Sample records for inconsistent research findings

  1. A. Egyed Automatically Detecting and Tracking Inconsistencies in Software Design Models 1 Abstract--Consistency checkers help engineers find errors (inconsistencies) in software design models. Even if

    E-print Network

    Egyed, Alexander

    A. Egyed ­ Automatically Detecting and Tracking Inconsistencies in Software Design Models 1 Abstract--Consistency checkers help engineers find errors (inconsistencies) in software design models. Even to avoid follow-on errors and unnecessary rework. However, current approaches do not detect or track

  2. Researchers find their Nemo.

    PubMed

    King, Anthony

    2009-11-25

    With its genome almost fully sequenced, the zebrafish has gone from bit player to rising star among model organisms. Its lower maintenance costs and the ease of tissue imaging in live zebrafish are among the benefits that have cast this organism as an emerging player in disease research and drug screening. PMID:19945369

  3. Communication of socioeconomic research findings.

    PubMed

    Milne, R J

    1999-01-01

    Socioeconomics is research that identifies, measures and compares the costs and the clinical, economic and humanistic consequences of diseases and healthcare interventions. Research findings must be communicated to be valuable. Publication moves research findings into the public domain and exposes hard won ideas to critical appraisal. The analyst or researcher informs the decision process by defining an answerable question, applying standard economic methodology, developing a credible study, and using appropriate analytical and communication tools. The decision-maker is more likely to listen if the message is relevant, clear, simple and timely, and if he/she has influence over the relevant budget. Traditional print media provide a standardised process for quality control, whereas electronic media can provide speed of publication and wide access, usually at the expense of quality. The quality of both published medical and socioeconomic research articles varies widely. Published checklists can greatly assist in determining the structural quality of a study, but they cannot guarantee that the content of an article is useful to a decision-maker. Barriers to communication include perceived lack of study credibility, lack of relevance to the decision under consideration, suspicion of bias and inadequate training of the readers. Journal editors aim to improve the readability and clarity of articles and to bring them into conformance with journal policies. Recommendations for effective communication include the following: determine the target audience(s) and develop the appropriate perspective; set the study in its clinical context; keep the language simple where possible and use multiple communication media. Well conducted and well communicated studies can influence policy and outcomes. PMID:10623379

  4. Research Findings on Overactive Bladder.

    PubMed

    Patra, Phani B; Patra, Sayani

    2015-05-01

    Several physiopathologic conditions lead to the manifestation of overactive bladder (OAB). These conditions include ageing, diabetes mellitus, bladder outlet obstruction, spinal cord injury, stroke and brain injury, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, interstitial cystitis, stress and depression. This review has discussed research findings in human and animal studies conducted on the above conditions. Several structural and functional changes under these conditions have not only been observed in the lower urinary tract, but also in the brain and spinal cord. Significant changes were observed in the following areas: neurotransmitters, prostaglandins, nerve growth factor, Rho-kinase, interstitial cells of Cajal, and ion and transient receptor potential channels. Interestingly, alterations in these areas showed great variation in each of the conditions of the OAB, suggesting that the pathophysiology of the OAB might be different in each condition of the disease. It is anticipated that this review will be helpful for further research on new and specific drug development against OAB. PMID:26195957

  5. FindFoci: A Focus Detection Algorithm with Automated Parameter Training That Closely Matches Human Assignments, Reduces Human Inconsistencies and Increases Speed of Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Alex D.; Carr, Antony M.; Hoffmann, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Accurate and reproducible quantification of the accumulation of proteins into foci in cells is essential for data interpretation and for biological inferences. To improve reproducibility, much emphasis has been placed on the preparation of samples, but less attention has been given to reporting and standardizing the quantification of foci. The current standard to quantitate foci in open-source software is to manually determine a range of parameters based on the outcome of one or a few representative images and then apply the parameter combination to the analysis of a larger dataset. Here, we demonstrate the power and utility of using machine learning to train a new algorithm (FindFoci) to determine optimal parameters. FindFoci closely matches human assignments and allows rapid automated exploration of parameter space. Thus, individuals can train the algorithm to mirror their own assignments and then automate focus counting using the same parameters across a large number of images. Using the training algorithm to match human assignments of foci, we demonstrate that applying an optimal parameter combination from a single image is not broadly applicable to analysis of other images scored by the same experimenter or by other experimenters. Our analysis thus reveals wide variation in human assignment of foci and their quantification. To overcome this, we developed training on multiple images, which reduces the inconsistency of using a single or a few images to set parameters for focus detection. FindFoci is provided as an open-source plugin for ImageJ. PMID:25478967

  6. Inconsistencies in the red blood cell membrane proteome analysis: generation of a database for research and diagnostic applications.

    PubMed

    Heged?s, Tamás; Chaubey, Pururawa Mayank; Várady, György; Szabó, Edit; Sarankó, Hajnalka; Hofstetter, Lia; Roschitzki, Bernd; Stieger, Bruno; Sarkadi, Balázs

    2015-01-01

    Based on recent results, the determination of the easily accessible red blood cell (RBC) membrane proteins may provide new diagnostic possibilities for assessing mutations, polymorphisms or regulatory alterations in diseases. However, the analysis of the current mass spectrometry-based proteomics datasets and other major databases indicates inconsistencies-the results show large scattering and only a limited overlap for the identified RBC membrane proteins. Here, we applied membrane-specific proteomics studies in human RBC, compared these results with the data in the literature, and generated a comprehensive and expandable database using all available data sources. The integrated web database now refers to proteomic, genetic and medical databases as well, and contains an unexpected large number of validated membrane proteins previously thought to be specific for other tissues and/or related to major human diseases. Since the determination of protein expression in RBC provides a method to indicate pathological alterations, our database should facilitate the development of RBC membrane biomarker platforms and provide a unique resource to aid related further research and diagnostics.Database URL: http://rbcc.hegelab.org. PMID:26078478

  7. Inconsistencies in the red blood cell membrane proteome analysis: generation of a database for research and diagnostic applications

    PubMed Central

    Heged?s, Tamás; Chaubey, Pururawa Mayank; Várady, György; Szabó, Edit; Sarankó, Hajnalka; Hofstetter, Lia; Roschitzki, Bernd; Sarkadi, Balázs

    2015-01-01

    Based on recent results, the determination of the easily accessible red blood cell (RBC) membrane proteins may provide new diagnostic possibilities for assessing mutations, polymorphisms or regulatory alterations in diseases. However, the analysis of the current mass spectrometry-based proteomics datasets and other major databases indicates inconsistencies—the results show large scattering and only a limited overlap for the identified RBC membrane proteins. Here, we applied membrane-specific proteomics studies in human RBC, compared these results with the data in the literature, and generated a comprehensive and expandable database using all available data sources. The integrated web database now refers to proteomic, genetic and medical databases as well, and contains an unexpected large number of validated membrane proteins previously thought to be specific for other tissues and/or related to major human diseases. Since the determination of protein expression in RBC provides a method to indicate pathological alterations, our database should facilitate the development of RBC membrane biomarker platforms and provide a unique resource to aid related further research and diagnostics. Database URL: http://rbcc.hegelab.org PMID:26078478

  8. 78 FR 67363 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct...ORI that the data provided by Respondent are based on actual experiments or are otherwise legitimately derived, that the data,...

  9. 78 FR 47699 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct...material, data provided by Respondent are based on actual experiments or are otherwise legitimately derived, and that the...

  10. 75 FR 18836 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct...that the data provided by the Respondent are based on actual experiments or are otherwise legitimately derived and that the data,...

  11. 77 FR 52034 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Findings of Research...from an unrelated published experiment in Figure 3, J Orth Surg...represent Respondent's own experiment for bone nodules formed in...online image for an unrelated experiment (at...

  12. 76 FR 23600 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct...lower 1st panel) by using one blank image from an unknown experiment to falsely represent the preimmunization control...

  13. Americans' Gut Bacteria Lack Diversity, Researchers Find

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_152064.html Americans' Gut Bacteria Lack Diversity, Researchers Find People living in less- ... Papua New Guinea have 50 more types of bacteria To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  14. Research Findings Relevant to Director Credentialing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheelock Coll., Boston, MA. Center for Career Development in Early Care and Education.

    This document presents literature review findings that provide background information on the director credentialing effort. Findings show that the director's role is essential to program quality and that director experience correlates with quality for children and their families. Research suggests training needs and the competencies or attributes…

  15. Women in Mixed Groups: Some Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamola, Claire

    1979-01-01

    Reviews the research dealing with women in leadership roles within groups of both sexes. Some research indicates a reluctance of women to assume leadership roles. Other findings indicate women are more likely to be strong leaders when the task solution is given. (LPG)

  16. Incidental findings found in “healthy” volunteers during imaging performed for research: current legal and ethical implications

    PubMed Central

    Booth, T C; Jackson, A; Wardlaw, J M; Taylor, S A; Waldman, A D

    2010-01-01

    Incidental findings found in “healthy” volunteers during research imaging are common and have important implications for study design and performance, particularly in the areas of informed consent, subjects' rights, clinical image analysis and disclosure. In this study, we aimed to determine current practice and regulations concerning information that should be given to research subjects when obtaining consent, reporting of research images, who should be informed about any incidental findings and the method of disclosure. We reviewed all UK, European and international humanitarian, legal and ethical agencies' guidance. We found that the guidance on what constitutes incidental pathology, how to recognise it and what to do about it is inconsistent between agencies, difficult to find and less complete in the UK than elsewhere. Where given, guidance states that volunteers should be informed during the consent process about how research images will be managed, whether a mechanism exists for identifying incidental findings, arrangements for their disclosure, the potential benefit or harm and therapeutic options. The effects of incidentally discovered pathology on the individual can be complex and far-reaching. Radiologist involvement in analysis of research images varies widely; many incidental findings might therefore go unrecognised. In conclusion, guidance on the management of research imaging is inconsistent, limited and does not address the interests of volunteers. Improved standards to guide management of research images and incidental findings are urgently required. PMID:20335427

  17. National Opinion Research Center: Data and Findings

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The National Opinion Research Center (NORC) was created in 1941 with a mission "to conduct high-quality social science research in the public interest." Its work is quite broad and includes studies of public school system performance, economic development projects, and other germane matters. On the Data and Findings page, visitors can peruse and explore hundreds of NORC's papers from past months and years. Interested parties can search through all of these documents as they see fit or perhaps just scroll through to find something that strikes some interest. Some recent titles include "Promising Practices to Improve Access to Oral Health Care in Rural Communities" and "The State of Our Nation's Youth."

  18. Researchers Find Genetic Response to Global Warming

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dey, Phoebe.

    University of Alberta biologist Stan Boutin and his research team have recently published findings that North American red squirrels exhibit genetic changes in response to a warming climate. This Web site contains a University of Alberta press release detailing this first-ever demonstration of genetic adaptation to global warming. With implications that extend far beyond the immediate research concerns of geneticists and environmental scientists, Boutin's work as presented in this Web site should be interesting to wide audience.

  19. Learning from Inconsistency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easterbrook, Steve

    1996-01-01

    This position paper argues that inconsistencies that occur during the development of a software specification offer an excellent way of learning more about the development process. We base this argument on our work on inconsistency management. Much attention has been devoted recently to the need to allow inconsistencies to occur during software development, to facilitate flexible development strategies, especially for collaborative work. Recent work has concentrated on reasoning in the presence of inconsistency, tracing inconsistencies with 'pollution markers' and supporting resolution. We argue here that one of the most important aspects of inconsistency is the learning opportunity it provides. We are therefore concerned with how to capture this learning outcome so that its significance is not lost. We present a small example of how apprentice software engineers learn from their mistakes, and outline how an inconsistency management tool could support this learning. We then argue that the approach can be used more generally as part of continuous process improvement.

  20. Space Situational Awareness (SSA) research findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Richmond; Valley Forge PA

    2008-01-01

    Space Situational Awareness (SSA) is the foundation for space superiority and has become a national priority. Providing full SSA requires knowledge of space and ground assets along with communication links between these assets. It also requires an understanding of potential events and threats that may affect these assets. This paper summarizes the findings resulting from a research environment established to

  1. Tools for Finding Indexed Accounting Research

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The American Accounting Association (AAA) lists the print resources and electronic databases where AAA journals are indexed and abstracted at this Tools for Finding Indexed Accounting Research page. The detailed list includes indexing and abstracting devices for a number of journals -- Accounting Horizons, The Accounting Review, Auditing: A Journal of Practice & Theory, Behavioral Research in Accounting, Issues in Accounting Education, Journal of the American Taxation Association, Journal of Information Systems, and the Journal of Management Accounting Research -- with date coverage and full-text information included for each.

  2. Inconsistent condom use by male clients during anal intercourse with occasional and regular female sex workers (FSWs): survey findings from southern states of India

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Shreena; Nagarajan, Karikalan; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmi; Mainkar, Mandar K; Goswami, Prabuddhagopal; Yadav, Diwakar; Sen, Shrabanti; George, Bitra; Rachakulla, Harikumar; Subramanian, Thilakavathi; Paranjape, Ramesh S

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Self-reported anal intercourse by female sex workers (FSWs) documented in recent studies from India range between 11.9% and 22%. However, comparable data on anal intercourse and condom use from male clients of FSWs is lacking. Using data from a bio-behavioural survey (2009–2010), we examined prevalence of anal intercourse, male clients’ self-reported inconsistent condom use during anal intercourse with FSWs, and correlates of this behaviour in India's high HIV prevalence southern states (Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu combined). Methods Using two-stage time location cluster sampling, we recruited 4803 clients of FSWs, ages 18–60?years, who had purchased sex from an FSW in the past month. After obtaining informed consent, respondents were interviewed and tested for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (syphilis, gonorrhoea and chlamydia). Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with inconsistent condom use during anal intercourse (in the past 6?months) with FSWs. Results Overall, 12.3% clients reported anal intercourse in the past 6?months, of whom 48.4% used condoms inconsistently. Clients of FSWs who were ages 26?years or older (AOR 2.68, p=0.032); employed as manual labourers (AOR 2.43, p=0.013); consumed alcohol (AOR 2.63, p=0.001); reported five or more sex acts with FSWs in the past month (AOR 2.53, p=0.031); and perceived themselves to be at higher risk for HIV (AOR 4.82, p=0.001) were more likely to inconsistently use condoms during anal intercourse. Conclusions The results suggest that sex workers and their clients commonly practice anal intercourse, but a relatively high proportion of clients do not consistently use condoms, leading to a greater risk of acquiring HIV and its further transmission to other male and female sexual partners. Given the multidirectional risk, safer sex communication on heterosexual anal intercourse must be incorporated into HIV prevention programmes. PMID:25410604

  3. Inconsistency Resolution Method for RBAC Based Interoperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chao; Sun, Jianling; Wang, Xinyu; Wu, Di

    In this paper, we propose an inconsistency resolution method based on a new concept, insecure backtracking role mapping. By analyzing the role graph, we prove that the root cause of security inconsistency in distributed interoperation is the existence of insecure backtracking role mapping. We propose a novel and efficient algorithm to detect the inconsistency via finding all of the insecure backtracking role mappings. Our detection algorithm will not only report the existence of inconsistency, but also generate the inconsistency information for the resolution. We reduce the inconsistency resolution problem to the known Minimum-Cut problem, and based on the results generated by our detection algorithm we propose an inconsistency resolution algorithm which could guarantee the security of distributed interoperation. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach through simulated tests and a case study.

  4. 77 FR 33737 - Findings of Research Misconduct; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ...the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct; Correction AGENCY: Office...entitled ``Findings of Research Misconduct.'' DATES: Effective Date...Investigative Oversight, Office of Research Integrity. [FR Doc....

  5. Detecting inconsistencies in distributed data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenfei Fan; Floris Geerts; Shuai Ma; Heiko Müller

    2010-01-01

    One of the central problems for data quality is inconsistency detection. Given a database D and a set § of dependencies as data quality rules, we want to identify tuples in D that violate some rules in §. When D is a centralized database, there have been effective SQL-based techniques for finding violations. It is, however, far more challenging when

  6. Researchers Find Japanese Submarine at Pearl Harbor

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Green, Marcia.

    2002-01-01

    Earlier this week, researchers from the University of Hawaii and the Hawaii Underwater Research Lab located the remains of a Japanese midget submarine. Found in 1200 feet of water, the submarine was sunk by the USS Ward just an hour before the aerial attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. Most important, the discovery of the midget submarine offers concrete physical evidence that the United States did fire the first shot against the Japanese. Previous expeditions to locate the sub, including an effort made in 2000 by the National Geographic Society, had been unsuccessful, largely due to the fact that the area is a military "junkyard" with tons of debris on the ocean floor.For more in-depth information on this story, readers may find the first four news links particularly helpful. The fifth link leads to the Hawaii Underwater Research Lab's Web site that features photographs of the midget sub from the expedition earlier this week. The sixth link is to a Web site dealing with the history and missions of the USS Ward. The final link contains detailed information about the 2000 expedition led by Robert Ballard, with support from the National Geographic Society, to find the midget submarine.

  7. Researcher Perspectives on Disclosure of Incidental Findings in Genetic Research

    PubMed Central

    Meacham, Meredith C.; Starks, Helene; Burke, Wylie; Edwards, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    Genetic research can produce information that is beyond the aims of the research study yet may be of clinical or personal interest to study participants. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 44 researchers who were asked to describe how they would respond to a hypothetical vignette regarding the disclosure of findings with unanticipated clinical significance to research study participants. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using content and thematic analyses. Researchers’ decision-making processes about whether to disclose incidental findings were governed by potentially conflicting duties in three primary domains: information quality, adherence to rules, and participant welfare. There are several actions researchers can take to prepare for incidental findings, including: adding specific language in informed consent documents to state clearly how investigators will handle disclosure; exploring how prepared participants might be during the consent process to make decisions about how they would like to be approached in the event of incidental findings; developing procedures for appropriately communicating individual results and providing follow-up support based on participant preferences; and, in genetic research, having an awareness of the range of traits expressed by the genes under study. PMID:20831419

  8. Children's Awareness of Inconsistencies in Instructions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mimi Milner Elrod; Joseph O. Milner

    1986-01-01

    In this research, we examined children's awareness of inconsistencies in messages that are meaningful for children, instructions for games. In the first experiment, kindergarten (n = 25) and second- (n = 25) and fourth-grade (n = 26) children were individually read the instructions for two games, each of which included two inconsistent statements. Chi-square analyses yielded a significant effect for

  9. 78 FR 77467 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ...engaged in research misconduct in research supported by National Institute...that the Respondent falsified results in research to develop a vaccine against human...antibodies to provide the desired results. The falsification made it...

  10. Finding Market Research on the Web MarketResearch.com Copyright 2001 MarketResearch.com

    E-print Network

    Haykin, Simon

    Finding Market Research on the Web MarketResearch.com Copyright © 2001 MarketResearch of market research firms. These are publishers that study and produce reports on consumer, industrial in between. But there is a certain segment of market #12;Finding Market Research on the Web MarketResearch

  11. Animal Research: Finding Cures, Saving Lives

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-06-24

    This website provides an online and a printable brochure that provides information on why researchers study animals, how research animals are cared for, the ethics of animal research, cosmetic testing on animals, and how animal research helps people in the context of a diabetes patient.

  12. Symptoms of Eating Disorders Among Female Distance Runners: Can the Inconsistencies Be Unraveled?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald H. Ryujin; Cynthia Breaux; Amanda D. Marks

    2000-01-01

    Research on eating disorders among female distance runners has produced a modest, but inconsistent body of findings. To unravel the confusion, we hypothesized a model whereby studies finding greater symptomatology have involved obligatory runners or elite national\\/international competitors. Studies not finding greater symptomatology have involved a more typical group of athletes. To test our hypothesis, we used the Eating Disorders

  13. 77 FR 69627 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ...its oversight review, ORI found that Dr. Eric J. Smart, former Professor of Pediatrics and Physiology, Department of Pediatrics and Physiology, UK, engaged in research misconduct in research supported by National Heart, Lung, and...

  14. 76 FR 68460 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ...Jagannathan, M.D., University of Virginia Medical Center: Based on the report of an investigation...Jagannathan, former Resident Physician at UVA Medical Center, engaged in research misconduct...and from the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research...

  15. 76 FR 61361 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ...research misconduct by (1) plagiarizing text and falsifying data from two publications...significant portions of that plagiarized text in two grant applications to the National...in research misconduct by plagiarizing text, falsifying data and references,...

  16. 75 FR 18837 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ...former senior scientist, Discovery Research, Women's Health, Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, engaged in research misconduct...phosphorylation cascades) that is of importance to women's health. Dr. Cheskis' team identified an adapter...

  17. Drugs and sport. Research findings and limitations.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, P M; Thompson, H S

    1997-12-01

    Many types of drugs are used by athletes to improve performance. This paper reviews the literature on 3 categories of drugs: those that enhance performance as stimulants (amphetamines, ephedrine, and cocaine), those that are used to reduce tremor and heart rate (beta-blockers) and those involved in bodyweight gain or loss (anabolic-androgenic steroids, growth hormone, beta 2-agonists, and diuretics). Limitations of research on these drugs as they relate to performance enhancement are also discussed. The numerous studies that have assessed the effects of amphetamines on performance report equivocal results. This may be due to the large interindividual variability in the response to the drug and the small sample sizes used. Most studies, however, show that some individuals do improve exercise performance when taking amphetamines, which may be attributed to their role in masking fatigue. As a stimulant, ephedrine has not been found to improve performance in the few studies available. More recently, ephedrine has been purported to be effective as a fat burner and used by athletes to maintain or improve muscle mass. Although research on individuals with obesity supports the use of ephedrine for fat loss, no studies have been done on athletes. The few studies of cocaine and exercise suggest that little to no performance gains are incurred from cocaine use. Moreover, the sense of euphoria may provide the illusion of better performance when, in actuality, performance was not improved or was impaired. beta-Blockers have been found to reduce heart rate and tremor and to improve performance in sports that are not physiologically challenging but require accuracy (e.g. pistol shooting). However, there is evidence that some individuals may be high responders to beta-blockers to the extent that their heart rate response is so blunted as to impair performance. Although equivocal, several studies have reported that anabolic-androgenic steroids increase muscle size and strength. However, most studies are not well controlled and use insufficient drug doses. One recent well controlled study did find an increase in muscle mass and strength with supraphysiological doses, and the improvements were greater in participants who were also resistance training. There is little information available on the effects of growth hormone on muscle mass or performance in athletes, although data suggest that growth hormone administration does not increase muscle protein synthesis. beta 2-Agonists, such as clenbuterol and salbutamol, when administered orally appear to improve muscular strength due to their potential role in increasing muscle mass. However, studies have not been done using athletes. Diuretics results in a loss of body water and hence bodyweight that can be advantageous for sports with strict bodyweight classifications. There is insufficient evidence on possible performance decrements in the field that could result from dehydration induced by the diuretics. Overall, the most significant concern in studies of drug use is the large inter-individual variability in responses to a drug. Further studies are needed to understand why some individuals are more responsive than others and to assess whether the responses are consistent for a given individual. Most studies of drug effectiveness have not used athletes. The effectiveness of many drugs may be reduced in highly trained athletes because there is a lower margin for improvement. PMID:9421862

  18. 76 FR 23599 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings...immunoprecipitation/Western blot experiments and switched the labels on four (4...dishes for cells used in the same type of experiments to cause false results to be...

  19. 76 FR 62807 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings...densities in a whole cell patch clamp experiment comparing Stim 1 +/- mouse airway cells...provided by Respondent are based on actual experiments or are otherwise legitimately...

  20. 75 FR 77641 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings...Mungekar also admitted ``while doing these experiments, I did not sequence all of the constructs...by the Respondent are based on actual experiments or are otherwise legitimately...

  1. 77 FR 76491 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings...not presented at the meetings and the experiments reported in the abstracts are being redone...provided by Respondent are based on actual experiments or are otherwise legitimately...

  2. Dissemination and Implementation of Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Charlie M., Ed.

    Fifty-five vocational educators participated in the 18th Annual Southern Research Conference in Agricultural Education at Louisiana State University. Presentations included in the document are: (1) "The Research Problem in Agricultural Education" by L. L. Pesson, (2) views on organizing a vocational agricultural education department for effective…

  3. 78 FR 72892 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ...Respondent engaged in research misconduct by fabricating...referred to as the ``CEBP paper''). Specifically...in Table 1 of the CEBP paper and falsely reported...conclusions of the CEBP paper are based on fabricated...2013: (1) To have his research supervised;...

  4. Edmund G. Brown Jr. RESEARCH FINDINGS ON

    E-print Network

    : Ecos April 2011 CEC-500-2011-028 #12;Prepared By: Ecos Portland, OR Commission Contract No. 500 to the success of this threeyear research project. Ecos Consulting served as the prime contractor to the Public to this research: Chris Calwell, Ecos Consulting Laura Moorefield, Ecos Consulting Paul Bendt, Ecos Consulting

  5. 78 FR 941 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary... Falsely reported research experiments when the results did not exist...had successfully transduced human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells...in normal neurons, when the experiment was not conducted....

  6. 78 FR 79460 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ...National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes...National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), NIH...research involves a Western blot analysis of IgM and IgG antibodies from...a newly discovered virus. Analysis of Figure 6 of the...

  7. Educational Research: Biologists Finding Their Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsmond, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Since the publication of the Dearing report (1997) there has been an increasing emphasis on the quality of teaching and learning provision within higher education institutions (HEIs). This focus on provision has in turn generated much educational research into "approaches" to both teaching practice and student learning within higher education…

  8. Researching Women's Groups Findings, Limitations, and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Nancy L.; Kees, Nathalie L.

    2005-01-01

    There is not a "typical" women's group, nor are there "typical" women's issues. Every women's group is diverse, with as many viewpoints and perspectives as there are members in the group. Using the group format for women is common practice with many counselors. It is interesting that there has been little empirical research reported on women's…

  9. Program-relevant findings from UPPI research.

    PubMed

    Laing, J E

    1979-01-01

    Presents implications derived from the findings contained in a major report by the author, in which findings and implications of University of the Philippines Population Institute studies conducted between 1970 and 1979 were synthesized. Included in that report were discussions of studies on the population program's target audience, program acceptors, the effectiveness of contraceptive use, and issues of management and the program implications of those studies with regard to contraceptive practice, information/education communication efforts, and for efficient use of program resources. The present article is divided into 5 parts, providing major findings and recommendations under various headings. 1) Contraceptive practice: includes the need for increased emphasis on highly effective methods, for improved instruction on the rhythm method, and for promoting use of methods in combination. 2) communication and motivation: includes the need for wider distribution of IEC materials, for more effort to reduce the family size norm, for more accurate knowledge about contraception, for special attention to husbands, lower status couples, newlyweds, postpartum women, and breastfeeding, and the need for better training of outreach workers in IEC work. 3) Mobilization of resources: includes the need for coordination of population activities, for increased involvement of village service point operators, and for more use of social support as a motivational aid. 4) Coverage of married couples of reproductive age: includes need for clarification of present coverage by outreach workers, for increased coverage within village supply point areas and for more supply points. 5) Village supply point record-keeping: including need for more complete data and for use of records for local management. PMID:12262361

  10. Television Advertising and Children: Issues, Research and Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esserman, June F., Ed.

    This volume consists of 10 papers dealing with issues, research and research findings regarding the effects of television advertising on children. The first paper critically examines recent research literature which bears on policy questions related to the effects of television advertising on children. Findings from a study designed to examine…

  11. Inconsistency Management in Software Engineering 1 INCONSISTENCY MANAGEMENT IN SOFTWARE

    E-print Network

    Spanoudakis, George

    of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering 2 Software models normally describe the system fromInconsistency Management in Software Engineering 1 INCONSISTENCY MANAGEMENT IN SOFTWARE ENGINEERING; do not guarantee some properties of the system, such as safety and reliability; and generate

  12. Research Finds Link Between Statin Use and Progressive Muscle Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Research Finds Link Between Statin Use and Progressive Muscle Disease Each year, millions of Americans take statins, ... people these benefits come at a cost: widespread muscle pain that persists as long as the drugs ...

  13. Multiple Perpetrator Rape: Naming an Offence and Initial Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Miranda Angel Helena; Kelly, Liz

    2009-01-01

    Multiple perpetrator rape presents a significant problem nationally and internationally. However, previous research is limited and findings are often contradictory. The details of 101 rape allegations recorded in a six-month period in a large police force in England were analysed. Findings are presented about case classification, victim and…

  14. Science Teachers' Awareness of Findings from Education Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Nilza; Marques, Luis; Kempa, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Reports on a small-scale study designed to estimate science teachers' awareness of findings derived from research in science education and other branches of educational research. Focuses on experienced science teachers in Portugal who were following advanced professional training programs that usually lead to Masters' degrees in science education.…

  15. Practical approaches to incidental findings in brain imaging research

    PubMed Central

    Illes, J.; Kirschen, M.P.; Edwards, E.; Bandettini, P.; Cho, M.K.; Ford, P.J.; Glover, G.H.; Kulynych, J.; Macklin, R.; Michael, D.B.; Wolf, S.M.; Grabowski, T.; Seto, B.

    2008-01-01

    A decade of empirical work in brain imaging, genomics, and other areas of research has yielded new knowledge about the frequency of incidental findings, investigator responsibility, and risks and benefits of disclosure. Straightforward guidance for handling such findings of possible clinical significance, however, has been elusive. In early work focusing on imaging studies of the brain, we suggested that investigators and institutional review boards must anticipate and articulate plans for handling incidental findings. Here we provide a detailed analysis of different approaches to the problem and evaluate their merits in the context of the goals and setting of the research and the involvement of neurologists, radiologists, and other physicians. Protecting subject welfare and privacy, as well as ensuring scientific integrity, are the highest priorities in making choices about how to handle incidental findings. Forethought and clarity will enable these goals without overburdening research conducted within or outside the medical setting. PMID:18227420

  16. Recruiting Underserved Mothers to Medical Research: Findings from North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Spears, Chaya R.; Sandberg, Joanne C.; O’Neill, Jenna L.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Howard, Timothy D.; Feldman, Steven R.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    Representative samples are required for ethical, valid, and useful health research. Yet, recruiting participants, especially from historically underserved communities, can be challenging. This paper presents findings from in-depth interviews with 40 mothers about factors that might influence their willingness to participate or allow their children to participate in medical research. Saliency analysis organizes the findings. Frequent and important salient themes about research participation included concerns that it might cause participants harm, hope that participants might gain a health benefit, and recognition that time and transportation resources could limit participation. Ultimately, we propose that a theoretical model, such as the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), will facilitate more systematic evaluation of effective methods for recruitment and retention of participants in medical research. Future research should explore the utility of such a model for development of effective recruitment and retention strategies. PMID:24185171

  17. Role Perceptions of Educational Administrators and Researchers Relative to Implementation of Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Desmond L.; Damico, Sandra B.

    The movement of research findings from the university to the public school has historically been slow. A random sample of educational researchers and school superintendents were surveyed to determine (1) how superintendents and educational researchers actually perceive responsibility for implementation of research findings, and (2) if the results…

  18. Inconsistencies in Autism-Specific Emotion Interventions: Cause for Concern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldeira, Monica; Edmunds, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Precise educational interventions are the sine qua non of services for students with exceptionalities. Applying interventions riddled with inconsistencies, therefore, interferes with the growth and learning potential of students who need these interventions. This research synthesis documents the inconsistencies revealed during a critical analysis…

  19. Educational Financing in Developing Countries: Research Findings and Contemporary Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiefelbein, Ernesto

    This study focuses on contemporary issues of educational financing in developing countries and on available research findings as these relate, or can be related, to these issues. The first two chapters are analytical, examining common educational finance issues and testing the conventional wisdom of certain usual proposals. Chapter 1, "Issues in…

  20. Researcher finds some bees evolved to shout at competitors

    E-print Network

    Nieh, James

    Researcher finds some bees evolved to shout at competitors July 7, 2014 Certain species of stingless bees in Brazil have been found to protect their sources of nectar and pollen from potential in other bee species. Dr. Elinor Lichtenberg from Washington State University made this discovery during

  1. The Children's Hearings Project Research Findings. A Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merry, Sally E.; And Others

    Since 1980 the Children's Hearings Project (CHP) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, has offered status offenders and their families mediation as an alternative to the courts. This report describes CPH's origins and summarizes the results of an extensive research study conducted during the first 2 years of its operation. The key findings were: (1)…

  2. RESEARCH REPORT 987-7 FINAL RESEARCH FINDINGS ON TRAFFIC-LOAD

    E-print Network

    Texas at Austin, University of

    RESEARCH REPORT 987-7 FINAL RESEARCH FINDINGS ON TRAFFIC-LOAD FORECASTING USING WEIGH 4. Title and Subtitle FINAL RESEARCH FINDINGS ON TRAFFIC-LOAD FORECASTING USING WEIGH-IN-MOTION DATA and materials were constructed in the southbound lanes near Corrigan, Texas. To quantify traffic loads

  3. Research Infusion Collaboration: Finding Defect Patterns in Reused Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, Robyn R.; Morgan, Scott; Do, Tuan; Mikulski, Carmen; Berg Strain, Martha; Rockwell, Steve; Wilkinson, Belinda

    2004-01-01

    The 'Finding Defect Patterns in Reused Code' Research Infusion Collaboration was performed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory/Caltech under Contract 104-07-02.679 102 197 08.14.4. This final report describes the collaboration and documents the findings, including lessons learned.The research infusion collaboration characterized, using Orthogonal Defect Classification, defect reports for code that will be reused in mission-critical software on Deep Space Network Antenna controllers. Code reuse is estimated to be 90%, so it is important to identify systemic defects, or patterns, prior to reuse of this code. The work also identified ways to avoid certain types of defects and to test more efficiently.The primary objectives of the project were:to analyze defect patterns of the code to be reused based on the defects'Orthogonal Defect Classification (ODC)and to achieve a successful infusion of ODC to a project.

  4. Research findings can change attitudes about corporal punishment.

    PubMed

    Holden, George W; Brown, Alan S; Baldwin, Austin S; Croft Caderao, Kathryn

    2014-05-01

    Positive attitudes toward the use of corporal punishment (CP) predict subsequent spanking behavior. Given that CP has frequently been associated with behavior problems in children and child maltreatment, this prevention work was designed to test whether adults' attitudes could be changed by informing participants about the research findings on problematic behaviors associated with CP. Two random assignment studies are reported. In Study 1, we tested whether an active reading condition would result in more attitude change than a passive condition. With a sample of 118 non-parent adults, we found that after reading very brief research summaries on the problems associated with CP, there was a significant decrease in favorable attitudes toward CP. Contrary to expectations, the magnitude of the change was comparable for active and passive processing conditions. In Study 2, we extended our approach to a sample of 520 parents and included a control group. A significant decrease in positive attitudes toward spanking was observed in the intervention group, but no change for the control group. Parents who were unaware of the research showed more change after reading the summaries. Thus, these studies demonstrate that a brief and cost-effective approach to raise awareness of research findings can reduce positive attitudes toward CP. Implications for prevention and intervention are discussed. PMID:24246718

  5. Inconsistency of speech in children with childhood apraxia of speech, phonological disorders, and typical speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iuzzini, Jenya

    There is a lack of agreement on the features used to differentiate Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS) from Phonological Disorders (PD). One criterion which has gained consensus is lexical inconsistency of speech (ASHA, 2007); however, no accepted measure of this feature has been defined. Although lexical assessment provides information about consistency of an item across repeated trials, it may not capture the magnitude of inconsistency within an item. In contrast, segmental analysis provides more extensive information about consistency of phoneme usage across multiple contexts and word-positions. The current research compared segmental and lexical inconsistency metrics in preschool-aged children with PD, CAS, and typical development (TD) to determine how inconsistency varies with age in typical and disordered speakers, and whether CAS and PD were differentiated equally well by both assessment levels. Whereas lexical and segmental analyses may be influenced by listener characteristics or speaker intelligibility, the acoustic signal is less vulnerable to these factors. In addition, the acoustic signal may reveal information which is not evident in the perceptual signal. A second focus of the current research was motivated by Blumstein et al.'s (1980) classic study on voice onset time (VOT) in adults with acquired apraxia of speech (AOS) which demonstrated a motor impairment underlying AOS. In the current study, VOT analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between age and group with the voicing distribution for bilabial and alveolar plosives. Findings revealed that 3-year-olds evidenced significantly higher inconsistency than 5-year-olds; segmental inconsistency approached 0% in 5-year-olds with TD, whereas it persisted in children with PD and CAS suggesting that for child in this age-range, inconsistency is a feature of speech disorder rather than typical development (Holm et al., 2007). Likewise, whereas segmental and lexical inconsistency were moderately-highly correlated, even the most highly-related segmental and lexical measures agreed on only 76% of classifications (i.e., to CAS and PD). Finally, VOT analyses revealed that CAS utilized a distinct distribution pattern relative to PD and TD. Discussion frames the current findings within a profile of CAS and provides a validated list of criteria for the differential diagnosis of CAS and PD.

  6. Inconsistency and its automated proving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orzeszek, Piotr

    Formal theories are based on sets of axioms. Philosophers as mathematicians may accept desired axioms and get some different incompatible theorems. Consequently, the truth of such theorem is conditional. The ultimate test for a philosophical system is logical consistency. If we want to treat philosophy as more scientific we first need to test philosophical systems for mentioned property. The method described in this paper is an elegant solution to automatically check for inconsistency of philosophical theories.

  7. Putting Research Findings to Work. ANPA News Research Report No. 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauro, John B.; Bonney, Christopher F.

    Twenty-six American Newspaper Publishers Association research reports published since 1978 are reviewed in this paper. The paper analyzes each of the reports in order to provide an overview of what their findings really say and what newspapers can do in their own market areas to use the findings to improve their product. Among the topics covered…

  8. Inconsistency in the items included in tools used in general health research and physical therapy to evaluate the methodological quality of randomized controlled trials: a descriptive analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Assessing the risk of bias of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is crucial to understand how biases affect treatment effect estimates. A number of tools have been developed to evaluate risk of bias of RCTs; however, it is unknown how these tools compare to each other in the items included. The main objective of this study was to describe which individual items are included in RCT quality tools used in general health and physical therapy (PT) research, and how these items compare to those of the Cochrane Risk of Bias (RoB) tool. Methods We used comprehensive literature searches and a systematic approach to identify tools that evaluated the methodological quality or risk of bias of RCTs in general health and PT research. We extracted individual items from all quality tools. We calculated the frequency of quality items used across tools and compared them to those in the RoB tool. Comparisons were made between general health and PT quality tools using Chi-squared tests. Results In addition to the RoB tool, 26 quality tools were identified, with 19 being used in general health and seven in PT research. The total number of quality items included in general health research tools was 130, compared with 48 items across PT tools and seven items in the RoB tool. The most frequently included items in general health research tools (14/19, 74%) were inclusion and exclusion criteria, and appropriate statistical analysis. In contrast, the most frequent items included in PT tools (86%, 6/7) were: baseline comparability, blinding of investigator/assessor, and use of intention-to-treat analysis. Key items of the RoB tool (sequence generation and allocation concealment) were included in 71% (5/7) of PT tools, and 63% (12/19) and 37% (7/19) of general health research tools, respectively. Conclusions There is extensive item variation across tools that evaluate the risk of bias of RCTs in health research. Results call for an in-depth analysis of items that should be used to assess risk of bias of RCTs. Further empirical evidence on the use of individual items and the psychometric properties of risk of bias tools is needed. PMID:24044807

  9. Static error detection using semantic inconsistency inference

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isil Dillig; Thomas Dillig; Alex Aiken

    2007-01-01

    Inconsistency checking is a method for detecting software errors that relies only on examining multiple uses of a value. We propose that inconsistency inference is best understood as a variant of the older and better understood problem of type inference. Using this insight, we describe a precise and formal framework for discover- ing inconsistency errors. Unlike previous approaches to the

  10. Taking aims seriously: repository research and limits on the duty to return individual research findings

    PubMed Central

    Ossorio, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Most discussions of researchers’ duties to return incidental findings or research results to research participants or repository contributors fail to provide an adequate theoretical grounding for such duties. Returning findings is a positive duty, a duty to help somebody. Typically, such duties are specified narrowly such that helping is only a duty when it poses little or no risk or burden to the helper and does not interfere with her legitimate aims. Under current budgetary and personnel constraints, and with currently available information technology, routine return of individual findings from research using repository materials would constitute a substantial burden on the scientific enterprise and would seriously frustrate the aims of both scientists and specimen/data contributors. In most cases, researchers’ limited duties to help repository contributors probably can be fulfilled by some action less demanding than returning individual findings. Furthermore, the duty-to-return issue should be analyzed as a conflict between (possibly) helping some contributors now and (possibly) helping a greater number of people who would benefit in the future from the knowledge produced by research. PMID:22402758

  11. A legal duty to disclose individual research findings to research subjects?

    PubMed

    Gordon, Matthew P

    2009-01-01

    Research that utilizes human subjects is a large and growing enterprise. Tens of millions of individuals have already participated as subjects in one or more research protocols, and millions more participate each year. Government and industry combined spend billions annually to support as many as 20,000 research studies, many of which are individually large and complex enterprises in their own right.These numbers are, if anything, likely to increase even further. Besides the growth in research, two other trends are apparent. First, research-related litigation is on the rise and appears likely to become even more widespread. Sparked at least in part by recent widely publicized instances of harm befalling research subjects, plaintiffs' attorneys are suing both more often and more creatively. Related to this is the second trend: public trust in research is declining and, as a result, at least some types of research are struggling to find adequate numbers of human subjects.As a result of these trends, exposure to potential liability and public perception are both increasingly important. Concomitant with all of this research is the discovery and generation of tremendous quantities of data specific to individual subjects, including--but not limited to--genetic information. Much of this data is irrelevant to subjects' interests because it lacks predictive value, has uncertain meaning, or is otherwise uninformative. Some, however, is different--some of the personal data learned during the course of research with human subjects bears directly on individuals' health. Despite the fact that much individual data has already been generated and that both the quantity and the quality of data generated seem likely to increase, there is a lack of clear guidance for researchers regarding whether and when such information should be divulged to the subjects on whom it bears.In this environment, the potential exists for litigation alleging that a researcher was negligent for failure to disclose to a subject an individual research finding of medical significance. Such litigation would raise a heretofore-unanswered question: should a researcher have a legal duty to disclose medically significant individual research findings to a subject? PMID:19998747

  12. Evaluating the generality of findings in analogue therapy research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan E. Kazdin

    1978-01-01

    Analog research in psychotherapy and behavior therapy has proliferated in recent years. The major source of controversy about the value of analog studies is their external validity, i.e., the extent to which the results can be generalized to the clinical situation. Much of the controversy stems from conceptualizing therapy investigations discretely as either analog or clinical research. All treatment research,

  13. 1998 National Gun Policy Survey of the National Opinion Research Center: Research Findings

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Smith, Tom W.

