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Although popular management wisdom has suggested that telecommuting enhances job satisfaction, research has found both positive and negative relationships. In this study, the authors attempt to resolve these inconsistentfindings by hypothesizing a curvilinear, inverted U-shaped relationship between the extent of telecommuting and job satisfaction. Using hierarchical regression analysis on a sample of 321 professional-level employees, their findings suggest a
BACKGROUND: Self-reported information has commonly been used to monitor mammography utilization across populations and time periods. However, longitudinal investigations regarding the prevalence and determinants of inconsistent responses over time and the impact of such responses on population screening estimates are lacking. METHODS: Based on longitudinal panel data for a representative cohort of Canadian women aged 40+ years (n = 3,537)
Christina M Bancej; Colleen J Maxwell; Judy Snider
The 1976 reference report presents the results of research into the health implications of marihuana use for Americans, updating developments since publication of the 1975 Fifth Annual Report to Congress on Marihuana and Health. Following a general summar...
Numerous studies have addressed the question: Are African-Americans treated more harshly than similarly situated whites? This research employs meta-analysis to synthesize this body of research. One-hundred-sixteen statistically independent contrasts were coded from 71 published and unpublished studies. Coded study and contextual features are used to explain variation in researchfindings. Analyses indicate that African-Americans generally are sentenced more harshly than
Understanding sense of place and related concepts often presents challenges for both managers and researchers. Inconsistent application of terms, questions regarding their origin, and a lack of awareness of researchfindings contribute to the ambiguity of...
Background Patient-reported outcomes (PROs), such as health-related quality of life (HRQL) are increasingly used to evaluate treatment effectiveness in clinical trials, are valued by patients, and may inform important decisions in the clinical setting. It is of concern, therefore, that preliminary evidence, gained from group discussions at UK-wide Medical Research Council (MRC) quality of life training days, suggests there are inconsistent standards of HRQL data collection in trials and appropriate training and education is often lacking. Our objective was to investigate these reports, to determine if they represented isolated experiences, or were indicative of a potentially wider problem. Methods And Findings We undertook a qualitative study, conducting 26 semi-structured interviews with research nurses, data managers, trial coordinators and research facilitators involved in the collection and entry of HRQL data in clinical trials, across one primary care NHS trust, two secondary care NHS trusts and two clinical trials units in the UK. We used conventional content analysis to analyze and interpret our data. Our study participants reported (1) inconsistent standards in HRQL measurement, both between, and within, trials, which appeared to risk the introduction of bias; (2), difficulties in dealing with HRQL data that raised concern for the well-being of the trial participant, which in some instances led to the delivery of non-protocol driven co-interventions, (3), a frequent lack of HRQL protocol content and appropriate training and education of trial staff, and (4) that HRQL data collection could be associated with emotional and/or ethical burden. Conclusions Our findings suggest there are inconsistencies in the standards of HRQL data collection in some trials resulting from a general lack of HRQL-specific protocol content, training and education. These inconsistencies could lead to biased HRQL trial results. Future research should aim to develop HRQL guidelines and training programmes aimed at supporting researchers to carry out high quality data collection.
Background One of the most consistent findings from clinical and health services research is the failure to translate research into practice and policy. As a result of these evidence-practice and policy gaps, patients fail to benefit optimally from advances in healthcare and are exposed to unnecessary risks of iatrogenic harms, and healthcare systems are exposed to unnecessary expenditure resulting in significant opportunity costs. Over the last decade, there has been increasing international policy and research attention on how to reduce the evidence-practice and policy gap. In this paper, we summarise the current concepts and evidence to guide knowledge translation activities, defined as T2 research (the translation of new clinical knowledge into improved health). We structure the article around five key questions: what should be transferred; to whom should research knowledge be transferred; by whom should research knowledge be transferred; how should research knowledge be transferred; and, with what effect should research knowledge be transferred? Discussion We suggest that the basic unit of knowledge translation should usually be up-to-date systematic reviews or other syntheses of researchfindings. Knowledge translators need to identify the key messages for different target audiences and to fashion these in language and knowledge translation products that are easily assimilated by different audiences. The relative importance of knowledge translation to different target audiences will vary by the type of research and appropriate endpoints of knowledge translation may vary across different stakeholder groups. There are a large number of planned knowledge translation models, derived from different disciplinary, contextual (i.e., setting), and target audience viewpoints. Most of these suggest that planned knowledge translation for healthcare professionals and consumers is more likely to be successful if the choice of knowledge translation strategy is informed by an assessment of the likely barriers and facilitators. Although our evidence on the likely effectiveness of different strategies to overcome specific barriers remains incomplete, there is a range of informative systematic reviews of interventions aimed at healthcare professionals and consumers (i.e., patients, family members, and informal carers) and of factors important to research use by policy makers. Summary There is a substantial (if incomplete) evidence base to guide choice of knowledge translation activities targeting healthcare professionals and consumers. The evidence base on the effects of different knowledge translation approaches targeting healthcare policy makers and senior managers is much weaker but there are a profusion of innovative approaches that warrant further evaluation.
This article presents some recent researchfindings about Asian gang members. Some of the noteworthy findings are (a) the Asian gang problem is small in comparison with the overall national gang problem; (b) in terms of human developmental or lifespan variables, social variables, and psychological variables, there really is little that can be said to be unique about Asian gang
...transfect HL-60 cells was due to the mutation and not the level of protein present. Specifically: a. Respondent used portions of...agreed not to appeal the ORI findings of research misconduct set forth above. He has agreed, beginning on March 12,...
...has taken final action in the following case: Vipul...University of Michigan Medical School: Based on the findings...University of Michigan Medical School (UMMS) and additional...Medicine, UMMS, engaged in research misconduct in...colleague's cell culture media, with the...
Space Situational Awareness (SSA) is the foundation for space superiority and has become a national priority. Providing full SSA requires knowledge of space and ground assets along with communication links between these assets. It also requires an understanding of potential events and threats that may affect these assets. This paper summarizes the findings resulting from a research environment established to
The combination of the issue of return of individual genetic results\\/incidental findings and paediatric biobanks is not much discussed in ethical literature. The traditional arguments pro and con return of such findings focus on principles such as respect for persons, autonomy and solidarity. Two dimensions have been distilled from the discussion on return of individual results in a genetic research
Kristien Hens; Herman Nys; Jean-Jacques Cassiman; Kris Dierickx
The combination of the issue of return of individual genetic results/incidental findings and paediatric biobanks is not much discussed in ethical literature. The traditional arguments pro and con return of such findings focus on principles such as respect for persons, autonomy and solidarity. Two dimensions have been distilled from the discussion on return of individual results in a genetic research context: the respect for a participant's autonomy and the duty of the researcher. Concepts such as autonomy and solidarity do not fit easily in the discussion when paediatric biobanks are concerned. Although parents may be allowed to enrol children in minimal risk genetic research on stored tissue samples, they should not be given the option to opt out of receiving important health information. Also, children have a right to an open future: parents do not have the right to access any genetic data that a biobank holds on their children. In this respect, the guidelines on genetic testing of minors are applicable. With regard to the duty of the researcher the question of whether researchers have a more stringent duty to return important health information when their research subjects are children is more difficult to answer. A researcher's primary duty is to perform useful research, a policy to return individual results must not hamper this task. The fact that vulnerable children are concerned, is an additional factor that should be considered when a policy of returning results is laid down for a specific collection or research project. PMID:21059631
We measured the strength of illusory self-motion perception (vection) with and without locomotion on a treadmill. The results revealed that vection was inhibited by inconsistent locomotion, but facilitated by consistent locomotion. PMID:21936303
Recent plans for a nuclear renaissance in both established and emerging economies have prompted increased interest in uranium mining. With the potential for more uranium mining worldwide and a growth in the literature on the toxicology and epidemiology of uranium and uranium mining, we found it timely to review the current state of knowledge. Here, we present a review of the health effects of uranium mining, with an emphasis on newer findings (2005-2011). Uranium mining can contaminate air, water, and soil. The chemical toxicity of the metal constitutes the primary environmental health hazard, with the radioactivity of uranium a secondary concern. The update of the toxicologic evidence on uranium adds to the established findings regarding nephrotoxicity, genotoxicity, and developmental defects. Additional novel toxicologic findings, including some at the molecular level, are now emerging that raise the biological plausibility of adverse effects on the brain, on reproduction, including estrogenic effects, on gene expression, and on uranium metabolism. Historically, most epidemiology on uranium mining has focused on mine workers and radon exposure. Although that situation is still overwhelmingly true, a smaller emerging literature has begun to form around environmental exposure in residential areas near uranium mining and processing facilities. We present and critique such studies. Clearly, more epidemiologic research is needed to contribute to causal inference. As much damage is irreversible, and possibly cumulative, present efforts must be vigorous to limit environmental uranium contamination and exposure. PMID:22435323
This website provides an online and a printable brochure that provides information on why researchers study animals, how research animals are cared for, the ethics of animal research, cosmetic testing on animals, and how animal research helps people in the context of a diabetes patient.
Many types of drugs are used by athletes to improve performance. This paper reviews the literature on 3 categories of drugs: those that enhance performance as stimulants (amphetamines, ephedrine, and cocaine), those that are used to reduce tremor and heart rate (beta-blockers) and those involved in bodyweight gain or loss (anabolic-androgenic steroids, growth hormone, beta 2-agonists, and diuretics). Limitations of research on these drugs as they relate to performance enhancement are also discussed. The numerous studies that have assessed the effects of amphetamines on performance report equivocal results. This may be due to the large interindividual variability in the response to the drug and the small sample sizes used. Most studies, however, show that some individuals do improve exercise performance when taking amphetamines, which may be attributed to their role in masking fatigue. As a stimulant, ephedrine has not been found to improve performance in the few studies available. More recently, ephedrine has been purported to be effective as a fat burner and used by athletes to maintain or improve muscle mass. Although research on individuals with obesity supports the use of ephedrine for fat loss, no studies have been done on athletes. The few studies of cocaine and exercise suggest that little to no performance gains are incurred from cocaine use. Moreover, the sense of euphoria may provide the illusion of better performance when, in actuality, performance was not improved or was impaired. beta-Blockers have been found to reduce heart rate and tremor and to improve performance in sports that are not physiologically challenging but require accuracy (e.g. pistol shooting). However, there is evidence that some individuals may be high responders to beta-blockers to the extent that their heart rate response is so blunted as to impair performance. Although equivocal, several studies have reported that anabolic-androgenic steroids increase muscle size and strength. However, most studies are not well controlled and use insufficient drug doses. One recent well controlled study did find an increase in muscle mass and strength with supraphysiological doses, and the improvements were greater in participants who were also resistance training. There is little information available on the effects of growth hormone on muscle mass or performance in athletes, although data suggest that growth hormone administration does not increase muscle protein synthesis. beta 2-Agonists, such as clenbuterol and salbutamol, when administered orally appear to improve muscular strength due to their potential role in increasing muscle mass. However, studies have not been done using athletes. Diuretics results in a loss of body water and hence bodyweight that can be advantageous for sports with strict bodyweight classifications. There is insufficient evidence on possible performance decrements in the field that could result from dehydration induced by the diuretics. Overall, the most significant concern in studies of drug use is the large inter-individual variability in responses to a drug. Further studies are needed to understand why some individuals are more responsive than others and to assess whether the responses are consistent for a given individual. Most studies of drug effectiveness have not used athletes. The effectiveness of many drugs may be reduced in highly trained athletes because there is a lower margin for improvement. PMID:9421862
Fifty-five vocational educators participated in the 18th Annual Southern Research Conference in Agricultural Education at Louisiana State University. Presentations included in the document are: (1) "The Research Problem in Agricultural Education" by L. L. Pesson, (2) views on organizing a vocational agricultural education department for effective…
...misconduct in research supported by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), National Institutes...sequencing on 202 cDNA clones of homeobox genes to confirm their identity and integrity. Through multiple revision of the...
The purpose of the work was to design, develop, and evaluate prototype DF antennas, special DF techniques, and DF calibration circuits which provide practical state-of-the-art solutions to the shipboard direction-finding requirements in the HF and low VHF...
It is the purpose of the contract to design, develop, and evaluate prototype DF antennas, special DF techniques, and DF calibration circuits which provide practicle state-of-the-art solutions to the shipboard direction finding requirements in the HF and l...
It is the purpose of the contract to design, develop, and evaluate prototype DF antennas, special DF techniques, and DF calibration circuits which provide practical state-of-the-art solutions to the shipboard direction-finding requirements in the HF and l...
There is not a "typical" women's group, nor are there "typical" women's issues. Every women's group is diverse, with as many viewpoints and perspectives as there are members in the group. Using the group format for women is common practice with many counselors. It is interesting that there has been little empirical research reported on women's…
The research literature suggests that the decade of the '80s is producing a generation of professors coping with surprisingly high levels of job stress. Key reasons include inadequate participation in governance and institutional planning, work overload, low pay, poor working conditions, inadequate recognition, unrealized career expectations, and…
|There is not a "typical" women's group, nor are there "typical" women's issues. Every women's group is diverse, with as many viewpoints and perspectives as there are members in the group. Using the group format for women is common practice with many counselors. It is interesting that there has been little empirical research reported on women's…
Research on eating disorders among female distance runners has produced a modest, but inconsistent body of findings. To unravel the confusion, we hypothesized a model whereby studies finding greater symptomatology have involved obligatory runners or elite national\\/international competitors. Studies not finding greater symptomatology have involved a more typical group of athletes. To test our hypothesis, we used the Eating Disorders
... 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 Spotlight on Research 2011 September 2011 ResearchFinds Link Between Statin Use and Progressive Muscle ... as the drugs are taken. New NIAMS-supported research has found that for a subset of patients, ...
This study examined the perceptions of 105 teachers regarding research-on-teaching findings as a resource for instructional improvement. The teachers filled out a 40-item, Likert-scale questionnaire about their perceptions. Teachers value researchfindings that focus on classroom instruction and think that the findings have practical classroom…
|This volume consists of 10 papers dealing with issues, research and researchfindings regarding the effects of television advertising on children. The first paper critically examines recent research literature which bears on policy questions related to the effects of television advertising on children. Findings from a study designed to examine…
No consensus yet exists on how to handle incidental findings (IFs) in human subjects research. Yet empirical studies document IFs in a wide range of research studies, where IFs are findings beyond the aims of the study that are of potential health or reproductive importance to the individual research participant. This paper reports recommendations of a two-year project group funded by NIH to study how to manage IFs in genetic and genomic research, as well as imaging research. We conclude that researchers have an obligation to address the possibility of discovering IFs in their protocol and communications with the IRB, and in their consent forms and communications with research participants. Researchers should establish a pathway for handling IFs and communicate that to the IRB and research participants. We recommend a pathway and categorize IFs into those that must be disclosed to research participants, those that may be disclosed, and those that should not be disclosed. PMID:18547191
Wolf, Susan M; Lawrenz, Frances P; Nelson, Charles A; Kahn, Jeffrey P; Cho, Mildred K; Clayton, Ellen Wright; Fletcher, Joel G; Georgieff, Michael K; Hammerschmidt, Dale; Hudson, Kathy; Illes, Judy; Kapur, Vivek; Keane, Moira A; Koenig, Barbara A; Leroy, Bonnie S; McFarland, Elizabeth G; Paradise, Jordan; Parker, Lisa S; Terry, Sharon F; Van Ness, Brian; Wilfond, Benjamin S
Inconsistency management in component-based languages is the identification and resolution of conflicting constraints or expectations between the different compo- nents which make up a system. Here we present a category theoretical framework for detecting and classifying those inconsistencies which can arise throughout a sim- ulation. In addition, the framework permits us to apply techniques developed for defining database view updates.
This article presents a theory of how individuals reason from inconsistency to consistency. The theory is based on 3 main principles. First, individuals try to construct a single mental model of a possibility that satisfies a current set of propositions, and if the task is impossible, they infer that the set is inconsistent. Second, when an…
Johnson-Laird, P. N.; Girotto, Vittorio; Legrenzi, Paolo
This article presents a theory of how individuals reason from inconsistency to consistency. The theory is based on 3 main principles. First, individuals try to construct a single mental model of a possibility that satisfies a current set of propositions, and if the task is impossible, they infer that the set is inconsistent. Second, when an inconsistency arises from an incontrovertible fact, they retract any singularly dubious proposition or any proposition that is inconsistent with the fact; otherwise, they retract whichever proposition mismatches the fact. A mismatch can arise from a proposition that has only mental models that conflict with the fact or fail to represent it. Third, individuals use their causal knowledge-in the form of models of possibilities-to create explanations of what led to the inconsistency. A computer program implements the theory, and experimental results support each of its principles. PMID:15250779
Johnson-Laird, P N; Girotto, Vittorio; Legrenzi, Paolo
Recent years have witnessed a convergence between research in SPL and Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) that leverages the complementary capabilities that both paradigms can offer. A crucial factor for the success of MDE is the availability of effective support for detecting and fixing inconsistencies among model elements. The importance of such support is attested by the extensive literature devoted to the
In this paper, recent anorexia nervosa research is reviewed with the specific goal of identifying findings that have bearings\\u000a on clinical management strategies for this particular group of eating disordered patients.
The report presents the findings of an Assessment of Consumer Information Processing Research in Relation to Public Policy Needs. The first section studies the public policy setting. The main body of the digest reviews, examines, and interprets the existi...
|Multiple perpetrator rape presents a significant problem nationally and internationally. However, previous research is limited and findings are often contradictory. The details of 101 rape allegations recorded in a six-month period in a large police force in England were analysed. Findings are presented about case classification, victim and…
A decade of empirical work in brain imaging, genomics, and other areas of research has yielded new knowledge about the frequency of incidental findings, investigator responsibility, and risks and benefits of disclosure. Straightforward guidance for handling such findings of possible clini- cal significance, however, has been elusive. In early work focusing on imaging studies of the brain, we suggested that
J. Illes; M. P. Kirschen; E. Edwards; P. Bandettini; M. K. Cho; P. J. Ford; G. H. Glover; J. Kulynych; R. Macklin; D. B. Michael; S. M. Wolf; T. Grabowski; B. Seto
Objective: To consider the research design requirements needed to provide a rigorous test of environmental mediation hypotheses and to summarize the main findings from research using such designs. Method: Selective review of empirical evidence dealing with psychopathology. Results: There is robust evidence of environmentally mediated risks for…
In a specially designed forum, 30 teachers and administrators joined a group of researchers to interpret some recent researchfindings. Discussion groups focused on four issues: teacher and principal morale, specialists and conflict, teacher teams, and "loose coupling" between the district and school. A dynamic exchange of ideas resulted, with…
Physician-scientists from University Hospitals (UH), Case Medical Center's Seidman Cancer Center and Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine presented new researchfindings this week at the Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) in Chicago. One study sought to identify protein biomarkers that can help physicians determine which patients may benefit from standard treatment for GBM.
These resources are findings and recommendations to stem cell research and applications. Human stem cell research holds enormous potential for contributing to our understanding of fundamental human biology. Although it is not possible to predict the outcomes from basic research, such studies will offer the real possibility for treatments and ultimately for cures for many diseases for which adequate therapies do not exist. This resource is provided by AAAS and ICS.
A decade of empirical work in brain imaging, genomics, and other areas of research has yielded new knowledge about the frequency of incidental findings, investigator responsibility, and risks and benefits of disclosure. Straightforward guidance for handling such findings of possible clinical significance, however, has been elusive. In early work focusing on imaging studies of the brain, we suggested that investigators and institutional review boards must anticipate and articulate plans for handling incidental findings. Here we provide a detailed analysis of different approaches to the problem and evaluate their merits in the context of the goals and setting of the research and the involvement of neurologists, radiologists, and other physicians. Protecting subject welfare and privacy, as well as ensuring scientific integrity, are the highest priorities in making choices about how to handle incidental findings. Forethought and clarity will enable these goals without overburdening research conducted within or outside the medical setting.
Inconsistency between an individual's self-description and behavior was studied. Results revealed that conversational behavior accounted for a much larger percentage of variance in all the introversion-extraversion personality ratings than did self-descri...
Justifications play a central role as the basis for explaining entailments in OWL ontologies. While techniques for computing justifications for entailments in consistent ontologies are theoretically and practically well-understood, little is known about the practicalities of computing justifications for inconsistent ontologies. This is despite the fact that justifications are important for repairing inconsistent ontologies, and can be used as a basis for paraconsistent reasoning. This paper presents algorithms, optimisations, and experiments in this area. Surprisingly, it turns out that justifications for inconsistent ontologies are more “difficult” to compute and are often more “numerous” than justifications for entailments in consistent ontologies: whereas it is always possible to compute some justifications, it is often not possible to compute all justifications for real world inconsistent ontologies.
Although substantial research supports the association between parental inconsistent discipline and early adolescent behaviors, less is understood on mechanisms underlying this relation. This study examined the mediating influence of delinquent-oriented attitudes in early adolescence. Using a longitudinal sample of 324 rural adolescents and their parents, findings revealed that inconsistent discipline in sixth grade predicted an increase in adolescent delinquent-oriented attitudes by seventh grade which, in turn, predicted both an increase in early adolescent antisocial behaviors and a decrease in socially competent behaviors by eighth grade. Therefore, it appears that accepting attitudes toward delinquency may in part develop from experiencing inconsistent discipline at home and may offer a possible explanation as to why early adolescents later engage in more antisocial and less socially competent behaviors. Findings may inform family-based preventive intervention programs that seek to decrease behavior problems and promote social competence in early adolescents. PMID:23544924
Halgunseth, Linda C; Perkins, Daniel F; Lippold, Melissa A; Nix, Robert L
|Precise educational interventions are the sine qua non of services for students with exceptionalities. Applying interventions riddled with inconsistencies, therefore, interferes with the growth and learning potential of students who need these interventions. This research synthesis documents the inconsistencies revealed during a critical analysis…
The purpose of this paper is to report and compare the salient findings of recent research on travel by Americans with disabilities. Until 2002, when Open Doors Organization (ODO) sponsored its first nationwide study on travel by adults with disabilities (ODO 2002), conducted by Harris Interactive, there had never been a major, statistically reliable survey on the US disability travel
When applying researchfindings to individual patients, practitioners can use the PICO approach, which considers characteristics of the patient or population, intervention, comparator or context, and outcome. Patient centred practitioners should however identify the outcomes which are important to individual patients.
This study focuses on contemporary issues of educational financing in developing countries and on available researchfindings as these relate, or can be related, to these issues. The first two chapters are analytical, examining common educational finance issues and testing the conventional wisdom of certain usual proposals. Chapter 1, "Issues in…
Reading research articles can be challenging, but it also can be stimulating. Once you get a system for reviewing articles and interpreting their worth and value to your practice, you will find much usable information. Reviewing articles with the focus of assessing their importance to clinical practice could be done with a research committee of your local AORN chapter. It also would be an interesting and informational chapter program to have a panel discuss the relevance of two or three studies to perioperative practice. This process and type of information also can be used if your institution is developing research teams. Assessing the practicality of research to your practice is essential. Research is not a mystery; it is the answer to a mystery. It is necessary to the future of perioperative nursing. Change practice with empirical evidence! PMID:10476200
The development of most large and complex systems necessarily involves many people-each with their own perspectives on the system defined by their knowledge, responsibilities, and commitments. To address this we have advocated distributed development of specifications from multiple perspectives. However, this leads to problems of identifying and handling inconsistencies between such perspectives. Maintaining absolute consistency is not always possible. Often
Anthony C. W. Finkelstein; Dov M. Gabbay; Anthony Hunter; Jeff Kramer; Bashar Nuseibeh
Starting in February 2001, the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) began publishing "Findings" magazine. The publication features research and findings from scholars doing work with funding from the NIGMS. Visitors can browse the archive of the publication by topic or date, and they can also check out the sample articles from the latest edition on the homepage. Recent pieces have included "Drugs from Deep Down", "Mesmerized by Metals", and "Just Found", which talks about potential sunburn treatments. The site also has the "Find More" area, which contains an image gallery, school resources, free slide kits, and interactive games. Also, the "Watch" area contains interviews with scientists like Dr. Kevin Tracey talking about his investigations into sepsis. Finally, visitors can also sign up to receive Findings via email.
The list of aging-associated proteins known to be involved in cancer is growing longer, according to research by investigators at Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center and the National Institutes of Health. The new study, published Oct. 17 in Cancer Cell, identifies the protein SIRT2 as a tumor suppressor linked to gender-specific tumor development in mice. Along with two other "sirtuin" proteins previously linked to cancer, the new finding suggests the existence of a rare "family" of tumor suppressors.
Background Qualitative research makes an important contribution to our understanding of health and healthcare. However, qualitative evidence can be difficult to search for and identify, and the effectiveness of different types of search strategies is unknown. Methods Three search strategies for qualitative research in the example area of support for breast-feeding were evaluated using six electronic bibliographic databases. The strategies were based on using thesaurus terms, free-text terms and broad-based terms. These strategies were combined with recognised search terms for support for breast-feeding previously used in a Cochrane review. For each strategy, we evaluated the recall (potentially relevant records found) and precision (actually relevant records found). Results A total yield of 7420 potentially relevant records was retrieved by the three strategies combined. Of these, 262 were judged relevant. Using one strategy alone would miss relevant records. The broad-based strategy had the highest recall and the thesaurus strategy the highest precision. Precision was generally poor: 96% of records initially identified as potentially relevant were deemed irrelevant. Searching for qualitative research involves trade-offs between recall and precision. Conclusions These findings confirm that strategies that attempt to maximise the number of potentially relevant records found are likely to result in a large number of false positives. The findings also suggest that a range of search terms is required to optimise searching for qualitative evidence. This underlines the problems of current methods for indexing qualitative research in bibliographic databases and indicates where improvements need to be made.
Shaw, Rachel L; Booth, Andrew; Sutton, Alex J; Miller, Tina; Smith, Jonathan A; Young, Bridget; Jones, David R; Dixon-Woods, Mary
Biobanks and archived data sets collecting samples and data have become crucial engines of genetic and genomic research. Unresolved, however, is what responsibilities biobanks should shoulder to manage incidental findings and individual research results of potential health, reproductive, or personal importance to individual contributors (using "biobank" here to refer both to collections of samples and collections of data). This article reports recommendations from a 2-year project funded by the National Institutes of Health. We analyze the responsibilities involved in managing the return of incidental findings and individual research results in a biobank research system (primary research or collection sites, the biobank itself, and secondary research sites). We suggest that biobanks shoulder significant responsibility for seeing that the biobank research system addresses the return question explicitly. When reidentification of individual contributors is possible, the biobank should work to enable the biobank research system to discharge four core responsibilities to (1) clarify the criteria for evaluating findings and the roster of returnable findings, (2) analyze a particular finding in relation to this, (3) reidentify the individual contributor, and (4) recontact the contributor to offer the finding. We suggest that findings that are analytically valid, reveal an established and substantial risk of a serious health condition, and are clinically actionable should generally be offered to consenting contributors. This article specifies 10 concrete recommendations, addressing new biobanks as well as those already in existence. PMID:22436882
Wolf, Susan M; Crock, Brittney N; Van Ness, Brian; Lawrenz, Frances; Kahn, Jeffrey P; Beskow, Laura M; Cho, Mildred K; Christman, Michael F; Green, Robert C; Hall, Ralph; Illes, Judy; Keane, Moira; Knoppers, Bartha M; Koenig, Barbara A; Kohane, Isaac S; Leroy, Bonnie; Maschke, Karen J; McGeveran, William; Ossorio, Pilar; Parker, Lisa S; Petersen, Gloria M; Richardson, Henry S; Scott, Joan A; Terry, Sharon F; Wilfond, Benjamin S; Wolf, Wendy A
Friedreich ataxia is the most common human ataxia and results from inadequate production of the frataxin protein, most often due to a triplet expansion in the nuclear FXN gene. The gene cannot be transcribed to generate the messenger RNA for frataxin. Frataxin is an iron-binding protein targeted to the mitochondrial matrix. In its absence, multiple iron-sulfur-dependent proteins in mitochondria and the cytosol lack proper assembly, destroying mitochondrial and nuclear function. Mitochondrial oxidant stress may also participate in ongoing cellular injury. Although progressive and debilitative ataxia is the most prominent clinical finding, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with heart failure is the most common cause of early death in this disease. There is no cure. In this review we cover recent basic and clinical findings regarding the heart in Friedreich ataxia, offer recommendations for clinical management of the cardiomyopathy in this disease, and point out new research directions to advance the field.
Research technologies can now produce so much information that there is significant potential for incidental findings (IFs). These are findings generated in research that are beyond the aims of the study. Current law and federal regulations offer no direct guidance on how to deal with IFs in research, nor is there adequate professional or institutional guidance. We advocate a defined set of researcher duties based on law and ethics and recommend a pathway to be followed in handling IFs in research. This article traces the underlying ethical and legal theories supporting researcher duties to manage IFs, including duties to develop a plan for management in the research protocol, to discuss the possibility of and management plan for IFs in the informed consent process, and to address, evaluate, and ultimately offer to disclose IFs of potential clinical or reproductive significance to research participants when they arise. PMID:18547206
Wolf, Susan M; Paradise, Jordan; Caga-anan, Charlisse
Biobanks and archived datasets collecting samples and data have become crucial engines of genetic and genomic research. Unresolved, however, is what responsibilities biobanks should shoulder to manage incidental findings (IFs) and individual research results (IRRs) of potential health, reproductive, or personal importance to individual contributors (using “biobank” here to refer to both collections of samples and collections of data). This paper reports recommendations from a 2-year, NIH-funded project. The authors analyze responsibilities to manage return of IFs and IRRs in a biobank research system (primary research or collection sites, the biobank itself, and secondary research sites). They suggest that biobanks shoulder significant responsibility for seeing that the biobank research system addresses the return question explicitly. When re-identification of individual contributors is possible, the biobank should work to enable the biobank research system to discharge four core responsibilities: to (1) clarify the criteria for evaluating findings and roster of returnable findings, (2) analyze a particular finding in relation to this, (3) re-identify the individual contributor, and (4) recontact the contributor to offer the finding. The authors suggest that findings that are analytically valid, reveal an established and substantial risk of a serious health condition, and that are clinically actionable should generally be offered to consenting contributors. The paper specifies 10 concrete recommendations, addressing new biobanks and biobanks already in existence.
Wolf, Susan M.; Crock, Brittney N.; Van Ness, Brian; Lawrenz, Frances; Kahn, Jeffrey P.; Beskow, Laura M.; Cho, Mildred K.; Christman, Michael F.; Green, Robert C.; Hall, Ralph; Illes, Judy; Keane, Moira; Knoppers, Bartha M.; Koenig, Barbara A.; Kohane, Isaac S.; LeRoy, Bonnie; Maschke, Karen J.; McGeveran, William; Ossorio, Pilar; Parker, Lisa S.; Petersen, Gloria M.; Richardson, Henry S.; Scott, Joan A.; Terry, Sharon F.; Wilfond, Benjamin S.; Wolf, Wendy A.
...false Requirements for findings of research misconduct. 93.104 Section 93... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT General Â§ 93.104 Requirements for findings of research misconduct. A finding of...
...Requirements for findings of research misconduct. 93.104 Section...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS...HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT General Â§ 93...Requirements for findings of research misconduct. A finding...
