedure is applied to the heat matrix in order to find hot spots of inconsistency. Results The method is shown to work with several examples, which are constructed by perturbing the effect of single study designs, and with two published network meta-analyses. Once the possible sources of inconsistencies are identified, our method also reveals which network estimates they affect. Conclusion Our proposal is seen to be useful for identifying sources of inconsistencies in the network together with the interrelatedness of effect estimates. It opens the way for a further analysis based on subject matter considerations. PMID:23496991



St. Jude researchers find that unhealthy habits more than double risk of metabolic syndrome in childhood cancer survivors

St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital study finds that few adult survivors of childhood cancer follow a heart-healthy lifestyle that protects against heart disease, diabetes and other health problems.


NIH Researchers Find Vitamin D Binding Protein May Help to Assess Vitamin D Deficiency in African and White Americans  


NIH researchers find vitamin D binding protein may help to assess vitamin D deficiency in African and white Americans November 21, 2013 Measuring vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) may be important for ...


What would you like to see/find under "METU Research Highlights"?  

E-print Network

in the nuclear energy sector by promoting civil nuclear research and training activities. Joint Research Centers about the research opportunities, METU Research Highlights comprises the announcements of both national of Atomic Energy Community to contribute to the further consolidation of the European Research Area

Hasýrcý, Vasýf


Problems Teachers Face When Doing Action Research and Finding Possible Solutions: Three Cases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through case studies, this paper explores problems teachers face when doing action research: for instance, teachers may misunderstand the research, mistrust university researchers, lack the time or adequate library resources to conduct research, lack theoretical guidance or knowledge of research methodology, and feel pressure or frustration during…

Zhou, Jun



The Price of Dynamic Inconsistency for Distortion Risk Measures  

E-print Network

In this paper, we investigate two different frameworks for assessing the risk in a multi-period decision process: a dynamically inconsistent formulation (whereby a single, static risk measure is applied to the entire sequence of future costs), and a dynamically consistent one, obtained by suitably composing one-step risk mappings. We characterize the class of dynamically consistent measures that provide a tight approximation for a given inconsistent measure, and discuss how the approximation factors can be computed. For the case where the consistent measures are given by Average Value-at-Risk, we derive a polynomial-time algorithm for approximating an arbitrary inconsistent distortion measure. We also present exact analytical bounds for the case where the dynamically inconsistent measure is also given by Average Value-at-Risk, and briefly discuss managerial implications in multi-period risk-assessment processes. Our theoretical and algorithmic constructions exploit interesting connections between the study of...

Huang, Pu; Petrik, Marek; Subramanian, Dharmashankar



Fostering implementation of health services research findings into practice: a consolidated framework for advancing implementation science  

PubMed Central

Background Many interventions found to be effective in health services research studies fail to translate into meaningful patient care outcomes across multiple contexts. Health services researchers recognize the need to evaluate not only summative outcomes but also formative outcomes to assess the extent to which implementation is effective in a specific setting, prolongs sustainability, and promotes dissemination into other settings. Many implementation theories have been published to help promote effective implementation. However, they overlap considerably in the constructs included in individual theories, and a comparison of theories reveals that each is missing important constructs included in other theories. In addition, terminology and definitions are not consistent across theories. We describe the Consolidated Framework For Implementation Research (CFIR) that offers an overarching typology to promote implementation theory development and verification about what works where and why across multiple contexts. Methods We used a snowball sampling approach to identify published theories that were evaluated to identify constructs based on strength of conceptual or empirical support for influence on implementation, consistency in definitions, alignment with our own findings, and potential for measurement. We combined constructs across published theories that had different labels but were redundant or overlapping in definition, and we parsed apart constructs that conflated underlying concepts. Results The CFIR is composed of five major domains: intervention characteristics, outer setting, inner setting, characteristics of the individuals involved, and the process of implementation. Eight constructs were identified related to the intervention (e.g., evidence strength and quality), four constructs were identified related to outer setting (e.g., patient needs and resources), 12 constructs were identified related to inner setting (e.g., culture, leadership engagement), five constructs were identified related to individual characteristics, and eight constructs were identified related to process (e.g., plan, evaluate, and reflect). We present explicit definitions for each construct. Conclusion The CFIR provides a pragmatic structure for approaching complex, interacting, multi-level, and transient states of constructs in the real world by embracing, consolidating, and unifying key constructs from published implementation theories. It can be used to guide formative evaluations and build the implementation knowledge base across multiple studies and settings. PMID:19664226

Damschroder, Laura J; Aron, David C; Keith, Rosalind E; Kirsh, Susan R; Alexander, Jeffery A; Lowery, Julie C



Colorectal cancer screening in older men and women: qualitative research findings and implications for intervention.  


As part of the formative research for developing interventions to increase colorectal cancer screening in men and women aged 50 and older, 14 focus groups were conducted to identify (1) knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about colorectal cancer and colorectal cancer screening, (2) barriers to screening, and (3) strategies for motivating and supporting behavior change. Participants had either private insurance or Medicare and reported different levels of experience with colorectal cancer screening. Overall, they were poorly informed about colorectal cancer and the possible benefits of screening, reporting little or no information from physicians or mass media, negative attitudes toward screening procedures, and fear of cancer. Despite references to the subject matter as embarrassing or private, both men and women, African Americans and whites, appeared to talk candidly and comfortably in the permissive context of the focus group. This study's findings suggest that public education campaigns, decision aids, and targeted interventions are urgently needed to put colorectal cancer screening on the public's "radar screen," to increase awareness of the prevention and early detection benefits of screening, and to encourage people 50 and older-and the health care providers who serve them-to make screening a high priority. PMID:10868818

Beeker, C; Kraft, J M; Southwell, B G; Jorgensen, C M



Body image of children and adolescents with cancer: a metasynthesis on qualitative research findings.  


Children and adolescents with cancer are confronted with many challenges. This review considered studies that used qualitative methods to examine the body image experience of children and adolescents with cancer. A systematic literature search of English and Chinese databases was undertaken, covering the period between 1960 and October 2010. Qualitative research findings were extracted and pooled using the Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument. Eight papers met the inclusion criteria. The derived four metasyntheses included being distanced from the body, loss of self-identity, self-protective strategies and support, and getting rid of the shackles of the body. In conclusion, children and adolescents with cancer also experience various problems associated with changes in their body image. Repeated courses of treatment lead to loss of a normal, orderly life, and might even result in changes in interpersonal interactions. In response to body image change, individuals with cancer develop self-protective, coping strategies. Children and adolescents who experience life-threatening cancer come to face body image change positively, and might hold a confident attitude toward their future. PMID:22672500

Lee, Mei-Yin; Mu, Pei-Fan; Tsay, Shwu-Feng; Chou, Shin-Shang; Chen, Yu-Chih; Wong, Tai-Tong



Research on the effect of noise at different times of day: Models, methods and findings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Social surveys of residents' responses to noise at different times of day are reviewed. Some of the discrepancies in published reports about the importance of noise at different times of day are reduced when the research findings are classified according to the type of time of day reaction model, the type of time of day weight calculated and the method which is used to estimate the weight. When the estimates of nighttime weights from 12 studies are normalized, it is found that they still disagree, but do not support stronger nighttime weights than those used in existing noise indices. Challenges to common assumptions in nighttime response models are evaluated. Two of these challenges receive enough support to warrant further investigation: the impact of changes in numbers of noise events may be less at night than in the day and nighttime annoyance may be affected by noise levels in other periods. All existing social survey results in which averages of nighttime responses were plotted by nighttime noise levels are reproduced.

Fields, J. M.



Determinants of nursing home costs in Florida: policy implications and support in national research findings.  

PubMed Central

Descriptive and econometric analysis of the major nonquality determinants of nursing home costs for Florida shows that mean costs, size, and occupancy rate increased between 1971 and 1976, that per diem costs and occupancy rate were inversely related, and that the per diem cost was lower in rural than in urban areas. Regression of the data shows that--next to inflation, as expressed by the Consumer Price Index--the occupancy rate accounts for most of the variation in per diem costs, followed by size, urban-rural location, and by type of control. The hypothetical "optimal," defined as lowest cost-size range, was calculated to be more than 350 beds. Recent research substantiates most of these findings. Medicaid Cost Reports from Florida's nursing homes were the source of the information analyzed; by 1976, the sixth year of the study, the data base covered nearly 9 of 10 licensed beds in the State. Some policy implications can be drawn from the analysis. Reductions in per diem costs could be achieved by higher occupancy rates, especially in the larger nursing homes, and a reduction in the rate of inflation would reduce the rate of increase in nursing home costs. PMID:6815706

Traxler, H G



Benchmarking Classification Models for Software Defect Prediction: A Proposed Framework and Novel Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software defect prediction strives to improve software quality and testing efficiency by constructing predictive classification models from code attributes to enable a timely identification of fault-prone modules. Several classification models have been evaluated for this task. However, due to inconsistent findings regarding the superiority of one classifier over another and the usefulness of metric-based classification in general, more research is

Stefan Lessmann; Bart Baesens; Christophe Mues; Swantje Pietsch



Thomas Jefferson University researchers find new biomarker to identify hepatitis B-infected patients at risk for liver cancer

Hepatitis B-infected patients with significantly longer telomeres—the caps on the end of chromosomes that protect our genetic data— were found to have an increased risk of getting liver cancer compared to those with shorter ones, according to findings presented by researchers at Jefferson’s Kimmel Cancer Center at the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) Annual Meeting 2012.


Brain, behavior, biology, and music: Some research findings and their implications for educational policy Norman M Weinberger  

E-print Network

Brain, behavior, biology, and music: Some research findings and their implications for educational of publication: Music research is addressed by music educators, experimental psychologists, cognitive scientists Archive (originally named the Music and Brain Information Center). MuSICA is supported by the music

Weinberger, Norman M.


Do you find in your own work that there is a gap between service-learning research  

E-print Network

#12;Do you find in your own work that there is a gap between service-learning research and practice service-learning practice? #12;How can we strengthen the connections between service-learning research, Penn State Moderator: Barbara Moely, Tulane #12;Panel participants' work in service- learning


What would you like to see/find under "METU Research Highlights"?  

E-print Network

to contribute to the further consolidation of the European Research Area in the nuclear energy sector the research opportunities, METU Research Highlights comprises the announcements of both national tools for research funding opportunities. EURATOM is a funding opportunity of Atomic Energy Community

Hasýrcý, Vasýf


What would you like to see/find under "METU Research Highlights"?  

E-print Network

of the Euro- pean Research Area in the nuclear energy sector by promoting civil nuclear research and training about the research op- portunities, METU Research Highlights comprises the announce- ments of both. EURATOM is a funding opportunity of Atomic Energy Com- munity to contribute to the further consolidation

Hasýrcý, Vasýf


What would you like to see/find under "METU Research Highlights"?  

E-print Network

consolidation of the Euro- pean Research Area in the nuclear energy sector by promot- ing civil nuclear research the research opportunities, METU Research Highlights comprises the an- nouncements of both national under FP7. EURATOM is a funding opportunity of Atomic Energy Commu- nity to contribute to the further

Hasýrcý, Vasýf


Research findings working with the p53 and Rb1 targeted osteosarcoma mouse model  

PubMed Central

Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common bone cancer in children and young adults. The etiology of osteosarcoma is currently unknown. Besides the predominant osteoblasts, the presence of cartilage forming chondrocytes within its tumor tissues suggests a role of chondrogenesis in osteosarcoma development. Runx2 is a master transcription factor both for osteoblast differentiation and for chondrocyte maturation. Interestingly, RUNX2 has been shown to directly interact with p53 and Rb1, two genes essential for osteosarcoma development in mice. However the in vivo relevance of Runx2 during osteosarcoma progression has not been elucidated. We have recently shown that targeting Runx2 expression in hypertrophic chondrocytes delays chondrocyte maturation. It has also been shown that osteoblast-specific deletion of p53 and Rb1 genes developed osteosarcoma in mice. Here, we report our recent research findings using these osteosarcoma mouse models as well as human osteosarcoma tissues. We have detected high-level RUNX2 expression in human osteoblastic osteosarcoma, while chondroblastic osteosarcoma is predominant with chondroid matrix. To minimize the effect of strain difference, we have backcrossed osterix-Cre mice onto congenic FVB/N genetic background. We also detected low-GC content (36%) in sequence around the floxed Rb1 gene and demonstrated that addition of BSA into the reaction system increases the efficiency of PCR genotyping of floxed Rb1 gene. Finally, we successfully generated multiple osteosarcoma mouse models with or without Runx2 transgenic background. These mice showed heterogeneous osteosarcoma phenotypes and marker gene expression. Characterization of these mice will facilitate understanding the role of Runx2 in osteosarcoma pathogenesis and possibly, for osteosarcoma treatment. PMID:24959378

Lu, Yaojuan; Gitelis, Steven; Lei, Guanghua; Ding, Ming; Maki, Carl; Mira, Ranim R; Zheng, Qiping



Purdue study finds "label-free" imaging tool tracks nanotubes in cells, blood for biomedical research:

Purdue University researchers have demonstrated a new imaging tool for tracking structures called carbon nanotubes in living cells and the bloodstream, which could aid efforts to perfect their use in biomedical research and clinical medicine.


Kids in Research: Your Child Can Help Find Cures at the NIH Clinical Center  


... Clinical Trials Benefits, Risks & Safety Posters & Flyers Patient Recruitment ResearchMatch Kids in Research Home Register Now Want ... the NIH Clinical Center. This website provides several resources to help determine if ... Page last updated: March 29, 2012


Sanford-Burnham researchers find RNA molecules in urine, tissue that detect prostate cancer

Researchers at Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute have identified a set of RNA molecules that are detectable in tissue samples and urine of prostate cancer patients, but not in normal healthy individuals.


Teaching, Learning and Assessing HRD: Findings from a BMAF/UFHRD Research Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper seeks to analyse and explore the results of a research project, which aimed to identify recent and current research on TLA within HRD programmes. From that base the project also intended to identify areas for future research and a basis for establishing a Special Interest Group. Design/methodology/approach: A comprehensive…

Sambrook, Sally; Stewart, Jim



Finding a Canon and Core: Meditations on the Preparation of Teacher Educator-Researchers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author explores seven "unanswered questions" concerning the preparation of future teacher educator-researchers. She considers five questions concerning the substance of doctoral preparation: what the new generation of teacher-researchers would need to know about teacher education, relevant disciplines, research methodologies,…

Wilson, Suzanne M.



Research in Online and Blended Learning in the Business Disciplines: Key Findings and Possible Future Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this literature review, we examine and assess the state of research of online and blended learning in the business disciplines with the intent of assessing the state of the field and identifying opportunities for meaningful future research. We review research from business disciplines such as Accounting, Economics, Finance, Information Systems…

Arbaugh, J. B.; Godfrey, Michael R.; Johnson, Marianne; Pollack, Birgit Leisen; Niendorf, Bruce; Wresch, William



What would you like to see/find under "METU Research Highlights"?  

E-print Network

to the further consolidation of the Euro- pean Research Area in the nuclear energy sector by promot- ing civil about the research opportunities, METU Research Highlights comprises the an- nouncements of both Commis- sion under FP7. EURATOM is a funding opportunity of Atomic Energy Commu- nity to contribute

Hasýrcý, Vasýf


What would you like to see/find under "METU Research Highlights"?  

E-print Network

to the further consolidation of the European Research Area in the nuclear energy sector by promoting civil the research opportunities, METU Research Highlights comprises the announcements of both national Commission under FP7. · EURATOM is a funding opportunity of Atomic Energy Community to contribute

Hasýrcý, Vasýf


What would you like to see/find under "METU Research Highlights"?  

E-print Network

to the further consolidation of the European Research Area in the nuclear energy sector by promoting civil about the research opportunities, METU Research Highlights comprises the an- nouncements of both Commission under FP7. EURATOM is a funding opportunity of Atomic Energy Commu- nity to contribute

Hasýrcý, Vasýf


Increasing Institutional Research Effectiveness and Productivity: Findings from a National Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1991, a national survey was conducted of institutional research directors at 150 two- and four-year colleges to investigate practitioner perceptions of institutional research effectiveness and productivity. Randomly selected directors of institutional research were mailed a one-page questionnaire, requesting information about institution size…

Huntington, Robin B.; Clagett, Craig A.


Formal Training, Personal Experience, and the Ability to Predict Research Findings in Social Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers in the past have found that personal experience and formal training lead to better accuracy when predicting research outcomes in areas of psychology. Personal experience and formal training were compared in this study on the ability of students to predict research outcomes in social psychology. Students completed questionnaires that measured their social engagement (a proxy to personal experience), their

Carrie Quarterman



The Hermeneutic Dialogic: Finding Patterns midst the "Aporia" of the Artist/Researcher/Teacher.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers one researcher's challenge of marking his progress in reading/studying Jacques Derrida's "Aporias" (1993) by what he calls the continual hermeneutic of making meaning. The paper places the "Aporias" reading in the setting of a weekly research group whose research cycle was creating meaning in and out of the work being done and…

de Cosson, Alex


On the Relevance of Research Findings in Cognitive Neuroscience to Educational Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In their target article, Byrnes and Fox (1998) argue that many of the recent findings from the field of cognitive neuroscience have particular importance for education. In our commentary, we lend support to their contention by reporting on some of our work that has potential relevance to the proposed interface between cognitive neuroscience and education. Specifically, we discuss the findings

Michael W. O'Boyle; Harwant S. Gill



26 CFR 1.1311(b)-1 - Maintenance of an inconsistent position.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1311(b)-1 Maintenance of an inconsistent...1312-7, the maintenance of an inconsistent position is a condition necessary...regard to the maintenance of an inconsistent...deficiency for 1955 based upon other...



InSITEs into Practitioner Research: Findings from a Research-Based ESOL Teacher Professional Development Programme  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes an innovative continuing professional development (CPD) programme for experienced English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) teachers, and a research study into its impact. The programme incorporates the principles of Practitioner Research (PR) and focuses in particular on the skills of data analysis and situated…

Davis, Matt; Kiely, Richard; Askham, James



Returning incidental findings from genetic research to children: views of parents of children affected by rare diseases  

PubMed Central

Purpose To explore parental perceptions and experiences regarding the return of genomic incidental research findings in children with rare diseases. Methods Parents of children affected by various rare diseases were invited to participate in focus groups or individual telephone interviews in Montreal and Ottawa. Fifteen participants were interviewed and transcriptions were analysed using thematic analysis. Results Four emergent themes underscored parental enthusiasm for receiving incidental findings concerning their child's health: (1) right to information; (2) perceived benefits and risks; (3) communication practicalities: who, when, and how; and (4) service needs to promote the communication of incidental findings. Parents believed they should be made aware of all results pertaining to their child's health status, and that they are responsible for transmitting this information to their child, irrespective of disease severity. Despite potential negative consequences, respondents generally perceived a favourable risk-benefit ratio in receiving all incidental findings. Conclusions Understanding how parents assess the risks and benefits of returning incidental findings is essential to genomic research applications in paediatric medicine. The authors believe the study findings will contribute to establishing future best practices, although further research is needed to evaluate the impact of parental decisions on themselves and their child. PMID:24356209

Kleiderman, Erika; Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Fernandez, Conrad V; Boycott, Kym M; Ouellette, Gail; Wong-Rieger, Durhane; Adam, Shelin; Richer, Julie; Avard, Denise



Key Findings This research was funded by the Office of the Assistant  

E-print Network

or friends among poor and near-poor families. We find: · About 1 in 7 households (14.2%) report 2008 income not experience unemployment over this period. 1. Government programs include the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC

Edwards, Paul N.


Evaluation of the NSF Industry/University Cooperative Research Centers: Descriptive and Correlative Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents results of a survey of participants in the National Science Foundation (NSF) Industry-University Cooperative Research Centers program. The program promotes more rapid technological innovation by creating linkages between industry and university scientists. The Centers function as university research groups, with partial…

National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Directorate for Engineering.


6- Homeless Youth in the United States: Recent Research Findings and Intervention Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the authors cite research indicating that youth may be the single age group most at risk of becoming homeless, yet comparatively little research has been done in the past decade on this vulnerable population. Some important progress has been made, including longitudinal studies on youth \\

Paul A. Toro; Amy Dworsky; Patrick J. Fowler


Overhead Rates for Federal Research Are as High as Ever, Survey Finds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite pressure from Congress and faculty, and a series of revisions in federal regulations, the average rate charged the government by universities for overhead for federally financed research appears remains high. Average rate for the top 100 research institutions is over 50%; most of the highest rates are at private institutions; all the…

Cordes, Colleen



Roswell Park-led study finds most cancer research trials do not assess participants’ tobacco use

While tobacco use can significantly hamper cancer treatment, few cancer researchers are incorporating tobacco assessment into their clinical studies. That’s the conclusion a group of investigators led by researchers at Roswell Park Cancer Institute drew from a recent survey of cancer clinical trials.


