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Sample records for increase urinary oxalate

  1. Contribution of dietary oxalate to urinary oxalate excretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, R. P.; Goodman, H. O.; Assimos, D. G.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The amount of oxalate excreted in urine has a significant impact on calcium oxalate supersaturation and stone formation. Dietary oxalate is believed to make only a minor (10 to 20%) contribution to the amount of oxalate excreted in urine, but the validity of the experimental observations that support this conclusion can be questioned. An understanding of the actual contribution of dietary oxalate to urinary oxalate excretion is important, as it is potentially modifiable. METHODS: We varied the amount of dietary oxalate consumed by a group of adult individuals using formula diets and controlled, solid-food diets with a known oxalate content, determined by a recently developed analytical procedure. Controlled solid-food diets were consumed containing 10, 50, and 250 mg of oxalate/2500 kcal, as well as formula diets containing 0 and 180 mg oxalate/2500 kcal. Changes in the content of oxalate and other ions were assessed in 24-hour urine collections. RESULTS: Urinary oxalate excretion increased as dietary oxalate intake increased. With oxalate-containing diets, the mean contribution of dietary oxalate to urinary oxalate excretion ranged from 24.4 +/- 15.5% on the 10 mg/2500 kcal/day diet to 41.5 +/- 9.1% on the 250 mg/2500 kcal/day diet, much higher than previously estimated. When the calcium content of a diet containing 250 mg of oxalate was reduced from 1002 mg to 391 mg, urinary oxalate excretion increased by a mean of 28.2 +/- 4.8%, and the mean dietary contribution increased to 52.6 +/- 8.6%. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that dietary oxalate makes a much greater contribution to urinary oxalate excretion than previously recognized, that dietary calcium influences the bioavailability of ingested oxalate, and that the absorption of dietary oxalate may be an important factor in calcium oxalate stone formation.

  2. Aspartame ingestion increases urinary calcium, but not oxalate excretion, in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, U N; Dumoulin, G; Henriet, M T; Regnard, J

    1998-01-01

    Aspartame is the artificial sweetener most extensively used as a substitute for glucose or sucrose in the food industry, particularly in soft drinks. As glucose ingestion increases calciuria and oxaluria, the two main determinants of urinary calcium-oxalate saturation, we considered it worthwhile to determine whether aspartame ingestion also affects calcium-oxalate metabolism. Our study compares the effects of the ingestion of similarly sweet doses of aspartame (250 mg) and glucose (75 g) on calcium and oxalate metabolisms of seven healthy subjects. Urinary calcium excretion increased after the intake of both aspartame (+86%; P < 0.01) and glucose (+124%; P < 0.01). This may be due to the rise in calcemia observed after both aspartame (+2.2%; P < 0.05) and glucose ingestion (+1.8%; P < 0.05). The increased calcemia may be linked to the decrease in phosphatemia that occurred after both aspartame (P < 0.01) and glucose (P < 0.01) load. Aspartame did not alter glycemia or insulinemia, whereas glucose intake caused striking increases in both glycemia (+59%; P < 0.001) and insulinemia (+869%; P < 0.01). Although insulin was considered the main calciuria-induced factor after glucose load, it is unlikely that this mechanism played a role with aspartame. Urinary oxalate excretion did not change after aspartame, whereas it increased (+27%; P < 0.05) after glucose load. Thus, as aspartame induced a similar increase in calciuria as did glucose but, conversely, no change in oxaluria, substituting glucose by aspartame in soft drinks may appear to be of some potential benefit. PMID:9435435

  3. [Renal oxalate excretion following oral oxalate load in patients with urinary calculus disease and healthy controls].

    PubMed

    Ebisuno, S; Morimoto, S; Yoshida, T; Fukatani, T; Yasukawa, S; Okawa, T

    1986-12-01

    Oral oxalate loading using sodium oxalate or a vegetable juice was done to evaluate the intestinal absorption of exogenous oxalate in 30 patients with renal stones and 13 healthy controls. Fifteen calcium oxalate stone formers, 7 non-oxalate stone formers and 10 healthy volunteers were given an oral loading of sodium oxalate (500 mg). Urinary oxalate increased promptly, reaching a peak value within 4 to 8 hours after administration of a synthetic oxalate orally in a fasting state. In calcium oxalate stone formers, the mean increment of urinary oxalate and the bioavailability following oral sodium oxalate load were significantly higher than in the healthy controls and non-oxalate stone formers. Furthermore, intestinal hyperabsorption of oxalate in our criterion was defined in six patients with calcium oxalate stones (40%). On the other hand, eight calcium oxalate stone formers and three healthy controls were given vegetable juice. Urinary oxalate was increased only slightly after the ingestion, and there was no difference between calcium oxalate stone formers and normal controls. These results suggest that a certain hyperoxaluria might be induced by intestinal absorption of exogenous oxalate, and that the hyperabsorption might indicate a possible risk factor for calcium oxalate stone formation. PMID:3825824