Designed to help educators locate the best, most up-to-date research and information available for decision making, this handbook focuses on computer searching of databases, manual searching of materials, and telephone searching of "people networks." A rationale is presented for using research on education and a discussion of where to find…
This bibliography, inclusive from 1976 through 1978 lists all publications authored by personnel of the Environmental Research Laboratory-Duluth. Some of the researchfindings were to determine how physical and chemical pollution affects aquatic life; to assess the effects of eco...
Prompted by an increased interest of both research participants and the patient advocacy community in obtaining information about research outcomes and on the use of their biological samples; the international community has begun to debate the emergence of an ethical 'duty' to return research results to participants. Furthermore, the use of new technologies (e.g., whole-genome and -exome sequencing) has revealed both genetic data and incidental findings with possible clinical significance. These technologies together with the proliferation of biorepositories, provide a compelling rationale for governments and scientific institutions to adopt prospective policies. Given the scarcity of policies in the context of stem cell research, a discussion on the scientific, ethical and legal implications of disclosing research results for research participants is needed. We present the International Stem Forum Ethics Working Party's Policy Statement and trust that it will stimulate debate and meet the concerns of researchers and research participants alike. PMID:22594334
Isasi, Rosario; Knoppers, Bartha M; Andrews, Peter W; Bredenoord, Annelien; Colman, Alan; Hin, Lee Eng; Hull, Sara; Kim, Ock-Joo; Lomax, Geoffrey; Morris, Clive; Sipp, Douglas; Stacey, Glyn; Wahlstrom, Jan; Zeng, Fanyi
There is a lack of agreement on the features used to differentiate Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS) from Phonological Disorders (PD). One criterion which has gained consensus is lexical inconsistency of speech (ASHA, 2007); however, no accepted measure of this feature has been defined. Although lexical assessment provides information about consistency of an item across repeated trials, it may not capture the magnitude of inconsistency within an item. In contrast, segmental analysis provides more extensive information about consistency of phoneme usage across multiple contexts and word-positions. The current research compared segmental and lexical inconsistency metrics in preschool-aged children with PD, CAS, and typical development (TD) to determine how inconsistency varies with age in typical and disordered speakers, and whether CAS and PD were differentiated equally well by both assessment levels. Whereas lexical and segmental analyses may be influenced by listener characteristics or speaker intelligibility, the acoustic signal is less vulnerable to these factors. In addition, the acoustic signal may reveal information which is not evident in the perceptual signal. A second focus of the current research was motivated by Blumstein et al.'s (1980) classic study on voice onset time (VOT) in adults with acquired apraxia of speech (AOS) which demonstrated a motor impairment underlying AOS. In the current study, VOT analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between age and group with the voicing distribution for bilabial and alveolar plosives. Findings revealed that 3-year-olds evidenced significantly higher inconsistency than 5-year-olds; segmental inconsistency approached 0% in 5-year-olds with TD, whereas it persisted in children with PD and CAS suggesting that for child in this age-range, inconsistency is a feature of speech disorder rather than typical development (Holm et al., 2007). Likewise, whereas segmental and lexical inconsistency were moderately-highly correlated, even the most highly-related segmental and lexical measures agreed on only 76% of classifications (i.e., to CAS and PD). Finally, VOT analyses revealed that CAS utilized a distinct distribution pattern relative to PD and TD. Discussion frames the current findings within a profile of CAS and provides a validated list of criteria for the differential diagnosis of CAS and PD.
Tobacco addiction and chronic pain represent 2 highly prevalent and comorbid conditions that engender substantial burdens upon individuals and systems. Interrelations between pain and smoking have been of clinical and empirical interest for decades, and research in this area has increased dramatically over the past 5 years. We conceptualize the interaction of pain and smoking as a prototypical example of the biopsychosocial model. Accordingly, we extrapolated from behavioral, cognitive, affective, biomedical, and social perspectives to propose causal mechanisms that may contribute to the observed comorbidity between these 2 conditions. The extant literature was 1st dichotomized into investigations of either effects of smoking on pain or effects of pain on smoking. We then integrated these findings to present a reciprocal model of pain and smoking that is hypothesized to interact in the manner of a positive feedback loop, resulting in greater pain and increased smoking. Finally, we proposed directions for future research and discussed clinical implications for smokers with comorbid pain disorders. We observed modest evidence that smoking may be a risk factor in the multifactorial etiology of some chronically painful conditions and that pain may come to serve as a potent motivator of smoking. We also found that whereas animal studies yielded consistent support for direct pain-inhibitory effects of nicotine and tobacco, results from human studies were much less consistent. Future research in the emerging area of pain and smoking has the potential to inform theoretical and clinical applications with respect to tobacco smoking, chronic pain, and their comorbid presentation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:21967450
Ditre, Joseph W; Brandon, Thomas H; Zale, Emily L; Meagher, Mary M
A genetic map is an ordering of genetic markers calculated from a population of known lineage. While traditionally a map has been generated from a single population for each species, recently researchers have created maps from multiple populations. In the face of these new data, we address the need to find a consensus map--a map that combines the information from multiple partial and possibly inconsistent input maps. We model each input map as a partial order and formulate the consensus problem as finding a median partial order. Finding the median of multiple total orders (preferences or rankings)is a well studied problem in social choice. We choose to find the median using the weighted symmetric difference distance, a more general version of both the symmetric difference distance and the Kemeny distance. Finding a median order using this distance is NP-hard. We show that for our chosen weight assignment, a median order satisfies the positive responsiveness, extended Condorcet,and unanimity criteria. Our solution involves finding the maximum acyclic subgraph of a weighted directed graph. We present a method that dynamically switches between an exact branch and bound algorithm and a heuristic algorithm, and show that for real data from closely related organisms, an exact median can often be found. We present experimental results using seven populations of the crop plant Zea mays. PMID:18451426
Jackson, Benjamin N; Schnable, Patrick S; Aluru, Srinivas
An experiment was conducted to examine whether a consistent or an inconsistent picture would facilitate recall of text when recall was tested under two conditions involving a consistent or an inconsistent picture. Analyses indicated that recall in the inconsistent-picture condition was better than that in the consistent-picture condition for missing sentences but not for complete sentences of text. This result suggests that an inconsistent picture may facilitate processing of textual information more elaborately than do consistent pictures. PMID:7624193
This study tests status inconsistency theory by examining the associations between wives' and husbands' relative statuses--that is, earnings, work-time, occupational, and educational inconsistencies--and marital quality and global happiness. The author asks three questions: (a) Is status inconsistency associated with marital quality and overall…
Objective: We describe the systematic approach to incidental findings (IFs) used at the Mind Research Network (MRN) where all MRI scans receive neuroradiologist interpretation and participants are provided results. Methods: From 2004 to 2011, 8,545 MRI scans were acquired by 45 researchers. As mandated by MRN?s external institutional review board, all structural sequences were evaluated by a clinical neuroradiologist who generated a report that included recommendations for referral if indicated. Investigators received a copy of their participants' reports, which were also mailed to participants unless they specifically declined. To better understand the impact of the radiology review process, a financial analysis was completed in addition to a follow-up phone survey to characterize participant perceptions regarding receiving their MRI scan results. Results: The radiologist identified IFs in 34% of the 4,447 participants. Of those with IFs (n = 1,518), the radiologist recommended urgent or immediate referral for 2.5% and routine referral for 17%. For 80.5%, no referral was recommended. Estimated annual cost for this approach including support for the neuroradiologist, medical director, and ancillary staff is approximately $60,000 or $24/scan. The results of the retrospective phone survey showed that 92% of participants appreciated receiving their MRI report, and the majority stated it increased their likelihood of volunteering for future studies. Conclusions: Addressing IFs in a cost-effective and consistent manner is possible by adopting a policy that provides neuroradiology interpretation and offers participant assistance with clinical follow-up when necessary. Our experience suggests that an ethical, institution-wide approach to IFs can be implemented with minimal investigator burden.
When an inconsistency occurs in a pedigree, it may not be apparent which individual(s) are causing it. Here, a statistical method is described which identifies individuals most likely to have caused an inconsistency. The method is based on the sum of squared deviations between two predictors of an individual's genotypes: (1) that given an individual's own phenotype, and (2) that given all phenotypes in the pedigree. Extreme deviations between the two arrays (measured in terms of a sum of squares) are interpreted as indicating an inconsistency. The method is applied to a pedigree with an inconsistency in which it is unclear who is causing the inconsistency. PMID:8514322
Preventing cancer, downstaging disease at diagnosis, and reducing mortality require that relevant researchfindings be translated across scientific disciplines and into clinical and public health practice. Interdisciplinary research focuses on using the languages of different scientific disciplines to share techniques and philosophical perspectives to enhance discovery and development of innovations; (i.e., from the "left end" of the research continuum). Community-based participatory research (CBPR), whose relevance often is relegated to the "right end" (i.e., delivery and dissemination) of the research continuum, represents an important means for understanding how many cancers are caused as well as for ensuring that basic science researchfindings affect cancer outcomes in materially important ways. Effective interdisciplinary research and CBPR both require an ability to communicate effectively across groups that often start out neither understanding each other's worldviews nor even speaking the same language. Both demand an ability and willingness to treat individuals from other communities with respect and understanding. We describe the similarities between CBPR and both translational and interdisciplinary research, and then illustrate our points using squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus as an example of how to deepen understanding and increase relevance by applying techniques of CBPR and interdisciplinary engagement. PMID:19336548
Hebert, James R; Brandt, Heather M; Armstead, Cheryl A; Adams, Swann A; Steck, Susan E
|Being involved with scientific research in high school is rewarding and fun. Research enables students to: (1) learn in depth about a particular area; (2) meet other students who are also enthusiastic about learning and who have done amazing research; and (3) earn scholarships for college if the research is entered in competitions. Completing a…
... Opportunity to contest findings of research misconduct and administrative actions...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative...
...Opportunity to contest findings of research misconduct and administrative...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS...HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS...
...determinations and findings affecting research and development contracting...Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING...determinations and findings affecting research and development...
This work considers findings from synthetic character research using virtual learning environments. Children aged 8-11 years interacted with FearNot, a software package that deals with the social problem of bullying in schools. Following the interaction, children participated in classroom discussion forums, a method we have developed to assist children in verbalizing their views and perspectives. This approach enables the exploration
Training professionals were surveyed concerning their knowledge of transfer of training research. Survey items were developed from an integrative literature review based on empirical findings of factors that directly or indirectly (through learning) influence training transfer. Survey results suggest that training professionals are in agreement…
Five interrelated research efforts on learning strategies are conducted through the Basic Skills Resource Center. This report contains papers presented by the five principal investigators at the American Educational Research Association 1984 Annual Meetin...
|This article describes a partnership research project carried out by a research team consisting of people with learning disabilities and people without learning disabilities. The research explored people's understandings of advocacy and identified gaps in advocacy provision for people with learning disabilities and their families. Four focus…
This article describes a partnership research project carried out by a research team consisting of people with learning disabilities and people without learning disabilities. The research explored people's understandings of advocacy and identified gaps in advocacy provision for people with learning disabilities and their families. Four focus…
Surveys research on formal and informal second-language learning strategies, covering the effectiveness of research methods involving making lists, interviews and thinking aloud, note-taking, diaries, surveys, and training. Suggestions for future and improved research are presented. (131 references) (CB)
Data relating to survival from in-hospital cardiac arrest are used to audit staff performance and to help to determine whether new resuscitation techniques are effective. Individual studies into outcome from cardiac arrest have defined inclusion and exclusion criteria, but no such national criteria have been published to enable constant auditing of cardiac arrests. The aim of this survey was to investigate the consistency with which in-hospital cardiac arrests are recorded throughout the United Kingdom. Such data are, almost universally, collected by Resuscitation Officers (RO). A questionnaire was sent to ROs across the UK asking them to state how they would interpret and categorise hypothetical, but nonetheless typical, clinical situations involving a cardiac arrest team being called. These included an event where the patient had regained consciousness prior to the arrival of the cardiac team and also an event where rigor mortis was already present and the resuscitation promptly abandoned upon the arrival of the cardiac arrest team. The percentage survival to discharge of adult cardiac arrests for each hospital was also requested. This identified whether inclusion or exclusion of certain clinical events may have influenced cardiac arrest survival figures for that hospital. It is clear from this study that in-hospital clinical events when a cardiac arrest team is called are audited with a great deal of inconsistency. Some events, such as a patient who has rigor mortis, are excluded as a false or inappropriate call in some hospitals and included as an unsuccessful resuscitation in others. There is a need for guidance on the inclusion and exclusion criteria for auditing of cardiac arrests so that meaningful data can be obtained from across the UK and useful conclusions drawn. The situation at present will result in data being audited that are of limited use. In the era of evidence-based medicine, it seems vital to obtain accurate cardiac arrest survival figures in order to have any hope of improving them. PMID:16221522
Most qualitative researchers do not recommend generalization from qualitative studies, as this research is not based on random\\u000a samples and statistical controls. The objective of this study is to explore the degree to which in-service teachers understand\\u000a the controversial aspects of generalization in both qualitative and quantitative educational research and as to how this can\\u000a facilitate problems faced by the
The report is a companion piece to Technical Report No 7 (AD-785 003) from this grant. It reviews the research in organizational communication completed and in progress suggests some directions future research might take, and mentions how the results of t...
During the past 20 years, a significant body of literature has emerged focusing on the application ofDabrowski's theory ofpositive disintegration (TPD) to the study ofgifted individuals. Although much of this literature is prescriptive, some research reports spanning this time period are available. A perusal of research on TPD's appli- cability to gifted individuals indicates that the focus has been Dabrowski's
This report is designed to assist in the formulation of public policy as it relates to older people and their families by setting forth a comprehensive research-based framework to guide future public action in this area. It is intended for use by public officials, agency administrators, researchers, and academicians, as well as members of the…
|The author responds to comments by Barone (2009), Clandinin and Murphy (2009), and M. W. Smith (2009) on "The Construction Zone: Literary Elements in Narrative Research" (Coulter & M. L. Smith, 2009). She clarifies issues regarding point of view, authorial surplus, narrative coherence, and the relational qualities of narrative research. She…
|During the past 20 years, a significant body of literature has emerged focusing on the application of Dabrowski's theory of positive disintegration (TPD) to the study of gifted individuals. Although much of this literature is prescriptive, some research reports spanning this time period are available. A perusal of research on TPD's applicability…
The report provides an update on the valve research being sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The research addresses the need to provide assurance that motor-operated...
R. Steele K. G. DeWall J. C. Watkins M. J. Russell D. Bramwell
UCLA researchers and collaborators have developed a potentially more effective treatment for "triple-negative" breast cancer that uses nanoscale, diamond-like particles called nanodiamonds. Nanodiamonds are between 4 and 6 nanometers in diameter and are shaped like tiny soccer balls. Byproducts of conventional mining and refining operations, the particles can form clusters following drug binding and have the ability to precisely deliver cancer drugs to tumors, significantly improving the drugs' desired effect. UCLA is home to the Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center. The research team included contributors from the NanoCarbon Research Institute in Nagano, Japan and UC San Francisco, home of the Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center.
By disseminating reports of well-conducted research in peer-reviewed journals, investigators regularly provide valuable information and insights to other professionals. Prospective authors of such reports should be aware that submitted manuscripts undergo considerable scrutiny and analysis by reviewers and editors as part of the publication cycle and, later, by readers for whom the information is intended. Therefore, when a researcher becomes an author, he or she should attempt to be as complete as possible in meeting the needs of those audiences. In this article, we discuss problems often found in research reports submitted to peer-reviewed journals so that investigators may improve the quality of their manuscripts. PMID:9188398
The purpose of the research reported here is to develop a profile of entrepreneurial veteran alumni of business schools and to examine the relationship between military service, especially combat service, and the entrepreneurial motivations and behaviors ...
This report offers a review of the literature on the effectiveness of distance learning as applied to training. Most research in distance learning was found to be anecdotal, focusing on education rather than training. When effectiveness was measured, it w...
R. A. Wisher M. V. Champagne J. L. Pawluk A. Eaton D. M. Thornton
A new technology developed at MIT may help to make biomarker detection much easier. The researchers, led by Sangeeta Bhatia, have developed nanoparticles that can home to a tumor and interact with cancer proteins to produce thousands of biomarkers.
Two previously unassociated proteins known to be overly active in a variety of cancers bind together to ignite and sustain malignant brain tumors, a research team led by scientists at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center reports this week in the journal Cancer Cell. This research is the first to connect FoxM1 to a molecular signaling cascade that regulates normal neural stem cells...
Valuable information is available to clinicians both from research articles, and reports from clinicians. Both sources have limitations. Research, with the exception of longitudinal studies, tends to isolate a variable or two from the whole, limiting its usefulness. Clinical techniques reported are sometimes biased, and perform well for certain therapists in certain settings, and not so well for others. Interrelationships are important among variables such as dentition, anatomy, physiology, oral muscle functions, oral rest postures, eating, and speech. Each affects the others. Equally important are interrelationships among all the specialists who treat patients with orofacial myofunctional disorders. A wholistic approach to the evaluation and treatment of orofacial disorders is advocated. PMID:23362748
|Tobacco addiction and chronic pain represent 2 highly prevalent and comorbid conditions that engender substantial burdens upon individuals and systems. Interrelations between pain and smoking have been of clinical and empirical interest for decades, and research in this area has increased dramatically over the past 5 years. We conceptualize the…
Ditre, Joseph W.; Brandon, Thomas H.; Zale, Emily L.; Meagher, Mary M.
|Decades of research in survey methodology and psychology have yielded important insights about how to create effective and valid survey instruments. As Porter (in press) has argued convincingly, college student surveys often fall well short of these standards by placing unrealistic demands on students' memory and by assuming that students readily…
|This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of electrical distribution, established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to train apprentice line workers. Section 1 contains general information: purpose of Phase…
|This report summarizes three bodies of research on teenage pregnancy and programs to reduce the risk of teenage pregnancy. Studies included in this report were completed in 1980 or later, conducted in the United States or Canada, targeted adolescents, employed an experimental or quasi-experimental design, had a sample size of at least 100 in the…
A literature review on the Career Development Inventory since 1979 found support for its sensitivity and specificity as a measure of readiness to make educational and vocational choices. Research is needed on its predictive validity. Revision should address increasing the reliability of the two cognitive scales. (63 references) (SK)
|Kristin Roovers was a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Pennsylvania with a bright career ahead of her--a trusted member of a research laboratory at the medical school studying the role of cell growth in diabetes. When an editor of "The Journal of Clinical Investigation" did a spot-check on one of her images for an article in 2005,…
The authors provide an interim report on current research into television usage in the Northern Ireland secondary sector, including provision, subject and departmental usage and school and teacher reactions to such use. Underlying attitudes are suggested and implications drawn that promote the teaching of television in the secondary level curriculum.
Decades of research in survey methodology and psychology have yielded important insights about how to create effective and valid survey instruments. As Porter (in press) has argued convincingly, college student surveys often fall well short of these standards by placing unrealistic demands on students' memory and by assuming that students readily…
The growing number of empirical studies performed in ecology and evolution creates a need for quantitative summaries of research domains to generate higher-order conclusions about general trends and patterns. Recent developments In meta-analysis (the area of statistics that is designed for summarizing and analyzing multiple independent studies) have opened up new and exciting possibilities. Unlike more traditional qualitative and narrative
|This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of emergency medical services (EMS), established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to train paramedics. Section 1 contains general information: purpose of Phase I;…
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors would like to thank all those who contributed to the production of this report. At MPR Associates, Paula Hudis, Gary Hoachlander, and Elliott Medrich pro- vided insightful review and comments ,on earlier drafts; Shierra Merto provided library research assistance; Andrea Livingston edited the report; and Karyn Madden ,formatted the document. Wewould,also like to acknowledge ,the useful feedback
The existence of pronounced differences in health outcomes between US populations is a problem of moral significance and public health urgency. Pursuing research on genetic contributors to such disparities, despite striking data on the fundamental role of social factors, has been controversial. Still, advances in genomic science are providing an understanding of disease biology at a level of precision not
|Discusses Ward's analysis of letters sent to the Federal Trade Commission about children's advertising. Advocates that public opinion research concerning consumer protection issues should include information on the degree to which consumers are informed of their fundamental rights with respect to the consumer issues being studied. (CB)|
|This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of instrumentation technology, established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to train instrumentation technicians. Section 1 contains general information: purpose…
|This article presents an overview of interest research and describes the theoretical and methodological background for the assessment of interest in science in large-scale assessments like the "Programme for International Student Assessment" (PISA). The paper starts with a short retrospective on the history of interest, bringing out theoretical…
|This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of dental laboratory technology, established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to train dental laboratory technicians. Section 1 contains general information:…
This paper reviews research investigations into various aspects of the presentation of technical information. It considers the objectives of different readers who may be consulting the information as a reference work or who may need to assimilate the information in its entirety. Ways of using headings, summaries and questions to achieve these differing objectives are discussed. The review also considers
|For those concerned with contemporary social problems, whether as students, members of community groups, or individual citizens, this book attempts not only to describe the issues, but also to offer some starting points for local research and action. As an educational tool, it is based on the belief that a good way to learn about a community is…
Over the past few years, methamphetamine has appeared in mass quantities, in part, because of the ease and cost efficiency of manufacturing. With this increase in availability, the use of methamphetamine has increased significantly. The purpose of this article is to describe the existing treatment options for methamphetamine abuse and provide recommendations for practitioners and researchers. Methamphetamine abuse adversely impacts
Margaret Cretzmeyer; Mary Vaughan Sarrazin; Diane L. Huber; Robert I. Block; James A. Hall
Radiation hormesis research in Japan to determine the validity of Luckey's claims has revealed information on the health effects of low-level radiation. The scientific data of animal tests we obtained and successful results actually brought by radon therapy on human patients show us a clearer understanding of the health effects of low-level radiation. We obtained many animal test results and epidemiological survey data through our research activities cooperating with more than ten universities in Japan, categorized as follows: 1. suppression of cancer by enhancement of the immune system based on gene activation; 2. rejuvenation and suppression of aging by increasing cell membrane permeability and enzyme syntheses; 3. adaptive response by activation of gene expression on DNA repair and cell apoptosis; 4. pain relief and stress moderation by hormone formation in the brain and central nervous system; 5. avoidance and therapy of obstinate diseases by enhancing damage control systems and form one formation.
In this study, I examined the hypothesis that undergraduate research enhances the educational experience of science undergraduates, attracts and retains talented students to careers in science, and acts as a pathway for minority students into science careers. Undergraduates from 41 institutions participated in an online survey on the benefits of undergraduate research experiences. Participants indicated gains on 20 potential benefits and reported on career plans. Over 83% of 1,135 participants began or continued to plan for postgraduate education in the sciences. A group of 51 students who discontinued their plans for postgraduate science education reported significantly lower gains than continuing students. Women and men reported similar levels of benefits and similar patterns of career plans. Ethnic groups did not significantly differ in reported levels of benefits or plans to continue with postgraduate education.
Over the past few years, methamphetamine has appeared in mass quantities, in part, because of the ease and cost efficiency of manufacturing. With this increase in availability, the use of methamphetamine has increased significantly. The purpose of this article is to describe the existing treatment options for methamphetamine abuse and provide recommendations for practitioners and researchers. Methamphetamine abuse adversely impacts physical functioning, brain functioning and cognition, social support and social networks, and behavioral functioning. Negative consequences have also been documented to the environment and communities. In the studies reviewed on effective treatments, interventions consisted of aversion therapy, medication, psychosocial treatment, and case management. Each specific treatment is described as connected with an overall drug treatment program. If methamphetamine abuse continues to increase and the consequences continue to be so devastating, researchers and clinicians could advance the field by particular focus on the treatment of this type of drug use. PMID:12810148
Cretzmeyer, Margaret; Sarrazin, Mary Vaughan; Huber, Diane L; Block, Robert I; Hall, James A
A team of researchers led by co-principal investigators from the Hunstman Cancer Institute, the University of Utah, and the University of Melbourne, Australia, have found that mutations in a gene called XRCC2 cause increased breast cancer risk, according to a study published online in the American Journal of Human Genetics. The study looked at families that have a history of the disease but do not have mutations in the currently known breast cancer susceptibility genes.
This paper describes methodology, data analysis, and initial results of a research study with the long-term goal of establishing contemporary normative data on drawings from children living in the United States. The pool of participants was composed of 316 fourth graders (mean age 9.69 years) and 151 second graders (mean age 7.56 years) who each created a Human Figure Drawing
Many veterans of the 1991 Gulf War (GW) have complained of somatic and cognitive symptoms that may be neurological in nature. However, whether or not changes in brain function are associated with GW service continues to be debated. Studies of GW veterans using objective, performance-based neuropsychological measures have yielded inconsistentfindings, with those indicating deficits among GW veterans typically revealing
... 2012-10-01 false Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the...Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues Â§ 93.404...
...action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct. 93.410 Section 93...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the...Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues Â§ 93.410...
...settlement or finding of research misconduct. 93.410...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS...HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities...Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues...
This report provides an update on the valve research being sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The research addresses the need to provide assurance that motor-operated valves can perform their intended safety function, usually to open or close against specified (design basis) flow and pressure loads. This report describes several important developments: Two methods for estimating or bounding the design basis stem factor (in rising-stem valves), using data from tests less severe than design basis tests; a new correlation for evaluating the opening responses of gate valves and for predicting opening requirements; an extrapolation method that uses the results of a best effort flow test to estimate the design basis closing requirements of a gate valve that exhibits atypical responses (peak force occurs before flow isolation); and the extension of the original INEL closing correlation to include low- flow and low-pressure loads. The report also includes a general approach, presented in step-by-step format, for determining operating margins for rising-stem valves (gate valves and globe valves) as well as quarter-turn valves (ball valves and butterfly valves).
Steele, R. Jr.; DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; Russell, M.J.; Bramwell, D.
The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) was created by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, commonly known as Superfund. ATSDR is the principal United States federal public health agency involved with issues of public health and applied science concerning the human health impact of living in the vicinity of a hazardous waste site, or emergencies resulting from unplanned releases of hazardous substances into community environments. In pursuing these mandates, ATSDR's mission is to prevent exposure and adverse human health effects and diminished quality of life associated with exposure to hazardous substances from waste sites, unplanned releases, and other sources of pollution present in the environment. There are more than 2,000 toxic substances found at hazardous waste sites in the United States. ATSDR has developed a prioritized list of 275 substances that pose the greatest hazard to human health. In conducting its work ATSDR has identified data gaps in knowledge about the toxicity of various hazardous substances as well as gaps in human exposure characterization. As part of its mandate, ATSDR initiated a Substance-Specific Applied Research Program (SSARP) to address these data gaps. The ATSDR Great Lakes Human Health Effects Research Program (GLHHERP) is a congressionally-mandated research program that characterizes exposure to persistent toxic substances and investigates the potential for adverse health outcome in at-risk populations. The researchfindings from this program in the areas of exposure, sociodemographic data, and health effects have significant public health implications for ATSDR's Superfund research activities. PMID:12018016
The dwindling supply of new antibiotics largely reflects regulatory and commercial challenges, but also a failure of discovery. In the 1990s the pharmaceutical industry abandoned its classical ways of seeking antibiotics and instead adopted a strategy that combined genomics with high-throughput screening of existing compound libraries. Too much emphasis was placed on identifying targets and molecules that bound to them, and too little emphasis was placed on the ability of these molecules to permeate bacteria, evade efflux and avoid mutational resistance; moreover, the compound libraries were systematically biased against antibiotics. The sorry result is that no antibiotic found by this strategy has yet entered clinical use and many major pharmaceutical companies have abandoned antibiotic discovery. Although a raft of start-up companies-variously financed by venture capital, charity or public money--are now finding new antibiotic compounds (some of them very promising in vitro or in early trials), their development through Phase III depends on financial commitments from large pharmaceutical companies, where the discouraging regulatory environment and the poor likely return on investment remain paramount issues. PMID:21700626
Research focused on identification and collection of a suitable database, identification of parametric representation of the time series seismic waveforms, and the training and testing of neural networks for seismic event classification. It was necessary to utilize seismic events that had a high degree of reliability for accurate training of the neural networks. The seismic waveforms were obtained from the Center for Seismic Studies and were organized into smaller databases for training and classification purposes. Unprocessed seismograms were not well suited for presentation to a neural network because of the large number of data points required to represent a seismic event in the time domain. The parametric representation of the seismic events in some cases provided adequate information for accurate event classification, while significantly reducing the minimum size of the neural network. Various networks have achieved classification rates ranging from 88 percent classification of three class problem to 75 percent for the 5 class problem. The results vary dependent on the number of classes and the method of parametric transformations utilized. Multiple tests were performed in order to statistically average the training and classification rates. Test summaries presented and individual test results are given in the appendix.
Cercone, James A.; Clark, W. M.; Fuller, J. J.; Goodman, Stephan; Smith, Don J.
The purpose of the paper is to discuss means of assisting terminally ill patients in seeking for sources of meaning and hope, alongside the acknowledgment that their lifespan is short.Psycho-spiritual aspects make a substantial component patients suffering from incurable illness have to deal with. Evaluating and mapping the causes and expressions of psychological--spiritual suffering may assist in tailoring appropriate strategies of distress relief. Therefore, interventions should be given in accordance with their specific focus of difficulties, as well as with wishes and needs. Appropriate interventions in palliative psychotherapeutic rapport are inspired by identifying new sources for meaning in current life (sometimes, aided by past experiences or future visions). Reinforcing sources for meaning may attempt in providing patients amongst:--equilibrium, between suffering and sorrow (which sometimes take over the patient's world), and on the other hand, new experiences, sense of satisfaction and fulfillment. Individual's acknowledgment that he is not completely withdrawn from the circle of life, and yet significance and fulfillment in life still exists. For a holistic meaning ? centered intervention it is advisable to simultaneously integrate two central axes: the existential analysis, inspired by concepts driven from Frenkl's Logotherapy, such as freedom of choice, personal responsibility, inner truth, hope and transcendentalism; the operative axis, enhancing meaning and hope by assisting patient's wishes come true. Patients are aware, many times, that those wishes may be their last one, therefore perceive their fulfillment as crucial for their sense of meaning. Moreover, those wishes may elevate patient and family's spirit and reduce risk of demoralization. Whereas existential--spiritual interventions are recommended to be given by qualified professional therapists, the operation of fulfilling wishes is feasible by everyone, from family members to multi-disciplinary staff. Case illustrations for meaning--centered interventions will be discussed in the course of the paper. Cultural and traditional differences within the Israeli society, expressed in themes of work with patients, will lead to the conclusion, that there are many creative ways for researching meaning of life and sources for hope. PMID:20590354
When an inconsistency occurs in a pedigree, it may not be apparent which individual(s) are causing it. Here, a statistical method is described which identifies individuals most likely to have caused an inconsistency. The method is based on the sum of squared deviations between two predictors of an individual’s genotypes: (1) that given an individual’s own phenotype, and (2) that
The project was undertaken in order to examine the contribution of the Division of Research Resources' GCRCs over the past 20 years to major clinical applications of researchfindings. The GCRC Program Advisory Committee identified areas of significant me...