What They Take with Them: Findings from the Peer Writing Tutor Alumni Research Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through the Peer Writing Tutor Alumni Research Project (PWTARP), the authors have set out to explore and document what peer tutors take with them from their training and experience. The Peer Writing Tutor Alumni Research Project has made it possible for the authors to sample and analyze more systematically the reflections of 126 former tutors from…

Hughes, Bradley; Gillespie, Paula; Kail, Harvey



Socio?cultural dynamics of female genital cutting: Research findings, gaps, and directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of abolishing female genital cutting (FGC, or also FGM or ‘female circumcision’) requires that the socio?cultural dynamics of the practice be well understood if behavioural change is to be accomplished. This paper, based on the literature and the author's ethnographic research in Sudan, reports on the research issues of studying the variation in and complexity of cutting practices

Ellen Gruenbaum



Fostering implementation of health services research findings into practice: a consolidated framework for advancing implementation science  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Many interventions found to be effective in health services research studies fail to translate into meaningful patient care outcomes across multiple contexts. Health services researchers recognize the need to evaluate not only summative outcomes but also formative outcomes to assess the extent to which implementation is effective in a specific setting, prolongs sustainability, and promotes dissemination into other settings.

Laura J Damschroder; David C Aron; Rosalind E Keith; Susan R Kirsh; Jeffery A Alexander; Julie C Lowery



Research foci for career and technical education: findings from a national Delphi study  

E-print Network

for relevant and focused research for the CTE profession. The primary purpose of this study was to identify consensus among CTE experts using a Delphi technique regarding problems, objectives, and activities that serve as a research agenda for CTE. The study...

Lambeth, Jeanea Marie



UC Irvine researchers find a cause of chemotherapy resistance in melanoma

Researchers with UC Irvine’s Chao Family Comprehensive Cancer Center have identified a major reason why melanoma is largely resistant to chemotherapy. The researchers found a genetic pathway in melanoma cells that inhibits the cellular mechanism for detecting DNA damage wrought by chemotherapy, thereby building up tolerance to cancer-killing drugs.


Belief, its inconsistency, and the implications for the teaching faculty  

PubMed Central

The traditional concept of belief is analyzed and compared with a behavior analytic concept of belief. Beliefs and belief statements are differentiated and relationships between them are examined. The often troublesome inconsistencies in people's beliefs are examined in general and explained, including the phenomena of compartmentalization and repression. Social implications are pursued relative to both punishment for inconsistency in belief and counter-controls thwarting such punishment. The role of teachers in shaping beliefs is analyzed, and appropriate teaching strategies are reviewed. PMID:22478593

Fraley, Lawrence E.



Duke researchers find that combining treatments boosts some smokers’ ability to quit

Combining two smoking cessation therapies is more effective than using just one for male and highly nicotine-dependent smokers who weren't initially helped by the nicotine patch, according to researchers at Duke Medicine.


Dana-Farber researchers find that marker may predict response to ipilimumab in advanced melanoma

Dana-Farber researchers found that in patients with advanced melanoma using the immunotherapy ipilimumab, presence of higher levels of the protein VEGF in the blood was associated with a poorer response.


UTHSC researchers find that improved screening means new targets for pediatric neuroblastoma therapies

A researcher at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio unveils the important role of microRNAs in regulating neuroblastoma development, pointing to new therapeutic possibilities.


Albert Einstein researchers find that a chemical stem cell signature predicts treatment response for AML

Researchers at Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University and Montefiore Medical Center have found a chemical “signature” in blood-forming stem cells that predicts whether patients with acute myeloid leukemia will respond to chemotherapy.


Columbia University researchers find that Blacks and Hispanics are at higher risk for precancerous colorectal polyps

Blacks and Hispanics have a significantly higher risk of developing precancerous colorectal polyps compared with whites, according to a study by researchers at New York Presbyterian Hospital/Columbia University Medical Center.


Harvard and Baylor researchers find new target for aggressive cancer gene:

Researchers have found a way to kill human cells hijacked by a genetic accelerator that puts cancer cells into overdrive: the Myc oncogene. The discovery reveals new drug targets for Myc-driven cancers, which tend to be particularly aggressive.


Moffitt researchers find potential new therapeutic target for treating non-small cell lung cancer

Researchers at Moffitt Cancer Center have found a potential targeted therapy for patients with tobacco-associated non-small cell lung cancer. It is based on the newly identified oncogene IKBKE, which helps regulate immune response.


UCLA researchers find intestinal bacteria are linked to white blood cell cancer

Researchers from UCLA's Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center have discovered that specific types of bacteria that live in the gut are major contributors to lymphoma, a cancer of the white blood cells that are part of the human immune system.


Duke researchers find that prostate cancer’s penchant for copper may be a fatal flaw

Researchers at Duke Medicine have found a way to kill prostate cancer cells by delivering a trove of copper along with a drug that selectively destroys the diseased cells brimming with the mineral, leaving non-cancer cells healthy.


Columbia U researchers find that generic medications boost adherence to breast cancer therapy

A study by Columbia University Medical Center researchers has found that the introduction of generic aromatase inhibitors, which are considerably less expensive than their brand-name counterparts, increased treatment adherence by 50 percent.


U of Pittsburgh researchers potentially find a better way to track emerging cell therapies using MRIs

Researchers describe the first human tests of using a perfluorocarbon (PFC) tracer in combination with non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to track therapeutic immune cells injected into patients with colorectal cancer.


UCLA researchers develop new screening system to find brain cancer stem cell killers:

Researchers with UCLA’s Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center have developed and used a high-throughput molecular screening approach that identifies and characterizes chemical compounds that can target the stem cells that are responsible for creating deadly brain tumors.


UCSF researchers find that a sugary coating on cells may drive aggressive cancers

A research team led by UC San Francisco scientists has shown that cancer-induced structural changes in a sugary coating ensheathing cells can promote mechanical interactions that fuel tumor growth and metastasis.


Emerging Answers: Research Findings on Programs to Reduce Teen Pregnancy (Summary)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released on May 30, 2001, by the National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, this new report by Dr. Douglas Kirby reviews some 250 studies on teen pregnancy programs. The review finds that long-term programs have made a genuine difference in teen pregnancy, abortion, and birth rates, the last of which is now at its lowest level recorded. Kirby's study also finds no evidence that "abstinence-only" programs are effective or that sex education that covers contraception increases sexual activity. At the site, visitors may download a 21-page summary of the report, the press release, a FAQ, and related information.

Kirby, Douglas



Problem solving and creativity for undergraduate engineers: findings of an action research project involving robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many researchers have written about the importance and complexities of developing problem solving skills and encouraging creative thinking in engineering students. Research continues to suggest deficiencies in developing or assessing process skills; with the attention of engineering educators being on outcomes or products of problem solving scenarios.\\u000d\\u000aThis paper considers highlights of this previous work, and how this might inform

J. P. Adams; S. Turner; S. Kaczmarczyk; P. Picton; P. Demian



Turning a negative into a positive: Researchers find promising use for excessive nitrate  

E-print Network

for excessive nitrate For 30 years, farmers in northwest central Texas have known that high level of nitrates in irrigation water from the Seymour Aquifer is a problem. Now, with research conducted by Texas AgriLife Research scientists, that problem may... turn into a benefit. Nitrate is the most common chemical con- taminant in groundwater. For the Seymour, a shallow aquifer underlying about 300,000 acres in 20 counties, more than 50 percent of groundwater nitrate measurements exceed the federal...

Wythe, Kathy



UC Davis researchers find oropharyngeal cancer patients with HPV have a more robust response to radiation therapy

UC Davis cancer researchers have discovered significant differences in radiation-therapy response among patients with oropharyngeal cancer depending on whether they carry the human papillomavirus (HPV), a common sexually transmitted virus. The findings, published online today in The Laryngoscope Journal, could lead to more individualized radiation treatment regimens, which for many patients with HPV could be shorter and potentially less toxic.


Statement Summarizing Research Findings on the Issue of the Relationship Between Food-Additive-Free Diets and Hyperkinesis in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Advisory Committee on Hyperkinesis and Food Additives paper summarized some research findings on the issue of the relationship between food-additive-free diets and hyperkinesis in children. Based on several challenge studies, it is concluded that the evidence generally refutes Dr. B. F. Feingold's claim that artificial colorings in…

Lipton, Morris; Wender, Esther


Operations Research Time Line 1665 Newton's Method for Finding a Minimum Solution of a Function, I. Newton  

E-print Network

Probability Theory and Its Engineering Uses, T. C. Fry 1930 Econometric Society founded 1931 Quality Control Evaluation Group (OEG) 1950 Military Gaming 1950 An Introduction to Probability Theory and Its ApplicationsOperations Research Time Line 1665 Newton's Method for Finding a Minimum Solution of a Function, I

Gomes, Carla P.


Experiences of racism and discrimination among migrant care workers in England: Findings from a mixed-methods research project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports part of the findings of research undertaken between 2007 and 2009 that aimed to investigate the contribution made by migrant workers to the care workforce in England. The study involved analysis of national statistics on social care and social workers and semi-structured interviews with a wide range of stakeholders, including ninety six migrant care workers. The interviews

Martin Stevens; Shereen Hussein; Jill Manthorpe



Bonus Awards for Teachers in Texas' Performance Pay Program: Findings from the First Round of TEEG Schools. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent report published by the National Center on Performance Incentives (NCPI) presents findings from the second-year of a multi-year evaluation of the Texas Educator Excellence Grant (TEEG) program, a statewide educator incentive program that operated in Texas. As part of this evaluation report, researchers examined how first-year TEEG schools…

National Center on Performance Incentives, 2009



Conclusions: Overview of Findings from the ERA Study, Inferences, and Research Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this monograph, the authors have brought the findings of the English and Romanian Adoptee (ERA) study up to age 15 years and, in so doing, have focused especially on the question of whether there are deprivation-specific psychological patterns (DSPs) that differ meaningfully from other forms of psychopathology. For this purpose, their main…

Rutter, Michael; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.



Findings on Brain MRI from Research Studies of Occupational Exposure to Known Neurotoxicants  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. The expanding use of MRI in large-scale epidemiologic studies of CNS out- comes has led to increasing concern for the consistent handling of incidental findings. Our pur- pose is to identify the prevalence of incidental neuroradiologic abnormalities in an adult pop- ulation with past occupational exposure to lead who underwent brain MRI as part of a large, longitudinal cohort

Hannah H. Alphsr; Brian S. Schwartz; Walter F. Stewart; David M. Yousema; Alphs HH; Schwartz BS; Stewart WF; Yousem DM


The Kindergarten Screening Program: Research Findings and Related Issues 1986-87.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies were conducted locally to augment findings from the literature regarding the effect of school entrance age, and to examine several other issues related to the St. Louis Public School's kindergarten screening program. Studies reported address a number of questions related to program planning and policy development: (1) Is there evidence to…

Saint Louis Public Schools, MO. Div. of Evaluation and Research.


Alternate Methods for Assuring Credibility of Research and Evaluation Findings in Project Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes six existing evaluator-auditor working formats and the conditions which foster credibility of evaluation findings. Evaluators were classified as: (1) member of project developmental team, accountable to project director; (2) independent internal evaluator, accountable to system in general but not to project directors, and (3)…

Denton, William T.; Murray, Wayne R.


Fox Chase researchers find that most Medicare patients wait weeks before breast cancer surgery

Although patients may feel anxious waiting weeks from the time of their first doctor visit to evaluate their breast until they have breast cancer surgery, new findings from Fox Chase Cancer Center show that these waits are typical in the United States. Results were published on Monday, November 19 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.


Scaling Factor Inconsistencies in Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay  

E-print Network

The modern theory of neutrinoless double beta decay includes a scaling factor that has often been treated inconsistently in the literature. The nuclear contribution to the decay half life can be suppressed by 15-20% when scaling factors are mismatched. Correspondingly, $$ is overestimated.

S. Cowell



Inconsistency in Deception for Defense Vicentiu Neagoe, Matt Bishop  

E-print Network

Descriptors D.4.6 [Operating Systems]: Security and Protection ­ access controls, information flow controls, inconsistency, security, operating systems. 1. INTRODUCTION The art of deception is invaluable in warfare, the truth is so precious, it must be attended by a bodyguard of lies." A deception aims to force the target

Peisert, Sean


Maximum Entropy Relaxation for Graphical Model Selection Given Inconsistent Statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a novel approach to approximate a specified collection of marginal distributions on subsets of variables by a globally consistent distribution on the entire collection of variables. In general, the specified marginal distributions may be inconsistent on overlapping subsets of variables. Our method is based on maximizing entropy over an exponential family of graphical models, subject to divergence constraints

Venkat Chandrasekaran; Jason K. Johnson; Alan S. Willsky




E-print Network

of the subsets Vk so that kVk = V . Our method is based on maximizing entropy subject to marginal divergence meth- od is based on maximizing entropy over an exponential fam- ily of graphical models, subjectMAXIMUM ENTROPY RELAXATION FOR GRAPHICAL MODEL SELECTION GIVEN INCONSISTENT STATISTICS Venkat

Willsky, Alan S.


Inconsistent use of oral contraceptives in rural Bangladesh.  


The purpose of this study is to explore predictors of inconsistent use of oral contraceptives (OCs) in rural Bangladesh. A total of 801 rural OC users were included in the study, about half of them (49%) missed one or more active pill(s) during the 6 months before the survey.Multivariate analysis revealed that Muslim women were 60% more likely to be inconsistent OC users compared to their non-Muslim counterparts. Women who lacked knowledge about contraindications were 60% more likely to take the pill inconsistently than were women who had the knowledge. Women who were not visited by family planning workers or did not have access to mass media were 40% more likely to be inconsistent OC users.OC users need increased information about correct OC use, which could be provided via improved access to mass media with specific messages on how to use OCs properly. Better access to the community clinics could improve the pill-taking behaviors of rural Bangladeshi women. PMID:12127643

Khan, M Asaduzzaman; Trottier, Dorace A; Islam, M Ataharul



Inconsistent Application of Environmental Laws and Policies to California's Oak  

E-print Network

be similar but are regulated differently depending on forest type. These inconsistencies can lead, institutional, and political climate under which the Forest Practice Act and California Environmental Quality ownership, and many historic and modern day land-uses have reduced their biological integrity. In 1909

Merenlender, Adina


An Abductive Approach for Handling Inconsistencies in SCR Specifications  

E-print Network

of large-scale real-world systems, and for checking the consistency and validity of such requirements [1; 9 an abductive reasoning mechanism that enables the analysis of inconsistencies between SCR mode transition. The technique described is implemented using existing tools for abductive logic programming. 1 INTRODUCTION

Russo, Alessandra


A KE Tableau for a Logic of Formal Inconsistency  

E-print Network

,mfinger} Abstract. In this paper we describe a KE tableau system for a Logic of Formal Inconsistency (LFI) called mCi in computer science. We prove that the KE System for mCi is correct and complete, and describe logics. We conclude by presenting some problems we have developed to evaluate theorem provers for mCi

Finger, Marcelo


Resolving Conflict and Inconsistency in Norm-Regulated Virtual Organizations  

E-print Network

in which agents support Grid services. Categories and Subject Descriptors I.2.4 [Artificial Intelligence]: Applications and Expert Systems-- Law; I.2.11 [Artificial Intelligence]: Distributed Artificial Intelli- genceResolving Conflict and Inconsistency in Norm-Regulated Virtual Organizations Wamberto Vasconcelos

Vasconcelos, Wamberto


Inconsistency with Prior Knowledge Triggers Children's Causal Explanatory Reasoning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What events trigger causal explanatory reasoning in young children? Children's explanations could be triggered by either consistent events (suggesting that explanations serve a confirmatory function) or inconsistent events (suggesting that they promote discovery of new information). In 2 studies with preschool children (N = 80), events that were…

Legare, Cristine H.; Gelman, Susan A.; Wellman, Henry M.



Fixing Inconsistencies in UML Design Models Alexander Egyed  

E-print Network

, how to locate choices for fixing them, and how to predict the positive and nega- tive side effects inconsistencies and to predict their positive and negative side effects. However, inconsis- tencies software develop- ment and so are their unintentional side effects. The focus of this paper is on UML

Egyed, Alexander


Informed consent for exome sequencing research in families with genetic disease: The emerging issue of incidental findings.  


Genomic sequencing technology is increasingly used in genetic research. Studies of informed consent for exome and genome sequencing (ES/GS) research have largely involved hypothetical scenarios or healthy individuals enrolling in population-based studies. Studies have yet to explore the consent experiences of adults with inherited disease. We conducted a qualitative interview study of 15 adults recently enrolled in a large-scale ES/GS study (11 affected adults, four parents of affected children). Our study had two goals: (1) to explore three theoretical barriers to consent for ES/GS research (interpretive/technical complexity, possibility of incidental findings, and risks of loss of privacy); and (2) to explore how interviewees experienced the consent process. Interviewees could articulate study goals and processes, describe incidental findings, discuss risks of privacy loss, and reflect on their consent experience. Few expected the study would identify the genetic cause of their condition. All elected to receive incidental findings. Interviewees acknowledged paying little attention to potential implications of incidental findings in light of more pressing goals of supporting research regarding their own medical conditions. Interviewees suggested that experience living with a genetic condition prepared them to adjust to incidental findings. Interviewees also expressed little concern about loss of confidentiality of study data. Some experienced the consent process as very long. None desired reconsent prior to return of study results. Families with inherited disease likely would benefit from a consent process in which study risks and benefits were discussed in the context of prior experiences with genetic research and genetic disease. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25251809

Bergner, Amanda L; Bollinger, Juli; Raraigh, Karen S; Tichnell, Crystal; Murray, Brittney; Blout, Carrie Lynn; Telegrafi, Aida Bytyci; James, Cynthia A



Inconsistent Condom Use among Iranian Male Drug Injectors  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of inconsistent condom use among Iranian male injecting drug users (IDUs). Materials and Methods: Data came from the national Iranian behavioral survey of drug dependence, which sampled 7743 individuals with drug dependence, from medical centers, prisons, and streets in 29 provinces in Iran, in 2007. This study included all individuals who were male, IDUs, and were sexually active (n?=?1131). The main outcome was inconsistent condom use which was assessed using a single item. A logistic regression was used to determine the association between socio-economic data, drug use data, and high risk injection behaviors with inconsistent condom use. Result: 83.3% of sexually active IDUs (n?=?965) reported inconsistent condom use. Based on the logistic regression, likelihood of inconsistent condom use was higher among those with a history of syringe sharing [Odds Ratio (OR); 1.63, 95% Confidence Interval (CI); 1.13–2.34], but lower among those with higher education levels (OR; 0.34, 95% CI; 0.14–0.82), those who mostly inject at home (OR; 0.09, 95% CI; 0.02–0.47), and those with a history of treatment (OR; 0.54, 95% CI; 0.31–0.94). Conclusion: Because of the link between unsafe sex and risky injecting behaviors among Iranian IDUs, combined programs targeting both sexual and injection behavior may be more appropriate than programs that target sexual or injection behavior. The efficacy of combined programs should be, however, compared with traditional programs that only target sexual or injection behavior of IDUs. PMID:24772093

Assari, Shervin; Yarmohmmadi Vasel, Mosaieb; Tavakoli, Mahmood; Sehat, Mahmoud; Jafari, Firoozeh; Narenjiha, Hooman; Rafiey, Hassan; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh



World Bank: Harnessing civil society expertise in undertaking and disseminating research findings  

PubMed Central

The UK Consortium on AIDS and International Development was an essential partner to the evaluation leaders in harnessing the contribution and expertise of civil society. This article describes what the partnership entailed, the additional value it brought and how civil society might use the evaluation findings both as a tool for advocacy and a means for improving its own engagement with the individuals directly affected by HIV and with those who care for them. PMID:23745623

Simms, Ben



Baseline personality comparisons between astronauts and Antarctic personnel: Implications for generalization of psychological research findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a review of personality research conducted by investigators at The University of Texas at Austin and the University of Bergen. Over the past several years, personality data have been collected on active duty NASA astronauts (N=66), final stage astronaut applicants (N=259), Australian Antarctic station personnel (N=111) and Norwegian polar scientists (N=34). Analyses of the astronaut data have

David M. Musson; M. Sandal


Adults' Informal Learning: Definitions, Findings, Gaps, and Future Research. NALL Working Paper #21.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper on adult informal learning is divided into four sections. Section 1 examines different conceptions of informal learning and the issues and limitations associated with alternative definitions of informal learning. Section 2 is a review of empirical research on the estimated extent, role, and outcomes of informal learning and posited…

Livingstone, D. W.


