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1

Trauma and dissociation in treatment-seeking alcoholics: towards a resolution of inconsistent findings.  

PubMed

There is consistent empirical evidence for a trauma-dissociation relation in general population samples and in psychiatric patients. However, contradictory findings have been reported on this relation among substance abusers. The present study attempts to resolve these inconsistencies by testing a series of hypotheses related to problems regarding the measurement of childhood abuse, the measurement of psychological dissociation, and the potential existence of substance abuse as a form of chemical dissociation. Alcoholic patients (N = 155) were administered the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), the Structured Trauma Interview (STI), the European Addiction Severity Index (EuropASI), and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) section of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). The DES showed good psychometric properties. Substantial rates of traumatization and PTSD were observed, as well as a significant trauma-PTSD relation. However, the mean DES score was low (11.4) and dissociation was not related to trauma (childhood or lifetime) or to PTSD. Years of lifetime regular medicine use, however, was significantly correlated with the severity of dissociative symptoms and PTSD, particularly in males. Overall, these findings suggest that absence of a trauma-dissociation relation in alcoholics may not be due to measurement problems of childhood abuse and/or dissociation. Rather, a trauma-dissociation link may not exist, particularly in male alcoholics, because these individuals may abuse substances to achieve dissociative-like states. Additional research is needed to further evaluate the utility of the DES in alcoholic samples and to examine the notion of chemical dissociation. PMID:11994837

Langeland, Willie; Draijer, Nel; van den Brink, Wim

2002-01-01

2

Inconsistent findings for the eyes closed effect in children: the implications for interviewing child witnesses  

PubMed Central

A child who alleges that they have been the victim of a crime will be interviewed by police officers. During a police interview it is important that the interviewer obtains the most accurate testimony possible from the child. Previous studies have shown that if children have their eyes closed during an interview they sometimes report more correct information. This paper includes two studies. In Experiment 1 156 children experienced an event and were then questioned about it. Half the children answered with their eyes open and half with their eyes closed. The participants with eyes closed provided more correct information. In Experiment 2 152 children answered questions in different conditions including eyes open and eyes closed conditions. In contrast to Experiment 1 there was no beneficial effect for the eyes closed condition. These inconsistent results are discussed with reference to actual police interviews. It is suggested that until there has been more research into eyes closed procedures caution should be taken in recommending such procedures for police interviews with children.

Kyriakidou, Marilena; Blades, Mark; Carroll, Dan

2014-01-01

3

Parental Inconsistency: A Third Cross-Cultural Research on Parenting and Psychological Adjustment of Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inconsistency in parenting is a factor that may influence children’s mental health. A questionnaire, measuring three parental\\u000a inconsistencies (temporal, situational, and father-mother inconsistency) was administered to adolescents in nine countries\\u000a to assess its association with adolescents’ psychological disorders. The results show that parental inconsistency varies across\\u000a cultures. Temporal inconsistency is not correlated with the other two inconsistencies. Temporal and father–mother

Marwan Dwairy

2010-01-01

4

Parental Inconsistency: A Third Cross-Cultural Research on Parenting and Psychological Adjustment of Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inconsistency in parenting is a factor that may influence children's mental health. A questionnaire, measuring three parental inconsistencies (temporal, situational, and father-mother inconsistency) was administered to adolescents in nine countries to assess its association with adolescents' psychological disorders. The results show that parental…

Dwairy, Marwan

2010-01-01

5

Marihuana Research Findings: 1976.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1976 reference report presents the results of research into the health implications of marihuana use for Americans, updating developments since publication of the 1975 Fifth Annual Report to Congress on Marihuana and Health. Following a general summar...

R. C. Peterson

1977-01-01

6

Inconsistencies in Quality of Life Data Collection in Clinical Trials: A Potential Source of Bias? Interviews with Research Nurses and Trialists  

PubMed Central

Background Patient-reported outcomes (PROs), such as health-related quality of life (HRQL) are increasingly used to evaluate treatment effectiveness in clinical trials, are valued by patients, and may inform important decisions in the clinical setting. It is of concern, therefore, that preliminary evidence, gained from group discussions at UK-wide Medical Research Council (MRC) quality of life training days, suggests there are inconsistent standards of HRQL data collection in trials and appropriate training and education is often lacking. Our objective was to investigate these reports, to determine if they represented isolated experiences, or were indicative of a potentially wider problem. Methods And Findings We undertook a qualitative study, conducting 26 semi-structured interviews with research nurses, data managers, trial coordinators and research facilitators involved in the collection and entry of HRQL data in clinical trials, across one primary care NHS trust, two secondary care NHS trusts and two clinical trials units in the UK. We used conventional content analysis to analyze and interpret our data. Our study participants reported (1) inconsistent standards in HRQL measurement, both between, and within, trials, which appeared to risk the introduction of bias; (2), difficulties in dealing with HRQL data that raised concern for the well-being of the trial participant, which in some instances led to the delivery of non-protocol driven co-interventions, (3), a frequent lack of HRQL protocol content and appropriate training and education of trial staff, and (4) that HRQL data collection could be associated with emotional and/or ethical burden. Conclusions Our findings suggest there are inconsistencies in the standards of HRQL data collection in some trials resulting from a general lack of HRQL-specific protocol content, training and education. These inconsistencies could lead to biased HRQL trial results. Future research should aim to develop HRQL guidelines and training programmes aimed at supporting researchers to carry out high quality data collection.

Kyte, Derek; Ives, Jonathan; Draper, Heather; Keeley, Thomas; Calvert, Melanie

2013-01-01

7

Sense of Place In Natural Resource Recreation and Tourism: An Evaluation and Assessment of Research Findings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Understanding sense of place and related concepts often presents challenges for both managers and researchers. Inconsistent application of terms, questions regarding their origin, and a lack of awareness of research findings contribute to the ambiguity of...

J. Farnum T. Hall L. E. Kruger

2005-01-01

8

Teacher Retirement Systems: Research Findings. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This policy brief summarizes findings presented at a February 2009 research conference on teacher retirement systems hosted by the National Center on Performance Incentives (NCPI) at Vanderbilt University's Peabody College. The 2009 conference was the second in a series of NCPI events focusing on findings from recent research on issues related to…

Hansen, Janet S.; Podgursky, Michael J.; Costrell, Robert M.

2009-01-01

9

Knowledge translation of research findings  

PubMed Central

Background One of the most consistent findings from clinical and health services research is the failure to translate research into practice and policy. As a result of these evidence-practice and policy gaps, patients fail to benefit optimally from advances in healthcare and are exposed to unnecessary risks of iatrogenic harms, and healthcare systems are exposed to unnecessary expenditure resulting in significant opportunity costs. Over the last decade, there has been increasing international policy and research attention on how to reduce the evidence-practice and policy gap. In this paper, we summarise the current concepts and evidence to guide knowledge translation activities, defined as T2 research (the translation of new clinical knowledge into improved health). We structure the article around five key questions: what should be transferred; to whom should research knowledge be transferred; by whom should research knowledge be transferred; how should research knowledge be transferred; and, with what effect should research knowledge be transferred? Discussion We suggest that the basic unit of knowledge translation should usually be up-to-date systematic reviews or other syntheses of research findings. Knowledge translators need to identify the key messages for different target audiences and to fashion these in language and knowledge translation products that are easily assimilated by different audiences. The relative importance of knowledge translation to different target audiences will vary by the type of research and appropriate endpoints of knowledge translation may vary across different stakeholder groups. There are a large number of planned knowledge translation models, derived from different disciplinary, contextual (i.e., setting), and target audience viewpoints. Most of these suggest that planned knowledge translation for healthcare professionals and consumers is more likely to be successful if the choice of knowledge translation strategy is informed by an assessment of the likely barriers and facilitators. Although our evidence on the likely effectiveness of different strategies to overcome specific barriers remains incomplete, there is a range of informative systematic reviews of interventions aimed at healthcare professionals and consumers (i.e., patients, family members, and informal carers) and of factors important to research use by policy makers. Summary There is a substantial (if incomplete) evidence base to guide choice of knowledge translation activities targeting healthcare professionals and consumers. The evidence base on the effects of different knowledge translation approaches targeting healthcare policy makers and senior managers is much weaker but there are a profusion of innovative approaches that warrant further evaluation.

2012-01-01

10

Research Findings You Can Trust.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eight educational practices for improving classroom learning taken from the Department of Education's report "What Works--Research about Teaching and Learning" are reviewed. Reading comprehension, teaching writing, direct instruction, and homework are among the topics covered. (MT)

Instructor, 1986

1986-01-01

11

Learning from Inconsistency  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This position paper argues that inconsistencies that occur during the development of a software specification offer an excellent way of learning more about the development process. We base this argument on our work on inconsistency management. Much attention has been devoted recently to the need to allow inconsistencies to occur during software development, to facilitate flexible development strategies, especially for collaborative work. Recent work has concentrated on reasoning in the presence of inconsistency, tracing inconsistencies with 'pollution markers' and supporting resolution. We argue here that one of the most important aspects of inconsistency is the learning opportunity it provides. We are therefore concerned with how to capture this learning outcome so that its significance is not lost. We present a small example of how apprentice software engineers learn from their mistakes, and outline how an inconsistency management tool could support this learning. We then argue that the approach can be used more generally as part of continuous process improvement.

Easterbrook, Steve

1996-01-01

12

Are Educational Research Findings Useful for Curricular/Instructional Decisions? A Skeptical View.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Currently, findings of educational research are of little consequence to the curricular/instructional decisions of social studies teachers. Four basic conditions have created this inconsistency. (1) Since social studies teaching takes place among value and factual assumptions, decisions about educational practice are based more on value judgments…

Shaver, James P.

13

Writing usable qualitative health research findings.  

PubMed

Scholars in diverse health-related disciplines and specialty fields of practice routinely promote qualitative research as an essential component of intervention and implementation programs of research and of a comprehensive evidence base for practice. Remarkably little attention, however, has been paid to the most important element of qualitative studies--the findings in reports of those studies--and specifically to enhancing the accessibility and utilization value of these findings for diverse audiences of users. The findings in reports of qualitative health research are too often difficult to understand and even to find owing to the way they are presented. A basic strategy for enhancing the presentation of these findings is to translate them into thematic statements, which can then in turn be translated into the language of intervention and implementation. Writers of qualitative health research reports might consider these strategies better to showcase the significance and actionability of findings to a wider audience. PMID:22745362

Sandelowski, Margarete; Leeman, Jennifer

2012-10-01

14

Reading Research: Notable Findings and Urgent Needs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses some of the findings and needs of reading research. The areas of research study mentioned include word boundaries, letter names, preschool reading, teacher questioning, critical reading and Negro dialects. Researchers cited include Dolores Durkin, Frank Guszak, Jay Samuels, Guy Bond, A. Sterl Artley, Edward Fry, and Robert…

Smith, Nila Banton

15

Research Findings You Can Trust. Part II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four findings regarding school effectiveness taken from the Department of Education's report "What Works--Research about Teaching and Learning" are reviewed. Effective schools, school climate, discipline, and teacher collegiality are discussed. (MT)

Instructor, 1986

1986-01-01

16

75 FR 18837 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct...team identified an adapter protein, MNAR, that coordinates interactions between certain nuclear receptors, Src and PI3K and may...

2010-04-13

17

Tools for Finding Indexed Accounting Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Accounting Association (AAA) lists the print resources and electronic databases where AAA journals are indexed and abstracted at this Tools for Finding Indexed Accounting Research page. The detailed list includes indexing and abstracting devices for a number of journals -- Accounting Horizons, The Accounting Review, Auditing: A Journal of Practice & Theory, Behavioral Research in Accounting, Issues in Accounting Education, Journal of the American Taxation Association, Journal of Information Systems, and the Journal of Management Accounting Research -- with date coverage and full-text information included for each.

18

Automatically Detecting and Tracking Inconsistencies in Software Design Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software models typically contain many inconsistencies and consistency checkers help engineers find them. Even if engineers are willing to tolerate inconsistencies, they are better off knowing about their existence to avoid follow-on errors and unnecessary rework. However, current approaches do not detect or track inconsistencies fast enough. This paper presents an automated approach for detecting and tracking inconsistencies in real

Alexander Egyed

2011-01-01

19

Methodological Inconsistencies in the Measurement of Spatial Perspective Taking Ability: A Cause for Concern.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the literature pertaining to spatial perspective-taking and attempts to account for the inconsistent findings in this area of research by examining the methodological differences between studies. (Author/SS)

Fehr, Lawrence A.

1978-01-01

20

The return of individual research findings in paediatric genetic research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combination of the issue of return of individual genetic results\\/incidental findings and paediatric biobanks is not much discussed in ethical literature. The traditional arguments pro and con return of such findings focus on principles such as respect for persons, autonomy and solidarity. Two dimensions have been distilled from the discussion on return of individual results in a genetic research

Kristien Hens; Herman Nys; Jean-Jacques Cassiman; Kris Dierickx

2010-01-01

21

A proposed reductionist solution to address the methodological challenges of inconsistent reflexology maps and poor experimental controls in reflexology research: a discussion paper.  

PubMed

Reflexology is a complex massage intervention, based on the concept that specific areas of the feet (reflex points) correspond to individual internal organs within the body. Reflexologists trained in the popular Ingham reflexology method claim that massage to these points, using massage techniques unique to reflexology, stimulates an increase in blood supply to the corresponding organ. Reflexology researchers face two key methodological challenges that need to be addressed if a specific treatment-related hemodynamic effect is to be scientifically demonstrated. The first is the problem of inconsistent reflexology foot maps; the second is the issue of poor experimental controls. This article proposes a potential experimental solution that we believe can address both methodological challenges and in doing so, allow any specific hemodynamic treatment effect unique to reflexology to experimentally reveal itself. PMID:23072264

Jones, Jenny; Thomson, Patricia; Lauder, William; Leslie, Stephen J

2013-03-01

22

Researchers Find Japanese Submarine at Pearl Harbor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earlier this week, researchers from the University of Hawaii and the Hawaii Underwater Research Lab located the remains of a Japanese midget submarine. Found in 1200 feet of water, the submarine was sunk by the USS Ward just an hour before the aerial attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. Most important, the discovery of the midget submarine offers concrete physical evidence that the United States did fire the first shot against the Japanese. Previous expeditions to locate the sub, including an effort made in 2000 by the National Geographic Society, had been unsuccessful, largely due to the fact that the area is a military "junkyard" with tons of debris on the ocean floor.For more in-depth information on this story, readers may find the first four news links particularly helpful. The fifth link leads to the Hawaii Underwater Research Lab's Web site that features photographs of the midget sub from the expedition earlier this week. The sixth link is to a Web site dealing with the history and missions of the USS Ward. The final link contains detailed information about the 2000 expedition led by Robert Ballard, with support from the National Geographic Society, to find the midget submarine.

Green, Marcia.

2002-01-01

23

The return of individual research findings in paediatric genetic research.  

PubMed

The combination of the issue of return of individual genetic results/incidental findings and paediatric biobanks is not much discussed in ethical literature. The traditional arguments pro and con return of such findings focus on principles such as respect for persons, autonomy and solidarity. Two dimensions have been distilled from the discussion on return of individual results in a genetic research context: the respect for a participant's autonomy and the duty of the researcher. Concepts such as autonomy and solidarity do not fit easily in the discussion when paediatric biobanks are concerned. Although parents may be allowed to enrol children in minimal risk genetic research on stored tissue samples, they should not be given the option to opt out of receiving important health information. Also, children have a right to an open future: parents do not have the right to access any genetic data that a biobank holds on their children. In this respect, the guidelines on genetic testing of minors are applicable. With regard to the duty of the researcher the question of whether researchers have a more stringent duty to return important health information when their research subjects are children is more difficult to answer. A researcher's primary duty is to perform useful research, a policy to return individual results must not hamper this task. The fact that vulnerable children are concerned, is an additional factor that should be considered when a policy of returning results is laid down for a specific collection or research project. PMID:21059631

Hens, Kristien; Nys, Herman; Cassiman, Jean-Jacques; Dierickx, Kris

2011-03-01

24

Patient satisfaction: methodological issues and research findings.  

PubMed

Patient satisfaction plays a significant role in the health care process. It influences the health care seeking behaviour of patients, compliance with treatment and the health outcomes of patients. The use of ill-conceived and limited patient satisfaction questionnaires, in conjunction with inadequate methods of administration, have contributed to the poor reputation of patient satisfaction as an indicator of the quality of health care services. This paper addresses some of the methodological issues related to the measurement of patient satisfaction and describes validated and reliable tools which are available for use by hospitals in Australia. Research findings discussed demonstrate that patients are able to evaluate validly and reliably the quality of both clinical and non-clinical aspects of health care services. Australian health care organisations should implement patient satisfaction as a quality indicator and thereby actively seek to improve the health outcomes of their patients. PMID:10127675

Westbrook, J I

1993-01-01

25

Reasoning From Inconsistency to Consistency  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a theory of how individuals reason from inconsistency to consistency. The theory is based on 3 main principles. First, individuals try to construct a single mental model of a possibility that satisfies a current set of propositions, and if the task is impossible, they infer that the set is inconsistent. Second, when an inconsistency arises from an

P. N. Johnson-Laird; Vittorio Girotto; Paolo Legrenzi

2004-01-01

26

Animal Research: Finding Cures, Saving Lives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides an online and a printable brochure that provides information on why researchers study animals, how research animals are cared for, the ethics of animal research, cosmetic testing on animals, and how animal research helps people in the context of a diabetes patient.

2010-06-24

27

Russian research capabilities: Findings of site visits  

SciTech Connect

In June 1993, a proposal was presented to the International Environmental Institute (IEI) in Kennewick, Washington, to establish cooperation and coordination to further pursue the interests of the United States of America and the Republic of Russia in the application and promotion of environmental technology; characterization, treatment, handling, isolation, and disposal of hazardous and radioactive materials; conversion of defense sites to other purposes; and technology transfer, cooperative programs, joint technology development and contractual research. In response to this proposal, IEI and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) jointly provided funding to send Dr. Dennis W. Wester on a fact-finding mission to Novosibirsk, Moscow, and St. Petersburg, Russia. The trip covered a period of eight weeks, six of which were spent in Novosibirsk and adjoining or related cities and one of which was spent in each of Moscow and St. Petersburg. The general objectives of the trip were to establish a basis for cooperation between IEI and the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) for future coordination of mutual interests and objectives such as technology acquisition, development, demonstration, application, and commercialization; use of capabilities and assets developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the RAS; and expediting of cooperative agreements, personnel exchanges, joint ventures and other contractual relationships. The particular objectives of this trip were to evaluate the capabilities of the RAS to satisfy the technology needs associated with the cleanup of the Hanford Site and similar sites in the U.S. and to evaluate the expediency of establishing an IEI presence in Russia.

Wester, D.W.

1994-02-01

28

75 FR 39530 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Investigative Oversight (DIO), ORI found that Gerardo L. Paez, PhD, former postdoctoral fellow, Section of Medical Genetics, UP School of Veterinary Medicine, engaged in research misconduct in research supported by National Eye Institute...

2010-07-09

29

77 FR 5254 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...research misconduct in research funded by National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), National Institutes...addition, ORI found that Respondent's intentionally deceptive behavior, including false statements made to the CU institutional...

2012-02-02

30

77 FR 52034 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...oversight review, ORI found that Dr. Shane Mayack, former postdoctoral fellow, Department of Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, Joslin, engaged in research misconduct in research supported by National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and...

2012-08-28

31

78 FR 67363 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...analysis, ORI found that Dr. Hao Wang, former Associate Professor of Surgery and Pathology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, WU, engaged in research misconduct in research supported by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases...

2013-11-12

32

77 FR 69627 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...conducted by ORI in its oversight review, ORI found that Dr. Eric J. Smart, former Professor of Pediatrics and Physiology, Department of Pediatrics and Physiology, UK, engaged in research misconduct in research supported by National...

2012-11-20

33

76 FR 23599 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ORI) during its oversight review, ORI found that Vipul Bhrigu, PhD, former postdoctoral fellow, Department of Internal Medicine, UMMS, engaged in research misconduct in research funded by National Cancer Institute (NCI), National...

2011-04-27

34

77 FR 11538 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...conducted by ORI in its oversight review, ORI found that Dr. Michael W. Miller, former Professor and Chair, Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, SUNY UMU, engaged in research misconduct in research supported by National Institute of Alcohol Abuse...

2012-02-27

35

78 FR 14797 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Louis (WUSTL) and Respondent's admission, ORI found that Mr. Adam C. Savine, former doctoral student, Department of Psychology, WUSTL, engaged in research misconduct in research supported by National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH),...

2013-03-07

36

77 FR 76491 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...reported in the abstracts are being redone. Specifically, ORI finds that Respondent: Falsified Powerpoint slides and spreadsheets for histomorphometric and microCT results by using the values of HS1 knockout (KO) mice and their controls to...

2012-12-28

37

78 FR 941 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...knowingly and intentionally: Falsely reported research experiments when the results did not exist at the time the grant applications...roughly equivalent to levels in normal neurons, when the experiment was not conducted. Falsified Figure 3 of grant...

2013-01-07

38

Animal Research: Finding Cures, Saving Lives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The U.S. Public Health Service acknowledges that "virtually every medical achievement of the last century has depended directly or indirectly on research with animals." Created by the American Physiological Society, this website helps students learn about and explore the ethics and particulars of animal research. It answers common questions in a straight-forward and accessible manner. It also includes links to other resources to aid in a deeper exploration of the subject.

Society, The A.

39

Osteoarthritis: Research Findings | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Osteoarthritis Research Findings Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents Research Findings When osteoarthritis involves the hands, small, bony knobs may appear ...

40

76 FR 47589 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...final action in the following case: Sheng Wang, PhD, Boston University School of Medicine...misconduct findings, ORI found that Dr. Sheng Wang, who has been an Assistant Professor...1. Zhang, B., Faller, D.V., Wang, S. ``HIC1 regulates tumor cell...

2011-08-05

41

76 FR 23600 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...PHS found that the Respondent engaged in research misconduct by falsifying data in Figure 4 of a manuscript submitted to the journal Infection and Immunity (Shin, J.J., Godfrey, H.P., & Cabello, F.C. ``Expression and localization of BmpC...

2011-04-27

42

Adult Cognition: Piagetian Based Research Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work of Jean Piaget, widely recognized as pertinent to childhood cognition, has in recent years generated significant research based on adult samples. Because traditional Piagetian em phasis has been on young children the potential application of Piaget's theory to help in understanding and in explaining adult cognition has not been widely appreciated. Increasing in terest in adult development, however,

Huey B. Long; Kay McCrary; Spencer Ackerman

1979-01-01

43

Educational Research: Biologists Finding Their Voice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the publication of the Dearing report (1997) there has been an increasing emphasis on the quality of teaching and learning provision within higher education institutions (HEIs). This focus on provision has in turn generated much educational research into "approaches" to both teaching practice and student learning within higher education…

Orsmond, Paul

2007-01-01

44

A Common Metric for Integrating Research Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The choice of a common metric for the meta-analysis (quantitative synthesis) of correlational and experimental research studies is presented and justified. First, a background for the problem of identifying a common metric is presented. Second, the percentage of accounted variance (PAV) is described as the metric of choice, and reasons are given…

Haladyna, Tom

45

Latest research findings from petite sismique trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on a novel in-situ technique known as petite sismique is discussed. This geophysical method is capable of estimating the static deformation modules of a rock mass. The petite-sismique technique utilizes a seismic-refraction survey stressing a correlation between shear-wave frequency and the static deformation modulus. Although the technique was introduced in 1967, petite sismique has not been used extensively due

R. M. Belesky; Z. T. Bieniawski; R. J. Greenfield

1984-01-01

46

Inconsistent communications and psychopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigated the presence of possible incongruity between verbal and nonverbal components of parental messages to a disturbed child. Video-taped family interactions of 2 groups of families in which there were 2 degrees of psychopathology of an adolescent member were employed. There were 2 different measures of incongruity between attitude conveyed in verbalizations and posture. Findings did not support the hypothesized

Nancy G. Beakel; Albert Mehrabian

1969-01-01

47

Research Finds Link Between Statin Use and Progressive Muscle Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 Spotlight on Research 2011 September 2011 Research Finds Link Between Statin Use and Progressive Muscle ... as the drugs are taken. New NIAMS-supported research has found that for a subset of patients, ...

48

Television Advertising and Children: Issues, Research and Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume consists of 10 papers dealing with issues, research and research findings regarding the effects of television advertising on children. The first paper critically examines recent research literature which bears on policy questions related to the effects of television advertising on children. Findings from a study designed to examine…

Esserman, June F., Ed.

49

Children's Comprehension Monitoring: Implications of Research Findings for the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews research on children's comprehension monitoring skills. Discusses implications of research findings for the classroom. Describes procedures for assessing children's comprehension monitoring. Outlines how monitoring strategies can best be taught. Discusses children's readiness for monitoring instruction. (RS)

Zabrucky, Karen; Ratner, Hilary Horn

1990-01-01

50

Finding Intercultural Business Communication Research Sites in Companies (Doing Research).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes important resources for discovering sites for communication research related to the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), to help identify appropriate companies and contact them. (SR)

Driskill, Linda; Shaw, Peggy

1994-01-01

51

Applications of Classroom Management Research Findings. Research Series No. 154.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the long-term effects of providing a research-based approach to classroom management through a two-phase staff development process. The process was designed to promote teachers' ability to establish and maintain effective classroom groups. Teachers' uses of group-development principles, cooperative-learning strategies, and…

Putnam, Joyce; Barnes, Henrietta

52

Editorial Decisions May Perpetuate Belief in Invalid Research Findings  

PubMed Central

Social psychology and related disciplines are seeing a resurgence of interest in replication, as well as actual replication efforts. But prior work suggests that even a clear demonstration that a finding is invalid often fails to shake acceptance of the finding. This threatens the full impact of these replication efforts. Here we show that the actions of two key players – journal editors and the authors of original (invalidated) research findings – are critical to the broader public’s continued belief in an invalidated research conclusion. Across three experiments, we show that belief in an invalidated finding falls sharply when a critical failed replication is published in the same – versus different – journal as the original finding, and when the authors of the original finding acknowledge that the new findings invalidate their conclusions. We conclude by discussing policy implications of our key findings.

Eriksson, Kimmo; Simpson, Brent

2013-01-01

53

Inconsistencies in Autism-Specific Emotion Interventions: Cause for Concern  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Precise educational interventions are the sine qua non of services for students with exceptionalities. Applying interventions riddled with inconsistencies, therefore, interferes with the growth and learning potential of students who need these interventions. This research synthesis documents the inconsistencies revealed during a critical analysis…

Caldeira, Monica; Edmunds, Alan

2012-01-01

54

Delinquent-Oriented Attitudes Mediate the Relation Between Parental Inconsistent Discipline and Early Adolescent Behavior  

PubMed Central

Although substantial research supports the association between parental inconsistent discipline and early adolescent behaviors, less is understood on mechanisms underlying this relation. This study examined the mediating influence of delinquent-oriented attitudes in early adolescence. Using a longitudinal sample of 324 rural adolescents and their parents, findings revealed that inconsistent discipline in 6th grade predicted an increase in adolescent delinquent-oriented attitudes by 7th grade which, in turn, predicted both an increase in early adolescent antisocial behaviors and a decrease in socially competent behaviors by 8th grade. Therefore, it appears that accepting attitudes toward delinquency may in part develop from experiencing inconsistent discipline at home and may offer a possible explanation as to why early adolescents later engage in more antisocial and less socially competent behaviors. Findings may inform family-based preventive intervention programs that seek to decrease behavior problems and promote social competence in early adolescents.

Halgunseth, Linda C.; Perkins, Daniel F.; Lippold, Melissa A.; Nix, Robert L.

2013-01-01

55

Multiple Perpetrator Rape: Naming an Offence and Initial Research Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiple perpetrator rape presents a significant problem nationally and internationally. However, previous research is limited and findings are often contradictory. The details of 101 rape allegations recorded in a six-month period in a large police force in England were analysed. Findings are presented about case classification, victim and…

Horvath, Miranda Angel Helena; Kelly, Liz

2009-01-01

56

INTERIM FINDINGS ON THE STATUS OF VISIBILITY RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

This report was prepared in response to the statutory provisions of Section 169B(a) requiring an interim report on the status of visibility research. he document summarizes the results and findings of visibility research published in the refereed literature since the passage of t...

57

Yale researchers find genes behind aggressive endometrial cancer  

Cancer.gov

Yale and Yale Cancer Center researchers have defined the genetic landscape of uterine serous carcinoma (USC) tumors, a chemo-resistant, aggressive form of endometrial cancer, findings that point to new treatment opportunities. The collaborative team—which included researchers with expertise in gynecological cancer, genomics, and computational biology— identified a number of new genes that are frequently mutated in USC.

58

Relationships Always Matter: Findings from a Phenomenological Research Inquiry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on findings from a hermeneutic phenomenological research inquiry which explored the nature of relational experiences in teacher education. Stories of the lived experience of relationships in an educational context were hermeneutically interpreted against the philosophical writings of Heidegger, Gadamer, Levinas, and Buber. The research found that relationships are essential to the experience of education whether they are

David Giles

2011-01-01

59

Supervised, Supported and Indirect Contact Orders: Research Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Child contact with non-resident parents has become a key issue in family law and policy. Within the substantial and growing body of research into how legal systems deal with child contact disputes, there is little empirical data on the use courts make of orders for supervised, supported or indirect contact. This article presents empirical research findings focusing on the use

Alison Perry; Bernadette Rainey

2007-01-01

60

Inconsistency of topologically massive hypergravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The coupled topologically massive spin-5/2 gravity system in D = 3 dimensions whose kinematics represents dynamical propagating gauge invariant massive spin-5/2 and spin-2 excitations, is shown to be inconsistent, or equivalently, not locally hypersymmetric. In contrast to D = 4, the local constraints on the system arising from failure of the fermionic Bianchi identities do not involve the 'highest spin' components of the field, but rather the auxiliary spinor required to construct a consistent massive model.

Aragone, C.; Deser, S.

1985-01-01

61

Recruiting Underserved Mothers to Medical Research: Findings from North Carolina  

PubMed Central

Representative samples are required for ethical, valid, and useful health research. Yet, recruiting participants, especially from historically underserved communities, can be challenging. This paper presents findings from in-depth interviews with 40 mothers about factors that might influence their willingness to participate or allow their children to participate in medical research. Saliency analysis organizes the findings. Frequent and important salient themes about research participation included concerns that it might cause participants harm, hope that participants might gain a health benefit, and recognition that time and transportation resources could limit participation. Ultimately, we propose that a theoretical model, such as the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), will facilitate more systematic evaluation of effective methods for recruitment and retention of participants in medical research. Future research should explore the utility of such a model for development of effective recruitment and retention strategies.

Spears, Chaya R.; Sandberg, Joanne C.; O'Neill, Jenna L.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Howard, Timothy D.; Feldman, Steven R.; Arcury, Thomas A.

2014-01-01

62

Inconsistency in the items included in tools used in general health research and physical therapy to evaluate the methodological quality of randomized controlled trials: a descriptive analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Assessing the risk of bias of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is crucial to understand how biases affect treatment effect estimates. A number of tools have been developed to evaluate risk of bias of RCTs; however, it is unknown how these tools compare to each other in the items included. The main objective of this study was to describe which individual items are included in RCT quality tools used in general health and physical therapy (PT) research, and how these items compare to those of the Cochrane Risk of Bias (RoB) tool. Methods We used comprehensive literature searches and a systematic approach to identify tools that evaluated the methodological quality or risk of bias of RCTs in general health and PT research. We extracted individual items from all quality tools. We calculated the frequency of quality items used across tools and compared them to those in the RoB tool. Comparisons were made between general health and PT quality tools using Chi-squared tests. Results In addition to the RoB tool, 26 quality tools were identified, with 19 being used in general health and seven in PT research. The total number of quality items included in general health research tools was 130, compared with 48 items across PT tools and seven items in the RoB tool. The most frequently included items in general health research tools (14/19, 74%) were inclusion and exclusion criteria, and appropriate statistical analysis. In contrast, the most frequent items included in PT tools (86%, 6/7) were: baseline comparability, blinding of investigator/assessor, and use of intention-to-treat analysis. Key items of the RoB tool (sequence generation and allocation concealment) were included in 71% (5/7) of PT tools, and 63% (12/19) and 37% (7/19) of general health research tools, respectively. Conclusions There is extensive item variation across tools that evaluate the risk of bias of RCTs in health research. Results call for an in-depth analysis of items that should be used to assess risk of bias of RCTs. Further empirical evidence on the use of individual items and the psychometric properties of risk of bias tools is needed.

2013-01-01

63

Informed consent for return of incidental findings in genomic research.  

PubMed

Purpose:Researchers face the dilemma of how to obtain consent for return of incidental findings from genomic research. We surveyed and interviewed investigators and study participants, with the goal of providing suggestions for how to shape the consent process.Methods:We performed an online survey of 254 US genetic researchers identified through the NIH RePORTER database, abstracts from the 2011 American Society of Human Genetics meeting, and qualitative semi-structured interviews with 28 genomic researchers and 20 research participants.Results:Most researchers and participants endorsed disclosure of a wide range of information about return of incidental findings, including risks, benefits, impact on family members, data security, and procedures, for return of results in the event of death or incapacity and for recontact. However, most researchers were willing to devote 30?min or less to this process and expressed concerns that disclosed information would overwhelm participants, a concern shared by many participants themselves.Conclusion:There is a disjunction between the views of investigators and participants about the amount of information that should be disclosed and the practical realities of the research setting, including the time available for consent discussions. This strongly suggests the need for innovative approaches to the informed consent process.Genet Med 16 5, 367-373. PMID:24158054

Appelbaum, Paul S; Waldman, Cameron R; Fyer, Abby; Klitzman, Robert; Parens, Erik; Martinez, Josue; Price, W Nicholson; Chung, Wendy K

2014-05-01

64

Researchers' views on return of incidental genomic research results: qualitative and quantitative findings  

PubMed Central

Purpose Comprehensive genomic analysis including exome and genome sequencing is increasingly being utilized in research studies, leading to the generation of incidental genetic findings. It is unclear how researchers plan to deal with incidental genetic findings. Methods We conducted a survey of the practices and attitudes of 234 members of the US genetic research community and performed qualitative semistructured interviews with 28 genomic researchers to understand their views and experiences with incidental genetic research findings. Results We found that 12% of the researchers had returned incidental genetic findings, and an additional 28% planned to do so. A large majority of researchers (95%) believe that incidental findings for highly penetrant disorders with immediate medical implications should be offered to research participants. However, there was no consensus on returning incidental results for other conditions varying in penetrance and medical actionability. Researchers raised concerns that the return of incidental findings would impose significant burdens on research and could potentially have deleterious effects on research participants if not performed well. Researchers identified assistance needed to enable effective, accurate return of incidental findings. Conclusion The majority of the researchers believe that research participants should have the option to receive at least some incidental genetic research results.

Klitzman, Robert; Appelbaum, Paul S.; Fyer, Abby; Martinez, Josue; Buquez, Brigitte; Wynn, Julia; Waldman, Cameron R.; Phelan, Jo; Parens, Erik; Chung, Wendy K.

2013-01-01

65

Relationships Always Matter: Findings from a Phenomenological Research Inquiry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on findings from a hermeneutic phenomenological research inquiry which explored the nature of relational experiences in teacher education. Stories of the lived experience of relationships in an educational context were hermeneutically interpreted against the philosophical writings of Heidegger, Gadamer, Levinas, and Buber. The…

Giles, David L.

2011-01-01

66

Educational Financing in Developing Countries: Research Findings and Contemporary Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focuses on contemporary issues of educational financing in developing countries and on available research findings as these relate, or can be related, to these issues. The first two chapters are analytical, examining common educational finance issues and testing the conventional wisdom of certain usual proposals. Chapter 1, "Issues in…

Schiefelbein, Ernesto

67

Managing incidental findings in exome sequencing for research.  

PubMed

Exome sequencing for research has become available for broadly based genomic studies as well as smaller targeted investigations. New exome research projects being considered will intentionally process a large amount of common and rare DNA variation for the purpose of finding specific links between genotype and phenotype. However, the risks of uncovering a clinically relevant incidental finding are not uniform across projects but are highly dependent on the question being asked and exactly how it is intended to be answered.Factors that influence the possibility of revealing a clinically relevant incidental DNA variation include the following: The overall design of the study and the number of participants involved, the mode of inheritance of the phenotype including whether the phenotype is likely to have a monogenic or a complex inheritance, whether the study is assessing a known list of genes or not, and whether the causative DNA variation is likely to be rare or common. Importantly, differing bioinformatics DNA variant filtering strategies strongly influence the odds of discovering an incidental finding. This chapter provides a framework for understanding and assessing the likelihood of discovering clinically relevant, incidental DNA variations that are not directly related to the question being addressed in a particular exome research project. It also outlines DNA variant filtering and functional informatics approaches that can investigate specific genomic questions while minimizing the risks of uncovering an incidental finding. PMID:24870138

Hinchcliffe, Marcus J

2014-01-01

68

Research Infusion Collaboration: Finding Defect Patterns in Reused Code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 'Finding Defect Patterns in Reused Code' Research Infusion Collaboration was performed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory/Caltech under Contract 104-07-02.679 102 197 08.14.4. This final report describes the collaboration and documents the findings, including lessons learned.The research infusion collaboration characterized, using Orthogonal Defect Classification, defect reports for code that will be reused in mission-critical software on Deep Space Network Antenna controllers. Code reuse is estimated to be 90%, so it is important to identify systemic defects, or patterns, prior to reuse of this code. The work also identified ways to avoid certain types of defects and to test more efficiently.The primary objectives of the project were:to analyze defect patterns of the code to be reused based on the defects'Orthogonal Defect Classification (ODC)and to achieve a successful infusion of ODC to a project.

Lutz, Robyn R.; Morgan, Scott; Do, Tuan; Mikulski, Carmen; Berg Strain, Martha; Rockwell, Steve; Wilkinson, Belinda

2004-01-01

69

Inconsistency of speech in children with childhood apraxia of speech, phonological disorders, and typical speech  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a lack of agreement on the features used to differentiate Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS) from Phonological Disorders (PD). One criterion which has gained consensus is lexical inconsistency of speech (ASHA, 2007); however, no accepted measure of this feature has been defined. Although lexical assessment provides information about consistency of an item across repeated trials, it may not capture the magnitude of inconsistency within an item. In contrast, segmental analysis provides more extensive information about consistency of phoneme usage across multiple contexts and word-positions. The current research compared segmental and lexical inconsistency metrics in preschool-aged children with PD, CAS, and typical development (TD) to determine how inconsistency varies with age in typical and disordered speakers, and whether CAS and PD were differentiated equally well by both assessment levels. Whereas lexical and segmental analyses may be influenced by listener characteristics or speaker intelligibility, the acoustic signal is less vulnerable to these factors. In addition, the acoustic signal may reveal information which is not evident in the perceptual signal. A second focus of the current research was motivated by Blumstein et al.'s (1980) classic study on voice onset time (VOT) in adults with acquired apraxia of speech (AOS) which demonstrated a motor impairment underlying AOS. In the current study, VOT analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between age and group with the voicing distribution for bilabial and alveolar plosives. Findings revealed that 3-year-olds evidenced significantly higher inconsistency than 5-year-olds; segmental inconsistency approached 0% in 5-year-olds with TD, whereas it persisted in children with PD and CAS suggesting that for child in this age-range, inconsistency is a feature of speech disorder rather than typical development (Holm et al., 2007). Likewise, whereas segmental and lexical inconsistency were moderately-highly correlated, even the most highly-related segmental and lexical measures agreed on only 76% of classifications (i.e., to CAS and PD). Finally, VOT analyses revealed that CAS utilized a distinct distribution pattern relative to PD and TD. Discussion frames the current findings within a profile of CAS and provides a validated list of criteria for the differential diagnosis of CAS and PD.