T. L. Goodfriend A. V. Chobanian H. D. Itskovitz M. I. New W. G. Walker
This project was undertaken in order to examine the contribution of the Division of Research Resources' GCRCs over the past 20 years to major clinical applications of researchfindings. The GCRC Program Advisory Committee identified areas of significant m...
B. M. Babior J. A. Archer R. P. Eaton J. W. Ensinck J. B. Field
The project was undertaken in order to examine the contribution of the Division of Research Resources' GCRCs over the past 20 years to major clinical applications of researchfindings. The GCRC Program Advisory Committee identified areas of significant me...
C. S. Hollander W. F. Crowley A. G. Frantz L. A. Frohman M. J. Kreek
The project was undertaken in order to examine the contribution of the Division of Research Resources' GCRCs over the past 20 years to major clinical applications of researchfindings. The GCRC Program Advisory Committee identified areas of significant me...
E. R. Stiehm D. C. DeVivo A. W. Brann D. A. Fisher W. A. Hodson
If you are a therapist, how knowledgeable are you and how knowledgeable do you need to be about psychotherapy researchfindings? In this study, the authors examined practicing psychologists’ knowledge of general psychotherapy researchfindings. Results revealed that some psychologists showed excellent familiarity with this body of outcome research, but many did not achieve this standard. Not infrequently, psychologists believed
Using a national sample (n = 571) of substance abuse treatment providers affiliated with the Clinical Trials Network, we examined the contribution of several factors – demographic, attitudes and involvement in research – toward providers’ willingness to use researchfindings in practice. The sample included medical staff, social workers, psychologists and counselors. Using a multiple linear regression model, we examined the impact of involvement in research and willingness to use researchfindings in practice. Providers involved in research were more willing to use findings in practice (p<.001). Latino/as were less willing (p<.05). Providers with favorable attitudes toward evidence-based practices and whose agencies supported professional growth were more willing to use findings (p<.01). Involvement in research may enhance providers’ willingness to use findings in practice and improve quality of services. Results underscore the need for providing opportunities for all providers to engage in substance abuse treatment research, particularly racial/ethnic minority providers.
Pinto, Rogerio M.; Yu, Gary; Spector, Anya Y.; Gorroochurn, Prakash; McCarty, Dennis
The revised Stetler model of research utilization has six phases: preparation, validation, comparative evaluation, decision making, translation/application, and evaluation. It can be used to facilitate application of nursing researchfindings at the practitioner level. (JOW)
Context To improve patient care, athletic training clinicians and researchers should work together to translate researchfindings into clinical practice. Problems with patient care observed in clinical practice should be translated into research frameworks, where they can be studied. Practice-based research networks (PBRNs) provide a compelling model for linking clinicians and researchers so they can conduct translational research to improve patient care. Objective To describe (1) the translational research model, (2) practice-based research as a mechanism for translating researchfindings into clinical practice, (3) the PBRN model and infrastructure, (4) the research potential using the PBRN model, and (5) protection of human participants in PBRN research. Description Translational research is the process of transforming researchfindings into health behavior that ultimately serves the public and attempts to bridge the gap between research and clinical practice. Practice-based research represents the final step in the translational research continuum and describes research conducted by providers in clinical practices. The PBRNs are characterized by an organizational framework that transcends a single site or study and serves as the clinical research “laboratory” for conducting comparative-effectiveness studies using patient-oriented measures. The PBRN approach to research has many benefits, including enhanced generalizability of results, pooling of resources, rapid patient recruitment, and collaborative opportunities. However, multisite research also brings challenges related to the protection of human participants and institutional review board oversight. Clinical and Research Advantages Athletic training studies frequently include relatively few participants and, consequently, are able to detect only large effects. The incidence of injury at a single site is sufficiently low that gathering enough data to adequately power a treatment study may take many years. Collaborative efforts across diverse clinical practice environments can yield larger patient samples to overcome the limitations inherent in single-site research efforts.
Sauers, Eric L.; McLeod, Tamara C. Valovich; Bay, R. Curtis
Many veterans of the 1991 Gulf War (GW) have complained of somatic and cognitive symptoms that may be neurological in nature. However, whether or not changes in brain function are associated with GW service continues to be debated. Studies of GW veterans using objective, performance-based neuropsychological measures have yielded inconsistentfindings, with those indicating deficits among GW veterans typically revealing only relatively mild levels of neuropsychological impairment. Further, performances on objective neuropsychological tasks show little correspondence to subjective perceptions of cognitive functioning. Although preliminary magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies demonstrate reduced N-acetylaspartate-to-creatine (NAA/Cr) ratio in select brain regions among GW veterans who report health concerns, this work requires further replication with larger, more representative samples. There is no evidence from neuroimaging studies of a non-specific effect of GW service or of changes in brain structure or function related to health status when conventional radiological methods are used. Owing to the paucity of objective exposure, baseline health data, and the now significant time elapsed since the GW, aetiological issues may never be fully resolved. Therefore, research addressing clinical management of GW veterans with neuropsychological dysfunction and neuroimaging abnormalities may prove more fruitful than exclusive focus on aetiology.
Because researchfind ings often do not have direct or immediate relevance to IS professionals in indus- try, the question arises as to how those findings should be disseminated to them in a suitable form at such time as they do become relevant. A central argument of this paper is that the traditional mecha- nisms whereby academic researchers disseminate their
Research in the areas of second language (L2) pragmatics and of conversational humor has increased in recent decades, resulting in a strong base of knowledge from which applied linguists can draw information for teaching purposes and undertake future research. Yet, whereas empirical findings in L2 pragmatics are beginning to find their way into…
Operations research in the area of family planning has proved useful in identifying barriers to contraceptive use, resolving these problems, and testing new approaches to service delivery. The results of operations research in six English-speaking Caribbe...
|Total circular triad scores (TCT) derived from the pair-comparison Minnesota Importance Questionnaire (MIQ) were used to study the relationship between inconsistency, and both internal consistency reliability and stability. Stability estimates (and Hoyt Coefficients) were computed for each of nine groups (retest internals from immediate retest to…
The development of most large and complex systems necessarily involves many people - each with their own perspectives on the system defined by their knowledge, responsibilities, and commitments. To address this we have advocated distributed development of specification s from multiple perspectives. However, this leads to problems of identifying and handling inconsistencies between such perspectives. Maintaining absolute consistency is not
Anthony Finkelstein; Dov M. Gabbay; Anthony Hunter; Jeff Kramer; Bashar Nuseibeh
The present essay outlines how mixed methods research can be used to enhance the interpretation of significant findings. First, we define what we mean by significance in educational evaluation research. With regard to quantitative-based research, we define the four types of significance: statistical significance, practical significance, clinical…
Epidemiological data, derived from quantitative studies, provide important information about the causes, prevalence, risk correlates, treatment and prevention of diseases, and health issues at a population level. However, public health issues are complex in nature and quantitative researchfindings are insufficient to support practitioners and administrators in making evidence-informed decisions. Upshur's Synthetic Model of Evidence (2001) situates qualitative researchfindings as a credible source of evidence for public health practice. This article answers the following questions: (1) where does qualitative research fit within the paradigm of evidence-based practice and (2) how can qualitative research be used by public health professionals? Strategies for using qualitative researchfindings instrumentally, conceptually, and symbolically are identified by applying Estabrooks' (1999) conceptual structure of research utilization. Different research utilization strategies are illustrated through the use of research examples from the field of work on intimate partner violence against women. Recommendations for qualitative researchers disseminating findings and for public health practitioners/policy makers considering the use of qualitative findings as evidence to inform decisions are provided. PMID:16684207
BACKGROUND: Addressing deficiencies in the dissemination and transfer of research-based knowledge into routine clinical practice is high on the policy agenda both in the UK and internationally. However, there is lack of clarity between funding agencies as to what represents dissemination. Moreover, the expectations and guidance provided to researchers vary from one agency to another. Against this background, we performed
Paul M Wilson; Mark Petticrew; Mike W Calnan; Irwin Nazareth
This report contains citations of publications for the years 1979-1982 on research conducted or supported by the Environmental Research Laboratory-Duluth. All published material has been organized into two major categories: (1) Journal Articles, Book Chapters, Proceedings, etc., and (2) EPA Research Reports. The report is organized by year with all journal articles, book chapters, proceedings, etc., for a given year appearing before the EPA research reports for the same year; within each category publications are listed alphabetically by author. Authors of the publications listed include ERL-Duluth laboratory staff members and scientists at universities, in industry, and at other facilities who received research funding under the auspices of the Environmental Research Laboratory-Duluth. Limited quantities of reprints are available for those articles identified by ERL-Duluth reprint number in parentheses following the citation. These can be obtained by writing to: Librarian, ERL-Duluth, U.S. EPA, 6201 Congdon Boulevard, Duluth, MN 55804. EPA research reports can be obtained by writing to: National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22151. All other articles are not available from ERL-Duluth or NTIS, but can be found in most major libraries.
|Small school systems can conduct effective research and evaluation programs by forming university-based consortia of school systems that perform these functions and share findings. Mississippi State University conducts such a task force program approach with member schools. (CJH)|
This report summarizes and integrates the findings of research studies dealing with the military General Educational Development (GED) program. The major areas covered include: (1) the field conduct of the GED PROGRAM, (2) characteristics of GED program p...
... Up forJoslin Newsletters News Release Joslin researchersfind new cause of cardiac damage after heart attack in type 1 diabetes Study reveals new targets for diagnosis and therapy Boston – June 13, ...
Inconsistency is commonplace in the real world and is an accepted part of life. Inconsistency is a multi-dimensional issue that includes: causes, types, interpretations, circumstances, desirability, detection approaches, handling strategies, and significance measures. In this paper, we focus our attention on the desirability dimension for inconsistency. It turns out that not all inconsistencies are bad, some are even desirable. We
Designed to help educators locate the best, most up-to-date research and information available for decision making, this handbook focuses on computer searching of databases, manual searching of materials, and telephone searching of 'people networks.' A ra...
Background Addressing deficiencies in the dissemination and transfer of research-based knowledge into routine clinical practice is high on the policy agenda both in the UK and internationally. However, there is lack of clarity between funding agencies as to what represents dissemination. Moreover, the expectations and guidance provided to researchers vary from one agency to another. Against this background, we performed a systematic scoping to identify and describe any conceptual/organising frameworks that could be used by researchers to guide their dissemination activity. Methods We searched twelve electronic databases (including MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO), the reference lists of included studies and of individual funding agency websites to identify potential studies for inclusion. To be included, papers had to present an explicit framework or plan either designed for use by researchers or that could be used to guide dissemination activity. Papers which mentioned dissemination (but did not provide any detail) in the context of a wider knowledge translation framework, were excluded. References were screened independently by at least two reviewers; disagreements were resolved by discussion. For each included paper, the source, the date of publication, a description of the main elements of the framework, and whether there was any implicit/explicit reference to theory were extracted. A narrative synthesis was undertaken. Results Thirty-three frameworks met our inclusion criteria, 20 of which were designed to be used by researchers to guide their dissemination activities. Twenty-eight included frameworks were underpinned at least in part by one or more of three different theoretical approaches, namely persuasive communication, diffusion of innovations theory, and social marketing. Conclusions There are currently a number of theoretically-informed frameworks available to researchers that can be used to help guide their dissemination planning and activity. Given the current emphasis on enhancing the uptake of knowledge about the effects of interventions into routine practice, funders could consider encouraging researchers to adopt a theoretically-informed approach to their research dissemination.
Finds significant improvements (at both a Title I school and a middle-income school) in fourth-grade students' ability to find and use information after a year of research-strategy instruction that was integrated with the demands of inquiry-based content-area projects, rather than skills taught out of context. (SR)
|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the benefits, barriers and challenges of the transdisciplinary approach to training, and to present findings of a case analysis. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on the researchfindings of an experimental training program for Greek local government managers co-funded by the European…
In a field that has relied heavily on qualitative case studies we are now seeing a growing number of books and articles reporting findings from statistical research. In this article we compare and contrast findings from two major contributions.1 These studies converge on several important conclusions, and we begin by briefly reviewing these. But there are differences as well. Some
The Japanese Society for Occupational Mental Health has conducted research on assessment of the psychological load (i.e., stress) among workers. Investigations were conducted three times, and those were contract research projects assigned by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. In this project, the author was the primary researcher. In the latest research, a survey utilizing the Live Event Method was performed extensively nationwide; the survey covered 10,494 subjects (including 1,977 females) from all types of industry and occupation. The objective of this research was to reevaluate the Psychological Load Assessment Sheet used as an evaluation basis for the "Certification of workers' compensation related to mental disorders from psychological load." Two previous research investigations, conducted in 2002 and 2006, had suggested the need for such reevaluation. The outcomes revealed that, the longer the monthly overtime working hours, the higher the stress scores (in the range of 0 to 10), and the lower the appearance rate of stress. Subjects who performed 140 hours or more of overtime work per month, which fell under the category of "Extremely Excessive Overtime Work," showed 6.3 points, which was markedly high, and ranked fourth in the survey with 63 assessment items. The category, "Extremely Excessive Overtime Work," includes two working hour ranges, 120 hours or more and 160 hours or more; those working hour ranges were defined in the revision based on the latest research. Monthly overtime work of 120 hours or more, but less than 140 hours, was ranked ninth and scored 6.3 points. Monthly overtime work of 80 hours or more, but less than 100 hours, scored 5.3 points with a frequency of 14.2%. Based on the above results, new assessment items were added to the Psychological Load Assessment Sheet. This paper addresses and studies the issues explained above. PMID:23346811
Purpose: We reviewed the research literature on racial or ethnic diversity and end-of-life decision making in order to identify key findings and provide recommendations for future research. Design and Methods: We identified 33 empirical studies in which race or ethnicity was investigated as either a variable predicting treatment preferences or…
This paper reflects on European research on information systems as presented during the first ten years of the European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS). Based on an analysis of all papers published in the ECIS proceedings during the period 1993-2002, the paper presents initial findings regarding key aspects of European IS research activity.
Findings from an earlier study of traditional preservice teacher education were the basis of a research framework developed to examine an alternative inservice teacher education program. The investigation assessed the utility of this framework in a career and technical environment. The qualitative case study design used 5 research questions reflecting the concepts identified in the earlier study. Data derived from
|Reviews Hanson's findings that laboratory research tends to demonstrate a positive correlation between attitudes and behavior while field research does not. This article, by adding date of publication, shows that the trend over time, presumably because of improved methodology, is toward more positive correlations in both settings. (Author/JAC)|
This paper investigates research methods for studies of school drop-outs and push-outs, populations that are very difficult\\u000a to find since they no longer have an institutional affiliation. The work argues that street corner research, which was in\\u000a favor among the early urban researchers of the Chicago school, may have a renewed role in these investigations. The details\\u000a of street corner
|Recent research indicates that low income adults and infants in the United States are more likely to be overweight than undernourished. Very possibly, the assumptions upon which food supplement programs are based are ill-founded. While many of the currently operating broadly conceived supplemental food programs achieve desirable collateral…
The disclosure of incidental findings, also called unsolicited findings, unexpected results, and secondary variants, is increasingly recognised as an issue in clinical and research genetics contexts. The rise of next generation sequencing methods has only intensified the issue, increasing the likelihood of incidental findings appearing. This review focuses on empirical research on the ethical issues involved. Electronic databases were searched for articles covering quantitative and qualitative research on the ethical issues involved in the disclosure of incidental findings in clinical and research genetics contexts. 16 articles were ultimately accepted for review. Data was extracted and synthesised on the factors that should be taken into account during the decision-making process surrounding the disclosure of an incidental finding in a genetics context. These factors include the possibility of disclosure, various practical and technical factors, and various ethical factors. We suggest the development of a decision-making tree, involving an exploration of the practical and ethical concerns raised by the studies. This is in our view the best way of handling the wide variety of both possible incidental findings and parties interested in the disclosure of incidental findings. PMID:24036277
Christenhusz, Gabrielle M; Devriendt, Koenraad; Dierickx, Kris
AIM: This article investigates attitudes towards and awareness of research and use of researchfindings among primary healthcare nurses, determinants of attitudes and evaluation of psychometric properties of an instrument measuring nurses' attitudes. BACKGROUND: The production of new knowledge is ongoing and the amount of research of relevance for health care has increased, but there remains a gap between what is known and what is done in practice. To enhance evidence-based practice and patient safety, the use of researchfindings needs to be encouraged and promoted. METHOD: An explanatory study using a cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2005-2006. The survey included items about background data and the instrument attitudes towards and awareness of research and development in nursing. 1054 nurses participated in the study. Factor analyses and Cronbach's alpha were used to evaluate internal structure and internal consistency of the instrument. RESULT: The nurses generally held positive attitudes towards research. Although most of the nurses reported using research in practice, 37% claimed that they never or rarely used researchfindings. Half of the respondents perceived they had the ability to analyse scientific reports/articles. This ability and research use were significant determinants of attitudes. Factor analysis of the scale resulted in a three-factor solution, which differs from the seven-factor structure previously identified by the originators of the instrument. CONCLUSION: Our results support the view that implementation of research is a complex process involving several factors. The different factor structure identified suggests that further work is needed on this instrument. PMID:23517064
Mixed methods research is increasingly being promoted in the health sciences as a way to gain more comprehensive understandings of how social processes and individual behaviours shape human health. Mixed methods research most commonly combines qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis strategies. Often, integrating findings from multiple methods is assumed to confirm or validate the findings from one method with the findings from another, seeking convergence or agreement between methods. Cases in which findings from different methods are congruous are generally thought of as ideal, while conflicting findings may, at first glance, appear problematic. However, the latter situation provides the opportunity for a process through which apparently discordant results are reconciled, potentially leading to new emergent understandings of complex social phenomena. This paper presents three case studies drawn from the authors’ research on HIV risk among injection drug users in which mixed methods studies yielded apparently discrepant results. We use these case studies (involving injection drug users [IDUs] using a needle/syringe exchange program in Los Angeles, California, USA; IDUs seeking to purchase needle/syringes at pharmacies in Tijuana, Mexico; and young street-based IDUs in San Francisco, CA, USA) to identify challenges associated with integrating findings from mixed methods projects, summarize lessons learned, and make recommendations for how to more successfully anticipate and manage the integration of findings. Despite the challenges inherent in reconciling apparently conflicting findings from qualitative and quantitative approaches, in keeping with others who have argued in favour of integrating mixed methods findings, we contend that such an undertaking has the potential to yield benefits that emerge only through the struggle to reconcile discrepant results and may provide a sum that is greater than the individual qualitative and quantitative parts.
Wagner, Karla D.; Davidson, Peter J.; Pollini, Robin A.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Washburn, Rachel; Palinkas, Lawrence A.
Incidental findings arise when clinically relevant genetic information about a research participant or patient is identified outside the scope of the original research objective or diagnostic test being performed. These findings can relate to carrier status for a heritable condition, misattributed paternity or increased susceptibility to a medical condition. The decision whether to disclose these findings to the research subject or patient is underpinned by many ethical, moral, and potentially legal considerations. There is an urgent need for definitive guidelines for researchers and healthcare professionals. We performed a systematic review of the relevant literature concerning the disclosure of incidental findings, based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses recommendations, using the prescribed flowchart and checklist. At initial screening, 473 articles were retrieved. The inclusion and exclusion criteria aimed at obtaining data that were relevant and of sufficient quality were applied and a total of four relevant studies were identified, comprising 2,680 individual participants and 1,023 guidance documents. Major themes emerging from the included articles include patient autonomy, patient welfare, harmful secrets, and genetic literacy. The lack of relevant studies emphasizes the urgent need for empirical investigations into the disclosure or non-disclosure of genetic incidental findings, and the provision of guidelines to assist healthcare professionals and researchers. PMID:23166054
Human factors (HF) studies are increasingly important as technology infuses into clinical settings. No nursing research reviews exist in this area. The authors conducted a systematic review on designs of clinical technology, 34 articles with 50 studies met inclusion criteria. Findings were classified into 3 categories on the basis of HF research goals. The majority of studies evaluated effectiveness of clinical design; efficiency was fewest. Current research ranges across many interface types examined with no apparent pattern or obvious rationale. Future research should expand types, settings, and participants; integrate displays; and expand outcome variables. PMID:19707093
Objective: To characterize the frequency and severity of incidental findings in brain MRIs of young and older adult research volunteers, and to provide an evaluation of the ethical challenges posed by the detection of such findings. Methods: The authors reviewed 151 research MRI scans obtained retrospectively from subjects recruited to studies as healthy volunteers. Incidental findings were classified into four categories: no referral, routine, urgent, or immediate referral. p Values for significance were computed from ?2 tests of contingency. Results: Of 151 studies, the authors found an overall occurrence of incidental findings having required referral of 6.6%. By age, there were more findings in the older cohort (aged >60 years) than in the younger cohort (p < 0.05) and in more men than women in the older cohort (p < 0.001). Three of four (75%) findings in the younger cohort were classified in the urgent referral category; 100% of the findings in the older cohort were classified as routine (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The significant presence but different characteristics of incidental findings in young and older subjects presumed to be neurologically healthy suggest that standards of practice are needed to guide investigators in managing and communicating their discovery.
Peace, both personal and global, resides in understanding. Verbatim theatre is introduced as a vehicle for translating researchfindings to promote understanding and thereby, promote health. By shifting our translation lens from "bench to bedside" to "field to forum," new opportunities arise for moving nursing research-findings to an engaged audience. Stories from Pearl Harbor and Hiroshima survivors were woven into the verbatim performance, With Their Voices Raised. Analysis of audience members' reflections after the performance suggests that verbatim theatre created a connection based in openness, engagement, and trust that informed understanding and raised awareness about peace processes. PMID:23907299
Liehr, Patricia; Morris, Kate; Leavitt, Mary Ann; Takahashi, Ryutaro
This review examines researchfindings in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis in light of the current debate about this chronic multiple?symptom, multiorgan, multisystem illness and the conflicting views in medicine. These issues cannot be separated from the political opinions and assertions that conflict with science and medicine, and will be part of this review as they have enormous consequences for scientific and medical research, patients, clinicians, carers and policy makers.
The debate over return of individual research results and incidental findings to study participants is a key frontier in research ethics and practice. This is fundamentally a problem of translational science-a question of when information about an individual that is generated in research should be communicated for clinical attention, particularly as technologies such as whole-genome sequencing and whole-exome sequencing are increasingly used in clinical care. There is growing consensus that investigators should offer participants at least those individual findings of high clinical importance and actionability. Increasing attention to what information biobanks and secondary researchers owe people who provide data and specimens offers an opportunity to treat these source individuals as research partners. Cutting-edge issues include return of results in pediatric populations and return to kin and family, both before and after the death of the proband, as well as how to manage incidental findings in clinical sequencing. Progress will require an understanding of the continuum linking research and clinical care and developing standards and models for return. PMID:23875796
|Discussed are the issues of inconsistencies and compartmentalization and the use of inconsistencies in the classroom. Included are discussions on paradoxes, the naive student, logical reasoning ability, and the development of the students' cognitive structures. (KR)|
Consistency management is a major requirement in software engineering. Although this problem has attracted significant attention\\u000a in the literature, support for inconsistency resolution is still not standard for modeling tools. In this paper, we introduce\\u000a explicit side-effect expressions for each inconsistency resolution and costs for each inconsistency type. This allows a fine-grained\\u000a evaluation of each possible inconsistency resolution for a
Next to alcohol, marijuana is the most widely used drug among college students. Recent surveys of high reliability indicate that within the college age group approximately 21 million have smoked marijuana, and several millions smoke it daily. Researchfindings document clearly that marijuana has distinct adverse biological and psychological effects, even when smoked in moderate doses, and for short periods
ObjectivesLarge databases of published medical research can support clinical decision making by providing physicians with the best available evidence. The time required to obtain optimal results from these databases using traditional systems often makes accessing the databases impractical for clinicians. This article explores whether a hybrid approach of augmenting traditional information retrieval with knowledge-based methods facilitates finding practical clinical advice
Charles A Sneiderman; Dina Demner-Fushman; Marcelo Fiszman; Nicholas C. Ide; Thomas C. Rindflesch
Recent findings on subjective well-being (SWB) are presented, and I describe the important questions for future research that these raise. Worldwide predictors of SWB such as social support and fulfillment of basic needs have been uncovered, and there are large differences in SWB between societies. A number of culture-specific predictors of SWB…
The purpose of the synthesis paper is to review, summarize, and discuss the significance of available researchfindings on the frontline long-term care (LTC) workforce since 1999, in both home and community-based and nursing home settings. This paper buil...
|Research on educational facilities is important to help industry and school districts make decisions on funding and maintaining good educational environments for their students. This paper presents findings from three syntheses of 232 studies on educational facilities and funding decisions, followed by discussions of practical solutions designed…
Scientists at Fox Chase Cancer Center in Philadelphia have come one step closer to developing the first treatment to target a key pathway in lymphoma. The new findings were announced at the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2012 on Tuesday, April 3.
Research on educational facilities is important to help industry and school districts make decisions on funding and maintaining good educational environments for their students. This paper presents findings from three syntheses of 232 studies on educational facilities and funding decisions, followed by discussions of practical solutions designed…
Researchers at the Kimmel Cancer Center at Jefferson have demonstrated for the first time that the metabolic biomarker MCT4 directly links clinical outcomes with a new model of tumor metabolism that has patients â€śfeedingâ€ť their cancer cells. Their findings were published online March 15 in Cell Cycle.
This article discusses empirical findings and conceptual elaborations of the last 10 years in strategic niche management research (SNM). The SNM approach suggests that sustainable innovation journeys can be facilitated by creating technological niches, i.e. protected spaces that allow the experimentation with the co-evolution of technology, user practices, and regulatory structures. The assumption was that if such niches were constructed
|Reviews recent empirical studies that examine the short- and long-term sequelae of physical child maltreatment (PCM). Assesses the current status of research examining PCM's impact on children's development and psychosocial functioning. Major findings are discussed in the context of pertinent qualifications of existing evidence. (over 140…
Summarizes interim findings of a policy research project in Tasmania, Australia, aimed at producing educative accountability options for identifying processes and criteria to improve learning, teaching, and leadership. Identifies preferred accountability criteria and processes in Tasmania's locally managed school district, maps patterns of…
This paper demonstrates how case stories can be used to disseminate the findings of several case studies on negotiating accommodations in the workplace. It highlights the power of interactive technology and of the partnership between the researchers and the Canadian Council for Rehabilitation and Work (CCRW). The paper describes the process of…
It has been reported that the ability to solve syllogisms is highly "g"-loaded. In the present study, using a self-administered shortened version of a syllogism-solving test, the "BAROCO Short," we examined whether robust findings generated by previous research regarding IQ scores were also applicable to "BAROCO Short" scores. Five…
|"Research Doctorate Programs in the Biomedical Sciences: Selected Findings from the NRC Assessment" examines data on the biomedical sciences programs to gather additional insight about the talent, training environment, outcomes, diversity, and international participation in the biomedical sciences workforce. This report supports an earlier…
Lorden, Joan F., Ed.; Kuh, Charlotte V., Ed.; Voytuk, James A., Ed.
A growing body of scientific research suggests connec- tions between religion, spirituality, and both mental and physical health. The findings are particularly strong in patients with severe or chronic illnesses who are having stressful psychologic and social changes, as well as existential struggles related to meaning and purpose. Recent studies indicate that religious beliefs influence med- ical decisions, such as
|This article considers the appeal of cognitive neuroscience research to the general public within the context of the deep puzzles involved in using our minds to understand how our minds work. It offers a few promising examples of findings that illuminate the ways of the mind and reveal these workings to be counter-intuitive with our subjective…
|Reinterpreted are findings obtained from cognitive preference test (CPT) literature and the author's personal research, in which the author states that data lend themselves to alternative explanations, not necessarily connected with cognitive preferences, and perhaps related more to "familiarity with content." Several suggestions for further CPT…
An ?-inconsistent theory of the cumulative hierarchy of ZFC is presented, using an expanded language that includes a truth-predicate, with formulas of the language of ZF being represented by urelements. This ?-inconsistency makes it possible to distinguish, within the cumulative hierarchy itself, between sets and proper classes, taking the latter to be collections so large that they lead to ?-inconsistency.
ABSTRACT Managing inconsistency in databases has long been recognized as an important problem. One of the most promising approaches to coping with inconsistency in databases is the framework,of database repairs, which has been the topic of an extensive in- vestigation over the past several years. Intuitively, a repair of an inconsistent database is a consistent database that differs from the
Based on earlier findings that maladjusted Ss come from families with high interparental conflict and dominance by the parent opposite in sex to the S's, a model was developed that predicted depression in female college students. Depression was predicted to depend on parental conflict, inconsistent love from the father, and the Conflict?×?Dominance?×?Father's Inconsistency interaction. Questionnaire measures of father's and mother's
|Between 2004 and 2008, the Council for Advancement of Adult Literacy (CAAL) published four lengthy research reports on projects to examine the nature and effectiveness of Adult Education English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) programs at several community colleges. The research was conducted by field studies, interviews, and the review of a large…
...Notifying the respondent of findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the...Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues Â§ 93.405...