  4. Lowering urinary oxalate excretion to decrease calcium oxalate stone disease.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Ross P; Knight, John; Assimos, Dean G

    2016-02-01

    Dietary modifications should be considered as a first line approach in the treatment of idiopathic calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. The amounts of oxalate and calcium consumed in the diet are significant factors in the development of the disease due to their impact on urinary oxalate excretion. There are a number of strategies that can be employed to reduce oxalate excretion. The consumption of oxalate-rich foods should be avoided and calcium intake adjusted to 1000-1200mg/day. To encourage compliance it should be emphasized to patients that they be vigilant with this diet as a deviation in any meal or snack could potentially result in significant stone growth. The evidence underlying these two modifications is outlined and other strategies to reduce urinary oxalate excretion are reviewed. PMID:26614109

  5. Diet, but not oral probiotics, effectively reduces urinary oxalate excretion and calciumoxalate supersaturation

    PubMed Central

    Lieske, John C.; Tremaine, William J.; De Simone, Claudio; O’Connor, Helen M.; Li, Xujian; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Goldfarb, David S.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effect of a controlled diet and two probiotic preparations on urinary oxalate excretion, a risk factor for calcium oxalate kidney stone formation, in patients with mild hyperoxaluria. Patients were randomized to a placebo, a probiotic, or a synbiotic preparation. This tested whether these probiotic preparations can increase oxalate metabolism in the intestine and/or decrease oxalate absorption from the gut. Patients were maintained on a controlled diet to remove the confounding variable of differing oxalate intake from food. Urinary oxalate excretion and calcium oxalate supersaturation on the controlled diet were significantly lower compared with baseline on a free-choice diet. Neither study preparation reduced urinary oxalate excretion nor calcium oxalate supersaturation. Fecal lactobacilli colony counts increased on both preparations, whereas enterococcal and yeast colony counts were increased on the synbiotic. Total urine volume and the excretion of oxalate and calcium were all strong independent determinants of urinary calcium oxalate supersaturation. Hence, dietary oxalate restriction reduced urinary oxalate excretion, but the tested probiotics did not influence urinary oxalate levels in patients on a restricted oxalate diet. However, this study suggests that dietary oxalate restriction is useful for kidney stone prevention. PMID:20736987

  6. Fish Oil Supplementation and Urinary Oxalate Excretion in Normal Subjects on a Low-oxalate Diet

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Jessica N.; Mufarrij, Patrick W.; Easter, Linda; Knight, John; Holmes, Ross P.; Assimos, Dean G.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine if fish oil supplementation reduces endogenous oxalate synthesis in healthy subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifteen healthy nonstone-forming adults participated in this study. Subjects first abstained from using vitamins, medications, or foods enriched in omega-3 fatty acids for 30 days. Next, they collected two 24-hour urine specimens while consuming a self-selected diet. Subjects consumed an extremely low-oxalate and normal-calcium diet for 5 days and collected 24-hour urine specimens on the last 3 days of this diet. Next, the subjects took 2 fish oil capsules containing 650-mg eicosapentaenoic acid and 450-mg docosahexaenoic acid twice daily for 30 days. They consumed a self-selected diet on days 125 and the controlled diet on days 2630. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected on days 2830. Excretion levels of urinary analytes including oxalate and glycolate were analyzed. RESULTS Although there was a significant reduction in urinary oxalate, magnesium, and potassium excretions and an increase in uric acid excretion during the controlled dietary phases compared with the self-selected diet, there were no significant differences in their excretion during controlled diet phases with and without fish oil supplementation. CONCLUSION These results suggest that fish oil supplementation does not reduce endogenous oxalate synthesis or urinary oxalate excretion in normal adults during periods of extremely low oxalate intake. However, these results do not challenge the previously described reduction in urinary oxalate excretion demonstrated in normal subjects consuming a moderate amount of oxalate in conjunction with fish oil. PMID:25102784

  7. Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis decreases urinary oxalate excretion in a mouse model of primary hyperoxaluria.