Iuzzini, Jenya

70

Research findings can change attitudes about corporal punishment.  

PubMed

Positive attitudes toward the use of corporal punishment (CP) predict subsequent spanking behavior. Given that CP has frequently been associated with behavior problems in children and child maltreatment, this prevention work was designed to test whether adults' attitudes could be changed by informing participants about the research findings on problematic behaviors associated with CP. Two random assignment studies are reported. In Study 1, we tested whether an active reading condition would result in more attitude change than a passive condition. With a sample of 118 non-parent adults, we found that after reading very brief research summaries on the problems associated with CP, there was a significant decrease in favorable attitudes toward CP. Contrary to expectations, the magnitude of the change was comparable for active and passive processing conditions. In Study 2, we extended our approach to a sample of 520 parents and included a control group. A significant decrease in positive attitudes toward spanking was observed in the intervention group, but no change for the control group. Parents who were unaware of the research showed more change after reading the summaries. Thus, these studies demonstrate that a brief and cost-effective approach to raise awareness of research findings can reduce positive attitudes toward CP. Implications for prevention and intervention are discussed. PMID:24246718

Holden, George W; Brown, Alan S; Baldwin, Austin S; Croft Caderao, Kathryn

2014-05-01

71

Finding qualitative research: an evaluation of search strategies  

PubMed Central

Background Qualitative research makes an important contribution to our understanding of health and healthcare. However, qualitative evidence can be difficult to search for and identify, and the effectiveness of different types of search strategies is unknown. Methods Three search strategies for qualitative research in the example area of support for breast-feeding were evaluated using six electronic bibliographic databases. The strategies were based on using thesaurus terms, free-text terms and broad-based terms. These strategies were combined with recognised search terms for support for breast-feeding previously used in a Cochrane review. For each strategy, we evaluated the recall (potentially relevant records found) and precision (actually relevant records found). Results A total yield of 7420 potentially relevant records was retrieved by the three strategies combined. Of these, 262 were judged relevant. Using one strategy alone would miss relevant records. The broad-based strategy had the highest recall and the thesaurus strategy the highest precision. Precision was generally poor: 96% of records initially identified as potentially relevant were deemed irrelevant. Searching for qualitative research involves trade-offs between recall and precision. Conclusions These findings confirm that strategies that attempt to maximise the number of potentially relevant records found are likely to result in a large number of false positives. The findings also suggest that a range of search terms is required to optimise searching for qualitative evidence. This underlines the problems of current methods for indexing qualitative research in bibliographic databases and indicates where improvements need to be made.

Shaw, Rachel L; Booth, Andrew; Sutton, Alex J; Miller, Tina; Smith, Jonathan A; Young, Bridget; Jones, David R; Dixon-Woods, Mary

2004-01-01

72

Inconsistencies in spontaneous and intentional trait inferences  

PubMed Central

This study explores the fMRI correlates of observers making trait inferences about other people under conflicting social cues. Participants were presented with several behavioral descriptions involving an agent that implied a particular trait. The last behavior was either consistent or inconsistent with the previously implied trait. This was done under instructions that elicited either spontaneous trait inferences (‘read carefully’) or intentional trait inferences (‘infer a trait’). The results revealed that when the behavioral descriptions violated earlier trait implications, regardless of instruction, the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) was more strongly recruited as well as the domain-general conflict network including the posterior medial frontal cortex (pmFC) and the right prefrontal cortex (rPFC). These latter two areas were more strongly activated under intentional than spontaneous instructions. These findings suggest that when trait-relevant behavioral information is inconsistent, not only is activity increased in the mentalizing network responsible for trait processing, but control is also passed to a higher level conflict monitoring network in order to detect and resolve the contradiction.

Ma, Ning; Vandekerckhove, Marie; Baetens, Kris; Seurinck, Ruth; Fias, Wim

2012-01-01

73

42 CFR 93.104 - Requirements for findings of research misconduct.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Requirements for findings of research misconduct. 93.104 Section 93... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT General § 93.104 Requirements for findings of research misconduct. A finding of...

2012-10-01

74

ALPBP Project Research Component: Summary of Research Findings and Final Reports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes the Assessment of Language Proficiency of Bilingual Persons (ALPBP) project research component and provides a summary of the findings of the other six components of the study. The summary of the research component includes an outline of the goals, activities, and requests for proposals. After the introduction, the following…

Rivera, Charlene

75

A meta analysis of ISO 9001:2000 researchfindings and future research proposals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review and classify the main findings of the studies undertaken on ISO 9001:2000 certified companies and to present future research proposals. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A comprehensive literature review is carried out focusing on research papers published in academic literature. Both, the most recently published papers as well as those concerned only with

Evangelos L. Psomas; Christos V. Fotopoulos

2009-01-01

76

'Project launch': from research finding to therapeutic product.  

PubMed

Only 0.1-0.5% of new therapy candidates gains marketing approval; just 10-20% of the approved ones ultimately recoup the ~0.6-0.9$USbn invested into their R&D until marketing authorisation. One reason is the high inherent risk of new therapeutic products development. Further reasons are suboptimal decisions during R&D and, too often, lack of adequate experience. To bridge the latter gap, this article succinctly reviews identification of new product opportunities and their patent protection, the resulting commercial opportunity and portfolio valuation, planning and conduct of the ensuing preclinical and clinical tests, as well as therapeutic product registration and price reimbursement, covering risk management as an aside. The article also clarifies the key terms, identifies the main pit falls, highlights the essential requirements for and the goals of different product development steps, to facilitate communication between researchers and developers. By combining public information with personal experience and recommendations the article aims at informing more broadly those who are familiar mainly with some of the (strictly regulated) activities involved in design, development and launch of new therapeutic products, be it that they are medicinal products or medical devices. Taken together, this should support initiation and evolution of new therapeutic products and assist researchers in finding-and better and more smoothly co-operating with-consultants or partners in development and marketing. PMID:23948554

Cevc, Gregor

2014-01-23

77

Generalizing Inconsistency Learning for Constraint Satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constraint satisfaction problems, where values are sought for problem variables subject to re- strictions on which combinations of values are acceptable, have many applications in artificial intelligence. Conventional learning methods acquire individual tuples of inconsistent values. These learning experiences can be generalized. We propose a model of generalized learning, based on inconsistency preserving mappings, which is sufficiently focused so as

Eugene C. Freuder; Richard J. Wallace

1995-01-01

78

Next generation sequencing in psychiatric research: what study participants need to know about research findings.  

PubMed

The use of next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies in psychiatric genetics research and its potential to generate individual research results will likely have far reaching implications for predictive and diagnostic practices. The extent of this impact may not be easily understood by psychiatric research participants during the consent process. The traditional consent process for studies involving human subjects does not address critical issues specific to NGS research, such as the return of results. We examined which type of research findings should be communicated, how this information should be conveyed during the consent process and what guidance is required by researchers and IRBs to help psychiatric research participants understand the peculiarities, the limits and the impact of NGS. Strong standards are needed to ensure appropriate use of data generated by NGS, to meet participants' expectations and needs, and to clarify researchers' duties regarding the disclosure of data and their subsequent management. In the short term, researchers and IRBs need to be proactive in revising current consent processes that deal with the disclosure of research findings. PMID:23725748

Mathieu, Ghislaine; Groisman, Iris Jaitovich; Godard, Beatrice

2013-10-01

79

48 CFR 335.071 - Special determinations and findings affecting research and development contracting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...findings affecting research and development contracting. 335.071...Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 335.071 ...findings affecting research and development contracting. OPDIV...

2013-10-01

80

42 CFR 93.501 - Opportunity to contest findings of research misconduct and administrative actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Opportunity to contest findings of research misconduct and administrative actions...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative...

2013-10-01

81

42 CFR 93.501 - Opportunity to contest findings of research misconduct and administrative actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Opportunity to contest findings of research misconduct and administrative actions...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative...

2012-10-01

82

42 CFR 93.104 - Requirements for findings of research misconduct.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...104 Requirements for findings of research misconduct. A finding of research misconduct made under this part requires...a significant departure from accepted practices of the relevant research community; and (b) The...

2010-10-01

83

42 CFR 93.104 - Requirements for findings of research misconduct.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...104 Requirements for findings of research misconduct. A finding of research misconduct made under this part requires...a significant departure from accepted practices of the relevant research community; and (b) The...

2009-10-01

84

42 CFR 93.104 - Requirements for findings of research misconduct.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...104 Requirements for findings of research misconduct. A finding of research misconduct made under this part requires...a significant departure from accepted practices of the relevant research community; and (b) The...

2013-10-01

85

Behavioral variability of choices versus structural inconsistency of preferences.  

PubMed

Theories of rational choice often make the structural consistency assumption that every decision maker's binary strict preference among choice alternatives forms a strict weak order. Likewise, the very concept of a utility function over lotteries in normative, prescriptive, and descriptive theory is mathematically equivalent to strict weak order preferences over those lotteries, while intransitive heuristic models violate such weak orders. Using new quantitative interdisciplinary methodologies, we dissociate the variability of choices from the structural inconsistency of preferences. We show that laboratory choice behavior among stimuli of a classical "intransitivity" paradigm is, in fact, consistent with variable strict weak order preferences. We find that decision makers act in accordance with a restrictive mathematical model that, for the behavioral sciences, is extraordinarily parsimonious. Our findings suggest that the best place to invest future behavioral decision research is not in the development of new intransitive decision models but rather in the specification of parsimonious models consistent with strict weak order(s), as well as heuristics and other process models that explain why preferences appear to be weakly ordered. PMID:22506679

Regenwetter, Michel; Davis-Stober, Clintin P

2012-04-01

86

Inconsistencies in steady-state thermodynamics.  

PubMed

We address the issue of extending thermodynamics to nonequilibrium steady states. Using driven stochastic lattice gases, we ask whether consistent definitions of an effective chemical potential ?, and an effective temperature Te, are possible. ? and Te are determined via coexistence, i.e., zero flux of particles and energy between the driven system and a reservoir. In the lattice gas with nearest-neighbor exclusion, temperature is not relevant, and we find that the effective chemical potential, a function of density and drive strength, satisfies the zeroth law, and correctly predicts the densities of coexisting systems. In the Katz-Lebowitz-Spohn driven lattice gas both ? and Te need to be defined. We show analytically that in this case the zeroth law is violated for Metropolis exchange rates, and determine the size of the violations numerically. The zeroth law appears to be violated for generic exchange rates. Remarkably, the system-reservoir coupling proposed by Sasa and Tasaki [J. Stat. Phys. 125, 125 (2006)] is free of inconsistencies, and the zeroth law holds. This is because the rate depends only on the state of the donor system, and is independent of that of the acceptor. PMID:24730817

Dickman, Ronald; Motai, Ricardo

2014-03-01

87

Inconsistencies in steady-state thermodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We address the issue of extending thermodynamics to nonequilibrium steady states. Using driven stochastic lattice gases, we ask whether consistent definitions of an effective chemical potential ?, and an effective temperature Te, are possible. ? and Te are determined via coexistence, i.e., zero flux of particles and energy between the driven system and a reservoir. In the lattice gas with nearest-neighbor exclusion, temperature is not relevant, and we find that the effective chemical potential, a function of density and drive strength, satisfies the zeroth law, and correctly predicts the densities of coexisting systems. In the Katz-Lebowitz-Spohn driven lattice gas both ? and Te need to be defined. We show analytically that in this case the zeroth law is violated for Metropolis exchange rates, and determine the size of the violations numerically. The zeroth law appears to be violated for generic exchange rates. Remarkably, the system-reservoir coupling proposed by Sasa and Tasaki [J. Stat. Phys. 125, 125 (2006), 10.1007/s10955-005-9021-7] is free of inconsistencies, and the zeroth law holds. This is because the rate depends only on the state of the donor system, and is independent of that of the acceptor.

Dickman, Ronald; Motai, Ricardo

2014-03-01

88

1998 National Gun Policy Survey of the National Opinion Research Center: Research Findings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Opinion Research Center (NORC) at the University of Chicago in collaboration with the Johns Hopkins Center for Gun Policy and Research in 1999 released a final report based on the research findings of a national survey on gun policies. The 64-page study reports on topics such as the regulation of firearms, gun ownership and use, knowledge and attitudes toward guns, gun violence, and safety issues. The report includes thirteen statistical tables and concludes that the American public strongly supports "legislation to regulate firearms, make guns safer, and reduce the accessibility of firearms to criminals and children."

Smith, Tom W.

89

HIV research in Australia: linking basic research findings with clinical and public health outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite a population of only 20 million and sustained low prevalence of HIV infection in Australia, Australian researchers have provided many substantial original findings to the fields of HIV pathogenesis, treatment and prevention. More recently, Australian clinicians and scientists have turned their attention to assisting other countries in developing effective responses, particularly within the Asia-Pacific region. It is therefore fitting

Sharon R Lewin; John M Kaldor; David A Cooper

2006-01-01

90

Legal Interventions in Family Violence: Research Findings and Policy Implications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent research has shed considerable light on family violence and various efforts to combat it within the justice system. Much of the research has direct, practical application for prosecutors, judges, defense attorneys, victim/witness advocates, and mem...

1998-01-01

91

Applying Ad Hoc Institutional Research Findings to College Strategic Planning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Environmental scanning, enrollment forecasting, budget analyses, and institutional effectiveness assessment are examples of the explicit contributions institutional research offices make to campus strategic planning.

Clagett, Craig A.

2004-01-01

92

"Response to Comments": Finding the Narrative in Narrative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author responds to comments by Barone (2009), Clandinin and Murphy (2009), and M. W. Smith (2009) on "The Construction Zone: Literary Elements in Narrative Research" (Coulter & M. L. Smith, 2009). She clarifies issues regarding point of view, authorial surplus, narrative coherence, and the relational qualities of narrative research. She…

Coulter, Cathy A.

2009-01-01

93

Dabrowski's Theory of Positive Disintegration and Giftedness: Overexcitability Research Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the past 20 years, a significant body of literature has emerged focusing on the application of Dabrowski's theory of positive disintegration (TPD) to the study of gifted individuals. Although much of this literature is prescriptive, some research reports spanning this time period are available. A perusal of research on TPD's applicability…

Mendaglio, Sal; Tillier, William

2006-01-01

94

Gate Valve and Motor-Operator Research Findings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report provides an update on the valve research being sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The research addresses the need to provide assurance that motor-operated...

R. Steele K. G. DeWall J. C. Watkins M. J. Russell D. Bramwell

1995-01-01

95

Researchers Find Order, Beauty in Chaotic Chemical Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deterministic chaos which involves orderly motion is discussed. Presented is the history of chaos and two tests for chaos. Practical applications and predictions of the long-term significance of chaos research are discussed. (KR)

Borman, Stu

1991-01-01

96

MIT researchers find new technology may enable earlier cancer diagnosis  

Cancer.gov

A new technology developed at MIT may help to make biomarker detection much easier. The researchers, led by Sangeeta Bhatia, have developed nanoparticles that can home to a tumor and interact with cancer proteins to produce thousands of biomarkers.

97

Find the Expert at the Agricultural Research Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United States Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service now offers a feature where users can directly ask questions of Agricultural experts. Searching is possible in three ways: Keyword, Broad Subject Area, or Research Area. Typical search results include lists of experts with contact addresses, including email. With subject areas ranging from Air Quality and Mitigation to Weeds, this service adds a nice notch in the measuring stick of improved scientific communication.

98

Incorporating Research Findings into Standards and Requirements for Space Medicine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Vision for Exploration has been the catalyst for NASA to refocus its life sciences research. In the future, life sciences research funded by NASA will be focused on answering questions that directly impact setting physiological standards and developing effective countermeasures to the undesirable physiological and psychological effects of spaceflight for maintaining the health of the human system. This, in turn, will contribute to the success of exploration class missions. We will show how research will impact setting physiologic standards, such as exposure limits, outcome limits, and accepted performance ranges. We will give examples of how a physiologic standard can eventually be translated into an operational requirement, then a functional requirement, and eventually spaceflight hardware or procedures. This knowledge will be important to the space medicine community as well as to vehicle contractors who, for the first time, must now consider the human system in developing and constructing a vehicle that can achieve the goal of success.

Duncan, J. Michael

2006-01-01

99

THE IMPACT OF TELEVISION, METHODS AND FINDINGS IN PROGRAM RESEARCH.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

SURVEY AND TESTING TECHNIQUES USED BY THE BRITISH BROADCASTING CORPORATION IN THE YEARS 1952-63 TO ANSWER QUESTIONS OF INTEREST TO TELEVISION PLANNERS INDICATE METHODOLOGY FOR FUTURE PLANNING RESEARCH. TO ANSWER THE BASIC QUESTION--WHAT PEOPLE ARE AVAILABLE FOR WATCHING AND LISTENING--BBC USED THE METHOD OF HAVING 2981 MEMBERS OF A NATIONAL SAMPLE…

BELSON, W.A.

100

Finding a place for genomics in health disparities research.  

PubMed

The existence of pronounced differences in health outcomes between US populations is a problem of moral significance and public health urgency. Pursuing research on genetic contributors to such disparities, despite striking data on the fundamental role of social factors, has been controversial. Still, advances in genomic science are providing an understanding of disease biology at a level of precision not previously possible. The potential for genomic strategies to help in addressing population-level disparities therefore needs to be carefully evaluated. Using 3 examples from current research, we argue that the best way to maximize the benefits of population-based genomic investigations, and mitigate potential harms, is to direct research away from the identification of genetic causes of disparities and instead focus on applying genomic methodologies to the development of clinical and public health tools with the potential to ameliorate healthcare inequities, direct population-level health interventions or inform public policy. Such a transformation will require close collaboration between transdisciplinary teams and community members as well as a reorientation of current research objectives to better align genomic discovery efforts with public health priorities and well-recognized barriers to fair health care delivery. PMID:22488458

Fullerton, S M; Knerr, S; Burke, W

2012-01-01

101

Action Research: Finding Solutions To Help Limited English Speakers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An action research project was designed to improve the English oral language skills of students of limited English proficiency (LEP) and their academic achievement. Thirty students were randomly chosen from 70 Hispanic fifth graders who enrolled in a voluntary program. Instruction was given using a contextualized environment. Within this…

Moore, Rock D.; Fetterolf, Dee

102

Electrical Distribution. Project Report Phase I with Research Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of electrical distribution, established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to train apprentice line workers. Section 1 contains general information: purpose of Phase…

Sappe', Hoyt; Kirkpatrick, Thomas

103

Pneumonia: New Prediction Model Proves Promising. Research Findings for Clinicians.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new clinical prediction model can help clinicians determine the most appropriate care for newly diagnosed cases of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). The model recently was announced by a team of researchers supported through a grant from the Federal A...

M. J. Fine W. N. Kapoor

1997-01-01

104

FINDING THE BALANCE - QUALITY ASSURANCE REQUIREMENTS VS. RESEARCH NEEDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Investigators often misapply quality assurance (QA) procedures and may consider QA as a hindrance to developing test plans for sampling and analysis. If used properly, however, QA is the driving force for collecting the right kind and proper amount of data. Researchers must use Q...

105

FINDING THE BALANCE - QUALITY ASSURANCE REQUIREMENTS VS. RESEARCH NEEDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Investigators often misapply quality assurance (QA) procedures and may consider QA as a hindrance to developing test plans for sampling and analysis. If used properly, however, QA is the driving force for collecting the right kind and proper amount of data. Researchers must...

106

Treatment of methamphetamine abuse: research findings and clinical directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past few years, methamphetamine has appeared in mass quantities, in part, because of the ease and cost efficiency of manufacturing. With this increase in availability, the use of methamphetamine has increased significantly. The purpose of this article is to describe the existing treatment options for methamphetamine abuse and provide recommendations for practitioners and researchers. Methamphetamine abuse adversely impacts

Margaret Cretzmeyer; Mary Vaughan Sarrazin; Diane L. Huber; Robert I. Block; James A. Hall

2003-01-01

107

Commercial Photography. Project Report Phase I with Research Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of commercial photography, established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to train photographic technicians. Section 1 contains general information: purpose of Phase…

Brown, Ted; Sappe', Hoyt

108

Finding a Place for Genomics in Health Disparities Research  

PubMed Central

The existence of pronounced differences in health outcomes between US populations is a problem of moral significance and public health urgency. Pursuing research on genetic contributors to such disparities, despite striking data on the fundamental role of social factors, has been controversial. Still, advances in genomic science are providing an understanding of disease biology at a level of precision not previously possible. The potential for genomic strategies to help in addressing population-level disparities therefore needs to be carefully evaluated. Using 3 examples from current research, we argue that the best way to maximize the benefits of population-based genomic investigations, and mitigate potential harms, is to direct research away from the identification of genetic causes of disparities and instead focus on applying genomic methodologies to the development of clinical and public health tools with the potential to ameliorate healthcare inequities, direct population-level health interventions or inform public policy. Such a transformation will require close collaboration between transdisciplinary teams and community members as well as a reorientation of current research objectives to better align genomic discovery efforts with public health priorities and well-recognized barriers to fair health care delivery.

Fullerton, S.M.; Knerr, S.; Burke, W.

2012-01-01

109

Reconciling (Seemingly) Discrepant Findings: Implications for Practice and Future Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Decades of research in survey methodology and psychology have yielded important insights about how to create effective and valid survey instruments. As Porter (in press) has argued convincingly, college student surveys often fall well short of these standards by placing unrealistic demands on students' memory and by assuming that students readily…

Bowman, Nicholas A.; Herzog, Serge

2011-01-01

110

Pain, Nicotine, and Smoking: Research Findings and Mechanistic Considerations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tobacco addiction and chronic pain represent 2 highly prevalent and comorbid conditions that engender substantial burdens upon individuals and systems. Interrelations between pain and smoking have been of clinical and empirical interest for decades, and research in this area has increased dramatically over the past 5 years. We conceptualize the…

Ditre, Joseph W.; Brandon, Thomas H.; Zale, Emily L.; Meagher, Mary M.

2011-01-01

111

Emerging Answers: Research Findings on Programs To Reduce Teen Pregnancy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes three bodies of research on teenage pregnancy and programs to reduce the risk of teenage pregnancy. Studies included in this report were completed in 1980 or later, conducted in the United States or Canada, targeted adolescents, employed an experimental or quasi-experimental design, had a sample size of at least 100 in the…

Kirby, Douglas

112

The Effectiveness of Nurture Groups: Preliminary Research Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses preliminary research results that indicate placement of children (n=216) with emotional/behavioral difficulties into a Nurture Group has a positive effect on a significant proportion of pupils. There is also evidence that the parents of children in Nurture Groups benefit from the positive progress made by their children.…

Cooper, Paul; Arnold, Ray; Boyd, Eve

2001-01-01

113

Instrumentation Technology. Project Report Phase I with Research Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of instrumentation technology, established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to train instrumentation technicians. Section 1 contains general information: purpose of…

Sappe', Hoyt; Squires, Sheila S.

114

Finding Community: A Guide to Community Research and Action.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For those concerned with contemporary social problems, whether as students, members of community groups, or individual citizens, this book attempts not only to describe the issues, but also to offer some starting points for local research and action. As an educational tool, it is based on the belief that a good way to learn about a community is to…

Jones, W. Ron; And Others

115

Researchers Find That Childhood Sarcoma Increases Risk of Blood Clots  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, have determined that children and young adults with a form of cancer called sarcoma are at increased risk of having a thromboembolic event (TE) in their veins.

116

Becoming a Scientist: Research Findings on STEM Students' Gains from Conducting Undergraduate Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Undergraduate research is widely believed to enhance STEM students' education and increase their persistence to graduate education and careers in the sciences. Yet until very recently, little evidence from research and evaluation studies was available to substantiate such claims and document what students gain from doing undergraduate research or how these gains come about. We have conducted a three-year qualitative research study of STEM students participating in UR at four liberal arts colleges with a strong tradition of faculty-led summer research apprenticeships. Benefits to students reported by both students and their faculty advisors are categorized into six main categories of gains in skills, knowledge, "thinking like a scientist," career preparation, career development, and personal and professional growth. Student and faculty observations are strongly corroborative, but also differ in interesting ways that reflect the distinct perspectives of each group: students are still in the midst of discovering their own career paths while faculty advisors have observed the later career development of their past research students. While not all students find UR to heighten their interest in graduate school, they do find it a powerful growth experience that clarifies their career ambitions by providing a "real world" experience of science. For students whose interest in science is reinforced, UR has a significant role in their professional socialization into the culture and norms of science, which we call "becoming a scientist," through interactions that draw them into the scientific community and experiences that deepen their understanding of the nature of research. Cumulatively, the qualitative data set of nearly 350 interviews offers a rich portrayal of the UR enterprise from a variety of perspectives. Longitudinal data enable us to track the influence of UR on students' career and education trajectories in the years after college, and comparative data from a group of students who did not undertake UR or pursued alternate experiences reveal the extent to which some benefits of UR may be derived from other experiences. Faculty interviews reveal the costs and benefits to faculty of participating in this intensive form of science education. The presentation will highlight key findings and emphasize their relevance to faculty and program directors undertaking UR or seeking to generate its benefits through other activities.

Hunter, A.; Laursen, S.; Thiry, H.; Seymour, E.

2006-12-01

117

CAP88 PC Tritium Ingestion Model Inconsistencies  

SciTech Connect

CAP88 PC is the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) code approved for demonstrating compliance with National Emission Standard for Hazardous Pollutants (NESHAP) 40 CFR Part 61. A detailed look at the dose methodology for tritium revealed that there are several inconsistencies in the ingestion model when compared with the ingestion model for other radionuclides within the code. The inconsistencies include use of an out-dated tritium ingestion dose conversion factor and hard coding of out-dated food consumption parameters for tritium. Correction of these values could result in approximately a 50 percent reduction in dose from tritium for certain cases.

Simpkins, A.A.

2001-02-26

118

Alcoholics Anonymous: Key Research Findings from 2002–2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and other 12-step programs represent an affordable and widely accessible community-based resource for the estimated 18 million Americans with alcohol-related disorders. While substantiating information regarding 12-step programs remains challenging due to their autonomous structure and emphasis on anonymity, an ever increasing body of research provides a wealth of data regarding AA's efficacy, mechanisms of change, and viability

Shulamith Lala Ashenberg Straussner; Helga Byrne

2009-01-01

119

Pain, Nicotine, and Smoking: Research Findings and Mechanistic Considerations  

PubMed Central

Tobacco addiction and chronic pain represent two highly prevalent and comorbid conditions that engender substantial burdens upon individuals and systems. Although interrelations between pain and smoking have been of clinical and empirical interest for decades, research on the topic of pain, nicotine, and tobacco smoking has increased dramatically over the past five years. We conceptualize the interaction of pain and smoking as a prototypical example of the biopsychosocial model. Accordingly, the current review extrapolated from behavioral, cognitive, affective, biomedical, and social perspectives to propose causal mechanisms that may contribute to the observed comorbidity between these two conditions. Research in the broad area of pain and smoking was first dichotomized into investigations of either "effects of smoking on pain" or "effects of pain on smoking." We then integrated the extant literature to present a reciprocal model of pain and smoking that is hypothesized to interact in the manner of a positive feedback loop, resulting in greater pain, increased smoking, and the maintenance of tobacco addiction. Finally, we proposed directions for future research, and discussed clinical implications for smokers with comorbid pain disorders. We observed modest evidence to support the notions that smoking may be a risk factor in the multifactorial etiology of some chronically painful conditions, and that the experience of pain may come to serve as a potent motivator of smoking. We also found that whereas animal studies yielded consistent support for direct pain-inhibitory effects of nicotine and tobacco smoke, results from human studies were much less consistent. Future research in the emerging area of pain and smoking has the potential to inform theoretical and clinical applications with respect to tobacco smoking, chronic pain, and their comorbid presentation.

Ditre, Joseph W.; Brandon, Thomas H.; Zale, Emily L.; Meagher, Mary M.

2011-01-01

120

Cancer researchers translate new laboratory findings to enhance melanoma treatment  

Cancer.gov

Translational researchers from UCLA’s Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center (JCCC) have published results of two back-to-back studies in the journal Cancer Discovery that provide critical insights into two key areas of how tumors resist BRAF inhibitors: the key cell-signaling pathways BRAF-mutant melanoma cells use to learn how to become resistant to inhibitor drugs, and how the limited focus of BRAF inhibitors allows melanoma cells to evolve and develop drug resistance.

121

42 CFR 93.411 - Final HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct. 93.411 Section 93...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the...Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.411...

2010-10-01

122

42 CFR 93.404 - Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the...Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.404...

2011-10-01

123

42 CFR 93.404 - Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the...Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.404...

2010-10-01

124

42 CFR 93.411 - Final HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct. 93.411 Section 93...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the...Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.411...

2011-10-01

125

42 CFR 93.410 - Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct. 93.410 Section 93...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the...Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.410...

2012-10-01

126

42 CFR 93.404 - Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the...Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.404...

2013-10-01

127

NIAMS-Supported Research Finds New Genetic Links to Juvenile Arthritis  

MedlinePLUS

... 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 Spotlight on Research 2013 June 2013 NIAMS-Supported Research Finds New Genetic Links to Juvenile Arthritis New research supported by the NIH’s National Institute of Arthritis ...

128

42 CFR 93.404 - Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the...Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.404...

2012-10-01

129

42 CFR 93.410 - Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct. 93.410 Section 93...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the...Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.410...

2013-10-01

130

42 CFR 93.411 - Final HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct. 93.411 Section 93...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the...Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.411...

2013-10-01

131

Inconsistent Incomplete Information: A Betting Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study two person-betting games with inconsistent commonly know beliefs, using an experimental approach. In our experimental games, participants bet against one another, each bettor choosing one of two possible outcomes, and payoff odds are know at the time bets are placed. Bettors' beliefs are always commonly known. Participants play a series of betting games, in some of which the

Werner Güth; Loreto Llorente Erviti; Anthony Ziegelmeyer

2009-01-01

132

Identification of Inconsistent Variables in Factor Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A useful method is proposed for identifying a variable as inconsistent in factor analysis. The procedure, based on the likelihood principle, is illustrated. Statistical properties such as the effect of misspecified hypotheses, the problem of multiple comparisons, and robustness to violation of distributional assumptions are investigated. (SLD)

Kano, Yutaka; Ihara, Masamori

1994-01-01

133

Gate valve and motor-operator research findings  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an update on the valve research being sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The research addresses the need to provide assurance that motor-operated valves can perform their intended safety function, usually to open or close against specified (design basis) flow and pressure loads. This report describes several important developments: Two methods for estimating or bounding the design basis stem factor (in rising-stem valves), using data from tests less severe than design basis tests; a new correlation for evaluating the opening responses of gate valves and for predicting opening requirements; an extrapolation method that uses the results of a best effort flow test to estimate the design basis closing requirements of a gate valve that exhibits atypical responses (peak force occurs before flow isolation); and the extension of the original INEL closing correlation to include low- flow and low-pressure loads. The report also includes a general approach, presented in step-by-step format, for determining operating margins for rising-stem valves (gate valves and globe valves) as well as quarter-turn valves (ball valves and butterfly valves).

Steele, R. Jr.; DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; Russell, M.J.; Bramwell, D.

1995-09-01

134

Research based empathic knowledge for nursing: A translational strategy for disseminating phenomenological research findings to provide evidence for caring practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are interested in the kind of knowledge that is particularly relevant to caring practice and the way in which qualitative research findings can serve such knowledge. As phenomenological researchers we have been engaged with the question of how findings from such research can be re-presented and expressed more aesthetically. Such a movement towards a more aesthetic phenomenology may serve

Kathleen T. Galvin; Les Todres

2011-01-01

135

Exploiting multimedia in reproductive science education: research findings.  

PubMed

Education in reproductive science is operating from an outdated paradigm of teaching and learning. Traditionally, reproductive education follows the pattern where students read a textbook, listen to instructor presentations, re-read the textbook and class notes and then complete a test. This paradigm is inefficient, costly and has not incorporated the potential that technology can offer with respect to increases in student learning. Further, teachers of reproductive science (and all of science for that matter) have little training in the use of documented methods of instructional design and cognitive psychology. Thus, most of us have learned to teach by repeating the approaches our mentors used (both good and bad). The technology now exists to explain complex topics using multimedia presentations in which digital animation and three-dimensional anatomical reconstructions greatly reduce time required for delivery while at the same time improving student understanding. With funding from the Small Business Innovation Research program through the U.S. Department of Education, we have developed and tested a multimedia approach to teaching complex concepts in reproductive physiology. The results of five separate experiments involving 1058 university students and 122 patients in an OB/GYN clinic indicate that students and patients learned as much or more in less time when viewing the multimedia presentations when compared to traditional teaching methodologies. PMID:22827348

Senger, P L; Oki, A C; Trevisan, M S; McLean, D J

2012-08-01

136

Great lakes research--important human health findings and their impact on ATSDR's Superfund research program.  

PubMed

The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) was created by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, commonly known as Superfund. ATSDR is the principal United States federal public health agency involved with issues of public health and applied science concerning the human health impact of living in the vicinity of a hazardous waste site, or emergencies resulting from unplanned releases of hazardous substances into community environments. In pursuing these mandates, ATSDR's mission is to prevent exposure and adverse human health effects and diminished quality of life associated with exposure to hazardous substances from waste sites, unplanned releases, and other sources of pollution present in the environment. There are more than 2,000 toxic substances found at hazardous waste sites in the United States. ATSDR has developed a prioritized list of 275 substances that pose the greatest hazard to human health. In conducting its work ATSDR has identified data gaps in knowledge about the toxicity of various hazardous substances as well as gaps in human exposure characterization. As part of its mandate, ATSDR initiated a Substance-Specific Applied Research Program (SSARP) to address these data gaps. The ATSDR Great Lakes Human Health Effects Research Program (GLHHERP) is a congressionally-mandated research program that characterizes exposure to persistent toxic substances and investigates the potential for adverse health outcome in at-risk populations. The research findings from this program in the areas of exposure, sociodemographic data, and health effects have significant public health implications for ATSDR's Superfund research activities. PMID:12018016

Hicks, Heraline E; De Rosa, Christopher T

2002-03-01

137

Examining inconsistencies in student reasoning approaches  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Student-centered instruction can lead to strong gains in physics learning. However, even after targeted instruction, many students still struggle to systematically analyze unfamiliar situations. We have been identifying sequences of questions that allow for an in-depth examination of inconsistencies in student reasoning approaches. On these sequences, many students demonstrate that they possess the abilities to perform the required reasoning, yet they fail to apply this reasoning to arrive at a correct answer. In certain contexts, students tend to âabandonâ suitable formal reasoning in favor of reasoning that was (perhaps) more intuitively appealing at that moment. In other cases, erroneous student reasoning approaches can be attributed to the relative salience of specific features of the problem. We present results from one sequence revealing inconsistencies in student reasoning in the context of capacitors. This sequence was administered in an introductory course in which Tutorials in Introductory Physics were implemented as interactive lectures.

Kryjevskaia, Mila; Stetzer, Mackenzie R.

2014-04-11

138

Effect of Alcohol on Human Performance: A Classification and Integration of Research Findings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development and evaluation of systems for describing and classifying tasks which can improve generalization of research results about human performance is essential for organizing, communicating and implementing these research findings. The present re...

G. D. Greenbaum J. M. Levine

1973-01-01

139

Refinement of the Stetler/Marram Model for Application of Research Findings to Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The revised Stetler model of research utilization has six phases: preparation, validation, comparative evaluation, decision making, translation/application, and evaluation. It can be used to facilitate application of nursing research findings at the practitioner level. (JOW)

Stetler, Cheryl B.

1994-01-01

140

48 CFR 335.071 - Special determinations and findings affecting research and development contracting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Acquisition Regulations System 4 2009-10-01...and findings affecting research and development contracting...Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ...CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT...

2009-10-01

141

48 CFR 335.071 - Special determinations and findings affecting research and development contracting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01...and findings affecting research and development contracting...Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ...CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT...

2010-10-01

142

Incidental Computer Tomography Radiologic Findings through Research Participation in the North Texas Healthy Heart Study  

PubMed Central

Background Although variation exists in the classification and practice of managing clinical findings in research, emerging views suggest that researchers bear some responsibility in the management of incidental findings. This study contributes to the documentation of the population characteristics and prevalence of medical findings incidental to research participation, specifically findings related to coronary calcium scores and computed tomography (CT) scans that investigated cardiovascular disparities in an asymptomatic population. Methods A total of 571 asymptomatic adult participants were recruited in the North Texas Healthy Heart Study. Participants completed a 16-slice CT scan of the heart and abdomen. Findings of radiology reports and 3 years of follow-up documentation were reviewed. Results A total of 246 clinically apparent findings were identified in 169 asymptomatic participants (32.9% of participants who completed a CT scan). Another 245 participants (48%) had findings of unknown significance, a total of 307 findings. At least 4 cases in this study led to a clinically significant intervention. Conclusion Although CT scans were completed for research purposes, study procedures resulted in the diagnosis and treatment of individuals who were previously asymptomatic. Potential clinical benefits in imaging research are moderated by considerations regarding possible harm and costs resulting from uncertain findings and the use of CT scans for nonclinical purposes. The continued development of protocols for the handling of incidental findings in research and the establishment of guidelines are needed to ensure that research procedures mirror the best interests of participants.

Espinoza, Anna; Malone, Kendra; Balyakina, Elizabeth; Fulda, Kimberly G.; Cardarelli, Roberto

2014-01-01

143

The impact of the 1991 Gulf War on the mind and brain: findings from neuropsychological and neuroimaging research  

PubMed Central

Many veterans of the 1991 Gulf War (GW) have complained of somatic and cognitive symptoms that may be neurological in nature. However, whether or not changes in brain function are associated with GW service continues to be debated. Studies of GW veterans using objective, performance-based neuropsychological measures have yielded inconsistent findings, with those indicating deficits among GW veterans typically revealing only relatively mild levels of neuropsychological impairment. Further, performances on objective neuropsychological tasks show little correspondence to subjective perceptions of cognitive functioning. Although preliminary magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies demonstrate reduced N-acetylaspartate-to-creatine (NAA/Cr) ratio in select brain regions among GW veterans who report health concerns, this work requires further replication with larger, more representative samples. There is no evidence from neuroimaging studies of a non-specific effect of GW service or of changes in brain structure or function related to health status when conventional radiological methods are used. Owing to the paucity of objective exposure, baseline health data, and the now significant time elapsed since the GW, aetiological issues may never be fully resolved. Therefore, research addressing clinical management of GW veterans with neuropsychological dysfunction and neuroimaging abnormalities may prove more fruitful than exclusive focus on aetiology.

Vasterling, Jennifer J; Bremner, J. Douglas

2006-01-01

144

Fox Chase analysis finds more cutting-edge cancer research supported by industry  

Cancer.gov

Nearly half of the research presented at ASCO’s annual meeting last year came from researchers with ties to companies, and the amount appears to be increasing every year, according to new findings from Fox Chase Cancer Center. The new findings will be presented this year at the 2012 American Society of Clinical Oncology Annual Meeting on Monday, June 4.