    The National Opinion Research Center (NORC) at the University of Chicago in collaboration with the Johns Hopkins Center for Gun Policy and Research in 1999 released a final report based on the research findings of a national survey on gun policies. The 64-page study reports on topics such as the regulation of firearms, gun ownership and use, knowledge and attitudes toward guns, gun violence, and safety issues. The report includes thirteen statistical tables and concludes that the American public strongly supports "legislation to regulate firearms, make guns safer, and reduce the accessibility of firearms to criminals and children."

  14. Inconsistencies in Preservice Elementary Teachers' Beliefs about Multiplication and Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirosh, Dina; Graeber, Anna O.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are preservice elementary teachers' misconceptions and inconsistent beliefs about multiplication and division with decimals. Sources of inconsistencies and recommendations for overcoming inconsistencies are included. (KR)

  15. "Response to Comments": Finding the Narrative in Narrative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, Cathy A.

    2009-01-01

    The author responds to comments by Barone (2009), Clandinin and Murphy (2009), and M. W. Smith (2009) on "The Construction Zone: Literary Elements in Narrative Research" (Coulter & M. L. Smith, 2009). She clarifies issues regarding point of view, authorial surplus, narrative coherence, and the relational qualities of narrative research. She…

  16. Family Caregiving and the Elderly: Policy Recommendations and Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Office for the Aging, Albany.

    This report is designed to assist in the formulation of public policy as it relates to older people and their families by setting forth a comprehensive research-based framework to guide future public action in this area. It is intended for use by public officials, agency administrators, researchers, and academicians, as well as members of the…

  17. Rutgers University Research Experience for Teachers in Engineering: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laffey, Evelyn H.; Cook-Chennault, Kimberly; Hirsch, Linda S.

    2013-01-01

    In addressing the nation's need for a more technologically-literate society, the Rutgers University Research Experience for Teachers in Engineering (RU RET-E) is designed to: (1) engage middle and high school math and science teachers in innovative "green" engineering research during the summer, and (2) support teachers in integrating…

  18. The impact of the 1991 Gulf War on the mind and brain: findings from neuropsychological and neuroimaging research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer J. Vasterling; J. Douglas Bremner

    2006-01-01

    Many veterans of the 1991 Gulf War (GW) have complained of somatic and cognitive symptoms that may be neurological in nature. However, whether or not changes in brain function are associated with GW service continues to be debated. Studies of GW veterans using objective, performance-based neuropsychological measures have yielded inconsistent findings, with those indicating deficits among GW veterans typically revealing

  19. Review of inconsistency of quantum adiabatic theorem

    E-print Network

    Yong Tao

    2010-10-07

    In this paper, we note that there are two different types of inconsistencies of quantum adiabatic theorem in work of K. P. Marzlin and B. C. Sanders [Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 160408, 2004], MS inconsistency and MS counterexample. Nevertheless, these two types are often confused as one by many authors. We shall point out that the inconsistencies of quantum adiabatic theorem raised by the relevant references just can be classified as these two types.

  20. Findings of the International Road Tunnel Fire Detection Research Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Kashef; Z. G. Liu; G. Lougheed; G. Crampton; K. Yoon; G. Hadjisophocleous; Kathleen H. Almand

    2009-01-01

    Fire detection systems are essential fire protection elements for road tunnels to detect fires, activate safety systems and\\u000a direct evacuation and firefighting. However, information on the performance of these systems is limited and guidelines for\\u000a application of tunnel fire detection systems are not fully developed. The National Research Council of Canada and the Fire\\u000a Protection Research Foundation, with support of

  1. Findings of the International Road Tunnel Fire Detection Research Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. G. Liu; A. Kashef; G. Crampton; G. Lougheed; Y. Ko; G. Hadjisophocleous; Kathleen H. Almand

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a Abstract\\u000a   Fire detection systems play a crucial role in ensuring safe evacuation and firefighting operations in road tunnels, but information\\u000a on the performance of these systems in tunnels has been limited and guidelines for their application in tunnel environments\\u000a are not fully developed. Recently, the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) and the Fire Protection Research Foundation\\u000a completed a 2-year

  2. Incorporating Research Findings into Standards and Requirements for Space Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, J. Michael

    2006-01-01

    The Vision for Exploration has been the catalyst for NASA to refocus its life sciences research. In the future, life sciences research funded by NASA will be focused on answering questions that directly impact setting physiological standards and developing effective countermeasures to the undesirable physiological and psychological effects of spaceflight for maintaining the health of the human system. This, in turn, will contribute to the success of exploration class missions. We will show how research will impact setting physiologic standards, such as exposure limits, outcome limits, and accepted performance ranges. We will give examples of how a physiologic standard can eventually be translated into an operational requirement, then a functional requirement, and eventually spaceflight hardware or procedures. This knowledge will be important to the space medicine community as well as to vehicle contractors who, for the first time, must now consider the human system in developing and constructing a vehicle that can achieve the goal of success.

  3. Finding Collaborators: Toward Interactive Discovery Tools for Research Network Systems

    PubMed Central

    Schleyer, Titus K; Becich, Michael J; Hochheiser, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Background Research networking systems hold great promise for helping biomedical scientists identify collaborators with the expertise needed to build interdisciplinary teams. Although efforts to date have focused primarily on collecting and aggregating information, less attention has been paid to the design of end-user tools for using these collections to identify collaborators. To be effective, collaborator search tools must provide researchers with easy access to information relevant to their collaboration needs. Objective The aim was to study user requirements and preferences for research networking system collaborator search tools and to design and evaluate a functional prototype. Methods Paper prototypes exploring possible interface designs were presented to 18 participants in semistructured interviews aimed at eliciting collaborator search needs. Interview data were coded and analyzed to identify recurrent themes and related software requirements. Analysis results and elements from paper prototypes were used to design a Web-based prototype using the D3 JavaScript library and VIVO data. Preliminary usability studies asked 20 participants to use the tool and to provide feedback through semistructured interviews and completion of the System Usability Scale (SUS). Results Initial interviews identified consensus regarding several novel requirements for collaborator search tools, including chronological display of publication and research funding information, the need for conjunctive keyword searches, and tools for tracking candidate collaborators. Participant responses were positive (SUS score: mean 76.4%, SD 13.9). Opportunities for improving the interface design were identified. Conclusions Interactive, timeline-based displays that support comparison of researcher productivity in funding and publication have the potential to effectively support searching for collaborators. Further refinement and longitudinal studies may be needed to better understand the implications of collaborator search tools for researcher workflows. PMID:25370463

  4. 42 CFR 93.404 - Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the...Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.404...

  5. 42 CFR 93.411 - Final HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct. 93.411 Section 93...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the...Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.411...

  6. 42 CFR 93.411 - Final HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct. 93.411 Section 93...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the...Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.411...

  7. Emerging Answers: Research Findings on Programs To Reduce Teen Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Douglas

    This report summarizes three bodies of research on teenage pregnancy and programs to reduce the risk of teenage pregnancy. Studies included in this report were completed in 1980 or later, conducted in the United States or Canada, targeted adolescents, employed an experimental or quasi-experimental design, had a sample size of at least 100 in the…

  8. Electrical Distribution. Project Report Phase I with Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sappe', Hoyt; Kirkpatrick, Thomas

    This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of electrical distribution, established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to train apprentice line workers. Section 1 contains general information: purpose of Phase…

  9. Journals Find Many Images in Research Are Faked

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2008-01-01

    Kristin Roovers was a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Pennsylvania with a bright career ahead of her--a trusted member of a research laboratory at the medical school studying the role of cell growth in diabetes. When an editor of "The Journal of Clinical Investigation" did a spot-check on one of her images for an article in 2005, Roovers'…

  10. Research Findings - Part II: Effective College Recruitment Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortez, Albert; Cortez, Josie

    2004-01-01

    Despite recruitment efforts, San Antonio community college was experiencing a marked decrease in Latino enrollment, particularly from neighborhood high schools that traditionally had been their feeder schools. The Intercultural Development Research Association examined the problem and found that the college, like many two- and four-year…

  11. Dental Laboratory Technology. Project Report Phase I with Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sappe', Hoyt; Smith, Debra S.

    This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of dental laboratory technology, established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to train dental laboratory technicians. Section 1 contains general information:…

  12. FINDING THE BALANCE - QUALITY ASSURANCE REQUIREMENTS VS. RESEARCH NEEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Investigators often misapply quality assurance (QA) procedures and may consider QA as a hindrance to developing test plans for sampling and analysis. If used properly, however, QA is the driving force for collecting the right kind and proper amount of data. Researchers must...

  13. Finding Community: A Guide to Community Research and Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, W. Ron; And Others

    For those concerned with contemporary social problems, whether as students, members of community groups, or individual citizens, this book attempts not only to describe the issues, but also to offer some starting points for local research and action. As an educational tool, it is based on the belief that a good way to learn about a community is to…

  14. Instrumentation Technology. Project Report Phase I with Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sappe', Hoyt; Squires, Sheila S.

    This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of instrumentation technology, established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to train instrumentation technicians. Section 1 contains general information: purpose of…

  15. Application of neural networks to seismic signal discrimination research findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James A. Cercone; W. M. Clark; J. J. Fuller; Stephan Goodman; Don J. Smith

    1994-01-01

    Research focused on identification and collection of a suitable database, identification of parametric representation of the time series seismic waveforms, and the training and testing of neural networks for seismic event classification. It was necessary to utilize seismic events that had a high degree of reliability for accurate training of the neural networks. The seismic waveforms were obtained from the

  16. Sheet Metal Contract. Project Report Phase I with Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Thomas; Sappe', Hoyt

    This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of sheet metal, established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to train sheet metal workers. Section 1 contains general information: purpose of Phase I; description…

  17. Research on Interest in Science: Theories, Methods, and Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krapp, Andreas; Prenzel, Manfred

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an overview of interest research and describes the theoretical and methodological background for the assessment of interest in science in large-scale assessments like the "Programme for International Student Assessment" (PISA). The paper starts with a short retrospective on the history of interest, bringing out theoretical…

  18. Presenting technical information: A survey of research findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia Wright

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews research investigations into various aspects of the presentation of technical information. It considers the objectives of different readers who may be consulting the information as a reference work or who may need to assimilate the information in its entirety. Ways of using headings, summaries and questions to achieve these differing objectives are discussed. The review also considers

  19. Behavioral Variability of Choices Versus Structural Inconsistency of Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Regenwetter, Michel; Davis-Stober, Clintin P.

    2012-01-01

    Theories of rational choice often make the structural consistency assumption that every decision maker’s binary strict preference among choice alternatives forms a strict weak order. Likewise, the very concept of a utility function over lotteries in normative, prescriptive, and descriptive theory is mathematically equivalent to strict weak order preferences over those lotteries, while intransitive heuristic models violate such weak orders. Using new quantitative interdisciplinary methodologies we dissociate variability of choices from structural inconsistency of preferences. We show that laboratory choice behavior among stimuli of a classical “intransitivity” paradigm is, in fact, consistent with variable strict weak order preferences. We find that decision makers act in accordance with a restrictive mathematical model that, for the behavioral sciences, is extraordinarily parsimonious. Our findings suggest that the best place to invest future behavioral decision research is not in the development of new intransitive decision models, but rather in the specification of parsimonious models consistent with strict weak order(s), as well as heuristics and other process models that explain why preferences appear to be weakly ordered. PMID:22506679

  20. Gradient phonological inconsistency affects vocabulary learning.

    PubMed

    Muench, Kristin L; Creel, Sarah C

    2013-09-01

    Learners frequently experience phonologically inconsistent input, such as exposure to multiple accents. Yet, little is known about the consequences of phonological inconsistency for language learning. The current study examines vocabulary acquisition with different degrees of phonological inconsistency, ranging from no inconsistency (e.g., both talkers call a picture /vig/) to mild but detectable inconsistency (e.g., one talker calls a picture a /vig/, and the other calls it a /vIg/), up to extreme inconsistency (e.g., the same picture is both a /vig/ and a /dId?/). Previous studies suggest that learners readily extract consistent phonological patterns, given variable input. However, in Experiment 1, adults acquired phonologically inconsistent vocabularies more slowly than phonologically consistent ones. Experiment 2 examined whether word-form inconsistency alone, without phonological competition, was a source of learning difficulty. Even without phonological competition, listeners learned faster in 1 accent than in 2 accents, but they also learned faster in 2 accents (/vig/ = /vIg/) than with completely different labels (/vig/ = /dId?/). Overall, results suggest that learners exposed to multiple accents may experience difficulty learning when 2 forms mismatch by more than 1 phonological feature, plus increased phonological competition due to a greater number of word forms. Implications for learning from variable input are discussed. PMID:23647379

  1. Research Findings on Radiation Hormesis and Radon Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hattori, Sadao

    1999-06-06

    Radiation hormesis research in Japan to determine the validity of Luckey's claims has revealed information on the health effects of low-level radiation. The scientific data of animal tests we obtained and successful results actually brought by radon therapy on human patients show us a clearer understanding of the health effects of low-level radiation. We obtained many animal test results and epidemiological survey data through our research activities cooperating with more than ten universities in Japan, categorized as follows: 1. suppression of cancer by enhancement of the immune system based on gene activation; 2. rejuvenation and suppression of aging by increasing cell membrane permeability and enzyme syntheses; 3. adaptive response by activation of gene expression on DNA repair and cell apoptosis; 4. pain relief and stress moderation by hormone formation in the brain and central nervous system; 5. avoidance and therapy of obstinate diseases by enhancing damage control systems and form one formation.

  2. Alcoholics Anonymous: Key Research Findings from 2002–2007

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shulamith Lala Ashenberg Straussner; Helga Byrne

    2009-01-01

    Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and other 12-step programs represent an affordable and widely accessible community-based resource for the estimated 18 million Americans with alcohol-related disorders. While substantiating information regarding 12-step programs remains challenging due to their autonomous structure and emphasis on anonymity, an ever increasing body of research provides a wealth of data regarding AA's efficacy, mechanisms of change, and viability

  3. Becoming a Scientist: Research Findings on STEM Students' Gains from Conducting Undergraduate Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, A.; Laursen, S.; Thiry, H.; Seymour, E.

    2006-12-01

    Undergraduate research is widely believed to enhance STEM students' education and increase their persistence to graduate education and careers in the sciences. Yet until very recently, little evidence from research and evaluation studies was available to substantiate such claims and document what students gain from doing undergraduate research or how these gains come about. We have conducted a three-year qualitative research study of STEM students participating in UR at four liberal arts colleges with a strong tradition of faculty-led summer research apprenticeships. Benefits to students reported by both students and their faculty advisors are categorized into six main categories of gains in skills, knowledge, "thinking like a scientist," career preparation, career development, and personal and professional growth. Student and faculty observations are strongly corroborative, but also differ in interesting ways that reflect the distinct perspectives of each group: students are still in the midst of discovering their own career paths while faculty advisors have observed the later career development of their past research students. While not all students find UR to heighten their interest in graduate school, they do find it a powerful growth experience that clarifies their career ambitions by providing a "real world" experience of science. For students whose interest in science is reinforced, UR has a significant role in their professional socialization into the culture and norms of science, which we call "becoming a scientist," through interactions that draw them into the scientific community and experiences that deepen their understanding of the nature of research. Cumulatively, the qualitative data set of nearly 350 interviews offers a rich portrayal of the UR enterprise from a variety of perspectives. Longitudinal data enable us to track the influence of UR on students' career and education trajectories in the years after college, and comparative data from a group of students who did not undertake UR or pursued alternate experiences reveal the extent to which some benefits of UR may be derived from other experiences. Faculty interviews reveal the costs and benefits to faculty of participating in this intensive form of science education. The presentation will highlight key findings and emphasize their relevance to faculty and program directors undertaking UR or seeking to generate its benefits through other activities.

  4. Bioethanol from Lignocellulosic Biomass: Current Findings Determine Research Priorities

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Qian; Appels, Lise; Tan, Tianwei

    2014-01-01

    “Second generation” bioethanol, with lignocellulose material as feedstock, is a promising alternative for first generation bioethanol. This paper provides an overview of the current status and reveals the bottlenecks that hamper its implementation. The current literature specifies a conversion of biomass to bioethanol of 30 to ~50% only. Novel processes increase the conversion yield to about 92% of the theoretical yield. New combined processes reduce both the number of operational steps and the production of inhibitors. Recent advances in genetically engineered microorganisms are promising for higher alcohol tolerance and conversion efficiency. By combining advanced systems and by intensive additional research to eliminate current bottlenecks, second generation bioethanol could surpass the traditional first generation processes. PMID:25614881

  5. New Research Findings on Emotionally Focused Therapy: Introduction to Special Section

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Susan M.; Wittenborn, Andrea K.

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces the special section "New Research Findings on Emotionally Focused Therapy." Emotionally focused couple therapy researchers have a strong tradition of outcome and process research and this special section presents new findings from three recent studies. The first study furthers the goal of determining the kinds of clients…

  6. Human Microbiome Project Researchers Find Vast Individual Differences in Our Bacteria

    E-print Network

    Howitt, Ivan

    Human Microbiome Project Researchers Find Vast Individual Differences in Our Bacteria When by NIH, the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) has announced first genomic compilation of the generalized infectious disease research previously impossible without this community resource." The human body contains

  7. Inconsistency of Measure-Theoretic Probability

    E-print Network

    Guang-Liang Li; Victor O. K. Li

    2014-12-06

    We reveal a contradiction in measure-theoretic probability. The contradiction is an "equation" $1/2 = 0$ with its two sides representing probabilities. Unlike known paradoxes in mathematics, the revealed contradiction cannot be explained away and actually indicates that measure-theoretic probability is inconsistent. Appearing only in the theory, the contradiction does not exist in the physical world. So practical applications of measure-theoretic probability will not be affected by the inconsistency as long as "ideal events" in the theory (which will never occur physically) are not mistaken for real events in the physical world. Nevertheless, the inconsistency must be resolved. Constructive mathematics can avoid such inconsistency. There is no contradiction reported in constructive mathematics.

  8. Current Mathematics Appears to Be Inconsistent

    E-print Network

    Guang-Liang Li; Victor O. K. Li

    2007-08-15

    We show that some mathematical results and their negations are both deducible. The derived contradictions indicate the inconsistency of current mathematics. This paper is an updated version of arXiv:math/0606635v3 with additional results and proofs.

  9. Incidental Computer Tomography Radiologic Findings through Research Participation in the North Texas Healthy Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Espinoza, Anna; Malone, Kendra; Balyakina, Elizabeth; Fulda, Kimberly G.; Cardarelli, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Background Although variation exists in the classification and practice of managing clinical findings in research, emerging views suggest that researchers bear some responsibility in the management of incidental findings. This study contributes to the documentation of the population characteristics and prevalence of medical findings incidental to research participation, specifically findings related to coronary calcium scores and computed tomography (CT) scans that investigated cardiovascular disparities in an asymptomatic population. Methods A total of 571 asymptomatic adult participants were recruited in the North Texas Healthy Heart Study. Participants completed a 16-slice CT scan of the heart and abdomen. Findings of radiology reports and 3 years of follow-up documentation were reviewed. Results A total of 246 clinically apparent findings were identified in 169 asymptomatic participants (32.9% of participants who completed a CT scan). Another 245 participants (48%) had findings of unknown significance, a total of 307 findings. At least 4 cases in this study led to a clinically significant intervention. Conclusion Although CT scans were completed for research purposes, study procedures resulted in the diagnosis and treatment of individuals who were previously asymptomatic. Potential clinical benefits in imaging research are moderated by considerations regarding possible harm and costs resulting from uncertain findings and the use of CT scans for nonclinical purposes. The continued development of protocols for the handling of incidental findings in research and the establishment of guidelines are needed to ensure that research procedures mirror the best interests of participants. PMID:24808109

  10. Major biological actions of CCK--a critical evaluation of research findings.

    PubMed

    Fink, H; Rex, A; Voits, M; Voigt, J P

    1998-11-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) is one of the first discovered gastrointestinal hormones and one of the most abundant neuropeptides in the brain. Two types of CCK receptors have been identified: (1) CCK-A receptors are mainly located in the periphery, but are also found in some areas of the CNS; and (2) CCK-B receptors are widely distributed in the brain. Major biological actions of CCK are the reduction of food intake and the induction of anxiety-related behavior. Inhibition of feeding is mainly mediated by the A-type receptors, whereas anxiety-like behavior is induced by stimulating B-type receptors. This paper presents new findings on the effects of the biologically active CCK agonists, CCK-8S, CCK-4, and A71378. The results reviewed suggest that the hypophagic effects of CCK are strongly dependent on the experimental design, sex, and age of the rats. For example, food intake measured during the night or after food deprivation is reduced by CCK-8S in young adult and aged rats, whereas, under fixed feeding conditions, CCK-8S does not inhibit food intake in young adult rats. The sensitivity to the hypophagic CCK effect increases with age in male and female rats; however, female rats are less sensitive to the CCK action. Further, using a nongenetic and non-stressful model of obesity due to unspecific postnatal overfeeding, the satiating effect of moderate CCK-8S doses is weaker in obese than in normal rats. Again, the hypophagic effect is more pronounced in male than in female obese and normal rats. Considering that aversive reactions in rats are markedly influenced by strain and breeding-line variations, research results in this area are critically reviewed. It is shown that anxiety-like symptoms can only be induced by a selectively acting CCK-B agonist, whereas mixed CCK-A and -B agonists and selective CCK-A agonists fail to change behavior in anxiety tests. CCK-4 induces stable and reproducible anxiogenic-like behavior only in certain rat strains. Moreover, CCK-4 effects can be demonstrated in the conflict test, in the ultrasonic vocalization test in rat pups, on the elevated plus maze, and in the black and white box, but not in the social interaction test. CCK has also been reported to modulate memory processes. On the one hand, CCK-8S and CCK-4 enhanced habituation to the novelty of a hole board. On the other hand, repeated administration of CCK-8S did not improve maze performance in aged rats. The literature on the behavioral pharmacology of CCK is rife with inconsistency and contradiction. The major biological actions of CCK depend on the receptor selectivity of the CCK fragments used and on organismic and procedural variables. All these variables potentially influence behavioral responses in rats. Therefore, in CCK research more attention should be paid to the importance of these methodological factors. PMID:9835394

  11. Measuring Graduate Students' Teaching and Research Skills through Self-Report: Descriptive Findings and Validity Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Joanna; Feldon, David

    2010-01-01

    This study extends research on graduate student development by examining descriptive findings and validity of a self-report survey designed to capture graduate students' assessments of their teaching and research skills. Descriptive findings provide some information about areas of growth among graduate students' in the first years of their…

  12. Top 10 Greatest "Hits": Important Findings and Future Directions for Intimate Partner Violence Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author highlights her choice of the 10 most important recent findings from the intimate partner violence research literature, which include (a) the creation of the Conflict Tactics Scale; (b) the finding that violent acts are most often perpetrated by intimates; (c) a series of findings that indicate that women also engage in…

  13. Early Literacy Research: Findings Primary-Grade Teachers Will Want to Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reutzel, D. Ray

    2015-01-01

    This article shares recent research findings in early literacy that every primary grade teacher has had questions about at one time or another ranging from handwriting to phonemic awareness, writing to concepts about print, and more. The article reports research that elaborates upon and extends early literacy research that was reported by the…

  14. Applying Effective Instruction Research Findings in Teacher Education: Six Influencing Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, Elsie W.

    This preliminary report provides an overview of the Applying Research to Teacher Education (ARTE) Research Utilization in Elementary Teacher Education (RUETE) study which began in 1982 and will continue through 1985. ARTE: RUETE explores specific processes for incorporating recent research findings of effective instruction into preservice…

  15. Optimal identification using inconsistent modal data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Suzanne Weaver; Beattie, Christopher A.

    1991-01-01

    This work examines techniques under the general approach of optimal-update identification which produce optimally adjusted, or updated, property matrices (i.e., mass, stiffness and damping matrices) to more closely match the structure modal response. For practical applications, the techniques must perform when the modal response is inconsistent with other constraints on the desired model. An alternate view of the optimal-update problem is presented that leads to new techniques for addressing inconsistent data. Viewpoints used for previously published techniques are also examined to explore issues in optimal-update identification.

  16. Translating research findings into community based theatre: More than a dead man's wife.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Susan; Hopgood, Alan; Dickins, Marissa

    2013-12-01

    Increasingly, qualitative scholars in health and social sciences are turning to innovative strategies as a way of translating research findings into informative, accessible and enjoyable forms for the community. The aim of this article is to describe how the research findings of a doctoral thesis - a narrative study about 58 older women's experiences of widowhood - were translated into a unique and professionally developed script to form the basis for a successful theatrical production that has travelled extensively within Australia. This article reports on the process of collaboration between a researcher, a highly regarded Australian actor/script writer and an ensemble of well-known and experienced professional actors. Together the collaborating partners translated the research data and findings about growing older and 'widowhood' into a high quality theatre production. In particular, we argue in this paper that research-based theatre is an appropriate medium for communicating research findings about important life issues of concern to older people in a safe, affirming and entertaining manner. By outlining the process of translating research findings into theatre we hope to show that there is a real value in this translation approach for both researcher and audience alike. PMID:24300067

  17. ISSN 1745-9648 Inconsistent Regulation, Market

    E-print Network

    Feigon, Brooke

    ISSN 1745-9648 Inconsistent Regulation, Market Structure and Broadband Adoption in the EU: a Dynamic Model by Richard Cadman Strategy & Policy Consultants Network Ltd and ESRC Centre for Competition penetration, which is regarded as desirable both socially and economically, as the measure of consumer outcome

  18. Chinese Privet: Foliar application in water (inconsistent)

    E-print Network

    Jawitz, James W.

    Chinese Privet: Foliar application in water (inconsistent) Glyphosate----5% solution Arsenal----1 spraying or 1 qt./acre broadcast Cogon grass Glyphosate (Accord/Roundup)----3.5 quarts per acre broadcast Edmondson, Pat Minogue, and Jay Ferrell. or mix .75% imazapyr plus 2% glyphosate in growing season or 8

  19. Partially Correct Constructs Illuminate Students' Inconsistent Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ron, Gila; Dreyfus, Tommy; Hershkowitz, Rina

    2010-01-01

    We present a view of knowledge construction processes, focusing on partially correct constructs. Motivated by unexpected and seemingly inconsistent quantitative data based on the written reports of students working on an elementary probability task, we analyze in detail the knowledge construction processes of a representative student. We show how…

  20. Return of Individual Research Results & Incidental Findings: Facing the Challenges of Translational Science

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    The debate over return of individual research results and incidental findings to research participants is a key frontier in research ethics and practice. Fundamentally, this is a problem of translational science, a question of when information about an individual that is generated in research should be communicated for clinical attention, as the technology itself is moving into clinical care. There is growing consensus that investigators should offer participants at least those individual findings of high clinical importance and actionability. Increasing attention to what information biobanks and secondary researchers owe people who provide data and samples offers an opportunity to treat these source individuals as research partners. Cutting-edge issues include return of results in pediatric populations and return to kin and family, including after death of the proband. Progress will require facing the continuum linking research and clinical care and developing standards and models for return. PMID:23875796

  1. A Transdisciplinary Approach to Training: Preliminary Research Findings Based on a Case Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bimpitsos, Christos; Petridou, Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the benefits, barriers and challenges of the transdisciplinary approach to training, and to present findings of a case analysis. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on the research findings of an experimental training program for Greek local government managers co-funded by the European…

  2. Inconsistency: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Du Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Inconsistency is commonplace in the real world and is an accepted part of life. Inconsistency is a multi-dimensional issue that includes: causes, types, interpretations, circumstances, desirability, detection approaches, handling strategies, and significance measures. In this paper, we focus our attention on the desirability dimension for inconsistency. It turns out that not all inconsistencies are bad, some are even desirable. We

  3. English Language Learners in U.S. Schools: An Overview of Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genesee, Fred; Lindholm-Leary, Kathryn; Saunders, William; Christian, Donna

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews findings from scientific research that has been conducted in the United States since 1980 on the educational outcomes of English language learners (ELLs). The studies selected for review here are a subset of a more comprehensive body of research conducted during this period that is reported in Genesee, Lindholm-Leary,…

  4. Cognitive Development and Science Instruction: A Review of Some Recent Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Michael

    Reviewed are several pertinent research articles dealing with cognitive development, Piaget's theories, and science instruction, especially those that relate to procedures that can be implemented by classroom teachers. The research findings on developmental levels of Piaget discuss: (1) tasks that indicate a change from preoperational to concrete…

  5. Communicating pesticide neurotoxicity research findings and risks to decision-makers and the public.

    PubMed

    Rother, Hanna-Andrea

    2014-12-01

    The extensive research findings on neurotoxic risks of pesticides tend to remain in academic publications rather than being comprehensibly communicated to decision-makers and the public. Protecting health and promoting risk reduction, particularly in developing countries, requires access to current findings in a format that can inform policy, regulations, behaviour change and risk reduction. Successfully communicating research findings may require multiple strategies depending on the target audience's varying comprehension skills (e.g., numeracy literacy, visual literacy) and ability to interpret scientific data. To illustrate the complexities of risk communication, a case study of exposure to neurotoxic street pesticides amongst poor, urban South African communities attempting to control poverty related pests, is presented. What remains a challenge is how to communicate neurotoxicity research findings consistently and in a meaningful manner for a lay audience, consisting of both the general public and decision makers. A further challenge is to identify who will monitor and evaluate the ways in which these findings are communicated to ensure quality is maintained. Ultimately, researchers should carry the responsibility of knowledge translation and engaging with communication specialists when appropriate. Additionally, institutions should reward this as part of promotion and academic accolade systems, and funders should fund the translational process. Ethics review boards should also play an instrumental role in ensuring that knowledge translation is part of the ethics review requirement, while professional societies should take more responsibility for disseminating research findings to non-academics. PMID:24642183

  6. Pressure ulcer prevention and treatment: transforming research findings into consensus based clinical guidelines.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Matthew; Pearson, Alan; Ward, Cathy

    2003-04-01

    The translation of research findings into practice guidelines is an important aspect in maintaining the currency of practice and adding value to research. While there has been a large amount of published literature regarding the treatment and prevention of pressure ulcers, very few studies have attempted to provide clear clinical guidelines. The present study proposes a model to transform research into clinical guidelines whilst developing a series of guidelines that can be applied to a variety of clinical settings. PMID:12694478

  7. Examining inconsistencies in student reasoning approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryjevskaia, Mila; Stetzer, MacKenzie R.

    2013-01-01

    Student-centered instruction can lead to strong gains in physics learning. However, even after targeted instruction, many students still struggle to systematically analyze unfamiliar situations. We have been identifying sequences of questions that allow for an in-depth examination of inconsistencies in student reasoning approaches. On these sequences, many students demonstrate that they possess the abilities to perform the required reasoning, yet they fail to apply this reasoning to arrive at a correct answer. In certain contexts, students tend to "abandon" suitable formal reasoning in favor of reasoning that was (perhaps) more intuitively appealing at that moment. In other cases, erroneous student reasoning approaches can be attributed to the relative salience of specific features of the problem. We present results from one sequence revealing inconsistencies in student reasoning in the context of capacitors. This sequence was administered in an introductory course in which Tutorials in Introductory Physics were implemented as interactive lectures.

  8. Looking Back To Find a Vision: Exploring the Emancipatory Potential of Teacher Research. Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Patricia A.; Cornett, Jeffrey

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the limitations of experimental studies of learning and the emergence of alternative paradigms such as constructivism. Examines the growth of teacher research and its historical influences, including Montessori, Dewey's Progressive Movement, and Lucy Sprague Mitchell. Discusses current trends in teacher research, asserting that it is…

  9. FRESHWATER FINDINGS, 1979-1982: RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY, DULUTH, MINNESOTA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report contains citations of publications for the years 1979-1982 on research conducted or supported by the Environmental Research Laboratory-Duluth. All published material has been organized into two major categories: (1) Journal Articles, Book Chapters, Proceedings, etc., ...

  10. MicroResearch - Finding sustainable solutions to local health challenges in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Kollmann, Tobias R; Bortolussi, Robert; MacDonald, Noni E

    2015-06-01

    The urgent need in Africa for research capacity building has been recognized by African leaders and governments for many years. However, lack of large research funding opportunities has been seen as a major obstacle to improving research capacity in precisely those countries that need it the most. Microfinance has shown that a small infusion of capital can "prime the pump" to creative local economic productivity. In a similar way, MicroResearch has proven effective in promoting a similar bottom-up strategy to find sustainable solutions to local health challenges through local community focused research. Specifically, MicroResearch through hands-on didactic courses, mentoring and small-scale research funding promotes small research projects that improve research skills across the entire health-care provider spectrum to unleash a culture of inquiry. This in turn stimulates health care providers to identify the locally most relevant obstacles that need to be overcome and implement locally feasible and sustainable solutions. MicroResearch is a bottom-up strategy proven effective at finding sustainable solutions to local health challenges. PMID:25934328

  11. Disseminating research findings: what should researchers do? A systematic scoping review of conceptual frameworks

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Addressing deficiencies in the dissemination and transfer of research-based knowledge into routine clinical practice is high on the policy agenda both in the UK and internationally. However, there is lack of clarity between funding agencies as to what represents dissemination. Moreover, the expectations and guidance provided to researchers vary from one agency to another. Against this background, we performed a systematic scoping to identify and describe any conceptual/organising frameworks that could be used by researchers to guide their dissemination activity. Methods We searched twelve electronic databases (including MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO), the reference lists of included studies and of individual funding agency websites to identify potential studies for inclusion. To be included, papers had to present an explicit framework or plan either designed for use by researchers or that could be used to guide dissemination activity. Papers which mentioned dissemination (but did not provide any detail) in the context of a wider knowledge translation framework, were excluded. References were screened independently by at least two reviewers; disagreements were resolved by discussion. For each included paper, the source, the date of publication, a description of the main elements of the framework, and whether there was any implicit/explicit reference to theory were extracted. A narrative synthesis was undertaken. Results Thirty-three frameworks met our inclusion criteria, 20 of which were designed to be used by researchers to guide their dissemination activities. Twenty-eight included frameworks were underpinned at least in part by one or more of three different theoretical approaches, namely persuasive communication, diffusion of innovations theory, and social marketing. Conclusions There are currently a number of theoretically-informed frameworks available to researchers that can be used to help guide their dissemination planning and activity. Given the current emphasis on enhancing the uptake of knowledge about the effects of interventions into routine practice, funders could consider encouraging researchers to adopt a theoretically-informed approach to their research dissemination. PMID:21092164

  12. [Research on the method of stress assessment--from the research findings of 2010].

    PubMed

    Natsume, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    The Japanese Society for Occupational Mental Health has conducted research on assessment of the psychological load (i.e., stress) among workers. Investigations were conducted three times, and those were contract research projects assigned by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. In this project, the author was the primary researcher. In the latest research, a survey utilizing the Live Event Method was performed extensively nationwide; the survey covered 10,494 subjects (including 1,977 females) from all types of industry and occupation. The objective of this research was to reevaluate the Psychological Load Assessment Sheet used as an evaluation basis for the "Certification of workers' compensation related to mental disorders from psychological load." Two previous research investigations, conducted in 2002 and 2006, had suggested the need for such reevaluation. The outcomes revealed that, the longer the monthly overtime working hours, the higher the stress scores (in the range of 0 to 10), and the lower the appearance rate of stress. Subjects who performed 140 hours or more of overtime work per month, which fell under the category of "Extremely Excessive Overtime Work," showed 6.3 points, which was markedly high, and ranked fourth in the survey with 63 assessment items. The category, "Extremely Excessive Overtime Work," includes two working hour ranges, 120 hours or more and 160 hours or more; those working hour ranges were defined in the revision based on the latest research. Monthly overtime work of 120 hours or more, but less than 140 hours, was ranked ninth and scored 6.3 points. Monthly overtime work of 80 hours or more, but less than 100 hours, scored 5.3 points with a frequency of 14.2%. Based on the above results, new assessment items were added to the Psychological Load Assessment Sheet. This paper addresses and studies the issues explained above. PMID:23346811

  13. Reconciling incongruous qualitative and quantitative findings in mixed methods research: exemplars from research with drug using populations

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Karla D.; Davidson, Peter J.; Pollini, Robin A.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Washburn, Rachel; Palinkas, Lawrence A.

    2011-01-01

    Mixed methods research is increasingly being promoted in the health sciences as a way to gain more comprehensive understandings of how social processes and individual behaviours shape human health. Mixed methods research most commonly combines qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis strategies. Often, integrating findings from multiple methods is assumed to confirm or validate the findings from one method with the findings from another, seeking convergence or agreement between methods. Cases in which findings from different methods are congruous are generally thought of as ideal, while conflicting findings may, at first glance, appear problematic. However, the latter situation provides the opportunity for a process through which apparently discordant results are reconciled, potentially leading to new emergent understandings of complex social phenomena. This paper presents three case studies drawn from the authors’ research on HIV risk among injection drug users in which mixed methods studies yielded apparently discrepant results. We use these case studies (involving injection drug users [IDUs] using a needle/syringe exchange program in Los Angeles, California, USA; IDUs seeking to purchase needle/syringes at pharmacies in Tijuana, Mexico; and young street-based IDUs in San Francisco, CA, USA) to identify challenges associated with integrating findings from mixed methods projects, summarize lessons learned, and make recommendations for how to more successfully anticipate and manage the integration of findings. Despite the challenges inherent in reconciling apparently conflicting findings from qualitative and quantitative approaches, in keeping with others who have argued in favour of integrating mixed methods findings, we contend that such an undertaking has the potential to yield benefits that emerge only through the struggle to reconcile discrepant results and may provide a sum that is greater than the individual qualitative and quantitative parts. PMID:21680168

  14. Reconciling incongruous qualitative and quantitative findings in mixed methods research: exemplars from research with drug using populations.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Karla D; Davidson, Peter J; Pollini, Robin A; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Washburn, Rachel; Palinkas, Lawrence A

    2012-01-01

    Mixed methods research is increasingly being promoted in the health sciences as a way to gain more comprehensive understandings of how social processes and individual behaviours shape human health. Mixed methods research most commonly combines qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis strategies. Often, integrating findings from multiple methods is assumed to confirm or validate the findings from one method with the findings from another, seeking convergence or agreement between methods. Cases in which findings from different methods are congruous are generally thought of as ideal, whilst conflicting findings may, at first glance, appear problematic. However, the latter situation provides the opportunity for a process through which apparently discordant results are reconciled, potentially leading to new emergent understandings of complex social phenomena. This paper presents three case studies drawn from the authors' research on HIV risk amongst injection drug users in which mixed methods studies yielded apparently discrepant results. We use these case studies (involving injection drug users [IDUs] using a Needle/Syringe Exchange Program in Los Angeles, CA, USA; IDUs seeking to purchase needle/syringes at pharmacies in Tijuana, Mexico; and young street-based IDUs in San Francisco, CA, USA) to identify challenges associated with integrating findings from mixed methods projects, summarize lessons learned, and make recommendations for how to more successfully anticipate and manage the integration of findings. Despite the challenges inherent in reconciling apparently conflicting findings from qualitative and quantitative approaches, in keeping with others who have argued in favour of integrating mixed methods findings, we contend that such an undertaking has the potential to yield benefits that emerge only through the struggle to reconcile discrepant results and may provide a sum that is greater than the individual qualitative and quantitative parts. PMID:21680168

  15. Evaluating the Impact of Professional Development on Teaching Practice: Research Findings and Future Research Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, Iain

    2011-01-01

    Continuing professional development for teaching is important for institutional renewal, teacher development and student learning improvement. However, our longitudinal research into provision of continuing professional development has shown that the majority of educators who attend professional development workshops do not put what they have…

  16. Inconsistency of perceived 3D shape.

    PubMed

    Di Luca, M; Domini, F; Caudek, C

    2010-07-21

    Internal consistency of local depth, slant, and curvature judgments was studied by asking participants to match two 3D surfaces rendered by different mixtures of 3D cues (velocity, texture, and shading). We found that perceptual judgments were not consistent with each other, with cue-specific distortions. Adding multiple cues did not eliminate the inconsistencies of the judgments. These results can be predicted by the Intrinsic Constraint (IC) model according to which the perceptual metric local estimates are a monotonically increasing function of the Signal-to-Noise Ratio of the optimal combination of direct information of 3D shape (Domini, Caudek, & Tassinari, 2006). PMID:20470815

  17. Research Findings to Support Effective Educational Policymaking: Evidence & Action Steps for State, District & Local Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This report presents research findings and action steps drawn from policies and practices that have been shown to be critical to the success of educational reforms at the local, district and state levels. The report focuses specifically on recommendations that address the following topics: (1) Coordinating state, city and district policies; (2)…

  18. Research-Doctorate Programs in the Biomedical Sciences: Selected Findings from the NRC Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorden, Joan F., Ed.; Kuh, Charlotte V., Ed.; Voytuk, James A., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Research Doctorate Programs in the Biomedical Sciences: Selected Findings from the NRC Assessment" examines data on the biomedical sciences programs to gather additional insight about the talent, training environment, outcomes, diversity, and international participation in the biomedical sciences workforce. This report supports an earlier…

  19. The Effective Elementary School Principal: Theoretical Bases, Research Findings and Practical Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, I. Emett, Jr.; Pankake, Anita M.