    PubMed

    Klimesova, Klara; Whittamore, Jonathan M; Hatch, Marguerite

    2015-04-01

    Hyperoxaluria significantly increases the risk of calcium oxalate kidney stone formation. Since several bacteria have been shown to metabolize oxalate in vitro, including probiotic bifidobacteria, we focused on the efficiency and possible mechanisms by which bifidobacteria can influence oxalate handling in vivo, especially in the intestines, and compared these results with the reported effects of Oxalobacter formigenes. Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis DSM 10140 and B. adolescentis ATCC 15703 were administered to wild-type (WT) mice and to mice deficient in the hepatic enzyme alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase (Agxt(-/-), a mouse model of Primary Hyperoxaluria) that were fed an oxalate-supplemented diet. The administration of B. animalis subsp. lactis led to a significant decrease in urinary oxalate excretion in WT and Agxt(-/-) mice when compared to treatment with B. adolescentis. Detection of B. animalis subsp. lactis in feces revealed that 3 weeks after oral gavage with the bacteria 64% of WT mice, but only 37% of Agxt(-/-) mice were colonized. Examining intestinal oxalate fluxes showed there were no significant changes to net oxalate secretion in colonized animals and were therefore not associated with the changes in urinary oxalate excretion. These results indicate that colonization with B. animalis subsp. lactis decreased urinary oxalate excretion by degrading dietary oxalate thus limiting its absorption across the intestine but it did not promote enteric oxalate excretion as reported for O. formigenes. Preventive or therapeutic administration of B. animalis subsp. lactis appears to have some potential to beneficially influence dietary hyperoxaluria in mice. PMID:25269440

  8. Clofibrate feeding to Sprague-Dawley rats increases endogenous biosynthesis of oxalate and causes hyperoxaluria.

    PubMed

    Sharma, V; Schwille, P O

    1997-02-01

    The effects of clofibrate feeding (5 g/kg diet) on oxalate metabolism were investigated in male and female rats. Following clofibrate feeding, 24-hour urinary excretion of oxalate increased until 4 days and then reached a plateau. Whereas the contribution of dietary oxalate (1.4 g/kg diet, as potassium salt) to urinary oxalate was less than 5% in both control and clofibrate-treated male rats, the contribution of dietary glycolate (1.0 g/kg diet, as sodium salt) to urinary oxalate was six times higher in clofibrate-treated male rats compared with controls, indicating that the clofibrate-induced hyperoxaluria is due to increased endogenous biosynthesis of oxalate. This was supported by the increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity observed in liver supernatants of clofibrate-treated rats compared with controls, and the increased rate of conversion of glycolate and glyoxylate to oxalate by clofibrate-treated male rat liver supernatants. Female rats had lower excretion of urinary oxalate and lower levels of liver glycolic acid oxidase (GAO) as compared with males. Clofibrate-treated female rat liver supernatants had higher LDH levels and produced more oxalate from glyoxylate. Thus, it can be concluded that the increase in LDH activity may be the cause of the increased endogenous biosynthesis of oxalate leading to increased urinary excretion of oxalate in male and female rats treated with clofibrate. PMID:9030817

  9. Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis decreases urinary oxalate excretion in a mouse model of primary hyperoxaluria