145

Practice-Based Research Networks, Part I: Clinical Laboratories to Generate and Translate Research Findings Into Effective Patient Care  

PubMed Central

Context To improve patient care, athletic training clinicians and researchers should work together to translate research findings into clinical practice. Problems with patient care observed in clinical practice should be translated into research frameworks, where they can be studied. Practice-based research networks (PBRNs) provide a compelling model for linking clinicians and researchers so they can conduct translational research to improve patient care. Objective To describe (1) the translational research model, (2) practice-based research as a mechanism for translating research findings into clinical practice, (3) the PBRN model and infrastructure, (4) the research potential using the PBRN model, and (5) protection of human participants in PBRN research. Description Translational research is the process of transforming research findings into health behavior that ultimately serves the public and attempts to bridge the gap between research and clinical practice. Practice-based research represents the final step in the translational research continuum and describes research conducted by providers in clinical practices. The PBRNs are characterized by an organizational framework that transcends a single site or study and serves as the clinical research “laboratory” for conducting comparative-effectiveness studies using patient-oriented measures. The PBRN approach to research has many benefits, including enhanced generalizability of results, pooling of resources, rapid patient recruitment, and collaborative opportunities. However, multisite research also brings challenges related to the protection of human participants and institutional review board oversight. Clinical and Research Advantages Athletic training studies frequently include relatively few participants and, consequently, are able to detect only large effects. The incidence of injury at a single site is sufficiently low that gathering enough data to adequately power a treatment study may take many years. Collaborative efforts across diverse clinical practice environments can yield larger patient samples to overcome the limitations inherent in single-site research efforts.

Sauers, Eric L.; McLeod, Tamara C. Valovich; Bay, R. Curtis

2012-01-01

146

Processes and factors involved in decisions regarding return of incidental genomic findings in research  

PubMed Central

Purpose Studies have begun exploring whether researchers should return incidental findings in genomic studies, and if so, which findings should be returned; however, how researchers make these decisions— the processes and factors involved—has remained largely unexplored. Methods We interviewed 28 genomics researchers in-depth about their experiences and views concerning the return of incidental findings. Results Researchers often struggle with questions concerning which incidental findings to return and how to make those decisions. Multiple factors shape their views, including information about the gene variant (e.g., pathogenicity and disease characteristics), concerns about participants’ well-being and researcher responsibility, and input from external entities. Researchers weigh the evidence, yet they face conflicting pressures, with relevant data frequently being unavailable. Researchers vary in who they believe should decide: participants, principal investigators, institutional review boards, and/or professional organizations. Contextual factors can influence these decisions, including policies governing return of results by institutions and biobanks and the study design. Researchers vary in desires for: guidance from institutions and professional organizations, changes to current institutional processes, and community- wide genetics education. Conclusion These data, the first to examine the processes by which researchers make decisions regarding the return of genetic incidental findings, highlight several complexities involved and have important implications for future genetics research, policy, and examinations of these issues.

Klitzman, Robert; Buquez, Brigitte; Appelbaum, Paul S.; Fyer, Abby; Chung, Wendy K.

2014-01-01

147

Researcher Tales and Research Ethics: The Spaces in Which We Find Ourselves  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The tales we tell here focus on the ethical issues arising from our research practice with vulnerable young participants and those for whom research has been inextricably linked with European imperialism and colonialism. The importance of relational obligations, temporality and potential for a continuing narrative approach to ethical research

White, Julie; Fitzgerald, Tanya

2010-01-01

148

Australian mental health consumers' priorities for research: Qualitative findings from the SCOPE for Research project.  

PubMed

Background? There is growing acceptance of the importance of the consumer viewpoint in mental health research. Previous studies have identified differences in research priorities between researchers and mental health consumers in Australia defined broadly. However, little is known about the research priorities of consumers with specific mental health conditions. Objective? The aim of this study was to explore Australian mental health consumers' priorities for depression and bipolar disorder research. Design? Focus groups with consumers and individual telephone interviews with consumer advocates. Participants were asked to discuss the topics they believed were priorities for depression or bipolar disorder research. Transcripts were thematically analysed using NVivo 7. Setting and Participants? Ten people with depression and 19 with bipolar disorder participated in face-to-face focus groups held in three Australian capital cities. Five participants with each disorder participated in online focus groups. Five Australian consumer advocates with experience of depression and six with experience of bipolar disorder were individually interviewed by telephone. Results? Participants raised a broad variety of topics for research. The most salient themes included the need for research on medication, and lifestyle and psychosocial influences on depression and bipolar disorder. Conclusions? Participants' priorities reflect an interest in a holistic approach to mental health research that examines the influences of everyday life and psychosocial influences both on the development and on the management of these disorders. Their focus was on research that explores individualized care and the active role that consumers can play in their own care and recovery. PMID:22221624

Banfield, Michelle A; Barney, Lisa J; Griffiths, Kathleen M; Christensen, Helen M

2014-06-01

149

Using Tableaux Method to Represent Inconsistent Knowledge of Deep Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep web can hold a lot of information with good quality and special subject, but there would be some inconsistent problems such as dynamic, inconsistency and uncertainty in deep web search. As a result, it is of great theoretic value and realistic importance to represent the huge inconsistent knowledge underneath the deep web with more reasonable estimations and judgments. Based

Liu Quan; Cui Zhi-Ming; Yao Wang-Shu; Zhou Wen-Yun; Fu Yu-Chen; Ling Xing-Hong

2007-01-01

150

Skin Findings in Newborns and Their Relationship with Maternal Factors: Observational Research  

PubMed Central

Background Cutaneous lesions are commonly seen in the newborn period and exhibit inconsistency from the skin lesions of an adult. Objective The present study was carried out with an aim to determine the frequency of physiologic and pathologic cutaneous findings in newborns. Methods Typically, 1234 newborns were included in this study. A questionnaire about maternal gestational history, maternal and family history was issued to the parents of each newborn. The presence of cutaneous lesions was recorded. Results Overall, 642 (52%) of the newborns were male and 592 (48%) were female. Typically, 831 newborns (67.3%) had at least one cutaneous lesion. The prevalence of genital hyperpigmentation and milia was significantly higher in males. In premature newborns, the pervasiveness of cutis marmorata and genital hyperpigmentation was found to be significantly higher. Caput succedaneum, transient neonatal pustular melanosis and cyanosis appeared predominantly in vaginally born infants. Erythema toxicum neonatorum was seen in infants, who were born by cesarean section. The predominance of Mongolian spots and erythema toxicum neonatorum were significantly higher in the newborns of the multiparous mothers; however, caput succedaneum was significantly higher in newborns of the primiparous mothers. Conclusion A number of studies about neonatal dermatoses have been carried out involving different methods in various countries. We consider that our study may be useful in literature, as it has been carried out involving large number of maternal parameters.

Gul, Ulker; Mollamahmutoglu, Leyla; Gonul, Muzeyyen

2013-01-01

151

FRESHWATER FINDINGS, 1979-1982: RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY, DULUTH, MINNESOTA  

EPA Science Inventory

This report contains citations of publications for the years 1979-1982 on research conducted or supported by the Environmental Research Laboratory-Duluth. All published material has been organized into two major categories: (1) Journal Articles, Book Chapters, Proceedings, etc., ...

152

Looking Back To Find a Vision: Exploring the Emancipatory Potential of Teacher Research. Review of Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the limitations of experimental studies of learning and the emergence of alternative paradigms such as constructivism. Examines the growth of teacher research and its historical influences, including Montessori, Dewey's Progressive Movement, and Lucy Sprague Mitchell. Discusses current trends in teacher research, asserting that it is…

Crawford, Patricia A.; Cornett, Jeffrey

2000-01-01

153

Researchers Find that Tumor Stem Cells are Good Models for Brain Tumor Research  

Cancer.gov

Researchers have found that tumor stem cell lines derived directly from human glioblastoma brain tumors are a better model to study the biology and physiology of glioblastomas than are cancer cell lines that have been commonly used in cancer research laboratories.

154

Disseminating research findings: what should researchers do? A systematic scoping review of conceptual frameworks  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Addressing deficiencies in the dissemination and transfer of research-based knowledge into routine clinical practice is high on the policy agenda both in the UK and internationally. However, there is lack of clarity between funding agencies as to what represents dissemination. Moreover, the expectations and guidance provided to researchers vary from one agency to another. Against this background, we performed

Paul M Wilson; Mark Petticrew; Mike W Calnan; Irwin Nazareth

2010-01-01

155

Teacher and Principal Value-Added: Research Findings and Implementation Practices. Final Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes research findings and implementation practices for teacher and principal value-added models (VAMs), as a first step in the Team Pennsylvania Foundation's (Team PA) pilot project to inform the development of a full, statewide model evaluation system. We have selected 21 studies that represent key issues and findings in the…

Lipscomb, Stephen; Teh, Bing-ru; Gill, Brian; Chiang, Hanley; Owens, Antoniya

2010-01-01

156

Addressing inconsistencies in black carbon literature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The literature describing black carbon (BC) emissions, and their effect on Earth’s climate, is growing rapidly. Unfortunately, inconsistencies in definitions; data collection and characterization; system boundaries; and time horizons have led to confusion about the relative importance of BC compared to other climate-active pollutant (CAPs). We discuss three sources of confusion: 1) Currently available BC inventories are not directly comparable to those used by the IPCC to track the greenhouse gases (GHGs) considered in the Kyoto Protocol (CO2, CH4, N2O). In particular, BC inventories often include all emissions: natural and anthropogenic in origin, controllable and non-controllable. IPCC inventories include only anthropogenic emissions. This BC accounting is appropriate for atmospheric science deliberations, but risks being interpreted as an overstatement against official Kyoto GHG inventories in a policy or control context. The IPCC convention of using 1750 as the starting year for emission inventories further complicates matters: significant BC emissions were emitted previous to that date by both human and natural sources. Though none of the pre-1750 BC emissions remain in the atmosphere today, their legacy presents challenges in assigning historical responsibility for associated global warming among sectors and regional populations. 2) Inconsistencies exist in the specific emissions sources considered in atmospheric models used to predict net BC forcing often lead to widely varying climate forcing estimates. For example, while some analyses consider only fossil fuel 1, others include both open biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion 2, and yet others include sources beyond biomass and fossil fuel burning 3. 3) Inconsistencies exist in how analyses incorporate the relationship between BC emissions and the associated cooling aerosols and processes, such as organic carbon (OC), and aerosol indirect effects (AIE). Unlike Kyoto GHGs, BC is rarely emitted in pure form and always with significant emissions of OC aerosols. The OC/BC ratio, however, is quite variable by emission source and often poorly characterized both in its current state and under intervention scenarios. In contrast, sulfur emissions, which become cooling sulfate (SO4) aerosols, are less intrinsically linked to other emissions, i.e., they can be controlled separately. Comparisons often ignore the substantial differences in uncertainties across the CAPs. These sources of confusion operate in a landscape of shifting scientific understanding of the RF from BC, including the work by Ramanathan and Carmichael (2008) indicating a BC RF that is roughly double the IPCC AR4 1 value for BC without organic carbon (OC). Doubling the impact of BC has a major impact on the relative importance of sectors for interventions. An approach is to consider post-AR4 estimates for BC, methane, etc. as part of sensitivity analyses, until a full new assessment becomes available. 1. Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, et al. Working Group I Report: "The Physical Science Basis". Cambridge, UK and New York, NY, US: IPCC; 2007. 2. Jacobson MZ. Strong radiative heating due to the mixing state of black carbon in atmospheric aerosols. Nature 2001;409:695-7. 3. Ramanathan V, Carmichael G. Global and regional climate changes due to black carbon. Nature Geoscience 2008;1:221-7.

Shonkoff, S. B.; Chafe, Z.; Smith, K. R.

2010-12-01

157

Technology to Support Writing by Students with Learning and Academic Disabilities: Recent Research Trends and Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The trends and findings from a descriptive analysis of 25 years of research studies examining the effectiveness of technology to support the compositional writing of students with learning and academic disabilities are presented. A corpus of 85 applied research studies of writing technology effectiveness was identified from among 249 items in the…

Peterson-Karlan, George R.

2011-01-01

158

Current Research Findings on End-of-Life Decision Making among Racially or Ethnically Diverse Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: We reviewed the research literature on racial or ethnic diversity and end-of-life decision making in order to identify key findings and provide recommendations for future research. Design and Methods: We identified 33 empirical studies in which race or ethnicity was investigated as either a variable predicting treatment preferences or…

Kwak, Jung; Haley, William E.

2005-01-01

159

Methods, Findings, and History in Attitude-Behavior Research: A Rejoinder to Hanson.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews Hanson's findings that laboratory research tends to demonstrate a positive correlation between attitudes and behavior while field research does not. This article, by adding date of publication, shows that the trend over time, presumably because of improved methodology, is toward more positive correlations in both settings. (Author/JAC)

Piliavin, Jane Allyn

1981-01-01

160

Disseminating research findings: what should researchers do? A systematic scoping review of conceptual frameworks  

PubMed Central

Background Addressing deficiencies in the dissemination and transfer of research-based knowledge into routine clinical practice is high on the policy agenda both in the UK and internationally. However, there is lack of clarity between funding agencies as to what represents dissemination. Moreover, the expectations and guidance provided to researchers vary from one agency to another. Against this background, we performed a systematic scoping to identify and describe any conceptual/organising frameworks that could be used by researchers to guide their dissemination activity. Methods We searched twelve electronic databases (including MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO), the reference lists of included studies and of individual funding agency websites to identify potential studies for inclusion. To be included, papers had to present an explicit framework or plan either designed for use by researchers or that could be used to guide dissemination activity. Papers which mentioned dissemination (but did not provide any detail) in the context of a wider knowledge translation framework, were excluded. References were screened independently by at least two reviewers; disagreements were resolved by discussion. For each included paper, the source, the date of publication, a description of the main elements of the framework, and whether there was any implicit/explicit reference to theory were extracted. A narrative synthesis was undertaken. Results Thirty-three frameworks met our inclusion criteria, 20 of which were designed to be used by researchers to guide their dissemination activities. Twenty-eight included frameworks were underpinned at least in part by one or more of three different theoretical approaches, namely persuasive communication, diffusion of innovations theory, and social marketing. Conclusions There are currently a number of theoretically-informed frameworks available to researchers that can be used to help guide their dissemination planning and activity. Given the current emphasis on enhancing the uptake of knowledge about the effects of interventions into routine practice, funders could consider encouraging researchers to adopt a theoretically-informed approach to their research dissemination.

2010-01-01

161

A dynamical inconsistency of Horava gravity  

SciTech Connect

The dynamical consistency of the nonprojectable version of Horava gravity is investigated by focusing on the asymptotically flat case. It is argued that for generic solutions of the constraint equations the lapse must vanish asymptotically. We then consider particular values of the coupling constants for which the equations are tractable and in that case we prove that the lapse must vanish everywhere--and not only at infinity. Put differently, the Hamiltonian constraints are generically all second-class. We then argue that the same feature holds for generic values of the couplings, thus revealing a physical inconsistency of the theory. In order to cure this pathology, one might want to introduce further constraints but the resulting theory would then lose much of the appeal of the original proposal by Horava. We also show that there is no contradiction with the time-reparametrization invariance of the action, as this invariance is shown to be a so-called 'trivial gauge symmetry' in Horava gravity, hence with no associated first-class constraints.

Henneaux, Marc [Universite Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes, ULB-Campus Plaine CP231, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Centro de Estudios Cientificos (CECS), Casilla 1469, Valdivia (Chile); Kleinschmidt, Axel; Lucena Gomez, Gustavo [Universite Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes, ULB-Campus Plaine CP231, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

2010-03-15

162

Becoming an Engineering Education Researcher: Finding Pathways toward Interdisciplinarity. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interdisciplinary thinking is gaining momentum as an important topic for empirical investigation, particularly in regard to how crossing disciplinary boundaries can enrich teaching and learning across fields. There is a need for researchers who can think and work at the interdisciplinary interface. However, despite increased attention given to…

Allendoerfer, Cheryl; Adams, Robin; Bell, Philip; Fleming, Lorraine; Leifer, Larry

2007-01-01

163

Reconciling incongruous qualitative and quantitative findings in mixed methods research: exemplars from research with drug using populations  

PubMed Central

Mixed methods research is increasingly being promoted in the health sciences as a way to gain more comprehensive understandings of how social processes and individual behaviours shape human health. Mixed methods research most commonly combines qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis strategies. Often, integrating findings from multiple methods is assumed to confirm or validate the findings from one method with the findings from another, seeking convergence or agreement between methods. Cases in which findings from different methods are congruous are generally thought of as ideal, while conflicting findings may, at first glance, appear problematic. However, the latter situation provides the opportunity for a process through which apparently discordant results are reconciled, potentially leading to new emergent understandings of complex social phenomena. This paper presents three case studies drawn from the authors’ research on HIV risk among injection drug users in which mixed methods studies yielded apparently discrepant results. We use these case studies (involving injection drug users [IDUs] using a needle/syringe exchange program in Los Angeles, California, USA; IDUs seeking to purchase needle/syringes at pharmacies in Tijuana, Mexico; and young street-based IDUs in San Francisco, CA, USA) to identify challenges associated with integrating findings from mixed methods projects, summarize lessons learned, and make recommendations for how to more successfully anticipate and manage the integration of findings. Despite the challenges inherent in reconciling apparently conflicting findings from qualitative and quantitative approaches, in keeping with others who have argued in favour of integrating mixed methods findings, we contend that such an undertaking has the potential to yield benefits that emerge only through the struggle to reconcile discrepant results and may provide a sum that is greater than the individual qualitative and quantitative parts.

Wagner, Karla D.; Davidson, Peter J.; Pollini, Robin A.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Washburn, Rachel; Palinkas, Lawrence A.

2011-01-01

164

A Systematic Review on the Designs of Clinical Technology: Findings and Recommendations for Future Research  

PubMed Central

Human factors (HF) studies are increasingly important as technology infuses into clinical settings. No nursing research reviews exist in this area. The authors conducted a systematic review on designs of clinical technology, 34 articles with 50 studies met inclusion criteria. Findings were classified into three categories based on HF research goals. The majority of studies evaluated effectiveness of clinical design; efficiency was fewest. Current research ranges across many interface types examined with no apparent pattern or obvious rationale. Future research should expand types, settings, participants; integrate displays; and expand outcome variables.

PhD, Greg Alexander; Staggers, Nancy

2010-01-01

165

HESS Opinions "On forecast (in)consistency in a hydro-meteorological chain: curse or blessing?"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood forecasting increasingly relies on Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) forecasts to achieve longer lead times (see Cloke et al., 2009; Cloke and Pappenberger, 2009). One of the key difficulties that is emerging in constructing a decision framework for these flood forecasts is when consecutive forecasts are different, leading to different conclusions regarding the issuing of forecasts, and hence inconsistent. In this opinion paper we explore some of the issues surrounding such forecast inconsistency (also known as "jumpiness", "turning points", "continuity" or number of "swings"; Zoster et al., 2009; Mills and Pepper, 1999; Lashley et al., 2008). We begin by defining what forecast inconsistency is; why forecasts might be inconsistent; how we should analyse it; what we should do about it; how we should communicate it and whether it is a totally undesirable property. The property of consistency is increasingly emerging as a hot topic in many forecasting environments (for a limited discussion on NWP inconsistency see Persson, 2011). However, in this opinion paper we restrict the discussion to a hydro-meteorological forecasting chain in which river discharge forecasts are produced using inputs from NWP. In this area of research (in)consistency is receiving recent interest and application (see e.g., Bartholmes et al., 2008; Pappenberger et al., 2011).

Pappenberger, F.; Cloke, H. L.; Persson, A.; Demeritt, D.

2011-01-01

166

Can Research Findings Help School Systems Obtain the Most Bang from the Construction Bucks?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on educational facilities is important to help industry and school districts make decisions on funding and maintaining good educational environments for their students. This paper presents findings from three syntheses of 232 studies on educational facilities and funding decisions, followed by discussions of practical solutions designed…

Earthman, Glen I.; Lemasters, Linda K.

167

Niacin Doesn't Reduce Heart Problems, May Create Some, Research Finds  

MedlinePLUS

... page, please enable JavaScript. Niacin Doesn't Reduce Heart Problems, May Create Some, Research Finds Talk with your doctor about whether or not you should keep taking it, expert advises (*this news item will not be available after 10/14/2014) Wednesday, July 16, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages B ...

168

The Effective Elementary School Principal: Theoretical Bases, Research Findings and Practical Implications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although much of the current school reform movement relies on the basic assumption of effective elementary school administration, insufficient effort has been made to synthesize key concepts found in organizational theory and management studies with relevant effective schools research findings. This paper attempts such a synthesis to help develop…

Burnett, I. Emett, Jr.; Pankake, Anita M.

169

A Simple Syllogism-Solving Test: Empirical Findings and Implications for "g" Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been reported that the ability to solve syllogisms is highly "g"-loaded. In the present study, using a self-administered shortened version of a syllogism-solving test, the "BAROCO Short," we examined whether robust findings generated by previous research regarding IQ scores were also applicable to "BAROCO Short" scores. Five…

Shikishima, Chizuru; Yamagata, Shinji; Hiraishi, Kai; Sugimoto, Yutaro; Murayama, Kou; Ando, Juko

2011-01-01

170

Trust in Leadership: Meta-Analytic Findings and Implications for Research and Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the authors examined the findings and implications of the research on trust in leadership that has been conducted during the past 4 decades. First, the study provides estimates of the primary relationships between trust in leadership and key outcomes, antecedents, and correlates (k = 106). Second, the study explores how specifying the construct with alternative leadership referents

Donald L. FERRIN; K. T. Dirks

2002-01-01

171

New Findings and Future Directions for Subjective Well-Being Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent findings on subjective well-being (SWB) are presented, and I describe the important questions for future research that these raise. Worldwide predictors of SWB such as social support and fulfillment of basic needs have been uncovered, and there are large differences in SWB between societies. A number of culture-specific predictors of SWB…

Diener, Ed

2012-01-01

172

Using Interactive Technology to Disseminate Research Findings to a Diverse Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper demonstrates how case stories can be used to disseminate the findings of several case studies on negotiating accommodations in the workplace. It highlights the power of interactive technology and of the partnership between the researchers and the Canadian Council for Rehabilitation and Work (CCRW). The paper describes the process of…

Stockley, Denise; Beyer, Wanda; Hutchinson, Nancy; DeLugt, Jennifer; Chin, Peter; Versnel, Joan; Munby, Hugh

2009-01-01

173

Summary of Research Findings on the Military General Educational Development Program. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes and integrates the finding of research studies dealing with the military General Educational Development (GED) program. The major areas covered include (1) the field conduct of the GED program, (2) characteristics of GED program participants, (3) a comparison of the utility of the GED certificate with that of the high school…

Waller, Earl A.

174

The College Student and Marijuana: Research Findings concerning Adverse Biological and Psychological Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Next to alcohol, marijuana is the most widely used drug among college students. Recent surveys of high reliability indicate that within the college age group approximately 21 million have smoked marijuana, and several millions smoke it daily. Research findings document clearly that marijuana has distinct adverse biological and psychological effects, even when smoked in moderate doses, and for short periods

Armand M. Nicholi Jr

1983-01-01

175

Fox Chase researchers find a compound that targets a key mechanism behind lymphoma  

Cancer.gov

Scientists at Fox Chase Cancer Center in Philadelphia have come one step closer to developing the first treatment to target a key pathway in lymphoma. The new findings were announced at the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2012 on Tuesday, April 3.

176

Student Engagement and Student Outcomes: Key Findings from "CCSSE" Validation Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The findings from 20 years of research on undergraduate education have been unequivocal: The more actively engaged students are--with college faculty and staff, with other students, and with the subject matter they study--the more likely they are to learn, to stick with their studies, and to attain their academic goals. The existing literature,…

McClenney, Kay; Marti, C. Nathan; Adkins, Courtney

2012-01-01

177

Kimmel Cancer Center researchers find biomarker links clinical outcome with new model of lethal tumor metabolism  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at the Kimmel Cancer Center at Jefferson have demonstrated for the first time that the metabolic biomarker MCT4 directly links clinical outcomes with a new model of tumor metabolism that has patients “feeding” their cancer cells. Their findings were published online March 15 in Cell Cycle.

178

Genetically Informative Research on Adolescent Substance Use: Methods, Findings, and Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To provide an overview of the genetic epidemiology of substance use and misuse in adolescents. Method: A selective review of genetically informative research strategies, their limitations, and key findings examining issues related to the heritability of substance use and substance use disorders in children and adolescents is presented.…

Lynskey, Michael T.; Agrawal, Arpana; Heath, Andrew C.

2010-01-01

179

Public Understanding of Cognitive Neuroscience Research Findings: Trying to Peer beyond Enchanted Glass  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article considers the appeal of cognitive neuroscience research to the general public within the context of the deep puzzles involved in using our minds to understand how our minds work. It offers a few promising examples of findings that illuminate the ways of the mind and reveal these workings to be counter-intuitive with our subjective…

Grotzer, Tina A.

2011-01-01

180

Defining the "community" in community consultation for emergency research: findings from the community VOICES study.  

PubMed

This article explores the application of the concept "community consultation" in the context of emergency medical research. Emergency medicine researchers are permitted, by the World Medical Association regulations and in the United States by U.S. Federal Regulations, to conduct emergency medical research on individuals with a life-threatening condition without obtaining their consent or that of their surrogates if certain conditions are met. Among these conditions is the requirement that researchers observe a number of special protections for the participants, including "community consultation and notification" prior to the initiation of such studies. The term "community" is not defined clearly and the process for conducting community consultations is not specified in these regulations. This study explores the feasibility of conducting community consultation in the context of emergency medical research by examining: research participant's definitions of community in New York, the factors that help shape their definitions of community and the people they would authorize to render participation decisions on their behalves. Findings from this study suggest that participants' definitions of community vary as a function of the purpose of the definition and the demographics of the respondents. Most significantly, this study reveals that although respondents can identify potential spokespersons for their communities, these community spokespersons were rarely identified as those who should have decision-making authority in medical emergencies. Finally, this article explores the implications of these findings for the definition of community as it applies to community consultation for emergency medical research. PMID:18237833

Ragin, Deborah Fish; Ricci, Edmund; Rhodes, Rosamond; Holohan, Jennifer; Smirnoff, Margaret; Richardson, Lynne D

2008-03-01

181

[What happens to children and adolescents with mental disorders? Findings from long-term outcome research].  

PubMed

Research on the long-term outcome of mental disorders originating in childhood and adolescence is an important part of developmental psychopathology. After a brief sketch of relevant terms of outcome research, the first part of this review reports findings based on heterotypic cohort studies. The major second part of this review presents findings based on long-term outcome studies dealing with homotypic diagnostic groups. In particular, the review focuses on the course and prognosis of ADHD, anxiety disorders, depression, conduct disorders, eating disorders, autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, and selective mutism. Findings mainly support the vulnerability hypothesis regarding mental disorders with early manifestation in childhood and adolescence as frequent precursors of mental disorders in adulthood. The discussion focuses on the impact of early manifesting disorders in the frame of general mental morbidity and of the effect of interventions, which is not yet sufficiently discernible. PMID:24240498

Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph

2013-11-01

182

Research from the Model Spinal Cord Injury Systems: findings from the current 5-year grant cycle.  

PubMed

This issue of the Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation is dedicated to current research findings of the Model Spinal Cord Injury Systems (MSCIS) program. The MSCIS grants were established by the Rehabilitation Services Administration in the 1970s. Now administered by the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research within the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitation Services in the US Department of Education, the program has included 27 spinal cord injury centers in the United States over the years. In the current 5-year grant cycle (2000-2005), there are 16 designated regional MSCIS centers. In addition to establishing a comprehensive system of care, the grantees contribute patient data to the National Spinal Cord Injury Database (which now contains data on 30,532 subjects with follow-up of up to 30 y). In addition, the MSCIS grants enable the conduct of site-specific and collaborative research projects. To highlight the research findings of the program, the MSCIS have produced a special dissemination effort during each of the previous 5 grant cycles, with this issue of the Archives representing the latest of these endeavors. This article provides a brief history of the MSCIS program and highlights the important findings of the 17 original research articles contained in this issue. PMID:15520967

Lammertse, Daniel P; Jackson, Amie B; Sipski, Marca L

2004-11-01

183

Research based empathic knowledge for nursing: a translational strategy for disseminating phenomenological research findings to provide evidence for caring practice.  

PubMed

We are interested in the kind of knowledge that is particularly relevant to caring practice and the way in which qualitative research findings can serve such knowledge. As phenomenological researchers we have been engaged with the question of how findings from such research can be re-presented and expressed more aesthetically. Such a movement towards a more aesthetic phenomenology may serve the communicative concern to express phenomena relevant to caring practice in ways that appeal to the 'head, hand and heart'. The paper first offers some thoughts about the complex kind of knowledge relevant to caring that is not only technical or propositional, but actionable and aesthetically moving as well. We call this kind of knowledge 'embodied relational understanding'. Further, the paper outlines the development of one way of serving a more aesthetic phenomenology whereby research findings can be faithfully and evocatively translated into more empathically impactful expressions. We call this process 'embodied interpretation'. It is guided by an epistemological framework grounded in the philosophies of Gadamer and Gendlin. We finally illustrate the process with reference to the experience of living after Stroke, and consider the value of this translational process for nursing education and practice. PMID:20863496

Galvin, Kathleen T; Todres, Les

2011-04-01

184

Judging Social Issues: Difficulties, Inconsistencies, and Consistencies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three studies examined high school and college students' reasoning about issues of abortion, homosexuality, pornography, and incest. In the first study, groups differed in judgments about these issues but not about moral issues in general. Findings of second study paralleled those of first. Third study showed that assumptions associated with…

Turiel, Elliot; And Others

1991-01-01

185

Intra-Word Inconsistency in Apraxic Hebrew-Speaking Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intra-word inconsistency in a child is perceived as an indicator of speech impairment. Because the speech of typically developing children is highly variable, the extent and nature of the inconsistency must be defined when used as a diagnostic marker of speech impairment (McLeod, S., & Hewett, S. R. (2008). Variability in the production of words…

Tubul-Lavy, Gila

2012-01-01

186

Inconsistency Management for Multiple-View Software Development Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developers need tool support to help manage the wide range of inconsistencies that occur during software development. Such tools need to provide developers with ways to define, detect, record, present, interact with, monitor and resolve complex inconsistencies between different views of software artifacts, different developers and different phases of software development. This paper describes our experience with building complex multiple-view

John C. Grundy; John G. Hosking; Warwick B. Mugridge

1998-01-01

187

A Study of Probabilistic Information Retrieval Systems in the Case of Inconsistent Expert Judgments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the maximum entropy principle (MEP) and applies it to the design of probabilistic retrieval systems. Inconsistent expert judgments and the resulting optimization problem are examined, a linear programing problem is presented that checks the consistency of the expert judgments, and four schemes are proposed to find revised judgments. (12…

Lee, Jung Jin; Kantor, Paul B.

1991-01-01

188

42 CFR 93.405 - Notifying the respondent of findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Notifying the respondent of findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the...Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.405...

2012-10-01

189

42 CFR 93.405 - Notifying the respondent of findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Notifying the respondent of findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the...Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.405...

2013-10-01

190

Detecting and Characterizing Semantic Inconsistencies in Ported Code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Adding similar features and bug fixes often requires porting program patches from reference implementations and adapting them to target implementations. Porting errors may result from faulty adaptations or inconsistent updates. This paper investigates (I) the types of porting errors found in practice, and (2) how to detect and characterize potential porting errors. Analyzing version histories, we define five categories of porting errors, including incorrect control- and data-flow, code redundancy, inconsistent identifier renamings, etc. Leveraging this categorization, we design a static control- and data-dependence analysis technique, SPA, to detect and characterize porting inconsistencies. Our evaluation on code from four open-source projects shows thai SPA can dell-oct porting inconsistencies with 65% to 73% precision and 90% recall, and identify inconsistency types with 58% to 63% precision and 92% to 100% recall. In a comparison with two existing error detection tools, SPA improves precision by 14 to 17 percentage points

Ray, Baishakhi; Kim, Miryung; Person, Suzette J.; Rungta, Neha

2013-01-01

191

U-M researchers find driver of breast cancer stem cell metastasis  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center have found that a cancer gene linked to aggressive spread of the disease promotes breast cancer stem cells. The finding implies a new way to target the behavior of these lethal cells. The finding involves the cancer gene RhoC, which has previously been shown to promote metastasis of many types of cancer. RhoC levels increase as breast cancer progresses and high levels of RhoC are associated with worse patient survival.

192

Integrating findings of traditional medicine with modern pharmaceutical research: the potential role of linked open data  

PubMed Central

One of the biggest obstacles to progress in modern pharmaceutical research is the difficulty of integrating all available research findings into effective therapies for humans. Studies of traditionally used pharmacologically active plants and other substances in traditional medicines may be valuable sources of previously unknown compounds with therapeutic actions. However, the integration of findings from traditional medicines can be fraught with difficulties and misunderstandings. This article proposes an approach to use linked open data and Semantic Web technologies to address the heterogeneous data integration problem. The approach is based on our initial experiences with implementing an integrated web of data for a selected use-case, i.e., the identification of plant species used in Chinese medicine that indicate potential antidepressant activities.

2010-01-01

193

Integrating findings of traditional medicine with modern pharmaceutical research: the potential role of linked open data.  

PubMed

One of the biggest obstacles to progress in modern pharmaceutical research is the difficulty of integrating all available research findings into effective therapies for humans. Studies of traditionally used pharmacologically active plants and other substances in traditional medicines may be valuable sources of previously unknown compounds with therapeutic actions. However, the integration of findings from traditional medicines can be fraught with difficulties and misunderstandings. This article proposes an approach to use linked open data and Semantic Web technologies to address the heterogeneous data integration problem. The approach is based on our initial experiences with implementing an integrated web of data for a selected use-case, i.e., the identification of plant species used in Chinese medicine that indicate potential antidepressant activities. PMID:21167050

Samwald, Matthias; Dumontier, Michel; Zhao, Jun; Luciano, Joanne S; Marshall, Michael Scott; Cheung, Kei

2010-01-01

194

DEMOGRAPHIC AND CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CONSISTENT AND INCONSISTENT LONGITUDINAL REPORTERS OF LIFETIME SUICIDE ATTEMPTS IN ADOLESCENCE THROUGH YOUNG ADULTHOOD  

PubMed Central

Background Within the context of the recent release of the 2012 National Suicide Prevention Strategy, and as the third leading cause of death for individuals 10- to 24-years-old, suicide prevention is a national priority. A consistently reported and robust risk factor for suicide is a prior suicide attempt; however few studies have investigated the consistency of self-reported lifetime suicide attempts. The goal of this study is to describe the prevalence and characteristics of inconsistent reporting of suicide attempt in a longitudinal cohort of participants annually assessed in 12 waves of data collected from middle school (age 12) to early adulthood (age 22). Methods Among this cohort (n = 678), we compared those who consistently, inconsistently, and never reported a suicide attempt according to demographic and clinical variables. Results Almost 90% (88.5%) of our sample inconsistently reported a lifetime suicide attempt. Consistent and inconsistent reporters of lifetime suicide attempt did not differ on demographic or clinical variables with the exception of higher rates of lifetime suicidal ideation among consistent reporters (P < .001). Significant clinical differences were evident between inconsistent reporters and nonattempters. Conclusions Some level of inconsistent reporting of suicide attempt is inevitable when schools or health care systems systematically screen for suicide risk in adolescents. Inconsistent and consistent reporters of suicide attempt differ on few demographic or clinical variables; further prospective research should investigate the reasons for inconsistent reporting as well as the validity and stability of reporting in predicting future suicidal behavior.

Hart, Shelley R.; Musci, Rashelle J.; Ialongo, Nicholas; Ballard, Elizabeth D.; Wilcox, Holly C.

2014-01-01

195

Findings and accomplishments of ATSDR's Superfund-mandated Substance-Specific Applied Research Program.  

PubMed

Priority research needs determined by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) for the agencies top-ranked hazardous substances are being filled via regulatory mechanisms, private sector voluntarism, and university-based research. To date, 17 studies have been completed, 12 are ongoing, and 12 are currently planned. Under the direction of the Substance-Specific Applied Research Program (SSARP), ATSDR-supported research has filled research needs that significantly improved the information base available for making appropriate public health decisions. With the knowledge and understanding gained from this research, health professionals are better able to identify and interdict significant exposure and mitigate toxicity when exposure occurs. Thus, the SSARP has played, and continues to play, a vital role in contributing towards improving ATSDR's efforts to meet its mission and goals in environmental public health. In addition to addressing research needs of interest to ATSDR, findings from the program have contributed to the overall scientific knowledge about the effects of toxic substances in the environment. PMID:12018014

Stevens, Yee-Wan; Williams-Johnson, Mildred M; De Rosa, Christopher T; Cibulas, William

2002-03-01

196

Finding middle ground: negotiating university and tribal community interests in community-based participatory research.  

PubMed

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been hailed as an alternative approach to one-sided research endeavors that have traditionally been conducted on communities as opposed to with them. Although CBPR engenders numerous relationship strengths, through its emphasis on co-sharing, mutual benefit, and community capacity building, it is often challenging as well. In this article, we describe some of the challenges of implementing CBPR in a research project designed to prevent cardiovascular disease among an indigenous community in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and how we addressed them. Specifically, we highlight the process of collaboratively constructing a Research Protocol/Data Sharing Agreement and qualitative interview guide that addressed the concerns of both university and tribal community constituents. Establishing these two items was a process of negotiation that required: (i) balancing of individual, occupational, research, and community interests; (ii) definition of terminology (e.g., ownership of data); and (iii) extensive consideration of how to best protect research participants. Finding middle ground in CBPR requires research partners to examine and articulate their own assumptions and expectations, and nurture a relationship based on compromise to effectively meet the needs of each group. PMID:22530859

Mohammed, Selina A; Walters, Karina L; Lamarr, June; Evans-Campbell, Teresa; Fryberg, Sheryl

2012-06-01

197

UCSD researchers find enzyme accelerates malignant stem cell cloning in chronic myeloid leukemia  

Cancer.gov

An international team, headed by researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, has identified a key enzyme in the reprogramming process that promotes malignant stem cell cloning and the growth of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), a cancer of the blood and marrow that experts say is increasing in prevalence. The findings are published in the Dec. 24 online early edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). UCSD is home to the Moores Comprehensive Cancer Center.

198

Language of instruction in Tanzania: Why are research findings not heeded?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The issue of language of instruction (LOI) and its effects on education in Tanzanian secondary education has been widely researched since the early 1980s. In 2009, the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training proposed a new education and training policy that allows English to be used as LOI from nursery school to tertiary education. The proposed policy goes against what researchers in this area have recommended over the years. In the light of the proposed policy, the author of this article felt the need to review studies done on LOI in Tanzania from 1974 to date, aiming to eliminate or greatly reduce the negative effects of the policy on education in Tanzania. Quoting examples, the paper demonstrates students' levels of proficiency in English; suggests reasons why governmental policy has over time ignored research findings; and recommends as well as proposes the way forward.

Qorro, Martha A. S.