Georgetown researchers find that landmark Medicare law had little impact on reducing chemotherapy cost

Legislation passed in 2003 to slow the spiraling costs of drugs paid for by the federal government to treat Medicare patients has had no meaningful impact on cancer chemotherapy drug costs, say a team of researchers in the Journal of Clinical Oncology published online today.


UCSD researchers find that tumor suppressor mutations alone don't explain deadly cancer

Although mutations in a gene dubbed 'the guardian of the genome' are widely recognized as being associated with more aggressive forms of cancer, researchers have found evidence suggesting that the deleterious health effects of the mutated gene may in large part be due to other genetic abnormalities, at least in squamous cell head and neck cancers.


Self-Regulation Advantage for High-IQ Children: Findings from a Research Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current approaches in intelligence research indicate the need for a more extensive determination of characteristics of children with possible giftedness, not only at an intellectual level, but also at the level of self-regulation and motivation. The present study compares self-regulation efficiency between high-IQ and average-ability children aged…

Calero, Maria Dolores; Garcia-Martin, Maria Belen; Jimenez, Maria Isabel; Kazen, Miguel; Araque, Arsenio



Census of Institutional Repositories in the United States: MIRACLE Project Research Findings. CLIR Publication No. 140  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this report, the authors describe results of a nationwide census of institutional repositories in U.S. academic institutions. The census is one of several activities of the MIRACLE Project, an Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS)-funded research program based at the University of Michigan. The acronym MIRACLE means "Making…

Markey, Karen; Rieh, Soo Young; St. Jean, Beth; Kim, Jihyun; Yakel, Elizabeth



Better Together: Research Findings on the Relationship between Racial Justice Organizations and LGBT Communities. Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In partnership with the Arcus Foundation, the Applied Research Center (ARC) has undertaken a study of the relationship between racial justice organizations and lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender (LGBT) constituencies and issues, with the understanding that communities of color themselves, including their LGBT members, have a good deal at stake in…

Sen, Rinku; Wessler, Seth; Apollon, Dominique



The ABCs of Keeping on Track to Graduation: Research Findings from Baltimore  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study of graduation outcomes in Baltimore uses multivariate analysis of longitudinal student cohort data to examine the impact of factors identified in previous research as early warning indicators of a dropout outcome. Student cohort files were constructed from longitudinal administrative data (following all first-time 2004-2005 and…

Mac Iver, Martha Abele; Messel, Matthew



Washington University researchers find that mass prostate cancer screenings don’t reduce death:

There’s new evidence that annual prostate cancer screening does not reduce deaths from the disease, even among men in their 50s and 60s and those with underlying health conditions, according to new research led by Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis.


Finding God in Wellworth High School: More Legitimations of Story-Making as Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A curious piece of ironic, partially-dramatised auto/ethnography, this paper reflects an ongoing attempt to explore the vapid certainties of my own faith, some of the brittle discomforts of contemporary schooling, and the possibilities of a social science research methodology which can artfully assemble on the same stage belief, empirics and…

Clough, Peter



Standardization in EU Education and Training Policy: Findings from a European Research Network  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes an EU-funded project under the Training and Mobility of Researchers (TMR) Programme, with a particular emphasis on the Oxford-based part. Involving six European universities, the overarching investigation was concerned with the tensions between standardization and tradition in education. In Oxford the focus was on aspects of…

Ertl, Hubert; Phillips, David



Fox Chase researchers find that targeted therapy extends progression-free survival for advanced ovarian cancer:

A new Phase 3 clinical trial conducted by the Gynecologic Oncology Group showed that a targeted therapy called bevacizumab (Avastin) effectively delayed the progression of advanced ovarian cancer. Patients with newly diagnosed advanced ovarian cancer now typically undergo surgery and chemotherapy, but the new research suggests an additional avenue of treatment.


Main Findings and Policy Implications from the Research Project Public Perceptions of Mountain Forests in Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research project was carried out in order to obtain more knowledge of the attitudes of people living in the mountain areas of Switzerland towards forests, forestry and forest politics. A questionnaire was sent to 2160 private individuals and 72 communal councillors responsible for the forest in their own communes. It contained both questions which the respondents were asked to

Zimmermann Willi; Wild-Eck Stephan


Finding Tomorrow's Cures Northwestern University Plans for a Medical Research Facility  

E-print Network

Prentice Women's Hospital, 320 E. Huron Street. at site is the linchpin for the combined plans that attracts innovation and entrepreneurship. Construction of the new research facility on the Prentice site-of-the- art in its con guration. Innovation and entrepreneurship can happen in Chicago, just as they do

Contractor, Anis


On norms and bodies: findings from field research on cosmetic surgery in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brazil has the second highest rate of cosmetic surgery worldwide, provided in a large number of public and private clinics and hospitals, especially in the southeast. This qualitative field research in Rio de Janeiro included participant observation and in-depth interviews with 18 women cosmetic surgery patients, 10 key informants (e.g. psychologists and sociologists) and 12 plastic surgeons. Fifteen of the

Daniela Dorneles de Andrade



UNC and other researchers find that gene expression improves the definition of a breast cancer subtype

A study conducted by the Vall d'Hebron Institute of Oncology in conjunction with the GEICAM cooperative group and other American and Canadian researchers, including UNC, has led to a change in the definition of hormone-sensitive breast tumors


Finding Voice through Teacher-Student Collaboration in a Feminist Research Project: Long-Term Effects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a feminist classroom an instructor who acts as an "interested party" rather than an authority, fosters an environment of care and connection which can result in life-changing discoveries for the participants. Drawing on David Bleich's conception of a "socially generous research" that removes hierarchical barriers between teacher and student, a…

Fey, Marion Harris


Understanding resistance to sex and race-based affirmative action: A review of research findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The public discussion of affirmative action appears to be complicated by disagreements regarding definitions and by the lack of a theoretical framework from which to begin to understand this complex public policy. The present review attempts to synthesize the available research into a model from which resistance to affirmative action can be understood. Within the model, resistance to affirmative action

Kelli Cook



Social and Emotional Distress among American Indian and Alaska Native Students: Research Findings. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth are repeatedly exposed to opportunities to participate in self-destructive and illegal behaviors. This digest examines risk factors associated with four contexts: peers, family, school, and community. Recent research has shown that, relative to national averages, AI/AN youth have higher rates of…

Clarke, Ardy SixKiller


Penn researchers find Epstein Barr-like virus infects and may cause cancer in dogs

...A team of researchers from the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine and Penn's Perelman School of Medicine has the first evidence that an Epstein Barr-like virus can infect and may also be responsible for causing lymphomas in man's best friend.


Designing for Dissemination Among Public Health Researchers: Findings From a National Survey in the United States  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We have described the practice of designing for dissemination among researchers in the United States with the intent of identifying gaps and areas for improvement. Methods. In 2012, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 266 researchers using a search of the top 12 public health journals in PubMed and lists available from government-sponsored research. The sample involved scientists at universities, the National Institutes of Health, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States. Results. In the pooled sample, 73% of respondents estimated they spent less than 10% of their time on dissemination. About half of respondents (53%) had a person or team in their unit dedicated to dissemination. Seventeen percent of all respondents used a framework or theory to plan their dissemination activities. One third of respondents (34%) always or usually involved stakeholders in the research process. Conclusions. The current data and the existing literature suggest considerable room for improvement in designing for dissemination. PMID:23865659

Jacobs, Julie A.; Tabak, Rachel G.; Hoehner, Christine M.; Stamatakis, Katherine A.



Strategies for Improving Rehearsal Technique: Using Research Findings to Promote Better Rehearsals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Music education researchers and conducting pedagogues have identified numerous behaviors that contribute to increased verbal and nonverbal teaching effectiveness of conductors on the podium. This article is a review of literature concerning several conductor behaviors that may (a) increase the effectiveness of rehearsals, (b) enhance the…

Silvey, Brian A.



Attitudes Towards Migrants and Needs in Teacher Training : Some Research Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The area of immigrant education has become a major source of interest, concern, comment, and research in recent years. This interest has its origins in the concern felt and views expressed at various conferences that many pupils in our schools are in need of an educational approach which will take cognisance of their linguistic and cultural differences.

R. W. Sealey



Fatigue Issues for Metropolitan Bus Drivers: Ramifications of Quantitative & Qualitative Research Findings for Safety Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metropolitan bus drivers operating in urban areas are exposed daily to a stressful and distracting work environment. To date, there has been a dearth of research exploring whether these factors cause fatigue in this population. The present study aimed to provide insight into metropolitan bus driver fatigue. The study was conducted in two phases. Firstly, focus groups were held at

H. C. Biggs


The importance of the repressive coping style: findings from 30 years of research  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last three decades there has been substantial research exploring the repressive coping style as defined by Weinberger, Schwartz, and Davidson. As “repressors,” who score low on trait anxiety and high on defensiveness, account for up to 50% of certain populations, they are an essential group for psychologists to study. However, there are methodological issues in identifying repressors as

Lynn B. Myers



Finding the Right Path: Researching Your Way to Discovery. Professional Growth Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for use by teachers, librarians, parents, and elementary school students, this book provides 115 pathfinders to a variety of subjects to guide a student's research and broaden a child's interest base. Each pathfinder (i.e., collection of resources on a given topic) includes: a description of the subject; the Dewey Decimal numbers specific…

Sutter, Lynne; Sutter, Herman


Georgetown researchers examine nipple sparing mastectomy cases and find no recurrent or new cancers:

A new study suggests some women needing a lumpectomy or mastectomy to treat their breast cancer have another potential option that is safe and effective, say researchers at Georgetown. They say the procedure known as a nipple sparing mastectomy is also a viable surgical option for women who choose to have their breasts removed because of their increased risk of developing the disease.


The Quality of Schools and Instruction-Empirical Findings on Problems and Prospects of Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines unresolved problems and future prospects for research concerning school quality. Asserts that the proportion of variance among factors such as, school system, school type, grade levels, individual schools, and learning groups makes consideration of the schools as a homogenous whole doubtful. Includes numerous statistical tables and…

Ditton, Hartmut; Krecker, Lothar



Northwestern researchers find lower dosage CT-guided lung biopsy protocol maintains quality, minimizes exposure

New guidelines for CT-guided biopsies of lung nodules significantly reduce radiation exposure allowing individuals the benefit of the procedure, which may cut down on overall lung cancer deaths. This research is being presented at the Society of Interventional Radiology's 37th Annual Scientific Meeting in San Francisco, Calif.


Domestic Violence Between Same-Gender Partners: Recent Findings and Future Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Empirical literature about same-gender domestic violence was relatively nonexistent until the past 20 years, and conducting research with this population about a sensitive topic remains a daunting endeavor. Existing studies reveal similarities between opposite- and same-gender domestic violence in prevalence, types of abuse, and various dynamics,…

McClennen, Joan C.



Hopkins researchers find that blood test for 'nicked' protein predicts prostate cancer treatment response

Prostate cancer patients whose tumors contain a shortened protein called AR-V7, which can be detected in the blood, are less likely to respond to two widely used drugs for metastatic prostate cancer, according to results of a study led by researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center.


The Meaning of Work Among Chinese University Students: Findings From Prototype Research Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined Chinese university students' conceptualization of the meaning of work. One hundred and ninety students (93 male, 97 female) from Beijing, China, participated in the study. Prototype research methodology (J. Li, 2001) was used to explore the meaning of work and the associations among the identified meanings. Cluster analysis was used to organize the identified meanings into a

Sili Zhou; S. Alvin Leung; Xu Li



ICT and Project-Based Education: Some Findings from an Exploratory Research Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper contributes to the discussion on information and communication technology (ICT) for educational purposes. Research was done on the use a virtual learning environment (VLE) based on Internet technology during a practical course for economic students at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. The VLE has been used for many dtferent purposes such as to support team learning, to inform students

Marleen Huysman; Han Gerrits



The Hermeneutic Dialogic: Finding Patterns amid the Aporia of the Artist/Researcher/Teacher.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Art learning is an embodied practice learned through praxis. An unconventional style of conducting research on such learning is presented, in which doing the work changes the intent, which in turn changes the work, subsequently changing the intent again, and so on. The process leads to discovery and new insights. (TD)

de Cosson, Alex



UCSD researchers find that chili peppers may inhibit gut tumors in mice

Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine report that dietary capsaicin – the active ingredient in chili peppers – produces chronic activation of a receptor on cells lining the intestines of mice, triggering a reaction that ultimately reduces the risk of colorectal tumors.


Georgetown researchers find higher estrogen production in the breast could confer greater cancer risk than thought:

Could some women who naturally produce excess aromatase in their breasts have an increased risk of developing breast cancer? Results of a new animal study suggests that may be the case, say researchers at Georgetown Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, a part of Georgetown University Medical Center.


Fostering Change from Without: A Practical Perspective. Getting Innovative Practices Into Schools: Related Research Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attempts to answer the question "What does research say about getting innovations into schools?" are based on the experiences of a nonprofit organization that has been engaged in staff development efforts to bring about change in schools. The paper presents a general description of the organization's operation; its relationship to other change…

Crandall, David P.; Harris, Richard C.


UCSF researchers find that longer telomeres could be linked to risk of brain cancer

New genomic research led by UC San Francisco scientists reveals that two common gene variants that lead to longer telomeres, the caps on chromosome ends thought by many scientists to confer health by protecting cells from aging, also significantly increase the risk of developing the deadly brain cancers known as gliomas.


A serendipitous finding of a news media history effect: A research note  

Microsoft Academic Search

On January 16, 1989, a Hispanic Miami police officer shot and killed a black motorcyclist in a predominantly black section of Miami. During the following week, the shooting and its aftermath received extensive newspaper, television, and radio coverage. In criminal justice research, history effects are a common concern but empirical demonstrations are rarely reported. As part of a larger study

Ray Surette



Jefferson researchers find that cancer information on Wikipedia is accurate, but not very readable:

It is a commonly held that information on Wikipedia should not be trusted, since it is written and edited by non-experts without professional oversight. But researchers from the Kimmel Cancer Center at Jefferson have found differently, according to a study published online Sept. 15 in the Journal of Oncology Practice.


Kimmel Cancer Center researchers find drugs targeting chromosomal instability may fight a particular breast cancer subtype

A team of researchers at Jefferson's Kimmel Cancer Center has shown in a study published online Feb. 6 in the Journal of Clinical Investigation that the oncogene cyclin D1 may promote a genetic breakdown known as chromosomal instability (CIN). CIN is a known, yet poorly understood culprit in tumor progression.


Moffitt research finds no survival advantage for stem cell versus bone marrow transplant

Researchers at Moffitt Cancer Center, and colleagues in the Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network conducted a two-year clinical trial comparing two-year survival probabilities for patients transplanted with peripheral blood stem cells or bone marrow stem cells from unrelated donors and found no survival advantage for one method over the other.


University of Washington researchers find community effort brings lasting drop in smoking, delinquency, drug use:

Tenth graders in towns using Communities That Care [a prevention system developed by University of Washington researchers] were less likely to have tried drinking or smoking compared with teens living in towns that had not adopted the system. Delinquent behavior, including stealing, vandalism and physical fights, decreased too.


Nanotoxicology and nanotechnology: new findings from the NIEHS and Superfund Research Program scientific community.  


Nanomaterials are characterized by their small size (i.e., nanometer scale) and can be engineered from nearly any chemical substance, creating materials that differ in composition, particle size, shape, and surface coatings. These materials are often seen as a "double-edged sword" by having properties that make them potentially beneficial in product development, drug delivery, and remediation of hazardous substances, but these same properties may result in interaction with biological systems and potential effects in the environment. The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) is interested in both the potential risks associated with exposure to these materials, while harnessing the power of engineered nanomaterials to improve public health. This presentation will consist of discussion of nanoparticle studies by NIEHS researchers and the extramural community and its efforts to develop cross-agency initiatives to solve the many vexing issues associated with nanomaterials. For example, researchers from the NIEHS National Toxicology Program (NTP) are evaluating a number of nanomaterial classes in comprehensive toxicology studies. NIEHS also has an extensive extramural research grant portfolio consisting of the Nano Grand Opportunities (Nano GO) Program and NIEHS Centers for Nanotechnology Health Implications Research (NCNHIR) Consortium consisting of U19 and U01 Cooperative Centers. Furthermore, the NIEHS Superfund Research Program (SRP), which supports a network of university (P42, R01), small business (SBIR/STTR), and training grants (R25), provides funding to grantees evaluating the toxicology of nanomaterials, developing new or improved nanotechnologies to monitor and remediate hazardous substances, and training professionals in the use of these of materials. The NIEHS's Worker Education Branch also offers educational materials for training workers on risks of nanotechnology in laboratories, manufacturing facilities, at hazardous waste cleanup sites, and during emergency responses. In conclusion, this presentation will stimulate dialogue regarding the need for more research on these complex materials and serve as a resource about the wide variety of ongoing studies on nanomaterials at NIEHS that will contribute to the determination of risk associated with this class of compounds. PMID:24695034

Carlin, Danielle J



New Study Finds Increasing Gender Equity at U.S. Research Institutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Women and men faculty in science, engineering, and mathematics for the most part have comparable opportunities within major U.S. research universities, according to a report released 2 June by the U.S. National Research Council (NRC). The report found that gender does not appear to have been a factor in a number of important career transitions and outcomes, including hiring for tenure track and tenure positions and promotions. “That is probably going to be surprising to many people. It was surprising to our own panel. And it may not have been the case if we had done the study in 1985 instead of 2005,” said Claude Canizares, cochair of the NRC committee that prepared the report, entitled Gender Differences at Critical Transitions in the Careers of Science, Engineering and Mathematics Faculty.

Showstack, Randy



Improving mental health practices in primary care: findings from recent research.  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews restraints on the provision of mental health services in primary health care under the broad categories of physician profile, patient behavior, the nature of psychiatric illness as presented in primary care, and service system characteristics. An extensive research agenda is proposed toward improving mental health care in primary care settings. Research recommendations focus on the following types of issues: seeking a better understanding of the clinical decision making process when confronted with psychological or emotional problems, designing more focused mental health training for primary care physicians and nurses, providing patient education to encourage communication of psychosocial problems to medical providers, clarifying the nature and course of psychiatric disorder in primary care, designing innovative clinical interventions applicable to primary care, and examining organizational models for better coordination of health and mental health services. PMID:3923537

Burns, B J; Burke, J D



Making life easier with effort: Basic findings and applied research on response effort  

PubMed Central

Early basic research showed that increases in required response effort (or force) produced effects that resembled those produced by punishment. A recent study by Alling and Poling determined some subtle differences between the two behavior-change strategies, but also confirmed that increasing required effort is an effective response-reduction procedure with enduring effects. In this paper we summarize basic research on response effort and explore the role of effort in diverse applied areas including deceleration of aberrant behavior, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oral habits, health care appointment keeping, littering, indexes of functional disability, and problem solving. We conclude that renewed interest in response effort as an independent variable is justified because of its potent effects and because the political constraints imposed on punishment- and reinforcement-based procedures have yet to be imposed on procedures that entail manipulations of response effort. PMID:16795886

Friman, Patrick C.; Poling, Alan



Minorities and energy: a review of recent findings and a guide to future research  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the results of the research on minority energy consumption and expenditures being conducted by Argonne National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy's Office of Minority Economic Impact. After summarizing what was known about minorities and energy prior to 1982, the paper briefly reviews current research results in the areas of minority residential and transportation energy use patterns, energy policy assessments, and minority energy business development. The results suggest that, when income and location (transportation) or climate (residential) are statistically controlled, black households differ from nonblack households in their ability or willingness to make long-term capital investments in energy-efficient consumer durables (e.g., automobiles and appliances). Two hypotheses to explain these results are proposed, relating to the culture of minority poverty and structural constraints. Implications of the current results and proposed hypotheses are then briefly discussed.