    PubMed Central

    Whittamore, Jonathan M.; Hatch, Marguerite

    2015-01-01

    Hyperoxaluria significantly increases the risk of calcium oxalate kidney stone formation. Since several bacteria have been shown to metabolize oxalate in vitro, including probiotic bifidobacteria, we focused on the efficiency and possible mechanisms by which bifidobacteria can infuence oxalate handling in vivo, especially in the intestines, and compared these results with the reported effects of Oxalobacter formigenes. Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis DSM 10140 and B. adolescentis ATCC 15703 were administered to wild-type (WT) mice and to mice defcient in the hepatic enzyme alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase (Agxt−/−, a mouse model of Primary Hyperoxaluria) that were fed an oxalate-supplemented diet. The administration of B. animalis subsp. lactis led to a significant decrease in urinary oxalate excretion in WT and Agxt−/− mice when compared to treatment with B. adolescent-is. Detection of B. animalis subsp. lactis in feces revealed that 3 weeks after oral gavage with the bacteria 64 % of WT mice, but only 37 % of Agxt−/− mice were colonized. Examining intestinal oxalate fuxes showed there were no significant changes to net oxalate secretion in colonized animals and were therefore not associated with the changes in urinary oxalate excretion. These results indicate that colonization with B. animalis subsp. lactis decreased urinary oxalate excretion by degrading dietary oxalate thus limiting its absorption across the intestine but it did not promote enteric oxalate excretion as reported for O. formigenes. Preventive or therapeutic administration of B. animalis subsp. lactis appears to have some potential to beneficially infuence dietary hyperoxaluria in mice. PMID:25269440

  10. Urinary metabolic phenotyping the slc26a6 (chloride-oxalate exchanger) null mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Perez, Isabel; Villaseor, Alma; Wijeyesekera, Anisha; Posma, Joram M.; Stamler, Jeremiah; Aronson, Peter; Unwin, Robert; Barbas, Coral; Elliott, Paul; Nicholson, Jeremy; Holmes, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of renal stone disease is increasing, although it remains higher in men than in women when matched for age. While still somewhat controversial, several studies have reported an association between renal stone disease and hypertension, but this may be confounded by a shared link with obesity. However, independent of obesity, hyperoxaluria has been shown to be associated with hypertension in stone-formers and the most common type of renal stone is composed of calcium oxalate. The chloride-oxalate exchanger slc26a6 (also known as CFEX or PAT-1), located in the renal proximal tubule, was originally thought to have an important role in sodium homeostasis and thereby blood pressure control, but it has recently been shown to have a key function in oxalate balance by mediating oxalate secretion in the gut. We have applied two orthogonal analytical platforms (NMR spectroscopy and capillary-electrophoresis with UV detection) in parallel to characterize the urinary metabolic signatures related to the loss of the renal chloride-oxalate exchanger in slc26a6 null mice. Clear metabolic differentiation between the urinary profiles of the slc26a6 null and the wild type mice were observed using both methods, with the combination of NMR and CE-UV providing extensive coverage of the urinary metabolome. Key discriminating metabolites included oxalate, m-hydroxyphenylpropionylsulfate (m-HPPS), trimethylamine-N-oxide, glycolate and scyllo-inositol (higher in SLC26A6 null mice) and hippurate, taurine, trimethylamine, and citrate (lower in slc26a6 null mice). In addition to the reduced efficiency of anion transport, several of these metabolites (hippurate, m-HPPS, methylamines) reflect alteration in gut microbial co-metabolic activities. Gender-related metabotypes were also observed in both wild type and slc26a6 null groups. Other urinary chemicals that showed a gender-specific pattern included trimethylamine, trimethylamine-N-oxide, citrate, spermidine, guanidinoacetate, and 2-oxoisocaproate. The gender-dependent metabolic expression of the consequences of slc26a6 deletion might have relevance to the difference in prevalence of renal stone formation in men and women. The modification of the microbial metabolites is consistent with the fact that the slc26a6 transporter is found in a range of tissues, including the kidney and intestine, and provides further evidence for the long reach of the microbiota in physiological and pathological processes. PMID:22594923

  11. [Components of Urinary Nanocrystals and Their Influence on Formation of Calcium Oxalate Stones].

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-bao; Wen, Xiao-ling; Xue, Jun-fa; Ouyang, Jian-ming

    2015-08-01

    High-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were accurately performed to analyze the components of nanocrystals in the urine of patients with calcium oxalate (CaOx) stones. XRD, SAED and FFT detected the presence of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM), uric acid (UA), and calcium phosphate (CaP). EDS detected the elements of C, O, Ca, with a small amount of N and P. These results showed that the main components of urinary nanocrystals were COM, with a small amount UA and phosphate. HRTEM observation showed that the particle size of urinary nanocrystals was dozens of nanometers. The result was consistent with the calculation by Debye-Scherrer equation. When the urine was filtered through a microporous membrane of 0.45, 1.2, and 3 ?m, respectively, the number of diffraction peaks of the obtained urine crystallites increased with the increased pore size, indicating the increase of urinary crystallite species. Crystal nucleation, growth, aggregation, and adhesion of crystals to the renal epithelial cells are important processes for CaOx stone formation. The presence of a large amount of COM crystals in patients' urine is a critical factor for CaOx stones formation. Nano UA and CaP crystallite can induce the CaOx stone formation as central nidus. PMID:26672305

  12. [A modification of the estimation of urinary oxalate using a Sigma kit].