2013-06-01

199

Translating research findings into practice - the implementation of kangaroo mother care in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Kangaroo mother care (KMC) is a safe and effective method of caring for low birth weight infants and is promoted for its potential to improve newborn survival. Many countries find it difficult to take KMC to scale in healthcare facilities providing newborn care. KMC Ghana was an initiative to scale up KMC in four regions in Ghana. Research findings from two outreach trials in South Africa informed the design of the initiative. Two key points of departure were to equip healthcare facilities that conduct deliveries with the necessary skills for KMC practice and to single out KMC for special attention instead of embedding it in other newborn care initiatives. This paper describes the contextualisation and practical application of previous research findings and the results of monitoring the progress of the implementation of KMC in Ghana. Methods A three-phase outreach intervention was adapted from previous research findings to suit the local setting. A more structured system of KMC regional steering committees was introduced to drive the process and take the initiative forward. During Phase I, health workers in regions and districts were oriented in KMC and received basic support for the management of the outreach. Phase II entailed the strengthening of the regional steering committees. Phase III comprised a more formal assessment, utilising a previously validated KMC progress-monitoring instrument. Results Twenty-six out of 38 hospitals (68?%) scored over 10 out of 30 and had reached the level of ‘evidence of practice’ by the end of Phase III. Seven hospitals exceeded expected performance by scoring at the level of ‘evidence of routine and institutionalised practice.’ The collective mean score for all participating hospitals was 12.07. Hospitals that had attained baby-friendly status or had been re-accredited in the five years before the intervention scored significantly better than the rest, with a mean score of 14.64. Conclusion The KMC Ghana initiative demonstrated how research findings regarding successful outreach for the implementation of KMC could be transferred to a different context by making context-appropriate adaptations to the model.

2012-01-01

200

Profiles of inconsistent knowledge in children's pathways of conceptual change.  

PubMed

Conceptual change requires learners to restructure parts of their conceptual knowledge base. Prior research has identified the fragmentation and the integration of knowledge as 2 important component processes of knowledge restructuring but remains unclear as to their relative importance and the time of their occurrence during development. Previous studies mostly were based on the categorization of answers in interview studies and led to mixed empirical results, suggesting that methodological improvements might be helpful. We assessed 161 third-graders' knowledge about floating and sinking of objects in liquids at 3 measurement points by means of multiple-choice tests. The tests assessed how strongly the children agreed with commonly found but mutually incompatible statements about floating and sinking. A latent profile transition analysis of the test scores revealed 5 profiles, some of which indicated the coexistence of inconsistent pieces of knowledge in learners. The majority of students (63%) were on 1 of 7 developmental pathways between these profiles. Thus, a child's knowledge profile at a point in time can be used to predict further development. The degree of knowledge integration decreased on some individual developmental paths, increased on others, and remained stable on still others. The study demonstrates the usefulness of explicit quantitative models of conceptual change. The results support a constructivist perspective on conceptual development, in which developmental changes of a learner's knowledge base result from idiosyncratic, yet systematic knowledge-construction processes. PMID:23231685

Schneider, Michael; Hardy, Ilonca

2013-09-01

201

A graphical tool for locating inconsistency in network meta-analyses  

PubMed Central

Background In network meta-analyses, several treatments can be compared by connecting evidence from clinical trials that have investigated two or more treatments. The resulting trial network allows estimating the relative effects of all pairs of treatments taking indirect evidence into account. For a valid analysis of the network, consistent information from different pathways is assumed. Consistency can be checked by contrasting effect estimates from direct comparisons with the evidence of the remaining network. Unfortunately, one deviating direct comparison may have side effects on the network estimates of others, thus producing hot spots of inconsistency. Methods We provide a tool, the net heat plot, to render transparent which direct comparisons drive each network estimate and to display hot spots of inconsistency: this permits singling out which of the suspicious direct comparisons are sufficient to explain the presence of inconsistency. We base our methods on fixed-effects models. For disclosure of potential drivers, the plot comprises the contribution of each direct estimate to network estimates resulting from regression diagnostics. In combination, we show heat colors corresponding to the change in agreement between direct and indirect estimate when relaxing the assumption of consistency for one direct comparison. A clustering procedure is applied to the heat matrix in order to find hot spots of inconsistency. Results The method is shown to work with several examples, which are constructed by perturbing the effect of single study designs, and with two published network meta-analyses. Once the possible sources of inconsistencies are identified, our method also reveals which network estimates they affect. Conclusion Our proposal is seen to be useful for identifying sources of inconsistencies in the network together with the interrelatedness of effect estimates. It opens the way for a further analysis based on subject matter considerations.

2013-01-01

202

Evaluation of internal reliability in the presence of inconsistent responses  

PubMed Central

Background We aimed to assess the impact of inconsistent responses on the internal reliability of a multi-item scale by developing a procedure to adjust Cronbach's alpha. Methods A procedure for adjusting Cronbach's alpha when there are inconsistent responses was developed and used to assess the impact of inconsistent responses on internal reliability by evaluating the standard Chinese 12-item Short Form Health Survey in adolescents. Results Contrary to common belief, random responses may inflate Cronbach's alpha when their mean differ from that of the true responses. Fixed responses inflate Cronbach's alpha except in scales with both positive and negative polarity items. In general, the bias in Cronbach's alpha due to inconsistent responses may change from negative to positive with an increasing number of items in a scale, but the effect of additional items beyond around 10 becomes small. The number of response categories does not have much influence on the impact of inconsistent responses. Conclusions Cronbach's alpha can be biased when there are inconsistent responses, and an adjustment is recommended for better assessment of the internal reliability of a multi-item scale.

2010-01-01

203

NASA Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) Mission: Significant Findings and Evolving Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) mission has had an extremely productive four years since its launch in December 2001. During this time, TIMED observations have provided an unprecendented view of the basic structure of the Ionosphere-Thermosphere-Mesosphere (ITM) system and also documented the impacts of the tropospheric and stratospheric weather, varying solar EUV radiation and x-ray flares, geomagnetic storms powered by solar corona mass ejections, and the powerful high speed streams of energetic particles. This paper gives a summary of TIMED's scientific accomplishments over the past four years, its significant findings and current evolving research topics.

Yee, J.; Christensen, A.; Russell, J.; Killeen, T.; Woods, T.; Kozyra, J.; Smith, A.; Fritts, D.; Forbes, J.; Mayr, H.; Solomon, S.; Talaat, E.; Paxton, L.; Mlynczak, M.

2005-12-01

204

Dana-Farber researchers find new culprit in castration-resistant prostate cancer  

Cancer.gov

Scientists at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute have discovered a molecular switch that enables advanced prostate cancers to spread without stimulation by male hormones, which normally are needed to spur the cancer's growth. They say the finding could lead to a new treatment for prostate cancers that are no longer controlled by hormone-blocking drugs. The researchers report in the Dec. 14 issue of Science that the molecular switch occurs in a protein, EZH2, which is increased in these tumors, termed castration-resistant prostate cancers (CRPC).

205

Science in the Eyes of Preschool Children: Findings from an Innovative Research Tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How do young children view science? Do these views reflect cultural stereotypes? When do these views develop? These fundamental questions in the field of science education have rarely been studied with the population of preschool children. One main reason is the lack of an appropriate research instrument that addresses preschool children's developmental competencies. Extensive body of research has pointed at the significance of early childhood experiences in developing positive attitudes and interests toward learning in general and the learning of science in particular. Theoretical and empirical research suggests that stereotypical views of science may be replaced by authentic views following inquiry science experience. However, no preschool science intervention program could be designed without a reliable instrument that provides baseline information about preschool children's current views of science. The current study presents preschool children's views of science as gathered from a pioneering research tool. This tool, in the form of a computer "game," does not require reading, writing, or expressive language skills and is operated by the children. The program engages children in several simple tasks involving picture recognition and yes/no answers in order to reveal their views about science. The study was conducted with 120 preschool children in two phases and found that by the age of 4 years, participants possess an emergent concept of science. Gender and school differences were detected. Findings from this interdisciplinary study will contribute to the fields of early childhood, science education, learning technologies, program evaluation, and early childhood curriculum development.

Dubosarsky, Mia D.

206

A Variable Response Inconsistency Scale and a True Response Inconsistency Scale for the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variable Response Inconsistency (M-VRIN) and True Response Inconsistency (M-TRIN) scales were developed for the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory using 104 male and 78 female delinquents, ages 13–17 years. M-VRIN efficacy was assessed by comparing nonrandom protocols of 76 male and 34 female delinquents, ages 13–17 years, with 100 computer-generated random protocols. Nonrandom protocols were screened using a matched-pair Minnesota Multiphasic

Terry B. Pinsoneault

2002-01-01

207

Evidence-Based Policy and Practice: The Role of the State in Advancing Criminal Justice Research, Findings from the Researcher. Practitioner Partnerships Study (RPPS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There is growing awareness that evidence-based practice and policy are critical to reducing crime. The findings reported here from the Researcher-Practitioner Partnerships Study (RPPS) demonstrate promise for the development of future research collaborati...

B. A. Hunter B. S. Fisher T. P. Sullivan

2013-01-01

208

An investigation of inconsistent projections and artefacts in multi-pinhole SPECT with axially aligned pinholes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiple pinholes are advantageous for maximizing the use of the available field of view (FOV) of compact small animal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) detectors. However, when the pinholes are aligned axially to optimize imaging of extended objects, such as rodents, multiplexing of the pinhole projections can give rise to inconsistent data which leads to 'ghost point' artefacts in the reconstructed volume. A novel four pinhole collimator with a baffle was designed and implemented to eliminate these inconsistent projections. Simulation and physical phantom studies were performed to investigate artefacts from axially aligned pinholes and the efficacy of the baffle in removing inconsistent data and, thus, reducing reconstruction artefacts. SPECT was performed using a Defrise phantom to investigate the impact of collimator design on FOV utilization and axial blurring effects. Multiple pinhole SPECT acquired with a baffle had fewer artefacts and improved quantitative accuracy when compared to SPECT acquired without a baffle. The use of four pinholes positioned in a square maximized the available FOV, increased acquisition sensitivity and reduced axial blurring effects. These findings support the use of a baffle to eliminate inconsistent projection data arising from axially aligned pinholes and improve small animal SPECT reconstructions.

Kench, P. L.; Lin, J.; Gregoire, M. C.; Meikle, S. R.

2011-12-01

209

Parental inconsistency, impulsive choice and neural value representations in healthy adolescents  

PubMed Central

A well-characterized potential marker for addiction is impulsive choice, stably measured by delay discounting (DD) paradigms. While genetic influences partly account for inter-individual variance in impulsivity, environmental factors such as parenting practices may have an important role. The present study investigates how inconsistent fulfillment of delayed reward promises impacts on DD. A combined correlational and experimental functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) design was performed in a sample of 48 healthy adolescents (13–15 years). More specifically, neural activation during a DD task was investigated at two assessment points (T0 and T1). Adolescents' self-reports of parenting and substance use were assessed at T0. Between assessment points, we experimentally varied the reliability of delayed reward promises, measuring the impact of this intervention on DD and neural value processing at T1. In the correlational part, same-sex parent reward inconsistency was associated with steeper DD and an attenuated subjective value (SV) representation in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Steeper DD was in turn associated with alcohol use during the past year. In the experimental part, the reward inconsistency manipulation resulted in an attenuation of the NAcc SV representation, similar to the parental inconsistency effect. Together, our correlational and experimental findings raise new light on how parents may influence their children's degree of impulsivity, making parenting a potential target in addiction prevention.

Schneider, S; Peters, J; Peth, J M; Buchel, C

2014-01-01

210

Research on Family Engagement in Preventive Interventions: Toward Improved Use of Scientific Findings in Primary Prevention Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective strategies for family engagement are essential in the implementation of models directed toward the application of research findings to primary prevention practice. Although there has been limited investigation of family engagement in preventive interventions for general populations, the research has yielded several preliminary findings that warrant further study. Notably, families in eligible general populations can differ to a significant

Richard Spoth; Cleve Redmond

2000-01-01

211

Findings of the US Research Needs Workshop on the Topic of Fusion Power  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES) conducted a Research Needs Workshop, referred to as ReNeW, in June 2009. The information developed at this workshop will help OFES develop a plan for US fusion research during the ITER era, roughly the next two decades. The workshop was organized in five Themes, one of which was Harnessing Fusion Power (or Fusion Power for short). The top level goal of the Fusion Power Theme was to identify the research needed to develop the knowledge to design and build, with high confidence, robust and reliable systems that can convert fusion products to useful forms of energy in a reactor environment, including a self-sufficient supply of tritium fuel. Each Theme was subsequently subdivided into Panels to address specific topics. The Fusion Power Panel topics were: fusion fuel cycle; power extraction; materials science; safety and environment; and reliability, availability, maintainability and inspectability (RAMI). Here we present the key findings of the Fusion Power Theme.

Meier, W R; Raffray, A R; Kurtz, R J; Morley, N B; Reiersen, W T; Sharpe, P; Willms, S

2009-09-16

212

Cross-pollination of research findings, although uncommon, may accelerate discovery of human disease genes  

PubMed Central

Background Technological leaps in genome sequencing have resulted in a surge in discovery of human disease genes. These discoveries have led to increased clarity on the molecular pathology of disease and have also demonstrated considerable overlap in the genetic roots of human diseases. In light of this large genetic overlap, we tested whether cross-disease research approaches lead to faster, more impactful discoveries. Methods We leveraged several gene-disease association databases to calculate a Mutual Citation Score (MCS) for 10,853 pairs of genetically related diseases to measure the frequency of cross-citation between research fields. To assess the importance of cooperative research, we computed an Individual Disease Cooperation Score (ICS) and the average publication rate for each disease. Results For all disease pairs with one gene in common, we found that the degree of genetic overlap was a poor predictor of cooperation (r2=0.3198) and that the vast majority of disease pairs (89.56%) never cited previous discoveries of the same gene in a different disease, irrespective of the level of genetic similarity between the diseases. A fraction (0.25%) of the pairs demonstrated cross-citation in greater than 5% of their published genetic discoveries and 0.037% cross-referenced discoveries more than 10% of the time. We found strong positive correlations between ICS and publication rate (r2=0.7931), and an even stronger correlation between the publication rate and the number of cross-referenced diseases (r2=0.8585). These results suggested that cross-disease research may have the potential to yield novel discoveries at a faster pace than singular disease research. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the frequency of cross-disease study is low despite the high level of genetic similarity among many human diseases, and that collaborative methods may accelerate and increase the impact of new genetic discoveries. Until we have a better understanding of the taxonomy of human diseases, cross-disease research approaches should become the rule rather than the exception.

2012-01-01

213

Solving inconsistencies in the analysis of receptor-ligand interactions.  

PubMed

According to the occupation model, the observed sigmoidicity in receptor-binding studies frequently yields non-integer values for the number of molecules that bind per receptor, which may suggest inconsistencies of the model. Here, Bertil Tuk and Michael van Oostenbruggen re-examine the derivation of the model and pinpoint the origin of the observed inconsistencies, thereby demonstrating that these inconsistencies may lead to substantial error in estimates of receptor affinity, number of molecules that bind per receptor and cooperativity. A reformulated model allows more information to be derived from receptor-binding experiments, yielding integer estimates of the number of molecules that bind per receptor and quantitatively estimating the degree of cooperativity. PMID:8990956

Tuk, B; van Oostenbruggen, M F

1996-11-01

214

Hypnotic approaches for chronic pain management: clinical implications of recent research findings.  

PubMed

The empirical support for hypnosis for chronic pain management has flourished over the past two decades. Clinical trials show that hypnosis is effective for reducing chronic pain, although outcomes vary between individuals. The findings from these clinical trials also show that hypnotic treatments have a number of positive effects beyond pain control. Neurophysiological studies reveal that hypnotic analgesia has clear effects on brain and spinal-cord functioning that differ as a function of the specific hypnotic suggestions made, providing further evidence for the specific effects of hypnosis. The research results have important implications for how clinicians can help their clients experience maximum benefits from hypnosis and treatments that include hypnotic components. PMID:24547802

Jensen, Mark P; Patterson, David R

2014-01-01

215

Rape treatment outcome research: empirical findings and state of the literature.  

PubMed

This article reviews empirical support for treatments targeting women sexually assaulted during adolescence or adulthood. Thirty-two articles were located using data from 20 separate samples. Of the 20 samples, 12 targeted victims with chronic symptoms, three focused on the acute period post-assault, two included women with chronic and acute symptoms, and three were secondary prevention programs. The majority of studies focus on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and/or anxiety as treatment targets. Cognitive Processing Therapy and Prolonged Exposure have garnered the most support with this population. Stress Inoculation Training and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing also show some efficacy. Of the four studies that compared active treatments, few differences were found. Overall, cognitive behavioral interventions lead to better PTSD outcomes than supportive counseling does. However, even in the strongest treatments more than one-third of women retain a PTSD diagnosis at post-treatment or drop out of treatment. Discussion highlights the paucity of research in this area, methodological limitations of examined studies, generalizability of findings, and important directions for future research at various stages of trauma recovery. PMID:19442425

Vickerman, Katrina A; Margolin, Gayla

2009-07-01

216

Rape Treatment Outcome Research: Empirical Findings and State of the Literature  

PubMed Central

This article reviews empirical support for treatments targeting women sexually assaulted during adolescence or adulthood. Thirty-two articles were located using data from 20 separate samples. Of the 20 samples, 12 targeted victims with chronic symptoms, three focused on the acute period post-assault, two included women with chronic and acute symptoms, and three were secondary prevention programs. The majority of studies focus on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and/or anxiety as treatment targets. Cognitive Processing Therapy and Prolonged Exposure have garnered the most support with this population. Stress Inoculation Training and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing also show some efficacy. Of the four studies that compared active treatments, few differences were found. Overall, cognitive behavioral interventions lead to better PTSD outcomes than supportive counseling does. However, even in the strongest treatments more than one-third of women retain a PTSD diagnosis at post-treatment or drop out of treatment. Discussion highlights the paucity of research in this area, methodological limitations of examined studies, generalizability of findings, and important directions for future research at various stages of trauma recovery.

Vickerman, Katrina A.; Margolin, Gayla

2009-01-01

217

Genetically informative research on adolescent substance use: methods, findings and challenges  

PubMed Central

Objective To provide an overview of the genetic epidemiology of substance use and misuse in adolescents. Method We present a selective review of genetically informative research strategies, their limitations and key findings examining issues related to the heritability of substance use and substance use disorders in children and adolescents. Results Adoption, twin and extended family designs have established there is a strong heritable component to liability to nicotine, alcohol and illicit drug dependence in adults. However, shared environmental influences are relatively stronger in youth samples and at earlier stages of substance involvement (e.g., use). There is considerable overlap in the genetic influences associated with the abuse/ dependence across drug classes while shared genetic influences also contribute to the commonly observed associations between substance use disorders and both externalizing and, to a lesser extent, internalizing psychopathology. Rapid technological advances have made the identification of specific gene variants that influence risks for substance use disorders feasible and linkage and association (including genomewide association studies) have identified promising candidate genes implicated in the development of substance use disorders. Conclusions Studies using genetically informative research designs, including those that examine aggregate genetic factors and those examining specific gene variants, individually and in interaction with environmental influences, offer promising avenues not only for delineating genetic effects on substance use disorders but also for understanding the unfolding of risk across development and the interaction between environmental and genetic factors in the etiology of these disorders.

Lynskey, Michael T.; Agrawal, Arpana; Heath, Andrew C.

2010-01-01

218

Are neurocognitive speed and inconsistency similarly affected in type 2 diabetes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a disease of aging with indirect but detectable and cumulative neurological implications. We systematically tested whether neurocognitive speed (mean rate) or inconsistency (intraindividual variability) was the more sensitive clinical marker of T2D. Three of four research questions used a cross-sectional wave of the Victoria Longitudinal Study (VLS) divided into T2D (age 55–81 years) and control

Bonnie P. Whitehead; Roger A. Dixon; David F. Hultsch; Stuart W. S. MacDonald

2011-01-01

219

26 CFR 1.1311(b)-1 - Maintenance of an inconsistent position.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Maintenance of an inconsistent position. 1.1311(b)-1 Section 1...1 Maintenance of an inconsistent position. (a) In general. Under the circumstances...1312-7, the maintenance of an inconsistent position is a condition necessary for...

2013-04-01

220

Status Inconsistency in Rural Areas: A Replication and Critique.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Replicating the work of others who hypothesized that status inconsistancy increases political liberalism, this study involved a random sample of rural Michigan population. Utilizing multiple regression analysis, respondents were scored on the variables of occupation, income, education, religion, and political party preference. Hypotheses tested…

Salopek, Phillip A.; Vanderpool, Christopher K.

221

On the inconsistency of rigid-body frictional planar mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of a thin rigid rod sliding on a horizontal surface in the plane is considered. This problem is commonly cited as an example of the inconsistency of planar rigid-body Newtonian mechanics. The existence of a consistent solution, using Routh's analysis of rigid-body impact is demonstrated

Matthew T. Mason; Yu Wang

1988-01-01

222

Thermodynamic inconsistency of the modified Saha equation at high pressures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the thermodynamic inconsistency inherent in the usual approach of using a Saha equation that has been 'corrected' for pressure ionization without making corresponding changes in the expressions for entropy and pressure. It is demonstrated that both the Rouse (1964) and the Stewart-Pyatt (1966) models suffer from this limitation. Negative values of the adiabatic gradient obtained in the

M. A. Sweeney

1978-01-01

223

Inconsistent Response Patterns and the Prediction of Child Maltreatment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the responses of 89 physical child abusers and 108 comparison subjects to the Child Abuse Potential Inventory to determine whether the inventory's response inconsistency scale could be used for screening for physical child abuse. The scale was rejected as a reliable or valid measure. (Author/MSE)

Milner, Joel S.; Robertson, Kevin R.

1989-01-01

224

Inconsistent Condom Use among Iranian Male Drug Injectors  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of inconsistent condom use among Iranian male injecting drug users (IDUs). Materials and Methods: Data came from the national Iranian behavioral survey of drug dependence, which sampled 7743 individuals with drug dependence, from medical centers, prisons, and streets in 29 provinces in Iran, in 2007. This study included all individuals who were male, IDUs, and were sexually active (n?=?1131). The main outcome was inconsistent condom use which was assessed using a single item. A logistic regression was used to determine the association between socio-economic data, drug use data, and high risk injection behaviors with inconsistent condom use. Result: 83.3% of sexually active IDUs (n?=?965) reported inconsistent condom use. Based on the logistic regression, likelihood of inconsistent condom use was higher among those with a history of syringe sharing [Odds Ratio (OR); 1.63, 95% Confidence Interval (CI); 1.13–2.34], but lower among those with higher education levels (OR; 0.34, 95% CI; 0.14–0.82), those who mostly inject at home (OR; 0.09, 95% CI; 0.02–0.47), and those with a history of treatment (OR; 0.54, 95% CI; 0.31–0.94). Conclusion: Because of the link between unsafe sex and risky injecting behaviors among Iranian IDUs, combined programs targeting both sexual and injection behavior may be more appropriate than programs that target sexual or injection behavior. The efficacy of combined programs should be, however, compared with traditional programs that only target sexual or injection behavior of IDUs.

Assari, Shervin; Yarmohmmadi Vasel, Mosaieb; Tavakoli, Mahmood; Sehat, Mahmoud; Jafari, Firoozeh; Narenjiha, Hooman; Rafiey, Hassan; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh

2014-01-01

225

Problems Teachers Face When Doing Action Research and Finding Possible Solutions: Three Cases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through case studies, this paper explores problems teachers face when doing action research: for instance, teachers may misunderstand the research, mistrust university researchers, lack the time or adequate library resources to conduct research, lack theoretical guidance or knowledge of research methodology, and feel pressure or frustration during…

Zhou, Jun

2012-01-01

226

Hostility and withdrawal in marital conflict: effects on parental emotional unavailability and inconsistent discipline.  

PubMed

This study examined the nature of pathways between marital hostility and withdrawal, parental disagreements about child rearing issues, and subsequent changes in parental emotional unavailability and inconsistent discipline in a sample of 225 mothers, fathers, and 6-year-old children. Results of autoregressive, structural equation models indicated that marital withdrawal and hostility were associated with increases in parental emotional unavailability over the one-year period, whereas marital hostility and withdrawal did not predict changes in parental inconsistency in discipline. Additional findings supported the role of child rearing disagreements as an intervening or mediating mechanism in links between specific types of marital conflict and parenting practices. Implications for clinicians and therapists working with maritally distressed parents and families are discussed. PMID:16756398

Sturge-Apple, Melissa L; Davies, Patrick T; Cummings, E Mark

2006-06-01

227

St. Jude researchers find that unhealthy habits more than double risk of metabolic syndrome in childhood cancer survivors  

Cancer.gov

St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital study finds that few adult survivors of childhood cancer follow a heart-healthy lifestyle that protects against heart disease, diabetes and other health problems.

228

Can I be sued for that? Liability risk and the disclosure of clinically significant genetic research findings.  

PubMed

Genomic researchers increasingly are faced with difficult decisions about whether, under what circumstances, and how to return research results and significant incidental findings to study participants. Many have argued that there is an ethical-maybe even a legal-obligation to disclose significant findings under some circumstances. At the international level, over the last decade there has begun to emerge a clear legal obligation to return significant findings discovered during the course of research. However, there is no explicit legal duty to disclose in the United States. This creates legal uncertainty that may lead to unmanaged variation in practice and poor quality care. This article discusses liability risks associated with the disclosure of significant research findings for investigators in the United States. PMID:24676095

McGuire, Amy L; Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Zawati, Ma'n H; Clayton, Ellen Wright

2014-05-01

229

Gas Load Research Workshop: Workshop Proceedings and Findings. Held in Madison, Wisconsin on September 14-15, 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the discussions and findings that took place during the GRI Gas Load Research Workshop. Topics addressed at the workshop included the market and regulatory trends driving the increasing need for load and customer information; the role ...

S. Shaffer G. Wikler R. Oscar

1994-01-01

230

78 FR 23255 - Findings of Misconduct in Science/Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...administrative matters pending at HHS. ORI found that Philippe Bois, Ph.D., former postdoctoral fellow, Department of Biochemistry, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, engaged in research misconduct in research funded by National Institute of...

2013-04-18

231

Research on the effect of noise at different times of day: Models, methods and findings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Social surveys of residents' responses to noise at different times of day are reviewed. Some of the discrepancies in published reports about the importance of noise at different times of day are reduced when the research findings are classified according to the type of time of day reaction model, the type of time of day weight calculated and the method which is used to estimate the weight. When the estimates of nighttime weights from 12 studies are normalized, it is found that they still disagree, but do not support stronger nighttime weights than those used in existing noise indices. Challenges to common assumptions in nighttime response models are evaluated. Two of these challenges receive enough support to warrant further investigation: the impact of changes in numbers of noise events may be less at night than in the day and nighttime annoyance may be affected by noise levels in other periods. All existing social survey results in which averages of nighttime responses were plotted by nighttime noise levels are reproduced.

Fields, J. M.

1985-01-01

232

Supporting Effective Communication and Workflows in Social Science Research: Findings and Summary of a Group Discussion  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the end of 2010, at an event hosted by SAGE and facilitated by the Research Information Network, a group of academic librarians and doctoral researchers came together to discuss the provision of information services for researchers in the social sciences. The event was designed to both explore ways of improving the provision and consumption of information during the research

Bernie Folan

2012-01-01

233

Impact of Problem Finding on the Quality of Authentic Open Inquiry Science Research Projects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem finding is a creative process whereby individuals develop original ideas for study. Secondary science students who successfully participate in authentic, novel, open inquiry studies must engage in problem finding to determine viable and suitable topics. This study examined problem finding strategies employed by students who successfully…

LaBanca, Frank

2008-01-01

234

Thomas Jefferson University researchers find new biomarker to identify hepatitis B-infected patients at risk for liver cancer  

Cancer.gov

Hepatitis B-infected patients with significantly longer telomeres—the caps on the end of chromosomes that protect our genetic data— were found to have an increased risk of getting liver cancer compared to those with shorter ones, according to findings presented by researchers at Jefferson’s Kimmel Cancer Center at the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) Annual Meeting 2012.

235

Directions for future research in project management: The main findings of a UK government-funded research network  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2003 the UK’s Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) agreed to fund a research network –Rethinking Project Management – to define a research agenda aimed at enriching and extending the subject of project management beyond its current conceptual foundations. The main argument for the proposed Network highlighted the growing critiques of project management theory and the need for

Mark Winter; Charles Smith; Peter Morris; Svetlana Cicmil

2006-01-01

236

Research findings working with the p53 and Rb1 targeted osteosarcoma mouse model  

PubMed Central

Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common bone cancer in children and young adults. The etiology of osteosarcoma is currently unknown. Besides the predominant osteoblasts, the presence of cartilage forming chondrocytes within its tumor tissues suggests a role of chondrogenesis in osteosarcoma development. Runx2 is a master transcription factor both for osteoblast differentiation and for chondrocyte maturation. Interestingly, RUNX2 has been shown to directly interact with p53 and Rb1, two genes essential for osteosarcoma development in mice. However the in vivo relevance of Runx2 during osteosarcoma progression has not been elucidated. We have recently shown that targeting Runx2 expression in hypertrophic chondrocytes delays chondrocyte maturation. It has also been shown that osteoblast-specific deletion of p53 and Rb1 genes developed osteosarcoma in mice. Here, we report our recent research findings using these osteosarcoma mouse models as well as human osteosarcoma tissues. We have detected high-level RUNX2 expression in human osteoblastic osteosarcoma, while chondroblastic osteosarcoma is predominant with chondroid matrix. To minimize the effect of strain difference, we have backcrossed osterix-Cre mice onto congenic FVB/N genetic background. We also detected low-GC content (36%) in sequence around the floxed Rb1 gene and demonstrated that addition of BSA into the reaction system increases the efficiency of PCR genotyping of floxed Rb1 gene. Finally, we successfully generated multiple osteosarcoma mouse models with or without Runx2 transgenic background. These mice showed heterogeneous osteosarcoma phenotypes and marker gene expression. Characterization of these mice will facilitate understanding the role of Runx2 in osteosarcoma pathogenesis and possibly, for osteosarcoma treatment.

Lu, Yaojuan; Gitelis, Steven; Lei, Guanghua; Ding, Ming; Maki, Carl; Mira, Ranim R; Zheng, Qiping

2014-01-01

237

Identifying Inconsistencies in SNOMED CT Problem Lists using Structural Indicators  

PubMed Central

The National Library of Medicine has published the CORE and the VA/KP problem lists to facilitate the usage of SNOMED CT for encoding diagnoses and clinical data of patients in electronic health records. Therefore, it is essential for the content of the problem lists to be as accurate and consistent as possible. This study assesses the effectiveness of using a concept’s word length and number of parents, two structural indicators for measuring concept complexity, to identify inconsistencies with high probability. The method is able to isolate concepts with over 40% expected of being erroneous. A structural indicator for concepts which is able to identify 52% of the examined concepts as having errors in synonyms is also presented. The results demonstrate that the concepts in problem lists are not free of inconsistencies and further quality assurance is needed to improve the quality of these concepts.

Agrawal, Ankur; Perl, Yehoshua; Chen, Yan; Elhanan, Gai; Liu, Mei

2013-01-01

238

The art of inconsistency: evidence-based practice my way.  

PubMed

Inconsistency of care in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit is a common complaint amongst caregivers. This paper discusses evidence-based medicine and standards of care in relation to personal preference where care-giving choices are concerned. It is suggested that moral distress may be diminished by consistently applying evidence-based practice, adhering to standards of care and optimizing the team dynamic by engaging in consensus-based collaboration. PMID:19710655

Golec, L

2009-09-01

239

Kids in Research: Your Child Can Help Find Cures at the NIH Clinical Center  

MedlinePLUS

... For You? Search The Studies Clinical Studies FAQs Volunteering Newsletter Patient Information Kids in Research Researchers/Physicians ... website provides several resources to help determine if volunteering in a clinical trial is right for your ...

240

76 FR 33763 - Findings of Misconduct in Science/Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...by ORI during its oversight review, ORI found that Philippe Bois, Ph.D., former postdoctoral fellow, Department of Biochemistry, St. Jude, engaged in misconduct in science and research misconduct in research funded by National Institute of...

2011-06-09

241

Purdue study finds "label-free" imaging tool tracks nanotubes in cells, blood for biomedical research:  

Cancer.gov

Purdue University researchers have demonstrated a new imaging tool for tracking structures called carbon nanotubes in living cells and the bloodstream, which could aid efforts to perfect their use in biomedical research and clinical medicine.

242

99 Jumpstarts to Research: Topic Guides for Finding Information on Current Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book, created by three reference librarians, teaches the beginning researcher good research habits. It provides names of tools students should consult for a well-rounded, well-researched paper on a controversial issue in the news. Books, specialized databases, online resources, and agencies to contact are all included. Each "jumpstart" has…

Whitley, Peggy; Olson, Catherine; Goodwin, Susan Williams

243

Impact of Research Findings and Recommendations in Urban School Districts: A Case Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A gap exists between educational research results and new educational programs. In the absence of either an increase in the supply of professional change agents to fill this gap or a proliferation of applied development centers, it is the researcher, or the professor, who must, along with teachers and administrators, utilize research to engineer…

Steinhoff, Carl R.; Owens, Robert G.

244

Finding Direction When the Ground Is Moving: Science Education Research in South Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is in the nature of a journey that it must start somewhere; it is in the nature of research that it must have a focus. The authors begin this review with a summary of science education research that has been done in South Africa over past decades, and the focuses it has chosen. They then critique the research, focusing on the following…

Malcolm, Cliff; Alant, Busi

2004-01-01

245

Finding a Canon and Core: Meditations on the Preparation of Teacher Educator-Researchers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author explores seven "unanswered questions" concerning the preparation of future teacher educator-researchers. She considers five questions concerning the substance of doctoral preparation: what the new generation of teacher-researchers would need to know about teacher education, relevant disciplines, research methodologies,…

Wilson, Suzanne M.

2006-01-01

246

Teachers' Approaches to Finding and Using Research Evidence: An Information Literacy Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The use of research evidence produced by others is seen as central to the reflective practice of school teachers. There have been many recent UK initiatives aimed at improving access to research evidence, but there are still concerns about the lack of engagement by teachers. Previous research has looked at this issue from different…

Williams, Dorothy; Coles, Louisa

2007-01-01

247

Research in Online and Blended Learning in the Business Disciplines: Key Findings and Possible Future Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this literature review, we examine and assess the state of research of online and blended learning in the business disciplines with the intent of assessing the state of the field and identifying opportunities for meaningful future research. We review research from business disciplines such as Accounting, Economics, Finance, Information Systems…

Arbaugh, J. B.; Godfrey, Michael R.; Johnson, Marianne; Pollack, Birgit Leisen; Niendorf, Bruce; Wresch, William

2009-01-01

248

The Hermeneutic Dialogic: Finding Patterns midst the "Aporia" of the Artist/Researcher/Teacher.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers one researcher's challenge of marking his progress in reading/studying Jacques Derrida's "Aporias" (1993) by what he calls the continual hermeneutic of making meaning. The paper places the "Aporias" reading in the setting of a weekly research group whose research cycle was creating meaning in and out of the work being done and…

de Cosson, Alex

249

Formal Training, Personal Experience, and the Ability to Predict Research Findings in Social Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers in the past have found that personal experience and formal training lead to better accuracy when predicting research outcomes in areas of psychology. Personal experience and formal training were compared in this study on the ability of students to predict research outcomes in social psychology. Students completed questionnaires that measured their social engagement (a proxy to personal experience), their

Carrie Quarterman

2007-01-01

250

Challenge: Reframing, communicating, and finding relevance. Solution: Teachers on the research team  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PolarTREC (Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating) is a program in which K-12 teachers spend 2-6 weeks participating in hands-on field research experiences in the polar regions. The goal of PolarTREC is to invigorate polar science education and understanding by bringing K-12 educators and polar researchers together. Program data has illuminated a crucial dynamic that increases the potential for a successful climate change science campaign. We contend that the inclusion of a teacher into the field research campaign can tackle challenges such as reframing climate change science to better address the need for a particular campaign, as well as garnering the science project the necessary support through effective, authentic, and tangible communication efforts to policymakers, funders, students, and the public. The program evaluation queried researchers on a.) the teachers' primary roles in the field b.) the impact teachers on the team's field research, and c.) the teachers' role conducting outreach. Additionally, researchers identified the importance of the facilitator, the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS), as an integral component to the challenge of providing a meaningful broader impact statement to the science proposal. Researchers reported the value of explaining their science, in-situ, allowed them to reframe and rework the objectives of the science project to attain meaningful outcomes. More than half of the researchers specifically noted that one of the strengths of the PolarTREC project is its benefit to the scientific process. The researchers also viewed PolarTREC as an essential outreach activity for their research project. Other researchers said that the outreach provided by their teacher also improved the research project's public image and articulated complex ideas to the public at large. This presentation will speak to the practices within the PolarTREC program and how researchers can meet outreach expectations, impact the public, and refine their science with teachers in the field.

Bartholow, S.; Warburton, J.

2013-12-01

251

Summary Report on Action Research: A Summary of Findings on a Series of Action Research Projects Conducted by Goshen Community Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes the findings of an analysis of a series of action research projects conducted by Goshen Community Schools at the elementary, middle, and high school levels. During the 2008-2009 school year, 40 teachers participated in independent action research studies regarding the extent to which a six step approach to direct vocabulary…

Haystead, Mark W.