Throgmorton, J.A.; Bernard, M.J. III



Industry sponsorship bias in research findings: a network meta-analysis of LDL cholesterol reduction in randomised trials of statins  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore the risk of industry sponsorship bias in a systematically identified set of placebo controlled and active comparator trials of statins. Design Systematic review and network meta-analysis. Eligibility Open label and double blind randomised controlled trials comparing one statin with another at any dose or with control (placebo, diet, or usual care) for adults with, or at risk of developing, cardiovascular disease. Only trials that lasted longer than four weeks with more than 50 participants per trial arm were included. Two investigators assessed study eligibility. Data sources Bibliographic databases and reference lists of relevant articles published between 1 January 1985 and 10 March 2013. Data extraction One investigator extracted data and another confirmed accuracy. Main outcome measure Mean absolute change from baseline concentration of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Data synthesis Study level outcomes from randomised trials were combined using random effects network meta-analyses. Results We included 183 randomised controlled trials of statins, 103 of which were two-armed or multi-armed active comparator trials. When all of the existing randomised evidence was synthesised in network meta-analyses, there were clear differences in the LDL cholesterol lowering effects of individual statins at different doses. In general, higher doses resulted in higher reductions in baseline LDL cholesterol levels. Of a total of 146 industry sponsored trials, 64 were placebo controlled (43.8%). The corresponding number for the non-industry sponsored trials was 16 (43.2%). Of the 35 unique comparisons available in 37 non-industry sponsored trials, 31 were also available in industry sponsored trials. There were no systematic differences in magnitude between the LDL cholesterol lowering effects of individual statins observed in industry sponsored versus non-industry sponsored trials. In industry sponsored trials, the mean change from baseline LDL cholesterol level was on average 1.77 mg/dL (95% credible interval ?11.12 to 7.66) lower than the change observed in non-industry sponsored trials. There was no detectable inconsistency in the evidence network. Conclusions Our analysis shows that the findings obtained from industry sponsored statin trials seem similar in magnitude as those in non-industry sources. There are actual differences in the effectiveness of individual statins at various doses that explain previously observed discrepancies between industry and non-industry sponsored trials. PMID:25281681

Dias, Sofia; Ades, A E



Emory University researchers find new pathway for regulation of blood vessel growth in cancer

Researchers at Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University have identified a new function for a gene that normally prevents the development of cancer. Scientists had known that the gene, which encodes a protein called p14 ARF, works inside the cell to control proliferation and division. The Winship team discovered that p14 ARF also regulates tumor-induced angiogenesis, the process by which growing cancers attract new blood vessels.


UC San Diego researchers find an enzyme that offers new therapeutic target for cancer drugs

Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have uncovered a new signal transduction pathway specifically devoted to the regulation of alternative RNA splicing, a process that allows a single gene to produce or code multiple types of protein variants. The discovery, published in the June 27, 2012 issue of Molecular Cell, suggests the new pathway might be a fruitful target for new cancer drugs. The University of California, San Diego is home to the Moores Comprehensive Cancer Center.


Researchers Find that a Small Molecule Can Activate an Important Cancer Suppressor Gene

By activating a cancer suppressor gene, a small molecule called nutlin-3a can block cancer cell division, according to researchers at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health. This activation of the p53 gene leads to cellular senescence, a process by which cells lose their ability to grow and divide. An opportunity for new genetic mutations occurs each time a cell divides, so limiting the number of cell divisions in a cancer cell inhibits tumor progression.


Depression secondary to anxiety: findings from the McLean Hospital Depression Research Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methodologic issues pertinent to the study of depression secondary to anxiety are reviewed. Data on the frequency and temporal sequence of comorbid DSM-III-R anxiety and depressive disorders in a sample from the McLean Hospital Depression Research Facility are presented. Patients with major depression secondary to anxiety are compared with major depressed patients without anxiety on a variety of demographic and

Alan F. Schatzberg; Jacqueline A. Samson; Anthony J. Rothschild; Monica M. Luciana; R. F. Bruno; Thomas C. Bond



UCBerkeleyNews: Cables Hold Promise in Protecting Existing Buildings from Bombs, Researchers Find  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A civil engineering professor at the University of California at Berkeley is working on a novel way of maintaining a building's structural stability after an earthquake or terrorist bomb. The team of researchers working with the professor have designed and tested a system that uses cables for backup support in case main support beams failed. An overview of the system is provided in a February 20, 2003 news article.

Yang, Sarah.



The Impact of the Pill on Implantation Factors—New Research Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

For health consumers and health care professionals of an orthodox Judeo-Christian or Islamic tradition, as w ell as those authentically concerned with the universal respect of unqualified human rights, the asserted capacity of the pill to act as an abortifacient, both in its once-a-day and 'mo rning-after' permutations, is one of significant moral weight. The research on 'break-through' ovulation 1

John Wilks; B. Pharm; MPS MACPP


Stanford University researchers find that dual-action protein better restricts blood vessel formation:

In a paper published online Aug. 8 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, researchers at Stanford University describe the creation of a new type of engineered protein that is significantly more effective at preventing the formation of blood vessels by targeting not one, but two of the chemical receptors that control the creation of new capillaries -- a process known as angiogenesis. The study shows that the new protein blocks both receptors.


Findings of the US research needs workshop on the topic of fusion power  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy, Of?ce of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES) conducted a Research Needs Workshop, referred to as ReNeW, in June 2009. The information developed at this workshop will help OFES develop a plan for US fusion research during the ITER era, roughly the next two decades. The workshop was organized in ?ve Themes, one of which was Harnessing Fusion Power (or Fusion Power for short). The top level goal of the Fusion Power Theme was to identify the research needed to develop the knowledge to design and build, with high con?dence, robust and reliable systems that can convert fusion products to useful forms of energy in a reactor environment, including a self-suf?cient supply of tritium fuel. Each Theme was subsequently subdivided into Panels to address speci?c topics. The Fusion Power Panel topics were: Fusion Fuel Cycle; Power Extraction; Materials Science; Safety and Environment; and Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Inspectability (RAMI). Here we present the key ?ndings of the Fusion Power Theme.

Meier, Wayne R.; Raffray, R.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Morley, Neil B.; Reiersen, Wayne T.; Sharpe, Phil; Willms, Scott



Regenerating the Academic Workforce: The Careers, Intentions and Motivations of Higher Degree Research Students in Australia. Findings of the National Research Student Survey (NRSS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is the culmination of a project carried out for the Australian Government Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (DEEWR) by the Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER) in collaboration with the Centre for the Study of Higher Education (CSHE). The main findings of this report are based on the outcomes…

Edwards, Daniel; Bexley, Emmaline; Richardson, Sarah



The educational gradient in marital disruption: a meta-analysis of European research findings.  


A large number of empirical studies have investigated the effects of women's education on union dissolution in Europe, but results have varied substantially. This paper seeks to assess the relationship between educational attainment and the incidence of marital disruption by systematizing the existing empirical evidence. A quantitative literature review (a meta-analysis) was conducted to investigate the temporal change in the relationship, net of inter-study differences. The results point to a weakening of the positive educational gradient in marital disruption over time and even to a reversal in the direction of this gradient in some countries. The findings also show that the change in the educational gradient can be linked to an increase in access to divorce. Finally, the results suggest that women's empowerment has played an important role in changing the educational gradient, while the liberalization of divorce laws has not. PMID:24279466

Matysiak, Anna; Styrc, Marta; Vignoli, Daniele



PLUME-FEATHER, Referencing and Finding Software for Research and Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PLUME-FEATHER is a non-profit project created to Promote economicaL, Useful and Maintained softwarE For the Higher Education And THE Research communities. The site references software, mainly Free/Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS) from French universities and national research organisations, (CNRS, INRA…), laboratories or departments as well as other FLOSS software used and evaluated by users within these institutions. Each software is represented by a reference card, which describes origin, aim, installation, cost (if applicable) and user experience from the point of view of an academic user for academic users. Presently over 1000 programs are referenced on PLUME. Although the server is maintained by a french institution, it is completely open to international contributions in the academic domainb. All contained and validated contents are visible to anonymous public, whereas registered users can contribute, starting with comments on single software reference cards up to help with the organisation and presentation of the referenced software products. This first presentation is call for (further) contributions from the HEP community.

Hoffmann, Dirk; Romier, Geneviève



Microdialysis in equine research: a review of clinical and experimental findings.  


Microdialysis is a method for sampling compounds from extracellular fluid with minimal tissue trauma. Small hollow probes that are 0.2-0.5mm in diameter are inserted into the tissue and slowly perfused. The probe membrane is semi-permeable and a flux of the solutes occurs exclusively according to the concentration gradients. The recovered dialysate reflects changes in the composition of the extracellular water phase with a minor time delay. Because microdialysis is a continuous sampling method, it differs from point sample methods, such as blood sampling. The ability to obtain local measurements in the tissues has led to important discoveries in the detection of tissue changes within the areas of pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, pathology and pathophysiology. New technological solutions, such as transportable pumps, fluid collectors and bedside analysers, have made microdialysis an indispensable tool for the surveillance of critically ill human patients, such as after brain injuries and reconstructive surgeries. The use of microdialysis in equine medicine has been sparingly described with only 14 published studies within muscle, pulmonary and hoof lamellar tissue, nasal mucosa, intestinal wall, uterine, allantoic and cerebrospinal fluid and blood. Only a few papers have been published within each area, indicating that few equine researchers are aware of the unique opportunities provided by the technique. This review discusses the theory and applications of microdialysis with a special emphasis on clinical and experimental equine studies, which may be useful to veterinary experimental and clinical researchers. PMID:23660155

Sørensen, M A; Jacobsen, S; Petersen, L J



Factors Predicting the Use of Technology: Findings From the Center for Research and Education on Aging and Technology Enhancement (CREATE)  

PubMed Central

The successful adoption of technology is becoming increasingly important to functional independence. The present article reports findings from the Center for Research and Education on Aging and Technology Enhancement (CREATE) on the use of technology among community-dwelling adults. The sample included 1,204 individuals ranging in age from 18–91 years. All participants completed a battery that included measures of demographic characteristics, self-rated health, experience with technology, attitudes toward computers, and component cognitive abilities. Findings indicate that the older adults were less likely than younger adults to use technology in general, computers, and the World Wide Web. The results also indicate that computer anxiety, fluid intelligence, and crystallized intelligence were important predictors of the use of technology. The relationship between age and adoption of technology was mediated by cognitive abilities, computer self-efficacy, and computer anxiety. These findings are discussed in terms of training strategies to promote technology adoption. PMID:16768579

Czaja, Sara J.; Charness, Neil; Fisk, Arthur D.; Hertzog, Christopher; Nair, Sankaran N.; Rogers, Wendy A.; Sharit, Joseph



The ethics of sharing preliminary research findings during public health emergencies: a case study from the 2009 influenza pandemic.  


During the 2009 A(H1N1) influenza pandemic, a suite of studies conducted in Canada showed an unexpected finding, that patients with medically attended laboratory-confirmed pandemic influenza were more likely to have received seasonal influenza vaccination than test-negative control patients. Different bodies, including scientific journals and government scientific advisory committees, reviewed the evidence simultaneously to determine its scientific validity and implications. Decision-making was complicated when the findings made their way into the media. The normal trajectory of non-urgent research includes peer-review publication after which decision-makers can process the information taking into account other evidence and logistic considerations. In the situation that arose, however, the congruence of an unexpected finding and the simultaneous review of the evidence both within and outside the traditional peer-review sphere raised several interesting issues about how to deal with emerging evidence during a public health emergency. These events are used in this article to aid discussion of the complex interrelationship between researchers, public health decision-makers and scientific journals, the trade-offs between sharing information early and maintaining the peer-review quality assurance process, and to emphasise the need for critical reflection on the practical and ethical norms that govern the way in which research is evaluated, published and communicated in public health emergencies. PMID:24970372

Crowcroft, N S; Rosella, L C; Pakes, B N



The art of inconsistency: evidence-based practice my way.  


Inconsistency of care in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit is a common complaint amongst caregivers. This paper discusses evidence-based medicine and standards of care in relation to personal preference where care-giving choices are concerned. It is suggested that moral distress may be diminished by consistently applying evidence-based practice, adhering to standards of care and optimizing the team dynamic by engaging in consensus-based collaboration. PMID:19710655

Golec, L



Disaster media coverage and psychological outcomes: descriptive findings in the extant research.  


This review of the literature on disaster media coverage describes the events, samples, and forms of media coverage (television, newspapers, radio, internet) studied and examines the association between media consumption and psychological outcomes. A total of 36 studies representing both man-made and natural events met criteria for review in this analysis. Most studies examined disaster television viewing in the context of terrorism and explored a range of outcomes including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) caseness and posttraumatic stress (PTS), depression, anxiety, stress reactions, and substance use. There is good evidence establishing a relationship between disaster television viewing and various psychological outcomes, especially PTSD caseness and PTS, but studies are too few to draw definitive conclusions about the other forms of media coverage that have been examined. As media technology continues to advance, future research is needed to investigate these additional media forms especially newer forms such as social media. PMID:25064691

Pfefferbaum, Betty; Newman, Elana; Nelson, Summer D; Nitiéma, Pascal; Pfefferbaum, Rose L; Rahman, Ambreen



Measuring Masculinity in Research on Men of Color: Findings and Future Directions  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine the association between masculinity and the health of US men of color aged 18 years and older. We identified 22 population-based studies that included a measure of masculinity and a measure of health behavior, mental health, or physical health. The associations between masculinity and health were complex and varied by construct and health outcome, though they generally were significant in the hypothesized directions. Future research should explore the centrality of masculinity versus other identities and characteristics, how the relationship between masculinity and health varies by health outcome, and the identification of the conceptions and aspects of masculinity that are most relevant to and associated with specific health behaviors and health outcomes. PMID:22401519

Gunter, Katie; Watkins, Daphne C.



Measuring masculinity in research on men of color: findings and future directions.  


The purpose of this study was to examine the association between masculinity and the health of US men of color aged 18 years and older. We identified 22 population-based studies that included a measure of masculinity and a measure of health behavior, mental health, or physical health. The associations between masculinity and health were complex and varied by construct and health outcome, though they generally were significant in the hypothesized directions. Future research should explore the centrality of masculinity versus other identities and characteristics, how the relationship between masculinity and health varies by health outcome, and the identification of the conceptions and aspects of masculinity that are most relevant to and associated with specific health behaviors and health outcomes. PMID:22401519

Griffith, Derek M; Gunter, Katie; Watkins, Daphne C



Enhancing the Participation of African Americans in Health-Related Genetic Research: Findings of a Collaborative Academic and Community-Based Research Study  

PubMed Central

The involvement of African Americans in research has long been expressed as a concern by the scientific community. While efforts have been undertaken to identify factors inhibiting the participation of African Americans in health-related research, few efforts have been undertaken to have highlight factors associated with their engagement of health-related research. An exploratory study of factors presumed to be associated with participation in health-related research was conducted among a nonprobability sample of African Americans (n = 212) from a large urban community in the Midwest. The study was guided by a framework that hypothesized the influence of knowledge, beliefs, and perceptions about genetics and the involvement of providers in decision-making on willingness to participate in health-related genetic research. The results revealed that knowledge, beliefs, and perceptions about genetics and the involvement of providers were associated with willingness to engage in health-related genetic research (P < .05). The most interesting, however, was that 88.7% of the participants who had not previously been involved in a health-related study who expressed a willingness to participate reported that they “had never been asked.” Study findings suggest the need for research that further examines factors associated with the involvement of African Americans in health-related genetic research. PMID:24369499

Millon Underwood, Sandra; Buseh, Aaron G.; Kelber, Sheryl T.; Stevens, Patricia E.; Townsend, Leolia



Rubber dam use during root canal treatment: findings from The Dental Practice-Based Research Network  

PubMed Central

Background The Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) provides a venue to investigate whether certain procedures are performed routinely. Study objectives were to: (1) quantify rubber dam use during root canal treatment (RCT) among general dentists; (2) test the hypothesis that certain dentist or practice characteristics are associated with its use. Methods DPBRN practitioner-investigators participated in a questionnaire that included items about rubber dam use and other forms of isolation during root RCT. DPBRN Enrollment Questionnaire data provided certain practitioner and practice characteristics. Results A total of 729 practitioners responded (74%); 524 were general dentists and indicated they do RCT and the percentage of RCT in which they use a rubber dam. Of these 524, 44% use rubber dam for all RCTs; 24% use it for 51%–99% of RCTs; 17% use it for 1%–50%; 15% never use it during RCT. Usage varied significantly by geographic region and practice type. Cotton rolls and other forms of isolation were also reported. Conclusions Similar to other reports in the literature, not all DPBRN general dentists use a rubber dam during RCT. Clinical implications Because the current clinical standard of care is to use a rubber dam during RCT, increasing its use may be important. PMID:23372134

Anabtawi, Mona F.; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Bauer, Michael R.; Reams, Gregg; Makhija, Sonia K.; Benjamin, Paul L.; Williams, O. Dale



On norms and bodies: findings from field research on cosmetic surgery in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  


Brazil has the second highest rate of cosmetic surgery worldwide, provided in a large number of public and private clinics and hospitals, especially in the southeast. This qualitative field research in Rio de Janeiro included participant observation and in-depth interviews with 18 women cosmetic surgery patients, 10 key informants (e.g. psychologists and sociologists) and 12 plastic surgeons. Fifteen of the women were either pre- or post-operative; three had not decided whether to have surgery. When asked about their motivations and expectations of the surgery, the majority of the women said they wanted to be "normal". Most of the surgeons said they acted as empathic companions from decision-making through surgery and beyond. Many of the key informants were critical of what was happening to medical ethics in relation to cosmetic surgery. With the growth in a consumer culture, they saw ethics in medicine becoming more bendable and subject to the "law" of the market. The cult of the body has become a mass phenomenon and taken on an important social dimension in a society where norms and images are broadcast widely by the media. The trend towards body-modification by cosmetic surgery at an early age is increasing dramatically. What demands critical thinking and further investigation are the consequences of cosmetic surgery for physical and mental health. PMID:20541086

Dorneles de Andrade, Daniela



"The role of oxytocin in psychiatric disorders: A review of biological and therapeutic research findings"  

PubMed Central

Oxytocin is a peptide hormone integral in parturition, milk let-down, and maternal behaviors that has been demonstrated in animal studies to be important in the formation of pair bonds and in social behaviors. This hormone is increasingly recognized as an important regulator of human social behaviors, including social decision making, evaluating and responding to social stimuli, mediating social interactions, and forming social memories. In addition, oxytocin is intricately involved in a broad array of neuropsychiatric functions, and may be a common factor important in multiple psychiatric disorders such as autism, schizophrenia, mood and anxiety disorders. This review article examines the extant literature on the evidence for oxytocin dysfunction in a variety of psychiatric disorders and highlights the need for further research to understand the complex role of the oxytocin system in psychiatric disease to pave the way for developing new therapeutic modalities. Articles were selected that involved human participants with various psychiatric disorders, either comparing oxytocin biology to healthy controls or examining the effects of exogenous oxytocin administration. PMID:24651556

Cochran, David; Fallon, Daniel; Hill, Michael; Frazier, Jean A.



Do Students Eventually Get to Publish their Research Findings? The Case of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Research in Cameroon  

PubMed Central

Background: Scientific publication is commonly used to communicate research findings and in most academic/research settings, to evaluate the potential of a researcher and for recruitment and promotion. It has also been said that researchers have the duty to make public, the findings of their research. As a result, researchers are encouraged to share their research findings with the scientific world through peer review publications. In this study, we looked at the characteristics and publication rate of theses that documented studies on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Cameroon. Materials and Methods: To check if a thesis resulted in a publication, we searched: A database of publications on HIV in Cameroon, African Journals Online, PubMed and Google scholar. For each publication we recorded if the student was an author, the position of the student in the author listing, the journal and where the journal was indexed. We also looked at the impact factor of the journals. Results: One hundred and thirty theses/dissertations were included in the study, 74.6% (97/130) were written as part of a medical degree (MD), 23.8% (31/130) a postgraduate (PG) degree and 1.5% (2/130) for a Doctorate/PhD. On a whole, 13.9% (18/130) of the theses resulted in at least one publication in a scientific journal with a total of 22 journal articles, giving a mean publication rate of 0.17 article/thesis, 86.4% (11/22) were indexed on PubMed, 9.1% (2/22) on African Journals Online and 4.6% (1/22) on Google scholar. One PG thesis led to two book chapters. The student was the first author in 22.7% (5/22) of the articles and not an author in 9.1% (2/22) of the articles. Student supervisor was an author in all the articles. Conclusion: This study reveals that most students in Cameroon failed to transform their theses/dissertations to scientific publications. This indicates an urgent need to sensitize students on the importance of presenting their research findings in scientific meetings and peer reviewed journals. There is also a great necessity to build capacity in scientific writing among university students in Cameroon. PMID:24971222

Munung, NS; Vidal, L; Ouwe-Missi-Oukem-Boyer, O



On Distribution Reduction and Algorithm Implementation in Inconsistent Ordered Information Systems  

PubMed Central

As one part of our work in ordered information systems, distribution reduction is studied in inconsistent ordered information systems (OISs). Some important properties on distribution reduction are studied and discussed. The dominance matrix is restated for reduction acquisition in dominance relations based information systems. Matrix algorithm for distribution reduction acquisition is stepped. And program is implemented by the algorithm. The approach provides an effective tool for the theoretical research and the applications for ordered information systems in practices. For more detailed and valid illustrations, cases are employed to explain and verify the algorithm and the program which shows the effectiveness of the algorithm in complicated information systems.