    Although much of the current school reform movement relies on the basic assumption of effective elementary school administration, insufficient effort has been made to synthesize key concepts found in organizational theory and management studies with relevant effective schools research findings. This paper attempts such a synthesis to help develop…

  20. New Findings and Future Directions for Subjective Well-Being Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diener, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Recent findings on subjective well-being (SWB) are presented, and I describe the important questions for future research that these raise. Worldwide predictors of SWB such as social support and fulfillment of basic needs have been uncovered, and there are large differences in SWB between societies. A number of culture-specific predictors of SWB…

  1. Informed consent in psychiatric research: Preliminary findings from an ongoing investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul R. Benson; Loren H. Roth; William J. Winslade

    1985-01-01

    Preliminary findings from an investigation of informed consent processes in four psychiatric research projects (two being carried out at a university medical center and two at a public psychiatric hospital) are reported. Study methods include the systematic observation of investigator\\/subject information disclosure sessions using audio and videotape, as well as the use of standardized interaction rating forms and subject understanding

  2. How can ergonomics influence design? Moving from research findings to future systems.

    PubMed

    Dekker, Sidney W A; Nyce, James M

    2004-12-01

    Ergonomics design is about the creation of future work. So how can ergonomics research support and inform design if its findings are cast in a language oriented towards current work derived from field observations or laboratory settings? In this paper we assess instances of three different strands (experimental, ethnomethodological, and surveys) of ergonomics research on paper flight strips in air traffic control, for how they analytically confront future work and how they make the findings relevant or credible with respect to future work. How these justifications come about, or how valid (or well argued for) they are, is rarely considered in the ergonomics literature. All three strands appear to rely on rhetoric and argument as well as method and analysis, to justify findings in terms of their future applicability. Closing the gap between research results and future work is an important aim of the ergonomic enterprise. Better understanding of the processes necessary to bridge this gap may be critical for progress in ergonomics research and for the use of its findings in actual design processes. PMID:15545236

  3. Research Paper: Knowledge-based Methods to Help Clinicians Find Answers in MEDLINE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles A Sneiderman; Dina Demner-Fushman; Marcelo Fiszman; Nicholas C. Ide; Thomas C. Rindflesch

    2007-01-01

    ObjectivesLarge databases of published medical research can support clinical decision making by providing physicians with the best available evidence. The time required to obtain optimal results from these databases using traditional systems often makes accessing the databases impractical for clinicians. This article explores whether a hybrid approach of augmenting traditional information retrieval with knowledge-based methods facilitates finding practical clinical advice

  4. Undersea researchers find little oil spill damage so far By KRISTA KLAUS | News Channel 8

    E-print Network

    Belogay, Eugene A.

    Undersea researchers find little oil spill damage so far By KRISTA KLAUS | News Channel 8 Published of the Gulf of Mexico in the wake of BP's massive Deepwater Horizon oil spill made a brief stopover today life before and after the largest oil spill in the history of the Gulf of Mexico. #12;"This

  5. (Not) Finding Rules in Time Series: A Surprising Result with Implications for Previous and Future Research

    E-print Network

    Lin, Jessica

    (Not) Finding Rules in Time Series: A Surprising Result with Implications for Previous and Future Research Jessica Lin Eamonn Keogh Wagner Truppel ABSTRACT Time series data is perhaps the most frequently detection, and classification. Given these two facts, it is hardly surprising that time series clustering

  6. Genetically Informative Research on Adolescent Substance Use: Methods, Findings, and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynskey, Michael T.; Agrawal, Arpana; Heath, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To provide an overview of the genetic epidemiology of substance use and misuse in adolescents. Method: A selective review of genetically informative research strategies, their limitations, and key findings examining issues related to the heritability of substance use and substance use disorders in children and adolescents is presented.…

  7. Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Grouping: Principal Findings and Implications of a Re-search of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito, Dominick

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize the issues and principal findings of research on homogeneous and heterogeneous ability grouping, and to consider the implications it may have for evaluating and improving the design of educational settings. To begin with, definitions of terms used in the discussion are given. The paper then proceeds to…

  8. Avoidance of inconsistencies during the virtual integration of vehicle software

    E-print Network

    Bauer, Bernhard

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 4.1.3. Concrete Inconsistencies & AUTOSAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 4.1.4. Basic and Basics 13 2.1. AUTOSAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 2.4.1. Reasons for inconsistencies: Basic Conditions of Development . . . . . . . 45 2

  9. The Past, Present & Future of the Debate Over Return of Research Results & Incidental Findings

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    In this introduction to a symposium on managing incidental findings (IFs) and individual research results (IRRs) in genomic research involving biobanks and archived datasets, the principal investigator of the underlying NIH-funded project discusses the roots, current state, and likely future of this debate. The roots lie in the recognition that research participants are not mere means to scientific progress, but vulnerable individuals. After key position papers on return of IFs and IRRs by investigators, the debate has now turned to the more complex question addressed in this symposium--how large-scale research using biobanks and archived datasets should approach IFs and IRRs. Where is the debate headed next? The answer lies in the history itself, a history of progress toward recognizing the humanity and informational needs of research participants. Increasingly, participants will be offered individual information. Limits will be set, to preserve the capacity to perform research and to protect participants from faulty information. And not all studies and biobanks will undertake individual return. It will take research and work to tailor return to serve participants’ needs and research realities. But debating return is the next step toward recognizing those who contribute specimens and data as partners in the research process. PMID:22481182

  10. Repair checking in inconsistent databases: algorithms and complexity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Foto N. Afrati; Phokion G. Kolaitis

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT Managing inconsistency in databases has long been recognized as an important problem. One of the most promising approaches to coping with inconsistency in databases is the framework,of database repairs, which has been the topic of an extensive in- vestigation over the past several years. Intuitively, a repair of an inconsistent database is a consistent database that differs from the

  11. Using Tableaux Method to Represent Inconsistent Knowledge of Deep Web

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liu Quan; Cui Zhi-Ming; Yao Wang-Shu; Zhou Wen-Yun; Fu Yu-Chen; Ling Xing-Hong

    2007-01-01

    Deep web can hold a lot of information with good quality and special subject, but there would be some inconsistent problems such as dynamic, inconsistency and uncertainty in deep web search. As a result, it is of great theoretic value and realistic importance to represent the huge inconsistent knowledge underneath the deep web with more reasonable estimations and judgments. Based

  12. Positive Effects of Utilizing Relationships Between Inconsistencies for more Effective Inconsistency

    E-print Network

    Egyed, Alexander

    Inconsistency Resolution (NIER Track) Alexander Nöhrer Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria alexander.noehrer@jku.at Alexander Reder Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria alexander.reder@jku.at Alexander Egyed Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria alexander.egyed@jku.at ABSTRACT State-of-the-art modeling tools can help

  13. What clinicians want: findings from a psychotherapy practice research network survey.

    PubMed

    Tasca, Giorgio A; Sylvestre, John; Balfour, Louise; Chyurlia, Livia; Evans, Jane; Fortin-Langelier, Benjamin; Francis, Kylie; Gandhi, Jasmine; Huehn, Linda; Hunsley, John; Joyce, Anthony S; Kinley, Jackie; Koszycki, Diana; Leszcz, Molyn; Lybanon-Daigle, Vanessa; Mercer, Deanna; Ogrodniczuk, John S; Presniak, Michelle; Ravitz, Paula; Ritchie, Kerri; Talbot, Jeanne; Wilson, Brian

    2015-03-01

    Practice research networks may be one way of advancing knowledge translation and exchange (KTE) in psychotherapy. In this study, we document this process by first asking clinicians what they want from psychotherapy research. Eighty-two psychotherapists in 10 focus groups identified and discussed psychotherapy research topics relevant to their practices. An analysis of these discussions led to the development of 41 survey items. In an online survey, 1,019 participants, mostly practicing clinicians, rated the importance to their clinical work of these 41 psychotherapy research topics. Ratings were reduced using a principal components analysis in which 9 psychotherapy research themes emerged, accounting for 60.66% of the variance. Two postsurvey focus groups of clinicians (N = 22) aided in interpreting the findings. The ranking of research themes from most to least important were-Therapeutic Relationship/Mechanisms of Change, Therapist Factors, Training and Professional Development, Client Factors, Barriers and Stigma, Technology and Adjunctive Interventions, Progress Monitoring, Matching Clients to Therapist or Therapy, and Treatment Manuals. Few differences were noted in rankings based on participant age or primary therapeutic orientation. Postsurvey focus group participants were not surprised by the top-rated items, as they were considered most proximal and relevant to therapists and their work with clients during therapy sessions. Lower ranked items may be perceived as externally imposed agendas on the therapist and therapy. We discuss practice research networks as a means of creating new collaborations consistent with KTE goals. Findings of this study can help to direct practitioner-researcher collaborations. PMID:25528356

  14. Inconsistency as an interactional problem: a lesson from political rhetoric.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Yair; Tabak, Iris

    2003-05-01

    The classical theory of cognitive dissonance suggests that when two related cognitions are mutually inconsistent, one of them will change to restore consistency. However, Billig suggests that inconsistency is primarily an interactional problem between subjects and not a cognitive problem within a subject. In the current paper, we adopt Billig's rhetorical approach to inconsistency and study inconsistency as an interactional problem in the context of political rhetoric. More specifically, we use Action-Implicative Discourse Analysis to identify the discursive strategies the former Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, used to cope with the inconsistency between his national ideology and his contradictory behavior during his short term in office. PMID:12845939

  15. Research findings from the use of probiotics in tilapia aquaculture: A review.

    PubMed

    Hai, Ngo Van

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to present research findings from the use of probiotics in tilapia aquaculture. In omnivorous species of tilapia aquaculture, intestines and gonads, rearing water and sediments or even commercial products, can be sources for acquiring appropriate probiotics. Administration of probiotics varies from direct oral/water routine to feed additives, of which the latter is most commonly used. Probiotic applications can be either mono or multiple strains. Dosage and duration of time are significant factors in providing desired results. As probiotics have been proven to be either immune enhancers and/or growth promoters in aquatic animals, several modes of actions of probiotics in enhancement of immune responses, and an improvement of growth and survival rates of tilapia are presented, while the effects of others are not yet understood to the same degree as for other fish species. Some points extracted from the research findings are emphasised for further investigation and development. PMID:26003738

  16. Language of instruction in Tanzania: Why are research findings not heeded?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qorro, Martha A. S.

    2013-06-01

    The issue of language of instruction (LOI) and its effects on education in Tanzanian secondary education has been widely researched since the early 1980s. In 2009, the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training proposed a new education and training policy that allows English to be used as LOI from nursery school to tertiary education. The proposed policy goes against what researchers in this area have recommended over the years. In the light of the proposed policy, the author of this article felt the need to review studies done on LOI in Tanzania from 1974 to date, aiming to eliminate or greatly reduce the negative effects of the policy on education in Tanzania. Quoting examples, the paper demonstrates students' levels of proficiency in English; suggests reasons why governmental policy has over time ignored research findings; and recommends as well as proposes the way forward.

  17. Return of individual research results and incidental findings in the clinical trials cooperative group setting.

    PubMed

    Ferriere, Michael; Van Ness, Brian

    2012-04-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI)-funded cooperative group cancer clinical trial system develops experimental therapies and often collects samples from patients for correlative research. The cooperative group bank (CGB) system maintains biobanks with a current policy not to return research results to individuals. An online survey was created, and 10 directors of CGBs completed the surveys asking about understanding and attitudes in changing policies to consider return of incidental findings (IFs) and individual research results (IRRs) of health significance. The potential impact of the 10 consensus recommendations of Wolf et al. presented in this issue are examined. Reidentification of samples is often not problematic; however, changes to the current banking and clinical trial systems would require significant effort to fulfill an obligation of recontact of subjects. Additional resources, as well as a national advisory board would be required to standardize implementation. PMID:22382800

  18. Research on the Caretaking of Children of Incarcerated Parents: Findings and Their Service Delivery Implications

    PubMed Central

    Hanlon, Thomas E.; Carswell, Steven B.; Rose, Marc

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews research findings on caretaking-related problems associated with the absence of parents from the home following incarceration. It focuses on the impact of incarceration on the welfare and adjustment of urban African American children and on the assumption of caretaking responsibilities by other caretakers, principally maternal grandmothers. Noting the complex situational difficulties involved and the potential burdens associated with surrogate parenting in general, and with this population in particular, the service-provider implications of this parenting arrangement are considered in this review. Findings indicate that problems associated with incarceration of parents tend to be intergenerational and vary considerably in complexity and severity. To the extent that they impact the children involved, these issues should be addressed in coordinated service delivery focusing on prevention. PMID:18311320

  19. [Concepts for the return of secondary genetic findings in medical diagnostics and research].

    PubMed

    Fisher, E; Achilles, S; Tönnies, H; Schmidtke, J

    2015-02-01

    High-throughput sequencing of whole genomes is technically already at a high level and is being discussed as a cost-effective alternative to other targeted, analytical procedures for clinical diagnosis of heritable disorders. On the other hand, with whole genome and whole exome sequencing, there is a high likelihood of uncovering secondary findings not associated with the primary aim of the investigation. This article tries to outline the current scientific and technical status of whole genome and whole exome sequencing and of the national and international recommendations concerning the handling of secondary genetic findings which are already available, above all in the research-related context and less so in the clinical context. PMID:25487853

  20. Cost-effectiveness analysis and formulary decision making in England: findings from research.

    PubMed

    Williams, Iestyn P; Bryan, Stirling

    2007-11-01

    In a context of rapid technological advances in health care and increasing demand for expensive treatments, local formulary committees are key players in the management of scarce resources. However, little is known about the information and processes used when making decisions on the inclusion of new treatments. This paper reports research on the use of economic evaluations in technology coverage decisions in England, although the findings have a relevance to other health care systems with devolved responsibility for resource allocation. It reports a study of four local formulary committees in which both qualitative and quantitative data were collected. Our main research finding is that it is an exception for cost-effectiveness analysis to inform technology coverage decisions. Barriers to use include access and expertise levels, concerns relating to the independence of analyses and problems with implementation of study recommendations. Further barriers derive from the constraints on decision makers, a lack of clarity over functions and aims of local committees, and the challenge of disinvestment in medical technologies. The relative weakness of the research-practice dynamics in this context suggests the need for a rethinking of the role of both analysts and decision makers. Our research supports the view that in order to be useful, analysis needs to better reflect the constraints of the local decision-making environment. We also recommend that local decision-making committees and bodies in the National Health Service more clearly identify the 'problems' which they are charged with solving and how their outputs contribute to broader finance and commissioning functions. This would help to establish the ways in which the routine use of cost-effectiveness analysis might become a reality. PMID:17698271

  1. Science in the Eyes of Preschool Children: Findings from an Innovative Research Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubosarsky, Mia D.

    How do young children view science? Do these views reflect cultural stereotypes? When do these views develop? These fundamental questions in the field of science education have rarely been studied with the population of preschool children. One main reason is the lack of an appropriate research instrument that addresses preschool children's developmental competencies. Extensive body of research has pointed at the significance of early childhood experiences in developing positive attitudes and interests toward learning in general and the learning of science in particular. Theoretical and empirical research suggests that stereotypical views of science may be replaced by authentic views following inquiry science experience. However, no preschool science intervention program could be designed without a reliable instrument that provides baseline information about preschool children's current views of science. The current study presents preschool children's views of science as gathered from a pioneering research tool. This tool, in the form of a computer "game," does not require reading, writing, or expressive language skills and is operated by the children. The program engages children in several simple tasks involving picture recognition and yes/no answers in order to reveal their views about science. The study was conducted with 120 preschool children in two phases and found that by the age of 4 years, participants possess an emergent concept of science. Gender and school differences were detected. Findings from this interdisciplinary study will contribute to the fields of early childhood, science education, learning technologies, program evaluation, and early childhood curriculum development.

  2. Finding a voice: participatory research with street-involved youth in the youth injection prevention project.

    PubMed

    Coser, Larissa Rodrigues; Tozer, Kira; Van Borek, Natasha; Tzemis, Despina; Taylor, Darlene; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Buxton, Jane A

    2014-09-01

    This article uses a Positive Youth Development framework to explore the experiences of six experiential youth coresearchers (YCs) in the Youth Injection Prevention (YIP) participatory research project, and the parallel track process of empowerment and capacity building that developed. The YIP project was conducted in Metro Vancouver at the BC Centre for Disease Control and community organizations serving street-involved youth. A process evaluation was conducted to explore themes in the YCs experience in the project, as well as process strengths and challenges. Semistructured interviews with the YCs, researcher field notes, and team meeting and debrief session minutes were analyzed. The YIP project appears to have exerted a positive influence on the YCs. Positive self-identities, sense of purpose, reconceptualization of intellectual ability, new knowledge and skills, supportive relationships, finding a voice, and social and self-awareness were among the positive impacts. Process strengths included team-building activities, team check-in and checkout sessions, and professional networking opportunities. Process challenges included the time required to help YCs overcome personal barriers to participation. The YIP project demonstrates that participatory research with street-involved youth is a viable research option that contributes to positive youth development and empowerment. PMID:24668583

  3. Inconsistencies and open questions regarding low-dose health effects of ionizing radiation.

    PubMed Central

    Nussbaum, R H; Köhnlein, W

    1994-01-01

    The effects on human health of exposures to ionizing radiation at low doses have long been the subject of dispute. In this paper we focus on open questions regarding the health effects of low-dose exposures that require further investigations. Seemingly contradictory findings of radiation health effects have been reported for the same exposed populations, or inconsistent estimates of radiation risks were found when different populations and exposure conditions were compared. Such discrepancies may be indicative of differences in sensitivities among the applied methods of epidemiological analysis or indicative of significant discrepancies in health consequences after comparable total exposures of different populations under varying conditions. We focus first on inconsistencies and contradictions in presentations of the state of knowledge by different authoritative experts. We then review studies that found positive associations between exposure and risks in dose ranges where traditional notions (generalized primarily from high-dose studies of A-bomb survivors or exposed animals) would have predicted negligible effects. One persistent notion in many reviews of low-dose effects is the hypothesis of reduced biological effectiveness of fractionated low-dose exposures, compared to that of the same acute dose. This assumption is not supported by data on human populations. From studies of populations that live in contaminated areas, more and more evidence is accumulating on unusual rates of various diseases other than radiation-induced malignancies, health effects that are suspected to be associated with relatively low levels of internal exposures originating from radioactive fallout. Such effects include congenital defects, neonatal mortality, stillbirths, and possibly genetically transmitted disease. A range of open questions challenges scientists to test imaginative hypotheses about induction of disease by radiation with novel research strategies. Images Figure 1. PMID:7895705

  4. Addressing mathematical inconsistency: Cantor and Godel refuted

    E-print Network

    J. A. Perez

    2010-02-24

    This article critically reappraises arguments in support of Cantor's theory of transfinite numbers. The following results are reported: i) Cantor's proofs of nondenumerability are refuted by analyzing the logical inconsistencies in implementation of the reductio method of proof and by identifying errors. Particular attention is given to the diagonalization argument and to the interpretation of the axiom of infinity. ii) Three constructive proofs have been designed that support the denumerability of the power set of the natural numbers, P(N), thus implying the denumerability of the set of the real numbers R. These results lead to a Theorem of the Continuum that supersedes Cantor's Continuum Hypothesis and establishes the countable nature of the real number line, suggesting that all infinite sets are denumerable. Some immediate implications of denumerability are discussed: i) Valid proofs should not include inconceivable statements, defined as statements that can be found to be false and always lead to contradiction. This is formalized in a Principle of Conceivable Proof. ii) Substantial simplification of the axiomatic principles of set theory can be achieved by excluding transfinite numbers. To facilitate the comparison of sets, infinite as well as finite, the concept of relative cardinality is introduced. iii) Proofs of incompleteness that use diagonal arguments (e.g. those used in Godel's Theorems) are refuted. A constructive proof, based on the denumerability of P(N), is presented to demonstrate the existence of a theory of first-order arithmetic that is consistent, sound, negation-complete, decidable and (assumed p.r. adequate) able to prove its own consistency. Such a result reinstates Hilbert's Programme and brings arithmetic completeness to the forefront of mathematics.

  5. Special session - research findings on engineering student learning and engineering teaching: Interactively exploring the implications for engineering education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debbie Chachra; Cynthia J. Atman; Jennifer Turns; Ken Yasuhara; Sheri Sheppard

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this Special Session is to engage participants in consideration and discussion of a selected subset of research findings, with the intention of contextualizing the presented findings into the larger body of scholarship on engineering education as well as to consider how they may be used to inform program and course planning and classroom practice. The research presented

  6. Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Global Environmental Change: Research findings and policy implications

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Baggethun, Erik; Corbera, Esteve; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the special feature of Ecology and Society entitled “Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Global Environmental Change. The special feature addresses two main research themes. The first theme concerns the resilience of Traditional Ecological Knowledge (hereafter TEK) and the conditions that might explain its loss or persistence in the face of global change. The second theme relates to new findings regarding the way in which TEK strengthens community resilience to respond to the multiple stressors of global environmental change. Those themes are analyzed using case studies from Africa, Asia, America and Europe. Theoretical insights and empirical findings from the studies suggest that despite the generalized worldwide trend of TEK erosion, substantial pockets of TEK persist in both developing and developed countries. A common trend on the studies presented here is hybridization, where traditional knowledge, practices, and beliefs are merged with novel forms of knowledge and technologies to create new knowledge systems. The findings also reinforce previous hypotheses pointing at the importance of TEK systems as reservoirs of experiential knowledge that can provide important insights for the design of adaptation and mitigation strategies to cope with global environmental change. Based on the results from papers in this feature, we discuss policy directions that might help to promote maintenance and restoration of living TEK systems as sources of social-ecological resilience. PMID:26097492

  7. Digital animation as a method to disseminate research findings to the community using a community-based participatory approach.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Nicole A; Jacoby, Sara F; Williams, Thalia; Guerra, Terry; Thomas, Nicole A; Richmond, Therese S

    2013-03-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has garnered increasing interest over the previous two decades as researchers have tackled increasingly complex health problems. In academia, professional presentations and articles are major ways that research is disseminated. However, dissemination of research findings to the people and communities who participated in the research is many times forgotten. In addition, little scholarly literature is focused on creative dissemination of research findings to the community using CBPR methods. We seek to fill this gap in the literature by providing an exemplar of research dissemination and partnership strategies that were used to complete this project. In this paper, we present a novel approach to the dissemination of research findings to our targeted communities through digital animation. We also provide the foundational thinking and specific steps that were taken to select this specific dissemination product development and distribution strategy. PMID:22395365

  8. Findings of the US Research Needs Workshop on the Topic of Fusion Power

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W R; Raffray, A R; Kurtz, R J; Morley, N B; Reiersen, W T; Sharpe, P; Willms, S

    2009-09-16

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES) conducted a Research Needs Workshop, referred to as ReNeW, in June 2009. The information developed at this workshop will help OFES develop a plan for US fusion research during the ITER era, roughly the next two decades. The workshop was organized in five Themes, one of which was Harnessing Fusion Power (or Fusion Power for short). The top level goal of the Fusion Power Theme was to identify the research needed to develop the knowledge to design and build, with high confidence, robust and reliable systems that can convert fusion products to useful forms of energy in a reactor environment, including a self-sufficient supply of tritium fuel. Each Theme was subsequently subdivided into Panels to address specific topics. The Fusion Power Panel topics were: fusion fuel cycle; power extraction; materials science; safety and environment; and reliability, availability, maintainability and inspectability (RAMI). Here we present the key findings of the Fusion Power Theme.

  9. Application of research findings and summary of research needs: Bud Britton Memorial Symposium on Metabolic Disorders of Feedlot Cattle.

    PubMed

    Galyean, M L; Eng, K S

    1998-01-01

    Updated research findings with acidosis, feedlot bloat, liver abscesses, and sudden death syndromes were presented at the Bud Britton Memorial Symposium on Metabolic Disorders of Feedlot Cattle. Possible industry applications include the need to establish guidelines for use of clostridial vaccines in feedlot cattle, further assessment of the relationship between acidosis and polioencephalomalacia, examination of the effects of various ionophores on the incidence of metabolic disorders, and evaluation of the effects of feed bunk management and limit- and restricted-feeding programs on the incidence of metabolic disorders. A multidisciplinary approach among researchers, consulting nutritionists and veterinarians, and feedlot managers will be required for effective progress in research and in the application of research findings. Areas suggested for further research include 1) assessment of feed consumption patterns and social behavior of cattle in large-pen, feedlot settings; 2) evaluation of the relationship between feed intake management systems (feed bunk management programs, limit- and programmed-feeding) and the incidence of metabolic disorders, including delineation of the role of variability in feed intake in the etiology of such disorders; 3) efforts to improve antemortem and postmortem diagnosis, and to establish standardized regional or national epidemiological databases for various metabolic disorders; 4) ascertaining the accuracy of diagnosis of metabolic disorders and determining the relationship of previous health history of animals to the incidence of metabolic disorders; 5) further defining ruminal and intestinal microbiology as it relates to metabolic disorders and deeper evaluation of metabolic changes that occur with such disorders; 6) continued appraisal of the effects of grain processing and specific feed ingredients and nutrients on metabolic disorders, and development of new feed additives to control or prevent these disorders; and 7) application of biotechnology to develop grain varieties with altered nutrient degradation profiles that decrease the propensity for disastrous acid loads in the rumen, feed-grade enzymes and probiotics that modify nutrient digestion or microbial profiles in the rumen and intestine, and specific strains of ruminal bacteria and protozoa that alter ruminal and metabolic conditions that may precipitate metabolic disorders. PMID:9464915

  10. Inconsistency Management for Multiple-View Software Development Environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John C. Grundy; John G. Hosking; Warwick B. Mugridge

    1998-01-01

    Developers need tool support to help manage the wide range of inconsistencies that occur during software development. Such tools need to provide developers with ways to define, detect, record, present, interact with, monitor and resolve complex inconsistencies between different views of software artifacts, different developers and different phases of software development. This paper describes our experience with building complex multiple-view

  11. Intra-Word Inconsistency in Apraxic Hebrew-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tubul-Lavy, Gila

    2012-01-01

    Intra-word inconsistency in a child is perceived as an indicator of speech impairment. Because the speech of typically developing children is highly variable, the extent and nature of the inconsistency must be defined when used as a diagnostic marker of speech impairment (McLeod, S., & Hewett, S. R. (2008). Variability in the production of words…

  12. Structuring Professional Learning to Develop a Culture of Data Use: Aligning Knowledge from the Field and Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerzon, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Background: This research review provides an analysis of current research related to school and district data use, with a particular focus on identifying key characteristics of schools and districts with effective "data using cultures." The research review identifies and analyzes findings in five key areas of practice: communicating…

  13. Rape treatment outcome research: empirical findings and state of the literature.

    PubMed

    Vickerman, Katrina A; Margolin, Gayla

    2009-07-01

    This article reviews empirical support for treatments targeting women sexually assaulted during adolescence or adulthood. Thirty-two articles were located using data from 20 separate samples. Of the 20 samples, 12 targeted victims with chronic symptoms, three focused on the acute period post-assault, two included women with chronic and acute symptoms, and three were secondary prevention programs. The majority of studies focus on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and/or anxiety as treatment targets. Cognitive Processing Therapy and Prolonged Exposure have garnered the most support with this population. Stress Inoculation Training and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing also show some efficacy. Of the four studies that compared active treatments, few differences were found. Overall, cognitive behavioral interventions lead to better PTSD outcomes than supportive counseling does. However, even in the strongest treatments more than one-third of women retain a PTSD diagnosis at post-treatment or drop out of treatment. Discussion highlights the paucity of research in this area, methodological limitations of examined studies, generalizability of findings, and important directions for future research at various stages of trauma recovery. PMID:19442425

  14. A graphical tool for locating inconsistency in network meta-analyses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In network meta-analyses, several treatments can be compared by connecting evidence from clinical trials that have investigated two or more treatments. The resulting trial network allows estimating the relative effects of all pairs of treatments taking indirect evidence into account. For a valid analysis of the network, consistent information from different pathways is assumed. Consistency can be checked by contrasting effect estimates from direct comparisons with the evidence of the remaining network. Unfortunately, one deviating direct comparison may have side effects on the network estimates of others, thus producing hot spots of inconsistency. Methods We provide a tool, the net heat plot, to render transparent which direct comparisons drive each network estimate and to display hot spots of inconsistency: this permits singling out which of the suspicious direct comparisons are sufficient to explain the presence of inconsistency. We base our methods on fixed-effects models. For disclosure of potential drivers, the plot comprises the contribution of each direct estimate to network estimates resulting from regression diagnostics. In combination, we show heat colors corresponding to the change in agreement between direct and indirect estimate when relaxing the assumption of consistency for one direct comparison. A clustering procedure is applied to the heat matrix in order to find hot spots of inconsistency. Results The method is shown to work with several examples, which are constructed by perturbing the effect of single study designs, and with two published network meta-analyses. Once the possible sources of inconsistencies are identified, our method also reveals which network estimates they affect. Conclusion Our proposal is seen to be useful for identifying sources of inconsistencies in the network together with the interrelatedness of effect estimates. It opens the way for a further analysis based on subject matter considerations. PMID:23496991

  15. Judging Social Issues: Difficulties, Inconsistencies, and Consistencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turiel, Elliot; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Three studies examined high school and college students' reasoning about issues of abortion, homosexuality, pornography, and incest. In the first study, groups differed in judgments about these issues but not about moral issues in general. Findings of second study paralleled those of first. Third study showed that assumptions associated with…

  16. NIH Researchers Find Vitamin D Binding Protein May Help to Assess Vitamin D Deficiency in African and White Americans

    MedlinePLUS

    NIH researchers find vitamin D binding protein may help to assess vitamin D deficiency in African and white Americans November 21, 2013 Measuring vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) may be important for ...

  17. Research Interests: Outside of life (plants and animals) I find process plasmas to be the most complex and

    E-print Network

    Goeckner, Matthew

    Research Interests: Outside of life (plants and animals) I find process plasmas to be the most neutralization of the ions and subsequent reflection of energetic neutrals into the gas phase. These fast

  18. Benchmarking Classification Models for Software Defect Prediction: A Proposed Framework and Novel Findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Lessmann; Bart Baesens; Christophe Mues; Swantje Pietsch

    2008-01-01

    Software defect prediction strives to improve software quality and testing efficiency by constructing predictive classification models from code attributes to enable a timely identification of fault-prone modules. Several classification models have been evaluated for this task. However, due to inconsistent findings regarding the superiority of one classifier over another and the usefulness of metric-based classification in general, more research is

  19. Research Questions . How OFTEN does such judging inconsistency happens?

    E-print Network

    French, James C.

    of user interface; (2) information need refinement during the interaction. The ``perfect consistency HARD (High Accuracy Retrieval from Documents) provides large­scale centrally­administrated evaluations for retrieval systems which allows one round of interaction. Perhaps Non­Rel Default Rel Non­Rel / Perhaps Rel

  20. Problems Teachers Face When Doing Action Research and Finding Possible Solutions: Three Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Through case studies, this paper explores problems teachers face when doing action research: for instance, teachers may misunderstand the research, mistrust university researchers, lack the time or adequate library resources to conduct research, lack theoretical guidance or knowledge of research methodology, and feel pressure or frustration during…

  1. Fostering implementation of health services research findings into practice: a consolidated framework for advancing implementation science

    PubMed Central

    Damschroder, Laura J; Aron, David C; Keith, Rosalind E; Kirsh, Susan R; Alexander, Jeffery A; Lowery, Julie C

    2009-01-01

    Background Many interventions found to be effective in health services research studies fail to translate into meaningful patient care outcomes across multiple contexts. Health services researchers recognize the need to evaluate not only summative outcomes but also formative outcomes to assess the extent to which implementation is effective in a specific setting, prolongs sustainability, and promotes dissemination into other settings. Many implementation theories have been published to help promote effective implementation. However, they overlap considerably in the constructs included in individual theories, and a comparison of theories reveals that each is missing important constructs included in other theories. In addition, terminology and definitions are not consistent across theories. We describe the Consolidated Framework For Implementation Research (CFIR) that offers an overarching typology to promote implementation theory development and verification about what works where and why across multiple contexts. Methods We used a snowball sampling approach to identify published theories that were evaluated to identify constructs based on strength of conceptual or empirical support for influence on implementation, consistency in definitions, alignment with our own findings, and potential for measurement. We combined constructs across published theories that had different labels but were redundant or overlapping in definition, and we parsed apart constructs that conflated underlying concepts. Results The CFIR is composed of five major domains: intervention characteristics, outer setting, inner setting, characteristics of the individuals involved, and the process of implementation. Eight constructs were identified related to the intervention (e.g., evidence strength and quality), four constructs were identified related to outer setting (e.g., patient needs and resources), 12 constructs were identified related to inner setting (e.g., culture, leadership engagement), five constructs were identified related to individual characteristics, and eight constructs were identified related to process (e.g., plan, evaluate, and reflect). We present explicit definitions for each construct. Conclusion The CFIR provides a pragmatic structure for approaching complex, interacting, multi-level, and transient states of constructs in the real world by embracing, consolidating, and unifying key constructs from published implementation theories. It can be used to guide formative evaluations and build the implementation knowledge base across multiple studies and settings. PMID:19664226

  2. The Leibniz Continuity Condition, Inconsistency and Quantum Dynamics.

    E-print Network

    Goré, Rajeev

    interpretation of the inconsistency­tolerant logic required for these solutions, dual to that of intuitionism holds at the irrational points), so that "there is no reason to suppose that the disjunction holds

  3. Breathtaking advances begin with outstanding people from researchers determined to find cures to healthcare providers who deliver extraordinary care to

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Michael S.

    to healthcare providers who deliver extraordinary care to dedicated volunteers and partners who passionately in cancer research and care. To build on that track record and to find better therapies, we must recruit recruit and retain leading experts in cancer research and care? Gifts provide current resources

  4. Two For The Price Of One! Staff Development Through The Utilisation of Findings from Research on Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyth, W. John

    A review of the research indicates that the interface between the findings from research on teaching and staff development of teachers is an important but neglected one. An improvement in teaching skills calls for an interactive or collaborative mode of professional development which is based on classroom interests and the needs of teachers, with…

  5. A critical survey of hypotheses regarding Post-traumatic Stress Disorders in light of recent research findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence C. Kolb

    1988-01-01

    This paper reviews briefly recent findings from psychobiological research upon Post-traumatic Stress Disorders. A critical assay is provided of the various hypotheses advanced as the result of this research data. The author suggests neuropsychological theory provides the best explanation for understanding and classifying both the clinical phenomenology and the biological abnormalities discovered in the chronic forms of PTSD.

  6. Impact of Problem Finding on the Quality of Authentic Open Inquiry Science Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBanca, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Problem finding is a creative process whereby individuals develop original ideas for study. Secondary science students who successfully participate in authentic, novel, open inquiry studies must engage in problem finding to determine viable and suitable topics. This study examined problem finding strategies employed by students who successfully…

  7. Preprocessing Inconsistent Linear System for a Meaningful Least Squares Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, Syamal K.; Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical models of many physical/statistical problems are systems of linear equations. Due to measurement and possible human errors/mistakes in modeling/data, as well as due to certain assumptions to reduce complexity, inconsistency (contradiction) is injected into the model, viz. the linear system. While any inconsistent system irrespective of the degree of inconsistency has always a least-squares solution, one needs to check whether an equation is too much inconsistent or, equivalently too much contradictory. Such an equation will affect/distort the least-squares solution to such an extent that renders it unacceptable/unfit to be used in a real-world application. We propose an algorithm which (i) prunes numerically redundant linear equations from the system as these do not add any new information to the model, (ii) detects contradictory linear equations along with their degree of contradiction (inconsistency index), (iii) removes those equations presumed to be too contradictory, and then (iv) obtain the minimum norm least-squares solution of the acceptably inconsistent reduced linear system. The algorithm presented in Matlab reduces the computational and storage complexities and also improves the accuracy of the solution. It also provides the necessary warning about the existence of too much contradiction in the model. In addition, we suggest a thorough relook into the mathematical modeling to determine the reason why unacceptable contradiction has occurred thus prompting us to make necessary corrections/modifications to the models - both mathematical and, if necessary, physical.

  8. Finding A Way Through The Swamp: A Case For Self-Study As Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vince Hama; Ruth Kaneb

    The point, or points, at which a ‘self-study’ might become ‘research’ is a matter of some discomfort and ‘dissensus’ even\\u000a among those who work and write in the self-study of teaching and teacher education areas. Those of us in the practitioner\\u000a research, teacher researcher, action research and self-study in teacher education communities all forage somewhat nervously\\u000a in the swamplands between

  9. Teaching, Learning and Assessing HRD: Findings from a BMAF/UFHRD Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sambrook, Sally; Stewart, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to analyse and explore the results of a research project, which aimed to identify recent and current research on TLA within HRD programmes. From that base the project also intended to identify areas for future research and a basis for establishing a Special Interest Group. Design/methodology/approach: A comprehensive…

  10. School Ethos and Pupil Outcome: Research Findings and Some Theoretical Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosin, Lennart

    1985-01-01

    Research during the 1960s and early 1970s suggested that the different outcomes of schooling for different students were due to factors outside the school. There was no consensus among the researchers over which factors outside the school had the greatest effect on student achievement. Swedish educational research has made many important…

  11. Teachers' Approaches to Finding and Using Research Evidence: An Information Literacy Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Dorothy; Coles, Louisa

    2007-01-01

    Background: The use of research evidence produced by others is seen as central to the reflective practice of school teachers. There have been many recent UK initiatives aimed at improving access to research evidence, but there are still concerns about the lack of engagement by teachers. Previous research has looked at this issue from different…

  12. Kids in Research: Your Child Can Help Find Cures at the NIH Clinical Center

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Participate? Research volunteers become partners in a special relationship with members of the research team who are searching for better ways to understand and treat diseases. Their participation is critical for improving health today and in future generations. Print our Kids in Research flyer (304 ...

  13. Challenge: Reframing, communicating, and finding relevance. Solution: Teachers on the research team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholow, S.; Warburton, J.

    2013-12-01

    PolarTREC (Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating) is a program in which K-12 teachers spend 2-6 weeks participating in hands-on field research experiences in the polar regions. The goal of PolarTREC is to invigorate polar science education and understanding by bringing K-12 educators and polar researchers together. Program data has illuminated a crucial dynamic that increases the potential for a successful climate change science campaign. We contend that the inclusion of a teacher into the field research campaign can tackle challenges such as reframing climate change science to better address the need for a particular campaign, as well as garnering the science project the necessary support through effective, authentic, and tangible communication efforts to policymakers, funders, students, and the public. The program evaluation queried researchers on a.) the teachers' primary roles in the field b.) the impact teachers on the team's field research, and c.) the teachers' role conducting outreach. Additionally, researchers identified the importance of the facilitator, the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS), as an integral component to the challenge of providing a meaningful broader impact statement to the science proposal. Researchers reported the value of explaining their science, in-situ, allowed them to reframe and rework the objectives of the science project to attain meaningful outcomes. More than half of the researchers specifically noted that one of the strengths of the PolarTREC project is its benefit to the scientific process. The researchers also viewed PolarTREC as an essential outreach activity for their research project. Other researchers said that the outreach provided by their teacher also improved the research project's public image and articulated complex ideas to the public at large. This presentation will speak to the practices within the PolarTREC program and how researchers can meet outreach expectations, impact the public, and refine their science with teachers in the field.

  14. Special session - linking research findings on engineering student learning and engineering teaching: Implications for engineering education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia Atman; Lorraine Fleming; Deborah Kilgore; Ron Miller; Sheri Sheppard; Karl Smith; Reed Stevens; Ruth Streveler; Jennifer Turns

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this special interactive session is to engage attendees in (1) knitting the results of two linked studies (of engineering undergraduates and engineering faculty) into the larger body of engineering education scholarship and (2) developing ways of thinking about these findings that can be used to inform engineering education program planning and classroom practice. The findings are from

  15. Factors in Re-Finding the Personal Photographs: Review and Possible Research Directions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Rustom Al Nasar; Masnizah Mohd; Nazlena Mohamad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Factors effecting re-find personal photographs are often difficult to define, given its inexpressible numbers. Literature review highlights the role of human behaviors in personal photographs lifecycle such as capturing, keeping, managing and re-finding personal photographs exaggeratedly without any progress to handle all factors and so forth. Moreover, personal photographs management systems are becoming widespread, which can help people to rapidly

  16. 18- and 24-month-olds' discrimination of gender-consistent and inconsistent activities.