The use of biobanks in biomedical research has grown considerably in recent years. As a result of the increasing analysis of tissue samples stored in biobanks, there has also been an increase in the probability of discovering-in addition to the research target-incidental findings (IF). We identified 23 laws, policies and guidelines from international, regional and national organizations that provide guidance or identify the need for the disclosure of IF to research participants. We analyzed these instruments to determine their contemplation of the funding considerations for the disclosure of IF, examining their guidance for who discloses and the extent of researcher responsibilities. We found that the available normative documents provide little guidance to researchers and biobanks for how they should address cost and funding concerns associated with IF disclosure. It is therefore essential that the research and policy communities think through the financial implications of imposing an ethical responsibility to disclose IF. Concerted efforts should be made by policymakers, ethicists, researchers, clinicians and research institutions to develop detailed funding recommendations, potentially universal in application, to aid in the disclosure of IF, and we provide recommendations on steps that can be taken to ensure full consideration of these issues. PMID:23662709
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of recent outsourcing and public-private partnership (PPPs) arrangements on the consistency of professional employment in health care. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A case study methodology is applied. Findings – The paper finds that multiple arrangements for employment within the ISTC creates numerous sources for inconsistency in employment: across the workplace,
The Public Population Project in Genomics and Society (PłG) is a not-for profit international consortium with members from more than 40 countries. Its objective is to lead, catalyze, and co-ordinate international efforts and expertise in order to optimize the use of population studies, biobanks, research databases, and other similar health and social science research infrastructures. The year 2011-2012 witnessed a plethora of special issues of journals on the return of results but few discussed the particular situation of population studies that serve as resources for future unspecified research. PłG considers it important to propose a policy that distinguishes between the contexts of population research and disease (clinical) research involving patients and then delineates actual and future obligations. The objectives of this Policy Statement are to: (1) delineate the particular characteristics of population studies, (2) distinguish the circumstances surrounding access by researchers to such studies, and (3) develop a framework for the return of research results and incidental findings. PMID:22781095
Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Deschęnes, Mylčne; Zawati, Ma'n H; Tassé, Anne Marie
One of the biggest obstacles to progress in modern pharmaceutical research is the difficulty of integrating all available researchfindings into effective therapies for humans. Studies of traditionally used pharmacologically active plants and other substances in traditional medicines may be valuable sources of previously unknown compounds with therapeutic actions. However, the integration of findings from traditional medicines can be fraught with difficulties and misunderstandings. This article proposes an approach to use linked open data and Semantic Web technologies to address the heterogeneous data integration problem. The approach is based on our initial experiences with implementing an integrated web of data for a selected use-case, i.e., the identification of plant species used in Chinese medicine that indicate potential antidepressant activities. PMID:21167050
Farm-to-school programs are increasing in number across the United States, yet research and evaluation of programs is limited, with only a few studies published in refereed journals. For this article we reviewed 38 studies and report on 15 studies that met the inclusion criteria. These preliminary findings are related to the impacts of farm-to-school programs on behavior of students, school
This article reviews recent empirical studies that examine the short- and long-term sequelae of physical child maltreatment (PCM). The current status of research examining the impact of PCM on children's development (e.g., medical, cognitive) and psychosocial functioning (e.g., psychiatric disorders, behavioral, interpersonal, academic, affective) is reviewed. Major findings are discussed in the context of pertinent qualifications of existing evidence. To
For the health education profession in the United States, role delineation research has been ongoing to identify valid professional competencies as the basis for workforce development. During 1998-2004, a multi-phase national research study, the National Health Educator Competencies Update Project (CUP), was designed to re-verify the role of the entry-level health educator, and further define and verify the role of advanced level health educators. The CUP findings are the evidence that has influenced the professional preparation, credentialing, and professional development of health educators. The lessons learned include the importance of employing role delineation research with a discipline-specific representative sample to appropriately affect workforce development and sustainability through an empirically-based model. PMID:21450972
While strategies for handling unusual and possibly clinically significant anatomical findings on brain scans of research volunteers have been developed and implemented across neuroimaging laboratories worldwide, few concrete steps have been taken to consider the next frontier: functional anomalies. Drawing on the genetics literature, early work in neuroimaging considered actionability to be a driving force for determining if and when findings should be disclosed to individuals in whom they are detected, as inherent uncertainty raises potential ethical dilemmas of misdiagnosing and mislabelling people as patients. Here we consider the possibility of incidental findings in brain function during the resting state. Our approach does not anchor the resting state as the sine qua non of functional incidental findings, but as a path to thinking about where they may emerge in the future and how our professional communities need to think about thinking about them. We suggest that considering the issues proactively today, within a framework that is maximally flexible and open to modification, is better than responding reactively after the fact and with no framework at all. We argue that there is a duty to consider possible incidental findings despite the ambiguities of data interpretation, while working hard to prevent unnecessary alarm. PMID:22378134
Objectives Incidental findings (IF) are becoming increasingly common due to the proliferation of imaging research. IFs can be life-changing for “healthy” volunteers. This study examined variation in IF management in UK research studies of healthy volunteers, including comparison with ethical and legal guidelines, thus providing baseline data and informing future practice. Methods Questionnaire of participant background [medical/non-medical; radiologist/non-radiologist; years as principal investigator (PI)], type of research (involving children or not), institutional policy, volunteer information, radiologist involvement in reporting scans and IF disclosure mechanisms. Investigator's current and perceived “ideal” practice was examined. Participants were PIs performing imaging research of healthy volunteers approved by UK ethics committees (2006–2009). Results 63/146 (43%) surveys completed. 54/61 (88.5%) had site-specific guidelines. Information commonly provided to volunteers should IF be found: personal data (51/62; 82%), contingency plans (54/62; 87%) and disclosure to general practitioner (GP)/treating physician (47/62; 76%). PIs used different strategies for image review. Commonest: radiologist reports research scans only when researcher suspicious of IF [15/57 (26%) compared with 5/28 (16%) in ideal practice]. Commonest ideal reporting strategy: routine reporting by specialist radiologists [9/28 (29%) compared with 8/57 (14%) in current practice]. 49/56 (87.5%) have a standardised disclosure contingency plan, usually involving GP. PIs most commonly disclosed IFs to volunteers when judged relevant (27/58; 47%), most commonly face to face (22/54; 41%), by volunteer's GP (26/60; 43%). Background of PI influenced consent, reporting and disclosure practice. Conclusion There is wide variation in handling IFs in UK imaging research. Much of the current practice contravenes the vague existing legal and ethical guidelines, and is unlikely to be in the best interests of volunteers or researchers.
Booth, T C; Waldman, A D; Wardlaw, J M; Taylor, S A; Jackson, A
Background Kangaroo mother care (KMC) is a safe and effective method of caring for low birth weight infants and is promoted for its potential to improve newborn survival. Many countries find it difficult to take KMC to scale in healthcare facilities providing newborn care. KMC Ghana was an initiative to scale up KMC in four regions in Ghana. Researchfindings from two outreach trials in South Africa informed the design of the initiative. Two key points of departure were to equip healthcare facilities that conduct deliveries with the necessary skills for KMC practice and to single out KMC for special attention instead of embedding it in other newborn care initiatives. This paper describes the contextualisation and practical application of previous researchfindings and the results of monitoring the progress of the implementation of KMC in Ghana. Methods A three-phase outreach intervention was adapted from previous researchfindings to suit the local setting. A more structured system of KMC regional steering committees was introduced to drive the process and take the initiative forward. During Phase I, health workers in regions and districts were oriented in KMC and received basic support for the management of the outreach. Phase II entailed the strengthening of the regional steering committees. Phase III comprised a more formal assessment, utilising a previously validated KMC progress-monitoring instrument. Results Twenty-six out of 38 hospitals (68?%) scored over 10 out of 30 and had reached the level of ‘evidence of practice’ by the end of Phase III. Seven hospitals exceeded expected performance by scoring at the level of ‘evidence of routine and institutionalised practice.’ The collective mean score for all participating hospitals was 12.07. Hospitals that had attained baby-friendly status or had been re-accredited in the five years before the intervention scored significantly better than the rest, with a mean score of 14.64. Conclusion The KMC Ghana initiative demonstrated how researchfindings regarding successful outreach for the implementation of KMC could be transferred to a different context by making context-appropriate adaptations to the model.
|A study investigated the measurement of organizational decline in 82 universities where objective and perceptual measures of decline appeared to contradict each other. Results suggest institutions with objectively-measured decline without perception of decline are characterized by processes of "decline as crisis," while institutions with…
How do young children view science? Do these views reflect cultural stereotypes? When do these views develop? These fundamental questions in the field of science education have rarely been studied with the population of preschool children. One main reason is the lack of an appropriate research instrument that addresses preschool children's developmental competencies. Extensive body of research has pointed at the significance of early childhood experiences in developing positive attitudes and interests toward learning in general and the learning of science in particular. Theoretical and empirical research suggests that stereotypical views of science may be replaced by authentic views following inquiry science experience. However, no preschool science intervention program could be designed without a reliable instrument that provides baseline information about preschool children's current views of science. The current study presents preschool children's views of science as gathered from a pioneering research tool. This tool, in the form of a computer "game," does not require reading, writing, or expressive language skills and is operated by the children. The program engages children in several simple tasks involving picture recognition and yes/no answers in order to reveal their views about science. The study was conducted with 120 preschool children in two phases and found that by the age of 4 years, participants possess an emergent concept of science. Gender and school differences were detected. Findings from this interdisciplinary study will contribute to the fields of early childhood, science education, learning technologies, program evaluation, and early childhood curriculum development.
Although there are numerous position papers on the issues and challenges surrounding disclosure of incidental genomic findings involving children, there is very little research. To fill this gap, the purpose of this study was to explore the perspectives of multiple professional (N?=?103) and public (N?=?63) stakeholders using both interviews and focus groups. Using qualitative analysis, we identified one overarching theme, "It's hard for us; it's hard for them," and three subthemes/questions: "What to disclose?," "Who gets the information?," and "What happens later?" Perspectives differed between professional (Institutional Review Board chairs, clinicians, and researchers) and public stakeholders. While professionals focused on the complexities of what to disclose, the lay public stated that parents should have all information laid out for them. Professionals pondered multiple parent and child situations, while the public identified parents as informational gatekeepers who know their children best. Professionals described the potential requirement for follow-up over time as a logistical "nightmare," while the public believed that parents have the responsibility for managing their children's health information over time. However, the parent role as gatekeeper was seen as time limited and in need of professional support and backup. Our findings present a case for needed dialogue around what we propose as an "ethically important moment," with the goal of protecting and respecting the viewpoints of all stakeholders when policies regarding children are developed. PMID:23572417
Driessnack, Martha; Daack-Hirsch, Sandra; Downing, Nancy; Hanish, Alyson; Shah, Lisa L; Alasagheirin, Mohammed; Simon, Christian M; Williams, Janet K
The general hypothesis that mothers' inconsistent discipline can cause children to misbehave was examined. Mothers, who were otherwise engaged in a telephone conversation, were instructed to respond to toddlers' inappropriate demands for attention with either consistent reprimands or with one of a variety of inconsistent strategies. Reprimanding half of the child's demands and providing positive attention to the rest of
The idea of ordering plays a basic role in commonsense reasoning for addressing three inter related tasks: inconsistency handling, belief revi sion and plausible inference. We study the behavior of non-monotonic inferences induced by various methods for priority-based handling of inconsistent sets of classical formulas. One of them is based on a lexicographic ordering of maximal consistent subsets, and refines
Salem Benferhat; Claudette Cayrol; Didier Dubois; Jérôme Lang; Henri Prade
Detecting inconsistent values received in a communication is a challenging problem faced in networked systems. Inconsistent values occur when a message contains incorrect data, even though the syntax is correct and there is no corruption due to transmission errors. In many cases, traditional schemes based on voting protocols or error detection codes cannot be used. An alternative is discovering implicit
The US Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES) conducted a Research Needs Workshop, referred to as ReNeW, in June 2009. The information developed at this workshop will help OFES develop a plan for US fusion research during the ITER era, roughly the next two decades. The workshop was organized in five Themes, one of which was Harnessing Fusion Power (or Fusion Power for short). The top level goal of the Fusion Power Theme was to identify the research needed to develop the knowledge to design and build, with high confidence, robust and reliable systems that can convert fusion products to useful forms of energy in a reactor environment, including a self-sufficient supply of tritium fuel. Each Theme was subsequently subdivided into Panels to address specific topics. The Fusion Power Panel topics were: Fusion Fuel Cycle; Power Extraction; Materials Science; Safety and Environment; and Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Inspectability (RAMI). Here we present the key findings of the Fusion Power Theme.
W. R. Meier; A. R. Raffray; R. J. Kurtz; N. B. Morley; W. T. Reiersen; Phil Sharpe; S. Willms
The US Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES) conducted a Research Needs Workshop, referred to as ReNeW, in June 2009. The information developed at this workshop will help OFES develop a plan for US fusion research during the ITER era, roughly the next two decades. The workshop was organized in five Themes, one of which was Harnessing Fusion Power (or Fusion Power for short). The top level goal of the Fusion Power Theme was to identify the research needed to develop the knowledge to design and build, with high confidence, robust and reliable systems that can convert fusion products to useful forms of energy in a reactor environment, including a self-sufficient supply of tritium fuel. Each Theme was subsequently subdivided into Panels to address specific topics. The Fusion Power Panel topics were: fusion fuel cycle; power extraction; materials science; safety and environment; and reliability, availability, maintainability and inspectability (RAMI). Here we present the key findings of the Fusion Power Theme.
Meier, W R; Raffray, A R; Kurtz, R J; Morley, N B; Reiersen, W T; Sharpe, P; Willms, S
Exome sequencing has identified the causes of several Mendelian diseases, although it has rarely been used in a clinical setting to diagnose the genetic cause of an idiopathic disorder in a single patient. We performed exome sequencing on a pedigree with several members affected with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), in an effort to identify candidate variants predisposing to this complex disease. While we did identify some rare variants that might predispose to ADHD, we have not yet proven the causality for any of them. However, over the course of the study, one subject was discovered to have idiopathic hemolytic anemia (IHA), which was suspected to be genetic in origin. Analysis of this subject’s exome readily identified two rare non-synonymous mutations in PKLR gene as the most likely cause of the IHA, although these two mutations had not been documented before in a single individual. We further confirmed the deficiency by functional biochemical testing, consistent with a diagnosis of red blood cell pyruvate kinase deficiency. Our study implies that exome and genome sequencing will certainly reveal additional rare variation causative for even well-studied classical Mendelian diseases, while also revealing variants that might play a role in complex diseases. Furthermore, our study has clinical and ethical implications for exome and genome sequencing in a research setting; how to handle unrelated findings of clinical significance, in the context of originally planned complex disease research, remains a largely uncharted area for clinicians and researchers.
Lyon, Gholson J.; Jiang, Tao; Van Wijk, Richard; Wang, Wei; Bodily, Paul Mark; Xing, Jinchuan; Tian, Lifeng; Robison, Reid J.; Clement, Mark; Lin, Yang; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Ying; Moore, Barry; Glessner, Joseph T.; Elia, Josephine; Reimherr, Fred; van Solinge, Wouter W.; Yandell, Mark; Hakonarson, Hakon; Wang, Jun; Johnson, William Evan; Wei, Zhi; Wang, Kai
Effective strategies for family engagement are essential in the implementation of models directed toward the application of researchfindings to primary prevention practice. Although there has been limited investigation of family engagement in preventive interventions for general populations, the research has yielded several preliminary findings that warrant further study. Notably, families in eligible general populations can differ to a significant
In a recent paper by [European Journal of Operational Research 97 (1997) 53–62] the lexicographic goal programming (LGP) method was developed to generate weights from inconsistent interval comparison matrices and a number of its properties and advantages as a weight determination technique were explored. It is shown in this paper that LGP is in fact defective in theory. Although the
Occupational identity is frequently used to explain why rural residents traditionally involved in natural resource-based occupations have no interest in tourism activities as a form of economic development, with researchers arguing these residents view tourism as inconsistent with the cultural traditions associated with more traditional rural occupations such as logging, mining, or agriculture. However, the link between resource-based occupational identity
Peggy Petrzelka; Richard S. Krannich; Joan M. Brehm
This research examined the impact of temporal focus on the recall of information that is consistent or inconsistent with an expectation. A consistent pattern of results across 4 experiments indicates that when Ss' expectations are temporally unfocused, better memory for consistent information is observed. In contrast, when expectations are focused in time—that is, Ss know when the relevant events are
The present study examines the impact of highly inconsistent input on language acquisition. The American deaf community provides a unique opportunity to observe children exposed to nonnative language models as their only linguistic input. This research is a detailed case study of one child acquiring his native language in such circumstances. It asks whether this child is capable of organizing
Reports of firms' behaviors with regard to corporate social responsibility (CSR) are often contrary to their stated standards of social responsibility. This research examines the effects of communication strategies a firm can use to mitigate the impact of these inconsistencies on consumer perceptions of corporate hypocrisy and subsequent beliefs about the firm's social responsibility and attitudes toward the firm. Study
An ongoing study at the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B) is based on the premise that public sector health and family planning programs can be improved through an assessment of the dysfunctional aspects of their operations, the development of problem-solving capabilities, and the transfer of strategies successfully tested in a small-scale pilot project. This paper reports findings from a field trial implemented in a subunit of the project area at an early stage of the project. Operational barriers to public sector program implementation are discussed with regard to the quantity of work, the quality of work, supplies and facilities, integration of health and family planning, and leadership, supervision, and decision making. Initial results of the ICDDR,B intervention on these managerial processes are also indicated. PMID:6495361
|This 2-volume set contains 10 papers, 5 in each volume, that review and evaluate findings from the Youth Research and Technical Assistance Project, whose purpose was not only to explore studies and evaluations related to youth training and employment programs but also to provide a broader synthesis of evidence, findings, and research from related…
Employment and Training Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.
This article reviews empirical support for treatments targeting women sexually assaulted during adolescence or adulthood. Thirty-two articles were located using data from 20 separate samples. Of the 20 samples, 12 targeted victims with chronic symptoms, three focused on the acute period post-assault, two included women with chronic and acute symptoms, and three were secondary prevention programs. The majority of studies focus on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and/or anxiety as treatment targets. Cognitive Processing Therapy and Prolonged Exposure have garnered the most support with this population. Stress Inoculation Training and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing also show some efficacy. Of the four studies that compared active treatments, few differences were found. Overall, cognitive behavioral interventions lead to better PTSD outcomes than supportive counseling does. However, even in the strongest treatments more than one-third of women retain a PTSD diagnosis at post-treatment or drop out of treatment. Discussion highlights the paucity of research in this area, methodological limitations of examined studies, generalizability of findings, and important directions for future research at various stages of trauma recovery.
This article reviews empirical support for treatments targeting women sexually assaulted during adolescence or adulthood. Thirty-two articles were located using data from 20 separate samples. Of the 20 samples, 12 targeted victims with chronic symptoms, three focused on the acute period post-assault, two included women with chronic and acute symptoms, and three were secondary prevention programs. The majority of studies focus on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and/or anxiety as treatment targets. Cognitive Processing Therapy and Prolonged Exposure have garnered the most support with this population. Stress Inoculation Training and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing also show some efficacy. Of the four studies that compared active treatments, few differences were found. Overall, cognitive behavioral interventions lead to better PTSD outcomes than supportive counseling does. However, even in the strongest treatments more than one-third of women retain a PTSD diagnosis at post-treatment or drop out of treatment. Discussion highlights the paucity of research in this area, methodological limitations of examined studies, generalizability of findings, and important directions for future research at various stages of trauma recovery. PMID:19442425
This paper reflects on the dissemination of potentially controversial research evidence about industrial air pollution and health in north-east England. It draws on a participant observation study of the local impact of a four-year epidemiological research programme in Teesside. The difficulties in and obstacles to disseminating researchfindings are explored. It may thus be described as a study of the
We examine the general issue of whether a scale dependent cosmological constant can be consistent with general covariance, a problem that arises naturally in the treatment of quantum gravitation, where coupling constants generally run as a consequence of renormalization group effects. The issue is approached from several points of view, which include the manifestly covariant functional integral formulation, covariant continuum perturbation theory about two dimensions, the lattice formulation of gravity, and the nonlocal effective action and effective field equation methods. In all cases we find that the cosmological constant cannot run with scale, unless general covariance is explicitly broken by the regularization procedure. Our results are expected to have some bearing on current quantum gravity calculations, but more generally should apply to phenomenological approaches to the cosmological vacuum energy problem.
|Through case studies, this paper explores problems teachers face when doing action research: for instance, teachers may misunderstand the research, mistrust university researchers, lack the time or adequate library resources to conduct research, lack theoretical guidance or knowledge of research methodology, and feel pressure or frustration…
We developed a method to systematically control experimental inconsistency, which is one of the most troublesome and difficult problems in high-throughput combinatorial experiments. The topic of experimental inconsistency is never addressed, even though all scientists in the field of combinatorial materials science face this very serious problem. Experimental inconsistency and material property were selected as dual objective functions that were simultaneously optimized. Specifically, in an attempt to search for promising phosphors with high reproducibility, photoluminescence (PL) intensity was maximized, and experimental inconsistency was minimized by employing a multiobjective evolutionary optimization-assisted combinatorial materials search (MOEO combinatorial material search) strategy. A tetravalent manganese-doped alkali earth germanium/titanium oxide system was used as a model system to be screened using MOEO combinatorial materials search. As a result of MOEO reiteration, we identified a halide-detached deep red phosphor with improved PL intensity and reliable reproducibility. PMID:19061418
...administrative matters pending at HHS. ORI found that Philippe Bois, Ph.D., former postdoctoral fellow, Department of Biochemistry, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, engaged in research misconduct in research funded by National Institute of...
Following Kydland and Prescott's (1977) seminal paper on time-inconsistency, a large literature has explored possible frameworks within which monetary policy could overcome this problem -- neatly illustrated in Barro and Gordon's (1983) model. In a stochastic world there appears to be a trade-off between the necessary `tying of hands' to conquer the effects of time-inconsistency and the desirability of flexible
The traditional concept of belief is analyzed and compared with a behavior analytic concept of belief. Beliefs and belief statements are differentiated and relationships between them are examined. The often troublesome inconsistencies in people's beliefs are examined in general and explained, including the phenomena of compartmentalization and repression. Social implications are pursued relative to both punishment for inconsistency in belief and counter-controls thwarting such punishment. The role of teachers in shaping beliefs is analyzed, and appropriate teaching strategies are reviewed.
The report presents the discussions and findings that took place during the GRI Gas Load Research Workshop. Topics addressed at the workshop included the market and regulatory trends driving the increasing need for load and customer information; the role ...
Social surveys of residents' responses to noise at different times of day are reviewed. Some of the discrepancies in published reports about the importance of noise at different times of day are reduced when the researchfindings are classified according to the type of time of day reaction model, the type of time of day weight calculated and the method which is used to estimate the weight. When the estimates of nighttime weights from 12 studies are normalized, it is found that they still disagree, but do not support stronger nighttime weights than those used in existing noise indices. Challenges to common assumptions in nighttime response models are evaluated. Two of these challenges receive enough support to warrant further investigation: the impact of changes in numbers of noise events may be less at night than in the day and nighttime annoyance may be affected by noise levels in other periods. All existing social survey results in which averages of nighttime responses were plotted by nighttime noise levels are reproduced.
Interest in fetal origins of adverse offspring outcomes has grown extensively in the last decade. This has resulted in many published studies focusing on exposure in utero to substances and human offspring outcomes. Exposure to maternal substance use in pregnancy is believed to be a preventable hazard, and is therefore a main issue for public health concern and policy. However, an important question in human studies remains whether prenatal substance use exposure has an aetiological role in pathways to adverse developmental and behavioural outcomes via teratological effects. Recent insights and developments in research methodology will aid the adequate and more refined testing of associations between prenatal substance use and offspring outcomes. In particular, novel approaches could assist in disentangling the exposure to substance effects from correlated risk factors. The purpose of this manuscript is therefore to provide an overview of methodological issues involved in studies that focus on the association between maternal substance use during pregnancy and offspring's outcomes, to describe novel approaches to test these associations, and present some examples of new and well-designed studies and discuss their findings. PMID:19394419
Research councils, agencies, and researchers recognize the benefits of team-based health research. However, researchers involved in large-scale team-based research projects face multiple challenges as they seek to identify epistemological and ontological common ground. Typically, these challenges occur between quantitative and qualitative researchers but can occur between qualitative researchers, particularly when the project involves multiple disciplinary perspectives. The authors use the convergent interviewing technique in their multidisciplinary research project to overcome these challenges. This technique assists them in developing common epistemological and ontological ground while enabling swift and detailed data collection and analysis. Although convergent interviewing is a relatively new method described primarily in marketing research, it compares and contrasts well with grounded theory and other techniques. The authors argue that this process provides a rigorous method to structure and refine research projects and requires researchers to identify and be accountable for developing a common epistemological and ontological position. PMID:16954531
Driedger, S Michelle; Gallois, Cindy; Sanders, Carrie B; Santesso, Nancy
In the present research we are studying (on a sample of 153 students 6th grade) the relationship between the two forms of thinking: critical and creative, in the context of problem finding and problem solving situations. Our hypothesis is that when there is a change in the context of study (problem solving- problem finding), then the students' creative and critical
|Problem finding is a creative process whereby individuals develop original ideas for study. Secondary science students who successfully participate in authentic, novel, open inquiry studies must engage in problem finding to determine viable and suitable topics. This study examined problem finding strategies employed by students who successfully…
Abstract Objective: The uptake of researchfindings into routine health care is a haphazard and unpredictable process. The usefulness of the results of implementation studies is limited, due in part to the lack of an underlying framework of the important dimensions of research studies in this area and the healthcare settings within which they are conducted,and may,subsequently be used. Study
Martin Eccles; Jeremy Grimshaw; Anne Walker; Marie Johnston; Nigel Pitts
This paper reviews research on pictorial stimulus complexity in instructional materials, examining still iconic visuals in particular. Five phases are proposed to assist in the integration of this research for generating useful hypotheses: (1) establishme...
... of the research team who are searching for better ways to understand and treat diseases. Their participation is critical for improving health today and in future generations. Print our Kids in Research flyer (388 ...
...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS...PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities...S. Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues Â§...
...by ORI during its oversight review, ORI found that Philippe Bois, Ph.D., former postdoctoral fellow, Department of Biochemistry, St. Jude, engaged in misconduct in science and research misconduct in research funded by National Institute of...
Background Since 1992 the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) had reviewed investigations of scientific misconduct in research funded by the US Public Health Service (PHS). ORI defined scientific misconduct as “fabrication, falsification, plagiarism, or other practices that seriously deviate from those that are commonly accepted within the scientific community for proposing, conducting, or reporting research”.Purpose The purpose of this study
In the UK, the ethics of engaging in sociological research directly involving children have primarily been shaped by definitions of "competence". While this has been a crucial guideline for researchers in shaping the concept of informed consent, it has also acted, perhaps inadvertently, as a way of excluding particular children from the research…
|In this literature review, we examine and assess the state of research of online and blended learning in the business disciplines with the intent of assessing the state of the field and identifying opportunities for meaningful future research. We review research from business disciplines such as Accounting, Economics, Finance, Information Systems…
Arbaugh, J. B.; Godfrey, Michael R.; Johnson, Marianne; Pollack, Birgit Leisen; Niendorf, Bruce; Wresch, William
Ideally, psychotherapy research should reflect the complexity of the therapy process and have significant bearing on practice. As an example of such an ideal, the work of the San Francisco Psychotherapy Research Group is described and the Control?Mastery theory of Joseph Weiss and Harold Sampson is discussed. Two empirical studies, one from an earlier phase of the research and the
This paper considers one researcher's challenge of marking his progress in reading/studying Jacques Derrida's "Aporias" (1993) by what he calls the continual hermeneutic of making meaning. The paper places the "Aporias" reading in the setting of a weekly research group whose research cycle was creating meaning in and out of the work being done and…
|Purpose: This paper seeks to analyse and explore the results of a research project, which aimed to identify recent and current research on TLA within HRD programmes. From that base the project also intended to identify areas for future research and a basis for establishing a Special Interest Group. Design/methodology/approach: A comprehensive…
The potential for genomic incidental findings is increasing with the use of genome-based testing. At the same time approaches to clinical decision making are shifting to shared decision-making models involving both the healthcare community and the public. The public's voice has been nearly absent in discussions on managing incidental findings. We conducted nine focus groups and nine interviews (n?=?63) with a broad cross-section of lay public groups to elucidate public viewpoints on incidental findings that could occur as a result of genome-based testing in clinical and research situations. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Participants wanted incidental findings disclosed to them whether or not these were clinical or researchfindings. Participants used different terms to define and describe incidental findings; they wanted to know that incidental findings are possible and be given a choice to learn about them. Personal utility was an important reason for disclosure, and participants believed that managing information is a shared responsibility between professionals and themselves. Broad public input is needed in order to understand and incorporate the public's perspective on management of incidental findings as disclosure guidelines, and policies are developed in clinical and research settings. PMID:23590238
Daack-Hirsch, S; Driessnack, M; Hanish, A; Johnson, V A; Shah, L L; Simon, C M; Williams, J K
The high-throughput annotation of open reading frames (ORFs) required by modern genome sequencing projects necessitates computational protocols that sometimes annotate orthologous ORFs inconsistently. Such inconsistencies hinder comparative analyses by non-uniformly extending or truncating 5' and/or 3' sequence ends, causing ORFs that are in fact identical to artificially diverge. Whereas strategies exist to correct such inconsistencies during whole-genome annotation, equivalent software designed to correct subsets of these data without genome reannotation is lacking. We therefore developed ORFcor, which corrects annotation inconsistencies using consensus start and stop positions derived from sets of closely related orthologs. ORFcor corrects inconsistent ORF annotations in diverse test datasets with specificities and sensitivities approaching 100% when sufficiently related orthologs (e.g., from the same taxonomic family) are available for comparison. The ORFcor package is implemented in Perl, multithreaded to handle large datasets, includes related scripts to facilitate high-throughput phylogenomic analyses, and is freely available at www.currielab.wisc.edu/downloads.html. PMID:23484025
In their target article, Byrnes and Fox (1998) argue that many of the recent findings from the field of cognitive neuroscience have particular importance for education. In our commentary, we lend support to their contention by reporting on some of our work that has potential relevance to the proposed interface between cognitive neuroscience and education. Specifically, we discuss the findings
The general hypothesis that mothers' inconsistent discipline can cause children to misbehave was examined. Mothers, who were otherwise engaged in a telephone conversation, were instructed to respond to toddlers' inappropriate demands for attention with either consistent reprimands or with one of a variety of inconsistent strategies. Reprimanding half of the child's demands and providing positive attention to the rest of the demands resulted in high rates of both demands for mothers' attention and children's negative affect. Reprimanding half the children's demands and ignoring the other demands did not have deleterious effects nor did reprimanding and attending to the same demand half of the time and ignoring the other demands. Thus, clear, positive feedback for inappropriate demands is a type of inconsistent discipline that can cause normal toddlers to become "terrible twos." PMID:8970905
Objective Investigate the barriers to participation in medical research that involves Asian and Pacific Islander (API) populations in Hawai'i. Participants Fifty people (27 Filipinos, 23 Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders) in five different communities on Oahu. Design Nine focus groups with an ethnically matched moderator were held to explore people's feelings, problems, and recommendations regarding medical research. Sessions were audiotaped, transcribed, and qualitatively analyzed with the constant comparison method. Results Only 12% of study participants said that they absolutely would not participate in a clinical study. Most agreed that research is vital. Filipino participants were more optimistic about the safety and value of joining in medical research. Hawaiian groups were more hesitant and fearful. Reasons for nonparticipation included negative feelings about the purpose and intent of clinical trials and language and cultural barriers. Suggestions on how to encourage API populations to participate in research investigations included improving peoples' understanding of the benefits to family and community. Hawaiian and Filipino groups differed only slightly in their assessments of the type of research needed in their communities. Conclusions Recruitment campaigns must improve people's awareness of the process of informed consent, research safeguards, and benefits to family and community. Attention should focus on K-12 health education to use members of the younger generations to access and educate elders, involving persons with medical research experience as a recruitment resource, returning results to study participants, and increasing the number of healthcare professionals and researchers that are culturally and linguistically matched to the community.
Gollin, Lisa X.; Harrigan, Rosanne C.; Perez, John; Easa, David; Calderon, Jose L.