Zhang, Yanqin



Increasing Capacity for Stewardship of Oceans and Coasts: Findings of the National Research Council Report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the increasing stress on ocean and coastal resources, ocean resource management will require greater capacity in terms of people, institutions, technology and tools. Successful capacity-building efforts address the needs of a specific locale or region and include plans to maintain and expand capacity after the project ends. In 2008, the US National Research Council published a report that assesses past and current capacity-building efforts to identify barriers to effective management of coastal and marine resources. The report recommends ways that governments and organizations can strengthen marine conservation and management capacity. Capacity building programs instill the tools, knowledge, skills, and attitudes that address: ecosystem function and change; processes of governance that influence societal and ecosystem change; and assembling and managing interdisciplinary teams. Programs require efforts beyond traditional sector-by-sector planning because marine ecosystems range from the open ocean to coastal waters and land use practices. Collaboration among sectors, scaling from local community-based management to international ocean policies, and ranging from inland to offshore areas, will be required to establish coordinated and efficient governance of ocean and coastal ecosystems. Barriers Most capacity building activities have been initiated to address particular issues such as overfishing or coral reef degradation, or they target a particular region or country facing threats to their marine resources. This fragmentation inhibits the sharing of information and experience and makes it more difficult to design and implement management approaches at appropriate scales. Additional barriers that have limited the effectiveness of capacity building programs include: lack of an adequate needs assessment prior to program design and implementation; exclusion of targeted populations in decision- making efforts; mismanagement, corruption, or both; incomplete or inappropriate evaluation procedures; and, lack of a coordinated and strategic approach among donors. A New Framework Improving ocean stewardship and ending the fragmentation of current capacity building programs will require a new, broadly adopted framework for capacity building that emphasizes cooperation, sustainability, and knowledge transfer within and among communities. The report identifies four specific features of capacity building that would increase the effectiveness and efficiency of future programs: 1. Regional action plans based on periodic program assessments to guide investments in capacity and set realistic milestones and performance measures. 2. Long-term support to establish self-sustaining programs. Sustained capacity building programs require a diversity of sources and coordinated investments from local, regional, and international donors. 3. Development of leadership and political will. One of the most commonly cited reasons for failure and lack of progress in ocean and coastal governance initiatives is lack of political will. One strategy for strengthening support is to identify, develop, mentor, and reward leaders. 4. Establishment of networks and mechanisms for regional collaboration. Networks bring together those working in the same or similar ecosystems with comparable management or governance challenges to share information, pool resources, and learn from one another. The report also recommends the establishment of regional centers to encourage and support collaboration among neighboring countries.

Roberts, S. J.; Feeley, M. H.



St Jude researchers find that cancer diagnosis doesn’t increase a child’s risk of post-traumatic stress disorder

St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital study suggests previous research overestimated PTSD in young cancer patients; new findings highlight the ability of children to adjust and even thrive in response to challenges.


Managing misaligned paternity findings in research including sickle cell disease screening in Kenya: 'consulting communities' to inform policy.  


The management of misaligned paternity findings raises important controversy worldwide. It has mainly, however, been discussed in the context of high-income countries. Genetic and genomics research, with the potential to show misaligned paternity, are becoming increasingly common in Africa. During a genomics study in Kenya, a dilemma arose over testing and sharing information on paternal sickle cell disease status. This dilemma may be paradigmatic of challenges in sharing misaligned paternity findings in many research and health care settings. Using a deliberative approach to community consultation to inform research practice, we explored residents' views on paternal testing and sharing misaligned paternity information. Between December 2009 and November 2010, 63 residents in Kilifi County were engaged in informed deliberative small group discussions, structured to support normative reflection within the groups, with purposive selection to explore diversity. Analysis was based on a modified framework analysis approach, drawing on relevant social science and bioethics literature. The methods generated in-depth individual and group reflection on morally important issues and uncovered wide diversity in views and values. Fundamental and conflicting values emerged around the importance of family interests and openness, underpinned by disagreement on the moral implications of marital infidelity and withholding truth. Wider consideration of ethical issues emerging in these debates supports locally-held reasoning that paternal sickle cell testing should not be undertaken in this context, in contrast to views that testing should be done with or without the disclosure of misaligned paternity information. The findings highlight the importance of facilitating wider testing of family members of affected children, contingent on the development and implementation of national policies for the management of this inherited disorder. Their richness also illustrates the potential for the approach adopted in this study to strengthen community consultation. PMID:24034967

Marsh, Vicki; Kombe, Francis; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Molyneux, Sassy; Parker, Michael



Managing misaligned paternity findings in research including sickle cell disease screening in Kenya: 'Consulting communities' to inform policy?  

PubMed Central

The management of misaligned paternity findings raises important controversy worldwide. It has mainly, however, been discussed in the context of high-income countries. Genetic and genomics research, with the potential to show misaligned paternity, are becoming increasingly common in Africa. During a genomics study in Kenya, a dilemma arose over testing and sharing information on paternal sickle cell disease status. This dilemma may be paradigmatic of challenges in sharing misaligned paternity findings in many research and health care settings. Using a deliberative approach to community consultation to inform research practice, we explored residents' views on paternal testing and sharing misaligned paternity information. Between December 2009 and November 2010, 63 residents in Kilifi County were engaged in informed deliberative small group discussions, structured to support normative reflection within the groups, with purposive selection to explore diversity. Analysis was based on a modified framework analysis approach, drawing on relevant social science and bioethics literature. The methods generated in-depth individual and group reflection on morally important issues and uncovered wide diversity in views and values. Fundamental and conflicting values emerged around the importance of family interests and openness, underpinned by disagreement on the moral implications of marital infidelity and withholding truth. Wider consideration of ethical issues emerging in these debates supports locally-held reasoning that paternal sickle cell testing should not be undertaken in this context, in contrast to views that testing should be done with or without the disclosure of misaligned paternity information. The findings highlight the importance of facilitating wider testing of family members of affected children, contingent on the development and implementation of national policies for the management of this inherited disorder. Their richness also illustrates the potential for the approach adopted in this study to strengthen community consultation. PMID:24034967

Marsh, Vicki; Kombe, Francis; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Molyneux, Sassy; Parker, Michael



Factors contributing to inconsistent condom use among heterosexual men in Curaçao.  


This study explored, from a public health perspective, factors that contribute to inconsistent condom use by men in Curaçao through semi-structured face-to-face interviews with 21 heterosexual men. The findings show that there is an important disconnect between what is considered culturally appropriate sexual behaviour for men and women and condom use, that diverging from prescribed notions of masculinity and femininity in order to use condoms consistently is difficult, and that condom use is particularly problematic in the context of concurrent partnerships and sexual economic exchanges. Participants further reported that Caribbean family structures, whereby mothers assume the role as primary caregiver and fathers contribute biologically but, to a much lesser extent socially, also have an impact on condom use. Additionally, consistent condom use was reported to be impeded by a cultural taboo on talking seriously about sex and sexual health. In their totality, findings provide important input from men for the development of sexual health promotion interventions that are cognizant of the cultural context in which inconsistent condom use occurs, and that are geared not only to the individual level but also to the interpersonal and structural levels. PMID:23350609

Stutterheim, Sarah E; Bertens, Madelief G B C; Mevissen, Fraukje E F; Schaalma, Herman P



Inheritance of resistance to facial eczema: a review of research findings from sheep and cattle in New Zealand.  


Facial eczema (FE) is a costly problem to New Zealand pastoral agriculture, and has a detrimental impact on animal wellbeing. Incidence and severity of the disease can be reduced by grazing management and zinc prophylaxis. An additional strategy is to breed animals that are genetically resistant to intoxication with sporidesmin, the causative mycotoxin. This review summarises research findings on the inheritance of resistance of animals to FE, including evidence of among- and within-breed genetic variation, direct and correlated responses to selection, and identification of genetic markers and candidate genes for FE resistance. PMID:15768115

Morris, C A; Towers, N R; Hohenboken, W D; Maqbool, N; Smith, B L; Phua, S H




E-print Network

Receptor Subunits in the Ventral Tegmental Area Enhances Motivation for Cocaine Chronic cocaine use produces numerous biological changes in brain, but relatively few are functionally associated with cocaine reinforcement. Here the authors show that daily intravenous cocaine self-administration, but not passive cocaine

Bandettini, Peter A.



E-print Network

such as electrophysiology or neurochemistry, and they can be used to evaluate the effects of novel pharmacotherapies. One the effects of cocaine administration. The apparatus consists of a PVC cylindrical frame that encases to eliminate movement artifacts, which can distort the images. Another drawback for using anesthetized animals

Bandettini, Peter A.


The Court That Devoured the Fourth Amendment: The Triumph of an Inconsistent Exclusionary Doctrine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlights some areas of Fourth Amendment doctrinal inconsistencies in Supreme Court decisions and recommends how these inconsistencies can and should be resolved. Available from School of Law, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403. (Author/IRT)

Burkoff, John M.



Internal inconsistencies in models of electrical stimulation in neural tissue.  


Calculating the membrane potential of a neurite under extracellular electrical stimulation is important in the design of some recent stimulation strategies for neuroprosthetic devices including retinal implants, cochlear implants, deep brain stimulation. A common approach, widely used in the electrical stimulation literature uses a volume conductor model to calculate the electrical potential in the tissue and then extracts the voltage or current density on the surface of a neuron, which is used as input to the cable equation to calculate the neuron's response. However this approach ignores the effect of the neuron itself as well as surrounding neurons on the extracellular potential. Here we highlight that this leads to an internal inconsistency in the overall model because the result depends on whether the voltage or current density is used to calculate the neural response. The magnitude of this discrepancy is calculated for the example of a point source electrode in a homogeneous medium and is shown to be up to several hundred percent under some stimulus conditions. The inconsistency can be resolved by ensuring that the voltage is related to the current density by the transimpedance of the neurite. Deriving a volume conductor model that satisfies this relationship requires further work. PMID:24111093

Meffin, Hamish; Tahayori, Bahman; Grayden, David B; Burkitt, Anthony N



Probability of detection of genotyping errors and mutations as inheritance inconsistencies in nuclear-family data.  


Gene-mapping studies routinely rely on checking for Mendelian transmission of marker alleles in a pedigree, as a means of screening for genotyping errors and mutations, with the implicit assumption that, if a pedigree is consistent with Mendel's laws of inheritance, then there are no genotyping errors. However, the occurrence of inheritance inconsistencies alone is an inadequate measure of the number of genotyping errors, since the rate of occurrence depends on the number and relationships of genotyped pedigree members, the type of errors, and the distribution of marker-allele frequencies. In this article, we calculate the expected probability of detection of a genotyping error or mutation as an inheritance inconsistency in nuclear-family data, as a function of both the number of genotyped parents and offspring and the marker-allele frequency distribution. Through computer simulation, we explore the sensitivity of our analytic calculations to the underlying error model. Under a random-allele-error model, we find that detection rates are 51%-77% for multiallelic markers and 13%-75% for biallelic markers; detection rates are generally lower when the error occurs in a parent than in an offspring, unless a large number of offspring are genotyped. Errors are especially difficult to detect for biallelic markers with equally frequent alleles, even when both parents are genotyped; in this case, the maximum detection rate is 34% for four-person nuclear families. Error detection in families in which parents are not genotyped is limited, even with multiallelic markers. Given these results, we recommend that additional error checking (e.g., on the basis of multipoint analysis) be performed, beyond routine checking for Mendelian consistency. Furthermore, our results permit assessment of the plausibility of an observed number of inheritance inconsistencies for a family, allowing the detection of likely pedigree-rather than genotyping-errors in the early stages of a genome scan. Such early assessments are valuable in either the targeting of families for resampling or discontinued genotyping. PMID:11791214

Douglas, Julie A; Skol, Andrew D; Boehnke, Michael



Employee Commitment and Well-Being: A Critical Review, Theoretical Framework and Research Agenda  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although a great deal is known about the implications of employee commitment for organizations, less attention has been paid to its ramifications for employees themselves. Previous research has been unsystematic and the findings have sometimes been inconsistent. The most consistent findings pertain to the positive links between affective…

Meyer, John P.; Maltin, Elyse R.



This is an incredible time to be a biologist. Every day, new research find-ings are presented, from the level of single molecules to whole ecosystems. A  

E-print Network

and contracts from foundations and government agencies, and with their students use state-of- the-art program. Five Research Areas 1. Biodiversity, Ecology and Conservation Biology This M.S. degree area, biogeography, behavioral ecology, plant ecology, ethnobotany, plant-animal interactions, and conservation

de Lijser, Peter


Inconsistencies in surface anatomy: The need for an evidence-based reappraisal.  


Accurate surface anatomy is a key component of safe clinical practice. But how consistent are modern clinical and surface anatomy texts in their reporting of common surface anatomy landmarks? Thirteen popular texts in common use were analyzed in detail: one clinical and anatomical reference text; seven clinical anatomy texts; two surface anatomy texts; and three clinical examination texts. Content relating to surface anatomy was reviewed, summarized, and assessed for consistency. Four main findings emerged: (i) there are numerous inconsistencies in clinically important surface markings (e.g., the femoral artery in the groin, superficial and deep inguinal rings, and accessory nerve in the posterior triangle), including inconsistencies within some texts; (ii) there is a consensus on many surface markings, e.g., the spleen and termination of the spinal cord; (iii) few texts address variation in surface anatomy related to age, sex, body mass, posture, respiration, and ethnicity; and (iv) the three standard clinical examination texts included in this review contain comparatively little surface anatomy. Seven surface anatomy landmarks were redefined within an evidence-based framework: termination of the spinal cord, supracristal plane, base of the appendix, renal length, the deep inguinal ring, the femoral artery in the groin, and the accessory nerve in the posterior triangle of the neck. An evidence-based framework is essential if surface anatomy is to be accurate and clinically relevant. PMID:20830790

Hale, Samuel J M; Mirjalili, S Ali; Stringer, Mark D



"Locally homogeneous turbulence" Is it an inconsistent framework?  

E-print Network

In his first 1941 paper Kolmogorov assumed that the velocity has increments which are homogeneous and independent of the velocity at a suitable reference point. This assumption of local homogeneity is consistent with the nonlinear dynamics only in an asymptotic sense when the reference point is far away. The inconsistency is illustrated numerically using the Burgers equation. Kolmogorov's derivation of the four-fifths law for the third-order structure function and its anisotropic generalization are actually valid only for homogeneous turbulence, but a local version due to Duchon and Robert still holds. A Kolomogorov--Landau approach is proposed to handle the effect of fluctuations in the large-scale velocity on small-scale statistical properties; it is is only a mild extension of the 1941 theory and does not incorporate intermittency effects.

Uriel Frisch; Jeremie Bec; Erik Aurell



Global Energy Technology Strategy: Addressing Climate Change Phase 2 Findings from an international Public-Private Sponsored Research Program  

SciTech Connect

This book examines the role of global energy technology in addressing climate change. The book considers the nature of the climate change challenge and the role of energy in the issue. It goes on to consider the implications for the evolution of the global energy system and the potential value of technology availability, development and deployment. Six technology systems are identified for special consideration: CO2 capture and storage, Biotechnology, Hydrogen systems, Nuclear energy, Wind and solar energy, and End-use energy technologies. In addition, consideration is given to the role of non-CO2 gases in climate change as well as the potential of technology development and deployment to reduce non-CO2 emissions. Present trends in energy R&D are examined and potentially fruitful avenues for research. The book concludes with a set of key findings.

Edmonds, James A.; Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.; Kim, Son H.; Smith, Steven J.; Runci, Paul J.; Clarke, Leon E.; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Stokes, Gerald M.



Reducing Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) by Building Community Capacity: A Summary of Washington Family Policy Council Research Findings  

PubMed Central

Community capacity for organization and collaboration has been shown to be a powerful tool for improving the health and well-being of communities. Since 1994 the Washington State Family Policy Council has supported the development of community capacity in 42 community public health and safety networks. Community networks bring local communities together to restructure natural supports and local resources to meet the needs of families and children, and increase cross-system coordination and flexible funding streams to improve local services and policy. In this study, researchers sought to demonstrate the strong impact of the community networks’ capacity to interrupt health and social problems. Findings suggest that community networks reduce health and safety problems for the entire community population. Further, community networks with high community capacity reduced adverse childhood experiences (ACE) in young adults ages 18–34. PMID:22970785

Hall, Judy; Porter, Laura; Longhi, Dario; Becker-Green, Jody; Dreyfus, Susan



Artificial Grammar Learning of Melody Is Constrained by Melodic Inconsistency: Narmour's Principles Affect Melodic Learning  

PubMed Central

Considerable evidence suggests that people acquire artificial grammars incidentally and implicitly, an indispensable capacity for the acquisition of music or language. However, less research has been devoted to exploring constraints affecting incidental learning. Within the domain of music, the extent to which Narmour's (1990) melodic principles affect implicit learning of melodic structure was experimentally explored. Extending previous research (Rohrmeier, Rebuschat & Cross, 2011), the identical finite-state grammar is employed having terminals (the alphabet) manipulated so that melodies generated systematically violated Narmour's principles. Results indicate that Narmour-inconsistent melodic materials impede implicit learning. This further constitutes a case in which artificial grammar learning is affected by prior knowledge or processing constraints. PMID:23874388

Rohrmeier, Martin; Cross, Ian



Knowledge Generation: We generate new knowledge through academic research to find more effective ways of managing our society's human and environmental resources.  

E-print Network

Knowledge Generation: We generate new knowledge through academic research to find more effective our knowledge stagnates. Support for the creation and dissemination of academic research helps us of social marketing. Researchers attend from around the globe, sharing their knowledge and learning from

Morris, Joy


Development and Validation of Culture-Specific Variable Response Inconsistency and True Response Inconsistency Scales for Use with the Korean MMPI-2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to the concern that Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2; J. N. Butcher, W. Dahlstrom, J. R. Graham, A. Tellegen, & B. Kaemmer, 1989; J. N. Butcher et al., 2001) Variable Response Inconsistency (VRIN) and True Response Inconsistency (TRIN) score invalidity criteria recommended for use with American samples results in…

Ketterer, Holly L.; Han, Kyunghee; Hur, Jaehong; Moon, Kyungjoo




Microsoft Academic Search

The perspective-bound character of information and information processing gives rise to natural inconsistency. Natural inconsistency poses a problem if a common perspective is needed, for example when a shared (consistent) decision has to be made (by humans, within logics or by computers). There are three main approaches to solving the problem of common perspective: universalism; utilitarianism; and contractarianism. However, none

Jaap Henk; TNO Groningen


Finding people who will tell you their thoughts on genomics-recruitment strategies for social sciences research.  