    PubMed

    Hill, Sara E; Flom, Ross

    2007-02-01

    18- and 24-month-olds' ability to discriminate gender-stereotyped activities was assessed. Using a preferential looking paradigm, toddlers viewed male and female actors performing masculine and feminine-stereotyped activities. Consistent with our predictions, and previous research, 24-month-olds, but not 18-month-olds, looked longer at the gender-inconsistent activities than the gender-consistent activities. Results are discussed in terms of toddlers emerging gender stereotypes and perception of everyday events. PMID:17292790

  17. 48 CFR 52.225-14 - Inconsistency between English Version and Translation of Contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Inconsistency between English Version and Translation of Contract... 52.225-14 Inconsistency between English Version and Translation of Contract...following clause: Inconsistency Between English Version and Translation of...

  18. Improving Hawaiian and Filipino Involvement in Clinical Research Opportunities: Qualitative Findings from Hawai'i

    PubMed Central

    Gollin, Lisa X.; Harrigan, Rosanne C.; Perez, John; Easa, David; Calderón, José L.

    2006-01-01

    Objective Investigate the barriers to participation in medical research that involves Asian and Pacific Islander (API) populations in Hawai'i. Participants Fifty people (27 Filipinos, 23 Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders) in five different communities on Oahu. Design Nine focus groups with an ethnically matched moderator were held to explore people's feelings, problems, and recommendations regarding medical research. Sessions were audiotaped, transcribed, and qualitatively analyzed with the constant comparison method. Results Only 12% of study participants said that they absolutely would not participate in a clinical study. Most agreed that research is vital. Filipino participants were more optimistic about the safety and value of joining in medical research. Hawaiian groups were more hesitant and fearful. Reasons for nonparticipation included negative feelings about the purpose and intent of clinical trials and language and cultural barriers. Suggestions on how to encourage API populations to participate in research investigations included improving peoples' understanding of the benefits to family and community. Hawaiian and Filipino groups differed only slightly in their assessments of the type of research needed in their communities. Conclusions Recruitment campaigns must improve people's awareness of the process of informed consent, research safeguards, and benefits to family and community. Attention should focus on K-12 health education to use members of the younger generations to access and educate elders, involving persons with medical research experience as a recruitment resource, returning results to study participants, and increasing the number of healthcare professionals and researchers that are culturally and linguistically matched to the community. PMID:16312944

  19. 42 CFR 93.404 - Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities...

  20. 42 CFR 93.410 - Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities...

  1. 42 CFR 93.410 - Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities...

  2. 42 CFR 93.104 - Requirements for findings of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT General §...

  3. 42 CFR 93.410 - Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities...

  4. 42 CFR 93.404 - Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities...

  5. 42 CFR 93.104 - Requirements for findings of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT General §...

  6. 42 CFR 93.410 - Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities...

  7. 42 CFR 93.410 - Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities...

  8. 42 CFR 93.104 - Requirements for findings of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT General §...

  9. 42 CFR 93.411 - Final HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities...

  10. 42 CFR 93.501 - Opportunity to contest findings of research misconduct and administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To...

  11. 42 CFR 93.411 - Final HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities...

  12. 42 CFR 93.411 - Final HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities...

  13. 42 CFR 93.501 - Opportunity to contest findings of research misconduct and administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To...

  14. 42 CFR 93.404 - Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities...

  15. 42 CFR 93.501 - Opportunity to contest findings of research misconduct and administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To...

  16. 42 CFR 93.501 - Opportunity to contest findings of research misconduct and administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To...

  17. 42 CFR 93.404 - Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities...

  18. 42 CFR 93.501 - Opportunity to contest findings of research misconduct and administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To...

  19. 78 FR 23255 - Findings of Misconduct in Science/Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings...United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Kathleen Sebelius...data provided by him are based on actual experiments or are otherwise legitimately...

  20. Recent findings on biosolids cake odor reduction—Results of WERF phase 3 biosolids odor research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zeynep K. Erdal; Robert H. Forbes Jr; Jay Witherspoon; Greg Adams; Ron Hargreaves; Rob Morton; John Novak; Matthew Higgins

    2008-01-01

    The Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) has sponsored three phases of a long-term project entitled “Identifying and Controlling Odors in the Municipal Wastewater Environment.” The current (third) phase focuses on reduction of odors from dewatered biosolids cakes, and is entitled “Biosolids Processing Modifications for Cake Odor Reduction.” This phase encompasses nine research agenda items developed from the results of the

  1. Making Life Easier with Effort: Basic Findings and Applied Research on Response Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friman, Patrick C.; Poling, Alan

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes basic research on response effort in diverse applied areas including deceleration of aberrant behavior, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, oral habits, littering, and problem solving. The paper concludes that response effort as an independent variable has potent effects, and research exploring the applied benefits of…

  2. A Comparative Study of International Cultural and Ethical Values: Preliminary Findings and Research Agenda

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen J. J. McGuire; Angeles Lillian; Y. Fok; Kern Kwong

    This paper describes the preliminary results of an ongoing international research project to identify the cultural values and beliefs of business students and executives in several different countries and analyze the relationship between culture and reasons behind business decisions. First, we describe a research project to assess business decisions, based on established theories of ethics. Second, we describe a model

  3. Fostering implementation of health services research findings into practice: a consolidated framework for advancing implementation science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura J Damschroder; David C Aron; Rosalind E Keith; Susan R Kirsh; Jeffery A Alexander; Julie C Lowery

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many interventions found to be effective in health services research studies fail to translate into meaningful patient care outcomes across multiple contexts. Health services researchers recognize the need to evaluate not only summative outcomes but also formative outcomes to assess the extent to which implementation is effective in a specific setting, prolongs sustainability, and promotes dissemination into other settings.

  4. Challenges and Solutions for Libraries in Serving Entrepreneurship Needs: Findings from ProQuest Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Resch Mckeown

    2010-01-01

    Many variations in programs and stages of development exist with regard to entrepreneurship in higher education academic institutions; however, there do appear to be common areas of information needed to support study, teaching, and research. To identify the information needs necessary to support the study of entrepreneurship, ProQuest undertook a comprehensive research effort in late 2006 with higher education institutions

  5. Development of CAI Presentations for Science Teaching and Overview of Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranade, Mridula D.

    2006-01-01

    Research suggests that information and communication technologies (ICT) used in the form of computer assisted instruction (CAI) may benefit student learning. There is, however, limited research about the application of CAI in non-Western educational contexts. Here I describe the use of CAI in the learning of science in India. Evaluation of student…

  6. A review of telework research: findings, new directions, and lessons for the study of modern work

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diane E. Bailey; Nancy B. Kurland

    2002-01-01

    Summary Telework has inspired research in disciplines ranging from transportation and urban planning to ethics, law, sociology, and organizational studies. In our review of this literature, we seek answers to three questions: who participates in telework, why they do, and what happens when they do? Who teleworks remains elusive, but research suggests that male professionals and female clerical workers predominate.

  7. PRELIMINARY FINDINGS FROM THE NERL RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK PARTICULATE MATTER PANEL STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is currently conducting the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Research Triangle Park (RTP) Particulate Matter (PM) Panel Study. This study represents a one year investigation of PM and related co-pollutants involving two dist...

  8. Moving beyond Citation Analysis: How Surveys and Interviews Enhance, Enrich, and Expand Your Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deVries, Susann; Kelly, Robert; Storm, Paula M.

    2010-01-01

    A traditional mixed methods research model of citation analysis, a survey, and interviews was selected to determine if the Bruce T. Halle Library at Eastern Michigan University owned the content that faculty cited in their research, if the collection was being utilized, and what library services the faculty used. The combination of objective data…

  9. IMPROVING HAWAIIAN AND FILIPINO INVOLVEMENT IN CLINICAL RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES :Q UALITATIVE FINDINGS FROM HAWAI'I

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa X. Gollin; Rosanne C. Harrigan; Jose L. Calderon; John Perez; David Easa; African Americans

    2005-01-01

    Design: Nine focus groups with an ethnically matched moderator were held to explore people's feelings, problems, and recommen- dations regarding medical research. Sessions were audiotaped, transcribed, and qualita- tively analyzed with the constant comparison method. Results: Only 12% of study participants said that they absolutely would not participate in a clinical study. Most agreed that research is vital. Filipino participants

  10. Emerging Answers: Research Findings on Programs to Reduce Teen Pregnancy (Summary)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kirby, Douglas

    2001-01-01

    Released on May 30, 2001, by the National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, this new report by Dr. Douglas Kirby reviews some 250 studies on teen pregnancy programs. The review finds that long-term programs have made a genuine difference in teen pregnancy, abortion, and birth rates, the last of which is now at its lowest level recorded. Kirby's study also finds no evidence that "abstinence-only" programs are effective or that sex education that covers contraception increases sexual activity. At the site, visitors may download a 21-page summary of the report, the press release, a FAQ, and related information.

  11. The Educational Administration of the Self-Taught Higher Education Examination in China: Findings from Field Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Guijuan

    2003-01-01

    This article reports on field research conducted in 1999-2000 in three of the larger cities in China (Wuhan, Xiamen and Shantou). It explores the workings of the educational service of the self-taught higher education examination (STE) that emerged in China in the early 1980s. Findings from questionnaires, in-depth interviews, observations and…

  12. The validity and utility of selection methods in personnel psychology: Practical and theoretical implications of 85 years of research findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank L. Schmidt; John E. Hunter

    1998-01-01

    This article summarizes the practical and theoretical implications of 85 years of research in personnel selection. On the basis of meta-analytic findings, this article presents the validity of 19 selection procedures for predicting job performance and training performance and the validity of paired combinations of general mental ability (GMA) and Ihe 18 other selection procedures. Overall, the 3 combinations with

  13. Research settings in industrial and organizational psychology: Are findings in the field more generalizable than in the laboratory?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert L. Dipboye; Michael F. Flanagan

    1979-01-01

    The authors analyzed for content all the empirical articles from the 1966, 1970, and 1974 volumes of the Journal of Applied Psychology, Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, and Personnel Psychology to determine the types of organizations, Ss, and dependent measures studied. Contrary to the common belief that field settings provide for more generalization of research findings than laboratory settings do,

  14. What women who use drugs have to say about ethical research: findings of an exploratory qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Bell, Kirsten; Salmon, Amy

    2011-12-01

    Drug users are generally seen as a vulnerable population requiring special protection in research; however, to date there has been little empirical research into the ethics of research with illicit drug users. Moreover, the available research has tended to treat "drug users" as a homogeneous category, and has failed to consider potential gender differences in users' experiences. Drawing on focus groups with twenty-seven female drug users in Vancouver, Canada, this study examines women's experiences of research and what they see as ethical and respectful engagement. Many study participants talked about feeling dehumanized as a result of prior research participation. Women were critical of the assumption that drug users lack the capacity to take part in research, and affirmed the appropriateness of financial incentives. A variety of motivations for research participation were identified, including a desire for financial gain and altruistic concerns such as a desire to help others. These findings suggest that women drug users' views on ethical research differ from prevailing assumptions among institutional review boards about how research with such populations should proceed. PMID:22228063

  15. Research Methods into Language/Code Switching and Synthesis of Findings into Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitch, Kristine L.

    While language switching among multilinguals has been studied in a wide variety of contexts, few attempts have been made to generalize or to integrate findings into useful communication theory. Since language switching is an important part of personal as well as group identity and since issues surrounding language identity are often a focal point…

  16. Peer and neighbourhood influences on teenage pregnancy and fertility: Qualitative findings from research in English communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa Arai

    Geographic variation in teenage pregnancy is attributable to social and cultural, as well as demographic, factors. In some communities and social networks early childbearing may be acceptable, or even normative. It is these places that are the focus of policy initiatives. This paper reports the findings of a qualitative study of neighbourhood and peer influences on the transition from pregnancy

  17. Peer and neighbourhood influences on teenage pregnancy and fertility: Qualitative findings from research in English communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa Arai

    2007-01-01

    Geographic variation in teenage pregnancy is attributable to social and cultural, as well as demographic, factors. In some communities and social networks early childbearing may be acceptable, or even normative. It is these places that are the focus of policy initiatives. This paper reports the findings of a qualitative study of neighbourhood and peer influences on the transition from pregnancy

  18. Conclusions: Overview of Findings from the ERA Study, Inferences, and Research Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.

    2010-01-01

    In this monograph, the authors have brought the findings of the English and Romanian Adoptee (ERA) study up to age 15 years and, in so doing, have focused especially on the question of whether there are deprivation-specific psychological patterns (DSPs) that differ meaningfully from other forms of psychopathology. For this purpose, their main…

  19. Informed Consent for Exome Sequencing Research in Families with Genetic Disease: The Emerging Issue of Incidental Findings

    PubMed Central

    Bergner, Amanda L.; Bollinger, Juli; Raraigh, Karen S.; Tichnell, Crystal; Murray, Brittney; Blout, Carrie Lynn; Telegrafi, Aida Bytyci; James, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    Genomic sequencing technology is increasingly used in genetic research. Studies of informed consent for exome and genome sequencing (ES/GS) research have largely involved hypothetical scenarios or healthy individuals enrolling in population-based studies. Studies have yet to explore the consent experiences of adults with inherited disease. We conducted a qualitative interview study of 15 adults recently enrolled in a large-scale ES/GS study (11 affected adults, four parents of affected children). Our study had two goals: (1) to explore three theoretical barriers to consent for ES/GS research (interpretive/technical complexity, possibility of incidental findings, and risks of loss of privacy); and (2) to explore how interviewees experienced the consent process. Interviewees could articulate study goals and processes, describe incidental findings, discuss risks of privacy loss, and reflect on their consent experience. Few expected the study would identify the genetic cause of their condition. All elected to receive incidental findings. Interviewees acknowledged paying little attention to potential implications of incidental findings in light of more pressing goals of supporting research regarding their own medical conditions. Interviewees suggested that experience living with a genetic condition prepared them to adjust to incidental findings. Interviewees also expressed little concern about loss of confidentiality of study data. Some experienced the consent process as very long. None desired reconsent prior to return of study results. Families with inherited disease likely would benefit from a consent process in which study risks and benefits were discussed in the context of prior experiences with genetic research and genetic disease. PMID:25251809

  20. Thwarting Cyber-Attack Reconnaissance with Inconsistency and Deception

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. C. Rowe; H. C. Goh

    2007-01-01

    One of the best ways to defend a computer system is to make attackers think it is not worth attacking. Deception or inconsistency during attacker reconnaissance can be an effective way to encourage this. We provide some theory of its advantages and present some data from a honeypot that suggests ways it could be fruitfully employed. We then report on

  1. Scaling Factor Inconsistencies in Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    E-print Network

    S. Cowell

    2005-12-05

    The modern theory of neutrinoless double beta decay includes a scaling factor that has often been treated inconsistently in the literature. The nuclear contribution to the decay half life can be suppressed by 15-20% when scaling factors are mismatched. Correspondingly, $$ is overestimated.

  2. Inconsistency with Prior Knowledge Triggers Children's Causal Explanatory Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legare, Cristine H.; Gelman, Susan A.; Wellman, Henry M.

    2010-01-01

    What events trigger causal explanatory reasoning in young children? Children's explanations could be triggered by either consistent events (suggesting that explanations serve a confirmatory function) or inconsistent events (suggesting that they promote discovery of new information). In 2 studies with preschool children (N = 80), events that were…

  3. Exposing Inconsistent Web Search Results with Bobble Xinyu Xing1

    E-print Network

    Wang, Deli

    Exposing Inconsistent Web Search Results with Bobble Xinyu Xing1 , Wei Meng1 , Dan Doozan1 , Nick- alization. We present the design and implementation of Bobble, a Web browser extension to other users, and expose any differences to the user--in real time. We present Bobble, a Chrome Web

  4. Model Management and Inconsistency in Software Design Steve Easterbrook

    E-print Network

    Easterbrook, Steve

    of seeking coherence in information drawn from disparate sources. Software designers create models Science, University of Toronto 40 St George Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 2E4, Canada http://www.cs.toronto.edu/~sme-formal or informal design notations) or to repair inconsistent descriptions at all costs, if necessary by discarding

  5. Removing Partial Inconsistency in Valuation-Based Systems*

    E-print Network

    de Campos, Luis M.

    Removing Partial Inconsistency in Valuation- Based Systems* Luis M. de Campos and Serafi ´ n Moral concept of valuation, which can be considered as the mathematical representation of a piece of information. A valuation may be particularized to a possibility distribution, a probability distribution, a belief function

  6. Exposing Digital Forgeries by Detecting Inconsistencies in Lighting

    E-print Network

    Farid, Hany

    Descriptors I.4 [Image Processing]: Miscellaneous Keywords Digital Tampering, Digital Forensics 1Exposing Digital Forgeries by Detecting Inconsistencies in Lighting Micah K. Johnson Department a digital composite of, for example, two peo- ple standing side-by-side, it is often difficult to match

  7. Time-Inconsistent Stochastic LinearQuadratic Control Hanqing Jin

    E-print Network

    well-known examples of time- inconsistency. Probability distortion, as in behavioral finance models [11.213841/2008. Mathematical Institute and Nomura Centre for Mathematical Finance, and Oxford­Man Institute of Quantitative Finance, The University of Oxford, 24­29 St Giles, Oxford OX1 3LB, UK. This author is partially

  8. Steps to Strengthen Ethics in Organizations: Research Findings, Ethics Placebos, and What Works

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Kenneth S.

    2015-01-01

    Research shows that many organizations overlook needs and opportunities to strengthen ethics. Barriers can make it hard to see the need for stronger ethics and even harder to take effective action. These barriers include the organization’s misleading use of language, misuse of an ethics code, culture of silence, strategies of justification, institutional betrayal, and ethical fallacies. Ethics placebos tend to take the place of steps to see, solve, and prevent problems. This article reviews relevant research and specific steps that create change. PMID:25602131

  9. World Bank: harnessing civil society expertise in undertaking and disseminating research findings.

    PubMed

    Simms, Ben

    2013-01-01

    The UK Consortium on AIDS and International Development was an essential partner to the evaluation leaders in harnessing the contribution and expertise of civil society. This article describes what the partnership entailed, the additional value it brought and how civil society might use the evaluation findings both as a tool for advocacy and a means for improving its own engagement with the individuals directly affected by HIV and with those who care for them. PMID:23745623

  10. Research on initial form-finding and galloping of ice-coated transmission conductors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huajin Cao; Li Li; Yuankun Chen; Zhengchun Xia

    2010-01-01

    A high efficiency simplified finite element analysis method is presented to analyze the iced galloping, which is characterized by large amplitude vibrations of iced, multi-span, electrical transmission conductors. Based on ANSYS\\/LS-DYNA, the springs-transmission conductors model was established that springs were used to copy the actions of tower to transmission conductors, the Mixed form-finding method is presented and which take the

  11. Are physicians willing to ration health care? Conflicting findings in a systematic review of survey research?

    PubMed Central

    Strech, Daniel; Persad, Govind; Marckmann, Georg; Danis, Marion

    2013-01-01

    Background Several quantitative surveys have been conducted internationally to gather empirical information about physicians’ general attitudes towards health care rationing. Are physicians ready to accept and implement rationing, or are they rather reluctant? Do they prefer implicit bedside rationing that allows the physician–patient relationship broad leeway in individual decisions? Or do physicians prefer strategies that apply explicit criteria and rules? Objectives To analyse the range of survey findings on rationing. To discuss differences in response patterns. To provide recommendations for the enhancement of transparency and systematic conduct in reviewing survey literature. Methods A systematic search was performed for all English and non-English language references using CINAHL, EMBASE, and MEDLINE. Three blinded experts independently evaluated title and abstract of each reference. Survey items were extracted that match with: (i) willingness to ration health care or (ii) preferences for different rationing strategies. Results 16 studies were eventually included in the systematic review. Percentages of respondents willing to accept rationing ranged from 94% to 9%. Conclusions The conflicting findings among studies illustrate important ambivalence in physicians that has several implications for health policy. Moreover, this review highlights the importance to interpret survey findings in context of the results of all previous relevant studies. PMID:19070396

  12. A Report on the Industrial Relations Film "Indaba Ye Grievance." Research Finding PERS-392.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godsell, G.; And Others

    Attitudes and reactions are reported regarding the South African film, "Indaba Ye Grievance," (produced by the Human Sciences Research Council) which was designed to show unsophisticated workers the advantages of a grievance procedure and the problem of acceptability. Chapter 1, "Background to the Film 'Indaba Ye Grievance'" (R. S. Hall),…

  13. Maximizing the Learning Value of Tests in Technology Education Classes: A Summary of Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynie, W. J., III

    2008-01-01

    Much of the learning in technology education is hands-on and best assessed via techniques other than traditional tests. Rubrics have become increasingly recognized as the best means of evaluating student efforts and accomplishments in projects, group work, presentations, various types of research papers, videotapes, web pages, and many other…

  14. Domestic Violence Between Same-Gender Partners: Recent Findings and Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClennen, Joan C.

    2005-01-01

    Empirical literature about same-gender domestic violence was relatively nonexistent until the past 20 years, and conducting research with this population about a sensitive topic remains a daunting endeavor. Existing studies reveal similarities between opposite- and same-gender domestic violence in prevalence, types of abuse, and various dynamics,…

  15. The influence of organic production on food quality - research findings, gaps and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Za??cka, Aneta; Bügel, Susanne; Paoletti, Flavio; Kahl, Johannes; Bonanno, Adriana; Dostalova, Anne; Rahmann, Gerold

    2014-10-01

    Although several meta-analysis studies have been published comparing the quality of food derived from organic and non-organic origin, it is still not clear if food from organic production per se can guarantee product-related added value to consumers. This paper aims to summarize the status quo in order to identify research gaps and suggest future research challenges. Organic food is described according to a quality model already published. The influence of organic production on food quality is structured in primary production and processing. Furthermore, organic food authentication is discussed. Organic food seems to contain fewer pesticide residues and statistically more selected health-related compounds such as polyphenols in plant products and polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk and meat products, but the health relevance for consumers is not clear yet. Comparing food from organic origin with so called 'conventional' food seems not to be appropriate, because 'conventional' is not defined. In organic food quality research a system approach is needed from which systemic markers can be selected. Research on the impact of processing technologies on the quality according to organic principles seems of high relevance, since most of the food is processed. PMID:24436145

  16. Stress, Coping and Burnout in Mental Health Nurses: Findings From Three Research Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard Fagin; Jerome Carson; John Leary; Nicolette De Villiers; Heather Bartlett; Patty OMalley; Maria West; Stephen Mcelfatrick; Daniel Brown

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we present data from three research studies on stress, coping and burnout in mental health nurses. All three studies used a range of self report questionnaires. Measures included a demographic checklist, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the DCL Stress Scale and the Cooper Coping Skills Scale. In all, 648 ward based mental health

  17. Self-Regulation Advantage for High-IQ Children: Findings from a Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calero, Maria Dolores; Garcia-Martin, Maria Belen; Jimenez, Maria Isabel; Kazen, Miguel; Araque, Arsenio

    2007-01-01

    Current approaches in intelligence research indicate the need for a more extensive determination of characteristics of children with possible giftedness, not only at an intellectual level, but also at the level of self-regulation and motivation. The present study compares self-regulation efficiency between high-IQ and average-ability children aged…

  18. Standardization in EU Education and Training Policy: Findings from a European Research Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertl, Hubert; Phillips, David

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an EU-funded project under the Training and Mobility of Researchers (TMR) Programme, with a particular emphasis on the Oxford-based part. Involving six European universities, the overarching investigation was concerned with the tensions between standardization and tradition in education. In Oxford the focus was on aspects of…

  19. The ABCs of Keeping on Track to Graduation: Research Findings from Baltimore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mac Iver, Martha Abele; Messel, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    This study of graduation outcomes in Baltimore uses multivariate analysis of longitudinal student cohort data to examine the impact of factors identified in previous research as early warning indicators of a dropout outcome. Student cohort files were constructed from longitudinal administrative data (following all first-time 2004-2005 and…

  20. Swedish Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution: A Summary of Research and Findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sven-Olof Ryding; Magnus Enell; Lena Wennberg

    1990-01-01

    During the last decade Swedish agriculture has modernized considerably, as evidenced by increasing crop yields and declines in the amount of arable land and number of farmers. Two results of this agricultural modernization have been declining air and water quality. This paper summarizes what Swedish researchers have learned from long-term measurements of nutrient losses from agriculture and the subsequent effects

  1. Abduction Prevention Training: A Review of Findings and Issues for Future Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Olsen, Laurie A.

    1996-01-01

    This study reviewed the research evaluating procedures for teaching abduction prevention skills to children. Examination of types of skills, types of abduction scenarios, training procedures, and assessment strategies indicated that children can learn abduction prevention skills through behavioral skills training procedures, and that individual…

  2. The Challenge of Finding Faculty Time for Applied Research Activities in Ontario Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenkrantz, Otte

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how the role of Ontario college faculty has evolved since the advent of the Post-Secondary Education Choice and Excellence Act of 2000 and the Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology Act of 2002 in terms of whether or not the decision to create a research culture at the colleges included making time…

  3. Reporting and Interpreting Quantitative Research Findings: What Gets Reported and Recommendations for the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson-Hall, Jenifer; Plonsky, Luke

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a set of guidelines for reporting on five types of quantitative data issues: (1) Descriptive statistics, (2) Effect sizes and confidence intervals, (3) Instrument reliability, (4) Visual displays of data, and (5) Raw data. Our recommendations are derived mainly from various professional sources related to L2 research but…

  4. The Meaning of Work among Chinese University Students: Findings from Prototype Research Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Sili; Leung, S. Alvin; Li, Xu

    2012-01-01

    This study examined Chinese university students' conceptualization of the meaning of work. One hundred and ninety students (93 male, 97 female) from Beijing, China, participated in the study. Prototype research methodology (J. Li, 2001) was used to explore the meaning of work and the associations among the identified meanings. Cluster analysis was…

  5. Evaluation of Research Findings Related to Effectiveness of Therapy with Ethnically Different Therapist-Client Pairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, Melanie

    With the addition of the Board of Ethnic Minority Affairs to the American Psychological Association and the observation that greater numbers of ethnic minorities are seeking psychological treatment, a growing area of research has been related to ethnic issues in psychotherapy. Many empirical studies have been conducted comparing psychotherapy…

  6. Undocumented Immigrants in the Labor Market: Recent Research Findings. Perspectivas Publicas: Issue Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of La Raza, Washington, DC.

    Most early research on the impact of undocumented workers on the labor market held that it results in the widespread displacement of native workers. More recent and more sophisticated theory argues that immigrants, both legal and illegal, create jobs by consuming goods and services, and by starting new businesses. This latter idea may not be as…

  7. Socioeconomic Status and the Undergraduate Engineering Experience: Preliminary Findings from Four American Universities. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Krista; Lichtenstein, Gary; Sheppard, Sheri

    2008-01-01

    Students of lower socioeconomic status (SES) tend to be underrepresented in American higher education, particularly at four-year institutions and more selective universities. Education researchers have shown that in the four year period following high school, low SES students are less likely to persist to a bachelor's degree or have graduate…

  8. Strategies for Improving Rehearsal Technique: Using Research Findings to Promote Better Rehearsals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvey, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    Music education researchers and conducting pedagogues have identified numerous behaviors that contribute to increased verbal and nonverbal teaching effectiveness of conductors on the podium. This article is a review of literature concerning several conductor behaviors that may (a) increase the effectiveness of rehearsals, (b) enhance the…

  9. Language of Instruction in Tanzania: Why Are Research Findings Not Heeded?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qorro, Martha A. S.

    2013-01-01

    The issue of language of instruction (LOI) and its effects on education in Tanzanian secondary education has been widely researched since the early 1980s. In 2009, the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training proposed a new education and training policy that allows English to be used as LOI from nursery school to tertiary education. The…

  10. Do nurses really care? Some unwelcome findings from recent research and inquiry.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, J

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the position of nursing as a caring profession, in terms of an ethical code that stresses collegial relationships, a sense of obligation to a clientele that is realized in terms of expert service, and a clearly defined body of research-derived knowledge as the basis for practice. It also investigates the substance of the claim that nursing has tended to arrogate to itself another operational distinction-its exclusive capacity to blend physical and emotional support into care. A review of recent research and investigation, undertaken in a number of countries, suggests that nursing as practiced, rather than as theorized, fails to fulfil its wider professional aspirations, and to fulfil its caring rhetoric. A related paper will consider how the absorption of nursing into higher education might begin to play a part in developing and consolidating the professionalization of nursing. PMID:9146203

  11. Bioremediation via Methanotrophy: Overview of Recent Findings and Suggestions for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Semrau, Jeremy D.

    2011-01-01

    Microbially mediated bioremediation of polluted sites has been a subject of much research over the past 30?years, with many different compounds shown to be degraded under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Aerobic-mediated bioremediation commonly examines the use of methanotrophs, microorganisms that consume methane as their sole source of carbon and energy. Given the diverse environments in which methanotrophs have been found, the range of substrates they can degrade and the fact that they can be easily stimulated with the provision of methane and oxygen, these microorganisms in particular have been examined for aerobic degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons. The physiological and phylogenetic diversity of methanotrophy, however, has increased substantially in just the past 5?years. Here in this review, the current state of knowledge of methanotrophy, particularly as it applies to pollutant degradation is summarized, and suggestions for future research provided. PMID:22016748

  12. UCBerkeleyNews: Cables Hold Promise in Protecting Existing Buildings from Bombs, Researchers Find

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Yang, Sarah.

    2003-01-01

    A civil engineering professor at the University of California at Berkeley is working on a novel way of maintaining a building's structural stability after an earthquake or terrorist bomb. The team of researchers working with the professor have designed and tested a system that uses cables for backup support in case main support beams failed. An overview of the system is provided in a February 20, 2003 news article.

  13. Findings from a low-energy, new commercial-buildings research and demonstration project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Ann Piette; Bruce Nordman; Odon de Buen; Rick Diamond

    1995-01-01

    Energy edge (EE) was a research-oriented demonstration project that began in 1985; 28 buildings were constructed to use 30% less electricity than a hypothetical simulated baseline building. Average energy savings for 18 buildings evaluated with post-occupancy tuned simulation models were less at 17%. Only six met the cost of conserved (CCE) energy of 5.6 ¢\\/kWh for the total package of

  14. Finding the Right Metaphor: Restructuring, Realigning, and Repackaging Today's Research Libraries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan Giesecke

    2010-01-01

    To change from collection-centric to user-centered research libraries and to survive in tough economic times, libraries face 2 major challenges: 1st, libraries need to change how they are viewed by their constituencies so they are seen as indispensable; and 2nd, libraries need to help the librarians and staff change their own mental models of their roles to remain relevant in

  15. Dietary Fiber Future Directions: Integrating New Definitions and Findings to Inform Nutrition Research and Communication12

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Julie Miller

    2013-01-01

    The CODEX Alimentarius definition of dietary fiber includes all nondigestible carbohydrate polymers with a degree of polymerization of 3 or more as dietary fiber with the proviso that they show health benefits. The global definition, if accepted by all authoritative bodies, offers a chance for international harmonization in research, food composition tables, and food labeling. Its nonacceptance highlights problems that may develop when definitions vary by region. The definition requires that the research community agrees upon physiological effects for which there is substantial scientific agreement, e.g., fibers’ effects on laxation and gut health, on attenuating blood lipids and blood glucose and insulin, and in promoting fermentation in the large bowel. The definition also necessitates the delineation of research protocols to prove the benefits of various isolated and synthesized fibers. These should emanate from evidence-based reviews that fairly weigh epidemiological data while considering that added fibers are not reflected in many food composition databases. They then should include well-controlled, randomized, control trials and utilize animal studies to determine mechanisms. Agreement on many study variables such as the type of subject and the type of baseline diet that best fits the question under investigation will also be needed. Finally, the definition establishes that all types of fiber can address the severe fiber consumption gap that exists throughout the world by recognizing that the combination of fiber-rich and -fortified foods increases fiber intake while allowing consumers to stay within allowed energy levels. PMID:23319118

  16. Closing the Major Gap in PNES Research: Finding a Home for a Borderland Disorder.

    PubMed

    Smith, Brien J

    2014-03-01

    Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) are events commonly encountered by primary care physicians, neurologists, pediatricians, and emergency medicine physicians in their practices, yet there continues to be significant variability in the way they are evaluated, diagnosed, and treated. Lack of understanding this condition and limited data on long-term outcome from current treatment paradigms have resulted in an environment with iatrogenic injury, morbidity, and significant costs to the patient and healthcare system. This article will review the current state of research addressing PNES treatment both in the adult and pediatric populations. PMID:24872779

  17. Factors Predicting the Use of Technology: Findings From the Center for Research and Education on Aging and Technology Enhancement (CREATE)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara J. Czaja; Neil Charness; Arthur D. Fisk; Christopher Hertzog; Sankaran N. Nair; Wendy A. Rogers; Joseph Sharit

    2006-01-01

    The successful adoption of technology is becoming increasingly important to functional independence. The present article reports findings from the Center for Research and Education on Aging and Technology Enhancement (CREATE) on the use of technology among community-dwelling adults. The sample included 1,204 individuals ranging in age from 18–91 years. All participants completed a battery that included measures of demographic characteristics,

  18. PLUME-FEATHER, Referencing and Finding Software for Research and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Dirk; Romier, Geneviève

    2012-12-01

    PLUME-FEATHER is a non-profit project created to Promote economicaL, Useful and Maintained softwarE For the Higher Education And THE Research communities. The site references software, mainly Free/Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS) from French universities and national research organisations, (CNRS, INRA…), laboratories or departments as well as other FLOSS software used and evaluated by users within these institutions. Each software is represented by a reference card, which describes origin, aim, installation, cost (if applicable) and user experience from the point of view of an academic user for academic users. Presently over 1000 programs are referenced on PLUME. Although the server is maintained by a french institution, it is completely open to international contributions in the academic domainb. All contained and validated contents are visible to anonymous public, whereas registered users can contribute, starting with comments on single software reference cards up to help with the organisation and presentation of the referenced software products. This first presentation is call for (further) contributions from the HEP community.

  19. PLUME-FEATHER, Referencing and Finding Software for Research and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bénassy, O.; Caron, C.; Ferret-Canape, C.; Cheylus, A.; Courcelle, E.; Dantec, C.; Dayre, P.; Dostes, T.; Durand, A.; Facq, A.; Gambini, G.; Geahchan, E.; Helft, C.; Hoffmann, D.; Ingarao, M.; Joly, P.; Kieffer, J.; Larré, J.-M.; Libes, M.; Morris, F.; Parmentier, H.; Pérochon, L.; Porte, O.; Romier, G.; Rousse, D.; Tournoy, R.; Valeins, H.

    2014-06-01

    PLUME-FEATHER is a non-profit project created to Promote economicaL, Useful and Maintained softwarEFor theHigher Education And THE Research communities. The site references software, mainly Free/Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS) from French universities and national research organisations, (CNRS, INRA...), laboratories or departments as well as other FLOSS software used and evaluated by users within these institutions. Each software is represented by a reference card, which describes origin, aim, installation, cost (if applicable) and user experience from the point of view of an academic user for academic users. Presently over 1000 programs are referenced on PLUME by more than 900 contributors. Although the server is maintained by a French institution, it is open to international contributions in the academic domain. All contained and validated contents are visible to anonymous public, whereas (presently more than 2000) registered users can contribute, starting with comments on single software reference cards up to help with the organisation and presentation of the referenced software products. The project has been presented to the HEP community in 2012 for the first time [1]. This is an update of the status and a call for (further) contributions.

  20. The ethics of sharing preliminary research findings during public health emergencies: a case study from the 2009 influenza pandemic.

    PubMed

    Crowcroft, N S; Rosella, L C; Pakes, B N

    2014-01-01

    During the 2009 A(H1N1) influenza pandemic, a suite of studies conducted in Canada showed an unexpected finding, that patients with medically attended laboratory-confirmed pandemic influenza were more likely to have received seasonal influenza vaccination than test-negative control patients. Different bodies, including scientific journals and government scientific advisory committees, reviewed the evidence simultaneously to determine its scientific validity and implications. Decision-making was complicated when the findings made their way into the media. The normal trajectory of non-urgent research includes peer-review publication after which decision-makers can process the information taking into account other evidence and logistic considerations. In the situation that arose, however, the congruence of an unexpected finding and the simultaneous review of the evidence both within and outside the traditional peer-review sphere raised several interesting issues about how to deal with emerging evidence during a public health emergency. These events are used in this article to aid discussion of the complex interrelationship between researchers, public health decision-makers and scientific journals, the trade-offs between sharing information early and maintaining the peer-review quality assurance process, and to emphasise the need for critical reflection on the practical and ethical norms that govern the way in which research is evaluated, published and communicated in public health emergencies. PMID:24970372

  1. The 35% carbon dioxide test in stress and panic research: overview of effects and integration of findings.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Kristin; Jafarpour, Sepehr; Mofidi, Amirsalar; Rafat, Bijan; Woznica, Andrea

    2012-04-01

    The carbon dioxide test--a vital capacity breath of air containing 35% carbon dioxide (CO(2))--provokes panic attacks in many individuals with panic disorder (PD). It has thus been extensively used as an experimental model of panic and less frequently as a clinical method of provoking symptoms for interoceptive exposure treatment. Recently, stress researchers have suggested another use for the CO(2) test: that of an acute physiological stressor indexing the human stress response. The purpose of this review is to synthesize findings about the effects of the CO(2) test from both the panic and stress literatures in order to advance understanding about this increasingly popular test. Both panic and stress researchers have examined the fleeting effects of the CO(2) test, finding that the test engenders transient breathlessness, dizziness, and minor anxiety in most participants and panic attacks in those with or at risk for PD. Physiological measurements after the test indicate a brief homeostatic disruption in many bodily systems, including increased respiration, systolic blood pressure, and noradrenaline, and decreased heart rate. Most studies indicate increased cortisol. Possible benefits of integrating findings from the panic and stress research lines, given their common use of the CO(2) test, are discussed. PMID:22322014

  2. Combination Pharmacotherapies for Stimulant Use Disorder: A Review of Clinical Findings and Recommendations for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Stoops, William W.; Rush, Craig R.

    2014-01-01

    Despite concerted efforts to identify a pharmacotherapy for managing stimulant use disorders, no widely effective medications have been approved. Innovative strategies are necessary to develop successful pharmacotherapies for stimulant use disorders. This manuscript reviews human laboratory studies and clinical trials to determine whether one such strategy, use of combination pharmacotherapies, holds promise. The extant literature shows that combination pharmacotherapy produced results that were better than placebo treatment, especially with medications shown to have efficacy as monotherapies. However, many studies did not compare individual constituents to the combination treatment, making it impossible to determine whether combination treatment is more effective than monotherapy. Future research should systematically compare combined treatments with individual agents using medications showing some efficacy when tested alone. PMID:24716825

  3. Measuring Masculinity in Research on Men of Color: Findings and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Gunter, Katie; Watkins, Daphne C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between masculinity and the health of US men of color aged 18 years and older. We identified 22 population-based studies that included a measure of masculinity and a measure of health behavior, mental health, or physical health. The associations between masculinity and health were complex and varied by construct and health outcome, though they generally were significant in the hypothesized directions. Future research should explore the centrality of masculinity versus other identities and characteristics, how the relationship between masculinity and health varies by health outcome, and the identification of the conceptions and aspects of masculinity that are most relevant to and associated with specific health behaviors and health outcomes. PMID:22401519

  4. Measuring masculinity in research on men of color: findings and future directions.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Derek M; Gunter, Katie; Watkins, Daphne C

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between masculinity and the health of US men of color aged 18 years and older. We identified 22 population-based studies that included a measure of masculinity and a measure of health behavior, mental health, or physical health. The associations between masculinity and health were complex and varied by construct and health outcome, though they generally were significant in the hypothesized directions. Future research should explore the centrality of masculinity versus other identities and characteristics, how the relationship between masculinity and health varies by health outcome, and the identification of the conceptions and aspects of masculinity that are most relevant to and associated with specific health behaviors and health outcomes. PMID:22401519

  5. TMI (Three Mile Island)-2 defueling conditions and summary of research findings

    SciTech Connect

    Eidam, G.R.; Tolman, E.L.; Broughton, J.M.; McCardell, R.K.; Stratton, W.R.

    1988-01-01

    The Three Mile Island Unit 2 accident was severe, with extensive melting of fuel, release of fission products, and relocation of a large quantity of molten fuel material onto the reactor vessel lower head. This molten material challenged the integrity of the reactor vessel, which remained intact. The post-accident condition of the plant presented an extremely difficult and complex plant recovery. Core defueling necessitated the development and use of tools and the application of methods not used previously in the nuclear industry. During the past 9 years, the TMI-2 accident has been a unique, invaluable source of information for improving and expanding the base of knowledge on severe accidents in power reactors. This paper presents the plant's post-accident condition, summarizes the primary results of research on progression of core damage and fission product behavior during the accident, and discusses the approach to defueling the reactor.

