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Sample records for increase urinary oxalate

  1. Increased protein intake on controlled oxalate diets does not increase urinary oxalate excretion.

    PubMed

    Knight, John; Easter, Linda H; Neiberg, Rebecca; Assimos, Dean G; Holmes, Ross P

    2009-04-01

    High animal protein intake is a risk factor for calcium oxalate stone disease. The effect of dietary protein on the urinary excretion of calcium, acid and citrate is well established. However, its effect on oxalate excretion is unclear, due in part to an inadequate control of dietary oxalate intake in previous studies. This relationship warrants clarification due to the proposed important role of the metabolism of amino acids in endogenous oxalate synthesis. In this study, 11 normal subjects consumed controlled oxalate diets containing 0.6, 1.2 and 1.8 g protein/kg body weight/day. The analysis of 24 h urine collections confirmed that as protein intake increased, urinary calcium and glycolate increased and urinary pH and citrate decreased. The increased glycolate excretion was due in part to an increased hydroxyproline, but not glycolate consumption. Total daily urinary oxalate excretion did not change. When indexed to creatinine there was a small but significant decrease in oxalate excretion. This is most likely due to hyperfiltration. These results indicate that as dietary protein intake increases, the catabolism of diet-derived amino acids is not associated with an increased endogenous oxalate synthesis in normal subjects. PMID:19183980

  2. Origin of Urinary Oxalate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Ross P.; Knight, John; Assimos, Dean G.

    2007-04-01

    Urinary oxalate is mostly derived from the absorption of ingested oxalate and endogenous synthesis. The breakdown of vitamin C may also contribute small amounts to the urinary oxalate pool. The amount of oxalate absorbed is influenced by the oxalate content of the diet, the concentrations of divalent cations in the gut, the presence of oxalate-degrading organisms, transport characteristics of the intestinal epithelium, and other factors associated with the intestinal environment. Knowledge of pathways associated with endogenous oxalate synthesis is limited. Urinary oxalate excretion can be modified using strategies that limit dietary oxalate absorption and the ingestion of oxalogenic substrates such as hydroxyproline.

  3. Contribution of dietary oxalate to urinary oxalate excretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, R. P.; Goodman, H. O.; Assimos, D. G.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The amount of oxalate excreted in urine has a significant impact on calcium oxalate supersaturation and stone formation. Dietary oxalate is believed to make only a minor (10 to 20%) contribution to the amount of oxalate excreted in urine, but the validity of the experimental observations that support this conclusion can be questioned. An understanding of the actual contribution of dietary oxalate to urinary oxalate excretion is important, as it is potentially modifiable. METHODS: We varied the amount of dietary oxalate consumed by a group of adult individuals using formula diets and controlled, solid-food diets with a known oxalate content, determined by a recently developed analytical procedure. Controlled solid-food diets were consumed containing 10, 50, and 250 mg of oxalate/2500 kcal, as well as formula diets containing 0 and 180 mg oxalate/2500 kcal. Changes in the content of oxalate and other ions were assessed in 24-hour urine collections. RESULTS: Urinary oxalate excretion increased as dietary oxalate intake increased. With oxalate-containing diets, the mean contribution of dietary oxalate to urinary oxalate excretion ranged from 24.4 +/- 15.5% on the 10 mg/2500 kcal/day diet to 41.5 +/- 9.1% on the 250 mg/2500 kcal/day diet, much higher than previously estimated. When the calcium content of a diet containing 250 mg of oxalate was reduced from 1002 mg to 391 mg, urinary oxalate excretion increased by a mean of 28.2 +/- 4.8%, and the mean dietary contribution increased to 52.6 +/- 8.6%. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that dietary oxalate makes a much greater contribution to urinary oxalate excretion than previously recognized, that dietary calcium influences the bioavailability of ingested oxalate, and that the absorption of dietary oxalate may be an important factor in calcium oxalate stone formation.

  4. Diet, but not oral probiotics, effectively reduces urinary oxalate excretion and calcium oxalate supersaturation.

    PubMed

    Lieske, John C; Tremaine, William J; De Simone, Claudio; O'Connor, Helen M; Li, Xujian; Bergstralh, Eric J; Goldfarb, David S

    2010-12-01

    We examined the effect of a controlled diet and two probiotic preparations on urinary oxalate excretion, a risk factor for calcium oxalate kidney stone formation, in patients with mild hyperoxaluria. Patients were randomized to a placebo, a probiotic, or a synbiotic preparation. This tested whether these probiotic preparations can increase oxalate metabolism in the intestine and/or decrease oxalate absorption from the gut. Patients were maintained on a controlled diet to remove the confounding variable of differing oxalate intake from food. Urinary oxalate excretion and calcium oxalate supersaturation on the controlled diet were significantly lower compared with baseline on a free-choice diet. Neither study preparation reduced urinary oxalate excretion nor calcium oxalate supersaturation. Fecal lactobacilli colony counts increased on both preparations, whereas enterococcal and yeast colony counts were increased on the synbiotic. Total urine volume and the excretion of oxalate and calcium were all strong independent determinants of urinary calcium oxalate supersaturation. Hence, dietary oxalate restriction reduced urinary oxalate excretion, but the tested probiotics did not influence urinary oxalate levels in patients on a restricted oxalate diet. However, this study suggests that dietary oxalate restriction is useful for kidney stone prevention. PMID:20736987

  5. Short term tolvaptan increases water intake and effectively decreases urinary calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, and uric acid supersaturations

    PubMed Central

    Cheungpasitporn, Wisit; Erickson, Stephen B.; Rule, Andrew D.; Enders, Felicity; Lieske, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Many patients cannot effectively increase water intake and urine volume to prevent urinary stones. Tolvaptan, a V2 receptor antagonist, blocks water reabsorption in the collecting duct and should reduce urinary supersaturation (SS) of stone forming solutes, but this has never been proven. Materials and Methods We conducted a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 21 adult calcium urinary stone formers stratified as majority calcium oxalate(CaOx, n=10) or calcium phosphate(CaP, n=11). Patients received tolvaptan 45 mg/day or placebo for 1 week, followed by a washout week and crossover to tolvaptan or placebo for week 3. A 24h urines was collected at the end of weeks 1 and 3. Results Tolvaptan vs. placebo decreased urinary osmolality (204±96 vs 529±213 mOsm/kg, P<0.001) and increased urinary volume (4.8±2.9 vs 1.8±0.9 L, P<0.001). The majority of urinary solute excretion rates including sodium and calcium did not significantly change, although oxalate secretion slightly increased (23±8 to 15±8 mg/24h, P = 0.009). Urinary CaOx SS (−0.01±1.14 vs 0.95±0.87 DG, P<0.001), CaP SS (−1.66±1.17 vs −0.13±1.02 DG, P<0.001) and Uric Acid SS (−2.05±4.05 vs −5.24±3.12 DG, P=0.04) all dramatically decreased. Effects did not differ between CaOx and CaP groups (P>0.05 for all interactions). Conclusions Tolvaptan increases urine volume and decreases urinary SS in calcium stone formers. Further study is needed to determine if long term use of V2 receptor antagonists results in fewer stone events. PMID:26598423

  6. Diet, but not oral probiotics, effectively reduces urinary oxalate excretion and calciumoxalate supersaturation

    PubMed Central

    Lieske, John C.; Tremaine, William J.; De Simone, Claudio; O’Connor, Helen M.; Li, Xujian; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Goldfarb, David S.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effect of a controlled diet and two probiotic preparations on urinary oxalate excretion, a risk factor for calcium oxalate kidney stone formation, in patients with mild hyperoxaluria. Patients were randomized to a placebo, a probiotic, or a synbiotic preparation. This tested whether these probiotic preparations can increase oxalate metabolism in the intestine and/or decrease oxalate absorption from the gut. Patients were maintained on a controlled diet to remove the confounding variable of differing oxalate intake from food. Urinary oxalate excretion and calcium oxalate supersaturation on the controlled diet were significantly lower compared with baseline on a free-choice diet. Neither study preparation reduced urinary oxalate excretion nor calcium oxalate supersaturation. Fecal lactobacilli colony counts increased on both preparations, whereas enterococcal and yeast colony counts were increased on the synbiotic. Total urine volume and the excretion of oxalate and calcium were all strong independent determinants of urinary calcium oxalate supersaturation. Hence, dietary oxalate restriction reduced urinary oxalate excretion, but the tested probiotics did not influence urinary oxalate levels in patients on a restricted oxalate diet. However, this study suggests that dietary oxalate restriction is useful for kidney stone prevention. PMID:20736987

  7. Urinary Calcium and Oxalate Excretion in Healthy Adult Cats Are Not Affected by Increasing Dietary Levels of Bone Meal in a Canned Diet

    PubMed Central

    Passlack, Nadine; Zentek, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of dietary calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P), derived from bone meal, on the feline urine composition and the urinary pH, allowing a risk assessment for the formation of calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths in cats. Eight healthy adult cats received 3 canned diets, containing 12.2 (A), 18.5 (B) and 27.0 g Ca/kg dry matter (C) and 16.1 (A), 17.6 (B) and 21.1 g P/kg dry matter (C). Each diet was fed over 17 days. After a 7 dayś adaptation period, urine and faeces were collected over 2×4 days (with a two-day rest between), and blood samples were taken. Urinary and faecal minerals, urinary oxalate (Ox), the urinary pH and the concentrations of serum Ca, phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were analyzed. Moreover, the urine was microscopically examined for CaOx uroliths. The results demonstrated that increasing levels of dietary Ca led to decreased serum PTH and Ca and increased faecal Ca and P concentrations, but did not affect the urinary Ca or Ox concentrations or the urinary fasting pH. The urinary postprandial pH slightly increased when the diet C was compared to the diet B. No CaOx crystals were detected in the urine of the cats. In conclusion, urinary Ca excretion in cats seems to be widely independent of the dietary Ca levels when Ca is added as bone meal to a typical canned diet, implicating that raw materials with higher contents of bones are of subordinate importance as risk factors for the formation of urinary CaOx crystals. PMID:23940588

  8. Fat Malabsorption and Increased Intestinal Oxalate Absorption are Common after Rouxen-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rajiv; Lieske, John C.; Collazo-Clavell, Maria L.; Sarr, Michael G.; Olson, Ellen R.; Vrtiska, Terri J.; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Li, Xujian

    2010-01-01

    Background Hyperoxaluria and increased calcium oxalate stone formation occur after Rouxen- Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery for morbid obesity. The etiology of this hyperoxaluria is unknown. We hypothesized that after bariatric surgery, intestinal hyperabsorption of oxalate contributes to increases in plasma oxalate and urinary calcium oxalate supersaturation. Methods We prospectively examined oxalate metabolism in 11 morbidly obese subjects prior to and 6 and 12 months after RYGB (n = 9) and biliopancreatic diversion-duodenal switch (n =2). We measured 24 hour urinary supersaturations for calcium oxalate, apatite, brushite, uric acid, and sodium urate, fasting plasma oxalate, 72 hour fecal fat, and increases in urine oxalate following an oral oxalate load. Results Six and 12 months after RYGB surgery, plasma oxalate and urine calcium oxalate supersaturation increased significantly compared to similar measurements obtained prior to surgery (P values all ≤0.02). Fecal fat excretion at 6 and 12 months was increased (P-value, 0.026 and 0.055, 0 vs 6 and 12 months). An increase in urine oxalate excretion after an oral dose of oxalate was observed at 6 and 12 months (P-values ≤0.02 each). Therefore, after bariatric surgery, increases in fecal fat excretion, urinary oxalate excretion after an oral oxalate load, plasma oxalate, and urinary calcium oxalate supersaturation values were observed. Conclusions Enteric hyperoxaluria is often present in patients after the operations of RYGB and BPD-DS that utilize an element of intestinal malabsorption as a mechanism for weight loss. PMID:21295813

  9. Hydroxyproline ingestion and urinary oxalate and glycolate excretion.

    PubMed

    Knight, J; Jiang, J; Assimos, D G; Holmes, R P

    2006-12-01

    Endogenous synthesis of oxalate is an important contributor to calcium oxalate stone formation and renal impairment associated with primary hyperoxaluria. Although the principal precursor of oxalate is believed to be glyoxylate, pathways in humans resulting in glyoxylate synthesis are not well defined. Hydroxyproline, a component amino acid of collagen, is a potential glyoxylate precursor. We have investigated the contribution of dietary hydroxyproline derived from gelatin to urinary oxalate and glycolate excretion. Responses to the ingestion of 30 g of gelatin or whey protein were compared on controlled oxalate diets. The time course of metabolism of a 10 g gelatin load was determined as well as the response to varying gelatin loads. Urinary glycolate excretion was 5.3-fold higher on the gelatin diet compared to the whey diet and urinary oxalate excretion was 43% higher. Significant changes in plasma hydroxyproline and urinary oxalate and glycolate were observed with 5 and 10 g gelatin loads, but not 1 and 2 g loads. Extrapolation of these results to daily anticipated collagen turnover and hydroxyproline intake suggests that hydroxyproline metabolism contributes 20-50% of glycolate excreted in urine and 5-20% of urinary oxalate derived from endogenous synthesis. Our results also revealed that the kidney absorbs significant quantities of hydroxyproline and glycolate, and their metabolism to oxalate in this tissue warrants further consideration. PMID:17021603

  10. Clofibrate feeding to Sprague-Dawley rats increases endogenous biosynthesis of oxalate and causes hyperoxaluria.

    PubMed

    Sharma, V; Schwille, P O

    1997-02-01

    The effects of clofibrate feeding (5 g/kg diet) on oxalate metabolism were investigated in male and female rats. Following clofibrate feeding, 24-hour urinary excretion of oxalate increased until 4 days and then reached a plateau. Whereas the contribution of dietary oxalate (1.4 g/kg diet, as potassium salt) to urinary oxalate was less than 5% in both control and clofibrate-treated male rats, the contribution of dietary glycolate (1.0 g/kg diet, as sodium salt) to urinary oxalate was six times higher in clofibrate-treated male rats compared with controls, indicating that the clofibrate-induced hyperoxaluria is due to increased endogenous biosynthesis of oxalate. This was supported by the increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity observed in liver supernatants of clofibrate-treated rats compared with controls, and the increased rate of conversion of glycolate and glyoxylate to oxalate by clofibrate-treated male rat liver supernatants. Female rats had lower excretion of urinary oxalate and lower levels of liver glycolic acid oxidase (GAO) as compared with males. Clofibrate-treated female rat liver supernatants had higher LDH levels and produced more oxalate from glyoxylate. Thus, it can be concluded that the increase in LDH activity may be the cause of the increased endogenous biosynthesis of oxalate leading to increased urinary excretion of oxalate in male and female rats treated with clofibrate. PMID:9030817

  11. Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis decreases urinary oxalate excretion in a mouse model of primary hyperoxaluria

    PubMed Central

    Whittamore, Jonathan M.; Hatch, Marguerite

    2015-01-01

    Hyperoxaluria significantly increases the risk of calcium oxalate kidney stone formation. Since several bacteria have been shown to metabolize oxalate in vitro, including probiotic bifidobacteria, we focused on the efficiency and possible mechanisms by which bifidobacteria can infuence oxalate handling in vivo, especially in the intestines, and compared these results with the reported effects of Oxalobacter formigenes. Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis DSM 10140 and B. adolescentis ATCC 15703 were administered to wild-type (WT) mice and to mice defcient in the hepatic enzyme alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase (Agxt−/−, a mouse model of Primary Hyperoxaluria) that were fed an oxalate-supplemented diet. The administration of B. animalis subsp. lactis led to a significant decrease in urinary oxalate excretion in WT and Agxt−/− mice when compared to treatment with B. adolescent-is. Detection of B. animalis subsp. lactis in feces revealed that 3 weeks after oral gavage with the bacteria 64 % of WT mice, but only 37 % of Agxt−/− mice were colonized. Examining intestinal oxalate fuxes showed there were no significant changes to net oxalate secretion in colonized animals and were therefore not associated with the changes in urinary oxalate excretion. These results indicate that colonization with B. animalis subsp. lactis decreased urinary oxalate excretion by degrading dietary oxalate thus limiting its absorption across the intestine but it did not promote enteric oxalate excretion as reported for O. formigenes. Preventive or therapeutic administration of B. animalis subsp. lactis appears to have some potential to beneficially infuence dietary hyperoxaluria in mice. PMID:25269440

  12. Calcium oxalate crystal growth in human urinary stones

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.M.; Johnson, F.B.

    1981-01-01

    Calcium oxalate stones are very common and increasing. Crystal growth is no less important than the crystal nucleation in the pathogenesis of stone formation. The crystal growth was studied in human calcium oxalate stones by a combined electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. The main mode of weddellite growth was interpenetration twinning of tetrahedral bipyramids. Bipyramids may form as initial crystal seeds, develop from anhedral crystals (crystals which lack flat symmetric faces) of spherular or mulberry shape, develop on the surface of preformed bipyramids by spiral dislocation mechanisms, or develop on whewellite crystal by heterogeneous nucleation and epitaxy. Heterogeneous nucleations of whewellite on weddellite, and calcium apatite on whewellite were also observed. Whewellite grew mainly by parallel twinning. Interpenetration twinning was exceptional. Transformation of anhedral to euhedral (completely bounded by flat faces that are set ar fixed angles to one another) whewellite occurred by parallel fissurations followed by brick wall like stacking of the crystals, while euhedral transformation of weddellite occurred by protrusion of bipyramids frm anhedral crystal surface. Occasionally, an evidence of crystal dissolution was noted. Although an aggregation of crystals is believed to play a pivotal role in stone nidus formation, growth in size of the formed crystals, and twinning and epitactic crystal intergrowth apparently play a significant role in the obstructive urinary stone formation.

  13. Urinary metabolic phenotyping the slc26a6 (chloride-oxalate exchanger) null mouse model.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Perez, Isabel; Villaseñor, Alma; Wijeyesekera, Anisha; Posma, Joram M; Jiang, Zhirong; Stamler, Jeremiah; Aronson, Peter; Unwin, Robert; Barbas, Coral; Elliott, Paul; Nicholson, Jeremy; Holmes, Elaine

    2012-09-01

    The prevalence of renal stone disease is increasing, although it remains higher in men than in women when matched for age. While still somewhat controversial, several studies have reported an association between renal stone disease and hypertension, but this may be confounded by a shared link with obesity. However, independent of obesity, hyperoxaluria has been shown to be associated with hypertension in stone-formers, and the most common type of renal stone is composed of calcium oxalate. The chloride-oxalate exchanger slc26a6 (also known as CFEX or PAT-1), located in the renal proximal tubule, was originally thought to have an important role in sodium homeostasis and thereby blood pressure control, but it has recently been shown to have a key function in oxalate balance by mediating oxalate secretion in the gut. We have applied two orthogonal analytical platforms (NMR spectroscopy and capillary electrophoresis with UV detection) in parallel to characterize the urinary metabolic signatures related to the loss of the renal chloride-oxalate exchanger in slc26a6 null mice. Clear metabolic differentiation between the urinary profiles of the slc26a6 null and the wild type mice were observed using both methods, with the combination of NMR and CE-UV providing extensive coverage of the urinary metabolome. Key discriminating metabolites included oxalate, m-hydroxyphenylpropionylsulfate (m-HPPS), trimethylamine-N-oxide, glycolate and scyllo-inositol (higher in slc26a6 null mice) and hippurate, taurine, trimethylamine, and citrate (lower in slc26a6 null mice). In addition to the reduced efficiency of anion transport, several of these metabolites (hippurate, m-HPPS, methylamines) reflect alteration in gut microbial cometabolic activities. Gender-related metabotypes were also observed in both wild type and slc26a6 null groups. Urinary metabolites that showed a sex-specific pattern included trimethylamine, trimethylamine-N-oxide, citrate, spermidine, guanidinoacetate, and 2-oxoisocaproate. The gender-dependent metabolic expression of the consequences of slc26a6 deletion might have relevance to the difference in prevalence of renal stone formation in men and women. The different composition of microbial metabolites in the slc26a6 null mice is consistent with the fact that the slc26a6 transporter is found in a range of tissues, including the kidney and intestine, and provides further evidence for the "long reach" of the microbiota in physiological and pathological processes. PMID:22594923

  14. [A modification of the estimation of urinary oxalate using a Sigma kit].

    PubMed

    Ebisuno, S; Ohkawa, T

    1988-02-01

    The Sigma kit for estimating urinary oxalate is an enzymatic procedure. However, some errors were encountered using the standard assay system of the kit. Firstly, an overestimate of oxalate may arise from the oxidation of ascorbate during the alkaline wash stage of the extraction of oxalate from urine. Secondly, an underestimate of oxalate may occur because of incomplete extraction of oxalate. A modified assay system for measurement of urinary oxalate using the kit is reported. The following points were modified: urine was diluted two-fold with 0.2 M EDTA and and 0.2 M citrate buffer (pH 3.0), oxalate from urine was extracted with 0.06 N sodium hydroxide to prevent the overestimation by the oxidation of ascorbate, and a plate mixer and addition of a small magnet to the vial were used in the steps of both absorption and extraction of oxalate to keep the accuracy of the estimation. The linearity of standard curve, reproducibility and recovery rates of the modified method were studied, and good results were obtained (linearity; r = 0.999, CV of reproducibility; 5.3%, recovery rate; 101% (300 microM) and 103% (600 microM). A good correlation was seen between the modified Sigma method and high performance liquid chromatography (r = 0.991). PMID:3376811

  15. Elemental Content of Calcium Oxalate Stones from a Canine Model of Urinary Stone Disease

    PubMed Central

    Killilea, David W.; Westropp, Jodi L.; Shiraki, Ryoji; Mellema, Matthew; Larsen, Jennifer; Kahn, Arnold J.; Kapahi, Pankaj; Chi, Thomas; Stoller, Marshall L.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most common types of urinary stones formed in humans and some other mammals is composed of calcium oxalate in ordered hydrated crystals. Many studies have reported a range of metals other than calcium in human stones, but few have looked at stones from animal models such as the dog. Therefore, we determined the elemental profile of canine calcium oxalate urinary stones and compared it to reported values from human stones. The content of 19 elements spanning 7-orders of magnitude was quantified in calcium oxalate stones from 53 dogs. The elemental profile of the canine stones was highly overlapping with human stones, indicating similar inorganic composition. Correlation and cluster analysis was then performed on the elemental profile from canine stones to evaluate associations between the elements and test for potential subgrouping based on elemental content. No correlations were observed with the most abundant metal calcium. However, magnesium and sulfur content correlated with the mineral hydration form, while phosphorous and zinc content correlated with the neuter status of the dog. Inter-elemental correlation analysis indicated strong associations between barium, phosphorous, and zinc content. Additionally, cluster analysis revealed subgroups within the stones that were also based primarily on barium, phosphorous, and zinc. These data support the use of the dog as a model to study the effects of trace metal homeostasis in urinary stone disease. PMID:26066810

  16. Factors contributing to the variation in feline urinary oxalate excretion rate.

    PubMed

    Dijcker, J C; Hagen-Plantinga, E A; Everts, H; Queau, Y; Biourge, V; Hendriks, W H

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to identify factors (season, animal, and diet) contributing to the variation in urinary oxalate (Uox) excretion rate, Uox concentration, and urine volume in healthy adult cats. A data set (1,940 observations) containing information on Uox excretion rate of 65 cats fed 252 diets (i.e., each diet was fed to a group of 6 to 8 cats), with known dietary oxalate concentrations, collected over a 6 yr period at a feline nutrition facility, were retrospectively analyzed. Data related to season, animal (i.e., age, gender, body weight, and breed), and diet (i.e., nutrient content) characteristics were subjected to stepwise multivariate regression analysis to identify factors significantly correlated to Uox excretion rate (μmol/(kg BW(0.67)·d)) and concentration (mmol/L) as well as urine volume (mL/(kg BW(0.67)·d)). Independent factors significantly (P < 0.05) associated with lower Uox concentration (mmol/L) included greater ash, Ca, and Na intake and lower nitrogen-free extract, total dietary fiber, P, and oxalate intake, and a body weight <5 kg. Factors significantly associated with lower Uox excretion rate (μmol/(kg BW(0.67)·d)) included greater crude fat and Ca intake and lower CP, total dietary fiber, P, and oxalate intake. However, a considerable part of the variation in Uox excretion rate remained unexplained. The majority of the unexplained variation in Uox excretion rate is likely to be related to factors involved in endogenous oxalate synthesis, as the majority of the dietary factors involved in intestinal oxalate absorption were included in the model. Apparent intestinal oxalate absorption was estimated to be 6.2% on average; however, much variation was present. Future research on Uox excretion rate in cats should focus on the influence of dietary protein sources, amino acid composition, vitamin C (that was not included in the present study), and variations in apparent intestinal oxalate absorption. PMID:24496844

  17. Acute probiotic ingestion reduces gastrointestinal oxalate absorption in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Al-Wahsh, Ismail; Wu, Yan; Liebman, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Both a high dietary oxalate intake and increased intestinal absorption appear to be major causes of elevated urine oxalate, a risk factor for kidney stone formation. A number of recent studies have assessed whether daily ingestion of a probiotic containing oxalate-degrading bacteria could lead to sufficient gut colonization to increase oxalate degradation, thereby reducing urinary oxalate. In contrast, the present study assessed whether simultaneous ingestion of oxalate-degrading probiotic bacteria with a 176 mg oxalate load could lead to decreased urinary oxalate in a population of 11 healthy non-stone formers (8 females, 3 males), aged 21-45 years. The results indicated that both the single and double doses of VSL#3(®) probiotic solutions were effective in reducing urinary oxalate and estimated oxalate absorption with no significant difference between the two probiotic doses. The timing of the reduction in urinary oxalate suggested a small intestinal and possibly gastric reduction in oxalate absorption. Similar to what had been reported for chronic or daily probiotic ingestion, individuals characterized by high oxalate absorption were most likely to experience clinically significant reductions in urinary oxalate in response to acute probiotic ingestion. PMID:21874572

  18. Acute probiotic ingestion reduces gastrointestinal oxalate absorption in healthy subjects.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Al-Wahsh I; Wu Y; Liebman M

    2012-06-01

    Both a high dietary oxalate intake and increased intestinal absorption appear to be major causes of elevated urine oxalate, a risk factor for kidney stone formation. A number of recent studies have assessed whether daily ingestion of a probiotic containing oxalate-degrading bacteria could lead to sufficient gut colonization to increase oxalate degradation, thereby reducing urinary oxalate. In contrast, the present study assessed whether simultaneous ingestion of oxalate-degrading probiotic bacteria with a 176 mg oxalate load could lead to decreased urinary oxalate in a population of 11 healthy non-stone formers (8 females, 3 males), aged 21-45 years. The results indicated that both the single and double doses of VSL#3(®) probiotic solutions were effective in reducing urinary oxalate and estimated oxalate absorption with no significant difference between the two probiotic doses. The timing of the reduction in urinary oxalate suggested a small intestinal and possibly gastric reduction in oxalate absorption. Similar to what had been reported for chronic or daily probiotic ingestion, individuals characterized by high oxalate absorption were most likely to experience clinically significant reductions in urinary oxalate in response to acute probiotic ingestion.

  19. Fasting Urinary Calcium-to-Creatinine and Oxalate-to-Creatinine Ratios in Dogs with Calcium Oxalate Urolithiasis and Breed-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Furrow, E.; Patterson, E.E.; Armstrong, P.J.; Osborne, C.A.; Lulich, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypercalciuria and hyperoxaluria are risk factors for calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolithiasis, but breed-specific reports of urinary metabolites and their relationship with stone status are lacking. Objective To compare urinary metabolites (calcium and oxalate) and blood ionized calcium (iCa) concentrations between CaOx stone formers and breed-matched stone-free controls for the Miniature Schnauzer, Bichon Frise, and Shih Tzu breeds. Animals Forty-seven Miniature Schnauzers (23 cases and 24 controls), 27 Bichons Frise (14 cases and 13 controls), and 15 Shih Tzus (7 cases and 8 controls). Methods Prospective study. Fasting spot urinary calcium-to-creatinine and oxalate-to-creatinine ratios (UCa/Cr and UOx/Cr, respectively) and blood iCa concentrations were measured and compared between cases and controls within and across breeds. Regression models were used to test the effect of patient and environmental factors on these variables. Results UCa/Cr was higher in cases than controls for each of the 3 breeds. In addition to stone status, being on a therapeutic food designed to prevent CaOx stone recurrence was associated with higher UCa/Cr. UOx/Cr did not differ between cases and controls for any of the breeds. Blood iCa was higher in cases than controls in the Miniature Schnauzer and Bichon Frise breeds and had a moderate correlation with UCa/Cr. Conclusions and Clinical Importance Hypercalciuria is associated with CaOx stone status in the Miniature Schnauzer, Bichon Frise, and Shih Tzu breeds. UOx/Cr did not correlate with stone status in these 3 breeds. These findings may influence breed-specific stone prevention recommendations. PMID:25581880

  20. Separate effects of urinary chondroitin sulphate and heparan sulphate on the crystallization of urinary calcium oxalate: differences between stone formers and normal control subjects.

    PubMed

    Shum, D K; Gohel, M D

    1993-07-01

    1. Urinary glycosaminoglycans were recovered from the papain digest of polyanions precipitated sequentially by cetylpyridinium chloride and sodium acetate-saturated ethanol. Those from the early morning urine of 48 stone formers and 43 normal control subjects measured 11 and 16 micrograms of uronic acid/ml of urine, respectively. 2. Preparative agarose gel electrophoresis of the recovered glycosaminoglycans in barium acetate buffer (pH 5.8) yielded fractions containing purely chondroitin sulphate, co-polymeric chondroitin/dermatan sulphates and heparan sulphate. Identification was based on the susceptibility of the fractions to chondroitinase or nitrous acid treatment. Similar compositions of glycosaminoglycan classes were observed in samples from stone formers and normal control subjects. 3. The fractionated glycosaminoglycans were dissolved in urine ultrafiltrate to assay for nucleation-promoting and growth-inhibiting activities towards crystallization of urinary calcium oxalate. When compared at the same uronic acid concentration, both the urinary chondroitin sulphate isomers and heparan sulphates of stone formers demonstrated the capacity to enhance crystal nucleation from calcium oxalate endogenous in urine ultrafiltrates, whereas only urinary heparan sulphates of normal control subjects demonstrated this capacity. 4. Tissue-derived reference chondroitin sulphate, dermatan sulphate and heparin, when similarly tested, showed negligible crystal nucleation-promoting activity. The tissue-derived heparan sulphate was similar to the urinary heparan sulphates in showing marked crystal nucleation-promoting activity. 5. Crystal-growth inhibitory activity was evident in all urinary glycosaminoglycan fractions studied. In particular, urinary heparan sulphate of normal control subjects showed higher activity than that of stone formers or the chondroitin sulphate isomers of both stone formers and normal control subjects (P < 0.005). PMID:8149691

  1. Intracrystalline Proteins Promote Dissolution of Urinary Calcium Oxalate Crystals in Cultured Renal Epithelial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grover, Phulwinder K.; Thurgood, Lauren A.; Fleming, David E.; van Bronswijk, Wilhelm; Ryall, Rosemary L.

    2007-04-01

    We have proposed that internalized calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals containing intracrystalline proteins would be vulnerable to intracellular dissolution. The aims of this study were (1) to measure non-uniform strain and crystallite size in CaOx monohydrate (COM) crystals containing increasing amounts of intracrystalline crystal matrix extract (CME) and (2) to compare the rates of crystal dissolution in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCKII) cells. CME was isolated by demineralization of COM crystals generated from human urine. Cold and 14C-oxalate-labelled COM crystals were precipitated from ultrafiltered urine containing CME at final concentrations of 0-5mg/L. Non-uniform strain and crystallite size were determined using synchrotron X-ray diffraction with Rietveld whole-pattern peak fitting and profile analysis, and the protein content of the crystals was analyzed using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting for prothrombin fragment 1. Radiolabeled crystals were added to MDCKII cells and dissolution was expressed as radioactive label released into the medium relative to that in the crystals at zero time. Non-uniform strain increased and crystallite size decreased proportionally with rising CME concentration, reaching saturation between approximately 1 and 5 mg/L, and demonstrating unequivocally the inclusion of increasing quantities of proteins in the crystals. This was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Crystal dissolution also followed saturation kinetics. These findings were confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), which showed that the degree of crystal degradation increased relative to CME concentration. We conclude that intracrystalline proteins enhance intracellular dissolution of CaOx crystals and thus may provide a natural defense against stone pathogenesis.

  2. In vivo oxalate degradation by liposome encapsulated oxalate oxidase in rat model of hyperoxaluria

    PubMed Central

    Dahiya, Tulika; Pundir, C.S.

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: High level of urinary oxalate substantially increases the risk of hyperoxaluria, a significant risk factor for urolithiasis. The primary goal of this study was to reduce urinary oxalate excretion employing liposome encapsulated oxalate oxidase in animal model. Methods: A membrane bound oxalate oxidase was purified from Bougainvillea leaves. The enzyme in its native form was less effective at the physiological pH of the recipient animal. To increase its functional viability, the enzyme was immobilized on to ethylene maleic anhydride (EMA). Rats were injected with liposome encapsulated EMA- oxalate oxidase and the effect was observed on degradation of oxalic acid. Results: The enzyme was purified to apparent homogeneity with 60-fold purification and 31 per cent yield. The optimum pH of EMA-derivative enzyme was 6.0 and it showed 70 per cent of its optimal activity at pH 7.0. The EMA-bound enzyme encapsulated into liposome showed greater oxalate degradation in 15 per cent casein vitamin B6 deficient fed rats as compared with 30 per cent casein vitamin B6 deficient fed rats and control rats. Interpretation & conclusions: EMA-oxalate oxidase encapsulated liposome caused oxalate degradation in experimental hyperoxaluria indicating that the enzyme could be used as a therapeutic agent in hyperoxaluria leading to urinary stones. PMID:23481063

  3. The effect of seed crystals of hydroxyapatite and brushite on the crystallization of calcium oxalate in undiluted human urine in vitro: implications for urinary stone pathogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Phulwinder K.; Kim, Dong-Sun; Ryall, Rosemary Lyons

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine whether crystals of hydroxyapatite (HA) or brushite (BR) formed in urine promote the epitaxial deposition of calcium oxalate (CaOx) from undiluted human urine in vitro and thereby explain the occurrence of phosphate in the core of urinary stones consisting predominantly of CaOx. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Crystals of HA, BR, and CaOx were generated from human urine and their identity confirmed by X-ray analysis. Standard quantities of each crystal were then added to separate aliquots of pooled undiluted human urine and CaOx crystallization was induced by the addition of identical loads of sodium oxalate. Crystallization was monitored by Coulter Counter and (14) C-oxalate analysis and the precipitated crystals were examined by scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: In comparison with the control to which no seeds were added, addition of CaOx crystals increased the deposition of (14) C-oxalate by 23%. On the other hand, seeds of HA and BR had no effect. These findings were supported by Coulter Counter analysis, which showed that the average modal sizes of crystal particles precipitated in the presence of HA and BR seeds were indistinguishable from those in the control, whereas those deposited in the presence of CaOx were significantly larger. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed these results, demonstrating that large aggregates of CaOx dihydrates were formed in the presence of CaOx seeds, whereas BR and to a lesser extent HA seeds were scattered free on the filtration membrane and attached like barnacles on the surface of the freshly precipitated CaOx crystals. CONCLUSION: Seed crystals of HA or BR do not promote CaOx deposition in urine in vitro and are therefore unlikely to influence CaOx crystal formation under physiologic conditions. However, binding of HA and BR crystals to, and their subsequent enclosure within, actively growing CaOx crystals might occur in vivo, thereby explaining the occurrence of mixed oxalate/phosphate stones. PMID:12149569

  4. Nanouric acid or nanocalcium phosphate as central nidus to induce calcium oxalate stone formation: a high-resolution transmission electron microscopy study on urinary nanocrystallites

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jie; Xue, Jun-Fa; Xu, Meng; Gui, Bao-Song; Wang, Feng-Xin; Ouyang, Jian-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to accurately analyze the relationship between calcium oxalate (CaOx) stone formation and the components of urinary nanocrystallites. Method High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction, fast Fourier transformation of HRTEM, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were performed to analyze the components of these nanocrystallites. Results The main components of CaOx stones are calcium oxalate monohydrate and a small amount of dehydrate, while those of urinary nanocrystallites are calcium oxalate monohydrate, uric acid, and calcium phosphate. The mechanism of formation of CaOx stones was discussed based on the components of urinary nanocrystallites. Conclusion The formation of CaOx stones is closely related both to the properties of urinary nanocrystallites and to the urinary components. The combination of HRTEM, fast Fourier transformation, selected area electron diffraction, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy could be accurately performed to analyze the components of single urinary nanocrystallites. This result provides evidence for nanouric acid and/or nanocalcium phosphate crystallites as the central nidus to induce CaOx stone formation. PMID:25258530

  5. The Interaction between Enterobacteriaceae and Calcium Oxalate Deposits

    PubMed Central

    Barr-Beare, Evan; Saxena, Vijay; Hilt, Evann E.; Thomas-White, Krystal; Schober, Megan; Li, Birong; Becknell, Brian; Hains, David S.; Wolfe, Alan J.; Schwaderer, Andrew L.

    2015-01-01

    Background The role of calcium oxalate crystals and deposits in UTI pathogenesis has not been established. The objectives of this study were to identify bacteria present in pediatric urolithiasis and, using in vitro and in vivo models, to determine the relevance of calcium oxalate deposits during experimental pyelonephritis. Methods Pediatric kidney stones and urine were collected and both cultured and sequenced for bacteria. Bacterial adhesion to calcium oxalate was compared. Murine kidney calcium oxalate deposits were induced by intraperitoneal glyoxalate injection and kidneys were transurethrally inoculated with uropathogenic Escherichia coli to induce pyelonephritis Results E. coli of the family Enterobacteriaceae was identified in patients by calcium oxalate stone culture. Additionally Enterobacteriaceae DNA was sequenced from multiple calcium oxalate kidney stones. E. coli selectively aggregated on and around calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals. Mice inoculated with glyoxalate and uropathogenic E. coli had higher bacterial burdens, increased kidney calcium oxalate deposits and an increased kidney innate immune response compared to mice with only calcium oxalate deposits or only pyelonephritis. Conclusions In a murine model, the presence of calcium oxalate deposits increases pyelonephritis risk, likely due to preferential aggregation of bacteria on and around calcium oxalate crystals. When both calcium oxalate deposits and uropathogenic bacteria were present, calcium oxalate deposit number increased along with renal gene transcription of inner stone core matrix proteins increased. Therefore renal calcium oxalate deposits may be a modifiable risk factor for infections of the kidney and urinary tract. Furthermore, bacteria may be present in calcium oxalate deposits and potentially contribute to calcium oxalate renal disease. PMID:26448465

  6. A ferrous oxalate mediated photo-Fenton system: toward an increased biodegradability of indigo dyed wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Vedrenne, Michel; Vasquez-Medrano, Ruben; Prato-Garcia, Dorian; Frontana-Uribe, Bernardo A; Hernandez-Esparza, Margarita; de Andrés, Juan Manuel

    2012-12-01

    This study assessed the applicability of a ferrous oxalate mediated photo-Fenton pretreatment for indigo-dyed wastewaters as to produce a biodegradable enough effluent, likely of being derived to conventional biological processes. The photochemical treatment was performed with ferrous oxalate and hydrogen peroxide in a Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) under batch operation conditions. The reaction was studied at natural pH conditions (5-6) with indigo concentrations in the range of 6.67-33.33 mg L(-1), using a fixed oxalate-to-iron mass ratio (C(2)O(4)(2-)/Fe(2+)=35) and assessing the system's biodegradability at low (257 mg L(-1)) and high (1280 mg L(-1)) H(2)O(2) concentrations. In order to seek the optimal conditions for the treatment of indigo dyed wastewaters, an experimental design consisting in a statistical surface response approach was carried out. This analysis revealed that the best removal efficiencies for Total Organic Carbon (TOC) were obtained for low peroxide doses. In general it was observed that after 20 kJ L(-1), almost every treated effluent increased its biodegradability from a BOD(5)/COD value of 0.4. This increase in the biodegradability was confirmed by the presence of short chain carboxylic acids as intermediate products and by the mineralization of organic nitrogen into nitrate. Finally, an overall decrease in the LC(50) for Artemia salina indicated a successful detoxification of the effluent. PMID:23142056

  7. Acute oxalate nephropathy due to pancreatic atrophy in newly diagnosed pancreatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Moinuddin, Irfan; Bala, Asif; Ali, Butool; Khan, Husna; Bracamonte, Erika; Sussman, Amy

    2016-02-01

    Acute oxalate nephropathy can occur due to primary hyperoxaluria and secondary hyperoxaluria. The primary hyperoxalurias are a group of autosomal recessive disorders of endogenous oxalate overproduction. Secondary hyperoxaluria may occur as a result of excess dietary intake, poisoning with oxalate precursors (ethylene glycol), or enteric hyperoxaluria. The differential diagnosis of enteric hyperoxaluria includes inflammatory bowel disease, short bowel syndrome, bariatric surgery (with jejunoileal bypass or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass), celiac disease, partial colectomy, and chronic pancreatitis. The common etiology in all these processes is fat malabsorption, steatorrhea, saponification of calcium, and absorption of free oxalate. Hyperoxaluria causes increased urinary oxalate excretion, urolithiasis (promoted by hypovolemia, decreased urinary pH caused by metabolic acidosis, and decreased citrate and magnesium concentrations in urine), tubulointerstitial oxalate deposits, and tubulointerstitial nephritis. We report a rare case of acute oxalate nephropathy due to pancreatic atrophy and exocrine insufficiency caused by newly diagnosed pancreatic cancer. PMID:26614399

  8. The relative effects of supplemental dietary calcium and oxalate on urine composition and calcium oxalate relative supersaturation in healthy adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, A E; Hynds, W K; Markwell, P J

    2003-08-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the relative effects of dietary calcium and oxalate (in the form of oxalic acid) on the composition of urine produced by healthy adult Cairn Terriers and Miniature Schnauzers. A nutritionally complete dry dog food was fed to 7 dogs (4 Cairn terriers and 3 Miniature schnauzers) for 24 weeks. The dogs were fed the diet alone, or supplemented with six different combinations of dietary calcium (as carbonate and sulphate) and oxalate (as oxalic acid) commonly found in dry commercially prepared dog foods. Urine pH, volume, specific gravity, and concentrations of 12 analytes were measured for each dog; urinary relative supersaturation (RSS) with calcium oxalate (CaOx) was calculated from these values. The effects of supplemental calcium and oxalate were established using two-way analysis of variance and multiple range tests (least significant difference); P<0.05 was considered significant. The lowest level of dietary calcium and oxalate resulted in the lowest CaOx RSS. The high calcium, low oxalate diet resulted in the highest CaOx RSS, a low calcium diet with increased dietary oxalate also tended to increase CaOx RSS although results were highly variable. Urinary calcium concentration increased significantly with dietary calcium; urinary oxalate increased, although inconsistently, with dietary oxalic acid only when dietary calcium was low. Measures to reduce both calcium and oxalate should be considered when implementing dietary changes to reduce the risk of calcium oxalate formation in dogs. A reduction in dietary calcium without a concomitant decrease in dietary oxalate may increase the risk of CaOx crystallisation in susceptible dogs. PMID:12801461

  9. Effect of dietary water intake on urinary output, specific gravity and relative supersaturation for calcium oxalate and struvite in the cat.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Catherine M F; Hawthorne, Amanda; Colyer, Alison; Stevenson, Abigail E

    2011-10-01

    It has been reported that daily fluid intake influences urinary dilution, and consequently the risk of urolithiasis in human subjects and dogs. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of dietary moisture on urinary parameters in healthy adult cats by comparing nutritionally standardised diets, varying only in moisture content. A total of six cats were fed a complete dry food (6.3 % moisture) hydrated to 25.4, 53.2 and 73.3 % moisture for 3 weeks in a randomised block cross-over design. Urinary specific gravity (SG), urine volume, water drunk and total fluid intake were measured daily; relative supersaturation (RSS) for calcium oxalate (CaOx) and struvite was calculated using the SUPERSAT computer program. Cats fed the 73.3 % moisture diet produced urine with a significantly lower SG (P < 0.001) compared with diets containing 53.2 % moisture or lower. Mean RSS for CaOx was approaching the undersaturated zone (1.14 (sem 0.21); P = 0.001) for cats fed the diet with 73.3 % moisture and significantly lower than the 6.3 % moisture diet (CaOx RSS 2.29 (sem 0.21)). The effect of diet on struvite RSS was less clear, with no significant difference between treatment groups. Total fluid intake was significantly increased (P < 0.001) in the 73.3 % moisture diet (144.7 (SEM 5.2) ml, or 30 ml/kg body weight per d) compared with the 6.3 % (103.4 (SEM 5.3) ml), 25.4 % (98.6 (SEM 5.3) ml) and 53.3 % (104.7 (SEM 5.3) ml) moisture diets, despite voluntary water intake decreasing as dietary moisture intake increased. Cats fed the 73.3 % moisture diet had a higher total daily fluid intake resulting in a more dilute urine with a lower risk of CaOx when compared with the lower-moisture diets. PMID:22005408

  10. ISOLATED MEDICAGO TRUNCATULA MUTANTS WITH INCREASED CALCIUM OXALATE CRYSTAL ACCUMULATION HAVE DECREASED ASCORBIC ACID LEVELS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mechanisms controlling oxalate biosynthesis and calcium oxalate formation in plants remains largely unknown. As an initial step toward gaining insight into these regulatory mechanisms we initiated a mutant screen to identify plants that over-accumulate crystals of calcium oxalate. Four new mut...

  11. Therapeutic effect of Xue Niao An on glyoxylate-induced calcium oxalate crystal deposition based on urinary metabonomics approach

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Zhongjiang; Chen, Wei; Gao, Songyan; Su, Li; Li, Na; Wang, Li; Lou, Ziyang; Dong, Xin; Guo, Zhiyong

    2014-01-01

    The anti-nephrolithiasis effect of Xue Niao An (XNA) capsules is explored by analyzing urine metabolic profiles in mouse models, with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS). An animal model of calcium oxalate crystal renal deposition was established in mice by intra-abdominal injection of glyoxylate. Then, treatment with XNA by intra-gastric administration was performed. At the end of the study, calcium deposition in kidney was measured by Von Kossa staining under light microscopy, and the Von Kossa staining changes showed that XNA significantly alleviated the calcium oxalate crystal deposition. Meanwhile, urine samples for fifteen metabolites, including amino acids and fatty acids, with significant differences were detected in the calcium oxalate group, while XNA treatment attenuated metabolic imbalances. Our study indicated that the metabonomic strategy provided comprehensive insight on the metabolic response to XNA treatment of rodent renal calcium oxalate deposition. PMID:25411524

  12. Environmental factors of urinary stones mineralogy, Khouzestan Province, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarasvandi, Alireza; Carranza, E. J. M.; Heidari, Majid; Mousapour, Esmaeil

    2014-09-01

    Urinary stone diseases in the Khouzestan province (southwest Iran) are growing in number and it required extensive studies on various factors of the urinary stones formation in this province. In this research, in addition to distribution of urinary stones in different areas of province, the role of bioenvironmental (race), climate (temperature) and geology (water hardness) factors in urinary stones diversity has been studied. Mineralogical studied using X-ray diffraction showed that uricite and whewellite are the most frequency mineral phases. Struvite, Cystine, hydroxyapatite, weddellite, and Niahite can be observed as urinary stones, too. These data show that the urinary stone in the Khouzestan province can divide into 7 groups: calcium oxalate, phosphate, calcium oxalate/ phosphate, Urate, Urate/calcium, Urate/calcium oxalate/phosphate, Cystine/calcium oxalate. Also the results which attained from temperature effect investigation on the mineralogy of urinary stones, confirms that from Mediterranean sub-humid climates (northeastern area) to warm and dry climates (south and southwest area), calcium oxalate stones and urate stones concentration decreases and increases respectively. Comparison of data related to the drinking water hardness and mineralogy of urinary stones in different areas of Khouzestan province show that the combination of drinking water (especially water hardness) affects mineralogy of urinary stones in some areas (such az Ramhormoz and Hendijan). Finally, the data suggest that frequency of calcium oxalate in women is more than that of men. Moreover, there is direct relationship between the age (>45 years) and the increase in frequency of Urate minerals.

  13. Determination of Oxalate Content in Herbal Remedies and Dietary Supplements Based on Plant Extracts.

    PubMed

    Siener, Roswitha; López-Mesas, Montserrat; Valiente, Manuel; Blanco, Francisco

    2016-02-01

    Lifestyle, especially diet, is a prominent risk factor that affects the formation of calcium oxalate stones. Urinary oxalate excretion is directly related to the amount of oral intake and intestinal absorption rate of oxalate. This work evaluated the possibility of increasing oxalate ingestion, which could lead to secondary hyperoxaluria, associated with the intake of herbal remedies and dietary supplements containing plant extracts. A wide variety of 17 commercially available drugs and dietary supplements were analyzed using ion chromatography. The results showed remarkable differences in oxalate contents of the extracts. Total oxalate concentrations ranged from 0.03 to 2.2 mg/g in solid samples and from 0.005 to 0.073 mg/mL in liquid samples. The selected herbal remedies and dietary supplements containing plant extracts represent only a low risk for calcium oxalate stone formers, if the recommended daily dose is not exceeded. PMID:26670692

  14. Effects of pyruvate salts, pyruvic acid, and bicarbonate salts in preventing experimental oxalate urolithiasis in rats.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Y; Yamaguchi, K; Tanaka, T; Morozumi, M

    1986-05-01

    Sodium pyruvate, potassium pyruvate, pyruvic acid, sodium bicarbonate and potassium bicarbonate were added to a calcium-oxalate lithogenic diet (a glycolic-acid diet) in order to determine their effects in preventing lithogenicity. Male Wistar-strain rats who had been fed the glycolic-acid diet developed marked urinary calculi within four weeks. Rats in the sodium and potassium pyruvate groups had, however, almost no stones in the urinary system. Rats in the bicarbonate and pyruvic-acid groups showed slightly less effect than those in the pyruvate groups. Urinary oxalate excretion was high in all the groups during the experiment. The urinary oxalate concentration was relatively higher in the sodium-pyruvate group, and significantly higher in the potassium-pyruvate group, than in the glycolic-acid group. Urinary citrate excretion was high both in the pyruvate and bicarbonate groups; the urinary citrate concentration was, however, significantly higher in the pyruvate groups than in the bicarbonate groups at the fourth experimental week. The urinary calcium and magnesium concentrations were irrelevant to the diets administered. Therefore, it can be concluded that pyruvate salts inhibit urinary calculi formation, not by decreasing oxalate synthesis, but by increasing the urinary citrate concentration; bicarbonate salts work in the same manner, but a little less effectively. PMID:3007782

  15. Medicago truncatula mutants with an increase in mesophyll calcium oxalate accumulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants invest a considerable amount of resources and energy into the formation of calcium oxalate crystals. A number of roles for crystal formation in plant growth and development have been assigned based on the prevalence of crystals, their spatial distribution, and the variety of crystal shapes. ...

  16. A GENETIC MUTATION THAT REDUCES CALCIUM OXALATE CONTENT INCREASES CALCIUM AVAILABILITY IN MEDICAGO TRUNCATULA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxalate is considered an antinutrient that renders calcium unavailable for nutritional absorption by humans. Efforts have been made to generate and identify edible plants with decreased levels of this antinutrient. The extent to which a food can be nutritionally improved through genetic alterations ...

  17. A GENETIC MUTATION THAT REDUCES CALCIUM OXALATE CONTENT INCREASES CALCIUM AVAILABILITY IN MEDICAGO TRUNCATULA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxalate is considered an antinutrient that renders calcium unavailable for nutritional absorption by humans. Efforts have been made to generate and identify edible plants with decreased levels of this antinutrient. The extent to which a food can be nutritionally improved through genetic alteration...

  18. Effect of Tribulus terrestris on oxalate metabolism in rats.

    PubMed

    Sangeeta, D; Sidhu, H; Thind, S K; Nath, R

    1994-10-01

    This study concerns the effect of an aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris on the metabolism of oxalate in male rats fed sodium glycolate. Glycolate feeding resulted in hyperoxaluria as well as increased activities of oxalate synthesizing enzymes of the liver i.e. glycolate oxidase (GAO), glycolate dehydrogenase (GAD) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and decreased kidney LDH activity. T. terrestris administration to sodium glycolate fed rats produced a significant decrease in urinary oxalate excretion, and a significant increase in urinary glyoxylate excretion, as compared to sodium glycolate fed animals. The supplementation of T. terrestris with sodium glycolate also caused a reduction in liver GAO and GAD activities, whereas liver LDH activity remained unaltered. The isoenzyme pattern of kidney LDH revealed that normalization of kidney LDH by T. terrestris feeding was mainly due to an increase in the LDH 5 fraction. The LDH 1 isoenzyme remained unchanged in all the groups. PMID:7853865

  19. Calcium oxalate crystallization index (COCI): an alternative method for distinguishing nephrolithiasis patients from healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bowei; Dissayabutra, Thasinas; Ungjaroenwathana, Wattanachai; Tosukhowong, Piyaratana; Srisa-Art, Monpichar; Supaprom, Thavorn; Insin, Numpon; Boonla, Chanchai

    2014-01-01

    Urinary supersaturation triggers lithogenic crystal formation. We developed an alternative test, designated calcium oxalate crystallization index (COCI), to distinguish nephrolithiasis patients from healthy individuals based on their urinary crystallization capability. The effect of urine volume, oxalate, phosphate, citrate, potassium, and sodium on COCI values was investigated. COCI values were determined in 24-hr urine obtained from nephrolithiasis patients (n=72) and matched healthy controls (n=71). Increases in urine oxalate and phosphate and decreases in urine volume and citrate resulted in significantly increased COCI values. The urinary COCI in nephrolithiasis patients was significantly higher than that in healthy individuals. Two healthy subjects who had elevated COCI values were found to have asymptomatic kidney calculi. The receiver operating characteristic analysis showed an area under the curve of the urinary COCI test of 0.9499 (95%CI: 0.9131-0.9868) for distinguishing between nephrolithiasis and healthy subjects. At the cutoff of 165 mg oxalate equivalence/day, the urinary COCI test provided sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy amounts of 83.33%, 97.18%, and 90.21%, respectively. Urinary COCI values were primarily dependent on urine volume, oxalate, and phosphate. The test provided high sensitivity and specificity for clinically discriminating nephrolithiasis patients from healthy controls. It might be used to detect individuals with asymptomatic kidney calculi. PMID:25117095

  20. Analysis of calcium, oxalate, and citrate interaction in idiopathic calcium urolithiasis in children.

    PubMed

    Milosević, Danko; Batinić, Danica; Konjevoda, Pasko; Blau, Nenad; Stambuk, Nikola; Nizić, Ljiljana; Vrljicak, Kristina; Batinić, Danko

    2003-01-01

    The majority of urinary stones in children are composed of calcium oxalate. To investigate the interaction between urinary calcium, oxalate, and citrate as major risk factors for calcium stones formation, their 24-h urinary excretion was determined in 30 children with urolithiasis and 15 normal healthy children. The cutoff points between children with urolithiasis and healthy children, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for each risk factor alone as well as for all three taken together were determined. OneR and J4.8 classifiers as parts of the larger data mining software Weka, based on machine learning algorithms, were used for the determination of the cutoff points for differentiation of the children. The decision tree based on J4.8 classifier analysis of all three risk factors together proved to be the best for differentiating stone formers from normal children. In comparison to the accuracy of the differentiation after calcium and oxalate of 80% and 75.6%, respectively, the decision tree showed an accuracy of 97.8%. Even when its stability was tested by the leave-one-out cross-validation procedure, the accuracy remained at a very acceptable percentage of 93.2% correctly classified patients. J4.8 classifier analysis gave a look inside urinary calcium, oxalate, and citrate interaction. Urinary calcium excretion was shown as the most informative in discrimination of the children with urolithiasis from healthy children. However, it was shown that oxalate and citrate excretions might influence the stone formation in a subpopulation of the stone formers. In patients with low urinary calcium, a major role in lithogenesis belongs to oxalate, in some of them alone and in others in conjunction with citrate. Decreased urinary citrate excretion in the presence of increased oxalate excretion may lead to stone formation. PMID:14632431

  1. Urinary Phthalates and Increased Insulin Resistance in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Spanier, Adam J.; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Attina, Teresa M.; Blustein, Jan

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Di-2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) is an environmental chemical commonly found in processed foods. Phthalate exposures, in particular to DEHP, have been associated with insulin resistance in adults, but have not been studied in adolescents. METHODS: Using cross-sectional data from 766 fasting 12- to 19-year-olds in the 2003–2008 NHANES, we examined associations of phthalate metabolites with continuous and categorical measures of homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). RESULTS: Controlling for demographic and behavioral factors, diet, continuous age, BMI category, and urinary creatinine, for each log (roughly threefold) increase in DEHP metabolites, a 0.27 increase (95% confidence interval 0.14–0.40; P < .001) in HOMA-IR was identified. Compared with the first tertile of DEHP metabolite in the study population (14.5% insulin resistant), the third tertile had 21.6% prevalence (95% confidence interval 17.2%–26.0%; P = .02). Associations persisted despite controlling for bisphenol A, another endocrine-disrupting chemical commonly found in foods, and HOMA-IR and insulin resistance were not significantly associated with metabolites of lower molecular weight phthalates commonly found in cosmetics and other personal care products. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary DEHP concentrations were associated with increased insulin resistance in this cross-sectional study of adolescents. This study cannot rule out the possibility that insulin-resistant children ingest food with higher phthalate content, or that insulin-resistant children excrete more DEHP. PMID:23958772

  2. Dietary protein-induced increases in urinary calcium are accompanied by similar increases in urinary nitrogen and urinary urea: a controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Bihuniak, Jessica D; Simpson, Christine A; Sullivan, Rebecca R; Caseria, Donna M; Kerstetter, Jane E; Insogna, Karl L

    2013-03-01

    To determine the usefulness of urinary urea as an index of dietary protein intake, 10 postmenopausal women were enrolled in and completed a randomized, double-blind, cross-over feeding trial from September 2008 to May 2010 that compared 10 days of a 45-g whey supplement with 10 days of a 45-g maltodextrin control. Urinary nitrogen, urinary calcium, urinary urea, and bone turnover markers were measured at days 0, 7, and 10. Paired sample t tests, Pearson's correlation statistic, and simple linear regression were used to assess differences between treatments and associations among urinary metabolites. Urinary nitrogen/urinary creatinine rose from 12.3±1.7 g/g (99.6±13.8 mmol/mmol) to 16.8±2.2 g/g (135.5±17.8 mmol/mmol) with whey supplementation, but did not change with maltodextrin. Whey supplementation caused urinary calcium to rise by 4.76±1.84 mg (1.19±0.46 mmol) without a change in bone turnover markers. Because our goal was to estimate protein intake from urinary nitrogen/urinary creatinine, we used our data to develop the following equation: protein intake (g/day)=71.221+1.719×(urinary nitrogen, g)/creatinine, g) (R=0.46, R(2)=0.21). As a more rapid and less costly alternative to urinary nitrogen/urinary creatinine, we next determined whether urinary urea could predict protein intake and found that protein intake (g/day)=63.844+1.11×(urinary urea, g/creatinine, g) (R=0.58, R(2)=0.34). These data indicate that urinary urea/urinary creatinine is at least as good a marker of dietary protein intake as urinary nitrogen and is easier to quantitate in nutrition intervention trials. PMID:23438496

  3. Pre-harvest application of oxalic acid increases quality and resistance to Penicillium expansum in kiwifruit during postharvest storage.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yuyan; Yu, Jie; Brecht, Jeffrey K; Jiang, Tianjia; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2016-01-01

    Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Bruno) fruits were sprayed with 5mM oxalic acid (OA) at 130, 137, and 144 days after full blossom, and then harvested at commercial maturity [soluble solid content (SSC) around 10.0%] and stored at room temperature (20 ± 1 °C). Pre-harvest application of OA led to fruit with higher ascorbic acid content at harvest, slowed the decreases in fruit firmness and ascorbic acid content and increase in SSC during storage, and also decreased the natural disease incidence, lesion diameter, and patulin accumulation in fruit inoculated with Penicillium expansum, indicating that the OA treatment increased quality and induced disease resistance in kiwifruit. It was suggested that the increase in activities of defense-related enzymes and in levels of substances related to disease resistance might collectively contribute to resistance in kiwifruit against fungi such as P. expansum in storage. PMID:26213007

  4. Aluminum Citrate Prevents Renal Injury from Calcium Oxalate Crystal Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Besenhofer, Lauren M.; Cain, Marie C.; Dunning, Cody

    2012-01-01

    Calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals are responsible for the kidney injury associated with exposure to ethylene glycol or severe hyperoxaluria. Current treatment strategies target the formation of calcium oxalate but not its interaction with kidney tissue. Because aluminum citrate blocks calcium oxalate binding and toxicity in human kidney cells, it may provide a different therapeutic approach to calcium oxalate-induced injury. Here, we tested the effects of aluminum citrate and sodium citrate in a Wistar rat model of acute high-dose ethylene glycol exposure. Aluminum citrate, but not sodium citrate, attenuated increases in urea nitrogen, creatinine, and the ratio of kidney to body weight in ethylene glycol–treated rats. Compared with ethylene glycol alone, the addition of aluminum citrate significantly increased the urinary excretion of both crystalline calcium and crystalline oxalate and decreased the deposition of crystals in renal tissue. In vitro, aluminum citrate interacted directly with oxalate crystals to inhibit their uptake by proximal tubule cells. These results suggest that treating with aluminum citrate attenuates renal injury in rats with severe ethylene glycol toxicity, apparently by inhibiting calcium oxalate’s interaction with, and retention by, the kidney epithelium. PMID:23138489

  5. [Oxalobacter formigenes--characteristics and role in development of calcium oxalate urolithiasis].

    PubMed

    Torzewska, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms are one of the important factors for urinary calculi formation. While urease-positive bacteria and nanobacteria contribute to stone formation, Oxalobacter formigenes rods play a protective role against the development of urolithiasis. Proteus mirabilis alkaline environment of the urinary tract and cause crystallization mainly of struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate). However, nanobacteria, due to the possibility of apatite deposition on the surface of their cells, have long been considered as an etiological factor of urinary calculi consisting of calcium phosphates. O. formigenes is an anaerobe using oxalate as the main source of carbon and energy and occurs as natural gastrointestinal microflora of humans and animals. These bacteria control the amount of oxalate excretion degrading oxalates and regulating their transport by intestinal epithelium. Lower colonization of the human colon by O. formigenes can cause increased oxalate excretion and lead to the development of oxalate urolithiasis. Due to the positive influence of O. formigenes, there is ongoing research into the use of this microorganism as a probiotic in the prophylaxis or treatment of hyperoxaluria, both secondary and primary. The results of these studies are very promising, but they still require continuation. Future studies focus on the exact characteristics of O. formigenes including their metabolism and the development of methods for applying as a therapeutic agent the bacteria or their enzymes degrading the oxalate. PMID:24379255

  6. Adsorption characteristics of amino acids on to calcium oxalate.

    PubMed

    He, Junbin; Lin, Rihui; Long, Han; Liang, Yuwei; Chen, Yangyang

    2015-09-15

    Adsorption of amino acids on to calcium oxalate found in urinary calculus has been studied and the adsorption characteristics were analyzed. Pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models were used to fit the kinetics data. The pseudo-second-order model best described the dynamic behavior of the adsorption process. The uptake of glutamic acid and aspartic acid were found to decrease as solution pH increasing from 4 to 8. The experimental data obtained at different pH conditions were analyzed and fitted by Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson, Temkin and Sips isotherm models using linear and nonlinear regression analysis. Error analysis (correlation coefficient, residual root mean square error and chi-square test) showed that the Langmuir I isotherm model and the non-linear form of Sips isotherm model should be primarily adopted for fitting the equilibrium data. The maximum adsorption capacity of glutamic acid and aspartic acid onto calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals are 0.059 and 0.066μmol/g at pH 4, respectively. These studies have the vital significance for research aimed at exploring the role of urinary amino acids effect the formation process of calcium oxalate crystals found in urinary calculus and for potential application in the design of synthetic peptides used for urinary calculi therapy. PMID:26021431

  7. Increased urinary clearance of lysine vasopressin in the deoxycorticosterone acetate-hypertensive pig.

    PubMed

    Ling, W D; Brooks, D P; Crofton, J T; Share, L; Bohr, D F

    1989-12-01

    We have previously reported an increased urinary excretion of vasopressin without a rise in circulating levels of this hormone in the deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-hypertensive pig (DH). The present study was designed to characterize the renal handling of vasopressin in DH that might account for this paradox. DOCA hypertension was produced in seven domestic female pigs by means of subcutaneous implants of Silastic rubber impregnated with DOCA. Thirty days after DOCA implantation, urinary clearances of inulin, para-aminohippurate (PAH), and vasopressin were measured in the conscious animals during infusion of a 5% dextrose solution, first without and then with lysine vasopressin. Subsequent to this study, four of the pigs were placed on a low-sodium (10 meq/kg food) diet for 4 wk. At the end of this period, the clearances were again evaluated. We observed an increased urinary vasopressin clearance (CLVP) in the DH associated with an increased urinary flow but without significant changes in the clearances of inulin or PAH. Dietary sodium restrictions reversed the hypertension and the increased urinary flow and returned the CLVP to normotensive levels. These results indicate that the increased urinary excretion of vasopressin in DH is because of an increased urinary clearance of this hormone. This increased urinary CLVP is the consequence of the high urine flow in these pigs. PMID:2690649

  8. Estimation of the oxalate content of foods and daily oxalate intake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, R. P.; Kennedy, M.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The amount of oxalate ingested may be an important risk factor in the development of idiopathic calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. Reliable food tables listing the oxalate content of foods are currently not available. The aim of this research was to develop an accurate and reliable method to measure the food content of oxalate. METHODS: Capillary electrophoresis (CE) and ion chromatography (IC) were compared as direct techniques for the estimation of the oxalate content of foods. Foods were thoroughly homogenized in acid, heat extracted, and clarified by centrifugation and filtration before dilution in water for analysis. Five individuals consuming self-selected diets maintained food records for three days to determine their mean daily oxalate intakes. RESULTS: Both techniques were capable of adequately measuring the oxalate in foods with a significant oxalate content. With foods of very low oxalate content (<1.8 mg/100 g), IC was more reliable than CE. The mean daily intake of oxalate by the five individuals tested was 152 +/- 83 mg, ranging from 44 to 352 mg/day. CONCLUSIONS: CE appears to be the method of choice over IC for estimating the oxalate content of foods with a medium (>10 mg/100 g) to high oxalate content due to a faster analysis time and lower running costs, whereas IC may be better suited for the analysis of foods with a low oxalate content. Accurate estimates of the oxalate content of foods should permit the role of dietary oxalate in urinary oxalate excretion and stone formation to be clarified. Other factors, apart from the amount of oxalate ingested, appear to exert a major influence over the amount of oxalate excreted in the urine.

  9. The influence of scale inhibitors on calcium oxalate

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, J.S.

    1999-11-01

    Precipitation of calcium oxalate is a common occurrence in mammalian urinary tract deposits and in various industrial processes such as paper making, brewery fermentation, sugar evaporation, and tannin concentration. Between pH 3.5 to 4.5 the driving force for calcium oxalate precipitation increases almost by three fold. It is a complicated process to predict both the nature of a deposit and at which stage of a multi-effect evaporator a particular mineral will deposit, as this depends on temperature, pH, total solids, and kinetics of mineralization. It is quite a challenge to inhibit calcium oxalate precipitation in the pH range of 4--6. Al{sup 3+} ions provide excellent threshold inhibition in this pH range and can be used to augment traditional inhibitors such as polyphosphates and polycarboxylates.

  10. Surface aggregation of urinary proteins and aspartic acid-rich peptides on the faces of calcium oxalate monohydrate investigated by in situ force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, M L; Qiu, S R; Hoyer, J R; Casey, W H; Nancollas, G H; De Yoreo, J J

    2008-05-28

    The growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate in the presence of Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP), osteopontin (OPN), and the 27-residue synthetic peptides (DDDS){sub 6}DDD and (DDDG){sub 6}DDD [where D = aspartic acid and X = S (serine) or G (glycine)] was investigated via in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that these three growth modulators create extensive deposits on the crystal faces. Depending on the modulator and crystal face, these deposits can occur as discrete aggregates, filamentary structures, or uniform coatings. These proteinaceous films can lead to either the inhibition or increase of the step speeds (with respect to the impurity-free system) depending on a range of factors that include peptide or protein concentration, supersaturation and ionic strength. While THP and the linear peptides act, respectively, to exclusively increase and inhibit growth on the (-101) face, both exhibit dual functionality on the (010) face, inhibiting growth at low supersaturation or high modulator concentration and accelerating growth at high supersaturation or low modulator concentration. Based on analyses of growth morphologies and dependencies of step speeds on supersaturation and protein or peptide concentration, we argue for a picture of growth modulation that accounts for the observations in terms of the strength of binding to the surfaces and steps and the interplay of electrostatic and solvent-induced forces at crystal surface.

  11. Preoperative Urinary Retention Increased the Risk of Urinary Retention after Photoselective Vaporization of the Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung Yong; Ro, Yun Kwan; Kim, Hwanik

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the present study was to evaluate preoperative acute urinary retention (AUR) as a factor affecting the outcomes of patients who underwent photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP), both in terms of overall effectiveness and the postoperative incidence of AUR. Materials and Methods Baseline prostate characteristics were obtained for patients who underwent PVP, including prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, transrectal ultrasound findings, voiding diary parameters, the International Prostate Symptoms Score (IPSS), and uroflowmetry parameters. These parameters were assessed two weeks, one month, three months, six months, and three years postoperatively. Subjects were divided into AUR and non-AUR groups based on the preoperative occurrence of AUR. Results Of the 476 patients, 91 had at least one episode of preoperative AUR. The AUR group was found to be significantly older and to have significantly higher PSA levels, lower body mass indices, and larger prostates. At one year of follow-up, the total IPSS was 7.6±6.8 in the AUR group and 11.4±8.2 in the non-AUR group, with the AUR group showing a more significant improvement. In the non-AUR group, 17 of the 385 patients (4.4%) experienced postoperative retention, compared to 16 of the 91 patients (17.6%) patients in the AUR group. Conclusions Almost all patients exhibited improvements in subjective and objective voiding parameters following PVP, regardless of the presence of preoperative urinary retention. Patients with a preoperative history of AUR had a higher risk of postoperative retention. PMID:26770938

  12. SLC26A6 and NaDC-1 Transporters Interact to Regulate Oxalate and Citrate Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Ohana, Ehud; Shcheynikov, Nikolay; Moe, Orson W.

    2013-01-01

    The combination of hyperoxaluria and hypocitraturia can trigger Ca2+-oxalate stone formation, even in the absence of hypercalciuria, but the molecular mechanisms that control urinary oxalate and citrate levels are not understood completely. Here, we examined the relationship between the oxalate transporter SLC26A6 and the citrate transporter NaDC-1 in citrate and oxalate homeostasis. Compared with wild-type mice, Slc26a6-null mice exhibited increased renal and intestinal sodium-dependent succinate uptake, as well as urinary hyperoxaluria and hypocitraturia, but no change in urinary pH, indicating enhanced transport activity of NaDC-1. When co-expressed in Xenopus oocytes, NaDC-1 enhanced Slc26a6 transport activity. In contrast, Slc26a6 inhibited NaDC-1 transport activity in an activity dependent manner to restricted tubular citrate absorption. Biochemical and physiologic analysis revealed that the STAS domain of Slc26a6 and the first intracellular loop of NaDC-1 mediated both the physical and functional interactions of these transporters. These findings reveal a molecular pathway that senses and tightly regulates oxalate and citrate levels and may control Ca2+-oxalate stone formation. PMID:23833257

  13. Characterization of Urinary Stone Composition by Use of Third-Generation Dual-Source Dual-Energy CT With Increased Spectral Separation

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Xinhui; Li, Zhoubo; Yu, Lifeng; Leng, Shuai; Halaweish, Ahmed F.; Fletcher, Joel G.; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this phantom study was to determine the utility of a third-generation dual-source CT scanner with increased dual-energy spectral separation in differentiating urinary stone composition. MATERIALS AND METHODS Eighty-seven urinary stones from humans were scanned in 35-, 40-, 45-, and 50-cm wide anthropomorphic phantoms with a third-generation dual-source scanner (system A) with a high-energy beam of 150 kV plus 0.6-mm tin filtration (Sn). The low-energy data were acquired at 70, 80, 90, and 100 kV. A second-generation dual-source scanner (system B) was used to acquire data at 140 kV plus 0.4-mm Sn for the high-energy and 80 or 100 kV for the low-energy images. Volume CT dose index was matched for a given phantom size. CT number ratios were calculated and used to differentiate uric acid from non–uric acid stones and oxalate from apatite stones in an ROC analysis. RESULTS The area under the curve (AUC) of the ROC curve for uric acid versus non–uric acid stones increased for large phantoms. For example, for imaging of the 45-cm wide phantom with system A at the 100- and 150-kV Sn low- and high-energy combination, the AUC was 0.99, whereas for system B at the 100- and 140-kV Sn combination, the AUC was 0.86. At each phantom size and for all energy combinations, the AUC values for oxalate versus apatite stones were higher for system A than they were for any energy combination for system B. CONCLUSION Compared with use of second-generation dual-source CT, use of third-generation dual-source CT at the energy combination of 100 and 150 kV Sn improved classification of urinary stones across a wide range of phantom sizes and increased the ability to differentiate oxalate from apatite stones. PMID:26587926

  14. Increased Klk9 Urinary Excretion Is Associated to Hypertension-Induced Cardiovascular Damage and Renal Alterations

    PubMed Central

    Blázquez-Medela, Ana M.; García-Sánchez, Omar; Quirós, Yaremi; Blanco-Gozalo, Victor; Prieto-García, Laura; Sancho-Martínez, Sandra M.; Romero, Miguel; Duarte, Juan M.; López-Hernández, Francisco J.; López-Novoa, José M.; Martínez-Salgado, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Early detection of hypertensive end-organ damage and secondary diseases are key determinants of cardiovascular prognosis in patients suffering from arterial hypertension. Presently, there are no biomarkers for the detection of hypertensive target organ damage, most outstandingly including blood vessels, the heart, and the kidneys. We aimed to validate the usefulness of the urinary excretion of the serine protease kallikrein-related peptidase 9 (KLK9) as a biomarker of hypertension-induced target organ damage. Urinary, plasma, and renal tissue levels of KLK9 were measured by the Western blot in different rat models of hypertension, including angiotensin-II infusion, DOCA-salt, L-NAME administration, and spontaneous hypertension. Urinary levels were associated to cardiovascular and renal injury, assessed by histopathology. The origin of urinary KLK9 was investigated through in situ renal perfusion experiments. The urinary excretion of KLK9 is increased in different experimental models of hypertension in rats. The ACE inhibitor trandolapril significantly reduced arterial pressure and the urinary level of KLK9. Hypertension did not increase kidney, heart, liver, lung, or plasma KLK9 levels. Hypertension-induced increased urinary excretion of KLK9 results from specific alterations in its tubular reabsorption, even in the absence of overt nephropathy. KLK9 urinary excretion strongly correlates with cardiac hypertrophy and aortic wall thickening. KLK9 appears in the urine in the presence of hypertension as a result of subtle renal handling alterations. Urinary KLK9 might be potentially used as an indicator of hypertensive cardiac and vascular damage. PMID:26469898

  15. Increased Klk9 Urinary Excretion Is Associated to Hypertension-Induced Cardiovascular Damage and Renal Alterations.

    PubMed

    Blázquez-Medela, Ana M; García-Sánchez, Omar; Quirós, Yaremi; Blanco-Gozalo, Victor; Prieto-García, Laura; Sancho-Martínez, Sandra M; Romero, Miguel; Duarte, Juan M; López-Hernández, Francisco J; López-Novoa, José M; Martínez-Salgado, Carlos

    2015-10-01

    Early detection of hypertensive end-organ damage and secondary diseases are key determinants of cardiovascular prognosis in patients suffering from arterial hypertension. Presently, there are no biomarkers for the detection of hypertensive target organ damage, most outstandingly including blood vessels, the heart, and the kidneys.We aimed to validate the usefulness of the urinary excretion of the serine protease kallikrein-related peptidase 9 (KLK9) as a biomarker of hypertension-induced target organ damage.Urinary, plasma, and renal tissue levels of KLK9 were measured by the Western blot in different rat models of hypertension, including angiotensin-II infusion, DOCA-salt, L-NAME administration, and spontaneous hypertension. Urinary levels were associated to cardiovascular and renal injury, assessed by histopathology. The origin of urinary KLK9 was investigated through in situ renal perfusion experiments.The urinary excretion of KLK9 is increased in different experimental models of hypertension in rats. The ACE inhibitor trandolapril significantly reduced arterial pressure and the urinary level of KLK9. Hypertension did not increase kidney, heart, liver, lung, or plasma KLK9 levels. Hypertension-induced increased urinary excretion of KLK9 results from specific alterations in its tubular reabsorption, even in the absence of overt nephropathy. KLK9 urinary excretion strongly correlates with cardiac hypertrophy and aortic wall thickening.KLK9 appears in the urine in the presence of hypertension as a result of subtle renal handling alterations. Urinary KLK9 might be potentially used as an indicator of hypertensive cardiac and vascular damage. PMID:26469898

  16. Prophylactic and therapeutic properties of a sodium citrate preparation in the management of calcium oxalate urolithiasis: randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Allie-Hamdulay, Shameez; Rodgers, Allen L

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prophylactic and therapeutic effects of a hitherto untested preparation containing sodium citrate in the management of calcium oxalate urolithiasis. In this study, a host of calcium oxalate kidney stone risk factors was investigated using a randomised, placebo controlled, "within-patient" clinical trial. The trial involved four groups of subjects: healthy male controls, healthy female controls , calcium oxalate stone-forming males and calcium oxalate stone-forming females. There were 30 subjects in each group. Twenty subjects in each group ingested the preparation containing sodium citrate and ten subjects in each group ingested a placebo for 7 days. Collection of 24 h urines were carried out at baseline, at day 7 and day 10 (i.e. 3 days after suspension of drug/placebo ingestion). These were analysed for biochemical and physicochemical risk factors. They were also tested for their inhibitory properties in crystallization experiments. Data were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Key risk factors were significantly and beneficially altered across all groups after ingestion of the preparation. The pH and urinary citrate excretion increased while urinary oxalate and calcium excretions decreased, as did relative supersaturations of calcium oxalate and uric acid. In addition, inhibition of calcium oxalate crystallization increased. Beneficial carryover effects were observed for some risk factors. The results of this study have demonstrated, for the first time, that a sodium citrate-containing preparation favourably alters the risk factors for calcium oxalate urolithiasis. PMID:15871014

  17. Genetically modified Medicago truncatula lacking calcium oxalate has increased calcium bioavailability and partially rescues vitamin D receptor knockout mice phenotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    How the distribution and sequestered form of plant macro/micro-nutrients influence their bioavailability, and ultimately impact human health, is poorly understood. The legume Medicago truncatula has a portion of its tissue calcium sequestered in the form of the calcium oxalate crystal, which reduces...