This paper offers a description of how social media, traditional media and direct invitation were used as tools for the recruitment of 6,944 research participants for a social sciences study on genomics. The remit was to gather the views of various stakeholders towards sharing incidental findings from whole genome studies. This involved recruiting members of the public, genetic health professionals, genomic researchers and non-genetic health professionals. A novel survey was designed that contained ten integrated films; this was made available online and open for completion by anyone worldwide. The recruitment methods are described together with the convenience and snowballing sampling framework. The most successful strategy involved the utilisation of social media; Facebook, Blogging, Twitter, LinkedIn and Google Ads led to the ascertainment of over 75 % of the final sample. We conclude that the strategies used were successful in recruiting in eclectic mix of appropriate participants. Design of the survey and results from the study are presented separately. PMID:24535681

Middleton, A; Bragin, E; Parker, M



41 CFR 102-75.275 - Who determines whether the proposed disposal would create or maintain a situation inconsistent...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

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41 CFR 102-75.275 - Who determines whether the proposed disposal would create or maintain a situation inconsistent...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

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41 CFR 102-75.275 - Who determines whether the proposed disposal would create or maintain a situation inconsistent...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...determines whether the proposed disposal would create or maintain a situation inconsistent with...determines whether the proposed disposal would create or maintain a situation inconsistent with...determines whether the proposed disposal would create or maintain a situation inconsistent...



41 CFR 102-75.275 - Who determines whether the proposed disposal would create or maintain a situation inconsistent...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...determines whether the proposed disposal would create or maintain a situation inconsistent with...determines whether the proposed disposal would create or maintain a situation inconsistent with...determines whether the proposed disposal would create or maintain a situation inconsistent...



Estimating nonrigid motion from inconsistent intensity with robust shape features  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To develop a nonrigid motion estimation method that is robust to heterogeneous intensity inconsistencies amongst the image pairs or image sequence. Methods: Intensity and contrast variations, as in dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, present a considerable challenge to registration methods based on general discrepancy metrics. In this study, the authors propose and validate a novel method that is robust to such variations by utilizing shape features. The geometry of interest (GOI) is represented with a flexible zero level set, segmented via well-behaved regularized optimization. The optimization energy drives the zero level set to high image gradient regions, and regularizes it with area and curvature priors. The resulting shape exhibits high consistency even in the presence of intensity or contrast variations. Subsequently, a multiscale nonrigid registration is performed to seek a regular deformation field that minimizes shape discrepancy in the vicinity of GOIs. Results: To establish the working principle, realistic 2D and 3D images were subject to simulated nonrigid motion and synthetic intensity variations, so as to enable quantitative evaluation of registration performance. The proposed method was benchmarked against three alternative registration approaches, specifically, optical flow, B-spline based mutual information, and multimodality demons. When intensity consistency was satisfied, all methods had comparable registration accuracy for the GOIs. When intensities among registration pairs were inconsistent, however, the proposed method yielded pronounced improvement in registration accuracy, with an approximate fivefold reduction in mean absolute error (MAE = 2.25 mm, SD = 0.98 mm), compared to optical flow (MAE = 9.23 mm, SD = 5.36 mm), B-spline based mutual information (MAE = 9.57 mm, SD = 8.74 mm) and mutimodality demons (MAE = 10.07 mm, SD = 4.03 mm). Applying the proposed method on a real MR image sequence also provided qualitatively appealing results, demonstrating good feasibility and applicability of the proposed method. Conclusions: The authors have developed a novel method to estimate the nonrigid motion of GOIs in the presence of spatial intensity and contrast variations, taking advantage of robust shape features. Quantitative analysis and qualitative evaluation demonstrated good promise of the proposed method. Further clinical assessment and validation is being performed.

Liu, Wenyang [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)] [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Ruan, Dan, E-mail: [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States) [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Department of Biomedical Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)



Using Abductive Research Logic: "The Logic of Discovery", to Construct a Rigorous Explanation of Amorphous Evaluation Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Two kinds of research logic prevail in scientific research: deductive research logic and inductive research logic. However, both fail in the field of evaluation, especially evaluation conducted in unfamiliar environments. Purpose: In this article I wish to suggest the application of a research logic--"abduction"--"the logic of…

Levin-Rozalis, Miri



On the adjustment of inconsistent data using the Birge ratio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Birge ratio is applied in metrology to enlarge quoted uncertainties when combining inconsistent measurement results on the same measurand. We discuss the statistical model underlying such a procedure and argue that the resulting uncertainty associated with the adjusted value is underrated. We provide a simple modification of this uncertainty on the basis of an objective Bayesian inference. While the proposed uncertainty approaches that obtained by the conventional procedure for a large number n of combined measurement results, differences are significant for small n. For example, for n = 4 we get an increase of 73% in the standard uncertainty associated with the adjusted value, and for n = 10 the increase is still 13%. We derive the posterior distribution for the adjusted value in closed form, including a 95% credible interval. In addition, we show that our results do not only hold when the distribution of the measurement results is assumed to be Gaussian, but for a whole family of (elliptically contoured) location-scale distributions. We illustrate the modified Birge method by its application to data from the 2002 adjustment of the Newtonian constant of gravitation.

Bodnar, Olha; Elster, Clemens



University Performance Data for Diversity in 2009-2010, CSU Research Findings for Student Success, Student Perceptions, and University Planning Activity  

E-print Network

for the Student Affairs in Higher Education Graduate Program. Kim Bender is the Director of Assessment (Office-appointment as the Executive Director of Research and Assessment for the Division of Student Affairs, and the Program ChairUniversity Performance Data for Diversity in 2009-2010, CSU Research Findings for Student Success

Boone, Randall B.


PHYSICSATBERKELEY Measure for MeasureBerkeley atomic physics group finds the symmetry in basic and applied research  

E-print Network

interactions among the fundamen- tal particles that make up all matter. In particular, neutron EDM research can is subject to ever more rigorous experimental tests by several other research groups." Matter vs. Antimatter and applied research T he difference between basic and applied research can all too easily get boiled down

Pines, Alexander


What can Studies of e-Learning Teach us about Collaboration in e-Research? Some Findings from Digital Library Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. e-Research is intended,to facilitate collaboration,through,distributed access to content, tools, and services. Lessons about collaboration are extracted from the findings of two large, long-term digital library research projects. Both the Alexandria Digital Earth Prototype Project (ADEPT) and,the Center for Embedded,Networked,Sensing (CENS) project on data management,leverage scientific research data for use in teaching. Two forms of collaboration were studied: (1) direct,

Christine L. Borgman



Inconsistencies in emergency instructions on common household product labels.  


Human exposures to non-pharmaceutical products often results in serious injury and death annually in the United States. Studies performed more than 25 years ago described inadequate first aid advice on the majority of household products. The current study evaluates contemporary non-pharmaceutical products with respect to location, uniformity and type of their first aid and emergency contact instructions. A random, convenience sample of commercial product label information was obtained from local retail stores over an 8 month period. Twelve common non-pharmaceutical product categories, with large numbers of annual human exposures, were identified from National Poison Data Systems data. A minimum of 10 unique products for each category utilized. The following information identified: product name and manufacturer, location on container, presence and type of route-specific treatment, medical assistance referral information. A total of 259 product labels were examined. First aid/contact information was located on container: rear 162 (63 %), side 28 (11 %), front 3 (1 %), bottom 2 (0.77 %), behind label 14 (5 %), missing entirely 50 (19 %). Fifty-five products (21 %) lacked any first aid instructions. Suggested contacts for accidental poisoning: none listed 75 (29 %), physician 144 (56 %), poison control centers 102 (39 %), manufacturer 44 (17 %), "Call 911" 10 (4 %). Suggested contacts for unintentional exposure and content of first aid instructions on household products were inconsistent, frequently incomplete and at times absent. Instruction locations similarly lacked uniformity. Household product labels need to provide concise, accurate first aid and emergency contact instructions in easy-to-understand language in a universal format on product labels. PMID:23584666

Cantrell, F Lee; Nordt, Sean Patrick; Krauss, Jamey R



Inconsistencies among European Union Pharmaceutical Regulator Safety Communications: A Cross-Country Comparison  

PubMed Central

Background The European Medicines Agency (EMA) and national regulators share the responsibility to communicate to healthcare providers postmarketing safety events but little is known about the consistency of this process. We aimed to compare public availability of safety-related communications and drug withdrawals from the EMA and European Union member countries for novel medicines. Methods and Findings We performed a cross-sectional analysis using public Dear Healthcare Professional Communications (DHPCs) for all novel medicines authorized between 2001 and 2010 by the EMA and available for use in France, Netherlands, Spain, and the United Kingdom. Between 2001 and 2010, the EMA approved 185 novel medicines. DHPCs could not be ascertained for the EMA. Among the 4 national regulators, as of April 30, 2013, at least one safety DHPC or withdrawal occurred for 53 (28.6%) medicines, totaling 90 DHPCs and 5 withdrawals. Among these 53 medicines, all 4 national agencies issued at least one communication for 17 (32.1%), three of the four for 25 (47.2%), two of the four for 6 (11.3%), and one of the four for 5 (9.4%). Five drugs were reported to be withdrawn, three by all four countries, one by three and one by two. Among the 95 DHPCs and withdrawals, 20 (21.1%) were issued by all 4 national regulators, 37 (38.9%) by 3 of the 4, 22 (23.2%) by 2 of the 4, and 16 (16.8%) by one. Consistency of making publicly available all identified safety DHPC or withdrawal across regulator pairs varied from 33% to 73% agreement. Conclusions Safety communications were not made publicly available by the EMA. Among the 4 European member countries with national regulators that make DHPCs publicly available since at least 2001, there were substantial inconsistencies in safety communications for novel medicines. The impact of those inconsistencies in terms of public health remains to be determined. PMID:25333986

Zeitoun, Jean-David; Lefevre, Jeremie H.; Downing, Nicholas; Bergeron, Henri; Ross, Joseph S.



Inconsistencies of the Evaluation of Home Advantage in Sports Competitions Under the Three Points Per Victory System  

PubMed Central

A recent letter sent to the Journal of Human Kinetics’ editor (Gómez & Pollard, 2014) warned about a supposed methodology error in the calculation of home advantage in football leagues used in Saavedra et al. (2013) and took the liberty of modifying the research’s data. The aim of this letter is to demonstrate that the evaluation system of the home advantage proposed by Pollard (1986) contains serious inconsistencies when applied to competitions which give three points for a win and one point for a draw, as it is the case of the UEFA football leagues in the 21th century.

García, Miguel Saavedra; Aguilar, Óscar Gutiérrez; Fernández Romero, Juan J.



Neuroimaging findings in primary insomnia.  


State-of-the-art neuroimaging techniques have accelerated progress in the study and understanding of sleep in humans. Neuroimaging studies in primary insomnia remain relatively few, considering the important prevalence of this disorder in the general population. This review examines the contribution of functional and structural neuroimaging to our current understanding of primary insomnia. Functional studies during sleep provided support for the hyperarousal theory of insomnia. Functional neuroimaging also revealed abnormalities in cognitive and emotional processing in primary insomnia. Results from structural studies suggest neuroanatomical alterations in primary insomnia, mostly in the hippocampus, anterior cingulate cortex and orbitofrontal cortex. However, these results are not well replicated across studies. A few magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies revealed abnormalities in neurotransmitter concentrations and bioenergetics in primary insomnia. The inconsistencies among neuroimaging findings on insomnia are likely due to clinical heterogeneity, differences in imaging and overall diversity of techniques and designs employed. Larger samples, replication, as well as innovative methodologies are necessary for the progression of this perplexing, yet promising area of research. PMID:25129873

O'Byrne, J N; Berman Rosa, M; Gouin, J-P; Dang-Vu, T T



UK Full-Scale Non-Active vitrification development and implementation of research findings onto the waste vitrification plant  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the historic and current status of inactive research in support of UK Highly Active (HA) waste vitrification. Experimental work performed to date on the UK's inactive vitrification research facility is summarised along with estimates of the potential impact of this research work on the reduction of HA Liquor (HAL) stocks stored in the UK at Sellafield. The current position regarding implementation of research learning onto the UK's operational vitrification plants is described. (authors)

Bradshaw, K.; Gribble, N.R. [Nexia Solutions, Sellafield, Seascale, CA (United Kingdom); Hughes, D.O.; Riley, A.D. [British Nuclear Group, Sellafield, Seascale, CA (United Kingdom)



Explaining inconsistencies between data on condom use and condom sales  

PubMed Central

Background Several HIV prevention programs use data on condom sales and survey-based data on condom prevalence to monitor progress. However, such indicators are not always consistent. This paper aims to explain these inconsistencies and to assess whether the number of sex acts and the number of condoms used can be estimated from survey data. This would be useful for program managers, as it would enable estimation of the number of condoms needed for different target groups. Methods We use data from six Demographic and Health Surveys to estimate the total annual number of sex acts and number of condoms used. Estimates of the number of sex acts are based on self-reported coital frequency, the proportion reporting intercourse the previous day, and survival methods. Estimates of the number of condoms used are based on self-reported frequency of use, the proportion reporting condom use the previous day and in last intercourse. The estimated number of condoms used is then compared with reported data on condom sales and distribution. Results Analysis of data on the annual number of condoms sold and distributed to the trade reveals very erratic patterns, which reflect stock-ups at various levels in the distribution chain. Consequently, condom sales data are a very poor indicator of the level of condom use. Estimates of both the number of sexual acts and the number of condoms used vary enormously based on the estimation method used. For several surveys, the highest estimate of the annual number of condoms used is tenfold that of the lowest estimate. Conclusions Condom sales to the trade are a poor indicator of levels of condom use, and are therefore insufficient to monitor HIV prevention programs. While survey data on condom prevalence allow more detailed monitoring, converting such data to an estimated number of sex acts and condoms used is not straightforward. The estimation methods yield widely different results, and it is impossible to determine which method is most accurate. Until the reliability of these various estimation methods can be established, estimating the annual number of condoms used from survey data will not be feasible. Collecting survey data on the number of sex acts and the number of condoms used in a fixed time period may enable the calculation of more reliable estimates of the number of sex acts and condoms used. PMID:15651994

Meekers, Dominique; Van Rossem, Ronan



Parents' Attitudes about Adolescents' Premarital Sexual Activity: The Role of Inter-Parent Consistency/Inconsistency in Sexual Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Parents' values about sexuality and about premarital sex play unique roles in the development of adolescents' sexual attitudes and behaviours. However, research is scarce on the role of consistent versus inconsistent values transmission. The purpose of the present study was to examine the association between parental…

Somers, Cheryl L.; Anagurthi, Claudia



Using quantitative and qualitative data in health services research - what happens when mixed method findings conflict? [ISRCTN61522618  

PubMed Central

Background In this methodological paper we document the interpretation of a mixed methods study and outline an approach to dealing with apparent discrepancies between qualitative and quantitative research data in a pilot study evaluating whether welfare rights advice has an impact on health and social outcomes among a population aged 60 and over. Methods Quantitative and qualitative data were collected contemporaneously. Quantitative data were collected from 126 men and women aged over 60 within a randomised controlled trial. Participants received a full welfare benefits assessment which successfully identified additional financial and non-financial resources for 60% of them. A range of demographic, health and social outcome measures were assessed at baseline, 6, 12 and 24 month follow up. Qualitative data were collected from a sub-sample of 25 participants purposively selected to take part in individual interviews to examine the perceived impact of welfare rights advice. Results Separate analysis of the quantitative and qualitative data revealed discrepant findings. The quantitative data showed little evidence of significant differences of a size that would be of practical or clinical interest, suggesting that the intervention had no impact on these outcome measures. The qualitative data suggested wide-ranging impacts, indicating that the intervention had a positive effect. Six ways of further exploring these data were considered: (i) treating the methods as fundamentally different; (ii) exploring the methodological rigour of each component; (iii) exploring dataset comparability; (iv) collecting further data and making further comparisons; (v) exploring the process of the intervention; and (vi) exploring whether the outcomes of the two components match. Conclusion The study demonstrates how using mixed methods can lead to different and sometimes conflicting accounts and, using this six step approach, how such discrepancies can be harnessed to interrogate each dataset more fully. Not only does this enhance the robustness of the study, it may lead to different conclusions from those that would have been drawn through relying on one method alone and demonstrates the value of collecting both types of data within a single study. More widespread use of mixed methods in trials of complex interventions is likely to enhance the overall quality of the evidence base. PMID:16524479

Moffatt, Suzanne; White, Martin; Mackintosh, Joan; Howel, Denise



Ambient Particulate Matter during MILAGRO in Mexico City: Main Findings, Impacts (on AQ and Climate), and Future Research Needs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MILAGRO campaign was a large international field experiments conduced in Mexico City and Central Mexico during March 2006. We present an overview of the main findings related to particulate matter and aerosol radiative properties. PM levels inside Mexico City were similar or higher than those in the most polluted North American cities, but ~5 times lower than levels in the most polluted Asian megacities During the study, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations in the urban area of were about double the concentrations in the rural areas surrounding Mexico City. PM2.5 made up about half of the PM10 concentrations, with small amounts of mass in the PM2.5-PM1.0 range. Mineral matter made up approximately 25% of the PM10 and on average 15% and 28% of the PM2.5 in the urban and rural areas, respectively. Approximately 25% of the PM2.5 was secondary inorganic ions with the remaining PM2.5 mass being comprised of largely carbonaceous aerosol. Except for surface measurements at the central sampling sites in Mexico city, the elemental carbon mass absorption efficiency was relatively constant for aircraft and surface measurements throughout the study, contrary to expectations. Although different organic aerosol (OA) source apportionment methods had some differences, there was agreement that the dominant sources of carbonaceous aerosol were secondary OA (SOA), biomass burning, and mobile sources. The impact of biomass burning to the aerosol outflow from the region was much larger than to the surface concentrations inside the city. SOA formation from primary semivolatile and intermediate volatility precursors has the potential to close the gap in predicted vs. measured SOA, while formation from glyoxal also makes an important contribution, especially to organic oxygen. Biogenic SOA advected from the coastal mountain ranges contributes about 1 ?g m-3 to concentrations in the MCMA. Primary OA from anthropogenic and biomass burning sources was found to be semivolatile, while secondary OA was less volatile than POA and aged SOA was essentially non-volatile, in contradiction with current models. Growth rates of new particle formation in Mexico City was very large and found to be impacted by nitrogen containing organic compounds, organic acids, and hydroxyl organic acids, with only a smaller fraction of sulfate aerosol. Some open research questions include the following: additional work is needed to fully quantify the sources of substantial (30-45%) modern carbon in organic aerosols during low biomass burning periods. Discrepancies between the two modern carbon datasets deserve further study. The impact of regional dust vs. road resuspension, as well as heterogeneous reactions of HNO3 with dust need to be quantified. The impact of some POA sources such as food cooking, biofuel use, and open trash burning may be important, but remains poorly characterized. Some differences in the apportionment of biomass burning PM between different approaches were observed and need further research, as these techniques together represent the state of the art for source apportionment. Anthropogenic SOA predictions are improving in terms of magnitude but are poorly constrained by the data. More specific precursor, intermediate, and tracer measurements are needed in future campaigns. SOA from biomass burning sources, although not dominant in the city, remains poorly characterized and appears to be underpredicted by traditional models.

Jimenez, Jose-Luis; Schauer, James J.; Molina, Luisa T.; MILAGRO Pm Team



Phonological Inconsistency in Word Naming: Determinants of the Interference Effect between Languages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dutch-English participants named words and nonwords with a between-language phonologically inconsistent rime, e.g., GREED and PREED, and control words with a language-typical rime, e.g., GROAN, in a monolingual stimulus list or in a mixed list containing Dutch words. Inconsistent items had longer latencies and more errors than typical items in the…

Smits, Erica; Sandra, Dominiek; Martensen, Heike; Dijkstra, Ton



Exposing Image Splicing with Inconsistent Local Noise Variances Xunyu Pan Xing Zhang Siwei Lyu  

E-print Network

Exposing Image Splicing with Inconsistent Local Noise Variances Xunyu Pan Xing Zhang Siwei Lyu noise variances. Our method estimates local noise variances based on an observation that kurtosis val another im- age with a significantly different intrinsic noise variance, the inconsistency of local noise

Lyu, Siwei



ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This potpourri surveys research on various topics: neurologically based curricula, midafternoon slumps in student attention, accounting for contexts in research, feelings of powerlessness among students and teachers, further equity implications of computers in schools, misreporting of research findings, and accounting for media transfer in…

Bracey, Gerald W.



An Approach for Detecting Inconsistencies between Behavioral Models of the Software Architecture and the Code  

SciTech Connect

In practice, inconsistencies between architectural documentation and the code might arise due to improper implementation of the architecture or the separate, uncontrolled evolution of the code. Several approaches have been proposed to detect the inconsistencies between the architecture and the code but these tend to be limited for capturing inconsistencies that might occur at runtime. We present a runtime verification approach for detecting inconsistencies between the dynamic behavior of the architecture and the actual code. The approach is supported by a set of tools that implement the architecture and the code patterns in Prolog, and support the automatic generation of runtime monitors for detecting inconsistencies. We illustrate the approach and the toolset for a Crisis Management System case study.