    PubMed

    Ebisuno, S; Ohkawa, T

    1988-02-01

    The Sigma kit for estimating urinary oxalate is an enzymatic procedure. However, some errors were encountered using the standard assay system of the kit. Firstly, an overestimate of oxalate may arise from the oxidation of ascorbate during the alkaline wash stage of the extraction of oxalate from urine. Secondly, an underestimate of oxalate may occur because of incomplete extraction of oxalate. A modified assay system for measurement of urinary oxalate using the kit is reported. The following points were modified: urine was diluted two-fold with 0.2 M EDTA and and 0.2 M citrate buffer (pH 3.0), oxalate from urine was extracted with 0.06 N sodium hydroxide to prevent the overestimation by the oxidation of ascorbate, and a plate mixer and addition of a small magnet to the vial were used in the steps of both absorption and extraction of oxalate to keep the accuracy of the estimation. The linearity of standard curve, reproducibility and recovery rates of the modified method were studied, and good results were obtained (linearity; r = 0.999, CV of reproducibility; 5.3%, recovery rate; 101% (300 microM) and 103% (600 microM). A good correlation was seen between the modified Sigma method and high performance liquid chromatography (r = 0.991). PMID:3376811

  13. Intracrystalline urinary proteins facilitate degradation and dissolution of calcium oxalate crystals in cultured renal cells.

    PubMed

    Grover, Phulwinder K; Thurgood, Lauren A; Fleming, David E; van Bronswijk, Wilhelm; Wang, Tingting; Ryall, Rosemary L

    2008-02-01

    We have previously proposed that intracrystalline proteins would increase intracellular proteolytic disruption and dissolution of calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals. Chauvet MC, Ryall RL. J Struct Biol 151: 12-17, 2005; Fleming DE, van Riessen A, Chauvet MC, Grover PK, Hunter B, van Bronswijk W, Ryall RL. J Bone Miner Res 18: 1282-1291, 2003; Ryall RL, Fleming DE, Doyle IR, Evans NA, Dean CJ, Marshall VR. J Struct Biol 134: 5-14, 2001. The aim of this investigation was to determine the effect of increasing concentrations of intracrystalline protein on the rate of CaOx crystal dissolution in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCKII) cells. Crystal matrix extract (CME) was isolated from urinary CaOx monohydrate (COM) crystals. Cold and [14C]oxalate-labeled COM crystals were precipitated from ultrafiltered urine containing 0-5 mg/l CME. Crystal surface area was estimated from scanning electron micrographs, and synchrotron X-ray diffraction was used to determine nonuniform strain and crystallite size. Radiolabeled crystals were added to MDCKII cells and crystal dissolution, expressed as radioactive label released into the medium, was measured. Increasing CME content did not significantly alter crystal surface area. However, nonuniform strain increased and crystallite size decreased in a dose-response manner, both reaching saturation at a CME concentration of 3 mg/ and demonstrating unequivocally the inclusion of increasing quantities of proteins in the crystals. This was confirmed by Western blotting. Crystal dissolution also followed saturation kinetics, increasing proportionally with final CME concentration and reaching a plateau at a concentration of approximately 2 mg/l. These findings were complemented by field emission scanning electron microscopy, which showed that crystal degradation also increased relative to CME concentration. Intracrystalline proteins enhance degradation and dissolution of CaOx crystals and thus may constitute a natural defense against urolithiasis. The findings have significant ramifications in biomineral metabolism and pathogenesis of renal stones. PMID:18077596

  14. The growth morphology of calcium oxalate trihydrate. A contribution to urinary stone research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heijnen, Wim M. M.

    1982-04-01

    A PBC analysis of the calcium oxalate trihydrate (COT) structure results in PBCs in 15 different directions, which can be combined to 17 theoretical F forms. When the differences in bond strength are taken into account, the crystal form {010} appears to be dominant. This is in good agreement with the platy habit of most synthetic crystals. EHDP, an inhibitor for calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) growth, stabilizes COT at the expense of COM, both at 12 and 37C; additionally, its presence produces a change in COT morphology: {001} becomes the most important form in contrast with the normally dominant {010}. The first occurrence of COT in a urinary stone is recorded.