This paper summarizes basic research on response effort in diverse applied areas including deceleration of aberrant behavior, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, oral habits, littering, and problem solving. The paper concludes that response effort as an independent variable has potent effects, and research exploring the applied benefits of…
|Through the Peer Writing Tutor Alumni Research Project (PWTARP), the authors have set out to explore and document what peer tutors take with them from their training and experience. The Peer Writing Tutor Alumni Research Project has made it possible for the authors to sample and analyze more systematically the reflections of 126 former tutors…
Researchers, practitioners and policy makers have noted the disproportionate number of young women with backgrounds of local authority care who are involved in commercial sex. However, the lack of knowledge about why this occurs means that there is little evidence with which to develop interventions. This article describes research that explored young women’s routes into the sex industry from local
A study examined the effectiveness of research strategy instruction that is integrated with the demands of inquiry-based content-area projects, rather than the typical teaching of research-related skills out of context. The study was conducted at two elementary schools, one a Title I school with a high percentage of poor readers, the other a…
Three papers exploring facets of the teaching process are presented in this report. The papers are part of the Didactic Process Analysis (DPA) Helsinki research project. The DPA research team, composed of educators investigating instructional processes, has, since 1967, examined taxonomies and classifications of teaching processes. The first…
Researchers with UC Irvineâ€™s Chao Family Comprehensive Cancer Center have identified a major reason why melanoma is largely resistant to chemotherapy. The researchers found a genetic pathway in melanoma cells that inhibits the cellular mechanism for detecting DNA damage wrought by chemotherapy, thereby building up tolerance to cancer-killing drugs.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe the “scientific identity” of the “top” research journals in the broader discipline of marketing by examining the methodological approaches and the geographical affiliations of authors published in selected journals. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A sample of “top” research journals in marketing is selected on the basis of expert opinion and journal ranking
Göran Svensson; Thomas Helgesson; Terje Slĺtten; Bĺrd Tronvoll
Many variations in programs and stages of development exist with regard to entrepreneurship in higher education academic institutions; however, there do appear to be common areas of information needed to support study, teaching, and research. To identify the information needs necessary to support the study of entrepreneurship, ProQuest undertook a comprehensive research effort in late 2006 with higher education institutions
Doing politically controversial research on education issues at the statewide level presents a host of human problems in addition to technical, scientific ones. Drawing on research experience in a highly charged political context, this paper suggests practical strategies for gaining access, developing legitimacy, and communicating information in order to influence policymakers. We emphasize the importance of forming a steering committee
Summary Telework has inspired research in disciplines ranging from transportation and urban planning to ethics, law, sociology, and organizational studies. In our review of this literature, we seek answers to three questions: who participates in telework, why they do, and what happens when they do? Who teleworks remains elusive, but research suggests that male professionals and female clerical workers predominate.
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Researchers from UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center are part of a team that has identified a protein, called P-Rex1, that is key to the movement of cells called melanoblasts. When these cells experience uncontrolled growth, melanoma develops.
Several significant problems associated with employee turnover among underground miners are described in the Bureau of Mines report. The report presents the results of empirical research on employee turnover in other industries and describes and critiques...
Researchers have found a way to kill human cells hijacked by a genetic accelerator that puts cancer cells into overdrive: the Myc oncogene. The discovery reveals new drug targets for Myc-driven cancers, which tend to be particularly aggressive.
Part one1 of this three-part series provided an overview of evidence-based dentistry (EBD), provided one definition of EBD and, having introduced the EBD matrix, concentrated on the research synthesis part of the jigsaw puzzle. Part two2 focused on the middle row of this puzzle, the dissemination of research results. This final article deals with perhaps the most vital but the
In a stochastic world there appears to be a trade-off between the necessary 'tying of hands' to conquer the effects of time-inconsistency and the desirability of flexible response. However, it is in principle possible for the electorate to achieve an optimal outcome by use of discriminatory electoral punishment, provided it has access to all relevant macro data prior to the
Measuring public opinion on abortion is an ongoing concern for political scientists, mainly because the public does not always exhibit fixed attitudes on such topics. Most citizens express a centrist viewpoint between the pro choice and pro life extremes. These include a small group whose answers to abortion questions are so inconsistent that they give public officials an inaccurate measure
A series of impression formation problems was given to a group of 62 college freshmen women. 2 hypotheses were tested: (a) that self-descriptions for a particular trait would be systematically related to reactions to inconsistency in information presented along that trait dimension; and (b) that dogmatism, as measured by the Rokeach Dogmatism Scale, would also be related to tolerance of
A new test procedure revealing mutuallyinconsistent choices has been developed andapplied to Stated Choice data. Our analysisshows that inconsistent choices commonly occurin several Stated Choice tasks. An applicationof the test to the Norwegian Value of Timestudy data shows that failing to excludeinconsistent choices resulted in asubstantially higher Value of time. Theinconsistent choices were made by less educatedparticipants. As the tasks
The evaluation of neutron cross sections as a function of energy is fraught with inconsis- tent measurements. I describe a Bayesian approach to deal with the inconsistencies by probabilisti- cally modeling the possibility of discrepant data and data sets with long-tailed likelihood functions. Systematic normalization uncertainties in each data set are included by considering the normaliza- tion to be a
This article addresses some unresolved cataloging issues related to pinyin romanization, vernacular application, field coding, and other aspects of Chinese cataloging in OCLC. These issues lead to inconsistencies in the way Chinese materials are cataloged, though cataloging standards and romanization rules are made and the processes of the projects like Pinyin Conversion, Manual Review, and Pinyin Clean-Up have been completed.
This study examined the nature of pathways between marital hostility and withdrawal, parental disagreements about child rearing issues, and subsequent changes in parental emotional unavailability and inconsistent discipline in a sample of 225 mothers, fathers, and 6-year-old children. Results of autoregressive, structural equation models indicated that marital withdrawal and hostility were associated with increases in parental emotional unavailability over the one-year period, whereas marital hostility and withdrawal did not predict changes in parental inconsistency in discipline. Additional findings supported the role of child rearing disagreements as an intervening or mediating mechanism in links between specific types of marital conflict and parenting practices. Implications for clinicians and therapists working with maritally distressed parents and families are discussed.
Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.; Davies, Patrick T.; Cummings, E. Mark
This article summarizes a reformulation of the main findings and perspectives from a cross-sectional and longitudinal qualitative study of the development of 100 counselors and therapists. The results are presented as a phase model and as a formulation of 14 themes of counselor\\/therapist development. The following six phases are described: The phases of the lay helper, the beginning student, the
|Public perception of adults with developmental disabilities realizing learning gains often remains illusive. This paper highlights key findings in achievement in basic skills for adults with mental retardation on a functional assessment in a life skills context for three program years (2003-2006). In this study the time period between the pre-…
|This article describes how one university-based center, UCLA's Center X, has worked to prepare and sustain urban educators over the past 16 years. Synthesizing findings from more than 20 articles, papers, books, and dissertations that report on Center X's work, we argue that three key activities are necessary to spur change and ensure a…
|This paper summarizes findings of a 3-year study assessing outcomes for 35 children (preschool to high school aged) with mild to severe disabilities in inclusive educational settings. Additionally, the study looked at "connected" pairs of children--each pair including a child with and a child without a disability. It identified three main areas…
This article describes how one university-based center, UCLA's Center X, has worked to prepare and sustain urban educators over the past 16 years. Synthesizing findings from more than 20 articles, papers, books, and dissertations that report on Center X's work, we argue that three key activities are necessary to spur change and ensure a high-quality, stable workforce: (1) Firmly embed
Although patients may feel anxious waiting weeks from the time of their first doctor visit to evaluate their breast until they have breast cancer surgery, new findings from Fox Chase Cancer Center show that these waits are typical in the United States. Results were published on Monday, November 19 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.
Prior research suggests that the current global economic crisis may be negatively affecting population mental health. In that context, this paper has several goals: (1) to discuss theoretical and conceptual explanations for how and why economic downturns might negatively affect population mental health; (2) present an overview of the literature on the relationship between economic recessions and population mental health; (3) discuss the limitations of existing empirical work; and (4) highlight opportunities for improvements in both research and practice designed to mitigate any negative impact of economic declines on the mental health of populations. Research has consistently demonstrated that economic crises are negatively associated with population mental health. How economic downturns influence mental health should be considered in policies such as social protection programs that aim to promote recovery. PMID:20836907
Behavioral history research includes studies that (a) permit assessment of a prior experimental condition on a subsequent one, (b) show either short-lived or permanent effects, and (c) produce effects that are observable in ongoing behavior or that may be unobservable until special test conditions are introduced. We review experiments within both the conventional experimental analysis of behavior and behavioral pharmacology in order to identify commonalities and differences in the outcomes of conceptually similar experiments. We suggest that a deeper understanding of the necessary and sufficient conditions for producing history effects will emerge from these complementary research efforts. PMID:22478310
The Guidelines for the Utilization of Commercial-Grade Items in Nuclear-Safety-Related Applications was issued by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) as a final report (EPRI NP-5652) in March of 1988. The very first paragraph, 1.1.1-Issue, states that A challenge the nuclear industry faces is to establish a consistent guideline for the utilization of commercial grade items. The lack of specific implementation direction in existing documents has resulted in inconsistent interpretation, implementation, and enforcement. From a vendor's perspective, the challenge that the EPRI guidelines were supposed to meet still exists because interpretation, implementation, and enforcement of the guidelines themselves is anything but consistent from customer to customer. This paper discusses some case histories of inconsistent application and interpretation of the EPRI guidelines and outlines one vendor's attempts to put procedures into place that encompass the variant interpretations.
Blumeyer, M.L. (Sorrento Electronics, San Diego, CA (United States))
|A recent report published by the National Center on Performance Incentives (NCPI) presents findings from the second-year of a multi-year evaluation of the Texas Educator Excellence Grant (TEEG) program, a statewide educator incentive program that operated in Texas. As part of this evaluation report, researchers examined how first-year TEEG…
Psychotherapy supervision is considered crucial for psychotherapists in training. During the last decades, group supervision has been a frequently used format in many countries. Until recently, very few studies had evaluated the small-group format for training of beginner psychotherapists and psychotherapy supervisors. This article aims to summarise and discuss main findings from a research project which used questionnaires to collect
This article reports part of the findings of research undertaken between 2007 and 2009 that aimed to investigate the contribution made by migrant workers to the care workforce in England. The study involved analysis of national statistics on social care and social workers and semi-structured interviews with a wide range of stakeholders, including ninety six migrant care workers. The interviews
This is a report of the preliminary findings of a brief exploratory ethnographic study in a cancer diagnosis and treatment clinic. The main research purpose was to explore the meaning of cancer and cancer treatment to patients themselves and to their relatives and close friends. The methods are described in detail in a paper focusing on the experiences of being
June A. Peters; Carol L. McAllister; Wendy S. Rubinstein
This article draws on ethnographic fieldwork that took place in 2004 in a boys' "hifz" class which met in a north-east London mosque. Drawing on the results of semi-participant observations and semi-structured interviews, the researchfindings are collated under five themes: the routines and rhythms of the "hifz" class; routes into the "hifz"…
Two lines of evidence provide preliminary support for the role that brain state, measured via electroencephalogram (EEG), may play in chronic pain. First, research has identified a link between brain EEG activity and the experience of pain. Second, there are a number of published studies documenting the beneficial effects of interventions that impact the cortical activity associated with chronic pain.
Mark P. Jensen; Leslie H. Sherlin; Shahin Hakimian; Felipe Fregni
As part of the formative research for developing interventions to increase colorectal cancer screening in men and women aged 50 and older, 14 focus groups were conducted to identify (1) knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about colorectal cancer and colorectal cancer screening, (2) barriers to screening, and (3) strategies for motivating and supporting behavior change. Participants had either private insurance or
Carolyn Beeker; Joan Marie Kraft; Brian G. Southwell; Cynthia M. Jorgensen
This NASA Astrobiology Institute website features an article by the Yellowstone Park Foundation focusing on NASA's latest thermophile research and its contributions to outreach education in Yellowstone National Park. The site also provides a number of useful links through the NAI portal site including a teacher's page, student's page, and additional NAI articles and newsletters.
|This study of graduation outcomes in Baltimore uses multivariate analysis of longitudinal student cohort data to examine the impact of factors identified in previous research as early warning indicators of a dropout outcome. Student cohort files were constructed from longitudinal administrative data (following all first-time 2004-2005 and…
...A team of researchers from the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine and Penn's Perelman School of Medicine has the first evidence that an Epstein Barr-like virus can infect and may also be responsible for causing lymphomas in man's best friend.
|Teacher effectiveness is typically measured by traditional teacher qualification standards, such as experience, education, and scores on licensure examinations. RAND researchers found no evidence that these standards have a substantial effect on student achievement in Los Angeles public elementary, middle, and high schools. Alternative measures…
In this report, the authors describe results of a nationwide census of institutional repositories in U.S. academic institutions. The census is one of several activities of the MIRACLE Project, an Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS)-funded research program based at the University of Michigan. The acronym MIRACLE means "Making…
Markey, Karen; Rieh, Soo Young; St. Jean, Beth; Kim, Jihyun; Yakel, Elizabeth
Much of the learning in technology education is hands-on and best assessed via techniques other than traditional tests. Rubrics have become increasingly recognized as the best means of evaluating student efforts and accomplishments in projects, group work, presentations, various types of research papers, videotapes, web pages, and many other…
Whether chemotherapy is given before or after breast-conserving therapy does not have an impact on long-term local-regional outcomes, suggesting treatment success is due more to biologic factors than chemotherapy timing, according to a study by researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center.
A study conducted by the Vall d'Hebron Institute of Oncology in conjunction with the GEICAM cooperative group and other American and Canadian researchers, including UNC, has led to a change in the definition of hormone-sensitive breast tumors
|Students of lower socioeconomic status (SES) tend to be underrepresented in American higher education, particularly at four-year institutions and more selective universities. Education researchers have shown that in the four year period following high school, low SES students are less likely to persist to a bachelor's degree or have graduate…
It is a commonly held that information on Wikipedia should not be trusted, since it is written and edited by non-experts without professional oversight. But researchers from the Kimmel Cancer Center at Jefferson have found differently, according to a study published online Sept. 15 in the Journal of Oncology Practice.
Contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM), a procedure that removes the unaffected breast in patients with cancer in one breast, provides only a modest increase in life expectancy, according to a new study by researchers from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania.
This vision paper frames requirements engineering as a creative problem solving process. Its purpose is to enable requirements researchers and practitioners to recruit relevant theories, models, techniques and tools from creative problem solving to understand and support requirements processes more effectively. It uses 4 drivers to motivate the case for requirements engineering as a creative problem solving process. It then
Neil A. M. Maiden; Sara Jones; Inger Kristine Karlsen; Roger Neill; Konstantinos Zachos; Alastair Milne
Research was performed to determine the effects on proficiency development of using devices of less-than-perfect fidelity for training a lengthy fixed procedure. The fidelity of a training device was the degree to which it resembled that tactical equipmen...
|A curious piece of ironic, partially-dramatised auto/ethnography, this paper reflects an ongoing attempt to explore the vapid certainties of my own faith, some of the brittle discomforts of contemporary schooling, and the possibilities of a social science research methodology which can artfully assemble on the same stage belief, empirics and…
The purpose of this article is to provide researchers, clinicians, and policymakers with a common source of published cost estimates for drug abuse consequences. Across the broad range of potential complications associated with drug abuse, some of the cost elements are specific and directly related to drug abuse per se (e.g., drug treatment costs), while other items may be related
A research project to evaluate a respite care program for caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's disease and related conditions provided information relevant to service providers of respite care. Providers must under-stand the psychological needs of caregivers that enter into their willingness to use respite care. Caregiving equity, caregiving modeling, the moral imperative of caregiving, caregiving as a challenge, caregiving as
All literature embodies an implicit theory of personality and human nature (Hogan, 1976). The research described here investigates the implicit personality theory embedded in the behavior of 435 characters in 143 canonical Victorian novels. Characters were rated on the Web by 519 scholars and students of 19th-century British literature. Ratings included the characters’ goals, success in achieving goals, mate preferences
John A. Johnson; Joseph Carroll; Jonathan Gottschall; Daniel Kruger
Thereâ€™s new evidence that annual prostate cancer screening does not reduce deaths from the disease, even among men in their 50s and 60s and those with underlying health conditions, according to new research led by Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis.
Research shows that as the severity of adolescent behavior problems increases (e.g., violence, drug and alcohol abuse, risky sexual behavior) the risk of suicidal behavior also increases. This is evident in the high rates of suicidal threats, gestures, and attempts in incarcerated youth (Hayes, 2009), including sexual and nonsexual offenders. Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT), an empirically validated therapy for the
|This study examined Chinese university students' conceptualization of the meaning of work. One hundred and ninety students (93 male, 97 female) from Beijing, China, participated in the study. Prototype research methodology (J. Li, 2001) was used to explore the meaning of work and the associations among the identified meanings. Cluster analysis…
|In this report, the authors describe results of a nationwide census of institutional repositories in U.S. academic institutions. The census is one of several activities of the MIRACLE Project, an Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS)-funded research program based at the University of Michigan. The acronym MIRACLE means "Making…
Markey, Karen; Rieh, Soo Young; St. Jean, Beth; Kim, Jihyun; Yakel, Elizabeth
The public discussion of affirmative action appears to be complicated by disagreements regarding definitions and by the lack of a theoretical framework from which to begin to understand this complex public policy. The present review attempts to synthesize the available research into a model from which resistance to affirmative action can be understood. Within the model, resistance to affirmative action
Researchers at the University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center have discovered a new form of cell division in human cells. They believe it serves as a natural back-up mechanism during faulty cell division, preventing some cells from going down a path that can lead to cancer.
Researchers analyzing prostate tumors have identified differences in gene expression (the degree to which individual genes are turned on or off) between African-American and European-American men that show the existence of distinct tumor microenvironments (the area that includes the tumor and the surrounding non-cancerous tissue) in these two patient groups.
Software defect prediction strives to improve software quality and testing efficiency by constructing predictive classification models from code attributes to enable a timely identification of fault-prone modules. Several classification models have been evaluated for this task. However, due to inconsistentfindings regarding the superiority of one classifier over another and the usefulness of metric-based classification in general, more research is
Stefan Lessmann; Bart Baesens; Christophe Mues; Swantje Pietsch
The UK Consortium on AIDS and International Development was an essential partner to the evaluation leaders in harnessing the contribution and expertise of civil society. This article describes what the partnership entailed, the additional value it brought and how civil society might use the evaluation findings both as a tool for advocacy and a means for improving its own engagement with the individuals directly affected by HIV and with those who care for them.
The paper presents findings of a study that relates dispositional factors such as extroversion, stability, self-esteem and\\u000a narcissism to the use of social networking sites (SNSs). Each of these dispositional factors is shown to be related to different\\u000a types of usage of SNSs. It is argued that attempts to model the use of SNSs and thereby target particular information to
First decade findings on the impacts of organic matter removal and soil compaction are reported for the 26 oldest installations in the nation-wide network of long-term soil productivity sites. Complete removal of surface organic matter led to declines in soil C concentration to 20cm depth and to reduced nutrient availability. The effect is attributed mainly to the loss of the
Robert F. Powers; D. Andrew Scott; Felipe G. Sanchez; Richard A. Voldseth; Deborah Page-Dumroese; John D. Elioff; Douglas M. Stone
Microbially mediated bioremediation of polluted sites has been a subject of much research over the past 30?years, with many different compounds shown to be degraded under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Aerobic-mediated bioremediation commonly examines the use of methanotrophs, microorganisms that consume methane as their sole source of carbon and energy. Given the diverse environments in which methanotrophs have been found, the range of substrates they can degrade and the fact that they can be easily stimulated with the provision of methane and oxygen, these microorganisms in particular have been examined for aerobic degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons. The physiological and phylogenetic diversity of methanotrophy, however, has increased substantially in just the past 5?years. Here in this review, the current state of knowledge of methanotrophy, particularly as it applies to pollutant degradation is summarized, and suggestions for future research provided.
Women and men faculty in science, engineering, and mathematics for the most part have comparable opportunities within major U.S. research universities, according to a report released 2 June by the U.S. National Research Council (NRC). The report found that gender does not appear to have been a factor in a number of important career transitions and outcomes, including hiring for tenure track and tenure positions and promotions. “That is probably going to be surprising to many people. It was surprising to our own panel. And it may not have been the case if we had done the study in 1985 instead of 2005,” said Claude Canizares, cochair of the NRC committee that prepared the report, entitled Gender Differences at Critical Transitions in the Careers of Science, Engineering and Mathematics Faculty.
The possible utility of Bayesian methods for the synthesis of qualitative and quantitative research has been repeatedly suggested but insufficiently investigated. In this project, we developed and used a Bayesian method for synthesis, with the goal of identifying factors that influence adherence to HIV medication regimens. We investigated the effect of 10 factors on adherence. Recognizing that not all factors were examined in all studies, we considered standard methods for dealing with missing data and chose a Bayesian data augmentation method. We were able to summarize, rank, and compare the effects of each of the 10 factors on medication adherence. This is a promising methodological development in the synthesis of qualitative and quantitative research.
Early basic research showed that increases in required response effort (or force) produced effects that resembled those produced by punishment. A recent study by Alling and Poling determined some subtle differences between the two behavior-change strategies, but also confirmed that increasing required effort is an effective response-reduction procedure with enduring effects. In this paper we summarize basic research on response effort and explore the role of effort in diverse applied areas including deceleration of aberrant behavior, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oral habits, health care appointment keeping, littering, indexes of functional disability, and problem solving. We conclude that renewed interest in response effort as an independent variable is justified because of its potent effects and because the political constraints imposed on punishment- and reinforcement-based procedures have yet to be imposed on procedures that entail manipulations of response effort.
This report discusses the results of the research on minority energy consumption and expenditures being conducted by Argonne National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy's Office of Minority Economic Impact. After summarizing what was known about minorities and energy prior to 1982, the paper briefly reviews current research results in the areas of minority residential and transportation energy use patterns, energy policy assessments, and minority energy business development. The results suggest that, when income and location (transportation) or climate (residential) are statistically controlled, black households differ from nonblack households in their ability or willingness to make long-term capital investments in energy-efficient consumer durables (e.g., automobiles and appliances). Two hypotheses to explain these results are proposed, relating to the culture of minority poverty and structural constraints. Implications of the current results and proposed hypotheses are then briefly discussed.
By activating a cancer suppressor gene, a small molecule called nutlin-3a can block cancer cell division, according to researchers at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health. This activation of the p53 gene leads to cellular senescence, a process by which cells lose their ability to grow and divide. An opportunity for new genetic mutations occurs each time a cell divides, so limiting the number of cell divisions in a cancer cell inhibits tumor progression.
This article describes a feminist-informed reflective teaching project enacted by a group of social work faculty at Texas State University–San Marcos. Utilizing Schon's notion of reflection-in-action, faculty formed a participatory action research group to implement reflective techniques to further their professional development as new teachers and better prepare social work students for practice in the social work profession. This project
Christine Lynn Norton; Amy Russell; Betsy Wisner; John Uriarte
To change from collection-centric to user-centered research libraries and to survive in tough economic times, libraries face 2 major challenges: 1st, libraries need to change how they are viewed by their constituencies so they are seen as indispensable; and 2nd, libraries need to help the librarians and staff change their own mental models of their roles to remain relevant in
The purpose of the study was to determine the impact of an agricultural leadership program on rural community development beyond self-report survey data typically collected for program evaluation. Participants in the study were graduates of the program from 1982 to 2002 (N=290). Quantitative and qualitative research methods were used. Each participant was asked to complete a then-post survey that addressed
Researchers at Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University have identified a new function for a gene that normally prevents the development of cancer. Scientists had known that the gene, which encodes a protein called p14 ARF, works inside the cell to control proliferation and division. The Winship team discovered that p14 ARF also regulates tumor-induced angiogenesis, the process by which growing cancers attract new blood vessels.
The CODEX Alimentarius definition of dietary fiber includes all nondigestible carbohydrate polymers with a degree of polymerization of 3 or more as dietary fiber with the proviso that they show health benefits. The global definition, if accepted by all authoritative bodies, offers a chance for international harmonization in research, food composition tables, and food labeling. Its nonacceptance highlights problems that may develop when definitions vary by region. The definition requires that the research community agrees upon physiological effects for which there is substantial scientific agreement, e.g., fibers' effects on laxation and gut health, on attenuating blood lipids and blood glucose and insulin, and in promoting fermentation in the large bowel. The definition also necessitates the delineation of research protocols to prove the benefits of various isolated and synthesized fibers. These should emanate from evidence-based reviews that fairly weigh epidemiological data while considering that added fibers are not reflected in many food composition databases. They then should include well-controlled, randomized, control trials and utilize animal studies to determine mechanisms. Agreement on many study variables such as the type of subject and the type of baseline diet that best fits the question under investigation will also be needed. Finally, the definition establishes that all types of fiber can address the severe fiber consumption gap that exists throughout the world by recognizing that the combination of fiber-rich and -fortified foods increases fiber intake while allowing consumers to stay within allowed energy levels. PMID:23319118
The US Department of Energy, Of?ce of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES) conducted a Research Needs Workshop, referred to as ReNeW, in June 2009. The information developed at this workshop will help OFES develop a plan for US fusion research during the ITER era, roughly the next two decades. The workshop was organized in ?ve Themes, one of which was Harnessing Fusion Power (or Fusion Power for short). The top level goal of the Fusion Power Theme was to identify the research needed to develop the knowledge to design and build, with high con?dence, robust and reliable systems that can convert fusion products to useful forms of energy in a reactor environment, including a self-suf?cient supply of tritium fuel. Each Theme was subsequently subdivided into Panels to address speci?c topics. The Fusion Power Panel topics were: Fusion Fuel Cycle; Power Extraction; Materials Science; Safety and Environment; and Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Inspectability (RAMI). Here we present the key ?ndings of the Fusion Power Theme.
Meier, Wayne R.; Raffray, R.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Morley, Neil B.; Reiersen, Wayne T.; Sharpe, Phil; Willms, Scott
The evaluation of neutron cross sections as a function of energy is fraught with inconsistent measurements. I describe a Bayesian approach to deal with the inconsistencies by probabilistically modeling the possibility of discrepant data and data sets with long-tailed likelihood functions. Systematic normalization uncertainties in each data set are included by considering the normalization to be a variable with specified uncertainty. By characterizing its uncertainty with a mixture of Cauchy and Gaussian distributions, data sets that disagree with the majority of others are given less weight in terms of normalization, but still provide useful information about the energy dependency of the cross sections. I demonstrate the approach with data sets of neutron fission cross sections for americium 243. Samples from the posterior obtained with the Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique are used to estimate the posterior mean and standard error.
Hanson, Kenneth M. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)
While the basic model of time inconsistency, put forward by Barro and Gordon (Barro, R. J., & Gordon, D. B. (1983). Journal of Political Economy, 91, 589–610) is widely accepted now, several authors have expressed serious doubts about the empirical relevance of the\\u000a model in explaining inflation. Interestingly enough, few attempts have been made so far to test for the
Deteriorating efficiency in detecting critical events is a pervasive phenomenon. It has been asserted that the personality dimension of extraversion–introversion (E-I) could serve as a selection device: Introverts would be superior in sustained attention. A meta-analysis revealed better performance of introverts, but the effect size was small because of a high incidence of inconsistencies. In a subset of the studies,
Why do consumers sometimes act against their own better judgment, engaging in behavior that is often regretted after the fact and that would have been rejected with adequate forethought? More generally, how do consumers attempt to maintain self-control in the face of time-inconsistent preferences? This article addresses consumer impatience by developing a decision-theoretic model based on reference points. The model
Progress in the debate over returning incidental findings (IFs) and individual research results (IRRs) to research participants who provide specimens and data to biobanks in genetic and genomic research requires a new tool to allow comparison across heterogeneous biobank research systems and in-depth analysis of the sources and types of findings generated for potential return. This article presents a new visual mapping tool to allow systematic and standardized depiction of (i) the specimens initially collected, (ii) the materials and data sets then created, (iii) the analyses then performed, and finally (iv) the genetic and genomic results generated, including potential IFs and IRRs. For any individual biobank research system, this sequence of four maps can be created to anticipate the sources and types of IFs and IRRs to be generated, to plan how to handle them, and then to manage them responsibly over time. We discuss how this four-map tool was created and describe its application to four national biobank systems, thereby demonstrating that this tool can provide a common platform to visualize biobank content, anticipate how IFs and IRRs will arise in a biobank research context, and inform policy development. PMID:22382801
Bemmels, Heather R; Wolf, Susan M; Van Ness, Brian
Progress in the debate over returning incidental findings (IFs) and individual research results (IRRs) to research participants who provide specimens and data to biobanks in genetic and genomic research requires a new tool to allow comparison across heterogeneous biobank research systems and in-depth analysis of the sources and types of findings generated for potential return. This paper presents a new visual mapping tool to allow systematic and standardized depiction of (1) the specimens initially collected, (2) the materials and datasets then created (3) the analyses then performed, and finally (4) the genetic and genomic results generated, including potential IFs and IRRs. For any individual biobank research system, this sequence of four maps can be created to anticipate the sources and types of IFs and IRRs to be generated, to plan how to handle them, and then to manage them responsibly over time. The authors show how this 4-map tool was created, then apply this tool to 4 national biobank systems, demonstrating that this tool can provide a common platform to visualize biobank content, anticipate how IFs and IRRs will arise in a biobank research context, and inform policy development.
Bemmels, Heather R.; Wolf, Susan M.; Van Ness, Brian
"The event history approach...is applied using individual longitudinal data. Ideally, however, each individual itinerary would be situated in as broad a context as possible, and the analysis of individual demographic processes would take account of the close or competing events affecting the individual's contact circle. In event history modelling, a shift from the individual to their entourage, for both data collection and analysis, implies a reconsideration of the choice of entities for longitudinal monitoring. A compromise must be reached between conceptual operationality and analytical consistency, in terms of both theory and models: this article presents the formal developments, then the more applied results from this on-going research [using French data]." (EXCERPT) PMID:12157953
Purpose: In this era of rapidly evolving clinical knowledge, clinicians need to be aware of current research and how it might affect their practice. The Internet is a widely available, under-assessed tool for providing this information. In this two-phase pilot study, a novel Web site (www.cansortsurgeons.org) was developed to specifically disseminate relevant clinical information to community breast oncology surgeons. Methods: The first phase targeted a sample of community surgeons identified from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results catchment areas in Los Angeles, CA and Detroit, MI. The second phase broadened availability by linking the site through the American College of Surgeons (ACoS) Commission on Cancer (CoC) homepage. An eight-question, Web-based survey was used to obtain feedback regarding the Web site's utility and potential application to clinical practice. Journal continuing medical education credit was also offered through ACoS. Results: For phase 1, of the 315 community surgeons invited to view the site, 114 (36%) participated in the study and 98 (86%) responded to the survey. Overall, there was a strongly supportive response, with 79 (81%) recommending the site to other clinicians. For phase 2, of the 516 site hits, 411 came from the ACoS site. Only 10 individuals completed the survey during this phase, but all positively endorsed the utility of the site. Conclusion: The implication for clinical practice is that the Internet is a useful tool for providing relevant clinical research to providers. In the future, this could be tailored to an individual's needs, aiding synthesis and, hopefully, improving the quality of clinical care.
Shiovitz, Stacey; Gay, Ashley; Morris, Arden; Graff, John J.; Katz, Steven J.; Hawley, Sarah T.