Ciraci, Selim; Sozer, Hasan; Tekinerdogan, Bedir



NCI: SBIR & STTR - Find Funding - Contracts - 249 System to Analyze and Support Biomarker Research and Development Strategies

Because of the rapid expansion of the worldwide biomarker research data in volume and breadth, there is a critical need for integrating all of these data within a knowledge management system that supports automated review and evaluation of current research and development efforts, particularly within the context of all cancer research and therapeutic and diagnostic product development. Such a system permits rapid identification and decision-making to allocate resources where they can most efficiently be used to enhance product development.


Uranium research in the United States by the U. S. geological survey and its application to finding ore deposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Branch of Uranium and Thorium Resources is within the U.S. Geological Survey's Geologic Division and is the main uranium research element in the Department of Interior. The Uranium and Thorium Branch currently maintains 66 uranium research projects, each of which is headed by an experienced uranium geologist, geochemist, geophysicist, or chemist. Present program activities are: uranium geochemistry and mineralogy



Crossing the line? As Obama clears path for embryonic stem-cell research, Catholic healthcare finds itself at crossroads of religion and medicine.  


With the reversal of limits on stem-cell research, Roman Catholic hospitals may find themselves left behind in a medical revolution because of their rejection of the science. But others are eager to join in. "Researchers will now be able to pursue new knowledge about human development, regenerative medicine and the origins of many of our most devastating diseases," said Lawrence Tabak, left, the NIH acting deputy director. PMID:19415825

Evans, Melanie



Procedures of recruiting, obtaining informed consent, and compensating research participants in Qatar: findings from a qualitative investigation  

PubMed Central

Background Very few researchers have reported on procedures of recruiting, obtaining informed consent, and compensating participants in health research in the Arabian Gulf Region. Empirical research can inform the debate about whether to adjust these procedures for culturally diverse settings. Our objective was to delineate procedures related to recruiting, obtaining informed consent, and compensating health research participants in the extremely high-density multicultural setting of Qatar. Methods During a multistage mixed methods project, field observations and qualitative interviews were conducted in a general medicine clinic of a major medical center in Qatar. Participants were chosen based on gender, age, literacy, and preferred language, i.e., Arabic, English, Hindi and Urdu. Qualitative analysis identified themes about recruitment, informed consent, compensation, and other research procedures. Results A total of 153 individuals were approached and 84 enrolled; the latter showed a diverse age range (18 to 75 years); varied language representation: Arabic (n?=?24), English (n?=?20), Hindi (n?=?20), and Urdu (n?=?20); and balanced gender distribution: women (n?=?43) and men (n?=?41). Primary reasons for 30 declinations included concern about interview length and recording. The study achieved a 74% participation rate. Qualitative analytics revealed key themes about hesitation to participate, decisions about participation with family members as well as discussions with them as “incidental research participants”, the informed consent process, privacy and gender rules of the interview environment, reactions to member checking and compensation, and motivation for participating. Vulnerability emerged as a recurring issue throughout the process among a minority of participants. Conclusions This study from Qatar is the first to provide empirical data on recruitment, informed consent, compensation and other research procedures in a general adult population in the Middle East and Arabian Gulf. This investigation illustrates how potential research participants perceive research participation. Fundamentally, Western ethical research principles were applicable, but required flexibility and culturally informed adaptations. PMID:24495499



Biomimetics for NASA Langley Research Center: Year 2000 Report of Findings From a Six-Month Survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report represents an attempt to see if some of the techniques biological systems use to maximize their efficiency can be applied to the problems NASA faces in aeronautics and space exploration. It includes an internal survey of resources available at NASA Langley Research Center for biomimetics research efforts, an external survey of state of the art in biomimetics covering the Materials, Structures, Aerodynamics, Guidance and Controls areas. The Biomimetics Planning team also included ideas for potential research areas, as well as recommendations on how to implement this new program. This six-month survey was conducted in the second half of 1999.

Siochi, Emilie J.; Anders, John B., Jr.; Cox, David E.; Jegley, Dawn C.; Fox, Robert L.; Katzberg, Stephen J.



Dana-Farber and other researchers find that silencing the speech gene FOXP2 causes breast cancer cells to metastasize

A research team led by investigators at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center has identified an unexpected link between a transcription factor known to regulate speech and language development and metastatic colonization of breast cancer.


Dana-Farber researchers find that drug combination delays worsening of disease in women with recurrent ovarian cancer

Researchers from the Susan F. Smith Center for Women’s Cancers at Dana-Farber report that for some women with recurrent ovarian cancer, a new drug combination has been found to stall the progression of the disease.


Mayo and NCI researchers find that trastuzumab continues to show life for HER2-positve early stage breast cancer

After following breast cancer patients for an average of eight-plus years, researchers say that adding trastuzumab (Herceptin) to chemotherapy significantly improved the overall and disease-free survival of women with early stage HER2-positive breast cancer.


Washington U researchers find that many older people have mutations linked to leukemia, lymphoma in their blood cells

At least 2 percent of people over age 40 and 5 percent of people over 70 have mutations linked to leukemia and lymphoma in their blood cells, according to new research at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis.


NCI and Georgetown researchers find that a single gene separates aggressive and non-aggressive lymphatic system cancer

For a rare form of cancer called thymoma, researchers have discovered a single gene defining the difference between a fast-growing tumor requiring aggressive treatment and a slow-growing tumor that doesn’t require extensive therapy.


Dana-Farber researchers find that intensified chemotherapy shows promise for children with very high-risk form of leukemia

Pediatric patients with B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia who are likely to relapse after chemotherapy treatment can reduce those odds by receiving additional courses of chemotherapy, according to research by Dana-Farber/Children's Hospital Cancer Center investigators.


St. Jude researchers find that improved risk identification will aid fertility preservation in young male cancer patients

St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital study has identified the cumulative dose of a widely used class of chemotherapy drugs that leaves young male cancer patients at risk for impaired sperm production as adults.


Wayne State researcher presents findings on drugs that lead to killing of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma tumors:

A Wayne State University School of Medicine researcher believes he has found a safer, more effective way to keep cancer cells from protecting themselves against tumor-killing drugs in cases of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.


U of Michigan researchers find that 25 percent of breast cancer survivors report financial decline due to treatment

Researchers surveyed women in Detroit and Los Angeles who had been diagnosed with early stage breast cancer, based on data obtained from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results population-based registry.


Everything in Its Place: Researchers Identify Brain Cells Used to Categorize Findings Shed Light on the Brain Processes Behind Learning and Memory  

E-print Network

Everything in Its Place: Researchers Identify Brain Cells Used to Categorize Images Findings Shed Light on the Brain Processes Behind Learning and Memory Boston, MA-August 27,2006-Socks in the sock in youth. But what parts of the brain are used to encode such categories as socks, shirts, or any other

Freedman, David J.


In the Swalla Lab, we conduct research on several topics including the biodiversity of marine invertebrates. This consists of cataloging different marine species and making our findings known  

E-print Network

slits at some life stage, a dorsal neural tube, and a post-anal tail (Figure 2). They live buriedIn the Swalla Lab, we conduct research on several topics including the biodiversity of marine). They are notoriously difficult to find, even if you have a known location for them (Figure 1). Their larval stage

Carrington, Emily


George Lab "Bylaws" and Roles Bylaw #1: Any research result or finding must be shared with at least two other members of the lab  

E-print Network

of the Lab Manager. 2. Lab Manager/Technician. Generally responsible for a smooth running lab in termsFall, 2004 George Lab "Bylaws" and Roles Bylaw #1: Any research result or finding must be shared with at least two other members of the lab before showing the PI (i.e., me). This will place everyone

George, Steven C.


Dana-Farber researchers find that a novel compound prevents metastasis of multiple myeloma in mouse studies

In a significant advance against the problem of cancer metastasis, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute scientists have shown that a specially developed compound can impede multiple myeloma from spreading to the bones in mice. The findings, published in the Sept. 25 issue of Cell Reports, suggest the technique can protect human patients, as well, from one of the most deadly aspects of cancer.


Breathtaking advances begin with outstanding people from researchers determined to find cures to healthcare providers who deliver extraordinary care to  

E-print Network

better ways to prevent, diagnose and treat cancer. The OHSU Knight Cancer Institute's ground Best & Brightest support? Alan Sandler, M.D., a renowned lung cancer expert, chief of the Division support our mission to defeat cancer. Nothing is more important than people to advance our ability to find

Chapman, Michael S.


The Case for Pre-K in Education Reform: A Summary of Program Evaluation Findings. Research Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For state and federal officials seeking to improve school performance, 50 years of evidence shows that high-quality, voluntary pre-kindergarten is among the best strategies for education reform. This brief from Pew's Pre-K Now initiative highlighted findings from evaluations of state-funded Pre-K programs that continue to document gains in key…

Wat, Albert



Redefining the way we look at diversity: a review of recent diversity and inclusion findings in organizational research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to summarize the findings of studies presented at the 24th annual conference of the Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP) in relation to how diversity is studied, microaggressions, when diversity is perceived, and employment outcomes for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered (LGBT) job applicants. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A select group of presentations

Oscar Holmes IV



The Impact of Performance Pay on Teacher Turnover: Findings from Year Two of the TEEG Program. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent report published by the National Center on Performance Incentives (NCPI) presents findings from the second-year of a multi-year evaluation of the Texas Educator Excellence Grant (TEEG) program, a statewide educator incentive program that operated in Texas. As part of this larger study, evaluators examined how participation in the TEEG…

National Center on Performance Incentives, 2009



The Design of Schools' Performance Incentive Programs in Texas: Findings from Year One of GEEG. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent report published by the National Center on Performance Incentives (NCPI) presents findings from the first-year evaluation of the Governor's Educator Excellence Grant (GEEG) program, one of several statewide educator incentive programs in Texas. In this report, the authors provide an overview of 99 schools' locally designed educator…

National Center on Performance Incentives, 2008



The Design of Schools' Performance Incentive Programs in Texas: Findings from Year One of TEEG. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent report published by the National Center on Performance Incentives (NCPI) presents findings from the first-year evaluation of the Texas Educator Excellence Grant (TEEG) program, one of several statewide educator incentive programs in Texas. This report provides an overview of over 1,000 schools' locally designed TEEG performance incentive…

National Center on Performance Incentives, 2008



Inconsistent association of esophageal symptoms, psychometric abnormalities and dysmotility  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:The aim of this study was to characterize the psychometric profiles of symptomatic patients with abnormal esophageal motility and symptomatic patients with normal manometric findings compared to asymptomatic controls.METHODS:A total of 113 patients with abnormal esophageal motility (7 achalasia, 8 diffuse esophageal spasm, 27 nutcracker esophagus, 37 hypertensive lower esophageal sphincter, 21 hypotensive peristalsis, 13 failed peristalsis), 23 symptomatic controls

Chi W. Song; Seong J. Lee; Yoon T. Jeen; Hoon J. Chun; Soon H. Um; Chang D. Kim; Ho S. Ryu; Jin H. Hyun; Min S. Lee; Peter J. Kahrilas



An Inconsistency in the Standard Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Bulk Flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maximum likelihood estimation of the bulk flow from radial peculiar motions of galaxies generally assumes a constant velocity field inside the survey volume. This assumption is inconsistent with the definition of bulk flow as the average of the peculiar velocity field over the relevant volume. This follows from a straightforward mathematical relation between the bulk flow of a sphere and the velocity potential on its surface. This inconsistency also exists for ideal data with exact radial velocities and full spatial coverage. Based on the same relation, we propose a simple modification to correct for this inconsistency.

Nusser, Adi



Finding the team for Mars: a psychological and human factors analysis of a Mars Desert Research Station crew.  


A two-week mission in March and April of 2011 sent six team members to the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS). MDRS, a research facility in the high Utah desert, provides an analogue for the harsh and unusual working conditions that will be faced by men and women who one day explore Mars. During the mission a selection of quantitative and qualitative psychological tests were administered to the international, multidisciplinary team. A selection of the results are presented along with discussion. PMID:22317591

Sawyer, Benjamin D; Hancock, P A; Deaton, John; Suedfeld, Peter



Education, Training and Work. Research Findings and Conclusions. Seminar Papers. (Thessaloniki, Greece, November 14, 1996.) CEDEFOP Panorama.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These three keynote speeches from a European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (CEDEFOP) seminar "Research on Vocational Education and Training in Europe" focus on the links between education, training, work, and economic growth. "Education and Training Policies in the Transition towards a Global Information Society: Needs and…

European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Thessaloniki (Greece).


Extending the Purview of the Risk Perception Attitude Framework: Findings from HIV\\/AIDS Prevention Research in Malawi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The risk perception attitude (RPA) framework posits that efficacy beliefs moderate the relationship between risk perception and health outcomes. To extend the purview of the theory, this central hypothesis was tested in the context of HIV\\/AIDS-prevention behaviors. Data (N = 890) were collected from 8 districts in Malawi in southern Africa as part of a baseline research effort to obtain

Rajiv N. Rimal; Kirsten Böse; Jane Brown; Glory Mkandawire; Lisa Folda



UC Davis researchers find that a double-headed motor protein offers new targets in cancer treatment

The structure of a key part of the machinery that allows cells to divide has been identified by researchers at the University of California, Davis, opening new possibilities for throwing a wrench in the machine and blocking runaway cell division in cancer.


Using quantitative and qualitative data in health services research – what happens when mixed method findings conflict? [ISRCTN61522618  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In this methodological paper we document the interpretation of a mixed methods study and outline an approach to dealing with apparent discrepancies between qualitative and quantitative research data in a pilot study evaluating whether welfare rights advice has an impact on health and social outcomes among a population aged 60 and over. METHODS: Quantitative and qualitative data were collected

Suzanne Moffatt; Martin White; Joan Mackintosh; Denise Howel



USC researchers find that a single genetic change can cause cancerous tumors in a child’s eyes

Researchers have answered the long-standing question of why mutations to a particular gene primarily cause tumors of the retina and not of other cell types. Led by experts at the USC Eye Institute, the study could reveal new cellular signaling pathways relevant to retinal development, cancer development and the development of novel therapies.


Advancing Intervention Research in School Psychology: Finding the Balance between Process and Outcome for Social and Behavioral Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School psychology research focused on child outcomes is critical for understanding which social and behavioral interventions affect children in schools. Yet effective interventions fulfill their promise when they fit their implementation contexts, are implemented well with existing resources, and can be sustained or scaled up to new populations.…

Cappella, Elise; Reinke, Wendy M.; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.



Multicultural assessment of child and adolescent psychopathology with ASEBA and SDQ instruments: research findings, applications, and future directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Around the world, cultural blending and conflict pose challenges for assessment and understanding of psychopathology. Economical, evidence-based, culturally robust assessment is needed for research, for answering public health questions, and for evaluating immigrant, refugee, and minority children. This article applies multicultural perspectives to behavioral, emotional, and social problems assessed on dimensions describing children's functioning, as rated by parents, teachers, children,

Thomas M. Achenbach; Andreas Becker; Manfred Döpfner; Einar Heiervang; Veit Roessner; Hans-Christoph Steinhausen; Aribert Rothenberger



Putting Youth Relationship Education on the Child Welfare Agenda: Findings from a Research and Evaluation Review. Executive Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Child Trends reviewed existing evidence on a somewhat neglected topic: relationship education for youth in foster care. The goals of this research review were to identify the needs of disadvantaged young people around intimate partner relationships, to identify evaluated relationship education programs, to highlight and synthesize common themes…

Scott, Mindy E.; Moore, Kristin Anderson; Hawkins, Alan J.; Malm, Karin; Beltz, Martha



U Pittsburgh researchers find that NSAIDs prevent colon cancer by inducing death of intestinal stem cells that have mutation

Aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) protect against the development of colorectal cancer by inducing cell suicide pathways in intestinal stem cells that carry a certain mutated and dysfunctional gene, according to a new study led by researchers at the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute and the School of Medicine.


The Search for Extension: 7 Steps to Help People Find Research-Based Information on the Internet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For Extension's unbiased, research-based content to be found by people searching the Internet, it needs to be organized in a way conducive to the ranking criteria of a search engine. With proper web design and search engine optimization techniques, Extension's content can be found, recognized, and properly indexed by search engines and…

Hill, Paul; Rader, Heidi B.; Hino, Jeff



MD Anderson researchers find that the number of younger patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer may nearly double by 2030

In the next 15 years, more than one in 10 colon cancers and nearly one in four rectal cancers will be diagnosed in patients younger than the traditional screening age, according to researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center.


Harvard researchers find that red meat consumption is linked to increased risk of total, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality

A new study from Harvard School of Public Health researchers has found that red meat consumption is associated with an increased risk of total, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality. The results also showed that substituting other healthy protein sources, such as fish, poultry, nuts, and legumes, was associated with a lower risk of mortality.


Huntsman researchers find that reduced kidney function is associated with higher risk of renal and urothelial cancer

Researchers who investigated the level of kidney function and subsequent cancer risk in more than one million adults have found that reduced glomerular filtration rate is a key measure of reduced kidney function and chronic kidney disease is an independent risk factor for renal and urothelial cancer but not other cancer types.


N.Y.C. Study Finds Gains for Charters: Research Shows Schools Closing City-Suburb Gap  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New York City's charter schools are making strides in closing achievement gaps between disadvantaged inner-city students and their better-off suburban counterparts, a new study concludes. The study, conducted by Stanford University researcher Caroline M. Hoxby and her co-authors Sonali Mararka and Jenny Kang, is based on eight years of data for…

Viadero, Debra



Detecting Inconsistencies in the Gene Ontology Using Ontology Databases with Not-gadgets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present ontology databases with not-gadgets, a method for detecting inconsistencies in an ontology with large numbers of annotated instances by using triggers and exclusion dependencies in a unique way. What makes this work relevant is the use of the database itself, rather than an external reasoner, to detect logical inconsistencies given large numbers of annotated instances. What distinguishes this work is the use of event-driven triggers together with the introduction of explicit negations. We applied this approach toward the serotonin example, an open problem in biomedical informatics which aims to use annotations to help identify inconsistencies in the Gene Ontology. We discovered 75 inconsistencies that have important implications in biology, which include: (1) methods for refining transfer rules used for inferring electronic annotations, and (2) highlighting possible biological differences across species worth investigating.

Lependu, Paea; Dou, Dejing; Howe, Doug


Decomposition method in correction problems for inconsistent systems of linear inequalities with partitioned matrices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Correction problems for inconsistent systems of linear inequalities with partitioned matrices are examined. The criteria used are based on the minimum of the sum of squares and the minimax weighted Euclidean norm of a block in the correction matrix.

Le Duy, Nhat



Money for Research, Not for Energy Bills: Finding Energy and Cost Savings in High Performance Computer Facility Designs  

SciTech Connect

High-performance computing facilities in the United States consume an enormous amount of electricity, cutting into research budgets and challenging public- and private-sector efforts to reduce energy consumption and meet environmental goals. However, these facilities can greatly reduce their energy demand through energy-efficient design of the facility itself. Using a case study of a facility under design, this article discusses strategies and technologies that can be used to help achieve energy reductions.

Drewmark Communications; Sartor, Dale; Wilson, Mark



An eight-year snapshot of geospatial cancer research (2002–2009): clinico-epidemiological and methodological findings and trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographic information systems (GIS) offer a very rich toolbox of methods and technologies, and powerful research tools that\\u000a extend far beyond the mere production of maps, making it possible to cross-link and study the complex interaction of disease\\u000a data and factors originating from a wide range of disparate sources. Despite their potential indispensable role in cancer\\u000a prevention and control programmes,

Dina N. Kamel Boulos; Ramy R. Ghali; Ezzeldin M. Ibrahim; Maged N. Kamel Boulos; Philip AbdelMalik


Clinical and animal research findings in pycnodysostosis and gene mutations of cathepsin K from 1996 to 2011  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cathepsin K (CTSK) is a member of the papain-like cysteine protease family. Mutations in the CTSK gene cause a rare autosomal recessive bone disorder called pycnodysostosis (OMIM 265800). In order to follow the advances\\u000a in the research about CTSK and pycnodysostosis, we performed a literature retrospective study of 159 pycnodysostosis patients\\u000a reported since 1996 and focused on the genetic characteristics

Yang Xue; Tao Cai; Songtao Shi; Weiguang Wang; Yanli Zhang; Tianqiu Mao; Xiaohong Duan



Parental Inconsistency Versus Parental Authoritarianism: Associations with Symptoms of Psychological Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

While in western countries, such as the US and Europe, authoritarian parenting is associated with negative psycho-social outcomes.\\u000a Studies have indicated that this is not the case in collective\\/authoritarian cultures. It has been hypothesized that inconsistency\\u000a in parenting style and culture contributes to these negative outcomes. In this study a scale of authoritarian parenting and\\u000a parental inconsistency has been developed.