2009-01-01

252

Special session - linking research findings on engineering student learning and engineering teaching: Implications for engineering education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this special interactive session is to engage attendees in (1) knitting the results of two linked studies (of engineering undergraduates and engineering faculty) into the larger body of engineering education scholarship and (2) developing ways of thinking about these findings that can be used to inform engineering education program planning and classroom practice. The findings are from

Cynthia Atman; Lorraine Fleming; Deborah Kilgore; Ron Miller; Sheri Sheppard; Karl Smith; Reed Stevens; Ruth Streveler; Jennifer Turns

2008-01-01

253

On the Relevance of Research Findings in Cognitive Neuroscience to Educational Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In their target article, Byrnes and Fox (1998) argue that many of the recent findings from the field of cognitive neuroscience have particular importance for education. In our commentary, we lend support to their contention by reporting on some of our work that has potential relevance to the proposed interface between cognitive neuroscience and education. Specifically, we discuss the findings

Michael W. O'Boyle; Harwant S. Gill

1998-01-01

254

The crystalline revolution :ISO's finding opens a new research field, "astro-mineralogy"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicate minerals were known to be a main component of dust in space, but detecting them in a crystallised state has been a surprise. It allows the identification of precise silicates in astronomical objects, which will open "a totally new field in astronomy: astro-mineralogy. This is the crystalline revolution", said the author, Dutch astronomer Rens Waters of Amsterdam university. "It's really fantastic, this possibility of identifying the silicates. Before ISO everybody thought that all silicates in space were amorphous, without a well-ordered internal structure; that means you cannot differentiate among the many different silicates existing. Now we can try to identify them and track their presence in different regions. A whole new research field is starting", said Rens Waters, who brought to the press conference samples of several terrestrial crystalline silicates: olivine and pyroxene, the most common silicates on Earth. Crystals give key clues about the physical conditions and evolutionary history of crystal-bearing objects. The precise mechanisms for crystal-making are now being researched now very actively in the laboratories, although some working-hypotheses are already being used. For instance, crystals can be made by heating the material to temperatures above 1 300 degrees Centigrade and then cooling it down slowly. Those found so far by ISO are at -170 degrees Centigrade, both in stellar envelopes and in protoplanetary discs. In the case of the old stars -red giant stars, where crystals are found to account for as much as 20% of all the surrounding dust, astronomers think that that the high temperatures near the star triggered the crystallisation of the silicates. In the protoplanetary discs some experts postulate that electric shocks - like lightning flashes - heated the dust, which cooled afterwards. "The crystals detected by ISO in these discs have a size of about a thousandth of a millimetre. They collide with each other, forming bigger and bigger bodies. Models predict that in about ten to one hundred million years they will make planets", Waters says. "In fact, crystalline silicates are very common in our own Solar System. You also have them in the comet Hale Bopp!". The reason why crystalline silicates had not been detected before in stars has to do with their low temperatures. Cold material emits mostly infrared light, which means an infrared space telescope like ESA's ISO was needed. The two high-resolution spectrometers on-board the satellite, able to detect the 'chemical fingerprint' of the crystals, did the rest. Astronomers are sure about the discovery because those chemical fingerprints, the spectra, can be compared in laboratories with spectra from crystalline silicates found on Earth. This method has demonstrated the crystalline structure and has even already allowed the identification of some of the crystals, such as forsterite and enstatite. However, crystalline silicates are a large family and their chemical signatures can be very similar; to enlarge the list of precise crystals more work will be needed, say experts in space chemistry. That is just one of the open questions requiring lab work. There's at least another one: crystalline silicates are found around old stars, in protoplanetary disks and in our own Solar System, but not in the space among the stars; astronomers can't explain it yet. "Crystalline silicates are synthesised around the stars; then that dust goes into the interstellar space, and enriches the raw material out of which more stars and planets will form. So you would expect crystals also to be in the interstellar medium! Crystals will certainly make us learn a lot...", says Waters. "This finding shows that ISO is really unveiling the chemistry of the Universe", says ESA astronomer Alberto Salama, chairman of the workshop about ISO results in spectroscopy held this week at ESA's Villafranca station in Madrid where the results were presented to the scientific community. "This is becoming more and more a 'hot

2000-02-01

255

Sensitivity of alpine glacial change detection and mass balance to sampling and datum inconsistencies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glacial mass balance estimated through the geodetic method requires glacial surface coordinate observations from historical and contemporary sources. Contemporary observations and historical topographic maps are typically referenced to separate horizontal and vertical datums and observed with different sampling intervals. This research demonstrates the sensitivity of glacial change detection to the datum considerations and sampling schemes through case studies of Andrei, Bridge and Peyto glaciers in Western Canada. To simulate the procedure of observing the glacial surfaces, profile lines were sampled from Digital Elevation Model (DEMs) on contour intervals for historical data and horizontal intervals for contemporary data. Profile lines from the following scenarios were compared: (1) different horizontal and vertical sampling schemes; (2) the horizontal datum was correctly reconciled but the vertical datum was not; (3) the vertical datum was correctly reconciled but the horizontal datum was not; (4) both the horizontal and vertical datums were correctly reconciled; and (5) both the horizontal and vertical datums were incorrectly reconciled. Vertical errors of up to 6.9 m, 6.0 m and 5.0 m were observed due to sampling effects and vertical errors of 22.2 m, 9.9 m and 55.0 m were observed due to datum inconsistencies on Bridge, Andrei and Peyto glacier respectively. Horizontal datum inconsistencies manifested as erratic levels of growth or downwasting along the glacial surface profile and vertical datum errors manifested as a consistent vertical offset. Datum inconsistencies were identified to contribute errors of up to 257.2 × 106 m3 (or 87%) and 54.6 × 106 m3 (or 580%) of estimated volume change below and above the equilibrium line respectively on Peyto Glacier. The results of this study provide an estimate of typical errors due to sampling constraints or datum inconsistencies as well as guidance for identifying where these error sources have contaminated mass balance results.

Goulden, T.; Hopkinson, C.; Demuth, M. N.

2013-01-01

256

Motivated reflection on attitude-inconsistent information: an exploration of the role of fear of invalidity in self-persuasion.  

PubMed

The mere thought effect is defined in part by the tendency of self-reflective thought to heighten the generation of and reflection on attitude-consistent thoughts. By focusing on individuals' fears of invalidity, we explored the possibility that the mere opportunity for thought sometimes motivates reflection on attitude-inconsistent thoughts. Across three experiments, dispositional and situational fear of invalidity was shown to heighten reflection on attitude-inconsistent thoughts. This heightened reflection, in turn, interacted with individuals' thought confidence to determine whether attitude-inconsistent thoughts were assimilated or refuted and consequently whether individuals' attitudes and behavioral intentions depolarized or polarized following a sufficient opportunity for thought, respectively. These findings emphasize the impact of motivational influences on thought reflection and generation, the importance of thought confidence in the assimilation and refutation of self-generated thought, and the dynamic means by which the mere thought bias can impact self-persuasion. PMID:23907332

Clarkson, Joshua J; Valente, Matthew J; Leone, Christopher; Tormala, Zakary L

2013-12-01

257

Benchmarking Classification Models for Software Defect Prediction: A Proposed Framework and Novel Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software defect prediction strives to improve software quality and testing efficiency by constructing predictive classification models from code attributes to enable a timely identification of fault-prone modules. Several classification models have been evaluated for this task. However, due to inconsistent findings regarding the superiority of one classifier over another and the usefulness of metric-based classification in general, more research is

Stefan Lessmann; Bart Baesens; Christophe Mues; Swantje Pietsch

2008-01-01

258

Cold Spring Harbor researchers find immunogenic mutations in tumor genomes correlate with increased patient survival  

Cancer.gov

Developing immunotherapies for cancer is challenging because of significant variability among tumors and diversity in human immune types. In a study published online today in Genome Research , researchers examined the largest collection of tumor samples to date to predict patient-specific survival

259

Roswell Park-led study finds most cancer research trials do not assess participants’ tobacco use  

Cancer.gov

While tobacco use can significantly hamper cancer treatment, few cancer researchers are incorporating tobacco assessment into their clinical studies. That’s the conclusion a group of investigators led by researchers at Roswell Park Cancer Institute drew from a recent survey of cancer clinical trials.

260

UC Irvine researchers find a cause of chemotherapy resistance in melanoma  

Cancer.gov

Researchers with UC Irvine’s Chao Family Comprehensive Cancer Center have identified a major reason why melanoma is largely resistant to chemotherapy. The researchers found a genetic pathway in melanoma cells that inhibits the cellular mechanism for detecting DNA damage wrought by chemotherapy, thereby building up tolerance to cancer-killing drugs.

261

How College Affects Students: Findings and Insights from Twenty Years of Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 14 chapters of this book review and synthesize research on the influence of college on students. Chapter 1 provides a detailed discussion of the evolution of research on college outcomes as an area of study, outlines the conceptual framework that guided the review, and provides a general overview of the study. Chapter 2 summarizes the major…

Pascarella, Ernest T.; Terenzini, Patrick T.

262

A SEMINAR ON COMMUNICATIONS RESEARCH FINDINGS AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR SCHOOL-COMMUNITY RELATIONS PROGRAMS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 3-DAY SEMINAR BROUGHT TOGETHER 40 RESEARCH SPECIALISTS IN COMMUNICATIONS, DIRECTORS OF SCHOOL-COMMUNITY RELATIONS, SCHOOL SUPERINTENDENTS, AND PROFESSORS OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION. OBJECTIVES OF THE SEMINAR WERE--(1) TO REVIEW AND SYNTHESIZE SOME OF THE OUTSTANDING RESEARCH IN MASS COMMUNICATION MEDIA, (2) TO POINT OUT THE IMPLICATIONS OF…

FEHR, GEORGE N., JR.; KINDRED, LESLIE W.

263

Longitudinal Changes in Adaptive Behaviors of Movers and Stayers: Findings from a Controlled Research Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews of research on deinstitutionalization show that investigators have focused primarily on adaptive behavior changes of "movers," while paying minimal attention to "stayers." Analysis of their research also revealed some methodological problems. We assessed 150 movers and 150 stayers in 1994, before deinstitutionalization began in 1997. We…

Lerman, Paul; Apgar, Dawn Hall; Jordan,Tameeka

2005-01-01

264

Broad Claims from Slender Findings: Early Literacy Research and Educational Policy Recommendations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of state educational policymaking revealed a number of instances where assertions have been made about what the "research says" in offering support for particular policies; however, in many of these instances the available research seems to have been distorted or exaggerated in order to better leverage particular policy proposals. The role…

Allington, Richard L.

265

Desperately Seeking Data: Methodological Complications in Researching "Hard to Find" Young People  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores challenges arising from research (Daniels & Macnab, 2004), which sought to identify young people aged 14-16 years who were emotionally vulnerable and not in receipt of educational provision within two local UK authorities. Two particular challenges are identified in this research. The first was the challenge of defining the…

Macnab, Natasha; Visser, John; Daniels, Harry

2007-01-01

266

Dana-Farber researchers find that marker may predict response to ipilimumab in advanced melanoma  

Cancer.gov

Dana-Farber researchers found that in patients with advanced melanoma using the immunotherapy ipilimumab, presence of higher levels of the protein VEGF in the blood was associated with a poorer response.

267

UCSD researchers find that cancer cells co-opt immune response to escape destruction  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine report that tumor cells use stress signals to subvert responding immune cells, exploiting them to actually boost conditions beneficial to cancer growth.

268

UC Davis research finds newer radiation therapy technology improves patients' quality of life:  

Cancer.gov

Patients with head and neck cancers who have been treated with newer, more sophisticated radiation therapy technology enjoy a better quality of life than those treated with older radiation therapy equipment, a study by UC Davis researchers has found.

269

UCSD researchers find that anti-psychotic medications offer new hope in the battle against glioblastoma  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have discovered that FDA-approved anti-psychotic drugs possess tumor-killing activity against the most aggressive form of primary brain cancer, glioblastoma.

270

UCSF researchers find that a sugary coating on cells may drive aggressive cancers  

Cancer.gov

A research team led by UC San Francisco scientists has shown that cancer-induced structural changes in a sugary coating ensheathing cells can promote mechanical interactions that fuel tumor growth and metastasis.

271

Atmospheric Science Goes to Ground: Researchers Present New Findings on the Natural Hydrogen Cycle  

NSF Publications Database

... from methane, the researchers were able to calculate that the soil uptake of hydrogen is as high as ... excess previously observed. "A more accurate molecular hydrogen budget may have important ...

272

Hopkins researchers find that a vaccine can reprogram pancreatic cancers to respond to immunotherapy  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center have developed and tested a vaccine that triggered the growth of immune cell nodules within pancreatic tumors, essentially reprogramming these intractable cancers and potentially making them vulnerable to immune-based therapies.

273

Washington University researchers find key genetic error in family of blood cancers:  

Cancer.gov

Researchers used whole-genome sequencing to identify a critical mutation in some patients with myelodysplastic syndromes that appears to increase the likelihood they will develop acute myeloid leukemia.

274

NIH Researchers Find Resveratrol Helps Protect against Cardiovascular Disease in Animal Study  

MedlinePLUS

... problems, according to an NIA study in nonhuman primates. Specifically, researchers found resveratrol prevented arterial stiffening and ... Central Arterial Wall Inflammation and Stiffening in Nonhuman Primates, Cell Metabolism (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10. ...

275

NIH Researchers Find Resveratrol Helps Protect Against Diabetes in Animal Study  

MedlinePLUS

... diet. In a new study of non-human primates, researchers have found that resveratrol counters some of ... high sugar diet on the pancreas, protecting these primates from developing diabetes. A healthy pancreas responds to ...

276

Moffitt researchers find potential new therapeutic target for treating non-small cell lung cancer  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at Moffitt Cancer Center have found a potential targeted therapy for patients with tobacco-associated non-small cell lung cancer. It is based on the newly identified oncogene IKBKE, which helps regulate immune response.

277

Duke researchers find that combining treatments boosts some smokers’ ability to quit  

Cancer.gov

Combining two smoking cessation therapies is more effective than using just one for male and highly nicotine-dependent smokers who weren't initially helped by the nicotine patch, according to researchers at Duke Medicine.

278

Harvard and Baylor researchers find new target for aggressive cancer gene:  

Cancer.gov

Researchers have found a way to kill human cells hijacked by a genetic accelerator that puts cancer cells into overdrive: the Myc oncogene. The discovery reveals new drug targets for Myc-driven cancers, which tend to be particularly aggressive.

279

Emerging Answers: Research Findings on Programs to Reduce Teen Pregnancy (Summary)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released on May 30, 2001, by the National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, this new report by Dr. Douglas Kirby reviews some 250 studies on teen pregnancy programs. The review finds that long-term programs have made a genuine difference in teen pregnancy, abortion, and birth rates, the last of which is now at its lowest level recorded. Kirby's study also finds no evidence that "abstinence-only" programs are effective or that sex education that covers contraception increases sexual activity. At the site, visitors may download a 21-page summary of the report, the press release, a FAQ, and related information.

Kirby, Douglas

2001-01-01

280

Research on Middleware of Automatic Finding and Integration of Deep Web Query Interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the Deep Web technologies are analyzed and discussed, and a middleware of finding and integrating Deep Web query interface automatically is proposed. This middleware extracts the attributes of query interfaces and judges them whether interfaces of Web databases by computing the similarity between them; it can also cluster query interfaces and construct an integrated query interface. This

Peiguang Lin; Chao Lv; Ku Jin

2008-01-01

281

Transforming Public Schools: A Synthesis of Research Findings from UCLA's Center X  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes how one university-based center, UCLA's Center X, has worked to prepare and sustain urban educators over the past 16 years. Synthesizing findings from more than 20 articles, papers, books, and dissertations that report on Center X's work, we argue that three key activities are necessary to spur change and ensure a…

Quartz, Karen Hunter; Priselac, Jody; Franke, Megan Loef

2009-01-01

282

The Contributions of Culture and Ethnicity To New Zealand Mental Health Research Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & material: In the last five years a number of studies have been conducted in specialist psychiatric and primary care populations in New Zealand which have allowed comparisons in terms of clinical phenomena and therapeutic experiences between Mâori (the indigenous people of New Zealand) and non-Mâori. These studies were reviewed in terms of the methodology used, their major findings

Rees Tapsell; Graham Mellsop

2007-01-01

283

Fox Chase researchers find that most Medicare patients wait weeks before breast cancer surgery  

Cancer.gov

Although patients may feel anxious waiting weeks from the time of their first doctor visit to evaluate their breast until they have breast cancer surgery, new findings from Fox Chase Cancer Center show that these waits are typical in the United States. Results were published on Monday, November 19 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

284

What Administrative Help in Preparing Research Proposals Do Professors Find Useful?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings of this study indicate that: (1) faculty deem the general service area of proposal budgeting as being the most important kind of assistance, and (2) faculty value the importance of having seed money available for pre-proposal activities as their highest priority. (Author/AM)

Harty, Harold

1977-01-01

285

The Educational Administration of the Self-Taught Higher Education Examination in China: Findings from Field Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on field research conducted in 1999-2000 in three of the larger cities in China (Wuhan, Xiamen and Shantou). It explores the workings of the educational service of the self-taught higher education examination (STE) that emerged in China in the early 1980s. Findings from questionnaires, in-depth interviews, observations and…

Gao, Guijuan

2003-01-01

286

Statement Summarizing Research Findings on the Issue of the Relationship Between Food-Additive-Free Diets and Hyperkinesis in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Advisory Committee on Hyperkinesis and Food Additives paper summarized some research findings on the issue of the relationship between food-additive-free diets and hyperkinesis in children. Based on several challenge studies, it is concluded that the evidence generally refutes Dr. B. F. Feingold's claim that artificial colorings in…

Lipton, Morris; Wender, Esther

287

UTSW researchers find that inherited mutated gene raises lung cancer risk for women, those who never smoked  

Cancer.gov

People who have an inherited mutation of a certain gene have a high chance of getting lung cancer — higher, even, than heavy smokers with or without the inherited mutation, according to new findings by cancer researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center.

288

The Educational Context and Outcomes for High School Students with Disabilities: Overview of the Study and Findings. Research Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research report discusses findings from descriptive studies that investigated the context and outcomes of educational programs for students with disabilities who were expected to receive standard high-school diplomas. The nine high schools included three in urban areas, three in suburban areas, and three in rural areas. Principals, special…

Schumaker, Jean B.; Deshler, Donald D.; Lenz, B. Keith; Bulgren, Janis A.; Davis, Betsy; Grossen, Bonnie; Marquis, Janet

289

Finding Context: What Today's College Students Say about Conducting Research in the Digital Age. Project Information Literacy Progress Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A report of preliminary findings and analysis from student discussion groups held on 7 U.S. campuses in Fall 2008, as part of Project Information Literacy. Qualitative data from discussions with higher education students across the country suggest that conducting research is particularly challenging. Students' greatest challenges are related to…

Head, Alison J.; Eisenberg, Michael B.

2009-01-01

290

Emanuel Miller Lecture: Attachment Insecurity, Disinhibited Attachment, and Attachment Disorders--Where Do Research Findings Leave the Concepts?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Despite the evidence on anomalous attachment patterns, there has been a tendency to interpret most of these as reflecting differences in security/insecurity. Methods: Empirical research findings are reviewed in relation to attachment/insecurity as evident in both infancy and later childhood, disorganised attachment, inhibited…

Rutter, Michael; Kreppner, Jana; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

2009-01-01

291

UC Davis researchers find oropharyngeal cancer patients with HPV have a more robust response to radiation therapy  

Cancer.gov

UC Davis cancer researchers have discovered significant differences in radiation-therapy response among patients with oropharyngeal cancer depending on whether they carry the human papillomavirus (HPV), a common sexually transmitted virus. The findings, published online today in The Laryngoscope Journal, could lead to more individualized radiation treatment regimens, which for many patients with HPV could be shorter and potentially less toxic.

292

The validity and utility of selection methods in personnel psychology: Practical and theoretical implications of 85 years of research findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article summarizes the practical and theoretical implications of 85 years of research in personnel selection. On the basis of meta-analytic findings, this article presents the validity of 19 selection procedures for predicting job performance and training performance and the validity of paired combinations of general mental ability (GMA) and Ihe 18 other selection procedures. Overall, the 3 combinations with

Frank L. Schmidt; John E. Hunter

1998-01-01

293

Advancing care for traumatic brain injury: findings from the IMPACT studies and perspectives on future research.  

PubMed

Research in traumatic brain injury (TBI) is challenging for several reasons; in particular, the heterogeneity between patients regarding causes, pathophysiology, treatment, and outcome. Advances in basic science have failed to translate into successful clinical treatments, and the evidence underpinning guideline recommendations is weak. Because clinical research has been hampered by non-standardised data collection, restricted multidisciplinary collaboration, and the lack of sensitivity of classification and efficacy analyses, multidisciplinary collaborations are now being fostered. Approaches to deal with heterogeneity have been developed by the IMPACT study group. These approaches can increase statistical power in clinical trials by up to 50% and are also relevant to other heterogeneous neurological diseases, such as stroke and subarachnoid haemorrhage. Rather than trying to limit heterogeneity, we might also be able to exploit it by analysing differences in treatment and outcome between countries and centres in comparative effectiveness research. This approach has great potential to advance care in patients with TBI. PMID:24139680

Maas, Andrew I R; Murray, Gordon D; Roozenbeek, Bob; Lingsma, Hester F; Butcher, Isabella; McHugh, Gillian S; Weir, James; Lu, Juan; Steyerberg, Ewout W

2013-12-01

294

Perspective on everyday technologies for Alzheimer's care: research findings, directions, and challenges.  

PubMed

The Everyday Technologies for Alzheimer's Care (ETAC) initiative was launched by the Alzheimer's Association and Intel Corporation in 2003 to identify and fund promising research in the use of technology--especially information and communication technologies (ICTs)--for monitoring, diagnosing, and treating Alzheimer's disease (AD). Agilent Technologies joined the initiative in 2005. In October 2006, representatives of the three partners, together with ETAC award grantees, met to review the most recent research, and discuss how current and developing technologies can address growing needs in Alzheimer's care. PMID:19595942

Dishman, Eric; Carrillo, Maria C

2007-07-01

295

World Bank: Harnessing civil society expertise in undertaking and disseminating research findings  

PubMed Central

The UK Consortium on AIDS and International Development was an essential partner to the evaluation leaders in harnessing the contribution and expertise of civil society. This article describes what the partnership entailed, the additional value it brought and how civil society might use the evaluation findings both as a tool for advocacy and a means for improving its own engagement with the individuals directly affected by HIV and with those who care for them.

Simms, Ben

2013-01-01

296

Collaboration in Teaching and Learning. Findings from the Innovative Approaches Research Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Innovative Approaches Research Project (IARP) develops instructional models for language minority students. The project focuses on dropout prevention, instruction of exceptional students, math and science instruction, and literacy. IARP implemented four model programs: (1) Partners for Valued Youth: Dropout Prevention Strategies for At-Risk…

Rivera, Charlene; Zehler, Annette

297

Strategies for Improving Rehearsal Technique: Using Research Findings to Promote Better Rehearsals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Music education researchers and conducting pedagogues have identified numerous behaviors that contribute to increased verbal and nonverbal teaching effectiveness of conductors on the podium. This article is a review of literature concerning several conductor behaviors that may (a) increase the effectiveness of rehearsals, (b) enhance the…

Silvey, Brian A.

2014-01-01

298

A Visitor's Guide to Effect Sizes--Statistical Significance versus Practical (Clinical) Importance of Research Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effect Sizes (ES) are an increasingly important index used to quantify the degree of practical significance of study results. This paper gives an introduction to the computation and interpretation of effect sizes from the perspective of the consumer of the research literature. The key points made are: (1) "ES" is a useful indicator of the…

Hojat, Mohammadreza; Xu, Gang

2004-01-01

299

Finding Voice through Teacher-Student Collaboration in a Feminist Research Project: Long-Term Effects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a feminist classroom an instructor who acts as an "interested party" rather than an authority, fosters an environment of care and connection which can result in life-changing discoveries for the participants. Drawing on David Bleich's conception of a "socially generous research" that removes hierarchical barriers between teacher and student, a…

Fey, Marion Harris

300

University of Wisconsin researchers find a new form of cell division  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at the University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center have discovered a new form of cell division in human cells. They believe it serves as a natural back-up mechanism during faulty cell division, preventing some cells from going down a path that can lead to cancer.

301

Researchers Find Biological Factors that May Drive Prostate Tumor Aggressiveness in African-American Men  

Cancer.gov

Researchers analyzing prostate tumors have identified differences in gene expression (the degree to which individual genes are turned on or off) between African-American and European-American men that show the existence of distinct tumor microenvironments (the area that includes the tumor and the surrounding non-cancerous tissue) in these two patient groups.

302

UNC and other researchers find that gene expression improves the definition of a breast cancer subtype  

Cancer.gov

A study conducted by the Vall d'Hebron Institute of Oncology in conjunction with the GEICAM cooperative group and other American and Canadian researchers, including UNC, has led to a change in the definition of hormone-sensitive breast tumors

303

Adults' Informal Learning: Definitions, Findings, Gaps, and Future Research. NALL Working Paper #21.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper on adult informal learning is divided into four sections. Section 1 examines different conceptions of informal learning and the issues and limitations associated with alternative definitions of informal learning. Section 2 is a review of empirical research on the estimated extent, role, and outcomes of informal learning and posited…

Livingstone, D. W.

304

Northwestern researchers find lower dosage CT-guided lung biopsy protocol maintains quality, minimizes exposure  

Cancer.gov

New guidelines for CT-guided biopsies of lung nodules significantly reduce radiation exposure allowing individuals the benefit of the procedure, which may cut down on overall lung cancer deaths. This research is being presented at the Society of Interventional Radiology's 37th Annual Scientific Meeting in San Francisco, Calif.

305

California Teacher Preparation for Instruction in Critical Thinking: Research Findings and Policy Recommendations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines a study on the extent to which California's teacher preparation programs were preparing candidates for teaching critical thinking and problem-solving skills in elementary and secondary schools. Researchers conducted interviews with education and subject matter faculty in private and public colleges and universities. Results…

Paul, Richard W.; Elder, Linda; Bartell, Ted

306

Penn researchers find contralateral prophylactic mastectomy offers limited gains to life expectancy for breast cancer patients:  

Cancer.gov

Contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM), a procedure that removes the unaffected breast in patients with cancer in one breast, provides only a modest increase in life expectancy, according to a new study by researchers from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania.

307

Job Fairs in America's State Prisons: Summary of Findings on Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Job Fairs have taken on an increasingly important role in correctional education and transition programming. The Federal Bureau of Prisons has been instrumental in promoting mock job fairs in all federal prison facilities. The focus of this research project was to understand how widespread the use of job fairs is in state prisons and correctional…

Oswald, Joyce

2005-01-01

308

The Challenge of Finding Faculty Time for Applied Research Activities in Ontario Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore how the role of Ontario college faculty has evolved since the advent of the Post-Secondary Education Choice and Excellence Act of 2000 and the Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology Act of 2002 in terms of whether or not the decision to create a research culture at the colleges included making time…

Rosenkrantz, Otte

2013-01-01

309

A Visitor's Guide to Effect Sizes – Statistical Significance Versus Practical (Clinical) Importance of Research Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect Sizes (ES) are an increasingly important index used toquantify the degree of practical significanceof study results. This paper gives anintroduction to the computation andinterpretation of effect sizes from theperspective of the consumer of the researchliterature. The key points made are:1. ES is a useful indicator of the practical(clinical) importance of research resultsthat can be operationally defined frombeing ``negligible'' to

Mohammadreza Hojat; Gang Xu

2004-01-01

310

Domestic Violence Between Same-Gender Partners: Recent Findings and Future Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Empirical literature about same-gender domestic violence was relatively nonexistent until the past 20 years, and conducting research with this population about a sensitive topic remains a daunting endeavor. Existing studies reveal similarities between opposite- and same-gender domestic violence in prevalence, types of abuse, and various dynamics,…

McClennen, Joan C.

2005-01-01

311

UCSF researchers find that longer telomeres could be linked to risk of brain cancer  

Cancer.gov

New genomic research led by UC San Francisco scientists reveals that two common gene variants that lead to longer telomeres, the caps on chromosome ends thought by many scientists to confer health by protecting cells from aging, also significantly increase the risk of developing the deadly brain cancers known as gliomas.

312

Better Together: Research Findings on the Relationship between Racial Justice Organizations and LGBT Communities. Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In partnership with the Arcus Foundation, the Applied Research Center (ARC) has undertaken a study of the relationship between racial justice organizations and lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender (LGBT) constituencies and issues, with the understanding that communities of color themselves, including their LGBT members, have a good deal at stake in…

Sen, Rinku; Wessler, Seth; Apollon, Dominique

2010-01-01

313

Resources. Some Findings and Conjectures from Recent Research into Resource Development and Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The triannual newsletter, "Resources", published by Resources for the Future (RfF) typically contains excerpts from recent research in the area of natural resource development, conservation, and use. Announcements are also made of recent publications by RfF. Those interested in receiving the newsletter regularly should request that their name be…

Resources for the Future, Inc., Washington, DC.

314

Barriers in implementing research findings in cancer care: the Greek registered nurses perceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored Greek nurses’ perceptions of the barriers to research utilization faced in every day practice. The barriers between nurses working in cancer and general hospitals, as well as between those employed at central and provincial hospitals were compared. The study used a cross-sectional design and data were collected using the “Barriers Scale” (Funk et al., 1991a, Applied Nursing

Elisabeth Patiraki; Chrysoula Karlou; Despina Papadopoulou; Ageliki Spyridou; Chrysoula Kouloukoura; Elpida Bare; Anastasios Merkouris

2004-01-01

315

Building the Future Students' Blended Learning Experiences from Current Research Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Between March 2007 and February 2009, the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) funded a Learners Journeys project at the University of Hertfordshire. This was part of their second phase of investment in research into the Learners' Experiences through their E-Learning Programme and was known as LXP2. STROLL (STudent Reflections On Lifelong…

Jefferies, Amanda; Hyde, Ruth

2010-01-01

316

Finding and using journal-article components: Impacts of disaggregation on teaching and research practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the results of a study into the use of discrete journal article components, particularly tables and figures extracted from published scientific journal articles, and their application to teaching and research. Sixty participants were introduced to and asked to perform searches in a journal article component prototype that presents individual tables and figures as the items returned in

Robert J. Sandusky; Carol Tenopir

2008-01-01

317

Kimmel Cancer Center researchers find drugs targeting chromosomal instability may fight a particular breast cancer subtype  

Cancer.gov

A team of researchers at Jefferson's Kimmel Cancer Center has shown in a study published online Feb. 6 in the Journal of Clinical Investigation that the oncogene cyclin D1 may promote a genetic breakdown known as chromosomal instability (CIN). CIN is a known, yet poorly understood culprit in tumor progression.

318

Jefferson researchers find that cancer information on Wikipedia is accurate, but not very readable:  

Cancer.gov

It is a commonly held that information on Wikipedia should not be trusted, since it is written and edited by non-experts without professional oversight. But researchers from the Kimmel Cancer Center at Jefferson have found differently, according to a study published online Sept. 15 in the Journal of Oncology Practice.

319

Urban Environmental Factors and Personal Well-Being; Findings of Exploratory and Methodological Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the conceptual scheme for this research study, urban environments were viewed as related to personal well-being by control-seeking and support-seeking behaviors and the psychological consequences of obtaining these goals. Measures of predispositions to these behaviors were found to be related to observed behavior variables. Predispositions to…

Griffin, Robert M., Jr.; And Others

320

Key Events and Lessons for Managers in a Diverse Workforce: A Report on Research and Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research documented in this report builds on earlier work in the 1980s in the area of on-the-job experiences in developing effective leaders. The current study was designed to answer the following: (1) What are the significant events from which African American managers learn and develop? (2) Are the key events and lessons learned different…

Douglas, Christina A.

321

Finding the Right Path: Researching Your Way to Discovery. Professional Growth Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for use by teachers, librarians, parents, and elementary school students, this book provides 115 pathfinders to a variety of subjects to guide a student's research and broaden a child's interest base. Each pathfinder (i.e., collection of resources on a given topic) includes: a description of the subject; the Dewey Decimal numbers specific…

Sutter, Lynne; Sutter, Herman

322

Johns Hopkins researchers find that chronic inflammation is linked to high-grade prostate cancer  

Cancer.gov

Men who show signs of chronic inflammation in non-cancerous prostate tissue may have nearly twice the risk of actually having prostate cancer than those with no inflammation, according to results of a new study led by researchers from the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center.

323

Institutions' Limits on Sharing of Research Findings Prompt Debate; Chilling Effect on Science Predicted.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the rush to profit from patented discoveries, university officials and professors are becoming more protective of research results. Although scholars are outraged at refusals to share discoveries, some critics in industry and academe say the outcry results from greed. A standard contract is being designed to facilitate information exchange.…

Grassmuck, Karen

1991-01-01

324

MD Anderson researchers find that chemotherapy is as effective before breast cancer surgery as after  

Cancer.gov

Whether chemotherapy is given before or after breast-conserving therapy does not have an impact on long-term local-regional outcomes, suggesting treatment success is due more to biologic factors than chemotherapy timing, according to a study by researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center.

325

Research Agenda: Finding Ways to Create More Options for Parent Involvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author looks at problems involving parents of handicapped children in the educational decision making process and suggests areas of needed research. Mediation is suggested as a means to keep parents involved in decision making and to reduce the adversarial and costly nature of due process hearings. (SB)

Yoshida, Roland K.

1982-01-01

326

Georgetown researchers examine nipple sparing mastectomy cases and find no recurrent or new cancers:  

Cancer.gov

A new study suggests some women needing a lumpectomy or mastectomy to treat their breast cancer have another potential option that is safe and effective, say researchers at Georgetown. They say the procedure known as a nipple sparing mastectomy is also a viable surgical option for women who choose to have their breasts removed because of their increased risk of developing the disease.

327

Neuromodulatory Approaches for Chronic Pain Management: Research Findings and Clinical Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two lines of evidence provide preliminary support for the role that brain state, measured via electroencephalogram (EEG), may play in chronic pain. First, research has identified a link between brain EEG activity and the experience of pain. Second, there are a number of published studies documenting the beneficial effects of interventions that impact the cortical activity associated with chronic pain.

Mark P. Jensen; Leslie H. Sherlin; Shahin Hakimian; Felipe Fregni

2009-01-01

328

Can We Find Solutions with People? Participatory Action Research with Small Organic Producers in Andalusia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on an experiment linking science with people. Taking as a paradigm the holistic scientific approach fostered by agroecology, we present a methodological proposal for the implementation of participatory action research in rural areas. Our aims were various: to solve a specific problem, i.e. the exclusion of small- and…

Cuellar-Padilla, Mamen; Calle-Collado, Angel

2011-01-01

329

Can we find solutions with people? Participatory action research with small organic producers in Andalusia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on an experiment linking science with people. Taking as a paradigm the holistic scientific approach fostered by agroecology, we present a methodological proposal for the implementation of participatory action research in rural areas. Our aims were various: to solve a specific problem, i.e. the exclusion of small- and medium-scale organic farmers from the official certification system; to

Mamen Cuéllar-Padilla; Ángel Calle-Collado

330

Penn researchers find genetically modified T cells cause sustained remissions in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia:  

Cancer.gov

Researchers from the University of Pennsylvania's Abramson Cancer Center and Perelman School of Medicine have shown sustained remissions of up to a year among a small group of advanced chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients treated with genetically engineered versions of their own T cells.

331

Fox Chase researchers find that targeted therapy extends progression-free survival for advanced ovarian cancer:  

Cancer.gov

A new Phase 3 clinical trial conducted by the Gynecologic Oncology Group showed that a targeted therapy called bevacizumab (Avastin) effectively delayed the progression of advanced ovarian cancer. Patients with newly diagnosed advanced ovarian cancer now typically undergo surgery and chemotherapy, but the new research suggests an additional avenue of treatment.

332

Research on College Science Teaching. Part II: Findings and Implications for Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies and discusses some areas of research and practice that are of current interest or utility at the college level. Areas discussed include instructional objectives, advance organizers, self-pacing and audio-tutorial systems, teacher behavior, and evaluation instrumentation. (GS)

Koran, John J.; And Others

1975-01-01

333

Washington University researchers find that mass prostate cancer screenings don’t reduce death:  

Cancer.gov

There’s new evidence that annual prostate cancer screening does not reduce deaths from the disease, even among men in their 50s and 60s and those with underlying health conditions, according to new research led by Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis.

334

NASA Research Focuses on Yellowstone's Hot Springs and Compares Findings to Rocks from Mars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA Astrobiology Institute website features an article by the Yellowstone Park Foundation focusing on NASA's latest thermophile research and its contributions to outreach education in Yellowstone National Park. The site also provides a number of useful links through the NAI portal site including a teacher's page, student's page, and additional NAI articles and newsletters.

Foundation, Yellowstone P.; Institute, Nasa A.

335

Penn researchers find Epstein Barr-like virus infects and may cause cancer in dogs  

Cancer.gov

...A team of researchers from the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine and Penn's Perelman School of Medicine has the first evidence that an Epstein Barr-like virus can infect and may also be responsible for causing lymphomas in man's best friend.

336

Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Adolescents: Review of Research and Preliminary Findings with Juvenile Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research shows that as the severity of adolescent behavior problems increases (e.g., violence, drug and alcohol abuse, risky sexual behavior) the risk of suicidal behavior also increases. This is evident in the high rates of suicidal threats, gestures, and attempts in incarcerated youth (Hayes, 2009), including sexual and nonsexual offenders. Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT), an empirically validated therapy for the

Megan O'Leary; Stephanie Dunkel; Leticia Baker; Amy Mikolajewski; Therese Skubic Kemper

337

University of Washington researchers find community effort brings lasting drop in smoking, delinquency, drug use:  

Cancer.gov

Tenth graders in towns using Communities That Care [a prevention system developed by University of Washington researchers] were less likely to have tried drinking or smoking compared with teens living in towns that had not adopted the system. Delinquent behavior, including stealing, vandalism and physical fights, decreased too.

338

Are physicians willing to ration health care? Conflicting findings in a systematic review of survey research?  

PubMed Central

Background Several quantitative surveys have been conducted internationally to gather empirical information about physicians’ general attitudes towards health care rationing. Are physicians ready to accept and implement rationing, or are they rather reluctant? Do they prefer implicit bedside rationing that allows the physician–patient relationship broad leeway in individual decisions? Or do physicians prefer strategies that apply explicit criteria and rules? Objectives To analyse the range of survey findings on rationing. To discuss differences in response patterns. To provide recommendations for the enhancement of transparency and systematic conduct in reviewing survey literature. Methods A systematic search was performed for all English and non-English language references using CINAHL, EMBASE, and MEDLINE. Three blinded experts independently evaluated title and abstract of each reference. Survey items were extracted that match with: (i) willingness to ration health care or (ii) preferences for different rationing strategies. Results 16 studies were eventually included in the systematic review. Percentages of respondents willing to accept rationing ranged from 94% to 9%. Conclusions The conflicting findings among studies illustrate important ambivalence in physicians that has several implications for health policy. Moreover, this review highlights the importance to interpret survey findings in context of the results of all previous relevant studies.

Strech, Daniel; Persad, Govind; Marckmann, Georg; Danis, Marion

2013-01-01

339

Nanotoxicology and nanotechnology: new findings from the NIEHS and Superfund Research Program scientific community.  

PubMed

Abstract Nanomaterials are characterized by their small size (i.e., nanometer scale) and can be engineered from nearly any chemical substance, creating materials that differ in composition, particle size, shape, and surface coatings. These materials are often seen as a "double-edged sword" by having properties that make them potentially beneficial in product development, drug delivery, and remediation of hazardous substances, but these same properties may result in interaction with biological systems and potential effects in the environment. The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) is interested in both the potential risks associated with exposure to these materials, while harnessing the power of engineered nanomaterials to improve public health. This presentation will consist of discussion of nanoparticle studies by NIEHS researchers and the extramural community and its efforts to develop cross-agency initiatives to solve the many vexing issues associated with nanomaterials. For example, researchers from the NIEHS National Toxicology Program (NTP) are evaluating a number of nanomaterial classes in comprehensive toxicology studies. NIEHS also has an extensive extramural research grant portfolio consisting of the Nano Grand Opportunities (Nano GO) Program and NIEHS Centers for Nanotechnology Health Implications Research (NCNHIR) Consortium consisting of U19 and U01 Cooperative Centers. Furthermore, the NIEHS Superfund Research Program (SRP), which supports a network of university (P42, R01), small business (SBIR/STTR), and training grants (R25), provides funding to grantees evaluating the toxicology of nanomaterials, developing new or improved nanotechnologies to monitor and remediate hazardous substances, and training professionals in the use of these of materials. The NIEHS's Worker Education Branch also offers educational materials for training workers on risks of nanotechnology in laboratories, manufacturing facilities, at hazardous waste cleanup sites, and during emergency responses. In conclusion, this presentation will stimulate dialogue regarding the need for more research on these complex materials and serve as a resource about the wide variety of ongoing studies on nanomaterials at NIEHS that will contribute to the determination of risk associated with this class of compounds. PMID:24695034

Carlin, Danielle J

2014-01-01

340

Do nurses really care? Some unwelcome findings from recent research and inquiry.  