  18. Methyl jasmonate and oxalic acid treatment of Norway spruce: anatomically based defense responses and increased resistance against fungal infection.

    PubMed

    Krokene, Paal; Nagy, Nina Elisabeth; Solheim, Halvor

    2008-01-01

    To study the effect of chemical pretreatment on conifer resistance, 13-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) trees were treated with methyl jasmonate (MJ) or oxalic acid (OxA) on the outer bark and inoculated with the pathogenic blue-stain fungus Ceratocystis polonica (Siem.) C. Moreau 4 weeks later. Both chemicals significantly reduced symptoms of fungal infection, but MJ was more effective than OxA (51 versus 18% reduction in length of necrotic lesions in the phloem relative to untreated control trees). Anatomical examination of treated stem tissues showed that MJ induced extensive formation of traumatic resin ducts in the xylem and extra polyphenolic parenchyma (PP) cells in the secondary phloem between the cambium and the regular annual PP cell layer. No traumatic resin ducts were formed after treatment with OxA, and the coverage of extra PP cells in OxA-treated tissues was not significantly higher than in the controls. The anatomically based defense reactions induced by MJ were similar to the reactions observed after pathogen infection, mechanical wounding and bark beetle attack. Neither MJ nor OxA had apparent phytotoxic effects on Norway spruce at the concentrations used, with needle and stem tissues of all trees appearing normal without visible symptoms of toxicity. However, trees treated with MJ had 30% less radial sapwood growth than control trees. In conclusion, MJ treatment of Norway spruce appears to have practical potential as a tool for increasing plant resistance to fungal infection, but with a modest reduction in sapwood growth. PMID:17938111

  19. Increased urinary excretion rates of serotonin and metabolites during bedrest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platen, Petra; Lebenstedt, Marion; Schneider, Myriam; Boese, Andrea; Heer, Martina

    2005-05-01

    Astronauts are often on a voluntarily reduced energy intake during space missions, possibly caused by a metabolic or emotional stress response with involvement of the central serotonergic system (SES). We investigated 24 h urinary excretion (24 h-E) of serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindol acidic acid as indicators of the SES in healthy males under two different normocaloric conditions: normal physical activity (NPA) and -6∘ head-down-tilt (HDT). HDT or NPA were randomly arranged with a recovery period of 6 months in between. 24 h-E of hormones varied widely among individuals. Values were higher in HDT compared to NPA. Assuming that the 24 h-E values are, beside being indicators for alterations in the number and metabolism of platelets, Also indicators of central SES, HDT condition seems to activate central SES in a higher degree compared to NPA. Therefore, changes in central SES might be involved in the mechanisms associated with space flight or microgravity, including possible maladaptations such as voluntary undernutrition.

  20. Oxalobacter formigenes Colonization and Oxalate Dynamics in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xingsheng; Ellis, Melissa L.

    2015-01-01

    Animal and human studies have provided compelling evidence that colonization of the intestine with Oxalobacter formigenes reduces urinary oxalate excretion and lowers the risk of forming calcium oxalate kidney stones. The mechanism providing protection appears to be related to the unique ability of O. formigenes to rely on oxalate as a major source of carbon and energy for growth. However, much is not known about the factors that influence colonization and host-bacterium interactions. We have colonized mice with O. formigenes OxCC13 and systematically investigated the impacts of diets with different levels of calcium and oxalate on O. formigenes intestinal densities and urinary and intestinal oxalate levels. Measurement of intestinal oxalate levels in mice colonized or not colonized with O. formigenes demonstrated the highly efficient degradation of soluble oxalate by O. formigenes relative to other microbiota. The ratio of calcium to oxalate in diets was important in determining colonization densities and conditions where urinary oxalate and fecal oxalate excretion were modified, and the results were consistent with those from studies we have performed with colonized and noncolonized humans. The use of low-oxalate purified diets showed that 80% of animals retained O. formigenes colonization after a 1-week dietary oxalate deprivation. Animals not colonized with O. formigenes excreted two times more oxalate in feces than they had ingested. This nondietary source of oxalate may play an important role in the survival of O. formigenes during periods of dietary oxalate deprivation. These studies suggest that the mouse will be a useful model to further characterize interactions between O. formigenes and the host and factors that impact colonization. PMID:25979889

  1. KIDNEY STONE INCIDENCE AND METABOLIC URINARY CHANGES AFTER MODERN BARIATRIC SURGERY: REVIEW OF CLINICAL STUDIES, EXPERIMENTAL MODELS, AND PREVENTION STRATEGIES

    PubMed Central

    Canales, Benjamin K.; Hatch, Marguerite

    2014-01-01

    Bariatric surgery has been associated with increased metabolic kidney stone risk and post-operative stone formation. A MEDLINE search, performed for articles published between January 2005 and November 2013, identified 24 pertinent studies containing 683 bariatric patients with 24-hour urine profiles, 6,777 bariatric patients with kidney stone incidence, and 7,089 non-stone forming controls. Of all procedures reviewed, only Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) was linked to post-operative kidney stone development, increasing stone incidence two-fold in non-stone formers (8.5%) and four-fold in patients with previous stone history (16.7%). High quality evidence from 7 studies (n=277 patients) before and after RYGB identified the following post-RYGB urinary lithogenic risk factors: 30% reduction in urine volume (the main driver of urinary crystal saturation), 40% reduction in urinary citrate (a potent stone inhibitor), and 50% increase in urinary oxalate (a stone promotor). Based on this, a summary of strategies to reduce calcium oxalate stone risk following RYGB is provided. Furthermore, recent experimental RYGB studies are assessed for insights into the pathophysiology of oxalate handling, and the literature in gut anion (oxalate) transport is reviewed. Finally, as a potential probiotic therapy for hyperoxaluria, primary data from our laboratory is presented, demonstrating a 70% reduction in urinary oxalate levels in four experimental RYGB animals after colonization with Oxalobacter formigines, a non-pathogenic gut commensal that uses oxalate as an energy source. Overall, urine profiles and kidney stone risk following bariatric surgery appear modifiable by dietary adjustments, appropriate supplementation, and lifestyle changes. For hyperoxaluria resistant to dietary oxalate restriction and calcium binding, well-designed human investigations are needed to identify additional means of lowering urinary oxalate, such as Oxalobacter colonization or empiric pyridoxine therapy. Further investigations are also needed to determine tolerability and compliance of stone prevention strategies, such as citrate supplementation and hydration, in this population. PMID:24969092

  2. Nutrient intake and urine composition in calcium oxalate stone-forming dogs: comparison with healthy dogs and impact of dietary modification.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Abigail E; Blackburn, Judith M; Markwell, Peter J; Robertson, William G

    2004-01-01

    Nutrient intake and urine composition were analyzed in calcium oxalate (CaOx)stone-forming and healthy control dogs to identify factors that contribute to CaOx urolithiasis. Stone-forming dogs had significantly lower intake of sodium, calcium, potassium, and phosphorus and significantly higher urinary calcium and oxalate concentrations, calcium excretion, and CaOx relative supersaturation (RSS). Feeding a diet used in the treatment of canine lower urinary tract disease for 1 month was associated with increased intake of moisture, sodium, and fat; reduced intake of potassium and calcium; and decreased urinary calcium and oxalate concentrations, calcium excretion, and CaOx RSS. No clinical signs of disease recurrence were observed in the stone-forming dogs when the diet was fed for an additional 11 months. The results suggest that hypercalciuria and hyperoxaluria contribute to the formation of CaOx uroliths in dogs and show that dietary modifications can alter this process. PMID:15578454

  3. Update on Oxalate Crystal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Elizabeth C.; Michet, Claude J.; Milliner, Dawn S.; Lieske, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Oxalate arthropathy is a rare cause of arthritis characterized by deposition of calcium oxalate crystals within synovial fluid. This condition typically occurs in patients with underlying primary or secondary hyperoxaluria. Primary hyperoxaluria constitutes a group of genetic disorders resulting in endogenous overproduction of oxalate, whereas secondary hyperoxaluria results from gastrointestinal disorders associated with fat malabsorption and increased absorption of dietary oxalate. In both conditions oxalate crystals can deposit in the kidney leading to renal failure. Since oxalate is primarily renally eliminated, it accumulates throughout the body in renal failure, a state termed oxalosis. Affected organs can include bones, joints, heart, eyes and skin. Since patients can present with renal failure and oxalosis before the underlying diagnosis of hyperoxaluria has been made, it is important to consider hyperoxaluria in patients who present with unexplained soft tissue crystal deposition. The best treatment of oxalosis is prevention. If patients present with advanced disease, treatment of oxalate arthritis consists of symptom management and control of the underlying disease process. PMID:23666469

  4. Mineralogy and chemistry of urinary stones: patients from North Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abboud, Iyad Ahmed

    2008-10-01

    Urinary stone diseases are increasing in the Middle East. The majority of urinary stone cases are found in the northern part of the country. Stone samples taken from patients living in the Irbid area were collected from Princess Basma Hospital. The present study concentrates on the mineralogical and chemical composition of the urinary stones and on the effective environmental factors that assist in developing the different types of urinary stones. Using X-ray diffraction techniques, the mineralogical composition of the urinary stones was found to be as follows: oxalate, cholesten, and uric acid, with cystine stones occuring more frequently than the others. Cholesten and calcium oxalate stones are the most dominant types of stones. Calcium oxalate is the most common type of oxalate stone. Calcium oxalate is represented in: whewellite, wheddellite, and calcium carbonate oxalate hydrate minerals, in addition to other minerals such as brushite, ammonium phosphate, vaterite, valleriite, and bobierrite from other types of stones. Bobierrite (phosphate group) is a new mineral reported in urinary stones, and this has not been determined in any previous study worldwide. Apatite (calcium phosphate) is deduced using scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. The SEM technique determined crystal forms and systems, shapes, morphological features, and the names of the minerals forming urine stones, while optical properties are studied by polarizing microscope. X-ray fluorescence technique determined the concentrations of major and some trace elements. It revealed that Ca is the main constituent of the urinary stones, especially those composed of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate. The concentration of trace elements was Ba = 1.57, P = 3.61, Fe = 1.78, S = 2.08, Zr = 4.63, Mo = 3.92, Cu = 1.89, Co = 1.56, and F = 4.2% and was higher in the urinary stones of Jordanian patients than in foreigners in the country. Questionnaires completed by patients suggest that the most significant factors directly effecting the formation of stones are water, climate conditions, food rich in protein and rich in different chemicals. Moreover, some drugs and diseases might also help in developing other stones. PMID:18064405

  5. Oxalate is overestimated in alkaline urines collected during administration of bicarbonate with no specimen pH adjustment.

    PubMed

    Lemann, J; Hornick, L J; Pleuss, J A; Gray, R W

    1989-10-01

    We compared measurements of daily urine oxalate excretion in urines collected at the prevailing urine pH with measurements of urine oxalate excretion in urines collected into 20 mL of 6 mol/L HCl. We studied eight healthy adults fed constant diets. Urines were collected during control conditions and, in each subject, during the administration of NaCl, KCl, NaHCO3, or KHCO3, 90 mmol/day. Daily urine oxalate excretion calculated for collections made in acid averaged 271 (SD 79) mumol/day and did not vary with any of the salt supplements. When urines were collected at ambient urine pH (average 5.94, SD 0.23) during control conditions, and during the administration of NaCl or KCl, urine oxalate excretion averaged 263 (SD 88) mumol/day, a value not different from that for collections in acid. However, when urine was collected with no pH adjustment during NaHCO3 or KHCO3 administration (average pH 6.90, SD 0.14), apparent urine oxalate excretion averaged 398 (SD 132) mumol/day, significantly (P less than 0.025) exceeding the mean observed when urines were collected in acid. Moreover, the percentage increase in apparent oxalate excretion increased with urinary pH. These observations reinforce recommendations that urine specimens for measurement of oxalate be collected in acid to avoid the increase in apparent oxalate content that occurs during collection of alkaline urines. This increase presumably results from the well-known in vitro nonenzymatic conversion of ascorbate to oxalate. PMID:2551541

  6. The effect of preincubation of seed crystals of uric acid and monosodium urate with undiluted human urine to induce precipitation of calcium oxalate in vitro : implications for urinary stone formation.

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Phulwinder K.; Ryall, Rosemary L.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies demonstrated that crystals of uric acid (UA) and sodium urate (NaU) can induce the precipitation of calcium oxalate (CaOx) from its inorganic metastable solutions, but similar effects have not been unequivocally shown to occur in urine. The aim of this investigation was to determine whether preincubation of these seeds with urine alter their ability to induce deposition of CaOx from solution and thus provide a possible explanation for discrepancy of results obtained from aqueous inorganic solutions and undiluted urine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of commercial seed crystals of UA, NaU and CaOx (6 mg/100 ml) on CaOx crystallization were compared in a solution with the same crystals that had been preincubated for 3 hours with healthy male urine. A Coulter Counter was used to follow the crystallization and decrease in soluble (14) C-oxalate was measured to determine the deposition of CaOx. The precipitated particles were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The preincubated seeds were demineralized and proteins released were analyzed by sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). RESULTS: Analysis of (14) C-oxalate data revealed that while treated UA seeds did not affect CaOx deposition, those of NaU and CaOx inhibited the process by 51.9 (p<0.05) and 8.5% (p<0.05) relative to their respective untreated counterparts. Particle size analysis showed that the average modal sizes of particles precipitated in the presence of treated seed crystals of UA, NaU, and CaOx were very similar to those deposited in the presence of their respective untreated controls. These findings were confirmed by SEM which also showed that seed crystals of UA and NaU, untreated and treated, were attached like barnacles upon the surfaces of CaOx crystals which themselves were bigger than those precipitated in the presence of CaOx seeds. SDS-PAGE analysis of the demineralized treated seeds showed that they all selectively adsorbed urinary proteins, and perhaps other urinary macromolecules and low molecular weight components, on their surface. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that preincubation with urine, such as occurs in vivo, only slightly reduces the ability of seed crystals of CaOx, but not of UA, to cause deposition of CaOx. The most striking effect was on NaU seeds where the preincubation quite dramatically attenuated their promotory effect on the mineral deposition. This may explain the discrepancy between findings of studies carried out in inorganic solutions and undiluted human urine. This stresses the invalidity of directly extrapolating results obtained in inorganic solutions to likely effects in urine and more importantly, on stone formation. PMID:12456991

  7. Urinary nitrate excretion is increased in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and reduced by prednisolone.

    PubMed Central

    Stichtenoth, D O; Fauler, J; Zeidler, H; Frölich, J C

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To determine daily production of nitric oxide (NO) measured as urinary nitrate excretion, and the effect of prednisolone in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS--Twenty four hour urinary nitrate was measured by gas chromatography in 10 patients with RA, before and two to four weeks after commencement of prednisolone 0.5 mg/kg body weight, and in 18 healthy controls. RESULTS--Before the start of prednisolone treatment the urinary nitrate excretion in patients with RA was 2.7-fold greater (p < 0.001) than that in healthy volunteers. After prednisolone it decreased significantly, by 28%, at which time inflammatory activity (as indicated by C reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, joint count, and early morning stiffness) was also reduced considerably. Despite this decrease, the urinary nitrate excretion in patients with RA remained twice that in the control group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS--Our data suggest that the endogenous production of NO is enhanced in patients with RA. Furthermore, the results indicate that, in parallel with suppression of inflammation, this increased NO synthesis could be reduced by prednisolone treatment. PMID:7492221

  8. Effect of Increasing Doses of Saw Palmetto on Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Michael J.; Meleth, Sreelatha; Lee, Jeannette Y.; Kreder, Karl J.; Avins, Andrew L.; Nickel, J. Curtis; Roehrborn, Claus G.; Crawford, E. David; Foster, Harris E.; Kaplan, Steven A.; McCullough, Andrew; Andriole, Gerald L.; Naslund, Michael J.; Williams, O. Dale; Kusek, John W.; Meyers, Catherine M.; Betz, Joseph M.; Cantor, Alan; McVary, Kevin T.

    2012-01-01

    Context Saw palmetto fruit extracts are widely used for treating lower urinary tract symptoms attributed to benign prostatic hyperplasia. However, recent clinical trials have questioned their efficacy, at least at standard doses (320 mg daily). Objective To determine the effect of a saw palmetto extract at up to three times the standard dose on lower urinary tract symptoms attributed to benign prostatic hyperplasia. Design Multicenter placebo-controlled randomized trial conducted from June, 2008 through October, 2010. Setting Eleven North American clinical sites. Participants Were men at least 45 years old, with a peak urinary flow rate ≥ 4 ml/sec, an AUA Symptom Index (AUASI) score ≥ 8 and ≤ 24, and no exclusions. Interventions One, two, and then three 320 mg daily doses of saw palmetto extract or placebo, with dose increases at 24 and 48 weeks. Main Outcome Measures Primary outcome was the difference in AUASI score from baseline to 72 weeks. Secondary outcomes were measures of urinary bother; nocturia; uroflow; postvoid residual; prostate-specific antigen; participants’ global assessments; and indices of sexual function, continence, sleep quality, and prostatitis symptoms. Results From baseline to 72 weeks, mean AUASI scores decreased from 14.4 to 12.2 points with saw palmetto and from 14.7 to 11.7 points with placebo. The group mean difference in AUASI score change from baseline to 72 weeks between the saw palmetto and placebo groups was 0.79 points favoring placebo (bound of the 95% confidence interval most favorable to saw palmetto was 1.77 points, one-sided P=0.91). Saw palmetto was no more effective than placebo for any secondary outcome. No attributable side effects were identified. Conclusions Increasing doses of a saw palmetto fruit extract did not reduce lower urinary tract symptoms more than placebo. (CAMUS study number NCT00603304 http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov) PMID:21954478

  9. Increase of urinary and serum hydroxyproline in subjects exposed to cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Nishino, H.; Tanaka, T.; Shiroishi, K.; Sato, S. ); Naruse, Y.; Kagamimori, S. )

    1991-10-01

    Itai-itai disease (I disease) is characterized mainly by renal tubular damage and osteomalacia accompanied by osteoporosis in subjects with long-term ingestion of excessive cadmium (Cd). Most of the studies on the osteopathies of this disease have focused on mineral metabolism. For a better understanding of the osteopathies of I disease, the authors have been interested in collagen metabolism in relation to that of minerals. It is possible that the increased urinary concentration of Hyp may be associated with the osteopathies of patients with I disease. To provide more information about the increased urinary concentration resulting from Cd exposure the measurement of serum concentration of Hyp was also carried out in the present study.

  10. Oral intake of ranitidine increases urinary excretion of N-nitrosodimethylamine.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Teng; Mitch, William A

    2016-06-01

    The H2-receptor antagonist, ranitidine, is among the most widely used pharmaceuticals to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease and peptic ulcers. While previous studies have demonstrated that amines can form N-nitrosamines when exposed to nitrite at stomach-relevant pH, N-nitrosamine formation from ranitidine, an amine-based pharmaceutical, has not been demonstrated under these conditions. In this work, we confirmed the production of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), a potent carcinogen, by nitrosation of ranitidine under stomach-relevant pH conditions in vitro We also evaluated the urinary NDMA excretion attributable to ingestion of clinically used ranitidine doses. Urine samples collected from five female and five male, healthy adult volunteers over 24-h periods before and after consumption of 150mg ranitidine were analyzed for residual ranitidine, ranitidine metabolites, NDMA, total N-nitrosamines and dimethylamine. Following ranitidine intake, the urinary NDMA excreted over 24h increased 400-folds from 110 to 47 600ng, while total N-nitrosamines increased 5-folds. NDMA excretion rates after ranitidine intake equaled or exceeded those observed previously in patients with schistosomiasis, a disease wherein N-nitrosamines are implicated as the etiological agents for bladder cancer. Due to metabolism within the body, urinary NDMA measurements represent a lower-bound estimate of systemic NDMA exposure. Our results suggest a need to evaluate the risks attributable to NDMA associated with chronic consumption of ranitidine, and to identify alternative treatments that minimize exposure to N-nitrosamines. PMID:26992900

  11. Increased urinary excretion of platelet activating factor in mice with lupus nephritis

    SciTech Connect

    Macconi, D.; Noris, M.; Benfenati, E.; Quaglia, R.; Pagliarino, G. ); Remuzzi, G. Ospedali Riuniti di Bergamo )

    1991-01-01

    Platelet activating factor (PAF) is present in urine from humans and experimental animals in normal conditions. Very little is known about changes in PAF urinary excretion under pathologic conditions and no data are available about the origin of PAF in the urine. In the present study we explored the possibility that immunologic renal disease is associated with an increase in PAF urinary excretion using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique. To clarify the renal or extrarenal origin of urinary PAF we evaluated whether exogenously administered PAF (1-(1{prime},2{prime}-{sup 3}H)alkyl) is filtered through the glomerulus and excreted in the urine. The results show that: (1) urine from mice with lupus nephritis in the early phase of the disease contained amounts of PAF comparable to those excreted in normal mouse urine, (2) PAF levels increased when animals started to develop high grade proteinuria, (3) after intravenous injection of ({sup 3}H) PAF In nephritic mice, a negligible amount of ({sup 3}H) ether lipid, corresponding to ({sup 3}H)1-alkyl -2-acyl-3-phosphocholine (alkyl-2-acyl-GPC), was recovered from the 24 h urine extract.

  12. Dentin Hypersensitivity and Oxalates

    PubMed Central

    Cunha-Cruz, J.; Stout, J.R.; Heaton, L.J.; Wataha, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of dentin hypersensitivity with oxalates is common, but oxalate efficacy remains unclear. Our objective was to systematically review clinical trials reporting an oxalate treatment compared with no treatment or placebo with a dentin hypersensitivity outcome. Risk-of-bias assessment and data extraction were performed independently by two reviewers. Standardized mean differences (SMD) were estimated by random-effects meta-analysis. Of 677 unique citations, 12 studies with high risk-of-bias were included. The summary SMD for 3% monohydrogen-monopotassium oxalate (n = 8 studies) was -0.71 [95% Confidence Interval: -1.48, 0.06]. Other treatments, including 30% dipotassium oxalate (n = 1), 30% dipotassium oxalate plus 3% monohydrogen monopotassium oxalate (n = 3), 6% monohydrogen monopotassium oxalate (n = 1), 6.8% ferric oxalate (n = 1), and oxalate-containing resin (n = 1), also were not statistically significantly different from placebo treatments. With the possible exception of 3% monohydrogen monopotassium oxalate, available evidence currently does not support the recommendation of dentin hypersensitivity treatment with oxalates. PMID:21191127

  13. Oxalate catabolism in Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxalic acid is found in most plant species and can serve beneficial roles that protect the plant from a variety of environmental stresses. Excessive amounts of oxalate, however, can be detrimental to plant health. Thus, careful coordination of oxalate metabolism is needed. Despite the important impa...

  14. Protective effect of Urtica dioica methanol extract against experimentally induced urinary calculi in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiying; Li, Ning; Li, Kun; Li, Peng

    2014-12-01

    Renal calculi formation is one of the most common urological disorders. Urinary stone disease is a common disease, which affects 10‑12% of the population in industrialized countries. In males, the highest prevalence of the disease occurs between the age of 20 and 40 years, while in females, the highest incidence of the disease occurs later. Previous studies have shown that long‑term exposure to oxalate is toxic to renal epithelial cells and results in oxidative stress. In the present study, a methanolic extract of aerial parts of Urtica dioica was screened for antiurolithiatic activity against ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride‑induced calcium oxalate renal stones in male rats. In the control rats, ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride administration was observed to cause an increase in urinary calcium, oxalate and creatinine levels, as well as an increase in renal calcium and oxalate deposition. Histopathological observations revealed calcium oxalate microcrystal deposits in the kidney sections of the rats treated with ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride, indicating the induction of lithiasis. In the test rats, treatment with the methanolic extract of Urtica dioica was found to decrease the elevated levels of urinary calcium, oxalate and creatinine, and significantly decrease the renal deposition of calcium and oxalate. Furthermore, renal histological observations revealed a significant reduction in calcium oxalate crystal deposition in the test rats. Phytochemical analysis of the Urtica dioica extract was also performed using liquid chromatography‑electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection, to determine the chemical composition of the extract. The eight chemical constituents identified in the extract were protocatechuic acid, salicylic acid, luteolin, gossypetin, rutin, kaempferol‑3‑O‑rutinoside, kaempferol‑3‑O‑glucoside and chlorogenic acid. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that Urtica dioica has strong antiurolithiatic activity and may have potential as a natural therapeutic agent for various urological disorders. PMID:25310585

  15. Acute oxalate nephropathy following kidney transplantation: Report of three cases

    PubMed Central

    Taheri, Diana; Gheissari, Alaleh; Shaabani, Pooria; Tabibian, Seyed Reza; Mortazavi, Mojgan; Seirafian, Shiva; Merrikhi, Alireza; Fesharakizadeh, Mehdi; Dolatkhah, Shahaboddin

    2015-01-01

    Calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystal deposition is a common finding immediately after kidney transplantation. However, small depositions of CaOx could be benign while extensive depositions lead to poor graft outcome. Here we report three cases with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), bilateral nephrolithiasis, and unknown diagnosis of primary hyperoxaluria (PH) who underwent a renal transplant and experienced an early-onset graft failure. Although an acute rejection was suspected, renal allograft biopsies and subsequent allograft nephrectomies showed extensive CaOx deposition, which raised a suspicion of PH. Even though increased urinary excretion of CaOx was found in all patients, this diagnosis could be confirmed with further tests including genetic study and metabolic assay. In conclusion, massive CaOx deposition in kidney allograft is an important cause of poor allograft survival and needs special management. Furthermore, our cases suggest patients with ESRD and a history of nephrolithiasis should be screened for elevated urinary oxalate excretion and rule out of PH. PMID:26664431

  16. Effect of Lagenaria siceraria fruit powder on sodium oxalate induced urolithiasis in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Takawale, Rahul V.; Mali, Vishal R.; Kapase, Chinmay U.; Bodhankar, Subhash L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In spite of advances in the present practice of medicine, the formation and growth of calculi continues to trouble mankind, as there is no satisfactory drug to treat kidney stones. In India, many indigenous drugs are in use for the treatment of urinary calculus disease. Objective: The present study was intended to determine anti-urolithiatic effect of Lagenaria siceraria fruit powder (LSFP) against sodium oxalate (NaOx) induced urolithiasis in rats. Materials and Methods: Animals were grouped as Vehicle Group (received vehicle gum acacia 2% w/v 1 mL/kg/p.o.), NaOx Group(Sodium oxalate 70 mg/kg,i.p.), LSFP Group (500 mg/kg, p.o. LSFP suspended in gum acacia 2% + Sodium oxalate 70 mg/kg), Cystone Group (500 mg/kg, p.o. Cystone suspended in gum acacia 2% + Sodium oxalate 70 mg/kg). Result: The increased severity of microscopic calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals deposition along with increased concentration in the kidney was seen after 7 days of NaOx (70 mg/kg, i.p.) pre-treatment. LSFP (500 mg/kg, p.o.) and standard marketed formulation Cystone (500 mg/kg, p.o.) caused a significant reversal of NaOx-induced changes in ion excretion and urinary CaOx concentration in 7 days treatment. Conclusion: From the results, it was concluded that LSFP showed beneficial effect against urolithiasis by decreasing CaOx excretion and preventing crystal deposition in the kidney tubules. PMID:22707863

  17. Increased Urinary Exosomal MicroRNAs in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Hernandez, Javier; Forner, Maria J.; Pinto, Carolina; Chaves, Felipe J.

    2015-01-01

    There is increased interest in using microRNAs (miRNAs) as biomarkers in different diseases. Present in body fluids, it is controversial whether or not they are mainly enclosed in exosomes, thus we studied if urinary miRNAs are concentrated inside exosomes and if the presence of systemic lupus erythematosus with or without lupus nephritis modifies their distribution pattern. We quantified specific miRNAs in urine of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (n = 38) and healthy controls (n = 12) by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR in cell-free urine, exosome-depleted supernatant and exosome pellet obtained by ultracentrifugation. In control group, miR-335* and miR-302d were consistently higher in exosomes than in exosome-depleted supernatant, and miR-200c and miR-146a were higher in cell-free fraction. In lupus patients, all urinary miRNAs tested were mainly in exosomes with lower levels outside them (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). This pattern is especially relevant in patients with active lupus nephritis compared to the control group or to the SLE patients in absence of lupus nephritis, with miR-146a being the most augmented (100-fold change, p<0.001). Among the exosomal miRNAs tested, only the miR-146a discriminates the presence of active lupus nephritis. In conclusion, urinary miRNAs are contained primarily in exosomes in systemic lupus erythematosus, and the main increment was found in the presence of active lupus nephritis. These findings underscore the attractiveness of exosomal miRNAs in urine, a non-invasive method, as potential renal disease markers. PMID:26390437

  18. A seven day running training period increases basal urinary hepcidin levels as compared to cycling

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This investigation compared the effects of an extended period of weight-bearing (running) vs. non-weight-bearing (cycling) exercise on hepcidin production and its implications for iron status. Methods Ten active males performed two separate exercise training blocks with either running (RTB) or cycling (CTB) as the exercise mode. Each block consisted of five training sessions (Day 1, 2, 4, 5, 6) performed over a seven day period that were matched for exercise intensity. Basal venous blood samples were obtained on Day 1 (D1), and on Recovery Days 3 (R3) and 7 (R7) to assess iron status, while basal and 3 h post-exercise urinary hepcidin levels were measured on D1, D2, D6, as well as R3 and R7 (basal levels only) for each condition. Results Basal urinary hepcidin levels were significantly elevated (p ≤ 0.05) at D2, R3 and R7 as compared to D1 in RTB. Furthermore, 3 h post-exercise urinary hepcidin levels on D1 were also significantly higher in RTB compared to CTB (p ≤ 0.05). In CTB, urinary hepcidin levels were not statistically different on D1 as compared to R7. Iron parameters were not significantly different at D1 compared to R3 and R7 during both conditions. Conclusions These results suggest that basal hepcidin levels may increase over the course of an extended training program, especially if a weight-bearing exercise modality is undertaken. However, despite any variations in hepcidin production, serum iron parameters in both RTB and CTB were unaffected, possibly due to the short duration of each training block. In comparing running to cycling, non-weight-bearing activity may require more training sessions, or sessions of extended duration, before any significant changes in basal hepcidin levels appear. Chronic elevations in hepcidin levels may help to explain the high incidence of iron deficiency in athletes. PMID:24716892

  19. Sub-nephrotoxic cisplatin sensitizes rats to acute renal failure and increases urinary excretion of fumarylacetoacetase.

    PubMed

    Vicente-Vicente, Laura; Sánchez-Juanes, Fernando; García-Sánchez, Omar; Blanco-Gozalo, Víctor; Pescador, Moisés; Sevilla, María A; González-Buitrago, José Manuel; López-Hernández, Francisco J; López-Novoa, José Miguel; Morales, Ana Isabel

    2015-04-16

    Nephrotoxicity limits the therapeutic efficacy of the antineoplastic drug cisplatin. Due to dosage adjustment and appropriate monitoring, most therapeutic courses with cisplatin produce no or minimal kidney damage. However, we studied whether even sub-nephrotoxic dosage of cisplatin poses a potential risk for the kidneys by predisposing to acute kidney injury (AKI), specifically by lowering the toxicity threshold for a second nephrotoxin. With this purpose rats were treated with a single sub-nephrotoxic dosage of cisplatin (3mg/kg, i.p.) and after two days, with a sub-nephrotoxic regime of gentamicin (50mg/kg/day, during 6 days, i.p.). Control groups received only one of the drugs or the vehicle. Renal function and renal histology were monitored throughout the experiment. Cisplatin treatment did not cause any relevant functional or histological alterations in the kidneys. Rats treated with cisplatin and gentamicin, but not those under single treatments, developed an overt renal failure characterized by both renal dysfunction and massive tubular necrosis. In addition, the urinary excretion of fumarylacetoacetase was increased in cisplatin-treated animals at subtoxic doses, which might be exploited as a cisplatin-induced predisposition marker. In fact, the urinary level of fumarylacetoacetase prior to the second nephrotoxin correlated with the level of AKI triggered by gentamicin in predisposed animals. PMID:25677510

  20. Urinary Hypoxanthine as a Measure of Increased ATP Utilization in Late Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Megan S.; Hopper, Andrew; Slater, Laurel; Asmerom, Yayesh; Esiaba, Ijeoma; Boskovic, Danilo S.; Angeles, Danilyn M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of neonatal morbidity on ATP breakdown in late preterm infants. Study Design Urinary hypoxanthine concentration, a marker of ATP breakdown, was measured from 82 late preterm infants on days of life (DOL) 3 to 6 using high-performance liquid chromatography. Infants were grouped according to the following diagnoses: poor nippling alone (n = 8), poor nippling plus hyperbilirubinemia (n = 21), poor nippling plus early respiratory disease (n = 26), and respiratory disease alone (n = 27). Results Neonates with respiratory disease alone had significantly higher urinary hypoxanthine over DOL 3 to 6 when compared with neonates with poor nippling (P = .020), poor nippling plus hyperbilirubinemia (P < .001), and poor nippling plus early respiratory disease (P = .017). Neonates with poor nippling who received respiratory support for 2 to 3 days had significantly higher hypoxanthine compared with infants who received respiratory support for 1 day (P = .017) or no days (P = .007). Conclusions These findings suggest that respiratory disorders significantly increase ATP degradation in late premature infants. PMID:26413195

  1. In Utero and Lactational TCDD Exposure Increases Susceptibility to Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction in Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Ricke, William A; Lee, Calvin W; Clapper, Tyler R; Schneider, Andrew J; Moore, Robert W; Keil, Kimberly P; Abler, Lisa L; Wynder, Jalissa L; López Alvarado, Arnaldo; Beaubrun, Isaac; Vo, Jenny; Bauman, Tyler M; Ricke, Emily A; Peterson, Richard E; Vezina, Chad M

    2016-04-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostate cancer, and changes in the ratio of circulating testosterone and estradiol often occur concurrently in aging men and can lead to lower urinary tract (LUT) dysfunction. To explore the possibility of a fetal basis for the development of LUT dysfunction in adulthood, Tg(CMV-cre);Nkx3-1(+/-);Pten(fl/+) mice, which are genetically predisposed to prostate neoplasia, were exposedin uteroand during lactation to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, 1 μg/kg po) or corn oil vehicle (5 ml/kg) after a single maternal dose on 13 days post coitus, and subsequently were aged without further manipulation, or at 8 weeks of age were exposed to exogenous 17 β-estradiol (2.5 mg) and testosterone (25 mg) (T+E2) via slow release subcutaneous implants.In uteroand lactational (IUL) TCDD exposure in the absence of exogenous hormone treatment reduced voiding pressure in adult mice, but otherwise had little effect on mouse LUT anatomy or function. By comparison, IUL TCDD exposure followed by exogenous hormone treatment increased relative kidney, bladder, dorsolateral prostate, and seminal vesicle weights, hydronephrosis incidence, and prostate epithelial cell proliferation, thickened prostate periductal smooth muscle, and altered prostate and bladder collagen fiber distribution. We propose a 2-hit model whereby IUL TCDD exposure sensitizes mice to exogenous-hormone-induced urinary tract dysfunction later in life. PMID:26865671

  2. Calcium oxalate crystals increased enolase-1 secretion from renal tubular cells that subsequently enhanced crystal and monocyte invasion through renal interstitium.

    PubMed

    Chiangjong, Wararat; Thongboonkerd, Visith

    2016-01-01

    Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals cause kidney stone disease by still unclear mechanisms. The present study aimed to characterize changes in secretion of proteins from basolateral compartment of renal tubular epithelial cells after exposure to COM crystals and then correlated them with the stone pathogenesis. Polarized MDCK cells were cultivated in serum-free medium with or without 100 μg/ml COM crystals for 20 h. Secreted proteins collected from the lower chamber (basolateral compartment) were then resolved in 2-D gels and visualized by Deep Purple stain (n = 5 gels/group). Spot matching and intensity analysis revealed six protein spots with significantly altered levels in COM-treated samples. These proteins were then identified by tandem mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS/MS), including enolase-1, phosphoglycerate mutase-1, actinin, 14-3-3 protein epsilon, alpha-tubulin 2, and ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1. The increased enolase-1 level was confirmed by Western blot analysis. Functional analysis revealed that enolase-1 dramatically induced COM crystal invasion through ECM migrating chamber in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, enolase-1 bound onto U937 monocytic cell surface markedly enhanced cell migration through the ECM migrating chamber. In summary, our data indicated that the increased secretory enolase-1 induced by COM crystals played an important role in crystal invasion and inflammatory process in renal interstitium. PMID:27045290

  3. Calcium oxalate crystals increased enolase-1 secretion from renal tubular cells that subsequently enhanced crystal and monocyte invasion through renal interstitium

    PubMed Central

    Chiangjong, Wararat; Thongboonkerd, Visith

    2016-01-01

    Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals cause kidney stone disease by still unclear mechanisms. The present study aimed to characterize changes in secretion of proteins from basolateral compartment of renal tubular epithelial cells after exposure to COM crystals and then correlated them with the stone pathogenesis. Polarized MDCK cells were cultivated in serum-free medium with or without 100 μg/ml COM crystals for 20 h. Secreted proteins collected from the lower chamber (basolateral compartment) were then resolved in 2-D gels and visualized by Deep Purple stain (n = 5 gels/group). Spot matching and intensity analysis revealed six protein spots with significantly altered levels in COM-treated samples. These proteins were then identified by tandem mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS/MS), including enolase-1, phosphoglycerate mutase-1, actinin, 14-3-3 protein epsilon, alpha-tubulin 2, and ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1. The increased enolase-1 level was confirmed by Western blot analysis. Functional analysis revealed that enolase-1 dramatically induced COM crystal invasion through ECM migrating chamber in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, enolase-1 bound onto U937 monocytic cell surface markedly enhanced cell migration through the ECM migrating chamber. In summary, our data indicated that the increased secretory enolase-1 induced by COM crystals played an important role in crystal invasion and inflammatory process in renal interstitium. PMID:27045290

  4. Urinary MCP1 and Microalbumin Increase Prior to Onset of Azotemia in Mice with Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Naomi A; Stepanek, Aaron M; Vernet, Andyna; Schmidt, Sarah M; Schultz, Carrie L; Parry, Nicola MA; Niemi, Steven M; Fox, James G; Brown, Diane E

    2014-01-01

    Urinary biomarkers may offer a more sensitive and less invasive means to monitor kidney disease than traditional blood chemistry biomarkers such as creatinine. CD1pcy/pcy (pcy) mice have a slowly progressive disease phenotype that resembles human autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease with renal cyst formation and inflammation. Previous reports suggest that dietary protein restriction may slow disease progression in mice and humans with polycystic kidney disease. Accordingly, we fed pcy mice either a standard chow (22.5% protein) or a protein-restricted (11.5% soy-based protein) diet from weaning until 34 wk of age. Every 6 wk we measured markers of kidney disease, including serum creatinine, BUN, and serum albumin as well as urinary monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1), microalbumin, and specific gravity. Progression of kidney disease was equivalent for both diet groups despite dietary protein restriction. Urinary biomarkers proved useful for early detection of disease, in that urinary microalbumin was elevated as early as 22 wk of age and urinary MCP1 was increased by 28 wk of age, whereas increases in serum creatinine and BUN were detected later (at 34 wk of age) in both diet groups. Thus, urinary microalbumin and MCP1 analyses provided earlier, noninvasive indicators for detection of kidney disease and disease progression in pcy mice than did serum creatinine and BUN. PMID:24674583

  5. Effect of Increased Water Intake on Urinary DNA Adduct Levels and Mutagenicity in Smokers: A Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Buendia Jimenez, Inmaculada; Richardot, Pascaline; Picard, Pascaline; Lepicard, Eve M.; De Meo, Michel; Talaska, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    The association between fluid intake and bladder cancer risk remains controversial. Very little is known about to which extent the amount of water intake influences the action of excreting toxics upon the urinary system. This proof of concept trial investigates the effect of water intake on mutagenesis in smokers, a high risk population for bladder cancer. Methods. Monocentric randomized controlled trial. Inclusion Criteria. Male subjects aged 2045–45 y/o, smokers, and small drinkers (24-hour urinary volume <1 L and osmolality >700 mOsmol/kg). Outcomes. 4-ABP DNA adducts formation in exfoliated bladder cells in 24-hour urine collection and urinary mutagenicity in 24-hour urine. Test Group. Subjects consumed 1.5 L daily of the study product (EVIAN) on top of their usual water intake for 50 days. Control Group. Subjects continued their usual lifestyle habits. Results. 65 subjects were randomized. Mean age was 30 y/o and mean cigarettes per day were 20. A slight decrease in adducts formation was observed between baseline and last visit but no statistically significant difference was demonstrated between the groups. Urinary mutagenicity significantly decreased. The study shows that increasing water intake decreases urinary mutagenicity. It is not confirmed by urinary adducts formation. Further research would be necessary. PMID:26357419

  6. Spectroscopic study of the inhibition of calcium oxalate calculi by Larrea tridentata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinales, Luis Alonso

    The causes of urolithiasis include such influences as diet, metabolic disorders, and genetic factors which have been documented as sources that aggravate urinary calculi depositions and aggregations, and, implicitly, as causes of urolithiasis. This study endeavors to detail the scientific mechanisms involved in calcium oxalate calculi formation, and, more importantly, their inhibition under growth conditions imposed by the traditional medicinal approach using the herbal extract, Larrea tridentata. The calculi were synthesized without and with Larrea tridentata infusion by employing the single diffusion gel technique. A visible decrease in calcium oxalate crystal growth with increasing amounts of Larrea tridentata herbal infusion was observed in photomicrographs, as well as a color change from white-transparent for pure crystals to light orange-brown for crystals with inhibitor. Analysis of the samples, which includes Raman, infrared absorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) techniques, demonstrate an overall transition in morphology of the crystals from monohydrate without herbal extract to dihydrate with inhibitor. Furthermore, the resulting data from Raman and infrared absorption support the possibilities of the influences, in this complex process, of NDGA and its derivative compounds from Larrea tridentata, and of the bonding of the magnesium of the inhibitor with the oxalate ion on the surface of the calculi crystals. This assumption corroborates well with the micrographs obtained under higher magnification, which show that the separated small crystallites consist of darker brownish cores, which we attribute to the dominance of growth inhibition by NDGA, surrounded by light transparent thin shells, which possibly correspond to passivation of the crystals by magnesium oxalate. The SEM results reveal the transformation from the dominant monoclinic structure of the calcium oxalate crystals grown alone to the tetragonal dipyramidal crystal structure of the calcium oxalate crystals grown with Larrea tridentata. Comparison between XRD experimental and simulated data, besides corroborating with our previous results, show that each sample is a combination of different structures.

  7. Urinary Albumin Excretion is Increased in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Associated with Arterial Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Becetti, Karima; Oeser, Annette; Ormseth, Michelle; Solus, Joseph F.; Raggi, Paolo; Stein, C. Michael; Chung, Cecilia P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). High urinary albumin excretion is a risk factor for CVD in the general population, but its role in atherosclerosis in patients with RA is not well defined. Methods We determined the urine albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) in 136 patients with RA and 79 controls. Individuals with diabetes or a clinical history of CVD were excluded. We measured coronary artery calcium (CAC) with electron beam computer tomography and augmentation index (AIX) using pulse wave analysis. In patients with RA, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and concentrations of vascular cell adhesion protein-1 (VCAM-1), interleukin-10 (IL-10), C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and cystatin-C were measured and results correlated with UACR. Results Patients with RA had higher UACR [median (IQR): 7.6 (4.0-15.5) mg/g than control subjects: 5.6 (3.3-9.0)mg/g, p=0.02]. The presence of CAC was not associated with UACR in RA or control subjects. In patients with RA, UACR was significantly correlated with AIX (rho=0.24, p=0.01), higher levels of VCAM-1 (rho=0.2, p=0.01) and lower levels of IL-10 (rho=-0.2, p=0.02). The association between AIX and higher UACR remained significant in multivariate analysis [β coefficient of 1.9 (95% CI 0.4-3.4), p=0.01 that adjusted for age, sex, and race]. Conclusion Urinary albumin excretion was higher in RA patients than controls and correlated with increased arterial stiffness, higher VCAM-1, and lower IL-10 concentrations. PMID:25641887

  8. Dietary pectin shortens the biologic half-life of vitamin B-12 in rats by increasing fecal and urinary losses.

    PubMed

    Cullen, R W; Oace, S M

    1989-08-01

    As little as 5% of pectin added to a fiber-free diet elevates urinary methylmalonic acid (MMA) severalfold in vitamin B-12--deprived rats. The present study examines whether increased urinary MMA reflects lower vitamin B-12 status or occurs only because of fermentation of pectin by intestinal bacteria and increased production of propionate, a precursor of MMA. By monitoring urinary and fecal excretion of 57Co after a tracer dose of [57Co]vitamin B-12, we found the biologic half-life of vitamin B-12 to be 59 d for rats fed a fiber-free diet and only 19 d for rats fed a 5% pectin diet. Also, pectin-fed rats oxidized only 12% of a 1-mmol dose of [14C]propionate to 14CO2 in 2 h, whereas rats fed the fiber-free diet expired 33% of the dose. Finally, high urinary MMA persisted even after the removal of pectin from the diet. We conclude that dietary pectin accelerates vitamin B-12 depletion in rats, possibly by interfering with enterohepatic recycling of vitamin B-12. By stimulating microbial propionate production, pectin and other fermentable fibers may also contribute to increased urinary MMA in vitamin B-12 deficiency, but a larger propionate pool does not account for the other effects of pectin on vitamin B-12 status. PMID:2550599

  9. Dietary pectin shortens the biologic half-life of vitamin B-12 in rats by increasing fecal and urinary losses

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, R.W.; Oace, S.M. )

    1989-08-01

    As little as 5% of pectin added to a fiber-free diet elevates urinary methylmalonic acid (MMA) severalfold in vitamin B-12--deprived rats. The present study examines whether increased urinary MMA reflects lower vitamin B-12 status or occurs only because of fermentation of pectin by intestinal bacteria and increased production of propionate, a precursor of MMA. By monitoring urinary and fecal excretion of {sup 57}Co after a tracer dose of ({sup 57}Co)vitamin B-12, we found the biologic half-life of vitamin B-12 to be 59 d for rats fed a fiber-free diet and only 19 d for rats fed a 5% pectin diet. Also, pectin-fed rats oxidized only 12% of a 1-mmol dose of ({sup 14}C)propionate to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} in 2 h, whereas rats fed the fiber-free diet expired 33% of the dose. Finally, high urinary MMA persisted even after the removal of pectin from the diet. We conclude that dietary pectin accelerates vitamin B-12 depletion in rats, possibly by interfering with enterohepatic recycling of vitamin B-12. By stimulating microbial propionate production, pectin and other fermentable fibers may also contribute to increased urinary MMA in vitamin B-12 deficiency, but a larger propionate pool does not account for the other effects of pectin on vitamin B-12 status.

  10. Effect of dietary calcium and magnesium on experimental renal tubular deposition of calcium oxalate crystal induced by ethylene glycol administration and its prevention with phytin and citrate.

    PubMed

    Ebisuno, S; Morimoto, S; Yoshida, T; Fukatani, T; Yasukawa, S; Ohkawa, T

    1987-01-01

    Oral administration of ethylene glycol to rats, and the resultant intratubular depositions of microcrystals of calcium oxalate were studied investigating the influences of dietary calcium or magnesium and assessing the protective efficacies against the crystallizations by treatment with phytin and sodium citrate. With increase of calcium intake and consequent increase of urinary calcium excretion there was a marked increase in the amount of tubular deposit of calcium oxalate crystal and in the calcium content of renal tissue. Although magnesium deficiency accelerated renal tubular calcium oxalate deposition, the protection against the crystal formation was not observed with excessive dietary magnesium. When rats were fed a high-calcium diet supplemented with phytin, a significant inhibition of the intratubular crystallization was observed. It appeared obvious that a hypocalciuric action of phytin was attributed to the effect of the prevention. There was vigorous protection of crystal formation by treatment with sodium citrate, which correlated with the level of citrate concentration in the drinking water. PMID:3433579

  11. Alterations in some risk factors and urinary enzymes in urolithiatic rats treated with sodium pentosan polysulphate.

    PubMed

    Subha, K; Varalakshmi, P

    1993-02-01

    The effect of sodium pentosan polysulphate (SPP) was investigated in calcium oxalate stone forming rats with respect to the urinary excretion of certain risk factors and enzymes. Calcium oxalate stones were induced by feeding 3% w/w sodium glycollate to the rats. Urinary calcium, oxalate, phosphorus and uric acid levels were increased in stone formers. In contrast magnesium excretion was low in this group. SPP treatment lowered oxalate and calcium levels in both controls and experimental animals. Magnesium levels were increased moderately. Increased excretion of urinary enzymes--LDH, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-GT and beta glucuronidase--in calculogenic rats indicates membranuria and damage to proximal tubules during stone formation. Decreased pyrophosphatase activity was observed in glycollate fed rats. SPP treatment decreased the excretion of the above enzymes in the treated groups. Stone formers exhibited decreased LAP and fibrinolytic (urokinase) activities. SPP being associated with fibrinolytic properties, increased the activities of the above two enzymes to that of control levels in calculogenic rats. PMID:7684293

  12. Single Aggressive Interactions Increase Urinary Glucocorticoid Levels in Wild Male Chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Weltring, Anja; Deschner, Tobias; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    A basic premise in behavioural ecology is the cost-benefit arithmetic, which determines both behavioural decisions and evolutionary processes. Aggressive interactions can be costly on an energetic level, demanding increased energy or causing injuries, and on a psychological level, in the form of increased anxiety and damaged relationships between opponents. Here we used urinary glucocorticoid (uGC) levels to assess the costs of aggression in wild chimpanzees of Budongo Forest, Uganda. We collected 169 urine samples from nine adult male chimpanzees following 14 aggressive interactions (test condition) and 10 resting events (control condition). Subjects showed significantly higher uGC levels after single aggressive interactions compared to control conditions, likely for aggressors as well as victims. Higher ranking males had greater increases of uGC levels after aggression than lower ranking males. In contrast, uGC levels showed no significant change in relation to aggression length or intensity, indicating that psychological factors might have played a larger role than mere energetic expenditure. We concluded that aggressive behaviour is costly for both aggressors and victims and that costs seem poorly explained by energetic demands of the interaction. Our findings are relevant for studies of post-conflict interactions, since we provide evidence that both aggressors and victims experience a stress response to conflict. PMID:25714095

  13. Risk factors associated with calcium oxalate urolithiasis in dogs evaluated at general care veterinary hospitals in the United States.

    PubMed

    Okafor, Chika C; Lefebvre, Sandra L; Pearl, David L; Yang, Mingyin; Wang, Mansen; Blois, Shauna L; Lund, Elizabeth M; Dewey, Cate E

    2014-08-01

    Calcium oxalate urolithiasis results from the formation of aggregates of calcium salts in the urinary tract. Difficulties associated with effectively treating calcium oxalate urolithiasis and the proportional increase in the prevalence of calcium oxalate uroliths relative to other urolith types over the last 2 decades has increased the concern of clinicians about this disease. To determine factors associated with the development of calcium oxalate urolithiasis in dogs evaluated at general care veterinary hospitals in the United States, a retrospective case-control study was performed. A national electronic database of medical records of all dogs evaluated between October 1, 2007 and December 31, 2010 at 787 general care veterinary hospitals in the United States was reviewed. Dogs were selected as cases at the first-time diagnosis of a laboratory-confirmed urolith comprised of at least 70% calcium oxalate (n=452). Two sets of control dogs with no history of urolithiasis diagnosis were randomly selected after the medical records of all remaining dogs were reviewed: urinalysis examination was a requirement in the selection of one set (n=1808) but was not required in the other set (n=1808). Historical information extracted included urolith composition, dog's diet, age, sex, neuter status, breed size category, hospital location, date of diagnosis, and urinalysis results. Multivariable analysis showed that the odds of first-time diagnosis of calcium oxalate urolithiasis were significantly (P<0.05) greater for dogs<7 years, males (OR: 7.77, 95% CI: 4.93-12.26), neutered (OR: 2.58, 1.44-4.63), toy- vs. medium-sized breeds (OR: 3.15, 1.90-5.22), small- vs. medium-sized breeds (OR: 3.05, 1.83-5.08), large- vs. medium-sized breeds (OR: 0.05, 0.01-0.19), and those with a diagnosis of cystitis within the previous year (OR: 6.49, 4.14-10.16). Urinary factors significantly associated with first-time diagnosis of calcium oxalate urolithiasis were acidic vs. basic pH (OR: 1.94, 1.22-3.10), presence of RBCs (OR: 6.20, 3.91-9.83) or WBCs (OR: 1.62, 1.03-2.54), and protein concentration>30 mg/dL (OR: 1.55, 1.04-2.30). Patient demographics and urinalysis results are important factors that can support risk assessment and early identification of canine oxalate urolithiasis. Therefore, periodic urolith screening and monitoring of urine parameters should be encouraged for dogs at risk of developing these uroliths. PMID:24834804

  14. Neonatal urinary tract infection may increase the risk of childhood asthma.

    PubMed

    Lin, C-H; Wang, Y-C; Lin, W-C; Kao, C-H

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this population-based retrospective cohort study was to investigate the onset of urinary tract infection in newborns and the associated risks of childhood asthma. Children with neonatal UTI (n = 3,312) and randomly selected controls (n = 13,243) were enrolled for our analysis. We calculated the follow-up person-years for each participant from the index date until the diagnosis of asthma, the end of 2008, or withdrawal from the insurance system (because of death or loss to follow-up). Furthermore, we compared the risk of asthma between non-UTI and UTI cohorts by using Cox proportional hazards model analysis, the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR), and a 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI). The overall asthma incidence rate was found to be 1.53-fold significantly higher in the UTI cohort than in the non-UTI cohort (70.3 vs 45.8 per 1000 person-years). After we adjusted for potential risk factors, the overall risk of asthma remained higher in the UTI cohort (aHR = 1.47, 95 % CI = 1.35-1.59). The incidence rate was higher in boys than in girls. Overall, patients suffering from UTI may have a greater risk of developing asthma than patients without UTI. This nationwide retrospective cohort study demonstrates that neonatal UTI may increase the risk of childhood asthma. PMID:26003311

  15. A Case of Hypophosphatemia with Increased Urinary Excretion of Phosphorus Associated with Ibrutinib

    PubMed Central

    Wysokinska, Ewa M.; Thompson, Amanda M.; Franco Palacios, Carlos R.

    2016-01-01

    Ibrutinib, an irreversible oral inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase, has been used in the treatment of patients with multiple hematologic malignancies. A 59-year-old male with chronic lymphocytic leukemia was treated with 420 mg/day of ibrutinib. No evidence of bruising or diarrhea was noted. The treatment was complicated by a transient increase in creatinine (from a baseline of 1.2 to 1.5 mg/dl) and potassium (reaching a peak of 6.5 mEq/l). Uric acid and calcium levels were normal. The patient developed hypophosphatemia (prior to initiation of therapy the serum phosphorus was 2.9 mg/dl). No metabolic acidosis was noted. Urinalysis showed no glucosuria or proteinuria. Urinary fraction of excretion of phosphate was found to be 345% (normal <5%). Because of these changes, ibrutinib was held, and the patient was given kayexalate. Serum potassium normalized. Serum phosphorus was checked a couple of weeks later and also normalized. A lower dose of ibrutinib (140 mg/day) was restarted. Upon follow-up, the phosphorus level has been between 2.9 and 3.2 mg/dl. No further evidence of hyperkalemia has been noted. Renal function has remained at baseline. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report describing the mechanism of hypophosphatemia in a patient treated with ibrutinib. PMID:27194982

  16. Effects of microgravity on urinary osteopontin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyer, J. R.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Liu, H.; Whitson, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    Increased risk of renal stone formation during space flight has been linked primarily to increased calcium excretion from bone demineralization induced by space flight. Other factors contributing to increased risk include increased urinary calcium oxalate supersaturation, while urinary citrate, magnesium and volume are all decreased. The aim of this study was to increase the predictive value of stone risk profiles for crew members during space flight by evaluating the excretion of urinary protein inhibitors of calcium crystallization so that more comprehensive stone risk profiles could relate mineral saturation to the concentrations of inhibitor proteins. Levels of urinary osteopontin (uropontin) are reported in a series of 14 astronauts studied before, during, and after space flights. During space flight, a compensatory increase in uropontin excretion was not observed. However, the uropontin excretion of a majority of astronauts was increased during the period after space flight and was maximal at 2 wk after landing. The downward shift in the molecular size of uropontin observed in samples obtained during space flight was shown to result from storage at ambient temperature during flight, rather than an effect of microgravity on uropontin synthesis.

  17. Oxalate minerals on Mars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Applin, D. M.; Izawa, M. R. M.; Cloutis, E. A.; Goltz, D.; Johnson, J. R.

    2015-06-01

    Small amounts of unidentified organic compounds have only recently been inferred on Mars despite strong reasons to expect significant concentrations and decades of searching. Based on X-ray diffraction and reflectance spectroscopic analyses we show that solid oxalic acid and its most common mineral salts are stable under the pressure and ultraviolet irradiation environment of the surface of Mars, and could represent a heretofore largely overlooked reservoir of organic carbon in the martian near-surface. In addition to the delivery to Mars by carbonaceous chondrites, oxalate minerals are among the predicted breakdown products of meteoritic organic matter delivered to the martian surface, as well as any endogenic organic carbon reaching the martian surface from the interior. A reinterpretation of pyrolysis experiments from the Viking, Phoenix, and Mars Science Laboratory missions shows that all are consistent with the presence of significant concentrations of oxalate minerals. Oxalate minerals could be important in numerous martian geochemical processes, including acting as a possible nitrogen sink (as ammonium oxalate), and contributing to the formation of “organic” carbonates, methane, and hydroxyl radicals.

  18. SALT LOADING INCREASES URINARY EXCRETION OF LINOLEIC ACID DIOLS AND TRIOLS IN HEALTHY HUMAN SUBJECTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Urinary linoleate (LA) metabolite excretion was investigated in subjects exposed to a salt loading/salt depletion regimen. Twelve healthy subjects were recruited from the New Orleans population (pre-Katrina) and admitted to Tulane-LSU Charity Hospital GCRC after a 5-day outpatient lead in phase on a...

  19. Growth Conditions To Reduce Oxalic Acid Content of Spinach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson-Rutzke, Corinne

    2003-01-01

    A controlled-environment agricultural (CEA) technique to increase the nutritive value of spinach has been developed. This technique makes it possible to reduce the concentration of oxalic acid in spinach leaves. It is desirable to reduce the oxalic acid content because oxalic acid acts as an anti-nutritive calcium-binding component. More than 30 years ago, an enzyme (an oxidase) that breaks down oxalic acid into CO2 and H2O2 was discovered and found to be naturally present in spinach leaves. However, nitrate, which can also be present because of the use of common nitratebased fertilizers, inactivates the enzyme. In the CEA technique, one cuts off the supply of nitrate and keeps the spinach plants cool while providing sufficient oxygen. This technique provides the precise environment that enables the enzyme to naturally break down oxalate. The result of application of this technique is that the oxalate content is reduced by 2/3 in one week.

  20. High Sodium-Induced Oxidative Stress and Poor Anticrystallization Defense Aggravate Calcium Oxalate Crystal Formation in Rat Hyperoxaluric Kidneys.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ho-Shiang; Ma, Ming-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced sodium excretion is associated with intrarenal oxidative stress. The present study evaluated whether oxidative stress caused by high sodium (HS) may be involved in calcium oxalate crystal formation. Male rats were fed a sodium-depleted diet. Normal-sodium and HS diets were achieved by providing drinking water containing 0.3% and 3% NaCl, respectively. Rats were fed a sodium-depleted diet with 5% hydroxyl-L-proline (HP) for 7 and 42 days to induce hyperoxaluria and/or calcium oxalate deposition. Compared to normal sodium, HS slightly increased calcium excretion despite diuresis; however, the result did not reach statistical significance. HS did not affect the hyperoxaluria, hypocalciuria or supersaturation caused by HP; however, it increased calcium oxalate crystal deposition soon after 7 days of co-treatment. Massive calcium oxalate formation and calcium crystal excretion in HS+HP rats were seen after 42 days of treatment. HP-mediated hypocitraturia was further exacerbated by HS. Moreover, HS aggravated HP-induced renal injury and tubular damage via increased apoptosis and oxidative stress. Increased urinary malondialdehyde excretion, in situ superoxide production, NAD(P)H oxidase and xanthine oxidase expression and activity, and decreased antioxidant enzyme expression or activity in the HS+HP kidney indicated exaggerated oxidative stress. Interestingly, this redox imbalance was associated with reduced renal osteopontin and Tamm-Horsfall protein expression (via increased excretion) and sodium-dependent dicarboxylate cotransporter NaDC-1 upregulation. Collectively, our results demonstrate that a HS diet induces massive crystal formation in the hyperoxaluric kidney; this is not due to increased urinary calcium excretion but is related to oxidative injury and loss of anticrystallization defense. PMID:26241473

  1. High Sodium-Induced Oxidative Stress and Poor Anticrystallization Defense Aggravate Calcium Oxalate Crystal Formation in Rat Hyperoxaluric Kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ho-Shiang; Ma, Ming-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced sodium excretion is associated with intrarenal oxidative stress. The present study evaluated whether oxidative stress caused by high sodium (HS) may be involved in calcium oxalate crystal formation. Male rats were fed a sodium-depleted diet. Normal-sodium and HS diets were achieved by providing drinking water containing 0.3% and 3% NaCl, respectively. Rats were fed a sodium-depleted diet with 5% hydroxyl-L-proline (HP) for 7 and 42 days to induce hyperoxaluria and/or calcium oxalate deposition. Compared to normal sodium, HS slightly increased calcium excretion despite diuresis; however, the result did not reach statistical significance. HS did not affect the hyperoxaluria, hypocalciuria or supersaturation caused by HP; however, it increased calcium oxalate crystal deposition soon after 7 days of co-treatment. Massive calcium oxalate formation and calcium crystal excretion in HS+HP rats were seen after 42 days of treatment. HP-mediated hypocitraturia was further exacerbated by HS. Moreover, HS aggravated HP-induced renal injury and tubular damage via increased apoptosis and oxidative stress. Increased urinary malondialdehyde excretion, in situ superoxide production, NAD(P)H oxidase and xanthine oxidase expression and activity, and decreased antioxidant enzyme expression or activity in the HS+HP kidney indicated exaggerated oxidative stress. Interestingly, this redox imbalance was associated with reduced renal osteopontin and Tamm-Horsfall protein expression (via increased excretion) and sodium-dependent dicarboxylate cotransporter NaDC-1 upregulation. Collectively, our results demonstrate that a HS diet induces massive crystal formation in the hyperoxaluric kidney; this is not due to increased urinary calcium excretion but is related to oxidative injury and loss of anticrystallization defense. PMID:26241473

  2. Hypertension and Hyperglycemia Synergize to Cause Incipient Renal Tubular Alterations Resulting in Increased NGAL Urinary Excretion in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Blázquez-Medela, Ana M.; García-Sánchez, Omar; Blanco-Gozalo, Víctor; Quiros, Yaremi; Montero, María J.; Martínez-Salgado, Carlos; López-Novoa, José M.; López-Hernández, Francisco J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypertension and diabetes are the two leading causes of chronic kidney disease (CKD) eventually leading to end stage renal disease (ESRD) and the need of renal replacement therapy. Mortality among CKD and ESRD patients is high, mostly due to cardiovascular events. New early markers of risk are necessary to better anticipate the course of the disease, to detect the renal affection of additive risk factors, and to appropriately handle patients in a pre-emptive and personalized manner. Methods Renal function and NGAL urinary excretion was monitored in rats with spontaneous (SHR) or L-NAME induced hypertension rendered hyperglycemic (or not as controls). Results Combination of hypertension and hyperglycemia (but not each of these factors independently) causes an increased urinary excretion of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in the rat, in the absence of signs of renal damage. Increased NGAL excretion is observed in diabetic animals with two independent models of hypertension. Elevated urinary NGAL results from a specific alteration in its tubular handling, rather than from an increase in its renal expression. In fact, when kidneys of hyperglycaemic-hypertensive rats are perfused in situ with Krebs-dextran solution containing exogenous NGAL, they excrete more NGAL in the urine than hypertensive rats. We also show that albuminuria is not capable of detecting the additive effect posed by the coexistence of these two risk factors. Conclusions Our results suggest that accumulation of hypertension and hyperglycemia induces an incipient and quite specific alteration in the tubular handling of NGAL resulting in its increased urinary excretion. PMID:25148248

  3. The increased excretion of urinary orosomucoid 1 as a useful biomarker for bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fei; Yu, Zhe; Chen, Pengliang; Lin, Guangzheng; Li, Tieqiu; Hou, Lina; Du, Yuejun; Tan, Wanlong

    2016-01-01

    Improving the early detection rate and prediction of bladder cancer remains a great challenge in management of this disease. To examine the value of urinary orosomucoid 1 (ORM1) for the early detection and surveillance of bladder cancer, two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOFMS) were applied to identify the differently expressed proteins in urine between bladder cancer and healthy controls. Thirteen different proteins including ORM1 were identified. After verification by western blotting, the ORM1 expressions were quantified in 186 urine samples by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) correcting for creatinine expression. ELISA quantification showed the urinary ORM1-Cr was found to be higher in bladder cancer patients compared to controls and benign cases (7172.23±3049.67 versus 2243.16±969.01, 2493.48±830.37 ng/ml, respectively, P<0.0001). Furthermore, the pearson correlation analysis indicated that urinary ORM1 had high positive correlation with the pathology classification of bladder cancer. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to calculate the cut-off value for early diagnosis of bladder cancer, and rendered an optimum cut-off value of 3912.97 ng/mg corresponding to 91.96% sensitivity and 94.34% specificity. Moreover, a cut-off value with 7351.28 ng/mg was utilized to distinguish infiltrating urothelial carcinoma from bladder cancer patients corresponding to 91.89% sensitivity and 90.67% specificity. In conclusion, our findings suggested the elevated urinary ORM1 could be a useful biomarker for bladder cancer. Further research is warranted to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms of elevated ORM1.

  4. Acute oral calcium-sodium citrate load in healthy males. Effects on acid-base and mineral metabolism, oxalate and other risk factors of stone formation in urine.

    PubMed

    Schwille, P O; Schmiedl, A; Herrmann, U; Schwille, R; Fink, E; Manoharan, M

    1997-01-01

    The currently preferred calcium preparations for supplementation of food vary widely with respect to calcium availability, effects on systemic mineral metabolism, acid-base status, and the calciuria-induced risk of urinary tract stone formation. In eight healthy males we studied the response to an acute load with alkali(sodium)-containing soluble calcium citrate (CSC) (molar ratio calcium/sodium/citrate approx. = 1/1/1), when taken in three different doses (10, 20, 30 mmol calcium) together with a continental breakfast. Intestinal calcium absorption, serum calcium, calcitonin, parathyroid hormone (PTH) other markers of bone metabolism, net acid excretion and calcium oxalate crystallization in urine were evaluated. CSC evoked a dose-dependent increase in calcium absorption, calcium in serum and urine, but no overt hypercalcemia, and calciuria was low relative to the excess calcium ingested; PTH fell and calcitonin rose (p < 0.05 vs. breakfast alone), but the diet-independent markers of bone resorption declined only insignificantly, while the markers of bone formation and turnover remained unchanged. There was a significant "once-daily" effect (= cumulative 24 h postload response) of CSC: a decrease in urinary cyclic AMP, phosphorus, and ammonium, and an increase in urinary bicarbonate. Soon after CSC intake, urinary calcium oxalate and hydroxyapatite supersaturation increased dose-dependently, the calcium oxalate crystal diameter was increased, but crystal aggregation time, which is crucial for stone formation, remained statistically unchanged. Thus, CSC provides calcium in a bioavailable form, creates mild systemic alkalinisation and inhibition of bone resorption, but leaves the risk of developing urinary stones unchanged. Comparative long-term studies on bone growth and the maintenance of bone health, using alkali-containing versus alkali-free calcium citrate, appear worthwhile. PMID:9385591

  5. Ammonium reduces oxalate accumulation in different spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) genotypes by inhibiting root uptake of nitrate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoxia; Lu, Lingli; Chen, Qiuhui; Ding, Wenya; Dai, Peibin; Hu, Yan; Yu, Yan; Jin, Chongwei; Lin, Xianyong

    2015-11-01

    Excessive accumulation of oxalate negatively affects nutritional value of many vegetables, such as spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). Mixed solution of ammonium and nitrate could effectively reduce oxalate accumulation, while the mechanism involved remains unknown. High (Heizhenzhu) and low (Weilv) oxalate-accumulated spinach genotypes were used in this study to investigate the association of oxalate accumulation and root uptake of nitrogen. Exposure of increasing nitrate or mixed-nitrogen (nitrate:ammonium = 1:1) significantly increased leaf total and soluble oxalate contents. In contrast, increasing ammonium did not result in elevation of leaf oxalate. Correlation analysis confirmed that leaf oxalate accumulation was positively associated with root uptake of nitrate but not ammonium. Moreover, addition of ammonium significantly reduced nitrate uptake rate, and subsequently decreased leaf oxalate accumulation. The results suggest that oxalate synthesis in spinach leaves is associated with its root uptake of nitrate, and ammonium is able to reduce oxalate accumulation by inhibiting uptake of nitrate. PMID:25976827

  6. Internalization of Calcium Oxalate Calculi Developed in Narrow Cavities

    PubMed Central

    Grases, Fèlix; Costa-Bauzá, Antonia; Prieto, Rafel M.; Servera, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    We describe the case of a patient with calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium oxalate dihydrate calculi occluded in cavities. All those calculi were located inside narrow cavities covered with a thin epithelium that permits their visualization. Urinary biochemical analysis showed high calciuria, not hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, and a ratio [calcium]/[citrate] >0.33. The existence of cavities of very low urodynamic efficacy was decisive in the formation of such calculi. It is important to emphasize that we observed a thin epithelium covering such cavities, demonstrating that this epithelium may be formed after the development of the calculi through a re-epithelialization process.

  7. Time-related increase in urinary testosterone levels and stable semen analysis parameters after bariatric surgery in men.

    PubMed

    Legro, Richard S; Kunselman, Allen R; Meadows, Juliana W; Kesner, James S; Krieg, Edward F; Rogers, Ann M; Cooney, Robert N

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this prospective cohort study was to determine the time-course in androgen and semen parameters in men after weight loss associated with bariatric surgery. Six men aged 18-40 years, meeting National Institutes of Health bariatric surgery guidelines, were followed between 2005 and 2008. Study visits took place at baseline, then 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery. All men underwent Roux-en-y gastric bypass (RYGB). At each visit, biometric, questionnaire, serum, and urinary specimens and seman analysis were collected. Urinary integrated total testosterone levels increased significantly (P < 0.0001) by 3 months after surgery, and remained elevated throughout the study. Circulating testosterone levels were also higher at 1 and 6 months after surgery, compared with baseline. Serum sex hormone-binding globulin levels were significantly elevated at all time points after surgery (P < 0.01 to P = 0.02). After RYGB surgery, no significant changes occurred in urinary oestrogen metabolites (oestrone 3-glucuronide), serum oestradiol levels, serial semen parameters or male sexual function by questionnaire. A threshold of weight loss is necessary to improve male reproductive function by reversing male hypogonadism, manifested as increased testosterone levels. Further serial semen analyses showed normal ranges for most parameters despite massive weight loss. PMID:25498592

  8. Developing strategies to improve the nutritional quality and production of plant foods through manipulation of calcium oxalate formation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The production of oxalate commonly occurs in numerous organisms. Oxalate negatively affects human health by acting as an antinutrient affecting calcium bioavailability and/or contributing to the pathological condition of urinary stone formation where it is a primary component. In some microbes, ox...