Marwan Adeeb Dwairy



Preference-inconsistent recommendations: An effective approach for reducing confirmation bias and stimulating divergent thinking?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Web is a perfect backdrop for opinion formation as a multitude of different opinions is publicly available. However, the different opinions often remain unexploited: Learners prefer preference-consistent over preference-inconsistent information, a phenomenon called confirmation bias. Two experiments were designed to test whether technologies such as recommender systems can be used to overcome this bias. The role of preference-inconsistent recommendations

Christina Schwind; Jürgen Buder; Ulrike Cress; Friedrich W. Hesse


The genetics of auricular development and malformation: new findings in model systems driving future directions for microtia research.  


Microtia is a term used to describe a wide array of phenotypic presentations of the outer ear. Although the majority of the cases are isolated in nature, much of our understanding of the causes of microtia has been driven by the identification of genes underlying syndromic forms where the anomaly co-presents with various other craniofacial and extra-craniofacial structural defects. In this review we discuss recent findings in mice deficient in Hoxa2, a key regulator of branchial arch patterning, which has necessitated a revision to the canonical model of pinna morphogenesis. The revised model will likely impact current classification schemes for microtia and, as we argue in this review, the interpretation of the developmental basis for various auricular malformations. In addition, we highlight recent studies in other mammalian species that are providing the first clues as to possible causes of at least some isolated anomalies and thus should now accelerate the search for the more elusive genetic contributions to the many isolated and non-syndromic cases of microtia. These findings, together with the application of new genome-level sequencing technologies and more thorough quantitative assessment of available mutant mouse resources, promise an exciting future for genetic studies in microtia. PMID:24880027

Cox, Timothy C; Camci, Esra D; Vora, Siddharth; Luquetti, Daniela V; Turner, Eric E



Evidence synthesis for decision making 4: inconsistency in networks of evidence based on randomized controlled trials.  


Inconsistency can be thought of as a conflict between "direct" evidence on a comparison between treatments B and C and "indirect" evidence gained from AC and AB trials. Like heterogeneity, inconsistency is caused by effect modifiers and specifically by an imbalance in the distribution of effect modifiers in the direct and indirect evidence. Defining inconsistency as a property of loops of evidence, the relation between inconsistency and heterogeneity and the difficulties created by multiarm trials are described. We set out an approach to assessing consistency in 3-treatment triangular networks and in larger circuit structures, its extension to certain special structures in which independent tests for inconsistencies can be created, and describe methods suitable for more complex networks. Sample WinBUGS code is given in an appendix. Steps that can be taken to minimize the risk of drawing incorrect conclusions from indirect comparisons and network meta-analysis are the same steps that will minimize heterogeneity in pairwise meta-analysis. Empirical indicators that can provide reassurance and the question of how to respond to inconsistency are also discussed. PMID:23804508

Dias, Sofia; Welton, Nicky J; Sutton, Alex J; Caldwell, Deborah M; Lu, Guobing; Ades, A E



The bad apple effect and social value orientation in public-goods dilemmas: replication and extension of research findings.  


Two studies were conducted to replicate and extend previous findings on the effect of uncooperative behavior on group cooperation (the "bad apple" effect). Study 1 (56 women, 40 men; M age = 23.5 yr.) manipulated information about contributions from the bad apple, controlling for overall contributions to a group account. Study 2 (50 women, 34 men; M age = 20.4 yr.) compared the effects of a bad apple and a good apple on cooperation. The social value orientation of participants was measured to explore individual differences in the bad apple effect. The results revealed a bad apple (a) decreased cooperation among individuals with proself and prosocial orientations in Study 1, and (b) had a greater effect than a good apple on those who were proself compared to prosocial in Study 2. PMID:25074307

Wu, Song; Sun, Jiaqing; Cai, Wei; Jin, Shenghua



Why small low-powered studies are worse than large high-powered studies and how to protect against "trivial" findings in research: comment on Friston (2012).  


It is sometimes argued that small studies provide better evidence for reported effects because they are less likely to report findings with small and trivial effect sizes (Friston, 2012). But larger studies are actually better at protecting against inferences from trivial effect sizes, if researchers just make use of effect sizes and confidence intervals. Poor statistical power also comes at a cost of inflated proportion of false positive findings, less power to "confirm" true effects and bias in reported (inflated) effect sizes. Small studies (n=16) lack the precision to reliably distinguish small and medium to large effect sizes (r<.50) from random noise (?=.05) that larger studies (n=100) does with high level of confidence (r=.50, p=.00000012). The present paper presents the arguments needed for researchers to refute the claim that small low-powered studies have a higher degree of scientific evidence than large high-powered studies. PMID:23583358

Ingre, Michael



Aging changes and medical complexity in late-life bipolar disorder: emerging research findings that may help advance care  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Demographic trends globally point in the direction of increasing numbers of older people with serious and chronic mental disorders, such as bipolar disorder (BD). While there has been growing sophistication and understanding in treatments for BD generally, data specific to older people with BD are limited. Recent reviews, secondary analyses and some new research confirm complexity and aging-related issues relevant to later-life BD. Confounding variables that must be considered when studying older BD individuals include clinical heterogeneity, medical comorbidity, cognitive impairment and concomitant psychotropic medication. This article will review current and emerging data on aging- and disease-related issues that complicate assessment and treatment of older individuals with BD. We will discuss common comorbid medical conditions that affect BD elders, how aging may affect cognition and treatment, including the effects of lithium and other psychotropic drugs on the aging brain, and recent research using neuroimaging techniques that may shed light on understanding the mechanisms of illness progression and on treatment response. Finally, we will discuss implications for future work in geriatric BD. PMID:24999372

Sajatovic, Martha; Forester, Brent P; Gildengers, Ariel; Mulsant, Benoit H



The Effect of Sample Size on Cognitive Interview Findings.” Paper presented at the American Association for Public Opinion Research Conference  

E-print Network

An often-mentioned strength of cognitive interview pretesting is its ability to identify most question problems using a few interviews. However, this is not based on empirical research. We report a study investigating how the number of cognitive interviews affects the number of problems identified by conducting a 90 interviews, drawing samples of size 5 through size 50 from the pool of 90 interviews, and comparing the number and impact of problems identified at each samples size. It is clear that small numbers of cognitive interviews, typical of most pretests, fail to detect many problems including some that are quite serious. Even in samples of size 50, some problems are not uncovered. We conclude that conducting more cognitive interviews than are typically carried out is probably a good investment.

Johnny Blair; Frederick Conrad; Allison Castellano Ackermann; Greg Claxton



Domestic Violence and Welfare Policy: Research Findings That Can Inform Policies on Marriage and Child Well-Being. Research Forum on Children, Families, and the New Federalism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserting that the welfare reform proposals of the mid-1990s drew attention to the problem of domestic violence among individuals receiving public assistance who are among the poorest of the poor, this report examines what is known from past research on domestic violence that may inform policies related to marriage and child well-being. In…

Lawrence, Sharmila


Inconsistent condom use among Ugandan university students from a gender perspective: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Feminization of the HIV/AIDS epidemic has been a prominent phenomenon in sub-Saharan Africa. Inconsistent condom use among young people is one of the major risk factors in the continued propagation of the epidemic. Therefore, it is of importance to increase knowledge of gender aspects of condom use among young people. Objective To investigate whether gender differences regarding individual and social factors determine the association between condom efficacy and inconsistent condom use with a new sex partner, among Ugandan university students. Design In 2010, 1954 Ugandan students participated in a cross-sectional survey, conducted at Mbarara University of Science and Technology in southwestern Uganda. A self-administered questionnaire assessed socio-demographic factors, alcohol consumption, sexual behaviors (including condom use and condom efficacy), and peer norms. The data were stratified by sex and examined by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 1,179 (60.3%) students reported having had their sexual debut. Of these, 231 (37.4%) males and 209 (49.2%) females reported inconsistent condom use with a new sex partner. Students with low condom efficacy had a higher risk of inconsistent condom use with a new sex partner, even after adjusting for the potential confounders. A synergistic effect was observed between being a female and low condom efficacy with inconsistent condom use. Conclusion The association between inconsistent condom use and low condom efficacy was found among both males and females, but females were found to be at a higher risk of inconsistent condom use compared to their male counterparts. Therefore, gender power relations should be addressed in policies and interventions aiming at increasing condom use among young people in sub-Saharan settings. Programs could be designed with intervention strategies that focus on interactive and participatory educational activities and youth-friendly counseling of young people, which in turn may improve their interpersonal communication and condom negotiation skills with their partners. PMID:24725363

Mehra, Devika; Ostergren, Per-Olof; Ekman, Bjorn; Agardh, Anette



Finding (More) Fruit on the Vines: Using Higher Education Research and Institutional Research to Guide Institutional Policies and Strategies (Part II)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is the second of a two-part series that examines the utility of higher education research to help guide campus-based interventions to enhance institutional effectiveness. This second article outlines programmatic efforts undertaken to enhance the quality of the first-year experience for new students. It also describes the impact of these interventions on the first-year student experience. The article closes

Don Hossler; George D. Kuh; Deborah Olsen



Spinouts from academic institutions: a literature review with suggestions for further research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a comprehensive literature review of the phenomenon of spinouts from academic institutions. We systematically\\u000a identified spinout papers in key management journals, categorised the literature and critically synthesised the findings.\\u000a We present the findings of each literature stream in turn and also identify inconsistencies and directions for further research.\\u000a We conclude that while the early literature has been

Djordje Djokovic; Vangelis Souitaris



Inconsistent Results of Diagnostic Tools Hamper the Differentiation between Bee and Vespid Venom Allergy  

PubMed Central

Background Double sensitization (DS) to bee and vespid venom is frequently observed in the diagnosis of hymenoptera venom allergy, but clinically relevant DS is rare. Therefore it is sophisticated to choose the relevant venom for specific immunotherapy and overtreatment with both venoms may occur. We aimed to compare currently available routine diagnostic tests as well as experimental tests to identify the most accurate diagnostic tool. Methods 117 patients with a history of a bee or vespid allergy were included in the study. Initially, IgE determination by the ImmunoCAP, by the Immulite, and by the ADVIA Centaur, as well as the intradermal test (IDT) and the basophil activation test (BAT) were performed. In 72 CAP double positive patients, individual IgE patterns were determined by western blot inhibition and component resolved diagnosis (CRD) with rApi m 1, nVes v 1, and nVes v 5. Results Among 117 patients, DS was observed in 63.7% by the Immulite, in 61.5% by the CAP, in 47.9% by the IDT, in 20.5% by the ADVIA, and in 17.1% by the BAT. In CAP double positive patients, western blot inhibition revealed CCD-based DS in 50.8%, and the CRD showed 41.7% of patients with true DS. Generally, agreement between the tests was only fair and inconsistent results were common. Conclusion BAT, CRD, and ADVIA showed a low rate of DS. However, the rate of DS is higher than expected by personal history, indicating that the matter of clinical relevance is still not solved even by novel tests. Furthermore, the lack of agreement between these tests makes it difficult to distinguish between bee and vespid venom allergy. At present, no routinely employed test can be regarded as gold standard to find the clinically relevant sensitization. PMID:21698247

Sturm, Gunter J.; Jin, Chunsheng; Kranzelbinder, Bettina; Hemmer, Wolfgang; Sturm, Eva M.; Griesbacher, Antonia; Heinemann, Akos; Vollmann, Jutta; Altmann, Friedrich; Crailsheim, Karl; Focke, Margarete; Aberer, Werner



Reinforcement and punishment of substance abuse during ongoing interactions: a conversational test of inconsistent nurturing as control theory.  


This study is the first to examine inconsistent nurturing as control (INC) theory during ongoing interpersonal influence episodes between substance-abusive individuals and their romantic partners. This study sought to determine how nonverbal (i.e., kinesic and vocalic) and verbal reinforcement and punishment of substance-abusive behavior during actual interactions influenced substance-abusive individuals' recidivism and perceptions of non-using partners' persuasive effectiveness. The findings reveal that consistent verbal punishment of substance abuse (e.g., threats, nagging) predicted lower relapse, while verbal reinforcement (e.g., telling the partner they are more fun when they use) predicted higher relapse. With regard to nonverbal communication, vocalic punishment and vocalic reinforcement predicted relapse and persuasive effectiveness. Results suggest the combination of behaviors resemble intermittent reinforcement and punishment and should actually strengthen the substance-abusive behavior the partner is trying to curtail. PMID:18661385

Duggan, Ashley P; Dailey, Rene M; Le Poire, Beth A



An Automated Method for Identifying Inconsistencies within Diagrammatic Software Requirements Specifications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of large-scale, composite software in a geographically distributed environment is an evolutionary process. Often, in such evolving systems, striving for consistency is complicated by many factors, because development participants have various locations, skills, responsibilities, roles, opinions, languages, terminology and different degrees of abstraction they employ. This naturally leads to many partial specifications or viewpoints. These multiple views on the system being developed usually overlap. From another aspect, these multiple views give rise to the potential for inconsistency. Existing CASE tools do not efficiently manage inconsistencies in distributed development environment for a large-scale project. Based on the ViewPoints framework the WHERE (Web-Based Hypertext Environment for requirements Evolution) toolkit aims to tackle inconsistency management issues within geographically distributed software development projects. Consequently, WHERE project helps make more robust software and support software assurance process. The long term goal of WHERE tools aims to the inconsistency analysis and management in requirements specifications. A framework based on Graph Grammar theory and TCMJAVA toolkit is proposed to detect inconsistencies among viewpoints. This systematic approach uses three basic operations (UNION, DIFFERENCE, INTERSECTION) to study the static behaviors of graphic and tabular notations. From these operations, subgraphs Query, Selection, Merge, Replacement operations can be derived. This approach uses graph PRODUCTIONS (rewriting rules) to study the dynamic transformations of graphs. We discuss the feasibility of implementation these operations. Also, We present the process of porting original TCM (Toolkit for Conceptual Modeling) project from C++ to Java programming language in this thesis. A scenario based on NASA International Space Station Specification is discussed to show the applicability of our approach. Finally, conclusion and future work about inconsistency management issues in WHERE project will be summarized.

Zhang, Zhong



Sources of Score Scale Inconsistency. Research Report. ETS RR-11-10  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For testing programs that administer multiple forms within a year and across years, score equating is used to ensure that scores can be used interchangeably. In an ideal world, samples sizes are large and representative of populations that hardly change over time, and very reliable alternate test forms are built with nearly identical psychometric…

Haberman, Shelby J.; Dorans, Neil J.



Inconsistencies in egspp (the EGSnrc C++ class library) and in the SLAB module of BEAMnrc.  


In April 2005, a geometry package to implement almost arbitrary geometries was added to the EGSnrc code system: egspp (Kawrakow 2005 NRCC Report PIRS-899, Kawrakow and Rogers 2006 NRCC Report PIRS-701). During the use of this geometry package, some inconsistencies were found which might lead to dose values that are wrong by up to a factor of 100. In addition, discrepancies up to a factor of 3 were found between egspp and BEAMnrc when using the SLAB module (Rogers et al 2007 NRCC Report PIRS-509). In this letter, the measures to overcome these inconsistencies are described. PMID:20616406

Behrens, R



Inconsistency effects in source memory and compensatory schema-consistent guessing.  


The attention-elaboration hypothesis of memory for schematically unexpected information predicts better source memory for unexpected than expected sources. In three source-monitoring experiments, the authors tested the occurrence of an inconsistency effect in source memory. Participants were presented with items that were schematically either very expected or very unexpected for their source. Multinomial processing tree models were used to separate source memory, item memory, and guessing bias. Results show an inconsistency effect in source memory accompanied by a compensatory schema-consistent guessing bias when expectancy strength is high, that is, when items are very expected or very unexpected for their source. PMID:24628718

Küppers, Viviane; Bayen, Ute J



Associations between use of crack cocaine and HIV-1 disease progression: research findings and implications for mother-to-infant transmission  

PubMed Central

Recent in vitro and in vivo research has suggested that cocaine has a direct effect on the pathogenesis of AIDS. These findings are confirmed by epidemiological studies linking the use of injected, inhaled, and smoked (crack) cocaine and indicators of HIV disease progression, even among adherent users of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Recent studies of vertical HIV transmission suggest that cocaine use may play a role in mother-to-child infection via alteration of maternal immune responses, enhanced viral replication in maternal immune cells, or alterations in the immune systems of neonates or infants. The purpose of this article is to review research conducted over the past several decades on associations between use of cocaine and HIV disease progression, especially among HIV+ women, and to explore its potential relevance for understanding mother-to-infant transmission of HIV. PMID:21219914

Cook, Judith A.



Relational Responding and Conditional Discrimination Procedures: An Apparent Inconsistency and Clarification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses theoretical issues relating to an apparent terminological inconsistency between two recent studies involving relational responding. These studies employed a functionally similar protocol to establish contextual cues for arbitrarily applicable relational responding by using a nonarbitrary relational responding procedure;…

Stewart, Ian; McElwee, John




Microsoft Academic Search

Range maps depicting historical distributions of wildlife may be inconsistent. Different maps can be based on diverse sources of evidence which may vary in reliability (e.g., specimens in Natural History Museums, trapper and hunter journals, conversations recorded in dairies) and the effort expended locating evidence may differ among map makers (Young and Goldman 1944, Seton 1953, Hall 1981). Despite these



Exploiting Physical Inconsistencies for 3D Scene Understanding Andrea Fossati1  

E-print Network

Exploiting Physical Inconsistencies for 3D Scene Understanding Andrea Fossati1 Helmut Grabner1 Luc: Waterfall, 1961 (b) Understanding the 3D world Figure 1. (a) M. C. Escher showed the importance of physics for scene un- derstanding. understanding. Predicted, physically plausible trajectories are compared

Grabner, Helmut


Distance-based Measures of Inconsistency and Incoherency for Description Logics  

E-print Network

such that the ontology becomes trivial because any conclusion follows from it. Incoherency suggests ontology engineering. Inconsistency and incoherency are two sorts of erroneous informa- tion in a DL ontology which have been widely discussed in ontology-based ap- plications. For example, they have been used to detect modeling errors

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Reaction Time Inconsistency in a Spatial Stroop Task: Age-Related Differences Through Childhood and Adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Age-related differences in inconsistency of reaction time (RT) across the life span were examined on a task with differing levels of demand on executive control. A total of 546 participants, aged 5 to 76 years, completed a spatial Stroop task that permitted observations under three conditions (congruent, incongruent, and neutral) according to the correspondence between the required response (based on

Benjamin R. Williams; Esther H. Strauss; David F. Hultsch; Michael A. Hunter



The Belief that Alcohol Use Is Inconsistent with Personal Autonomy: A Promotive Factor for Younger Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored an understudied promotive factor, a belief that alcohol use is inconsistent with personal autonomy, which may reduce adolescent intention to drink and subsequent alcohol use. Autonomy was examined as an attitudinal construct within the Theory of Reasoned Action. Longitudinal data from 2,493 seventh grade students nested in 40…

Henry, Kimberly L.; Shtivelband, Annette; Comello, Maria Leonora G.; Slater, Michael D.



Lead Me Not into Temptation: Using Cognitive Reappraisal to Reduce Goal Inconsistent Behavior  

E-print Network

consequences in all major life domains [4], including psychological well-being, social adjustment, workLead Me Not into Temptation: Using Cognitive Reappraisal to Reduce Goal Inconsistent Behavior Ve of Psychology, Universite´ Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium, 2 Counseling & Psychological

Gross, James J.


An Evaluation of the MMPI-2 and MMPI-A True Response Inconsistency (TRIN) Scales  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory--Adolescent (MMPI-A) and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory--2 (MMPI-2) True Response Inconsistency (TRIN) scales are measures of acquiescence and nonacquiescence included among the standard validity scales on these instruments. The goals of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of…

Handel, Richard W.; Arnau, Randolph C.; Archer, Robert P.; Dandy, Kristina L.