  6. Inconsistencies in the “New” Windchill Chart at Low Wind Speeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shitzer, Avraham; de Dear, Richard

    2006-05-01

    An apparent error was detected in the calculation of windchill equivalent temperatures (WCETs) in the “new” chart and corresponding equation that were adopted in 2001 by the weather services in the United States and Canada. The problem is caused by significant discontinuities in WCETs at the assumed “calm” wind speed condition of 1.34 m s-1. As a result, published WCETs are not equal to, as they should be by definition, but are lower than air temperatures at the assumed calm wind speed condition. This inconsistency further propagates to higher wind speeds beyond the assumed calm condition. In this paper, a straightforward correction is proposed to circumvent these inconsistencies of the new windchill. The proposed correction makes this transition gradual rather than abrupt by applying it to the expression used for estimating the effects of wind on the convective heat exchange coefficient between humans and their cold and windy environment.

  7. Inconsistencies in the current thermodynamic description of elastic solids

    E-print Network

    Jozsef Garai; Alexandre Laugier

    2005-08-17

    Using the contemporary thermodynamic equations of elastic solids leads to contradictions with the fundamental statements of thermodynamics. Two examples are presented to expose the inconsistencies. In example one the internal energy between the initial and final states shows path dependency while in example two changing the temperature of a system at constant volume produces mechanical work. These results are contradictory with the fundamentals of thermodynamics and indicate that the contemporary description of elastic solids needs to be revisited and revised.

  8. Identifying Trustworthy Experts: How Do Policymakers Find and Assess Public Health Researchers Worth Consulting or Collaborating With?

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, Abby S.; Derrick, Gemma E.; Redman, Sally; Hall, Wayne D.; Gillespie, James A.; Chapman, Simon; Sturk, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports data from semi-structured interviews on how 26 Australian civil servants, ministers and ministerial advisors find and evaluate researchers with whom they wish to consult or collaborate. Policymakers valued researchers who had credibility across the three attributes seen as contributing to trustworthiness: competence (an exemplary academic reputation complemented by pragmatism, understanding of government processes, and effective collaboration and communication skills); integrity (independence, “authenticity”, and faithful reporting of research); and benevolence (commitment to the policy reform agenda). The emphases given to these assessment criteria appeared to be shaped in part by policymakers' roles and the type and phase of policy development in which they were engaged. Policymakers are encouraged to reassess their methods for engaging researchers and to maximise information flow and support in these relationships. Researchers who wish to influence policy are advised to develop relationships across the policy community, but also to engage in other complementary strategies for promoting research-informed policy, including the strategic use of mass media. PMID:22403693

  9. On norms and bodies: findings from field research on cosmetic surgery in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dorneles de Andrade, Daniela

    2010-05-01

    Brazil has the second highest rate of cosmetic surgery worldwide, provided in a large number of public and private clinics and hospitals, especially in the southeast. This qualitative field research in Rio de Janeiro included participant observation and in-depth interviews with 18 women cosmetic surgery patients, 10 key informants (e.g. psychologists and sociologists) and 12 plastic surgeons. Fifteen of the women were either pre- or post-operative; three had not decided whether to have surgery. When asked about their motivations and expectations of the surgery, the majority of the women said they wanted to be "normal". Most of the surgeons said they acted as empathic companions from decision-making through surgery and beyond. Many of the key informants were critical of what was happening to medical ethics in relation to cosmetic surgery. With the growth in a consumer culture, they saw ethics in medicine becoming more bendable and subject to the "law" of the market. The cult of the body has become a mass phenomenon and taken on an important social dimension in a society where norms and images are broadcast widely by the media. The trend towards body-modification by cosmetic surgery at an early age is increasing dramatically. What demands critical thinking and further investigation are the consequences of cosmetic surgery for physical and mental health. PMID:20541086

  10. Feedback of research findings for vaccine trials: experiences from two malaria vaccine trials involving healthy children on the Kenyan Coast.

    PubMed

    Gikonyo, Caroline; Kamuya, Dorcas; Mbete, Bibi; Njuguna, Patricia; Olotu, Ally; Bejon, Philip; Marsh, Vicki; Molyneux, Sassy

    2013-04-01

    Internationally, calls for feedback of findings to be made an 'ethical imperative' or mandatory have been met with both strong support and opposition. Challenges include differences in issues by type of study and context, disentangling between aggregate and individual study results, and inadequate empirical evidence on which to draw. In this paper we present data from observations and interviews with key stakeholders involved in feeding back aggregate study findings for two Phase II malaria vaccine trials among children under the age of 5 years old on the Kenyan Coast. In our setting, feeding back of aggregate findings was an appreciated set of activities. The inclusion of individual results was important from the point of view of both participants and researchers, to reassure participants of trial safety, and to ensure that positive results were not over-interpreted and that individual level issues around blinding and control were clarified. Feedback sessions also offered an opportunity to re-evaluate and re-negotiate trial relationships and benefits, with potentially important implications for perceptions of and involvement in follow-up work for the trials and in future research. We found that feedback of findings is a complex but key step in a continuing set of social interactions between community members and research staff (particularly field staff who work at the interface with communities), and among community members themselves; a step which needs careful planning from the outset. We agree with others that individual and aggregate results need to be considered separately, and that for individual results, both the nature and value of the information, and the context, including social relationships, need to be taken into account. PMID:23433355

  11. Enhancing the Participation of African Americans in Health-Related Genetic Research: Findings of a Collaborative Academic and Community-Based Research Study

    PubMed Central

    Millon Underwood, Sandra; Buseh, Aaron G.; Kelber, Sheryl T.; Stevens, Patricia E.; Townsend, Leolia

    2013-01-01

    The involvement of African Americans in research has long been expressed as a concern by the scientific community. While efforts have been undertaken to identify factors inhibiting the participation of African Americans in health-related research, few efforts have been undertaken to have highlight factors associated with their engagement of health-related research. An exploratory study of factors presumed to be associated with participation in health-related research was conducted among a nonprobability sample of African Americans (n = 212) from a large urban community in the Midwest. The study was guided by a framework that hypothesized the influence of knowledge, beliefs, and perceptions about genetics and the involvement of providers in decision-making on willingness to participate in health-related genetic research. The results revealed that knowledge, beliefs, and perceptions about genetics and the involvement of providers were associated with willingness to engage in health-related genetic research (P < .05). The most interesting, however, was that 88.7% of the participants who had not previously been involved in a health-related study who expressed a willingness to participate reported that they “had never been asked.” Study findings suggest the need for research that further examines factors associated with the involvement of African Americans in health-related genetic research. PMID:24369499

  12. Mood regulation in youth: research findings and clinical approaches to irritability and short-lived episodes of mania like symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Leigh, Eleanor; Smith, Patrick; Milavic, Gordana; Stringaris, Argyris

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review Mood regulation problems, such as severe chronic irritability or short episodes of mania like symptoms are common, impairing and a topic of intense recent interest to clinicians, researchers and the DSM-5 process. Here we review the most recent findings about these two presentations and discuss approaches to their treatment. Recent findings Longitudinal and genetic findings suggest that chronic irritability should be regarded as a mood problem that is distinct from bipolar disorder. A proportion of children with short (less than 4 days) episodes of mania like symptoms seem to progress to classical (Type I or II) bipolar disorder over time in US clinic samples. In a UK sample, such episodes were independently associated with psychosocial impairment. The evidence base for the treatment of either irritability or short-lived episodes to mania-like symptoms is still small. Clinicians should be cautious with extrapolating treatments from classical bipolar disorder to these mood regulation problems. CBT-based approaches targeting general mood regulation processes may be effective for cases with severe irritability or short episodes of mania like symptoms. Summary There is increasing research evidence for the importance of mood regulation problems in the form of either irritability or short episodes of mania like symptoms in youth. The evidence base for their drug treatment has yet to be developed. CBT-based interventions to modify processes of mood regulation may be a useful and safe intervention for patients with these presentations. PMID:22569307

  13. Increasing Capacity for Stewardship of Oceans and Coasts: Findings of the National Research Council Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, S. J.; Feeley, M. H.

    2008-05-01

    With the increasing stress on ocean and coastal resources, ocean resource management will require greater capacity in terms of people, institutions, technology and tools. Successful capacity-building efforts address the needs of a specific locale or region and include plans to maintain and expand capacity after the project ends. In 2008, the US National Research Council published a report that assesses past and current capacity-building efforts to identify barriers to effective management of coastal and marine resources. The report recommends ways that governments and organizations can strengthen marine conservation and management capacity. Capacity building programs instill the tools, knowledge, skills, and attitudes that address: ecosystem function and change; processes of governance that influence societal and ecosystem change; and assembling and managing interdisciplinary teams. Programs require efforts beyond traditional sector-by-sector planning because marine ecosystems range from the open ocean to coastal waters and land use practices. Collaboration among sectors, scaling from local community-based management to international ocean policies, and ranging from inland to offshore areas, will be required to establish coordinated and efficient governance of ocean and coastal ecosystems. Barriers Most capacity building activities have been initiated to address particular issues such as overfishing or coral reef degradation, or they target a particular region or country facing threats to their marine resources. This fragmentation inhibits the sharing of information and experience and makes it more difficult to design and implement management approaches at appropriate scales. Additional barriers that have limited the effectiveness of capacity building programs include: lack of an adequate needs assessment prior to program design and implementation; exclusion of targeted populations in decision- making efforts; mismanagement, corruption, or both; incomplete or inappropriate evaluation procedures; and, lack of a coordinated and strategic approach among donors. A New Framework Improving ocean stewardship and ending the fragmentation of current capacity building programs will require a new, broadly adopted framework for capacity building that emphasizes cooperation, sustainability, and knowledge transfer within and among communities. The report identifies four specific features of capacity building that would increase the effectiveness and efficiency of future programs: 1. Regional action plans based on periodic program assessments to guide investments in capacity and set realistic milestones and performance measures. 2. Long-term support to establish self-sustaining programs. Sustained capacity building programs require a diversity of sources and coordinated investments from local, regional, and international donors. 3. Development of leadership and political will. One of the most commonly cited reasons for failure and lack of progress in ocean and coastal governance initiatives is lack of political will. One strategy for strengthening support is to identify, develop, mentor, and reward leaders. 4. Establishment of networks and mechanisms for regional collaboration. Networks bring together those working in the same or similar ecosystems with comparable management or governance challenges to share information, pool resources, and learn from one another. The report also recommends the establishment of regional centers to encourage and support collaboration among neighboring countries.

  14. On Distribution Reduction and Algorithm Implementation in Inconsistent Ordered Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanqin

    2014-01-01

    As one part of our work in ordered information systems, distribution reduction is studied in inconsistent ordered information systems (OISs). Some important properties on distribution reduction are studied and discussed. The dominance matrix is restated for reduction acquisition in dominance relations based information systems. Matrix algorithm for distribution reduction acquisition is stepped. And program is implemented by the algorithm. The approach provides an effective tool for the theoretical research and the applications for ordered information systems in practices. For more detailed and valid illustrations, cases are employed to explain and verify the algorithm and the program which shows the effectiveness of the algorithm in complicated information systems. PMID:25258721

  15. Managing misaligned paternity findings in research including sickle cell disease screening in Kenya: ‘Consulting communities’ to inform policy?

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Vicki; Kombe, Francis; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Molyneux, Sassy; Parker, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The management of misaligned paternity findings raises important controversy worldwide. It has mainly, however, been discussed in the context of high-income countries. Genetic and genomics research, with the potential to show misaligned paternity, are becoming increasingly common in Africa. During a genomics study in Kenya, a dilemma arose over testing and sharing information on paternal sickle cell disease status. This dilemma may be paradigmatic of challenges in sharing misaligned paternity findings in many research and health care settings. Using a deliberative approach to community consultation to inform research practice, we explored residents' views on paternal testing and sharing misaligned paternity information. Between December 2009 and November 2010, 63 residents in Kilifi County were engaged in informed deliberative small group discussions, structured to support normative reflection within the groups, with purposive selection to explore diversity. Analysis was based on a modified framework analysis approach, drawing on relevant social science and bioethics literature. The methods generated in-depth individual and group reflection on morally important issues and uncovered wide diversity in views and values. Fundamental and conflicting values emerged around the importance of family interests and openness, underpinned by disagreement on the moral implications of marital infidelity and withholding truth. Wider consideration of ethical issues emerging in these debates supports locally-held reasoning that paternal sickle cell testing should not be undertaken in this context, in contrast to views that testing should be done with or without the disclosure of misaligned paternity information. The findings highlight the importance of facilitating wider testing of family members of affected children, contingent on the development and implementation of national policies for the management of this inherited disorder. Their richness also illustrates the potential for the approach adopted in this study to strengthen community consultation. PMID:24034967

  16. Managing misaligned paternity findings in research including sickle cell disease screening in Kenya: 'consulting communities' to inform policy.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Vicki; Kombe, Francis; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Molyneux, Sassy; Parker, Michael

    2013-11-01

    The management of misaligned paternity findings raises important controversy worldwide. It has mainly, however, been discussed in the context of high-income countries. Genetic and genomics research, with the potential to show misaligned paternity, are becoming increasingly common in Africa. During a genomics study in Kenya, a dilemma arose over testing and sharing information on paternal sickle cell disease status. This dilemma may be paradigmatic of challenges in sharing misaligned paternity findings in many research and health care settings. Using a deliberative approach to community consultation to inform research practice, we explored residents' views on paternal testing and sharing misaligned paternity information. Between December 2009 and November 2010, 63 residents in Kilifi County were engaged in informed deliberative small group discussions, structured to support normative reflection within the groups, with purposive selection to explore diversity. Analysis was based on a modified framework analysis approach, drawing on relevant social science and bioethics literature. The methods generated in-depth individual and group reflection on morally important issues and uncovered wide diversity in views and values. Fundamental and conflicting values emerged around the importance of family interests and openness, underpinned by disagreement on the moral implications of marital infidelity and withholding truth. Wider consideration of ethical issues emerging in these debates supports locally-held reasoning that paternal sickle cell testing should not be undertaken in this context, in contrast to views that testing should be done with or without the disclosure of misaligned paternity information. The findings highlight the importance of facilitating wider testing of family members of affected children, contingent on the development and implementation of national policies for the management of this inherited disorder. Their richness also illustrates the potential for the approach adopted in this study to strengthen community consultation. PMID:24034967

  17. Factors contributing to inconsistent condom use among heterosexual men in Curaçao.

    PubMed

    Stutterheim, Sarah E; Bertens, Madelief G B C; Mevissen, Fraukje E F; Schaalma, Herman P

    2013-01-01

    This study explored, from a public health perspective, factors that contribute to inconsistent condom use by men in Curaçao through semi-structured face-to-face interviews with 21 heterosexual men. The findings show that there is an important disconnect between what is considered culturally appropriate sexual behaviour for men and women and condom use, that diverging from prescribed notions of masculinity and femininity in order to use condoms consistently is difficult, and that condom use is particularly problematic in the context of concurrent partnerships and sexual economic exchanges. Participants further reported that Caribbean family structures, whereby mothers assume the role as primary caregiver and fathers contribute biologically but, to a much lesser extent socially, also have an impact on condom use. Additionally, consistent condom use was reported to be impeded by a cultural taboo on talking seriously about sex and sexual health. In their totality, findings provide important input from men for the development of sexual health promotion interventions that are cognizant of the cultural context in which inconsistent condom use occurs, and that are geared not only to the individual level but also to the interpersonal and structural levels. PMID:23350609

  18. Employee Commitment and Well-Being: A Critical Review, Theoretical Framework and Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, John P.; Maltin, Elyse R.

    2010-01-01

    Although a great deal is known about the implications of employee commitment for organizations, less attention has been paid to its ramifications for employees themselves. Previous research has been unsystematic and the findings have sometimes been inconsistent. The most consistent findings pertain to the positive links between affective…

  19. Detecting Inconsistencies in the Gene Ontology Using Ontology Databases with Not-gadgets

    E-print Network

    Dou, Dejing

    Detecting Inconsistencies in the Gene Ontology Using Ontology Databases with Not-gadgets Paea Le present ontology databases with not-gadgets, a method for detecting inconsistencies in an ontology Inconsistencies in the Gene Ontology 949 In this paper we present ontology databases with not-gadgets, a new

  20. The closed-mindedness that wasn’t: need for structure and expectancy-inconsistent information

    PubMed Central

    Kemmelmeier, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Social-cognitive researchers have typically assumed that individuals high in need for structure or need for closure tend to be closed-minded: they are motivated to resist or ignore information that is inconsistent with existing beliefs but instead they rely on category-based expectancies. The present paper argues that this conclusion is not necessarily warranted because previous studies did not allow individual differences in categorical processing to emerge and did not consider different distributions of category-relevant information. Using a person memory paradigm, Experiments 1 and 2 shows that, when categorical processing is optional, high need-for-structure individuals are especially likely to use this type processing to reduce uncertainty, which results in superior recall for expectancy-inconsistent information. Experiment 2 demonstrates that such information is also more likely to be used in judgment making, leading to judgmental moderation among high need-for-structure individuals. Experiments 3 and 4 used a person memory paradigm which requires categorical processing regardless of levels of need for structure. Experiments 3 and 4 demonstrate that, whether expectancy-consistent or -inconsistent information is recalled better is a function of whether the majority of available information is compatible or incompatible with an initial category-based expectancy. Experiment 4 confirmed that the extent to which high need-for-structure individuals attend to different types of information varies with their distribution. The discussion highlights that task affordances have a critical influence on the consequences of categorical processing for memory and social judgment. Thus, high need for structure does not necessarily equate closed-mindedness.

  1. A Review of Humor in Educational Settings: Four Decades of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banas, John A.; Dunbar, Norah; Rodriguez, Dariela; Liu, Shr-Jie

    2011-01-01

    The primary goal of this project is to provide a summary of extant research regarding humor in the classroom, with an emphasis on identifying and explaining inconsistencies in research findings and offering new directions for future studies in this area. First, the definitions, functions, and main theories of humor are reviewed. Next, the paper…

  2. The role of psychological research in the formation of policies affecting children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eleanor E. Maccoby; Alfred J. Kahn; Barbara A. Everett

    1983-01-01

    Discusses factors that determine whether, and how, psychological research will have an impact on public policies regarding children. Factors discussed include (a) consistencies and inconsistencies in research findings, especially cases in which early results are greatly modified, or even reversed, by later ones; (b) cases in which documentation of a problem is not accompanied by information on the costs and

  3. Global Energy Technology Strategy: Addressing Climate Change Phase 2 Findings from an international Public-Private Sponsored Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, James A.; Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.; Kim, Son H.; Smith, Steven J.; Runci, Paul J.; Clarke, Leon E.; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Stokes, Gerald M.

    2007-05-01

    This book examines the role of global energy technology in addressing climate change. The book considers the nature of the climate change challenge and the role of energy in the issue. It goes on to consider the implications for the evolution of the global energy system and the potential value of technology availability, development and deployment. Six technology systems are identified for special consideration: CO2 capture and storage, Biotechnology, Hydrogen systems, Nuclear energy, Wind and solar energy, and End-use energy technologies. In addition, consideration is given to the role of non-CO2 gases in climate change as well as the potential of technology development and deployment to reduce non-CO2 emissions. Present trends in energy R&D are examined and potentially fruitful avenues for research. The book concludes with a set of key findings.

  4. Knowledge Generation: We generate new knowledge through academic research to find more effective ways of managing our society's human and environmental resources.

    E-print Network

    Morris, Joy

    Knowledge Generation: We generate new knowledge through academic research to find more effective our knowledge stagnates. Support for the creation and dissemination of academic research helps us of social marketing. Researchers attend from around the globe, sharing their knowledge and learning from

  5. Thermodynamic and Statistical Mechanics Inconsistencies in Quasiparticle Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannur, Vishnu M.

    2013-01-01

    Here we reanalyze various quasiparticle models of quark gluon plasma from the statistical mechanics and thermodynamics point of view. We investigate the statistical mechanics and thermodynamics inconsistencies involved in these models and their consequences in the observables. Quasiparticle models are phenomenological models with few parameters and by adjusting them all models fit the results of lattice gauge simulation of gluon plasma [G. Boyd et al., Phys. Rev. Lett.75, 4169 (1995); G. Boyd et al., Nucl. Phys. B469, 419 (1996)]. However, after fixing two of the three parameters of the model by physical arguments, only one quasiparticle model, which is consistent with both statistical mechanics and thermodynamics, fits the Bielefeld lattice data [G. Boyd et al., Phys. Rev. Lett.75, 4169 (1995); G. Boyd et al., Nucl. Phys. B469, 419 (1996)]. The same model also fits the recent lattice results of Wuppertal-Budapest group [S. Borsanyi et al., arXiv:1204.6184v1 [hep-lat

  6. Development and Validation of Culture-Specific Variable Response Inconsistency and True Response Inconsistency Scales for Use with the Korean MMPI-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketterer, Holly L.; Han, Kyunghee; Hur, Jaehong; Moon, Kyungjoo

    2010-01-01

    In response to the concern that Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2; J. N. Butcher, W. Dahlstrom, J. R. Graham, A. Tellegen, & B. Kaemmer, 1989; J. N. Butcher et al., 2001) Variable Response Inconsistency (VRIN) and True Response Inconsistency (TRIN) score invalidity criteria recommended for use with American samples results in…

  7. Change and Continuity in the Primary School: The Research Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galton, Maurice

    1987-01-01

    This article reviews findings from a 1975 through 1980 study called ORACLE (Observational Research and Classroom Learning Evaluation). Maintains that the data showed only partial implementation of the Plowden report recommendations. Seeks to explain the reasons for inconsistencies in implementation and offers suggestions for redefining progressive…

  8. An eight-year snapshot of geospatial cancer research (2002-2009): clinico-epidemiological and methodological findings and trends.

    PubMed

    Boulos, Dina N Kamel; Ghali, Ramy R; Ibrahim, Ezzeldin M; Boulos, Maged N Kamel; AbdelMalik, Philip

    2011-12-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) offer a very rich toolbox of methods and technologies, and powerful research tools that extend far beyond the mere production of maps, making it possible to cross-link and study the complex interaction of disease data and factors originating from a wide range of disparate sources. Despite their potential indispensable role in cancer prevention and control programmes, GIS are underrepresented in specialised oncology literature. The latter has provided an impetus for the current review. The review provides an eight-year snapshot of geospatial cancer research in peer-reviewed literature (2002-2009), presenting the clinico-epidemiological and methodological findings and trends in the covered corpus (93 papers). The authors concluded that understanding the relationship between location and cancer/cancer care services can play a crucial role in disease control and prevention, and in better service planning, and appropriate resource utilisation. Nevertheless, there are still barriers that hinder the wide-scale adoption of GIS and related technologies in everyday oncology practice. PMID:20589539

  9. A Retrospective Review of the Frequency and Nature of Acute Hypersensitivity Reactions at a Medium-Sized Infusion Center: Comparison to Reported Values and Inconsistencies Found in Literature

    PubMed Central

    DeMoor, Patricia A.; Matusov, Yuri; Kelly, Colleen; Kolan, Shobha; Barnachea, Linda; Bazhenova, Lyudmila A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate acute hypersensitivity reactions at the UCSD Moores Cancer Center in San Diego, compare our findings to those reported previously in the literature, and examine the effectiveness of the objective grading scale as represented by the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE). Patients and Methods: Using the available pharmacy and electronic medical record data from 2006-2010, we examined our reported hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) using the CTCAE v.3.0 and v.4.0. A thorough literature review was also performed to compare our findings with those previously reported. Results: We found 222 cases of HSRs, of which 50% were due to immunotherapeutics. Most were grade 1 or 2 by any CTCAE criteria. The clinical presentation of HSRs varied between drug classes. Using different versions of grading schema led to inconsistencies in ~50% of all HSRs. Fifty-two percent of all cases not due to blood products were rechallenged on the same day. The reported literature HSR frequencies for each causative agent showed a striking variability, possibly indicating that previous studies used a wide variety of grading and reporting systems for adverse events. Conclusion: HSRs are common in clinical practice, and most are mild or moderate. There are inconsistencies in reporting HSRs between studies. The existence of several grading schema and subjective definitions of hypersensitivity could be contributing to poor clinical generalizability. Along with an improved system of reporting HSRs to minimize underreporting, a standard system of objectively assessing HSRs is necessary for purposes of research and clinical practice. PMID:21475720

  10. Inconsistent Definitions of the Pressure-Coupled Response and the Admittance of Solid Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardiff, Eric H.

    2003-01-01

    When an acoustic wave is present in a solid propellant combustion environment, the mass flux from the combustion zone oscillates at the same frequency as the acoustics. The acoustic wave is either amplified or attenuated by the response of the combustion to the acoustic disturbance. When the acoustic wave is amplified, this process is called combustion instability. The amplification is quantitatively measured by a response function. The ability to predict combustion stability for a solid propellant formulation is essential to the formulator to prevent or minimize the effects of instabilities, such as an oscillatory thrust. Unfortunately, the prediction of response values for a particular propellant remains a technical challenge. Most predictions of the response of propellants are based on test data, but there are a number of questions about the reliability of the standard test method, the T-burner. Alternate methods have been developed to measure the response of a propellant, including the ultrasound burner, the magnetic flowmeter and the rotating valve burner, but there are still inconsistencies between the results obtained by these different methods. Aside from the experimental differences, the values of the pressure-coupled responses obtained by different researchers are often compared erroneously, for the simple reason that inconsistencies in the definitions of the responses and admittances are not considered. The use of different definitions has led to substantial confusion since the first theoretical treatments of the problem by Hart and McClure in 1959. The definitions and relations derived here seek to alleviate this problem.

  11. What if Indigenous Knowledge Contradicts Accepted Scientific Findings?--The Hidden Agenda: Respect, Caring and Passion towards Aboriginal Research in the Context of Applying Western Academic Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witt, Norbert

    2007-01-01

    The statement in the title, what if Indigenous Knowledge contradicts accepted scientific findings (Fowler, 2000), is an expression of the dilemma people who research Indigenous Knowledge think they find themselves in when they are confronted with different interpretations of what it means to be human, or, as I may summarize it, with different…

  12. University Performance Data for Diversity in 2009-2010, CSU Research Findings for Student Success, Student Perceptions, and University Planning Activity

    E-print Network

    Boone, Randall B.

    University Performance Data for Diversity in 2009-2010, CSU Research Findings for Student Success performance findings for the areas of student success, student perceptions, and university planning activity, Student Perceptions, and University Planning Activity This presentation shares the past year's diversity

  13. Finding Evidence-Based Answers to Clinical Questions Quickly and Effectively See also the Biomedical Libraries' Evidence-Based Medicine Research Guide

    E-print Network

    for the treatment of Alzheimer's? Clinical Pharmacology Online Micromedex Epocrates Online evidenceFinding Evidence-Based Answers to Clinical Questions ­ Quickly and Effectively See also the Biomedical Libraries' Evidence-Based Medicine Research Guide Finding Evidence-Based Answers to Clinical

  14. Estimating nonrigid motion from inconsistent intensity with robust shape features

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wenyang [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)] [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Ruan, Dan, E-mail: druan@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States) [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Department of Biomedical Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: To develop a nonrigid motion estimation method that is robust to heterogeneous intensity inconsistencies amongst the image pairs or image sequence. Methods: Intensity and contrast variations, as in dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, present a considerable challenge to registration methods based on general discrepancy metrics. In this study, the authors propose and validate a novel method that is robust to such variations by utilizing shape features. The geometry of interest (GOI) is represented with a flexible zero level set, segmented via well-behaved regularized optimization. The optimization energy drives the zero level set to high image gradient regions, and regularizes it with area and curvature priors. The resulting shape exhibits high consistency even in the presence of intensity or contrast variations. Subsequently, a multiscale nonrigid registration is performed to seek a regular deformation field that minimizes shape discrepancy in the vicinity of GOIs. Results: To establish the working principle, realistic 2D and 3D images were subject to simulated nonrigid motion and synthetic intensity variations, so as to enable quantitative evaluation of registration performance. The proposed method was benchmarked against three alternative registration approaches, specifically, optical flow, B-spline based mutual information, and multimodality demons. When intensity consistency was satisfied, all methods had comparable registration accuracy for the GOIs. When intensities among registration pairs were inconsistent, however, the proposed method yielded pronounced improvement in registration accuracy, with an approximate fivefold reduction in mean absolute error (MAE = 2.25 mm, SD = 0.98 mm), compared to optical flow (MAE = 9.23 mm, SD = 5.36 mm), B-spline based mutual information (MAE = 9.57 mm, SD = 8.74 mm) and mutimodality demons (MAE = 10.07 mm, SD = 4.03 mm). Applying the proposed method on a real MR image sequence also provided qualitatively appealing results, demonstrating good feasibility and applicability of the proposed method. Conclusions: The authors have developed a novel method to estimate the nonrigid motion of GOIs in the presence of spatial intensity and contrast variations, taking advantage of robust shape features. Quantitative analysis and qualitative evaluation demonstrated good promise of the proposed method. Further clinical assessment and validation is being performed.

  15. Using Abductive Research Logic: "The Logic of Discovery", to Construct a Rigorous Explanation of Amorphous Evaluation Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin-Rozalis, Miri

    2010-01-01

    Background: Two kinds of research logic prevail in scientific research: deductive research logic and inductive research logic. However, both fail in the field of evaluation, especially evaluation conducted in unfamiliar environments. Purpose: In this article I wish to suggest the application of a research logic--"abduction"--"the logic of…

  16. Education for foreign-trained dentists in the United States: currently available findings and need for further research.

    PubMed

    Pannu, Veerinder; Thompson, Ana L; Pannu, Darshanjit S; Collins, Marie A

    2013-11-01

    Foreign-trained dentists interested in seeking employment in the United States face numerous challenges, starting with the fact that their degrees are often not valid for U.S. practice because of international differences in the style of education and clinical practice. A small number of North American dental schools have offered modified predoctoral programs for graduates of foreign dental schools since the 1970s, and currently, numerous U.S. dental schools offer such educational programs. The purpose of this literature review was to investigate what has been reported about barriers encountered by foreign-trained dentists in seeking professional opportunities in the United States, focusing especially on factors affecting the admissions process into predoctoral and residency programs, the learning process, and employment of foreign-trained dentists in the United States. This study concludes that published findings do not support the generalization that all foreign-trained dentists seeking employment in the United States have had the same barriers, and the authors conclude that there is a need for further research on this topic. Supplemental information can improve the transition of foreign-trained dentists into a culturally diverse environment. In addition, with greater availability of data, the need for the establishment of assistance programs for this population can be assessed. PMID:24192418

  17. Differences in perceptual latency estimated from judgments of temporal order, simultaneity and duration are inconsistent

    PubMed Central

    Linares, Daniel; Holcombe, Alex O.

    2014-01-01

    Differences in perceptual latency (?L) for two stimuli, such as an auditory and a visual stimulus, can be estimated from temporal order judgments (TOJ) and simultaneity judgments (SJ), but previous research has found evidence that ?L estimated from these tasks do not coincide. Here, using an auditory and a visual stimulus we confirmed this and further show that ?L as estimated from duration judgments also does not coincide with ?L estimated from TOJ or SJ. These inconsistencies suggest that each judgment is subject to different processes that bias ?L in different ways: TOJ might be affected by sensory interactions, a bias associated with the method of single stimuli and an order difficulty bias; SJ by sensory interactions and an asymmetrical criterion bias; duration judgments by an order duration bias.

  18. Earth's Climate Sensitivity: Apparent Inconsistencies in Recent Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Stephen E.; Charlson, Robert J.; Kahn, Ralph; Rodhe, Henning

    2014-12-01

    Earth's equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) and forcing of Earth's climate system over the industrial era have been re-examined in two new assessments: the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and a study by Otto et al. (2013). The ranges of these quantities given in these assessments and also in the Fourth (2007) IPCC Assessment are analyzed here within the framework of a planetary energy balance model, taking into account the observed increase in global mean surface temperature over the instrumental record together with best estimates of the rate of increase of planetary heat content. This analysis shows systematic differences among the several assessments and apparent inconsistencies within individual assessments. Importantly, the likely range of ECS to doubled CO2 given in AR5, 1.5-4.5 K/(3.7 W m-2) exceeds the range inferred from the assessed likely range of forcing, 1.2-2.9 K/(3.7 W m-2), where 3.7 W m-2 denotes the forcing for doubled CO2. Such differences underscore the need to identify their causes and reduce the underlying uncertainties. Explanations might involve underestimated negative aerosol forcing, overestimated total forcing, overestimated climate sensitivity, poorly constrained ocean heating, limitations of the energy balance model, or a combination of effects.

  19. All that glitters is not BOLD: inconsistencies in functional MRI

    PubMed Central

    Renvall, Ville; Nangini, Cathy; Hari, Riitta

    2014-01-01

    The blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal is a widely-accepted marker of brain activity. The acquisition parameters (APs) of fMRI aim at maximizing the signals related to neuronal activity while minimizing unrelated signal fluctuations. Currently, a diverse set of APs is used to acquire BOLD fMRI data. Here we demonstrate that some fMRI responses are alarmingly inconsistent across APs, ranging from positive to negative, or disappearing entirely, under identical stimulus conditions. These discrepancies, resulting from non-BOLD effects masquerading as BOLD signals, have remained largely unnoticed because studies rarely employ more than one set of APs. We identified and characterized non-BOLD responses in several brain areas, including posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus, as well as AP-dependence of both the signal time courses and of seed-based functional networks, noticing that AP manipulation can inform about the origin of the measured signals. PMID:24472878

  20. Earths Climate Sensitivity: Apparent Inconsistencies in Recent Assessments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Schwartz, Stephen E. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Charlson, Robert J. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Kahn, Ralph [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Rodhe, Henning [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)

    2014-12-01

    Earth's equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) and forcing of Earth's climate system over the industrial era have been re-examined in two new assessments: the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and a study by Otto et al. (2013). The ranges of these quantities given in these assessments and also in the Fourth (2007) IPCC Assessment are analyzed here within the framework of a planetary energy balance model, taking into account the observed increase in global mean surface temperature over the instrumental record together with best estimates of the rate of increase of planetary heat content. This analysis shows systematic differences among the several assessments and apparent inconsistencies within individual assessments. Importantly, the likely range of ECS to doubled CO? given in AR5, 1.5–4.5 K/(3.7 W m?²) exceeds the range inferred from the assessed likely range of forcing, 1.2–2.9 K/(3.7 W m?²), where 3.7 W ?² denotes the forcing for doubled CO?. Such differences underscore the need to identify their causes and reduce the underlying uncertainties. Explanations might involve underestimated negative aerosol forcing, overestimated total forcing, overestimated climate sensitivity, poorly constrained ocean heating, limitations of the energy balance model, or a combination of effects.

  1. Earths Climate Sensitivity: Apparent Inconsistencies in Recent Assessments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Schwartz, Stephen E.; Charlson, Robert J.; Kahn, Ralph; Rodhe, Henning

    2014-12-01

    Earth's equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) and forcing of Earth's climate system over the industrial era have been re-examined in two new assessments: the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and a study by Otto et al. (2013). The ranges of these quantities given in these assessments and also in the Fourth (2007) IPCC Assessment are analyzed here within the framework of a planetary energy balance model, taking into account the observed increase in global mean surface temperature over the instrumental record together with best estimates of the rate of increase of planetary heat content.more »This analysis shows systematic differences among the several assessments and apparent inconsistencies within individual assessments. Importantly, the likely range of ECS to doubled CO? given in AR5, 1.5–4.5 K/(3.7 W m?²) exceeds the range inferred from the assessed likely range of forcing, 1.2–2.9 K/(3.7 W m?²), where 3.7 W ?² denotes the forcing for doubled CO?. Such differences underscore the need to identify their causes and reduce the underlying uncertainties. Explanations might involve underestimated negative aerosol forcing, overestimated total forcing, overestimated climate sensitivity, poorly constrained ocean heating, limitations of the energy balance model, or a combination of effects.« less

  2. NICE's selective application of differential discounting: ambiguous, inconsistent, and unjustified.

    PubMed

    O'Mahony, James F; Paulden, Mike

    2014-07-01

    The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) recently recommended differential discounting of costs and health effects in the economic appraisal of health care interventions in certain circumstances. The recommendation was published in an amendment to NICE's Guide to the Methods of Technology Appraisal. The amendment states that differential discounting should be applied where "treatment effects are both substantial in restoring health and sustained over a very long period (normally at least 30 years)." Renewed interest in differential discounting from NICE is welcome; however, the recommendation's selective application of differential discounting raises a number of concerns. The stated criteria for applying differential discounting are ambiguous. The rationale for the selective application of differential discounting has not been articulated by NICE and is questionable. The selective application of differential discounting leads to several inconsistencies, the most concerning of which is the lower valuation of health gains for those with less than 30 years remaining life expectancy, which can be interpreted as age discrimination. Furthermore, the discount rates chosen by NICE do not appear to be informed by recent advances in the theoretical understanding of differential discounting. NICE's apparent motivation for recommending differential discounting was to ensure a favorable cost-effectiveness ratio for a pediatric oncology drug. While flexibility may be appropriate to allow some interventions that exceed conventional cost-effectiveness thresholds to be adopted, the selective adjustment of appraisal methods is problematic and without justification. PMID:25128041

  3. Summary of main findings of Dale Wright's MSc dissertation: Evaluating a citizen science research programme: Understanding the people who make it

    E-print Network

    de Villiers, Marienne

    Summary of main findings of Dale Wright's MSc dissertation: Evaluating a citizen science research and we hope will provide some improvements for other similar citizen science research projects. Whilst are primarily motivated to join citizen science programmes through five different major motivations. What

  4. What can Studies of e-Learning Teach us about Collaboration in e-Research? Some Findings from Digital Library Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine L. Borgman

    2006-01-01

    Abstract. e-Research is intended,to facilitate collaboration,through,distributed access to content, tools, and services. Lessons about collaboration are extracted from the findings of two large, long-term digital library research projects. Both the Alexandria Digital Earth Prototype Project (ADEPT) and,the Center for Embedded,Networked,Sensing (CENS) project on data management,leverage scientific research data for use in teaching. Two forms of collaboration were studied: (1) direct,

  5. Inconsistent impacts of decomposer diversity on the stability of aboveground and belowground ecosystem functions

    PubMed Central

    Schädler, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The intensive discussion on the importance of biodiversity for the stability of essential processes in ecosystems has prompted a multitude of studies since the middle of the last century. Nevertheless, research has been extremely biased by focusing on the producer level, while studies on the impacts of decomposer diversity on the stability of ecosystem functions are lacking. Here, we investigate the impacts of decomposer diversity on the stability (reliability) of three important aboveground and belowground ecosystem functions: primary productivity (shoot and root biomass), litter decomposition, and herbivore infestation. For this, we analyzed the results of three laboratory experiments manipulating decomposer diversity (1–3 species) in comparison to decomposer-free treatments in terms of variability of the measured variables. Decomposer diversity often significantly but inconsistently affected the stability of all aboveground and belowground ecosystem functions investigated in the present study. While primary productivity was mainly destabilized, litter decomposition and aphid infestation were essentially stabilized by increasing decomposer diversity. However, impacts of decomposer diversity varied between plant community and fertility treatments. There was no general effect of the presence of decomposers on stability and no trend toward weaker effects in fertilized communities and legume communities. This indicates that impacts of decomposers are based on more than effects on nutrient availability. Although inconsistent impacts complicate the estimation of consequences of belowground diversity loss, underpinning mechanisms of the observed patterns are discussed. Impacts of decomposer diversity on the stability of essential ecosystem functions differed between plant communities of varying composition and fertility, implicating that human-induced changes of biodiversity and land-use management might have unpredictable effects on the processes mankind relies on. This study therefore points to the necessity of also considering soil feedback mechanisms in order to gain a comprehensive and holistic understanding of the impacts of current global change phenomena on the stability of essential ecosystem functions. PMID:20878188

  6. Using quantitative and qualitative data in health services research – what happens when mixed method findings conflict? [ISRCTN61522618

    PubMed Central

    Moffatt, Suzanne; White, Martin; Mackintosh, Joan; Howel, Denise

    2006-01-01

    Background In this methodological paper we document the interpretation of a mixed methods study and outline an approach to dealing with apparent discrepancies between qualitative and quantitative research data in a pilot study evaluating whether welfare rights advice has an impact on health and social outcomes among a population aged 60 and over. Methods Quantitative and qualitative data were collected contemporaneously. Quantitative data were collected from 126 men and women aged over 60 within a randomised controlled trial. Participants received a full welfare benefits assessment which successfully identified additional financial and non-financial resources for 60% of them. A range of demographic, health and social outcome measures were assessed at baseline, 6, 12 and 24 month follow up. Qualitative data were collected from a sub-sample of 25 participants purposively selected to take part in individual interviews to examine the perceived impact of welfare rights advice. Results Separate analysis of the quantitative and qualitative data revealed discrepant findings. The quantitative data showed little evidence of significant differences of a size that would be of practical or clinical interest, suggesting that the intervention had no impact on these outcome measures. The qualitative data suggested wide-ranging impacts, indicating that the intervention had a positive effect. Six ways of further exploring these data were considered: (i) treating the methods as fundamentally different; (ii) exploring the methodological rigour of each component; (iii) exploring dataset comparability; (iv) collecting further data and making further comparisons; (v) exploring the process of the intervention; and (vi) exploring whether the outcomes of the two components match. Conclusion The study demonstrates how using mixed methods can lead to different and sometimes conflicting accounts and, using this six step approach, how such discrepancies can be harnessed to interrogate each dataset more fully. Not only does this enhance the robustness of the study, it may lead to different conclusions from those that would have been drawn through relying on one method alone and demonstrates the value of collecting both types of data within a single study. More widespread use of mixed methods in trials of complex interventions is likely to enhance the overall quality of the evidence base. PMID:16524479

  7. Parents' Attitudes about Adolescents' Premarital Sexual Activity: The Role of Inter-Parent Consistency/Inconsistency in Sexual Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Cheryl L.; Anagurthi, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Parents' values about sexuality and about premarital sex play unique roles in the development of adolescents' sexual attitudes and behaviours. However, research is scarce on the role of consistent versus inconsistent values transmission. The purpose of the present study was to examine the association between parental…

  8. The mcs-ie System for Explaining Inconsistency in Multi-Context Systems

    E-print Network

    Fink, Michael

    The mcs-ie System for Explaining Inconsistency in Multi-Context Systems Markus B¨ogl, Thomas Eiter is the absence of such equilibria. An inconsistent MCS yields no information, therefore our aim is to explain2) points out a set of bridge rules D1 which must be removed from an MCS M, and a set of bridge

  9. An Approach for Detecting Inconsistencies between Behavioral Models of the Software Architecture and the Code

    SciTech Connect

    Ciraci, Selim; Sozer, Hasan; Tekinerdogan, Bedir

    2012-07-16

    In practice, inconsistencies between architectural documentation and the code might arise due to improper implementation of the architecture or the separate, uncontrolled evolution of the code. Several approaches have been proposed to detect the inconsistencies between the architecture and the code but these tend to be limited for capturing inconsistencies that might occur at runtime. We present a runtime verification approach for detecting inconsistencies between the dynamic behavior of the architecture and the actual code. The approach is supported by a set of tools that implement the architecture and the code patterns in Prolog, and support the automatic generation of runtime monitors for detecting inconsistencies. We illustrate the approach and the toolset for a Crisis Management System case study.