  9. Thorium oxalate solubility and morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Monson, P.R. Jr.; Hall, R.

    1981-10-01

    Thorium was used as a stand-in for studying the solubility and precipitation of neptunium and plutonium oxalates. Thorium oxalate solubility was determined over a range of 0.001 to 10.0 in the concentration parameter (H/sub 2/C/sub 2/O/sub 4/)/(HNO/sub 3/)/sup 2/. Morphology of thorium oxide made from the oxalate precipitates was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The different morphologies found for oxalate-lean and oxalate-rich precipitations were in agreement with predictions based on precipitation theory.

  10. Urinary trichlorophenol levels and increased risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among US school-aged children

    PubMed Central

    Nembhard, Wendy N; Kan, Haidong; Kearney, Greg; Zhang, Zhi-Jiang; Talbott, Evelyn O

    2011-01-01

    Background Trichlorophenols (TCPs) are organochlorine compounds which are ubiquitous in the environment and well known for their carcinogenic effects. However, little is known about their neurotoxicity in humans. Objectives Our goal was to examine the association between body burden of TCPs (ie, 2,4,5-TCP and 2,4,6-TCP) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods We calculated ORs and 95% CIs from logistic regression analyses using data from the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to evaluate the association between urinary TCPs and parent-reported ADHD among 2546 children aged 6–15 years. Results Children with low levels (<3.58 μg/g) and high levels (≥3.58 μg/g) of urinary 2,4,6-TCP had a higher risk of parent-reported ADHD compared to children with levels below the limit of detection (OR 1.54, 95% CI 0.97 to 2.43 and OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.18 to 2.66, respectively; p for trend=0.006) after adjusting for covariates. No association was found between urinary 2,4,5-TCP and parent-reported ADHD. Conclusion Exposure to TCP may increase the risk of behavioural impairment in children. The potential neurotoxicity of these chemicals should be considered in public health efforts to reduce environmental exposures/contamination, especially in countries where organochlorine pesticides are still commonly used. PMID:21540483

  11. Urinary Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Urinary Incontinence What Is Urinary Incontinence? Urinary incontinence means a person leaks urine by ... about what you can do. Types of Urinary Incontinence There are different types of urinary incontinence. Stress ...

  12. Increased risk of depressive disorder within 1 year after diagnosis with urinary calculi in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chung, Shiu-Dong; Keller, Joseph J; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2012-07-30

    This study investigated the risk of subsequent depressive disorders (DD) following a diagnosis of urinary calculi (UC) in Taiwan. In total, 67,917 adult patients newly diagnosed with UC were recruited, along with 153,951 age-matched enrollees who were used as a comparison group. A stratified Cox proportional hazard regression analysis revealed that the adjusted hazard of DD within a 1-year period following diagnosis with UC was 1.75 times greater for patients with UC than for comparison patients. PMID:22417936

  13. Functionally active ganglioneuroma with increased plasma and urinary catecholamines and positive iodine 131-meta-iodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Clerico, A.; Jenkner, A.; Castello, M.A.; Ciofetta, G.; Lucarelli, C.; Codini, M. )

    1991-01-01

    Ganglioneuromas are usually considered not to be functionally active. Studies of their catecholamine excretory pattern and of their imaging by means of the adrenergic tracing agent 131-I-MIBG have been therefore sparse. We report on a case of secretory ganglioneuroma, as demonstrated by the increased urinary excretion of the catecholamine metabolites HVA and VMA, increased plasma dopamine and epinephrine levels, and positive 131-I-MIBG scintigraphy. We must therefore be aware that a functionally active tumor is not necessarily a neuroblastoma, and that the diagnosis should be biopsy proven.

  14. ADVANCED OXIDATION: OXALATE DECOMPOSITION TESTING WITH OZONE

    SciTech Connect

    Ketusky, E.; Subramanian, K.

    2012-02-29

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), oxalic acid is currently considered the preferred agent for chemically cleaning the large underground Liquid Radioactive Waste Tanks. It is applied only in the final stages of emptying a tank when generally less than 5,000 kg of waste solids remain, and slurrying based removal methods are no-longer effective. The use of oxalic acid is preferred because of its combined dissolution and chelating properties, as well as the fact that corrosion to the carbon steel tank walls can be controlled. Although oxalic acid is the preferred agent, there are significant potential downstream impacts. Impacts include: (1) Degraded evaporator operation; (2) Resultant oxalate precipitates taking away critically needed operating volume; and (3) Eventual creation of significant volumes of additional feed to salt processing. As an alternative to dealing with the downstream impacts, oxalate decomposition using variations of ozone based Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) were investigated. In general AOPs use ozone or peroxide and a catalyst to create hydroxyl radicals. Hydroxyl radicals have among the highest oxidation potentials, and are commonly used to decompose organics. Although oxalate is considered among the most difficult organic to decompose, the ability of hydroxyl radicals to decompose oxalate is considered to be well demonstrated. In addition, as AOPs are considered to be 'green' their use enables any net chemical additions to the waste to be minimized. In order to test the ability to decompose the oxalate and determine the decomposition rates, a test rig was designed, where 10 vol% ozone would be educted into a spent oxalic acid decomposition loop, with the loop maintained at 70 C and recirculated at 40L/min. Each of the spent oxalic acid streams would be created from three oxalic acid strikes of an F-area simulant (i.e., Purex = high Fe/Al concentration) and H-area simulant (i.e., H area modified Purex = high Al/Fe concentration) after nearing dissolution equilibrium, and then decomposed to {le} 100 Parts per Million (ppm) oxalate. Since AOP technology largely originated on using ultraviolet (UV) light as a primary catalyst, decomposition of the spent oxalic acid, well exposed to a medium pressure mercury vapor light was considered the benchmark. However, with multi-valent metals already contained in the feed, and maintenance of the UV light a concern; testing was conducted to evaluate the impact from removing the UV light. Using current AOP terminology, the test without the UV light would likely be considered an ozone based, dark, ferrioxalate type, decomposition process. Specifically, as part of the testing, the impacts from the following were investigated: (1) Importance of the UV light on the decomposition rates when decomposing 1 wt% spent oxalic acid; (2) Impact of increasing the oxalic acid strength from 1 to 2.5 wt% on the decomposition rates; and (3) For F-area testing, the advantage of increasing the spent oxalic acid flowrate from 40 L/min (liters/minute) to 50 L/min during decomposition of the 2.5 wt% spent oxalic acid. The results showed that removal of the UV light (from 1 wt% testing) slowed the decomposition rates in both the F & H testing. Specifically, for F-Area Strike 1, the time increased from about 6 hours to 8 hours. In H-Area, the impact was not as significant, with the time required for Strike 1 to be decomposed to less than 100 ppm increasing slightly, from 5.4 to 6.4 hours. For the spent 2.5 wt% oxalic acid decomposition tests (all) without the UV light, the F-area decompositions required approx. 10 to 13 hours, while the corresponding required H-Area decompositions times ranged from 10 to 21 hours. For the 2.5 wt% F-Area sludge, the increased availability of iron likely caused the increased decomposition rates compared to the 1 wt% oxalic acid based tests. In addition, for the F-testing, increasing the recirculation flow rates from 40 liter/minute to 50 liter/minute resulted in an increased decomposition rate, suggesting a better use of ozone.

  15. Effect of Cystone on Urinary Composition and Stone Formation Over a One Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, S. B.; Vrtiska, T. J.; Lieske, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Kidney stones are a common problem for which inadequate prevention exists. We recruited ten recurrent kidney stone formers with documented calcium oxalate stones into a two phased study to assess safety and effectiveness of Cystone, an herbal treatment for prevention of kidney stones. The first phase was a randomized double-blinded 12 week cross over study assessing the effect of Cystone vs. placebo on urinary supersaturation. The second phase was an open label one year study of Cystone to determine if renal stone burden decreased, as assessed by quantitative and subjective assessment of CT. Results revealed no statistically significant effect of Cystone on urinary composition short (6 weeks) or long (52 weeks) term. Average renal stone burden increased rather than decreased on Cystone. Therefore, this study does not support the efficacy of Cystone to treat calcium oxalate stone formers. Future studies will be needed to assess effects on stone passage, or on other stone types. PMID:21419609

  16. Literature review for oxalate oxidation processes and plutonium oxalate solubility

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, C. A.

    2015-10-01

    A literature review of oxalate oxidation processes finds that manganese(II)-catalyzed nitric acid oxidation of oxalate in precipitate filtrate is a viable and well-documented process. The process has been operated on the large scale at Savannah River in the past, including oxidation of 20 tons of oxalic acid in F-Canyon. Research data under a variety of conditions show the process to be robust. This process is recommended for oxalate destruction in H-Canyon in the upcoming program to produce feed for the MOX facility. Prevention of plutonium oxalate precipitation in filtrate can be achieved by concentrated nitric acid/ferric nitrate sequestration of oxalate. Organic complexants do not appear practical to sequester plutonium. Testing is proposed to confirm the literature and calculation findings of this review at projected operating conditions for the upcoming campaign.

  17. Effect of zeolite nano-materials and artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) leaf extract on increase in urinary clearance of systematically absorbed nicotine.

    PubMed

    Malekshah, R E; Mahjub, R; Rastgarpanah, M; Ghorbani, M; Partoazar, A R; Mehr, S E; Dehpour, A R; Dorkoosh, F A

    2012-12-01

    Nicotine, the main pharmacologically active component in tobacco and cigarette, has some toxic effects and also high potential for addiction. In this study, the effect of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) and zeolite nano-materials on urinary excretion of nicotine and consequently elimination of systematically absorbed nicotine was investigated. A simple, valid and highly sensitive high performance liquid chromatography method has been developed for determination of nicotine in rat urine according to guidelines for bioanalysis.It was found that nano-zeolites can cause increase in urinary concentration of nicotine due to its high surface adsorption. Artichoke leaf extract can cause increase in urinary excretion of nicotine in longer post administration times. It was observed that co-administration of nanozeolites and the leaf extract has the synergetic effect on increasing the urinary excretion of nicotine. PMID:23196970

  18. Reduction of oxalate levels in tomato fruit and consequent metabolic remodeling following overexpression of a fungal oxalate decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Niranjan; Ghosh, Rajgourab; Ghosh, Sudip; Narula, Kanika; Tayal, Rajul; Datta, Asis; Chakraborty, Subhra

    2013-05-01

    The plant metabolite oxalic acid is increasingly recognized as a food toxin with negative effects on human nutrition. Decarboxylative degradation of oxalic acid is catalyzed, in a substrate-specific reaction, by oxalate decarboxylase (OXDC), forming formic acid and carbon dioxide. Attempts to date to reduce oxalic acid levels and to understand the biological significance of OXDC in crop plants have met with little success. To investigate the role of OXDC and the metabolic consequences of oxalate down-regulation in a heterotrophic, oxalic acid-accumulating fruit, we generated transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants expressing an OXDC (FvOXDC) from the fungus Flammulina velutipes specifically in the fruit. These E8.2-OXDC fruit showed up to a 90% reduction in oxalate content, which correlated with concomitant increases in calcium, iron, and citrate. Expression of OXDC affected neither carbon dioxide assimilation rates nor resulted in any detectable morphological differences in the transgenic plants. Comparative proteomic analysis suggested that metabolic remodeling was associated with the decrease in oxalate content in transgenic fruit. Examination of the E8.2-OXDC fruit proteome revealed that OXDC-responsive proteins involved in metabolism and stress responses represented the most substantially up- and down-regulated categories, respectively, in the transgenic fruit, compared with those of wild-type plants. Collectively, our study provides insights into OXDC-regulated metabolic networks and may provide a widely applicable strategy for enhancing crop nutritional value. PMID:23482874

  19. Reduction of Oxalate Levels in Tomato Fruit and Consequent Metabolic Remodeling Following Overexpression of a Fungal Oxalate Decarboxylase1[W

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Niranjan; Ghosh, Rajgourab; Ghosh, Sudip; Narula, Kanika; Tayal, Rajul; Datta, Asis; Chakraborty, Subhra

    2013-01-01

    The plant metabolite oxalic acid is increasingly recognized as a food toxin with negative effects on human nutrition. Decarboxylative degradation of oxalic acid is catalyzed, in a substrate-specific reaction, by oxalate decarboxylase (OXDC), forming formic acid and carbon dioxide. Attempts to date to reduce oxalic acid levels and to understand the biological significance of OXDC in crop plants have met with little success. To investigate the role of OXDC and the metabolic consequences of oxalate down-regulation in a heterotrophic, oxalic acid-accumulating fruit, we generated transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants expressing an OXDC (FvOXDC) from the fungus Flammulina velutipes specifically in the fruit. These E8.2-OXDC fruit showed up to a 90% reduction in oxalate content, which correlated with concomitant increases in calcium, iron, and citrate. Expression of OXDC affected neither carbon dioxide assimilation rates nor resulted in any detectable morphological differences in the transgenic plants. Comparative proteomic analysis suggested that metabolic remodeling was associated with the decrease in oxalate content in transgenic fruit. Examination of the E8.2-OXDC fruit proteome revealed that OXDC-responsive proteins involved in metabolism and stress responses represented the most substantially up- and down-regulated categories, respectively, in the transgenic fruit, compared with those of wild-type plants. Collectively, our study provides insights into OXDC-regulated metabolic networks and may provide a widely applicable strategy for enhancing crop nutritional value. PMID:23482874

  20. Absorption kinetics of oxalate from oxalate-rich food in man

    SciTech Connect

    Prenen, J.A.; Boer, P.; Dorhout Mees, E.J.

    1984-11-01

    The absorption of oxalate was investigated in a healthy subject after ingestion of oxalate-rich meals (spinach and rhubarb) with and without addition of /sup 14/C-labeled oxalic acid and calcium oxalate, and after oxalate-free meals with addition of nonlabeled sodium oxalate and calcium oxalate. Under these conditions, calcium oxalate was absorbed to the same extent as soluble oxalate; only a small percentage (2.4 +/- 0.7) of the total oxalate load was absorbed. Significant oxalate absorption occurred within 1 to 8 h after ingestion. The results suggest that under normal conditions the proximal part of the small bowel is a major absorption site.

  1. LITERATURE REVIEW FOR OXALATE OXIDATION PROCESSES AND PLUTONIUM OXALATE SOLUBILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, C.

    2012-02-03

    A literature review of oxalate oxidation processes finds that manganese(II)-catalyzed nitric acid oxidation of oxalate in precipitate filtrate is a viable and well-documented process. The process has been operated on the large scale at Savannah River in the past, including oxidation of 20 tons of oxalic acid in F-Canyon. Research data under a variety of conditions show the process to be robust. This process is recommended for oxalate destruction in H-Canyon in the upcoming program to produce feed for the MOX facility. Prevention of plutonium oxalate precipitation in filtrate can be achieved by concentrated nitric acid/ferric nitrate sequestration of oxalate. Organic complexants do not appear practical to sequester plutonium. Testing is proposed to confirm the literature and calculation findings of this review at projected operating conditions for the upcoming campaign. H Canyon plans to commence conversion of plutonium metal to low-fired plutonium oxide in 2012 for eventual use in the Mixed Oxide Fuel (MOX) Facility. The flowsheet includes sequential operations of metal dissolution, ion exchange, elution, oxalate precipitation, filtration, and calcination. All processes beyond dissolution will occur in HB-Line. The filtration step produces an aqueous filtrate that may have as much as 4 M nitric acid and 0.15 M oxalate. The oxalate needs to be removed from the stream to prevent possible downstream precipitation of residual plutonium when the solution is processed in H Canyon. In addition, sending the oxalate to the waste tank farm is undesirable. This report addresses the processing options for destroying the oxalate in existing H Canyon equipment.

  2. Men With Severe Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Are at Increased Risk of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hong Yong; Nam, Ji Won; Kim, Shin Ah; Choi, Bo Youl; Moon, Hong Sang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) comprise a set of common, bothersome symptoms in middle-aged and elderly men. Recent research suggests that depressive symptoms may influence the symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We performed a community-based cross-sectional study to evaluate the correlation between LUTS and depression. Methods: The survey was conducted in a rural community during four periods in August 2009, 2010, 2011, and 2012. Two validated questionnaires were used to examine LUTS and depressive symptoms. These included the International Prostate Symptom Score/quality of life (IPSS/QoL) and the Korean version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CES-D-K). Patients were categorized in the depressive symptom group if their CES-D-K score was >16 points. Results: A total of 711 men were included in this study. Thirty-five participants (4.92%) were found to have depressive symptoms. There was a positive correlation between depressive symptoms and LUTS severity (P<0.001). As compared to the mild LUTS group, the odds ratio (OR) of depression was 2.868 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.293–6.362; P for trend<0.001) in the moderate LUTS group, and 4.133 (95% CI, 1.510–11.313; P for trend<0.001) in the severe LUTS group. In a model considering multiple variables such as age, education level, smoking, and exercise, the OR in the moderate LUTS group was 2.534 (1.125–5.708, 95% CI, P for trend=0.005), while that in the severe LUTS group was 3.910 (95% CI, 5.708–11.154; P for trend=0.005). In addition, depression was related to voiding symptoms. Conclusions: Men with severe LUTS are at higher risk of depression than those with less severe urinary symptoms. The severity of voiding symptoms worsens depression. More aggressive urological diagnosis and treatment is needed in patients with severe LUTS, due to the impact on depressive symptoms and QoL. PMID:26739184

  3. The effect of climate variability on urinary stone attacks: increased incidence associated with temperature over 18 °C: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyoung Keun; Bae, Sang Rak; Kim, Satbyul E; Choi, Woo Suk; Paick, Sung Hyun; Ho, Kim; Kim, Hyeong Gon; Lho, Yong Soo

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of seasonal variation and climate parameters on urinary tract stone attack and investigate whether stone attack is increased sharply at a specific point. Nationwide data of total urinary tract stone attack numbers per month between January 2006 and December 2010 were obtained from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. The effects of climatic factors on monthly urinary stone attack were assessed using auto-regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) regression method. A total of 1,702,913 stone attack cases were identified. Mean monthly and monthly average daily urinary stone attack cases were 28,382 ± 2,760 and 933 ± 85, respectively. The stone attack showed seasonal trends of sharp incline in June, a peak plateau from July to September, and a sharp decline after September. The correlation analysis showed that ambient temperature (r = 0.557, p < 0.001) and relative humidity (r = 0.513, p < 0.001) were significantly associated with urinary stone attack cases. However, after adjustment for trends and seasonality, ambient temperature was the only climate factor associated with the stone attack cases in ARIMA regression test (p = 0.04). Threshold temperature was estimated as 18.4 °C. Risk of urinary stone attack significantly increases 1.71% (1.02-2.41 %, 95% confidence intervals) with a 1 °C increase of ambient temperature above the threshold point. In conclusion, monthly urinary stone attack cases were changed according to seasonal variation. Among the climates variables, only temperature had consistent association with stone attack and when the temperature is over 18.4 °C, urinary stone attack would be increased sharply. PMID:25407800

  4. Can the manipulation of urinary pH by beverages assist with the prevention of stone recurrence?

    PubMed

    Siener, Roswitha

    2016-02-01

    The formation of various types of stones in the urinary tract is strongly influenced by urinary pH. An acidic urinary pH promotes the crystallization of uric acid and cystine, respectively. Moreover, changes in systemic acid-base homeostasis alter urinary excretion of citrate, an important inhibitor of calcium oxalate stone formation. The effect of beverages on urinary pH and citrate excretion is mainly determined by the presence of bicarbonate and citrate. The bicarbonate content of mineral water can replace alkalization therapy with potassium citrate and contribute to urine inhibitory power by increasing urinary pH and citrate excretion. Citrus juices are rich sources of citrate. Oral citrate is absorbed in the intestine and nearly completely metabolized to bicarbonate, providing an alkali load, which in turn increases urinary pH and citrate excretion. However, data from observational and interventional studies on the effect of different types of citrus juices on the risk of urinary stone formation are conflicting. In conclusion, favourable changes in urinary pH and citrate excretion can be attained by various beverages. However, the long-term efficacy of certain beverages for the recurrence prevention of different types of stones has yet to be determined. PMID:26614113

  5. Decreased serum level and increased urinary excretion of vascular endothelial growth factor-C in patients with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun Hee; Jung, Yu Jin; Kang, Kyung Pyo; Lee, Sik; Park, Sung Kwang; Lee, Ju-Hyung; Kim, Nam Ho; Kim, Won

    2013-01-01

    Background Interstitial tonicity increases vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C), a lymphangiogenic factor in salt-induced hypertension. Therefore, it can be assumed that changes of serum VEGF-C level may be associated with increasing blood pressure. However, there is no report about the changes of serum VEGF-C levels in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aims of this study were to investigate the changes of serum and urine VEGF-C levels in patients with CKD stage 3–4 and to evaluate the relationship between blood pressure and serum VEGF-C levels in the patients with CKD stage 5 and hemodialysis. Methods Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was assessed by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation. Blood pressure and VEGF-C levels (serum and urine) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in nine patients with stage 3–4 CKD, 41 hemodialysis patients, and eight healthy individuals. Results The median serum level of VEGF-C in patients with stage 3–4 CKD and stage 5 hemodialysis significantly decreased in comparison with healthy individuals. Urinary VEGF-C excretion increased in patients with stage 3–4 CKD compared with healthy control patients. For 41 hemodialysis patients, the serum level of VEGF-C in patients with stage 1 or stage 2 hypertension with hemodialysis did not significantly increase when compared with prehypertension hemodialysis patients. Conclusion We demonstrated that circulating levels of VEGF-C were decreased in patients with CKD, and the decrease of VEGF-C in patients with stage 3–4 CKD coincided with an increase in the urinary excretion of VEGF-C. PMID:26877915

  6. Chemical composition and binary mixture of human urinary stones using FT-Raman spectroscopy method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvaraju, R.; Raja, A.; Thiruppathi, G.

    2013-10-01

    In the present study the human urinary stones were observed in their different chemical compositions of calcium oxalate monohydrate, calcium oxalate dihydrate, calcium phosphate, struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate), uric acid, cystine, oxammite (ammonium oxalate monohydrate), natroxalate (sodium oxalate), glushinkite (magnesium oxalate dihydrate) and moolooite (copper oxalate) were analyzed using Fourier Transform-Raman (FT-Raman) spectroscopy. For the quantitative analysis, various human urinary stone samples are used for ratios calculation of binary mixtures compositions such as COM/COD, HAP/COD, HAP/COD, Uric acid/COM, uric acid/COD and uric acid/HAP. The calibration curve is used for further analysis of binary mixture of human urinary stones. For the binary mixture calculation the various intensities bands at 1462 cm-1 (ICOM), 1473 cm-1 (ICOD), 961 cm-1 (IHAP) and 1282 cm-1 (IUA) were used.

  7. Urinary JCV-DNA testing during natalizumab treatment may increase accuracy of PML risk stratification.

    PubMed

    Laroni, A; Giacomazzi, C G; Grimaldi, L; Gallo, P; Sormani, M P; Bertolotto, A; McDermott, J L; Gandoglia, I; Martini, I; Vitello, G; Rinaldi, F; Barzon, L; Militello, V; Pizzorno, M; Bandini, F; Capello, E; Palù, G; Uccelli, A; Mancardi, G L; Varnier, O E

    2012-09-01

    The risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in patients treated with natalizumab for multiple sclerosis (MS) is a serious concern. The presence of anti-JC virus antibodies is a risk factor for PML development, but 2.5 % of the patients result falsely-negative, while the prognostic relevance of testing JCV-DNA in biological fluids of treated patients is debated. Aim of this work was to evaluate the utility of testing JCV-DNA, together with anti-JCV antibodies, in biological samples of treated patients as a tool for PML risk stratification. 126 subjects from 5 MS Centers in Italy were included in the study. We performed a cross-sectional study in 63 patients testing JCV-DNA in blood, peripheral blood cells and urine. We longitudinally assessed the presence of JCV-DNA in a cohort of 33 subjects, one of which developed PML. We could test retrospectively serum samples from another PML case occurred during natalizumab therapy. Anti-JCV antibodies and urinary JCV-DNA were both tested in 73 patients. No changes in JCV-DNA status occurred during natalizumab treatment. The subject who developed PML in the longitudinal cohort had detectable JCV-DNA in urine at all time-points while serum or blood from both PML patients were always negative before the onset of disease and, in one case, after. Four subjects with JCV-DNA in urine and undetectable anti-JCV antibodies were retested for anti-JCV antibodies and three out of four resulted positive. In conclusion, testing JCV-DNA in urine is complementary to testing anti-JCV antibodies in identifying patients at risk of PML. PMID:22585413

  8. Oligomeric proanthocyanidins protect against HK-2 cell injury induced by oxalate and calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuo; Du, Peng; Zhang, Ning; Liu, Jia; Tang, Xingxing; Zhao, Qiang; Yang, Yong

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to test whether the antioxidants oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs) could provide protection against oxalate and calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals (COM) toxicity in HK-2 cells. Four groups were chosen for the study: negative control group, positive control group (COM + oxalate), OPCs group (OPCs + COM + oxalate), Vit E group (Vit E + COM + oxalate). HK-2 cells were exposed for 4, 8, 12 and 24 h. The activity of HK-2 cell was assessed by MTT. Cellular injury was assessed by activity of Na(+)/K(+) ATP enzyme. Peroxidation level was assessed by malondialdehyde (MDA) content in medium and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD). Morphological changes of HK-2 cell after exposed for 4 and 12 h in each group were observed under Transmission electron microscope (TEM). The effects of OPCs and VitE on oxalate- and COM-exposed cells were tested. After exposed to oxalate and COM crystals, activity of cells, Na(+)/K(+) ATP enzyme and SOD enzyme showed a significant reduction, and MDA content in medium was significantly increased. OPCs group: the addition of OPCs significantly increased activity of cell, SOD and Na(+)/K(+) ATP enzyme while MDA content was significantly decreased compared with the positive control group. VitE group: compared with the positive control group, activity of HK-2 cell, Na(+)/K(+) ATP enzyme was not significantly changed while SOD activity was restored, and MDA content was significantly decreased after the addition of Vit E. Morphological structure of HK-2 cell was extremely changed as observed under TEM after exposure to high level of COM crystals and oxalate. After the addition of OPCs or Vit E, amounts of cells with vacuoles formed in cytoplasms, karyotheca dissolved and nucleolus disappeared were less than in positive control group. The morphological structure changing in OPCs group was slighter than that in Vit E group. OPCs and vitamin E administration may prevent oxalate- and COM-mediated peroxidative injury, restoring intracellular antioxidant enzyme activity. The protection rendered by OPCs was greater than that of vitamin E. PMID:26446157

  9. OXALATE DEPOSITION ON ASBESTOS BODIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The clinical and histopathologic findings in three patients with a deposition of calcium oxalate crystals on ferruginous bodies after occupational exposure to asbestos are provided. In addition, we test the hypothesis that this oxalate can be generated through a nonenzymatic o...

  10. Oxalate: Effect on calcium absorbability

    SciTech Connect

    Heaney, R.P.; Weaver, C.M. )

    1989-10-01

    Absorption of calcium from intrinsically labeled Ca oxalate was measured in 18 normal women and compared with absorption of Ca from milk in these same subjects, both when the test substances were ingested in separate meals and when ingested together. Fractional Ca absorption from oxalate averaged 0.100 +/- 0.043 when ingested alone and 0.140 +/- 0.063 when ingested together with milk. Absorption was, as expected, substantially lower than absorption from milk (0.358 +/- 0.113). Nevertheless Ca oxalate absorbability in these women was higher than we had previously found for spinach Ca. When milk and Ca oxalate were ingested together, there was no interference of oxalate in milk Ca absorption and no evidence of tracer exchange between the two labeled Ca species.

  11. Dietary Ascophyllum nodosum increases urinary excretion of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates in male Sprague-dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Simmons-Boyce, Joanne L; Purcell, Sara L; Nelson, Carolanne M; MacKinnon, Shawna L

    2009-08-01

    We used a (1)H NMR-based metabonomics approach to examine the physiological effects of the seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum in a mammalian model, assess the dosage level required to elicit a response in the urinary profile, and identify potential toxic effects. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6/group) were fed a control or 5, 10, or 15% freeze-dried, ground A. nodosum diet for 4 wk. Urine samples were collected 3 times daily (0-4, 4-8, and 8-24 h) prior to feeding experimental diets and, at the end of the study, were profiled using (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Food intake, weight gain, and serum enzyme (alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase) levels indicated that seaweed diets were well tolerated. The spectral data and principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that rats fed 5, 10, and 15% seaweed diets had increased urinary excretion of citrate, 2-oxoglutarate, succinate, trimethylamine (TMA), TMA-N-oxide, and malonate and decreased excretion of taurine, creatinine, and acetate compared with the controls. In addition, mannitol was detected in the 8- to 24-h urine samples from seaweed-fed rats. Metabolic responses related to ingestion of seaweed polyphenolics and fiber were not observed in the spectral profiles. Increased seaweed concentration in the diet did not increase the magnitude of the rats' response as detected by (1)H NMR. Visual analysis and PCA of the spectral data for serum samples collected at the end of the study did not show diet-related clustering. The lack of toxicity at 15% seaweed incorporation allows the use of this concentration in future A. nodosum intervention studies. PMID:19535424

  12. Cholinergic signaling inhibits oxalate transport by human intestinal T84 cells

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ming; Aronson, Peter S.

    2012-01-01

    Urolithiasis remains a very common disease in Western countries. Seventy to eighty percent of kidney stones are composed of calcium oxalate, and minor changes in urinary oxalate affect stone risk. Intestinal oxalate secretion mediated by anion exchanger SLC26A6 plays a major constitutive role in limiting net absorption of ingested oxalate, thereby preventing hyperoxaluria and calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Using the relatively selective PKC-δ inhibitor rottlerin, we had previously found that PKC-δ activation inhibits Slc26a6 activity in mouse duodenal tissue. To identify a model system to study physiologic agonists upstream of PKC-δ, we characterized the human intestinal cell line T84. Knockdown studies demonstrated that endogenous SLC26A6 mediates most of the oxalate transport by T84 cells. Cholinergic stimulation with carbachol modulates intestinal ion transport through signaling pathways including PKC activation. We therefore examined whether carbachol affects oxalate transport in T84 cells. We found that carbachol significantly inhibited oxalate transport by T84 cells, an effect blocked by rottlerin. Carbachol also led to significant translocation of PKC-δ from the cytosol to the membrane of T84 cells. Using pharmacological inhibitors, we observed that carbachol inhibits oxalate transport through the M3 muscarinic receptor and phospholipase C. Utilizing the Src inhibitor PP2 and phosphorylation studies, we found that the observed regulation downstream of PKC-δ is partially mediated by c-Src. Biotinylation studies revealed that carbachol inhibits oxalate transport by reducing SLC26A6 surface expression. We conclude that carbachol negatively regulates oxalate transport by reducing SLC26A6 surface expression in T84 cells through signaling pathways including the M3 muscarinic receptor, phospholipase C, PKC-δ, and c-Src. PMID:21956166

  13. Acute oxalate nephropathy associated with orlistat

    PubMed Central

    Humayun, Youshay; Ball, Kenneth C.; Lewin, Jack R.; Lerant, Anna A.; Fülöp, Tibor

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a major world-wide epidemic which has led to a surge of various weight loss-inducing medical or surgical treatments. Orlistat is a gastrointestinal lipase inhibitor used as an adjunct treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus to induce clinically significant weight loss via fat malabsorption. Case Presentation: We describe a case of a 76-year-old female with past medical history of chronic kidney disease (baseline serum creatinine was 1.5-2.5 mg/dL), hypertension, gout and psoriatic arthritis, who was admitted for evaluation of elevated creatinine, peaking at 5.40 mg/dL. She was started on orlistat 120 mg three times a day six weeks earlier. Initial serologic work-up remained unremarkable. Percutaneous kidney biopsy revealed massive calcium oxalate crystal depositions with acute tubular necrosis and interstitial inflammation. Serum oxalate level returned elevated at 45 mm/l (normal <27). Timed 24-hour urine collection documented increased oxalate excretion repeatedly (54-96 mg/24 hour). After five renal dialysis sessions in eighth days she gradually regained her former baseline kidney function with creatinine around 2 mg/dL. Given coexisting proton-pump inhibitor therapy, only per os calcium-citrate provided effective intestinal oxalate chelation to control hyperoxaluria. Conclusions: Our case underscores the potential of medically induced fat malabsorption to lead to an excessive oxalate absorption and acute kidney injury (AKI), especially in subjects with pre-existing renal impairment. Further, it emphasizes the importance of kidney biopsy to facilitate early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:27152294

  14. A simple method for quantitating the propensity for calcium oxalate crystallization in urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wabner, C. L.; Pak, C. Y.

    1991-01-01

    To assess the propensity for spontaneous crystallization of calcium oxalate in urine, the permissible increment in oxalate is calculated. The previous method required visual observation of crystallization with the addition of oxalate, this warranted the need for a large volume of urine and a sacrifice in accuracy in defining differences between small incremental changes of added oxalate. Therefore, this method has been miniaturized and spontaneous crystallization is detected from the depletion of radioactive oxalate. The new "micro" method demonstrated a marked decrease (p < 0.001) in the permissible increment in oxalate in urine of stone formers versus normal subjects. Moreover, crystallization inhibitors added to urine, in vitro (heparin or diphosphonate) or in vivo (potassium citrate administration), substantially increased the permissible increment in oxalate. Thus, the "micro" method has proven reliable and accurate in discriminating stone forming from control urine and in distinguishing changes of inhibitory activity.

  15. In vitro inhibition of calcium oxalate crystallization and crystal adherence to renal tubular epithelial cells by Terminalia arjuna.

    PubMed

    Mittal, A; Tandon, S; Singla, S K; Tandon, C

    2016-04-01

    Urolithiasis is a multifactorial disease and remains a public health problem around the world. Of all types of renal stones, calcium oxalate (CaOx) is the most common composition formed in the urinary system of the patients with urolithiasis. The present study is aimed at evaluating the antiurolithiatic properties of the Tris-Cl extract (TE) of Terminalia arjuna (T. arjuna). The antilithiatic activity of TE of T. arjuna was investigated on nucleation, aggregation, and growth of the CaOx crystals, as well as its protective potency was tested on oxalate-induced cell injury of NRK-52E renal epithelial cells. Also, in vitro antioxidant activity of TE T. arjuna bark was also determined. The TE of T. arjuna exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibition of nucleation and growth of CaOx crystals. Inhibition of aggregation of CaOx crystals remains constant. When NRK-52E cells were injured by exposure to oxalate for 48 h, the TE prevented the cells from injury and CaOx crystal adherence resulting in increased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. The TE also scavenged the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals with an IC50 at 51.72 µg/mL. The results indicated that T. arjuna is a potential candidate for phytotherapy against urolithiasis as it attains the ability to inhibit CaOx crystallization and scavenge DPPH free radicals in vitro along with a cytoprotective role. PMID:26424092

  16. Social stress in mice induces urinary bladder overactivity and increases TRPV1 channel-dependent afferent nerve activity.

    PubMed

    Mingin, Gerald C; Heppner, Thomas J; Tykocki, Nathan R; Erickson, Cuixia Shi; Vizzard, Margaret A; Nelson, Mark T

    2015-09-15

    Social stress has been implicated as a cause of urinary bladder hypertrophy and dysfunction in humans. Using a murine model of social stress, we and others have shown that social stress leads to bladder overactivity. Here, we show that social stress leads to bladder overactivity, increased bladder compliance, and increased afferent nerve activity. In the social stress paradigm, 6-wk-old male C57BL/6 mice were exposed for a total of 2 wk, via barrier cage, to a C57BL/6 retired breeder aggressor mouse. We performed conscious cystometry with and without intravesical infusion of the TRPV1 inhibitor capsazepine, and measured pressure-volume relationships and afferent nerve activity during bladder filling using an ex vivo bladder model. Stress leads to a decrease in intermicturition interval and void volume in vivo, which was restored by capsazepine. Ex vivo studies demonstrated that at low pressures, bladder compliance and afferent activity were elevated in stressed bladders compared with unstressed bladders. Capsazepine did not significantly change afferent activity in unstressed mice, but significantly decreased afferent activity at all pressures in stressed bladders. Immunohistochemistry revealed that TRPV1 colocalizes with CGRP to stain nerve fibers in unstressed bladders. Colocalization significantly increased along the same nerve fibers in the stressed bladders. Our results support the concept that social stress induces TRPV1-dependent afferent nerve activity, ultimately leading to the development of overactive bladder symptoms. PMID:26224686

  17. Modification of cement systems with oxalic aldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subbotina, N. V.; Gorlenko, N. P.; Sarkisov, Ju S.; Naumova, L. B.; Minakova, T. S.

    2015-01-01

    The experimental results of physical-chemical properties of composite materials on the basis of cement and wood waste modified by an aquatic solution of oxalic aldehyde are presented in this paper. The injection of a chemical addition agent being in optimal concentration is shown to result in the increase of compressive strength of a cement stone by 30%, that of wood-cement composition - in 7 times. IR spectroscopy investigations, microphotographs of structures, kinetics of samples strength changes are shown.

  18. Medical therapy, calcium oxalate urolithiasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruml, L. A.; Pearle, M. S.; Pak, C. Y.

    1997-01-01

    The development of diagnostic protocols that identify specific risk factors for calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis has led to the formulation of directed medical regimens that are aimed at correcting the underlying metabolic disturbances. Initiation of these treatment programs has reduced markedly the rate of stone formation in the majority of patients who form stones. This article discusses the rationale that underlies the choice of medical therapy for the various pathophysiologic causes of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis and the appropriate use of available medications.

  19. Medical therapy, calcium oxalate urolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Ruml, L A; Pearle, M S; Pak, C Y

    1997-02-01

    The development of diagnostic protocols that identify specific risk factors for calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis has led to the formulation of directed medical regimens that are aimed at correcting the underlying metabolic disturbances. Initiation of these treatment programs has reduced markedly the rate of stone formation in the majority of patients who form stones. This article discusses the rationale that underlies the choice of medical therapy for the various pathophysiologic causes of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis and the appropriate use of available medications. PMID:9048856

  20. An Oxalyl-CoA Dependent Pathway of Oxalate Catabolism Plays a Role in Regulating Calcium Oxalate Crystal Accumulation and Defending against Oxalate-Secreting Phytopathogens in Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Foster, Justin; Luo, Bin; Nakata, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    Considering the widespread occurrence of oxalate in nature and its broad impact on a host of organisms, it is surprising that so little is known about the turnover of this important acid. In plants, oxalate oxidase is the most well studied enzyme capable of degrading oxalate, but not all plants possess this activity. Recently, an Acyl Activating Enzyme 3 (AAE3), encoding an oxalyl-CoA synthetase, was identified in Arabidopsis. AAE3 has been proposed to catalyze the first step in an alternative pathway of oxalate degradation. Whether this enzyme and proposed pathway is important to other plants is unknown. Here, we identify the Medicago truncatula AAE3 (MtAAE3) and show that it encodes an oxalyl-CoA synthetase activity exhibiting high activity against oxalate with a Km = 81 9 ?M and Vmax = 19 0.9 ?moles min-1mg protein-1. GFP-MtAAE3 localization suggested that this enzyme functions within the cytosol of the cell. Mtaae3 knock-down line showed a reduction in its ability to degrade oxalate into CO2. This reduction in the capacity to degrade oxalate resulted in the accumulation of druse crystals of calcium oxalate in the Mtaae3 knock-down line and an increased susceptibility to oxalate-secreting phytopathogens such as Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Taken together, these results suggest that AAE3 dependent turnover of oxalate is important to different plants and functions in the regulation of tissue calcium oxalate crystal accumulation and in defense against oxalate-secreting phytopathogens. PMID:26900946

  1. An Oxalyl-CoA Dependent Pathway of Oxalate Catabolism Plays a Role in Regulating Calcium Oxalate Crystal Accumulation and Defending against Oxalate-Secreting Phytopathogens in Medicago truncatula

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Justin; Luo, Bin; Nakata, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Considering the widespread occurrence of oxalate in nature and its broad impact on a host of organisms, it is surprising that so little is known about the turnover of this important acid. In plants, oxalate oxidase is the most well studied enzyme capable of degrading oxalate, but not all plants possess this activity. Recently, an Acyl Activating Enzyme 3 (AAE3), encoding an oxalyl-CoA synthetase, was identified in Arabidopsis. AAE3 has been proposed to catalyze the first step in an alternative pathway of oxalate degradation. Whether this enzyme and proposed pathway is important to other plants is unknown. Here, we identify the Medicago truncatula AAE3 (MtAAE3) and show that it encodes an oxalyl-CoA synthetase activity exhibiting high activity against oxalate with a Km = 81 ± 9 μM and Vmax = 19 ± 0.9 μmoles min-1mg protein-1. GFP-MtAAE3 localization suggested that this enzyme functions within the cytosol of the cell. Mtaae3 knock-down line showed a reduction in its ability to degrade oxalate into CO2. This reduction in the capacity to degrade oxalate resulted in the accumulation of druse crystals of calcium oxalate in the Mtaae3 knock-down line and an increased susceptibility to oxalate-secreting phytopathogens such as Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Taken together, these results suggest that AAE3 dependent turnover of oxalate is important to different plants and functions in the regulation of tissue calcium oxalate crystal accumulation and in defense against oxalate-secreting phytopathogens. PMID:26900946

  2. Effect of Dietary Oxalate on the Gut Microbiota of the Mammalian Herbivore Neotoma albigula.

    PubMed

    Miller, Aaron W; Oakeson, Kelly F; Dale, Colin; Dearing, M Denise

    2016-05-01

    Diet is one of the primary drivers that sculpts the form and function of the mammalian gut microbiota. However, the enormous taxonomic and metabolic diversity held within the gut microbiota makes it difficult to isolate specific diet-microbe interactions. The objective of the current study was to elucidate interactions between the gut microbiota of the mammalian herbivoreNeotoma albigulaand dietary oxalate, a plant secondary compound (PSC) degraded exclusively by the gut microbiota. We quantified oxalate degradation inN. albigulafed increasing amounts of oxalate over time and tracked the response of the fecal microbiota using high-throughput sequencing. The amount of oxalate degradedin vivowas linearly correlated with the amount of oxalate consumed. The addition of dietary oxalate was found to impact microbial species diversity by increasing the representation of certain taxa, some of which are known to be capable of degrading oxalate (e.g.,Oxalobacterspp.). Furthermore, the relative abundances of 117 operational taxonomic units (OTU) exhibited a significant correlation with oxalate consumption. The results of this study indicate that dietary oxalate induces complex interactions within the gut microbiota that include an increase in the relative abundance of a community of bacteria that may contribute either directly or indirectly to oxalate degradation in mammalian herbivores. PMID:26896138

  3. Inhibition of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystallization by the combination of citrate and osteopontin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lijun; Zhang, Wei; Qiu, S. Roger; Zachowicz, William J.; Guan, Xiangying; Tang, Ruikang; Hoyer, John R.; De Yoreo, James J.; Nancollas, George H.

    2006-05-01

    The design of effective crystallization inhibitors of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM), the primary constituent of kidney stones, is a significant goal. Inhibitory molecules identified in urine include a small organic anion, citrate, and osteopontin (OPN), an aspartic acid-rich protein. The results of molecular-scale analyses combining force microscopy with molecular modeling raised the possibility that inhibition of COM crystallization might be increased by the additive effects of citrate and OPN because they act on different crystal faces. Constant composition (CC) kinetics studies of COM crystal growth now confirm that additive effects are, indeed, achieved in vitro when both citrate and OPN are present. These results suggest that a strategy employing combinations of inhibitors may provide a useful therapeutic approach to urinary stone disease.

  4. Urinary Bladder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Anatomy & Physiology » Urinary System » Components of the Urinary System » Urinary Bladder Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life Process Anatomical Terminology Review Quiz ...

  5. Urinary excretion of bufotenin (N,N-dimethyl-5-hydroxytryptamine) is increased in suspicious violent offenders: a confirmatory study.

    PubMed

    Kärkkäinen, J; Räisänen, M; Huttunen, M O; Kallio, E; Naukkarinen, H; Virkkunen, M

    1995-09-29

    We previously reported that violent offenders with paranoid symptoms or whose violent actions had been directed against family members had higher urinary levels of bufotenin than other violent offenders. In the present study, patients were evaluated with the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP), and urinary levels of bufotenin were determined by mass spectrometry. In drug-free patients suspiciousness was positively correlated, and socialization was negatively correlated, with urinary bufotenin excretion. These two personality variables were strongly interdependent. In drug users, bufotenin excretion was correlated positively with social desirability and negatively with irritability, but not with suspiciousness. Bufotenin excretion was not found to be associated with violence toward family members in the present study. The results are in keeping with the earlier finding that violent offenders with paranoid personality traits have higher urinary levels of bufotenin than other violent offenders. PMID:8570766

  6. Increased urinary 6-hydroxymelatoninsulfate levels in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder diagnosed children and adolescent.

    PubMed

    Büber, Ahmet; Çakaloz, Burcu; Işıldar, Yetiş; Ünlü, Gülşen; Bostancı, Hayrani Eren; Aybek, Hülya; Herken, Hasan

    2016-03-23

    There are some studies in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) which note altered circadian rhythms, suggesting abnormalities in melatonin physiology. In order to better characterize the possible melatonin alteration in ADHD, in this study we aimed to detect daytime, nighttime and 24h levels of 6-hydroxymelatoninsulfate (6-OH MS) in the patients diagnosed with ADHD. Twenty-seven patients between 6 and 16 years-old, who had been diagnosed initially with ADHD, but without other physical and psychiatric disease history and who had not taken psychotropic pharmacotherapy for six months, plus 28 healthy volunteer controls, were included in the study. Urine samples were collected during the whole 24h cycle, daytime and nighttime separately to assess the time-dependent excretion of the 6-OH MS, which is the main urine metabolite of melatonin. The Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method was used for measuring the urine 6-OH MS level. Daytime (15.4 (8.9-24.8) ng/ml vs 6.9 (2.5-15.9) ng/ml, p=0.002), nighttime (102.9 (65.3-197.7) ng/ml vs 61.5 (37.2-114.4) ng/ml, p=0.012) and 24h (54.1 (34.6-83.9) ng/ml vs 27.3 (14.3-48.9) ng/ml, p=0.000) 6-OH MS levels median (25p-75p) were found to be significantly higher in the ADHD group. After adjustment for age and sex, there was a statistically significant difference between the ADHD group (59.8±4.9) and control group (33.8±4.8) in 24-h 6-OH MS levels (F(1, 51)=13.673, p=.001, partial η2=.211). There was no relationship between 6-OH MS levels and Conners Parent Rating Scale short form subscale scores for the ADHD group. These findings indicate that melatonin production is increased in ADHD cases. Further research is needed to determine and thereby understand the mechanisms underlying the higher melatonin production, to assess the impact of altered melatonin on the pathophysiology of ADHD. PMID:26879834

  7. Urinary excretion of LH and testosterone from male rats during exposure to increased gravity: post-spaceflight and centrifugation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, R. M.; Wade, C. E.; Morey-Holton, E.

    2000-01-01

    A dissociation between plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone (T) appears to exist during exposure to altered gravity. The pulsatile nature of LH release and the diurnal variability of T secretion may mask or bias the effects of altered gravity on the pituitary-gonadal axis when analyzing plasma concentrations. Therefore, we examined the relationship between the excretion of urinary LH and T in male Sprague-Dawley rats during exposure to increased gravity upon return to Earth following a 14-day spaceflight (n = 6) and by 12 days of centrifugation at 2g (n = 8). Excreted LH and T were elevated on the first 3 days postflight. Excreted T was elevated between Days 1 and 8 of centrifugation; however, excreted LH was reduced on Days 2 and 3 compared with control animals. Excreted LH and T were significantly correlated (R = 0.731 and 0.706, respectively) in postspaceflight and centrifuged animals. Correlation curves had similar slopes (0.0213 and 0.023, respectively), but different y-intercepts (-1.43 and 3.32, respectively). The sustained increase in excreted T during centrifugation suggests that the pituitary-gonadal axis in postspaceflight animals may adapt quicker to increased gravity. The upward shift in the correlation curve exhibited by the centrifuged animals suggests that the sensitivity of LH-induced T release is increased in these animals. The previous dissociation between plasma LH and T during altered gravity was not observed in the present study in which excreted LH and T were measured.

  8. Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Are Associated with Increased Risk of Dementia among the Elderly: A Nationwide Study

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Chi-Hsiang; Wu, Ming-Ping; Ho, Chung-Han; Weng, Shih-Feng; Huang, Chien-Cheng; Hsieh, Wan-Ting; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Chen, Ping-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Studies show a strong association between dementia and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). The aim of this study was to investigate whether LUTS are a risk factor for cognitive impairment. We enrolled 50-year-old and older subjects with LUTS (LUTS[+]) (n = 6801) and controls without LUTS (LUTS[−]) (n = 20,403) from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. LUTS, dementia, and other confounding factors are defined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification Codes. Participants were recruited from 2000 to 2004 and then followed up until death or the end of 2011. The outcome was the onset of dementia, which was assessed using Poisson regression analysis, Cox hazards models, and Kaplan-Meier survival curves. The incidence of dementia was significantly higher in the LUTS[+] group than in the LUTS[−] group (124.76 versus 77.59/1000 person-years). The increased risk of dementia related to LUTS remained significant after adjustment for potential confounders (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR): 1.61, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.47–1.76, P < 0.0001) and higher than that related to cerebrovascular disease (AHR: 1.43, 95% CI 1.26–1.61, P < 0.0001). The outcome suggests the need for early screening and appropriate intervention to help prevent cognitive impairment of patients with LUTS. PMID:26290863

  9. Comparison of oxalate formation from ascorbic and glyoxyl acids in detached glandular heads of tobacco trichomes

    SciTech Connect

    Vogeli-Lange, R.; Wagner, G.J.

    1987-08-01

    Ca-oxalate crystal containing cells from detached glandular heads of trichomes from Nicotiana tabacum, TI 1068, are capable of converting (1-/sup 14/C) ascorbic acid (AA) and (1-/sup 14/C) glyoxylic acid (GA) to oxalate. AA was found to be a better precursor for oxalate formation than GA. In detached glandular heads, 3.6x more label was converted to oxalate from AA than from GA, in the epidermis the factor was 3x while that with petiole tissue was 7x. Oxalate formation from AA, in detached glandular heads, was only partially inhibited in the dark and in the presence of metabolic inhibitors, suggesting that a nonenzymatic component might be involved. Oxalate formation from GA increased in the presence of metabolic inhibitors. During treatment of detached glandular heads with 2 mM Ca-acetate for 2 days, oxalate formation from AA was stimulated 3 fold, while the presence of 2mM Ca-acetate had no effect on the oxalate formation from GA. These results suggest that Ca/sup 2 +/ stimulates the formation of Ca-oxalate crystals in glandular head cells, and that AA can serve as a precursor for oxalate production.

  10. Screening for diets that reduce urinary nitrogen excretion and methane emissions while maintaining or increasing production by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gregorini, Pablo; Beukes, Pierre C; Dalley, Dawn; Romera, Alvaro J

    2016-05-01

    Farmers face complex decisions at the time to feed animals, trying to achieve production goals while contemplating social and environmental constraints. Our purpose was to facilitate such decision making for pastoral dairy farmers, aiming to reduce urinary N (UN) and methane emissions (CH4), while maintaining or increasing milk production (MP). There is a number of feeds the farmers can choose from and combine. We used 50 feeds (forages and grains) combined systematically in different proportions producing 11,526 binary diets. Diets were screened, using an a posteriori approach and a Pareto front (PF) analysis of model (Molly) outputs. The objective was to identify combinations with the best possible compromise (i.e. frontier) between UN, CH4, and MP. Using high MP and low UN as objective functions, PF included 10, 14, 12 and 50 diets, for non-lactating, early-, mid- and late-lactation periods, with cereals and beets featuring strongly. Using the same objective functions, but including ryegrass as dietary base PF included 2, 4, 8 and 4 diets for those periods. Therefore, from a wide range of diets, farmers could choose from few feeds combined into binary diets to reduce UN while maintaining or increasing MP. If the intention is maintaining pasture-based systems, there are fewer suitable options. Reducing UN will simply require dilution of N supplied by pasture by supplementing low N conserved forages. The results also evidence the risk of pollution swapping, reaching the frontier means arriving at a point where trade-off decisions need to be made. Any further reduction in UN implies an increment in CH4, or reduction in CH4 emissions increases UN. There is no perfect diet to optimize all objectives simultaneously; but if the current diet is not in the frontier some options can offset pollution swapping. The choice is with the farmers and conditioned by their context. PMID:26874758

  11. Hydrogen bonded structures in organic amine oxalates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaidhyanathan, R.; Natarajan, S.; Rao, C. N. R.

    2002-05-01

    Oxalates of n-propylamine, n-butylamine, ethylenediamine, 1,4-butanediamine, piperazine, guanidine and 1,4-diazabicyclo[2,2,2]octane (DABCO) have been synthesized and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction and other techniques. The amine oxalates show different types of hydrogen bonded networks, linear hydrogen bonded chains characterizing the oxalates of the first five amines. Guanidinium oxalate has a sheet like structure while DABCO oxalate has dimeric hydrogen bonded rings. Hydrogen bonded structures of these oxalates are discussed in detail, besides relating their thermal stability to the strengths of the networks.

  12. Increased levels of urinary phenylacetylglycine associated with mitochondrial toxicity in a model of drug-induced phospholipidosis

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Georg; Lenz, Barbara; Fischer, Holger; Schlotterbeck, Götz; Atzpodien, Elke-Astrid; Senn, Hans; Suter, Laura; Csato, Miklos; Evers, Stefan; Singer, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background: Phospholipidosis (PLD) is a lysosomal storage disorder induced by a class of cationic amphiphilic drugs. However, drug-induced PLD is reversible. Evidence of PLD from animal studies with some compounds has led to discontinuation of development. Regulatory authorities are likely to request additional studies when PLD is linked to toxicity. Objective: We conducted a trial to investigate urinary phenylacetylglycine (uPAG) as a biomarker for PLD. Materials and methods: Five groups of 12 male Wistar rats were dosed once with vehicle, 300 mg/kg or 1500 mg/kg of compound A (known to induce PLD), or 300 mg/kg or 1000 mg/kg of compound B (similar structure, but does not induce PLD) to achieve similar plasma exposures. Following dosing, urine and blood samples underwent nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), proteomic, and biochemical analyses. Necropsies were performed at 48 and 168 h, organ histopathology evaluated, and gene expression in liver analyzed by microarray. Electron microscopic examination of peripheral lymphocytes was performed. Results: For compound A, uPAG increased with dose, correlating with lamellar inclusion bodies formation in peripheral lymphocytes. NMR analysis showed decreased tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, inferring mitochondrial toxicity. Mitochondrial dysfunction was suggested by uPAG increase, resulting from a switch to anaerobic metabolism or disruption of the urea cycle. Discussion and conclusion: uPAG shows utility as a noninvasive biomarker for mitochondrial toxicity associated with drug-induced PLD, providing a mechanistic hypothesis for toxicity associated with PLD likely resulting from combined direct and indirect mitochondrial toxicity via impairment of the proton motor force and alteration of fatty acid catabolism. PMID:25083254

  13. Composition of urinary calculi related to urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Ohkawa, M; Tokunaga, S; Nakashima, T; Yamaguchi, K; Orito, M; Hisazumi, H

    1992-09-01

    The composition of 3,084 urinary calculi was determined using an infrared spectrophotometer. Mixed calcium oxalate-calcium phosphate stones were most frequently implicated. Of the urinary calculi analyzed 199 were associated with urinary tract infection. Escherichia coli was most frequently isolated (43 strains) and urease-producing organisms, such as Proteus mirabilis, were cultured from 40 patients. The core culture of 20 staghorn calculi yielded 15 isolates from 14 stones. There were 13 identical species isolated from the urine and stone specimens of 13 patients (65%), including 7 strains of P. mirabilis. These results suggest that cultures of urine specimens of urolithiasis patients, especially those with staghorn calculi, may help to elucidate the bacteriology of the stones. PMID:1507358

  14. Increased Risk of Acute Coronary Syndrome among Patients with Urinary Stone Disease: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Cheng-Li; Chung, Shiu-Dong; Chung, Chi-Jung; Kao, Chia-Hung; Chang, Chao-Hsiang

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives Urinary stones (US) are associated with systemic metabolic and endocrine disorders that share risk factors typically associated with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods For this investigation, 30 142 patients with US were set as the research group, and 121 768 randomly selected patients were set as the comparison group through frequency matching by age, sex, and index year. Each patient was individually tracked to identify those who developed ACS during the follow-up period. Cox proportional hazards regression and the Kaplan-Meier method were adopted to calculate the hazard ratios of ACS risk and plot the survival curve. Results Overall, 275 (13.4 per 10 000 person-y) and 736 events (9.1 per 10 000 person-y) were observed among patients in the research and comparison cohorts, respectively. The patients with US had a substantially lower ACS-free survival rate compared with that of the patients in the comparison cohort (P<.001). After adjusting for potential risk factors, the patients with US were observed to have a 1.22-fold higher risk of ACS compared with patients in the comparison cohort (95% confidence interval = 1.05–1.40, P<.001), particularly among younger patients. Conclusions The results indicate that US is associated with increased risk of developing ACS, particularly among young (≤49 years) and male adults. Future studies should examine the possible mechanisms of US-related ACS morbidity by conducting multicenter recruitment and measurements of laboratory data. PMID:25010058

  15. AB196. Multivariate analyses of urinary calculi composition: a 13-year single-center study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiong; Liu, Chunyu; Xu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background The incidence and prevalence of urinary stone are increasing throughout the world. Compared with the past, urolithiasis compositions by patient demographics are strikingly different. Furthermore, recent clinical studies implied that seasonal cyclicity might influence the distribution of stone composition. Methods We sought to determine the trends in pathogenesis of urolithiasis based on urinary stone analyses. A total of 2,383 eligible urinary stone samples from different patients between 2002 and 2014 in our center were collected. Infrared spectroscopy was used for urinary calculi analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the relationship of urinary calculi composition and calendar month (season), gender and age in North China during the past 13 years. Results Calcium containing calculi were the most frequent with an overall incidence of 84.1%. Calcium phosphate (CaP) or magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) stones were more frequent in females, while monohydrate calcium oxalate (COM), dihydrate calcium oxalate (COD) or uric acid (UA) stones were more common in males. Older individuals were associated with an increased risk of UA stones and a decreased risk of COD, CaP or cystine stones. Additionally, from 2002 to 2014, the frequency of COD and MAP stone increased, whereas the trend of CaP, UA and cystine stones decreased. However, calendar month (season) was not significantly associated with differences in composition. Conclusions This study provides a picture of the present distribution of urolithiasis compositions in China. From 2002 to 2014, age and gender were significantly associated with stone composition, whereas calendar month not.

  16. OXALATE PROCESS FOR SEPARATING ELEMENT 94

    DOEpatents

    Gofman, J.W.

    1959-01-01

    A process is presented for separating plutonium values in the tetravalent state from hexavalent uranium with which it is associated in aqueous solutions. This separation is aceomplished by forming a thorium oxalate precipitate in order to carry only the plutonium. By carefully regulating the acidity of the solution and the oxalate ion concentration, the precipitation of uranium oxalate may be avoided.

  17. Contribution of calcium oxalate to soil-exchangeable calcium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dauer, Jenny M.; Perakis, Steven S.

    2013-01-01

    Acid deposition and repeated biomass harvest have decreased soil calcium (Ca) availability in many temperate forests worldwide, yet existing methods for assessing available soil Ca do not fully characterize soil Ca forms. To account for discrepancies in ecosystem Ca budgets, it has been hypothesized that the highly insoluble biomineral Ca oxalate might represent an additional soil Ca pool that is not detected in standard measures of soil-exchangeable Ca. We asked whether several standard method extractants for soil-exchangeable Ca could also access Ca held in Ca oxalate crystals using spike recovery tests in both pure solutions and soil extractions. In solutions of the extractants ammonium chloride, ammonium acetate, and barium chloride, we observed 2% to 104% dissolution of Ca oxalate crystals, with dissolution increasing with both solution molarity and ionic potential of cation extractant. In spike recovery tests using a low-Ca soil, we estimate that 1 M ammonium acetate extraction dissolved sufficient Ca oxalate to contribute an additional 52% to standard measurements of soil-exchangeable Ca. However, in a high-Ca soil, the amount of Ca oxalate spike that would dissolve in 1 M ammonium acetate extraction was difficult to detect against the large pool of exchangeable Ca. We conclude that Ca oxalate can contribute substantially to standard estimates of soil-exchangeable Ca in acid forest soils with low soil-exchangeable Ca. Consequently, measures of exchangeable Ca are unlikely to fully resolve discrepancies in ecosystem Ca mass balance unless the contribution of Ca oxalate to exchangeable Ca is also assessed.

  18. Urinary Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Urinary Incontinence Heath and Aging Urinary Incontinence Causes of Incontinence What’s Happening? Diagnosis Types of ... provider about what you can do. Causes of Incontinence Incontinence can happen for many reasons. For example, ...

  19. Increased urinary cobalt and whole blood concentrations of cadmium and lead in women with uterine leiomyomata: Findings from the ENDO Study.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Erica B; Louis, Germaine M Buck; Parsons, Patrick J; Steuerwald, Amy J; Palmer, Christopher D; Chen, Zhen; Sun, Liping; Hammoud, Ahmad O; Dorais, Jessie; Peterson, C Matthew

    2014-11-01

    Multiple trace elements have estrogen receptor activity, but the association of these elements with uterine leiomyoma has not been defined. A cohort of 473 women aged 18-44 undergoing surgery for benign gynecologic indications provided whole blood and urine specimens for trace element analysis, which was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Twenty elements were analyzed in blood and 3 in urine. The surgeon documented whether fibroids were present. Geometric mean concentrations were compared between women with and without fibroids, and logistic regression models were generated to assess the impact of the concentration of each trace element on the odds of fibroids. In multivariate regressions, odds of a fibroid diagnosis were higher with increased whole blood cadmium (AOR 1.44, 95% CI 1.02, 2.04) and lead (AOR 1.31 95% CI 1.02, 1.69), and urine cobalt (AOR 1.31, 95% CI 1.02, 1.70). Urinary cadmium and lead were not related to fibroid diagnosis. Increased exposure to trace elements may contribute to fibroid growth, and fibroids may serve as a reservoir for these elements. Differences between urinary and whole blood findings merit further investigation, as urinary cadmium has been considered a superior marker of exposure. PMID:24994689

  20. Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 Containing an Artificial Oxalate Operon and Vitreoscilla Hemoglobin Secretes Oxalic Acid and Solubilizes Rock Phosphate in Acidic Alfisols

    PubMed Central

    Archana, G.; Naresh Kumar, G.

    2014-01-01

    Oxalate secretion was achieved in Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 by incorporation of genes encoding Aspergillus niger oxaloacetate acetyl hydrolase (oah), Fomitopsis plaustris oxalate transporter (FpOAR) and Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (vgb) in various combinations. Pf (pKCN2) transformant containing oah alone accumulated 19 mM oxalic acid intracellularly but secreted 1.2 mM. However, in the presence of an artificial oxalate operon containing oah and FpOAR genes in plasmid pKCN4, Pf (pKCN4) secreted 13.6 mM oxalate in the medium while 3.6 mM remained inside. This transformant solubilized 509 μM of phosphorus from rock phosphate in alfisol which is 4.5 fold higher than the Pf (pKCN2) transformant. Genomic integrants of P. fluorescens (Pf int1 and Pf int2) containing artificial oxalate operon (plac-FpOAR-oah) and artificial oxalate gene cluster (plac-FpOAR-oah, vgb, egfp) secreted 4.8 mM and 5.4 mM oxalic acid, released 329 μM and 351 μM P, respectively, in alfisol. The integrants showed enhanced root colonization, improved growth and increased P content of Vigna radiata plants. This study demonstrates oxalic acid secretion in P. fluorescens by incorporation of an artificial operon constituted of genes for oxalate synthesis and transport, which imparts mineral phosphate solubilizing ability to the organism leading to enhanced growth and P content of V. radiata in alfisol soil. PMID:24705024

  1. Characterization of wheat germin (oxalate oxidase) expressed by Pichia pastoris

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Heng-Yen; Whittaker, Mei M.; Bouveret, Romaric; Berna, Anne; Bernier, Francois; Whittaker, James W. . E-mail: jim@ebs.ogi.edu

    2007-05-18

    High-level secretory expression of wheat (Triticum aestivum) germin/oxalate oxidase was achieved in Pichia pastoris fermentation cultures as an {alpha}-mating factor signal peptide fusion, based on the native wheat cDNA coding sequence. The oxalate oxidase activity of the recombinant enzyme is substantially increased (7-fold) by treatment with sodium periodate, followed by ascorbate reduction. Using these methods, approximately 1 g (4 x 10{sup 4} U) of purified, activated enzyme was obtained following eight days of induction of a high density Pichia fermentation culture, demonstrating suitability for large-scale production of oxalate oxidase for biotechnological applications. Characterization of the recombinant protein shows that it is glycosylated, with N-linked glycan attached at Asn47. For potential biomedical applications, a nonglycosylated (S49A) variant was also prepared which retains essentially full enzyme activity, but exhibits altered protein-protein interactions.

  2. Oxalate, calcium and ash intake and excretion balances in fat sand rats (Psammomys obesus) feeding on two different diets.

    PubMed

    Palgi, Niv; Vatnick, Itzick; Pinshow, Berry

    2005-05-01

    Fat sand rats Psammomys obesus feed exclusively on plants of the family Chenopodiaceae, which contain high concentrations of chloride salts (NaCl, KCl) and oxalate salts. Ingestion of large quantities of oxalate is challenging for mammals because oxalate chelates Ca(2+) cations, reducing Ca(2+) availability. Oxalate is a metabolic end-point in mammalian metabolism, however it can be broken-down by intestinal bacteria. We predicted that in fat sand rats microbial breakdown of oxalate will be substantial due to the high dietary load. In addition, since a high concentration of soluble chloride salts increases the solubility of calcium oxalate in solution, we examined whether a change in the intake of chloride salts affects microbial oxalate breakdown and calcium excretion in fat sand rats. We measured oxalate, calcium and other inorganic matter (ash) intake and excretion in fat sand rats feeding on two different diets: saltbush (Atriplex halimus), their natural diet, and goose-foot (Chenopodium album), a non-native chenopod on which fat sand rats will readily feed and that has a similar oxalate content to saltbush but only 2/3 of the ash content. In animals feeding on both diets, 65-80% of the oxalate ingested did not appear in urine or faeces. In animals consuming the more saline saltbush, significantly more oxalate was apparently degraded (p<0.001), while significantly less oxalate was excreted in urine (p<0.01) and in faeces (p<0.05). We propose, therefore, that fat sand rats rely on symbiotic bacteria to remove a large portion of the oxalates ingested with their diet, and that the high dietary salt intake may play a beneficial role in their oxalate and calcium metabolism. PMID:15922640

  3. Application of SERS spectroscopy for detection of trace components in urinary deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pucetaite, Milda; Velicka, Martynas; Tamosaityte, Sandra; Sablinskas, Valdas

    2014-03-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy can be a useful tool in regard to disease diagnosis and prevention. Advantage of SERS over conventional Raman spectroscopy is its significantly increased signal (up to factor of 106-108) which allows detection of trace amounts of substances in the sample. So far, this technique is successfully used for analysis of food, pieces of art and various biochemical/biomedical samples. In this work, we survey the possibility of applying SERS spectroscopy for detection of trace components in urinary deposits. Early discovery together with the identification of the exact chemical composition of urinary sediments could be crucial for taking appropriate preventive measures that inhibit kidney stone formation or growth processes. In this initial study, SERS spectra (excitation wavelength - 1064 nm) of main components of urinary deposits (calcium oxalate, uric acid, cystine, etc.) were recorded by using silver (Ag) colloid. Spectra of 10-3-10-5 M solutions were obtained. While no/small Raman signal was detected without the Ag colloid, characteristic peaks of the substances could be clearly separated in the SERS spectra. This suggests that even small amounts of the components could be detected and taken into account while determining the type of kidney stone forming in the urinary system. We found for the first time that trace amounts of components constituting urinary deposits could be detected by SERS spectroscopy. In the future study, the analysis of centrifuged urine samples will be carried out.

  4. INCREASED LEVELS OF MEDIAN URINARY IODINE EXCRETION OF PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN IN THE SUBURBAN AREA, KHON KAEN, THAILAND.

    PubMed

    Apirajkamol, Nahatai; Panamonta, Ouyporn; Panamonta, Manat

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) is associated with a low IQ in children and is an important public health problem in northeastern Thailand. Despite campaigns to reduce IDD in northeastern Thailand, studies showed people in this region continue to have the lowest median urinary iodine (UI) excretion and Intelligence Quotient scores. We conducted a cross sectional study of median urinary iodine excretion among primary school children in suburban Khon Kaen Province, in northeastern Thailand, during December 2012 to evaluate the current status of IDD in this population. We studied 377 school children. Urine samples were collected and measured for UI using a simple microplate method. The median UI level was 229.0 μg/l (range 15.0-1,124.1). Forty school children (10.6%) had UI levels less than 100 μg/l and 10 children (2.7%) had UI levels less than 50 μg/l. One hundred nine children (28.9%) had UI levels greater than 300 μg/l. Our study shows that there are still children in the study population and study area with inadequate UI levels. Programs to prevent IDD need to include this population in this area. PMID:27086431

  5. In vitro Evaluation of Terminalia arjuna on Calcium Phosphate and Calcium Oxalate Crystallization.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, A; Singla, S K; Tandon, C

    2010-05-01

    Urinary stones are one of the oldest and the most common afflictions in humans. This disease has tormented humans since the earliest records of civilization. Ten percent of men and 3 % of women have a stone during their adult lives. Calcium containing stones are the most common comprising about 75 % of all urinary calculi, which may be in the form of pure calcium oxalate (50 %) or calcium phosphate (5 %) or a mixture of both (45 %). A number of plants have been mentioned in the Indian ayurvedic system, which plays a vital role in the inhibition of kidney stones. In the present study, the inhibitory potency of crude extracts or fractions of successive solvent extractions of Terminalia arjuna bark was evaluated on various stages of formation of calcium phosphate and on the growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals in vitro. Results obtained indicated that Terminalia arjuna bark has the potential to inhibit the formation of both calcium phosphate and calcium oxalate crystals in vitro. Butanol fraction of Terminalia arjuna extract was the most effective in inhibiting formation of calcium phosphate and calcium oxalate crystals in vitro. PMID:21188043

  6. In vitro Evaluation of Terminalia arjuna on Calcium Phosphate and Calcium Oxalate Crystallization

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, A.; Singla, S. K.; Tandon, C.

    2010-01-01

    Urinary stones are one of the oldest and the most common afflictions in humans. This disease has tormented humans since the earliest records of civilization. Ten percent of men and 3 % of women have a stone during their adult lives. Calcium containing stones are the most common comprising about 75 % of all urinary calculi, which may be in the form of pure calcium oxalate (50 %) or calcium phosphate (5 %) or a mixture of both (45 %). A number of plants have been mentioned in the Indian ayurvedic system, which plays a vital role in the inhibition of kidney stones. In the present study, the inhibitory potency of crude extracts or fractions of successive solvent extractions of Terminalia arjuna bark was evaluated on various stages of formation of calcium phosphate and on the growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals in vitro. Results obtained indicated that Terminalia arjuna bark has the potential to inhibit the formation of both calcium phosphate and calcium oxalate crystals in vitro. Butanol fraction of Terminalia arjuna extract was the most effective in inhibiting formation of calcium phosphate and calcium oxalate crystals in vitro. PMID:21188043

  7. Effect of dietary moisture and sodium content on urine composition and calcium oxalate relative supersaturation in healthy miniature schnauzers and labrador retrievers.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, A E; Hynds, W K; Markwell, P J

    2003-04-01

    The aim of this series of studies was to evaluate two possible feeding strategies as methods for reducing the risk of calcium oxalate (CaOx) formation in two breeds of healthy dog. The studies compared the effect of dietary moisture (Study 1) and dietary sodium (Na), (Study 2) on urine composition of labrador retrievers (LR) and miniature schnauzers (MS). A nutritionally complete dry dog food was fed to 16 dogs (eight LR, eight MS; Study 1) and 15 dogs (seven LR, eight MS; Study 2) for 24 days (Study 1), or 36 days (Study 2). The dogs were fed the diet alone (7% moisture, 0.06 g Na/100 kcal), or supplemented with deionised water to 73% moisture (Study 1), or dietary Na, to deliver 0.20 or 0.30 g Na per 100 kcal (Study 2). Urine pH, volume, specific gravity, and concentrations of 12 analytes were measured for each dog. Urinary relative supersaturations (RSS) with CaOx were calculated from these values. The effects of supplemental Na or water were established using t tests (Study 1) or analysis of variance, and multiple range tests (least significant difference) (Study 2); P<0.05 was considered significant. Increasing dietary moisture significantly increased total moisture intake (P=0.001), and reduced urine specific gravity (P=0.003), urinary oxalate concentration (P=0.04), and CaOx relative supersaturation (P=0.04) in the MS. Urinary parameters remained unchanged in the LR, indicating that feeding a high moisture diet may reduce the risk of CaOx formation in high-risk breeds. Increasing dietary Na led to production of urine with a significantly lower CaOx RSS in both breeds, indicating that sodium supplementation to dry diet formats may reduce the risk of CaOx formation. These feeding strategies should be considered when evaluating methods for preventing CaOx formation within high-risk groups. PMID:12589739

  8. Facile fabrication of cobalt oxalate nanostructures with superior specific capacitance and super-long cycling stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Guanhua; Si, Conghui; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Ying; Yang, Wanfeng; Dong, Chaoqun; Zhang, Zhonghua

    2016-04-01

    Transition metal oxalate materials have shown huge competitive advantages for applications in supercapacitors. Herein, nanostructured cobalt oxalate supported on cobalt foils has been facilely fabricated by anodization, and could directly serve as additive/binder-free electrodes for supercapacitors. The as-prepared cobalt oxalate electrodes present superior specific capacitance of 1269 F g-1 at the current density of 6 A g-1 in the galvanostatic charge/discharge test. Moreover, the retained capacitance is as high as 87.2% as the current density increases from 6 A g-1 to 30 A g-1. More importantly, the specific capacitance of cobalt oxalate retains 91.9% even after super-long cycling of 100,000 cycles. In addition, an asymmetric supercapacitor assembled with cobalt oxalate (positive electrode) and activated carbon (negative electrode) demonstrates excellent capacitive performance with high energy density and power density.

  9. Analysis of urinary stone based on a spectrum absorption FTIR-ATR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asyana, V.; Haryanto, F.; Fitri, L. A.; Ridwan, T.; Anwary, F.; Soekersi, H.

    2016-03-01

    This research analysed the urinary stone by measuring samples using Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflection spectroscopy and black box analysis. The main objective of this study is to find kinds of urinary stone and determine a total spectrum, which is a simple model of the chemical and mineral composition urinary stone through black box analysis using convolution method. The measurements result showed that kinds of urinary stone were pure calcium oxalate monohydrate, ion amino acid calcium oxalate monohydrate, a mixture of calcium oxalate monohydrate with calcium phosphate, a mixture of ion amino acid calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium phosphate,pure uric acid, ion amino acid uric acid, and a mixture of calcium oxalate monohydrate with ion amino acid uric acid. The results of analysis of black box showed characteristics as the most accurate and precise to confirm the type of urinary stones based on theregion absorption peak on a graph, the results of the convolution, and the shape of the total spectrum on each urinary stones.