Purpose: To evaluate acute hypersensitivity reactions at the UCSD Moores Cancer Center in San Diego, compare our findings to those reported previously in the literature, and examine the effectiveness of the objective grading scale as represented by the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE). Patients and Methods: Using the available pharmacy and electronic medical record data from 2006-2010, we examined our reported hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) using the CTCAE v.3.0 and v.4.0. A thorough literature review was also performed to compare our findings with those previously reported. Results: We found 222 cases of HSRs, of which 50% were due to immunotherapeutics. Most were grade 1 or 2 by any CTCAE criteria. The clinical presentation of HSRs varied between drug classes. Using different versions of grading schema led to inconsistencies in ~50% of all HSRs. Fifty-two percent of all cases not due to blood products were rechallenged on the same day. The reported literature HSR frequencies for each causative agent showed a striking variability, possibly indicating that previous studies used a wide variety of grading and reporting systems for adverse events. Conclusion: HSRs are common in clinical practice, and most are mild or moderate. There are inconsistencies in reporting HSRs between studies. The existence of several grading schema and subjective definitions of hypersensitivity could be contributing to poor clinical generalizability. Along with an improved system of reporting HSRs to minimize underreporting, a standard system of objectively assessing HSRs is necessary for purposes of research and clinical practice.
The successful adoption of technology is becoming increasingly important to functional independence. The present article reports findings from the Center for Research and Education on Aging and Technology Enhancement (CREATE) on the use of technology among community-dwelling adults. The sample included 1,204 individuals ranging in age from 18–91 years. All participants completed a battery that included measures of demographic characteristics,
Sara J. Czaja; Neil Charness; Arthur D. Fisk; Christopher Hertzog; Sankaran N. Nair; Wendy A. Rogers; Joseph Sharit
In 2002 landslides caused a reported 346 human fatalities in the Himalayan Kingdom of Nepal. Over the last decade the total reported deaths due to landslides has exceeded 900. During the past 2-3 years in neighbouring Bhutan landslides have caused extensive damage to roads and other infrastructure, also leading to significant loss of life. Landslides, therefore, are major considerations in the siting of new infrastructure, the maintenance of existing facilities and the protection of rural communities and road users in the Himalayan region. Despite this, there is extremely limited information available on landslide hazards in the region, and the situation is a particular concern in Nepal and Bhutan. The Landslide Risk Assessment Project was established in 2000 to investigate cause-effect relationships in landslide occurrence and to develop simple techniques of landslide susceptibility mapping. A total of over 1300 landslides have been mapped from remote sensing and field surveys in six study areas in Nepal and Bhutan. GIS has been used to compare the spatial distribution of these landslides with a range of geological, terrain and land use factors. The research has shown that consistent relationships can be found between the location of landslides and rock type, geological structure, slope steepness and terrain classification. The results have positive implications for the assessment of landslide susceptibility for rural development planning in areas where limited data already exist.
Brazil has the second highest rate of cosmetic surgery worldwide, provided in a large number of public and private clinics and hospitals, especially in the southeast. This qualitative field research in Rio de Janeiro included participant observation and in-depth interviews with 18 women cosmetic surgery patients, 10 key informants (e.g. psychologists and sociologists) and 12 plastic surgeons. Fifteen of the women were either pre- or post-operative; three had not decided whether to have surgery. When asked about their motivations and expectations of the surgery, the majority of the women said they wanted to be "normal". Most of the surgeons said they acted as empathic companions from decision-making through surgery and beyond. Many of the key informants were critical of what was happening to medical ethics in relation to cosmetic surgery. With the growth in a consumer culture, they saw ethics in medicine becoming more bendable and subject to the "law" of the market. The cult of the body has become a mass phenomenon and taken on an important social dimension in a society where norms and images are broadcast widely by the media. The trend towards body-modification by cosmetic surgery at an early age is increasing dramatically. What demands critical thinking and further investigation are the consequences of cosmetic surgery for physical and mental health. PMID:20541086
The successful adoption of technology is becoming increasingly important to functional independence. The present article reports findings from the Center for Research and Education on Aging and Technology Enhancement (CREATE) on the use of technology among community-dwelling adults. The sample included 1,204 individuals ranging in age from 18-91 years. All participants completed a battery that included measures of demographic characteristics, self-rated health, experience with technology, attitudes toward computers, and component cognitive abilities. Findings indicate that the older adults were less likely than younger adults to use technology in general, computers, and the World Wide Web. The results also indicate that computer anxiety, fluid intelligence, and crystallized intelligence were important predictors of the use of technology. The relationship between age and adoption of technology was mediated by cognitive abilities, computer self-efficacy, and computer anxiety. These findings are discussed in terms of training strategies to promote technology adoption. PMID:16768579
Czaja, Sara J; Charness, Neil; Fisk, Arthur D; Hertzog, Christopher; Nair, Sankaran N; Rogers, Wendy A; Sharit, Joseph
This paper employs a thematic qualitative analysis to synthesise seven discrete formative evaluation reports of an Indigenous Australian family empowerment programme across four study settings in Australia's Northern Territory and Queensland between 1998 and 2005. The aim of the study, which involved a total of 148 adult and 70 school children participants, is to develop a deeper understanding of the contribution of community empowerment education programmes to improving Indigenous health, beyond the evidence derived from the original discrete micro evaluative studies. Within a context beset by trans-generational grief and despair resulting from colonisation and other discriminatory government policies, across the study sites, the participants demonstrated enhanced capacity to exert greater control over factors shaping their health and wellbeing. Evident in the participants' narratives was a heightened sense of Indigenous and spiritual identity, respect for self and others, enhanced parenting and capacity to deal with substance abuse and violence. Changes at the personal level influenced other individuals and systems over time, highlighting the ecological or multilevel dimensions of empowerment. The study reveals the role of psychosocial empowerment attributes as important foundational resources in helping people engage and benefit from health and other behaviour modification programmes, and take advantage of any reforms made within macro policy environments. A key limitation or challenge in the use of psychosocial empowerment programmes relates to the time and resources required to achieve change at population level. A long-term partnership approach to empowerment research that creatively integrates micro community empowerment initiatives with macro policies and programmes is vital if health gains are to be maximised. PMID:19804554
Quality improvement programs promoting depression screening and appropriate treatment can significantly reduce racial and ethnic disparities in mental-health care and outcomes. However, promoting the adoption of quality-improvement strategies requires more than the simple knowledge of their potential benefits. To better understand depression issues in racial and ethnic minority communities and to discover, refine, and promote the adoption of evidence-based interventions in these communities, a collaborative academic-community participatory partnership was developed and introduced through a community-based depression conference. This partnership was based on the community-influenced model used by Healthy African-American Families, a community-based agency in south Los Angeles, and the Partners in Care model developed at the UCLA/RAND NIMH Health Services Research Center. The integrated model is described in this paper as well as the activities and preliminary results based on multimethod program evaluation techniques. We found that combining the two models was feasible. Significant improvements in depression identification, knowledge about treatment options, and availability of treatment providers were observed among conference participants. In addition, the conference reinforced in the participants the importance of community mobilization for addressing depression and mental health issues in the community. Although the project is relatively new and ongoing, already substantial gains in community activities in the area of depression have been observed. In addition, new applications of this integrated model are underway in the areas of diabetes and substance abuse. Continued monitoring of this project should help refine the model as well as assist in the identification of process and outcome measures for such efforts. PMID:16681126
This paper reports data from semi-structured interviews on how 26 Australian civil servants, ministers and ministerial advisors find and evaluate researchers with whom they wish to consult or collaborate. Policymakers valued researchers who had credibility across the three attributes seen as contributing to trustworthiness: competence (an exemplary academic reputation complemented by pragmatism, understanding of government processes, and effective collaboration and communication skills); integrity (independence, “authenticity”, and faithful reporting of research); and benevolence (commitment to the policy reform agenda). The emphases given to these assessment criteria appeared to be shaped in part by policymakers' roles and the type and phase of policy development in which they were engaged. Policymakers are encouraged to reassess their methods for engaging researchers and to maximise information flow and support in these relationships. Researchers who wish to influence policy are advised to develop relationships across the policy community, but also to engage in other complementary strategies for promoting research-informed policy, including the strategic use of mass media.
Haynes, Abby S.; Derrick, Gemma E.; Redman, Sally; Hall, Wayne D.; Gillespie, James A.; Chapman, Simon; Sturk, Heidi
The objective of this study is to examine the cultural views of healthy aging, knowledge and barriers to services, and perception of health sciences research among community-dwelling Chinese older adults in Chicago's Chinatown. This qualitative study is guided by the Precede-Proceed conceptual model with community-based participatory research design. Data analysis is based on eight focus group interviews with Chinese older (age 60+) adults (n = 78). We used a grounded theory framework to systematically guide the thematic structure of our data. Findings show participants described cultural conception of health in terms of physical function, psychological well-being, social support, and cognitive function. The availability, affordability, and cultural barriers towards health care services were major negative enabling factors that inhibit participants from fulfilling health needs. Perception and knowledge of health sciences research were also discussed. This study has implications for the delivery of culturally appropriate health care services to the Chinese aging population.
The objective of this study is to examine the cultural views of healthy aging, knowledge and barriers to services, and perception of health sciences research among community-dwelling Chinese older adults in Chicago's Chinatown. This qualitative study is guided by the Precede-Proceed conceptual model with community-based participatory research design. Data analysis is based on eight focus group interviews with Chinese older (age 60+) adults (n = 78). We used a grounded theory framework to systematically guide the thematic structure of our data. Findings show participants described cultural conception of health in terms of physical function, psychological well-being, social support, and cognitive function. The availability, affordability, and cultural barriers towards health care services were major negative enabling factors that inhibit participants from fulfilling health needs. Perception and knowledge of health sciences research were also discussed. This study has implications for the delivery of culturally appropriate health care services to the Chinese aging population. PMID:21253522
Internationally, calls for feedback of findings to be made an 'ethical imperative' or mandatory have been met with both strong support and opposition. Challenges include differences in issues by type of study and context, disentangling between aggregate and individual study results, and inadequate empirical evidence on which to draw. In this paper we present data from observations and interviews with key stakeholders involved in feeding back aggregate study findings for two Phase II malaria vaccine trials among children under the age of 5 years old on the Kenyan Coast. In our setting, feeding back of aggregate findings was an appreciated set of activities. The inclusion of individual results was important from the point of view of both participants and researchers, to reassure participants of trial safety, and to ensure that positive results were not over-interpreted and that individual level issues around blinding and control were clarified. Feedback sessions also offered an opportunity to re-evaluate and re-negotiate trial relationships and benefits, with potentially important implications for perceptions of and involvement in follow-up work for the trials and in future research. We found that feedback of findings is a complex but key step in a continuing set of social interactions between community members and research staff (particularly field staff who work at the interface with communities), and among community members themselves; a step which needs careful planning from the outset. We agree with others that individual and aggregate results need to be considered separately, and that for individual results, both the nature and value of the information, and the context, including social relationships, need to be taken into account. PMID:23433355
Purpose of review Mood regulation problems, such as severe chronic irritability or short episodes of mania like symptoms are common, impairing and a topic of intense recent interest to clinicians, researchers and the DSM-5 process. Here we review the most recent findings about these two presentations and discuss approaches to their treatment. Recent findings Longitudinal and genetic findings suggest that chronic irritability should be regarded as a mood problem that is distinct from bipolar disorder. A proportion of children with short (less than 4 days) episodes of mania like symptoms seem to progress to classical (Type I or II) bipolar disorder over time in US clinic samples. In a UK sample, such episodes were independently associated with psychosocial impairment. The evidence base for the treatment of either irritability or short-lived episodes to mania-like symptoms is still small. Clinicians should be cautious with extrapolating treatments from classical bipolar disorder to these mood regulation problems. CBT-based approaches targeting general mood regulation processes may be effective for cases with severe irritability or short episodes of mania like symptoms. Summary There is increasing research evidence for the importance of mood regulation problems in the form of either irritability or short episodes of mania like symptoms in youth. The evidence base for their drug treatment has yet to be developed. CBT-based interventions to modify processes of mood regulation may be a useful and safe intervention for patients with these presentations.
Diagnostic discrepancies occur when the diagnosis made on a biospecimen during the course of review at a biobank differs from the original clinical diagnosis. These diagnostic discrepancies detected during biobanking present unique challenges that are distinct from other types of research results or incidental findings. The proposed process for reporting diagnostic discrepancies or pathological incidental findings identified through a quality assurance evaluation at the biobank includes verification of the biospecimen identity, verification of the diagnosis within the biobank, and re-review of the case by the pathologist at the biospecimen collection site. If the pathologist at the biobank and the original pathologist do not reach agreement, an impartial and knowledgeable third party is consulted. The decision as to whether and how to notify research participants of any confirmed changes in diagnosis would be determined by institutional procedures. Implementation of this proposed process will require clear delineation of the roles and responsibilities of all involved parties in order to promote excellence in patient care and ensure that researchers have access to biospecimens of requisite quality.Genet Med 2012:14(4):417-423. PMID:22344228
Lockhart, Nicole C; Yassin, Rihab; Weil, Carol J; Compton, Carolyn C
The management of misaligned paternity findings raises important controversy worldwide. It has mainly, however, been discussed in the context of high-income countries. Genetic and genomics research, with the potential to show misaligned paternity, are becoming increasingly common in Africa. During a genomics study in Kenya, a dilemma arose over testing and sharing information on paternal sickle cell disease status. This dilemma may be paradigmatic of challenges in sharing misaligned paternity findings in many research and health care settings. Using a deliberative approach to community consultation to inform research practice, we explored residents' views on paternal testing and sharing misaligned paternity information. Between December 2009 and November 2010, 63 residents in Kilifi County were engaged in informed deliberative small group discussions, structured to support normative reflection within the groups, with purposive selection to explore diversity. Analysis was based on a modified framework analysis approach, drawing on relevant social science and bioethics literature. The methods generated in-depth individual and group reflection on morally important issues and uncovered wide diversity in views and values. Fundamental and conflicting values emerged around the importance of family interests and openness, underpinned by disagreement on the moral implications of marital infidelity and withholding truth. Wider consideration of ethical issues emerging in these debates supports locally-held reasoning that paternal sickle cell testing should not be undertaken in this context, in contrast to views that testing should be done with or without the disclosure of misaligned paternity information. The findings highlight the importance of facilitating wider testing of family members of affected children, contingent on the development and implementation of national policies for the management of this inherited disorder. Their richness also illustrates the potential for the approach adopted in this study to strengthen community consultation.
Marsh, Vicki; Kombe, Francis; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Molyneux, Sassy; Parker, Michael
The management of misaligned paternity findings raises important controversy worldwide. It has mainly, however, been discussed in the context of high-income countries. Genetic and genomics research, with the potential to show misaligned paternity, are becoming increasingly common in Africa. During a genomics study in Kenya, a dilemma arose over testing and sharing information on paternal sickle cell disease status. This dilemma may be paradigmatic of challenges in sharing misaligned paternity findings in many research and health care settings. Using a deliberative approach to community consultation to inform research practice, we explored residents' views on paternal testing and sharing misaligned paternity information. Between December 2009 and November 2010, 63 residents in Kilifi County were engaged in informed deliberative small group discussions, structured to support normative reflection within the groups, with purposive selection to explore diversity. Analysis was based on a modified framework analysis approach, drawing on relevant social science and bioethics literature. The methods generated in-depth individual and group reflection on morally important issues and uncovered wide diversity in views and values. Fundamental and conflicting values emerged around the importance of family interests and openness, underpinned by disagreement on the moral implications of marital infidelity and withholding truth. Wider consideration of ethical issues emerging in these debates supports locally-held reasoning that paternal sickle cell testing should not be undertaken in this context, in contrast to views that testing should be done with or without the disclosure of misaligned paternity information. The findings highlight the importance of facilitating wider testing of family members of affected children, contingent on the development and implementation of national policies for the management of this inherited disorder. Their richness also illustrates the potential for the approach adopted in this study to strengthen community consultation. PMID:24034967
Marsh, Vicki; Kombe, Francis; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Molyneux, Sassy; Parker, Michael
Calculating the membrane potential of a neurite under extracellular electrical stimulation is important in the design of some recent stimulation strategies for neuroprosthetic devices including retinal implants, cochlear implants, deep brain stimulation. A common approach, widely used in the electrical stimulation literature uses a volume conductor model to calculate the electrical potential in the tissue and then extracts the voltage or current density on the surface of a neuron, which is used as input to the cable equation to calculate the neuron's response. However this approach ignores the effect of the neuron itself as well as surrounding neurons on the extracellular potential. Here we highlight that this leads to an internal inconsistency in the overall model because the result depends on whether the voltage or current density is used to calculate the neural response. The magnitude of this discrepancy is calculated for the example of a point source electrode in a homogeneous medium and is shown to be up to several hundred percent under some stimulus conditions. The inconsistency can be resolved by ensuring that the voltage is related to the current density by the transimpedance of the neurite. Deriving a volume conductor model that satisfies this relationship requires further work. PMID:24111093
Meffin, Hamish; Tahayori, Bahman; Grayden, David B; Burkitt, Anthony N
This study explored, from a public health perspective, factors that contribute to inconsistent condom use by men in Curaçao through semi-structured face-to-face interviews with 21 heterosexual men. The findings show that there is an important disconnect between what is considered culturally appropriate sexual behaviour for men and women and condom use, that diverging from prescribed notions of masculinity and femininity in order to use condoms consistently is difficult, and that condom use is particularly problematic in the context of concurrent partnerships and sexual economic exchanges. Participants further reported that Caribbean family structures, whereby mothers assume the role as primary caregiver and fathers contribute biologically but, to a much lesser extent socially, also have an impact on condom use. Additionally, consistent condom use was reported to be impeded by a cultural taboo on talking seriously about sex and sexual health. In their totality, findings provide important input from men for the development of sexual health promotion interventions that are cognizant of the cultural context in which inconsistent condom use occurs, and that are geared not only to the individual level but also to the interpersonal and structural levels. PMID:23350609
Stutterheim, Sarah E; Bertens, Madelief G B C; Mevissen, Fraukje E F; Schaalma, Herman P
Highlights some areas of Fourth Amendment doctrinal inconsistencies in Supreme Court decisions and recommends how these inconsistencies can and should be resolved. Available from School of Law, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403. (Author/IRT)
...Inconsistent State laws and effect of employment opportunities...NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP General Provisions...Inconsistent State laws and effect of employment opportunities...regulation. For example, a music school receiving...
...Inconsistent State laws and effect of employment opportunities...NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP General Provisions...Inconsistent State laws and effect of employment opportunities...regulation. For example, a music school receiving...
...agencies superseded. 5.9 Section 5.9 Emergency Management and Assistance...INFORMATION General Provisions Â§ 5.9 Inconsistent issuances of FEMA and...inconsistent with this regulation are superseded to the extent of that...
...agencies superseded. 5.9 Section 5.9 Emergency Management and Assistance...INFORMATION General Provisions Â§ 5.9 Inconsistent issuances of FEMA and...inconsistent with this regulation are superseded to the extent of that...
Purpose of Review The projected increase of Americans age 65 years and older will have an unprecedented impact on the health care delivery system. As a result, new models to support individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) will become increasingly more important. This selective overview highlights recent reports addressing psychosocial functioning and interventions for older adults with SMI. Recent Findings Recently published descriptive studies suggest that poor functional outcomes and lower quality of life among older people with SMI are strongly associated with social isolation, depression, cognitive impairment, and chronic medical illness. Recent research on psychosocial interventions include evaluations of three different models of skills training, a supported employment intervention, and cognitive remediation. This research establishes psychosocial rehabilitation as feasible and potentially effective in improving functioning and quality of life in older adults with SMI. Summary Several important directions for future research focused on older adults with SMI are suggested by this overview. They include: individually tailored rehabilitation, interventions that optimize social integration and decrease depressive symptoms, techniques that blend cognitive remediation with vocational rehabilitation, and integration of health promotion with psychosocial rehabilitation.
Measuring the degree of inconsistency of a belief base is an important issue in many real-world applications. It has been increasingly recognized that deriving syntax sensitive inconsistency measures for a belief base from its minimal inconsistent subsets is a natural way forward. Most of the current proposals along this line do not take the impact of the size of each
In attempting to impeach an eyewitness, attorneys often highlight inconsistencies in the eyewitness's recall. This study examined the differential impact of types of inconsistent testimony on mock-juror decisions. Participants viewed 1 of 4 versions of a videotaped trial in which the primary evidence against the defendant was the testimony of the eyewitness. The types of inconsistent statements given by the
In order to alleviate design decay, different program design documentation techniques are used for the specification and detection of design inconsistencies in code. However, these design documentation techniques do not always provide support for the diagnosis and (semi-) automatic correction of such inconsistencies. In case they do, corrective solutions are typically targeted to a reduced set of pre-defined inconsistency problems,
This study examined the relationship between psychosocial work characteristics and educational disparities in health. Informed by the evidence on the relationship between work pressure and higher education, we suggested reframing the distribution of psychosocial work characteristics in the context of education. We differentiated psychosocial work resources from demands and hypothesized that the inconsistent mediation effects of psychosocial resources and demands are associated with educational status. Using data from the 2008 National Study of Changing Workforce (NSCW), we found that psychosocial work resources and demands had inconsistent mediating effects on the education-health relationship. Higher educated employees were more likely to report autonomy, challenge and schedule control, but they were also more likely to experience overtime hours, job overload and work-family conflict. Work resources appeared to protect higher-educated workers from stress and health problems while work demands put them at risk of less favorable health outcomes. In addition we found that the 'costs' of psychosocial work demands were stronger among women, particularly those who were highly educated, suggesting that highly educated women did not reap the full health benefit of high educational attainment. Our findings illustrate that the observed positive associations between education and health mask important heterogeneity in the effects of psychosocial work characteristics. We discuss the implications of this study for health and family-based work policies. PMID:22800919
Community capacity for organization and collaboration has been shown to be a powerful tool for improving the health and well-being of communities. Since 1994 the Washington State Family Policy Council has supported the development of community capacity in 42 community public health and safety networks. Community networks bring local communities together to restructure natural supports and local resources to meet the needs of families and children, and increase cross-system coordination and flexible funding streams to improve local services and policy. In this study, researchers sought to demonstrate the strong impact of the community networks’ capacity to interrupt health and social problems. Findings suggest that community networks reduce health and safety problems for the entire community population. Further, community networks with high community capacity reduced adverse childhood experiences (ACE) in young adults ages 18–34.
Hall, Judy; Porter, Laura; Longhi, Dario; Becker-Green, Jody; Dreyfus, Susan
An ample understanding of the complex interactions between host and pathogen will improve our ability to develop new prophylactic and therapeutic measures against infection. Precise classification of infectious agents in regards to their infective lifestyles in the host and corresponding pathogenic implications are required because clear concepts are essential to plan fruitful research. Classically, pathogenic bacteria are classified as extracellular, facultative intracellular, and obligate intracellular. In my opinion, this classification is inadequate because, as concluded from data here discussed, it is based on inconsistencies and hyper-valorizes the capacity of the infectious agent replicate in vitro in cell-free media. For a microbial pathogen, what matters is whether intra- or extracellularity is in the context of the in vivo life and in association with pathogenicity. When living as a pathogen in association with its host, what is relevant in microbiological terms is not the ability to grow in artificial cell-free bacteriological media or in environmental niches but whether the intracellular infectious agent, besides the phase of intracellular growth which is behind its label, also is able to live extracellularly in the natural settings of the extracellular territories of their hosts. To eliminate the inconsistencies associated with the classical labeling of bacterial pathogens, I propose that bacterial pathogens be labeled exclusive extracellular, dual intracellular/extracellular and exclusive intracellular based on their infective lifestyle in the host, not in the ability to grow in artificial bacteriological media.
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a disease of aging with indirect but detectable and cumulative neurological implications. We systematically tested whether neurocognitive speed (mean rate) or inconsistency (intraindividual variability) was the more sensitive clinical marker of T2D. Three of four research questions used a cross-sectional wave of the Victoria Longitudinal Study (VLS) divided into T2D (age 55-81 years) and control (age = 53-91 years) groups. The fourth question addressed relative two-wave longitudinal changes. Each of four speeded tasks produced intraindividual mean rate (IM) and intraindividual standard deviation (ISD) scores. First, the T2D group performed more slowly than the controls. Second, this deficit extended to inconsistency, but less uniformly. Third, based on logistic regression analyses, IM was the more effective predictor of T2D status. Fourth, we observed similar longitudinal change patterns for IM and ISD. Results are linked to the theoretical location of T2D on an adjusted neural vulnerability continuum.
Whitehead, Bonnie P.; Dixon, Roger A.; Hultsch, David F.; MacDonald, Stuart W.S.
The high rate of HIV infections among tuberculosis (TB) patients in South Africa calls for urgent HIV reduction interventions in this subpopulation. While correct and consistent condom use is one of the effective means of HIV prevention among sexually active people, there is insufficient research on condom use among TB patients in South Africa. The aim of this paper was to determine the prevalence of inconsistent condom use among public primary care TB patients and its associated factors using a sample of 4900 TB patients from a cross-sectional survey in three health districts in South Africa. Results indicated that when asked about their consistency of condom use in the past 3 months, 63.5% of the participants reported that they did not always use condoms. In the multivariable analysis, being married (OR = 1.66; 95% CI 1.25-2.20) or cohabitating or separated, divorced, or widowed (OR = 3.67; 1.85-7.29), lower educational level (OR = 0.66; 0.46-0.94), greater poverty (OR = 1.60; 1.25-2.20), not having HIV status disclosed (OR = 0.34; 0.25-0.48), sexual partner on antiretroviral treatment (OR = 0.38; 0.23-0.60), and partner alcohol use before sex (OR = 1.56; 1.30-1.90) were significantly associated with inconsistent condom use in the past 3 months. The low proportion of consistent condom use among TB patients needs to be improved. PMID:22919329
Geographic information systems (GIS) offer a very rich toolbox of methods and technologies, and powerful research tools that extend far beyond the mere production of maps, making it possible to cross-link and study the complex interaction of disease data and factors originating from a wide range of disparate sources. Despite their potential indispensable role in cancer prevention and control programmes, GIS are underrepresented in specialised oncology literature. The latter has provided an impetus for the current review. The review provides an eight-year snapshot of geospatial cancer research in peer-reviewed literature (2002-2009), presenting the clinico-epidemiological and methodological findings and trends in the covered corpus (93 papers). The authors concluded that understanding the relationship between location and cancer/cancer care services can play a crucial role in disease control and prevention, and in better service planning, and appropriate resource utilisation. Nevertheless, there are still barriers that hinder the wide-scale adoption of GIS and related technologies in everyday oncology practice. PMID:20589539
Boulos, Dina N Kamel; Ghali, Ramy R; Ibrahim, Ezzeldin M; Boulos, Maged N Kamel; AbdelMalik, Philip
Background: Patients who have completed initial cancer treatment (cancer survivors) have been relatively neglected. We need data to help us better understand the needs of this group and to underpin evidence-based service development. Methods: Scoping reviews of research published in the last two decades focussing on the problems faced by cancer survivors, and the effectiveness of interventions for these problems were undertaken. The aim was to identify what we know, what we do not know and opportunities where research could provide new information. We searched for, retrieved and rapidly appraised systematic reviews sourced from the most common electronic databases supplemented by more recently published individual studies. Results: The research evidence is surprisingly limited. We have some knowledge of the prevalence and nature of depression, pain and fatigue in cancer survivors. We know much less about cognitive and physical impairment, employment, financial well-being and relationships. Even where we have evidence, it is mostly of only moderate quality, is most often only for breast cancer and focuses almost exclusively on the early phase of survivorship. We have good evidence for the effectiveness of drug treatments for pain and moderate evidence for fatigue and depression, but not for other symptoms. Interventions based on rehabilitative and self-management approaches remain in the early stages of evaluation. Interpretation: There has been a substantial amount of research describing many of the problems experienced by the cancer survivors. This is strongest in the area of symptoms in the period soon after treatment. However, the quality of the evidence is often poor, and some topics have been little examined. We urgently need data on the natural evolution and scale of the problems of cancer survivors obtained from well-designed, large-scale cohort studies and the robust testing of interventions in clinical trials. Given the current financially constrained research funding environment, we suggest areas in which strategic investment might give findings that have the potential to make a major impact on patient well-being in a 5-year time scale.
Background Facilitation has been identified in the literature as a potentially key component of successful implementation. It has not, however, either been well-defined or well-studied. Significant questions remain about the operational definition of facilitation and about the relationship of facilitation to other interventions, especially to other change agent roles when used in multi-faceted implementation projects. Researchers who are part of the Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (QUERI) are actively exploring various approaches and processes, including facilitation, to enable implementation of best practices in the Veterans Health Administration health care system – the largest integrated healthcare system in the United States. This paper describes a systematic, retrospective evaluation of implementation-related facilitation experiences within QUERI, a quality improvement program developed by the US Department of Veterans Affairs. Methods A post-hoc evaluation was conducted through a series of semi-structured interviews to examine the concept of facilitation across several multi-site QUERI implementation studies. The interview process is based on a technique developed in the field of education, which systematically enhances learning through experience by stimulating recall and reflection regarding past complex activities. An iterative content analysis approach relative to a set of conceptually-based interview questions was used for data analysis. FindingsFindings suggest that facilitation, within an implementation study initiated by a central change agency, is a deliberate and valued process of interactive problem solving and support that occurs in the context of a recognized need for improvement and a supportive interpersonal relationship. Facilitation was described primarily as a distinct role with a number of potentially crucial behaviors and activities. Data further suggest that external facilitators were likely to use or integrate other implementation interventions, while performing this problem-solving and supportive role. Preliminary Conclusions This evaluation provides evidence to suggest that facilitation could be considered a distinct implementation intervention, just as audit and feedback, educational outreach, or similar methods are considered to be discrete interventions. As such, facilitation should be well-defined and explicitly evaluated for its perceived usefulness within multi-intervention implementation projects. Additionally, researchers should better define the specific contribution of facilitation to the success of implementation in different types of projects, different types of sites, and with evidence and innovations of varying levels of strength and complexity.
|Although a great deal is known about the implications of employee commitment for organizations, less attention has been paid to its ramifications for employees themselves. Previous research has been unsystematic and the findings have sometimes been inconsistent. The most consistent findings pertain to the positive links between affective…
Although a great deal is known about the implications of employee commitment for organizations, less attention has been paid to its ramifications for employees themselves. Previous research has been unsystematic and the findings have sometimes been inconsistent. The most consistent findings pertain to the positive links between affective commitment and employee well-being. Relations between continuance commitment and well-being are more
In the last decade, research has begun to investigate the efficacy of carbohydrate supplementation for improving aspects of physical capacity and skill performance during sport-specific exercise in adolescent team games players. This research remains in its infancy, and further study would be beneficial considering the large youth population actively involved in team games. Literature on the influence of carbohydrate supplementation on skill performance is scarce, limited to shooting accuracy in adolescent basketball players and conflicting in its findings. Between-study differences in the exercise protocol, volume of fluid and carbohydrate consumed, use of prior fatiguing exercise and timing of skill tests may contribute to the different findings. Conversely, initial data supports carbohydrate supplementation in solution and gel form for improving intermittent endurance running capacity following soccer-specific shuttle running. These studies produced reliable data, but were subject to limitations including lack of quantification of the metabolic response of participants, limited generalization of data due to narrow participant age and maturation ranges, use of males and females within the same sample and non-standardized pre-exercise nutritional status between participants. There is a lack of consensus regarding the influence of frequently consuming carbohydrate-containing products on tooth enamel erosion and the development of obesity or being overweight in adolescent athletes and non-athletes. These discrepancies mean that the initiation or exacerbation of health issues due to frequent consumption of carbohydrate-containing products by adolescents cannot be conclusively refuted. Coupled with the knowledge that consuming a natural, high-carbohydrate diet -3-8 hours before exercise can significantly alter substrate use and improve exercise performance in adults, a moral and ethical concern is raised regarding the direction of future research in order to further knowledge while safeguarding the health and well-being of young participants. It could be deemed unethical to continue study into carbohydrate supplementation while ignoring the potential health concerns and the possibility of generating similar performance enhancements using natural dietary interventions. Therefore, future work should investigate the influence of pre-exercise dietary intake on the prolonged intermittent, high-intensity exercise performance of adolescents. This would enable quantification of whether pre-exercise nutrition can modulate exercise performance and, if so, the optimum dietary composition to achieve this. Research could then combine this knowledge with ingestion of carbohydrate-containing products during exercise to facilitate ethical and healthy nutritional guidelines for enhancing the exercise performance of adolescents. This article addresses the available evidence regarding carbohydrate supplementation and prolonged intermittent, high-intensity exercise in adolescent team games players. It discusses the potential health concerns associated with the frequent use of carbohydrate-containing products by adolescents and how this affects the research ethics of the field, and considers directions for future work. PMID:22901040
We investigate a vircator as an economical high power pulsed microwave source for radar. Because of the inconsistency of spark gaps in the driver and operation of the tube based vircator, the resulting ringing pulse has a different pulse shape each time a pulse is generated. Therefore every time we pulse the source we must remove the effects of the ringing source pulse from the data resulting from that pulse. Scattering from a scene is considered random (white noise) with a superimposed non-white component due to the pulse. We propose a whitening filter to remove the effects of the ringing pulse from the random data. This produces a similar result as spectral factorization in which we first determine the pulse from the power spectrum of the data and then deconvolve the ringing pulse out of the received data. The removal of pulse specific ringing increases range resolution and allows data from sequential pulses from a single vircator or pulses from separate vircators to be combined for joint processing in a synthetic aperture radar.