  10. 42 CFR 93.405 - Notifying the respondent of findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities...

  11. 42 CFR 93.405 - Notifying the respondent of findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities...

  12. 42 CFR 93.405 - Notifying the respondent of findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities...

  13. 42 CFR 93.405 - Notifying the respondent of findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities...

  14. 42 CFR 93.405 - Notifying the respondent of findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities...

  15. Findings from a Yearlong Job Exchange: A Mentor Teacher's Bill of Rights in Teacher Education. Reading Research Report No. 74.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson-Ross, Sally; McWhorter, Patti

    After teaching and conducting research in each other's worlds for a year, a high school English teacher and a university teacher educator could never be the same. With their colleagues, they developed a model yearlong teacher education program founded on three key principles: equality of school and university participants; teacher research; and…

  16. Preliminary Findings from a Quantitative Study: Comparative Analysis of Students' Learning Outcomes During Co-ops, Research, and Capstone Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olga Pierrakos; Maura Borrego

    Undergraduate research, co-ops, and capstone design are three culminating problem-based learning (PBL) experiences that are highly promoted in engineering education. Even though the benefits of such experiences are known, the core problem driving the proposed research is the limited empirical evidence that exists on students' learning outcomes as a result of participating in such experiences. The goal was to design

  17. A Study on the Inclusion of Deafblind Young People in Mainstream Schools: Key Findings and Implications for Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamenopoulou, Leda

    2012-01-01

    This article, written by Leda Kamenopoulou of Roehampton University, reports a research project on deafblindness and inclusion in education. Deafblindness is a rare and therefore significantly under-explored disability. Even less systematic research has focused on deafblind young people enrolled in mainstream schools. The study presented here used…

  18. Theoretical Perspectives, Research Findings, and Classroom Implications of the Learning Styles of American Indian and Alaska Native Students. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilberg, R. Soleste; Tharp, Roland G.

    This digest discusses two prominent definitions of learning styles, describes studies that have found differences between the learning styles of American Indian/Alaska Native students and students of other cultural groups, and presents instructional interventions stemming from learning styles research. The research literature on learning styles…

  19. Sources of Ideas for Applied University Research, and their Effect on the Application of Findings in Australian Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Carmel; Kench, Robin

    1984-01-01

    Explored the adoption of 17 projects by industry and whether the origin of the research ideas was a significant factor. Projects were either initiated by industry alone, by universities alone, or by universities with input from industry from the earliest stages of the research. (JN)

  20. Raising Attainment: Boys, Reading and the National Literacy Hour: Interim Findings from the Fact and Fiction Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Gemma

    The Fact and Fiction Research Project, funded by the ESRC (Economic and Social Research Council) and based at the School of Education, University of Southampton (England), completed a 2-year study into gender and reading in the 7-9 age group. The project, designed to address boys' underachievement in English by reviewing their development as…

  1. An Overview of Research Strategies and Findings (1971-1975) of the Kamehameha Early Education Program. Technical Report #66.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallimore, Ronald; Tharp, Roland G.

    This report reviews the major lines of investigation of the Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP) for the period 1971-75. A brief introductory section describes the selection of initial research strategies, identification of problems, issues in research design (such as internal versus external validity) and problems pertaining to the process…

  2. Finding the Words to Work Together: Developing a Research Design to Explore Risk and Adult Protection in Co-Produced Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, Ian; Archibald, Sylvia; McInnes, Kerry; Cross, Beth; Daniel, Brigid; Johnson, Fiona

    2012-01-01

    Although co-production of research with people who access support services is increasingly common, details about how people who access support services can take more of an assertive role in developing research proposals and method design remains sketchy. This article reflects on the development of a research project on adult protection practice in…

  3. Youth Opportunity Fund and Youth Capital Fund: Evaluation Findings from Initial Case-Study Visits. Research Report DCSF-RR004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Lisa; Bielby, Gill; Golden, Sarah; Morris, Marian; Walker, Matthew; Maguire, Sue

    2007-01-01

    The Department for Education and Skills (Replace by the Department for Children, Schools and Families as of June 28, 2007) commissioned the National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER) to conduct an evaluation of the Youth Opportunity Fund and Youth Capital Fund (YOF/YCF). This summary presents the main findings from the interim report of…

  4. About the Work of Art "In researching for the project, it was interesting for me to find out that the company who

    E-print Network

    Mayfield, John

    About the Work of Art "In researching for the project, it was interesting for me to find out Museums - Art on Campus Program Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa n Human Nutritional Sciences Building sheet is intended to be used in addition to viewing the Art on Campus Collection. At no time should

  5. Finding new sources of copper in Zambia The Zambian Copperbelt is the largest known source of copper on Earth. Research at the

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Jim

    Finding new sources of copper in Zambia The Zambian Copperbelt is the largest known source of copper on Earth. Research at the University of Southampton has challenged conventional thinking about. There is great demand for copper throughout the world, particularly to supply fast-growing economies in countries

  6. Comparative research for finding the reasons of successful technology transfer : Case analysis of diffusion in hereditary disorder monitoring process in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oya H. Yüregir; T. Yüregir

    2001-01-01

    Technology transfer (TT) is, as known, an application of knowledge. There are three main role players in this process: universities or research centers; governments; and industry or public. The successful TT requires some conditions to be established before and during the process. This study aims at finding out the reasons of successful and unsuccessful diffusions of technology and its applications

  7. Inconsistencies of the evaluation of home advantage in sports competitions under the three points per victory system.

    PubMed

    García, Miguel Saavedra; Aguilar, Oscar Gutiérrez; Fernández Romero, Juan J

    2014-09-29

    A recent letter sent to the Journal of Human Kinetics' editor (Gómez & Pollard, 2014) warned about a supposed methodology error in the calculation of home advantage in football leagues used in Saavedra et al. (2013) and took the liberty of modifying the research's data. The aim of this letter is to demonstrate that the evaluation system of the home advantage proposed by Pollard (1986) contains serious inconsistencies when applied to competitions which give three points for a win and one point for a draw, as it is the case of the UEFA football leagues in the 21th century. PMID:25414734

  8. Establishing the benefits of research experiences for undergraduates in the sciences: First findings from a three-year study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seymour, Elaine; Hunter, Anne-Barrie; Laursen, Sandra L.; Deantoni, Tracee

    2004-07-01

    Descriptions of student-identified benefits of undergraduate research experiences are drawn from analysis of 76 first-round student interviews gathered at the end of summer 2000 at four participating liberal arts colleges (Grinnell, Harvey Mudd, Hope, and Wellesley). As part of the interview protocol, students commented on a checklist of possible benefits derived from the literature. They also added gains that were not on this list. Students were overwhelmingly positive: 91% of all statements referenced gains from their experiences. Few negative, ambivalent, or qualified assessments of their research experiences were offered. The benefits described were of seven different kinds. Expressed as percentages of all reported gains, they were personal/professional gains (28%); thinking and working like a scientist (28%); gains in various skills (19%); clarification/confirmation of career plans (including graduate school) (12%); enhanced career/graduate school preparation (9%); shifts in attitudes to learning and working as a researcher (4%); and other benefits (1%).

  9. Initial pre-stress finding procedure and structural performance research for Levy cable dome based on linear adjustment theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li-mei Zhang; Wu-jun Chen; Shi-lin Dong

    2007-01-01

    The cable-strut structural system is statically and kinematically indeterminate. The initial pre-stress is a key factor for\\u000a determining the shape and load carrying capacity. A new numerical algorithm is presented herein for the initial pre-stress\\u000a finding procedure of complete cable-strut assembly. This method is based on the linear adjustment theory and does not take\\u000a into account the material behavior. By

  10. Research of steep-front wave impulse voltage test effectiveness in finding internal fault of composite insulators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Su Fuheng; Jia Yimei; Wang Qingxia; Jin Heng; Zhang Yu; Zhou Jianguo

    2001-01-01

    In order to verify the effectiveness of steep-front impulse voltage testing in finding the internal faults of composite insulators, some insulators with faults are modeled which include conductive channel, semi-conductive airy channel and partial little air bubbles that occur separately at different places. A steep-front wave impulse voltage test (steepness of wave front is 1000-4000 kV\\/?s) is respectively made for

  11. An Overview of Findings and Recommendations of Major Research Studies and National Commissions Concerning Education of Offenders. Report No. 81.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    After a brief introduction describing the goals and proposed activities of the 3-year Correctional Education Project (which began in January 1975), 10 studies, pulled together by the project and representing comprehensive research about correctional education and systems, are analyzed. (Correctional education is defined generally as the…

  12. Putting Youth Relationship Education on the Child Welfare Agenda: Findings from a Research and Evaluation Review. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Mindy E.; Moore, Kristin Anderson; Hawkins, Alan J.; Malm, Karin; Beltz, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Child Trends reviewed existing evidence on a somewhat neglected topic: relationship education for youth in foster care. The goals of this research review were to identify the needs of disadvantaged young people around intimate partner relationships, to identify evaluated relationship education programs, to highlight and synthesize common themes…

  13. Community Needs, Concerns, and Perceptions About Health Research: Findings From the Clinical and Translational Science Award Sentinel Network

    PubMed Central

    McCloskey, Donna Jo; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Bennett, Nancy M.; Strelnick, Hal; Dwyer-White, Molly; Collyar, Deborah E.; Ajinkya, Shaun; Seifer, Sarena D.; O’Leary, Catina Callahan; Striley, Catherine W.; Evanoff, Bradley

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We used results generated from the first study of the National Institutes of Health Sentinel Network to understand health concerns and perceptions of research among underrepresented groups such as women, the elderly, racial/ethnic groups, and rural populations. Methods. Investigators at 5 Sentinel Network sites and 2 community-focused national organizations developed a common assessment tool used by community health workers to assess research perceptions, health concerns, and conditions. Results. Among 5979 individuals assessed, the top 5 health concerns were hypertension, diabetes, cancer, weight, and heart problems; hypertension was the most common self-reported condition. Levels of interest in research participation ranged from 70.1% among those in the “other” racial/ethnic category to 91.0% among African Americans. Overall, African Americans were more likely than members of other racial/ethnic groups to be interested in studies requiring blood samples (82.6%), genetic samples (76.9%), or medical records (77.2%); staying overnight in a hospital (70.5%); and use of medical equipment (75.4%). Conclusions. Top health concerns were consistent across geographic areas. African Americans reported more willingness to participate in research even if it required blood samples or genetic testing. PMID:23409875

  14. Validity of Controlled Clinical Trials of Psychotherapy: Findings From the NIMH Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Stuart Ablon; Enrico E. Jones

    2002-01-01

    Objective: This research extends a series of studies that have examined the process of psychotherapy. The authors hypothe- sized that manualized regimens of psycho- therapy compared in a controlled clinical trial would overlap considerably in process and technique and that intervention strate- gies common to both treatments would be responsible for promoting patient change. Method: Expert therapists developed prototypes of

  15. Men and Women in Outdoor Play--Changing the Concepts of Caring Findings from Norwegian and Austrian Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emilsen, Kari; Koch, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    In many countries there are very few men in professional care for young children. In this paper we will focus on the different perspectives of male and female workers to outdoor play and discuss the role of outdoor activities in recruiting more men to pre-schools. The article is based on research in Norway and Austria. The results draw the…

  16. Education Markets, School Competition, and Parental Choice in the U.K.: A Report of Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen J.; Gewirtz, Sharon

    1996-01-01

    Summarizes a study examining the dynamics of a set of (British) education markets over a 39-month period. Secondary schools in three adjacent local education authorities served as laboratories for researching choice and competition. The market's disciplinary effects are clear. The education market reinforces opportunity advantages of middle-class…

  17. Advancing Intervention Research in School Psychology: Finding the Balance between Process and Outcome for Social and Behavioral Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappella, Elise; Reinke, Wendy M.; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.

    2011-01-01

    School psychology research focused on child outcomes is critical for understanding which social and behavioral interventions affect children in schools. Yet effective interventions fulfill their promise when they fit their implementation contexts, are implemented well with existing resources, and can be sustained or scaled up to new populations.…

  18. The Role of the Principal in an Information Literate School Community: Findings from an International Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henri, James; Hay, Lyn; Oberg, Dianne

    Research has shown that principal support is a key factor in the implementation of effective school library or information literacy programs in schools. An international study of the principal's role in developing and supporting information literacy programs was conducted in Australia, Canada, Finland, France, Japan, Scotland, and South Korea.…

  19. Application of neural networks to seismic signal discrimination research findings. Final report, 12 December 1991-11 April 1994

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Cercone; W. M. Clark; J. J. Fuller; S. Goodman; D. J. Smith

    1994-01-01

    Research focused on identification and collection of a suitable database, identification of parametric representation of the time series seismic waveforms, and the training and testing of neural networks for seismic event classification. It was necessary to utilize seismic events that had a high degree of reliability for accurate training of the neural networks. The seismic waveforms were obtained from the

  20. LINKAGES ACROSS PM POLICY AND RESEARCH: EXAMINING THE POLICY RELEVANT FINDINGS FROM THE PM2.5 SUPERSITES PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The PM2.5 Supersites program was designed to complement routinely operating PM2.5 networks by providing enhanced temporal and chemical/physical composition data in addressing three overarching objectives: supporting health effects and exposure research, advanced monitoring meth...

  1. The Relationship of Family Support to Family Outcomes: A Synthesis of Key Findings from Research on Severe Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyzar, Kathleen B.; Turnbull, Ann P.; Summers, Jean Ann; Gomez, Viviana Aya

    2012-01-01

    There has been a gradual shift from a deficit to a support model for understanding disability over the last two decades. Although more attention is focused on supports at the individual level, policy has provided for the provision of family support. Despite this policy, families' needs for support are on the rise; and research suggests that…

  2. Opportunities to Meet Challenges in Rural Prevention Research: Findings from an Evolving Community-University Partnership Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spoth, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Various rural prevention research challenges have been articulated through a series of sessions convened since the mid 1990s by the National Institutes of Health, particularly the National Institute on Drug Abuse. Salient in this articulation was the need for effective collaboration among rural practitioners and scientists, with special…

  3. N.Y.C. Study Finds Gains for Charters: Research Shows Schools Closing City-Suburb Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2009-01-01

    New York City's charter schools are making strides in closing achievement gaps between disadvantaged inner-city students and their better-off suburban counterparts, a new study concludes. The study, conducted by Stanford University researcher Caroline M. Hoxby and her co-authors Sonali Mararka and Jenny Kang, is based on eight years of data for…

  4. A design-by-treatment interaction model for network meta-analysis with random inconsistency effects

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Dan; Barrett, Jessica K; Rice, Stephen; White, Ian R; Higgins, Julian PT

    2014-01-01

    Network meta-analysis is becoming more popular as a way to analyse multiple treatments simultaneously and, in the right circumstances, rank treatments. A difficulty in practice is the possibility of ‘inconsistency’ or ‘incoherence’, where direct evidence and indirect evidence are not in agreement. Here, we develop a random-effects implementation of the recently proposed design-by-treatment interaction model, using these random effects to model inconsistency and estimate the parameters of primary interest. Our proposal is a generalisation of the model proposed by Lumley and allows trials with three or more arms to be included in the analysis. Our methods also facilitate the ranking of treatments under inconsistency. We derive R and I2 statistics to quantify the impact of the between-study heterogeneity and the inconsistency. We apply our model to two examples. © 2014 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24777711

  5. Solving Data Inconsistencies and Data Integration with a Data Quality Manager

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angeles Maria del Pilar

    We propose the development of a Data Quality Manager to establish communication between the process of integration of information, the user and the application, to deal with data inconsistencies and information integration.

  6. Inconsistent responding to repeated MMPI items: is its major cause really carelessness?

    PubMed

    Bond, J A

    1986-01-01

    Previous authors have recommended using the number of inconsistent responses given to repeated MMPI items as a measure of the carelessness with which an individual has responded to the test. Such a recommendation assumes that a respondent who reads the items carefully must necessarily give an identical response to both presentations of the same item. Contrary to this assumption of a single cause, three potential causes of inconsistency--maladjustment, carelessness, and indecision--were investigated among 202 normal undergraduates who responded to the whole MMPI twice. The results suggest that indecision may be a more important cause of inconsistency than carelessness, thereby calling into question the use of inconsistencies on repeated MMPI items as a "carelessness" scale. Implications regarding the processes involved in responding to personality items are discussed. PMID:16367447

  7. 36 CFR 223.40 - Cancellation for environmental protection or inconsistency with plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Timber Sale Contracts Contract Conditions...or inconsistency with plans. Timber sale contracts, permits, and...the harvesting of trees or other forest products, with terms of longer...

  8. Computing Inconsistency Measurements under Multi-Valued Semantics by Partial Max-SAT Solvers

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Computing Inconsistency Measurements under Multi-Valued Semantics by Partial Max-SAT Solvers Guohui into the partial Max- SAT problems. We implement these algorithms and do ex- periments on some benchmark data sets

  9. Detecting Inconsistencies in the Gene Ontology Using Ontology Databases with Not-gadgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lependu, Paea; Dou, Dejing; Howe, Doug

    We present ontology databases with not-gadgets, a method for detecting inconsistencies in an ontology with large numbers of annotated instances by using triggers and exclusion dependencies in a unique way. What makes this work relevant is the use of the database itself, rather than an external reasoner, to detect logical inconsistencies given large numbers of annotated instances. What distinguishes this work is the use of event-driven triggers together with the introduction of explicit negations. We applied this approach toward the serotonin example, an open problem in biomedical informatics which aims to use annotations to help identify inconsistencies in the Gene Ontology. We discovered 75 inconsistencies that have important implications in biology, which include: (1) methods for refining transfer rules used for inferring electronic annotations, and (2) highlighting possible biological differences across species worth investigating.

  10. Money for Research, Not for Energy Bills: Finding Energy and Cost Savings in High Performance Computer Facility Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Drewmark Communications; Sartor, Dale; Wilson, Mark

    2010-07-01

    High-performance computing facilities in the United States consume an enormous amount of electricity, cutting into research budgets and challenging public- and private-sector efforts to reduce energy consumption and meet environmental goals. However, these facilities can greatly reduce their energy demand through energy-efficient design of the facility itself. Using a case study of a facility under design, this article discusses strategies and technologies that can be used to help achieve energy reductions.

  11. The genetics of auricular development and malformation: new findings in model systems driving future directions for microtia research.

    PubMed

    Cox, Timothy C; Camci, Esra D; Vora, Siddharth; Luquetti, Daniela V; Turner, Eric E

    2014-08-01

    Microtia is a term used to describe a wide array of phenotypic presentations of the outer ear. Although the majority of the cases are isolated in nature, much of our understanding of the causes of microtia has been driven by the identification of genes underlying syndromic forms where the anomaly co-presents with various other craniofacial and extra-craniofacial structural defects. In this review we discuss recent findings in mice deficient in Hoxa2, a key regulator of branchial arch patterning, which has necessitated a revision to the canonical model of pinna morphogenesis. The revised model will likely impact current classification schemes for microtia and, as we argue in this review, the interpretation of the developmental basis for various auricular malformations. In addition, we highlight recent studies in other mammalian species that are providing the first clues as to possible causes of at least some isolated anomalies and thus should now accelerate the search for the more elusive genetic contributions to the many isolated and non-syndromic cases of microtia. These findings, together with the application of new genome-level sequencing technologies and more thorough quantitative assessment of available mutant mouse resources, promise an exciting future for genetic studies in microtia. PMID:24880027

  12. Inconsistencies in reporting the occurrence and timing of first intercourse among adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dawn M. Upchurch; Lee A. Lillard; Carol S. Aneshensel; Nicole Fang Li

    2002-01-01

    Two types of reporting inconsistency for sexual initiation were analyzed—event occurrence and its timing—using data from two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Overall, 11.1% of those who reported they were sexually active at the time of first interview denied this at the subsequent one. Males of each race\\/ethnic group had higher percentages of inconsistency

  13. Inconsistencies in tape read and tape write programs on the I-100 image analysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hocutt, W. T. (principal investigator)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The tape read and write programs currently available on the 1-100 perform their intended functions of reading and writing tapes, but are difficult to use because they contain a number of inconsistencies. These inconsistencies can often be overcome by the use of work-around procedures and by trial and error, which is an inefficient use of expensive computer systems that should not be necessary.

  14. Preprocessing in Matlab Inconsistent Linear System for a Meaningful Least Squares Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, Symal K.; Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical models of many physical/statistical problems are systems of linear equations Due to measurement and possible human errors/mistakes in modeling/data, as well as due to certain assumptions to reduce complexity, inconsistency (contradiction) is injected into the model, viz. the linear system. While any inconsistent system irrespective of the degree of inconsistency has always a least-squares solution, one needs to check whether an equation is too much inconsistent or, equivalently too much contradictory. Such an equation will affect/distort the least-squares solution to such an extent that renders it unacceptable/unfit to be used in a real-world application. We propose an algorithm which (i) prunes numerically redundant linear equations from the system as these do not add any new information to the model, (ii) detects contradictory linear equations along with their degree of contradiction (inconsistency index), (iii) removes those equations presumed to be too contradictory, and then (iv) obtain the . minimum norm least-squares solution of the acceptably inconsistent reduced linear system. The algorithm presented in Matlab reduces the computational and storage complexities and also improves the accuracy of the solution. It also provides the necessary warning about the existence of too much contradiction in the model. In addition, we suggest a thorough relook into the mathematical modeling to determine the reason why unacceptable contradiction has occurred thus prompting us to make necessary corrections/modifications to the models - both mathematical and, if necessary, physical.

  15. The use of focus groups to examine pubertal concerns in preteen girls: initial findings and implications for practice and research.

    PubMed

    Doswell, W M; Vandestienne, G

    1996-01-01

    This article presents the findings of four focus groups aimed at discovering the concerns a group of 9- to 12-year-old African American and Hispanic girls (N = 38) had about puberty, the transition to adolescence, and growing up. Among the factors these girls liked about growing up were increasing independence from parents, widening social relations with same- and opposite-sex friends, and an increase in decision making regarding clothes and activities. What they reported as not liking about growing up were an increase in peer pressure, high parental expectations, and more responsibility for their actions in home, school, and recreational activities. Health care for this group must include systematic monitoring of pubertal development and concerns in order to aggressively educate preadolescents to negotiate this period smoothly and to avoid high-risk behaviors that could have negative health and social sequelae during adolescence and adulthood. PMID:8920329

  16. The bad apple effect and social value orientation in public-goods dilemmas: replication and extension of research findings.

    PubMed

    Wu, Song; Sun, Jiaqing; Cai, Wei; Jin, Shenghua

    2014-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to replicate and extend previous findings on the effect of uncooperative behavior on group cooperation (the "bad apple" effect). Study 1 (56 women, 40 men; M age = 23.5 yr.) manipulated information about contributions from the bad apple, controlling for overall contributions to a group account. Study 2 (50 women, 34 men; M age = 20.4 yr.) compared the effects of a bad apple and a good apple on cooperation. The social value orientation of participants was measured to explore individual differences in the bad apple effect. The results revealed a bad apple (a) decreased cooperation among individuals with proself and prosocial orientations in Study 1, and (b) had a greater effect than a good apple on those who were proself compared to prosocial in Study 2. PMID:25074307

  17. Generalizing the findings from group dynamics-based physical activity research to practice settings: what do we know?

    PubMed

    Harden, Samantha M; Burke, Shauna M; Haile, Amanda M; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2015-03-01

    The general purpose of this secondary analysis of a prior systematic review was to determine the degree to which group dynamics-based physical activity interventions align with research processes and outcomes that are more likely to facilitate the translation of research into practice. To accomplish this, a systematic search was conducted within Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index, Arts and Humanities Citation Index, and MEDLINE databases to identify articles published prior to 2010 that used at least one group dynamics-based strategy (e.g., group interaction, group goal setting) in physical activity promotion. These 17 intervention studies were identified and coded based on the reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintenance framework and Pragmatic-Explanatory Continuum Indicator Summary (for trial design characteristics). Reporting was infrequent for external validity factors (i.e., representativeness, adoption, cost, maintenance) but more frequent for internal validity factors (e.g., inclusion criteria). Intervention costs were not reported. Studies were more likely to be pragmatic (i.e., designed to determine the effects of an intervention under the usual conditions in which it will be applied) in areas of participant compliance and practitioner adherence and explanatory (i.e., designed to determine the effects of an intervention under ideal conditions) and in areas of practitioner expertise and flexibility of intervention protocol. While a number of these interventions were tested in more pragmatic settings, external validity factors were still underreported. PMID:23716732

  18. Clinical and animal research findings in pycnodysostosis and gene mutations of cathepsin K from 1996 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Cathepsin K (CTSK) is a member of the papain-like cysteine protease family. Mutations in the CTSK gene cause a rare autosomal recessive bone disorder called pycnodysostosis (OMIM 265800). In order to follow the advances in the research about CTSK and pycnodysostosis, we performed a literature retrospective study of 159 pycnodysostosis patients reported since 1996 and focused on the genetic characteristics of CTSK mutations and/or the clinical phenotypes of pycnodysostosis. Thirty three different CTSK mutations have been found in 59 unrelated pycnodysostosis families. Of the 59 families, 37.29% are from Europe and 30.51% are from Asia. A total of 69.70% of the mutations were identified in the mature domain of CTSK, 24.24% in the proregion, and 6.06% in the preregion. The hot mutation spots are found in exons 6 and 7. CTSK mutations result in total loss or inactivity of the CTSK protein, which causes abnormal degradation of bone matrix proteins such as type I collagen. Skeletal abnormalities, including short stature, an increase in bone density with pathologic fractures, and open fontanels and sutures, are the typical phenotypes of pycnodysostosis. Research on Ctsk-/- mouse models was also reviewed here to elucidate the biological function of Ctsk and the mechanism of pycnodysostosis. New evidence suggests that Ctsk plays an important role in the immune system and may serve as a valid therapeutic target in the future treatment of pycnodysostosis. PMID:21569238

  19. Preventative lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) and young child feeding practices: findings from qualitative research in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Lesorogol, Carolyn; Jean-Louis, Sherlie; Green, Jamie; Iannotti, Lora

    2014-05-01

    To prevent undernutrition in an urban slum in Haiti, a lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) was introduced through a randomised control trial. Food supplementation for young child nutrition has a long history in Haiti, but there is little empirical information regarding the effects of supplementation on young child feeding practices. One of the concerns raised by supplementation is that it may disrupt other positive feeding practices such as breastfeeding and use of other complementary foods, with negative consequences for child nutrition. We conducted 29 in-depth interviews with mother-baby pairs from the three comparison groups: control, 3-month LNS supplementation and 6-month LNS supplementation. Findings from those in the LNS groups indicated high acceptance and satisfaction with LNS and perceptions that it positively affects child health and development. LNS was integrated into and enhanced ongoing complementary feeding practices. The effects of LNS use on duration and perceived quantity of breastfeeding were variable, but generally, breastfeeding was maintained during and after the intervention. Interviews generated insights into beliefs regarding infant and young child feeding practices such as introduction and use of complementary foods, and breastfeeding duration, exclusivity and cessation. Implications for the use of LNS in public health nutrition programmes are discussed. PMID:24784976

  20. Direct Quote and Reference List Entry Faults and Errors in a Sample of Articles from the "American Educational Research Journal," Compared With Findings from Previous Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Arden; Hernandez, Nelda R.

    A study compared the nature and frequency of faults and errors in reference list entries and direct quotes selected from 78 articles in 8 issues of the "American Educational Research Journal" (AERJ) with authors sampled from 10 previously studied journals. All departures from the original (additions, omissions, or changes) were labeled as either a…

  1. Developing International Research Collaborations among Postdoctoral Fellows: Key Findings from the Evaluation of NSF's International Research Fellowship Program. GS-10F-0086K

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Alina; Epstein, Carter; Parsad, Amanda; Whittaker, Karla

    2012-01-01

    Over a decade ago, the National Science Board (NSB) highlighted the importance of international collaboration in its call for increased government commitment to promoting international science and engineering (S&E) research and education. The NSB also identified the National Science Foundation (NSF) as having an important leadership role in…

  2. Spinouts from academic institutions: a literature review with suggestions for further research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Djordje Djokovic; Vangelis Souitaris

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive literature review of the phenomenon of spinouts from academic institutions. We systematically\\u000a identified spinout papers in key management journals, categorised the literature and critically synthesised the findings.\\u000a We present the findings of each literature stream in turn and also identify inconsistencies and directions for further research.\\u000a We conclude that while the early literature has been

  3. Detecting and removing inconsistencies between experimental data and signaling network topologies using integer linear programming on interaction graphs.

    PubMed

    Melas, Ioannis N; Samaga, Regina; Alexopoulos, Leonidas G; Klamt, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Cross-referencing experimental data with our current knowledge of signaling network topologies is one central goal of mathematical modeling of cellular signal transduction networks. We present a new methodology for data-driven interrogation and training of signaling networks. While most published methods for signaling network inference operate on Bayesian, Boolean, or ODE models, our approach uses integer linear programming (ILP) on interaction graphs to encode constraints on the qualitative behavior of the nodes. These constraints are posed by the network topology and their formulation as ILP allows us to predict the possible qualitative changes (up, down, no effect) of the activation levels of the nodes for a given stimulus. We provide four basic operations to detect and remove inconsistencies between measurements and predicted behavior: (i) find a topology-consistent explanation for responses of signaling nodes measured in a stimulus-response experiment (if none exists, find the closest explanation); (ii) determine a minimal set of nodes that need to be corrected to make an inconsistent scenario consistent; (iii) determine the optimal subgraph of the given network topology which can best reflect measurements from a set of experimental scenarios; (iv) find possibly missing edges that would improve the consistency of the graph with respect to a set of experimental scenarios the most. We demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach by interrogating a manually curated interaction graph model of EGFR/ErbB signaling against a library of high-throughput phosphoproteomic data measured in primary hepatocytes. Our methods detect interactions that are likely to be inactive in hepatocytes and provide suggestions for new interactions that, if included, would significantly improve the goodness of fit. Our framework is highly flexible and the underlying model requires only easily accessible biological knowledge. All related algorithms were implemented in a freely available toolbox SigNetTrainer making it an appealing approach for various applications. PMID:24039561

  4. Characteristics, detection methods, and treatment of questionable occlusal carious lesions: findings from The National Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Makhija, Sonia K; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Funkhouser, Ellen; Bader, James D; Gordan, Valeria V.; Rindal, D. Brad; Pihlstrom, Daniel J.; Qvist, Vibeke

    2014-01-01

    Questionable occlusal carious lesions (QOC) can be defined as an occlusal tooth surface with no cavitation and no radiographic radiolucencies, but caries is suspected due to roughness, surface opacities, or staining. An earlier analysis of data from this study indicates ? of patients have a QOC. The objective of this report is to quantify the characteristics of these common lesions, diagnostic aids used, and treatment of QOC. A total of 82 dentist and hygienist practitioner-investigators from the United States and Denmark in The National Dental Practice-Based Research Network participated. When consented patients presented with a QOC, information was recorded about the patient, tooth, lesion, and treatments. 2,603 QOC from 1,732 patients were analyzed. Lesions were usually associated with a fissure, on molars, and varied from yellow to black in color. Half presented with a chalky luster and had a rough surface when examined with an explorer. There was an association between color and luster, 10% were chalky-light, 47% were shiny-dark, and 42% were mixtures. A higher proportion of chalky than shiny lesions were light (22% vs. 9%; p < 0.001). Lesions light in color were less common in adults than pediatric patients (9% vs. 32%; p < 0.001). Lesions that were chalky and light were more common among pediatric than adult patients (22% vs. 6%, p < 0.001). This is the first study to investigate characteristics of QOC in routine clinical practice. Clinicians commonly face this diagnostic uncertainty. Determining the characteristics of these lesions are relevant when making diagnostic and treatment decisions. PMID:24480989

  5. Characteristics, detection methods and treatment of questionable occlusal carious lesions: findings from the national dental practice-based research network.

    PubMed

    Makhija, S K; Gilbert, G H; Funkhouser, E; Bader, J D; Gordan, V V; Rindal, D B; Pihlstrom, D J; Qvist, V

    2014-01-01

    Questionable occlusal carious lesions (QOC) can be defined as an occlusal tooth surface with no cavitation and no radiographic radiolucencies, but caries is suspected due to roughness, surface opacities or staining. An earlier analysis of data from this study indicates 1/3 of patients have a QOC. The objective of this report has been to quantify the characteristics of these common lesions, the diagnostic aids used and the treatment of QOC. A total of 82 dentist and hygienist practitioner-investigators from the USA and Denmark in the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network participated. When consenting patients presented with a QOC, information was recorded about the patient, tooth, lesion and treatments. A total of 2,603 QOC from 1,732 patients were analyzed. The lesions were usually associated with a fissure, on molars, and varied from yellow to black in color. Half presented with a chalky luster and had a rough surface when examined with an explorer. There was an association between color and luster: 10% were chalky-light, 47% were shiny-dark and 42% were mixtures. A higher proportion of chalky than of shiny lesions were light (22 vs. 9%; p < 0.001). Lesions light in color were less common in adults than in pediatric patients (9 vs. 32%; p < 0.001). Lesions that were chalky and light were more common among pediatric than among adult patients (22 vs. 6%; p < 0.001). This is the first study to investigate characteristics of QOC in routine clinical practice. Clinicians commonly face this diagnostic uncertainty. Determining the characteristics of these lesions is relevant when making diagnostic and treatment decisions. PMID:24480989

  6. Inconsistent Results of Diagnostic Tools Hamper the Differentiation between Bee and Vespid Venom Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Sturm, Gunter J.; Jin, Chunsheng; Kranzelbinder, Bettina; Hemmer, Wolfgang; Sturm, Eva M.; Griesbacher, Antonia; Heinemann, Akos; Vollmann, Jutta; Altmann, Friedrich; Crailsheim, Karl; Focke, Margarete; Aberer, Werner

    2011-01-01

    Background Double sensitization (DS) to bee and vespid venom is frequently observed in the diagnosis of hymenoptera venom allergy, but clinically relevant DS is rare. Therefore it is sophisticated to choose the relevant venom for specific immunotherapy and overtreatment with both venoms may occur. We aimed to compare currently available routine diagnostic tests as well as experimental tests to identify the most accurate diagnostic tool. Methods 117 patients with a history of a bee or vespid allergy were included in the study. Initially, IgE determination by the ImmunoCAP, by the Immulite, and by the ADVIA Centaur, as well as the intradermal test (IDT) and the basophil activation test (BAT) were performed. In 72 CAP double positive patients, individual IgE patterns were determined by western blot inhibition and component resolved diagnosis (CRD) with rApi m 1, nVes v 1, and nVes v 5. Results Among 117 patients, DS was observed in 63.7% by the Immulite, in 61.5% by the CAP, in 47.9% by the IDT, in 20.5% by the ADVIA, and in 17.1% by the BAT. In CAP double positive patients, western blot inhibition revealed CCD-based DS in 50.8%, and the CRD showed 41.7% of patients with true DS. Generally, agreement between the tests was only fair and inconsistent results were common. Conclusion BAT, CRD, and ADVIA showed a low rate of DS. However, the rate of DS is higher than expected by personal history, indicating that the matter of clinical relevance is still not solved even by novel tests. Furthermore, the lack of agreement between these tests makes it difficult to distinguish between bee and vespid venom allergy. At present, no routinely employed test can be regarded as gold standard to find the clinically relevant sensitization. PMID:21698247

  7. Rock Finding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the…

  8. Utilization of Non-Dentist Providers and Attitudes Toward New Provider Models: Findings from The National Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Blue, Christine M.; Funkhouser, D. Ellen; Riggs, Sheila; Rindal, D. Brad; Worley, Donald; Pihlstrom, Daniel J.; Benjamin, Paul; Gilbert, Gregg H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to quantify within The National Dental Practice-Based Research Network current utilization of dental hygienists and assistants with expanded functions and quantify network dentists’ attitudes toward a new non-dentist provider model - the dental therapist. Methods Dental practice-based research network practitioner-investigators participated in a single, cross-sectional administration of a questionnaire. Results Current non-dentist providers are not being utilized by network practitioner-investigators to the fullest extent allowed by law. Minnesota practitioners, practitioners in large group practices, and those with prior experience with expanded function non-dentist providers delegate at a higher rate and had more-positive perceptions of the new dental therapist model. Conclusions Expanding scopes of practice for dental hygienists and assistants has not translated to the maximal delegation allowed by law among network practices. This finding may provide insight into dentists’ acceptance of newer non-dentist provider models. PMID:23668892

  9. Inconsistency effects in source memory and compensatory schema-consistent guessing.

    PubMed

    Küppers, Viviane; Bayen, Ute J

    2014-10-01

    The attention-elaboration hypothesis of memory for schematically unexpected information predicts better source memory for unexpected than expected sources. In three source-monitoring experiments, the authors tested the occurrence of an inconsistency effect in source memory. Participants were presented with items that were schematically either very expected or very unexpected for their source. Multinomial processing tree models were used to separate source memory, item memory, and guessing bias. Results show an inconsistency effect in source memory accompanied by a compensatory schema-consistent guessing bias when expectancy strength is high, that is, when items are very expected or very unexpected for their source. PMID:24628718

  10. Consistency and inconsistency radii for solving systems of linear equations and inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murav'eva, O. V.

    2015-03-01

    Problems that reduce to consistency or inconsistency of systems of linear equations or inequalities arise in many divisions of theoretical informatics. The examples are problems in linear programming, machine learning, multicriteria optimization, etc. There exist different stability measures for the property of consistency or inconsistency, and different information constituents are possible (all the input parameters, the coefficient matrix, the vector of constraints). In this paper, variations of all parameters are examined in combination with an additional constraint important in applications, namely, the nonnegativity of feasible points.

  11. Drinking Water Contaminants Research Findings

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation provides a short summary of the USEPA arsenic removal demonstration program. The summary included the results of the arsenic demonstration project in Arnaudville, LA that is a Round 2 project. The second part of the presentation consisted of a short summary on t...

  12. Effective Schools: Accumulating Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Michael

    1982-01-01

    Discusses what effective schools do to raise achievement levels. Cites the problems and misinterpretations that have arisen about the Equality of Educational Opportunity Report done by James Coleman in 1966. (JOW)

  13. Sources of Score Scale Inconsistency. Research Report. ETS RR-11-35

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fife, James H.; Graf, Edith Aurora; Ohls, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Six tasks, selected from assessments administered in 2007 as part of the Cognitively-Based Assessments of, for, and as Learning (CBAL) project, were revised in an effort to remove difficulties with the tasks that were unrelated to the construct being assessed. Because the revised tasks were piloted on a different population from the original…

  14. A critical look at parenting research from the mainstream: Problems uncovered while adapting Western research to non-Western cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sunita Mahtani Stewart; Michael Harris Bond

    2002-01-01

    Although there is some consensus among theorists regarding attributes of parents that associate with optimal child outcomes, translation of the theory into measures has been variable and inconsistent. These inconsistencies have been surprisingly little noted in the literature and present a particular problem to researchers seeking to study parenting in little examined cultures. This article describes these inconsistencies, and suggests

  15. Finding trails

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott Morris; Kobus Barnard

    2008-01-01

    We present a statistical learning approach for finding recreational trails in aerial images. While the problem of recognizing relatively straight and well defined roadways in digital images has been well studied in the literature, the more difficult problem of extracting trails has received no attention. However, trails and rough roads are less likely to be adequately mapped, and change more

  16. Self States and Performances of Preadolescent Boys Carrying Out Leadership Roles Inconsistent with Their Social Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinger, Eric; McNelley, Frederick W., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A total of 221 boys, ages 10-17, were assigned to leadership roles which were either consistent or inconsistent with their social status. The effects of the leadership experience on subjects' Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) stories, self-perceptions and performance were examined. (BRT)

  17. Improving the Performance of Inconsistent Knowledge Bases via Combined Optimization Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong Ma; David C. Wilkins

    1991-01-01

    One of the important issues when design- ing effective expert systems is the valida- tion and refinement of the acquired knowl- edge bases. The validation and refinement problem becomes more important and more difficult when the knowledge bases of expert systems consist of uncertain rules, e.g., prob- abilistic rules. In this paper, we first de- scribe one type of inconsistency

  18. A Study of Consistent and Inconsistent Changes to Code Clones Jens Krinke

    E-print Network

    Krinke, Jens

    A Study of Consistent and Inconsistent Changes to Code Clones Jens Krinke FernUniversit¨at in Hagen, Germany krinke@acm.org Abstract Code Cloning is regarded as a threat to software main- tenance, because it is generally assumed that a change to a code clone usually has to be applied to the other clones of the clone

  19. Preference-Inconsistent Recommendations: An Effective Approach for Reducing Confirmation Bias and Stimulating Divergent Thinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwind, Christina; Buder, Jurgen; Cress, Ulrike; Hesse, Friedrich W.