  10. Oxalic acid decreases calcium absorption in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, C.M.; Martin, B.R.; Ebner, J.S.; Krueger, C.A.

    1987-11-01

    Calcium absorption from salts and foods intrinsically labeled with /sup 45/Ca was determined in the rat model. Calcium bioavailability was nearly 10 times greater for low oxalate kale, CaCO/sub 3/ and CaCl/sub 2/ than from CaC/sub 2/O/sub 4/ (calcium oxalate) and spinach (high in oxalates). Extrinsic and intrinsic labeling techniques gave a similar assessment of calcium bioavailability from kale but not from spinach.

  11. Sulfate and thiosulfate inhibit oxalate transport via a dPrestin (Slc26a6)-dependent mechanism in an insect model of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Landry, Greg M; Hirata, Taku; Anderson, Jacob B; Cabrero, Pablo; Gallo, Christopher J R; Dow, Julian A T; Romero, Michael F

    2016-01-15

    Nephrolithiasis is one of the most common urinary tract disorders, with the majority of kidney stones composed of calcium oxalate (CaOx). Given its prevalence (US occurrence 10%), it is still poorly understood, lacking progress in identifying new therapies because of its complex etiology. Drosophila melanogaster (fruitfly) is a recently developed model of CaOx nephrolithiasis. Effects of sulfate and thiosulfate on crystal formation were investigated using the Drosophila model, as well as electrophysiological effects on both Drosophila (Slc26a5/6; dPrestin) and mouse (mSlc26a6) oxalate transporters utilizing the Xenopus laevis oocyte heterologous expression system. Results indicate that both transport thiosulfate with a much higher affinity than sulfate Additionally, both compounds were effective at decreasing CaOx crystallization when added to the diet. However, these results were not observed when compounds were applied to Malpighian tubules ex vivo. Neither compound affected CaOx crystallization in dPrestin knockdown animals, indicating a role for principal cell-specific dPrestin in luminal oxalate transport. Furthermore, thiosulfate has a higher affinity for dPrestin and mSlc26a6 compared with oxalate These data indicate that thiosulfate's ability to act as a competitive inhibitor of oxalate via dPrestin, can explain the decrease in CaOx crystallization seen in the presence of thiosulfate, but not sulfate. Overall, our findings predict that thiosulfate or oxalate-mimics may be effective as therapeutic competitive inhibitors of CaOx crystallization. PMID:26538444

  12. Calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis: effect of renal crystal deposition on the cellular composition of the renal interstitium.

    PubMed

    de Water, R; Noordermeer, C; van der Kwast, T H; Nizze, H; Boevé, E R; Kok, D J; Schröder, F H

    1999-04-01

    Urinary calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals and crystal agglomerates are normally harmlessly excreted, but in nephrolithiasis they are retained by tubular epithelial cells and shifted into the renal interstitium. This crystalline material induces an inflammatory response consisting of an increase in the number of interstitial cells and an expansion of the extracellular matrix. The newly arrived cells either derive from the blood or the connective tissue or they are formed by local proliferation. Identification of the cells that surround the interstitial crystals is a first step in investigating the question of whether the interstitial cells could remove the crystalline material. Therefore, we performed an immunohistochemical study on the kidneys of rats made hyperoxaluric by ethylene glycol (EG) and ammonium chloride (AC). Attention was paid to expression of the leukocyte common antigen (LCA), which identifies all types of leukocytes, the ED1 antigen, which is specific for monocytes and macrophages, and the major histocompatibility class II antigen (MHC II), which is present on dendritic cells, B lymphocytes, and activated macrophages. The results obtained were compared with those seen in two human kidney specimens with acute and chronic oxalosis. In both rat and humans, macrophages and multinucleated giant cells are the major cells that encapsulate the interstitial crystals. This similarity in response underlines the relevance of the rat nephrolithiasis model. The rat experiments showed, furthermore, that the number of interstitial crystals and the amount of biochemically measured kidney-associated oxalate both decrease with time, if the nephrolithiatic agents EG and AC are omitted from the drinking water. Further studies must clarify whether macrophages and multinucleated giant cells are able to remove the interstitial crystals and how these cells are recruited at the inflammatory site. PMID:10196021

  13. Potassium citrate decreases urine calcium excretion in patients with hypocitraturic calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Song, Yan; Hernandez, Natalia; Shoag, Jonathan; Goldfarb, David S; Eisner, Brian H

    2016-04-01

    Two previous studies (<10 patients each) have demonstrated that alkali therapy may reduce urine calcium excretion in patients with calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. The hypothesized mechanisms are (1) a decrease in bone turnover due to systemic alkalinization by the medications; (2) binding of calcium by citrate in the gastrointestinal tract; (3) direct effects on TRPV5 activity in the distal tubule. We performed a retrospective review of patients on potassium citrate therapy to evaluate the effects of this medication on urinary calcium excretion. A retrospective review was performed of a metabolic stone database at a tertiary care academic hospital. Patients were identified with a history of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis and hypocitraturia who were on potassium citrate therapy for a minimum of 3 months. 24-h urine composition was assessed prior to the initiation of potassium citrate therapy and after 3 months of therapy. Patients received 30-60 mEq potassium citrate by mouth daily. Inclusion criterion was a change in urine potassium of 20 mEq/day or greater, which suggests compliance with potassium citrate therapy. Paired t test was used to compare therapeutic effect. Twenty-two patients were evaluated. Mean age was 58.8 years (SD 14.0), mean BMI was 29.6 kg/m(2) (SD 5.9), and gender prevalence was 36.4 % female:63.6 % male. Mean pre-treatment 24-h urine values were as follows: citrate 280.0 mg/day, potassium 58.7 mEq/day, calcium 216.0 mg/day, pH 5.87. Potassium citrate therapy was associated with statistically significant changes in each of these parameters-citrate increased to 548.4 mg/day (p < 0.0001), potassium increased to 94.1 mEq/day (p < 0.0001), calcium decreased to 156.5 mg/day (p = 0.04), pH increased to 6.47 (p = 0.001). Urine sodium excretion was not different pre- and post-therapy (175 mEq/day pre-therapy versus 201 mEq/day post-therapy, p = NS). Urinary calcium excretion decreased by a mean of 60 mg/day on potassium citrate therapy-a nearly 30 % decrease in urine calcium excretion. These data lend support to the hypothesis that alkali therapy reduces urine calcium excretion. PMID:26582172

  14. The abiotic degradation of soil organic matter to oxalic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studenroth, Sabine; Huber, Stefan; Schöler, H. F.

    2010-05-01

    The abiotic degradation of soil organic matter to volatile organic compounds was studied intensely over the last years (Keppler et al., 2000; Huber et al., 2009). It was shown that soil organic matter is oxidised due to the presence of iron (III), hydrogen peroxide and chloride and thereby produces diverse alkyl halides, which are emitted into the atmosphere. The formation of polar halogenated compounds like chlorinated acetic acids which are relevant toxic environmental substances was also found in soils and sediments (Kilian et al., 2002). The investigation of the formation of other polar halogenated and non-halogenated compounds like diverse mono- and dicarboxylic acids is going to attain more and more importance. Due to its high acidity oxalic acid might have impacts on the environment e.g., nutrient leaching, plant diseases and negative influence on microbial growth. In this study, the abiotic formation of oxalic acid in soil is examined. For a better understanding of natural degradation processes mechanistic studies were conducted using the model compound catechol as representative for structural elements of the humic substances and its reaction with iron (III) and hydrogen peroxide. Iron is one of the most abundant elements on earth and hydrogen peroxide is produced by bacteria or through incomplete reduction of oxygen. To find suitable parameters for an optimal reaction and a qualitative and quantitative analysis method the following reaction parameters are varied: concentration of iron (III) and hydrogen peroxide, time dependence, pH-value and influence of chloride. Analysis of oxalic acid was performed employing an ion chromatograph equipped with a conductivity detector. The time dependent reaction shows a relatively fast formation of oxalic acid, the optimum yield is achieved after 60 minutes. Compared to the concentration of catechol an excess of hydrogen peroxide as well as a low concentration of iron (III) are required. In absence of chloride the degradation of catechol to oxalic acid delivers a maximum yield of approximately 60 %, whereas the presence of chloride reduces the formation of oxalic acid to 30 %. Chloride possibly induces further competing reactions of catechol leading to a lower concentration of oxalic acid. Freeze-dried soil samples have been tested for production of oxalic acid, where the rate of organic matter seems to play an important role for the formation. By adding iron (III) and/or hydrogen peroxide oxalic acid yields increase, which demonstrates the reaction of soil organic matter with iron (III) and hydrogen peroxide as expected. Thus the natural abiotic formation of oxalic acid is confirmed. The results of the soil measurements are similar to those obtained with catechol. Therefore, the newly gained insights with model compounds appear to be applicable to soil conditions and these findings increase our understanding of the degradation pathways of soil organic matter. Furthermore an overview of the rates of oxalic acid formation of a variety of soil samples is shown and discussed in the light of different soil parameter.

  15. Selective Rac1 inhibition protects renal tubular epithelial cells from oxalate-induced NADPH oxidase-mediated oxidative cell injury

    PubMed Central

    Thamilselvan, Vijayalakshmi; Menon, Mani

    2013-01-01

    Oxalate-induced oxidative cell injury is one of the major mechanisms implicated in calcium oxalate nucleation, aggregation and growth of kidney stones. We previously demonstrated that oxalate-induced NADPH oxidase-derived free radicals play a significant role in renal injury. Since NADPH oxidase activation requires several regulatory proteins, the primary goal of this study was to characterize the role of Rac GTPase in oxalate-induced NADPH oxidase-mediated oxidative injury in renal epithelial cells. Our results show that oxalate significantly increased membrane translocation of Rac1 and NADPH oxidase activity of renal epithelial cells in a time-dependent manner. We found that NSC23766, a selective inhibitor of Rac1, blocked oxalate-induced membrane translocation of Rac1 and NADPH oxidase activity. In the absence of Rac1 inhibitor, oxalate exposure significantly increased hydrogen peroxide formation and LDH release in renal epithelial cells. In contrast, Rac1 inhibitor pretreatment, significantly decreased oxalate-induced hydrogen peroxide production and LDH release. Furthermore, PKC α and δ inhibitor, oxalate exposure did not increase Rac1 protein translocation, suggesting that PKC resides upstream from Rac1 in the pathway that regulates NADPH oxidase. In conclusion, our data demonstrate for the first time that Rac1-dependent activation of NADPH oxidase might be a crucial mechanism responsible for oxalate-induced oxidative renal cell injury. These findings suggest that Rac1 signaling plays a key role in oxalate-induced renal injury, and may serve as a potential therapeutic target to prevent calcium oxalate crystal deposition in stone formers and reduce recurrence. PMID:21814770

  16. Peanut-induced acute oxalate nephropathy with acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyeoncheol; Eom, Minseob; Won Yang, Jae; Geun Han, Byoung; Ok Choi, Seung; Kim, Jae Seok

    2014-01-01

    Oxalate nephropathy is commonly caused by ethylene glycol, vitamin C, and foods like star fruit that contain a lot of oxalate. Peanuts also have high oxalate contents. However, case reports of peanut-induced oxalate nephropathy are not common. Here, we describe a case of peanut-induced acute oxalate nephropathy with acute kidney injury and intend to demonstrate the conditions under which peanut-induced oxalate nephropathy is likely to occur. PMID:26877960

  17. Of Mice and Men: Experimental Induction of Calcium Oxalate Nephrolithiasis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Saeed R.; Glenton, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Availability of various transgenic and knockout mice provides an excellent opportunity to better understand the pathophysiology of calcium oxalate (CaOx) stone disease. However attempts to produce CaOx nephrolithiasis in mice have not been very successful. We have hypothesized that CaOx nephrolithiasis in mice requires increasing the urinary excretion of calcium as well as oxalate and that experimentally induced hyperoxaluria alone is not sufficient. To provide evidence we induced hyperoxaluria by administering hyperoxaluria inducing agents to normocalciuric as well as hypercalciuric mice and investigated various aspects of nephrolithiasis. Materials and Methods Ethylene glycol (EG), glyoxylate (GOx) or hydroxyl proline (HLP) were administered through diet to male and female normocalciuric B6 mice as well as hypercalciuric Npt2a −/− mice for 4 weeks. 24 hour urine samples were collected on 0.3,7,14,21 and 28 days and analyzed for pH, creatinine, lactate dehydrogensae (LDH) calcium and oxalate. Kidneys were examined using light microscopy. Urine was examined for crystals using both light and scanning electron microscopy. Results Hypercalciuric mice on HLP did not tolerate the treatment and had to be sacrificed before 28 days. All mice receiving EG, GOx or HLP became hyperoxaluric and demonstrated CaOx crystalluria. None of the female mice, normo or hypercalciuric developed renal CaOx crystal deposits. All mice on Gox and some on EG developed CaOx nephrolithiais. Kidneys of all mice showed epithelial injury. Male mice particularly on GOx showed more renal injury and migration of inflammatory cells into the interstitium around the crystal deposits. Conclusions Results confirm that induction of hyperoxaluria alone is not sufficient for CaOx nephrolithiais in mice. Hypercalciuria is also required. Kidneys of male mice are more prone to injury than those of female mice and are susceptible to CaOx crystal deposition. Perhaps epithelial injury promotes crystal retention. Thus CaOx nephrolithiais in mice is gender dependent and requires both hypercalciuria and hyperoxaluria. PMID:20663521

  18. Engineering calcium oxalate crystal formation in Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many plants accumulate crystals of calcium oxalate. Just how these crystals form remains unknown. To gain insight into the mechanisms regulating calcium oxalate crystal formation, a crystal engineering approach was initiated utilizing the non-crystal accumulating plant, Arabidopsis. The success of t...

  19. Engineering calcium oxalate crystal formation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Paul A

    2012-07-01

    Many plants accumulate crystals of calcium oxalate. Just how these crystals form remains unknown. To gain insight into the mechanisms regulating calcium oxalate crystal formation, a crystal engineering approach was initiated utilizing the non-crystal-accumulating plant, Arabidopsis. The success of this approach hinged on the ability to transform Arabidopsis genetically into a calcium oxalate crystal-accumulating plant. To accomplish this transformation, two oxalic acid biosynthetic genes, obcA and obcB, from the oxalate-secreting phytopathogen, Burkholderia glumae were inserted into the Arabidopsis genome. The co-expression of these two bacterial genes in Arabidopsis conferred the ability not only to produce a measurable amount of oxalate but also to form crystals of calcium oxalate. Biochemical and cellular studies of crystal accumulation in Arabidopsis revealed features that are similar to those observed in the cells of crystal-forming plants. Thus, it appears that at least some of the basic components that comprise the calcium oxalate crystal formation machinery are conserved even in non-crystal-accumulating plants. PMID:22576773

  20. Neptunium (IV) oxalate solubility. [22, 45, 60/sup 0/C

    SciTech Connect

    Luerkens, D W

    1983-07-01

    The equilibrium solubility of neptunium (IV) oxalate in nitric/oxalic acid solutions was determined at 22/sup 0/C, 45/sup 0/C, and 60/sup 0/C. The concentrations of nitric/oxalic acid solutions represented a wide range of free oxalate ion concentration. A mathematical solubility model was developed which is based on the formation of the known complexes of neptunium (IV) oxalate. the solubility model uses a simplified concentration parameter which is proportional to the free oxalate ion concentration. The solubility model can be used to estimate the equilibrium solubility of neptunium (IV) oxalate over a wide range of oxalic and nitric acid concentrations at each temperature.

  1. Modulation of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystallization kinetics in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kok, D J; Papapoulos, S E; Blomen, L J; Bijvoet, O L

    1988-09-01

    The effects of several low and high molecular weight (mol wt) compounds on the kinetics of calcium oxalate crystallization were examined using a seeded crystal growth method in which the solubility, the growth and the agglomeration of calcium oxalate crystals were measured as three separate and system-independent parameters. Citrate, magnesium, phosphate, pyrophosphate, chondroitinsulphate, pentosanpolysulphate and heparin were tested in a wide range of concentrations. The solubility of calcium oxalate crystals was increased only by citrate and magnesium. The crystal growth was inhibited by all compounds tested, but those with the high mol wt had the greatest effect at low concentrations. In contrast, inhibition of crystal agglomeration was achieved only by the low mol wt compounds; citrate was found to be the most potent inhibitor at concentrations likely to be present in normal urine. The high mol wt substances, despite their potent crystal growth inhibitory activity, had no effect on agglomeration. The results show that growth and agglomeration of calcium oxalate crystals are separate processes which are differently modulated by various compounds. They further provide a possible explanation for the pathogenetic role of citrate in hypocitraturic renal stone disease. PMID:2459439

  2. [The quantitative study of inhibitory effect of pentosan polysulfate and chlorophyllin on the experimental calcium oxalate stone].

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, K; Suzuki, K; Tsugawa, R

    1989-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of sodium pentosan polysulfate (SPP) and sodium copper chlorophyllin (SCC) on the formation, growth and aggregation of calcium oxalate crystals in vivo, and to measure the number and the volume of crystals formed in the rat kidney, quantitatively, with a Coulter counter TA-II. The deposition of calcium oxalate crystals in the rat kidney was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 2.5 g per Kg of body weight of hydroxy-L-proline and administration of 0.4% ethylene glycol as the drinking fluid ad libitum for 7 days. Daily excretions of urinary oxalate, calcium (ratio to urinary creatinine) and urinary volume were measured. Both kidneys were removed after protocol. The kidneys were homogenized with 0.2 M Tris-buffer (pH 8.0) and subsequently digested in soluene-100. After calcium oxalate crystals were collected, they were suspended in saline saturated with calcium oxalate. The crystal size distribution was measured with a Coulter counter TA-II. In addition, the renal calcium content was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry, and the kidneys were examined by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The crystals formed in the rats' kidneys were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy. The results were as follows: 1. There was no deposition of crystals in the kidney of the rats which were not treated. There was intratubular deposition of crystals in the kidneys of the rats injected with hydroxy-L-proline and administered 0.4% ethylene glycol. They consisted of calcium oxalate monohydrate. 2. Renal calcium content was significantly higher in the groups with induced crystals than the control group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2477580

  3. Oxalate complexation with aluminum(III) and iron(III) at moderately elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Tait, C.D.; Janecky, D.R.; Clark, D.L. ); Bennett, P.C. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    To add to our understanding of the weathering of rocks in organic rich environments such as sedimentary brines and oil field waters, we have examined the temperature dependent complexation of aluminum with oxalate. Raman vibrational studies show that even the association constant for the highly charged Al(ox){sub 3}{sup 3{minus}} unexpectedly increases with moderate temperature increases to 80{degrees}C. To evaluate the potential importance of these Al-oxalate species in complex natural systems, temperature dependent competition experiments Fe(III) and Al(III) for oxalate have been initiated. Similar to aluminum, ferric oxalates show increases in association constants at higher temperatures. In competition experiments, the first association constant for Fe(ox){sup +} increases faster than that for Al(ox){sup +} to 90{degrees}C.

  4. FT-IR spectral studies on certain human urinary stones in the patients of rural area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvaraju, R.; Thiruppathi, G.; Raja, A.

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) has been carried out to analyze the organic and inorganic constituent of human urinary stones. Patient's hailing from Rajah Muthiah Medical College and Hospital, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu, India was selected for the study. The FT-IR results indicate that stones have different composition, i.e., namely calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, carbonate apatite and magnesium ammonium phosphate and uric acid. From the spectral and powder X-ray diffraction pattern, the chemical constituents of urinary stones were identified. The quantitative estimations of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) 1620 cm-1, calcium phosphate (apatite) 1037 cm-1, magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) 1010 cm-1, calcium carbonate 1460 cm-1 and uric acid 1441 cm-1 were calculated using particular peaks of FT-IR studies. The study reveals that calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium phosphate type urinary stones were predominant whereas magnesium ammonium phosphate are in moderate level, and calcium carbonate and uric acid are in low. Calcium phosphate is found in all the stones and calcium oxalate monohydrate is found to be higher. Quantitative analyses of urinary stones show that calcium oxalate monohydrate (40%), apatite (30%), magnesium ammonium phosphate (23%) and uric acid (7%) are present in all the urinary stone samples.

  5. Turning sunlight into stone: the oxalate-carbonate pathway in a tropical tree ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cailleau, G.; Braissant, O.; Verrecchia, E. P.

    2011-07-01

    An African oxalogenic tree, the iroko tree (Milicia excelsa), has the property to enhance carbonate precipitation in tropical oxisols, where such accumulations are not expected due to the acidic conditions in these types of soils. This uncommon process is linked to the oxalate-carbonate pathway, which increases soil pH through oxalate oxidation. In order to investigate the oxalate-carbonate pathway in the iroko system, fluxes of matter have been identified, described, and evaluated from field to microscopic scales. In the first centimeters of the soil profile, decaying of the organic matter allows the release of whewellite crystals, mainly due to the action of termites and saprophytic fungi. In addition, a concomitant flux of carbonate formed in wood tissues contributes to the carbonate flux and is identified as a direct consequence of wood feeding by termites. Nevertheless, calcite biomineralization of the tree is not a consequence of in situ oxalate consumption, but rather related to the oxalate oxidation inside the upper part of the soil. The consequence of this oxidation is the presence of carbonate ions in the soil solution pumped through the roots, leading to preferential mineralization of the roots and the trunk base. An ideal scenario for the iroko biomineralization and soil carbonate accumulation starts with oxalatization: as the iroko tree grows, the organic matter flux to the soil constitutes the litter, and an oxalate pool is formed on the forest ground. Then, wood rotting agents (mainly termites, saprophytic fungi, and bacteria) release significant amounts of oxalate crystals from decaying plant tissues. In addition, some of these agents are themselves producers of oxalate (e.g. fungi). Both processes contribute to a soil pool of "available" oxalate crystals. Oxalate consumption by oxalotrophic bacteria can then start. Carbonate and calcium ions present in the soil solution represent the end products of the oxalate-carbonate pathway. The solution is pumped through the roots, leading to carbonate precipitation. The main pools of carbon are clearly identified as the organic matter (the tree and its organic products), the oxalate crystals, and the various carbonate features. A functional model based on field observations and diagenetic investigations with δ13C signatures of the various compartments involved in the local carbon cycle is proposed. It suggests that the iroko ecosystem can act as a long-term carbon sink, as long as the calcium source is related to non-carbonate rocks. Consequently, this carbon sink, driven by the oxalate carbonate pathway around an iroko tree, constitutes a true carbon trapping ecosystem as defined by ecological theory.

  6. Turning sunlight into stone: the oxalate-carbonate pathway in a tropical tree ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cailleau, G.; Braissant, O.; Verrecchia, E. P.

    2011-02-01

    An African oxalogenic tree, the iroko tree (Milicia excelsa), has the property to enhance carbonate precipitation in tropical oxisols, where such accumulations are not expected due to the theoretical acidic conditions of these soils. This uncommon process is linked to the oxalate-carbonate pathway, which increases soil pH through oxalate oxidation. In order to investigate the oxalate-carbonate pathway in the iroko system, fluxes of matter have been identified, described, and evaluated from field to microscopic scales. In the first centimeters of the soil profile, decaying of the organic matter allows the release of whewellite crystals, mainly due to the action of termites and saprophytic fungi. Regarding the carbonate flux, another direct consequence of wood feeding is a concomitant flux of carbonate formed in wood tissues, which is not consumed by termites. Nevertheless, calcite biomineralization of the tree is not a consequence of in situ oxalate consumption, but rather related to the oxalate oxidation inside the upper part of the soil. The consequence of this oxidation is the presence of carbonate ions in the soil solution pumped through the roots, leading to preferential mineralization of the roots and the trunk base. An ideal scenario for the iroko biomineralization and soil carbonate accumulation starts with oxalatization: as the iroko tree grows, the organic matter flux to the soil constitutes the litter. Therefore, an oxalate pool is formed on the forest ground. Then, wood rotting gents (mainly termites, fungi, and bacteria) release significant amounts of oxalate crystals from decaying plant tissues. In addition some of these gents are themselves producers of oxalate (fungi). Both processes contribute to a soil pool of "available" oxalate crystals. Oxalate consumption by oxalotrophic bacteria can start. Carbonate and calcium ions present in the soil solution represent the end products of the oxalate-carbonate pathway. The solution is pumped through the roots, leading to carbonate precipitation. The main pools of carbon are clearly identified as the organic matter (the tree and its organic products), the oxalate crystals, and the various carbonate features. A functional model based on field observations and diagenetic investigations with δ13C signatures of the various compartments involved in the local carbon cycle is proposed. It suggests that the iroko ecosystem can act as a long-term carbon sink, as long as the calcium source is related to non-carbonate rocks. Consequently, this carbon sink, driven by the oxalate carbonate pathway around an iroko tree, constitutes a true carbon trapping ecosystem as define by the ecological theory.

  7. Trace elements in urinary stones: a preliminary investigation in Fars province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Keshavarzi, Behnam; Yavarashayeri, Nasrin; Irani, Dariush; Moore, Farid; Zarasvandi, Alireza; Salari, Mehrdad

    2015-04-01

    In view of the high incidence rate of urinary stones in the south and southwest of Iran, this paper investigates trace elements content including heavy metals in 39 urinary stones, collected from patients in Fars province, Iran. The mineralogy of the stones is investigated using X-ray diffractometry. The samples are classified into five mineral groups (calcium oxalate, uric acid, cystine, calcium phosphate and mixed stone). Major and trace elements in each group were determined using ICP-MS method. P and Ca constitute the main elements in urinary stones with Ca being more affine to oxalates while other alkali and alkaline earths precipitate with phosphate. Significant amounts of trace elements, especially Zn and Sr, were found in urinary calculi (calcium oxalate and phosphates) relative to biominerals (uric acid and cystine). Among urinary calculi, calcium phosphate contains greater amounts of trace metal than calcium oxalate. Phosphates seem to be the most important metal-bearing phases in urinary stones. Results indicate that concentrations of elements in urinary stones depend on the type of mineral phases. Significant differences in elements content across various mineralogical groups were found by applying statistical methods. Kruskal-Wallis test reveals significant difference between Ca, P, K, Na, Mg, S, Zn, Sr, Se, Cd, and Co content in different investigated mineral groups. Moreover, Mann-Whitney test differentiates Ca, Na, Zn, Sr, Co, and Ni between minerals in oxalate and uric acid stones. This study shows that urinary stone can provide complementary information on human exposure to elements and estimate the environmental risks involved in urinary stones formation. PMID:25433503

  8. Hippuric Acid as a Significant Regulator of Supersaturation in Calcium Oxalate Lithiasis: The Physiological Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Atanassova, Stoyanka S.; Gutzow, Ivan S.

    2013-01-01

    At present, the clinical significance of existing physicochemical and biological evidence and especially the results we have obtained from our previous in vitro experiments have been analyzed, and we have come to the conclusion that hippuric acid (C6H5CONHCH2COOH) is a very active solvent of Calcium Oxalate (CaOX) in physiological solutions. Two types of experiments have been discussed: clinical laboratory analysis on the urine excretion of hippuric acid (HA) in patients with CaOX lithiasis and detailed measurements of the kinetics of the dissolution of CaOX calculi in artificial urine, containing various concentrations of HA. It turns out that the most probable value of the HA concentration in the control group is approximately ten times higher than the corresponding value in the group of the stone-formers. Our in vitro analytical measurements demonstrate even a possibility to dissolve CaOX stones in human urine, in which increased concentration of HA have been established. A conclusion can be that drowning out HA is a significant regulator of CaOX supersaturation and thus a regulation of CaOX stone formation in human urine. Discussions have arisen to use increased concentration of HA in urine both as a solubilizator of CaOX stones in the urinary tract and on the purpose of a prolonged metaphylactic treatment. PMID:24307993

  9. Clinical and biochemical profile of patients with "pure" uric acid nephrolithiasis compared with "pure" calcium oxalate stone formers.

    PubMed

    Negri, Armando Luis; Spivacow, Rodolfo; Del Valle, Elisa; Pinduli, Irene; Marino, Alicia; Fradinger, Erich; Zanchetta, Jose Ruben

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the clinical characteristics of "pure" uric acid (UA) stone formers with that of "pure" calcium oxalate (CaOx) stone formers and to determine whether renal handling of UA, urinary pH, and urinary excretion of promoters and inhibitors of stone formation were different between the two groups. Study subjects comprised 59 patients identified by records of stone analysis: 30 of them had "pure" UA stones and 29 had "pure" CaOx nephrolithiasis. Both groups underwent full outpatient evaluation of stone risk analysis that included renal handling of UA and urinary pH. Compared to CaOx stone formers, UA stone formers were older (53.3 +/- 11.8 years vs. 44.5 +/- 10.0 years; P = 0.003); they had higher mean weight (88.6 +/- 12.5 kg vs. 78.0 +/- 11.0 kg; P = 0.001) and body mass index (29.5 +/- 4.2 kg/m(2) vs. 26.3 +/- 3.5 kg/m(2); P = 0.002) with a greater proportion of obese subjects (43.3% vs. 16.1%; P = 0.01). Patients with "pure" UA lithiasis had significantly lower UA clearance, UA fractional excretion, and UA/creatinine ratio, with significantly higher serum UA. The mean urinary pH was significantly lower in UA stone formers compared to CaOx stone formers (5.17 +/- 0.20 vs. 5.93 +/- 0.42; P < 0.0001). Patients with CaOx stones were a decade younger, having higher 24-h urinary calcium excretion (218.5 +/- 56.3 mg/24 h vs. 181.3 +/- 57.1 mg/24 h; P = 0.01) and a higher activity product index for CaOx [AP (CaOx) index]. Overweight/obesity and older age associated with low urine pH were the principal characteristic of "pure" UA stone formers. Impairment in urate excretion associated with increased serum UA was also another characteristic of UA stone formers that resembles patients with primary gout. Patients with pure CaOx stones were younger; they had a low proportion of obese subjects, a higher urinary calcium excretion, and a higher AP index for CaOx. PMID:17786420

  10. Urinary stone composition in Oman: with high incidence of cystinuria.

    PubMed

    Al-Marhoon, Mohammed S; Bayoumi, Riad; Al-Farsi, Yahya; Al-Hinai, Abdullhakeem; Al-Maskary, Sultan; Venkiteswaran, Krishna; Al-Busaidi, Qassim; Mathew, Josephkunju; Rhman, Khalid; Sharif, Omar; Aquil, Shahid; Al-Hashmi, Intisar

    2015-06-01

    Urinary stones are a common problem in Oman and their composition is unknown. The aim of this study is to analyze the components of urinary stones of Omani patients and use the obtained data for future studies of etiology, treatment, and prevention. Urinary stones of 255 consecutive patients were collected at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital. Stones were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer. The biochemical, metabolic, and radiological data relating to the patients and stones were collected. The mean age was 41 years, with M:F ratio of 3.7:1. The common comorbidities associated with stone formation were hypertension; diabetes, benign prostate hyperplasia; urinary tract infection; obesity; and atrophic kidney. The common presentation was renal colic and flank pain (96%). Stones were surgically retrieved in 70% of patients. Mean stone size was 9 ± 0.5 mm (range 1.3-80). Stone formers had a BMI ≥ 25 in 56% (P = 0.006) and positive family history of stones in 3.8%. The most common stones in Oman were as follows: Calcium Oxalates 45% (114/255); Mixed calcium phosphates & calcium oxalates 22% (55/255); Uric Acid 16% (40/255); and Cystine 4% (10/255). The most common urinary stones in Oman are Calcium Oxalates. Overweight is an important risk factor associated with stone formation. The hereditary Cystine stones are three times more common in Oman than what is reported in the literature that needs further genetic studies. PMID:25805105

  11. Effect of waters of crystallization on terahertz spectra: anhydrous oxalic acid and its dihydrate.

    PubMed

    King, Matthew D; Korter, Timothy M

    2010-07-01

    Oxalic acid and oxalic acid dihydrate were studied using terahertz spectroscopy and solid-state density functional theory (DFT) in the spectral range 10-100 cm(-1). The size of the oxalic acid molecule and its limited internal degrees of freedom make it ideal for evaluating the performance of computational methods for the structural and dynamical simulation of strongly hydrogen-bonded solids. Calculations of the solid-state structures and terahertz spectra of oxalic acid and oxalic acid dihydrate were performed using the hybrid B3LYP and B3PW91 and the nonhybrid BLYP and PW91 density functionals employing the 6-311G(2d,2p) basis set. When these simulations were compared to the experimental spectra of the oxalic acid solids, a constant overprediction of the dihydrate frequencies was observed in contrast to the results of the anhydrous system. This change in behavior is connected to the nature of the vibrational motions being accessed. The primary molecular motion contributions to the terahertz vibrations of oxalic acid dihydrate were found to originate in the external motions of the cocrystallized H(2)O molecules. The observed overestimation of the vibrational energies in the simulated terahertz spectra is attributed to increased anharmonicity of the vibrational motions in the dihydrate system versus the anhydrous, resulting from weaker hydrogen bonding through the networked water molecules. PMID:20536195

  12. Enhancing Resistance to Sclerotinia minor in Peanut by Expressing a Barley Oxalate Oxidase Gene1

    PubMed Central

    Livingstone, D. Malcolm; Hampton, Jaime L.; Phipps, Patrick M.; Grabau, Elizabeth A.

    2005-01-01

    Sclerotinia minor Jagger is the causal agent of Sclerotinia blight, a highly destructive disease of peanut (Arachis hypogaea). Based on evidence that oxalic acid is involved in the pathogenicity of many Sclerotinia species, our objectives were to recover transgenic peanut plants expressing an oxalic acid-degrading oxalate oxidase and to evaluate them for increased resistance to S. minor. Transformed plants were regenerated from embryogenic cultures of three Virginia peanut cultivars (Wilson, Perry, and NC-7). A colorimetric enzyme assay was used to screen for oxalate oxidase activity in leaf tissue. Candidate plants with a range of expression levels were chosen for further analysis. Integration of the transgene was confirmed by Southern-blot analysis, and gene expression was demonstrated in transformants by northern-blot analysis. A sensitive fluorescent enzyme assay was used to quantify expression levels for comparison to the colorimetric protocol. A detached leaflet assay tested whether transgene expression could limit lesion size resulting from direct application of oxalic acid. Lesion size was significantly reduced in transgenic plants compared to nontransformed controls (65%89% reduction at high oxalic acid concentrations). A second bioassay examined lesion size after inoculation of leaflets with S. minor mycelia. Lesion size was reduced by 75% to 97% in transformed plants, providing evidence that oxalate oxidase can confer enhanced resistance to Sclerotinia blight in peanut. PMID:15778458

  13. YfdW and YfdU Are Required for Oxalate-Induced Acid Tolerance in Escherichia coli K-12

    PubMed Central

    Fontenot, Elise M.; Ezelle, Karen E.; Gabreski, Lauren N.; Giglio, Eleanor R.; McAfee, John M.; Mills, Alexandria C.; Qureshi, Maryam N.; Salmon, Kristin M.

    2013-01-01

    Escherichia coli has several mechanisms for surviving low-pH stress. We report that oxalic acid, a small-chain organic acid (SCOA), induces a moderate acid tolerance response (ATR) in two ways. Adaptation of E. coli K-12 at pH 5.5 with 50 mM oxalate and inclusion of 25 mM oxalate in pH 3.0 minimal challenge medium separately conferred protection, with 67% ± 7% and 87% ± 17% survival after 2 h, respectively. The combination of oxalate adaptation and oxalate supplementation in the challenge medium resulted in increased survival over adaptation or oxalate in the challenge medium alone. The enzymes YfdW, a formyl coenzyme A (CoA) transferase, and YfdU, an oxalyl-CoA decarboxylase, are required for the adaptation effect but not during challenge. Unlike other SCOAs, this oxalate ATR is not a part of the RpoS regulon but appears to be linked to the signal protein GadE. We theorize that this oxalate ATR could enhance the pathogenesis of virulent E. coli consumed with oxalate-containing foods like spinach. PMID:23335415

  14. Oxalate-induced changes in the viability and growth of human renal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Jonassen, J A; Cooney, R; Kennington, L; Gravel, K; Honeyman, T; Scheid, C R

    1999-11-01

    Previous studies on the porcine renal epithelial LLC-PK1 cell line demonstrated that oxalate exposure produces concentration-dependent effects on renal cell growth and viability via process(es) involving free radicals. The present studies were conducted to determine whether these findings could be extended to a renal proximal tubular epithelial cell line derived from the human kidney. These studies examined oxalate-induced changes in membrane integrity after short-term exposure (4 h) and changes in cell survival after longer-term exposure (24 to 72 h). Oxalate-induced changes were also assessed in the expression of two genes: egr-1, a zinc-finger transcription factor, and osteopontin, a protein associated with tissue remodeling. The present studies also determined whether oxalate-induced changes in either cell viability or gene expression depended on free radicals. Oxalate at a concentration > or = 175 microM (free) produced membrane damage within 4 h. This effect was inhibited by Mn(III) tetrakis (1-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphyrin (MnTMPyP), a superoxide dismutase mimetic, but not by N-acetyl cysteine, a glutathione precursor, or by deferoxamine, an iron chelator. Acute oxalate-induced injury was followed by cell loss within 24 h, an effect maintained at 48 and 72 h at high concentrations of oxalate. Oxalate also promoted DNA synthesis. This mitogenic effect offset cell loss at lower oxalate concentrations (88 microM) leading to a small but significant increase in cell number at 72 h. Treatment with oxalate also increased expression of egr-1 mRNA within 1 h, a response that was attenuated by MnTMPyP; oxalate treatment for 8 h also increased abundance of osteopontin mRNA. These studies suggest that oxalate exposure produces changes in human renal cell growth and viability via a process(es) dependent on reactive oxygen intermediates. Such changes may play a role in the development and/or progression of renal disease via generation of reactive oxygen intermediates. PMID:10541281

  15. Oxalates in some Indian green leafy vegetables.

    PubMed

    Radek, M; Savage, G P

    2008-05-01

    The soluble and total oxalate contents of 11 leafy vegetables grown in India were determined. Spinach, purple and green amaranth and colocasia contained high levels of total oxalates, which ranged from 5,138.0 +/- 37.6 mg/100 g dry matter up to 12,576.1 +/- 107.9 mg/100 g dry matter. Seven other leafy vegetables (curry, drumstick, shepu, fenugreek, coriander, radish and onion stalks) contained only insoluble oxalate, which ranged from 209.0 +/- 5.0 mg/100 g dry matter to 2,774.9 +/-18.4 mg/100 g dry matter. In vitro digestion of the samples showed that the gastric available oxalate was 10% lower than the values obtained from acid extraction and that intestinal available oxalate was 20% lower than the values obtained following hot water extraction. The percentage calcium bound in the insoluble oxalate fraction of the dried leafy vegetables ranged from 3.3% to 86.7% of the total calcium. Addition of four different sources of calcium (low fat milk, whole milk, calcium carbonate and calcium sulphate) resulted in a range of 32-100% reductions of intestinal available oxalate in the mixture. PMID:18335334

  16. Urinary Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is loss of bladder control. Symptoms can range from mild leaking to uncontrollable wetting. It can ... or lift a heavy object. This is stress incontinence. If bladder muscles become too active, you may ...

  17. Urinary Diversion

    MedlinePlus

    Advertisement Resize Text: Toggle navigation Find a Urologist Submit About Us What We Do Foundation History Leadership ... Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NKUDIC) Urinary Diversion MedlinePlus Ostomy Advertisement Patient Education Materials We provide free patient education ...

  18. Seasonal variations in urinary risk factors among patients with nephrolithiasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, K.; Poindexter, J.; Pak, C. Y.

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-four hour urine specimens from 5,677 stone-forming patients throughout the United States were analyzed for seasonal variations in urinary risk factors for nephrolithiasis. Determinations were performed for urine volume, pH, calcium, oxalate, phosphorus, sodium, magnesium, citrate, sulfate, uric acid, and the relative supersaturation (RS) of calcium oxalate, brushite, monosodium urate, and uric acid. Criteria for significant seasonal variation included a significant difference in monthly means of risk factors, seasonal grouping of the data by the Student-Newman-Keuls multiple range test, consistent year-to-year trends and a physiologically significant range. Minimum urine volume of 1.54 +/- 0.70 SD L/day occurred in October while a maximum urine volume of 1.76 +/- 0.78 SD L/day was observed during February. Minimum urine pH of 5.94 +/- 0.64 SD was observed during July and August while a maximum pH of 6.18 +/- 0.61 SD was observed during February. Daily urinary excretion of sodium was lowest during August, 158 +/- 74 SD mEq/day and highest during February 177 +/- 70 SD mEq/day. The RS of brushite and uric acid were found to display significant pH-dependent seasonal variation with a maximum RS of uric acid 2.26 +/- 1.98 SD in June and a low of 1.48 +/- 1.30 SD in February. Maximum RS of brushite 2.75 +/- 2.58 was observed during February. Minimum RS of brushite 1.93 +/- 1.70 SD was observed in June. Phosphorus excretion displayed seasonal variation about a spring-fall axis with a maximum value 1042 +/- 373 SD mg/day in April and a minimum value of 895 +/- 289 SD mg/day. Urine volume, sodium, and pH were significantly lower during the summer (June, July, August) than in the winter (December, January, February). The RS of uric acid was higher, but that of brushite and monosodium urate was lower in the summer than in the winter. The seasonal changes observed in urine volume, pH, sodium, and the RS of brushite and uric acid are consistent with summertime sweating and increased physical activity. Seasonal variations in phosphorus excretion are probably dietary in origin. The summertime was characterized by an increased propensity for the crystallization of uric acid but not of calcium oxalate or calcium phosphate.

  19. Urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin excretion is increased in rats after 24 hours of exposure to vertical 50 Hz, 100 {micro}T magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Bakos, J.; Nagy, N.; Thuroczy, G.; Szabo, L.D.

    1997-05-01

    The effect of exposure to a 50 Hz, vertical magnetic field on the excretion of urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) of rats was studied in a self-controlled experiment. Ten male Wistar rats were kept under 9:15 h light:dark conditions in metabolic cages. The rats were exposed to 1.0 or 100 {micro}T flux density for 24 h. The excretion of aMT6s, which is the primary metabolite of melatonin in the urine, did not show a statistically significant decrease, as measured by {sup 125}I radioimmunoassay, during or after magnetic field exposure of rats to either flux density. At 100 {micro}T flux density, the increase of aMT6s excretion on the day after exposure was statistically significant (P < .02), compared with the value under exposure, but was not significant compared with the baseline values before exposure.

  20. Inhibitory effect of rutin and curcumin on experimentally-induced calcium oxalate urolithiasis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ghodasara, Jaydip; Pawar, Anil; Deshmukh, Chinmay; Kuchekar, Bhanudas

    2010-01-01

    Background: Renal epithelial cell injury by reactive oxygen species is pre-requisite step in the pathogenesis of urolithiasis. Rutin and curcumin are polyphenolic compounds known to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, but their effect on urolithiasis is yet to be elucidated. In the present study, we have investigated the inhibitory effect of rutin and curcumin on calcium oxalate urolithiasis in Wistar albino rats. Methods: Calcium oxalate urolithiasis was induced experimentally by administration of 0.75% v/v ethylene glycol with 1% w/v ammonium chloride in drinking water for three days followed by only 0.75% v/v ethylene glycol for 25 days. Rutin (20 mg/kg body weight) and curcumin (60 mg/kg body weight) were given once daily for 28 days by oral route. After treatment period, calcium and oxalate levels in urine and kidney tissue homogenate were measured. Kidney was also used for histopathological examination. Results: Stone-induction with ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride resulted in elevated levels of calcium and oxalate in the urine and kidney sample, whereas supplementation of rutin and curcumin restored it near to normal. Histopathological study revealed minimum tissue damage and less number of calcium oxalate deposits in kidney of animal treated with rutin and curcumin as compared to calculi-induced animal. Conclusion: The data suggest that the rutin and curcumin inhibits calcium oxalate urolithiasis. This effect is mediated possibly through a lowering of urinary concentration of stone forming constituents, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. PMID:21713144

  1. Glyoxylate rather than ascorbate is an efficient precursor for oxalate biosynthesis in rice

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Le; Jiang, Jingzhe; Zhang, Chan; Jiang, Linrong; Ye, Nenghui; Lu, Yusheng; Yang, Guozheng; Liu, Ee; Peng, Changlian; He, Zhenghui; Peng, Xinxiang

    2010-01-01

    Oxalate is widely distributed in the plant kingdom. While excess oxalate in food crops is detrimental to animal and human health, it may play various functional roles in plants, particularly for coping with environmental stresses. Understanding its biosynthetic mechanism in plants, therefore, becomes increasingly important both theoretically and practically. However, it is still a matter of debate as to what precursor and pathway are ultimately used for oxalate biosynthesis in plants. In this study, both physiological and molecular approaches were applied to address these questions. First, it was observed that when glycolate or glyoxylate was fed into detached leaves, both organic acids were equally effective in stimulating oxalate accumulation. In addition, the stimulation could be completely inhibited by cysteine, a glyoxylate scavenger that forms cysteine–glyoxylate adducts. To verify the role of glyoxylate further, various transgenic plants were generated, in which several genes involved in glyoxylate metabolism [i.e. SGAT (serine-glyoxylate aminotransferase), GGAT (glutamate-glyoxylate aminotransferase), HPR (hydroxypyruvate reductase), ICL (isocitrate lyase)], were transcriptionally regulated through RNAi or over-expression. Analyses on these transgenic plants consistently revealed that glyoxylate acted as an efficient precursor for oxalate biosynthesis in rice. Unexpectedly, it was found that oxalate accumulation was not correlated with photorespiration, even though this pathway is known to be a major source of glyoxylate. Further, when GLDH (L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase), a key enzyme gene for ascorbate biosynthesis, was down-regulated, the oxalate abundance remained constant, despite ascorbate having been largely reduced as expected in these transgenic plants. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that glyoxylate rather than ascorbate is an efficient precursor for oxalate biosynthesis, and that oxalate accumulation and regulation do not necessarily depend on photorespiration, possibly due to the occurrence of the anaplerotic reaction that may compensate for glyoxylate formation in rice. PMID:20194922

  2. [Urinary tract infections].

    PubMed

    Hrl, W H

    2011-09-01

    Urinary tract infections occur very frequently in the community and in hospitalized patients and are mainly caused by Escherichia (E.) coli. Depending on virulence determinants of uropathogenic microorganisms and host-specific defense mechanisms, urinary tract infections can manifest as cystitis, pyelonephritis (bacterial interstitial nephritis), bacteremia or urosepsis. Uncomplicated urinary tract infections in otherwise healthy women should be treated for 3-7 days depending on the antibiotic therapy chosen, even if spontaneous remission rates of up to 40% have been reported. Antibiotics of the first choice for empirical treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infection are fluoroquinolones, pivmecillinam and fosfomycin. A huge problem is the increasing antimicrobial resistance of uropathogenic microorganisms. Complicated urinary tract infections associated with anatomical and/or functional abnormalities of the urinary tract and/or comorbidities such as diabetes or immunosuppressive therapy, need longer antibiotic treatment (e.g. 10-14 days) as well as interdisciplinary diagnostic procedures. Treatment of community acquired urosepsis includes cephalosporins of the third generation, piperacillin/tazobactam or ciprofloxacin. For nosocomial urosepsis the combination with an aminoglycoside or a carbapenem is recommended. PMID:21850538

  3. CONCENTRATION OF Pu USING OXALATE TYPE CARRIER

    DOEpatents

    Ritter, D.M.; Black, R.P.S.

    1960-04-19

    A method is given for dissolving and reprecipitating an oxalate carrier precipitate in a carrier precipitation process for separating and recovering plutonium from an aqueous solution. Uranous oxalate, together with plutonium being carried thereby, is dissolved in an aqueous alkaline solution. Suitable alkaline reagents are the carbonates and oxulates of the alkali metals and ammonium. An oxidizing agent selected from hydroxylamine and hydrogen peroxide is then added to the alkaline solution, thereby oxidizing uranium to the hexavalent state. The resulting solution is then acidified and a source of uranous ions provided in the acidified solution, thereby forming a second plutoniumcarrying uranous oxalate precipitate.

  4. Oxalate-induced activation of PKC-α and -δ regulates NADPH oxidase-mediated oxidative injury in renal tubular epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Mani; Thamilselvan, Sivagnanam

    2009-01-01

    Oxalate-induced oxidative stress contributes to cell injury and promotes renal deposition of calcium oxalate crystals. However, we do not know how oxalate stimulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) in renal tubular epithelial cells. We investigated the signaling mechanism of oxalate-induced ROS formation in these cells and found that oxalate significantly increased membrane-associated protein kinase C (PKC) activity while at the same time lowering cytosolic PKC activity. Oxalate markedly translocated PKC-α and -δ from the cytosol to the cell membrane. Pretreatment of LLC-PK1 cells with specific inhibitors of PKC-α or -δ significantly blocked oxalate-induced generation of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide along with NADPH oxidase activity, LDH release, lipid hydroperoxide formation, and apoptosis. The PKC activator PMA mimicked oxalate's effect on oxidative stress in LLC-PK1 cells as well as cytosol-to-membrane translocation of PKC-α and -δ. Silencing of PKC-α expression by PKC-α-specific small interfering RNA significantly attenuated oxalate-induced cell injury by decreasing hydrogen peroxide generation and LDH release. We believe this is the first demonstration that PKC-α- and -δ-dependent activation of NADPH oxidase is one of the mechanisms responsible for oxalate-induced oxidative injury in renal tubular epithelial cells. The study suggests that the therapeutic approach might be considered toward attenuating oxalate-induced PKC signaling-mediated oxidative injury in recurrent stone formers. PMID:19692488

  5. Role of overweight and obesity on the urinary excretion of promoters and inhibitors of stone formation in stone formers.

    PubMed

    Negri, Armando Luis; Spivacow, Francisco Rodolfo; Del Valle, Elisa Elena; Forrester, Mariano; Rosende, Gabriela; Pinduli, Irene

    2008-12-01

    In recent decades there has been an increasing prevalence of urolitithiasis in many western countries and at the same time there has been an increasing progression of obesity that has reached epidemic proportions. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of overweight/obesity on the metabolic risk factors for renal stone formation. We studied 799 renal stone formers (462 men and 337 women) who came to the clinic for metabolic risk factors evaluation. They were all studied with a standard protocol (two 24-h urine collections and serum parameters). They were divided according to their BMI in normal (BMI < 25) overweight (BMI 25-29.9) and obese (BMI > 30). Low-weight individuals were excluded. Overall, 487 of 799 (60.9%) patients had a BMI > 25, including 40.6% overweight and 20.3% obese. Among women 55.2% had normal weight, 25.5 were overweight, and 19.3% were Obese; among men 27.3% had normal weight, 51.7 were overweight, and 21% were obese. Age increased significantly with increasing BMI both in men and women. In women there was a significant increase in the excretion of oxalate, uric acid, phosphorus, creatinine, and sodium with increasing BMI, but no change was observed in calcium, magnesium, citrate, and urine pH. In men there was a significant increase in the excretion of oxalate, uric acid, creatinine, phosphorus, sodium, magnesium, and citrate with increasing BMI, no change in urinary calcium and significant progressive decrease in urinary pH. In this population of stone formers there was a high prevalence of overweight/obesity (60.9%). Both in men and women we found a significant increase in the urinary excretion of two promoters of stone formation, oxalate, and uric acid but no change in urinary calcium. There was either no change or increase in magnesium and citrate, inhibitors of crystallization, and a significant decrease in urine pH only in men. PMID:18985334

  6. Artificial photosynthesis of oxalate and oxalate-based polymer by a photovoltaic reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nong, Guangzai; Chen, Shan; Xu, Yuanjin; Huang, Lijie; Zou, Qingsong; Li, Shiqiang; Mo, Haitao; Zhu, Pingchuan; Cen, Weijian; Wang, Shuangfei

    2014-01-01

    A photovoltaic reactor was designed for artificial photosynthesis, based on the reactions involved in high energy hydrogen atoms, which were produced from water electrolysis. Water and CO2, under the conditions studied, were converted to oxalate (H2C2O4) and a polymer. This was the first time that the oxalates and oxalate-based polymer were produced from the artificial photosynthesis process.

  7. Artificial photosynthesis of oxalate and oxalate-based polymer by a photovoltaic reactor

    PubMed Central

    Nong, Guangzai; Chen, Shan; Xu, Yuanjin; Huang, Lijie; Zou, Qingsong; Li, Shiqiang; Mo, Haitao; Zhu, Pingchuan; Cen, Weijian; Wang, Shuangfei

    2014-01-01

    A photovoltaic reactor was designed for artificial photosynthesis, based on the reactions involved in high energy hydrogen atoms, which were produced from water electrolysis. Water and CO2, under the conditions studied, were converted to oxalate (H2C2O4) and a polymer. This was the first time that the oxalates and oxalate-based polymer were produced from the artificial photosynthesis process. PMID:24389750

  8. Effect of alkalinization on calcium oxalate monohydrate calculi during extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy: in vivo experiments.

    PubMed

    Vandeursen, H; De Ridder, D; Demeulenaere, R; Pittomvils, G; Boving, R; Baert, L

    1992-01-01

    Previous in vitro experiments demonstrated the reduced microhardness of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) calculi, relative to dry values, when saturated with an alkaline solution (pH = 9.5). Nineteen patients with a COM calculus in the distal ureter which had been resistant to prior extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in situ, were treated when the stone was surrounded by alkaline urine. The urine of 14 patients was alkalinized orally by administration of acetazolamine and citrate solution; in 5 other patients direct percutaneous irrigation of sodium bicarbonate via a nephrostomy tube was carried out. The urinary pH just before lithotripsy was greater than or equal to 9 in 17/19 patients. 4,000 shock waves, averaging 18.1 kV generated by the Siemens Lithostar, were delivered onto the calculus. No significant increase of comminution rate was apparent at radiographic control immediately after the treatment and only in half of the cases was evacuation obtained within 3 months. PMID:1316663

  9. Short term effects of increasing dietary salt concentrations on urine composition in healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Paßlack, N; Burmeier, H; Brenten, T; Neumann, K; Zentek, J

    2014-09-01

    High dietary salt (NaCl) concentrations are assumed to be beneficial in preventing the formation of calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths in cats, since increased water intake and urine volume have been observed subsequent to intake. In human beings, dietary NaCl restriction is recommended for the prevention of CaOx urolith formation, since high NaCl intake is associated with increased urinary Ca excretion. The aim of the present study was to clarify the role of dietary NaCl in the formation of CaOx uroliths in cats. Eight cats received four diets that differed in Na and Cl concentrations (0.38-1.43% Na and 0.56-2.52% Cl dry matter, DM). Each feeding period consisted of a 21 day adaptation period, followed by a 7 day sampling period for urine collection. Higher dietary NaCl concentrations were associated with increased urine volume and renal Na excretion. Urinary Ca concentration was constant, but renal Ca excretion increased from 0.62 to 1.05 mg/kg bodyweight (BW)/day with higher dietary NaCl concentrations (P ≤ 0.05). Urinary oxalate (Ox), citrate, P and K concentrations decreased when NaCl intake was high (P ≤ 0.05), and urinary pH was low in all groups (6.33-6.45; P > 0.05). Relative supersaturation of CaOx in the urine was unaffected by dietary NaCl concentrations. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated several beneficial effects of high dietary NaCl intake over a relatively short time period. In particular, urinary Ca concentration remained unchanged because of increased urine volume. Decreased urinary Ox concentrations might help to prevent the formation of CaOx uroliths, but this should be verified in future studies in diseased or predisposed cats. PMID:24881513

  10. Metabolic Conversion of l-Ascorbic Acid to Oxalic Acid in Oxalate-accumulating Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Joan C.; Loewus, Frank A.

    1975-01-01

    l-Ascorbic acid-1-14C and its oxidation product, dehydro-l-ascorbic acid, produced labeled oxalic acid in oxalate-accumulating plants such as spinach seedlings (Spinacia oleracea) and the detached leaves of woodsorrel (Oxalis stricta and O. oregana), shamrock (Oxalis adenopylla), and begonia (Begonia evansiana). In O. oregana, conversion occurred equally well in the presence or absence of light. This relationship between l-ascorbic acid metabolism and oxalic acid formation must be given careful consideration in attempts to explain oxalic accumulation in plants. PMID:16659288

  11. Aggregation of Calcium Phosphate and Oxalate Phases in the Formation of Renal Stones

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The majority of human kidney stones are comprised of multiple calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals encasing a calcium phosphate nucleus. The physiochemical mechanism of nephrolithiasis has not been well determined on the molecular level; this is crucial to the control and prevention of renal stone formation. This work investigates the role of phosphate ions on the formation of calcium oxalate stones; recent work has identified amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) as a rapidly forming initial precursor to the formation of calcium phosphate minerals in vivo. The effect of phosphate on the nucleation of COM has been investigated using the constant composition (CC) method in combination with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our findings indicate COM nucleation is strongly promoted by the presence of phosphate; this occurs at relatively low phosphate concentrations, undersaturated with respect to brushite (dicalcium phosphate dehydrate, DCPD) formation. The results show that ACP plays a crucial role in the nucleation of calcium oxalate stones by promoting the aggregation of amorphous calcium oxalate (ACO) precursors at early induction times. The coaggregations of ACP and ACO precursors induce the multiple-point nucleation of COM. These novel findings expand our knowledge of urinary stone development, providing potential targets for treating the condition at the molecular level. PMID:25598742

  12. Modeling the Adsorption of Oxalate onto Montmorillonite.

    PubMed

    Ramos, M Elena; Emiroglu, Caglayan; García, David; Sainz-Díaz, C Ignacio; Huertas, F Javier

    2015-11-01

    In this work, a multiscale modeling of the interaction of oxalate with clay mineral surfaces from macroscale thermodynamic equilibria simulations to atomistic calculations is presented. Previous results from macroscopic adsorption data of oxalate on montmorillonite in 0.01 M KNO3 media at 25 °C within the pH range from 2.5 to 9 have been used to develop a surface complexation model. The experimental adsorption edge data were fitted using the triple-layer model (TLM) with the aid of the FITEQL 4.0 computer program. Surface complexation of oxalate is described by two reactions: >AlOH + Ox(2-) + 2H(+) = >AlOxH + H2O (log K = 14.39) and >AlOH + Ox(2-) + H(+) = >AlOx(-) + H2O (log K = 10.39). The monodentate complex >AlOxH dominated adsorption below pH 4, and the bidentate complex >AlOx(-) was predominant at higher pH values. Both of the proposed inner-sphere oxalate species are qualitatively consistent with previously published diffuse reflectance FTIR spectroscopic results for oxalate on montmorillonite edge surface (Chem. Geol. 2014, 363, 283-292). Atomistic computational studies have been performed to understand the interactions at the molecular level between adsorbates and mineral surface, showing the atomic structures and IR frequency shifts of the adsorption complexes of oxalate with the edge surface of a periodic montmorillonite model. PMID:26444928

  13. An unusual cause of acute kidney injury due to oxalate nephropathy in systemic scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Mascio, Heather M; Joya, Christie A; Plasse, Richard A; Baker, Thomas P; Flessner, Michael F; Nee, Robert

    2015-08-01

    Oxalate nephropathy is an uncommon cause of acute kidney injury. Far rarer is its association with scleroderma, with only one other published case report in the literature. We report a case of a 75-year-old African-American female with a history of systemic scleroderma manifested by chronic pseudo-obstruction and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) treated with rifaximin, who presented with acute kidney injury with normal blood pressure. A renal biopsy demonstrated extensive acute tubular injury with numerous intratubular birefringent crystals, consistent with oxalate nephropathy. We hypothesize that her recent treatment with rifaximin for SIBO and decreased intestinal transit time in pseudo-obstruction may have significantly increased intestinal oxalate absorption, leading to acute kidney injury. Oxalate nephropathy should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute kidney injury in scleroderma with normotension, and subsequent evaluation should be focused on bowel function to include alterations in gut flora due to antibiotic administration. PMID:25500295

  14. Effect of calcium oxalate on the photocatalytic degradation of Orange II on ZnO surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassaid, S.; Ziane, B.; Badaoui, M.; Chaib, M.; Robert, D.

    2013-06-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of aqueous solution of Orange II, has been investigated in the presence of ZnO catalyst with calcium oxalate as sacrificial agent. This study demonstrated that the performance of ZnO photocatalyst can be improved by addition of calcium oxalate. Results show that adsorption is an important parameter controlling the degradation phenomena. Indeed, the added oxalate causes a drop in the pH medium, what causes a better adsorption of Orange II on the ZnO surface. The effect of calcium oxalate is to increase the concentration of superoxides (O{2/·-}) and hydroperoxides (HO2·) radicals, which are key intermediaries in the mechanism of photodegradation because of their powerful force of oxidation.

  15. Developing precipitation modes for preventing the calcium-oxalate contamination of sugar beet pectins.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoming; Meng, Hecheng; Zhu, Siming; Tang, Qiang; Pan, Runquan; Yu, Shujuan

    2015-09-01

    Effects of precipitation modes on the co-precipitation of insoluble oxalates particles during the purification of sugar beet pectins (SBP) from the extract were investigated. It was observed that soluble oxalate ions formed insoluble oxalate salts with calcium and precipitated with pectins during ethanol precipitation as pH of the medium increased and the solvent changed from water to ethanol-water mixture. Comparison among the employed precipitation methods revealed that both the dialysis-ethanol-precipitation and metal precipitation effectively prevented the calcium-oxalate contamination of SBP. Emulsifying properties of DEPP, EPP and MPP were also studied. It was observed that DEPP performed better than the remainder with respect to emulsifying ability. Based on these results, we concluded that the dialysis-ethanolic-precipitation can be a suitable method for improving the purity as well as emulsifying properties of the resulting pectins. PMID:25842309

  16. Urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein linked with increased risk of acute kidney injury after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Shingai, Naoki; Morito, Taku; Najima, Yuho; Igarashi, Aiko; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Doki, Noriko; Kakihana, Kazuhiko; Ohashi, Kazuteru; Ando, Minoru

    2014-12-01

    Stem cell transplantation (SCT) involves a great risk of acute kidney injury (AKI). Urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (uL-FABP) is a sensitive biomarker to detect kidney damage before an increase in serum creatinine (Cr); however, the utility of uL-FABP is not fully understood in the platform of SCT. A prospective study was conducted in 84 allogeneic SCT recipients to ascertain a link between the uL-FABP level before preparative procedures and AKI incidence after SCT. The association between them was analyzed using Gray's method and a multivariate Fine-Gray proportional hazards regression model. The recipients were stratified into high and low uL-FABP groups, according to the reference value for healthy subjects (8.4 μg/g Cr). AKI developed more frequently in the high (n = 20) than low (n = 64) group (55.0% versus 26.6% at day 30, P = .005), and high uL-FABP was an independent risk for the emergence of AKI (hazard ratio, 2.78; 95% confidence interval, 1.24 to 6.22, P = .01). In conclusion, increased baseline uL-FABP, which may indicate previous incipient kidney injury, is linked with a high risk of AKI after allogeneic SCT. PMID:25193082

  17. Patients With Neurogenic Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction Following Spinal Cord Injury Are at Increased Risk of Developing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Lien, Wei-Chih; Kuan, Ta-Shen; Lin, Yu-Ching; Liang, Fu-Wen; Hsieh, Pei-Chun; Li, Chung-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To investigate whether patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD) following spinal cord injury (SCI) are at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The retrospective cohort study used a subset of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) comprising information on 2 million beneficiaries randomly sampled from the general population. A total of 3515 patients with newly diagnosed SCI were identified during the period of 2001 to 2008. Among them, 170 developed NLUTD following SCI. The control group was consisted of 656 patients without NLUTD over the study period randomly selected by matching NLUTD cases on the date of NLUTD incidence, age, sex, and duration since diagnosis of SCI. The study groups were then followed to the end of 2009. T2DM was the end-point. The incidence rate ratios of T2DM were higher in the NLUTD group than in the control group (4.94 vs. 2.61 per 10,000 person-years), representing an adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) of 1.70 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11–2.61). Age-specific AHR was significantly elevated only in patients aged > = 60 years (AHR = 2.52 (95% CI 1.35–4.70)). This study showed that the NLUTD following SCI may significantly increase the risk of developing T2DM. PMID:26765476

  18. Breastfeeding does not protect against urinary tract infection in the first 3 months of life, but vitamin D supplementation increases the risk by 76%.

    PubMed

    Katikaneni, Ranjitha; Ponnapakkam, Tulasi; Ponnapakkam, Adharsh; Gensure, Robert

    2009-09-01

    Our goal was to determine if breastfeeding provides any protection against urinary tract infection (UTI) and if vitamin D supplementation imposes any additional risks for UTI in infants < 3 months of age. In this study, 40% of the children who had urine cultures were breastfed, and 18.7% of the children were exclusively breastfed. Twenty percent of all of the urine cultures tested positive, and this number was greater in females (22.5%) than in males (18.1%, P < .05). There was no significant difference between the rates of positive urine cultures in exclusively breastfed (22% vs 21%, nonsignificant [NS]) formula-fed infants. The relative risk of UTI with breastfeeding versus formula feeding was 1.03 (0.58-1.82), and any breastfeeding versus no breastfeeding was 0.92 (0.58-1.45). Vitamin D supplementation increased the UTI risk, with a relative risk of 1.76 (1.07-2.91, P < .05). However, only formula-fed infants showed an increased risk of UTI after vitamin D supplementation. PMID:19264720

  19. Patients With Neurogenic Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction Following Spinal Cord Injury Are at Increased Risk of Developing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lien, Wei-Chih; Kuan, Ta-Shen; Lin, Yu-Ching; Liang, Fu-Wen; Hsieh, Pei-Chun; Li, Chung-Yi

    2016-01-01

    To investigate whether patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD) following spinal cord injury (SCI) are at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).The retrospective cohort study used a subset of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) comprising information on 2 million beneficiaries randomly sampled from the general population. A total of 3515 patients with newly diagnosed SCI were identified during the period of 2001 to 2008. Among them, 170 developed NLUTD following SCI. The control group was consisted of 656 patients without NLUTD over the study period randomly selected by matching NLUTD cases on the date of NLUTD incidence, age, sex, and duration since diagnosis of SCI. The study groups were then followed to the end of 2009. T2DM was the end-point.The incidence rate ratios of T2DM were higher in the NLUTD group than in the control group (4.94 vs. 2.61 per 10,000 person-years), representing an adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) of 1.70 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11-2.61). Age-specific AHR was significantly elevated only in patients aged > = 60 years (AHR = 2.52 (95% CI 1.35-4.70)).This study showed that the NLUTD following SCI may significantly increase the risk of developing T2DM. PMID:26765476

  20. c.29C>T polymorphism in the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFB1) gene correlates with increased risk of urinary bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Kirti Amresh; Pooja, Singh; Sankhwar, Satya Narayan; Sankhwar, Pushp Lata; Goel, Apul; Rajender, Singh

    2015-10-01

    TGF-β1 is a pleiotropic cytokine, which plays a dual role in tumor development. In the early stages, it inhibits the growth of tumor while in the late stages of carcinoma, it promotes tumor growth. The purpose of this study was to analyze the distribution of the TGFB1 gene polymorphisms between cases and controls so as to assess their correlation with bladder cancer risk. This study included 237 cases of urinary bladder cancer and 290 age matched controls from the same ethnic background. Three polymorphisms in the TGFB1 gene, c.29C>T (rs-1800470), c.74G>C (rs-1800471) and +140A>G (rs-13447341), were analyzed by direct DNA sequencing. Statistical analyses revealed no significant differences in the demographical data, except that the frequencies of smokers and non-vegetarians were higher in the cases. Eighty percent of the bladder cancer patients had superficial transitional cell carcinoma, and 53.16% and 26.31% of the patients were in grade I and grade II, respectively. We found that c.29C>T substitution increased the risk of bladder cancer significantly and recessive model of analysis was the best fitted model (p=0.004; OR=1.72 95% CI 1.18-2.50). A significantly higher risk in the recessive form was also suggested by co-dominant analysis showing that the homozygous form (TT) was a significant risk factor in comparison to CC and CT genotypes. The other two polymorphisms, c.74G>C (p=0.18, OR=0.67 95% CI 0.37-1.21) and +140A>G (p=0.416, OR=0.77 95% CI 0.41-1.45) did not affect the risk of urinary bladder cancer. In conclusion, we found that the TGFB1 c.29C>T substitution increases the risk of bladder cancer significantly while c.74G>C and +140A>G polymorphisms do not affect the risk. PMID:26048435

  1. Urinary Adiponectin Excretion

    PubMed Central

    von Eynatten, Maximilian; Liu, Dan; Hock, Cornelia; Oikonomou, Dimitrios; Baumann, Marcus; Allolio, Bruno; Korosoglou, Grigorios; Morcos, Michael; Campean, Valentina; Amann, Kerstin; Lutz, Jens; Heemann, Uwe; Nawroth, Peter P.; Bierhaus, Angelika; Humpert, Per M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Markers reliably identifying vascular damage and risk in diabetic patients are rare, and reports on associations of serum adiponectin with macrovascular disease have been inconsistent. In contrast to existing data on serum adiponectin, this study assesses whether urinary adiponectin excretion might represent a more consistent vascular damage marker in type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Adiponectin distribution in human kidney biopsies was assessed by immunohistochemistry, and urinary adiponectin isoforms were characterized by Western blot analysis. Total urinary adiponectin excretion rate was measured in 156 patients with type 2 diabetes who had a history of diabetic nephropathy and 40 healthy control subjects using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Atherosclerotic burden was assessed by common carotid artery intima-media-thickness (IMT). RESULTS A homogenous staining of adiponectin was found on the endothelial surface of glomerular capillaries and intrarenal arterioles in nondiabetic kidneys, whereas staining was decreased in diabetic nephropathy. Low-molecular adiponectin isoforms (∼30–70 kDa) were detected in urine by Western blot analysis. Urinary adiponectin was significantly increased in type 2 diabetes (7.68 ± 14.26 vs. control subjects: 2.91 ± 3.85 μg/g creatinine, P = 0.008). Among type 2 diabetic patients, adiponectinuria was associated with IMT (r = 0.479, P < 0.001) and proved to be a powerful independent predictor of IMT (β = 0.360, P < 0.001) in multivariable regression analyses. In a risk prediction model including variables of the UK Prospective Diabetes Study coronary heart disease risk engine urinary adiponectin, but not the albumin excretion rate, added significant value for the prediction of increased IMT (P = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS Quantification of urinary adiponectin excretion appears to be an independent indicator of vascular damage potentially identifying an increased risk for vascular events. PMID:19509019

  2. Hausmannite (Mn3O4) conversion to manganite (γ-MnOOH) in dilute oxalate solution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lind, Carol J.

    1988-01-01

    Oxalic acid retards the alteration of Mn3O4 to γ-MnOOH during aging at pH 7.4 ?? 0.2 in well-aerated, abiotic suspensions that contain 4.4 ?? 10-3 M total Mn. In solutions of 1.25 ?? 10-3 M oxalate and greater, about 15% of the initial Mn3O4 altered to ??-MnOOH by day 10, and in solutions of 6.7 ?? 10-4 M oxalate, about 45% altered to ??-MnOOH by day 67. Although precipitation continued through day 365, the degree of conversion remained the same as at day 10 and day 67, respectively. In oxalate-free suspensions, the conversion was about 80% complete by day 67 and 100% by day 109. Oxalate complexed most of the dissolved divalent Mn, lowered the free Mn(II) and MnSO40 concentrations, but increased the total dissolved Mn. Steric hindrance of surface reactions by a suggested manganese oxalate layer on the Mn3O4 surface may explain the blockage of the oxidation cycle.

  3. Probiotics and Other Key Determinants of Dietary Oxalate Absorption1

    PubMed Central

    Liebman, Michael; Al-Wahsh, Ismail A.

    2011-01-01

    Oxalate is a common component of many foods of plant origin, including nuts, fruits, vegetables, grains, and legumes, and is typically present as a salt of oxalic acid. Because virtually all absorbed oxalic acid is excreted in the urine and hyperoxaluria is known to be a considerable risk factor for urolithiasis, it is important to understand the factors that have the potential to alter the efficiency of oxalate absorption. Oxalate bioavailability, a term that has been used to refer to that portion of food-derived oxalate that is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), is estimated to range from 2 to 15% for different foods. Oxalate bioavailability appears to be decreased by concomitant food ingestion due to interactions between oxalate and coingested food components that likely result in less oxalic acid remaining in a soluble form. There is a lack of consensus in the literature as to whether efficiency of oxalate absorption is dependent on the proportion of total dietary oxalate that is in a soluble form. However, studies that directly compared foods of varying soluble oxalate contents have generally supported the proposition that the amount of soluble oxalate in food is an important determinant of oxalate bioavailability. Oxalate degradation by oxalate-degrading bacteria within the GIT is another key factor that could affect oxalate absorption and degree of oxaluria. Studies that have assessed the efficacy of oral ingestion of probiotics that provide bacteria with oxalate-degrading capacity have led to promising but generally mixed results, and this remains a fertile area for future studies. PMID:22332057

  4. Supplementing a Low-Protein Diet with Dibasic Amino Acids Increases Urinary Calcium Excretion in Young Women12

    PubMed Central

    Bihuniak, Jessica D.; Sullivan, Rebecca R.; Simpson, Christine A.; Caseria, Donna M.; Huedo-Medina, Tania B.; O’Brien, Kimberly O.; Kerstetter, Jane E.; Insogna, Karl L.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing dietary protein within a physiologic range stimulates intestinal calcium absorption, but it is not known if specific amino acids or dietary protein as a whole are responsible for this effect. Therefore, we selectively supplemented a low-protein (0.7 g/kg) diet with either the calcium-sensing receptor-activating amino acids (CaSR-AAAs) L-tryptophan, L-phenylalanine, and L-histidine, or the dibasic amino acids (DAAs) L-arginine and L-lysine, to achieve intakes comparable to the content of a high-protein diet (2.1 g/kg) and measured intestinal calcium absorption. Fourteen young women took part in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover feeding trial in which each participant ingested a 6-d low-protein diet supplemented with CaSR-AAAs, DAAs, or methylcellulose capsules (control) after an 11-d adjustment period. All participants ingested all 3 diets in random order. Intestinal calcium absorption was measured between days 5 and 6 using dual-stable calcium isotopes (42Ca, 43Ca, and 44Ca). There was no difference in calcium absorption between the diet supplemented with CaSR-AAAs (22.9 ± 2.0%) and the control diet (22.3 ± 1.4%) (P = 0.64). However, calcium absorption tended to be greater during the DAA supplementation period (25.2 ± 1.4%) compared with the control diet period (22.3 ± 1.4%) (P < 0.10). Larger and longer clinical trials are needed to clarify the possible benefit of arginine and lysine on calcium absorption. PMID:24431325

  5. High variability of the heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, R.; Möhler, O.; Saathoff, H.; Schnaiter, M.; Leisner, T.