  15. Factors contributing to the variation in feline urinary oxalate excretion rate.

    PubMed

    Dijcker, J C; Hagen-Plantinga, E A; Everts, H; Queau, Y; Biourge, V; Hendriks, W H

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to identify factors (season, animal, and diet) contributing to the variation in urinary oxalate (Uox) excretion rate, Uox concentration, and urine volume in healthy adult cats. A data set (1,940 observations) containing information on Uox excretion rate of 65 cats fed 252 diets (i.e., each diet was fed to a group of 6 to 8 cats), with known dietary oxalate concentrations, collected over a 6 yr period at a feline nutrition facility, were retrospectively analyzed. Data related to season, animal (i.e., age, gender, body weight, and breed), and diet (i.e., nutrient content) characteristics were subjected to stepwise multivariate regression analysis to identify factors significantly correlated to Uox excretion rate (?mol/(kg BW(0.67)d)) and concentration (mmol/L) as well as urine volume (mL/(kg BW(0.67)d)). Independent factors significantly (P < 0.05) associated with lower Uox concentration (mmol/L) included greater ash, Ca, and Na intake and lower nitrogen-free extract, total dietary fiber, P, and oxalate intake, and a body weight <5 kg. Factors significantly associated with lower Uox excretion rate (?mol/(kg BW(0.67)d)) included greater crude fat and Ca intake and lower CP, total dietary fiber, P, and oxalate intake. However, a considerable part of the variation in Uox excretion rate remained unexplained. The majority of the unexplained variation in Uox excretion rate is likely to be related to factors involved in endogenous oxalate synthesis, as the majority of the dietary factors involved in intestinal oxalate absorption were included in the model. Apparent intestinal oxalate absorption was estimated to be 6.2% on average; however, much variation was present. Future research on Uox excretion rate in cats should focus on the influence of dietary protein sources, amino acid composition, vitamin C (that was not included in the present study), and variations in apparent intestinal oxalate absorption. PMID:24496844

  16. Elemental Content of Calcium Oxalate Stones from a Canine Model of Urinary Stone Disease

    PubMed Central

    Killilea, David W.; Westropp, Jodi L.; Shiraki, Ryoji; Mellema, Matthew; Larsen, Jennifer; Kahn, Arnold J.; Kapahi, Pankaj; Chi, Thomas; Stoller, Marshall L.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most common types of urinary stones formed in humans and some other mammals is composed of calcium oxalate in ordered hydrated crystals. Many studies have reported a range of metals other than calcium in human stones, but few have looked at stones from animal models such as the dog. Therefore, we determined the elemental profile of canine calcium oxalate urinary stones and compared it to reported values from human stones. The content of 19 elements spanning 7-orders of magnitude was quantified in calcium oxalate stones from 53 dogs. The elemental profile of the canine stones was highly overlapping with human stones, indicating similar inorganic composition. Correlation and cluster analysis was then performed on the elemental profile from canine stones to evaluate associations between the elements and test for potential subgrouping based on elemental content. No correlations were observed with the most abundant metal calcium. However, magnesium and sulfur content correlated with the mineral hydration form, while phosphorous and zinc content correlated with the neuter status of the dog. Inter-elemental correlation analysis indicated strong associations between barium, phosphorous, and zinc content. Additionally, cluster analysis revealed subgroups within the stones that were also based primarily on barium, phosphorous, and zinc. These data support the use of the dog as a model to study the effects of trace metal homeostasis in urinary stone disease. PMID:26066810