    2012-01-01

    The Web is a perfect backdrop for opinion formation as a multitude of different opinions is publicly available. However, the different opinions often remain unexploited: Learners prefer preference-consistent over preference-inconsistent information, a phenomenon called confirmation bias. Two experiments were designed to test whether technologies…

  20. Non-trading, lexicographic and inconsistent behaviour in stated choice data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephane Hess; John M. Rose; John Polak

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses a number of issues relating to the pre-analysis and cleaning of stated choice data, where we look specifically at the problems caused by non-trading, lexicographic and inconsistent response patterns. We argue that this process is considerably more complex and challenging than many in the field have hitherto acknowledged, with the standard practice being the use of rather

  1. Thermal alteration: A possible reason for the inconsistency between OMEGA/CRISM and

    E-print Network

    Glotch, Timothy D.

    Thermal alteration: A possible reason for the inconsistency between OMEGA/CRISM and TES detections'Eau, les Glaces, et l'Activité (MEx/OMEGA) and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Compact Reconnaissance). Interpretation of both OMEGA and CRISM spectra shows that Nili Fossae contains one of the most significant

  2. Reasoning with Contextual Requirements: Detecting Inconsistency and Conflicts Raian Alia,b

    E-print Network

    acceptable performance of these mechanisms when processing up to medium-sized contextual goal modelsReasoning with Contextual Requirements: Detecting Inconsistency and Conflicts Raian Alia in contextual requirements models. METHOD. We study the analysis of the contextual goal model which

  3. The Inconsistently Learning Disabled Child: Identification and Management of Inattention and Some Forms of Hyperactivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kravitz, Martin

    1982-01-01

    A contract approach specifying long and short term objectives is part of an overall treatment approach for students whose learning and attention skills are inconsistent. Additional program efforts include allergy and food assessment, medication assessment and trial (if appropriate), and attention to the child's biochemical functioning. (CL)

  4. The Belief that Alcohol Use Is Inconsistent with Personal Autonomy: A Promotive Factor for Younger Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Kimberly L.; Shtivelband, Annette; Comello, Maria Leonora G.; Slater, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored an understudied promotive factor, a belief that alcohol use is inconsistent with personal autonomy, which may reduce adolescent intention to drink and subsequent alcohol use. Autonomy was examined as an attitudinal construct within the Theory of Reasoned Action. Longitudinal data from 2,493 seventh grade students nested in 40…

  5. Unification of the a priori inconsistencies checking among assembly constraints in assembly sequence planning

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    generation is an important problem in assembly line design. A good assembly sequence can help to reduce) is to determine the arrangement of assembly operations on the assembly line. Generally, ASP consists of two major1 Unification of the a priori inconsistencies checking among assembly constraints in assembly

  6. A priori checking inconsistencies among strategic constraints for assembly plan generation

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    process: choice of resources, assembly line layout, assembly balancing, efficiency and cost. Generally]. The aim of ASP is to determine the order of assembly operations in the assembly line. ASP is a typical1 A priori checking inconsistencies among strategic constraints for assembly plan generation

  7. The Markov approximation revisited: Inconsistency of the standard quantum Brownian motion model

    E-print Network

    A. Rocco; P. Grigolini

    1999-09-16

    We revisit the Markov approximation necessary to derive ordinary Brownian motion from a model widely adopted in literature for this specific purpose. We show that this leads to internal inconsistencies, thereby implying that further search for a more satisfactory model is required.

  8. TIME-INCONSISTENT STOCHASTIC LINEARQUADRATIC YING HU, HANQING JIN, AND XUN YU ZHOU

    E-print Network

    -known examples of time-inconsistency. Probability distortion, as in behavioral finance models [13], is yet] on the behavioral portfolio choice problem. While these controls are of practical and theoretical value, they have applications especially in mathematical finance, time- IRMAR, Universit´e Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes Cedex, France

  9. Interparental Hostility and Early Adolescent Problem Behavior: Spillover via Maternal Acceptance, Harshness, Inconsistency, and Intrusiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Mark J.; Buehler, Cheryl; Gerard, Jean M.

    2008-01-01

    To explore the link between interparental hostility and adolescent problem behaviors, the current study examines four important maternal parenting dimensions as potential mediators: acceptance, harshness, inconsistency, and psychological intrusiveness. With a primary sample of 1,893 sixth-grade students, the measures included adolescent and…

  10. Finding Colors

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-08-27

    In this chemistry challenge, learners combine acids and bases in a universal indicator to create five different colors. Using vinegar, washing soda, and Bogen universal indicator, the goal is to find combinations that create red, orange, yellow, green, and blue solutions. Background information explains a little about how acids and bases interact to affect the pH of a solution, and how the indicator changes color based on the pH. Safety notes are included.

  11. Factor Findings

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jamie Piecora

    2000-01-01

    In this lesson, students first create factor posters for a variety of different numbers that will be displayed in the classroom to be utilized as a resource throughout the school year. They make discoveries about factors using color tiles, represent their discoveries using graph paper, and display their information on poster board as find factors of an assigned number. The plan includes a list of materials, questions, assessment options, and extensions.

  12. RESEARCH FINDINGS CHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    expression (TLR1, TLR4, TLR6 and TLR7) following injury. These results demonstrate that the improvement of the evaluation of chemokine/cytokine expression and inflammatory cell invasion also demonstrated a significant expression and its receptor IL-23r. Treatment with O-1966 also caused inhibition of toll-like receptor

  13. A Win-Win Model for Outreach and Graduate Education: Research Findings on Professional Development Outcomes for STEM Graduate Students Participating in K-12 Classroom Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laursen, S.; Thiry, H.; Liston, C.

    2006-12-01

    National attention has recently focused on the failures of STEM graduate education in preparing Ph.D. graduates to think broadly, communicate effectively, work in interdisciplinary settings, and succeed in a variety of careers beyond tenure-track academic positions at research universities. We will report findings on a study of a school outreach program that also enhances the graduate education and career preparation of a group of STEM graduate students interested in science education. The Science Squad at the University of Colorado at Boulder is a group of university STEM graduate students who develop and present hands-on, inquiry-based science sessions in local K-12 schools. Squad members hold the position as an alternative to a standard teaching assistantship, typically spending two days a week in the schools. Our ethnographic interview study examines the benefits and costs to the K-12 students, teachers, and graduate students who participate. The program provides significant benefits to the K-12 students and teachers that it serves, but even more importantly offers significant professional development in teaching and learning to a group of STEM graduate students who seek to develop their science careers as communicators and educators. Findings elucidate how the design of the program enables the graduate Squad members to develop teaching, communication, and organizational skills; deepen their understanding of K-12 education and diversity issues; grow in professional confidence; and apply these gains to their career development. In addition, over 80% of the Squad members interviewed reported that participation in the Squad influenced their careers in one of two ways. Members who were pursuing academic positions emphasizing teachers found the Squad experience to confirm their interest in this career and enhance their ability to earn a suitable academic position. Members who were reconsidering their career options and rejecting their initial plans to pursue research positions found an opportunity to explore new career options in education and make more knowledgeable career decisions. The findings will be presented in the context of national efforts to increase scientists' support of K-12 education and to improve graduate education to support a wider range of 21st- century STEM careers. The program is offered as a model for broadening graduate education that is inherently multidisciplinary and does not require changes to degree programs and curricula, while serving an important group of STEM graduate students and the local community.

  14. Find a Plume, Find a Vent

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This classroom activity gives students an appreciation for the difficulties deep sea researchers must face in order to find hydrothermal vents. Working in small groups, students can complete this Web investigation in a single class period. The printable handout includes a series of inquiry-based questions that prompt students to use what they already know about mid-ocean ridges to hypothesize about how scientists locate deep sea vents, detailed directions for a Web research project that takes them on a virtual deep sea journey investigating hydrothermal vents, and a worksheet that helps students apply their building knowledge to locate a vent in the northern Pacific Ocean.

  15. The Logical Inconsistency of the Old Quantum Theory of Black Body Radiation Author(s): John Norton

    E-print Network

    The Logical Inconsistency of the Old Quantum Theory of Black Body Radiation Author(s): John Norton September, 1987 THE LOGICAL INCONSISTENCY OF THE OLD QUANTUM THEORY OF BLACK BODY RADIATION* JOHN NORTONt March 1986. tI wish to thank John Forge, Allan Franklin, Clark Glymour, Nicholas Rescher, and Joel Smith

  16. Second-order radio frequency kinetic theory revisited: Resolving inconsistency with conventional fluid theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiale; Gao, Zhe

    2013-08-01

    The second-order velocity distribution function was calculated from the second-order rf kinetic theory [Jaeger et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 641 (2000)]. However, the nonresonant ponderomotive force in the radial direction derived from the theory is inconsistent with that from the fluid theory. The inconsistency arises from that the multiple-timescale-separation assumption fails when the second-order Vlasov equation is directly integrated along unperturbed particle orbits. A slowly ramped wave field including an adiabatic turn-on process is applied in the modified kinetic theory in this paper. Since this modification leads only to additional reactive/nonresonant response relevant with the secular resonant response from the previous kinetic theory, the correct nonresonant ponderomotive force can be obtained while all the resonant moments remain unchanged.

  17. Factors Associated with Inconsistent Sun Protection in First-Degree Relatives of Melanoma Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Shuk, Elyse; Burkhalter, Jack; Baguer, Carlos; Holland, Susan; Pinkhasik, Alisa; Brady, Mary Sue; Coit, Daniel; Ariyan, Charlotte; Hay, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    First-degree relatives (FDRs) of melanoma survivors are at heightened risk for developing melanoma, but sporadically use sun protection. To develop appropriate interventions, in this article we identify factors related to sun protection inconsistency in melanoma FDRs using ethnographic decision tree modeling. We conducted in-home interviews with 25 melanoma FDRs balanced across gender and sunbathing attitudes and identified factors related to daily decision making about use of sunscreen, shade seeking, hats, and clothing. Results indicated primary facilitators for sun protection involved water settings and sunny weather. Physical activities such as exercise served to promote as well as inhibit sun protection. If participants anticipated shade cover, they tended to forgo other sun protection. The use of hats and clothing was often dictated by non-sun protection goals. Understanding factors related to inconsistent sun protection with detail and nuance is an important prerequisite to interventions aimed to improve sun protection maintenance in this population. PMID:22645220

  18. Temporal and spatial inconsistencies of time-split finite-difference schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwoyer, D. L.; Thames, F. C.

    1981-01-01

    The properties of an implicit time-split algorithm, which utilizes locally one dimensional spatial steps, are examined using the two-dimensional heat conduction equation as the test problem. Both temporal and spatial inconsistencies inherent in the scheme are identified. A consistent, implicit splitting approach is developed. The relationship between this method and other time-split implicit schemes is explained, and stability problems encountered with the method in three dimensions are discussed.

  19. Correlates of Inconsistent Refusal of Unprotected Sex among Armenian Female Sex Workers.

    PubMed

    Markosyan, Karine; Lang, Delia L; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study assessed the prevalence and correlates of inconsistent refusal of unprotected sex among female sex workers (FSWs) in Armenia. One hundred and eighteen street-based FSWs between the ages of 20 and 52 completed a questionnaire assessing FSWs' demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics. A total of 52.5% (n = 62) of FSWs reported inconsistent refusal of unprotected sex with clients in the past 3 months. Logistic regression analysis controlling for participants' age and education revealed that perceiving more barriers toward condom use (AOR = 1.1; P < 0.01), reporting more types of abuse (AOR = 2.1; P < 0.01), and setting lower fees for service (AOR = 0.9; P = 0.02) significantly predicted inconsistent refusal of unprotected sex. HIV-risk-reduction behavioral interventions tailored to FSWs working in Yerevan Armenia should address the factors identified in this study toward the goal of enhancing refusal of unprotected sex and ultimately preventing acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV. PMID:25349727

  20. Correlates of Inconsistent Refusal of Unprotected Sex among Armenian Female Sex Workers

    PubMed Central

    Markosyan, Karine; Lang, Delia L.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study assessed the prevalence and correlates of inconsistent refusal of unprotected sex among female sex workers (FSWs) in Armenia. One hundred and eighteen street-based FSWs between the ages of 20 and 52 completed a questionnaire assessing FSWs' demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics. A total of 52.5% (n = 62) of FSWs reported inconsistent refusal of unprotected sex with clients in the past 3 months. Logistic regression analysis controlling for participants' age and education revealed that perceiving more barriers toward condom use (AOR = 1.1; P < 0.01), reporting more types of abuse (AOR = 2.1; P < 0.01), and setting lower fees for service (AOR = 0.9; P = 0.02) significantly predicted inconsistent refusal of unprotected sex. HIV-risk-reduction behavioral interventions tailored to FSWs working in Yerevan Armenia should address the factors identified in this study toward the goal of enhancing refusal of unprotected sex and ultimately preventing acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV. PMID:25349727

  1. CHAPTER 2 | NOAA OPERATIONS, RESEARCH, & FACILITIES BY LINE OFFICE Katrin Iken (left) and Bodil Bluhm move deep-sea mud from the trawl net to a bucket. The benthic scientists will sieve the mud to find

    E-print Network

    Bluhm move deep-sea mud from the trawl net to a bucket. The benthic scientists will sieve the mud to find creatures within it for additional research. Photo taken during the 2005 NOAA-sponsored "Hidden

  2. The impact of the military mission in Afghanistan on mental health in the Canadian Armed Forces: a summary of research findings

    PubMed Central

    Zamorski, Mark A.; Boulos, David

    2014-01-01

    Background As Canada's mission in Afghanistan winds down, the Canadian Forces (CF) are reflecting on the psychological impact of the mission on more than 40,000 deployed personnel. Methods All major CF studies of mental health outcomes done before and during the Afghanistan era are summarized, with an eye toward getting the most complete picture of the mental health impact of the mission. Studies on traumatic brain injury (TBI), high-risk drinking, and suicidality are included given their conceptual link to mental health. Results CF studies on the mental health impact of pre-Afghanistan deployments are few, and they have inadequate detail on deployment experiences. Afghanistan era findings confirm service-related mental health problems (MHPs) in an important minority. The findings of the studies cohere, both as a group and in the context of data from our Allies. Combat exposure is the most important driver of deployment-related MHPs, but meaningful rates will be found in those in low-threat areas. Reserve service and cumulative effects of multiple deployments are not major risk factors in the CF. Many deployed personnel will seek care, but further efforts to decrease the delay are needed. Only a fraction of the overall burden of mental illness is likely deployment attributable. Deployment-related mental disorders do not translate into an overall increase in in-service suicidal behavior in the CF, but there is concerning evidence of increased suicide risk after release. TBI occurred in a distinct minority on this deployment, but severe forms were rare. Most TBI cases do not have persistent “post-concussive” symptoms; such symptoms are closely associated with MHPs. Conclusion The mental health impact of the mission in Afghanistan is commensurate with its difficult nature. While ongoing and planned studies will provide additional detail on its impacts, greater research attention is needed on preventive and therapeutic interventions. PMID:25206951

  3. Disseminate your findings.

    PubMed

    Grant, Maria J

    2012-03-01

    While research training often takes place during every day practice, for the majority of library and information professionals, essential training will have been received as part of the dissertation element of their degree. However, there is a danger that important dissertation study findings are not disseminated if, for example, the student has moved onto a new job. The Health Information and Libraries Journal seek to address this research/practice gap with the introduction of a new feature 'Dissertations into Practice' specifically tasked with providing a safe and structured environment for students to disseminate their dissertation project findings. PMID:22335284

  4. Press Releases Issued by Supplements Industry Organisations and Non-Industry Organisations in Response to Publication of Clinical Research Findings: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Michael T. M.; Gamble, Greg; Bolland, Mark J.; Grey, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background Dietary supplement use is increasing despite lack of evidence of benefits, or evidence of harm. Press releases issued by the supplements industry might contribute to this situation by using ‘spin’ (strategies to hype or denigrate findings) to distort the results of clinical studies. We assessed press releases issued in response to publication of clinical studies on dietary supplements. Methods and Findings We analyzed 47 supplements industry press releases and 91 non-industry press releases and news stories, generated in response to 46 clinical studies of dietary supplements published between 1/1/2005 and 5/31/2013. The primary outcome was ‘spin’ content and direction. We also assessed disposition towards use of dietary supplements, reporting of study information, and dissemination of industry press releases. More supplements industry press releases (100%) contained ‘spin’ than non-industry media documents (55%, P<0.001). Hyping ‘spin’ scores were higher in industry than non-industry media documents for studies reporting benefit of supplements (median ‘spin’ score 3.3, 95% CI 1.0–5.5 vs 0.5, 0–1.0; P<0.001). Denigratory ‘spin’ scores were higher in industry than non-industry media documents for studies reporting no effect (6.0, 5.0–7.0 vs 0, 0–0; P<0.001) or harm (6.0, 5.5–7.5 vs 0, 0–0.5; P<0.001) from a supplement. Industry press releases advocated supplement use in response to >90% of studies that reported no benefit, or harm, of the supplement. Industry press releases less frequently reported study outcomes, sample size, and estimates of effect size than non-industry media documents (all P<0.001), particularly for studies that reported no benefit of supplements. Industry press releases were referenced by 148 news stories on the websites of 6 organizations that inform manufacturers, retailers and consumers of supplements. Conclusions Dietary supplements industry press releases issued in response to clinical research findings are characterized by ‘spin’ that hypes results that are favourable to supplement use and denigrates results that are not. PMID:24992571

  5. Market structure and quality uncertainty: a theoretical framework for online auction research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianwei Hou; Jeffrey Blodgett

    2010-01-01

    Given large numbers of buyers and sellers, with access to a wide variety of information, economic theory suggests that online\\u000a auction markets should provide an efficient mechanism for establishing equilibrium prices. Previous research on online auction\\u000a prices, however, is far from conclusive, having produced mixed findings. The seemingly inconsistent and sometimes contradictory\\u000a results make it very difficult to integrate empirical

  6. Finding Counterexamples to Inductive Conjectures and Discovering Security Protocol Attacks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Graham Steel; Alan Bundy; Ewen Denne

    2002-01-01

    We present an implementation of a method for finding counterexamples to universally quantified conjectures in first-order logic. Our method uses the proof by consistency strategy to guide a search for a counterexample and a standard first-order theorem prover to perform a concurrent check for inconsistency. We explain briefly the theory behind the method, describe our implementation, and evaluate results achieved

  7. H.U.B city steps: methods and early findings from a community-based participatory research trial to reduce blood pressure among african americans

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been recognized as an important approach to develop and execute health interventions among marginalized populations, and a key strategy to translate research into practice to help reduce health disparities. Despite growing interest in the CBPR approach, CBPR initiatives rarely use experimental or other rigorous research designs to evaluate health outcomes. This behavioral study describes the conceptual frameworks, methods, and early findings related to the reach, adoption, implementation, and effectiveness on primary blood pressure outcomes. Methods The CBPR, social support, and motivational interviewing frameworks are applied to test treatment effects of a two-phased CBPR walking intervention, including a 6-month active intervention quasi experimental phase and 12-month maintenance randomized controlled trial phase to test dose effects of motivational interviewing. A community advisory board helped develop and execute the culturally-appropriate intervention components which included social support walking groups led by peer coaches, pedometer diary self-monitoring, monthly diet and physical activity education sessions, and individualized motivational interviewing sessions. Although the study is on-going, three month data is available and reported. Analyses include descriptive statistics and paired t tests. Results Of 269 enrolled participants, most were African American (94%) females (85%) with a mean age of 43.8 (SD = 12.1) years. Across the 3 months, 90% of all possible pedometer diaries were submitted. Attendance at the monthly education sessions was approximately 33%. At the 3-month follow-up 227 (84%) participants were retained. From baseline to 3-months, systolic BP [126.0 (SD = 19.1) to 120.3 (SD = 17.9) mmHg; p < 0.001] and diastolic BP [83. 2 (SD = 12.3) to 80.2 (SD = 11.6) mmHg; p < 0.001] were significantly reduced. Conclusions This CBPR study highlights implementation factors and signifies the community's active participation in the development and execution of this study. Reach and representativeness of enrolled participants are discussed. Adherence to pedometer diary self-monitoring was better than education session participation. Significant decreases in the primary blood pressure outcomes demonstrate early effectiveness. Importantly, future analyses will evaluate long-term effectiveness of this CBPR behavioral intervention on health outcomes, and help inform the translational capabilities of CBPR efforts. PMID:21663652

  8. Partners for a Healthy Baby is a research-based, practice-informed curriculum used in evidence-based programs that have achieved positive outcomes as documented in numerous studies. Findings

    E-print Network

    McQuade, D. Tyler

    Partners for a Healthy Baby is a research-based, practice-informed curriculum used in evidence- based programs that have achieved positive outcomes as documented in numerous studies. Findings include outcomes. The Partners curriculum is used by more than 3,700 programs in many different research-based home

  9. Agency-communion and interest in prosocial behavior: social motives for assimilation and contrast explain sociocultural inconsistencies.

    PubMed

    Gebauer, Jochen E; Sedikides, Constantine; Lüdtke, Oliver; Neberich, Wiebke

    2014-10-01

    Identifying the "prosocial personality" is a classic project in personality psychology. However, personality traits have been elusive predictors of prosocial behavior, with personality-prosociality relations varying widely across sociocultural contexts. We propose the social motives perspective to account for such sociocultural inconsistencies. According to this perspective, a focal quality of agency (e.g., competence, independence, openness) is the motive to swim against the social tide-agentic social contrast. Conversely, a focal quality of communion (e.g., warmth, interdependence, agreeableness) is the motive to swim with the social tide-communal social assimilation. We report two cross-sectional studies. Study 1 (N?=?131,562) defined social context at the country level (11 European countries), whereas Study 2 (N?=?56,395) defined it at the country level (11 European countries) and the city level (296 cities within these countries). Communion predicted interest in prosocial behavior comparatively strongly in sociocultural contexts where such interest was common and comparatively weakly where such interest was uncommon. Agency predicted interest in prosocial behavior comparatively strongly in sociocultural contexts where such interest was uncommon and comparatively weakly where such interest was common. The results supported the social motives perspective. Also, the findings help to reestablish the importance of personality for understanding prosociality. PMID:24127868

  10. Find a Plume, Find a Vent

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This classroom activity will give students an appreciation for the difficulties deep sea researchers must face in order to find hydrothermal vents. Working in small groups, students can complete this Web investigation in a single class period. The printable six-page handout includes a series of inquiry-based questions that prompt students to use what they already know about mid-ocean ridges to hypothesize about how scientists locate deep sea vents. In addition, it has detailed directions for a Web research project that takes them on a virtual deep sea journey, investigating hydrothermal vents and a worksheet that helps students apply their knowledge to locate a vent in the northern Pacific Ocean.

  11. Omega-inconsistency in Goedel's formal system: a constructive proof of the Entscheidungsproblem

    E-print Network

    Bhupinder Singh Anand

    2003-05-11

    If we apply an extension of the Deduction meta-Theorem to Goedel's meta-reasoning of "undecidability", we can conclude that Goedel's formal system of Arithmetic is not omega-consistent. If we then take the standard interpretation "(Ax)(F(x)" of the PA-formula [(Ax)F(x)] to mean "There is a general, x-independent, routine to establish that F(x) holds for all x", instead of "F(x) holds for all x", it follows that a constructively interpreted omega-inconsistent system proves Hilbert's Entscheidungsproblem negatively.

  12. Math Videos Captioned and Signed in ASL: Systems of Two Equations (Substitution Method) Inconsistent

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is the twenty-third video in the series of lessons on math provided by DeafTEC. Gary Blatto-Vallee, a math and science instructor at the National Technical Institute for the Deaf, guides viewers through a variety of mathematical exercises in this DeafTEC video series. All lessons are fully captioned, signed in ASL, and voiced. In this 8:52 video, Blatto-Vallee uses an electronic whiteboard to show several examples of how to determine if two equations are inconsistent using the substitution method. See the main Math Video Resources page for an introduction to this video series.

  13. Inconsistencies in pedigree symbols in human genetics publications: A need for standardization

    SciTech Connect

    Steinhaus, K.A.; Bennett, R.L.; Resta, R.G. [Univ. of California at Irvine, Orange, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-10

    To determine consistency in usage of pedigree symbols by genetics professionals, we reviewed pedigrees printed in 10 human genetic and medical journals and 24 medical genetics textbooks. We found no consistent symbolization for common situations such as pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, death, or test results. Inconsistency in pedigree design can create difficulties in the interpretation of family studies and detract from the pedigree`s basic strength of simple and accurate communication of medical information. We recommend the development of standard pedigree symbols, and their incorporation into genetic publications, professional genetics training programs, pedigree software programs, and genetic board examinations. 5 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. 41 CFR 102-75.275 - Who determines whether the proposed disposal would create or maintain a situation inconsistent...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false Who determines whether the proposed disposal would create or maintain a situation inconsistent...REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Surplus Real Property Disposal Applicability of Antitrust Laws §...

  15. Quantification and Visualization of the Three-Dimensional Inconsistency of the Subthalamic Nucleus in the Schaltenbrand-Wahren Brain Atlas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wieslaw L. Nowinski; Jimin Liu; A. Thirunavuukarasuu

    2006-01-01

    The Schaltenbrand-Wahren (SW) brain atlas has many limitations: the major two are three-dimensional (3D) inconsistency and spatial sparseness. In this work, we quantify and visualize the 3D inconsistency of the subthalamic nucleus (STN). The STN 3D models, 3D-A, 3D-C and 3D-S, are reconstructed from the SW axial, coronal, and sagittal microseries, respectively, by using a shape-based (NURBS) approach. All three

  16. Inconsistent Range Shifts within Species Highlight Idiosyncratic Responses to Climate Warming

    PubMed Central

    Gibson-Reinemer, Daniel K.; Rahel, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    Climate in part determines species’ distributions, and species’ distributions are shifting in response to climate change. Strong correlations between the magnitude of temperature changes and the extent of range shifts point to warming temperatures as the single most influential factor causing shifts in species’ distributions species. However, other abiotic and biotic factors may alter or even reverse these patterns. The importance of temperature relative to these other factors can be evaluated by examining range shifts of the same species in different geographic areas. When the same species experience warming in different geographic areas, the extent to which they show range shifts that are similar in direction and magnitude is a measure of temperature’s importance. We analyzed published studies to identify species that have documented range shifts in separate areas. For 273 species of plants, birds, mammals, and marine invertebrates with range shifts measured in multiple geographic areas, 42-50% show inconsistency in the direction of their range shifts, despite experiencing similar warming trends. Inconsistency of within-species range shifts highlights how biotic interactions and local, non-thermal abiotic conditions may often supersede the direct physiological effects of temperature. Assemblages show consistent responses to climate change, but this predictability does not appear to extend to species considered individually. PMID:26162013

  17. Do words matter? Incongruent responses to inconsistently worded AUDIT-C alcohol screening instruments

    PubMed Central

    Broyles, Lauren Matukaitis; Gordon, Adam J.; Sereika, Susan; Ryan, Christopher; Erlen, Judith A.

    2012-01-01

    The first three questions of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C) are often used as a brief alcohol screening instrument. However, the implications of common modifications made to the original AUDIT questions and response options have not been considered. We examined existing data from a randomized controlled trial of 310 persons with HIV/AIDS which was testing the efficacy of two antiretroviral medication adherence interventions. Logistic regression was used to model the probability of participants having inconsistent AUDIT-C item responses. Three patterns of conflicting responses to the AUDIT-C items were identified. Common item modifications resulted in 14% (n=48) of the parent study sample reporting conflicting responses across related AUDIT-C items. The odds of having conflicting data were three times greater in opioid users [OR=3.139, 95%CI=(1.267–7.777), p=0.01] and greater in persons with higher levels of conscientiousness [OR=1.053, 95%CI=(1.006–1.103), p=0.03]. Inconsistent question format and response options may impede proper scoring and interpretation of the AUDIT-C. Further discussion and consensus-building is needed on the psychometrically ideal version of the AUDIT-C. PMID:22014250

  18. Do words matter? Incongruent responses to inconsistently worded AUDIT-C alcohol screening instruments.

    PubMed

    Broyles, Lauren Matukaitis; Gordon, Adam J; Sereika, Susan M; Ryan, Christopher M; Erlen, Judith A

    2011-10-01

    The first 3 questions of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C) are often used as a brief alcohol screening instrument. However, the implications of common modifications made to the original AUDIT questions and response options have not been considered. The authors examined existing data from a randomized controlled trial of 310 persons with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) that was testing the efficacy of 2 antiretroviral medication adherence interventions. Logistic regression was used to model the probability of participants having inconsistent AUDIT-C item responses. Three patterns of conflicting responses to the AUDIT-C items were identified. Common item modifications resulted in 14% (n = 48) of the parent study sample reporting conflicting responses across related AUDIT-C items. The odds of having conflicting data were 3 times greater in opioid users (odds ratio [OR] = 3.139, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.267-7.777, P = .01) and greater in persons with higher levels of conscientiousness (OR = 1.053, 95% CI = 1.006-1.103, P = .03). Inconsistent question format and response options may impede proper scoring and interpretation of the AUDIT-C. Further discussion and consensus building are needed on the psychometrically ideal version of the AUDIT-C. PMID:22014250

  19. What Does It Mean to Be a Friendly Outsider? Critical Reflection on Finding a Role as an Action Researcher with Communities Developing Renewable Energy Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Jennifer; Convery, Ian; Simmons, Eunice; Weatherall, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a reflective account exploring the value of using action research in a relatively new context in the United Kingdom; the development of community renewable-energy projects. There is a strong rationale for using action research in this setting due to the synergies between the principles and practice of action research and localised…

  20. Stepping Stones Triple P: the importance of putting the findings into context.

    PubMed

    Tellegen, Cassandra L; Sofronoff, Kate

    2015-01-01

    The Stepping Stones Triple P (SSTP) parenting program is an evidence-based program for parents of children with a disability. A trial of SSTP was recently published in BMC Medicine, which reported results of a randomized controlled trial comparing SSTP to care-as-usual. Although the paper described what should be an important replication trial of SSTP, there are significant shortcomings to the scientific approach of the reporting that need to be addressed. The paper initially cites only a few published SSTP studies and describes evidence for the efficacy of the program as "very scarce". A meta-analysis of studies evaluating SSTP published prior to submission of this paper was not cited. The results are inconsistent with previous evidence for SSTP, yet the authors provide scant interpretation for this inconsistency. Similarly, the unusually high dropout rate of 49% was not adequately explained. The claims that previous research has only been conducted by the developers, has not included children with intellectual disability, and has not used care-as-usual comparison groups, are inaccurate. This commentary explores these issues further in order to place the findings from the recent trial into context. PMID:25649871

  1. Cultural Attitudes and Body Dissatisfaction: Morgan State Researchers Find that Perceptions of Body Image among Young African Americans May Be Life Threatening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, B. Denise

    2005-01-01

    Young African Americans don't appear to perceive obesity in the way the medical community does, putting them at greater risk for developing chronic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and cancer, says a first-ever study led by researchers at the Morgan State University Prevention Sciences Research Center. The pilot study, which provides a rare…

  2. Use and non-use of VDTs - organization of terminal work: Research findings from Swedish cross-site studies in the field of office automation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gunnela Westlander

    1990-01-01

    In occupational health research, the impact of Visual Display Terminal (VDT) use has frequently been analyzed on the basis of the amount of work involved. There are difficulties in comparing studies because of the variety of time dimensions chosen (frequency of use, total amount per day or week, length of working periods). Also, much earlier research has sought out the

  3. Inconsistencies and misleading information in officially approved prescribing information from three major drug markets.

    PubMed

    Pfistermeister, B; Saß, A; Criegee-Rieck, M; Bürkle, T; Fromm, M F; Maas, R

    2014-11-01

    The summary of product characteristics (SPC) should provide information for the safe prescription and use of a drug. We evaluated the consistency of critical interaction warnings, the quality of presentation of undesirable effects as well as concordance of critical information of representative drugs marketed in the United States, the UK, and Germany. Reciprocal warnings regarding drug-drug interactions that constitute contraindications were frequently missing in the SPCs of the drugs concerned (all countries >40%). Most SPCs did not explicitly exclude adverse reactions considered not reasonably attributable to the use of the drug. Comparing SPCs of different generic brands of the same drug, only 60, 10, and 20% of the US, UK, and German SPCs, respectively, provided identical contraindications. Current SPCs contain inconsistencies and misleading data that are not compatible with the purpose of SPCs, which is to provide a basis for the safe prescription and use of drugs. PMID:25062063

  4. An absurd inconsistency in law: Nicklinson's case and deciding to die.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Michael

    2014-03-01

    R (Nicklinson) v Ministry of Justice [2012] EWHC 2381 was a tragic case that considered a perennial question: whether voluntary active euthanasia is murder. The traditional position was affirmed, that is, it is indeed murder. The law's treatment of decisions to refuse treatment resulting in death is a stark contrast to the position in respect of voluntary, active euthanasia. In cases of refusing treatment, principles of individual autonomy are paramount. This article presents an overview of the legal distinction between refusing medical treatment and voluntary, active euthanasia. It questions the purported differences between what are described as acts of "active" or "passive" euthanasia. It also highlights the inconsistency of the law's treatment of different ways that people decide to die. PMID:24804532

  5. Inconsistency in Chinese solar radiation data caused by instrument replacement: Quantification based on pan evaporation observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hanbo; Li, Zhe; Li, Mingliang; Yang, Dawen

    2015-04-01

    Solar radiation determines our climate and hydrological cycle, and it has been widely measured by pyrometers at meteorological stations. In the early 1990s, a large-scale instrument replacement occurred across China, leading to inconsistent solar radiation observations. Fortunately, China has consistent pan evaporation (Epan) observations from Chinese micropans (with a diameter of 20 cm) from the 1950s to 2001. This study parameterized the PenPan-20 model for estimating Epan from these pans using a Bayesian approach. Furthermore, based on the PenPan-20 model, a shift in the solar radiation data (~1.4 ± 0.5 MJ/(d m2) or 16 ± 7 W/m2) in the early 1990s was revealed; this change was likely due to the large-scale retrofitting of new instruments and irregular calibration operations.

  6. Confusion and inconsistency in diagnosis of Asperger syndrome: a review of studies from 1981 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shilpi; Woolfson, Lisa Marks; Hunter, Simon C

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents a review of past and current research on the diagnosis of Asperger syndrome (AS) in children. It is suggested that the widely used criteria for diagnosing AS in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV are insufficient and invalid for a reliable diagnosis of AS. In addition, when these diagnostic criteria are applied, there is the potential bias of receiving a diagnosis towards the high-functioning end of the autism spectrum. Through a critical review of 69 research studies carried out between 1981 and 2010, this paper shows that six possible criteria for diagnosing AS (specifically, the age at which signs and symptoms related to autism become apparent, language and social communication abilities, intellectual abilities, motor or movement skills, repetitive patterns of behaviour and the nature of social interaction) overlap with the criteria for diagnosing autism. However, there is a possibility that some finer differences exist in the nature of social interaction, motor skills and speech patterns between groups with a diagnosis of AS and autism. These findings are proposed to be of relevance for designing intervention studies aimed at the treatment of specific symptoms in people with an autism spectrum disorder. PMID:21810909

  7. Inconsistent use of gesture space during abstract pointing impairs language comprehension.

    PubMed

    Gunter, Thomas C; Weinbrenner, J E Douglas; Holle, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Pointing toward concrete objects is a well-known and efficient communicative strategy. Much less is known about the communicative effectiveness of abstract pointing where the pointing gestures are directed to "empty space." McNeill's (2003) observations suggest that abstract pointing can be used to establish referents in gesture space, without the referents being physically present. Recently, however, it has been shown that abstract pointing typically provides redundant information to the uttered speech thereby suggesting a very limited communicative value (So et al., 2009). In a first approach to tackle this issue we were interested to know whether perceivers are sensitive at all to this gesture cue or whether it is completely discarded as irrelevant add-on information. Sensitivity to for instance a gesture-speech mismatch would suggest a potential communicative function of abstract pointing. Therefore, we devised a mismatch paradigm in which participants watched a video where a female was interviewed on various topics. During her responses, she established two concepts in space using abstract pointing (e.g., pointing to the left when saying Donald, and pointing to the right when saying Mickey). In the last response to each topic, the pointing gesture accompanying a target word (e.g., Donald) was either consistent or inconsistent with the previously established location. Event related brain potentials showed an increased N400 and P600 when gesture and speech referred to different referents, indicating that inconsistent use of gesture space impairs language comprehension. Abstract pointing was found to influence comprehension even though gesture was not crucial to understanding the sentences or conducting the experimental task. These data suggest that a referent was retrieved via abstract pointing and that abstract pointing can potentially be used for referent indication in a discourse. We conclude that abstract pointing has a potential communicative function. PMID:25709591

  8. Black hole thermodynamics: No inconsistency via the inclusion of the missing P -V terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azreg-Aïnou, Mustapha

    2015-03-01

    The early literature on black hole thermodynamics ignored the P -V term associated with the existence of a fundamental physical constant in the black hole solution. The inclusion of this constant in the first law becomes inconsistent with the Smarr relation. Once the missing P -V term is introduced, it becomes customary to introduce it only in problems where there is a negative cosmological constant. This practice is inherited from cosmological approaches which consider the quantity -? /8 ? as the constant pressure due to a cosmological fluid. However, the notions of pressure and thermodynamic volume in black hole thermodynamics are very different from their counterparts in classical thermodynamics. From this point of view, there is a priori no compelling reason to not extend this notion of pressure and associate a partial pressure with each "external" density 8? Tt t . In this work, we associate a partial pressure with a variable mass parameter as well as with each t t component of the effective stress-energy tensor Teff? ? but not with the linear component of the electromagnetic field. Using the field equations G? ?=8 ? Teff? ? , we derive universal expressions for the enthalpy, internal energy, free energies, thermodynamic volume, equation of state, law of corresponding states, criticality, and critical exponents of static (nonrotating) charged black holes, with possibly a variable mass parameter, whether they are solutions to the Einstein field equations or not. We extend the derivation to the case where the black hole is immersed in the field of a quintessence force and to the multiforce case. Many applications and extensions are considered, including applications to regular black holes derived in previous and present work. No inconsistency has been noticed in their thermodynamics.

  9. Inconsistent use of gesture space during abstract pointing impairs language comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Gunter, Thomas C.; Weinbrenner, J. E. Douglas; Holle, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Pointing toward concrete objects is a well-known and efficient communicative strategy. Much less is known about the communicative effectiveness of abstract pointing where the pointing gestures are directed to “empty space.” McNeill's (2003) observations suggest that abstract pointing can be used to establish referents in gesture space, without the referents being physically present. Recently, however, it has been shown that abstract pointing typically provides redundant information to the uttered speech thereby suggesting a very limited communicative value (So et al., 2009). In a first approach to tackle this issue we were interested to know whether perceivers are sensitive at all to this gesture cue or whether it is completely discarded as irrelevant add-on information. Sensitivity to for instance a gesture-speech mismatch would suggest a potential communicative function of abstract pointing. Therefore, we devised a mismatch paradigm in which participants watched a video where a female was interviewed on various topics. During her responses, she established two concepts in space using abstract pointing (e.g., pointing to the left when saying Donald, and pointing to the right when saying Mickey). In the last response to each topic, the pointing gesture accompanying a target word (e.g., Donald) was either consistent or inconsistent with the previously established location. Event related brain potentials showed an increased N400 and P600 when gesture and speech referred to different referents, indicating that inconsistent use of gesture space impairs language comprehension. Abstract pointing was found to influence comprehension even though gesture was not crucial to understanding the sentences or conducting the experimental task. These data suggest that a referent was retrieved via abstract pointing and that abstract pointing can potentially be used for referent indication in a discourse. We conclude that abstract pointing has a potential communicative function. PMID:25709591

  10. National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, No. 3: Children's Cognitive and Socioemotional Development and Their Receipt of Special Educational and Mental Health Services. Research Brief: Findings from the NSCAW Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This research brief describes the developmental risks present in a cohort of children coming into contact with the child welfare system between 1999 and 2000, as well as the services the children receive to address these risks. The findings are drawn from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW), a unique study that provides…

  11. Lo que da buen resultado en casa. Resultados de la investigacion y Actividades de aprendizaje: Sentido comun y diversion para ninos y adultos (What Works at Home. Research Findings and Learning Activities: Common Sense and Fun for Adults and Children).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, Shirley, Ed.