    2010-04-01

    The heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of airborne oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate particles in the deposition and condensation mode has been investigated by controlled expansion cooling cycles in the AIDA aerosol and cloud chamber of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology at temperatures between 244 and 228 K. Previous laboratory studies have highlighted the particular role of oxalic acid dihydrate as the only species amongst a variety of other investigated dicarboxylic acids to be capable of acting as a heterogeneous ice nucleus in both the deposition and immersion mode. We could confirm a high deposition mode ice activity for 0.03 to 0.8 μm sized oxalic acid dihydrate particles that were either formed by nucleation from a gaseous oxalic acid/air mixture or by rapid crystallisation of highly supersaturated aqueous oxalic acid solution droplets. The critical saturation ratio with respect to ice required for deposition nucleation was found to be less than 1.1 and the size-dependent ice-active fraction of the aerosol population was in the range from 0.1 to 22%. In contrast, oxalic acid dihydrate particles that had crystallised from less supersaturated solution droplets and had been allowed to slowly grow in a supersaturated environment from still unfrozen oxalic acid solution droplets over a time period of several hours were found to be much poorer heterogeneous ice nuclei. We speculate that under these conditions a crystal surface structure with less-active sites for the initiation of ice nucleation was generated. Such particles partially proved to be almost ice-inactive in both the deposition and condensation mode. At times, the heterogeneous ice nucleation ability of oxalic acid dihydrate significantly changed when the particles had been processed in preceding cloud droplet activation steps. Such behaviour was also observed for the second investigated species, namely sodium oxalate. Our experiments address the atmospheric scenario that coating layers of oxalic acid or its salts may be formed by physical and chemical processing on pre-existing particulates such as mineral dust and soot. Given the broad diversity of the observed heterogeneous ice nucleability of the oxalate species, it is not straightforward to predict whether an oxalate coating layer will improve or reduce the ice nucleation ability of the seed aerosol particles.

  6. High variability of the heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, R.; Möhler, O.; Saathoff, H.; Schnaiter, M.; Leisner, T.

    2010-08-01

    The heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of airborne oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate particles in the deposition and condensation mode has been investigated by controlled expansion cooling cycles in the AIDA aerosol and cloud chamber of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology at temperatures between 244 and 228 K. Previous laboratory studies have highlighted the particular role of oxalic acid dihydrate as the only species amongst a variety of other investigated dicarboxylic acids to be capable of acting as a heterogeneous ice nucleus in both the deposition and immersion mode. We could confirm a high deposition mode ice activity for 0.03 to 0.8 μm sized oxalic acid dihydrate particles that were either formed by nucleation from a gaseous oxalic acid/air mixture or by rapid crystallisation of highly supersaturated aqueous oxalic acid solution droplets. The critical saturation ratio with respect to ice required for deposition nucleation was found to be less than 1.1 and the size-dependent ice-active fraction of the aerosol population was in the range from 0.1 to 22%. In contrast, oxalic acid dihydrate particles that had crystallised from less supersaturated solution droplets and had been allowed to slowly grow in a supersaturated environment from still unfrozen oxalic acid solution droplets over a time period of several hours were found to be much poorer heterogeneous ice nuclei. We speculate that under these conditions a crystal surface structure with less-active sites for the initiation of ice nucleation was generated. Such particles partially proved to be almost ice-inactive in both the deposition and condensation mode. At times, the heterogeneous ice nucleation ability of oxalic acid dihydrate significantly changed when the particles had been processed in preceding cloud droplet activation steps. Such behaviour was also observed for the second investigated species, namely sodium oxalate. Our experiments address the atmospheric scenario that coating layers of oxalic acid or its salts may be formed by physical and chemical processing on pre-existing particulates such as mineral dust and soot. Given the broad diversity of the observed heterogeneous ice nucleability of the oxalate species, it is not straightforward to predict whether an oxalate coating layer will improve or reduce the ice nucleation ability of the seed aerosol particles.

  7. Urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, J. Graham; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Skelly, Jennifer; Finkelstein, Murray

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine age-specific prevalence and correlates of urinary incontinence (UI) among community-dwelling women. DESIGN A questionnaire survey used a modified Dillman method. SETTING Two family practice clinics in Hamilton, Ont. PARTICIPANTS Questionnaires were mailed to 1082 women 45 years old and older. Ninety women were disqualified; 606 recipients responded. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Self-reported prevalence of UI and potential risk factors. RESULTS Overall response rate was 61% (606/992); 51% (311/606; 95% confidence interval 47.3% to 55.3%) reported an episode of UI during the last month. Of the 311 women reporting UI, 35.7% perceived it as a problem, 27% had had it for less than a year, 41.9% had had it for 1 to 4 years, and 31.1% had had it for 5 years or longer. Three kinds of UI were reported: 34% (106/311) reported stress UI, 14.5% (45/311) reported urge UI, and 51.4% (160/311) reported a mixed pattern. In multivariate analysis, the overall prevalence of incontinence increased significantly with “usually having a cough,” “being troubled by swollen ankles,” “giving birth,” “ever smoking cigarettes,” and “being troubled by headaches.” Stress UI was associated with “usually having a cough” and “ever smoking cigarettes.” Urge UI was associated with “having troubles with constipation” and “swollen ankles.” Mixed incontinence was associated with “get sick more than other people,” “usually having a cough,” “taken hormones for menopause,” and body mass index in the 50th to 75th percentile or greater. Age was not significantly associated with prevalence of UI or any of its subtypes. Only 40% of incontinent women indicated they had discussed urine loss with their physicians; 70% of these women felt satisfied with physicians’ responses. CONCLUSION Incontinence occurs in more than half of community-dwelling women 45 years old and older. Almost one of five women in the community reported UI that affected normal activities. Treating the effect of incontinence will require further understanding of women’s coping skills and self-perceptions. Prevalence does not appear to increase with age. PMID:16926957

  8. Effect of NADPH oxidase inhibition on the expression of kidney injury molecule and calcium oxalate crystal deposition in hydroxy-L-proline-induced hyperoxaluria in the male Sprague–Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Jian; Khan, Aslam; Glenton, Patricia A.; Khan, Saeed R.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Renal calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystal deposition is associated with epithelial injury and movement of inflammatory cells into the interstitium. We have proposed that oxalate (Ox)- and CaOx crystal-induced injury is most likely caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by activation of membrane nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase. Methods. Present study was undertaken to determine the effect of NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin on the expression of kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and renal CaOx crystal deposition in rats with hyperoxaluria. We also investigated the urinary excretion of KIM-1, osteopontin (OPN) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and renal expression of OPN and ED-1. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a diet containing 5% hydroxyl-L-proline (HLP) and 4 mmol apocynin to drink for 28 days. Urine was collected on Days 7, 14, 21 and 28. After that, rats were sacrificed and their kidneys processed for various microscopic and molecular investigations. Results. HLP consumption produced heavy deposits of CaOx crystals. Renal expression of KIM-1 and OPN and urinary excretion of KIM-1, OPN, H2O2 and MCP-1 was significantly increased. ED-1-positive cells migrated into renal interstitium. Apocynin treatment caused significant reduction of crystal deposits, injured and dilated tubules; renal expression of KIM-1, OPN and ED-1 and urinary excretion of KIM-1, OPN, MCP-1 and H2O2. Apocynin had no effect on the urinary excretion of Ox. Conclusions. This is the first study of urinary excretion and renal expression of KIM-1 in association with renal CaOx crystal deposition, experimental or clinical. The results indicate that NADPH oxidase inhibition leads to reduction in KIM-1 expression and urinary excretion as well as renal CaOx crystal deposition. KIM-1 is an important marker of renal epithelial injury. The results provide further support to our proposal that renal epithelial injury is critical for crystal retention and that injury is in part caused by the production of ROS with the involvement of NADPH oxidase. PMID:21378157

  9. Urinary Diversions

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Ian

    1991-01-01

    Once the bladder has been removed or declared non-functional, some form of urinary diversion must be performed. The diversion can be as simple as bringing the ureters to the skin and as complicated as the creation of a functioning neobladder. The indications for and expectations of the most common types of diversion are explained. Some new techniques for continent diversion are described. PMID:21229045

  10. 3-Cyanoanilinium hydrogen oxalate hemihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xin-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    In the title hydrated molecular salt, C7H7N2 +C2HO4 ?0.5H2O, contains a 3-cyanoanilinium cation, a hydrogen oxalate anion and half a water molecule in an asymmetric unit. The dihedral angle between the CO2(H) and CO2 planes of the hydrogen oxalate ion is 7.96?(1). In the crystal, the components are linked by NH?O and OH?O hydrogen bonds, forming a layer lying parallel to the ac plane. PMID:22719472

  11. Vacuolar deposition of ascorbate-derived oxalic acid in barley

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, G.J.

    1981-03-01

    L-(1-/sup 14/C)Ascorbic acid was supplied to detached barley seedlings to determine the subcellular location of oxalic acid, one of its metabolic products. Intact vacuoles isolated from protoplasts of labeled leaves contained (/sup 14/C)oxalic acid which accounted for about 70% of the intraprotoplast soluble oxalic acid. Tracer-labeled oxalate accounted for 36 and 72% of the /sup 14/C associated with leaf vacuoles of seedlings labeled for 22 and 96 hours, respectively.

  12. C-phycocyanin confers protection against oxalate-mediated oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunctions in MDCK cells.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Shukkur M; Boppana, Nithin B; Devarajan, Asokan; Asokan, Devarajan; Sekaran, Shamala D; Shankar, Esaki M; Li, Chunying; Gopal, Kaliappan; Bakar, Sazaly A; Karthik, Harve S; Ebrahim, Abdul S

    2014-01-01

    Oxalate toxicity is mediated through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via a process that is partly dependent on mitochondrial dysfunction. Here, we investigated whether C-phycocyanin (CP) could protect against oxidative stress-mediated intracellular damage triggered by oxalate in MDCK cells. DCFDA, a fluorescence-based probe and hexanoyl-lysine adduct (HEL), an oxidative stress marker were used to investigate the effect of CP on oxalate-induced ROS production and membrane lipid peroxidation (LPO). The role of CP against oxalate-induced oxidative stress was studied by the evaluation of mitochondrial membrane potential by JC1 fluorescein staining, quantification of ATP synthesis and stress-induced MAP kinases (JNK/SAPK and ERK1/2). Our results revealed that oxalate-induced cells show markedly increased ROS levels and HEL protein expression that were significantly decreased following pre-treatment with CP. Further, JC1 staining showed that CP pre-treatment conferred significant protection from mitochondrial membrane permeability and increased ATP production in CP-treated cells than oxalate-alone-treated cells. In addition, CP treated cells significantly decreased the expression of phosphorylated JNK/SAPK and ERK1/2 as compared to oxalate-alone-treated cells. We concluded that CP could be used as a potential free radical-scavenging therapeutic strategy against oxidative stress-associated diseases including urolithiasis. PMID:24691130

  13. C-Phycocyanin Confers Protection against Oxalate-Mediated Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunctions in MDCK Cells

    PubMed Central

    Farooq, Shukkur M.; Boppana, Nithin B.; Asokan, Devarajan; Sekaran, Shamala D.; Shankar, Esaki M.; Li, Chunying; Gopal, Kaliappan; Bakar, Sazaly A.; Karthik, Harve S.; Ebrahim, Abdul S.

    2014-01-01

    Oxalate toxicity is mediated through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via a process that is partly dependent on mitochondrial dysfunction. Here, we investigated whether C-phycocyanin (CP) could protect against oxidative stress-mediated intracellular damage triggered by oxalate in MDCK cells. DCFDA, a fluorescence-based probe and hexanoyl-lysine adduct (HEL), an oxidative stress marker were used to investigate the effect of CP on oxalate-induced ROS production and membrane lipid peroxidation (LPO). The role of CP against oxalate-induced oxidative stress was studied by the evaluation of mitochondrial membrane potential by JC1 fluorescein staining, quantification of ATP synthesis and stress-induced MAP kinases (JNK/SAPK and ERK1/2). Our results revealed that oxalate-induced cells show markedly increased ROS levels and HEL protein expression that were significantly decreased following pre-treatment with CP. Further, JC1 staining showed that CP pre-treatment conferred significant protection from mitochondrial membrane permeability and increased ATP production in CP-treated cells than oxalate-alone-treated cells. In addition, CP treated cells significantly decreased the expression of phosphorylated JNK/SAPK and ERK1/2 as compared to oxalate-alone-treated cells. We concluded that CP could be used as a potential free radical-scavenging therapeutic strategy against oxidative stress-associated diseases including urolithiasis. PMID:24691130

  14. Potential contribution of optional urease-positive bacteria to idiopathic urinary calcium stone formation. II. Microlith formation kinetics in a fermenter model of the urinary tract infected by optional urease-positive microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Leusmann, D B; Sabinski, F

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the effects of weak to moderate urease hydrolysis by optional urease-positive microorganisms in an artificial urine model enriched with calcium phosphate and calcium oxalate in respect of calcium stone formation. The incubation experiments were performed using a discontinuously running fermenter device to simulate the urinary system. The kinetics of cell division rates, pH and ammonium ion production were measured and correlated to crystallite appearance in the incubation medium. Qualitative analyses of the sediments revealed apatite. Investigations using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed the matrix effect of bacterial glycoproteins. It was shown that initiation of calcium oxalate stone formation is in all probability equally determined by matrix effects and by heteronuclear crystallization if the urinary tract is infected by optional urease-positive bacteria. When urinary inorganic phosphate is present, calcium phosphate nidi are always initially formed, and may subsequently be coated by calcium oxalate. PMID:8740975

  15. 40 CFR 721.10628 - Mixed metal oxalate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mixed metal oxalate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10628 Mixed metal oxalate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as mixed metal oxalate (PMN...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10628 - Mixed metal oxalate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mixed metal oxalate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10628 Mixed metal oxalate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as mixed metal oxalate (PMN...

  17. Oxalate and root exudates enhance the desorption of p,p'-DDT from soils.

    PubMed

    Luo, Lei; Zhang, Shuzhen; Shan, Xiao-Quan; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2006-05-01

    The abiotic desorption of p,p'-DDT from seven Chinese soils spiked with p,p'-DDT and the effects of oxalate at 0.001-0.1M and the root exudates of maize, wheat, and ryegrass were evaluated using batch experiments. Soil organic carbon played a predominant role in the retention of DDT. Oxalate significantly increased the desorption of p,p'-DDT, with the largest increments ranging from 11% to 54% for different soils. Oxalate addition also resulted in the increased release of dissolved organic carbon and inorganic ions from soils. Root exudates had similar effects to those of oxalate. Root exudates significantly increased DDT desorption from the soils, and the general trend was similar among the plant species studied for all the soils (p > 0.05). Low molecular weight dissolved organic carbon amendments caused partial dissolution of the soil structure, such as the organo-mineral linkages, resulting in the release of organic carbon and metal ions and thus the subsequent enhanced desorption of DDT from the soils. The enhancing effects of oxalate and root exudates on DDT desorption were influenced by the contents of soil organic carbon and dissolved organic carbon in soils. PMID:16307790

  18. Role of magnesium in the growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium oxalate dihydrate crystals.

    PubMed

    Oka, T; Yoshioka, T; Koide, T; Takaha, M; Sonoda, T

    1987-01-01

    Since about 85% of synthesized calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) crystals proved not to have changed into calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals at 30 min of incubation time at 37 degrees C when our evaluation method of the COD-to-COM ratio was being used, we made a comparative study of the inhibitory effects of magnesium, one of the well-known inhibitors of calcium oxalate stone formation, on the growth of seeded COM and COD crystals. The results demonstrated that magnesium in identical concentrations might have stronger inhibitory effects on the growth of COM crystals than on that of COD crystals and suggested that these different effects of magnesium on the growth of COM and COD crystals might arise not only from the difference between the specific surface areas of COM and COD crystals, but also from that between the direct inhibitory effects of magnesium on these two types of calcium oxalate crystal growth. PMID:3617248

  19. ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING: EFFECTIVENESS OF THE UV LAMP TO DECOMPOSE OXALATES

    SciTech Connect

    Ketusky, E.; Huff, T.; Sudduth, C.

    2010-01-19

    Enhanced Chemical Cleaning is a new process scheduled to begin cleaning Savannah River Site High Level Waste Tanks in 2012. It is an improvement over the current chemical cleaning method, in that it minimizes downstream impacts on the High Level Waste System. It is based on a state of the art scale removal process used on the secondary side of nuclear power plants, with modifications to accommodate the unique constraints created by the tanks. Both Enhanced Chemical Cleaning and the scale removal process are founded on dissolving metal oxides/hydroxides using oxalic acid, with subsequent oxalate decomposition via hydroxylation using ozone or peroxide, and UV light as a catalyst. A divergence Enhanced Chemical Cleaning has from nuclear power scale removal is the significantly increased solids concentration during oxalate decomposition. These solids can limit the ability of the UV light to create hydroxyl radicals, either by limiting the ability of the light to penetrate through the solution, or by increasing the fouling rate on the UV light. Both will decrease the overall catalytic effectiveness, thereby decreasing the concentration of formed hydroxyl radicals. The hydroxyl radicals are the driving force behind the oxalate decomposition. To understand the impact of increased solids, testing was performed using a medium pressure UV light inside an ozone supplied Oxalate Decomposition Reactor. Using a dissolved metal sludge simulant with an initial oxalate concentration greater than 12,000 ppm, and an initial pH of about 2.0, the spent acid solution was recirculated through the reactor, while the UV light was allowed to foul. For the first few hours, the oxalate decomposition rate was about 1,300 ppm/hour. After about 3 hours, enough time for the UV lamp to foul, the oxalate decomposition rate decreased to about 500 ppm/hour. The decomposition rate then remained roughly constant for the next 16 hours. Overall, testing showed that the oxalate destruction rate decreased by about 2.8. Results from very similartests with similar chemistry suggest that the impact should be about 10. Based on the limited reaction pathwayfor the creation of hydroxyl radicals with iron, ozone, and no UV, the discrepancy suggests that initially, at 'time zero' the UV light failed to perform up to expectations. It is therefore concluded that regardless of the fouling rate, either the increased solids concentration is impacting the initial penetrability (i.e. to many solids), or the light is not adequately sized/configured to have the appropriate flux.

  20. Urinary Incontinence: Bladder Training

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Urinary Incontinence | Bladder Training for Urinary Incontinence What is bladder training? Bladder training is a way of learning to manage urinary incontinence. It is generally used ...

  1. Ultrastructural and biochemical studies on formation of calcium oxalate in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelmottaleb, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Plant calcium oxalate crystals occur within cells called crystal idioblasts. Important aspects of this calcification phenomenon have not been characterized. This dissertation examines some of the aspects of this ubiquitous type of calcification including (1) characterization of ultrastructural features of developing crystal idioblasts, (2) determination of the relationship of specialized ultrastructural features of the idioblasts to transport of compounds and mechanisms of crystal deposition, and (3) the biochemical relationship between ascorbic acid metabolism and production of oxalic acid used for crystal formation. Structural and cytochemical studies revealed that crystal idioblasts have dense cytoplasm, modified plastids, enlarged nuclei, extensive endoplasmic reticulum, numerous dictyosomes and vesicles, and a bundle of raphide crystals in their vacuoles. A mechanism for Ca transport and crystal precipitation is proposed, based on these results. There is a strong and dynamic relationship between Ca concentration and oxalic acid produced for crystal formation, where increasing Ca level in the growth medium lead to increased total and insoluble oxalate in the plant. Calmodulin antagonists reduced oxalic acid production.

  2. Photolytic destruction of oxalate in aqueous mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, F.T.; Lum, B.Y.

    1995-03-01

    In aqueous plutonium processing, residual oxalic acid can be destroyed (oxalate kill) by UV light with hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) in 1 M HCl solutions. By controlling the amount of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, the oxalate kill process will not affect the chloride concentration. In nitric acid solutions, UV light alone can destroy the oxalic acid. However, with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, the rate of destruction is faster. After the destruction of oxalic acid, the acidic solutions may be reusable without further purification process.

  3. Urinary incontinence - injectable implant

    MedlinePlus

    ... ISD repair; Injectable bulking agents for stress urinary incontinence ... JM, Gormley EA, et al. Female Stress Urinary Incontinence Update Panel of the American Urological Association Education ...

  4. Risk factor analysis and relative supersaturation as tools for identifying calcium oxalate stone-forming dogs.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, A E; Robertson, W G; Markwell, P

    2003-11-01

    Twenty-four hour urine samples were collected from 17 calcium oxalate (CaOx) stone-forming (SF) dogs and 17 normal (N), age-, breed- and sex-matched dogs. Urinary CaOx relative supersaturation (RSS) was calculated and found to be significantly higher in the SF group than the N group. RSS measurement is not readily applicable to veterinary practice; thus, alternatives were explored. Discriminant analysis failed to identify key factors differentiating most SF from N dogs. Urinary calcium, oxalate and uric acid, which differed between the SF and N animals, were combined into a measure of relative probability of CaOx stone formation (PSF) to establish whether this approach could be used to assess the risk of CaOx stone formation in dogs. Although there was good correlation between the techniques, RSS more clearly discriminated between SF and N dogs. These data suggest that neither PSF nor discriminant analysis is preferable to RSS for assessing the risk of CaOx stone formation in dogs. PMID:14635961

  5. Effect of indigenous plant extracts on calcium oxalate crystallization having a role in urolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Yasir, Fauzia; Waqar, Muhammad A

    2011-10-01

    Crystallization process has a major role in urolithiasis. In the present study, effect of two indigenous plants extracts namely Boerhavia diffusa and Bryophyllum pinnatum extract was determined on the crystallization of calcium oxalate crystals. Effect on the number, size and type of calcium oxalate crystals was observed. Results showed significant activity of both extracts against calcium oxalate crystallization at different concentrations (P < 0.05). Size of the crystals gradually reduced with the increasing concentration of both extracts. The number of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals which are injurious to epithelial cells gradually reduced and at the highest concentration of extracts (100 mg/ml) completely disappeared (P < 0.05). These results confirm that B. diffusa and B. pinnatum extracts have antiurolithic activity and have the ability to reduce crystal size as well as to promote the formation of calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) crystals rather than monohydrate (COM) crystals. Control of crystal size and formation of COD rather than COM crystals, in combination with the diuretic action of extracts is an important way to control urolithiasis. PMID:21643743

  6. Interaction of Gas Phase Oxalic Acid with Ammonia and its Atmospheric Implications

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Xiu-Qiu; Liu, Yi-Rong; Huang, Teng; Jiang, Shuai; Huang, Wei

    2015-04-14

    Oxalic acid is believed to play an important role in the formation and growth of atmospheric organic aerosols. However, as a common organic acid, the understanding of the larger clusters formed by gas phase oxalic acid with multiple ammonia molecules is incomplete. In this work, the structural characteristics and thermodynamics of oxalic acid clusters with up to six ammonia molecules have been investigated at the PW91PW91/6-311++G(3df,3pd) level of theory. We found that oxalic acid forms relatively stable clusters with ammonia molecules, and that ionization events play a key role. The analyses of the thermodynamics and atmospheric relevance indicate that the heterodimer (H2C2O4)(NH3) shows an obvious relative concentration in the atmosphere, and thus likely participates in new particle formation. However, with increasing number of ammonia molecules, the concentration of clusters decreases gradually. Additionally, clusters of oxalic acid with ammonia molecules are predicted to form favorably in low temperature conditions and show high Rayleigh scattering intensities.

  7. An association between urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in persons living in cadmium-contaminated villages in northwestern Thailand: A population study

    SciTech Connect

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Mahasakpan, Pranee; Limpatanachote, Pisit; Krintratun, Somyot

    2011-05-15

    Excessive urinary calcium excretion is the major risk of urinary stone formation. Very few population studies have been performed to determine the relationship between environmental cadmium exposure and urinary stone disease. This population-based study examined an association between urinary cadmium excretion, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, and prevalence of urinary stones in persons aged 15 years and older, who lived in the 12 cadmium-contaminated villages in the Mae Sot District, Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. A total of 6748 persons were interviewed and screened for urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in 2009. To test a correlation between urinary excretion of cadmium and calcium, we measured urinary calcium content in 1492 persons, who lived in 3 villages randomly selected from the 12 contaminated villages. The rate of urinary stones significantly increased from 4.3% among persons in the lowest quartile of urinary cadmium to 11.3% in the highest quartile. An increase in stone prevalence with increasing urinary cadmium levels was similarly observed in both genders. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed a positive association between urinary cadmium levels and stone prevalence, after adjusting for other co-variables. The urinary calcium excretion significantly increased with increasing urinary cadmium levels in both genders, after adjusting for other co-variables. Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium might increase the risk of urinary stone formation in this environmentally exposed population. - Research highlights: {yields} Excessive calciuria is the major risk of urinary stone formation. {yields} We examine cadmium-exposed persons for urinary cadmium, calcium, and stones. {yields} The rate of urinary stones increases with increasing urinary cadmium. {yields} Urinary calcium excretion increases with increasing urinary cadmium. {yields} Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium may increase the risk of urinary stones.

  8. Vorinostat protects against calcium oxalate-induced kidney injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Chen, Wei; Peng, Zhongjiang; Liu, Changcheng; Zhang, Caihong; Guo, Zhiyong

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed to examine the effect of the histone deacetylase inhibitor, vorinostat (SAHA), on renal function in a calcium oxalate crystal mouse model, and to investigate the mechanism underlying the renoprotective effect of SAHA. Calcium oxalate crystal formation was induced in 8 week‑old male C57BL/6 mice by administering 100 mg/kg glyoxylate for 7 days. A total of 24 male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into a control group and the following experimental groups: 50 mg/kg normal saline + 100 mg/kg glyoxylate; 50 mg/kg dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) + 100 mg/kg glyoxylate; and 50 mg/kg SAHA + 100 mg/kg glyoxylate. The mice in each of the experimental groups were injected with the saline, DMSO or SAHA into their abdominal cavities 6 h prior to the glyoxylate injection. The mice were sacrificed after 7 days, following which blood and urine samples were collected. The kidneys were harvested to analyze the levels of calcium concentrations and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase. Immunohistochemical staining and semi‑quantitative analyses were performed to detect the expression levels of osteopontin (OPN) and CD44. Renal tubular cell apoptosis was detected using a TUNEL assay. The concentrations of calcium and malondialdehyde were significantly decreased in the SAHA group, and calcium oxalate crystals in the kidney tissue and the expression levels of OPN and CD44 in the SAHA group were lower, compared with the other experimental groups. SAHA significantly reduced the urinary excretion of KIM‑1 and renal tubular cell apoptosis. In conclusion, SAHA reduced calcium oxalate crystal deposition and protected against kidney injury. PMID:26095064

  9. Diabetes related risk factors did not explain the increased risk for urinary incontinence among women with diabetes. The Norwegian HUNT/EPINCONT study

    PubMed Central

    Ebbesen, Marit Helen; Hannestad, Yngvild S; Midthjell, Kristian; Hunskaar, Steinar

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown an association between diabetes mellitus (DM) and urinary incontinence (UI) in women, especially severe UI. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether diabetes related variables could explain this association. Methods The study is part of the EPINCONT study, which is based on the large Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 2 (HUNT 2), performed in the county of Nord-Trøndelag, Norway, during the years 1995 - 1997. Questions on diabetes and UI were answered by a total of 21 057 women aged 20 years and older. Of these 685 were identified as having diabetes, and thus comprise the population of our study. A variety of clinical and biochemical variables were recorded from the participants. Results Blood-glucose, HbA1c, albumine:creatinine ratio (ACR), duration of diabetes, diabetes treatment, type of diabetes, cholesterol and triglycerides did not significantly differ in women with and without UI in crude analyses. However, the diabetic women with UI had more hospitalizations during the last 12 months, more homecare, and a higher prevalence of angina and use of oestrogene treatment (both local and oral/patch). After adjusting for age, BMI, parity and smoking, there were statistically significant associations between any UI and angina (OR 1.89; 95% CI: 1.22 - 2.93), homecare (OR 1.72; 95% CI: 1.02 - 2.89), and hospitalization during the last 12 months (OR 1.67; 95% CI: 1.18 - 2.38). In adjusted analyses severe UI was also significantly associated with the same variables, and also with diabetes drug treatment (OR 2.10; 95% CI: 1.07 - 4.10) and stroke (OR 2.47; 95% CI: 1.09 - 5.59). Conclusion No single diabetes related risk factor seems to explain the increased risk for UI among women with diabetes. However, we found associations between UI and some clinical correlates of diabetes. PMID:19740449

  10. Ethylene glycol induces calcium oxalate crystal deposition in Malpighian tubules: a Drosophila model for nephrolithiasis/urolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Liu, Hsin-Ping; Chen, Huey-Yi; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Chang, Chiao-Hui; Lee, Yuan-Ju; Lin, Wei-Yong; Chen, Wen-Chi

    2011-08-01

    Several animal species are used to study calcium oxalate urolithiasis; however, an ideal model has yet to be identified. We used Drosophila as a model organism and fed the flies lithogenic agents such as ethylene glycol, hydroxyl-L-proline, and sodium oxalate. At different times, the Malpighian tubules, the kidney equivalent of insects, were dissected and a polarized light microscope used to highlight the birefringent crystals. Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirmed that the crystal composition was predominately calcium oxalate. Furthermore, administration of potassium citrate successfully reduced the quantity of and modulated the integrity of the ethylene glycol-induced crystals. Thus, the Drosophila model of bio-mineralization produces crystals in the urinary system through many lithogenic agents, permits observation of crystal formation, and is amenable to genetic manipulation. This model may mimic the etiology and clinical manifestations of calcium oxalate stone formation and aid in identification of the genetic basis of this disease. PMID:21451462

  11. Studying inhibition of calcium oxalate stone formation: an in vitro approach for screening hydrogen sulfide and its metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Vaitheeswari, S.; Sriram, R.; Brindha, P.; Kurian, Gino A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Calcium oxalate urolithiasis is one of the most common urinary tract diseases and is of high prevalence. The present study proposes to evaluate the antilithiatic property of hydrogen sulfide and its metabolites like thiosulfate & sulfate in an in vitro model. Materials and Methods: The antilithiatic activity of sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaSH), sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3) and sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) on the kinetics of calcium oxalate crystal formation was investigated both in physiological buffer and in urine from normal and recurrent stone forming volunteers. The stones were characterized by optical and spectroscopic techniques. Results: The stones were characterized to be monoclinic, prismatic and bipyramidal habit which is of calcium monohydrate and dihydrate nature. The FTIR displayed fingerprint corresponding to calcium oxalate in the control while in NaSH treated, S=O vibrations were visible in the spectrum. The order of percentage inhibition was NaSH>Na2S2O3>Na2SO4. Conclusion: Our study indicates that sodium hydrogen sulfide and its metabolite thiosulfate are inhibitors of calcium oxalate stone agglomeration which makes them unstable both in physiological buffer and in urine. This effect is attributed to pH changes and complexing of calcium by S2O3 2-and SO4 2- moiety produced by the test compounds. PMID:26200543

  12. Red facts: Oxalic acid. Fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    All pesticides sold or used in the United States must be registered by EPA, based on scientific studies showing that they can be used without posing unreasonable risks to people or the environment. Because of advances in scientific knowledge, the law requires that pesticides which were first registered years ago be reregistered to ensure that they meet today's more stringent standards. Oxalic acid is registered for use as a disinfectant to control bacteria and germs, and as a sanitizer, in toilet bowls, urinals and bathroom premises. Oxalic acid also has many diverse, non-pesticidal, manufacturing and industrial uses including use in fabric printing and dyeing; bleaching straw hats; removing paint, varnish, rust or ink stains; and cleaning wood.

  13. Fad diets and their effect on urinary stone formation.

    PubMed

    Nouvenne, Antonio; Ticinesi, Andrea; Morelli, Ilaria; Guida, Loredana; Borghi, Loris; Meschi, Tiziana

    2014-09-01

    The influence of unhealthy dietary habits on urinary stone formation has been widely recognized in literature. Dietary advice is indeed the cornerstone prescription for prevention of nephrolithiasis as well. However, only a small amount of medical literature has addressed the influence of popular or fad diets, often self-prescribed for the management of obesity and overweight or for cultural beliefs, on the risk of kidney stones. Thereby in this paper we analyze the current knowledge on the effects of some popular diets on overall lithogenic risk. High-protein diets, like Dukan diet, raise some concerns, since animal proteins are able to increase urinary calcium and to decrease urinary citrate excretion, thus leading to a high overall lithogenic risk. Low-carbohydrate diets, like Atkins diet or zone diet, may have a protective role against kidney stone formation, but there are also evidences stating that this dietary approach may rise calciuria and decrease citraturia, since it is generally associated to a relatively high intake of animal proteins. Vegan diet can be harmful for urinary stone disease, especially for the risk of hyperuricemia and micronutrient deficiencies, even if only few studies have addressed this specific matter. On the other side, the benefits of a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet on kidney stone prevention have been largely emphasized, provided that the intake of calcium and oxalate is balanced. Traditional Mediterranean diet should exert a protective effect on nephrolithiasis as well, even if specific studies have not been carried out yet. High phytate and antioxidant content of this diet have however demonstrated to be beneficial in preventing the formation of new or recurrent calculi. Anyway, at the current state of knowledge, the most effective dietary approach to prevent kidney stone disease is a mild animal protein restriction, a balanced intake of carbohydrates and fats and a high intake of fruit and vegetables. Other fundamental aspects, which are often neglected in fad diets, are a normal intake of milk and dairy products and salt restriction. All these nutritional aspects should be greatly taken into account when patients who are willing to undergo fad or commercial diets ask for dietary advice. PMID:26816783

  14. Fad diets and their effect on urinary stone formation

    PubMed Central

    Nouvenne, Antonio; Ticinesi, Andrea; Morelli, Ilaria; Guida, Loredana; Meschi, Tiziana

    2014-01-01

    The influence of unhealthy dietary habits on urinary stone formation has been widely recognized in literature. Dietary advice is indeed the cornerstone prescription for prevention of nephrolithiasis as well. However, only a small amount of medical literature has addressed the influence of popular or fad diets, often self-prescribed for the management of obesity and overweight or for cultural beliefs, on the risk of kidney stones. Thereby in this paper we analyze the current knowledge on the effects of some popular diets on overall lithogenic risk. High-protein diets, like Dukan diet, raise some concerns, since animal proteins are able to increase urinary calcium and to decrease urinary citrate excretion, thus leading to a high overall lithogenic risk. Low-carbohydrate diets, like Atkins diet or zone diet, may have a protective role against kidney stone formation, but there are also evidences stating that this dietary approach may rise calciuria and decrease citraturia, since it is generally associated to a relatively high intake of animal proteins. Vegan diet can be harmful for urinary stone disease, especially for the risk of hyperuricemia and micronutrient deficiencies, even if only few studies have addressed this specific matter. On the other side, the benefits of a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet on kidney stone prevention have been largely emphasized, provided that the intake of calcium and oxalate is balanced. Traditional Mediterranean diet should exert a protective effect on nephrolithiasis as well, even if specific studies have not been carried out yet. High phytate and antioxidant content of this diet have however demonstrated to be beneficial in preventing the formation of new or recurrent calculi. Anyway, at the current state of knowledge, the most effective dietary approach to prevent kidney stone disease is a mild animal protein restriction, a balanced intake of carbohydrates and fats and a high intake of fruit and vegetables. Other fundamental aspects, which are often neglected in fad diets, are a normal intake of milk and dairy products and salt restriction. All these nutritional aspects should be greatly taken into account when patients who are willing to undergo fad or commercial diets ask for dietary advice. PMID:26816783

  15. Reactive oxygen species, inflammation and calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Calcium oxalate (CaOx) kidney stones are formed attached to Randall’s plaques (RPs) or Randall’s plugs. Mechanisms involved in the formation and growth are poorly understood. It is our hypothesis that stone formation is a form of pathological biomineralization or ectopic calcification. Pathological calcification and plaque formation in the body is triggered by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the development of oxidative stress (OS). This review explores clinical and experimental data in support of ROS involvement in the formation of CaOx kidney stones. Under normal conditions the production of ROS is tightly controlled, increasing when and where needed. Results of clinical and experimental studies show that renal epithelial exposure to high oxalate and crystals of CaOx/calcium phosphate (CaP) generates excess ROS, causing injury and inflammation. Major markers of OS and inflammation are detectable in urine of stone patients as well as rats with experimentally induced CaOx nephrolithiasis. Antioxidant treatments reduce crystal and oxalate induced injury in tissue culture and animal models. Significantly lower serum levels of antioxidants, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthine have been found in individuals with a history of kidney stones. A diet rich in antioxidants has been shown to reduce stone episodes. ROS regulate crystal formation, growth and retention through the timely production of crystallization modulators. In the presence of abnormal calcium, citrate, oxalate, and/or phosphate, however, there is an overproduction of ROS and a decrease in the antioxidant capacity resulting in OS, renal injury and inflammation. Cellular degradation products in the urine promote crystallization in the tubular lumen at a faster rate thus blocking the tubule and plugging the tubular openings at the papillary tips forming Randall’s plugs. Renal epithelial cells lining the loops of Henle/collecting ducts may become osteogenic, producing membrane vesicles at the basal side. In addition endothelial cells lining the blood vessels may also become osteogenic producing membrane vesicles. Calcification of the vesicles gives rise to RPs. The growth of the RP’s is sustained by mineralization of collagen laid down as result of inflammation and fibrosis. PMID:25383321

  16. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Our ePublications > Urinary tract infection fact sheet ePublications Urinary tract infection fact sheet Print this fact sheet Urinary tract ... a urinary (YOOR-uh-nair-ee) tract infection (UTI)? A UTI is an infection anywhere in the ...

  17. Effect of oxalic acid on Nosema ceranae infection.

    PubMed

    Nanetti, Antonio; Rodriguez-Garca, Cristina; Meana, Arnzazu; Martn-Hernndez, Raquel; Higes, Mariano

    2015-10-01

    Nosema ceranae is a honey bee pathogen parasitizing the ventricular epithelium and potentially causing colony death. The effect of 0.25 M oxalic acid solution administered to the bees in the form of sugar syrup was determined in laboratory and field trials. The spore numbers in an 8-day laboratory experiment were significantly lower when AO was administered (treated: 11.86 0.94 s.e. 10^6; untreated: 30.64 0.31 s.e.x10^6). When administered in autumn to free flying colonies twice, 3 weeks apart, the infection prevalence decreased in young (relative reduction of 53.8% 6.5 s.e.) and old bees (relative reduction of 44.4% 6.0 s.e.). Meanwhile increased prevalence in all the controls was detected (young and old bees: relative increase of 45.7% 22.8 s.e. and 10.2% 5.9 s.e., respectively). While all the treated colonies overwintered correctly, the untreated ones did not (3 out of 5 were dead). In the absence of commercial products approved in several countries to control nosemosis, oxalic acid syrup appears promising in the development of alternative management strategies. PMID:26412538

  18. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE TANK CLEANING: CORROSION RATE FOR ONE VERSUS EIGHT PERCENT OXALIC ACID SOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Ketusky, E.; Subramanian, K.

    2011-01-20

    Until recently, the use of oxalic acid for chemically cleaning the Savannah River Site (SRS) radioactive waste tanks focused on using concentrated 4 and 8-wt% solutions. Recent testing and research on applicable dissolution mechanisms have concluded that under appropriate conditions, dilute solutions of oxalic acid (i.e., 1-wt%) may be more effective. Based on the need to maximize cleaning effectiveness, coupled with the need to minimize downstream impacts, SRS is now developing plans for using a 1-wt% oxalic acid solution. A technology gap associated with using a 1-wt% oxalic acid solution was a dearth of suitable corrosion data. Assuming oxalic acid's passivation of carbon steel was proportional to the free oxalate concentration, the general corrosion rate (CR) from a 1-wt% solution may not be bound by those from 8-wt%. Therefore, after developing the test strategy and plan, the corrosion testing was performed. Starting with the envisioned process specific baseline solvent, a 1-wt% oxalic acid solution, with sludge (limited to Purex type sludge-simulant for this initial effort) at 75 C and agitated, the corrosion rate (CR) was determined from the measured weight loss of the exposed coupon. Environmental variations tested were: (a) Inclusion of sludge in the test vessel or assuming a pure oxalic acid solution; (b) acid solution temperature maintained at 75 or 45 C; and (c) agitation of the acid solution or stagnant. Application of select electrochemical testing (EC) explored the impact of each variation on the passivation mechanisms and confirmed the CR. The 1-wt% results were then compared to those from the 8-wt%. The immersion coupons showed that the maximum time averaged CR for a 1-wt% solution with sludge was less than 25-mils/yr for all conditions. For an agitated 8-wt% solution with sludge, the maximum time averaged CR was about 30-mils/yr at 50 C, and 86-mils/yr at 75 C. Both the 1-wt% and the 8-wt% testing demonstrated that if the sludge was removed from the testing, there would be a significant increase in the CR. Specifically, the CR for an agitated 1-wt% pure oxalic acid solution at 45 or 75 C was about 4 to 10 times greater than those for a 1-wt% solution with sludge. For 8-wt% at 50 C, the effect was even larger. The lower CRs suggest that the cathodic reactions were altered by the sludge. For both the 1-wt% and 8-wt% solution, increasing the temperature did not result in an increased CR. Although the CR for a 1-wt% acid with sludge was considered to be non-temperature dependent, a stagnant solution with sludge resulted in a CR that was greater at 45 C than at 75 C, suggesting that the oxalate film formed at a higher temperature was better in mitigating corrosion. For both a 1 and an 8-wt% solution, agitation typically resulted in a higher CR. Overall, the testing showed that the general CR to the SRS carbon steel tanks from 1-wt% oxalic acid solution will remain bounded by those from an 8-wt% oxalic acid solution.

  19. OXALATE MASS BALANCE DURING CHEMICAL CLEANING IN TANK 6F

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.; Fink, S.

    2011-07-22

    The Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is preparing Tank 6F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. Following mechanical sludge removal, SRS performed chemical cleaning with oxalic acid to remove the sludge heel. Personnel are currently assessing the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning to determine whether the tank is ready for closure. SRR personnel collected liquid samples during chemical cleaning and submitted them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. Following chemical cleaning, they collected a solid sample (also known as 'process sample') and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. The authors analyzed these samples to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning process. Analysis of the anions showed the measured oxalate removed from Tank 6F to be approximately 50% of the amount added in the oxalic acid. To close the oxalate mass balance, the author collected solid samples, leached them with nitric acid, and measured the concentration of cations and anions in the leachate. Some conclusions from this work are: (1) Approximately 65% of the oxalate added as oxalic acid was removed with the decanted liquid. (2) Approximately 1% of the oxalate (added to the tank as oxalic acid) formed precipitates with compounds such as nickel, manganese, sodium, and iron (II), and was dissolved with nitric acid. (3) As much as 30% of the oxalate may have decomposed forming carbon dioxide. The balance does not fully account for all the oxalate added. The offset represents the combined uncertainty in the analyses and sampling.

  20. Suppressive effects of acid-forming diet against the tumorigenic potential of pioglitazone hydrochloride in the urinary bladder of male rats

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Keiichiro; Awasaki, Yasuyuki; Kandori, Hitoshi; Tanakamaru, Zen-yo; Nagai, Hirofumi; Baron, David; Yamamoto, Masaki

    2011-03-15

    Pioglitazone hydrochloride (PIO), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) agonist, was administered orally for 85 weeks at 16 mg/kg/day to male rats fed either a diet containing 1.5% ammonium chloride (acid-forming diet) or a control diet to investigate the effects of urinary acidification induced by the acid-forming diet on the tumorigenic potential of PIO in the urinary bladder. The surviving animals at the end of the administration period were followed to the end of the 2-year study period without changes in the diet and were subjected to terminal necropsy on Week 104. The number of urinary microcrystals, evaluated by manual counting with light microscopy and by an objective method with a laser diffraction particle size analyzer, was increased by PIO on Weeks 12 and 25 and the increases were markedly suppressed by urinary acidification. Urinary citrate was decreased by PIO throughout the study period, but no changes were seen in urinary oxalate at any timepoint. The incidences of PIO-treated males bearing at least one of the advanced proliferative changes consisting of papillary hyperplasia, nodular hyperplasia, papilloma or carcinoma were significantly decreased from 11 of 82 males fed the control diet to 2 of 80 males fed the acid-forming diet. The acid-forming diet did not show any effects on the toxicokinetic parameters of PIO and its metabolites. Microcrystalluria appears to be involved in the development of the advanced stage proliferative lesions in bladder tumorigenesis induced by PIO in male rats.

  1. [Male Urinary Incontinence--a Taboo Issue].

    PubMed

    Kozomara-Hocke, Marko; Hermanns, Thomas; Poyet, Cédric

    2016-03-01

    Male urinary incontinence is an underestimated and frequently not broached issue. The urinary incontinence is divided into stress-, urge incontinence and hybrid forms as well as overflow incontinence. The fact that there are increasingly more men over 60 means that the prevalence of the urinary incontinence is up to 40%, and urinary incontinence will increasingly gain importance in daily routine practice. Many investigations and therapies can be realized by the general practitioner. Already simple therapy approaches can lead to a considerable clinical improvement of male urinary incontinence. If the initial therapy fails or pathological results (i. e. microhaematuria, recurrent urinary tract infections, raised residual urine and so on) are found, the patient should be referred to a urologist. PMID:26934011

  2. Urinary tract infections and Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Behzadi, Payam; Behzadi, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Urinary tract candidiasis is known as the most frequent nosocomial fungal infection worldwide. Candida albicans is the most common cause of nosocomial fungal urinary tract infections; however, a rapid change in the distribution of Candida species is undergoing. Simultaneously, the increase of urinary tract candidiasis has led to the appearance of antifungal resistant Candida species. In this review, we have an in depth look into Candida albicans uropathogenesis and distribution of the three most frequent Candida species contributing to urinary tract candidiasis in different countries around the world. Material and methods For writing this review, Google Scholar –a scholarly search engine– (http://scholar.google.com/) and PubMed database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/) were used. The most recently published original articles and reviews of literature relating to the first three Candida species causing urinary tract infections in different countries and the pathogenicity of Candida albicans were selected and studied. Results Although some studies show rapid changes in the uropathogenesis of Candida species causing urinary tract infections in some countries, Candida albicans is still the most important cause of candidal urinary tract infections. Conclusions Despite the ranking of Candida albicans as the dominant species for urinary tract candidiasis, specific changes have occurred in some countries. At this time, it is important to continue the surveillance related to Candida species causing urinary tract infections to prevent, control and treat urinary tract candidiasis in future. PMID:25914847

  3. Evidence that serum calcium oxalate supersaturation is a consequence of oxalate retention in patients with chronic renal failure.

    PubMed Central

    Worcester, E M; Nakagawa, Y; Bushinsky, D A; Coe, F L

    1986-01-01

    Serum oxalate rises in uremia because of decreased renal clearance, and crystals of calcium oxalate occur in the tissues of uremic patients. Crystal formation suggests that either uremic serum is supersaturated with calcium oxalate, or local oxalate production or accumulation causes regional supersaturation. To test the first alternative, we ultrafiltered uremic serum and measured supersaturation with two different methods previously used to study supersaturation in urine. First, the relative saturation ratio (RSR), the ratio of the dissolved calcium oxalate complex to the thermodynamic calcium oxalate solubility product, was estimated for 11 uremic (before and after dialysis) and 4 normal serum samples using a computer program. Mean ultrafiltrate oxalate predialysis was 89 +/- 8 microM/liter (+/- SEM), 31 +/- 4 postdialysis, and 10 +/- 3 in normals. Mean RSR was 1.7 +/- 0.1 (predialysis), 0.7 +/- 0.1 (postdialysis), and 0.2 +/- 0.1 (normal), where values greater than 1 denote supersaturation, less than 1, undersaturation. Second, the concentration product ratio (CPR), the ratio of the measured calcium oxalate concentration product before to that after incubation of the sample with calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal, was measured in seven uremic and seven normal serum ultrafiltrates. Mean oxalate was 91 +/- 11 (uremic) and 8 +/- 3 (normal). Mean CPR was 1.4 +/- 0.2 (uremic) and 0.2 +/- 0.1 (normal). Predialysis, 17 of 18 uremic ultrafiltrates were supersaturated with respect to calcium oxalate. The degree of supersaturation was correlated with ultrafiltrate oxalate (RSR, r = 0.99, r = 29, P less than 0.001; CPR, r = 0.75, n = 11, P less than 0.001). A value of ultrafiltrate oxalate of 50 microM/liter separated undersaturated from supersaturated samples and occurred at a creatinine of approximately 9.0 mg/dl. PMID:3711339

  4. Urinary protease inhibitor Serpin B3 is higher in women and is further increased in female patients affected by aldosterone producing adenoma.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, Oliviero; Cecconi, Daniela; Castagna, Annalisa; Chiecchi, Laura; Guarini, Patrizia; Gunasekaran, Muthukumar; Morandini, Francesca; Brazzarola, Paolo; Zolla, Lello; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Veglio, Franco; Mulatero, Paolo; Pizzolo, Francesca

    2014-06-01

    A correct diagnosis of primary aldosteronism (PA) requires adrenal venous sampling (AVS) for the classification of subtypes (bilateral hyperplasia, BAH, or adenoma, APA). Since such testing is not easily practicable, appropriate markers for the definition of subtypes are desirable. We hypothesized that an aldosterone excess was associated with abnormalities in urinary proteome, specific for PA subtypes. The project work was divided into 3 phases: (1) screening/identification by proteomic analysis and further characterization by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry of the candidate protein; (2) clinical validation by quantitative ELISA assay of 57 (33 M, 24 F) PA patients and 50 normotensive controls (21 M, 29 F); (3) analysis of adrenal tissue of 8 individuals who had undergone adrenalectomy for APA or other adrenal tumors. The proteomic analysis showed a different expression of Serpin B3 Inhibitor-SCCA1 (SB3) in APA and BAH patients. Urine SB3 concentrations in normotensive controls, quantified by ELISA assay and normalized by urinary creatinine, resulted much lower in males (6.72 ng SB3 per mg creatinine, C.I. 4.43-10.19) than in females (20.56 ng SB3 per mg creatinine, C.I. 12.43-33.99, p < 0.00001). SB3 concentrations were not significantly different in males affected by different PA subtypes (BAH, n = 19 and APA, n = 14) compared with normotensive subjects (n = 21). In contrast, in PA females, SB3 was significantly higher in APA (n = 13) than in BAH patients (n = 11) or in normotensive controls (n = 29) (P < 0.01 and <0.05, respectively). Neither messenger RNA nor SB3 protein were identified in tissue obtained from adrenal tumors and from the surrounding normal gland. In conclusion urine SB3 concentrations are physiologically much lower in males than in females. Hypertensive women, affected by APA, present urinary SB3 concentrations significantly higher than women affected by BAH. PMID:24503858

  5. Calcium oxalate crystals in eucalypt ectomycorrhizae: morphochemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Pylro, Victor Satler; de Freitas, André Luiz Moreira; Otoni, Wagner Campos; da Silva, Ivo Ribeiro; Borges, Arnaldo Chaer; Costa, Maurício Dutra

    2013-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi are ubiquitous in forest ecosystems, benefitting plants principally by increasing the uptake of water and nutrients such as calcium from the soil. Previous work has demonstrated accumulation of crystallites in eucalypt ectomycorrhizas, but detailed morphological and chemical characterization of these crystals has not been performed. In this work, cross sections of acetic acid-treated and cleared ectomycorrhizal fragments were visualized by polarized light microscopy to evaluate the location of crystals within cortical root cells. Ectomycorrhizal sections were also observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive x-ray (EDS) microprobe analysis. The predominant forms of crystals were crystal sand (granules) and concretions. Calcium, carbon and oxygen were detected by EDS as constituent elements and similar elemental profiles were observed between both crystal morphologies. All analyzed crystalline structures were characterized as calcium oxalate crystals. This is the first report of the stoichiometry and morphology of crystals occurring in eucalypt ectomycorrhizas in tropical soils. The data corroborates the role of ectomycorrhizae in the uptake and accumulation of calcium in the form of calcium oxalate crystals in hybrid eucalypt plants. PMID:23844062

  6. Calcium Oxalate Crystals in Eucalypt Ectomycorrhizae: Morphochemical Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Pylro, Victor Satler; de Freitas, Andr Luiz Moreira; Otoni, Wagner Campos; da Silva, Ivo Ribeiro; Borges, Arnaldo Chaer; Costa, Maurcio Dutra

    2013-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi are ubiquitous in forest ecosystems, benefitting plants principally by increasing the uptake of water and nutrients such as calcium from the soil. Previous work has demonstrated accumulation of crystallites in eucalypt ectomycorrhizas, but detailed morphological and chemical characterization of these crystals has not been performed. In this work, cross sections of acetic acid-treated and cleared ectomycorrhizal fragments were visualized by polarized light microscopy to evaluate the location of crystals within cortical root cells. Ectomycorrhizal sections were also observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive x-ray (EDS) microprobe analysis. The predominant forms of crystals were crystal sand (granules) and concretions. Calcium, carbon and oxygen were detected by EDS as constituent elements and similar elemental profiles were observed between both crystal morphologies. All analyzed crystalline structures were characterized as calcium oxalate crystals. This is the first report of the stoichiometry and morphology of crystals occurring in eucalypt ectomycorrhizas in tropical soils. The data corroborates the role of ectomycorrhizae in the uptake and accumulation of calcium in the form of calcium oxalate crystals in hybrid eucalypt plants. PMID:23844062

  7. Proteome Dynamics of the Specialist Oxalate Degrader Oxalobacter formigenes

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Melissa E; Mobley, James A; Holmes, Ross P; Knight, John

    2016-01-01

    Oxalobacter formigenes is a unique intestinal organism that relies on oxalate degradation to meet most of its energy and carbon needs. A lack of colonization is a risk factor for calcium oxalate kidney stone disease. The release of the genome sequence of O. formigenes has provided an opportunity to increase our understanding of the biology of O. formigenes. This study used mass spectrometry based shotgun proteomics to examine changes in protein levels associated with the transition of growth from log to stationary phase. Of the 1867 unique protein coding genes in the genome of O. formigenes strain OxCC13, 1822 proteins were detected, which is at the lower end of the range of 1500–7500 proteins found in free-living bacteria. From the protein datasets presented here it is clear that O. formigenes contains a repertoire of metabolic pathways expected of an intestinal microbe that permit it to survive and adapt to new environments. Although further experimental testing is needed to confirm the physiological and regulatory processes that mediate adaptation with nutrient shifts, the O. formigenes protein datasets presented here can be used as a reference for studying proteome dynamics under different conditions and have significant potential for hypothesis development. PMID:26924912

  8. Increase in calciuria and oxaluria after a single chocolate bar load.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, N U; Henriet, M T; Dumoulin, G; Widmer, A; Regnard, J

    1994-08-01

    Chocolate, a foodstuff rich in sucrose, fat and oxalate, is considered unsuitable in cases of obesity, diabetes mellitus, urolithiasis and postprandial hypoglycemia. However the pathophysiological effects of chocolate are poorly documented. Therefore we investigated the effects of ingestion of 100 g dark chocolate bar (45 g cocoa and 55 g sucrose) on carbohydrate, calcium and oxalate metabolisms in 10 healthy subjects. Results were compared to those of 55 g sucrose intake (control group) performed on another day. Chocolate caused i) a lesser but longer increase in plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide than sucrose (respectively +23% of baseline vs +60%, p < 0.001; +436% of baseline vs +755%, p < 0.01 and +200% of baseline vs +331%, p < 0.01), ii) a striking increase in triglyceridemia, calciuria and oxaluria (respectively +96%, p < 0.01; +147%, p < 0.01 and +213%, p < 0.001). Thus, chocolate (cocoa+sucrose) causes a lesser pancreatic stimulation than sucrose. However, the increases in both calciuria and oxaluria (induced respectively by sucrose and cocoa) following chocolate ingestion might contribute to urinary conditions favoring the development of calcium oxalate calculi. PMID:7806135

  9. Stimulation of synovial fibroblasts by calcium oxalate and monosodium urate monohydrate. A mechanism of connective tissue degradation in oxalosis and gout.

    PubMed

    Hasselbacher, P

    1982-12-01

    The responses of cultured rabbit synovial fibroblasts to amorphous and microcrystalline calcium oxalate were compared with responses to MSUM. Like urate crystals, crystalline calcium oxalate (but not amorphous oxalate) caused marked stimulation of secretion of latent collagenase and PGE2 after 3 days of culture without significant change in cell protein or gross cellular morphology. Collagenase rose from undetectable levels in control cultures to 32.4 +/- 6.0 and 27.4 +/- 7.9 U/mg of cell protein for crystalline calcium oxalate and MSUM, respectively. PGE2 rose from a control level of 0.24 +/- 0.14 to 19.47 +/- 5.15 and 23 +/- 4.84 micrograms/mg of cell protein for crystalline calcium oxalate and sodium urate compared to 1.22 +/- 0.48 microgram for amorphous calcium oxalate. Although the crystalline species studied caused LDH in the media to increase threefold, this was minimal. Cell stimulation by amorphous oxalate and the crystals did not correlate with membranolytic potential as measured with an erythrocyte lysis assay. Stimulation of resident synovial cells by crystalline calcium oxalate and sodium urate may contribute to the chronic inflammation and destruction of joint tissues that occurs in oxalosis and gout. PMID:6292314

  10. Comparative structural modeling and docking studies of oxalate oxidase: Possible implication in enzyme supplementation therapy for urolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Khobragade, C N; Beedkar, Supriya D; Bodade, Ragini G; Vinchurkar, Aruna S

    2011-04-01

    In humans oxalate is end product of protein metabolism, with no enzyme present to act on it. In conditions of its enhanced endogenous synthesis or increased absorption from the diet, oxalate accumulation leads to hyperoxaluria which can further lead to a number of pathological conditions including urolithiasis. Urolithiasis has been a perplexing problem due to its high incidence and rate of recurrence after treatment like Extracorporeal-shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Hence other prophylactic treatment becomes necessary. One of the newer approaches of curing such metabolic disorders is the enzyme supplementation therapy. Oxalate oxidase (OxOx) is a commonly occurring enzyme in plants, bacteria and fungi that catalyses oxidative cleavage of oxalate to CO(2) with reduction of dioxygen to H(2)O(2). Present study, used Hordeum vulgare OxOx crystal structure (PDB ID 2ET1A) as a template for constructing 3D models of OxOx from Triticum aestivum, Arabidopsis thaliana, Sclerotiana sclerotiarum. Similarly Homology models for isoforms Ceriporiopsis subvermispora 336, C. subvermispora 422 were constructed by using template Bacillus subtilis oxalate decarboxylase (Oxdc) (PDB ID 2UY8A) by comparative modeling approach in SWISS MODEL, MODELLER, 3D JIGSAW and GENO 3D program server. Based on overall stereochemical quality (PROCHECK, PROSA, VARIFY 3D), best models were selected, energy minimized, refined and characterized for active site in BioMed CaChe V 6.1 workspace. Selected models were further studied for structure function relationship with substrate (oxalate) and its analogue (glycolate) by using docking approach. Calculated interaction energy between the oxalate and constructed enzyme indicated that homology models for OxOx of T. aestivum, A. thaliana and S. sclerotiarum, can account for better regio-specificity of this enzyme towards oxalate. That supports the interested metabolism and thus may further implement in enzyme supplementation therapy for urolithiasis. PMID:21255608

  11. Promoting urinary continence in older women.

    PubMed

    Bardsley, Alison

    2014-10-28

    Continence promotion involves informing and educating the public and healthcare professionals that urinary incontinence is not an inevitable part of ageing, and can be treated or at least made more manageable. While awareness of urinary continence is improving slowly, the taboo around discussing incontinence remains. Women are at increased risk of developing urinary incontinence as they grow older because of physiological, functional and cognitive changes. Healthcare professionals can identify women with bladder symptoms by routinely asking trigger questions and can promote continence through education about lifestyle choices that aggravate or ameliorate urinary incontinence. This article discusses the main risk factors associated with urinary incontinence in older women and the ways in which healthcare professionals can help to identify those with symptoms of urinary incontinence. PMID:25335630

  12. Electrochemical synthesis and characterization of zinc oxalate nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Roushani, Mahmoud; Pourmortazavi, Seied Mahdi

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Synthesis of zinc oxalate nanoparticles via electrolysis of a zinc plate anode in sodium oxalate solutions. ► Design of a Taguchi orthogonal array to identify the optimal experimental conditions. ► Controlling the size and shape of particles via applied voltage and oxalate concentration. ► Characterization of zinc oxalate nanoparticles by SEM, UV–vis, FT-IR and TG–DTA. - Abstract: A rapid, clean and simple electrodeposition method was designed for the synthesis of zinc oxalate nanoparticles. Zinc oxalate nanoparticles in different size and shapes were electrodeposited by electrolysis of a zinc plate anode in sodium oxalate aqueous solutions. It was found that the size and shape of the product could be tuned by electrolysis voltage, oxalate ion concentration, and stirring rate of electrolyte solution. A Taguchi orthogonal array design was designed to identify the optimal experimental conditions. The morphological characterization of the product was carried out by scanning electron microscopy. UV–vis and FT-IR spectroscopies were also used to characterize the electrodeposited nanoparticles. The TG–DTA studies of the nanoparticles indicated that the main thermal degradation occurs in two steps over a temperature range of 350–430 °C. In contrast to the existing methods, the present study describes a process which can be easily scaled up for the production of nano-sized zinc oxalate powder.

  13. The oxalic acid: 2-chloroacetamide crystallization: A new revelation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitra, R.; Choudhury, R. R.; Capet, Frederic; Roussel, Pascal

    2013-02-01

    The OH of COOH can acts as both donor and acceptor of hydrogen bond. OH of COOH as an acceptor was primarily observed in Oxalic acid Amide complexes. In order to further understand the packing in these complexes, oxalic acid was complexed with 2-tricholoroacetamide. This crystallization resulted in the formation of ammonium tetraoxalate dehydrate. A result similar to what was observed in complexation of oxalic acid with amide containing amino acids (asparagine and glutamine). Interestingly in all these cases, the amide bond is broken, to form the ammonium ion when trying to complex with oxalic acid.

  14. [Urinary calculi and infection].

    PubMed

    Trinchieri, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Infection urinary stones resulting from urease-producing bacteria are composed by struvite and/or carbonate apatite. Bacterial urease splits urea and promotes the formation of ammonia and carbon dioxide leading to urine alkalinization and formation of phosphate salts. Proteus species are urease-producers, whereas a limited number of strains of other Gram negative and positive species may produce urease. Ureaplasma urealyticum and Corynebacterium urealyticum are urease-producers that are not isolated by conventional urine cultures, but require specific tests for identification. Primary treatment requires surgical removal of stones as complete as possible. Extracorporeal and endoscopic treatments are usually preferred, while open surgery is actually limited to few selected cases. Residual stones or fragments should be treated by chemolysis via ureteral catheter or nephrostomy or administration of citrate salts in order to achieve a stone-free renal unit. Postoperatively, recurrent urinary tract infection should be treated with appropriate antibiotic treatment although long-term antibiotic prophylaxis can cause resistance. Urinary acidification has been proposed for the prophylaxis of infection stones, but long-term acidification is difficult to achieve in urine infected by urease-producing bacteria. Urease inhibitors lead to prevention and/or dissolution of stones and encrustations in patients with infection by urea-splitting bacteria, but their use is limited by their toxicity. The administration of citrate salts involves an increase of the value of nucleation pH (pHn), that is the pH value at which calcium and magnesium phosphate crystallization occurs, in a greater way than the corresponding increase in the urinary pH due to its alkalinizing effect and resulting in a reduction of the risk of struvite crystallization. In conclusion prevention of the recurrence of infection stones can be achieved by an integrated approach tailored on the single patient. Complete clearance of the stone must be achieved by primary surgical procedure and residual fragments should be extensively treated. In the case of persistent infection, conservative measures, such as acidification and urease inhibitors or citrate administration, should be adopted to minimize its effect on urinary saturation with respect to struvite. PMID:24874306

  15. Urinary schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Bamgbola, Oluwatoyin F

    2014-11-01

    Schistosomiasis is the second most common socio-economically devastating parasitic disease after malaria, affecting about 240 million residents of developing countries. In Africa, it predominantly manifests as urogenital disease, and the main infective agent is Schistosoma hematobium. Endemicity is propagated by poor socio-economic status and environmental degradation due to rapid urbanization. Recreational swimming is a potent medium for the spread of disease in children and adolescents. Most affected individuals are asymptomatic. The male and female worms are equipped with an extraordinary capacity for immune evasion and are able to co-habit for several decades within the pelvic venous plexus. Eggs deposited in the bladder wall resist elimination by type 1 T lymphocytes. Instead, they are sustained by pro-fibrogenic encapsulation (as modulated by type 2 helper cells). Progressive bladder disease results in obstructive uropathy and predisposes to (mostly) squamous cell carcinoma. Schistosomal glomerulopathy manifests as a clinical spectrum of asymptomatic proteinuria, nephrosis and/or nephritic syndrome. Findings on renal biopsy may be influenced by co-morbidity with Salmonella bacteria, amyloidosis and hepatitis C infection. Potentially fatal Katayama fever and spinal radiculopathy may ensue in tourists visiting an endemic zone. Early detection by urine microscopy is hampered by low urinary excretion rates of the parasite eggs. Although useful in travelers with newly acquired disease, the results of the serological antibody assay may be false positive in residents of an endemic zone. Cystoscopy, however, may be invaluable. Due to its safety, effectiveness and once-daily dosing, praziquantel is the drug of choice. An integrated approach that includes mass chemotherapy, environmental health programs and public health education is the most cost-effective preventive strategy. PMID:24469437

  16. A combined qualitative and quantitative procedure for the chemical analysis of urinary calculi

    PubMed Central

    Hodgkinson, A.

    1971-01-01

    A better understanding of the physico-chemical principles underlying the formation of calculus has led to a need for more precise information on the chemical composition of stones. A combined qualitative and quantitative procedure for the chemical analysis of urinary calculi which is suitable for routine use is presented. The procedure involves five simple qualitative tests followed by the quantitative determination of calcium, magnesium, inorganic phosphate, and oxalate. These data are used to calculate the composition of the stone in terms of calcium oxalate, apatite, and magnesium ammonium phosphate. Analytical results and derived values for five representative types of calculi are presented. PMID:5551382

  17. Reregistration eligibility document (RED): Oxalic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    EPA is directed by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act as amended in 1988 (FIFRA '88) to review all pesticide products containing active ingredients initially registered before November 1, 1984, and to reregister those products that have a substantially complete data base and do not pose unreasonable adverse effects to people or the environment. This pesticide reregistration program is to be completed by the late 1990's. The Reregistration Eligibility Document (or RED) for oxalic acid discusses the scientific data and other information supporting EPA's regulatory conclusion that products containing a pesticide do not pose unreasonable risks when used as directed by Agency-approved labeling, and are eligible for reregistration.

  18. [Calcium oxalate microcrystalline arthropathy in primary oxalosis].

    PubMed

    Benhamou, C L; Laoussadi, S; Geslin, N; Pierre, D; Luthier, F; Maitre, F; Bouille, G; Amor, B

    1985-04-01

    This paper dealt with the case of a 53 years old man, affected by a chronic renal failure as the initial symptom of a primary oxalosis and treated by hemodialysis three years ago. Two years after the onset of renal failure, the left knee was painful and swollen but no cartilage or bone joint lesion was observed. Presence of intra synovial calcium oxalate crystals suggests that this arthropathy may be related to the primary oxalosis. However the role of other calcium salts under identification evidenced by synovial electron microscopy (apatite ? pyrophosphate ?) is discussed. PMID:4001817

  19. Control of morphology and nanostructure of copper and cobalt oxalates: Effect of complexing ions, polymeric additives and molecular weight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, Paul; Pujol, Ollivier; Jongen, Nathalie; Lemaître, Jacques; Fink, Alke; Stadleman, Pierre; Hofmann, Heinrich

    2010-11-01

    Precipitated oxalates are often nanostructured and can be used as precursors for nanostructured oxides for different applications. The modification of the particle shape and nanostructures of both copper and cobalt oxalates has been demonstrated using polymeric additives or complexing counter-ions. In the case of cobalt oxalate the characteristic elongated rod particle shape (axial ratio of 10) can be modified by using polymethymethacrylate (PMMA) to produce particles with lower axial ratios of 2, through cubes all the way to platelets (axial ratio 0.2). The PMMA inhibits the growth of the particles along the [101] direction more and more strongly as the concentration of the polymer increases. The crystallite size from XRD line broadening is not modified by the PMMA indicating that the PMMA does not influence the nucleation and growth but modifies the aggregation kinetics. Copper oxalates precipitated in the presence of different cellulose derived polymers with different molecular weights and functional groups (methyl and propyl) showed sensitivity to both molecular weight and functional group. Higher molecular weights did not influence the copper oxalate particle shape, whereas methyl cellulose gave elongated particles and propyl celluloses gave platelet like particles. Copper oxalate precipitated in the presence of acetate counter ions gave platelets with an axial ratio of 0.15 compared to the cushion-like morphology (axial ratio 0.5). The primary crystallites were more elongated along the [001] direction in the presence of acetate, modifying the proportion of the hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces and hence influencing the aggregation kinetics and particle shape. The copper and cobalt oxalate particle formation seems to be dominated by the primary particle aggregation with the different additives interacting specifically with different crystallographic faces of the primary particles. By tuning this interaction particles with different shapes and substructures can be formed.Precipitated oxalates are often nanostructured and can be used as precursors for nanostructured oxides for different applications. The modification of the particle shape and nanostructures of both copper and cobalt oxalates has been demonstrated using polymeric additives or complexing counter-ions. In the case of cobalt oxalate the characteristic elongated rod particle shape (axial ratio of 10) can be modified by using polymethymethacrylate (PMMA) to produce particles with lower axial ratios of 2, through cubes all the way to platelets (axial ratio 0.2). The PMMA inhibits the growth of the particles along the [101] direction more and more strongly as the concentration of the polymer increases. The crystallite size from XRD line broadening is not modified by the PMMA indicating that the PMMA does not influence the nucleation and growth but modifies the aggregation kinetics. Copper oxalates precipitated in the presence of different cellulose derived polymers with different molecular weights and functional groups (methyl and propyl) showed sensitivity to both molecular weight and functional group. Higher molecular weights did not influence the copper oxalate particle shape, whereas methyl cellulose gave elongated particles and propyl celluloses gave platelet like particles. Copper oxalate precipitated in the presence of acetate counter ions gave platelets with an axial ratio of 0.15 compared to the cushion-like morphology (axial ratio 0.5). The primary crystallites were more elongated along the [001] direction in the presence of acetate, modifying the proportion of the hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces and hence influencing the aggregation kinetics and particle shape. The copper and cobalt oxalate particle formation seems to be dominated by the primary particle aggregation with the different additives interacting specifically with different crystallographic faces of the primary particles. By tuning this interaction particles with different shapes and substructures can be formed. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Solubility calculations; distribution of dissolved Cu species; Tables S1-4 X-ray powder diffraction data; cobalt oxalate crystallographic monoclinic structure; thermogravimetric analysis. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00420k

  20. Stress urinary incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... when the bladder bulges into the vagina (prolapse). Artificial urinary sphincter . This is a device used to ... It is easier to do than placing an artificial urinary sphincter. Retropubic suspensions lift the bladder and ...

  1. The relationship of the urinary ascorbate metabolites to specific levels of ascorbate supplementation in the monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Tillotson, J.A.; McGown, E.L.

    1981-11-01

    This study was designed to investigate urinary ascorbic acid (AA) and its metabolites derived from (1-14C) AA administered to trained monkeys fed different levels of ascorbate for extended periods of time. A chromatographic procedure was developed which rapidly separates the urinary compounds into four major fractions with minimal degradation. The distribution of 14C in the four peaks was dependent upon the ascorbate nutritional status of the monkey and remained constant for at least 30 days postlabel. The two major fractions were identified as oxalate and unmetabolized ascorbate. The ascorbate metabolites in the two minor fractions have not been identified. In monkeys maintained on low ascorbate intakes, unmetabolized ascorbate accounted for 10 to 20% and oxalate 25 to 48% of the urinary 14C. The average percentages of 14C in the urine of monkeys fed high levels of ascorbate were 75% for ascorbate and 7% for oxalate. The urine also contained an ascorbate metabolite which degraded during storage and/or chromatography, yielding 14CO2. Ascorbate sulfate was not detected as a urinary metabolite.

  2. Calcium Oxalate Accumulation in Malpighian Tubules of Silkworm (Bombyx mori)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyman, Aaron J.; Webb, Mary Alice

    2007-04-01

    Silkworm provides an ideal model system for study of calcium oxalate crystallization in kidney-like organs, called Malpighian tubules. During their growth and development, silkworm larvae accumulate massive amounts of calcium oxalate crystals in their Malpighian tubules with no apparent harm to the organism. This manuscript reports studies of crystal structure in the tubules along with analyses identifying molecular constituents of tubule exudate.

  3. Total and soluble oxalate content of some Indian spices.

    PubMed

    Ghosh Das, Sumana; Savage, G P

    2012-06-01

    Spices, such as cinnamon, cloves, cardamom, garlic, ginger, cumin, coriander and turmeric are used all over the world as flavouring and colouring ingredients in Indian foods. Previous studies have shown that spices contain variable amounts of total oxalates but there are few reports of soluble oxalate contents. In this study, the total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of ten different spices commonly used in Indian cuisine were measured. Total oxalate content ranged from 194 (nutmeg) to 4,014 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM, while the soluble oxalate contents ranged from 41 (nutmeg) to 3,977 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM. Overall, the percentage of soluble oxalate content of the spices ranged from 4.7 to 99.1% of the total oxalate content which suggests that some spices present no risk to people liable to kidney stone formation, while other spices can supply significant amounts of soluble oxalates and therefore should be used in moderation. PMID:22492273

  4. Oxalate Synthesis and Pyrolysis: A Colorful Introduction to Stoichiometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannatta, Michael W.; Richards-Babb, Michelle; Sweeney, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Metal oxalate synthesis and pyrolysis provides an opportunity for students to (i) learn stoichiometry, (ii) experience the consequences of proper stoichiometric calculations and experimental techniques, and (iii) be introduced to the relevance of chemistry by highlighting oxalates in context, for example, usages and health effects. At our…

  5. Oxalate Synthesis and Pyrolysis: A Colorful Introduction to Stoichiometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannatta, Michael W.; Richards-Babb, Michelle; Sweeney, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Metal oxalate synthesis and pyrolysis provides an opportunity for students to (i) learn stoichiometry, (ii) experience the consequences of proper stoichiometric calculations and experimental techniques, and (iii) be introduced to the relevance of chemistry by highlighting oxalates in context, for example, usages and health effects. At our

  6. Characterization of Medicago truncatula reduced calcium oxalate crystal mutant alleles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium oxalate crystal formation is common in plants. Formation of these crystals has been shown to function in plant defense, calcium regulation, and aluminum tolerance. Although calcium oxalate is common and plays important roles in plant development, our understanding of how these crystals form ...