Discusses factors that determine whether, and how, psychological research will have an impact on public policies regarding children. Factors discussed include (a) consistencies and inconsistencies in researchfindings, especially cases in which early results are greatly modified, or even reversed, by later ones; (b) cases in which documentation of a problem is not accompanied by information on the costs and
Eleanor E. Maccoby; Alfred J. Kahn; Barbara A. Everett
The study examined correlations between incidental learning of foreign words and interhemispheric connectivity, operationalized as consistency of hand preference, using pooled data of five experiments on adult foreign language learning (N = 242). Inconsistent hand preference was found to be positively correlated with vocabulary learning even after effects of cognitive variables (verbal working memory capacity and nonverbal IQ), identified previously as predictive of successful foreign-language vocabulary learning, were partialled out. This observed relationship between handedness consistency and vocabulary learning persisted when left-handed and right-handed individuals were analyzed separately, and there was no overall difference in performance between left- and right-handers. The findings confirm an association between degree of handedness and verbal episodic memory. PMID:19451372
Kempe, Vera; Brooks, Patricia J; Christman, Stephen D
Background The NIDA National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN) was established to foster translation of research into practice in substance abuse treatment settings. The CTN provides a unique opportunity to examine in multi-site, translational clinical trials, the outcomes of treatment interventions targeting vulnerable sub-groups of women; the comparative effectiveness of gender-specific protocols to reduce risk behaviors; and gender differences in clinical outcomes. Objectives To review gender-related findings from published CTN clinical trials and related studies from January, 2000 through March, 2010. Methods CTN studies were selected for review if they focused on treatment outcomes or services for special populations of women with substance use disorders (SUDs) including those with trauma histories, pregnancy, co-occurring eating and other psychiatric disorders and HIV risk behaviors; or implemented gender-specific protocols. Results The CTN has randomized 11,500 participants (41% women) across 200 clinics in 24 randomized clinical trials in community settings, of which 4 have been gender-specific. This paper summarizes gender-related findings from CTN clinical trials and related studies, focusing on trauma histories, pregnancy, co-occurring eating and other psychiatric disorders, and HIV risk behaviors. Conclusions These published studies have expanded the evidence base regarding interventions for vulnerable groups of women with SUDs as well as gender-specific interventions to reduce HIV risk behaviors in substance using men and women. The results also underscore the complexity of accounting for gender in the design of clinical trials and analysis of results. Scientific Relevance To fully understand the relevance of gender-specific moderators and mediators of outcome, it is essential that future translational studies adopt more sophisticated approaches to understanding and measuring gender-relevant factors and plan sample sizes that are adequate to support more nuanced analytic methods.
Greenfield, Shelly F.; Rosa, Carmen; Putnins, Susan I.; Green, Carla A.; Brooks, Audrey J.; Calsyn, Donald A.; Cohen, Lisa R.; Erickson, Sarah; Gordon, Susan M.; Haynes, Louise; Killeen, Therese; Miele, Gloria; Tross, Susan; Winhusen, Theresa
There is evidence of high rates of unprotected sex among young people with first episode psychosis compared to their peers. Little research has explored factors associated with condom use in this population. The current study examined the association between previously identified psychosocial risk factors and condom use in young people with early psychosis and their peers. Sixty-seven sexually active young people with first episode psychosis and 48 sexually active control participants matched on a number of sociodemographic factors completed a self-report survey. Increased probability of inconsistent condom use was associated with clinical status, younger age, unemployment, and the absence of peer support for condom use. Psychological distress, self-esteem, social support, substance use, and impulsivity were not associated with condom use. The results suggest that sexual risk-reduction interventions for young people with psychosis should target peer norms, particularly among those who are younger and unemployed. PMID:21246275
This GreenCOM report summarizes the gender-related findings from three formative research reports conducted in Palawan, Davao del Sur and Cebu Provinces and makes recommendations for the pilot environmental communication campaigns. The report draws upon t...
|The statement in the title, what if Indigenous Knowledge contradicts accepted scientific findings (Fowler, 2000), is an expression of the dilemma people who research Indigenous Knowledge think they find themselves in when they are confronted with different interpretations of what it means to be human, or, as I may summarize it, with different…
Stickney (2010), Bornstein (2010), and Langer (2010) expand the research recommendations for experimental writing research\\u000a that Range and Jenkins (2010) generated from gender schema, gender role, and socialization theory. Stickney derives research\\u000a questions from communication and emotion theory. Bornstein and Langer focus on assessment in this paradigm. Bornstein’s multimodal\\u000a assessment strategy might improve understanding of apparently inconsistentfindings, indicate unstudied
Background Several HIV prevention programs use data on condom sales and survey-based data on condom prevalence to monitor progress. However, such indicators are not always consistent. This paper aims to explain these inconsistencies and to assess whether the number of sex acts and the number of condoms used can be estimated from survey data. This would be useful for program managers, as it would enable estimation of the number of condoms needed for different target groups. Methods We use data from six Demographic and Health Surveys to estimate the total annual number of sex acts and number of condoms used. Estimates of the number of sex acts are based on self-reported coital frequency, the proportion reporting intercourse the previous day, and survival methods. Estimates of the number of condoms used are based on self-reported frequency of use, the proportion reporting condom use the previous day and in last intercourse. The estimated number of condoms used is then compared with reported data on condom sales and distribution. Results Analysis of data on the annual number of condoms sold and distributed to the trade reveals very erratic patterns, which reflect stock-ups at various levels in the distribution chain. Consequently, condom sales data are a very poor indicator of the level of condom use. Estimates of both the number of sexual acts and the number of condoms used vary enormously based on the estimation method used. For several surveys, the highest estimate of the annual number of condoms used is tenfold that of the lowest estimate. Conclusions Condom sales to the trade are a poor indicator of levels of condom use, and are therefore insufficient to monitor HIV prevention programs. While survey data on condom prevalence allow more detailed monitoring, converting such data to an estimated number of sex acts and condoms used is not straightforward. The estimation methods yield widely different results, and it is impossible to determine which method is most accurate. Until the reliability of these various estimation methods can be established, estimating the annual number of condoms used from survey data will not be feasible. Collecting survey data on the number of sex acts and the number of condoms used in a fixed time period may enable the calculation of more reliable estimates of the number of sex acts and condoms used.
The fourth workshop of the Multidisciplinary European Low Dose Initiative (MELODI) was organised by STUK-Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority of Finland. It took place from 12 to 14 September 2012 in Helsinki, Finland. The meeting was attended by 179 scientists and professionals engaged in radiation research and radiation protection. We summarise the major scientific findings of the workshop and the recommendations for updating the MELODI Strategic Research Agenda and Road Map for future low dose research activities. PMID:23803528
Salomaa, Sisko; Prise, Kevin M; Atkinson, Michael J; Wojcik, Andrzej; Auvinen, Anssi; Grosche, Bernd; Sabatier, Laure; Jourdain, Jean-René; Salminen, Eeva; Baatout, Sarah; Kulka, Ulrike; Rabus, Hans; Blanchardon, Eric; Averbeck, Dietrich; Weiss, Wolfgang
Abstract. e-Research is intended,to facilitate collaboration,through,distributed access to content, tools, and services. Lessons about collaboration are extracted from the findings of two large, long-term digital library research projects. Both the Alexandria Digital Earth Prototype Project (ADEPT) and,the Center for Embedded,Networked,Sensing (CENS) project on data management,leverage scientific research data for use in teaching. Two forms of collaboration were studied: (1) direct,
...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS...PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities...S. Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues Â§...
|There is a great deal of energy going into encouraging teachers to carry out research. This article, arising from interviews with teachers in four contrasting schools, explores three related questions enquiring into what teachers think about research; how they feel about doing research and, most importantly perhaps, why they choose to continue to…
The intensive discussion on the importance of biodiversity for the stability of essential processes in ecosystems has prompted a multitude of studies since the middle of the last century. Nevertheless, research has been extremely biased by focusing on the producer level, while studies on the impacts of decomposer diversity on the stability of ecosystem functions are lacking. Here, we investigate the impacts of decomposer diversity on the stability (reliability) of three important aboveground and belowground ecosystem functions: primary productivity (shoot and root biomass), litter decomposition, and herbivore infestation. For this, we analyzed the results of three laboratory experiments manipulating decomposer diversity (1-3 species) in comparison to decomposer-free treatments in terms of variability of the measured variables. Decomposer diversity often significantly but inconsistently affected the stability of all aboveground and belowground ecosystem functions investigated in the present study. While primary productivity was mainly destabilized, litter decomposition and aphid infestation were essentially stabilized by increasing decomposer diversity. However, impacts of decomposer diversity varied between plant community and fertility treatments. There was no general effect of the presence of decomposers on stability and no trend toward weaker effects in fertilized communities and legume communities. This indicates that impacts of decomposers are based on more than effects on nutrient availability. Although inconsistent impacts complicate the estimation of consequences of belowground diversity loss, underpinning mechanisms of the observed patterns are discussed. Impacts of decomposer diversity on the stability of essential ecosystem functions differed between plant communities of varying composition and fertility, implicating that human-induced changes of biodiversity and land-use management might have unpredictable effects on the processes mankind relies on. This study therefore points to the necessity of also considering soil feedback mechanisms in order to gain a comprehensive and holistic understanding of the impacts of current global change phenomena on the stability of essential ecosystem functions. PMID:20878188
Background In this methodological paper we document the interpretation of a mixed methods study and outline an approach to dealing with apparent discrepancies between qualitative and quantitative research data in a pilot study evaluating whether welfare rights advice has an impact on health and social outcomes among a population aged 60 and over. Methods Quantitative and qualitative data were collected contemporaneously. Quantitative data were collected from 126 men and women aged over 60 within a randomised controlled trial. Participants received a full welfare benefits assessment which successfully identified additional financial and non-financial resources for 60% of them. A range of demographic, health and social outcome measures were assessed at baseline, 6, 12 and 24 month follow up. Qualitative data were collected from a sub-sample of 25 participants purposively selected to take part in individual interviews to examine the perceived impact of welfare rights advice. Results Separate analysis of the quantitative and qualitative data revealed discrepant findings. The quantitative data showed little evidence of significant differences of a size that would be of practical or clinical interest, suggesting that the intervention had no impact on these outcome measures. The qualitative data suggested wide-ranging impacts, indicating that the intervention had a positive effect. Six ways of further exploring these data were considered: (i) treating the methods as fundamentally different; (ii) exploring the methodological rigour of each component; (iii) exploring dataset comparability; (iv) collecting further data and making further comparisons; (v) exploring the process of the intervention; and (vi) exploring whether the outcomes of the two components match. Conclusion The study demonstrates how using mixed methods can lead to different and sometimes conflicting accounts and, using this six step approach, how such discrepancies can be harnessed to interrogate each dataset more fully. Not only does this enhance the robustness of the study, it may lead to different conclusions from those that would have been drawn through relying on one method alone and demonstrates the value of collecting both types of data within a single study. More widespread use of mixed methods in trials of complex interventions is likely to enhance the overall quality of the evidence base.
The MILAGRO campaign was a large international field experiments conduced in Mexico City and Central Mexico during March 2006. We present an overview of the main findings related to particulate matter and aerosol radiative properties. PM levels inside Mexico City were similar or higher than those in the most polluted North American cities, but ~5 times lower than levels in the most polluted Asian megacities During the study, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations in the urban area of were about double the concentrations in the rural areas surrounding Mexico City. PM2.5 made up about half of the PM10 concentrations, with small amounts of mass in the PM2.5-PM1.0 range. Mineral matter made up approximately 25% of the PM10 and on average 15% and 28% of the PM2.5 in the urban and rural areas, respectively. Approximately 25% of the PM2.5 was secondary inorganic ions with the remaining PM2.5 mass being comprised of largely carbonaceous aerosol. Except for surface measurements at the central sampling sites in Mexico city, the elemental carbon mass absorption efficiency was relatively constant for aircraft and surface measurements throughout the study, contrary to expectations. Although different organic aerosol (OA) source apportionment methods had some differences, there was agreement that the dominant sources of carbonaceous aerosol were secondary OA (SOA), biomass burning, and mobile sources. The impact of biomass burning to the aerosol outflow from the region was much larger than to the surface concentrations inside the city. SOA formation from primary semivolatile and intermediate volatility precursors has the potential to close the gap in predicted vs. measured SOA, while formation from glyoxal also makes an important contribution, especially to organic oxygen. Biogenic SOA advected from the coastal mountain ranges contributes about 1 ?g m-3 to concentrations in the MCMA. Primary OA from anthropogenic and biomass burning sources was found to be semivolatile, while secondary OA was less volatile than POA and aged SOA was essentially non-volatile, in contradiction with current models. Growth rates of new particle formation in Mexico City was very large and found to be impacted by nitrogen containing organic compounds, organic acids, and hydroxyl organic acids, with only a smaller fraction of sulfate aerosol. Some open research questions include the following: additional work is needed to fully quantify the sources of substantial (30-45%) modern carbon in organic aerosols during low biomass burning periods. Discrepancies between the two modern carbon datasets deserve further study. The impact of regional dust vs. road resuspension, as well as heterogeneous reactions of HNO3 with dust need to be quantified. The impact of some POA sources such as food cooking, biofuel use, and open trash burning may be important, but remains poorly characterized. Some differences in the apportionment of biomass burning PM between different approaches were observed and need further research, as these techniques together represent the state of the art for source apportionment. Anthropogenic SOA predictions are improving in terms of magnitude but are poorly constrained by the data. More specific precursor, intermediate, and tracer measurements are needed in future campaigns. SOA from biomass burning sources, although not dominant in the city, remains poorly characterized and appears to be underpredicted by traditional models.
Jimenez, Jose-Luis; Schauer, James J.; Molina, Luisa T.; MILAGRO Pm Team
The publication presents the proceedings of a regional conference on research completed in 1987 under the support of the Office of Maternal and Child Health. The conference brought together Title V researchers, care providers, and administrators to develo...
Background: We were finding volunteers for functional magnetic resonance imaging studies with abnormalities requiring referral surprisingly frequently. The bioethics surrounding the incidental findings are not straightforward and every imaging institution will encounter this situation in their normal volunteers. Yet the implications for the individuals involved may be profound. Should all participants have review of their imaging by an expert and
N Hoggard; G Darwent; D Capener; I D Wilkinson; P D Griffiths
CONTEXT: Pregnancies among contraceptive users account for nearly half of all unintended pregnancies and are almost entirely due to inconsistent or incorrect contraceptive use. Understanding what factors contribute to inconsistent contraceptive behavior can help efforts to reduce unintended pregnancy. METHODS: In 2004, a nationally representative sample of women aged 18-44 using reversible contraceptive methods were surveyed to examine factors associated
|Explaining inconsistency may serve as an important mechanism for driving the process of causal learning. But how might this process generate amended beliefs? One way that explaining inconsistency may promote discovery is by guiding exploratory, hypothesis-testing behavior. In order to investigate this, a study with young children ranging in age…
In this paper fuzzy rule inconsistency resolution and fuzzy rule insertion methods are proposed for fuzzy neural networks. Necessity support and possibility support (re- ferred to as support pair) are applied to detect and remove inconsistencies. In addition to the support pair, the concept of initial learning point is used to handle rule insertion. We demonstrate the use of the
This paper presents a set of mechanisms allowing the detection of control architecture inconsistencies, in the context of autonomous mobile robotics. This approach integrates an observation level into the structure of the control architecture to monitor and analyze the internal state of the robot and detect inconsistencies. These data are processed and the most pertinent information are sent to the
The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether inconsistency in reaction time (RT) is predictive of older adults' ability to solve everyday problems. A sample of 304 community dwelling non-demented older adults, ranging in age from 62 to 92, completed a measure of everyday problem solving, the Everyday Problems Test (EPT). Inconsistency in latencies across trials was assessed
Catherine L. Burton; Esther Strauss; David F. Hultsch; Michael A. Hunter
This paper reviews the application of social welfare functions (SWFs) in welfare-maximizing climate policy analysis. We identify several methodological inconsistencies, analyze their pol- icy implications, discuss the theoretical questions raised by them, and provide recommenda- tions for future studies. Our review flnds that several SWFs applied in climate policy analysis are internally inconsistent. In particular, difierent methods for calculating the
In practice, inconsistencies between architectural documentation and the code might arise due to improper implementation of the architecture or the separate, uncontrolled evolution of the code. Several approaches have been proposed to detect the inconsistencies between the architecture and the code but these tend to be limited for capturing inconsistencies that might occur at runtime. We present a runtime verification approach for detecting inconsistencies between the dynamic behavior of the architecture and the actual code. The approach is supported by a set of tools that implement the architecture and the code patterns in Prolog, and support the automatic generation of runtime monitors for detecting inconsistencies. We illustrate the approach and the toolset for a Crisis Management System case study.
IBM is a diverse multinational company that strives to lead in the creation, devel- opment, and manufacture of the world's most advanced information technologies, including computer systems, software, networking systems, storage devices, and microelectronics. Worldwide research labs work in all areas of information technol- ogy, from physics and cognitive science to leading-edge application research, while the IBM network of solutions
|Describes a study of nursing students that was conducted to investigate the relationship that exists between students' expressed learning style and method of instruction in terms of performance on specific criterion measures. Explains the use of Kolb's Learning Style Inventory, and suggests further research. (Author/LRW)|
There is considerable interest in preparing science teachers who can implement reform-based practices in schools. However, there are relatively few research programs that have systematically studied the implementation of this teaching innovation over extended time (i.e., the entire undergraduate experience and the first few years of full time teaching practice). One extended research program since 1993 that has examined this critical issue in teacher preparation has been carried out in a National Science Foundation funded project in the Collaboratives for the Excellence in Teacher Preparation Program (CETP), the Maryland Collaborative for Teacher Preparation (MCTP). This session synthesizes and reflects on the key research insights coming from over twenty separate studies conducted within the MCTP Research Program over nine years. A significant finding is that the MCTP new teachers maintain their reform-based orientation over time even as they report that they find many school environments resistant to reform-based practices.
Pediatric patients with B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia who are likely to relapse after chemotherapy treatment can reduce those odds by receiving additional courses of chemotherapy, according to research by Dana-Farber/Children's Hospital Cancer Center investigators.
A Wayne State University School of Medicine researcher believes he has found a safer, more effective way to keep cancer cells from protecting themselves against tumor-killing drugs in cases of non-Hodgkinâ€™s lymphoma.
This review is about the latest theories of the underlying mechanisms that explain why music and art promote health and have positive influences on the course of illness with ageing. It is also about the latest findings demonstrating the positive effects that music and the arts in general have on health with ageing; cost savings to society associated with these
It is well established that prenatal exposure to alcohol causes damage to the developing fetus, resulting in a spectrum of disorders known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Although our understanding of the deficits and disturbances associated with FASDs is far from complete, there are consistent findings indicating these are serious,…
A recent report published by the National Center on Performance Incentives (NCPI) presents findings from the second-year evaluation of the Texas Educator Excellence Grant (TEEG) program, a statewide educator incentive program that operated in Texas. As part of that larger study, evaluators examined educators' attitudes about performance pay.…
A recent report published by the National Center on Performance Incentives (NCPI) presents findings from the first-year evaluation of the Texas Educator Excellence Grant (TEEG) program, one of several statewide educator incentive programs in Texas. This report provides an overview of over 1,000 schools' locally designed TEEG performance incentive…
|It is well established that prenatal exposure to alcohol causes damage to the developing fetus, resulting in a spectrum of disorders known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Although our understanding of the deficits and disturbances associated with FASDs is far from complete, there are consistent findings indicating these are serious,…
A two-week mission in March and April of 2011 sent six team members to the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS). MDRS, a research facility in the high Utah desert, provides an analogue for the harsh and unusual working conditions that will be faced by men and women who one day explore Mars. During the mission a selection of quantitative and qualitative psychological tests were administered to the international, multidisciplinary team. A selection of the results are presented along with discussion. PMID:22317591
Sawyer, Benjamin D; Hancock, P A; Deaton, John; Suedfeld, Peter
This publication presents a digest of pertinent research and recommended practices for the first steps of providing early intervention services for young children from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. Chapter 1, "Initial Identification and Referral: Child Find, Screening, and Tracking: Serving Culturally and Linguistically…
ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education, Arlington, VA.
This article reports the results of a research study on the impact of environmental education (EE) upon English primary school teachers, and it then discusses the findings of the study in relation to education for sustainable development, as EE is considered one of the two precursors of education for sustainable development. The article begins by considering the development of EE
|The result of a literature survey in the general area of rural-urban migration and poverty, this report presents both a synthesis of current researchfindings and an annotated bibliography. The synthesis includes a nine chapter discussion of: (1) the rural areas left by the migrants; (2) the decision to migrate; (3) comparative characteristics of…
The results of two comprehensive approaches are compared: the nationwide surveys of suicides in U.S. jails by Hayes and the international meta-analyses of suicides in jails and prisons by Fazel et al. Factors are classified as demographic, situational, clinical, and methodical. More than 50% of U.S. jail suicide victims were men, white, unmarried, under 28 years of age, charged with minor or drug-related offenses, and intoxicated with drugs or alcohol. Suicides significantly occurred in isolation. Suicide victims in the international study were significantly (p < 0.001) men, white, married, pretrial, and charged with or convicted of violent offenses. Psychiatric diagnosis, alcohol abuse, taking psychotropic medication, and suicidal ideation were also positively correlated in the international study, but suicide victims were distributed more evenly over age-groups. Results of other studies illustrate the near universality of some findings. Three theories of suicide are briefly discussed. PMID:21827457
This paper summarizes the results of published studies that have applied the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior to the prediction of exercising intentions and behavior. In particular, the paper illustrates the knowledge we have gained from the application of thesetheoriesand how these theoretical frameworks could be used to guide the development of exercise promotion programs. Finally, research are
There has been a gradual shift from a deficit to a support model for understanding disability over the last two decades. Although more attention is focused on supports at the individual level, policy has provided for the provision of family support. Despite this policy, families' needs for support are on the rise; and research suggests that…
Kyzar, Kathleen B.; Turnbull, Ann P.; Summers, Jean Ann; Gomez, Viviana Aya
|Research data in neurosurgery, neuropsychology, and neurolinguistics indicate that the human brain is lateralized toward one of two methods of information processing, and that, in most humans, the language bias appears to be a left hemisphere function, while the visiospatial bias belongs to the right. Furthermore, the left hemisphere seems to…
Brooker et al. (2002) conducted a systematic review of research into the mental health of prisoners. Their final report included a review of the epidemiology of the prison population, an overview of the interventions used to treat the major mental health disorders in both the general and prison populations, and a review of service delivery and organisation for prisoners with
Coral Sirdifield; Dina Gojkovic; Charlie Brooker; Michael Ferriter
Around the world, cultural blending and conflict pose challenges for assessment and understanding of psychopathology. Economical, evidence-based, culturally robust assessment is needed for research, for answering public health questions, and for evaluating immigrant, refugee, and minority children. This article applies multicultural perspectives to behavioral, emotional, and social problems assessed on dimensions describing children's functioning, as rated by parents, teachers, children,
Thomas M. Achenbach; Andreas Becker; Manfred Döpfner; Einar Heiervang; Veit Roessner; Hans-Christoph Steinhausen; Aribert Rothenberger
Child Trends reviewed existing evidence on a somewhat neglected topic: relationship education for youth in foster care. The goals of this research review were to identify the needs of disadvantaged young people around intimate partner relationships, to identify evaluated relationship education programs, to highlight and synthesize common themes…
This review will show the histological findings in femora of ovariectomized (OVX) rats administered with or without eldecalcitol, a second-generation of vitamin D analog, which were published in our recent article. The OVX group showed markedly-reduced bone mineral density, and the decreased trabecular number and thickness, which was consistent to increased osteoclastic number and bone resorption parameters. After eldecalcitol administration, the number of osteoclasts was diminished, accompanied with elevated bone mineral density. Interestingly, eldecalcitol did promote a type of focal bone formation that is independent of bone resorption, a process known as bone mini-modeling. Taken together, our findings suggest that eldecalcitol mainly inhibits osteoclastic bone resorption, but, in part, stimulates focal bone formation in the OVX bone. PMID:22040822
|This article reports the finding of a recent study conducted as part of a larger white paper, "Sounds of Learning: The Impact of Music Education on All Aspects of a Child's Growth and Development. The purpose of the study was to uncover what people know and what they do not know about the impact of music education on at-risk kids, in an effort to…
The cable-strut structural system is statically and kinematically indeterminate. The initial pre-stress is a key factor for\\u000a determining the shape and load carrying capacity. A new numerical algorithm is presented herein for the initial pre-stress\\u000a finding procedure of complete cable-strut assembly. This method is based on the linear adjustment theory and does not take\\u000a into account the material behavior. By
Multi-View Modeling (MVM) is a common modeling practice that advocates the use of multiple, different and yet related models to represent the needs of diverse stakeholders. Of crucial importance in MVM is consistency checking - the description and verification of semantic relationships amongst the views. Variability is the capacity of software artifacts to vary, and its effective management is a core tenet of the research in Software Product Lines (SPL). MVM has proven useful for developing one-of-a-kind systems; however, to reap the potential benefits of MVM in SPL it is vital to provide consistency checking mechanisms that cope with variability. In this paper we describe how to address this need by applying Safe Composition - the guarantee that all programs of a product line are type safe. We evaluate our approach with a case study.
Mathematical models of many physical/statistical problems are systems of linear equations. Due to measurement and possible human errors/mistakes in modeling/data, as well as due to certain assumptions to reduce complexity, inconsistency (contradiction) is...
We present ontology databases with not-gadgets, a method for detecting inconsistencies in an ontology with large numbers of annotated instances by using triggers and exclusion dependencies in a unique way. What makes this work relevant is the use of the database itself, rather than an external reasoner, to detect logical inconsistencies given large numbers of annotated instances. What distinguishes this work is the use of event-driven triggers together with the introduction of explicit negations. We applied this approach toward the serotonin example, an open problem in biomedical informatics which aims to use annotations to help identify inconsistencies in the Gene Ontology. We discovered 75 inconsistencies that have important implications in biology, which include: (1) methods for refining transfer rules used for inferring electronic annotations, and (2) highlighting possible biological differences across species worth investigating.
...insert the following clause: Inconsistency Between English Version and Translation of Contract (FEB 2000...of this contract and any translation into another language, the English language meaning shall control. (End of clause)...
Flood forecasting increasingly relies on numerical weather prediction forecasts to achieve longer lead times. One of the key difficulties that is emerging in constructing a decision framework for these flood forecasts is what to dowhen consecutive forecasts are so different that they lead to different conclusions regarding the issuing of warnings or triggering other action. In this opinion paper we explore some of the issues surrounding such forecast inconsistency (also known as "Jumpiness", "Turning points", "Continuity" or number of "Swings"). In thsi opinion paper we define forecast inconsistency; discuss the reasons why forecasts might be inconsistent; how we should analyse inconsistency; and what we should do about it; how we should communicate it and whether it is a totally undesirable property. The property of consistency is increasingly emerging as a hot topic in many forecasting environments.
Pappenberger, F.; Cloke, H. L.; Persson, A.; Demeritt, D.
We propose a novel framework for performing quantitative Bayesian inference based on qualitative knowledge. Here, we focus on the treatment in the case of inconsistent qualitative knowledge. A hierarchical Bayesian model is proposed for integrating inconsistent qualitative knowledge by calculating a prior belief distribution based on a vector of knowledge features. Each inconsistent knowledge component uniquely defines a model class in the hyperspace. A set of constraints within each class is generated to describe the uncertainty in ground Bayesian model space. Quantitative Bayesian inference is approximated by model averaging with Monte Carlo methods. Our method is firstly benchmarked on ASIA network and is applied to a realistic biomolecular interaction modeling problem for breast cancer bone metastasis. Results suggest that our method enables consistently modeling and quantitative Bayesian inference by reconciling a set of inconsistent qualitative knowledge. PMID:18272332
Background:Patients who have completed initial cancer treatment (cancer survivors) have been relatively neglected. We need data to help us better understand the needs of this group and to underpin evidence-based service development.Methods:Scoping reviews of research published in the last two decades focussing on the problems faced by cancer survivors, and the effectiveness of interventions for these problems were undertaken. The
A Richardson; J Addington-Hall; Z Amir; C Foster; D Stark; J Armes; S G Brearley; L Hodges; J Hook; N Jarrett; Z Stamataki; I Scott; J Walker; L Ziegler; M Sharpe
High-performance computing facilities in the United States consume an enormous amount of electricity, cutting into research budgets and challenging public- and private-sector efforts to reduce energy consumption and meet environmental goals. However, these facilities can greatly reduce their energy demand through energy-efficient design of the facility itself. Using a case study of a facility under design, this article discusses strategies and technologies that can be used to help achieve energy reductions.