    As part of an effort to encourage Hispanic parents to help their children in school, this home learning guide, which can also be obtained in taped versions, provides parents with learning activities with which to engage their children. Based on research findings, the activities are divided into the following categories: curriculum of the home,…

  12. The art of smart irrigation: Researchers work to find the smartest irrigation controllers while educating auditors and homeowners to be smart too 

    E-print Network

    Lee, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Swanson are working to improve landscape irrigation practices in Texas by researching the water e#23;ciency of smart irrigation controllers and educating irrigation auditors. What does it take to be ?smart?? Fipps, professor of biological... the Rio Grande Basin Initiative, which is administered by the Texas Water Resources Institute. Researchers work to #31;nd the smartest smart irrigation controllers while educating auditors and homeowners to be smart too The rt of Smart...

  13. Report to the President on the Use of Technology to Strengthen K–12 Education in the United States: Findings Related to Research and Evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David E. Shaw; Henry J. Becker; John D. Bransford; Jan Davidson; Jan Hawkins; Shirley Malcom; Mario Molina; Sally K. Ride; Phillip Sharp; Robert F. Tinker; Charles Vest; John Young; Richard Allen; Marianne Bakia; Rebecca Bryson; C. Samantha Chen; Caroline M. Costello; Garrett M. Deckel; Marjorie R. Dial; Edith M. Kealey; Sandor Lehoczky

    1998-01-01

    The Panel on Educational Technology was organized in April 1995 under the auspices of the President's Committee of Advisers on Science and Technology (PCAST) to provide advice to the President on matters related to the application of information technologies to K–12 education in the United States. Its findings and recommendations were set forth in March 1997 in the Report to

  14. When Schools Stay Open Late: The National Evaluation of the 21st Century Community Learning Centers Program. First Year Findings. Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Dynarski; Mary Moore; John Mullens; Philip Gleason; Susanne James-Burdumy; Linda Rosenberg; Carol Pistorino; Tim Silva; John Deke; Wendy Mansfield; Sheila Heaviside; Daniel Levy

    2003-01-01

    The first-year findings reveal that while the 21st Century Community Learning Centers changed where and with whom students spent some of their after-school time and increased parental involvement, they had limited influence on academic performance, no influence on feelings of safety or on the number of “latchkey†children, and some negative influences on behavior.

  15. If you cannot find what you are looking for quickly, please contact Research Liaison Officer Steve Penny Steve.penny@forestry.gsi.gov.uk 0780 890 0331

    E-print Network

    ­ Steve Penny Steve.penny@forestry.gsi.gov.uk 0780 890 0331 Key web links: Research Update 17th November pages. 2. Register for the FR newsletter: newsletter@forestry.gsi.gov.uk 3. Register for events notification: fr.events@forestry.gsi.gov.uk 4. Register to receive details of FC publications: www

  16. Research Advances: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Finds New Way to Detect Destructive Enzyme Activity--Hair Dye Relies on Nanotechnology--Ways to Increase Shelf Life of Milk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in various research fields are described. Scientists at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have found a new way to detect destructive enzyme activity, scientists in France have found that an ancient hair dye used by ancient people in Greece and Rome relied on nanotechnology and in the U.S. scientists are developing new…

  17. Steven PoSter Zooming in on technology Cheryl hyman Finding her Spirit reSearCh Secure Broadband networks, Developing a hand exoskeleton

    E-print Network

    Heller, Barbara

    education. To achieve this, we must develop an educational environment that prepares students for the first of IIT is doing much to advance student learning in environments that go beyond the traditional lecture IPRO courses and entrepreneurial endeavors, students will use the Idea Shop to research and test

  18. TREATMENT OF GENDER IDENTITY CONFUSION IN CHILDREN: Research Findings and Theoretical Implications for Preventing Sexual Identity Confusion and Unwanted Homosexual Attractions in Teenagers and Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George A. Rekers

    Gender identity disorder in childhood and adolescence is an identifiable precursor to adulthood homosexual tendencies in children and adolescents. Because research soundly demonstrates that these precursors place the minor at high risk of adolescent and adulthood homosexual behavior with the associated higher risk for affective disorders, suicidality, substance abuse, and life-threatening sexually-transmitted disease, it is ethically appropriate and clinically imperative

  19. The Value of Data Mining in Music Education Research and Some Findings from Its Application to a Study of Instrumental Learning during Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, Robert; Davidson, Jane W.; McPherson, Gary E.

    2010-01-01

    The use of data mining for the analysis of data collected in natural settings is increasingly recognized as a legitimate mode of enquiry. This rule-inductive paradigm is an effective means of discovering relationships within large datasets--especially in research that has limited experimental design--and for the subsequent formulation of…

  20. The Prevention of the Workplace Harassment at Japanese Universities:The Perspective of the Research and the Findings from the Complete Count Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawabata, Tomoko

    2014-01-01

    This article shows the perspective of this research and the result of the complete count survey performed from October to November in 2013 to examine the attitude toward the prevention and the resolution of the workplace harassment at the Japanese universities. The questionnaire was distributed to 1131 universities, two years colleges, and…

  1. Problems in Planning Rural Education for Agricultural and Nutrition Development: A Review of Relevant Findings from Communications Research. IIEP Seminar Paper: 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medlin, W. K.

    Exploring a significant segment of rural education research and field experience in the developing nations, the communication of relevant knowledge to disadvantaged rural populations was examined in terms of: situational-structural variables (factors of physical location, environmental or ecosystem relationships, and community structures); client…

  2. Nuove strategie di disseminazione e figure emergenti: gli innovation brokers + Beyond dissemination of research findings: innovation brokers as emerging figures in stimulating agricultural innovation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Klerkx

    2012-01-01

    More and more it is recognised that innovation cannot be explained by a linear approach to innovation in which public sector agricultural research and extension delivers new technology in a pipeline configuration through a dissemination approach, but calls for systems approach in which innovation is the result of a process of networking, interactive learning and negotiation among a heterogeneous set

  3. Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research 21 (2004) 631670 Submitted 9/03; published 6/04 PHA*: Finding the Shortest Path with A* in An Unknown

    E-print Network

    Felner, Ariel

    2004-01-01

    Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research 21 (2004) 631­670 Submitted 9/03; published 6/04 PHA unknown territory. We introduce the Physical­A* algorithm (PHA*) for solving this problem. PHA* expands by the traveling effort of the moving agent and not by the number of generated nodes, as in standard A*. PHA

  4. Double-Checking the Race Box: Examining Inconsistency between Survey Measures of Observed and Self-Reported Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saperstein, Aliya

    2006-01-01

    Social constructivist theories of race suggest no two measures of race will capture the same information, but the degree of "error" this creates for quantitative research on inequality is unclear. Using unique data from the General Social Survey, I find observed and self-reported measures of race yield substantively different results when used to…

  5. Eat lunch first or play first? Inconsistent associations with fruit and vegetable consumption in elementary school.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Keenan; Rosen, Nila J; Wakimoto, Patricia; Patterson, Tracey; Goldstein, Lauren H; Ritchie, Lorrene D

    2015-04-01

    Scheduling play before eating lunch has been suggested as a relatively simple environmental strategy to increase fruit and vegetable (FV) intake among elementary school students. However, the few small studies to date have had mixed findings. The primary aim of this observational study was to evaluate the possible relationship between the relative order of play and eating and students' lunch intake of FV. A secondary aim was to examine whether any differences existed in this relationship by student sex, ethnicity, language spoken at home, and school lunch source. A diary-assisted 24-hour recall was collected during the 2011-2012 school year from 2,167 fourth- and fifth-graders attending 31 elementary schools in California. The association of play before eating with FV intake was estimated using Generalized Estimation Equations. Overall, lunch FV intake was not significantly higher for students who had a play-before-eating vs a play-after-eating lunch schedule at school. However, variables included in the model showed significant interaction with play before eating, resulting in the need for separate effect estimates for distinct strata based on sex, ethnicity, language spoken at home, and school lunch source. For 10 of the 16 strata, no significant effect of play before eating was observed on lunch FV intake, while increases in intake were observed in four strata and decreases in two strata. Before rescheduling play before eating for the purpose of improving student FV intake, additional research is recommended. PMID:25487854

  6. The art of smart irrigation: Researchers work to find the smartest irrigation controllers while educating auditors and homeowners to be smart too

    E-print Network

    Lee, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    10 tx H2O Summer 2011 Story by Leslie Lee Irrigating in Texas is not easy. Climate and rainfall are highly variable throughout the state and from day to day; therefore, no one way of scheduling irrigation will work. Dr. Guy Fipps and Charles... Swanson are working to improve landscape irrigation practices in Texas by researching the water e#23;ciency of smart irrigation controllers and educating irrigation auditors. What does it take to be ?smart?? Fipps, professor of biological...

  7. New Research Findings Since the 2007 Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Prevent and Reduce Underage Drinking: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Hingson, Ralph; White, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In 2007, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services issued The Surgeon General’s Call To Action To Prevent And Reduce Underage Drinking, a publication documenting a problem linked to nearly 5,000 injury deaths annually and poor academic performance, potential cognitive deficits, risky sexual behavior, physical and sexual assaults, and other substance use. This report reviews subsequent underage drinking and related traffic fatality trends and research on determinants, consequences, and prevention interventions. Method: New research reports, meta-analyses, and systematic literature reviews were examined. Results: Since the Call to Action, reductions in underage frequency of drinking, heavy drinking occasions, and alcohol-related traffic deaths that began in the 1980s when the drinking age nationally became 21 have continued. Knowledge regarding determinants and consequences, particularly the effects of early-onset drinking, parental alcohol provision, and cognitive effects, has expanded. Additional studies support associations between the legal drinking age of 21, zero tolerance laws, higher alcohol prices, and reduced drinking and related problems. New research suggests that use/lose laws, social host liability, internal possession laws, graduated licensing, and night driving restrictions reduce traffic deaths involving underage drinking drivers. Additional studies support the positive effects of individually oriented interventions, especially screening and brief motivational interventions, web and face-to-face social norms interventions, college web-based interventions, parental interventions, and multicomponent community interventions. Conclusions: Despite reductions in underage alcohol consumption and related traffic deaths, underage drinking remains an enduring problem. Continued research is warranted in minimally studied areas, such as prospective studies of alcohol and brain development, policy studies of use/lose laws, internal possession laws, social host liability, and parent–family interventions. PMID:24411808

  8. Measuring inconsistencies can lead you forward: Imageability and the x-ception theory

    PubMed Central

    Dellantonio, Sara; Mulatti, Claudio; Pastore, Luigi; Job, Remo

    2014-01-01

    According to the traditional view, both imageability and concreteness ratings reflect the way word meanings rely on information mediated by the senses. As a consequence, the two measures should and do correlate. The link between these two indexes was already hypothesized and demonstrated by Paivio et al. (1968) in a seminal article, where they introduced the idea of imageability ratings for the first time. However, in this first study, they also noted a contrasting pattern in the ratings for imageability and concreteness with some words that refer to affective attitudes or emotional states receiving high imageability but low concreteness ratings. Recent studies confirm this inconsistency (e.g., Altarriba and Bauer, 2004) leading to the claim that emotion words form a particular class of terms different from both concrete and abstract words. Here we use the MRC psycholinguistic database to show that the there are other classes of terms for which imageability and concreteness are uncorrelated. We show that the common feature of these word classes is that they directly or indirectly refer to proprioceptive, interoceptive, or affective states, i.e., to internal, body-related, sensory experiences. Thus, imageability and concreteness can no longer be considered interchangeable constructs; rather, imageability is a different, and perhaps more interesting, measure: it not only reflects the ease with which memories of external events come to mind, as previously hypothesized, but also reflects the ease with which memories of internal events come to mind. PMID:25076920

  9. Using ontology databases for scalable query answering, inconsistency detection, and data integration

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Dejing

    2011-01-01

    An ontology database is a basic relational database management system that models an ontology plus its instances. To reason over the transitive closure of instances in the subsumption hierarchy, for example, an ontology database can either unfold views at query time or propagate assertions using triggers at load time. In this paper, we use existing benchmarks to evaluate our method—using triggers—and we demonstrate that by forward computing inferences, we not only improve query time, but the improvement appears to cost only more space (not time). However, we go on to show that the true penalties were simply opaque to the benchmark, i.e., the benchmark inadequately captures load-time costs. We have applied our methods to two case studies in biomedicine, using ontologies and data from genetics and neuroscience to illustrate two important applications: first, ontology databases answer ontology-based queries effectively; second, using triggers, ontology databases detect instance-based inconsistencies—something not possible using views. Finally, we demonstrate how to extend our methods to perform data integration across multiple, distributed ontology databases. PMID:22163378

  10. Multipseudopotential interaction: A solution for thermodynamic inconsistency in pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khajepor, Sorush; Wen, John; Chen, Baixin

    2015-02-01

    Pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann (LB) models have been recognized as efficient numerical tools to simulate complex fluid systems, including those at thermodynamic equilibrium states and with phase transitions. However, when the equation of state (EOS) of real fluids is implemented, the existing pseudopotential LB models suffer from thermodynamic inconsistency. This study presents a multipseudopotential interparticle interaction (MPI) scheme, which is fully consistent with thermodynamics and applicable to engineering applications. In this framework, multiple pseudopotentials are employed to represent dominant interaction potentials at different extents of the mean free path of particles. By simulating van der Waals and Carnahan-Starling fluids, it is demonstrated that the MPI scheme can correctly simulate the physical nature of two-phase systems on the lattice including the continuum predictions of liquid-vapor coexistence states and the sound speeds in liquid and vapor phases. It is also shown that the lattice interactions of the MPI scheme represent underlying molecular interactions as they vary in a broad range from strong short-distance repulsions to weak long-distance attractions during phase transitions. Consequently, the MPI is proved to be a reliable LB scheme as it avoids generating unphysical potentials in implementing the EOSs of real fluids and limiting the spurious velocities at the interface of two-phase systems. Additionally, a straightforward procedure is suggested and discussed to preset the MPI system with the two-phase properties of a selected fluid.

  11. Equality Hypocrisy, Inconsistency, and Prejudice: The Unequal Application of the Universal Human Right to Equality

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In Western culture, there appears to be widespread endorsement of Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (which stresses equality and freedom). But do people really apply their equality values equally, or are their principles and application systematically discrepant, resulting in equality hypocrisy? The present study, conducted with a representative national sample of adults in the United Kingdom (N = 2,895), provides the first societal test of whether people apply their value of “equality for all” similarly across multiple types of status minority (women, disabled people, people aged over 70, Blacks, Muslims, and gay people). Drawing on theories of intergroup relations and stereotyping we examined, relation to each of these groups, respondents’ judgments of how important it is to satisfy their particular wishes, whether there should be greater or reduced equality of employment opportunities, and feelings of social distance. The data revealed a clear gap between general equality values and responses to these specific measures. Respondents prioritized equality more for “paternalized” groups (targets of benevolent prejudice: women, disabled, over 70) than others (Black people, Muslims, and homosexual people), demonstrating significant inconsistency. Respondents who valued equality more, or who expressed higher internal or external motivation to control prejudice, showed greater consistency in applying equality. However, even respondents who valued equality highly showed significant divergence in their responses to paternalized versus nonpaternalized groups, revealing a degree of hypocrisy. Implications for strategies to promote equality and challenge prejudice are discussed. PMID:25914516

  12. On the inconsistencies related to prediction of flow into an enclosing hood obstructed by a worker.

    PubMed

    Karaismail, Ertan; Celik, Ismail

    2010-06-01

    The recirculating flow structures formed in the wake of a worker standing in front of an enclosing fume hood were numerically investigated. Two- and three-dimensional, unsteady, laminar/turbulent computations were performed for a Reynolds number (Re) range of 1.0 x 10(3)-1.0 x 10(5). The standard k-epsilon, Renormalization group (RNG) k-epsilon, and Shear Stress Transport (SST) k-omega models were used in Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) computations, and the results were compared with each other and also with the previous predictions reported in the literature. Numerical issues regarding the grid convergence and the inadequacies of turbulence models that may come into play at low Reynolds numbers were addressed. On the whole, SST k-omega model was found to be promising for qualitatively accurate prediction of both steady and unsteady recirculatory flow patterns in the wake of the worker. On the other hand, the standard and RNG k-epsilon models failed in prediction of anticipated unsteadiness at low Reynolds numbers. In a more realistic three-dimensional simulation with SST k-omega model, the anticipated unsteady and recirculating flow field in the wake of the worker was captured. Present results seem to qualitatively agree with the deductions made from experimental analyses in the literature while conflicting with some aspects of the previously reported numerical results. The apparent inconsistencies observed between the current results and those published in the literature were elucidated. PMID:20358453

  13. Neural responses to visual scenes reveals inconsistencies between fMRI adaptation and multivoxel pattern analysis.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Russell A; Morgan, Lindsay K

    2012-03-01

    Human observers can recognize real-world visual scenes with great efficiency. Cortical regions such as the parahippocampal place area (PPA) and retrosplenial complex (RSC) have been implicated in scene recognition, but the specific representations supported by these regions are largely unknown. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging adaptation (fMRIa) and multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) to explore this issue, focusing on whether the PPA and RSC represent scenes in terms of general categories, or as specific scenic exemplars. Subjects were scanned while viewing images drawn from 10 outdoor scene categories in two scan runs and images of 10 familiar landmarks from their home college campus in two scan runs. Analyses of multi-voxel patterns revealed that the PPA and RSC encoded both category and landmark information, with a slight advantage for landmark coding in RSC. fMRIa, on the other hand, revealed a very different picture: both PPA and RSC adapted when landmark information was repeated, but category adaptation was only observed in a small subregion of the left PPA. These inconsistencies between the MVPA and fMRIa data suggests that these two techniques interrogate different aspects of the neuronal code. We propose three hypotheses about the mechanisms that might underlie adaptation and multi-voxel signals. PMID:22001314

  14. Measuring inconsistencies can lead you forward: Imageability and the x-ception theory.

    PubMed

    Dellantonio, Sara; Mulatti, Claudio; Pastore, Luigi; Job, Remo

    2014-01-01

    According to the traditional view, both imageability and concreteness ratings reflect the way word meanings rely on information mediated by the senses. As a consequence, the two measures should and do correlate. The link between these two indexes was already hypothesized and demonstrated by Paivio et al. (1968) in a seminal article, where they introduced the idea of imageability ratings for the first time. However, in this first study, they also noted a contrasting pattern in the ratings for imageability and concreteness with some words that refer to affective attitudes or emotional states receiving high imageability but low concreteness ratings. Recent studies confirm this inconsistency (e.g., Altarriba and Bauer, 2004) leading to the claim that emotion words form a particular class of terms different from both concrete and abstract words. Here we use the MRC psycholinguistic database to show that the there are other classes of terms for which imageability and concreteness are uncorrelated. We show that the common feature of these word classes is that they directly or indirectly refer to proprioceptive, interoceptive, or affective states, i.e., to internal, body-related, sensory experiences. Thus, imageability and concreteness can no longer be considered interchangeable constructs; rather, imageability is a different, and perhaps more interesting, measure: it not only reflects the ease with which memories of external events come to mind, as previously hypothesized, but also reflects the ease with which memories of internal events come to mind. PMID:25076920

  15. Assessment of conceptual inconsistencies in the hybrid reservoir-wave model.

    PubMed

    Mynard, Jonathan P

    2013-01-01

    The reservoir-wave paradigm separates pressure into windkessel-related 'reservoir' and wave-related 'excess' components, however the conceptual validity of this approach has not been sufficiently scrutinized. This paper assesses two logical implications of the reservoir-wave concept. First, parameters defining the reservoir (resistance and compliance) should be independent of wave effects. Second, wave analysis performed using excess pressure should provide a more accurate and physically intuitive representation of wave propagation and reflection in a vascular system, compared with the traditional wave analysis based on unseparated pressure. These issues were investigated with one-dimensional numerical models. Using a single vessel model, reservoir parameters were shown to be highly influenced by wave propagation effects. In a single bifurcation model, wave analysis based on excess pressure underestimated the reflection coefficient of the known impedance mismatch at the junction, overestimated the distance to this reflection site, and exhibited backward expansion waves suggestive of multiple negative impedance mismatches that did not exist in the system. Traditional wave analysis accurately and intuitively described waves. The identified conceptual inconsistencies in the reservoir-wave paradigm may arise from the use of hybrid (0D and 1D) dimensionality, rather than a hierarchical approach to model dimensionality. PMID:24109662

  16. Preadoptive Child Sexual Abuse as a Predictor of Moves in Care, Adoption Disruptions, and Inconsistent Adoptive Parent Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nalavany, Blace A.; Ryan, Scott D.; Howard, Jeanne A.; Smith, Susan Livingston

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To date, little empirical attention has been given to the impact of preadoptive child sexual abuse (CSA) on adoption adjustment. The main objective of the present study was to investigate whether preadoptive CSA was associated with more placement moves, adoption disruption, and inconsistent parental commitment compared to adopted…

  17. Post-Silicon Bug Diagnosis with Inconsistent Executions Andrew DeOrio, Daya Shanker Khudia and Valeria Bertacco

    E-print Network

    Bertacco, Valeria

    Post-Silicon Bug Diagnosis with Inconsistent Executions Andrew DeOrio, Daya Shanker Khudia, leading to extremely time-consuming, if not unachievable, bug diagnosis and debugging processes. In this work, we propose a methodology called BPS (Bug Positioning System) to support the automatic diagnosis

  18. The accountability for reasonableness approach to guide priority setting in health systems within limited resources – findings from action research at district level in Kenya, Tanzania, and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Priority-setting decisions are based on an important, but not sufficient set of values and thus lead to disagreement on priorities. Accountability for Reasonableness (AFR) is an ethics-based approach to a legitimate and fair priority-setting process that builds upon four conditions: relevance, publicity, appeals, and enforcement, which facilitate agreement on priority-setting decisions and gain support for their implementation. This paper focuses on the assessment of AFR within the project REsponse to ACcountable priority setting for Trust in health systems (REACT). Methods This intervention study applied an action research methodology to assess implementation of AFR in one district in Kenya, Tanzania, and Zambia, respectively. The assessments focused on selected disease, program, and managerial areas. An implementing action research team of core health team members and supporting researchers was formed to implement, and continually assess and improve the application of the four conditions. Researchers evaluated the intervention using qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis methods. Results The values underlying the AFR approach were in all three districts well-aligned with general values expressed by both service providers and community representatives. There was some variation in the interpretations and actual use of the AFR in the decision-making processes in the three districts, and its effect ranged from an increase in awareness of the importance of fairness to a broadened engagement of health team members and other stakeholders in priority setting and other decision-making processes. Conclusions District stakeholders were able to take greater charge of closing the gap between nationally set planning and the local realities and demands of the served communities within the limited resources at hand. This study thus indicates that the operationalization of the four broadly defined and linked conditions is both possible and seems to be responding to an actual demand. This provides arguments for the continued application and further assessment of the potential of AFR in supporting priority-setting and other decision-making processes in health systems to achieve better agreed and more sustainable health improvements linked to a mutual democratic learning with potential wider implications. PMID:25142148

  19. Finding overlapping images Finding overlapping images

    E-print Network

    Giger, Christine

    Finding overlapping images #12;Finding overlapping images · Close-range image sets are often unordered · no "natural" order of acquisition · no systematic block structure · How to find images to match? · obvious idea: try all pairs - does not scale to big projects · 1'000 images 499'500 pairs · 10'000 images

  20. Fronto-striatal dysregulation in drug addiction and pathological gambling: Consistent inconsistencies??

    PubMed Central

    Limbrick-Oldfield, Eve H.; van Holst, Ruth J.; Clark, Luke

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in appetitive processing are central to the major psychological theories of addiction, with differential predictions made by the reward deficiency, incentive salience, and impulsivity hypotheses. Functional MRI has become the chief means of testing these predictions, with experiments reliably highlighting disturbances at the level of the striatum, medial prefrontal cortex, and affiliated regions. However, demonstrations of hypo-reactivity and hyper-reactivity of this circuitry in drug addicted groups are reported in approximately equal measure. Similar findings are echoed in the emergent neuroimaging literature on pathological gambling, which has recently witnessed a coming of age. The first aim of this article is to consider some of the methodological aspects of these experiments that could influence the observed direction of group-level effects, including the baseline condition, trial structure and timing, and the nature of the appetitive cues (drug-related, monetary, or primary rewards). The second aim is to highlight the conceptual traction that is offered by pathological gambling, as a model of a ‘toxicity free’ addiction and an illness where tasks of monetary reinforcement afford a more direct mapping to the abused commodity. Our conclusion is that relatively subtle decisions in task design appear capable of driving group differences in fronto-striatal circuitry in entirely opposing directions, even with tasks and task variants that look ostensibly similar. Differentiation between the psychological theories of addiction will require a greater breadth of experimental designs, with more research needed on processing of primary appetitive cues, aversive processing, and in vulnerable/at-risk groups. PMID:24179792

  1. Evidence-informed recommendations to reduce dissemination bias in clinical research: conclusions from the OPEN (Overcome failure to Publish nEgative fiNdings) project based on an international consensus meeting

    PubMed Central

    Meerpohl, Joerg J; Schell, Lisa K; Bassler, Dirk; Gallus, Silvano; Kleijnen, Jos; Kulig, Michael; La Vecchia, Carlo; Maruši?, Ana; Ravaud, Philippe; Reis, Andreas; Schmucker, Christine; Strech, Daniel; Urrútia, Gerard; Antes, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Background Dissemination bias in clinical research severely impedes informed decision-making not only for healthcare professionals and patients, but also for funders, research ethics committees, regulatory bodies and other stakeholder groups that make health-related decisions. Decisions based on incomplete and biased evidence cannot only harm people, but may also have huge financial implications by wasting resources on ineffective or harmful diagnostic and therapeutic measures, and unnecessary research. Owing to involvement of multiple stakeholders, it remains easy for any single group to assign responsibility for resolving the problem to others. Objective To develop evidence-informed general and targeted recommendations addressing the various stakeholders involved in knowledge generation and dissemination to help overcome the problem of dissemination bias on the basis of previously collated evidence. Methods Based on findings from systematic reviews, document analyses and surveys, we developed general and targeted draft recommendations. During a 2-day workshop in summer 2013, these draft recommendations were discussed with external experts and key stakeholders, and refined following a rigorous and transparent methodological approach. Results Four general, overarching recommendations applicable to all or most stakeholder groups were formulated, addressing (1) awareness raising, (2) implementation of targeted recommendations, (3) trial registration and results posting, and (4) systematic approaches to evidence synthesis. These general recommendations are complemented and specified by 47 targeted recommendations tailored towards funding agencies, pharmaceutical and device companies, research institutions, researchers (systematic reviewers and trialists), research ethics committees, trial registries, journal editors and publishers, regulatory agencies, benefit (health technology) assessment institutions and legislators. Conclusions Despite various recent examples of dissemination bias and several initiatives to reduce it, the problem of dissemination bias has not been resolved. Tailored recommendations based on a comprehensive approach will hopefully help increase transparency in biomedical research by overcoming the failure to disseminate negative findings. PMID:25943371

  2. Is Positive Feedback a Forgotten Classroom Practice? Findings and Implications for At-Risk Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprouls, Katie; Mathur, Sarup R.; Upreti, Gita

    2015-01-01

    Although using higher rates of positive to negative feedback is one best practice often recommended to teachers, particularly when it comes to students experiencing behavioral problems in classroom settings, research on the use of positive feedback in classroom teaching practice has revealed inconsistent results. Research has documented…

  3. Finding Ernst Mayr's Plato.

    PubMed

    Powers, Jack

    2013-12-01

    Many biologists have accepted Ernst Mayr's claim that evolutionary biology undermined an essentialist or typological view of species that had its roots in Platonic philosophy. However, Mayr has been accused of failing to support with textual evidence his attributions to Plato of these sorts of views about biology. Contemporary work in history and philosophy of biology often seems to take onboard Mayr's account of Plato's view of species. This paper seeks to provide a critical account of putative inconsistencies between an evolutionary view of species and Platonic philosophy with renewed attention to the Platonic texts in light of recent Plato scholarship; I argue that claims that Plato held an essentialist view of species inconsistent with evolutionary biology are inadequately supported by textual evidence. If Mayr's essentialist thesis fails, one might think that the intuition that Platonic philosophy is in tension with Darwinian evolution could nonetheless be accounted for by Plato's apparent privileging of a certain sort of teleological explanation, a thesis that Mayr suggests in his 1959 paper on Louis Agassiz. However, this thesis also faces difficulties. Ernst Mayr's Plato is more likely to be found in the writings of anti-evolutionary 19th century biologists like Mayr's frequent target, Agassiz, than in a cautious reading of the Platonic dialogues themselves. Interlocutors in discussions of the history of biological thought and classificatory methods in biology should be cautious in ascribing views about biology to Plato and using terms like "Platonic essentialism." PMID:24135002

  4. Representativeness of obstetric patients who participate in perinatal depression research: findings from the Women's Mental Health and Infants Program (WMHIP) integrated dataset.

    PubMed

    Novick, Danielle M; Allbaugh, Lucy; Zhao, Zhuo; Henshaw, Erin; Vazquez, Delia M; Armitage, Roseanne; Flynn, Heather

    2014-04-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of integrating archival datasets from depression projects involving pregnant women recruited from obstetric clinics and then assess the representativeness of the integrated dataset. Datasets from six studies were standardized and integrated. Chi-square, t-, and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were used to compare characteristics between women who completed a depression screening questionnaire (DSQ) and were (1) eligible and ineligible for research participation and (2) eligible women who accepted and declined participation. The integrated dataset comprises 9,112 pregnant women, of whom 71.0 % (n?=?6,472) were ineligible for participation because their DSQ scores indicated no-to-minimal depressive symptoms (NDS). Among the 23.9 % (2,176) of women identified as eligible, in part, because their DSQ scores indicated elevated levels of depressive symptoms (EDS), 29.6 % (644) of women participated (P-EDS) and 47.6 % (1,036) of women did not participate (D-EDS). While the NDS and EDS groups were significantly different on almost all variables, the P-EDS and D-EDS groups were significantly different on only a few variables. Compared to the D-EDS group, the P-EDS group was earlier in pregnancy and, on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Screen, was more likely to endorse impaired "ability to laugh" and "enjoy oneself", and endorse at greater severity "ability to laugh." It is a reasonable and feasible strategy to integrate thematically similar datasets to increase statistical power. Additionally, typical recruitment strategies for minimal risk perinatal depression research at obstetric clinics, during routine prenatal care visits, appear to produce an externally valid study cohort. PMID:24248412

  5. Research

    Cancer.gov

    Information from the National Cancer Institute on research conducted or supported by the institute. Includes overviews of NCI's research areas, NCI's priority initiatives, and information about NCI's role in cancer research.

  6. Failure to Consider the Menstrual Cycle Phase May Cause Misinterpretation of Clinical and Research Findings of Cardiometabolic Biomarkers in Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Schisterman, Enrique F.; Mumford, Sunni L.; Sjaarda, Lindsey A.

    2014-01-01

    Biomarker assessment plays a critical role in the study and prevention of disease. However, variation in biomarkers attributable to the menstrual cycle in premenopausal women may impair understanding the role of certain biomarkers in disease development and progression. Thus, in light of the recently increasing evidence of menstrual cycle variability in multiple cardiometabolic biomarkers, a reexamination of approaches for appropriately studying and diagnosing cardiovascular disease in premenopausal women is warranted. We reviewed studies (from 1934 through 2012) evaluating changes in cardiometabolic biomarkers across phases of the menstrual cycle, including markers of oxidative stress, lipids, insulin sensitivity, and systemic inflammation. Each was observed to vary significantly during the menstrual cycle. For example, nearly twice as many women had elevated cholesterol levels warranting therapy (?200 mg/dL) during the follicular phase compared with the luteal phase (14.3% vs. 7.9%), with only 3% having consistently high levels during all phases of the cycle. Similarly, nearly twice as many women were classified as being at an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease (high sensitivity C-reactive protein >3 mg/L) during menses compared with other phases (12.3% vs. 7.4%). Menstrual cycle–associated variability in cardiometabolic biomarkers is an important source of variability that should be accounted for in both research and clinical settings. PMID:24042431

  7. A case-control study examining inconsistencies in pain management following fractured neck of femur: an inferior analgesia for the cognitively impaired.

    PubMed

    McDermott, J H; Nichols, D R; Lovell, M E

    2014-10-01

    Previous research suggests individuals who suffer from cognitive impairment are less able to vocalise pain than the rest of the cognitively-intact population. This feature of cognitive impairment may be leading to a chronic underdetection of pain as current assessment tools strongly rely on the participation of the patient. To explore inconsistencies in pain management within the acute setting, we conducted a retrospective assessment of 224 patients presenting with fractured neck of femur at a large teaching hospital's accident and emergency (A&E) department between 2 June 2011 and 2 June 2012. These patients were split into either a cognitively-impaired or cognitively-intact cohort based on their Abbreviated Mental Test Scores. Patients with cognitive impairment, on average, received a weaker level of analgesia than individuals without impairment both in the ambulance and in A&E. In the ambulance, 45% of cognitively-impaired patients were prescribed no pain relief compared with just 8% of those individuals who remain cognitively intact. After arrival at A&E, these inconsistencies continued with 69% of the cognitively-intact cohort receiving the strongest opioid analgesia compared with just 37% of the cognitively-impaired cohort. The cognitively-impaired cohort would also wait on average an hour longer before receiving this initial pain relief. We believe that these differences stem from cognitively-impaired patients being unable to vocalise their pain through traditional assessment methods. This work discusses the potential development or adoption of a tool which can be applied in the acute setting and relies less on vocalisation but more on the objective features of pain, so making it applicable to cognitively-impaired individuals. PMID:24136118

  8. Climate Change and European Water Bodies, a Review of Existing Gaps and Future Research Needs: Findings of the ClimateWater Project.

    PubMed

    Garnier, Monica; Harper, David M; Blaskovicova, Lotta; Hancz, Gabriella; Janauer, Georg A; Jolánkai, Zsolt; Lanz, Eva; Porto, Antonio Lo; Mándoki, Monika; Pataki, Beata; Rahuel, Jean-Luc; Robinson, Victoria J; Stoate, Chris; Tóth, Eszter; Jolánkai, Géza

    2015-08-01

    There is general agreement among scientists that global temperatures are rising and will continue to increase in the future. It is also agreed that human activities are the most important causes of these climatic variations, and that water resources are already suffering and will continue to be greatly impaired as a consequence of these changes. In particular, it is probable that areas with limited water resources will expand and that an increase of global water demand will occur, estimated to be around 35-60 % by 2025 as a consequence of population growth and the competing needs of water uses. This will cause a growing imbalance between water demand (including the needs of nature) and supply. This urgency demands that climate change impacts on water be evaluated in different sectors using a cross-cutting approach (Contestabile in Nat Clim Chang 3:11-12, 2013). These issues were examined by the EU FP7-funded Co-ordination and support action "ClimateWater" (bridging the gap between adaptation strategies of climate change impacts and European water policies). The project studied adaptation strategies to minimize the water-related consequences of climate change and assessed how these strategies should be taken into consideration by European policies. This article emphasizes that knowledge gaps still exist about the direct effects of climate change on water bodies and their indirect impacts on production areas that employ large amounts of water (e.g., agriculture). Some sectors, such as ecohydrology and alternative sewage treatment technologies, could represent a powerful tool to mitigate climate change impacts. Research needs in these still novel fields are summarized. PMID:26076892

  9. FindArticles.com

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This new service is a partnership between LookSmart and the Gale Group, a publisher of research and reference materials for libraries, businesses, and information technologists. The site offers free access to the full-text of articles published in over 350 magazines and journals dating from 1998. Users can search the database by keyword and by one of the nine subject categories (Arts & Entertainment, Computers & Technology, Reference & Education, Sports, etc.). Search returns include article title, periodical, and short description, with a link to the full-text, which is conveniently and quickly displayed at the FindArticles site, though with numerous advertising banners. Visitors can also view a list of the publications indexed, alphabetically or by subject. Periodical listings include a one-sentence description and a link to their Website. Despite the banners and other commercial content (the bills must be paid, after all) this site is a very useful reference source, indexing many leading journals and magazines.

  10. 43 CFR 2568.121 - If an agency determines my allotment is inconsistent with the purposes of a CSU, what can I do if...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...allotment is inconsistent with the purposes of a CSU, what can I do if I disagree? 2568.121 Section 2568.121 Public...allotment is inconsistent with the purposes of a CSU, what can I do if I disagree? (a) You may request...

  11. 43 CFR 2568.121 - If an agency determines my allotment is inconsistent with the purposes of a CSU, what can I do if...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...allotment is inconsistent with the purposes of a CSU, what can I do if I disagree? 2568.121 Section 2568.121 Public...allotment is inconsistent with the purposes of a CSU, what can I do if I disagree? (a) You may request...

  12. 43 CFR 2568.121 - If an agency determines my allotment is inconsistent with the purposes of a CSU, what can I do if...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...allotment is inconsistent with the purposes of a CSU, what can I do if I disagree? 2568.121 Section 2568.121 Public...allotment is inconsistent with the purposes of a CSU, what can I do if I disagree? (a) You may request...

  13. 43 CFR 2568.121 - If an agency determines my allotment is inconsistent with the purposes of a CSU, what can I do if...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...allotment is inconsistent with the purposes of a CSU, what can I do if I disagree? 2568.121 Section 2568.121 Public...allotment is inconsistent with the purposes of a CSU, what can I do if I disagree? (a) You may request...

  14. 16 CFR 1210.5 - Findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...requires the Commission to make findings concerning the following topics and to include the findings in the rule. (a) The degree...manufacturers' and importers' expenditures in the areas of research and development, product redesign, tooling and...

  15. Common inconsistencies in modeling gas transport in porous electrodes: The dusty-gas model and the Fick law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertei, A.; Nicolella, C.

    2015-04-01

    The paper shows as two assumptions typically made in modeling gas transport in solid oxide fuel cell electrodes, i.e., a) uniform pressure in the dusty-gas model, and b) validity of the Bosanquet formula in the Fick model, may lead to serious inconsistencies (such as molar fractions that do not sum up to one or fluxes that do not obey reaction stoichiometry), thus nullifying the efforts of the mechanistic modeling of transport phenomena. The nature of the inconsistent use of the models is explained with clear examples, then the correct implementation of the gas transport models is discussed. The study aims to promote a coherent physically-based modeling of gas transport phenomena in porous electrodes in order to assist their rational design.

  16. Prevalence of inconsistent condom use and associated factors among HIV discordant couples in a rural county in China.

    PubMed

    Lau, Joseph T F; Yu, Xiaonan; Mak, Winnie W S; Cheng, Yimin; Lv, Yanhong; Zhang, Jianxin; Su, Xiaoyou; Wang, Zixin

    2013-06-01

    A random sample consisting of 88 sexually active people living with HIV (PLWH) and their HIV negative spouses in rural China were interviewed. Data of 68 couples (77.2 %) who gave identical responses to whether they had been using condoms consistently in the last 12 months (n = 136) were analyzed. The results showed that 27.9 % of the discordant couples used condom inconsistently in the last year. Condom non-availability was the most commonly given main reason for not using condoms. Free condoms should be made available to these low-income couples. Suicidal ideation of the PLWH and the spouse's perception on 'whether someone could contract HIV via unprotected sexual intercourse with a HIV positive person' were significantly associated with inconsistent condom use in the last year. Education program should change the cognition about the risk for HIV transmission via unprotected sex. Integrated psychological services to reduce suicidal ideation are greatly warranted. PMID:22802078

  17. Toward a Second Language Socialization Perspective: Issues in Study Abroad Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chilin

    2010-01-01

    The last few decades have seen a proliferation of research on study abroad (SA). A review of SA research literature shows general inconsistencies and inconclusiveness on certain issues, particularly on SA outcomes and their factors. This article discusses such inconsistencies in terms of the highly variable contexts and vastly unstable nature of…

  18. Effective radiology dashboards: key research findings.

    PubMed

    Karami, Mahtab; Safdari, Reza; Rahimi, Azin

    2013-01-01

    Innovative organizations have access to information for business intelligence through the objectives displayed in dashboards. In healthcare organizations, where the goal is to improve quality of care along with reducing costs, the radiology department is important from both financial and clinical aspects. Therefore, how to manage this department has critical impact on the effectiveness and efficiency of the organization. Today, since the information in this department not only has different data structure but also is gathered from different data sources, a well defined, comprehensive dashboard can be an effective tool to enhance performance. PMID:23638580

  19. Research Findings of Employer Needs Assessment Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Debra B.

    In spring 1981, Florence-Darlington Technical College (FDTC) conducted a needs assessment survey of employers in Darlington, Dillon, Florence, and Marion Counties in South Carolina to collect information that would allow the college to respond more positively to employment and training needs in its service area. The study sought to encourage…

  20. 76 FR 80371 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ...January 2009; the entire abstract for this poster was obtained by plagiarizing text from Pihur, V., Datta, S., Datta S., Genomics, 2003, 92:400- 403. Dr. Lushington has entered into a Voluntary Settlement Agreement (Agreement) and has...