  7. Alleviation of chilling injury in tomato fruit by exogenous application of oxalic acid.

    PubMed

    Li, Peiyan; Yin, Fei; Song, Lijun; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2016-07-01

    The effects of oxalic acid on the development of chilling injury (CI), energy metabolism and lycopene metabolism in tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum L.) were investigated. Mature green tomatoes were dipped in 10mmoll(-1) oxalic acid (OA) solution for 10min at 25°C. Tomatoes were subsequently stored at 4±0.5°C for 20days before being transferred to 25°C for 12days. Oxalic acid treatment apparently alleviated CI development and membrane damage; maintained higher levels of ATP and ADP; increased activities of succinic dehydrogenase (SDH), Ca(2+)-adenosine triphosphatase (Ca(2+)-ATPase) and H(+)-adenosine triphosphatase (H(+)-ATPase); and elevated lycopene accumulation associated with the upregulation of PSY1 and ZDS expression in tomatoes during a period at room temperature following exposure to chilling stress. Thus, oxalic acid treatment benefited the control of CI and the maintenance of fruit quality in tomatoes stored for long periods (approximately 32days). PMID:26920276

  8. NASA Astronaut Urinary Conditions Associated with Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Law, Jennifer; Cole, Richard; Young, Millennia H.; Mason, Sara

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Spaceflight is associated with many factors which may promote kidney stone formation, urinary retention, and/or Urinary Tract Infection (UTI). According to ISS mission predictions supplied by NASA's Integrated Medical Model, kidney stone is the second and sepsis (urosepsis as primary driver) the third most likely reason for emergent medical evacuation from the International Space Station (ISS). METHODS: Inflight and postflight medical records of NASA astronauts were reviewed for urinary retention, UTI and kidney stones during Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Mir, Shuttle, and ISS expeditions 1-38. RESULTS: NASA astronauts have had 7 cases of kidney stones in the 12 months after flight. Three of these cases occurred within 90 to 180 days after landing and one of the seven cases occurred in the first 90 days after flight. There have been a total of 16 cases (0.018 events per person-flights) of urinary retention during flight. The event rates per mission are nearly identical between Shuttle and ISS flights (0.019 vs 0.021 events per person-flights). In 12 of the 16 cases, astronauts had taken at least one space motion sickness medication. Upon further analysis, it was determined that the odds of developing urinary retention in spaceflight is 3 times higher among astronauts who took promethazine. The female to male odds ratio for inflight urinary retention is 11:14. An astronaut with urinary retention is 25 times more likely to have a UTI with a 17% infection rate per mission. There have been 9 reported UTIs during spaceflight. DISCUSSION: It is unclear if spaceflight carries an increased post-flight risk of kidney stones. Regarding urinary retention, the female to male odds ratio is higher during flight compared to the general population where older males comprise almost all cases due to prostatic hypertrophy. This female prevalence in spaceflight is even more concerning given the fact that there have been many more males in space than females. Terrestrial medications with a known side effect of urinary retention are also associated with urinary retention during flight. However, not all cases of urinary retention surrounded medication use inflight. It is also known that UTI is a terrestrial cause of urinary retention. Furthermore, the treatment of urinary retention with a urinary catheter may be more likely to initiate a UTI in space than on the ground, as aseptic techniques can be particularly challenging with an inexperienced provider in a free-floating environment. Inflight urinary retention and UTI have proven to be highly associated and urinary risks should be considered collectively when planning for space flight.

  9. Studies on calcium oxalate monohydrate crystallization: influence of inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Grases, F; Kroupa, M; Costa-Bauzá, A

    1994-01-01

    A simple model to study calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystallization on different substrates is presented and the action of different potential inhibitors is evaluated and discussed. COM heterogeneous nucleation was assayed on solid surfaces as calcium phosphate, mixtures of mucin with calcium phosphate, and wax. In the presence of a non-protected non-renewed solid surface in contact with normal urine, COM crystal formation could be detected at short intervals (3 h). The most active heterogeneous nucleation capacity corresponded to calcium phosphate. In the presence of 10% mucin, owing to the renewal of the surface layer no COM crystal were detected on the pellet's surface. The study of citrate and pentosan polysulphate (a semisynthetic polysaccharide) on COM heterogeneous nucleation demonstrated some important inhibitory effects when concentration increased and time decreased. Maximum effects were selectively manifested on calcium phosphate surfaces. Only phytic acid at adequate concentration exhibited a total inhibitory capacity of COM formation, even during longer intervals (15 h). PMID:7521089

  10. AB152. Analysis of altered microRNA expression profile in calcium oxalate stone formation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhuo; Jiang, Hongyang; Wang, Tao; Yang, Jun; Wang, Shaogang; Liu, Jihong; Yang, Weimin; Ye, Zhangqun

    2015-01-01

    Objective Calcium oxalate stones account for over 80% of urinary stones, while the molecular mechanism of its formation has been unclear. Hyperoxaluria plays an important role in the pathophysiological process of stone formation. The difference of miRNA expression profiles between experimental hyperoxaluric rats and normal rats is analyzed in our study, in order to find out the target genes and signaling pathways in the pathogenesis procedure of hyperoxaluria. Methods Feeding ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride to culture male experimental hyperoxaluric rats as the experimental group, and age-matched male rats were selected as the control group. The oxalate concentration of 24 hour urine of each experimental rat was measured, of which the three highest were selected for microarray test. MicroRNA microarray was applied to evaluate the expression difference between the two groups and screen miRNA whose fold change were above 2.0 or below 0.5. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) technology was used to validate the microarray results. Target prediction, Gene Ontology (GO) analysis and pathway analysis were applied to predict the potential roles of microRNAs in biological processes. Results There are 28 miRNAs differentially expressed with a more than 2.0-fold change. Among these miRNAs, 20 were up-regulated while 8 were down-regulated. After GO analysis and pathway analysis, the insulin resistance pathway and PI3K-Akt signaling pathway were associated with miRNA regulation. Conclusions This study identified differentially expressed miRNAs in hyperoxaluric rats, providing new insights into the role of miRNA in the formation of calcium oxalate stones.

  11. In Situ Oxalic Acid Injection to Accelerate Arsenic Remediation at a Superfund Site in New Jersey

    PubMed Central

    Wovkulich, Karen; Stute, Martin; Mailloux, Brian J.; Keimowitz, Alison R.; Ross, James; Bostick, Benjamin; Sun, Jing; Chillrud, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic is a prevalent contaminant at a large number of US Superfund sites; establishing techniques that accelerate As remediation could benefit many sites. Hundreds of tons of As were released into the environment by the Vineland Chemical Co. in southern New Jersey during its manufacturing lifetime (1949–1994), resulting in extensive contamination of surface and subsurface soils and sediments, groundwater, and the downstream watershed. Despite substantial intervention at this Superfund site, sufficient aquifer cleanup could require many decades if based on traditional pump and treat technologies only. Laboratory column experiments have suggested that oxalic acid addition to contaminated aquifer solids could promote significant As release from the solid phase. To evaluate the potential of chemical additions to increase As release in situ and boost treatment efficiency, a forced gradient pilot scale study was conducted on the Vineland site. During spring/summer 2009, oxalic acid and bromide tracer were injected into a small portion (~50 m2) of the site for 3 months. Groundwater samples indicate that introduction of oxalic acid led to increased As release. Between 2.9 and 3.6 kg of As were removed from the sampled wells as a result of the oxalic acid treatment during the 3-month injection. A comparison of As concentrations on sediment cores collected before and after treatment and analyzed using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy suggested reduction in As concentrations of ~36% (median difference) to 48% (mean difference). While further study is necessary, the addition of oxalic acid shows potential for accelerating treatment of a highly contaminated site and decreasing the As remediation time-scale. PMID:25598701

  12. Use of a calcium tracer to detect stone increments in a rat calcium oxalate xenoplantation model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuo; Xu, Qingquan; Huang, Xiaobo; Lin, Jingxing; Wang, Jinxing; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2013-10-01

    The majority of urinary stones have been observed to grow by circular increments in the clinic and in animal studies. However, the mechanism of stone formation has not yet been elucidated. Marking the stone at specific time-points during the growth of the stone is likely to enable the clarification of the mechanisms behind lithogenesis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role and efficacy of calcium-tracing fluorescence in the labeling of stone lamination in a rat calcium oxalate xenoplantation model. In the rat calcium oxalate xenoplantation model, human renal stone particles, extracted by percutaneous nephrolithotomy, were xenoplanted into the bladders of Wistar rats in a sterile manner. The rats received 1% ethylene glycol in their drinking water, starting from the day following the stone xenoplantation. Two weeks subsequent to this, three calcium-tracing fluorochromes, alizarin complexone, calcein and xylenol orange were administered by intraperitoneal injection. The newly-formed bladder stones were cut into slices and examined using light and fluorescence microscopy. The newly-formed bladder stones had a large variance in size, and circular increments were observed in the sections of the stones. The stones were successfully labeled with calcein and alizarin complexone, although calcein labeling provided superior results. However, the use of xylenol orange did not result in clear labeling. The calcium-tracing fluorochromes, calcein and alizarin complexone may be effectively used to label stone lamination in rat models. PMID:24137297

  13. Metal oxalates in paints: a Raman investigation on the relative reactivities of different pigments to oxalic acid solutions.

    PubMed

    Zoppi, A; Lofrumento, C; Mendes, N F C; Castellucci, E M

    2010-05-01

    One degradation phenomenon that occurs in artworks is the formation of metal oxalates on their surfaces. In order to gain insight into the inclination of pigments to produce oxalates, nine pigments including Na, Ca, Fe, Pb and Cu cations were selected to react with oxalic acid solutions at different concentrations (1 M, 0.1 M, 0.01 M and 0.005 M). Micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to detect the different reaction products. Pigments containing calcium (calcite, gypsum and Volterra gypsum) showed a high tendency to form weddellite as well as whewellite, especially at high acidic concentrations; among copper-based pigments (malachite, azurite, verdigris), the formation of moolooite was observed for high concentrations of acid and down to the lowest concentration (0.005 M) in the case of verdigris. Lead oxalate was detected on lead white. No iron oxalates were observed for hematite; the formation of calcium oxalate crystals was observed instead. Ultramarine blue reacted to produce elemental sulfur. According to the results obtained, calcite and verdigris showed the highest reactivity in oxalic acid environments, resulting in a high tendency to form calcium and copper oxalates, even at very low acidic concentrations; this behavior seems to arise from the high solubilities of these pigments in acidic environments. PMID:20225056

  14. Sources and atmospheric processes impacting oxalate at a suburban coastal site in Hong Kong: Insights inferred from 1 year hourly measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yang; Huang, Xiaohui Hilda; Bian, Qijing; Griffith, Stephen M.; Louie, Peter K. K.; Yu, Jian Zhen

    2015-09-01

    Oxalic acid is one of the most abundant dicarboxylic acids in the atmosphere, receiving a great deal of attention due to its potential influence on cloud condensation nucleus activities. In this work, we report 10 months of hourly oxalate measurements in particulate matter of less than 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) by a Monitor for Aerosols and Gases in ambient Air at a suburban coastal site in Hong Kong from April 2012 to February 2013. A total of more than 6000 sets of oxalate and inorganic ion data were obtained. The mean (±SD) oxalate concentration was 0.34 (±0.18) µg m-3, accounting for 2.8% of the total ion mass and 1.5% of the PM2.5 mass. Seasonal variation showed higher concentrations in fall and winter (0.54 and 0.36 µg m-3, respectively) and lower concentrations in spring and summer (~0.26 µg m-3). Different from the inorganic ions, a shallow dip in the oxalate concentration consistently occurred in the morning after sunrise (around 9:00 A.M.) throughout all seasons. Our analysis suggests that this was likely due to photolysis of oxalate-Fe (III) complex under sunlight. In summer, a small daytime peak was discernable for oxalate and nitrate. This characteristic, together with a more evident diurnal variation of O3, indicates comparatively more active photochemical oxidation in summer than other seasons. High correlations were observed between oxalate and non-sea-salt SO42- (NSS) (R2 = 0.63) and Ox (O3 + NO2) (R2 = 0.48), indicating significant commonality in their secondary formation. Positive matrix factorization analysis of oxalate and other real-time gas and particle-phase component data estimates that secondary formation processes, including secondary gas or aqueous oxidation processes (49%), oxidation processes of biomass burning emissions (37%), accounted for the majority of PM2.5 oxalate. A backward trajectories cluster analysis found that higher oxalate/NSS ratios were associated with low pollution samples under the influence of marine air masses while the ratios were lower in high pollution samples that were typically associated with continental air masses passing through areas of high anthropogenic emissions. Isolating the "low pollution marine" aerosols across the entire data set indicates that oxalate production increased in the summer compared to other seasons, suggesting either more active marine emissions of oxalate precursors or stronger photochemical processes in the summer.

  15. Inhibition of calcium oxalate monohydrate growth by citrate and the effect of the background electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, Matthew L.; Qiu, S. Roger; Hoyer, John R.; Casey, William H.; Nancollas, George H.; De Yoreo, James J.

    2007-08-01

    Pathological mineralization is a common phenomenon in broad range of plants and animals. In humans, kidney stone formation is a well-known example that afflicts approximately 10% of the population. Of the various calcium salt phases that comprise human kidney stones, the primary component is calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM). Citrate, a naturally occurring molecule in the urinary system and a common therapeutic agent for treating stone disease, is a known inhibitor of COM. Understanding the physical mechanisms of citrate inhibition requires quantification of the effects of both background electrolytes and citrate on COM step kinetics. Here we report the results of an in situ AFM study of these effects, in which we measure the effect of the electrolytes LiCl, NaCl, KCl, RbCl, and CsCl, and the dependence of step speed on citrate concentration for a range of COM supersaturations. We find that varying the background electrolyte results in significant differences in the measured step speeds and in step morphology, with KCl clearly producing the smallest impact and NaCl the largest. The kinetic coefficient for the former is nearly three times larger than for the latter, while the steps change from smooth to highly serrated when KCl is changed to NaCl. The results on the dependence of step speed on citrate concentration show that citrate produces a dead zone whose width increases with citrate concentration as well as a continual reduction in kinetic coefficient with increasing citrate level. We relate these results to a molecular-scale view of inhibition that invokes a combination of kink blocking and step pinning. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the classic step-pinning model of Cabrera and Vermilyea (C-V model) does an excellent job of predicting the effect of citrate on COM step kinetics provided the model is reformulated to more realistically account for impurity adsorption, include an expression for the Gibbs-Thomson effect that is correct for all supersaturations, and take into account a reduction in kinetic coefficient through kink blocking. The detailed derivation of this reformulated C-V model is presented and the underlying materials parameters that control its impact are examined. Despite the fact that the basic C-V model was proposed nearly 50 years ago and has seen extensive theoretical treatment, this study represents the first quantitative and molecular scale experimental confirmation for any crystal system.

  16. Modulation of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystallization by citrate through selective binding to atomic steps

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, S R; Wierzbicki, A; Salter, E A; Zepeda, S; Orme, C A; Hoyer, J R; Nancollas, G H; Cody, A M; De Yoreo, J J

    2004-10-19

    The majority of human kidney stones are composed primarily of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals. Thus, determining the molecular mechanisms by which urinary constituents modulate calcium oxalate crystallization is crucial for understanding and controlling urolithiassis in humans. A comprehensive molecular-scale view of COM shape modification by citrate, a common urinary constituent, obtained through a combination of in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) and molecular modeling is now presented. We show that citrate strongly influences the growth morphology and kinetics on the (-101) face but has much lower effect on the (010) face. Moreover, binding energy calculations show that the strength of the citrate-COM interaction is much greater at steps than on terraces and is highly step-specific. The maximum binding energy, -166.5 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, occurs for the [101] step on the (-101) face. In contrast, the value is only -56.9 kJ {center_dot} mol-1 for the [012] step on the (010) face. The binding energies on the (-101) and (010) terraces are also much smaller, -65.4 and -48.9 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1} respectively. All other binding energies lie between these extremes. This high selectivity leads to preferential binding of citrate to the acute [101] atomic steps on the (-101) face. The strong citrate-step interactions on this face leads to pinning of all steps, but the anisotropy in interaction strength results in anisotropic reductions in step kinetics. These anisotropic changes in step kinetics are, in turn, responsible for changes in the shape of macroscopic COM crystals. Thus, the molecular scale growth morphology and the bulk crystal habit in the presence of citrate are similar, and the predictions of molecular simulations are fully consistent with the experimental observations.

  17. Induced urinary crystal formation as an analytical strategy for the prediction and monitoring of urolithiasis and other metabolism-related disorders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Crystal formation reflects the entire composition of the surrounding solution. In case of urolithiasis, induced crystal formation in native urine has led to the development of the Bonn-Risk-Index (BRI), a valuable tool to quantify an individual's risk of calcium oxalate urolithiasis. If the progression of a disease is associated with characteristic changes in the activities of urinary components, this leads to an altered urinary crystallisation capacity. Therefore, the results of induced urinary crystal formation can be used to detect and monitor any disease linked to the altered urinary composition. Since crystal formation inherently takes into account the entire urinary composition, the influence of the disease on individual urinary parameters does not have to be known in order to monitor the consequent pathologic alterations. In this paper, we review the background of urinary crystal formation analysis and describe its established application in urolithiasis monitoring as well as potential further fields of clinical application. PMID:25206937

  18. FREQUENCY, URINALYSIS AND SUSCEPTIBILITY PROFILE OF PATHOGENS CAUSING URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN ENUGU STATE, SOUTHEAST NIGERIA

    PubMed Central

    Dibua, Uju M.E.; Onyemerela, Ifeoma S.; Nweze, Emeka I.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to determine the frequency and causative agent(s) of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in individuals with symptoms of urinary tract infections in Enugu State of Southeast Nigeria, and to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of microbial agents isolated from urine culture. Methods: The study involved 211 individuals (149 females and 62 males) clinically suspected for UTI. Urine samples were collected by the mid-stream ‘clean catch’ method and tested using standard procedures. Antibiotic susceptibility of the isolated pathogens was tested using the Kirby-Bauer technique according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Results: Microscopy of centrifuged urine samples showed 16 patients had pyuria while 54 had pus cells. Calcium oxalate crystals were found in 14 samples. Urinalysis performed with urine samples showed 17 had protein; seven were nitrite positive and three had moderate to high glucose concentration. Fifty-four urine samples (36.2%) from females and 12 (19.4%) from males showed significant growth upon culture. Gram stain and biochemical tests identified nine different organisms with Escherichia coli as the most common isolated species. Forty three randomly selected strains were further tested for their susceptibility against a panel of antibiotics. Thirty isolates (81.08%) were resistant to four or more antibiotics with the highest resistance shown by E. coli (76.67%). All the Gram- negative isolates were resistant to Ampicilox, Cefuroxime and Amoxicillin. Conclusion: Urinary tract infections were found more in females in the area under study. As found in other studies, E. coli was the most predominant isolate, although other organisms seem to be on the increase. PMID:24553609

  19. Thermodynamics of the Complexation of Uranium(VI) by oxalate in aqueous solution at 10-70oC

    SciTech Connect

    Di Bernardo, Plinio; Zanonato, Pier Luigi; Tian, Guoxin; Tolazzi, Marilena; Rao, Linfeng

    2009-03-31

    The protonation reactions of oxalate (ox) and the complex formation of uranium(VI) with oxalate in 1.05 mol kg{sup -1} NaClO{sub 4} were studied at variable temperatures (10-70 C). Three U(VI)/ox complexes (UO{sub 2}ox{sub j}{sup (2-2j){sup +}} with j = 1, 2, 3) were identified in this temperature range. The formation constants and the molar enthalpies of complexation were determined by spectrophotometry and calorimetry. The complexation of uranium(VI) with oxalate ion is exothermic at lower temperatures (10-40 C) and becomes endothermic at higher temperatures (55-70 C). In spite of this, the free energy of complexation becomes more negative at higher temperatures due to increasingly more positive entropy of complexation that exceeds the increase of the enthalpy of complexation. The thermodynamic parameters at different temperatures, in conjunction with the literature data for other dicarboxylic acids, provide insight into the relative strength of U(VI) complexes with a series of dicarboxylic acids (oxalic, malonic and oxydiacetic) and rationalization for the highest stability of U(VI)/oxalate complexes in the series. The data reported in this study are of importance in predicting the migration of uranium(VI) in geological environments in the case of failure of the engineering barriers which protect waste repositories.

  20. A diet high in meat protein and potential renal acid load increases fractional calcium absorption and urinary calcium excretion without affecting markers of bone resorption or formation in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jay J; Johnson, LuAnn K; Hunt, Janet R

    2011-03-01

    Our objective in this study was to determine the effects of a high-protein and high-potential renal acid load (PRAL) diet on calcium (Ca) absorption and retention and markers of bone metabolism. In a randomized crossover design, 16 postmenopausal women consumed 2 diets: 1 with low protein and low PRAL (LPLP; total protein: 61 g/d; PRAL: -48 mEq/d) and 1 with high protein and high PRAL (HPHP; total protein: 118 g/d; PRAL: 33 mEq/d) for 7 wk each separated by a 1-wk break. Ca absorption was measured by whole body scintillation counting of radio-labeled (47)Ca. Compared with the LPLP diet, the HPHP diet increased participants' serum IGF-I concentrations (P < 0.0001), decreased serum intact PTH concentrations (P < 0.001), and increased fractional (47)Ca absorption (mean ± pooled SD: 22.3 vs. 26.5 ± 5.4%; P < 0.05) and urinary Ca excretion (156 vs. 203 ± 63 mg/d; P = 0.005). The net difference between the amount of Ca absorbed and excreted in urine did not differ between 2 diet periods (55 vs. 28 ± 51 mg/d). The dietary treatments did not affect other markers of bone metabolism. In summary, a diet high in protein and PRAL increases the fractional absorption of dietary Ca, which partially compensates for increased urinary Ca, in postmenopausal women. The increased IGF-I and decreased PTH concentrations in serum, with no change in biomarkers of bone resorption or formation, indicate a high-protein diet has no adverse effects on bone health. PMID:21248199

  1. Urinary kallikrein excretion in renal transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Brouhard, B H; Cunningham, R J; Berger, M; Petrusick, T W; Travis, L B

    1982-05-01

    Urinary kallikrein, as a reflection of the intrarenal kallikrein, is distinct from plasma kallikrein. The kallikrein-kinin system, activated via antigen-antibody complexes, has been implicated in the pathophysiology of acute transplant rejection. We studied urinary excretion of sodium, potassium, protein, and kallikrein following renal transplantation in nine patients, In four patients who took steroids daily and were followed from the time of transplantation (without rejection episodes), urinary kallikrein remained stable (3.7 +/- 0.5 EU/24 hr, x +/- SEM). Since sodium-retaining steroids influence urinary kallikrein excretion, two patients were studied 2 and 3 months post-transplantation while receiving alternate-day prednisone. Values from urinary kallikrein in these patients did not differ from those in patients taking steroids daily (3.7 +/- 0.5 versus 2.7 +/- 0.3 EU/24 hr). In three patients experiencing acute rejection episodes, urinary kallikrein excretion rose markedly (24 to 260 EU/24 hr) and remained elevated until the patients became oliguric. Furthermore, this rise occurred 1-3 days before the clinical diagnosis of rejection was made. For the group as a whole there was no significant correlation between urinary kallikrein excretion, the excretion of sodium or potassium, or urine volume. Although the number of patients studied is small, the increases observed in urinary kallikrein suggest that activation of the intrarenal kallikrein-kinin system is associated with acute transplant rejection. PMID:7047034

  2. Analysis of urinary stone composition in Eastern India by X-ray diffraction crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, Tarun; Mandal, Soumendra Nath; Sonar, Pankaj; Kamal, Mir Reza; Ghosh, Nabankur; Karmakar, Dilip

    2014-01-01

    Background: Stones in the urinary system are common in our country. This study was done to assess the composition of the urinary stones in eastern part of India. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was done over a period of thirty months. A total of 90 stones were analyzed in this time period by using X-ray diffraction crystallography. Results: Of the 90 stones analyzed, 77 were renal stones, 12 were ureteric stones and one was a bladder stone. Six stones (all renal) did not have properties to be represented by X-ray diffraction crystallography. The overall prevalence of the oxalate containing stones was 85.7% with calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) being the major constituent. Calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) was the next most common constituent. Struvite stones constituted 9.5% of the stones analyzed. Pure calcium phosphate stones were found in 4.7% of the cases. Conclusion: Our study reveals that the stone composition in the eastern part of India is different from that in other parts of the country. We have a comparatively lower prevalence of oxalate stones while a higher prevalence of phosphate and struvite stones. PMID:25337533

  3. Improving nutritional quality and fungal tolerance in soya bean and grass pea by expressing an oxalate decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinay; Chattopadhyay, Arnab; Ghosh, Sumit; Irfan, Mohammad; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Chakraborty, Subhra; Datta, Asis

    2016-06-01

    Soya bean (Glycine max) and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) seeds are important sources of dietary proteins; however, they also contain antinutritional metabolite oxalic acid (OA). Excess dietary intake of OA leads to nephrolithiasis due to the formation of calcium oxalate crystals in kidneys. Besides, OA is also a known precursor of β-N-oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid (β-ODAP), a neurotoxin found in grass pea. Here, we report the reduction in OA level in soya bean (up to 73%) and grass pea (up to 75%) seeds by constitutive and/or seed-specific expression of an oxalate-degrading enzyme, oxalate decarboxylase (FvOXDC) of Flammulina velutipes. In addition, β-ODAP level of grass pea seeds was also reduced up to 73%. Reduced OA content was interrelated with the associated increase in seeds micronutrients such as calcium, iron and zinc. Moreover, constitutive expression of FvOXDC led to improved tolerance to the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum that requires OA during host colonization. Importantly, FvOXDC-expressing soya bean and grass pea plants were similar to the wild type with respect to the morphology and photosynthetic rates, and seed protein pool remained unaltered as revealed by the comparative proteomic analysis. Taken together, these results demonstrated improved seed quality and tolerance to the fungal pathogen in two important legume crops, by the expression of an oxalate-degrading enzyme. PMID:26798990

  4. [The use of sinusoidal modulated currents and iodobromine baths in treating patients with the "stone pathway" of the upper urinary tract].

    PubMed

    Nesterov, N I; Li, A A; Kiiatkin, V A; Slepushkina, T G

    1996-01-01

    After exposure to sinusoidal modulated currents and iodinebromine baths there was a decrease in serum levels of calcium, alanin aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase and urinary calcium, oxalates, leukocytes, red cells, acceleration of radiopharmaceutical accumulation (Tmax) and elimination from the kidneys (T1/2), urolith fragments (1-5 mm in size) elimination from the upper urinary tract in 21 (48.9%) out of 43 patients. The above physiotherapeutic complex is indicated for urolithiasis patients with associated diseases (hyperesthesia, causalgia). PMID:8992769

  5. Substrate Binding Mode and Molecular Basis of a Specificity Switch in Oxalate Decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wen; Easthon, Lindsey M; Reinhardt, Laurie A; Tu, Chingkuang; Cohen, Steven E; Silverman, David N; Allen, Karen N; Richards, Nigel G J

    2016-04-12

    Oxalate decarboxylase (OxDC) catalyzes the conversion of oxalate into formate and carbon dioxide in a remarkable reaction that requires manganese and dioxygen. Previous studies have shown that replacing an active-site loop segment Ser(161)-Glu(162)-Asn(163)-Ser(164) in the N-terminal domain of OxDC with the cognate residues Asp(161)-Ala(162)-Ser-(163)-Asn(164) of an evolutionarily related, Mn-dependent oxalate oxidase gives a chimeric variant (DASN) that exhibits significantly increased oxidase activity. The mechanistic basis for this change in activity has now been investigated using membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS) and isotope effect (IE) measurements. Quantitative analysis of the reaction stoichiometry as a function of oxalate concentration, as determined by MIMS, suggests that the increased oxidase activity of the DASN OxDC variant is associated with only a small fraction of the enzyme molecules in solution. In addition, IE measurements show that C-C bond cleavage in the DASN OxDC variant proceeds via the same mechanism as in the wild-type enzyme, even though the Glu(162) side chain is absent. Thus, replacement of the loop residues does not modulate the chemistry of the enzyme-bound Mn(II) ion. Taken together, these results raise the possibility that the observed oxidase activity of the DASN OxDC variant arises from an increased level of access of the solvent to the active site during catalysis, implying that the functional role of Glu(162) is to control loop conformation. A 2.6 Å resolution X-ray crystal structure of a complex between oxalate and the Co(II)-substituted ΔE162 OxDC variant, in which Glu(162) has been deleted from the active site loop, reveals the likely mode by which the substrate coordinates the catalytically active Mn ion prior to C-C bond cleavage. The "end-on" conformation of oxalate observed in the structure is consistent with the previously published V/K IE data and provides an empty coordination site for the dioxygen ligand that is thought to mediate the formation of Mn(III) for catalysis upon substrate binding. PMID:27014926

  6. Substrate Binding Mode and Molecular Basis of a Specificity Switch in Oxalate Decarboxylase

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Oxalate decarboxylase (OxDC) catalyzes the conversion of oxalate into formate and carbon dioxide in a remarkable reaction that requires manganese and dioxygen. Previous studies have shown that replacing an active-site loop segment Ser161-Glu162-Asn163-Ser164 in the N-terminal domain of OxDC with the cognate residues Asp161-Ala162-Ser-163-Asn164 of an evolutionarily related, Mn-dependent oxalate oxidase gives a chimeric variant (DASN) that exhibits significantly increased oxidase activity. The mechanistic basis for this change in activity has now been investigated using membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS) and isotope effect (IE) measurements. Quantitative analysis of the reaction stoichiometry as a function of oxalate concentration, as determined by MIMS, suggests that the increased oxidase activity of the DASN OxDC variant is associated with only a small fraction of the enzyme molecules in solution. In addition, IE measurements show that C–C bond cleavage in the DASN OxDC variant proceeds via the same mechanism as in the wild-type enzyme, even though the Glu162 side chain is absent. Thus, replacement of the loop residues does not modulate the chemistry of the enzyme-bound Mn(II) ion. Taken together, these results raise the possibility that the observed oxidase activity of the DASN OxDC variant arises from an increased level of access of the solvent to the active site during catalysis, implying that the functional role of Glu162 is to control loop conformation. A 2.6 Å resolution X-ray crystal structure of a complex between oxalate and the Co(II)-substituted ΔE162 OxDC variant, in which Glu162 has been deleted from the active site loop, reveals the likely mode by which the substrate coordinates the catalytically active Mn ion prior to C–C bond cleavage. The “end-on” conformation of oxalate observed in the structure is consistent with the previously published V/K IE data and provides an empty coordination site for the dioxygen ligand that is thought to mediate the formation of Mn(III) for catalysis upon substrate binding. PMID:27014926

  7. Adsorption of organic matter at mineral/water interfaces: I. ATR-FTIR spectroscopic and quantum chemical study of oxalate adsorbed at boehmite/water and corundum/water interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Tae Hyun; Johnson, Stephen B.; Musgrave, Charles B.; Brown, Gordon E.

    2004-11-01

    The types and structures of adsorption complexes formed by oxalate at boehmite (γ-AlOOH)/water and corundum (α-Al 2O 3)/water interfaces were determined using in situ attenuated total reflectance fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and quantum chemical simulation methods. At pH 5.1, at least four different oxalate species were found at or near the boehmite/water interface for oxalate surface coverages (Γ ox) ranging from 0.25 to 16.44 μmol/m 2. At relatively low coverages (Γ ox < 2.47), strongly adsorbed inner-sphere oxalate species (IR peaks at 1286, 1418, 1700, and 1720 cm -1) replace weakly adsorbed carbonate species, and a small proportion of oxalate anions are adsorbed in an outer-sphere mode (IR peaks at 1314 and 1591 cm -1). IR peaks indicative of inner-sphere adsorbed oxalate are also observed for oxalate at the corundum/water interface at Γ ox = 1.4 μmol/m 2. With increasing oxalate concentration (Γ ox > 2.47 μmol/m 2), the boehmite surface binding sites for inner-sphere adsorbed oxalate become saturated, and excess oxalate ions are present dominantly as aqueous species (IR peaks at 1309 and 1571 cm -1). In addition to these adsorption processes, oxalate-promoted dissolution of boehmite following inner-sphere oxalate adsorption becomes increasingly pronounced with increasing Γ ox and results in an aqueous Al(III)-oxalate species, as indicated by shifted IR peaks (1286 → 1297 cm -1 and 1418 → 1408 cm -1). At pH 2.5, no outer-sphere adsorbed oxalate or aqueous oxalate species were observed. The similarity of adsorbed oxalate spectral features at pH 2.5 and 5.1 implies that the adsorption mechanism of aqueous HOx - species involves loss of protons from this species during the ligand-exchange reaction. As a consequence, adsorbed inner-sphere oxalate and aqueous Al(III)-oxalate complexes formed at pH 2.5 have coordination geometries very similar to those formed at pH 5.1. The coordination geometry of inner-sphere adsorbed oxalate species was also predicted using quantum chemical geometry optimization and IR vibrational frequency calculations. Geometry-optimized Al 8O 12 and Al 14O 22 clusters with the reactive surface Al site coordinated by three oxygens were used as model substrates for corundum and boehmite surfaces. Among the models considered, calculated IR frequencies based on a bidentate side-on structure with a 5-membered ring agree best with the observed frequencies for boehmite/oxalate/water samples at Γ ox = 0.25 to 16.44 μmol/m 2 and pH 2.5 and 5.1, and for a corundum/oxalate/water sample at Γ ox = 1.4 μmol/m 2 and pH 5.1. Based on these results, we suggest that oxalate bonding on boehmite and corundum surfaces results in 5-coordinated rather than 4- or 6-coordinated Al surface sites.

  8. Structural characterization and vibrational studies of human urinary stones from Istanbul, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocademir, Mustafa; Baykal, Abdulhadi; Kumru, Mustafa; Tahmaz, M. Lutfu

    2016-05-01

    Seven human urinary stones were collected from urinary bladders of patients hailing from Istanbul, Turkey. Their XRD, EDX, FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra as well as SEM images have been recorded to determine their chemical compositions, morphologies, crystal structures, and crystallite sizes. XRD and vibrational (FT-IR and FT-Raman) analyses indicate that six out of the seven stones have identical contents. The ratios of organic and inorganic contents of the stones have been determined by their thermogravimetric analyses. The stones have been found to contain calcium oxalate monohydrate and apatite as the major components.

  9. Structural characterization and vibrational studies of human urinary stones from Istanbul, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kocademir, Mustafa; Baykal, Abdulhadi; Kumru, Mustafa; Tahmaz, M Lutfu

    2016-05-01

    Seven human urinary stones were collected from urinary bladders of patients hailing from Istanbul, Turkey. Their XRD, EDX, FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra as well as SEM images have been recorded to determine their chemical compositions, morphologies, crystal structures, and crystallite sizes. XRD and vibrational (FT-IR and FT-Raman) analyses indicate that six out of the seven stones have identical contents. The ratios of organic and inorganic contents of the stones have been determined by their thermogravimetric analyses. The stones have been found to contain calcium oxalate monohydrate and apatite as the major components. PMID:26890204

  10. Urinary incontinence in women.

    PubMed

    Wood, Lauren N; Anger, Jennifer T

    2014-01-01

    Urinary incontinence affects women of all ages. History, physical examination, and certain tests can guide specialists in diagnosing stress urinary incontinence, urgency urinary incontinence, and mixed urinary incontinence. First line management includes lifestyle and behavior modification, as well as pelvic floor strength and bladder training. Drug therapy is helpful in the treatment of urgency incontinence that does not respond to conservative measures. In addition, sacral neuromodulation, intravesical onabotulinumtoxinA injections, and posterior tibial nerve stimulation can be used in select patient populations with drug refractory urgency incontinence. Midurethral synthetic slings, including retropubic and transobturator approaches, are safe and efficacious surgical options for stress urinary incontinence and have replaced more invasive bladder neck slings that use autologous or cadaveric fascia. Despite controversy surrounding vaginal mesh for prolapse, synthetic slings for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence are considered safe and minimally invasive. PMID:25225003

  11. Effect of Potassium Magnesium Citrate and Vitamin B-6 Prophylaxis for Recurrent and Multiple Calcium Oxalate and Phosphate Urolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Shaik, Ahammad Basha; Bokkisam, Suneel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To study the effects of long-term treatment with potassium magnesium citrate and vitamin B-6 prophylaxis (Urikind-KM6; 1,100-mg potassium citrate, 375-mg magnesium citrate, and 20-mg pyridoxine hydrochloride/5 mL) every 8 hours over 3 years. Materials and Methods A total of 247 patients with recurrent idiopathic hypocitraturia with or without hyperuricosuria and randomized controls were studied prospectively for 3 years. The total patients were divided into three groups. Control group 1 consisted of 61 patients (24.7%) who had moderate to severe hypocitraturia with or without hyperuricosuria and were recurrent stone formers but discontinued prophylaxis because of drug intolerance within 1 month of therapy. Control group 2 constituted 53 patients (21.5%) who were first-time stone formers and who had mild hypocitraturia with or without hyperuricosuria and were not put on prophylactic therapy and were followed for 3.16±0.08 years. Control group 3 constituted 133 patients (54.8%) who were recurrent stone formers who had moderate to severe hypocitraturia with or without hyperuricosuria and were put on prophylaxis therapy and were followed for 3.16±0.08 years. All patients were followed up at 6-month intervals. Results Potassium magnesium citrate prophylaxis produced a sustained increase in 24-hour urinary citrate excretion from initially low values (221.79±13.39 mg/dL) to within normal to high limits (604.04±5.00 mg/dL) at the 6-month follow-up. Urinary pH rose significantly from 5.62±0.2 to 6.87±0.01 and was maintained at 6.87±0.01. The stone recurrence rate declined from 3.23±1.04 per patient per year to 0.35±0.47 per patient per year. Conclusions Potassium magnesium citrate prophylaxis was effective in reducing the recurrence of calcium oxalate and phosphate urolithiasis. PMID:24955227

  12. Crystal agglomeration of europium oxalate in reaction crystallization using double-jet semi-batch reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Woo-Sik; Kim, Woon-Soo; Kim, Kwang-Seok; Kim, Joon-Soo; Ward, Michael D

    2004-02-02

    The particle agglomeration of europium oxalate was investigated in a double-jet semi-batch reactor over a wide range of operating variables, including the agitation speed, reactant feed rate, and reactant concentration. The size of the agglomerates was directly dictated by the particle collision and supersaturation promoting agglomeration and the fluid shear force inhibiting agglomeration. Thus, with a longer feeding time and higher feed concentration for the reaction crystallization, the mean particle size increased, while the corresponding total particle population decreased due to the enhanced chance of particle agglomeration, resulting from a longer residence time and higher supersaturation in the reactor. Agitation was found to exhibit a rather complicated influence on particle agglomeration. Although both particle collision and turbulent fluid shear were promoted by an increase in the mixing intensity, the crystal agglomeration of europium oxalate was maximized at around 500 rpm of agitation speed due to an optimized balance between particle aggregation and breakage.

  13. The enzymes of oxalate metabolism: unexpected structures and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Svedruzić, Drazenka; Jónsson, Stefán; Toyota, Cory G; Reinhardt, Laurie A; Ricagno, Stefano; Lindqvist, Ylva; Richards, Nigel G J

    2005-01-01

    Oxalate degrading enzymes have a number of potential applications, including medical diagnosis and treatments for hyperoxaluria and other oxalate-related diseases, the production of transgenic plants for human consumption, and bioremediation of the environment. This review seeks to provide a brief overview of current knowledge regarding the major classes of enzymes and related proteins that are employed in plants, fungi, and bacteria to convert oxalate into CO(2) and/or formate. Not only do these enzymes employ intriguing chemical strategies for cleaving the chemically unreactive C-C bond in oxalate, but they also offer the prospect of providing new insights into the molecular processes that underpin the evolution of biological catalysts. PMID:15581576

  14. Tactile/kinesthetic stimulation (TKS) increases tibial speed of sound and urinary osteocalcin (U-MidOC and unOC) in premature infants (29-32 wks PMA)

    PubMed Central

    Haley, S; Beachy, J; Ivaska, KK; Slater, H; Smith, S; Moyer-Mileur, LJ

    2012-01-01

    Preterm delivery (<37 wks post-menstrual age) is associated with suboptimal bone mass. We hypothesized that tactile/kinesthetic stimulation (TKS), a form of infant massage that incorporates kinesthetic movement, would increase bone strength and markers of bone accretion in preterm infants. Preterm, AGA infants (29-32 wks) were randomly assigned to TKS (N=20) or Control (N=20). Twice daily TKS was provided six days per week for two weeks. Control infants received the same care without TKS treatment. Treatment was masked to parents, health care providers, and study personnel. Baseline and week two measures were collected for tibial speed of sound (tSOS, m/sec), a surrogate for bone strength, by quantitative ultrasound (Sunlight8000) and urine markers of bone metabolism, pyridinium crosslinks and osteocalcin (U-MidOC and unOC). Infant characteristics at birth and study entry as well as energy/nutrient intake were similar between TKS and Control. TKS intervention attenuated the decrease in tSOS observed in Control infants (p<0.05). Urinary pyridinium crosslinks decreased over time in both TKS and CTL (p<0.005). TKS infants experienced greater increases in urinary osteocalcin (U-MidOC, p<0.001 and unOC, p<0.05). We conclude that TKS improves bone strength in premature infants by attenuating the decrease that normally follows preterm birth. Further, biomarkers of bone metabolism suggest a modification in bone turnover in TKS infants in favor of bone accretion. Taken together, we speculate that TKS improves bone mineralization. PMID:22846674

  15. Multiorgan crystal deposition following intravenous oxalate infusion in rat

    SciTech Connect

    Blumenfrucht, M.J.; Cheeks, C.; Wedeen, R.P.

    1986-06-01

    Deposition of calcium oxalate is responsible for the pathologic manifestations of oxalosis and may contribute to multiorgan dysfunction in uremia and to the progression of renal damage after renal failure is established. We have developed a rat model of oxalosis using a single intravenous injection of sodium oxalate, 0.3 mmol./kg. body weight, in rats. Polarized light microscopy and section freeze-dry autoradiography were used to identify /sup 14/C-oxalate within the renal parenchyma and in extrarenal organs. /sup 14/C-oxalate crystals under three mu in length were identified within one min. of injection in proximal tubule lumens. Section freeze-dry autoradiography showed occasional minute crystals within glomeruli, heart, lung and liver at one hr. In contrast to concentrative cellular uptake demonstrated in rat renal cortical slices in vitro, intracellular accumulation of /sup 14/C-oxalate could not be detected in vivo. Within the first 24 hr., renal oxalate retention reached a maximum of 25 +/- 4 per cent of the injected dose/gm. kidney compared to a maximum of only 7 +/- 3 per cent/gm. kidney after intraperitoneal administration. Although less than one per cent dose/gm. kidney remained after one week, crystal fragments were scattered throughout the cortex and medulla, often surrounded by foci of interstitial nephritis. The retention of crystals in kidney and other body organs following i.v. oxalate provides a model of oxalosis which stimulates pathophysiologic events in a variety of clinical situations characterized by transiently or persistently elevated serum oxalate.

  16. Urinary prostasin in normotensive individuals: correlation with the aldosterone to renin ratio and urinary sodium.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, Oliviero; Chiecchi, Laura; Pizzolo, Francesca; Castagna, Annalisa; Raffaelli, Ricciarda; Gunasekaran, Muthukumar; Guarini, Patrizia; Consoli, Letizia; Salvagno, Gianluca; Kitamura, Kenichiro

    2013-06-01

    Prostasin, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored serine protease, activates the epithelial sodium (Na) channel (ENaC), and prostasin is released in extracellular fluids, including urine. Previous data have suggested a direct association between urinary prostasin and the activation of an aldosterone-driven pathway, but a quantitative association has never been demonstrated in normotensive subjects. Similarly, physiological relationships with natriuresis or possible gender- or female hormone-related changes in urinary prostasin concentrations have never been investigated. We measured urinary prostasin by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 43 healthy normotensive subjects of similar age presenting different urinary Na levels and in 15 women during the menstrual cycle and after oral estro-progestinic contraceptive (OC) therapy. Exosomal urinary prostasin was also estimated by western blotting of samples from six healthy subjects twice during the morning. Urinary prostasin presented a wide range of values (from 0.5 to 18.9?nM) without gender differences. It was positively correlated with the aldosterone to renin ratio (ARR) but not with circulating aldosterone or renin individually. Urinary prostasin was directly correlated with U-Na levels (up to 200?nmol Na), whereas it decreased for higher Na concentrations. In women, no significant changes of prostasin concentration were observed during menstrual phases. After OC therapy, prostasin increased (from 2.371.27 to 4.855.28?nM), although the increase was not statistically different (P=0.07). Prostasin was detectable in urinary exosomes and displayed a pattern similar to urinary prostasin in relation to urinary Na. In conclusion, urinary prostasin correlates with the ARR, and it is physiologically modulated by natriuresis in normotensive individuals. PMID:23344129

  17. Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence Home For Patients Search ... Stress Urinary Incontinence FAQ166, July 2014 PDF Format Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence Special Procedures What is ...

  18. Oxalate nephropathy in free-living American bullfrog tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Tokiwa, Toshihiro; Kadekaru, Sho; Ito, Masao; Yoshida, Makoto; Une, Yumi

    2015-10-27

    In February 2014, wild American bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus tadpoles from an artificial pond in the Kyusyu region, Japan, presented with coelomic and subcutaneous edema and erythema within the skin. A pathological examination of 57 tadpoles of American bullfrogs in the region was conducted to evaluate the disease. Crystal deposition of varying degrees was found in the kidneys of 35 tadpoles (61.4%). The crystals were transparent, pleomorphic in shape, highly birefringent in polarized light, and arranged in a radial pattern within the renal tubular lumen. Using Alizarin Red S stain and liquid chromatography, these crystals were identified as calcium oxalate. Severe coelomic and subcutaneous edema was observed in 7 of these 35 tadpoles (20.0%). Ammonia levels in coelomic fluid were extremely elevated (>1000 µg dl(-1)) in 4 tadpoles examined. These findings suggest that oxalate deposition in kidneys causes metabolic disorder with renal nephropathy. The source of the oxalate could not be determined; however, the presence of calcium oxalates in pond sediments, as revealed by liquid chromatography, suggested that the deposition was most likely due to ingestion of oxalate materials from the environment. This is the first report of oxalate nephropathy in free-living amphibians. PMID:26503774

  19. Urinary Calculi and Risk of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Chia-Jen; Chen, Yung-Tai; Ou, Shuo-Ming; Yang, Wu-Chang; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Tarng, Der-Cherng

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies have shown that urinary calculi are associated with increased risks of urinary tract cancers. However, the association between urinary calculi and overall cancers is a largely undefined body of knowledge. We conducted a nationwide population-based cohort study using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database from 2000 and 2009. Patients were excluded if they had antecedent cancers or urinary calculi before the enrollment. All study subjects were followed until the occurrence of cancer, dropout from the NHI program, death, or the end of 2010. Patterns of cancer incidence in patients with urinary calculi were compared with those of the general population using standardized incidence ratio (SIR). A total of 43,516 patients with urinary calculi were included. After a median follow-up of 5.3 years, 1891 patients developed cancer. The risk of overall cancers was significantly increased (SIR, 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.68–1.83). We observed that urinary calculi was associated with higher risk of cancers of kidney (4.24; 95% CI, 3.47–5.13), bladder (3.30; 95% CI, 2.69–4.00), thyroid (2.50; 95% CI, 1.78–3.40), hematologic origin (2.41; 95% CI, 1.92–2.99), breast (1.84; 95% CI, 1.54–2.20), lung (1.82; 95% CI, 1.59–2.07), digestive tract (1.69; 95% CI, 1.57–1.82), and head and neck (1.54; 95% CI, 1.32–1.79), respectively. Our study shows that urinary calculi are associated with higher risk of systemic cancers in addition to urinary tract cancers. Further study is required to validate this association. PMID:25546684

  20. Immobilization of oxalate-degrading enzymes into p(HEMA) for inhibiting encrustation on ureteral stents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellman, James Kenneth

    Ureteral stents develop calcium-bearing deposits, called encrustation, that diminish their biocompatibility due to complications, such as chronic abrasion to the lumen of the ureter wall and subsequent infection. A reduction of encrustation, namely calcium oxalate, will improve the lifetime, health care costs, and infection resistance of such devices. The purpose of this research project is to study oxalate-degrading enzymes entrapped into a coating material that will control the interface to the urinary environment for ureteral stents. The coating material was a lightly crosslinked poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (p(HEMA)) matrix in which the active enzymes were entrapped within the bulk material's free volume. The swelling of p(HEMA) films was comparable in ddH2O and urine. This hydrophilic matrix allows oxalate anions to diffuse into the bulk so that enzyme activity against oxalate can lower its local concentration, and thereby reduce the supersaturation of calcium oxalate. Oxalate oxidase (OxO) and oxalate decarboxylase (OxDc) were the oxalate-degrading enzymes examined herein. Michaelis Menten kinetic models were applied to free and immobilized enzyme activity. A substrate inhibition model was applied to OxO. The free form of OxO had a Vmax of 1.8 +/- 0.1 muM/min-mug, a km of 1.8 +/- 0.1 mM, and a ks of 35.4 +/- 3.7 mM while the immobilized form had a Vmax of 1.2 +/- 0.2 muM/min-mug, a km of 4.1 +/- 0.6 mM, and a ks of 660 +/- 140 mM. The free form of OxDc had a Vmax of 23.5 +/- 1.4 muM/min-mug and a km of 0.5 +/- 0.1 mM while the immobilized form had a Vmax of 5.0 +/- 1.9 muM/min-mug and km of 23.2 +/- 9.1 mM. The enzyme activity was measured to indicate viable application conditions for the coating, such as storing the films in urine over time. The maximum activity was shown at pH 4.2 to 4.5 and activity drops to be negligible by pH 7.0. Storing the enzyme at pH 6.1 exhibited a larger retained activity than storing at pH 4.2, yet storing in urine showed the highest retention. In a six moth trial period in urine, immobilized OxO lost 30% activity to 0.7 muM/min-mug, whereas the activity for immobilized OxDc fell 50% from about 5.9 to 2.9 muM/min-mug. Coating p(HEMA) onto polyurethane ureteral stents was applied by dip coating into a monomer-based coating solution. To achieve successful coatings, the viscosity of the coating solution and adhesion to the stent were optimized through a series of experiments with glycerol and superglue to form a primer of p(HEMA). The enzymes were applied to the primer through successive layers without the use of glycerol or superglue. The enzyme activity was used to compare various processing routes, such as dip time, dip cycles, and the use of Triton X-100. An encrustation model was established using artificial and real urine, and an antibiotic/antimycotic solution was added to prevent infection. The solutions were spiked with 0.5 mM oxalate to optimize encrustation conditions. The encrustation study was conducted up to two months in these solutions, and samples were analyzed using polarized light microscopy. Immobilized OxDc inhibited crystal growth up to two-months, although OxO developed encrustation to a similar extent of the control group. This opens the possibility of utilizing the immobilized enzyme as a therapy for degrading oxalate concentrations in urine, which can be employed as a coating on ureteral stents.

  1. The Female Urinary Microbiome: a Comparison of Women with and without Urgency Urinary Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Meghan M.; Hilt, Evann E.; Rosenfeld, Amy B.; Zilliox, Michael J.; Thomas-White, Krystal; Fok, Cynthia; Kliethermes, Stephanie; Schreckenberger, Paul C.; Brubaker, Linda

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial DNA and live bacteria have been detected in human urine in the absence of clinical infection, challenging the prevailing dogma that urine is normally sterile. Urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) is a poorly understood urinary condition characterized by symptoms that overlap urinary infection, including urinary urgency and increased frequency with urinary incontinence. The recent discovery of the urinary microbiome warrants investigation into whether bacteria contribute to UUI. In this study, we used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to classify bacterial DNA and expanded quantitative urine culture (EQUC) techniques to isolate live bacteria in urine collected by using a transurethral catheter from women with UUI and, in comparison, a cohort without UUI. For these cohorts, we demonstrated that the UUI and non-UUI urinary microbiomes differ by group based on both sequence and culture evidences. Compared to the non-UUI microbiome, sequencing experiments revealed that the UUI microbiome was composed of increased Gardnerella and decreased Lactobacillus. Nine genera (Actinobaculum, Actinomyces, Aerococcus, Arthrobacter, Corynebacterium, Gardnerella, Oligella, Staphylococcus, and Streptococcus) were more frequently cultured from the UUI cohort. Although Lactobacillus was isolated from both cohorts, distinctions existed at the species level, with Lactobacillus gasseri detected more frequently in the UUI cohort and Lactobacillus crispatus most frequently detected in controls. Combined, these data suggest that potentially important differences exist in the urinary microbiomes of women with and without UUI, which have strong implications in prevention, diagnosis, or treatment of UUI. PMID:25006228

  2. Effects of potassium chloride and potassium bicarbonate in the diet on urinary pH and mineral excretion of adult cats.

    PubMed

    Passlack, Nadine; Brenten, Thomas; Neumann, Konrad; Zentek, Jürgen

    2014-03-14

    Low dietary K levels have been associated with increasing renal Ca excretion in humans, indicating a higher risk of calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolith formation. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether dietary K also affects the urine composition of cats. A total of eight adult cats were fed diets containing 0·31 % native K and 0·50, 0·75 and 1·00 % K from KCl or KHCO₃ and were evaluated for the effects of dietary K. High dietary K levels were found to elevate urinary K concentrations (P<0·001). Renal Ca excretion was higher in cats fed the KCl diets than in those fed the KHCO₃ diets (P=0·026), while urinary oxalate concentrations were generally lower in cats fed the KCl diets and only dependent on dietary K levels in cats fed the KHCO₃ diets (P<0·05). Fasting urine pH increased with higher dietary K levels (P=0·022), reaching values of 6·38 (1·00 % KCl) and 7·65 (1·00 % KHCO₃). K retention was markedly negative after feeding the cats with the basal diet (-197 mg/d) and the 0·50 % KCl diet (-131 mg/d), while the cats tended to maintain their balance on being fed the highest-KCl diet (-23·3 mg/d). In contrast, K from KHCO₃ was more efficiently retained (P=0·018), with K retention being between -82·5 and 52·5 mg/d. In conclusion, the dietary inclusion of KHCO₃ instead of KCl as K source could be beneficial for the prevention of CaOx urolith formation in cats, since there is an association between a lower renal Ca excretion and a generally higher urine pH. The utilisation of K is distinctly influenced by the K salt, which may be especially practically relevant when using diets with low K levels. PMID:24229496

  3. Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection

    MedlinePlus

    SBA National Resource Center: 800-621-3141 Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Catheterization in Children with Neurogenic Bladder and ... To protect the kidneys from damage – By preventing urinary tract infections (UTI) – By identifying and treating vesicoureteral remux (VUR). ...

  4. Field assessment of yeast- and oxalic Acid-generated carbon dioxide for mosquito surveillance.

    PubMed

    Harwood, James F; Richardson, Alec G; Wright, Jennifer A; Obenauer, Peter J

    2014-12-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) sources improve the efficacy of mosquito traps. However, traditional CO2 sources (dry ice or compressed gas) may be difficult to acquire for vector surveillance during military contingency operations. For this reason, a new and convenient source of CO2 is required. Two novel CO2 generators were evaluated in order to address this capability gap: 1) an electrolyzer that converts solid oxalic acid into CO2 gas, and 2) CO2 produced by yeast as it metabolizes sugar. The flow rate and CO2 concentration produced by each generator were measured, and each generator's ability to attract mosquitoes to BG-Sentinel™ traps during day surveillance and to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light traps with incandescent bulbs during night surveillance was compared to dry ice and compressed gas in Jacksonville, FL. The electrolyzed oxalic acid only slightly increased the number of mosquitoes captured compared to unbaited traps. Based on the modest increase in mosquito collection for traps paired with the oxalic acid, it is not a suitable stand-in for either of the 2 traditional CO2 sources. Conversely, the yeast-generated CO2 resulted in collections with mosquito abundance and species richness more closely resembling those of the traditional CO2 sources, despite achieving a lower CO2 flow rate. Therefore, if dry ice or compressed gas cannot be acquired for vector surveillance, yeast-generated CO2 can significantly improve trap capability. PMID:25843133

  5. Isolation and some characteristics of anaerobic oxalate-degrading bacteria from the rumen.

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, K A; Allison, M J; Hartman, P A

    1980-01-01

    Obligately anaerobic oxalate-degrading bacteria were isolated from an enriched population of rumen bacteria in an oxalate-containing medium that had been depleted of other readily metabolized substrates. These organisms, which are the first reported anaerobic oxalate degraders isolated from the rumen, were gram negative, nonmotile rods. They grew in a medium containing sodium oxalate, yeast extract, cysteine, and minerals. The only substrate that supported growth was oxalate. Growth was directly related to the concentration of oxalate in the medium (1 to 111 mM), and cell yields were approximately 1.1 g (dry weight)/mol of oxalate degraded. Oxalate was stoichiometrically degraded to CO2 and formate. These anaerobes occupy a unique ecological niche and are distinct from any previously described oxalate-degrading bacteria. Images PMID:7425628

  6. A Diet High in Meat Protein and Potential Renal Acid Load Increases Absorption and Urinary Excretion of Calcium, As Well As Serum IGF-I in Postmenopausal Women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: The objective was to determine the effect of increasing protein and potential renal acid load (PRAL) on Ca retention and markers of bone metabolism. Methods: In a randomized crossover design, twenty postmenopausal women consumed two diets: one low protein, low PRAL (LPLP) and one high pr...

  7. Oxalate decarboxylase of the white-rot fungus Dichomitus squalens demonstrates a novel enzyme primary structure and non-induced expression on wood and in liquid cultures.

    PubMed

    Mäkelä, Miia R; Hildén, Kristiina; Hatakka, Annele; Lundell, Taina K

    2009-08-01

    Oxalate decarboxylase (ODC) catalyses the conversion of oxalic acid to formic acid and CO(2) in bacteria and fungi. In wood-decaying fungi the enzyme has been linked to the regulation of intra- and extracellular quantities of oxalic acid, which is one of the key components in biological decomposition of wood. ODC enzymes are biotechnologically interesting for their potential in diagnostics, agriculture and environmental applications, e.g. removal of oxalic acid from industrial wastewaters. We identified a novel ODC in mycelial extracts of two wild-type isolates of Dichomitus squalens, and cloned the corresponding Ds-odc gene. The primary structure of the Ds-ODC protein contains two conserved Mn-binding cupin motifs, but at the N-terminus, a unique, approximately 60 aa alanine-serine-rich region is found. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed gene expression when the fungus was cultivated on wood and in liquid medium. However, addition of oxalic acid in liquid cultures caused no increase in transcript amounts, thereby indicating a constitutive rather than inducible expression of Ds-odc. The detected stimulation of ODC activity by oxalic acid is more likely due to enzyme activation than to transcriptional upregulation of the Ds-odc gene. Our results support involvement of ODC in primary rather than secondary metabolism in fungi. PMID:19389757

  8. The management of urinary tract infections in octogenarian women.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Dudley; Giarenis, Ilias; Cardozo, Linda

    2015-07-01

    Urinary Tract Infections are common in women of all ages and the incidence increases with age. Whilst they are a common cause of lower urinary tract symptoms in all women they may be associated with increased morbidity in the elderly. Appropriate investigation and treatment in primary and secondary care are essential to effectively manage urinary tract infection and decrease morbidity and hospitalisation rates. Loss of endogenous oestrogen at the time of the menopause is associated with the urogenital atrophy and an increased incidence of urinary tract infection. Consequently vaginal oestrogen therapy may offer a rationale for treatment and prevent of urinary tract infection. The aim of this paper is to review the clinical management of elderly women presenting with primary and recurrent urinary tract infection. PMID:26006302

  9. Spectra investigation on surface characteristics of graphene oxide nanosheets treated with tartaric, malic and oxalic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Xiyao; Yan, Manqing; Bi, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The surface characteristics of graphene oxide nanosheets (GO) treated respectively with tartaric acid, malic acid and oxalic acid, have been investigated by mainly using optical spectroscopic methods including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption and Raman spectroscopy. Additionally, the electrochemical property of the products has also been studied. The data revealed that oxygen-containing groups such as sbnd OH, sbnd COOH and sbnd Cdbnd O on the GO surface have been almost removed and thus reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (RGN) were obtained. Interestingly, the number of sp2 domains of RGN increases as treated by tartaric acid < malic acid < oxalic acid whereas the steric hindrance (SH) decreases and the ionization constant (IC) differs among these three acids. Furthermore, the specific capacitances (Cs) of GO have been greatly promoted from 2.4 F g-1 to 100.8, 112.4, and 147 F g-1 after treated with tartaric, malic and oxalic acids, respectively. This finding agrees well with the spectra result of the tendency of surface conjugated degree alteration. We claim that the difference in both SH and IC among these acids is the main reason for the diverse surface characteristics as well as the improved Cs of the RGN.

  10. Impact Of Sodium Oxalate, Sodium Aluminosilicate, and Gibbsite/Boehmite on ARP Filter Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.; Burket, P.

    2015-11-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Recently, the low filter flux through the ARP of approximately 5 gallons per minute has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Salt Batch 6 had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. SRR requested SRNL to conduct bench-scale filter tests to evaluate whether sodium oxalate, sodium aluminosilicate, or aluminum solids (i.e., gibbsite and boehmite) could be the cause of excessive fouling of the crossflow or secondary filter at ARP. The authors conducted the tests by preparing slurries containing 6.6 M sodium Salt Batch 6 supernate, 2.5 g MST/L slurry, and varying concentrations of sodium oxalate, sodium aluminosilicate, and aluminum solids, processing the slurry through a bench-scale filter unit that contains a crossflow primary filter and a dead-end secondary filter, and measuring filter flux and transmembrane pressure as a function of time. Among the conclusions drwn from this work are the following: (1) All of the tests showed some evidence of fouling the secondary filter. This fouling could be from fine particles passing through the crossflow filter. (2) The sodium oxalate-containing feeds behaved differently from the sodium aluminosilicate- and gibbsite/boehmite-containing feeds.

  11. Bioethanol production from deacetylated yellow poplar pretreated with oxalic acid recovered through electrodialysis.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Chandan; Jeong, So-Yeon; Lee, Jae-Won

    2016-05-01

    Electrodialysis (ED) was used to develop a multistage oxalic acid recovery and pretreatment system to produce ethanol from deacetylated yellow poplar. Pretreatment of the biomass was performed at 150°C for 42min using 0.16M oxalic acid. The efficiency of oxalic acid recovery from the hydrolysate reached up to 92.32% in all the stages. Ethanol production and ethanol yield of ED-treated hydrolysate in each stage showed a uniform pattern ranging from 6.81g/L to 7.21g/L and 0.40g/g to 0.43g/g, respectively. The results showed that efficiency of ethanol production increased when deacetylated biomass and ED process was used. Ethanol yield from the pretreated biomass using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was in the range of 80.59-83.36% in all the stages. The structural characterization of the pretreated biomass at each stage was investigated and structural changes were not significantly different among the various pretreated biomass. PMID:26943934

  12. Simvastatin increases AQP2 urinary excretion in hypercholesterolemic patients: A pleiotropic effect of interest for patients with impaired AQP2 trafficking.

    PubMed

    Procino, G; Portincasa, P; Mastrofrancesco, L; Castorani, L; Bonfrate, L; Addabbo, F; Carmosino, M; Di Ciaula, A; Svelto, M

    2016-05-01

    We previously reported that statins improve the symptoms of X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (X-NDI) in animal models. The aim of this study was to verify whether the pleiotropic effect of statins on AQP2 trafficking and kidney-concentrating ability, observed in rodents, was attainable in humans at therapeutic doses. We enrolled 24 naïve hypercholesterolemic patients and measured urine excretion of AQP2 (uAQP2) at baseline and during 12 weeks of treatment with simvastatin 20 mg/day. Simvastatin induced a rapid and significant increase of uAQP2, reduced the 24-hour diuresis, and increased urine osmolality. These effects were also maintained in patients chronically treated with statins for at least 1 year. This study strongly suggests that statins may effectively enhance the efficacy of current pharmacological treatment of patients with urine-concentrating defects caused by defective AQP2 plasma membrane trafficking, like X-NDI. PMID:26575415

  13. Urinary biomarkers of meat consumption

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Amanda J.; Major, Jacqueline M.; Sinha, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    Background Meat intake has been positively associated with incidence and mortality of chronic diseases, including diabetes, heart disease, and several different cancers, in observational studies using self-report methods of dietary assessment; however, these dietary assessment methods are subject to measurement error. One method to circumvent such errors is the use of biomarkers of dietary intake, but currently there are no accepted biomarkers for meat intake. Methods We investigated four analytes (creatinine, taurine, 1-methylhistidine, and 3-methylhistidine) specifically found in meat and excreted in urine. Twenty-four hour urine samples were collected from 17 individuals on controlled diets containing varying levels of meats: vegetarian (0 g/day), low red meat (60 g/day), medium red meat (120g/day), and high red meat (420 g/day), as part of two randomized cross-over feeding studies. Results When compared to the low red meat diet or the vegetarian diet, the urinary levels of all four analytes were significantly higher in urine samples collected after 15 days of a high red meat diet (P<0.0001). Only urinary 1-methylhistidine and 3-methylhistidine were statistically significantly different for every diet type, increasing as the amount of meat in the diet increased (P<0.01 for 1-methylhistidine and P<0.05 for 3-methylhistidine). Furthermore, urinary excretion of 1-methylhistidine and 3-methylhistidine elevated with increasing meat intake in every individual. Conclusion Urinary 1-methylhistidine and 3-methylhistidine may be good biomarkers of meat intake. Impact To determine the public health impact of red meat on cancer risk, biomarkers are crucial to estimate true intake; these potential biomarkers should be further investigated in free-living populations. PMID:21527577

  14. Oxalate content of some common foods: determination by an enzymatic method.

    PubMed

    Kasidas, G P; Rose, G A

    1980-08-01

    A specific enzymatic method was used to determine the oxalate content of some common foods. No preliminary isolation of oxalate was required and recoveries ranging from 95-110 per cent were obtained. Spinach, rhubarb, peanuts, chocolates, parsley and tea were found to contain high levels of oxalate as previously described by others. On the other hand the oxalate content of beetroot was found to be five times as high as previously reported, but coca-cola and beer were almost free from oxalate. Cereals and meat were either low or deficient in oxalate. PMID:7410821

  15. Exploring calcium oxalate crystallization: a constant composition approach.

    PubMed

    Kolbach-Mandel, Ann M; Kleinman, Jack G; Wesson, Jeffrey A

    2015-10-01

    Crystal growth rates have been extensively studied in calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystallization, because COM crystals are the principal component in most kidney stones. Constant composition methods are useful for studying growth rates, but fail to differentiate concurrent nucleation and aggregation events. A constant composition method coupled with particle size determinations that addresses this deficiency was previously published for a calcium phosphate system, and this method was extended to COM crystallization in this report. A seeded constant composition experiment was combined with particle size determination and a separate near-equilibrium aggregation experiment to separate effects of growth rate, nucleation, and aggregation in COM crystal formation and to test the effects of various inhibitors relevant to stone formation. With no inhibitors present, apparent COM growth rates were heavily influenced by secondary nucleation at low seed crystal additions, but growth-related aggregation increased at higher seed crystal densities. Among small molecule inhibitors, citrate demonstrated growth rate inhibition but enhanced growth-related aggregation, while magnesium did not affect COM crystallization. Polyanions (polyaspartate, polyglutamate, or osteopontin) showed strong growth rate inhibition, but large differences in nucleation and aggregation were observed. Polycations (polyarginine) did not affect COM crystal growth or aggregation. Mixtures of polyanions and polycations produced a complicated set of growth rate, nucleation, and aggregation behaviors. These experiments demonstrated the power of combining particle size determinations with constant composition experiments to fully characterize COM crystallization and to obtain detailed knowledge of inhibitor properties that will be critical to understanding kidney stone formation. PMID:26016572

  16. [Determination of glyoxalate and oxalate by capillary zone electrophoresis].

    PubMed

    Guan, Jin; Wang, Huize; Ren, Liyan; Niu, Qiuling

    2012-01-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of glyoxalate and oxalate by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) was developed. The influences of type, concentration and pH of the running buffer, and the applied voltage on separation were investigated. Glyoxalate and oxalate were separated within 11 min under the conditions of 20 mmol/L borax-5.5 mmol/L potassium hydrogen phthalate (pH 9.0), applied voltage of 20 kV, and detected wavelength of 212 nm. The calibration curves of glyoxalate and oxalate showed good linearity in the ranges of 0.8 -20 g/L and 1.2-20 g/L, respectively. The correlation coefficients were 0.999 3 and 0.997 5, respectively. The limits of detection for glyoxalate and oxalate were 0.2 and 0.4 g/L (S/N = 3), respectively. The average recoveries at three spiked levels were 98.3%-102.5% with acceptable relative standard deviations of 0.35%-0.61%. This method is simple, low cost and high performance. The method was successfully used for the determination of glyoxalate and oxalate in real samples, and the assay results were satisfactory. PMID:22667103

  17. Mass spectroscopic characteristics of low molecular weight proteins extracted from calcium oxalate stones: preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Chi; Lai, Chien-Chen; Lai, Chein-Cheng; Tsai, Yuhsin; Tsai, Yu-Hsin; Lin, Wei-Yong; Tsai, Fuu-Jen

    2008-01-01

    It is believed that boundary compositions of matrix proteins might play a role in stone formation; however, few proteomic studies concerning matrix proteins in urinary stones have been conducted. In this study, we extracted low molecular weight proteins from calcium oxalate stones and measured their characteristic patterns by mass spectroscopy. A total of 10 stones were surgically removed from patients with urolithiasis. Proteins were extracted from the stones and identified by one-dimensional electrophoresis (sodium dodecyl sulfate buffer [SDS]-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis [SDS-PAGE]). After in-gel digest, samples were analyzed by the surface-enhanced laser desorption ionization-time of flight (SELDI-TOF) technique. The peptide sequences were analyzed from the data of mass spectroscopy. Proteins were identified from Database Search (SwissProt Protein Database; Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics; http://www.expasy.org/sprot) on a MASCOT server (Matrix Science Ltd.; http://www.matrixscience.com). A total of three bands of proteins (27, 18, and 14 kDa) were identified from SDS-PAGE in each stone sample. A database search (SwissProt) on a MASCOT server revealed that the most frequently seen proteins from band 1 (27 kDa) were leukocyte elastase precursor, cathepsin G precursor, azurocidin precursor, and myeloblastin precursor (EC 3.4.21.76) (leukocyte proteinase 3); band 2 (18 kDa) comprised calgranulin B, eosinophil cationic protein precursor, and lysozyme C precursor; band 3 (14 kDa) showed neutrophil defensin 3 precursor, calgranulin A, calgranulin C, and histone H4. The modifications and deamidations found from the mass pattern of these proteins may provide information for the study of matrix proteins. Various lower molecular weight proteins can be extracted from calcium oxalate stones. The characteristic patterns and their functions of those proteins should be further tested to investigate their roles in stone formation. PMID:18200570

  18. Increased urinary cobalt and whole blood concentrations of cadmium and lead in women with uterine leiomyomata: Findings from the ENDO Study

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, Erica B.; Buck Louis, Germaine M.; Parsons, Patrick J.; Steuerwald, Amy J.; Palmer, Christopher D.; Chen, Zhen; Sun, Liping; Hammoud, Ahmad O.; Dorais, Jessie; Peterson, C. Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Multiple trace elements have estrogen receptor activity, but the association of these elements with uterine leiomyoma has not been defined. A cohort of 473 women aged 18–44 undergoing surgery for benign gynecologic indications provided whole blood and urine specimens for trace element analysis, which was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The surgeon documented whether fibroids were present. Geometric mean concentrations were compared between women with and without fibroids, and logistic regression models were generated to assess the impact of the concentration of each trace element on the odds of fibroids. In multivariate regressions, odds of a fibroid diagnosis was higher with increased whole blood cadmium (AOR 1.44, 95% CI 1.02, 2.04) and lead (AOR 1.31 95% CI 1.02, 1.69), and urine cobalt (AOR 1.31, 95% CI 1.02, 1.70). Increased exposure to trace elements may contribute to fibroid growth, and fibroids may serve as a reservoir for these elements. PMID:24994689

  19. [Urinary tract infection in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Herráiz, Miguel Angel; Hernández, Antonio; Asenjo, Eloy; Herráiz, Ignacio

    2005-12-01

    Urinary tract infections, asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB), acute cystitis (AC) and acute pyelonephritis (AP), are favored by the morphological and functional changes involved in pregnancy. AB increases the risk of preterm labor, low birth weight and AP. AB should be detected by uroculture (other methods are not sufficiently effective) and treated early. Approximately 80% of cases are caused by Escherichia coli. The risks and effectiveness of the distinct antibiotic regimens should be evaluated: fosfomycin trometamol in monotherapy or as short course therapy is safe and effective for the treatment of AB and AC. AP is the most frequent cause of hospital admission for medical reasons in pregnant women and can lead to complications in 10% of cases, putting the lives of the mother and fetus at risk. Currently outpatient treatment of AP is recommended in selected cases. Adequate follow-up of pregnant women with urinary tract infections is required due to frequent recurrence. PMID:16854357

  20. Differentiation of Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate and Calcium Oxalate Dihydrate Stones Using Quantitative Morphological Information from Micro-Computerized and Clinical Computerized Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Xinhui; Qu, Mingliang; Wang, Jia; Trevathan, James; Vrtiska, Terri; Williams, James C.; Krambeck, Amy; Lieske, John; McCollough, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We differentiated calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium oxalate dihydrate kidney stones using micro and clinical computerized tomography images. Materials and Methods A total of 22 calcium oxalate monohydrate and 15 calcium oxalate dihydrate human kidney stones were scanned using a commercial micro-computerized tomography scanner with a pixel size of 7 to 23 μm. Under an institutional review board approved protocol, image data on 10 calcium oxalate monohydrate and 9 calcium oxalate dihydrate stones greater than 5 mm were retrieved from a total of 80 patients who underwent clinical dual energy computerized tomography for clinical indications and had stones available for infrared spectroscopic compositional analysis. Micro and clinical computerized tomography images were processed using in-house software, which quantified stone surface morphology with curvature based calculations. A shape index was generated as a quantitative shape metric to differentiate calcium oxalate monohydrate from calcium oxalate dihydrate stones. Statistical tests were used to test the performance of the shape index. Results On micro-computerized tomography images the shape index of calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium oxalate dihydrate stones significantly differed (ROC curve AUC 0.92, p <0.0001). At the optimal cutoff sensitivity was 0.93 and specificity was 0.91. On clinical computerized tomography images a significant morphological difference was also detected (p = 0.007). AUC, sensitivity and specificity were 0.90, 1 and 0.73, respectively. Conclusions On micro and clinical computerized tomography images a morphological difference was detectable in calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium oxalate dihydrate stones larger than 5 mm. The shape index is a highly promising method that can distinguish calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium oxalate dihydrate stones with reasonable accuracy. PMID:23142201

  1. Changes in oxalate and some mineral concentrations of Setaria sphacelata under cutting and uncutting conditions.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Tateyama, M; Niimi, M; Abdullah, R B; Khadijah, W E Wan; Kawamura, O

    2014-04-01

    Oxalate concentration in forage plants is important, because it results mineral deficiency in ruminants. Data on oxalate concentration in forage plants in conjunction with cutting and uncutting conditions throughout the growing period are limited. This study was aimed to investigate the changes in oxalate and some mineral concentrations of setaria (Setaria sphacelata). The plants were harvested at different stages (vegetative, boot, pre-flowering, flowering and seed) of maturity and at about 50 cm in length of regrowth (second to sixth cuttings) for evaluation of soluble oxalate, insoluble oxalate and some mineral concentrations. Soluble oxalate and total oxalate concentrations, as well as mineral concentrations, decreased with advancing maturity. Both oxalate concentrations (soluble or insoluble) were higher in leaf compared to stem. Soluble oxalate and total oxalate concentrations of regrowth were the highest at third cutting and lowest at sixth cutting. Insoluble oxalate concentration of regrowth was almost similar in all cuttings, except for the sixth cutting. The highest concentrations of potassium, sodium and magnesium of regrowth were observed at third cutting, while the highest concentration of calcium was observed at sixth cutting. A relationship between oxalate and mineral concentrations was partially observed. Results suggest that cutting materials of setaria from June to October could achieve oxalate levels that are toxic to ruminants. PMID:25911853

  2. Microelectrophoretic study of calcium oxalate monohydrate in macromolecular solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curreri, P. A.; Onoda, G. Y., Jr.; Finlayson, B.