PubMed

This paper examines the position of nursing as a caring profession, in terms of an ethical code that stresses collegial relationships, a sense of obligation to a clientele that is realized in terms of expert service, and a clearly defined body of research-derived knowledge as the basis for practice. It also investigates the substance of the claim that nursing has tended to arrogate to itself another operational distinction-its exclusive capacity to blend physical and emotional support into care. A review of recent research and investigation, undertaken in a number of countries, suggests that nursing as practiced, rather than as theorized, fails to fulfil its wider professional aspirations, and to fulfil its caring rhetoric. A related paper will consider how the absorption of nursing into higher education might begin to play a part in developing and consolidating the professionalization of nursing. PMID:9146203

Fletcher, J

1997-01-01

341

Bayesian data augmentation methods for the synthesis of qualitative and quantitative research findings  

PubMed Central

The possible utility of Bayesian methods for the synthesis of qualitative and quantitative research has been repeatedly suggested but insufficiently investigated. In this project, we developed and used a Bayesian method for synthesis, with the goal of identifying factors that influence adherence to HIV medication regimens. We investigated the effect of 10 factors on adherence. Recognizing that not all factors were examined in all studies, we considered standard methods for dealing with missing data and chose a Bayesian data augmentation method. We were able to summarize, rank, and compare the effects of each of the 10 factors on medication adherence. This is a promising methodological development in the synthesis of qualitative and quantitative research.

Crandell, Jamie L.; Voils, Corrine I.; Chang, YunKyung; Sandelowski, Margarete

2010-01-01

342

Bioremediation via Methanotrophy: Overview of Recent Findings and Suggestions for Future Research  

PubMed Central

Microbially mediated bioremediation of polluted sites has been a subject of much research over the past 30?years, with many different compounds shown to be degraded under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Aerobic-mediated bioremediation commonly examines the use of methanotrophs, microorganisms that consume methane as their sole source of carbon and energy. Given the diverse environments in which methanotrophs have been found, the range of substrates they can degrade and the fact that they can be easily stimulated with the provision of methane and oxygen, these microorganisms in particular have been examined for aerobic degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons. The physiological and phylogenetic diversity of methanotrophy, however, has increased substantially in just the past 5?years. Here in this review, the current state of knowledge of methanotrophy, particularly as it applies to pollutant degradation is summarized, and suggestions for future research provided.

Semrau, Jeremy D.

2011-01-01

343

UCBerkeleyNews: Cables Hold Promise in Protecting Existing Buildings from Bombs, Researchers Find  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A civil engineering professor at the University of California at Berkeley is working on a novel way of maintaining a building's structural stability after an earthquake or terrorist bomb. The team of researchers working with the professor have designed and tested a system that uses cables for backup support in case main support beams failed. An overview of the system is provided in a February 20, 2003 news article.

Yang, Sarah.

2003-01-01

344

UC San Diego researchers find an enzyme that offers new therapeutic target for cancer drugs  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have uncovered a new signal transduction pathway specifically devoted to the regulation of alternative RNA splicing, a process that allows a single gene to produce or code multiple types of protein variants. The discovery, published in the June 27, 2012 issue of Molecular Cell, suggests the new pathway might be a fruitful target for new cancer drugs. The University of California, San Diego is home to the Moores Comprehensive Cancer Center.

345

Researchers Find that a Small Molecule Can Activate an Important Cancer Suppressor Gene  

Cancer.gov

By activating a cancer suppressor gene, a small molecule called nutlin-3a can block cancer cell division, according to researchers at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health. This activation of the p53 gene leads to cellular senescence, a process by which cells lose their ability to grow and divide. An opportunity for new genetic mutations occurs each time a cell divides, so limiting the number of cell divisions in a cancer cell inhibits tumor progression.

346

Hopkins researchers find that cancer cells feed on sugar-free diet:  

Cancer.gov

Cancer cells have been long known to have a “sweet tooth,” using vast amounts of glucose for energy and for building blocks for cell replication.   Now, a study by a team of researchers at Johns Hopkins and elsewhere shows that lymph gland cancer cells called B cells can use glutamine in the absence of glucose for cell replication and survival, particularly under low-oxygen conditions, which are common in tumors.

347

Stanford University researchers find that dual-action protein better restricts blood vessel formation:  

Cancer.gov

In a paper published online Aug. 8 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, researchers at Stanford University describe the creation of a new type of engineered protein that is significantly more effective at preventing the formation of blood vessels by targeting not one, but two of the chemical receptors that control the creation of new capillaries -- a process known as angiogenesis. The study shows that the new protein blocks both receptors.

348

Bayesian data augmentation methods for the synthesis of qualitative and quantitative research findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible utility of Bayesian methods for the synthesis of qualitative and quantitative research has been repeatedly suggested\\u000a but insufficiently investigated. In this project, we developed and used a Bayesian method for synthesis, with the goal of\\u000a identifying factors that influence adherence to HIV medication regimens. We investigated the effect of 10 factors on adherence.\\u000a Recognizing that not all factors

Jamie L. Crandell; Corrine I. Voils; YunKyung Chang; Margarete Sandelowski

2011-01-01

349

Dietary fiber future directions: integrating new definitions and findings to inform nutrition research and communication.  

PubMed

The CODEX Alimentarius definition of dietary fiber includes all nondigestible carbohydrate polymers with a degree of polymerization of 3 or more as dietary fiber with the proviso that they show health benefits. The global definition, if accepted by all authoritative bodies, offers a chance for international harmonization in research, food composition tables, and food labeling. Its nonacceptance highlights problems that may develop when definitions vary by region. The definition requires that the research community agrees upon physiological effects for which there is substantial scientific agreement, e.g., fibers' effects on laxation and gut health, on attenuating blood lipids and blood glucose and insulin, and in promoting fermentation in the large bowel. The definition also necessitates the delineation of research protocols to prove the benefits of various isolated and synthesized fibers. These should emanate from evidence-based reviews that fairly weigh epidemiological data while considering that added fibers are not reflected in many food composition databases. They then should include well-controlled, randomized, control trials and utilize animal studies to determine mechanisms. Agreement on many study variables such as the type of subject and the type of baseline diet that best fits the question under investigation will also be needed. Finally, the definition establishes that all types of fiber can address the severe fiber consumption gap that exists throughout the world by recognizing that the combination of fiber-rich and -fortified foods increases fiber intake while allowing consumers to stay within allowed energy levels. PMID:23319118

Jones, Julie Miller

2013-01-01

350

Dietary Fiber Future Directions: Integrating New Definitions and Findings to Inform Nutrition Research and Communication12  

PubMed Central

The CODEX Alimentarius definition of dietary fiber includes all nondigestible carbohydrate polymers with a degree of polymerization of 3 or more as dietary fiber with the proviso that they show health benefits. The global definition, if accepted by all authoritative bodies, offers a chance for international harmonization in research, food composition tables, and food labeling. Its nonacceptance highlights problems that may develop when definitions vary by region. The definition requires that the research community agrees upon physiological effects for which there is substantial scientific agreement, e.g., fibers’ effects on laxation and gut health, on attenuating blood lipids and blood glucose and insulin, and in promoting fermentation in the large bowel. The definition also necessitates the delineation of research protocols to prove the benefits of various isolated and synthesized fibers. These should emanate from evidence-based reviews that fairly weigh epidemiological data while considering that added fibers are not reflected in many food composition databases. They then should include well-controlled, randomized, control trials and utilize animal studies to determine mechanisms. Agreement on many study variables such as the type of subject and the type of baseline diet that best fits the question under investigation will also be needed. Finally, the definition establishes that all types of fiber can address the severe fiber consumption gap that exists throughout the world by recognizing that the combination of fiber-rich and -fortified foods increases fiber intake while allowing consumers to stay within allowed energy levels.

Jones, Julie Miller

2013-01-01

351

Summary of: Continuing professional development and application of knowledge from research findings: a qualitative study of general dental practitioners.  

PubMed

Objectives To explore general dental practitioners' opinions about continuing professional development (CPD) and potential barriers to translating research findings into clinical dental practice.Design Qualitative focus group and interviews.Subjects, setting and methods Four semi-structured interviews and a single focus group were conducted with 11 general dental practitioners in North East England.Outcome measure Transcripts were analysed using the constant comparative method to identify emergent themes.Results The key theme for practitioners was a need to interact with colleagues in order to make informed decisions on a range of clinical issues. For some forms of continuing professional development the value for money and subsequent impact upon clinical practice was limited. There were significant practice pressures that constrained the ability of practitioners to participate in certain educational activities. The relevance of some research findings and the formats used for their dissemination were often identified as barriers to their implementation in general dental practice.Conclusions There are a number of potential barriers that exist in general dental practice to the uptake and implementation of translational research. CPD plays a pivotal role in this process and if new methods of CPD are to be developed consideration should be given to include elements of structured content and peer review that engages practitioners in a way that promotes implementation of contemporary research findings. PMID:24923943

White, Deborah

2014-06-13

352

Continuing professional development and application of knowledge from research findings: a qualitative study of general dental practitioners.  

PubMed

Objectives To explore general dental practitioners' opinions about continuing professional development (CPD) and potential barriers to translating research findings into clinical dental practice.Design Qualitative focus group and interviews.Subjects, setting and methods Four semi-structured interviews and a single focus group were conducted with 11 general dental practitioners in North East England.Outcome measure Transcripts were analysed using the constant comparative method to identify emergent themes.Results The key theme for practitioners was a need to interact with colleagues in order to make informed decisions on a range of clinical issues. For some forms of continuing professional development the value for money and subsequent impact upon clinical practice was limited. There were significant practice pressures that constrained the ability of practitioners to participate in certain educational activities. The relevance of some research findings and the formats used for their dissemination were often identified as barriers to their implementation in general dental practice.Conclusions There are a number of potential barriers that exist in general dental practice to the uptake and implementation of translational research. CPD plays a pivotal role in this process and if new methods of CPD are to be developed consideration should be given to include elements of structured content and peer review that engages practitioners in a way that promotes implementation of contemporary research findings. PMID:24923961

Stone, S J; Holmes, R D; Heasman, P A; McCracken, G I

2014-06-13

353

Thermodynamic and Statistical Mechanics Inconsistencies in Quasiparticle Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we reanalyze various quasiparticle models of quark gluon plasma from the statistical mechanics and thermodynamics point of view. We investigate the statistical mechanics and thermodynamics inconsistencies involved in these models and their consequences in the observables. Quasiparticle models are phenomenological models with few parameters and by adjusting them all models fit the results of lattice gauge simulation of gluon plasma [G. Boyd et al., Phys. Rev. Lett.75, 4169 (1995); G. Boyd et al., Nucl. Phys. B469, 419 (1996)]. However, after fixing two of the three parameters of the model by physical arguments, only one quasiparticle model, which is consistent with both statistical mechanics and thermodynamics, fits the Bielefeld lattice data [G. Boyd et al., Phys. Rev. Lett.75, 4169 (1995); G. Boyd et al., Nucl. Phys. B469, 419 (1996)]. The same model also fits the recent lattice results of Wuppertal-Budapest group [S. Borsanyi et al., arXiv:1204.6184v1 [hep-lat

Bannur, Vishnu M.

2013-01-01

354

New findings and setting the research agenda for soil and water conservation for sustainable land management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The session on soil and water conservation for sustainable land management provides insights into the current research producing viable measures for sustainable land management and enhancing the lands role as provider of ecosystem services. The insights into degradation processes are essential for designing and implementing feasible measures to mitigate against degradation of the land resource and adapt to the changing environment. Land degradation occurs due to multiple pressures on the land, such as population growth, land-use and land-cover changes, climate change and over exploitation of resources, often resulting in soil erosion due to water and wind, which occurs in many parts of the world. Understanding the processes of soil erosion by wind and water and the social and economic constraints faced by farmers forms an essential component of integrated land development projects. Soil and water conservation measures are only viable and sustainable if local environmental and socio-economic conditions are taken into account and proper enabling conditions and policies can be achieved. Land degradation increasingly occurs because land use, and farming systems are subject to rapid environmental and socio-economic changes without implementation of appropriate soil and water conservation technologies. Land use and its management are thus inextricably bound up with development; farmers must adapt in order to sustain the quality of their, and their families, lives. In broader perspective, soil and water conservation is needed as regulating ecosystem service and as a tool to enhance food security and biodiversity. Since land degradation occurs in many parts of the world and threatens food production and environmental stability it affects those countries with poorer soils and resilience in the agriculture sector first. Often these are the least developed countries. Therefore the work from researchers from developing countries together with knowledge from other disciplines and places is essential if we are to develop viable measures and approaches to soil and water conservation across the globe. In this paper we will provide an overview of the topics that are addressed in this session and give an overview of the current research in this field and using the insights we will aim to present a new research agenda oriented towards a significant impact in economic and environmental sustainability.

Keesstra, Saskia; Argaman, Eli; Gomez, Jose Alfonso; Quinton, John

2014-05-01

355

The effect of using inconsistent ocean tidal loading models on GPS coordinate solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use up to a 6-year span of GPS data from 85 globally distributed stations to compare solutions using ocean tidal loading (OTL) corrections computed in different reference frames: center of mass of the solid Earth (CE), and center of mass of the Earth system (CM). We compare solution sets that differ only in the frame used for the OTL model computations, for three types of GPS solutions. In global solutions with all parameters including orbits estimated simultaneously, we find coordinate differences of ~0.3 mm between solutions using OTL computed in CM and OTL computed in CE. When orbits or orbits and clocks are fixed, larger biases appear if the user applies an OTL model inconsistent with that used to derive the orbit and clock products. Network solutions (orbits fixed, satellite clocks estimated) show differences smaller than 0.5 mm due to model inconsistency, but PPP solutions show distortions at the ~1.3 mm level. The much larger effect on PPP solutions indicates that satellite clock estimates are sensitive to the OTL model applied. The time series of coordinate differences shows a strong spectral peak at a period of ~14 days when inconsistent OTL models are applied and smaller peaks at ~annual and ~semi-annual periods, for both ambiguity-free and ambiguity-fixed solutions. These spurious coordinate variations disappear in solutions using consistent OTL models. Users of orbit and clock products must ensure that they use OTL coefficients computed in the same reference frame as the OTL coefficients used by the analysis centers that produced the products they use; otherwise, systematic errors will be introduced into position solutions. All modern products should use loading models computed in the CM frame, but legacy products may require loading models computed in the CE frame. Analysts and authors need to document the frame used for all loading computations in product descriptions and papers.

Fu, Yuning; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.; van Dam, Tonie

2012-06-01

356

Generic findings of the review of emergency plans at research and test reactors  

SciTech Connect

Final reviews that identify deficiencies and areas needing improvement or that conclude with a finding of acceptability have been completed for 70% of the plans to date. The results from these reviews and evaluations reflect that approximately 50% of the plans do not fully satisfy all of the planning standards specified in the guidance criteria. The adequacy and effectiveness of the licensee's overall total emergency preparedness program will be determined from either onsite appraisals or the routine inspection program. The benefits from the program are the identification and subsequent correction of deficiencies resulting in assurance that adequate planning has been done and protection is provided for licensee employees and members of the general public.

Bates, Gene [Emergency Preparedness Branch, Div. of Emergency Preparedness and Engineering Response, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

1984-07-01

357

Panel discussion review: session four--assessing biological plausibility of epidemiological findings in air pollution research.  

PubMed

In December 2006, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored a 2-day workshop on "Interpretation of Epidemiologic Studies of Multipollutant Exposure and Health Effects" in Chapel Hill, NC. The final session at this workshop was devoted to assessing the biological plausibility of epidemiological findings with regard to criteria air pollutants. The presentations and the panel contributions of this last session primarily focused on controlled exposure studies and led to wide-ranging discussions, some of which were provocative. The panel summary provides some guidance to future evaluations of the biological plausibility of the epidemiological reports on criteria pollutants and is intended to stimulate thinking, without drawing any definitive conclusions. This paper does not approach, nor was it intended to approach, the more formal analytical approach such as that used in EPA's development of its Science Assessment Document for the criteria pollutants. PMID:18079771

Brown, James S; Graham, Judith A; Chen, Lung Chi; Postlethwait, Edward M; Ghio, Andrew J; Foster, W Michael; Gordon, Terry

2007-12-01

358

Antiretroviral Adherence Interventions: Translating Research Findings to the Real World Clinic  

PubMed Central

The success of potent combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV infection is compromised primarily by failure to maintain optimal levels of adherence over the long term. Recent reviews suggest behavioral interventions to promote ART adherence can have significant effects, but these tend to be small and to diminish over time; sustained improvements in biomarkers are particularly elusive. In this article, we update current reviews, focusing specifically on the 13 studies evaluating behavioral interventions to promote ART adherence published since September 2007. We describe the range of intervention strategies employed and qualitatively summarize findings of their efficacy. In conclusion, we consider implications and offer strategies for enhancing adherence in clinic-based HIV care prior to ART initiation, at initiation, and over the course of treatment.

Amico, K. Rivet; Smith, Laramie; Nelson, Kimberly

2013-01-01

359

The educational gradient in marital disruption: a meta-analysis of European research findings.  

PubMed

A large number of empirical studies have investigated the effects of women's education on union dissolution in Europe, but results have varied substantially. This paper seeks to assess the relationship between educational attainment and the incidence of marital disruption by systematizing the existing empirical evidence. A quantitative literature review (a meta-analysis) was conducted to investigate the temporal change in the relationship, net of inter-study differences. The results point to a weakening of the positive educational gradient in marital disruption over time and even to a reversal in the direction of this gradient in some countries. The findings also show that the change in the educational gradient can be linked to an increase in access to divorce. Finally, the results suggest that women's empowerment has played an important role in changing the educational gradient, while the liberalization of divorce laws has not. PMID:24279466

Matysiak, Anna; Styrc, Marta; Vignoli, Daniele

2014-01-01

360

PLUME-FEATHER, Referencing and Finding Software for Research and Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PLUME-FEATHER is a non-profit project created to Promote economicaL, Useful and Maintained softwarE For the Higher Education And THE Research communities. The site references software, mainly Free/Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS) from French universities and national research organisations, (CNRS, INRA…), laboratories or departments as well as other FLOSS software used and evaluated by users within these institutions. Each software is represented by a reference card, which describes origin, aim, installation, cost (if applicable) and user experience from the point of view of an academic user for academic users. Presently over 1000 programs are referenced on PLUME. Although the server is maintained by a french institution, it is completely open to international contributions in the academic domainb. All contained and validated contents are visible to anonymous public, whereas registered users can contribute, starting with comments on single software reference cards up to help with the organisation and presentation of the referenced software products. This first presentation is call for (further) contributions from the HEP community.

Hoffmann, Dirk; Romier, Geneviève

2012-12-01

361

Cervicovaginal fetal fibronectin testing in threatened preterm labour--translating research findings into clinical practice.  

PubMed

A retrospective audit was undertaken involving 70 women with a singleton pregnancy who attended hospital with symptoms of threatened preterm labour prior to 34 weeks' gestation and who had a bedside fetal fibronectin (FFN) Membrane Immunoassay Kit Test (Adeza Biomedical) performed. The aim of the study was to determine if the results of the FFN test when used in routine clinical practice would be similar to those of a previous research study (1) that was performed at the same centre, and whether or not knowledge of the result of the FFN test might influence clinical management. The audit revealed that the sensitivity of the FFN test in the prediction of delivery prior to 34 weeks' gestation was 90%, the specificity was 82%, whilst the positive and negative predictive values were 45% and 98% respectively. These results were very similar to those of the previous, blinded research study. Compared to women with a negative FFN test, more women with a positive FFN test received corticosteroids (100% versus 71%, p=0.02) and tocolysis (35% versus 12%, p=0.04) and more remained in hospital longer than 24 hours (85% versus 56%, p=0.1). PMID:9890218

Chuileannain, F N; Bell, R; Brennecke, S

1998-11-01

362

PLUME-FEATHER, Referencing and Finding Software for Research and Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PLUME-FEATHER is a non-profit project created to Promote economicaL, Useful and Maintained softwarEFor theHigher Education And THE Research communities. The site references software, mainly Free/Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS) from French universities and national research organisations, (CNRS, INRA...), laboratories or departments as well as other FLOSS software used and evaluated by users within these institutions. Each software is represented by a reference card, which describes origin, aim, installation, cost (if applicable) and user experience from the point of view of an academic user for academic users. Presently over 1000 programs are referenced on PLUME by more than 900 contributors. Although the server is maintained by a French institution, it is open to international contributions in the academic domain. All contained and validated contents are visible to anonymous public, whereas (presently more than 2000) registered users can contribute, starting with comments on single software reference cards up to help with the organisation and presentation of the referenced software products. The project has been presented to the HEP community in 2012 for the first time [1]. This is an update of the status and a call for (further) contributions.

Bénassy, O.; Caron, C.; Ferret-Canape, C.; Cheylus, A.; Courcelle, E.; Dantec, C.; Dayre, P.; Dostes, T.; Durand, A.; Facq, A.; Gambini, G.; Geahchan, E.; Helft, C.; Hoffmann, D.; Ingarao, M.; Joly, P.; Kieffer, J.; Larré, J.-M.; Libes, M.; Morris, F.; Parmentier, H.; Pérochon, L.; Porte, O.; Romier, G.; Rousse, D.; Tournoy, R.; Valeins, H.

2014-06-01

363

[Importance of diabetic nephropathy in childhood. Clinical findings and basic research in recent decades].  

PubMed

Over the past decades diabetes mellitus is becoming a global pandemic affecting more than 371 million people worldwide. Parallel with the increasing prevalence of type 1 diabetes, there is a growing number of type 2 diabetes cases among children and adolescents that poses new challenges to pediatricians. Diabetic nephropathy is one of the major causes of end stage renal disease, developing in approximately 30% of diabetic patients. However, overt nephropathy is rare in childhood; screening and ongoing assessment for the earliest manifestation of renal injury is extremely important in this young population, as well. Although in the past decades intensive research activity focused on understanding of the pathomechanism of diabetic nephropathy and invention of new therapeutic approaches, prevention and definitive care are still urgently needed. The clinical section of the article summarizes the present state of epidemiology, diagnosis and current therapies of childhood diabetic nephropathy. Then, the authors discuss the state of basic research and show a few promising targets for drug development. PMID:24440726

Fekete, Andrea; Vannay, Ádám

2014-01-26

364

Modeling semantics of inconsistent qualitative knowledge for quantitative Bayesian network inference  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a novel framework for performing quantitative Bayesian inference based on qualitative knowledge. Here, we focus on the treatment in the case of inconsistent qualitative knowledge. A hierarchical Bayesian model is proposed for integrating inconsistent qualitative knowledge by calculating a prior belief distribution based on a vector of knowledge features. Each inconsistent knowledge component uniquely defines a model class

Rui Chang; Wilfried Brauer; Martin Stetter

2008-01-01

365

Information inconsistency and the cognitive algebra of foreign policy decision making  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores a special feature of the information complexity that underlies foreign policy decision making, i.e., inconsistency in information. We use the actor and action images to categorize types of inconsistency. The consequences of inconsistency for process and outcome are analyzed within the framework of a cognitive algebra model. Finally, we demonstrate the implications of the model in an

Nehemia Geva; J. Mark Skorick

1999-01-01

366

Effects of Inconsistencies in Eyewitness Testimony on Mock-Juror Decision Making  

Microsoft Academic Search

In attempting to impeach an eyewitness, attorneys often highlight inconsistencies in the eyewitness's recall. This study examined the differential impact of types of inconsistent testimony on mock-juror decisions. Participants viewed 1 of 4 versions of a videotaped trial in which the primary evidence against the defendant was the testimony of the eyewitness. The types of inconsistent statements given by the

Garrett L. Berman; Brian L. Cutler

1996-01-01

367

Measuring Masculinity in Research on Men of Color: Findings and Future Directions  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine the association between masculinity and the health of US men of color aged 18 years and older. We identified 22 population-based studies that included a measure of masculinity and a measure of health behavior, mental health, or physical health. The associations between masculinity and health were complex and varied by construct and health outcome, though they generally were significant in the hypothesized directions. Future research should explore the centrality of masculinity versus other identities and characteristics, how the relationship between masculinity and health varies by health outcome, and the identification of the conceptions and aspects of masculinity that are most relevant to and associated with specific health behaviors and health outcomes.

Gunter, Katie; Watkins, Daphne C.

2012-01-01

368

Combination pharmacotherapies for stimulant use disorder: a review of clinical findings and recommendations for future research.  

PubMed

Despite concerted efforts to identify a pharmacotherapy for managing stimulant use disorders, no widely effective medications have been approved. Innovative strategies are necessary to develop successful pharmacotherapies for stimulant use disorders. This manuscript reviews human laboratory studies and clinical trials to determine whether one such strategy, use of combination pharmacotherapies, holds promise. The extant literature shows that combination pharmacotherapy produced results that were better than placebo treatment, especially with medications shown to have efficacy as monotherapies. However, many studies did not compare individual constituents to the combination treatment, making it impossible to determine whether combination treatment is more effective than monotherapy. Future research should systematically compare combined treatments with individual agents using medications showing some efficacy when tested alone. PMID:24716825

Stoops, William W; Rush, Craig R

2014-05-01

369

Disaster media coverage and psychological outcomes: descriptive findings in the extant research.  

PubMed

This review of the literature on disaster media coverage describes the events, samples, and forms of media coverage (television, newspapers, radio, internet) studied and examines the association between media consumption and psychological outcomes. A total of 36 studies representing both man-made and natural events met criteria for review in this analysis. Most studies examined disaster television viewing in the context of terrorism and explored a range of outcomes including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) caseness and posttraumatic stress (PTS), depression, anxiety, stress reactions, and substance use. There is good evidence establishing a relationship between disaster television viewing and various psychological outcomes, especially PTSD caseness and PTS, but studies are too few to draw definitive conclusions about the other forms of media coverage that have been examined. As media technology continues to advance, future research is needed to investigate these additional media forms especially newer forms such as social media. PMID:25064691

Pfefferbaum, Betty; Newman, Elana; Nelson, Summer D; Nitiéma, Pascal; Pfefferbaum, Rose L; Rahman, Ambreen

2014-09-01

370

TMI (Three Mile Island)-2 defueling conditions and summary of research findings  

SciTech Connect

The Three Mile Island Unit 2 accident was severe, with extensive melting of fuel, release of fission products, and relocation of a large quantity of molten fuel material onto the reactor vessel lower head. This molten material challenged the integrity of the reactor vessel, which remained intact. The post-accident condition of the plant presented an extremely difficult and complex plant recovery. Core defueling necessitated the development and use of tools and the application of methods not used previously in the nuclear industry. During the past 9 years, the TMI-2 accident has been a unique, invaluable source of information for improving and expanding the base of knowledge on severe accidents in power reactors. This paper presents the plant's post-accident condition, summarizes the primary results of research on progression of core damage and fission product behavior during the accident, and discusses the approach to defueling the reactor.

Eidam, G.R.; Tolman, E.L.; Broughton, J.M.; McCardell, R.K.; Stratton, W.R.

1988-01-01

371

The Role of the Internet in Patient-Practitioner Relationships: Findings from a Qualitative Research Study  

PubMed Central

Background Studies suggest that there has been an increase in the use of the Internet by patients in many Western societies. However, despite the many texts available on health and the Internet, not much is known about how much patients actually use the Internet to look up health information in their daily lives. We know little about what meaning this activity has for their experience of health and illness, and for their relationship with health-care practitioners. Objective To explore patients' and practitioners' use of the Internet and to consider whether use of the Internet is changing relationships between patients and health-care practitioners. Method The study used qualitative interviews and observations of patient–practitioner interaction. Our purposive sample of 47 patients (32 women and 15 men) had all had contact with the health services for information/treatment in relation to hormone replacement therapy (HRT)/menopause and Viagra/erectile dysfunction. The setting for the research was in general practitioners' surgeries, specialist clinics and patients' homes in the United Kingdom. Participants reflected a wide range of socio-economic groups, but most were white and British born, which, given the ethnic make-up of the town in which we conducted the research, was not surprising. In addition to patients, we interviewed 10 health-care practitioners (4 consultant doctors, 3 GPs, 2 specialist nurses, and a psychologist) about their own health information seeking practices (HISPs) and those of their patients. Results Use of the Internet can increase patients' knowledge about their health conditions, although patients in our study were often too overwhelmed by the information available on the Internet to make an informed decision about their own care. Patients have a great deal of trust in their health-care practitioners. Health-care practitioners need to improve their own skills in Internet use. Hype around Internet use by patients appears to exceed the reality of Internet use. Conclusions Our qualitative study suggests that use of the Internet is contributing to subtle changes in the relationship between health-care practitioners and their patients, rather than effecting the dramatic transformation some people envisage for it.

Henwood, Flis; Wyatt, Sally

2004-01-01

372

Informationist programme in support of biomedical research: a programme description and preliminary findings of an evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background The informationist programme at the Library of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, MD, USA has grown to 14 informationists working with 40 clinical and basic science research teams. Purpose This case report, intended to contribute to the literature on informationist programmes, describes the NIH informationist programme including implementation experiences, the informationists' training programme, their job responsibilities and programme outcomes. Brief description The NIH informationist programme was designed to enhance the library's service capacity. Over time, the steps for introducing the service to new groups were formalized to ensure support by leadership, the team being served and the library. Job responsibilities also evolved from traditional library roles to a wide range of knowledge management activities. The commitment by the informationist, the team and the library to continuous learning is critical to the programme's success. Results/outcomes NIH scientists reported that informationists saved them time and contributed to teamwork with expert searching and point-of-need instruction. Process evaluation helped refine the programme. Evaluation method High-level, preliminary outcomes were identified from a survey of scientists receiving informationist services, along with key informant interviews. Process evaluation examined service implementation, informationists' training, and service components. Anecdotal evidence has also indicated a favorable response to the programme.

Whitmore, Susan C.; Grefsheim, Suzanne F.; Rankin, Jocelyn A.

2008-01-01

373

Development and Validation of Culture-Specific Variable Response Inconsistency and True Response Inconsistency Scales for Use with the Korean MMPI-2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to the concern that Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2; J. N. Butcher, W. Dahlstrom, J. R. Graham, A. Tellegen, & B. Kaemmer, 1989; J. N. Butcher et al., 2001) Variable Response Inconsistency (VRIN) and True Response Inconsistency (TRIN) score invalidity criteria recommended for use with American samples results in…

Ketterer, Holly L.; Han, Kyunghee; Hur, Jaehong; Moon, Kyungjoo

2010-01-01

374

Folate and Homocysteine Phenotypes: Comparative Findings Using Research and Clinical Laboratory Data  

PubMed Central

Objectives A low folate/high homocysteine phenotype is associated with several pathologies, including spina bifida and cardiovascular disease. Folate and total homocysteine (tHcy) measurements are used clinically to assess risk and the need for folic acid supplementation and in research to investigate the metabolic basis of disease. Red blood cell (RBC) folate, the best indicator of long-term folate status, is usually measured as “total” folate. However, different folate derivatives support distinct biochemical functions, suggesting a need to develop more precise methods. This study was designed to evaluate a method based on stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography–multiple reaction monitoring/mass spectrometry (LC-MRM/MS). Design and Methods We used LC-MRM/MS to quantify the RBC folate derivatives 5- methyltetrahydrofolate (5-CH3-THF), tetrahydrofolate (THF), and 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate (5,10-methenylTHF) in pre-menopausal women. The concentrations of each folate derivative was assessed for utility in predicting tHcy levels, and compared to folate and tHcy measurements derived by routine clinical laboratory methods. Results LC-MRM/MS was qualitatively and quantitatively superior to routine clinical laboratory methods for determining folate and tHcy concentrations. RBC 5-CH3-THF had a reciprocal relationship with tHcy (p=0.0003), whereas RBC THF and RBC 5,10-methenylTHF had direct relationships (p=0.01, 0.04 respectively). In combination, these three variables accounted for 42% of the variation in tHcy. Conclusions Robust methods for measuring RBC 5-CH3-THF would improve the utility of folate/homocysteine phenotyping in patient management. The use of LC-MRM/MS would allow studies of hyperhomocysteinemia and diseases associated with a low folate/high homocysteine phenotype to be performed with less measurement error and greater statistical power to generate data with the potential to elucidate the etiologic mechanisms of complex diseases and traits.

Mitchell, Laura E.; Morales, Megan; Khartulyari, Stefanie; Huang, Yuehua; Murphy, Kristen; Mei, Minghau; Von Feldt, Joan M.; Blair, Ian A.; Whitehead, Alexander S.

2014-01-01

375

Participatory Action Research in Public Mental Health and a School of Nursing: Qualitative Findings from an Academic-Community Partnership  

PubMed Central

Summary An academic-community partnership between a school of nursing (SON) at a public university (the University of Virginia, or UVA) and a public mental health clinic developed around a shared goal of finding an acceptable shared decision making (SDM) intervention targeting medication use by persons with serious mental illness. The planning meetings of the academic-community partnership were recorded and analyzed. Issues under the partnership process included 1) clinic values and priorities, 2) research agenda, 3) ground rules, and 4) communication. Issues under the SDM content included: 1) barriers, 2) information exchange, 3) positive aspects of shared decision making, and 4) technology. Using participatory-action research (PAR), the community clinic was able to raise questions and concerns throughout the process, be actively involved in research activities (such as identifying stakeholders and co-leading focus groups), participate in the reflective activities on the impact of SDM on practice and policy, and feel ownership of the SDM intervention.

Mahone, Irma H.; Farrell, Sarah P.; Hinton, Ivora; Johnson, Robert; Moody, David; Rifkin, Karen; Moore, Kenneth; Becker, Marcia; Barker, Margaret

2011-01-01

376

Identifying Trustworthy Experts: How Do Policymakers Find and Assess Public Health Researchers Worth Consulting or Collaborating With?  

PubMed Central

This paper reports data from semi-structured interviews on how 26 Australian civil servants, ministers and ministerial advisors find and evaluate researchers with whom they wish to consult or collaborate. Policymakers valued researchers who had credibility across the three attributes seen as contributing to trustworthiness: competence (an exemplary academic reputation complemented by pragmatism, understanding of government processes, and effective collaboration and communication skills); integrity (independence, “authenticity”, and faithful reporting of research); and benevolence (commitment to the policy reform agenda). The emphases given to these assessment criteria appeared to be shaped in part by policymakers' roles and the type and phase of policy development in which they were engaged. Policymakers are encouraged to reassess their methods for engaging researchers and to maximise information flow and support in these relationships. Researchers who wish to influence policy are advised to develop relationships across the policy community, but also to engage in other complementary strategies for promoting research-informed policy, including the strategic use of mass media.

Haynes, Abby S.; Derrick, Gemma E.; Redman, Sally; Hall, Wayne D.; Gillespie, James A.; Chapman, Simon; Sturk, Heidi

2012-01-01

377

PTSD onset and course following the World Trade Center disaster: findings and implications for future research  

PubMed Central

Objective We sought to identify common risk factors associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) onset and course, including delayed, persistent, and remitted PTSD following a major traumatic exposure. Method Based on a prospective study of New York City adults following the World Trade Center disaster (WTCD), we conducted baseline interviews with 2,368 persons one year after this event and then at follow-up 1 year later to evaluate changes in current PTSD status based on DSM-IV criteria. Results Baseline analysis suggested that current PTSD, defined as present if this occurred in the past 12 months, was associated with females, younger adults, those with lower self-esteem, lower social support, higher WTCD exposure, more lifetime traumatic events, and those with a history of pre-WTCD depression. At follow-up, current PTSD was associated with Latinos, non-native born persons, those with lower self-esteem, more negative life events, more lifetime traumatic events, and those with mixed handedness. Classifying respondents at follow-up into resilient (no PTSD time 1 or 2), remitted (PTSD time 1, not 2), delayed (no PTSD time 1, but PTSD time 2), and persistent (PTSD both time 1 and 2) PTSD, revealed the following: compared to resilient cases, remitted ones were more likely to be female, have more negative life events, have greater lifetime traumatic events, and have pre-WTCD depression. Delayed cases were more likely to be Latino, be non-native born, have lower self-esteem, have more negative life events, have greater lifetime traumas, and have mixed handedness. Persistent cases had a similar profile as delayed, but were the only cases associated with greater WTCD exposures. They were also likely to have had a pre-WTCD depression diagnosis. Examination of WTCD-related PTSD at follow-up, more specifically, revealed a similar risk profile, except that handedness was no longer significant and WTCD exposure was now significant for both remitted and persistent cases. Conclusion PTSD onset and course is complex and appears to be related to trauma exposure, individual predispositions, and external factors not directly related to the original traumatic event. This diagnostic classification may benefit from additional conceptualization and research as this relates to changes in PTSD status over time.

Boscarino, Joseph A.; Adams, Richard E.

2009-01-01

378

Do Students Eventually Get to Publish their Research Findings? The Case of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Research in Cameroon  

PubMed Central

Background: Scientific publication is commonly used to communicate research findings and in most academic/research settings, to evaluate the potential of a researcher and for recruitment and promotion. It has also been said that researchers have the duty to make public, the findings of their research. As a result, researchers are encouraged to share their research findings with the scientific world through peer review publications. In this study, we looked at the characteristics and publication rate of theses that documented studies on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Cameroon. Materials and Methods: To check if a thesis resulted in a publication, we searched: A database of publications on HIV in Cameroon, African Journals Online, PubMed and Google scholar. For each publication we recorded if the student was an author, the position of the student in the author listing, the journal and where the journal was indexed. We also looked at the impact factor of the journals. Results: One hundred and thirty theses/dissertations were included in the study, 74.6% (97/130) were written as part of a medical degree (MD), 23.8% (31/130) a postgraduate (PG) degree and 1.5% (2/130) for a Doctorate/PhD. On a whole, 13.9% (18/130) of the theses resulted in at least one publication in a scientific journal with a total of 22 journal articles, giving a mean publication rate of 0.17 article/thesis, 86.4% (11/22) were indexed on PubMed, 9.1% (2/22) on African Journals Online and 4.6% (1/22) on Google scholar. One PG thesis led to two book chapters. The student was the first author in 22.7% (5/22) of the articles and not an author in 9.1% (2/22) of the articles. Student supervisor was an author in all the articles. Conclusion: This study reveals that most students in Cameroon failed to transform their theses/dissertations to scientific publications. This indicates an urgent need to sensitize students on the importance of presenting their research findings in scientific meetings and peer reviewed journals. There is also a great necessity to build capacity in scientific writing among university students in Cameroon.

Munung, NS; Vidal, L; Ouwe-Missi-Oukem-Boyer, O

2014-01-01

379

Processing of inconsistent emotional information: an fMRI study.  