Drewmark Communications; Sartor, Dale; Wilson, Mark
Background Using SNP genotypes to apply genomic selection in breeding programs is becoming common practice. Tools to edit and check the quality of genotype data are required. Checking for Mendelian inconsistencies makes it possible to identify animals for which pedigree information and genotype information are not in agreement. Methods Straightforward tests to detect Mendelian inconsistencies exist that count the number of opposing homozygous marker (e.g. SNP) genotypes between parent and offspring (PAR-OFF). Here, we develop two tests to identify Mendelian inconsistencies between sibs. The first test counts SNP with opposing homozygous genotypes between sib pairs (SIBCOUNT). The second test compares pedigree and SNP-based relationships (SIBREL). All tests iteratively remove animals based on decreasing numbers of inconsistent parents and offspring or sibs. The PAR-OFF test, followed by either SIB test, was applied to a dataset comprising 2,078 genotyped cows and 211 genotyped sires. Theoretical expectations for distributions of test statistics of all three tests were calculated and compared to empirically derived values. Type I and II error rates were calculated after applying the tests to the edited data, while Mendelian inconsistencies were introduced by permuting pedigree against genotype data for various proportions of animals. Results Both SIB tests identified animal pairs for which pedigree and genomic relationships could be considered as inconsistent by visual inspection of a scatter plot of pairwise pedigree and SNP-based relationships. After removal of 235 animals with the PAR-OFF test, SIBCOUNT (SIBREL) identified 18 (22) additional inconsistent animals. Seventeen animals were identified by both methods. The numbers of incorrectly deleted animals (Type I error), were equally low for both methods, while the numbers of incorrectly non-deleted animals (Type II error), were considerably higher for SIBREL compared to SIBCOUNT. Conclusions Tests to remove Mendelian inconsistencies between sibs should be preceded by a test for parent-offspring inconsistencies. This parent-offspring test should not only consider parent-offspring pairs based on pedigree data, but also those based on SNP information. Both SIB tests could identify pairs of sibs with Mendelian inconsistencies. Based on type I and II error rates, counting opposing homozygotes between sibs (SIBCOUNT) appears slightly more precise than comparing genomic and pedigree relationships (SIBREL) to detect Mendelian inconsistencies between sibs.
We examined vection induced during physical or simulated head oscillation along either the horizontal or depth axis. In the first two experiments, during active conditions, subjects viewed radial-flow displays which simulated viewpoint oscillation that was either in-phase or out-of-phase with their own tracked head movements. In passive conditions, stationary subjects viewed playbacks of displays generated in earlier active conditions. A third control, experiment was also conducted where physical and simulated fore-aft oscillation was added to a lamellar flow display. Consistent with ecology, when active in-phase horizontal oscillation was added to a radial-flow display it modestly improved vection compared to active out-of-phase and passive conditions. However, when active fore-aft head movements were added to either a radial-flow or a lamellar-flow display, both in-phase and out-of-phase conditions produced very similar vection. Our research shows that consistent multisensory input can enhance the visual perception of self-motion in some situations. However, it is clear that multisensory stimulation does not have to be consistent (i.e., ecological) to generate compelling vection in depth. PMID:21650090
Recent data reveals that dietary factors may influence outcomes in patients undergoing cancer treatment. However, patient-centered information on dietary recommendations is limited. In this study, we assessed dietary recommendations for cancer patients during treatment and survivorship by evaluating the websites of all National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) member institutions. NCCN members were identified on www.nccn.org , and individual websites were reviewed for nutritional content. Recommendations were categorized by meal frequency, diet type, macronutrient content, and other specific recommendations. Twenty-one NCCN member institutions were identified. Only 4 sites (19%) provided nutritional guidelines. Half promoted a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet recommending 5:1 and 7:1 ratios of carbohydrate to fat food types, and half promoted weight maintenance during treatment, endorsing a 1:1 ratio of carbohydrate to fat. One third of all NCCN sites (n = 7) had links to 9 external websites. Four external sites provided nutrition guidelines: half favored a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet, and half favored high-caloric intake to maintain weight. Consistent online dietary recommendations are lacking for patients during and after cancer treatment. Given the lack of consensus on dietary recommendations, future research is warranted to develop evidenced-based guidelines that can be used by oncologists and patients alike. PMID:23530643
Champ, Colin E; Mishra, Mark V; Showalter, Timothy N; Ohri, Nitin; Dicker, Adam P; Simone, Nicole L
While in western countries, such as the US and Europe, authoritarian parenting is associated with negative psycho-social outcomes.\\u000a Studies have indicated that this is not the case in collective\\/authoritarian cultures. It has been hypothesized that inconsistency\\u000a in parenting style and culture contributes to these negative outcomes. In this study a scale of authoritarian parenting and\\u000a parental inconsistency has been developed.
Interviews conducted among 56 young men and women (aged 16-19) reveal two contrasting strategies used to ensure condom use at first intercourse with a new partner. These are defined as verbal communication based strategies (involving some explicit discussion about contraception before intercourse) and non-verbal communication based strategies (where one partner takes responsibility for using condoms without discussing this with their partner). Whilst the former is argued as being the more effective strategy, this paper suggests an important role for the latter, particularly when young people find themselves in situations where initiating discussions about condom use is perceived as being particularly difficult. PMID:10533541
An experimental drug combination for preventing graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was not significantly better than the standard regimen on key endpoints, according to a report of a phase 3 trial at the American Society of Hematology annual meeting. The combination of two immunosuppressive compounds â€“ tacrolimus plus sirolimus â€“ did not provide a statistically significant, GVHD-free survival benefit over the long-used standard of care, tacrolimus plus methotrexate, said researchers from Dana-Farber Cancer Institute who led the multi-center trial.
Cathepsin K (CTSK) is a member of the papain-like cysteine protease family. Mutations in the CTSK gene cause a rare autosomal recessive bone disorder called pycnodysostosis (OMIM 265800). In order to follow the advances in the research about CTSK and pycnodysostosis, we performed a literature retrospective study of 159 pycnodysostosis patients reported since 1996 and focused on the genetic characteristics of CTSK mutations and/or the clinical phenotypes of pycnodysostosis. Thirty three different CTSK mutations have been found in 59 unrelated pycnodysostosis families. Of the 59 families, 37.29% are from Europe and 30.51% are from Asia. A total of 69.70% of the mutations were identified in the mature domain of CTSK, 24.24% in the proregion, and 6.06% in the preregion. The hot mutation spots are found in exons 6 and 7. CTSK mutations result in total loss or inactivity of the CTSK protein, which causes abnormal degradation of bone matrix proteins such as type I collagen. Skeletal abnormalities, including short stature, an increase in bone density with pathologic fractures, and open fontanels and sutures, are the typical phenotypes of pycnodysostosis. Research on Ctsk-/- mouse models was also reviewed here to elucidate the biological function of Ctsk and the mechanism of pycnodysostosis. New evidence suggests that Ctsk plays an important role in the immune system and may serve as a valid therapeutic target in the future treatment of pycnodysostosis.
This article presents the findings of four focus groups aimed at discovering the concerns a group of 9- to 12-year-old African American and Hispanic girls (N = 38) had about puberty, the transition to adolescence, and growing up. Among the factors these girls liked about growing up were increasing independence from parents, widening social relations with same- and opposite-sex friends, and an increase in decision making regarding clothes and activities. What they reported as not liking about growing up were an increase in peer pressure, high parental expectations, and more responsibility for their actions in home, school, and recreational activities. Health care for this group must include systematic monitoring of pubertal development and concerns in order to aggressively educate preadolescents to negotiate this period smoothly and to avoid high-risk behaviors that could have negative health and social sequelae during adolescence and adulthood. PMID:8920329
When asked to address the above question, findings that appeared to be among the most relevant included (1) interventions in the delivery room directed at supporting the physiological transition from intrauterine to extrauterine life rather than actively intervening in it; (2) recent data suggesting that keeping extremely low-gestational age neonates at a pulse oximeter saturation (SpO(2)) of 91-95% would increase their chances of survival compared with aiming for lower SpO(2) values; (3) using caffeine citrate in infants <1250 g with apnoea of prematurity improves neurodevelopmental outcome; (4) injecting antivascular epithelial growth factor into the vitreous seems to be an effective treatment for retinopathy of prematurity and (5) moderate hypothermia for perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy increases the likelihood of survival without neurological impairment. Here, data that support these recent changes in approach will be presented and discussed. PMID:21865486
This article is the second of a two-part series that examines the utility of higher education research to help guide campus-based interventions to enhance institutional effectiveness. This second article outlines programmatic efforts undertaken to enhance the quality of the first-year experience for new students. It also describes the impact of these interventions on the first-year student experience. The article closes
The fast aging of many western and eastern societies and their increasing reliance on information technology create a compelling need to reconsider older users' interactions with computers. This paper summarizes the results of 6 years of research on the age-differentiated design of human-computer interaction. The well-known model of human information processing served as the theoretical framework. The model components ''sensory processing'', ''perception'', ''working memory'', ''decision and response selection'' and ''response execution'' were analyzed exemplarily in task settings on project management. In seven empirical studies with a total number of 405 participants between 20 and 77 years the human-computer interaction was analyzed regarding effectiveness, efficiency and user satisfaction. For most but not all studies the results reveal that age-induced differences in human-computer interaction can best be compensated by an ergonomic ''design for all''. In some cases however an age-specific approach is favorable. PMID:22317515
Vetter, Sebastian; Bützler, Jennifer; Jochems, Nicole; Schlick, Christopher M
|The Adjective Generation Technique (AGT) has been used in studies to demonstrate that subjects' responses show variations from one point in time to the next. To examine this hypothesis, longitudinal studies were undertaken where subjects were asked to generate five words to describe themselves on each of 29 days. Some conclusions drawn were that:…
In developed nations, approximately half of household environments contain pets. Studies of Human-Animal Interaction (HAI) have proposed that there are health benefits and risks associated with pet ownership. However, accurately demonstrating and understanding these relationships first requires a better knowledge of factors associated with ownership of different pet types. A UK birth cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), were used to collect pet ownership data from the mothers, from gestation to child age 10 years old. 14,663 children were included in the study, of which mothers of 13,557 reported pet information at gestation, and 7,800 by age 10. Pet types recorded include cat, dog, rabbit, rodent, bird, fish and tortoise/turtle. The dataset also contains a number of demographic, socioeconomic and behavioural variables relevant to human health behaviour. Logistic regression was used to build multivariable models for ownership of each pet type at age 7 years. Family pet ownership increased during childhood, in particular rabbits, rodents and fish. A number of socioeconomic and demographic factors were associated with ownership of different pet types and the effects differed depending on the pet type studied. Variables which require consideration by researchers include gender, presence of older siblings, ethnicity, maternal and paternal education, maternal and paternal social class, maternal age, number of people in the household, house type, and concurrent ownership of other pets. Whether the mother had pets during her childhood was a strong predictor of pet ownership in all models. In HAI studies, care should be taken to control for confounding factors, and to treat each pet type individually. ALSPAC and other similar birth cohorts can be considered a potential resource for research into the effects of pet ownership during childhood. PMID:21139856
Westgarth, Carri; Heron, Jon; Ness, Andy R; Bundred, Peter; Gaskell, Rosalind M; Coyne, Karen P; German, Alexander J; McCune, Sandra; Dawson, Susan
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different landfill aeration concepts and accordant application areas are described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Examples of full scale projects are provided for Europe, North-America and Asia. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Major project findings are summarised, including prospects and limitations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inconsistencies between laboratory and full scale results have been elaborated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An explanatory approach in connection with the inconsistencies is provided. - Abstract: The creation of sustainable landfills is a fundamental goal in waste management worldwide. In this connection landfill aeration contributes towards an accelerated, controlled and sustainable conversion of conventional anaerobic landfills into a biological stabilized state associated with a minimised emission potential. The technology has been successfully applied to landfills in Europe, North America and Asia, following different strategies depending on the geographical region, the specific legislation and the available financial resources. Furthermore, methodologies for the incorporation of landfill aeration into the carbon trade mechanisms have been developed in recent years. This manuscript gives an overview on existing concepts for landfill aeration; their application ranges and specifications. For all of the described concepts examples from different countries worldwide are provided, including details regarding their potentials and limitations. Some of the most important findings from these aeration projects are summarised and future research needs have been identified. It becomes apparent that there is a great demand for a systematisation of the available results and implications in order to further develop and optimise this very promising technology. The IWWG (International Waste Working Group) Task Group 'Landfill Aeration' contributes towards the achievement of this goal.
Ritzkowski, M., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Institute of Environmental Technology and Energy Economics, Hamburg University of Technology, Harburger Schlossstr. 36, 21079 Hamburg (Germany); Stegmann, R., E-mail: email@example.com [Consultants for Waste Management, Prof. R. Stegmann and Partner, Schellerdamm 19-21, 21079 Hamburg (Germany)
Uranium miners of the former Wismut company in Germany form the largest cohort of workers exposed to (222)Rn and dust in the world. The German Uranium Miner Study, Research Group Pathology, is evaluating the central pathology archive of the Wismut company. The main tasks of our study are pathological-anatomical and molecular genetic investigations of 28,975 autopsy cases and the evaluation of mining pollutants in the lungs by neutron activation analysis. As part of an observer agreement study, lung tumors are classified according to the WHO/IASLC classification and nontumorigenic lung disorders are registered. Lung tumors were analyzed for the presence of a proposed radon-specific mutation in the TP53 gene (formerly known as p53). Interim results are: (a) In the years 1957 to 1965, a high rate (69%) of small cell carcinomas was found which had declined to 34% by 1990. (b) The percentage of the deceased who suffered from silicosis is not higher in the group of lung tumors than in other tumor groups or the nontumor group. (c) The hypothesis of a radon-characteristic hotspot mutation in the TP53 tumor suppressor gene is not supported by our investigations. (d) Neutron activation analysis demonstrates that uranium, arsenic, chromium, cobalt and antimony can be found in tissue samples from the miners even when they had stopped working more than 20 years before death. PMID:10564937
Wiethege, T; Wesch, H; Wegener, K; Müller, K M; Mehlhorn, J; Spiethoff, A; Schömig, D; Hollstein, M; Bartsch, H
Objectives To identify factors that are significantly associated with dentists’ use of specific caries preventive agents in adult patients, and whether dentists who use one preventive agent are also more likely to use certain others. Methods Data were collected from 564 practitioners in The Dental Practice-Based Research Network, a multi-region consortium of participating practices and dental organizations. Results In-office topical fluoride was the method most frequently used. Regarding at-home preventive agents, there was little difference in preference between non-prescription fluoride, prescription fluoride, or chlorhexidine rinse. Dentists who most frequently used caries prevention were also those who regularly perform caries risk assessment and individualize caries prevention at the patient level. Higher percentages of patients with dental insurance were significantly associated with more use of in-office prevention modalities. Female dentists and dentists with more-recent training were more likely to recommend preventive agents that are applied by the patient. Dentists who reported more-conservative decisions in clinical treatment scenarios were also more likely to use caries preventive agents. Groups of dentist who shared a common preference for certain preventive agents were identified. One group used preventive agents selectively, whereas the other groups predominately used either in-office or at-home fluorides. Conclusions Caries prevention is commonly used with adult patients. However, these results suggest that only a subset of dentists base preventive treatments on caries risk at the individual patient level.
Riley, Joseph L.; Gordan, Valeria V.; Rindal, D. Brad; Fellows, Jeffrey L.; Ajmo, Craig T.; Amundson, Craig; Anderson, Gerald A.; Gilbert, Gregg H.
Objectives Few studies have investigated the incidence of eating disorders (EDs). Important questions about changes in the incidence of diagnosed disorders in recent years, disorder and gender-specific onset and case detection remain unanswered. Understanding changes in incidence is important for public health, clinical practice and service provision. The aim of this study was to estimate the annual (age-specific, gender-specific and subtype-specific) incidence of diagnosed ED: anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) in primary care over a 10-year period in the UK (2000–2009); to examine the changes within the study period; and to describe peak age at diagnosis. Design Register-based study. Setting Primary care. Data were obtained from a primary care register, the General Practice Research Database, which contains anonymised records representing about 5% of the UK population. Participants All patients with a first-time diagnosis of AN, BN and EDNOS were identified. Primary outcome Annual crude and age-standardised incidence rates were calculated. Results A total of 9072 patients with a first-time diagnosis of an ED were identified. The age-standardised annual incidence rate of all diagnosed ED for ages 10–49 increased from 32.3 (95% CI 31.7 to 32.9) to 37.2 (95% CI 36.6 to 37.9) per 100?000 between 2000 and 2009. The incidence of AN and BN was stable; however, the incidence of EDNOS increased. The incidence of the diagnosed ED was highest for girls aged 15–19 and for boys aged 10–14. Conclusions The age-standardised incidence of ED increased in primary care between 2000 and 2009. New diagnoses of EDNOS increased, and EDNOS is the most common ED in primary care.
Micali, Nadia; Hagberg, Katrina W; Petersen, Irene; Treasure, Janet L
Since management decision-making becomes complex and preferences of the decision-maker frequently becomes inconsistent, multi-attribute decision-making problems were studied. To represent inconsistent preference relation, the concept of evaluation structure was introduced. We can generate simple rules to represent inconsistent preference relation by the evaluation structures. Further rough set theory for the preference relation was studied and the concept of approximation was introduced. One of our main aims of this paper is to introduce a concept of rough evaluation structure for representing inconsistent preference relation. We apply rough set theory to the evaluation structure, and develop a method for generating simple rules for inconsistent preference relations. In this paper, we introduce concepts of totally ordered information system, similarity class of preference relation, upper and lower approximation of preference relations. We also show the properties of rough evaluation structure and provide a simple example. As an application of rough evaluation structure, we analyze questionnaire survey of customer preferences about audio players.
Background Double sensitization (DS) to bee and vespid venom is frequently observed in the diagnosis of hymenoptera venom allergy, but clinically relevant DS is rare. Therefore it is sophisticated to choose the relevant venom for specific immunotherapy and overtreatment with both venoms may occur. We aimed to compare currently available routine diagnostic tests as well as experimental tests to identify the most accurate diagnostic tool. Methods 117 patients with a history of a bee or vespid allergy were included in the study. Initially, IgE determination by the ImmunoCAP, by the Immulite, and by the ADVIA Centaur, as well as the intradermal test (IDT) and the basophil activation test (BAT) were performed. In 72 CAP double positive patients, individual IgE patterns were determined by western blot inhibition and component resolved diagnosis (CRD) with rApi m 1, nVes v 1, and nVes v 5. Results Among 117 patients, DS was observed in 63.7% by the Immulite, in 61.5% by the CAP, in 47.9% by the IDT, in 20.5% by the ADVIA, and in 17.1% by the BAT. In CAP double positive patients, western blot inhibition revealed CCD-based DS in 50.8%, and the CRD showed 41.7% of patients with true DS. Generally, agreement between the tests was only fair and inconsistent results were common. Conclusion BAT, CRD, and ADVIA showed a low rate of DS. However, the rate of DS is higher than expected by personal history, indicating that the matter of clinical relevance is still not solved even by novel tests. Furthermore, the lack of agreement between these tests makes it difficult to distinguish between bee and vespid venom allergy. At present, no routinely employed test can be regarded as gold standard to find the clinically relevant sensitization.
Sturm, Gunter J.; Jin, Chunsheng; Kranzelbinder, Bettina; Hemmer, Wolfgang; Sturm, Eva M.; Griesbacher, Antonia; Heinemann, Akos; Vollmann, Jutta; Altmann, Friedrich; Crailsheim, Karl; Focke, Margarete; Aberer, Werner
Cross-referencing experimental data with our current knowledge of signaling network topologies is one central goal of mathematical modeling of cellular signal transduction networks. We present a new methodology for data-driven interrogation and training of signaling networks. While most published methods for signaling network inference operate on Bayesian, Boolean, or ODE models, our approach uses integer linear programming (ILP) on interaction graphs to encode constraints on the qualitative behavior of the nodes. These constraints are posed by the network topology and their formulation as ILP allows us to predict the possible qualitative changes (up, down, no effect) of the activation levels of the nodes for a given stimulus. We provide four basic operations to detect and remove inconsistencies between measurements and predicted behavior: (i) find a topology-consistent explanation for responses of signaling nodes measured in a stimulus-response experiment (if none exists, find the closest explanation); (ii) determine a minimal set of nodes that need to be corrected to make an inconsistent scenario consistent; (iii) determine the optimal subgraph of the given network topology which can best reflect measurements from a set of experimental scenarios; (iv) find possibly missing edges that would improve the consistency of the graph with respect to a set of experimental scenarios the most. We demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach by interrogating a manually curated interaction graph model of EGFR/ErbB signaling against a library of high-throughput phosphoproteomic data measured in primary hepatocytes. Our methods detect interactions that are likely to be inactive in hepatocytes and provide suggestions for new interactions that, if included, would significantly improve the goodness of fit. Our framework is highly flexible and the underlying model requires only easily accessible biological knowledge. All related algorithms were implemented in a freely available toolbox SigNetTrainer making it an appealing approach for various applications. PMID:24039561
Melas, Ioannis N; Samaga, Regina; Alexopoulos, Leonidas G; Klamt, Steffen
Cross-referencing experimental data with our current knowledge of signaling network topologies is one central goal of mathematical modeling of cellular signal transduction networks. We present a new methodology for data-driven interrogation and training of signaling networks. While most published methods for signaling network inference operate on Bayesian, Boolean, or ODE models, our approach uses integer linear programming (ILP) on interaction graphs to encode constraints on the qualitative behavior of the nodes. These constraints are posed by the network topology and their formulation as ILP allows us to predict the possible qualitative changes (up, down, no effect) of the activation levels of the nodes for a given stimulus. We provide four basic operations to detect and remove inconsistencies between measurements and predicted behavior: (i) find a topology-consistent explanation for responses of signaling nodes measured in a stimulus-response experiment (if none exists, find the closest explanation); (ii) determine a minimal set of nodes that need to be corrected to make an inconsistent scenario consistent; (iii) determine the optimal subgraph of the given network topology which can best reflect measurements from a set of experimental scenarios; (iv) find possibly missing edges that would improve the consistency of the graph with respect to a set of experimental scenarios the most. We demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach by interrogating a manually curated interaction graph model of EGFR/ErbB signaling against a library of high-throughput phosphoproteomic data measured in primary hepatocytes. Our methods detect interactions that are likely to be inactive in hepatocytes and provide suggestions for new interactions that, if included, would significantly improve the goodness of fit. Our framework is highly flexible and the underlying model requires only easily accessible biological knowledge. All related algorithms were implemented in a freely available toolbox SigNetTrainer making it an appealing approach for various applications.
The Tibetan Plateau (TP) is the source of many Asian river systems and serves as "the Asian water tower". Precipitation variability is a strong component of both hydrological processes and energy cycles, and the study of precipitation in the TP is of great importance in the content of global warming. In this study, the annual and seasonal (spring: MAM; summer: JJA; autumn: SON; and winter: DJF) variations in precipitation are investigated in the eastern and central TP during 1961-2007, based on surface raw and adjusted observations as well as both NCEP/NCAR (1961-2007) and ERA-40 (1961-2001) reanalyses. The adjusted precipitation in the TP is higher than raw values on both the annual and seasonal basis due to adjustments of solid precipitation by a bias experiential model. At the annual spring and winter scales, the adjusted precipitation shows a significant increase calculated by the Mann-Kendall trend test. Compared with adjusted precipitation; both NCEP/NCAR and ERA-40 reanalyses capture the broad spatial distributions of mean annual and seasonal precipitation, but are less good at repeating the decadal variability. Both reanalyses show the drying phenomena in most regions and fail to represent the change patterns of precipitation observed by the adjusted observations. Both NCEP/NCAR and ERA-40 have larger inconsistencies which may be caused by the differences between actual and model topography. This suggests that it is crucial to use the adjusted precipitation in the climate research and reanalysis products should be paid more attention in the TP.
We investigate effects of consistent (conserving the number of degrees of freedom) and inconsistent pion-nucleon-isobar couplings on the isobar propagator in vacuum and in nuclear medium. Using the consistent coupling in conjunction with a convenient basis leads to significant simplification of the isobar vacuum and in-medium self-energy and dressed propagator compared to the case of inconsistent interaction. The higher-derivative nature of the consistent interaction requires a suitable compensation by an additional form-factor term or adjustment in the used cut-off values. This modification is straightforward to perform and assures that the physical observables connected to the spin-3/2 sector in vacuum and nuclear medium acquire values indistinguishable from the ones obtained by using an inconsistent coupling.
In April 2005, a geometry package to implement almost arbitrary geometries was added to the EGSnrc code system: egspp (Kawrakow 2005 NRCC Report PIRS-899, Kawrakow and Rogers 2006 NRCC Report PIRS-701). During the use of this geometry package, some inconsistencies were found which might lead to dose values that are wrong by up to a factor of 100. In addition, discrepancies up to a factor of 3 were found between egspp and BEAMnrc when using the SLAB module (Rogers et al 2007 NRCC Report PIRS-509). In this letter, the measures to overcome these inconsistencies are described. PMID:20616406
Ethical tensions exist regarding the value and practice of acknowledging Indigenous contributions in community-based participatory research (CBPR). Semistructured phone interviews with researchers documented their perspectives on authorship in the scholarly dissemination of their community-based participatory Indigenous research. Thematic analysis resulted in four key ideas: (1) current practices regarding methods of acknowledging community contributions; (2) requirements for shared authorship with individual versus collective/community partners; (3) benefits to sharing authorship with collective/community partners; and (4) risks to sharing authorship with collective/community partners. Findings suggest an emerging but inconsistent practice. PMID:21133784
The presentation provides a short summary of the USEPA arsenic removal demonstration program. The summary included the results of the arsenic demonstration project in Arnaudville, LA that is a Round 2 project. The second part of the presentation consisted of a short summary on t...
Recent in vitro and in vivo research has suggested that cocaine has a direct effect on the pathogenesis of AIDS. These findings are confirmed by epidemiological studies linking the use of injected, inhaled, and smoked (crack) cocaine and indicators of HIV disease progression, even among adherent users of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Recent studies of vertical HIV transmission suggest that cocaine use may play a role in mother-to-child infection via alteration of maternal immune responses, enhanced viral replication in maternal immune cells, or alterations in the immune systems of neonates or infants. The purpose of this article is to review research conducted over the past several decades on associations between use of cocaine and HIV disease progression, especially among HIV+ women, and to explore its potential relevance for understanding mother-to-infant transmission of HIV. PMID:21219914
This paper provides a comprehensive literature review of the phenomenon of spinouts from academic institutions. We systematically\\u000a identified spinout papers in key management journals, categorised the literature and critically synthesised the findings.\\u000a We present the findings of each literature stream in turn and also identify inconsistencies and directions for further research.\\u000a We conclude that while the early literature has been
Research employing household water consumption data has sought to test models of water demand and conservation using variables from attitude theory. A significant, albeit unrecognised, challenge has been that attitude models describe individual-level motivations while consumption data is recorded at the household level thereby creating inconsistency between units of theory and measurement. This study employs structural equation modelling and moderated regression techniques to addresses the level of analysis problem, and tests hypotheses by isolating effects on water conservation in single-person households. Furthermore, the results question the explanatory utility of habit strength, perceived behavioural control, and intentions for understanding metered water conservation in single-person households. For example, evidence that intentions predict water conservation or that they interact with habit strength in single-person households was contrary to theoretical expectations. On the other hand, habit strength, self-reports of past water conservation, and perceived behavioural control were good predictors of intentions to conserve water. PMID:23246905
Jorgensen, Bradley S; Martin, John F; Pearce, Meryl; Willis, Eileen
This study examined the nature of pathways between marital hostility and withdrawal, parental disagreements about child rearing issues, and subsequent changes in parental emotional unavailability and inconsistent discipline in a sample of 225 mothers, fathers, and 6-year-old children. Results of autoregressive, structural equation models indicated that marital withdrawal and hostility were associated with increases in parental emotional unavailability over the
Melissa L. Sturge-Apple; Patrick T. Davies; E. Mark Cummings
In this paper, a new method for merging multiple inconsis- tent knowledge bases in the framework of possibilistic logic is presented. We divide the fusion process into two steps: one is called the splitting step and the other is called the combi- nation step. Given several inconsistent possibilistic knowl- edge bases (i.e. the union of these possibilistic bases is in-
In this paper, a new method for merging multiple inconsis- tent knowledge bases in the framework of possibilistic logic is presented. We divide the fusion process into two steps: one is called the splitting step and the other is called the combi- nation step. Given several inconsistent possibilistic knowl- edge bases (i.e. the union of these possibilistic bases is in-
Despite the growing success of well-marketed environmentally friendly products, there remains a gap between consumers' positive attitudes towards green issues and products, and their inconsistent and often conflicting consumption behaviour. Indeed, this is a challenge for social marketers seeking to advance the sustainability agenda. Therefore, this study problematises what has been conceptualised as attitude–behaviour gaps (Boulstridge & Carrigan, 2000), and
Despite the growing success of well-marketed environmentally friendly products, there remains a gap between consumers' positive attitudes towards green issues and products, and their inconsistent and often conflicting consumption behaviour. Indeed, this is a challenge for social marketers seeking to advance the sustainability agenda. Therefore, this study problematises what has been conceptualised as attitude–behaviour gaps (Boulstridge & Carrigan, 2000), and
Range maps depicting historical distributions of wildlife may be inconsistent. Different maps can be based on diverse sources of evidence which may vary in reliability (e.g., specimens in Natural History Museums, trapper and hunter journals, conversations recorded in dairies) and the effort expended locating evidence may differ among map makers (Young and Goldman 1944, Seton 1953, Hall 1981). Despite these
A contract approach specifying long and short term objectives is part of an overall treatment approach for students whose learning and attention skills are inconsistent. Additional program efforts include allergy and food assessment, medication assessment and trial (if appropriate), and attention to the child's biochemical functioning. (CL)
Context$awareness allows pervasive applications to adapt to changeable computing environments. Con$ texts, the pieces of information that capture the cha$ racteristics of environments, are often error$prone and inconsistent due to noises. Various strategies have been proposed to enable automatic context inconsis$ tency resolution. They are formulated on different as$ sumptions that may not hold in practice. This causes applications to
Chang Xu; Shing-chi Cheung; Wing Kwon Chan; Chunyang Ye
The current study examines inconsistent discipline as a mediator in the association between maternal distress and child aggression and attention problems. Participants were 215 boys, ranging in age from 9 to 12 years, and their mothers. Mothers provided self-report data on socioeconomic status (SES), parenting stress, maternal distress (depression and anxiety\\/somatization), and use of parenting practices. They also rated their
Tammy D. Barry; Sarah T. Dunlap; John E. Lochman; Karen C. Wells
An internally consistent procedure of uncertainty analysis will give the same results no matter how the calculations are legitimately rearranged. This paper identifies an apparent internal inconsistency arising with the full procedure described in the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement. The phenomenon occurs when the measurand is expressible as a function of quantities with common sources, and
Reconciliation of inconsistent perspectives is an important issue for collaborative GIS and group decision making support systems. Although some methods, such as extended speech act theory (ESAT), have been used to handle this issue, some problems still remain unsolved such as how to define and process the negotiation workflow, how to handle the complex interactions among distributed users, and how
|This study explored an understudied promotive factor, a belief that alcohol use is inconsistent with personal autonomy, which may reduce adolescent intention to drink and subsequent alcohol use. Autonomy was examined as an attitudinal construct within the Theory of Reasoned Action. Longitudinal data from 2,493 seventh grade students nested in 40…
Henry, Kimberly L.; Shtivelband, Annette; Comello, Maria Leonora G.; Slater, Michael D.