    1987-01-01

    Electrophoretic mobilities were measured for calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) in solutions containing macromolecules. Two mucopolysaccharides (sodium heparin and chondroitin sulfate) and two proteins (positively charged lysozyme and negatively charged bovine serum albumin) were studied as adsorbates. The effects of pH, calcium oxalate surface charge (varied by calcium or oxalate ion activity), and citrate concentration were investigated. All four macromolecules showed evidence for adsorption. The macromolecule concentrations needed for reversing the surface charge indicated that the mucopolysaccharides have greater affinity for the COM surface than the proteins. Citrate ions at high concentrations appear to compete effectively with the negative protein for surface sites but show no evidence for competing with the positively charged protein.

  3. [Urinary sediment analysis].

    PubMed

    Baños-Laredo, Martha E; Núñez-Álvarez, Carlos A; Cabiedes, Javier

    2010-01-01

    Urinary analysis is one of the most requested tests in the clinical laboratory. This test includes the physical, chemical and microscopic analysis of urine. This last one allows for the observation of urinary sediment (US) in search of formed elements (cellular cast, leukocytes, etc.), with different diagnostic uses. Urinary analysis can be assessed by manual or automated methods. In the laboratory diagnosis of autoimmune diseases, US analysis is mainly oriented towards the assessment of renal function in patients with lupus nephritis (LN) as this is a common clinical manifestation associated to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Additionally, its value lies mainly for diagnostic criteria and evaluation of kidney injury, as well as for several damage indexes directed to patients with SLE. In the last years, several groups have sought to establish new urinary biomarkers of kidney damage in patients with SLE; however, this requires a greater number of studies to determine their true diagnostic value in this patients group. PMID:21794729

  4. Percutaneous urinary procedures

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lingeman JE. Surgical management of upper urinary tract calculi. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Novick AC, et ... CC, Nakada SY. Treatment selection and outcomes: renal calculi. Urol Clin North Am . 2007;34(3):409- ...

  5. Urinary Tract Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... kidneys, two ureters, a bladder, and a urethra. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the second most common type of infection in the body. You may have a UTI if you notice Pain or burning when you ...

  6. Urinary Tract Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... more serious infection that reaches the kidneys. continue Bacteria Are to Blame UTIs are usually caused by ... as soon as possible. previous continue Battling the Bacteria Only your health care provider can treat urinary ...

  7. [Recurrent urinary tract infection].

    PubMed

    Ali, Adel Ben; Bagnis, Corinne Isnard

    2014-09-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infection involves mainly women and exhibits an ecological as well as economical risk. 4% of all urinary tract infection are recurrent and usually secondary to general or local abnormalities. A multidisciplinary medical and surgical team (urology, nephrology, bacteriology, infectious disease) best performs diagnosis and treatment as well as rules out reversible etiology. Treatment relies on behavioral changes before offering cranberry products and/or antibioprophylaxis if necessary. PMID:25362782

  8. Acute renal failure following oxalic acid poisoning: a case report.

    PubMed

    Dassanayake, Uditha; Gnanathasan, Christeine Ariaranee

    2012-01-01

    Oxalic acid poisoning is being recognized as an emerging epidemic in the rural communities of Sri Lanka as it is a component of locally produced household laundry detergents. Herein we describe a case of a 32?year old female, presenting after direct ingestion of oxalic acid. She then went on to develop significant metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure, requiring dialysis. Renal biopsy revealed acute tubulointerstitial nephritis associated with diffuse moderate acute tubular damage with refractile crystals in some of the tubules. The patient symptomatically improved with haemodialysis and renal functions subsequently returned to normal. PMID:22978510

  9. Acute renal failure following oxalic acid poisoning: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Oxalic acid poisoning is being recognized as an emerging epidemic in the rural communities of Sri Lanka as it is a component of locally produced household laundry detergents. Herein we describe a case of a 32?year old female, presenting after direct ingestion of oxalic acid. She then went on to develop significant metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure, requiring dialysis. Renal biopsy revealed acute tubulointerstitial nephritis associated with diffuse moderate acute tubular damage with refractile crystals in some of the tubules. The patient symptomatically improved with haemodialysis and renal functions subsequently returned to normal. PMID:22978510

  10. Hydrogen Bond Symmetrization in Glycinium Oxalate under Pressure.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Himal; Murli, Chitra; Mishra, A K; Verma, Ashok K; Garg, Nandini; Deo, M N; Chitra, R; Sharma, Surinder M

    2016-02-01

    The study of hydrogen bonds near symmetrization limit at high pressures is of importance to understand proton dynamics in complex bio-geological processes. We report here the evidence of hydrogen bond symmetrization in the simplest amino acid-carboxylic acid complex, glycinium oxalate, at moderate pressures of 8 GPa using in-situ infrared and Raman spectroscopic investigations combined with first-principles simulations. The dynamic proton sharing between semioxalate units results in covalent-like infinite oxalate chains. At pressures above 12 GPa, the glycine units systematically reorient with pressure to form hydrogen-bonded supramolecular assemblies held together by these chains. PMID:26730739

  11. THORIUM OXALATE-URANYL ACETATE COUPLED PROCEDURE FOR THE SEPARATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS

    DOEpatents

    Gofman, J.W.

    1959-08-11

    The recovery of fission products from neutronirradiated uranium is described. The neutron-irradiated uranium is dissolved in acid and thorium oxalate is precipitated in ihe solution formed, whereby the fission products are carried on the thorium oxalate. The separated thorium oxalate precipitate is then dissolved in an aqueous oxalate solution and the solution formed is acidified, limiting ihe excess acidity to a maximum of 2 N, whereby thorium oxalate precipitates and carries lanthanum-rareearth- and alkaline-earth-metal fission products while the zirconium-fission-product remains in solution. This precipitate, too, is dissolved in an aqaeous oxalate solution at elevated temperature, and lanthanum-rare-earth ions are added to the solution whereby lanthanum-rare-earth oxalate forms and the lanthanum-rare-earth-type and alkalineearth-metal-type fission products are carried on the oxalate. The precipitate is separated from the solution.

  12. Androgen Receptor Enhances Kidney Stone-CaOx Crystal Formation via Modulation of Oxalate Biosynthesis & Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Liang; Li, Lei; Tian, Jing; Lee, Soo Ok; Dang, Qiang; Huang, Chiung-Kuei; Yeh, Shuyuan; Erturk, Erdal; Bushinsky, David; Chang, Luke S.

    2014-01-01

    Males develop kidney stones far more frequently than females with a ratio of 2–3:1, suggesting that androgen receptor (AR) signaling might play a key role in the development of nephrolithiasis. Using the cre-loxP system to selectively knock out AR in glyoxylate-induced calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystal mouse models, we found that the mice lacking hepatic AR had less oxalate biosynthesis, which might lead to lower CaOx crystal formation, and that the mice lacking kidney proximal or distal epithelial AR also had lower CaOx crystal formation. We found that AR could directly up-regulate hepatic glycolate oxidase and kidney epithelial NADPH oxidase subunit p22-PHOX at the transcriptional level. This up-regulation might then increase oxalate biosynthesis and oxidative stress that resulted in induction of kidney tubular injury. Targeting AR with the AR degradation enhancer ASC-J9 led to suppression of CaOx crystal formation via modulation of oxalate biosynthesis and oxidative stress in both in vitro and in vivo studies. Taken together, these results established the roles of AR in CaOx crystal formation. PMID:24956378

  13. Androgen receptor enhances kidney stone-CaOx crystal formation via modulation of oxalate biosynthesis & oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Liang, Liang; Li, Lei; Tian, Jing; Lee, Soo Ok; Dang, Qiang; Huang, Chiung-Kuei; Yeh, Shuyuan; Erturk, Erdal; Bushinsky, David; Chang, Luke S; He, Dalin; Chang, Chawnshang

    2014-08-01

    Males develop kidney stones far more frequently than females with a ratio of 2-3:1, suggesting that androgen receptor (AR) signaling might play a key role in the development of nephrolithiasis. Using the cre-loxP system to selectively knock out AR in glyoxylate-induced calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystal mouse models, we found that the mice lacking hepatic AR had less oxalate biosynthesis, which might lead to lower CaOx crystal formation, and that the mice lacking kidney proximal or distal epithelial AR also had lower CaOx crystal formation. We found that AR could directly up-regulate hepatic glycolate oxidase and kidney epithelial NADPH oxidase subunit p22-PHOX at the transcriptional level. This up-regulation might then increase oxalate biosynthesis and oxidative stress that resulted in induction of kidney tubular injury. Targeting AR with the AR degradation enhancer ASC-J9 led to suppression of CaOx crystal formation via modulation of oxalate biosynthesis and oxidative stress in both in vitro and in vivo studies. Taken together, these results established the roles of AR in CaOx crystal formation. PMID:24956378

  14. Screening of Indigenous Oxalate Degrading Lactic Acid Bacteria from Human Faeces and South Indian Fermented Foods: Assessment of Probiotic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Kavitha, Murugan; Selvi, M. S.; Selvam, Govindan Sadasivam

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have the potential to degrade intestinal oxalate and this is increasingly being studied as a promising probiotic solution to manage kidney stone disease. In this study, oxalate degrading LAB were isolated from human faeces and south Indian fermented foods, subsequently assessed for potential probiotic property in vitro and in vivo. Based on preliminary characteristics, 251 out of 673 bacterial isolates were identified as LAB. A total of 17 strains were found to degrade oxalate significantly between 40.38% and 62.90% and were subjected to acid and bile tolerance test. Among them, nine strains exhibited considerable tolerance up to pH 3.0 and at 0.3% bile. These were identified as Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus salivarius using 16S rDNA sequencing. Three strains, Lactobacillus fermentum TY5, Lactobacillus fermentum AB1, and Lactobacillus salivarius AB11, exhibited good adhesion to HT-29 cells and strong antimicrobial activity. They also conferred resistance to kanamycin, rifampicin, and ampicillin, but were sensitive to chloramphenicol and erythromycin. The faecal recovery rate of these strains was observed as 15.16% (TY5), 6.71% (AB1), and 9.3% (AB11) which indicates the colonization ability. In conclusion, three efficient oxalate degrading LAB were identified and their safety assessments suggest that they may serve as good probiotic candidates for preventing hyperoxaluria. PMID:24723820

  15. Arthritis associated with calcium oxalate crystals in an anephric patient treated with peritoneal dialysis

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, A.; Ryan, L.M.; McCarty, D.J.

    1988-09-02

    The authors report a case of calcium oxalate arthropathy in a woman undergoing intermittent peritoneal dialysis who was not receiving pharmacologic doses of ascorbic acid. She developed acute arthritis, with calcium oxalate crystals in Heberden's and Bouchard's nodes, a phenomenon previously described in gout. Intermittent peritoneal dialysis may be less efficient than hemodialysis in clearing oxalate, and physicians should now consider calcium oxalate-associated arthritis in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis who are not receiving large doses of ascorbic acid.

  16. [Hormonal and metabolic disorders as systemic factor for the formation of urinary calculi].

    PubMed

    Aliaev, Iu G; Egshatian, L V; Rapoport, L M; Lartsova, E V

    2014-01-01

    In patients suffering from urolithiasis, metabolic diagnostics often reveals abnormalities contributing to the formation of stones: hypocitraturia, hyper- and hypocalcemia, hypercalciuria, hypomagnesemia/hypomagnesuria, hyperoxalaturia, etc. Before surgery, complex biochemical examination of blood and 24-hourcollection urine in 82 patients with urolithiasis was performed. The analysis of the main laboratory parameters of carbohydrate, lipid, calcium and phosphorus and purine metabolism found the prevalence of violations of calcium and phosphorus metabolism in these patients. Dyslipidemia was diagnosed in 31 (37.8%) patients. There was a significant positive correlation between serum total cholesterol and serum total calcium (rs = 0.3315, P = 0.0103). Low serum calcium levels were associated with hyperoxalaturia (rs = -0.4270, P = 0.0295). There was a significant effect of natriuria on urinary excretion of oxalate (rs = 0.6107, P = 0.0001), Mg (rs = 0.4156, P = 0.0096) and K (rs = 0.5234, P = 0.00005). The study shows the role of magnesium in the prevention of recurrence and manifestation of urolithiasis. The combination of two or more types of hormonal and metabolic disorders increases the incidence of recurrent stones. Timely correction of hormonal-metabolic status allows to reduce the risk of stone formation, and hospitalization attributable to the complications associated. PMID:25807757

  17. Adhesion of calcium oxalate crystals to Madin-Darby canine kidney cells and some effects of glycosaminoglycans or cell injuries.

    PubMed

    Ebisuno, S; Kohjimoto, Y; Tamura, M; Ohkawa, T

    1995-01-01

    The present investigation studied the quantitative adhesion of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals to the surface of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, which exhibit many characteristics of renal cortical collecting tubule cells. COM crystals adhered to the cell surface, and the attachment showed a time and concentration dependency with plateau. The results suggested that the attachment of microcrystals to the cortical tubular cell might be one of the earliest processes in the formation of kidney stones. Pretreatment with glycosaminoglycans significantly reduced the adherent crystals. Injuries to the Madin-Darby cells induced by 0.1 M HCl and gentamicin resulted in significant decreases of COM crystal adhesion to the cell surface. It was suggested that urinary glycosaminoglycans might play some critical role in preventing crystal adhesion to these cellular membranes and that cell injuries might not be essential for the attachment of microcrystals to the tubular cells. PMID:8521899

  18. PREPARATION OF OXALATES OF METALS OF ATOMIC NUMBER GREATER THAN 88

    DOEpatents

    Duffield, R.B.

    1959-02-01

    A method is presented for the preparation of oxalates of metals of atomic number greater than 88. A solid peroxide of the heavy metal is contacted with an aqueous oxalic acid solution ai a temperature of about 50 C for a period of time sufficient to form the insoluble metal oxalate which is subsequentiy recovered as a pures crystalline compound.

  19. Genomic evaluation of oxalate-degrading transgenic soybean in response to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxalate oxidases catalyze the degradation of oxalic acid (OA). Highly resistant transgenic soybean carrying an oxalate oxidase (OxO) gene and its susceptible parent soybean line, AC Colibri, were tested for genome-wide gene expression in response to the necrotrophic, OA producing pathogen Sclerotini...

  20. Evaluation of Oxalate Concentration in the U.S. Spinach Germplasm Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In addition to its high nutrient content, spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is also known to have greater amount of oxalic acid than most crops. Oxalic acid may form crystals with minerals to reduce the bioavailability and absorption of calcium and iron in diets, and calcium oxalate may deposit in the...

  1. 21 CFR 862.1542 - Oxalate test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems 862... treatment of urinary stones or certain other metabolic disorders. (b) Classification. Class I...

  2. Obesity and Urinary Incontinence: Epidemiology and Clinical Research Update

    PubMed Central

    Subak, Leslee L.; Richter, Holly E.; Hunskaar, Steinar

    2010-01-01

    Purpose We reviewed the epidemiological literature on the association of obesity and urinary incontinence, and summarized clinical trial data on the effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence. Materials and Methods We systematically searched for published community based prevalence studies with bivariate or multivariate analysis of the association of urinary incontinence and overweight/obesity in women. Case series and randomized controlled trials of the effect of surgical, behavioral and pharmacological weight loss on urinary incontinence are summarized. Results Epidemiological studies showed that obesity is a strong independent risk factor for prevalent and incident urinary incontinence. There was a clear dose-response effect of weight on urinary incontinence with each 5-unit increase in body mass index associated with about a 20% to 70% increase in the urinary incontinence risk, and the maximum effect of weight rarely exceeded an OR of greater than 4 to 5 on well controlled analyses. The odds of incident urinary incontinence during 5 to 10 years increased by approximately 30% to 60% for each 5-unit increase in body mass index. There may be a stronger association of increasing weight with prevalent and incident stress incontinence, including mixed incontinence, than with urge incontinence and overactive bladder syndrome. Weight loss studies indicated that surgical and nonsurgical weight loss led to significant improvements in urinary incontinence symptoms. Conclusions Epidemiological studies document overweight and obesity as important risk factors for urinary incontinence. Weight loss by surgical and more conservative approaches is effective to decrease urinary incontinence symptoms and should be strongly considered a first line treatment in this patient population. PMID:19846133

  3. Acute Oxalate Nephropathy following Ingestion of Averrhoa bilimbi Juice

    PubMed Central

    George, Jacob; Kumar, Sajeev; Gracious, Noble

    2014-01-01

    Plant toxins are known to cause acute kidney injury in tropical countries. We report two cases of acute kidney injury with tubular oxalate deposition following ingestion of Averrhoa bilimbi fruit juice. Both patients had complete renal recovery though one required dialytic support. PMID:24995136

  4. 21 CFR 862.1542 - Oxalate test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Oxalate test system. 862.1542 Section 862.1542 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  5. Isolation and characterization of some new oxalate-decomposing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Chandra, T S; Shethna, Y I

    1975-01-01

    Forty-one cultures degrading and assimilating oxalate were isolated from chicken dung. Characterizarion indicated six different types. One of these belonged to thhe genus Alcaligenes hitherto never reported to degrade oxalte. Three groups of Pseudomonas strains differed physiologically from strains already known. PMID:1080384

  6. CALCIUM OXALATE CRYSTAL MORPHOLOGY MUTANTS FROM MEDICAGO TRUNCATULA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants accumulate crystals of calcium oxalate in a variety of shapes and sizes. Each plant forms a crystal or set of crystals with a specific morphology. The mechanism(s) through which a plant defines the morphology of its crystals remains unknown. To gain insight into the mechanisms regulating c...

  7. Production of battery grade materials via an oxalate method

    SciTech Connect

    Belharouak, Ilias; Amine, Khalil

    2014-04-29

    An active electrode material for electrochemical devices such as lithium ion batteries includes a lithium transition metal oxide which is free of sodium and sulfur contaminants. The lithium transition metal oxide is prepared by calcining a mixture of a lithium precursor and a transition metal oxalate. Electrochemical devices use such active electrodes.

  8. CALCIUM CHANNELS INVOLVED IN CALCIUM OXALATE CRYSTAL FORMATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pistia stratiotes L. produces calcium (Ca) oxalate crystals in specialized cells called crystal idioblasts. Druse crystal idioblasts are produced in the adaxial mesophyll and raphide idioblasts are produced in the abaxial aerenchyma of this aquatic plant. Leaves formed on plants grown on 0 Ca medi...

  9. Oxalate Mass Balance During Chemical Cleaning in Tank 5F

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.; Fink, S.

    2011-07-08

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is preparing Tank 5F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. Following mechanical sludge removal, SRS performed chemical cleaning with oxalic acid to remove the sludge heel. Personnel are currently assessing the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning to determine whether the tank is ready for closure. SRS personnel collected liquid samples during chemical cleaning and submitted them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. Following chemical cleaning, they collected a solid sample (also known as 'process sample') and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. The authors analyzed these samples to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning process. Analysis of the anions showed the measured oxalate removed from Tank 5F to be approximately 50% of the amount added in the oxalic acid. To close the oxalate mass balance, the author collected solid samples, leached them with nitric acid, and measured the concentration of cations and anions in the leachate.

  10. Crystal growth methods dedicated to low solubility actinide oxalates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamain, C.; Arab-Chapelet, B.; Rivenet, M.; Grandjean, S.; Abraham, F.

    2016-04-01

    Two novel crystal growth syntheses dedicated to low solubility actinide-oxalate systems and adapted to glove box handling are described. These methods based on the use of precursors of either actinide metal or oxalic acid have been optimized on lanthanide systems (analogue of actinides(III)) and then assessed on real actinide systems. They allow the synthesis of several actinide oxalate single crystals, Am2(C2O4)3(H2O)3·xH2O, Th(C2O4)2·6H2O, M2+x[PuIV2-xPuIIIx(C2O4)5]·nH2O and M1-x[PuIII1-xPuIVx(C2O4)2·H2O]·nH2O. It is the first time that these well-known compounds are formed by crystal growth methods, thus enabling direct structural studies on transuranic element systems and acquisition of basic data beyond deductions from isomorphic (or not) lanthanide compounds. Characterizations by X-ray diffraction, UV-visible solid spectroscopy, demonstrate the potentialities of these two crystal growth methods to obtain oxalate compounds.

  11. Oxalate and formate in Alcaligenes and Pseudomonas species.

    PubMed

    Chandra, T S; Shethna, Y I

    1975-01-01

    Oxalate is metabolized by the glycerate pathway involving glyoxylate carboligase in Alcaligenes LOx and Pseudomonas KOx, and by the serine pathway involving hydroxypyruvate reductase in Ps.MOx and Ps.AM1 (var. 470). Although A.LOx does not grow on formate, stimulation of growth was observed in the presence of amino acids and a few Kreb's cycle intermediates. A.LOx possesses two different mechanisms for the oxidation of formate: (1) the constitutive formate oxidase which is present in the particulate fraction of oxalate-grown and succinate-plus-formate-grown cells; (2) the inducible NAD-linked formate dehydrogenase present in the 100 000 x g supernatant fraction of the cell-free extracts of oxalate-grown cells alone. The two systems occur simultaneously in oxalate-grown cells. The effect of inhibitors on formate oxidase activity and the other enzyme activities of the particulate formate-oxidizing fraction indicate that the oxidation of formate is linked to the respiratory chain. PMID:1083207

  12. GADOLINIUM OXALATE SOLUBILITY MEASUREMENTS IN NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.

    2012-02-22

    HB-Line will begin processing Pu solutions during FY2012 that will involve the recovery of Pu using oxalate precipitation and filtration. After the precipitation and filtration processes, the filtrate solution will be transferred from HB-Line to H-Canyon. The presence of excess oxalate and unfiltered Pu oxalate solids in these solutions create a criticality safety issue if they are sent to H-Canyon without controls in H-Canyon. One approach involves H-Canyon receiving the filtrate solution into a tank that is poisoned with soluble gadolinium (Gd). Decomposition of the oxalate will occur within a subsequent H-Canyon vessel. The receipt of excess oxalate into the H-Canyon receipt tanks has the potential to precipitate a portion of the Gd poison in the receipt tanks. Because the amount of Gd in solution determines the maximum amount of Pu solids that H-Canyon can receive, H-Canyon Engineering requested that SRNL determine the solubility of Gd in aqueous solutions of 4-10 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), 4-12 g/L Gd, and 0.15-0.25 M oxalic acid (H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}) at 25 C. The target soluble Gd concentration is 6 g/L. The data indicate that the target can be achieved above 6 M HNO{sub 3} and below 0.25 M H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}. For 6 M HNO{sub 3}, 10.5 g/L and 7 g/L Gd are soluble in 0.15 M and 0.25 M H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}, respectively. In 4 M HNO{sub 3}, the Gd solubility drops significantly to 2 g/L and 0.25 g/L in 0.15 M and 0.25 M H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}, respectively. The solubility of Gd at 8-10 M HNO{sub 3} exceeds the solubility at 6 M HNO{sub 3}. The data for 4 M HNO{sub 3} showed good agreement with data in the literature. To achieve a target of 6 g/L soluble Gd in solution in the presence of 0.15-0.25 M oxalate, the HNO{sub 3} concentration must be maintained at or above 6 M HNO{sub 3}.

  13. Serum and Urinary NGAL in Septic Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Suchojad, Anna; Majcherczyk, Malgorzata; Jadamus-Niebroj, Danuta; Owsianka-Podlesny, Teresa; Brzozowska, Aniceta

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is postulated to be a potentially new and highly specific/sensitive marker of acute kidney injury (AKI). The aim of this study was to assess the impact of inflammation on serum and urine NGAL in newborns that were treated due to infection. We determined serum and urine NGAL concentrations in 73 infants (51 with sepsis; 22 with severe sepsis) admitted to the Intensive Care Unit in the first month of life, for three consecutive days during the course of treatment for infection. 29 neonates without infection served as the control group. Septic patients, in particular, severe sepsis patients, had increased serum and urinary NGAL levels in the three subsequent days of observation. Five septic patients who developed AKI had elevated serum and urinary NGAL values to a similar extent as septic neonates without AKI. A strong correlation was found between the concentration of serum and urinary NGAL and inflammatory markers, such as CRP and procalcitonin. Serum and urinary NGAL levels were also significantly associated with NTISS (neonatal therapeutic intervention scoring system) values. We conclude that increased serum and urinary NGAL values are not solely a marker of AKI, and more accurately reflect the severity of inflammatory status. PMID:24579085

  14. Serum and urinary NGAL in septic newborns.

    PubMed

    Smertka, Mike; Wroblewska, Jolanta; Suchojad, Anna; Majcherczyk, Malgorzata; Jadamus-Niebroj, Danuta; Owsianka-Podlesny, Teresa; Brzozowska, Aniceta; Maruniak-Chudek, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is postulated to be a potentially new and highly specific/sensitive marker of acute kidney injury (AKI). The aim of this study was to assess the impact of inflammation on serum and urine NGAL in newborns that were treated due to infection. We determined serum and urine NGAL concentrations in 73 infants (51 with sepsis; 22 with severe sepsis) admitted to the Intensive Care Unit in the first month of life, for three consecutive days during the course of treatment for infection. 29 neonates without infection served as the control group. Septic patients, in particular, severe sepsis patients, had increased serum and urinary NGAL levels in the three subsequent days of observation. Five septic patients who developed AKI had elevated serum and urinary NGAL values to a similar extent as septic neonates without AKI. A strong correlation was found between the concentration of serum and urinary NGAL and inflammatory markers, such as CRP and procalcitonin. Serum and urinary NGAL levels were also significantly associated with NTISS (neonatal therapeutic intervention scoring system) values. We conclude that increased serum and urinary NGAL values are not solely a marker of AKI, and more accurately reflect the severity of inflammatory status. PMID:24579085

  15. Predictors of Urinary Morbidity in Cs-131 Prostate Brachytherapy Implants

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Ryan P.; Jones, Heather A.; Beriwal, Sushil; Gokhale, Abhay; Benoit, Ronald

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: Cesium-131 is a newer radioisotope being used in prostate brachytherapy (PB). This study was conducted to determine the predictors of urinary morbidity with Cs-131 PB. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 159 patients underwent PB with Cs-131 at our institution and were followed by using Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) surveys to determine urinary morbidity over time. EPIC scores were obtained preoperatively and postoperatively at 2 and 4 weeks, and 3 and 6 months. Different factors were evaluated to determine their individual effect on urinary morbidity, including patient characteristics, disease characteristics, treatment, and dosimetry. Multivariate analysis of covariance was carried out to identify baseline determinants affecting urinary morbidity. Factors contributing to the need for postoperative catheterization were also studied and reported. Results: At 2 weeks, patient age, dose to 90% of the organ (D90), bladder neck maximum dose (D{sub max}), and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) predicted for worse function. At 4 weeks, age and EBRT continued to predict for worse function. At the 3-month mark, better preoperative urinary function, preoperative alpha blockers, bladder neck D{sub max}, and EBRT predicted for worse urinary morbidity. At 6 months, better preoperative urinary function, preoperative alpha blockers, bladder neck D{sub max}, and EBRT were predictive of increased urinary problems. High bladder neck D{sub max} and poor preoperative urinary function predicted for the need for catheterization. Conclusions: The use of EBRT plus Cs-131 PB predicts for worse urinary toxicity at all time points studied. Patients should be cautioned about this. Age was a consistent predictor of worsened morbidity immediately following Cs-131 PB, while bladder D{sub max} was the only consistent dosimetric predictor. Paradoxically, patients with better preoperative urinary function had worse urinary morbidity at 3 and 6 months, consistent with recently published literature.

  16. Urinary and metabolic clearances of arginine vasopressin in normal subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, A.M.; Steciak, E.

    1986-08-01

    Synthetic arginine vasopressin (AVP) was infused into 11 hydrated normal subjects at five different infusion rates ranging from 10 to 350 U kg min . Each infusion rate was continued for 1 h, and urinary determinations were made on the 30- to 60-min specimens during which time there was no further rise in plasma AVP. Urinary AVP concentrations ( U/ml) and excretion rates ( U/min) increased linearly with increasing infusion rates, and the concentration of AVP in urine increased 120 times more rapid than plasma. Urinary and metabolic clearances of AVP also increased linearly with the maximum urinary clearance being 60.6% of the creatinine clearance. The total metabolic clearance of AVP (including urinary clearance) was 17.8 times that of the urinary clearance of AVP alone. These data clarify the relationships between plasma and urinary AVP in normal hydrated subjects during AVP infusion under steady-state conditions and emphasize the potential advantage of measuring urinary AVP as a monitor of endogenous AVP secretion. AVP was measured by radioimmunoassay.

  17. Diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infections in children.

    PubMed

    White, Brett

    2011-02-15

    Acute urinary tract infections are relatively common in children, with 8 percent of girls and 2 percent of boys having at least one episode by seven years of age. The most common pathogen is Escherichia coli, accounting for approximately 85 percent of urinary tract infections in children. Renal parenchymal defects are present in 3 to 15 percent of children within one to two years of their first diagnosed urinary tract infection. Clinical signs and symptoms of a urinary tract infection depend on the age of the child, but all febrile children two to 24 months of age with no obvious cause of infection should be evaluated for urinary tract infection (with the exception of circumcised boys older than 12 months). Evaluation of older children may depend on the clinical presentation and symptoms that point toward a urinary source (e.g., leukocyte esterase or nitrite present on dipstick testing; pyuria of at least 10 white blood cells per high-power field and bacteriuria on microscopy). Increased rates of E. coli resistance have made amoxicillin a less acceptable choice for treatment, and studies have found higher cure rates with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Other treatment options include amoxicillin/clavulanate and cephalosporins. Prophylactic antibiotics do not reduce the risk of subsequent urinary tract infections, even in children with mild to moderate vesicoureteral reflux. Constipation should be avoided to help prevent urinary tract infections. Ultrasonography, cystography, and a renal cortical scan should be considered in children with urinary tract infections. PMID:21322515

  18. Components of the Urinary System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Anatomy & Physiology » Urinary System » Components of the Urinary System Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life Process Anatomical Terminology Review Quiz ...

  19. Urinary incontinence - vaginal sling procedures

    MedlinePlus

    ... types of surgeries that help control stress urinary incontinence . This is urine leakage that happens when you ... sling procedures are done to treat stress urinary incontinence. Before discussing surgery, your doctor will have you ...

  20. Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... gland) can cause lower urinary tract disease in cats. Although they are much less common causes, FLUTD ... your veterinarian about the best diet for your cat. Many commercial diets are acceptable, but some urinary ...

  1. Reduction of carbon dioxide to oxalate by a binuclear copper complex.

    PubMed

    Pokharel, Uttam R; Fronczek, Frank R; Maverick, Andrew W

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of carbon dioxide to products such as oxalate (C2O4(2-)) is an active area of research, as the process converts an environmental pollutant into more useful organic compounds. However, carbon dioxide reduction remains a major challenge. Here we demonstrate a three-step reaction sequence in which a copper complex converts carbon dioxide to oxalate under mild conditions. The copper(II) complex is reduced to copper(I) in solution, either electrochemically or using sodium ascorbate. The reduced complex selectively reacts with carbon dioxide from air and fixes it into oxalate, with the oxalate ion bridging between two copper atoms. The bound oxalate ion is released as oxalic acid on treatment with mineral acids, regenerating the original copper(II) complex. This completes the process for conversion of carbon dioxide into oxalate using a binuclear copper complex and a mild reducing agent. PMID:25522935

  2. GADOLINIUM OXALATE SOLUBILITY MEASUREMENTS IN NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R. A.

    2012-03-12

    HB-Line will begin processing Pu solutions during FY2012 that will involve the recovery of Pu using oxalate precipitation and filtration. After the precipitation and filtration processes, the filtrate solution will be transferred from HB-Line to H-Canyon. The presence of excess oxalate and unfiltered Pu oxalate solids in these solutions create a criticality safety issue if they are sent to H-Canyon without controls in H-Canyon. One approach involves H-Canyon receiving the filtrate solution into a tank that is poisoned with soluble gadolinium (Gd). Decomposition of the oxalate will occur within a subsequent H-Canyon vessel. The receipt of excess oxalate into the H-Canyon receipt tanks has the potential to precipitate a portion of the Gd poison in the receipt tanks. Because the amount of Gd in solution determines the maximum amount of Pu solids that H-Canyon can receive, H-Canyon Engineering requested that SRNL determine the solubility of Gd in aqueous solutions of 4-10 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), 4-12 g/L Gd, and 0.15-0.25 M oxalic acid (H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}) at 25 °C. The target soluble Gd concentration is 6 g/L. The data indicate that the target can be achieved above 6 M HNO{sub 3} and below 0.25 M H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}. At 25 °C, for 6 M HNO{sub 3}, 11 g/L and 7 g/L Gd are soluble in 0.15 M and 0.25 M H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}, respectively. In 4 M HNO{sub 3}, the Gd solubility drops significantly to 2.5 g/L and 0.8 g/L in 0.15 M and 0.25 M H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}, respectively. The solubility of Gd at 8-10 M HNO{sub 3} exceeds the solubility at 6 M HNO{sub 3}. The data for 4 M HNO{sub 3} showed good agreement with data in the literature. To achieve a target of 6 g/L soluble Gd in solution in the presence of 0.15-0.25 M oxalate, the HNO{sub 3} concentration must be maintained at or above 6 M HNO{sub 3}. The solubility of Gd in 4 M HNO{sub 3} with 0.15 M oxalate at 10 °C is about 1.5 g/L. For 6 M HNO{sub 3} with 0.15 M oxalate, the solubility of Gd at 10 °C is about 10 g/L. Gadolinium nitrate is very soluble in HNO{sub 3}. The solubility of Gd is linear as a function of HNO{sub 3} from 343 g/L Gd in 2.88 M HNO{sub 3} to 149 g/L in 8.16 M HNO{sub 3}. Below 2.88 M HNO{sub 3}, the solubility of Gd approaches a limit of about 360 g/L. However, there are no data available below 1.40 M HNO{sub 3}, which has a Gd solubility of 353 g/L.

  3. Calcium oxalate contribution to calcium cycling in forests of contrasting nutrient status

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dauer, Jenny M.; Perakis, Steven S.

    2014-01-01

    Calcium oxalate (Ca oxalate) is an insoluble biomineral that forms in plants and fungi, and occurs in soils across many types of ecosystems. Assessing how Ca oxalate may shape ecosystem Ca cycling requires information on the distribution of Ca oxalate among plant biomass, detritus, and mineral soil, and how it varies with ecosystem Ca status. We compared two Douglas-fir forests of contrasting ecosystem Ca availability, and found that Ca oxalate was partitioned similarly among plant biomass, detritus and mineral soil major ecosystem compartments at both sites, and total pools of Ca oxalate were greater in the high-Ca forest. However, the proportional importance of Ca oxalate was greater in the low-Ca than high-Ca forest (18% versus 4% of actively cycling ecosystem Ca, respectively). And calcium oxalate in mineral soil, which is of particular interest as a potential long-term Ca reservoir, was a larger portion of total available Ca (exchangeable Ca plus Ca oxalate Ca) in the low-Ca site than the high-Ca site (9% versus 1% of available soil Ca, respectively). Calcium oxalate was the dominant form of Ca returned from plants to soil as leaf litterfall at the high-Ca site, yet calcium oxalate disappeared rapidly from decomposing litter (0.28 yr−1 or faster) at both sites. We conclude that accumulation of Ca oxalate in forest ecosystems appears most closely related to overall Ca supply for live biomass pools, and that the accumulation of Ca oxalate in forest floor and mineral soil is limited by rapid microbial degradation of putatively unavailable Ca oxalate.

  4. In female rats, ethylene glycol treatment elevates protein expression of hepatic and renal oxalate transporter sat-1 (Slc26a1) without inducing hyperoxaluria

    PubMed Central

    Breljak, Davorka; Brzica, Hrvoje; Vrhovac, Ivana; Micek, Vedran; Karaica, Dean; Ljubojević, Marija; Sekovanić, Ankica; Jurasović, Jasna; Rašić, Dubravka; Peraica, Maja; Lovrić, Mila; Schnedler, Nina; Henjakovic, Maja; Wegner, Waja; Burckhardt, Gerhard; Burckhardt, Birgitta C.; Sabolić, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Aim To investigate whether the sex-dependent expression of hepatic and renal oxalate transporter sat-1 (Slc26a1) changes in a rat model of ethylene glycol (EG)-induced hyperoxaluria. Methods Rats were given tap water (12 males and 12 females; controls) or EG (12 males and 12 females; 0.75% v/v in tap water) for one month. Oxaluric state was confirmed by biochemical parameters in blood plasma, urine, and tissues. Expression of sat-1 and rate-limiting enzymes of oxalate synthesis, alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (Adh1) and hydroxy-acid oxidase 1 (Hao1), was determined by immunocytochemistry (protein) and/or real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (mRNA). Results EG-treated males had significantly higher (in μmol/L; mean ± standard deviation) plasma (59.7 ± 27.2 vs 12.9 ± 4.1, P < 0.001) and urine (3716 ± 1726 vs 241 ± 204, P < 0.001) oxalate levels, and more abundant oxalate crystaluria than controls, while the liver and kidney sat-1 protein and mRNA expression did not differ significantly between these groups. EG-treated females, in comparison with controls had significantly higher (in μmol/L) serum oxalate levels (18.8 ± 2.9 vs 11.6 ± 4.9, P < 0.001), unchanged urine oxalate levels, low oxalate crystaluria, and significantly higher expression (in relative fluorescence units) of the liver (1.59 ± 0.61 vs 0.56 ± 0.39, P = 0.006) and kidney (1.77 ± 0.42 vs 0.69 ± 0.27, P < 0.001) sat-1 protein, but not mRNA. The mRNA expression of Adh1 was female-dominant and that of Hao1 male-dominant, but both were unaffected by EG treatment. Conclusions An increased expression of hepatic and renal oxalate transporting protein sat-1 in EG-treated female rats could protect from hyperoxaluria and oxalate urolithiasis. PMID:26526882

  5. [Urinary catheter biofilm infections].

    PubMed

    Holá, V; Růzicka, F

    2008-04-01

    Urinary tract infections, most of which are biofilm infections in catheterized patients, account for more than 40% of hospital infections. Bacterial colonization of the urinary tract and catheters causes not only infection but also other complications such as catheter blockage by bacterial encrustation, urolithiasis and pyelonephritis. About 50% of long-term catheterized patients face urinary flow obstruction due to catheter encrustation, but no measure is currently available to prevent it. Encrustation has been known either to result from metabolic dysfunction or to be of microbial origin, with urease positive bacterial species implicated most often. Infectious calculi account for about 15-20% of all cases of urolithiasis and are often associated with biofilm colonization of a long-term indwelling urinary catheter or urethral stent. The use of closed catheter systems is helpful in reducing such problems; nevertheless, such a system only delays the inevitable, with infections emerging a little later. Various coatings intended to prevent the bacterial adhesion to the surface of catheters and implants and thus also the emergence of biofilm infections, unfortunately, do not inhibit the microbial adhesion completely and permanently and the only reliable method for biofilm eradication remains the removal of the foreign body from the patient. PMID:18578409

  6. Urinary Tract Infections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on urinary tract infections is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are…

  7. Applications in environmental bioinorganic: Nutritional and ultrastructural evaluation and calculus of thermodynamic and structural properties of metal-oxalate complexes.

    PubMed

    Tolentino, Terezinha Alves; Bertoli, Alexandre Carvalho; dos Santos Pires, Maíra; Carvalho, Ruy; Labory, Claudia Regina Gontijo; Nunes, Janaira Santana; Bastos, Ana Rosa Ribeiro; de Freitas, Matheus Puggina

    2015-11-01

    Lead (Pb) is known by its toxicity both for animals and plants. In order to evaluate its toxicity, plants of Brachiaria brizantha were cultivated on nutritive solution of Hoagland during 90 days and submitted to different concentrations of Pb. The content of macro and micronutrients was evaluated and there was a reduction on root content of Ca, besides the lowest dosages of Pb had induced an increase of N, S, Mn, Cu, Zn and Fe. The cell ultrastructure of leaves and roots were analyzed by transmission electronic microscopy (TEM). Among the main alterations occurred there were invaginations on cell walls, the presence of crystals on the root cells, accumulation of material on the interior of cells and vacuolar compartmentalization. On the leaves the degradation of chloroplasts was observed, as well as the increase of vacuoles. Structures for the formation of oxalate crystals were proposed through molecular modeling and thermodynamic stability. Calculi suggest the formation of highly stable metal-oxalate complexes. PMID:26099826

  8. Induction of apoptosis with cisplatin enhances calcium oxalate crystal adherence to inner medullary collecting duct cells.

    PubMed

    Kleinman, Jack G; Sorokina, Elena A; Wesson, Jeffrey A

    2010-04-01

    Attachment of stone crystals to tubular epithelium may initiate kidney stone formation. We previously reported that apical nucleolin related protein (NRP) expression during mitosis enhance attachment of Ca oxalate monohydrate crystals (COM). Some forms of injury may also increase affinity for crystals. We examined changes in subcellular localization of NRP during the course of cisplatin-induced apoptosis in cultured inner medullary collecting duct cells. Caspase-3 activation and chromatin condensation followed by nuclear fragmentation occurred after 20 h exposure to cisplatin, indicating the development of apoptosis. Cells were fixed without permeabilization and stained for surface NRP. Cells with condensed chromatin showed little or no cytoplasmic or apical NRP. Those at an early stage of nuclear fragmentation had cytoplasmic but not apical NRP and cells with advanced nuclear fragmentation were positively stained for apical NRP. Membrane proteins isolated by apical biotinylation and precipitated with avidin were analyzed by Western blot. Apical NRP was markedly increased after cisplatin compared to control, while expression of the apical marker, GP-135, and other putative attachment protein were unchanged. Hyaluronic acid was decreased. Cultures with apoptotic cells demonstrated increased adherence of COM that was inhibited by the polyanion (poly)aspartic acid. We conclude that pre-existing apoptotic injury may promote calcium oxalate crystals attachment to renal tubular epithelium via apical NRP expression. PMID:20077109

  9. Various factors affecting photodecomposition of methylene blue by iron-oxides in an oxalate solution.

    PubMed

    Gulshan, Fahmida; Yanagida, Sayaka; Kameshima, Yoshikazu; Isobe, Toshihiro; Nakajima, Akira; Okada, Kiyoshi

    2010-05-01

    The effect of various factors on the photodecomposition of methylene blue (MB) by iron oxides calcined at various temperatures in various concentrations of oxalate solutions was investigated by illuminating with UV, visible and solar radiation. Iron oxides were prepared by a gel evaporation method and calcined at 200-700 degrees C. XRD showed that the as-synthesized iron oxides were amorphous, but formed maghemite (gamma-Fe(2)O(3)) at 200-400 degrees C and hematite (alpha-Fe(2)O(3)) at > or =500 degrees C. The effect of the various iron oxides, their contents, the oxalate concentration and wavelength of the light source (UV, visible and solar) were all found to strongly influence MB photodecomposition. The optimal contents of the iron oxides increased greatly from 25 to 2000 mg/L at higher calcining temperatures. The MB photodecomposition rate at each optimal iron oxide content was related to the calcining temperature in the order 700 degrees C6, consistent with the presence of iron-oxalate complexes. A much higher concentration of hydroxyl radicals was generated in the present system compared with those from a commercial TiO(2) (ST-01), as determined by the coumarin method. Since this process does not require the addition of hydrogen peroxide and shows good efficiency even under solar light, it is an economically viable method for pre-treating and/or decolorizing wastewaters containing dyes. PMID:20188391

  10. Exposure of Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) Cells to Oxalate and Calcium Oxalate Crystals Activates Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate (NADPH)-Oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Aslam; Byer, Karen; Khan, Saeed R.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-oxidase activity in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and the production of reactive oxygen species on exposure to oxalate (Ox) or calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals. METHODS Monolayers of confluent Madin-Darby canine kidney cells were exposed to 100, 300, 500 μmol, 1 mmol Ox or 33, 66, 132 μg/cm2 CaOx crystals for 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, or 3 hours. After specified periods of exposure to Ox and CaOx crystals, lactate dehydrogenase release, trypan blue exclusion, activation of NADPH oxidase, and superoxide production were determined using standard procedures. The production of Nox4, a membrane associated subunit of the NADPH oxidase enzyme, was determined by western blot analysis. RESULTS Exposure to Ox and CaOx crystals leads to time- and concentration-dependent activation of NADPH oxidase. Western blot analysis showed an increase in the production of Nox4. The production of superoxide also changed in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, with maximum increases after 30-minute exposure to the highest concentrations of Ox and CaOx crystals. Longer exposures did not change the results or resulted in decreased activities. Exposure to higher concentrations also caused increased lactate dehydrogenase release and trypan blue exclusion indicating cell damage. CONCLUSION Results indicate that cells of the distal tubular origin are equipped with NADPH oxidase that is activated by exposures to Ox and CaOx crystals. Higher concentrations of both lead to cell injury, most probably through the increased reactive oxygen species production by the exposed cells. PMID:24360063

  11. Urinary creatinine concentrations in the U.S. population: implications for urinary biologic monitoring measurements.

    PubMed

    Barr, Dana B; Wilder, Lynn C; Caudill, Samuel P; Gonzalez, Amanda J; Needham, Lance L; Pirkle, James L

    2005-02-01

    Biologic monitoring (i.e., biomonitoring) is used to assess human exposures to environmental and workplace chemicals. Urinary biomonitoring data typically are adjusted to a constant creatinine concentration to correct for variable dilutions among spot samples. Traditionally, this approach has been used in population groups without much diversity. The inclusion of multiple demographic groups in studies using biomonitoring for exposure assessment has increased the variability in the urinary creatinine levels in these study populations. Our objectives were to document the normal range of urinary creatinine concentrations among various demographic groups, evaluate the impact that variations in creatinine concentrations can have on classifying exposure status of individuals in epidemiologic studies, and recommend an approach using multiple regression to adjust for variations in creatinine in multivariate analyses. We performed a weighted multivariate analysis of urinary creatinine concentrations in 22,245 participants of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994) and established reference ranges (10th-90th percentiles) for each demographic and age category. Significant predictors of urinary creatinine concentration included age group, sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index, and fat-free mass. Time of day that urine samples were collected made a small but statistically significant difference in creatinine concentrations. For an individual, the creatinine-adjusted concentration of an analyte should be compared with a "reference" range derived from persons in a similar demographic group (e.g., children with children, adults with adults). For multiple regression analysis of population groups, we recommend that the analyte concentration (unadjusted for creatinine) should be included in the analysis with urinary creatinine added as a separate independent variable. This approach allows the urinary analyte concentration to be appropriately adjusted for urinary creatinine and the statistical significance of other variables in the model to be independent of effects of creatinine concentration. PMID:15687057

  12. Urinary Tract Infection and Bacteriuria in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Alexander P; Schaeffer, Anthony J

    2015-11-01

    Bacteriuria during pregnancy may be classified as asymptomatic bacteriuria, infections of the lower urinary tract (cystitis), or infections of the upper urinary tract (pyelonephritis). Lower tract bacteriuria is associated with an increased risk of developing pyelonephritis in pregnancy, which is itself associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Pregnant women should be screened for the presence of bacteriuria early in pregnancy. All bacteriuria in pregnancy should be treated, and antimicrobial choice in pregnancy should reflect safety for both the mother and the fetus. After treatment of bacteriuria, patients should be followed closely due to risk of recurrent bacteriuria. PMID:26475951

  13. Urinary Tract Infection and Neurogenic Bladder.

    PubMed

    McKibben, Maxim J; Seed, Patrick; Ross, Sherry S; Borawski, Kristy M

    2015-11-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are frequent, recurrent, and lifelong for patients with neurogenic bladder and present challenges in diagnosis and treatment. Patients often present without classic symptoms of UTI but with abdominal or back pain, increased spasticity, and urinary incontinence. Failure to recognize and treat infections can quickly lead to life-threatening autonomic dysreflexia or sepsis, whereas overtreatment contributes to antibiotic resistance, thus limiting future treatment options. Multiple prevention methods are used but evidence-based practices are few. Prevention and treatment of symptomatic UTI requires a multimodal approach that focuses on bladder management as well as accurate diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic treatment. PMID:26475949

  14. Resistance of bacteria in urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Chomarat, M

    2000-12-01

    Bacterial infection of the urinary tract is a common health problem in young women but also the most common nosocomial infection (>33%) contributing to the mortality of patients, and increasing the duration and cost of hospitalization. Escherichia coli is the most predominant organism and its prevalence varies in different studies. The high consumption of inappropriately prescribed antibiotics, combined with multiple pathology and frequent use of invasive devices, is a major factor contributing to high levels of resistance. There is a serious decrease in susceptibility of E. coli strains to amoxycillin, due to the presence of R-TEM enzymes, to cotrimoxazole and trimethoprim. Nitrofurantoin and fosfomycin-trometamol remain highly active against urinary Enterobacteriaceae, with over 90% of E. coli being susceptible. Knowledge of the most likely causative organisms and the prevalence of resistance pathogens to antimicrobial agents is essential to select antibiotics and to establish guidelines for the empirical treatment of urinary tract infections. PMID:11118863

  15. Contrasting Effects of Water on the Barriers to Decarboxylation of Two Oxalic Acid Monohydrates: A Combined Rotational Spectroscopic and Ab Initio Study.

    PubMed

    Schnitzler, Elijah G; Badran, Courtenay; Jäger, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Using rotational spectroscopy, we have observed two isomers of the monohydrate of oxalic acid, the most abundant dicarboxylic acid in the atmosphere. In the lowest-energy isomer, water hydrogen-bonds to both carboxylic acid groups, and the barrier to decarboxylation decreases. In the second isomer, water bonds to only one carboxylic acid group, and the barrier increases. Though the lower barrier in the former is not unequivocal evidence that water acts as a photocatalyst, the higher barrier in the latter indicates that water acts as an inhibitor in this topology. Oxalic acid is unique among dicarboxylic acids: for the higher homologues calculated, the inhibiting topology of the monohydrate is lowest in energy and most abundant under atmospheric conditions. Consequently, oxalic acid is the only dicarboxylic acid for which single-water catalysis of overtone-induced decarboxylation in the atmosphere is plausible. PMID:26963633

  16. High Temperature Raman Spectroscopy Study of the Conversion of Formate into Oxalate: Search for the Elusive CO 2 2 - Intermediate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Charles; Mead, Anna; Lakkaraju, Prasad; Kaczur, Jerry; Bennett, Christopher; Dobbins, Tabbetha

    Research on conversion of carbon dioxide into chemicals and fuels has the potential to address three problems of global relevance. (a) By removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, we are able to reduce the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, (b) by converting carbon dioxide into fuels, we are providing pathways for renewable energy sources, (c) by converting carbon dioxide into C2 and higher order compounds, and we are able to generate valuable precursors for organic synthesis. Formate salts are formed by the electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide in aqueous media. However, in order to increase the utilization of carbon dioxide, methods need to be developed for the conversion of formate into compounds containing two carbon atoms such as oxalate or oxalic acid. Recently, we examined the thermal conversion of sodium formate into sodium oxalate utilizing a hydride ion catalyst. The proposed mechanism for this reaction involves the carbon dioxide dianion. Currently at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

  17. DEPOSITION TANK CORROSION TESTING FOR ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING POST OXALIC ACID DESTRUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Mickalonis, J.

    2011-08-29

    An Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process is being developed to aid in the high level waste tank closure at the Savannah River Site. The ECC process uses an advanced oxidation process (AOP) to destroy the oxalic acid that is used to remove residual sludge from a waste tank prior to closure. The AOP process treats the dissolved sludge with ozone to decompose the oxalic acid through reactions with hydroxyl radicals. The effluent from this oxalic acid decomposition is to be sent to a Type III waste tank and may be corrosive to these tanks. As part of the hazardous simulant testing that was conducted at the ECC vendor location, corrosion testing was conducted to determine the general corrosion rate for the deposition tank and to assess the susceptibility to localized corrosion, especially pitting. Both of these factors impact the calculation of hydrogen gas generation and the structural integrity of the tanks, which are considered safety class functions. The testing consisted of immersion and electrochemical testing of A537 carbon steel, the material of construction of Type III tanks, and 304L stainless steel, the material of construction for transfer piping. Tests were conducted in solutions removed from the destruction loop of the prototype ECC set up. Hazardous simulants, which were manufactured at SRNL, were used as representative sludges for F-area and H-area waste tanks. Oxalic acid concentrations of 1 and 2.5% were used to dissolve the sludge as a feed to the ECC process. Test solutions included the uninhibited effluent, as well as the effluent treated for corrosion control. The corrosion control options included mixing with an inhibited supernate and the addition of hydroxide. Evaporation of the uninhibited effluent was also tested since it may have a positive impact on reducing corrosion. All corrosion testing was conducted at 50 C. The uninhibited effluent was found to increase the corrosion rate by an order of magnitude from less than 1 mil per year (mpy) for an inhibited waste to a range of 5 to 23.4 mpy, depending on sludge chemistry. F-area-based effluents were, in general, more corrosive. Effective corrosion control measures included evaporation, hydroxide additions and mixing with supernates containing a representative supernate chemistry (5 M hydroxide and 1.5 M nitrite). Corrosion rates with these measures were generally 0.2 mpy. The A537 carbon steel was found to be susceptible to pitting when the corrosion control measure involved mixing the ECC effluent with a supernate chemistry having minimal inhibitor concentrations (0.5 M hydroxide and 0.3 M nitrite). Corrosion rates in this case were near 1 mpy.

  18. Oxalate oxidases and differentiating surface structure in wheat: germins.

    PubMed Central

    Lane, B G

    2000-01-01

    Oxalate oxidases (OXOs) have been found to be concentrated in the surface tissues of wheat embryos and grains: germin is concentrated in root and leaf sheaths that surround germinated embryos; pseudogermin (OXO-psi) is concentrated in the epidermis and bracts that 'encircle' mature grains. Most strikingly, the epidermal accumulation of OXO-psi was found to presage the transition of a delicate 'skin', similar to the fragile epidermis of human skin, into the tough shell (the miller's 'beeswing') that is typical of mature wheat grains. A narrow range of oxalate concentration (1--2 mM) in the hydrated tissues of major crop cereals (barley, maize, oat, rice, rye and wheat) contrasted with wide variations in their OXO expression, e.g. cold-tolerant and cold-sensitive varieties of maize have similar oxalate contents but the former was found to contain approx. 20-fold more germin than did the latter. Well-known OXOs in sorghum, a minor cereal, and beet, a dicotyledon, were found to have little antigenic relatedness to the germins, but the beet enzyme did share some of the unique stability properties that are peculiar to the germin-like OXOs that are found only in the major crop cereals. Their concentration in surface structures of domesticated wheat suggests a biochemical role for germin-like OXOs: programmed cell death in surface tissues might be a constitutive as well as an adaptive form of differentiation that helps to produce refractory barriers against tissue invasion by predators. Incidental to the principal investigation, and using an OXO assay (oxalate-dependent release of CO(2)) that did not rely on detecting H(2)O(2), which is often fully degraded in cell extracts, it was found that OXO activity in soluble extracts of wheat was manifested only in standard solution assays if the extract was pretreated in a variety of ways, which included preincubation with pepsin or highly substituted glucuronogalactoarabinoxylans (cell-wall polysaccharides). PMID:10861243

  19. Equilibrium studies of oxalate and aluminum containing solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, M. S.; King, W. D.; Peters, T. B.; Jones, D. H.

    2015-11-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked to develop data on the solubility and conditions leading to precipitation of sodium oxalate, sodium nitrate, Bayerite (a polymorph of gibbsite, Al(OH)3), and sodium aluminosilicate solids recently found in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). The data generated will be used to improve the OLI Systems thermodynamic database for these compounds allowing better prediction of solids formation by the modeling software in the future.

  20. INFLUENCE OF THE CALCIUM OXALATE DEFECTIVE 4 (COD4) MUTATION ON THE GROWTH, OXALATE CONTENT, AND CALCIUM CONTENT OF MEDICAGO TRUNCATULA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium oxalate crystal formation has been well documented in plants. The pathway(s) and regulatory mechanism(s) of crystal formation and function, however, remain largely unknown. As a step toward expanding our understanding of crystal formation and function, we characterize the oxalate over-accu...

  1. Segmental Urethral Dosimetry and Urinary Toxicity in Patients With No Urinary Symptoms Before Permanent Prostate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Carys; Keyes, Mira Liu, Mitchell; Moravan, Veronika

    2008-10-01

    Purpose: To determine whether segmental urethral dosimetry is predictive for the degree of urinary morbidity after prostate brachytherapy in patients with no urinary symptoms before prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Between May 2000 and November 2005, 1,107 patients underwent iodine-125 monotherapy with urethral sparing techniques. A total of 166 patients fulfilled the selection criteria: baseline (International Prostate Symptom Score) IPSS {<=}5, no androgen deprivation therapy, and prostate ultrasound planning volumes (PUTV) <45 mL. The median follow-up was 44 months. Urinary morbidity was defined by maximum increase in IPSS, time to IPSS resolution, maximum Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) score, time to RTOG resolution, and urinary retention. Surrogate deviated urethra was contoured and doses calculated at the base, mid-prostate, apex, and urogenital diaphragm. Univariate and multivariate analysis was used to evaluate urethral and prostate dosimetry, age, PUTV, and number of needles for their association with urinary morbidity. Results: Urethral dose was fairly constant in all urethra segments except prostate base, where the variation in does was large. On multivariate analysis, higher urethral base D50, V100, and larger PUTV were predictive for higher maximum increase in IPSS. Higher urethral base V100 and larger PUTV predicted for prolonged IPSS resolution. Higher urethral base D50 and larger needle number predicted for longer RTOG resolution. Higher urethral base V100 predicted for RTOG {>=}2 toxicity. Conclusions: Radiation dose to the urethral base, larger PUTV, and needle number, predicted for increased urinary toxicity after prostate brachytherapy. Correlation between urinary morbidity and urethral base dosimetry may reflect a large variation in urethral dose observed at the prostate base.

  2. The Metabolic and Ecological Interactions of Oxalate-Degrading Bacteria in the Mammalian Gut

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Aaron W.; Dearing, Denise

    2013-01-01

    Oxalate-degrading bacteria comprise a functional group of microorganisms, commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract of mammals. Oxalate is a plant secondary compound (PSC) widely produced by all major taxa of plants and as a terminal metabolite by the mammalian liver. As a toxin, oxalate can have a significant impact on the health of mammals, including humans. Mammals do not have the enzymes required to metabolize oxalate and rely on their gut microbiota for this function. Thus, significant metabolic interactions between the mammalian host and a complex gut microbiota maintain the balance of oxalate in the body. Over a dozen species of gut bacteria are now known to degrade oxalate. This review focuses on the host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions that regulate the degradation of oxalate by the gut microbiota. We discuss the pathways of oxalate throughout the body and the mammalian gut as a series of differentiated ecosystems that facilitate oxalate degradation. We also explore the mechanisms and functions of microbial oxalate degradation along with the implications for the ecological and evolutionary interactions within the microbiota and for mammalian hosts. Throughout, we consider questions that remain, as well as recent technological advances that can be employed to answer them. PMID:25437337

  3. Heterogeneous catalyst for alcohol oxycarbonylation to dialkyl oxalates

    SciTech Connect

    Gaffney, A.M.; Leonard, J.J.; Sofranko, J.A.; Sun, H.N.

    1987-04-01

    Historically, the first major process for commercial ethylene glycol production from synthesis gas was the acid-catalyzed carbonylation of formaldehyde to glycolic acid. The acid was then hydrogenated to the desired product. Due to major corrosion problems and the relative inexpensiveness of ethylene, this process was abandoned in favor of the ethylene oxide route. There has been recent research activity in this formaldehyde carbonylation process, but again strongly acidic conditions are employed. The similar route of formaldehyde hydroformylation to glycoaldehyde followed by hydrogenation is also attracting attention. Considerable progress has been made in the direct formation of ethylene glycol from synthesis gas. The reaction discussed in this paper is another variant of the synthesis-gas-based routes of ethylene glycol. Dialkyl oxalate esters can be formed from the oxidative carbonylation of carbon monoxide and an alcohol. The dialkyl oxalate ester can then be hydrogenated to yield ethylene glycol. This route offers the advantages of milder reaction conditions and higher selectivities to the desired product. The reaction is generally catalyzed by platinum group metals, notably palladium, in conjunction with a co-oxidant. Phosphorous and titanium promoted palladium-vanadium oxide catalysts were found to be especially effective for alcohol oxycarbonylation. These catalysts were investigated because of the similarities in active catalysts for the oxidative carbonylation process and catalyst systems for the Wacker reaction, involving the oxidation of ethylene to acetaldehyde. This paper discusses how a similar system affects the oxidative carbonylation of alcohols to alkyl oxalates.

  4. The electrokinetic behavior of calcium oxalate monohydrate in macromolecular solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curreri, P. A.; Onoda, G. Y., Jr.; Finlayson, B.

    1988-01-01

    Electrophoretic mobilities were measured for calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) in solutions containing macromolecules. Two mucopolysaccharides (sodium heparin and chrondroitin sulfate) and two proteins (positively charged lysozyme and negatively charged bovine serum albumin) were studied as adsorbates. The effects of pH, calcium oxalate surface charge (varied by calcium or oxalate ion activity), and citrate concentration were investigated. All four macromolecules showed evidence for chemical adsorption. The macromolecule concentrations needed for reversing the surface charge indicated that the mucopopolysacchrides have greater affinity for the COM surface than the proteins. The amount of proteins that can chemically adsorb appears to be limited to approximately one monomolecular layer. When the surface charge is high, an insufficient number of proteins can chemically adsorb to neutralize or reverse the surface charge. The remaining surface charge is balanced by proteins held near the surface by longer range electrostatic forces only. Citrate ions at high concentrations appear to compete effectively with the negative protein for surface sites but show no evidence for competing with the positively charged protein.

  5. Isolation and characterizations of oxalate-binding proteins in the kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Roop-ngam, Piyachat; Chaiyarit, Sakdithep; Pongsakul, Nutkridta; Thongboonkerd, Visith

    2012-08-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The first large-scale characterizations of oxalate-binding kidney proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The recently developed oxalate-conjugated EAH Sepharose 4B beads were applied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 38 forms of 26 unique oxalate-binding kidney proteins were identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 25/26 (96%) of identified proteins had 'L-x(3,5)-R-x(2)-[AGILPV]' domain. -- Abstract: Oxalate-binding proteins are thought to serve as potential modulators of kidney stone formation. However, only few oxalate-binding proteins have been identified from previous studies. Our present study, therefore, aimed for large-scale identification of oxalate-binding proteins in porcine kidney using an oxalate-affinity column containing oxalate-conjugated EAH Sepharose 4B beads for purification followed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) to resolve the recovered proteins. Comparing with those obtained from the controlled column containing uncoupled EAH-Sepharose 4B (to subtract the background of non-specific bindings), a total of 38 protein spots were defined as oxalate-binding proteins. These protein spots were successfully identified by quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS) and/or tandem MS (MS/MS) as 26 unique proteins, including several nuclear proteins, mitochondrial proteins, oxidative stress regulatory proteins, metabolic enzymes and others. Identification of oxalate-binding domain using the PRATT tool revealed 'L-x(3,5)-R-x(2)-[AGILPV]' as a functional domain responsible for oxalate-binding in 25 of 26 (96%) unique identified proteins. We report herein, for the first time, large-scale identification and characterizations of oxalate-binding proteins in the kidney. The presence of positively charged arginine residue in the middle of this functional domain suggested its significance for binding to the negatively charged oxalate. These data will enhance future stone research, particularly on stone modulators.

  6. Bioavailability of soluble oxalate from spinach eaten with and without milk products.

    PubMed

    Brogren, Madelene; Savage, Geoffrey P

    2003-01-01

    Leafy vegetables such as spinach (Spinacia oleracea) are known to contain moderate amounts of soluble and insoluble oxalates. Frozen commercially available spinach in New Zealand contains 736.6+/-20.4 mg/100g wet matter (WM) soluble oxalate and 220.1+/-96.5mg/100g WM insoluble oxalate. The frozen spinach contained 90mg total calcium/100g WM, 76.7%of this calcium was unavailable as it was bound to oxalate as insoluble oxalate. The oxalate/calcium (mEq) ratio of the frozen spinach was 4.73. When frozen convenience food is grilled there is no opportunity for the soluble oxalates to be leached out into the cooking water and discarded. Soluble oxalates, when consumed, have the ability to bind to calcium in the spinach and any calcium in foods consumed with the spinach, reducing the absorption of soluble oxalate. In this experiment 10 volunteers ingested 100g grilled spinach alone or with 100g additions of cottage cheese, sour cream and sour cream with Calci-Trim milk (180 g) and finally, with 20g olive oil. The availability of oxalate in the spinach was determined by measuring the oxalate output in the urine over a 6-hour and 24-hour period after intake of the test meal. The mean bioavailability of soluble oxalate in the grilled spinach was 0.75+/-0.48% over a 6-hour period after intake and was 1.93+/-0.85% measured over a 24-hour period. Addition of sour cream and Calci-Trim milk reduced the availability of the oxalate in the spinach significantly (P<0.05) in both the 6-hour and 24-hour collection periods. PMID:12810415

  7. Oxalic Acid Has an Additional, Detoxifying Function in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Heller, Annerose; Witt-Geiges, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism of the diseases caused by the necrotroph plant pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is not well understood. To investigate the role of oxalic acid during infection high resolution, light-, scanning-, transmission electron microscopy and various histochemical staining methods were used. Our inoculation method allowed us to follow degradation of host plant tissue around single hyphae and to observe the reaction of host cells in direct contact with single invading hyphae. After penetration the outer epidermal cell wall matrix appeared degraded around subcuticular hyphae (12-24 hpi). Calcium oxalate crystals were detected in advanced (36-48 hpi) and late (72 hpi) infection stages, but not in early stages. In early infection stages, surprisingly, no toxic effect of oxalic acid eventually secreted by S. sclerotiorum was observed. As oxalic acid is a common metabolite in plants, we propose that attacked host cells are able to metabolize oxalic acid in the early infection stage and translocate it to their vacuoles where it is stored as calcium oxalate. The effects, observed on healthy tissue upon external application of oxalic acid to non-infected, living tissue and cell wall degradation of dead host cells starting at the inner side of the walls support this idea. The results indicate that oxalic acid concentrations in the early stage of infection stay below the toxic level. In plant and fungi oxalic acid/calcium oxalate plays an important role in calcium regulation. Oxalic acid likely could quench calcium ions released during cell wall breakdown to protect growing hyphae from toxic calcium concentrations in the infection area. As calcium antimonate-precipitates were found in vesicles of young hyphae, we propose that calcium is translocated to the older parts of hyphae and detoxified by building non-toxic, stable oxalate crystals. We propose an infection model where oxalic acid plays a detoxifying role in late infection stages. PMID:23951305

  8. SLUDGE BATCH 7 (SB7) WASHING DEMONSTRATION TO DETERMINE SULFATE/OXALATE REMOVAL EFFICIENCY AND SETTLING BEHAVIOR

    SciTech Connect

    Reboul, S.; Click, D.; Lambert, D.

    2010-12-10

    To support Sludge Batch 7 (SB7) washing, a demonstration of the proposed Tank Farm washing operation was performed utilizing a real-waste test slurry generated from Tank 4, 7, and 12 samples. The purpose of the demonstration was twofold: (1) to determine the settling time requirements and washing strategy needed to bring the SB7 slurry to the desired endpoint; and (2) to determine the impact of washing on the chemical and physical characteristics of the sludge, particularly those of sulfur content, oxalate content, and rheology. Seven wash cycles were conducted over a four month period to reduce the supernatant sodium concentration to approximately one molar. The long washing duration was due to the slow settling of the sludge and the limited compaction. Approximately 90% of the sulfur was removed through washing, and the vast majority of the sulfur was determined to be soluble from the start. In contrast, only about half of the oxalate was removed through washing, as most of the oxalate was initially insoluble and did not partition to the liquid phase until the latter washes. The final sulfur concentration was 0.45 wt% of the total solids, and the final oxalate concentration was 9,900 mg/kg slurry. More oxalate could have been removed through additional washing, although the washing would have reduced the supernatant sodium concentration.The yield stress of the final washed sludge (35 Pa) was an order of magnitude higher than that of the unwashed sludge ({approx}4 Pa) and was deemed potentially problematic. The high yield stress was related to the significant increase in insoluble solids that occurred ({approx}8 wt% to {approx}18 wt%) as soluble solids and water were removed from the slurry. Reduction of the insoluble solids concentration to {approx}14 wt% was needed to reduce the yield stress to an acceptable level. However, depending on the manner that the insoluble solids adjustment was performed, the final sodium concentration and extent of oxalate removal would be prone to change. As such, the strategy for completing the final wash cycle is integral to maintaining the proper balance of chemical and physical requirements.

  9. Arsenic and urinary bladder cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Luster, Michael I; Simeonova, Petia P

    2004-08-01

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that a close association exists between the elevated levels of arsenic in drinking water and the incidence of certain cancers, including transitional cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder. We have employed in vitro and in vivo models to examine the effects of sodium arsenite on the urinary bladder epithelium. Mice exposed to 0.01% sodium arsenite in drinking water demonstrated hyperproliferation of the bladder uroepithelium within 4 weeks after initiating treatment. This occurred in the absence of amorphous precipitates and was accompanied by the accumulation of trivalent arsenite (iAs(3+)), and to a lesser extent dimethylarsenic (DMA), arsenate (iAs(5+)), and monomethylarsenic (MMA) in bladder tissue. In contrast to the bladder, urinary secretion was primarily in the form of DMA and MMA. Arsenic-induced cell proliferation in the bladder epithelium was correlated with activation of the MAP kinase pathway, leading to extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase activity, AP-1 activation, and expression of AP-1-associated genes involved in cell proliferation. Activation of the MAP kinase pathway involved both epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor-dependent and -independent events, the latter involving Src activation. Studies summarized in this review suggest that arsenic accumulates in urinary bladder epithelium causing activation of specific signaling pathways that lead to chronic increased cell proliferation. This may play a non-epigenetic role in carcinogenesis by increasing the proliferation of initiated cells or increasing the mutational rate. PMID:15276422

  10. Psychosomatic Aspects of Urinary Incontinence in Women

    PubMed Central

    Debus, G.; Kästner, R.

    2015-01-01

    Urinary incontinence in women is a common problem. With increasing age its prevalence and severity of its manifestations increase. Among nursing home residents the frequency is between 43 and 77 %, 6 to 10 % of all admissions to nursing homes are due to urinary incontinence. The risk for urinary incontinence among women with cognitive deficits is 1.5- to 3.4-fold higher than for women without mental disorders. The most common form is stress incontinence (50 %), followed by mixed stress-urge incontinence (40 %) and purely urge incontinence (OAB = overactive bladder, 20 %). With regard to its cause, the latter remains unclarified in about 80 % of the cases. It is often difficult to treat. There are also cases in which urge incontinence is related to traumatic events. In such cases behavioural and psychotherapeutic options may be helpful. Almost inevitably every form of incontinence has psychological consequences: shame and insecurity are often results of uncontrolled loss of urine. Among others, in the long term, they lead to the avoidance of social contacts and possibly to depression and isolation. Consideration of the psychosomatics is important in the therapy for female urinary incontinence from three points of view: 1) the efficacy of treatment is better suited to the patient, 2) the treatment costs are lower, 3) the professional satisfaction of the responsible physician increases. PMID:25797959

  11. Analysis of naltrexone urinary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Ventura, R; de la Torre, R; Segura, J

    1988-01-01

    A reversed-phase HPLC method using ion-pair formation has been developed for the simultaneous determination of naltrexone and three urinary metabolites. The extraction of the free and conjugated metabolites was studied by liquid-solid procedures using styrene-divinylbenzene copolymers (Amberlite XAD-2) and bonded octadecyl silica supports (ODS-silica). Optimum recovery was obtained with ODS-silica extraction using 25% acetonitrile in a 5 mM diammonium phosphate buffer pH 2.1 as elution solvent. The chromatographic behaviour of naltrexone metabolites and naloxone (internal standard) was examined by varying the mobile phase composition. Increments of both the diammonium phosphate buffer concentration and the percentage of organic solvent in the eluent decreases the retention of compounds in a non-linear manner. Increments of the dodecyl sulphate (counter-ion) concentration, increases the retention time. The method was applied to determine the urinary levels of major naltrexone metabolites in a volunteer receiving a 50 mg oral dose. This is the first method reported which permits the simultaneous quantitative determination of naltrexone and its metabolites, 6beta-naltrexol, naltrexone glucuronide and 6beta-naltrexol glucuronide, in urine. PMID:16867358

  12. CORROSION TESTING OF CARBON STEEL IN OXALIC ACID CHEMICAL CLEANING SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B.; Mickalonis, J.; Subramanian, K.; Ketusky, E.

    2011-10-14

    Radioactive liquid waste has been stored in underground carbon steel tanks for nearly 60 years at the Savannah River Site. The site is currently in the process of removing the waste from these tanks in order to place it into vitrified, stable state for longer term storage. The last stage in the removal sequence is a chemical cleaning step that breaks up and dissolves metal oxide solids that cannot be easily pumped out of the tank. Oxalic acid has been selected for this purpose because it is an effective chelating agent for the solids and is not as corrosive as other acids. Electrochemical and immersion studies were conducted to investigate the corrosion behavior of carbon steel in simulated chemical cleaning environments. The effects of temperature, agitation, and the presence of sludge solids in the oxalic acid on the corrosion rate and the likelihood of hydrogen evolution were determined. The testing showed that the corrosion rates decreased significantly in the presence of the sludge solids. Corrosion rates increased with agitation, however, the changes were less noticeable.

  13. Oxalate secretion by ectomycorrhizal Paxillus involutus is mineral-specific and controls calcium weathering from minerals.