PubMed

Previous studies investigating the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) have relied on a number of tasks which involved cognitive control and attentional demands. In this fMRI study, we tested the model that ACC functions as an attentional network in the processing of language. We employed a paradigm that requires the processing of concurrent linguistic information predicting that the cognitive costs imposed by competing trials would engender the activation of ACC. Subjects were confronted with sentences where the semantic content conflicted with the prosodic intonation (CONF condition) randomly interspaced with sentences which conveyed coherent discourse components (NOCONF condition). We observed the activation of the rostral ACC and the middle frontal gyrus when the NOCONF condition was subtracted from the CONF condition. Our findings provide evidence for the involvement of the rostral ACC in the processing of complex competing linguistic stimuli, supporting theories that claim its relevance as a part of the cortical attentional circuit. The processing of emotional prosody involved a bilateral network encompassing the superior and medial temporal cortices. This evidence confirms previous research investigating the neuronal network that supports the processing of emotional information. PMID:18094962

Rota, Giuseppina; Veit, Ralf; Nardo, Davide; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Birbaumer, Niels; Dogil, Grzegorz

2008-04-01

380

FEEDBACK OF RESEARCH FINDINGS FOR VACCINE TRIALS: EXPERIENCES FROM TWO MALARIA VACCINE TRIALS INVOLVING HEALTHY CHILDREN ON THE KENYAN COAST  

PubMed Central

Internationally, calls for feedback of findings to be made an ‘ethical imperative’ or mandatory have been met with both strong support and opposition. Challenges include differences in issues by type of study and context, disentangling between aggregate and individual study results, and inadequate empirical evidence on which to draw. In this paper we present data from observations and interviews with key stakeholders involved in feeding back aggregate study findings for two Phase II malaria vaccine trials among children under the age of 5 years old on the Kenyan Coast. In our setting, feeding back of aggregate findings was an appreciated set of activities. The inclusion of individual results was important from the point of view of both participants and researchers, to reassure participants of trial safety, and to ensure that positive results were not over-interpreted and that individual level issues around blinding and control were clarified. Feedback sessions also offered an opportunity to re-evaluate and re-negotiate trial relationships and benefits, with potentially important implications for perceptions of and involvement in follow-up work for the trials and in future research. We found that feedback of findings is a complex but key step in a continuing set of social interactions between community members and research staff (particularly field staff who work at the interface with communities), and among community members themselves; a step which needs careful planning from the outset. We agree with others that individual and aggregate results need to be considered separately, and that for individual results, both the nature and value of the information, and the context, including social relationships, need to be taken into account.

Gikonyo, Caroline; Kamuya, Dorcas; Mbete, Bibi; Njuguna, Patricia; Olotu, Ally; Bejon, Philip; Marsh, Vicki; Molyneux, Sassy

2013-01-01

381

Increasing Capacity for Stewardship of Oceans and Coasts: Findings of the National Research Council Report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the increasing stress on ocean and coastal resources, ocean resource management will require greater capacity in terms of people, institutions, technology and tools. Successful capacity-building efforts address the needs of a specific locale or region and include plans to maintain and expand capacity after the project ends. In 2008, the US National Research Council published a report that assesses past and current capacity-building efforts to identify barriers to effective management of coastal and marine resources. The report recommends ways that governments and organizations can strengthen marine conservation and management capacity. Capacity building programs instill the tools, knowledge, skills, and attitudes that address: ecosystem function and change; processes of governance that influence societal and ecosystem change; and assembling and managing interdisciplinary teams. Programs require efforts beyond traditional sector-by-sector planning because marine ecosystems range from the open ocean to coastal waters and land use practices. Collaboration among sectors, scaling from local community-based management to international ocean policies, and ranging from inland to offshore areas, will be required to establish coordinated and efficient governance of ocean and coastal ecosystems. Barriers Most capacity building activities have been initiated to address particular issues such as overfishing or coral reef degradation, or they target a particular region or country facing threats to their marine resources. This fragmentation inhibits the sharing of information and experience and makes it more difficult to design and implement management approaches at appropriate scales. Additional barriers that have limited the effectiveness of capacity building programs include: lack of an adequate needs assessment prior to program design and implementation; exclusion of targeted populations in decision- making efforts; mismanagement, corruption, or both; incomplete or inappropriate evaluation procedures; and, lack of a coordinated and strategic approach among donors. A New Framework Improving ocean stewardship and ending the fragmentation of current capacity building programs will require a new, broadly adopted framework for capacity building that emphasizes cooperation, sustainability, and knowledge transfer within and among communities. The report identifies four specific features of capacity building that would increase the effectiveness and efficiency of future programs: 1. Regional action plans based on periodic program assessments to guide investments in capacity and set realistic milestones and performance measures. 2. Long-term support to establish self-sustaining programs. Sustained capacity building programs require a diversity of sources and coordinated investments from local, regional, and international donors. 3. Development of leadership and political will. One of the most commonly cited reasons for failure and lack of progress in ocean and coastal governance initiatives is lack of political will. One strategy for strengthening support is to identify, develop, mentor, and reward leaders. 4. Establishment of networks and mechanisms for regional collaboration. Networks bring together those working in the same or similar ecosystems with comparable management or governance challenges to share information, pool resources, and learn from one another. The report also recommends the establishment of regional centers to encourage and support collaboration among neighboring countries.

Roberts, S. J.; Feeley, M. H.

2008-05-01

382

Classical Labeling of Bacterial Pathogens According to Their Lifestyle in the Host: Inconsistencies and Alternatives  

PubMed Central

An ample understanding of the complex interactions between host and pathogen will improve our ability to develop new prophylactic and therapeutic measures against infection. Precise classification of infectious agents in regards to their infective lifestyles in the host and corresponding pathogenic implications are required because clear concepts are essential to plan fruitful research. Classically, pathogenic bacteria are classified as extracellular, facultative intracellular, and obligate intracellular. In my opinion, this classification is inadequate because, as concluded from data here discussed, it is based on inconsistencies and hyper-valorizes the capacity of the infectious agent replicate in vitro in cell-free media. For a microbial pathogen, what matters is whether intra- or extracellularity is in the context of the in vivo life and in association with pathogenicity. When living as a pathogen in association with its host, what is relevant in microbiological terms is not the ability to grow in artificial cell-free bacteriological media or in environmental niches but whether the intracellular infectious agent, besides the phase of intracellular growth which is behind its label, also is able to live extracellularly in the natural settings of the extracellular territories of their hosts. To eliminate the inconsistencies associated with the classical labeling of bacterial pathogens, I propose that bacterial pathogens be labeled exclusive extracellular, dual intracellular/extracellular and exclusive intracellular based on their infective lifestyle in the host, not in the ability to grow in artificial bacteriological media.

Silva, Manuel T.

2012-01-01

383

Inconsistency of the Wolf sunspot number series around 1848  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: Sunspot numbers form a benchmark series in many studies, but may still contain inhomogeneities and inconsistencies. In particular, an essential discrepancy exists between the two main sunspot number series, Wolf and group sunspot numbers (WSN and GSN, respectively), before 1848. The source of this discrepancy has remained unresolved so far. However, the recently digitized series of solar observations in 1825-1867 by Samuel Heinrich Schwabe, who was the primary observer of the WSN before 1848, makes such an assessment possible. Methods: We construct sunspot series, similar to WSN and GSN but using only Schwabe's data. These series, called here WSN-S and GSN-S, respectively, were compared with the original WSN and GSN series for the period 1835-1867 for possible inhomogeneities. Results: This study supports the earlier conclusions that the GSN series is more consistent and homogeneous in the earlier part than the WSN series. We show that: the GSN series is homogeneous and consistent with the Schwabe data throughout the entire studied period; the WSN series decreases by roughly 20% around 1848, which is caused by the change of the primary observer from Schwabe to Wolf and an inappropriate individual correction factor used for Schwabe in the WSN; this implies a major inhomogeneity in the WSN, which needs to be corrected by reducing its values by 20% before 1848; the corrected WSN series is in good agreement with the GSN series.

Leussu, Raisa; Usoskin, Ilya G.; Arlt, Rainer; Mursula, Kalevi

2013-11-01

384

Mood regulation in youth: research findings and clinical approaches to irritability and short-lived episodes of mania like symptoms  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Mood regulation problems, such as severe chronic irritability or short episodes of mania like symptoms are common, impairing and a topic of intense recent interest to clinicians, researchers and the DSM-5 process. Here we review the most recent findings about these two presentations and discuss approaches to their treatment. Recent findings Longitudinal and genetic findings suggest that chronic irritability should be regarded as a mood problem that is distinct from bipolar disorder. A proportion of children with short (less than 4 days) episodes of mania like symptoms seem to progress to classical (Type I or II) bipolar disorder over time in US clinic samples. In a UK sample, such episodes were independently associated with psychosocial impairment. The evidence base for the treatment of either irritability or short-lived episodes to mania-like symptoms is still small. Clinicians should be cautious with extrapolating treatments from classical bipolar disorder to these mood regulation problems. CBT-based approaches targeting general mood regulation processes may be effective for cases with severe irritability or short episodes of mania like symptoms. Summary There is increasing research evidence for the importance of mood regulation problems in the form of either irritability or short episodes of mania like symptoms in youth. The evidence base for their drug treatment has yet to be developed. CBT-based interventions to modify processes of mood regulation may be a useful and safe intervention for patients with these presentations.

Leigh, Eleanor; Smith, Patrick; Milavic, Gordana; Stringaris, Argyris

2013-01-01

385

Advancing Research Into Affective Factors in Mathematics Learning: Clarifying Key Factors, Terminology and Measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on affective factors in the learning of mathematics is difficult to interpret because of differences and inconsistencies in terminology and measurement. To advance research in this field of affect, I compare and clarify terminology, and reconcile scales for measurement by examining the factors and research instruments targeted by four research teams. The findings reveal two distinct broad primary

Patricia C. Cretchley

2008-01-01

386

Managing misaligned paternity findings in research including sickle cell disease screening in Kenya: 'consulting communities' to inform policy.  

PubMed

The management of misaligned paternity findings raises important controversy worldwide. It has mainly, however, been discussed in the context of high-income countries. Genetic and genomics research, with the potential to show misaligned paternity, are becoming increasingly common in Africa. During a genomics study in Kenya, a dilemma arose over testing and sharing information on paternal sickle cell disease status. This dilemma may be paradigmatic of challenges in sharing misaligned paternity findings in many research and health care settings. Using a deliberative approach to community consultation to inform research practice, we explored residents' views on paternal testing and sharing misaligned paternity information. Between December 2009 and November 2010, 63 residents in Kilifi County were engaged in informed deliberative small group discussions, structured to support normative reflection within the groups, with purposive selection to explore diversity. Analysis was based on a modified framework analysis approach, drawing on relevant social science and bioethics literature. The methods generated in-depth individual and group reflection on morally important issues and uncovered wide diversity in views and values. Fundamental and conflicting values emerged around the importance of family interests and openness, underpinned by disagreement on the moral implications of marital infidelity and withholding truth. Wider consideration of ethical issues emerging in these debates supports locally-held reasoning that paternal sickle cell testing should not be undertaken in this context, in contrast to views that testing should be done with or without the disclosure of misaligned paternity information. The findings highlight the importance of facilitating wider testing of family members of affected children, contingent on the development and implementation of national policies for the management of this inherited disorder. Their richness also illustrates the potential for the approach adopted in this study to strengthen community consultation. PMID:24034967

Marsh, Vicki; Kombe, Francis; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Molyneux, Sassy; Parker, Michael

2013-11-01

387

Managing misaligned paternity findings in research including sickle cell disease screening in Kenya: 'Consulting communities' to inform policy?  

PubMed Central

The management of misaligned paternity findings raises important controversy worldwide. It has mainly, however, been discussed in the context of high-income countries. Genetic and genomics research, with the potential to show misaligned paternity, are becoming increasingly common in Africa. During a genomics study in Kenya, a dilemma arose over testing and sharing information on paternal sickle cell disease status. This dilemma may be paradigmatic of challenges in sharing misaligned paternity findings in many research and health care settings. Using a deliberative approach to community consultation to inform research practice, we explored residents' views on paternal testing and sharing misaligned paternity information. Between December 2009 and November 2010, 63 residents in Kilifi County were engaged in informed deliberative small group discussions, structured to support normative reflection within the groups, with purposive selection to explore diversity. Analysis was based on a modified framework analysis approach, drawing on relevant social science and bioethics literature. The methods generated in-depth individual and group reflection on morally important issues and uncovered wide diversity in views and values. Fundamental and conflicting values emerged around the importance of family interests and openness, underpinned by disagreement on the moral implications of marital infidelity and withholding truth. Wider consideration of ethical issues emerging in these debates supports locally-held reasoning that paternal sickle cell testing should not be undertaken in this context, in contrast to views that testing should be done with or without the disclosure of misaligned paternity information. The findings highlight the importance of facilitating wider testing of family members of affected children, contingent on the development and implementation of national policies for the management of this inherited disorder. Their richness also illustrates the potential for the approach adopted in this study to strengthen community consultation.

Marsh, Vicki; Kombe, Francis; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Molyneux, Sassy; Parker, Michael

2013-01-01

388

Exploratory and heuristic investigation into the impact of inconsistent accounting practices in the coal-extraction industry - a survey approach  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of these inconsistent accounting practices and to consider the relative significance of the basic accounting conventions of matching and realization in producing the inconsistent accounting practices. An expert opinion survey is employed as a measurement instrument. A purposive sampling plan is developed, using judgment to obtain a representative group of individuals who are expert in the financial accounting practices of coal-extraction companies. This group consists of the chief financial officers of 183 coal-producing companies and 54 representatives of national accounting firms. Included in the group are representatives from the 99 largest coal-producing companies in the United States and 54 individuals in public accounting from each of the traditional big eight national accounting firms. An overall response rate of 53% was obtained, including a 79% response from the national accounting firm personnel. The findings of the expert opinion survey support the conclusion that inconsistent accounting practices in the coal industry may seriously impair users' ability to compare financial results of coal producers. The findings support the need for authoritative or quasi-authoritative accounting standards.

Coffee, C.D.

1983-01-01

389

Variables Related to Student Performance and Resource Allocation Decisions at the School District Level. A Survey of Research with Emphasis on the Policy Implications of the Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review was undertaken to organize and present the findings of educational production function research by educators and economists. A summary of these findings could be a valuable aid in the educational decision making process, especially to administrators working in local school districts. Research of this type concentrates on determining…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of School Programs Evaluation.

390

The Real Controversy about Child Sexual Abuse Research: Contradictory Findings and Critical Issues Not Addressed by Rind, Tromovitch, and Bauserman in Their 1998 Outcomes Meta-Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a review of all types of child sexual abuse research ignored by Rind, Tromovitch, and Bauserman in their 1998 meta-analytic study. Eight major findings are addressed. Altogether these findings demonstrate the narrow focus of the meta-analysis. By restricting a broad meta-analysis to only some of the research and population in question,…

Tice, Pamela Paradis; Whittenburg, John A.; Baker, Gail L.; Lemmey, Dorothy E.

2001-01-01

391

Psychosocial Rehabilitation and Quality of Life for Older Adults with Serious Mental Illness: Recent Findings and Future Research Directions  

PubMed Central

Purpose of Review The projected increase of Americans age 65 years and older will have an unprecedented impact on the health care delivery system. As a result, new models to support individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) will become increasingly more important. This selective overview highlights recent reports addressing psychosocial functioning and interventions for older adults with SMI. Recent Findings Recently published descriptive studies suggest that poor functional outcomes and lower quality of life among older people with SMI are strongly associated with social isolation, depression, cognitive impairment, and chronic medical illness. Recent research on psychosocial interventions include evaluations of three different models of skills training, a supported employment intervention, and cognitive remediation. This research establishes psychosocial rehabilitation as feasible and potentially effective in improving functioning and quality of life in older adults with SMI. Summary Several important directions for future research focused on older adults with SMI are suggested by this overview. They include: individually tailored rehabilitation, interventions that optimize social integration and decrease depressive symptoms, techniques that blend cognitive remediation with vocational rehabilitation, and integration of health promotion with psychosocial rehabilitation.

Bartels, Stephen J.; Pratt, Sarah

2011-01-01

392

Reducing Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) by Building Community Capacity: A Summary of Washington Family Policy Council Research Findings  

PubMed Central

Community capacity for organization and collaboration has been shown to be a powerful tool for improving the health and well-being of communities. Since 1994 the Washington State Family Policy Council has supported the development of community capacity in 42 community public health and safety networks. Community networks bring local communities together to restructure natural supports and local resources to meet the needs of families and children, and increase cross-system coordination and flexible funding streams to improve local services and policy. In this study, researchers sought to demonstrate the strong impact of the community networks’ capacity to interrupt health and social problems. Findings suggest that community networks reduce health and safety problems for the entire community population. Further, community networks with high community capacity reduced adverse childhood experiences (ACE) in young adults ages 18–34.

Hall, Judy; Porter, Laura; Longhi, Dario; Becker-Green, Jody; Dreyfus, Susan

2012-01-01

393

Global Energy Technology Strategy: Addressing Climate Change Phase 2 Findings from an international Public-Private Sponsored Research Program  

SciTech Connect

This book examines the role of global energy technology in addressing climate change. The book considers the nature of the climate change challenge and the role of energy in the issue. It goes on to consider the implications for the evolution of the global energy system and the potential value of technology availability, development and deployment. Six technology systems are identified for special consideration: CO2 capture and storage, Biotechnology, Hydrogen systems, Nuclear energy, Wind and solar energy, and End-use energy technologies. In addition, consideration is given to the role of non-CO2 gases in climate change as well as the potential of technology development and deployment to reduce non-CO2 emissions. Present trends in energy R&D are examined and potentially fruitful avenues for research. The book concludes with a set of key findings.

Edmonds, James A.; Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.; Kim, Son H.; Smith, Steven J.; Runci, Paul J.; Clarke, Leon E.; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Stokes, Gerald M.

2007-05-01

394

Drug-related harm among people who inject drugs in Thailand: summary findings from the Mitsampan Community Research Project  

PubMed Central

Background For decades, Thailand has experienced high rates of illicit drug use and related harms. In response, the Thai government has relied on drug law enforcement to address this problem. Despite these efforts, high rates of drug use persist, and Thailand has been contending with an enduring epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among people who inject drugs (IDU). Methods In response to concerns regarding drug-related harm in Thailand and a lack of research focused on the experiences and needs of Thai IDU, the Mitsampan Community Research Project was launched in 2008. The project involved administering surveys capturing a range of behavioral and other data to community-recruited IDU in Bangkok in 2008 and 2009. Results In total, 468 IDU in Bangkok were enrolled in the project. Results revealed high rates of midazolam injection, non-fatal overdose and incarceration. Syringe sharing remained widespread among this population, driven primarily by problems with access to syringes and methamphetamine injection. As well, reports of police abuse were common and found to be associated with high-risk behavior. Problems with access to evidence-based drug treatment and HIV prevention programs were also documented. Although compulsory drug detention centers are widely used in Thailand, data suggested that these centers have little impact on drug use behaviors among IDU in Bangkok. Conclusions The findings from this project highlight many ongoing health and social problems related to illicit drug use and drug policies in Bangkok. They also suggest that the emphasis on criminal justice approaches has resulted in human rights violations at the hands of police, and harms associated with compulsory drug detention and incarceration. Collectively, the findings indicate the urgent need for the implementation of evidence-based policies and programs in this setting.

2013-01-01

395

Employee Commitment and Well-Being: A Critical Review, Theoretical Framework and Research Agenda  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although a great deal is known about the implications of employee commitment for organizations, less attention has been paid to its ramifications for employees themselves. Previous research has been unsystematic and the findings have sometimes been inconsistent. The most consistent findings pertain to the positive links between affective…

Meyer, John P.; Maltin, Elyse R.

2010-01-01

396

Health effects of tropospheric ozone: Review of recent research findings and their implications to ambient air quality standards  

SciTech Connect

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator proposed (on August 3, 1992) to retain the current National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone (O3) on the basis of data assembled in a draft Criteria Document (1986) and its Addendum (1988) which, together with a draft Staff Paper (1988), received public comment and review comments by the EPA's Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC). This paper summarizes and discusses research findings presented since 1988 which, based on the author's experience as a Chairman of CASAC, are most relevant to the promulgation of a primary (health based) NAAQS for O3. These newer findings include substantial evidence from controlled chamber exposure studies and field studies in natural settings that the current NAAQS contains no margin of safety against short-term effects that the EPA has considered to be adverse. They also include evidence from epidemiologic studies that current ambient exposures are associated with reduced baseline lung function, exacerbation of asthma and premature mortality, as well as evidence from chronic animal exposure studies at concentrations within current ambient peak levels that indicate progressive and persistent lung function and structural abnormalities. The current NAAQS, if retained, may therefore also be inadequate to protect the public from effects resulting from chronic exposure to O3. 96 refs.

Lippmann, M. (New York Univ. Medical Center, Tuxedo (United States))

1993-01-01

397

Knowledge, ignorance and priorities for research in key areas of cancer survivorship: findings from a scoping review  

PubMed Central

Background: Patients who have completed initial cancer treatment (cancer survivors) have been relatively neglected. We need data to help us better understand the needs of this group and to underpin evidence-based service development. Methods: Scoping reviews of research published in the last two decades focussing on the problems faced by cancer survivors, and the effectiveness of interventions for these problems were undertaken. The aim was to identify what we know, what we do not know and opportunities where research could provide new information. We searched for, retrieved and rapidly appraised systematic reviews sourced from the most common electronic databases supplemented by more recently published individual studies. Results: The research evidence is surprisingly limited. We have some knowledge of the prevalence and nature of depression, pain and fatigue in cancer survivors. We know much less about cognitive and physical impairment, employment, financial well-being and relationships. Even where we have evidence, it is mostly of only moderate quality, is most often only for breast cancer and focuses almost exclusively on the early phase of survivorship. We have good evidence for the effectiveness of drug treatments for pain and moderate evidence for fatigue and depression, but not for other symptoms. Interventions based on rehabilitative and self-management approaches remain in the early stages of evaluation. Interpretation: There has been a substantial amount of research describing many of the problems experienced by the cancer survivors. This is strongest in the area of symptoms in the period soon after treatment. However, the quality of the evidence is often poor, and some topics have been little examined. We urgently need data on the natural evolution and scale of the problems of cancer survivors obtained from well-designed, large-scale cohort studies and the robust testing of interventions in clinical trials. Given the current financially constrained research funding environment, we suggest areas in which strategic investment might give findings that have the potential to make a major impact on patient well-being in a 5-year time scale.

Richardson, A; Addington-Hall, J; Amir, Z; Foster, C; Stark, D; Armes, J; Brearley, S G; Hodges, L; Hook, J; Jarrett, N; Stamataki, Z; Scott, I; Walker, J; Ziegler, L; Sharpe, M

2011-01-01

398

Role of "external facilitation" in implementation of research findings: a qualitative evaluation of facilitation experiences in the Veterans Health Administration  

PubMed Central

Background Facilitation has been identified in the literature as a potentially key component of successful implementation. It has not, however, either been well-defined or well-studied. Significant questions remain about the operational definition of facilitation and about the relationship of facilitation to other interventions, especially to other change agent roles when used in multi-faceted implementation projects. Researchers who are part of the Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (QUERI) are actively exploring various approaches and processes, including facilitation, to enable implementation of best practices in the Veterans Health Administration health care system – the largest integrated healthcare system in the United States. This paper describes a systematic, retrospective evaluation of implementation-related facilitation experiences within QUERI, a quality improvement program developed by the US Department of Veterans Affairs. Methods A post-hoc evaluation was conducted through a series of semi-structured interviews to examine the concept of facilitation across several multi-site QUERI implementation studies. The interview process is based on a technique developed in the field of education, which systematically enhances learning through experience by stimulating recall and reflection regarding past complex activities. An iterative content analysis approach relative to a set of conceptually-based interview questions was used for data analysis. Findings Findings suggest that facilitation, within an implementation study initiated by a central change agency, is a deliberate and valued process of interactive problem solving and support that occurs in the context of a recognized need for improvement and a supportive interpersonal relationship. Facilitation was described primarily as a distinct role with a number of potentially crucial behaviors and activities. Data further suggest that external facilitators were likely to use or integrate other implementation interventions, while performing this problem-solving and supportive role. Preliminary Conclusions This evaluation provides evidence to suggest that facilitation could be considered a distinct implementation intervention, just as audit and feedback, educational outreach, or similar methods are considered to be discrete interventions. As such, facilitation should be well-defined and explicitly evaluated for its perceived usefulness within multi-intervention implementation projects. Additionally, researchers should better define the specific contribution of facilitation to the success of implementation in different types of projects, different types of sites, and with evidence and innovations of varying levels of strength and complexity.

Stetler, Cheryl B; Legro, Marcia W; Rycroft-Malone, Joanne; Bowman, Candice; Curran, Geoffrey; Guihan, Marylou; Hagedorn, Hildi; Pineros, Sandra; Wallace, Carolyn M

2006-01-01

399

Phonological Inconsistency in Word Naming: Determinants of the Interference Effect between Languages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dutch-English participants named words and nonwords with a between-language phonologically inconsistent rime, e.g., GREED and PREED, and control words with a language-typical rime, e.g., GROAN, in a monolingual stimulus list or in a mixed list containing Dutch words. Inconsistent items had longer latencies and more errors than typical items in the…

Smits, Erica; Sandra, Dominiek; Martensen, Heike; Dijkstra, Ton

2009-01-01

400

Inconsistencies within Attachment Teaching Practice in Zimbabwe: Call for a Participatory Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article raises some inconsistencies observed in attachment teaching practice in Zimbabwe. The argument made is that these inconsistencies are caused by the different philosophical approaches informing attachment teaching practice and its delivery, which is largely visible in teaching practice supervision. The discussion shows that while…

Chikunda, Charles

2008-01-01

401

Exploring Explanation: Explaining Inconsistent Evidence Informs Exploratory, Hypothesis-Testing Behavior in Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explaining inconsistency may serve as an important mechanism for driving the process of causal learning. But how might this process generate amended beliefs? One way that explaining inconsistency may promote discovery is by guiding exploratory, hypothesis-testing behavior. In order to investigate this, a study with young children ranging in age…

Legare, Cristine H.

2012-01-01

402

Exploring explanation: explaining inconsistent evidence informs exploratory, hypothesis-testing behavior in young children.  

PubMed

Explaining inconsistency may serve as an important mechanism for driving the process of causal learning. But how might this process generate amended beliefs? One way that explaining inconsistency may promote discovery is by guiding exploratory, hypothesis-testing behavior. In order to investigate this, a study with young children ranging in age from 2 to 6 years (N = 80) examined the relation between explanation and exploratory behavior following consistent versus inconsistent outcomes. Results indicated that for inconsistent outcomes only, the kind of explanation children provided informed the kind of exploratory behavior they engaged in and the extent to which children modified and generated new hypotheses. In sum, the data provide insight into a mechanism by which explaining inconsistent evidence guides causal cognition. PMID:22172010

Legare, Cristine H

2012-01-01

403

An Approach for Detecting Inconsistencies between Behavioral Models of the Software Architecture and the Code  

SciTech Connect

In practice, inconsistencies between architectural documentation and the code might arise due to improper implementation of the architecture or the separate, uncontrolled evolution of the code. Several approaches have been proposed to detect the inconsistencies between the architecture and the code but these tend to be limited for capturing inconsistencies that might occur at runtime. We present a runtime verification approach for detecting inconsistencies between the dynamic behavior of the architecture and the actual code. The approach is supported by a set of tools that implement the architecture and the code patterns in Prolog, and support the automatic generation of runtime monitors for detecting inconsistencies. We illustrate the approach and the toolset for a Crisis Management System case study.

Ciraci, Selim; Sozer, Hasan; Tekinerdogan, Bedir

2012-07-16

404

Carbohydrate supplementation and prolonged intermittent high-intensity exercise in adolescents: research findings, ethical issues and suggestions for the future.  

PubMed

In the last decade, research has begun to investigate the efficacy of carbohydrate supplementation for improving aspects of physical capacity and skill performance during sport-specific exercise in adolescent team games players. This research remains in its infancy, and further study would be beneficial considering the large youth population actively involved in team games. Literature on the influence of carbohydrate supplementation on skill performance is scarce, limited to shooting accuracy in adolescent basketball players and conflicting in its findings. Between-study differences in the exercise protocol, volume of fluid and carbohydrate consumed, use of prior fatiguing exercise and timing of skill tests may contribute to the different findings. Conversely, initial data supports carbohydrate supplementation in solution and gel form for improving intermittent endurance running capacity following soccer-specific shuttle running. These studies produced reliable data, but were subject to limitations including lack of quantification of the metabolic response of participants, limited generalization of data due to narrow participant age and maturation ranges, use of males and females within the same sample and non-standardized pre-exercise nutritional status between participants. There is a lack of consensus regarding the influence of frequently consuming carbohydrate-containing products on tooth enamel erosion and the development of obesity or being overweight in adolescent athletes and non-athletes. These discrepancies mean that the initiation or exacerbation of health issues due to frequent consumption of carbohydrate-containing products by adolescents cannot be conclusively refuted. Coupled with the knowledge that consuming a natural, high-carbohydrate diet -3-8 hours before exercise can significantly alter substrate use and improve exercise performance in adults, a moral and ethical concern is raised regarding the direction of future research in order to further knowledge while safeguarding the health and well-being of young participants. It could be deemed unethical to continue study into carbohydrate supplementation while ignoring the potential health concerns and the possibility of generating similar performance enhancements using natural dietary interventions. Therefore, future work should investigate the influence of pre-exercise dietary intake on the prolonged intermittent, high-intensity exercise performance of adolescents. This would enable quantification of whether pre-exercise nutrition can modulate exercise performance and, if so, the optimum dietary composition to achieve this. Research could then combine this knowledge with ingestion of carbohydrate-containing products during exercise to facilitate ethical and healthy nutritional guidelines for enhancing the exercise performance of adolescents. This article addresses the available evidence regarding carbohydrate supplementation and prolonged intermittent, high-intensity exercise in adolescent team games players. It discusses the potential health concerns associated with the frequent use of carbohydrate-containing products by adolescents and how this affects the research ethics of the field, and considers directions for future work. PMID:22901040

Phillips, Shaun M

2012-10-01

405

Targeted intervention research studies on sexually transmitted diseases (STD): methodology, selected findings and implications for STD service delivery and communications.  

PubMed

Targeted intervention research (TIR) studies were performed in five African countries (Senegal, Ethiopia, Benin, Morocco, and Swaziland) to improve the utilization of a community perspective in sexually transmitted disease (STD) programs. TIR, conducted by program managers with the aid of a multidisciplinary technical advisory group, examines factors at five levels of analysis (individual, social network, organization, community, and policy) through a variety of qualitative methods. The TIR studies indicated that patients' conceptions of normal versus abnormal health are fundamental to the process of interpreting symptoms and subsequently seeking care. The interpretation of STD symptoms varied across settings (e.g., vaginal lesions and discharge were considered signs of healing in Morocco and Benin), but increasing pain and discomfort were key triggers to seeking treatment. The concept of sexual transmission was blended with other causes such as violation of religious or moral codes, consumption of certain foods, and supernatural forces. Care-seeking tended to reflect an ordered yet loosely constructed process of elimination in pursuit of symptom relief, beginning with alternative regimens. Barriers to biomedical STD care included the need for husband's permission, costs, confidentiality concerns, long waits in public clinics, and fear of judgmental health provider attitudes. Overall, the findings highlight the importance of location-specific strategies aimed at increasing prompt care-seeking at qualified biomedical facilities. PMID:9792369

Field, M L; Price, J; Niang, C; N'tcha, J; Zwane, I T; Lurie, M; Nxumalo, M; Dialmy, A; Manhart, L; Gebre, A; Saidel, T; Dallabetta, G

1998-01-01

406

Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This potpourri surveys research on various topics: neurologically based curricula, midafternoon slumps in student attention, accounting for contexts in research, feelings of powerlessness among students and teachers, further equity implications of computers in schools, misreporting of research findings, and accounting for media transfer in…

Bracey, Gerald W.

1984-01-01

407

Suicide behind bars: trends, inconsistencies, and practical implications.  

PubMed

The results of two comprehensive approaches are compared: the nationwide surveys of suicides in U.S. jails by Hayes and the international meta-analyses of suicides in jails and prisons by Fazel et al. Factors are classified as demographic, situational, clinical, and methodical. More than 50% of U.S. jail suicide victims were men, white, unmarried, under 28 years of age, charged with minor or drug-related offenses, and intoxicated with drugs or alcohol. Suicides significantly occurred in isolation. Suicide victims in the international study were significantly (p < 0.001) men, white, married, pretrial, and charged with or convicted of violent offenses. Psychiatric diagnosis, alcohol abuse, taking psychotropic medication, and suicidal ideation were also positively correlated in the international study, but suicide victims were distributed more evenly over age-groups. Results of other studies illustrate the near universality of some findings. Three theories of suicide are briefly discussed. PMID:21827457

Felthous, Alan R

2011-11-01

408

What if Indigenous Knowledge Contradicts Accepted Scientific Findings?--The Hidden Agenda: Respect, Caring and Passion towards Aboriginal Research in the Context of Applying Western Academic Rules  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The statement in the title, what if Indigenous Knowledge contradicts accepted scientific findings (Fowler, 2000), is an expression of the dilemma people who research Indigenous Knowledge think they find themselves in when they are confronted with different interpretations of what it means to be human, or, as I may summarize it, with different…

Witt, Norbert

2007-01-01

409

Control of inconsistency and redundancy in PROLOG-type knowledge bases  

SciTech Connect

Because of the incremental and piecemeal nature of its construction, logical inconsistency and redundancy can be built inadvertently into a knowledge base. This paper discusses a methodology for analyzing the contents of a PROLOG-type knowledge base and for eliminating inconsistent and redundant logical elements. It introduces a graphical representation, the goal-fact network, of the logic required to infer a goal and describes the identification of inconsistency in that network. Three increasingly general alternatives, Boolean algebra, the Karnaugh map, and the Quine-McCluskey algorithm, are presented as tools to identify and to eliminate redundancy. 23 refs.

Murray, T.J.; Tanniru, M.R. (Syracuse University, NY (USA))

1991-01-01

410

Studies of electromagnetic fields and cancer: how inconsistent?  

SciTech Connect

Our study was a case-control study performed on the population living within a corridor around Sweden`s 220- and 400-kV lines during a 26-year period; the corridor was defined to be wide enough so that the outer part was unaffected by EMFs generated from the line. Our study showed an association between calculated historical EMF and childhood leukemia but not with tumors in the central nervous system and not with measured fields. For adults, the study showed an association for myeloid leukemia when calculated historical fields were used, but not for other types of leukemia and not for CNS tumors. Again, actually measured fields were not associated with cancer risk. Nine available studies provide information of varying quality, and a few should be given little weight in a combination of findings across studies. The results are summarized. It would be appealing if all available evidence - from residential and occupational studies, from children and adults, and from studies on different types of cancer - fit together in an intelligible pattern, but this does not appear to be the case. However, the evidence on leukemia in children appears to be consistent. 9 refs.

Ahlbom, A.; Feychting, M. [Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

1993-06-01

411

Detection and correction of inconsistency-based errors in non-rigid registration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a novel post-processing technique to detect and correct inconsistency-based errors in non-rigid registration. While deformable registration is ubiquitous in medical image computing, assessing its quality has yet been an open problem. We propose a method that predicts local registration errors of existing pairwise registrations between a set of images, while simultaneously estimating corrected registrations. In the solution the error is constrained to be small in areas of high post-registration image similarity, while local registrations are constrained to be consistent between direct and indirect registration paths. The latter is a critical property of an ideal registration process, and has been frequently used to asses the performance of registration algorithms. In our work, the consistency is used as a target criterion, for which we efficiently find a solution using a linear least-squares model on a coarse grid of registration control points. We show experimentally that the local errors estimated by our algorithm correlate strongly with true registration errors in experiments with known, dense ground-truth deformations. Additionally, the estimated corrected registrations consistently improve over the initial registrations in terms of average deformation error or TRE for different registration algorithms on both simulated and clinical data, independent of modality (MRI/CT), dimensionality (2D/3D) and employed primary registration method (demons/Markov-randomfield).

Gass, Tobias; Szekely, Gabor; Goksel, Orcun

2014-03-01

412

Social Science, Research and Policy. A Summary of a Report Issued by the Fact-Finding Committee on Social Science Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recommendations of committee include greater centralization of research activities; improved communication between social researchers and policy-makers; better coordination in research by the establishment of planning bodies at different levels; and increased funding. (RW)

Hogeweg-de-Haart, H. P.; And Others

1976-01-01

413

What can Studies of e-Learning Teach us about Collaboration in e-Research? Some Findings from Digital Library Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. e-Research is intended,to facilitate collaboration,through,distributed access to content, tools, and services. Lessons about collaboration are extracted from the findings of two large, long-term digital library research projects. Both the Alexandria Digital Earth Prototype Project (ADEPT) and,the Center for Embedded,Networked,Sensing (CENS) project on data management,leverage scientific research data for use in teaching. Two forms of collaboration were studied: (1) direct,

Christine L. Borgman

2006-01-01

414

State of the art in research into the risk of low dose radiation exposure--findings of the fourth MELODI workshop.  

PubMed

The fourth workshop of the Multidisciplinary European Low Dose Initiative (MELODI) was organised by STUK-Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority of Finland. It took place from 12 to 14 September 2012 in Helsinki, Finland. The meeting was attended by 179 scientists and professionals engaged in radiation research and radiation protection. We summarise the major scientific findings of the workshop and the recommendations for updating the MELODI Strategic Research Agenda and Road Map for future low dose research activities. PMID:23803528

Salomaa, Sisko; Prise, Kevin M; Atkinson, Michael J; Wojcik, Andrzej; Auvinen, Anssi; Grosche, Bernd; Sabatier, Laure; Jourdain, Jean-René; Salminen, Eeva; Baatout, Sarah; Kulka, Ulrike; Rabus, Hans; Blanchardon, Eric; Averbeck, Dietrich; Weiss, Wolfgang

2013-09-01

415

HESS Opinions "On forecast (in)consistency in a hydro-meteorological chain: curse or blessing?"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood forecasting increasingly relies on numerical weather prediction forecasts to achieve longer lead times. One of the key difficulties that is emerging in constructing a decision framework for these flood forecasts is what to dowhen consecutive forecasts are so different that they lead to different conclusions regarding the issuing of warnings or triggering other action. In this opinion paper we explore some of the issues surrounding such forecast inconsistency (also known as "Jumpiness", "Turning points", "Continuity" or number of "Swings"). In thsi opinion paper we define forecast inconsistency; discuss the reasons why forecasts might be inconsistent; how we should analyse inconsistency; and what we should do about it; how we should communicate it and whether it is a totally undesirable property. The property of consistency is increasingly emerging as a hot topic in many forecasting environments.

Pappenberger, F.; Cloke, H. L.; Persson, A.; Demeritt, D.

2011-07-01

416

Detecting Inconsistencies in the Gene Ontology Using Ontology Databases with Not-gadgets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present ontology databases with not-gadgets, a method for detecting inconsistencies in an ontology with large numbers of annotated instances by using triggers and exclusion dependencies in a unique way. What makes this work relevant is the use of the database itself, rather than an external reasoner, to detect logical inconsistencies given large numbers of annotated instances. What distinguishes this work is the use of event-driven triggers together with the introduction of explicit negations. We applied this approach toward the serotonin example, an open problem in biomedical informatics which aims to use annotations to help identify inconsistencies in the Gene Ontology. We discovered 75 inconsistencies that have important implications in biology, which include: (1) methods for refining transfer rules used for inferring electronic annotations, and (2) highlighting possible biological differences across species worth investigating.

Lependu, Paea; Dou, Dejing; Howe, Doug

417

Modeling semantics of inconsistent qualitative knowledge for quantitative Bayesian network inference.  