  17. Acute probiotic ingestion reduces gastrointestinal oxalate absorption in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Al-Wahsh, Ismail; Wu, Yan; Liebman, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Both a high dietary oxalate intake and increased intestinal absorption appear to be major causes of elevated urine oxalate, a risk factor for kidney stone formation. A number of recent studies have assessed whether daily ingestion of a probiotic containing oxalate-degrading bacteria could lead to sufficient gut colonization to increase oxalate degradation, thereby reducing urinary oxalate. In contrast, the present study assessed whether simultaneous ingestion of oxalate-degrading probiotic bacteria with a 176 mg oxalate load could lead to decreased urinary oxalate in a population of 11 healthy non-stone formers (8 females, 3 males), aged 21-45 years. The results indicated that both the single and double doses of VSL#3(®) probiotic solutions were effective in reducing urinary oxalate and estimated oxalate absorption with no significant difference between the two probiotic doses. The timing of the reduction in urinary oxalate suggested a small intestinal and possibly gastric reduction in oxalate absorption. Similar to what had been reported for chronic or daily probiotic ingestion, individuals characterized by high oxalate absorption were most likely to experience clinically significant reductions in urinary oxalate in response to acute probiotic ingestion. PMID:21874572

  18. Acute probiotic ingestion reduces gastrointestinal oxalate absorption in healthy subjects.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Al-Wahsh I; Wu Y; Liebman M

    2012-06-01

    Both a high dietary oxalate intake and increased intestinal absorption appear to be major causes of elevated urine oxalate, a risk factor for kidney stone formation. A number of recent studies have assessed whether daily ingestion of a probiotic containing oxalate-degrading bacteria could lead to sufficient gut colonization to increase oxalate degradation, thereby reducing urinary oxalate. In contrast, the present study assessed whether simultaneous ingestion of oxalate-degrading probiotic bacteria with a 176 mg oxalate load could lead to decreased urinary oxalate in a population of 11 healthy non-stone formers (8 females, 3 males), aged 21-45 years. The results indicated that both the single and double doses of VSL#3(®) probiotic solutions were effective in reducing urinary oxalate and estimated oxalate absorption with no significant difference between the two probiotic doses. The timing of the reduction in urinary oxalate suggested a small intestinal and possibly gastric reduction in oxalate absorption. Similar to what had been reported for chronic or daily probiotic ingestion, individuals characterized by high oxalate absorption were most likely to experience clinically significant reductions in urinary oxalate in response to acute probiotic ingestion.

  19. Fasting Urinary Calcium-to-Creatinine and Oxalate-to-Creatinine Ratios in Dogs with Calcium Oxalate Urolithiasis and Breed-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Furrow, E.; Patterson, E.E.; Armstrong, P.J.; Osborne, C.A.; Lulich, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypercalciuria and hyperoxaluria are risk factors for calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolithiasis, but breed-specific reports of urinary metabolites and their relationship with stone status are lacking. Objective To compare urinary metabolites (calcium and oxalate) and blood ionized calcium (iCa) concentrations between CaOx stone formers and breed-matched stone-free controls for the Miniature Schnauzer, Bichon Frise, and Shih Tzu breeds. Animals Forty-seven Miniature Schnauzers (23 cases and 24 controls), 27 Bichons Frise (14 cases and 13 controls), and 15 Shih Tzus (7 cases and 8 controls). Methods Prospective study. Fasting spot urinary calcium-to-creatinine and oxalate-to-creatinine ratios (UCa/Cr and UOx/Cr, respectively) and blood iCa concentrations were measured and compared between cases and controls within and across breeds. Regression models were used to test the effect of patient and environmental factors on these variables. Results UCa/Cr was higher in cases than controls for each of the 3 breeds. In addition to stone status, being on a therapeutic food designed to prevent CaOx stone recurrence was associated with higher UCa/Cr. UOx/Cr did not differ between cases and controls for any of the breeds. Blood iCa was higher in cases than controls in the Miniature Schnauzer and Bichon Frise breeds and had a moderate correlation with UCa/Cr. Conclusions and Clinical Importance Hypercalciuria is associated with CaOx stone status in the Miniature Schnauzer, Bichon Frise, and Shih Tzu breeds. UOx/Cr did not correlate with stone status in these 3 breeds. These findings may influence breed-specific stone prevention recommendations. PMID:25581880

  20. Separate effects of urinary chondroitin sulphate and heparan sulphate on the crystallization of urinary calcium oxalate: differences between stone formers and normal control subjects.