    PubMed

    Schmalenberger, A; Duran, A L; Bray, A W; Bridge, J; Bonneville, S; Benning, L G; Romero-Gonzalez, M E; Leake, J R; Banwart, S A

    2015-01-01

    Trees and their associated rhizosphere organisms play a major role in mineral weathering driving calcium fluxes from the continents to the oceans that ultimately control long-term atmospheric CO2 and climate through the geochemical carbon cycle. Photosynthate allocation to tree roots and their mycorrhizal fungi is hypothesized to fuel the active secretion of protons and organic chelators that enhance calcium dissolution at fungal-mineral interfaces. This was tested using (14)CO2 supplied to shoots of Pinus sylvestris ectomycorrhizal with the widespread fungus Paxillus involutus in monoxenic microcosms, revealing preferential allocation by the fungus of plant photoassimilate to weather grains of limestone and silicates each with a combined calcium and magnesium content of over 10 wt.%. Hyphae had acidic surfaces and linear accumulation of weathered calcium with secreted oxalate, increasing significantly in sequence: quartz, granite < basalt, olivine, limestone < gabbro. These findings confirmed the role of mineral-specific oxalate exudation in ectomycorrhizal weathering to dissolve calcium bearing minerals, thus contributing to the geochemical carbon cycle. PMID:26197714

  14. Oxalate secretion by ectomycorrhizal Paxillus involutus is mineral-specific and controls calcium weathering from minerals

    PubMed Central

    Schmalenberger, A.; Duran, A. L.; Bray, A. W.; Bridge, J.; Bonneville, S.; Benning, L. G.; Romero-Gonzalez, M. E.; Leake, J. R.; Banwart, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    Trees and their associated rhizosphere organisms play a major role in mineral weathering driving calcium fluxes from the continents to the oceans that ultimately control long-term atmospheric CO2 and climate through the geochemical carbon cycle. Photosynthate allocation to tree roots and their mycorrhizal fungi is hypothesized to fuel the active secretion of protons and organic chelators that enhance calcium dissolution at fungal-mineral interfaces. This was tested using 14CO2 supplied to shoots of Pinus sylvestris ectomycorrhizal with the widespread fungus Paxillus involutus in monoxenic microcosms, revealing preferential allocation by the fungus of plant photoassimilate to weather grains of limestone and silicates each with a combined calcium and magnesium content of over 10 wt.%. Hyphae had acidic surfaces and linear accumulation of weathered calcium with secreted oxalate, increasing significantly in sequence: quartz, granite < basalt, olivine, limestone < gabbro. These findings confirmed the role of mineral-specific oxalate exudation in ectomycorrhizal weathering to dissolve calcium bearing minerals, thus contributing to the geochemical carbon cycle. PMID:26197714

  15. Oxalate secretion by ectomycorrhizal Paxillus involutus is mineral-specific and controls calcium weathering from minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmalenberger, A.; Duran, A. L.; Bray, A. W.; Bridge, J.; Bonneville, S.; Benning, L. G.; Romero-Gonzalez, M. E.; Leake, J. R.; Banwart, S. A.

    2015-07-01

    Trees and their associated rhizosphere organisms play a major role in mineral weathering driving calcium fluxes from the continents to the oceans that ultimately control long-term atmospheric CO2 and climate through the geochemical carbon cycle. Photosynthate allocation to tree roots and their mycorrhizal fungi is hypothesized to fuel the active secretion of protons and organic chelators that enhance calcium dissolution at fungal-mineral interfaces. This was tested using 14CO2 supplied to shoots of Pinus sylvestris ectomycorrhizal with the widespread fungus Paxillus involutus in monoxenic microcosms, revealing preferential allocation by the fungus of plant photoassimilate to weather grains of limestone and silicates each with a combined calcium and magnesium content of over 10 wt.%. Hyphae had acidic surfaces and linear accumulation of weathered calcium with secreted oxalate, increasing significantly in sequence: quartz, granite < basalt, olivine, limestone < gabbro. These findings confirmed the role of mineral-specific oxalate exudation in ectomycorrhizal weathering to dissolve calcium bearing minerals, thus contributing to the geochemical carbon cycle.

  16. Female urinary stress incontinence.

    PubMed

    Cervigni, M; Gambacciani, M

    2015-10-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is more common than any other chronic disease, such as hypertension, depression or diabetes, with the prevalence estimated between 9 and 74%. Among the various forms of urinary incontinence, stress incontinence (SUI) is the most prevalent (50%), with urgency incontinence (UUI) representing 11% and mixed type (MUI) 36% (3% not classified). Nowadays, the restoration of urinary continence is one of the greatest challenges for the well-being and quality of life of women. The introduction of minimally invasive surgical procedures changed the anti-incontinence surgery, leading to similar, or even better results as traditional, invasive techniques. The development of the mid-urethral slings offers a viable alternative to surgical correction of SUI. These further developments of mini-sling procedures are appropriate for local anesthesia, less traumatic, 'tension-free' (to ensure continence without obstruction), simple, rapid and repeatable. The latest minimally invasive approaches can be performed in day surgery, with clear advantages compared to traditional procedures. A novel approach through the use of vaginal laser techniques could represent an additional opportunity, as a non-invasive, outpatient method to treat SUI. PMID:26366798

  17. Profile of urinary arsenic metabolites during pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Hopenhayn, Claudia; Huang, Bin; Christian, Jay; Peralta, Cecilia; Ferreccio, Catterina; Atallah, Raja; Kalman, David

    2003-01-01

    Chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (In-As) from drinking water is associated with different health effects, including skin, lung, bladder, and kidney cancer as well as vascular and possibly reproductive effects. In-As is metabolized through the process of methylation, resulting in the production and excretion of methylated species, mainly monomethylarsenate (MMA) and dimethylarsenate (DMA). Because a large percentage of the dose is excreted in urine, the distribution of urinary In-As, MMA, and DMA is considered a useful indicator of methylation patterns in human populations. Several factors affect these patterns, including sex and exposure level. In this study, we investigated the profile of urinary In-As, MMA, and DMA of pregnant women. Periodic urine samples were collected from early to late pregnancy among 29 pregnant women living in Antofagasta, Chile, who drank tap water containing 40 micro g/L In-As. The total urinary arsenic across four sampling periods increased with increasing weeks of gestation, from an initial mean value of 36.1 to a final value of 54.3 micro g/L. This increase was mainly due to an increase in DMA, resulting in lower percentages of In-As and MMA and a higher percentage of DMA. Our findings indicate that among women exposed to moderate arsenic from drinking water during pregnancy, changes occur in the pattern of urinary arsenic excretion and metabolite distribution. The toxicologic significance of this is not clear, given recent evidence suggesting that intermediate methylated species may be highly toxic. Nevertheless, this study suggests that arsenic metabolism changes throughout the course of pregnancy, which in turn may have toxicologic effects on the developing fetus. Key words: arsenic, arsenic metabolism, arsenic methylation, Chile, pregnancy, urinary arsenic. PMID:14644662

  18. Evidence for a cytoplasmic pathway of oxalate biosynthesis in Aspergillus niger

    SciTech Connect

    Kubicek, C.P.; Schreferl-Kunar, G.; Woehrer, W.; Roehr, M.

    1988-03-01

    Oxalate accumulation of up to 8 g/liter was induced in Aspergillus niger by shifting the pH from 6 to 8. This required the presence of P/sub i/ and a nitrogen source and was inhibited by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. Exogenously added /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ was not incorporated into oxalate, but was incorporated into acetate and malate, thus indicating the biosynthesis of oxalate by hydrolytic cleavage of oxaloacetate. Inhibition of mitochondrial citrate metabolism by fluorocitrate did not significantly decrease the oxalate yield. The putative enzyme that was responsible for this oxaloacetate hydrolase (EC 3.7.1.1), which was induced de novo during the pH shift. Subcellular fractionation of oxalic acid-forming mycelia of A. niger showed that this enzyme is located in the cytoplasm of A. niger. The results are consistent with a cytoplasmic pathway of oxalate formation which does not involve the tricarboxylic acid cycle.

  19. Environmentally related diseases of the urinary tract

    SciTech Connect

    Goyer, R.A. )

    1990-03-01

    Nephrotoxicity from exposure to therapeutic agents and chemicals in the environment and workplace results in a broad spectrum of clinical renal disease that may mimic disorders from other causes. Nephrotoxic agents may, in fact, be responsible for some fraction of renal disease of undetermined etiology. Specific diagnosis and treatment by removal from exposure to the toxic agent is more likely in the early phase of the disorder. Measurement and characterization of proteinuria provides the most sensitive and reliable method of early detection. Increased urinary excretion of serum proteins with molecular weight in excess of 50,000, such as albumin and transferrin, is an early indicator of glomerular injury. Low-molecular-weight proteinuria (beta 2-microglobulin or retinol-binding protein) and enzymuria, particularly excretion of NAG, are sensitive indicators of renal tubular cell injury. Tests that reflect hypersensitivity reactions are often indicative of immunologically mediated nephrotoxicity but are not specific for the kidney. Cancers of the kidney and urinary bladder appear to be increasing and are most common among the socially active and affluent. Susceptibility of the urinary tract to toxicity and carcinogenicity reflect contact of excreted toxins with the epithelial cells of nephrons and urinary bladder. 45 references.

  20. [Pharmacotherapy of urinary incontinence in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Becher, K F

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence and the incidence of Urinary Incontinence is growing. Women suffer predominantly from stress and mixed urinary incontinence and men from urge incontinence. In elderly people, the pathophysiological and the physiological change in the lower urinary tract system must be considered as well as an underlying multimorbidity. Stress urinary incontinence is among others caused by an insufficient urethral closure mechanism and urge incontinence is followed by unhibited detrusor contractions. Medical treatment is beside other important conservative options only one part of the treatment strategy in incontinence. Duloxetine, a serotonine-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitore can increase activity of the external urethral sphincter and is able to reduce incontinence episodes in up to 64 %. Antagonists of muscarinic receptors can reduce urgency, frequency and urge incontinence as well as increase bladder capacity significantly. In Germany, darifenacin, fesoterodin, oxybutynin, propiverine, solifenacin, tolterodine and trospium chloride are available to treat urge incontinence. The efficacy of these agents are almost comparable in the elderly with the exception of oxybutynin IR. However, tolerability is different and not well studied in the elderly population with the exception of fesoterodin. Side effects, especially dry mouth, dizziness and constipation often limit their use. None of the agents show ideal efficacy or tolerability in all patients. Last summer therefore a β3-agonist mirabegron was also introduced in Germany but was withdrawn. PMID:26886709

  1. Calcium oxalate crystals in the aragonite-producing green alga penicillus and related genera.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, E I; Roth, W C; Turner, J B; McEwen, R S

    1972-09-01

    Calcium oxalate crystals occur in the marine green algae Penicillus, Rhipocephalus, and Udotea, known as producers of sedimentary aragonite needles. In contrast to the externally deposited aragonite crystals which are generally < 15 micrometers long, the oxalate crystals are larger (up to 150 micrometers) and are located in the vacuolar system of the plant. No calcium oxalate was found in the related but noncalcifying genera Avrainvillea and Cladocephalus. PMID:17780990

  2. Use of urinary markers in cancer setting: A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Leonard; Wong, Erin; DeAngelis, Carlo; Chiu, Nicholas; Lam, Henry; McDonald, Rachel; Pulenzas, Natalie; Hamer, Julia; Lao, Nicholas; Chow, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In bone metastases, the disruption of normal bone processes results in increased resorption and formation rates, which can often be quantitatively measured by biomarkers in the urine and blood. The purpose of this review is to summarize relevant studies of urinary markers used as a diagnostic and/or prognostic tool, as well as its potential and advances in directing therapy. Methods A literature search was conducted using Ovid MEDLINE (1950 to July 2014), EMBASE (1950 to 2014 week 30) and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (3rd Quarter 2014) to identify studies that detailed the use of urinary markers in the cancer setting, specifically involving markers for bone metastases. Search terms included “urinary markers”, “cancer”, and “bone metastases”. Results A total of 35 articles, with 24 original studies, were identified. In general, urinary markers can be used to detect early signs of bone metastases prior to skeletal imaging, but still must be used in conjunction with imaging to avoid false positive results. The use of urinary markers, such as N-telopeptide, as a prognostic tool remains controversial, but can provide information on the relative risk of skeletal related events (SREs), disease progression, as well as death. Finally, while urinary markers have shown to be potentially useful in confirming the efficacy of bone metastases treatments, exploring the appropriate dosages for treatment, and directing therapy, it is still unclear to what extent urinary markers should be reduced by. Conclusion The potential use of urinary markers in the management of bone metastases is promising as it can allow for earlier and more convenient detection of bone metastases in comparison to other techniques. However, additional studies involving prospective clinical trials are suggested to further examine the potential of urinary markers in developing appropriate treatment strategies and endpoints, especially in developing a clearer protocol on the extent urinary markers should be reduced by to correlate with achievement of clinical benefit. PMID:26579485

  3. Flow-driven pattern formation in the calcium-oxalate system.

    PubMed

    Bohner, Bíborka; Endrődi, Balázs; Horváth, Dezső; Tóth, Ágota

    2016-04-28

    The precipitation reaction of calcium oxalate is studied experimentally in the presence of spatial gradients by controlled flow of calcium into oxalate solution. The density difference between the reactants leads to strong convection in the form of a gravity current that drives the spatiotemporal pattern formation. The phase diagram of the system is constructed, the evolving precipitate patterns are analyzed and quantitatively characterized by their diameters and the average height of the gravity flow. The compact structures of calcium oxalate monohydrate produced at low flow rates are replaced by the thermodynamically unstable calcium oxalate dihydrate favored in the presence of a strong gravity current. PMID:27131554

  4. Flow-driven pattern formation in the calcium-oxalate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohner, Bíborka; Endrődi, Balázs; Horváth, Dezső; Tóth, Ágota

    2016-04-01

    The precipitation reaction of calcium oxalate is studied experimentally in the presence of spatial gradients by controlled flow of calcium into oxalate solution. The density difference between the reactants leads to strong convection in the form of a gravity current that drives the spatiotemporal pattern formation. The phase diagram of the system is constructed, the evolving precipitate patterns are analyzed and quantitatively characterized by their diameters and the average height of the gravity flow. The compact structures of calcium oxalate monohydrate produced at low flow rates are replaced by the thermodynamically unstable calcium oxalate dihydrate favored in the presence of a strong gravity current.

  5. Bacteriological and crystallographical analysis of urinary calculi: aid to patient management.

    PubMed

    Rosenstein, I; Osborn, R S; Hopewell, J P; Hamilton-Miller, J M; Brumfitt, W

    1984-06-01

    In an analysis, by both crystallographic and microbiological methods, of 50 urinary calculi recently removed by surgical operation, 33 proved to be of metabolic origin (mostly calcium oxalate and some uric acid or urate) and 17 of 'infective' origin (struvite, apatite or a mixture of the two). Metabolic stones were usually bacteriologically sterile or contained only small numbers (less than 10(3)/g of stone) of bacteria which did not produce urease, while infective stones always contained urease-producing organisms, usually Proteus mirabilis, in large numbers (greater than 10(5)/g). The combined approach of stone analysis by crystallography and microbiological culture yields more information than conventional techniques on which to base the treatment of urinary calculi and the prevention of their recurrence. PMID:6737406

  6. The use of non-contrast computed tomography and color Doppler ultrasound in the characterization of urinary stones - preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Bulakçı, Mesut; Tefik, Tzevat; Akbulut, Fatih; Örmeci, Mehmet Tolgahan; Beşe, Caner; Şanlı, Öner; Oktar, Tayfun; Salmaslıoğlu, Artür

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of density value in computed tomography (CT) and twinkling artifact observed in color Doppler analysis for the prediction of the mineral composition of urinary stones. Material and methods A total of 42 patients who were operated via percutaneous or endoscopic means and had undergone abdominal non-contrast CT and color Doppler ultrasonography examinations were included in the study. X-ray diffraction method was utilized to analyze a total of 86 stones, and the correlations between calculated density values and twinkling intensities with stone types were investigated for each stone. Results Analyses of extracted stones revealed the presence of 40 calcium oxalate monohydrate, 12 calcium oxalate dihydrate, 9 uric acid, 11 calcium phosphate, and 14 cystine stones. The density values were calculated as 1499±269 Hounsfield Units (HU) for calcium oxalate monohydrate, 1505±221 HU for calcium oxalate dihydrate, 348±67 HU for uric acid, 1106±219 HU for calcium phosphate, and 563±115 HU for cystine stones. The artifact intensities were determined as grade 0 in 15, grade 1 in 32, grade 2 in 24, and grade 3 in 15 stones. Conclusion In case the density value of the stone is measured below 780 HU and grade 3 artifact intensity is determined, it can be inferred that the mineral composition of the stone tends to be cystine. PMID:26623143

  7. Best pharmacological practice: urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Nicolle, Lindsay

    2003-05-01

    Urinary tract infection is the most frequent bacterial infection. Acute uncomplicated urinary infection and acute non-obstructive pyelonephritis occur in young women with normal genitourinary tracts. Empirical short-course therapy is preferred for the management of acute cystitis, but evolving resistance requires continuing reassessment of optimal antimicrobial selection. Empirical trimethoprim or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole has been recommended, but increasing resistance to these agents suggests that pivmecillinam, nitrofurantoin and perhaps fosfomycin trometamol should be considered. Although flouroquinolones are effective as short-course therapy, widespread empirical use of these agents should be discouraged because of potential promotion of resistance. For acute non-obstructive pyelonephritis, flouroquinolones are the empirical oral treatment of choice, although urine culture results should direct continuing therapy. Complicated urinary tract infection occurs in men or women of all ages with underlying abnormalities of the genitourinary tract. Treatment of complicated urinary infection is individualised, taking into consideration the underlying abnormality and susceptibilities of the infecting organism. Asymptomatic bacteriuria should not be treated except in pregnant women, in patients prior to undergoing an invasive surgical procedure, or renal transplant recipients in the early postrenal transplant period. PMID:12739995

  8. Antimicrobial Stewardship and Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Abbo, Lilian M.; Hooton, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infections are the most common bacterial infections encountered in ambulatory and long-term care settings in the United States. Urine samples are the largest single category of specimens received by most microbiology laboratories and many such cultures are collected from patients who have no or questionable urinary symptoms. Unfortunately, antimicrobials are often prescribed inappropriately in such patients. Antimicrobial use, whether appropriate or inappropriate, is associated with the selection for antimicrobial-resistant organisms colonizing or infecting the urinary tract. Infections caused by antimicrobial-resistant organisms are associated with higher rates of treatment failures, prolonged hospitalizations, increased costs and mortality. Antimicrobial stewardship consists of avoidance of antimicrobials when appropriate and, when antimicrobials are indicated, use of strategies to optimize the selection, dosing, route of administration, duration and timing of antimicrobial therapy to maximize clinical cure while limiting the unintended consequences of antimicrobial use, including toxicity and selection of resistant microorganisms. This article reviews successful antimicrobial stewardship strategies in the diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infections. PMID:27025743

  9. Gadolinium oxalate derivatives with enhanced magnetocaloric effect via ionothermal synthesis.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yan; Chen, Yan-Cong; Zhang, Ze-Min; Lin, Zhuo-Jia; Tong, Ming-Liang

    2014-09-01

    Two new oxalate-bridged Gd(III) coordination polymers, namely, (choline)[Gd(C2O4)(H2O)3Cl]Cl·H2O (1) and [Gd(C2O4)(H2O)3Cl] (2), were first obtained ionothermally by using a deep eutectic solvent (DES). The magnetic studies and heat capacity measurements reveal that the two-dimensional Gd(III)-based coordination polymer of 2 has the higher magnetic density and exhibits a larger cryogenic magnetocaloric effect (MCE) (ΔS(m) = 48 J kg(-1) K(-1) for ΔH = 7 T at 2.2 K). PMID:25116434

  10. Self-Ordered Nanoporous Alumina Templates Formed by Anodization of Aluminum in Oxalic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vida-Simiti, Ioan; Nemes, Dorel; Jumate, Nicolaie; Thalmaier, Gyorgy; Sechel, Niculina

    2012-10-01

    Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes with highly ordered nanopores serve as ideal templates for the formation of various nanostructured materials. The procedure of the template preparation is based on a two-step self-organized anodization of aluminum. In the current study, AAO templates were fabricated in 0.3 M oxalic acid under the anodizing potential range of 30-60 V at an electrolyte temperature of ~5°C. The AAO templates were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and differential thermal analysis. The as obtained layers are amorphous; the mean pore size is between 40 nm and 75 nm and increases with the increase of the anodization potential. Well-defined pores across the whole aluminum template, a pore density of ~1010 pores/cm2, and a tendency to form a porous structure with hexagonal symmetry were observed.

  11. Organic Selenium Alleviated the Formation of Ethylene Glycol-Induced Calcium Oxalate Renal Calculi by Improving Osteopontin Expression and Antioxidant Capability in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongwang; Xu, Haibin; Zhong, Wenting; Shen, Qingpeng; Zhuang, Tenghan; Huang, Kehe

    2015-12-01

    Twenty one-year-old local male dogs were randomly assigned into four groups (five dogs per group). The control and the ethylene glycol (EG) groups were fed basal diets without and with EG, and the EG+sodium selenite (EG+SS) and EG+selenium yeast (EG+SY) groups were fed basal diets with EG containing SS and SY, respectively. Blood, urine, and renal samples were taken after 18 weeks of feeding. The results showed that compared with the control group, the serum calcium levels and antioxidase activities significantly decreased in the EG group. Serum creatinine, urea nitrogen, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and urine calcium and oxalate levels significantly increased. Calcium oxalate crystal deposition and osteopontin (OPN) messenger RNA and protein expression in the renal tissues significantly increased. These changes above in the EG group were reversed within limits by adding selenium in the diets (both EG+SS and EG+SY groups). Further, compared with the EG+SS group, the EG+SY group showed better effects in decreasing the formation of EG-induced calcium oxalate renal calculi and OPN expression and improving antioxidant capability in dogs. It indicates that organic selenium has the potential value to alleviate the formation of EG-induced calcium oxalate renal calculi. PMID:26018495

  12. Prosthetic urinary sphincter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helms, C. R.; Smyly, H. M. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A pump/valve unit for controlling the inflation and deflation of a urethral collar in a prosthetic urinary sphincter device is described. A compressible bulb pump defining a reservoir was integrated with a valve unit for implantation. The valve unit includes a movable valve member operable by depression of a flexible portion of the valve unit housing for controlling fluid flow between the reservoir and collar; and a pressure sensing means which operates the valve member to relieve an excess pressure in the collar should too much pressure be applied by the patient.

  13. [Urinary antimicrobial prophylaxis].

    PubMed

    Nathanson, S; Deschnes, G

    2002-05-01

    Antibiotics are usually used to prevent childhood recurrent urinary tract infections: cystitis or pyelonephritis. The mechanism of action of these antibiotics, although imperfectly known, seems to be double: the antibiotic acts by its bactericidal effect, but also probably for minimal concentrations by reducing adhesion capability of bacteria to the urothelium. The most commonly used molecules are cotrimoxazole, trimethoprime, pivmecillinam, cefaclor and nalidixic acid. However all have not been studied rigorously as for their prophylactic capacity, and in particular very little is known for patients presenting with vesico-ureteral reflux. PMID:12053547

  14. Temporal changes in the expression of mRNA of NADPH oxidase subunits in renal epithelial cells exposed to oxalate or calcium oxalate crystals

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Saeed R.; Khan, Aslam; Byer, Karen J.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Exposure of renal epithelial cells to oxalate (Ox) or calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals leads to the production of reactive oxygen species and cell injury. We have hypothesized that Ox and CaOx crystals activate NADPH oxidase through upregulation of its various subunits. Methods. Human renal epithelial-derived cell line, HK-2, was exposed to 100 μmol Ox or 66.7 μg/cm2 CaOx monohydrate crystals for 6, 12, 24 or 48 h. After exposure, the cells and media were processed to determine activation of NADPH oxidase, production of superoxide and 8-isoprostane (8IP), and release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). RT-PCR was performed to determine mRNA expression of NADPH subunits p22phox, p40phox, p47phox, p67phox and gp91phox as well as Rac-GTPase. Results. Exposure to Ox and CaOx crystals resulted in increase in LDH release, production of 8-IP, NADPH oxidase activity and production of superoxide. Exposure to CaOx crystals resulted in significantly higher NADPH oxidase activity, production of superoxide and LDH release than Ox exposure. Exposure to Ox and CaOx crystals altered the expression of various subunits of NADPH oxidase. More consistent were increases in the expression of membrane-bound p22phox and cytosolic p47phox. Significant and strong correlations were seen between NADPH oxidase activity, the expression of p22phox and p47phox, production of superoxide and release of LDH when cells were exposed to CaOx crystals. The expressions of neither p22phox nor p47phox were significantly correlated with increased NADPH oxidase activity after the Ox exposure. Conclusions. As hypothesized, exposure to Ox or CaOx crystals leads to significant increases in the expression of p22phox and p47phox, leading to activation of NADPH oxidase. Increased NADPH oxidase activity is associated with increased superoxide production and lipid peroxidation. Different pathways appear to be involved in the stimulation of renal epithelial cells by exposure to Ox and CaOx crystals. PMID:21079197

  15. Protection of Metal Artifacts with the Formation of Metal–Oxalates Complexes by Beauveria bassiana

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Edith; Cario, Sylvie; Simon, Anaële; Wörle, Marie; Mazzeo, Rocco; Junier, Pilar; Job, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Several fungi present high tolerance to toxic metals and some are able to transform metals into metal–oxalate complexes. In this study, the ability of Beauveria bassiana to produce copper oxalates was evaluated. Growth performance was tested on various copper-containing media. B. bassiana proved highly resistant to copper, tolerating concentrations of up to 20 g L−1, and precipitating copper oxalates on all media tested. Chromatographic analyses showed that this species produced oxalic acid as sole metal chelator. The production of metal–oxalates can be used in the restoration and conservation of archeological and modern metal artifacts. The production of copper oxalates was confirmed directly using metallic pieces (both archeological and modern). The conversion of corrosion products into copper oxalates was demonstrated as well. In order to assess whether the capability of B. bassiana to produce metal–oxalates could be applied to other metals, iron and silver were tested as well. Iron appears to be directly sequestered in the wall of the fungal hyphae forming oxalates. However, the formation of a homogeneous layer on the object is not yet optimal. On silver, a co-precipitation of copper and silver oxalates occurred. As this greenish patina would not be acceptable on silver objects, silver reduction was explored as a tarnishing remediation. First experiments showed the transformation of silver nitrate into nanoparticles of elemental silver by an unknown extracellular mechanism. The production of copper oxalates is immediately applicable for the conservation of copper-based artifacts. For iron and silver this is not yet the case. However, the vast ability of B. bassiana to transform toxic metals using different immobilization mechanisms seems to offer considerable possibilities for industrial applications, such as the bioremediation of contaminated soils or the green synthesis of chemicals. PMID:22291684

  16. Characteristics of the transport of oxalate and other ions across rabbit proximal colon.

    PubMed

    Hatch, M; Freel, R W; Vaziri, N D

    1993-05-01

    In order to characterize oxalate handling by the P2 segment of the rabbit proximal colon, the fluxes of [14C]oxalate, 22Na+, and 36Cl- were measured in vitro using conventional short-circuiting techniques. In standard buffer the proximal colon exhibited net secretion of Na+ (-2.31 +/- 0.64 mu equiv cm-2 h-1), negligible net Cl- transport, and net secretion of oxalate (-12.7 +/- 1.6 pmol cm-2 h-1). Replacement of buffer Na+ or Cl- abolished net oxalate secretion, while HCO(3-)-free media revealed a net absorption of oxalate (19.3 +/- 4.2 pmol cm-2 h-1) and stimulated NaCl absorption. Mucosal amiloride and dimethylamiloride (1 mM) significantly reduced the unidirectional fluxes of oxalate and enhanced sodium secretion by decreasing JNams. The anion exchange inhibitor 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS; 0.1 mM, both sides) reduced the unidirectional fluxes of oxalate and chloride. Serosal epinephrine (50 microM) stimulated oxalate absorption (21.3 +/- 6.3 pmol cm-2 h-1) and sodium absorption (5.71 +/- 1.20 mu equiv cm-2 h-1), whereas dibutyryl-cAMP enhanced oxalate secretion (-43.4 +/- 6.9 pmol cm-2 h-1) and stimulated chloride secretion (-7.27 +/- 0.64 mu equiv cm-2 h-1). These results indicate that the P2 segment of the proximal colon possesses (a) secretory as well as absorptive capacities, (b) oxalate fluxes that are mediated by pathways involving Na+, Cl-, HCO3- transport and (c) a net oxalate flux that is sensitive to absorptive and secretory stimuli. PMID:8391680

  17. In situ characterization of oxalate transport across the basolateral membrane of the proximal tubule.

    PubMed

    Brändle, E; Bernt, U; Hautmann, R E

    1998-05-01

    Oxalate transport across the contraluminal membrane of the proximal tubule was studied in vivo using the "capillary stopped flow microperfusion method" (Pflügers Arch 400:250-256, 1984). Cellular uptake of oxalate was characteristic of a carrier-mediated transport process (Jmax = 1.6 +/- 0.6 pmol/s per cm proximal tubular length, Km = 2.03 +/- 0.77 mmol/l). Sulphate inhibited oxalate transport in a dose-dependent manner (Ki-value = 1.53 +/- 0.38 mmol/l). Sulphate transport across the basolateral membrane was also characteristic of a carrier- mediated transport process (Jmax = 1.83 +/- 0.56 pmol/s per cm proximal tubular length, Km = 1.37 +/- 0.57 mmol/l). Oxalate inhibited the sulphate transport in a dose-dependent manner (Ki = 2. 06 +/- 0.82 mmol/l). No significant differences were found between the Ki values and the Km values of the two substances, indicating that oxalate and sulphate are transported by the same carrier across the basolateral membrane of the proximal tubule. Oxalate transport was not dependent on the extracellular sodium or potassium concentration. Bicarbonate competitively inhibited the oxalate transport. Chloride significantly inhibited the oxalate transport, but not dose dependently. It is, therefore, suggested that oxalate is transported into the cell of the proximal tubule in exchange for sulphate or bicarbonate. The dose-independent inhibition by chloride is suggested to be mediated by the coupling of the sulphate (bicarbonate)/oxalate exchanger with the chloride/bicarbonate exchanger at the basolateral membrane of the proximal tubule. This, furthermore, suggests that the transport of oxalate or sulphate across the basolateral membrane might be indirectly coupled with the reabsorption of chloride at this membrane side. PMID:9518514

  18. Pathogenesis of Bladder Calculi in the Presence of Urinary Stasis

    PubMed Central

    Childs, M. Adam; Mynderse, Lance A.; Rangel, Laureano J.; Wilson, Torrence M.; Lingeman, James E.; Krambeck, Amy E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Although minimal evidence exists, bladder calculi in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia are thought to be secondary to bladder outlet obstruction induced urinary stasis. We performed a prospective, multi-institutional clinical trial to determine whether metabolic differences were present in men with and without bladder calculi undergoing surgical intervention for benign prostatic hyperplasia induced bladder outlet obstruction. Materials and Methods Men who elected surgery for bladder outlet obstruction secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia with and without bladder calculi were assessed prospectively and compared. Men without bladder calculi retained more than 150 ml urine post-void residual urine. Medical history, serum electrolytes and 24-hour urinary metabolic studies were compared. Results Of the men 27 had bladder calculi and 30 did not. Bladder calculi were associated with previous renal stone disease in 36.7% of patients (11 of 30) vs 4% (2 of 27) and gout was associated in 13.3% (4 of 30) vs 0% (0 of 27) (p <0.01 and 0.05, respectively). There was no observed difference in the history of other medical conditions or in serum electrolytes. Bladder calculi were associated with lower 24-hour urinary pH (median 5.9 vs 6.4, p = 0.02), lower 24-hour urinary magnesium (median 106 vs 167 mmol, p = 0.01) and increased 24-hour urinary uric acid supersaturation (median 2.2 vs 0.6, p <0.01). Conclusions In this comparative prospective analysis patients with bladder outlet obstruction and benign prostatic hyperplasia with bladder calculi were more likely to have a renal stone disease history, low urinary pH, low urinary magnesium and increased urinary uric acid supersaturation. These findings suggest that, like the pathogenesis of nephrolithiasis, the pathogenesis of bladder calculi is likely complex with multiple contributing lithogenic factors, including metabolic abnormalities and not just urinary stasis. PMID:23159588

  19. Calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis and expression of matrix GLA protein in the kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Aslam; Wang, Wei; Khan, Saeed R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Polymorphism of the gene for matrix GLA protein (MGP), a calcification inhibitor, is associated with nephrolithiasis. However, experimental investigations of MGP role in stone pathogenesis are limited. We determined the effect of renal epithelial exposure to oxalate (Ox), calcium oxalate (CaOx) monohydrate (COM) or hydroxyapatite (HA) crystal on the expression of MGP. Methods MDCK cells in culture were exposed to 0.3, 0.5 or 1 mM Ox and 33, 66 or 133–150 μg/cm2 of COM/HA for 3–72 h. MGP expression and production were determined by Western blotting and densitometric analysis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to determine MGP release into the medium. Hyperoxaluria was induced in male Sprague–Dawley rats by feeding hydroxyl-L-proline. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect renal MGP expression. Results Exposure to Ox and crystals led to time- and concentration-dependent increase in expression of MGP in MDCK cells. Cellular response was quicker to crystal exposure than to the Ox, expression being significantly higher after 3-h exposure to COM or HA crystals and more than 6 h of exposure to Ox. MGP expression was increased in kidneys of hyperoxaluric rats particularly in renal peritubular vessels. Conclusion We demonstrate increased expression of MGP in renal tubular epithelial cells exposed to Ox or CaOx crystals as well as the HA crystals. The most significant finding of this study is the increased staining seen in renal peritubular vessels of the hyperoxaluric rats, indicating involvement of renal endothelial cells in the synthesis of MGP. PMID:23475213

  20. Artificial urinary conduit construction using tissue engineering methods

    PubMed Central

    Pokrywczyńska, Marta; Drewa, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Incontinent urinary diversion using an ileal conduit is the most popular method used by urologists after bladder cystectomy resulting from muscle invasive bladder cancer. The use of gastrointestinal tissue is related to a series of complications with the necessity of surgical procedure extension which increases the time of surgery. Regenerative medicine together with tissue engineering techniques gives hope for artificial urinary conduit construction de novo without affecting the ileum. Material and methods In this review we analyzed history of urinary diversion together with current attempts in urinary conduit construction using tissue engineering methods. Based on literature and our own experience we presented future perspectives related to the artificial urinary conduit construction. Results A small number of papers in the field of tissue engineered urinary conduit construction indicates that this topic requires more attention. Three main factors can be distinguished to resolve this topic: proper scaffold construction along with proper regeneration of both the urothelium and smooth muscle layers. Conclusions Artificial urinary conduit has a great chance to become the first commercially available product in urology constructed by regenerative medicine methods. PMID:25914849

  1. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Warren, J W

    1987-12-01

    The two most common indications for long-term catheterization are recalcitrant urinary incontinence and urinary obstruction that is not corrected by surgery. For incontinent patients, if behavioral changes, nursing care, special clothes, special bed clothes, and medications have not been successful, then a device to collect urine must be considered. For men such a device is a condom catheter; for women an analogous external collection device would be very useful. Suprapubic catheterization may offer an alternative but has been inadequately studied in this patient population. Long-term urinary catheterization has salutary effects for selected patients including patient comfort, family satisfaction, and nursing efficiency and effectiveness. To the patient for whom any physical movement is uncomfortable or painful, and indwelling catheter may be preferable to frequent changes of clothes. Similarly, the family of of severely impaired patients may want to accept the risks of urethral catheterization in order to keep the patient dry. Further, to the extent that the indwelling catheter is effective in decubitus ulcer prevention and/or management, long-term catheterization may diminish the risk of bacteremia or death from soft tissue infection. These benefits of long-term urethral catheterization, in addition to its risks, should be examined in future studies. Once a urethral catheter is in place, even with good catheter hygiene, bacterial entry can be postponed only temporarily; eventually all patients become bacteriuric. Indeed, as the catheter remains in place, organisms continue to enter, others leave or die, and the bacteriuria becomes complex, polymicrobial, and dynamic. Some organisms, particularly recognized uropathogens such as E. coli and K. pneumoniae, appear to reside in the urinary tract itself. Others, such as P. mirabilis, P. stuartii, and M. morganii, probably establish a niche within the urinary catheter, thus increasing their ability to cause subsequent bladder bacteriuria. The complications of long-term urinary catheterization include fevers, acute pyelonephritis, and bacteremias (such as seen in short-term catheterized patients), as well as catheter obstructions, urinary stones, chronic renal inflammation, local periurinary infections, vasicoureteral reflux, renal failure, and, for very long-term catheterized patients, bladder cancer. The thrust of catheter care for the long-term catheterized patient is to prevent complications of the omnipresent bacteriuria. Unfortunately, clinical opportunities for preventing complications are limited.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3333661

  2. Equilibrium aluminium hydroxo-oxalate phases during initial clay formation; H +-Al 3+-oxalic acid-Na + system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilinski, Halka; Horvath, Laszlo; Ingri, Nils; Sjöberg, Staffan

    1986-09-01

    The conditions necessary for initial clay formation have been studied in different model systems comprising different organic acids besides Si and Al. In the present paper the solid phases and the precipitation boundary characterizing the subsystem H +-Al 3+-oxalic acid (H 2L) are discussed. pH and tyndallometric measurements were performed in an ionic medium of 0.6 M Na(Cl) at 25 °C. The two phases Al 3(OH) 7(C 2O 4) · 3H 2O (phase I) and NaAl(OH) 2(C 2O 4) · 3H 2O (phase II) determine the precipitation boundary. The following formation constants for the two phases were deduced: lgβ1 = lg([ Al3+] -3[ H2C2O4] -1[ H+] 9 = -21.87 ± 0.08 and lgβ11 = lg([ Al3+] -1[ H2C2O4] -1[ H+] 4 = -5.61 ± 0.06. Phase I exists in the range [ Al] tot≥ 10 -4.4moldm-3,[ H2C2O4] tot ≥ 10 -4.9moldm-3 and at pH < 6.8, thus being a possible precipitate in oxalic-rich natural waters. The more soluble sodium phase is unlikely to exist in natural waters. The two phases are metastable relative to crystalline gibbsite and may be considered as the first precipitation step in the transition from aqueous Al oxalates down to stable Al hydroxide. Model calculations illustrating these competing hydrolysis-complexation reactions are discussed in terms of predominance and speciation diagrams. The solid phases have been characterized by X-ray analysis of powders, TGA and IR spectra, and tentative structures are proposed. Phase I seems to be an octahedral layer structure, in which 3/5 of the octahedral sites between two close packed oxygen sheets are occupied by Al 3+ and the oxalate ion acts as a bridge ligand between two aluminium atoms. Phase II forms a more open sheet structure and has ion exchange properties. Powder data for a phase crystallized from the studied solution after a year are also presented. This phase, Na 4Al 2(OH) 2(C 2O 4) 4 · 10H 2O, supports the results from the equilibrium analysis of recent solution data by SJöBERG and ÖHMAN (1985), who have found the dinuclear complex Al 2(OH) 2(C 2O 4) 44- to exist in a solution in which the ligand is in excess.

  3. Urinary infections in children.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Om Prakash; Abhinay, Abhishek; Prasad, Rajniti

    2013-10-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common infection in infants and children. During infancy, boys are more commonly affected than girls and thereafter, female preponderance is found. Presentation varies among different age groups. Clinical features in neonates and young infants are non-specific, manifest as septicemia where a high index of suspicion is needed. Older children typically present as simple or complicated UTI. Rapid diagnosis, institution of early treatment and further evaluation by imaging modalities are of utmost importance. The prevention of recurrent UTI and detection of congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract are major objectives in the management. Use of ultrasound is required to detect underlying congenital abnormalities, whereas voiding cystourethrogram and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan are useful in the diagnosis of obstructive uropathy and vesicoureteric reflux and renal scar, respectively. The children requiring surgical interventions are to be recognised early to prevent recurrent UTI. The treatment of vesicoureteric reflux by chemoprophylaxis in lower grades and surgical treatment in higher grades are important consideration in prevention of recurrent UTI. This is required to prevent renal parenchymal damage and scarring that can cause hypertension and progressive renal insufficiency in later life. PMID:23881478

  4. Catalytic kinetic spectrophotometry for the determination of trace amount of oxalic acid in biological samples with oxalic acid-rhodamine B-potassium dichromate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Qing-Zhou; Zhang, Xiao-Xia; Liu, Qing-Zhou

    2006-09-01

    A new catalytic kinetic spectrophotometric method was proposed for determining trace oxalic acid based on the catalytic effect of oxalate on the oxidation of potassium dichromate with rhodamin B in 0.10 M of sulfuric acid. Good linearity is obtained over the concentration range 0.40-6.0 μg/mL of oxalic acid. After the reactions of the catalytic and non-catalytic systems were terminated by using 2.00 mL of 4 M sodium hydroxide solution, they can be stable for 3 h at room temperature. The apparent activation energy of the catalytic reaction is 12.44 kJ/mol. The effect of 50 coexisting substances was observed. The method was used to determine trace oxalic acid in tea, spinach and urine samples with satisfactory results.

  5. Comparison of infrared and wet chemical analysis of urinary tract calculi.

    PubMed

    Gault, M H; Ahmed, M; Kalra, J; Senciall, I; Cohen, W; Churchill, D

    1980-07-01

    Infrared analysis of urinary tract calculi using the system of interpretation of spectra of Oliver and Sweet [1] was compared with qualitative wet chemical analysis. This method of interpretation could be learned quickly and gave reproducible results, but had some limitations. Advantages of the infrared procedure include greater reproducibility. 1-mg sample size, greater sensitivity for oxalate and more uniform sensitivities. Minimum detectable amounts of reference standards varied roughly within 1 order of magnitude, compared with a range of 10(5) for wet chemical procedures. The comparable sensitivity for oxalate and phosphate permits a semi-quantitative approach for infrared. The main problems relate to the detection of magnesium ammonium phosphate and carbonate apatite, and wet chemical tests are recommended in addition, when these compounds are suggested. Calculi from 308 patients were analyzed by infrared. With this system of interpretation of spectra, infrared is considered to be a major advance in methodology for analysis of urinary tract calculi in the clinical laboratory, compared with qualitative wet chemical procedures. PMID:7389143

  6. Raman spectroscopy study of calcium oxalate extracted from cacti stems.

    PubMed

    Frausto-Reyes, Claudio; Loza-Cornejo, Sofia; Terrazas, Teresa; Terrazas, Tania; Miranda-Beltrán, María de la Luz; Aparicio-Fernández, Xóchitl; López-Macías, Brenda M; Morales-Martínez, Sandra E; Ortiz-Morales, Martín

    2014-01-01

    To find markers that distinguish the different Cactaceae species, by using near infrared Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, we studied the occurrence, in the stem, of solid deposits in five Cactaceae species (Coryphantha clavata, Ferocactus latispinus, Opuntia ficus-indica, O. robusta, and O. strepthacantha) collected from their natural habitats from a region of México. The deposits in the tissues usually occurred as spheroidal aggregates, druses, or prismatic crystals. From the Raman spectra, the crystals were identified either as calcium oxalate monohydrate (CaC2O4·H2O) or calcium oxalate dihydrate (CaC2O4·2H2O). Opuntia species (subfamily Opuntioideae) showed the presence of CaC2O4·H2O, and the deposition of CaC2O4·2H2O was present in C. clavata and F. latispinus (subfamily Cactoideae, Cacteae tribe). As a punctual technique, Raman spectroscopy seems to be a useful tool to identify crystal composition. In addition to allowing the analysis of crystal morphology, this spectroscopic technique can be used to identify Cactaceae species and their chemotaxonomy. PMID:25280368

  7. Molecular mechanisms of control of formation of calcium oxalate

    SciTech Connect

    Sikes, C.S.; Wierzbicki, A.; Sallis, J.D.

    1995-11-01

    The design of inhibitors of crystallization is aided by an understanding of the binding of the inhibitors at the molecular level and the influence of the binding on crystal morphology. Binding of citrate and phosphocitrate to calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals has been studied using scanning electron microscopy and molecular modeling. The COM crystal lattice presents two distinct surfaces that are not only calcium-rich but also have oxalate groups that are perpendicular to the liquid interface. This offers the best possibility for interaction with incoming anionic groups of an inhibitor molecule, allowing the most effective coordination with calcium ions of the lattice surface. For example, conformation and binding energies of citrate and phosphocitrate at ({minus}1 0 1) and (0 1 0) surfaces of COM have been evaluated. The superior performance of phosphocitrate as an inhibitor of COM formation can be attributed to the more favorable coordination of its functional groups with calcium ions of the ({minus}1 0 1) and (0 1 0) surfaces. These concepts may be relevant to the design of new antiscalants.

  8. Platinum and palladium oxalates: positive-tone extreme ultraviolet resists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sortland, Miriam; Hotalen, Jodi; Re, Ryan Del; Passarelli, James; Murphy, Michael; Kulmala, Tero S.; Ekinci, Yasin; Neisser, Mark; Freedman, Daniel A.; Brainard, Robert L.

    2015-10-01

    Here, we present platinum and palladium mononuclear complexes with EUV photosensitivity and lithographic performance. Many platinum and palladium complexes show little or no EUV sensitivity; however, we have found that metal carbonates and metal oxalates (L2M(CO3) and L2M(C2O4); M=Pt or Pd) are sensitive to EUV. The metal carbonates give negative-tone behavior. The most interesting result is that the metal oxalates give the first positive-tone EUV resists based on mononuclear organometallic compounds. In particular, (dppm)Pd(C2O4) (dppm=1,1-bis(diphenylphosphino)methane) (23) prints 30-nm dense lines with E of 50 mJ/cm2. Derivatives of (23) were synthesized to explore the relationship between the core metal and the resist sensitivity. The study showed that palladium-based resists are more sensitive than platinum-based resists. The photoreaction has been investigated for two of our most promising resists, (dppm)Pd(C2O4) (23) and EtPPdC2O4 (27). Our experiments suggest the loss of CO2 and the formation of a zerovalent L4Pd complex upon exposure to light. We have identified dppm2Pd(δ(P)23.6) as the main photoproduct for (23) and EtPPd (δ(P)32.7) as the main photoproduct for (27).

  9. Aluminum citrate inhibits cytotoxicity and aggregation of oxalate crystals.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chungang; McMartin, Kenneth E

    2007-02-12

    Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM), which represents a major component of kidney stones, is an end metabolite of ethylene glycol. COM accumulation has been linked with acute renal toxicity in ethylene glycol poisoning. COM injures the kidney either by directly producing cytotoxicity to the kidney cells or by aggregating in the kidney lumen leading to the blockage of urine flow. The present studies were designed to examine whether aluminum citrate could reduce the toxicity of COM. Toxicity was determined in human proximal tubule cells by leakage of lactate dehydrogenase or uptake of ethidium homodimer and in erythrocytes by degree of hemolysis. Aluminum citrate significantly inhibited the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase from human proximal tubule cells and protected against cell death from COM. The inhibitory effect of aluminum citrate was greater than that of other citrate or aluminum salts such as sodium citrate, aluminum chloride, calcium citrate, ammonium citrate or potassium citrate. Aluminum citrate significantly inhibited the aggregation of COM crystals in vitro and decreased red cell membrane damage from COM. Aluminum citrate appeared to directly interact with COM, but not with the cell membrane. As such, aluminum citrate reduced the cytotoxicity by a physico-chemical interaction with the COM surface, and not by dissolving the COM crystals. These studies suggest that aluminum citrate may protect against tissue damage that occurs with high levels of oxalate accumulation, especially in ethylene glycol poisoning and possibly in hyperoxaluric states. PMID:17161516

  10. Effects of potassium oxalate on dentin hypersensitivity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Muzzin, K B; Johnson, R

    1989-03-01

    This study compared 30% dipotassium oxalate (DO) and 3% monohydrogen-monopotassium oxalate (MO) on the reduction of dentin hypersensitivity in vivo. Four treatments were utilized: (1) distilled water followed by 30% DO; (2) distilled water followed by 3% MO; (3) 30% DO followed by 3% MO and (4) distilled water only. Treatments were randomly assigned so that each of the 17 participants received all four treatments, one per tooth tested. Response to cold at baseline and immediately, 1 week, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks posttreatment was measured. Testing began with water at 20 degrees C and decreased at 5 degrees C intervals until a positive response was obtained or until 0 degrees C was reached. No differences were found for time when compared across treatments. When treatments were compared across time, significant reductions occurred in immediate and 4 week posttreatment measurements for treatment 2. In addition, highly significant reductions occurred in 1 week and 2 week posttreatment measurements for treatment 3. Results suggest a decrease in dentin hypersensitivity following the application of 3% MO alone, and 30% DO followed by 3% MO. PMID:2746447

  11. ADVANCES IN OUR UNDERSTANDING OF CALCIUM OXALATE CRYSTAL FORMATION AND FUNCTION IN PLANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium oxalate crystal formation in plants appears to play a central role in a variety of important functions, including tissue calcium regulation, protection from herbivory, and metal detoxification. Evidence is mounting to support ascorbic acid as the primary precursor to oxalate biosynthesis. ...

  12. Complete genome sequence of Pandoraea oxalativorans DSM 23570(T), an oxalate metabolizing soil bacterium.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kok-Gan; Yong, Delicia; Ee, Robson; Lim, Yan-Lue; Yu, Choo-Yee; Tee, Kok-Keng; Yin, Wai-Fong; Ang, Geik-Yong

    2016-02-10

    Pandoraea oxalativorans DSM 23570(T) is an oxalate-degrading bacterium that was originally isolated from soil litter near to oxalate-producing plant of the genus Oxalis. Here, we report the first complete genome of P. oxalativorans DSM 23570(T) which would allow its potential biotechnological applications to be unravelled. PMID:26742625

  13. Method to Determine Oxalate in High-Level Sludge by Ion Chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, C.J.

    2002-12-19

    The Sludge Batch 3 macrobatch feed to the DWPF is expected to contain a relatively high concentration of oxalate. A simple acid addition at room temperature has been shown to be in high-level sludge. This sample preparation requires only about five minutes and yields solutions suitable for oxalate determinations by ion chromatography.

  14. Deep catalytic oxidative desulfurization (ODS) of dibenzothiophene (DBT) with oxalate-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs).

    PubMed

    Lü, Hongying; Li, Pengcheng; Deng, Changliang; Ren, Wanzhong; Wang, Shunan; Liu, Pan; Zhang, Han

    2015-07-01

    An oxalate-based DES with a tetrabutyl ammonium chloride and oxalate acid molar ratio of 1/2 (TBO1 : 2) exhibited high activity in oxidative desulfurization (ODS) of dibenzothiophene (DBT) under mild reaction conditions. It is potentially a promising and highly environmentally friendly approach for desulfurization of fuels. PMID:26051675

  15. An oxalyl-CoA synthetase is important for oxalate metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although oxalic acid is common in nature, our understanding of the mechanism(s) regulating its turnover remains incomplete. In this study we identify Saccharomyces cerevisiae acyl-activating enzyme 3 (ScAAE3) as an enzyme capable of catalyzing the conversion of oxalate to oxalyl-CoA. Based on our fi...

  16. Calcium oxalate precipitation by diffusion using laminar microfluidics: toward a biomimetic model of pathological microcalcifications.

    PubMed

    Laffite, G; Leroy, C; Bonhomme, C; Bonhomme-Coury, L; Letavernier, E; Daudon, M; Frochot, V; Haymann, J P; Rouzière, S; Lucas, I T; Bazin, D; Babonneau, F; Abou-Hassan, A

    2016-03-23

    The effect of mixing calcium and oxalate precursors by diffusion at miscible liquid interfaces on calcium oxalate crystalline phases, and in physiological conditions (concentrations and flow rates), is studied using a microfluidic channel. This channel has similar dimensions as the collection duct in human kidneys and serves as a biomimetic model in order to understand the formation of pathological microcalcifications. PMID:26974287

  17. Identification and characterization of peanut oxalate genes and development of peanut cultivars resistant to stem rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the southeastern U.S., stem rot (Sclerotium rolfsii) is a common and destructive disease of peanut. Research has suggested the enhancement of resistance to Sclerotinia minor in peanut by expressing a barley oxalate oxidase gene. Oxalate oxidase belongs to the germin family of proteins and acts ...

  18. Oxalic acid biosynthesis is encoded by an operon in Burkholderia glumae.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Paul A; He, Cixin

    2010-03-01

    Although the biosynthesis of oxalic acid is known to occur in a number of bacteria, the mechanism(s) regulating its production remains largely unknown. To date, there is no report on the identification of an oxalic acid biosynthetic pathway gene from bacteria. In an attempt to identify such a gene(s), a mutant screen was conducted using the simple oxalic acid-producing phytopathogenic bacterium, Burkholderia glumae. Four mutants that failed to produce oxalic acid were isolated from a transposon-mutagenized B. glumae library and named Burkholderia oxalate defective (Bod)1. DNA sequence analysis revealed that each mutant contained an insertion event at different sites in the same ORF, which we referred to as the oxalate biosynthetic component (obc)A locus. Complementation of the Bod1 mutant with the obcA gene, however, resulted only in a partial restoration of the oxalic acid-producing phenotype. Further complementation studies utilizing a larger DNA fragment encompassing the obcA locus coupled with deletion mutagenesis led to the identification of another ORF that we named the obcB locus, which was essential for higher levels of oxalic acid production. Transcript analysis indicated that both obcA and obcB are coexpressed and encoded on a single polycistron message. PMID:20141533

  19. Oxalic acid biosynthesis is encoded by an operon in Burkholderia glumae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although the biosynthesis of oxalic acid is known to occur in a number of bacteria, the mechanism(s) regulating its production remains largely unknown. To date, there is no report on the identification of an oxalic acid biosynthetic pathway gene from bacteria. In an attempt to identify such a gene...

  20. Effect of oxalic acid treatment on sediment arsenic concentrations and lability under reducing conditions.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Bostick, Benjamin C; Mailloux, Brian J; Ross, James M; Chillrud, Steven N

    2016-07-01

    Oxalic acid enhances arsenic (As) mobilization by dissolving As host minerals and competing for sorption sites. Oxalic acid amendments thus could potentially improve the efficiency of widely used pump-and-treat (P&T) remediation. This study investigates the effectiveness of oxalic acid on As mobilization from contaminated sediments with different As input sources and redox conditions, and examines whether residual sediment As after oxalic acid treatment can still be reductively mobilized. Batch extraction, column, and microcosm experiments were performed in the laboratory using sediments from the Dover Municipal Landfill and the Vineland Chemical Company Superfund sites. Oxalic acid mobilized As from both Dover and Vineland sediments, although the efficiency rates were different. The residual As in both Dover and Vineland sediments after oxalic acid treatment was less vulnerable to microbial reduction than before the treatment. Oxalic acid could thus improve the efficiency of P&T. X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis indicated that the Vineland sediment samples still contained reactive Fe(III) minerals after oxalic acid treatment, and thus released more As into solution under reducing conditions than the treated Dover samples. Therefore, the efficacy of enhanced P&T must consider sediment Fe mineralogy when evaluating its overall potential for remediating groundwater As. PMID:26970042

  1. The oxalic acid biosynthetic activity of Burkholderia mallei is encoded by a single locus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although it is known that oxalic acid provides a selective advantage to the secreting microbe, our understanding of how this acid is biosynthesized remains incomplete. This study reports the identification, cloning, and partial characterization of the oxalic acid biosynthetic enzyme from the animal ...

  2. MICROARRAY ANALYSIS OF OXALATE OXIDASE TRANSGENIC SOYBEAN CHALLENGED WITH SCLEROTINIA SCLEROTIORUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxalate is a major virulence factor of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Research involving fungal mutants as well as transgenic plants, has clearly shown that virulence of S. sclerotiorum is substantially reduced if oxalate is removed from the interaction. We are utilizing a transgenic soybean plant that c...

  3. Influence of calcium oxalate crystal accumulation on the calcium content of seeds from Medicago truncatula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crystals of calcium oxalate often form in cells adjacent to the vascular bundles in the tissues along the xylem stream. This spatial crystal pattern suggests a role for calcium oxalate formation in regulating calcium transport and partitioning to edible organs such as seeds. To investigate this pote...

  4. Calcium oxalate content affects the nutritional availability of calcium from Medicago truncatula leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is known that oxalate, present in edible plants, can bind calcium in a crystalline form that reduces the availability of the bound calcium for nutritional absorption by humans. It is unknown, however, the degree to which the calcium oxalate content of a plant can be genetically altered and how mu...

  5. Characterization of calcium oxalate defective (cod) 3 mutant from Medicago truncatula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many plants invest a considerable amount of resources and energy into the formation of calcium oxalate crystals. Assigned roles for plant crystal formation include functions in defense, calcium regulation, and aluminum tolerance. From a human health standpoint, oxalate present in edible plant tiss...

  6. Plant calcium oxalate crystal formation, function, and its impact on human health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crystals of calcium oxalate have been observed among members from most taxonomic groups of photosynthetic organisms ranging from the smallest algae to the largest trees. The biological roles for calcium oxalate crystal formation in plant growth and development include high capacity calcium regulatio...

  7. Improved Thermoelectric Properties of PEDOT:PSS Nanofilms Treated with Oxalic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Congcong; Shi, Hui; Xu, Jingkun; Jiang, Qinglin; Song, Haijun; Zhu, Zhengyou

    2015-06-01

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) nanofilms were prepared by a simple spin-coating method. The thermoelectric properties of PEDOT:PSS nanofilms were improved by treatment with different concentrations of oxalic acid at 140°C. The electrical conductivity of PEDOT:PSS nanofilms can be improved from 0.48 to over 800 S cm-1, that is, by a factor of more than 1600 higher than for untreated PEDOT:PSS films. The Seebeck coefficient of the PEDOT:PSS nanofilms decreases slightly and the electrical conductivity increases. The maximum power factor of PEDOT:PSS nanofilms is up to 6.96 μW m-1 K-2. Atomic force microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were conducted to characterize the PEDOT:PSS nanofilms.

  8. Ionic strength and ion ratio effects on the single crystal growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate

    SciTech Connect

    DeLong, J.D.; Briedis, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    Single crystal growth rates of calcium oxalate monohydrate, CaC/sub 2/O/sub 4/ . H/sub 2/O, were measured as a function of ionic strength and of calcium to oxalate free ion ratio. The photomicroscopic technique was used which allowed measurement of the growth rates of individual faces of single crystals. The amounts of reagents required to maintain a constant relative supersaturation of 3.7 for all experiments were determined using an iterative computer algorithm which allowed the use of various background electrolytes, ionic strength, and free ion ratios. For a range of ionic strengths of I = .0024 to 0.5 for each of the background electrolytes KCl, LiCl, and KClO/sub 4/, and a free ion ratio (Ca/sup 2+/)/(C/sub 2/O/sub 4//sup 2-/) = 1, facial growth rate showed a steady increase with ionic strength towards an asymptotic maximum. The curves of growth rate, R, versus ionic strength followed approximately the form R = k I/sup n/ with 0 < n < 1, suggesting a mechanism of growth enhancement with increasing ionic strength by compression of the electrical double layer at the crystal/solution interface. For a range of free ion ratios (Ca/sup 2+/)/(C/sub 2/O/sub 4//sup 2-/) = 0.01 to 100 and an ionic strength of I = 0.15 M, the observed growth rate showed a maximum at equimolar free ion conditions, with decreasing growth rates observed at lower and higher ion ratios. This growth rate maximum was not apparent under conditions with no added background electrolyte. These results indicate that relative supersaturation as usually used for crystal growth may not be the complete or appropriate driving force for describing electrolyte crystal growth.

  9. An antagonist treatment in combination with tracer experiments revealed isocitrate pathway dominant to oxalate biosynthesis in Rumex obtusifolius L

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxalate accumulates in leaves of certain plants such as Rumex species (Polygonaceae). Oxalate plays important roles in defense to predator, detoxification of metallic ions, and in hydroxyl peroxide formation upon wounding/senescence. However, biosynthetic pathways of soluble oxalate are largely unkn...

  10. Genetic evidence for differences in the pathways of druse and prismatic calcium oxalate crystal formation in Medicago truncatula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current evidence supports a single pathway utilizing ascorbic acid as the precursor in oxalate biosynthesis. In this study, we address the possibility that more than one pathway of oxalate biosynthesis and calcium oxalate formation occurs in Medicago truncatula. Like wildtype, developing leaves of...

  11. Genetic evidence for differences in the pathways of druse and prismatic calcium oxalate crystal formation in Medicago truncatula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current evidence supports a single pathway of oxalate biosynthesis utilising ascorbic acid as the precursor. In this study, we begin to address the possibility that more than one pathway of oxalate biosynthesis and calcium oxalate formation occurs in Medicago truncatula Gaertn. (cv. Jemalong genotyp...

  12. Effects of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase variants and pyridoxine sensitivity on oxalate metabolism in a cell-based cytotoxicity assay.

    PubMed

    Fargue, Sonia; Knight, John; Holmes, Ross P; Rumsby, Gill; Danpure, Christopher J

    2016-06-01

    The hereditary kidney stone disease primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is caused by a functional deficiency of the liver-specific, peroxisomal, pyridoxal-phosphate-dependent enzyme, alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT). One third of PH1 patients, particularly those expressing the p.[(Pro11Leu; Gly170Arg; Ile340Met)] mutant allele, respond clinically to pharmacological doses of pyridoxine. To gain further insight into the metabolic effects of AGT dysfunction in PH1 and the effect of pyridoxine, we established an "indirect" glycolate cytotoxicity assay using CHO cells expressing glycolate oxidase (GO) and various normal and mutant forms of AGT. In cells expressing GO the great majority of glycolate was converted to oxalate and glyoxylate, with the latter causing the greater decrease in cell survival. Co-expression of normal AGTs and some, but not all, mutant AGT variants partially counteracted this cytotoxicity and led to decreased synthesis of oxalate and glyoxylate. Increasing the extracellular pyridoxine up to 0.3μM led to an increased metabolic effectiveness of normal AGTs and the AGT-Gly170Arg variant. The increased survival seen with AGT-Gly170Arg was paralleled by a 40% decrease in oxalate and glyoxylate levels. These data support the suggestion that the effectiveness of pharmacological doses of pyridoxine results from an improved metabolic effectiveness of AGT; that is the increased rate of transamination of glyoxylate to glycine. The indirect glycolate toxicity assay used in the present study has potential to be used in cell-based drug screening protocols to identify chemotherapeutics that might enhance or decrease the activity and metabolic effectiveness of AGT and GO, respectively, and be useful in the treatment of PH1. PMID:26854734

  13. Polycarbonate Bottle Use and Urinary Bisphenol A Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Carwile, Jenny L.; Luu, Henry T.; Bassett, Laura S.; Driscoll, Daniel A.; Yuan, Caterina; Chang, Jennifer Y.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M.; Michels, Karin B.

    2009-01-01

    Background Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-production-volume chemical commonly used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastic. Low-level concentrations of BPA in animals and possibly in humans may cause endocrine disruption. Whether ingestion of food or beverages from polycarbonate containers increases BPA concentrations in humans has not been studied. Objectives We examined the association between use of polycarbonate beverage containers and urinary BPA concentrations in humans. Methods We conducted a nonrandomized intervention of 77 Harvard College students to compare urinary BPA concentrations collected after a washout phase of 1 week to those taken after an intervention week during which most cold beverages were consumed from polycarbonate drinking bottles. Paired t-tests were used to assess the difference in urinary BPA concentrations before and after polycarbonate bottle use. Results The geometric mean urinary BPA concentration at the end of the washout phase was 1.2 μg/g creatinine, increasing to 2.0 μg/g creatinine after 1 week of polycarbonate bottle use. Urinary BPA concentrations increased by 69% after use of polycarbonate bottles (p < 0.0001). The association was stronger among participants who reported ≥ 90% compliance (77% increase; p < 0.0001) than among those reporting < 90% compliance (55% increase; p = 0.03), but this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.54). Conclusions One week of polycarbonate bottle use increased urinary BPA concentrations by two-thirds. Regular consumption of cold beverages from polycarbonate bottles is associated with a substantial increase in urinary BPA concentrations irrespective of exposure to BPA from other sources. PMID:19750099

  14. Impact of Aging on Urinary Excretion of Iron and Zinc

    PubMed Central

    Pfrimer, Karina; Micheletto, Rutinéia Fátima; Marchini, Julio Sergio; Padovan, Gilberto João; Moriguti, Julio Cesar; Ferriolli, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    PROJECT Data about the influence of aging on urinary excretion of iron and zinc are scarce. The objective of the present study was to compare the concentration of zinc and iron in the urine of healthy elderly subjects and younger adults. PROCEDURE Seven healthy elderly subjects and seven younger adults were selected and submitted to biochemical, clinical, and nutritional tests. After a fasting period, 12-hour urine was collected for the determination of iron and zinc concentrations by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. RESULTS Urinary zinc and iron concentrations of the elderly subjects were not significantly different from that of younger adults. However, the total zinc and iron urinary clearance in 24 hours for the elderly was significantly higher compared with that of younger adults. CONCLUSION There is an increase in urinary iron and zinc clearance with aging. The values reported in this manuscript may be used as references in future studies. PMID:24932105

  15. Comparative in vitro effect of TiF4 to NaF and potassium oxalate on reduction of dentin hydraulic conductance.

    PubMed

    Calabria, M; Porfirio, R; Fernandes, S; Wang, L; Buzalaf, M; Pereira, Jc; Magalhães, Ac

    2014-01-01

    Dentin hypersensitivity (DH) is related to an increase in dentin permeability. This study tested the effect of titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4) compared with sodium fluoride (NaF) and potassium oxalate gel on reducing hydraulic conductance (Lp) from the perspective of diminishing dentin permeability. The Lp of the dentin disks (1.0 ± 0.2 mm) was evaluated using Flodec. The maximum Lp values of each disk were taken after phosphoric acid etching (15 seconds) and randomly allocated to seven groups (n=8) according to the treatments. The minimum (smear layer) and the maximum (after acid etching) Lp values were recorded. Treatments were performed for 4 minutes as follows: 1) NaF varnish 2) and solution (2.45% F, pH 5.0), 3) TiF4 varnish and 4) solution (2.45% F, pH 1.0), 5) 3% potassium oxalate gel, 6) free fluoride varnish (placebo, pH 5.0), 7) and no treatment (control). The Lp after each treatment was assessed. Samples were exposed to an erosive challenge (6% citric acid, pH 2.1, 1 minute), and the final Lp was recorded. The data were statistically analyzed using repeated measures two-way analysis of variance (p<0.05). All treatments were effective in reducing dentin Lp compared with the control immediately after the application. However, only potassium oxalate and NaF varnish significantly differed from placebo varnish (p<0.0001). The same results were found after the erosive challenge. Therefore, the TiF4 was less effective than the NaF varnish and potassium oxalate gel in reducing dentin permeability. Using this experimental model, both NaF varnish and potassium oxalate gel reduced the Lp similarly to the presence of smear layer. PMID:24111808

  16. Prophylactic effects of quercetin and hyperoside in a calcium oxalate stone forming rat model.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Xu, Yun-fei; Feng, Yuan; Peng, Bo; Che, Jian-ping; Liu, Min; Zheng, Jun-hua

    2014-12-01

    Quercetin and hyperoside (QH) are the two main constituents of the total flavone glycosides of Flos Abelmoschus manihot, which has been prescribed for treating chronic kidney disease for decades. This study aimed to investigate the effect of QH on calcium oxalate (CaOx) formation in ethylene glycol (EG)-fed rats. Rats were divided into three groups: an untreated stone-forming group, a QH-treated stone-forming group (20 mg/kg/day) and a potassium citrate-treated stone-forming group (potassium citrate was a worldwide-recognized calculi-prophylactic medicine). Ethylene glycol (0.5 %) was administered to the rats during the last week, and vitamin D3 was force-fed to induce hyperoxaluria and kidney calcium oxalate crystal deposition. 24 h urine samples were collected before and after inducing crystal deposits. Rats were killed and both kidneys were harvested after 3 weeks. Bisected kidneys were examined under a polarized light microscope for semi-quantification of the crystal-formation. The renal tissue superoxide dismutase and catalase levels were measured by Western blot. QH and potassium citrate have the ability to alkalinize urine. The number of crystal deposits decreased significantly in the QH-treated stone-forming group as compared to the other groups. Superoxide dismutase and catalase levels also increased significantly in the QH-treated stone-forming group, as compared with the untreated stone-forming group. QH administration has an inhibitory effect on the deposition of CaOx crystal in EG-fed rats and may be effective for preventing stone-forming disease. PMID:25085199

  17. Calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals internalized into renal tubular cells are degraded and dissolved by endolysosomes.

    PubMed

    Chaiyarit, Sakdithep; Singhto, Nilubon; Thongboonkerd, Visith

    2016-02-25

    Interaction between calcium oxalate crystals and renal tubular cells has been recognized as one of the key mechanisms for kidney stone formation. While crystal adhesion and internalization have been extensively investigated, subsequent phenomena (i.e. crystal degradation and dissolution) remained poorly understood. To explore these mechanisms, we used fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labelled calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals (1000 μg/ml of crystals/culture medium) to confirm crystal internalization into MDCK (Type II) renal tubular cells after exposure to the crystals for 1 h and to trace the internalized crystals. Crystal size, intracellular and extracellular fluorescence levels were measured using a spectrofluorometer for up to 48 h after crystal internalization. Moreover, markers for early endosome (Rab5), late endosome (Rab7) and lysosome (LAMP-2) were examined by laser-scanning confocal microscopy. Fluorescence imaging and flow cytometry confirmed that FITC-labelled COM crystals were internalized into MDCK cells (14.83 ± 0.85%). The data also revealed a reduction of crystal size in a time-dependent manner. In concordance, intracellular and extracellular fluorescence levels were decreased and increased, respectively, indicating crystal degradation/dissolution inside the cells and the degraded products were eliminated extracellularly. Moreover, Rab5 and Rab7 were both up-regulated and were also associated with the up-regulated LAMP-2 to form large endolysosomes in the COM-treated cells at 16-h after crystal internalization. We demonstrate herein, for the first time, that COM crystals could be degraded/dissolved by endolysosomes inside renal tubular cells. These findings will be helpful to better understand the crystal fate and protective mechanism against kidney stone formation. PMID:26748311

  18. [Treatment of uncomplicated lower urinary tract infections].

    PubMed

    Horcajada, Juan Pablo; García-Palomo, Daniel; Fariñas, M Carmen

    2005-12-01

    Empirical antibiotic treatment of lower urinary tract infections should be based on the patient's clinical data and on local sensitivity data. Because of the increase in resistance among uropathogens, recommendations on the empirical treatment of urinary tract infections have been modified. Currently, the empirical use of co-trimoxazole, ampicillin, and first-generation cephalosporins and quinolones is not recommended. Fluoroquinolones have been demonstrated to be highly effective in comparative studies but, because of the increase in resistance, the type of patient who can benefit from these antimicrobial agents must be selected. Second- and third-generation cephalosporins still have high sensitivity rates, although the higher recurrence rates associated with their use and the emergence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing enterobacterial in the community should be taken into account. Amoxicillin-clavulanate is less effective in eradicating infections than quinolones. Fosfomycin-trometamol has resistance rates of below 2% and single-dose therapy has been demonstrated to be safe and effective. Nitrofurantoin is also currently active, although it must be administered for 7 days and can produce toxicity. Both agents are currently recommended as alternative therapeutic options to fluoroquinolones in uncomplicated infections of the lower urinary tract. PMID:16854355

  19. Calcium Oxalate Stones Are Frequently Found Attached to Randall's Plaque

    SciTech Connect

    Matlaga, Brian R.

    2007-04-05

    The exact mechanisms of the crystallization processes that occur during the formation of calcium oxalate calculi are controversial. Over six decades ago, Alexander Randall reported on a series of cadaveric renal units in which he observed calcium salt deposits on the tips of the renal papilla. Randall hypothesized that these deposits, eponymously termed Randall's plaque, would be the ideal site for stone formation, and indeed in a number of specimens he noted small stones attached to the papillae. With the recent advent of digital endoscopic imaging and micro computerized tomography (CT) technology, it is now possible to inspect the renal papilla of living, human stone formers and to study the attached stone with greater scrutiny.

  20. Optimization of air-sparged plutonium oxalate/hydroxide precipitators

    SciTech Connect

    VanderHeyden, W.B.; Yarbro, S.L.; Fife, K.W.

    1997-04-01

    The high cost of waste management and experimental work makes numerical modeling an inexpensive and attractive tool for optimizing and understanding complex chemical processes. Multiphase {open_quotes}bubble{close_quotes} columns are used extensively at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility for a variety of different applications. No moving parts and efficient mixing characteristics allow them to be used in glovebox operations. Initially, a bubble column for oxalate precipitations is being modeled to identify the effect of various design parameters such as, draft tube location, air sparge rate and vessel geometry. Two-dimensional planar and axisymmetric models have been completed and successfully compared to literature data. Also, a preliminary three-dimensional model has been completed. These results are discussed in this report along with future work.

  1. Calcium Oxalate Stones Are Frequently Found Attached to Randall's Plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matlaga, Brian R.; Williams, James C.; Evan, Andrew P.; Lingeman, James E.

    2007-04-01

    The exact mechanisms of the crystallization processes that occur during the formation of calcium oxalate calculi are controversial. Over six decades ago, Alexander Randall reported on a series of cadaveric renal units in which he observed calcium salt deposits on the tips of the renal papilla. Randall hypothesized that these deposits, eponymously termed Randall's plaque, would be the ideal site for stone formation, and indeed in a number of specimens he noted small stones attached to the papillae. With the recent advent of digital endoscopic imaging and micro computerized tomography (CT) technology, it is now possible to inspect the renal papilla of living, human stone formers and to study the attached stone with greater scrutiny.

  2. Distinct Roles of Urinary Liver-Type Fatty Acid-Binding Protein in Non-Diabetic Patients with Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Imai, Naohiko; Yasuda, Takashi; Kamijo-Ikemori, Atsuko; Shibagaki, Yugo; Kimura, Kenjiro

    2015-01-01

    Background Various stresses including ischemia are known to up-regulate renal L-FABP gene expression and increase the urinary excretion of L-FABP. In diabetic patients with anemia, the urinary excretion of L-FABP is significantly increased. We studied the clinical significance of urinary L-FABP and its relationship with anemia in non-diabetic patients. Subjects and Methods A total of 156 patients were studied in this retrospective cross-sectional analysis. The associations between anemia and urinary L-FABP levels, and the predictors of urinary L-FABP levels in non-diabetic patients were evaluated. Results Urinary L-FABP levels were significantly higher in patients with anemia compared to those in patients without anemia. Similarly, the urinary L-FABP levels were significantly higher in patients with albuminuria compared to those in patients without albuminuria. Urinary L-FABP levels correlated with urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratios, estimated glomerular filtration rates, body mass index, and hemoglobin levels. Multivariate linear regression analysis determined that hemoglobin levels (β = -0.249, P = 0.001) and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratios (β = 0.349, P < 0.001) were significant predictors of urinary L-FABP levels. Conclusions Urinary L-FABP is strongly associated with anemia in non-diabetic patients. PMID:26010898

  3. Layered double hydroxide formation in Bayer liquor and its promotional effect on oxalate precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Perrotta, A.J.; Williams, F.

    1996-10-01

    Enhancing the precipitation of sodium oxalate from Bayer process liquor to improve the quality of alumina product remains an important objective for Bayer refining. The formation of layered double hydroxides by the reaction of alkaline earth oxides, such as lime and magnesia, with Bayer liquor gives a crystal structure which is capable of intercalating anions, both inorganic and organic, within its structure. Both lime and magnesia, with long contact times in Bayer liquor, show layered double hydroxide formation. This layered double hydroxide formation is accompanied with a decrease in the sodium oxalate content in the liquor from about 3 g/L to below 1 g/L. Short contact times lead to a destabilization of the liquor which facilitates sodium oxalate precipitation. Additional work on magnesium hydroxide shows, in comparison to lime and magnesia, much less layered double hydroxide formation with equivalent residence time in the liquor. Destabilization of the liquor also occurs, giving enhanced oxalate precipitation with less alumina being consumed in agreement with lower layered double hydroxide formation. Thermal regeneration of these structures, followed by in-situ recrystallization in Bayer liquor, also gives enhanced oxalate precipitation, suggesting that there is an opportunity for a regenerable oxalate reduction system. The implementation of these experiments and other related technology into the plant has resulted in the Purox Process for enhancing the precipitation of sodium oxalate from Bayer liquor.

  4. Effects of magnesium deficiency on intratubular calcium oxalate formation and crystalluria in hyperoxaluric rats.

    PubMed

    Rushton, H G; Spector, M

    1982-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that magnesium deficiency accelerates renal tubular calcium oxalate monohy