PubMed

We propose a novel framework for performing quantitative Bayesian inference based on qualitative knowledge. Here, we focus on the treatment in the case of inconsistent qualitative knowledge. A hierarchical Bayesian model is proposed for integrating inconsistent qualitative knowledge by calculating a prior belief distribution based on a vector of knowledge features. Each inconsistent knowledge component uniquely defines a model class in the hyperspace. A set of constraints within each class is generated to describe the uncertainty in ground Bayesian model space. Quantitative Bayesian inference is approximated by model averaging with Monte Carlo methods. Our method is firstly benchmarked on ASIA network and is applied to a realistic biomolecular interaction modeling problem for breast cancer bone metastasis. Results suggest that our method enables consistently modeling and quantitative Bayesian inference by reconciling a set of inconsistent qualitative knowledge. PMID:18272332

Chang, Rui; Brauer, Wilfried; Stetter, Martin

2008-01-01

418

Preprocessing in Matlab Inconsistent Linear System for a Meaningful Least Squares Solution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mathematical models of many physical/statistical problems are systems of linear equations. Due to measurement and possible human errors/mistakes in modeling/data, as well as due to certain assumptions to reduce complexity, inconsistency (contradiction) is...

G. A. Shaykhian S. K. Sen

2011-01-01

419

Inconsistencies in tape read and tape write programs on the I-100 image analysis system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The tape read and write programs currently available on the 1-100 perform their intended functions of reading and writing tapes, but are difficult to use because they contain a number of inconsistencies. These inconsistencies can often be overcome by the use of work-around procedures and by trial and error, which is an inefficient use of expensive computer systems that should not be necessary.

Hocutt, W. T. (principal investigator)

1978-01-01

420

Inconsistencies in reporting the occurrence and timing of first intercourse among adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two types of reporting inconsistency for sexual initiation were analyzed—event occurrence and its timing—using data from two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Overall, 11.1% of those who reported they were sexually active at the time of first interview denied this at the subsequent one. Males of each race\\/ethnic group had higher percentages of inconsistency

Dawn M. Upchurch; Lee A. Lillard; Carol S. Aneshensel; Nicole Fang Li

2002-01-01

421

Parental Inconsistency Versus Parental Authoritarianism: Associations with Symptoms of Psychological Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

While in western countries, such as the US and Europe, authoritarian parenting is associated with negative psycho-social outcomes.\\u000a Studies have indicated that this is not the case in collective\\/authoritarian cultures. It has been hypothesized that inconsistency\\u000a in parenting style and culture contributes to these negative outcomes. In this study a scale of authoritarian parenting and\\u000a parental inconsistency has been developed.

Marwan Adeeb Dwairy

2008-01-01

422

Investigating the probability of sign inconsistency in the regression coefficients of markers flanking quantitative trait loci.  

PubMed Central

Estimates of the locations and effects of quantitative trait loci (QTL) can be obtained by regressing phenotype on marker genotype. Under certain basic conditions, the signs of regression coefficients flanking QTL must be the same. There is no guarantee, however, that the signs of the regression coefficient estimates will be the same. We use sign inconsistency to describe the situation in which there is disagreement between the signs of the estimated regression coefficients flanking QTL. The presence of sign inconsistency can undermine the effectiveness of QTL mapping strategies that presume intervals whose markers have regression coefficient estimates of differing sign to be devoid of QTL. This article investigates the likelihood of sign inconsistency under various conditions. We derive an analytic expression for the approximate probability of sign inconsistency in the single-QTL case. We also examine sign inconsistency probabilities when multiple QTL are present through simulation. We have discovered that the probability of sign inconsistency can be unacceptably high, even when the conditions for QTL detection are otherwise quite favorable.

Hwang, J T Gene; Nettleton, Dan

2002-01-01

423

Network-meta analysis made easy: detection of inconsistency using factorial analysis-of-variance models  

PubMed Central

Background Network meta-analysis can be used to combine results from several randomized trials involving more than two treatments. Potential inconsistency among different types of trial (designs) differing in the set of treatments tested is a major challenge, and application of procedures for detecting and locating inconsistency in trial networks is a key step in the conduct of such analyses. Methods Network meta-analysis can be very conveniently performed using factorial analysis-of-variance methods. Inconsistency can be scrutinized by inspecting the design?×?treatment interaction. This approach is in many ways simpler to implement than the more common approach of using treatment-versus-control contrasts. Results We show that standard regression diagnostics available in common linear mixed model packages can be used to detect and locate inconsistency in trial networks. Moreover, a suitable definition of factors and effects allows devising significance tests for inconsistency. Conclusion Factorial analysis of variance provides a convenient framework for conducting network meta-analysis, including diagnostic checks for inconsistency.

2014-01-01

424

Preprocessing in Matlab Inconsistent Linear System for a Meaningful Least Squares Solution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mathematical models of many physical/statistical problems are systems of linear equations Due to measurement and possible human errors/mistakes in modeling/data, as well as due to certain assumptions to reduce complexity, inconsistency (contradiction) is injected into the model, viz. the linear system. While any inconsistent system irrespective of the degree of inconsistency has always a least-squares solution, one needs to check whether an equation is too much inconsistent or, equivalently too much contradictory. Such an equation will affect/distort the least-squares solution to such an extent that renders it unacceptable/unfit to be used in a real-world application. We propose an algorithm which (i) prunes numerically redundant linear equations from the system as these do not add any new information to the model, (ii) detects contradictory linear equations along with their degree of contradiction (inconsistency index), (iii) removes those equations presumed to be too contradictory, and then (iv) obtain the . minimum norm least-squares solution of the acceptably inconsistent reduced linear system. The algorithm presented in Matlab reduces the computational and storage complexities and also improves the accuracy of the solution. It also provides the necessary warning about the existence of too much contradiction in the model. In addition, we suggest a thorough relook into the mathematical modeling to determine the reason why unacceptable contradiction has occurred thus prompting us to make necessary corrections/modifications to the models - both mathematical and, if necessary, physical.

Sen, Symal K.; Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

2011-01-01

425

Perceived consequences of hypothetical identity-inconsistent sexual experiences: effects of perceiver's sex and sexual identity.  

PubMed

Most people organize their sexual orientation under a single sexual identity label. However, people may have sexual experiences that are inconsistent with their categorical sexual identity label. A man might identify as heterosexual but still experience some attraction to men; a woman might identify as lesbian yet enter into a romantic relationship with a man. Identity-inconsistent experiences are likely to have consequences. In the present study, we examined lay perceptions of the consequences of identity-inconsistent sexual experiences for self-perceived sexuality and for social relationships among a sexually diverse sample (N = 283). We found that the perceived consequences of identity-inconsistent experiences for self-perception, for social stigmatization, and for social relationships varied as a function of participant sex, participant sexual identity (heterosexual, gay, lesbian), and experience type (fantasy, attraction, behavior, love). We conclude that not all identity-inconsistent sexual experiences are perceived as equally consequential and that the perceived consequences of such experiences vary predictably as a function of perceiver sex and sexual identity. We discuss the role lay perceptions of the consequences of identity-inconsistent sexual experiences may play in guiding attitudes and behavior. PMID:23733152

Preciado, Mariana A; Johnson, Kerri L

2014-04-01

426

Factors influencing the utilization of research findings by health policy-makers in a developing country: the selection of Mali's essential medicines  

PubMed Central

Background Research findings are increasingly being recognized as an important input in the formation of health policy. There is concern that research findings are not being utilized by health policy-makers to the extent that they could be. The factors influencing the utilization of various types of research by health policy-makers are beginning to emerge in the literature, however there is still little known about these factors in developing countries. The object of this study was to explore these factors by examining the policy-making process for a pharmaceutical policy common in developing countries; an essential medicines list. Methods A study of the selection and updating of Mali's national essential medicines list was undertaken using qualitative methods. In-depth semi-structured interviews and a natural group discussion were held with national policy-makers, most specifically members of the national commission that selects and updates the country's list. The resulting text was analyzed using a phenomenological approach. A document analysis was also performed. Results Several factors emerged from the textual data that appear to be influencing the utilization of health research findings for these policy-makers. These factors include: access to information, relevance of the research, use of research perceived as a time consuming process, trust in the research, authority of those who presented their view, competency in research methods, priority of research in the policy process, and accountability. Conclusion Improving the transfer of research to policy will require effort on the part of researchers, policy-makers, and third parties. This will include: collaboration between researchers and policy-makers, increased production and dissemination of relevant and useful research, and continued and improved technical support from networks and multi-national organizations. Policy-makers from developing countries will then be better equipped to make informed decisions concerning their health policy issues.

Albert, Michael A; Fretheim, Atle; Maiga, Diadie

2007-01-01

427

Processes and preliminary outputs for identification of actionable genes as incidental findings in genomic sequence data in the Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research Consortium.  

PubMed

As genomic and exomic testing expands in both the research and clinical arenas, determining whether, how, and which incidental findings to return to the ordering clinician and patient becomes increasingly important. Although opinion is varied on what should be returned to consenting patients or research participants, most experts agree that return of medically actionable results should be considered. There is insufficient evidence to fully inform evidence-based clinical practice guidelines regarding return of results from genome-scale sequencing, and thus generation of such evidence is imperative, given the rapidity with which genome-scale diagnostic tests are being incorporated into clinical care. We present an overview of the approaches to incidental findings by members of the Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research network, funded by the National Human Genome Research Institute, to generate discussion of these approaches by the clinical genomics community. We also report specific lists of "medically actionable" genes that have been generated by a subset of investigators in order to explore what types of findings have been included or excluded in various contexts. A discussion of the general principles regarding reporting of novel variants, challenging cases (genes for which consensus was difficult to achieve across Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research network sites), solicitation of preferences from participants regarding return of incidental findings, and the timing and context of return of incidental findings are provided.Genet Med 15 11, 860-867.Genetics in Medicine (2013); 15 11, 860-867. doi:10.1038/gim.2013.133. PMID:24195999

Berg, Jonathan S; Amendola, Laura M; Eng, Christine; Van Allen, Eliezer; Gray, Stacy W; Wagle, Nikhil; Rehm, Heidi L; DeChene, Elizabeth T; Dulik, Matthew C; Hisama, Fuki M; Burke, Wylie; Spinner, Nancy B; Garraway, Levi; Green, Robert C; Plon, Sharon; Evans, James P; Jarvik, Gail P

2013-11-01

428

Ambient Particulate Matter during MILAGRO in Mexico City: Main Findings, Impacts (on AQ and Climate), and Future Research Needs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MILAGRO campaign was a large international field experiments conduced in Mexico City and Central Mexico during March 2006. We present an overview of the main findings related to particulate matter and aerosol radiative properties. PM levels inside Mexico City were similar or higher than those in the most polluted North American cities, but ~5 times lower than levels in the most polluted Asian megacities During the study, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations in the urban area of were about double the concentrations in the rural areas surrounding Mexico City. PM2.5 made up about half of the PM10 concentrations, with small amounts of mass in the PM2.5-PM1.0 range. Mineral matter made up approximately 25% of the PM10 and on average 15% and 28% of the PM2.5 in the urban and rural areas, respectively. Approximately 25% of the PM2.5 was secondary inorganic ions with the remaining PM2.5 mass being comprised of largely carbonaceous aerosol. Except for surface measurements at the central sampling sites in Mexico city, the elemental carbon mass absorption efficiency was relatively constant for aircraft and surface measurements throughout the study, contrary to expectations. Although different organic aerosol (OA) source apportionment methods had some differences, there was agreement that the dominant sources of carbonaceous aerosol were secondary OA (SOA), biomass burning, and mobile sources. The impact of biomass burning to the aerosol outflow from the region was much larger than to the surface concentrations inside the city. SOA formation from primary semivolatile and intermediate volatility precursors has the potential to close the gap in predicted vs. measured SOA, while formation from glyoxal also makes an important contribution, especially to organic oxygen. Biogenic SOA advected from the coastal mountain ranges contributes about 1 ?g m-3 to concentrations in the MCMA. Primary OA from anthropogenic and biomass burning sources was found to be semivolatile, while secondary OA was less volatile than POA and aged SOA was essentially non-volatile, in contradiction with current models. Growth rates of new particle formation in Mexico City was very large and found to be impacted by nitrogen containing organic compounds, organic acids, and hydroxyl organic acids, with only a smaller fraction of sulfate aerosol. Some open research questions include the following: additional work is needed to fully quantify the sources of substantial (30-45%) modern carbon in organic aerosols during low biomass burning periods. Discrepancies between the two modern carbon datasets deserve further study. The impact of regional dust vs. road resuspension, as well as heterogeneous reactions of HNO3 with dust need to be quantified. The impact of some POA sources such as food cooking, biofuel use, and open trash burning may be important, but remains poorly characterized. Some differences in the apportionment of biomass burning PM between different approaches were observed and need further research, as these techniques together represent the state of the art for source apportionment. Anthropogenic SOA predictions are improving in terms of magnitude but are poorly constrained by the data. More specific precursor, intermediate, and tracer measurements are needed in future campaigns. SOA from biomass burning sources, although not dominant in the city, remains poorly characterized and appears to be underpredicted by traditional models.

Jimenez, Jose-Luis; Schauer, James J.; Molina, Luisa T.; MILAGRO Pm Team

2010-05-01

429

A Note on Inconsistent Axioms in Rushby's Systematic Formal Verification for Fault-Tolerant Time-Triggered Algorithms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

I describe some inconsistencies in John Rushby s axiomatization of time-triggered algorithms that he presents in these transactions and that he formally specifies and verifies in a mechanical theorem-prover. I also present corrections for these inconsistencies.

Pike, Lee

2005-01-01

430

NCI: SBIR & STTR - Find Funding - Contracts - 249 System to Analyze and Support Biomarker Research and Development Strategies  

Cancer.gov

Because of the rapid expansion of the worldwide biomarker research data in volume and breadth, there is a critical need for integrating all of these data within a knowledge management system that supports automated review and evaluation of current research and development efforts, particularly within the context of all cancer research and therapeutic and diagnostic product development. Such a system permits rapid identification and decision-making to allocate resources where they can most efficiently be used to enhance product development.

431

Inconsistent condom use among Ugandan university students from a gender perspective: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Feminization of the HIV/AIDS epidemic has been a prominent phenomenon in sub-Saharan Africa. Inconsistent condom use among young people is one of the major risk factors in the continued propagation of the epidemic. Therefore, it is of importance to increase knowledge of gender aspects of condom use among young people. Objective To investigate whether gender differences regarding individual and social factors determine the association between condom efficacy and inconsistent condom use with a new sex partner, among Ugandan university students. Design In 2010, 1954 Ugandan students participated in a cross-sectional survey, conducted at Mbarara University of Science and Technology in southwestern Uganda. A self-administered questionnaire assessed socio-demographic factors, alcohol consumption, sexual behaviors (including condom use and condom efficacy), and peer norms. The data were stratified by sex and examined by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 1,179 (60.3%) students reported having had their sexual debut. Of these, 231 (37.4%) males and 209 (49.2%) females reported inconsistent condom use with a new sex partner. Students with low condom efficacy had a higher risk of inconsistent condom use with a new sex partner, even after adjusting for the potential confounders. A synergistic effect was observed between being a female and low condom efficacy with inconsistent condom use. Conclusion The association between inconsistent condom use and low condom efficacy was found among both males and females, but females were found to be at a higher risk of inconsistent condom use compared to their male counterparts. Therefore, gender power relations should be addressed in policies and interventions aiming at increasing condom use among young people in sub-Saharan settings. Programs could be designed with intervention strategies that focus on interactive and participatory educational activities and youth-friendly counseling of young people, which in turn may improve their interpersonal communication and condom negotiation skills with their partners.

Mehra, Devika; Ostergren, Per-Olof; Ekman, Bjorn; Agardh, Anette

2014-01-01

432

Culturally Competent Research with American Indians and Alaska Natives: Findings and Recommendations of the First Symposium of the Work Group on American Indian Research and Program Evaluation Methodology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the collective experience of a multidisciplinary network of researchers, practitioners, and program evaluators who support appropriate research and evaluation methods in working with Native peoples. Our experience underlines the critical importance of culture in understanding and conducting research with the diverse…

Caldwell, Joyce Y.; Davis, Jamie D.; Du Bois, Barbara; Echo-Hawk, Holly; Erickson, Jill Shepard; Goins, R. Turner; Hill, Calvin; Hillabrant, Walter; Johnson, Sharon R.; Kendall, Elizabeth; Keemer, Kelly; Manson, Spero M.; Marshall, Catherine A.; Running Wolf, Paulette; Santiago, Rolando L.; Schacht, Robert; Stone, Joseph B.

2005-01-01

433

Phage-Finding Using Mycobacteria: A Secondary School or Undergraduate Research Module with the Potential to Gain Scientific Authorship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mycobacteriophages are in the limelight of biomedical science (Pedulla et al., 2003), and new phage can be discovered and studied in a variety of high school and undergraduate educational settings. Simple methods for finding and studying new mycobacteriophage are described.

Schwebach, James Reid; Jacobs, William R., Jr.

2006-01-01

434

Findings from a Yearlong Job Exchange: A Mentor Teacher's Bill of Rights in Teacher Education. Reading Research Report No. 74.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After teaching and conducting research in each other's worlds for a year, a high school English teacher and a university teacher educator could never be the same. With their colleagues, they developed a model yearlong teacher education program founded on three key principles: equality of school and university participants; teacher research; and…

Hudson-Ross, Sally; McWhorter, Patti

435

Raising Attainment: Boys, Reading and the National Literacy Hour: Interim Findings from the Fact and Fiction Research Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Fact and Fiction Research Project, funded by the ESRC (Economic and Social Research Council) and based at the School of Education, University of Southampton (England), completed a 2-year study into gender and reading in the 7-9 age group. The project, designed to address boys' underachievement in English by reviewing their development as…

Moss, Gemma

436

EMF Science Review Symposium Breakout Group Reports for Epidemiological Research Findings. Held in San Antonio, Texas on January 12-14, 1998. EMF RAPID: Electric and Magnetic Fields Research and Public Information Dissemination Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Table of Contents: Epidemiological Research Findings; EMF Science Review Sumposium Participants; EMF and Childhood Cancer; Exposure Assessment and Epidemiological Studies: How Well Have the Risk Factors Been Identified; Methodological Issues and Problems:...

1998-01-01

437

Sources of Score Scale Inconsistency. Research Report. ETS RR-11-10  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For testing programs that administer multiple forms within a year and across years, score equating is used to ensure that scores can be used interchangeably. In an ideal world, samples sizes are large and representative of populations that hardly change over time, and very reliable alternate test forms are built with nearly identical psychometric…

Haberman, Shelby J.; Dorans, Neil J.

2011-01-01

438

Who Has Used Internal Company Documents for Biomedical and Public Health Research and Where Did They Find Them?  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the sources of internal company documents used in public health and healthcare research. Methods We searched PubMed and Embase for articles using internal company documents to address a research question about a health-related topic. Our primary interest was where authors obtained internal company documents for their research. We also extracted information on type of company, type of research question, type of internal documents, and funding source. Results Our searches identified 9,305 citations of which 357 were eligible. Scanning of reference lists and consultation with colleagues identified 4 additional articles, resulting in 361 included articles. Most articles examined internal tobacco company documents (325/361; 90%). Articles using documents from pharmaceutical companies (20/361; 6%) were the next most common. Tobacco articles used documents from repositories; pharmaceutical documents were from a range of sources. Most included articles relied upon internal company documents obtained through litigation (350/361; 97%). The research questions posed were primarily about company strategies to promote or position the company and its products (326/361; 90%). Most articles (346/361; 96%) used information from miscellaneous documents such as memos or letters, or from unspecified types of documents. When explicit information about study funding was provided (290/361 articles), the most common source was the US-based National Cancer Institute. We developed an alternative and more sensitive search targeted at identifying additional research articles using internal pharmaceutical company documents, but the search retrieved an impractical number of citations for review. Conclusions Internal company documents provide an excellent source of information on health topics (e.g., corporate behavior, study data) exemplified by articles based on tobacco industry documents. Pharmaceutical and other industry documents appear to have been less used for research, indicating a need for funding for this type of research and well-indexed and curated repositories to provide researchers with ready access to the documents.

Wieland, L. Susan; Rutkow, Lainie; Vedula, S. Swaroop; Kaufmann, Christopher N.; Rosman, Lori M.; Twose, Claire; Mahendraratnam, Nirosha; Dickersin, Kay

2014-01-01

439

Crossing the line? As Obama clears path for embryonic stem-cell research, Catholic healthcare finds itself at crossroads of religion and medicine.  

PubMed

With the reversal of limits on stem-cell research, Roman Catholic hospitals may find themselves left behind in a medical revolution because of their rejection of the science. But others are eager to join in. "Researchers will now be able to pursue new knowledge about human development, regenerative medicine and the origins of many of our most devastating diseases," said Lawrence Tabak, left, the NIH acting deputy director. PMID:19415825

Evans, Melanie

2009-03-16

440

Inconsistent Results of Diagnostic Tools Hamper the Differentiation between Bee and Vespid Venom Allergy  

PubMed Central

Background Double sensitization (DS) to bee and vespid venom is frequently observed in the diagnosis of hymenoptera venom allergy, but clinically relevant DS is rare. Therefore it is sophisticated to choose the relevant venom for specific immunotherapy and overtreatment with both venoms may occur. We aimed to compare currently available routine diagnostic tests as well as experimental tests to identify the most accurate diagnostic tool. Methods 117 patients with a history of a bee or vespid allergy were included in the study. Initially, IgE determination by the ImmunoCAP, by the Immulite, and by the ADVIA Centaur, as well as the intradermal test (IDT) and the basophil activation test (BAT) were performed. In 72 CAP double positive patients, individual IgE patterns were determined by western blot inhibition and component resolved diagnosis (CRD) with rApi m 1, nVes v 1, and nVes v 5. Results Among 117 patients, DS was observed in 63.7% by the Immulite, in 61.5% by the CAP, in 47.9% by the IDT, in 20.5% by the ADVIA, and in 17.1% by the BAT. In CAP double positive patients, western blot inhibition revealed CCD-based DS in 50.8%, and the CRD showed 41.7% of patients with true DS. Generally, agreement between the tests was only fair and inconsistent results were common. Conclusion BAT, CRD, and ADVIA showed a low rate of DS. However, the rate of DS is higher than expected by personal history, indicating that the matter of clinical relevance is still not solved even by novel tests. Furthermore, the lack of agreement between these tests makes it difficult to distinguish between bee and vespid venom allergy. At present, no routinely employed test can be regarded as gold standard to find the clinically relevant sensitization.

Sturm, Gunter J.; Jin, Chunsheng; Kranzelbinder, Bettina; Hemmer, Wolfgang; Sturm, Eva M.; Griesbacher, Antonia; Heinemann, Akos; Vollmann, Jutta; Altmann, Friedrich; Crailsheim, Karl; Focke, Margarete; Aberer, Werner

2011-01-01

441

Rough Evaluation Structure: Application of Rough Set Theory to Generate Simple Rules for Inconsistent Preference Relation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since management decision-making becomes complex and preferences of the decision-maker frequently becomes inconsistent, multi-attribute decision-making problems were studied. To represent inconsistent preference relation, the concept of evaluation structure was introduced. We can generate simple rules to represent inconsistent preference relation by the evaluation structures. Further rough set theory for the preference relation was studied and the concept of approximation was introduced. One of our main aims of this paper is to introduce a concept of rough evaluation structure for representing inconsistent preference relation. We apply rough set theory to the evaluation structure, and develop a method for generating simple rules for inconsistent preference relations. In this paper, we introduce concepts of totally ordered information system, similarity class of preference relation, upper and lower approximation of preference relations. We also show the properties of rough evaluation structure and provide a simple example. As an application of rough evaluation structure, we analyze questionnaire survey of customer preferences about audio players.

Gehrmann, Andreas; Nagai, Yoshimitsu; Yoshida, Osamu; Ishizu, Syohei

442

NCI and Georgetown researchers find that a single gene separates aggressive and non-aggressive lymphatic system cancer  

Cancer.gov

For a rare form of cancer called thymoma, researchers have discovered a single gene defining the difference between a fast-growing tumor requiring aggressive treatment and a slow-growing tumor that doesn’t require extensive therapy.

443

Health Care Expenses in the United States, 2000. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) Research Findings No. 21.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality presents descriptive data on health care spending in the United States. Estimates are based on data from the 2000 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) and cover the civilian noninstitution...

T. M. Ezzati-Rice S. R. Machlin D. Kashihara

2004-01-01

444

Dana-Farber researchers find that intensified chemotherapy shows promise for children with very high-risk form of leukemia  

Cancer.gov

Pediatric patients with B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia who are likely to relapse after chemotherapy treatment can reduce those odds by receiving additional courses of chemotherapy, according to research by Dana-Farber/Children's Hospital Cancer Center investigators.

445

Penn Medicine researchers find that a metabolic enzyme stops progression of most common type of kidney cancer  

Cancer.gov

Researchers found that an enzyme called FBP1 -- essential for regulating metabolism -- binds to a transcription factor in the nucleus of certain kidney cells and restrains energy production in the cell body.

446

Wayne State researcher presents findings on drugs that lead to killing of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma tumors:  

Cancer.gov

A Wayne State University School of Medicine researcher believes he has found a safer, more effective way to keep cancer cells from protecting themselves against tumor-killing drugs in cases of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.

447

Consulting communities on feedback of genetic findings in international health research: sharing sickle cell disease and carrier information in coastal Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background International health research in malaria-endemic settings may include screening for sickle cell disease, given the relationship between this important genetic condition and resistance to malaria, generating questions about whether and how findings should be disclosed. The literature on disclosing genetic findings in the context of research highlights the role of community consultation in understanding and balancing ethically important issues from participants’ perspectives, including social forms of benefit and harm, and the influence of access to care. To inform research practice locally, and contribute to policy more widely, this study aimed to explore the views of local residents in Kilifi County in coastal Kenya on how researchers should manage study-generated information on sickle cell disease and carrier status. Methods Between June 2010 and July 2011, we consulted 62 purposively selected Kilifi residents on how researchers should manage study-generated sickle cell disease findings. Methods drew on a series of deliberative informed small group discussions. Data were analysed thematically, using charts, to describe participants’ perceptions of the importance of disclosing findings, including reasoning, difference and underlying values. Themes were derived from the underlying research questions and from issues emerging from discussions. Data interpretation drew on relevant areas of social science and bioethics literature. Results Perceived health and social benefits generated strong support for disclosing findings on sickle cell disease, but the balance of social benefits and harms was less clear for sickle cell trait. Many forms of health and social benefits and harms of information-sharing were identified, with important underlying values related to family interests and the importance of openness. The influence of micro and macro level contextual features and prioritization of values led to marked diversity of opinion. Conclusions The approach demonstrates a high ethical importance in many malaria endemic low-to-middle income country settings of disclosing sickle cell disease findings generated during research, alongside provision of effective care and locally-informed counselling. Since these services are central to the benefits of disclosure, health researchers whose studies include screening for sickle cell disease should actively promote the development of health policy and services for this condition in situations of unmet need, including through the prior development of collaborative partnerships with government health managers and providers. Community consultation can importantly enrich ethical debate on research practice where in-depth exploration of informed views and the potential for difference are taken into account.

2013-01-01

448

Educator Behavior and Organizational Dynamics in Schools: Findings from Year Two of the TEEG Program. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent report published by the National Center on Performance Incentives (NCPI) presents findings from the second-year evaluation of the Texas Educator Excellence Grant (TEEG) program, a statewide educator incentive program that operated in Texas. As part of this larger study, evaluators administered a survey to educators to learn about their…

National Center on Performance Incentives, 2009

2009-01-01

449

Educator Attitudes and Beliefs about Performance Pay in Schools: Findings from Year Two of the TEEG Program. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent report published by the National Center on Performance Incentives (NCPI) presents findings from the second-year evaluation of the Texas Educator Excellence Grant (TEEG) program, a statewide educator incentive program that operated in Texas. As part of that larger study, evaluators examined educators' attitudes about performance pay.…

National Center on Performance Incentives, 2009

2009-01-01

450

Research on the Work Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual People: An Integrative Review of Methodology and Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methodology and content of nine published studies on the workplace experiences of lesbian, gay, and bisexual people are examined. Findings are integrated within five areas of common content: the pervasiveness of discrimination in the workplace, formal and informal types of discrimination, fear of discrimination, variability of workers in their openness about sexual orientation, and correlates of workers’ degree of

James M. Croteau

1996-01-01

451

Going Charter: New Models of Support. Year Two Findings from New York City's Charter Schools. Charter School Research Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report synthesizes the year 2 findings of a 3-year qualitative study of autonomy, accountability, finance, and supports in New York City charter schools. In 2000-2001, the study sample included 10 schools (8 charter and 2 alternative schools considering charter status). Section 1 reviews the literature on supports provided to traditional…

Ascher, Carol; Echazarreta, Juan; Jacobowitz, Robin; McBride, Yolanda; Troy, Tammi; Wamba, Nathalis

452

Finding and Founding Peer Coaching: An Interim Report of the Application of Research on Faculty Relations to the Implementation of Two School Improvement Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the researchers' attempt to apply a social organizational view to the task of developing and implementing peer coaching systems in two schools involved in a school improvement experiment. The premise for the study was based on three findings: (1) staff expectations influence the school's ability to change, (2) the tactics used…

Bird, Tom; Little, Judith Warren

453

Project SEARCH: Special Education as Requirements in Charter Schools. Final Report of a Research Study: Cross-State Analysis of Findings and Summaries of State Case Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents findings of Project SEARCH, a qualitative research study of how charter schools interpret laws and regulations governing the education of children with disabilities, especially the federal Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). The project involved a preliminary 15-state policy analysis followed by in-depth case…

Ahearn, Eileen M.; Lange, Cheryl M.; Rhim, Lauren Morando; McLaughlin, Margaret J.

454

An Automated Method for Identifying Inconsistencies within Diagrammatic Software Requirements Specifications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of large-scale, composite software in a geographically distributed environment is an evolutionary process. Often, in such evolving systems, striving for consistency is complicated by many factors, because development participants have various locations, skills, responsibilities, roles, opinions, languages, terminology and different degrees of abstraction they employ. This naturally leads to many partial specifications or viewpoints. These multiple views on the system being developed usually overlap. From another aspect, these multiple views give rise to the potential for inconsistency. Existing CASE tools do not efficiently manage inconsistencies in distributed development environment for a large-scale project. Based on the ViewPoints framework the WHERE (Web-Based Hypertext Environment for requirements Evolution) toolkit aims to tackle inconsistency management issues within geographically distributed software development projects. Consequently, WHERE project helps make more robust software and support software assurance process. The long term goal of WHERE tools aims to the inconsistency analysis and management in requirements specifications. A framework based on Graph Grammar theory and TCMJAVA toolkit is proposed to detect inconsistencies among viewpoints. This systematic approach uses three basic operations (UNION, DIFFERENCE, INTERSECTION) to study the static behaviors of graphic and tabular notations. From these operations, subgraphs Query, Selection, Merge, Replacement operations can be derived. This approach uses graph PRODUCTIONS (rewriting rules) to study the dynamic transformations of graphs. We discuss the feasibility of implementation these operations. Also, We present the process of porting original TCM (Toolkit for Conceptual Modeling) project from C++ to Java programming language in this thesis. A scenario based on NASA International Space Station Specification is discussed to show the applicability of our approach. Finally, conclusion and future work about inconsistency management issues in WHERE project will be summarized.

Zhang, Zhong

1997-01-01

455

Finding the team for Mars: a psychological and human factors analysis of a Mars Desert Research Station crew.  

PubMed

A two-week mission in March and April of 2011 sent six team members to the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS). MDRS, a research facility in the high Utah desert, provides an analogue for the harsh and unusual working conditions that will be faced by men and women who one day explore Mars. During the mission a selection of quantitative and qualitative psychological tests were administered to the international, multidisciplinary team. A selection of the results are presented along with discussion. PMID:22317591

Sawyer, Benjamin D; Hancock, P A; Deaton, John; Suedfeld, Peter

2012-01-01

456

[Frontiers in vitamin D; basic research and clinical application. A review on histological findings in bones administered with eldecalcitol].  

PubMed

This review will show the histological findings in femora of ovariectomized (OVX) rats administered with or without eldecalcitol, a second-generation of vitamin D analog, which were published in our recent article. The OVX group showed markedly-reduced bone mineral density, and the decreased trabecular number and thickness, which was consistent to increased osteoclastic number and bone resorption parameters. After eldecalcitol administration, the number of osteoclasts was diminished, accompanied with elevated bone mineral density. Interestingly, eldecalcitol did promote a type of focal bone formation that is independent of bone resorption, a process known as bone mini-modeling. Taken together, our findings suggest that eldecalcitol mainly inhibits osteoclastic bone resorption, but, in part, stimulates focal bone formation in the OVX bone. PMID:22040822

Hongo, Hiromi; Sasaki, Muneteru; Hasegawa, Tomoka; Amizuka, Norio

2011-11-01

457

Can Music Education Help At-Risk Students? Study Finds Positive Testimony Substantial but Quantitative Research Lacking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports the finding of a recent study conducted as part of a larger white paper, "Sounds of Learning: The Impact of Music Education on All Aspects of a Child's Growth and Development. The purpose of the study was to uncover what people know and what they do not know about the impact of music education on at-risk kids, in an effort to…

Olson, Catherine Applefeld

2008-01-01

458

Tree Drawings and Trauma Indicators: A Comparison of Past Research with Current Findings from the Diagnostic Drawing Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes enduring hypothesis that knotholes, broken branches, damaged trunks, and leafless trees are indicative of traumatic episodes in individual's life. Reviews selected past research which does not definitely confirm or deny basic hypothesis and reports current study based on tree drawings from Diagnostic Drawing Series Archive. Presents…

Rankin, Anita

1994-01-01

459

N.Y.C. Study Finds Gains for Charters: Research Shows Schools Closing City-Suburb Gap  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New York City's charter schools are making strides in closing achievement gaps between disadvantaged inner-city students and their better-off suburban counterparts, a new study concludes. The study, conducted by Stanford University researcher Caroline M. Hoxby and her co-authors Sonali Mararka and Jenny Kang, is based on eight years of data for…

Viadero, Debra

2009-01-01

460

Summary of Research Findings on Children's Developmental Health = Resume des conclusions de la recherche sur la sante developpementale des effants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This kit is comprised of bilingual resources for child caregivers related to nourishing and nurturing a child's brain for optimal neurodevelopmental health. The kit is the result of a 30-month project to synthesize research on brain development and to develop resources in support of excellent caregiver practice in Canada. The kit contains the…

Bertrand, Jane

461

UC Davis researchers find that a double-headed motor protein offers new targets in cancer treatment  

Cancer.gov

The structure of a key part of the machinery that allows cells to divide has been identified by researchers at the University of California, Davis, opening new possibilities for throwing a wrench in the machine and blocking runaway cell division in cancer.

462

The Effect of Television on the Religious Activities of English-Speaking Secondary School Pupils. Research Finding COMM N-119.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By the time SABC TV became operational in January 1976 in South Africa, television had already been firmly established in most overseas countries. Therefore prior to the introduction of television there was the opportunity to do research work to determine the effects of television on society. Between 1974 and 1981 the Institute for Communication…

Senekal, J. E.

463

Harvard researchers find that red meat consumption is linked to increased risk of total, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality  

Cancer.gov

A new study from Harvard School of Public Health researchers has found that red meat consumption is associated with an increased risk of total, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality. The results also showed that substituting other healthy protein sources, such as fish, poultry, nuts, and legumes, was associated with a lower risk of mortality.

464

Choosing a Model and Types of Models: How To Find What Works for Your School. Research Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is critical for schools and districts engaged in a comprehensive school-reform process to develop a schoolwide or districtwide strategy, one that affects teaching and learning, governance, and professional development. Researchers studying school-reform processes have noted that different types of models suit different schools differently.…

Schwartzbeck, Terri Duggan

465

A systematic review of research on the epidemiology of mental health disorders in prison populations: a summary of findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brooker et al. (2002) conducted a systematic review of research into the mental health of prisoners. Their final report included a review of the epidemiology of the prison population, an overview of the interventions used to treat the major mental health disorders in both the general and prison populations, and a review of service delivery and organisation for prisoners with

Coral Sirdifield; Dina Gojkovic; Charlie Brooker; Michael Ferriter

2009-01-01

466

Young Children's Research Behaviour? Children Aged Four to Eight Years Finding Solutions at Home and at School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's research abilities have become increasingly recognised by adults, yet children remain excluded from the academy. This restricts children's freedom to make choices in matters affecting them, underestimates their capabilities and denies children particular rights. The present paper reports on young children's…

Murray, Jane M.

2013-01-01

467

Governance and Administrative Infrastructure in New York City Charter Schools. Going Charter Year Three Findings. Charter School Research Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this final report of a 3-year evaluation, researchers explored the developing infrastructure in New York City charter schools and identified areas in which school stakeholders--private partners, boards of trustees, school leaders, parents, and teachers--needed support to help charter schools succeed. The study was based on monthly visits to…

Ascher, Carol; Echazarreta, Juan; Jacobowitz, Robin; McBride, Yolanda; Troy, Tammi

468

Education, Training and Work. Research Findings and Conclusions. Seminar Papers. (Thessaloniki, Greece, November 14, 1996.) CEDEFOP Panorama.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These three keynote speeches from a European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (CEDEFOP) seminar "Research on Vocational Education and Training in Europe" focus on the links between education, training, work, and economic growth. "Education and Training Policies in the Transition towards a Global Information Society: Needs and…

European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Thessaloniki (Greece).

469

Student Evaluation of Teaching (SET) in Web-Based Classes: Preliminary Findings and a Call for Further Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student evaluation of teaching (SET) is important to faculty because SET ratings help faculty improve performance and are often used as the basis for evaluations of teaching effectiveness in administrative decisions (e.g., tenure). Researchers have conducted over 2,000 studies on SET during the past 70 years. However, despite the explosive growth…

Loveland, Karen A.

2007-01-01

470

Establishing the Benefits of Research Experiences for Undergraduates in the Sciences: First Findings from a Three-Year Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Descriptions of student-identified benefits of undergraduate research experiences are drawn from analysis of 76 first-round student interviews gathered at the end of summer 2000 at four participating liberal arts colleges (Grinnell, Harvey Mudd, Hope, and Wellesley). As part of the interview protocol, students commented on a checklist of possible…

Seymour, Elaine; Hunter, Anne-Barrie; Laursen, Sandra L.; DeAntoni, Tracee

2007-01-01

471

The Relationship of Family Support to Family Outcomes: A Synthesis of Key Findings from Research on Severe Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been a gradual shift from a deficit to a support model for understanding disability over the last two decades. Although more attention is focused on supports at the individual level, policy has provided for the provision of family support. Despite this policy, families' needs for support are on the rise; and research suggests that…

Kyzar, Kathleen B.; Turnbull, Ann P.; Summers, Jean Ann; Gomez, Viviana Aya

2012-01-01

472

MD Anderson researchers find that breast cancer patients with BRCA gene are diagnosed almost 8 years earlier than generation before  

Cancer.gov

Women with a deleterious gene mutation are diagnosed with breast cancer almost eight years earlier than relatives of the previous generation who also had the disease and/or ovarian cancer, according to new research from the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center.