    PubMed

    Shum, D K; Gohel, M D

    1993-07-01

    1. Urinary glycosaminoglycans were recovered from the papain digest of polyanions precipitated sequentially by cetylpyridinium chloride and sodium acetate-saturated ethanol. Those from the early morning urine of 48 stone formers and 43 normal control subjects measured 11 and 16 micrograms of uronic acid/ml of urine, respectively. 2. Preparative agarose gel electrophoresis of the recovered glycosaminoglycans in barium acetate buffer (pH 5.8) yielded fractions containing purely chondroitin sulphate, co-polymeric chondroitin/dermatan sulphates and heparan sulphate. Identification was based on the susceptibility of the fractions to chondroitinase or nitrous acid treatment. Similar compositions of glycosaminoglycan classes were observed in samples from stone formers and normal control subjects. 3. The fractionated glycosaminoglycans were dissolved in urine ultrafiltrate to assay for nucleation-promoting and growth-inhibiting activities towards crystallization of urinary calcium oxalate. When compared at the same uronic acid concentration, both the urinary chondroitin sulphate isomers and heparan sulphates of stone formers demonstrated the capacity to enhance crystal nucleation from calcium oxalate endogenous in urine ultrafiltrates, whereas only urinary heparan sulphates of normal control subjects demonstrated this capacity. 4. Tissue-derived reference chondroitin sulphate, dermatan sulphate and heparin, when similarly tested, showed negligible crystal nucleation-promoting activity. The tissue-derived heparan sulphate was similar to the urinary heparan sulphates in showing marked crystal nucleation-promoting activity. 5. Crystal-growth inhibitory activity was evident in all urinary glycosaminoglycan fractions studied. In particular, urinary heparan sulphate of normal control subjects showed higher activity than that of stone formers or the chondroitin sulphate isomers of both stone formers and normal control subjects (P < 0.005). PMID:8149691

  1. Intracrystalline Proteins Promote Dissolution of Urinary Calcium Oxalate Crystals in Cultured Renal Epithelial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grover, Phulwinder K.; Thurgood, Lauren A.; Fleming, David E.; van Bronswijk, Wilhelm; Ryall, Rosemary L.

    2007-04-01

    We have proposed that internalized calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals containing intracrystalline proteins would be vulnerable to intracellular dissolution. The aims of this study were (1) to measure non-uniform strain and crystallite size in CaOx monohydrate (COM) crystals containing increasing amounts of intracrystalline crystal matrix extract (CME) and (2) to compare the rates of crystal dissolution in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCKII) cells. CME was isolated by demineralization of COM crystals generated from human urine. Cold and 14C-oxalate-labelled COM crystals were precipitated from ultrafiltered urine containing CME at final concentrations of 0-5mg/L. Non-uniform strain and crystallite size were determined using synchrotron X-ray diffraction with Rietveld whole-pattern peak fitting and profile analysis, and the protein content of the crystals was analyzed using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting for prothrombin fragment 1. Radiolabeled crystals were added to MDCKII cells and dissolution was expressed as radioactive label released into the medium relative to that in the crystals at zero time. Non-uniform strain increased and crystallite size decreased proportionally with rising CME concentration, reaching saturation between approximately 1 and 5 mg/L, and demonstrating unequivocally the inclusion of increasing quantities of proteins in the crystals. This was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Crystal dissolution also followed saturation kinetics. These findings were confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), which showed that the degree of crystal degradation increased relative to CME concentration. We conclude that intracrystalline proteins enhance intracellular dissolution of CaOx crystals and thus may provide a natural defense against stone pathogenesis.

  2. Isolated Medicago truncatula mutants with increased calcium oxalate crystal accumulation have decreased ascorbic acid levels.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Paul A; McConn, Michele

    2007-01-01

    The mechanisms controlling oxalate biosynthesis and calcium oxalate formation in plants remain largely unknown. As an initial step toward gaining insight into these regulatory mechanisms we initiated a mutant screen to identify plants that over-accumulate crystals of calcium oxalate. Four new mutants were identified, from an ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-mutagenized Medicago truncatula (cv. Jemalong genotype A17) population, that over-accumulated calcium oxalate crystals. The increased calcium oxalate content of these new mutants, as with the previously isolated mutant cod4, resulted from an increase in druse crystals accumulated within the mesophyll cells of leaves. Complementation and segregation analysis revealed that each mutant was affected at a different locus. This was confirmed through the genetic mapping of each mutation to different linkage groups. Together, these findings emphasize the complexity of factors that can contribute to oxalate biosynthesis and crystal formation in these plants. In addition, each mutant showed a common decrease in ascorbic acid content providing genetic support for ascorbic acid as a precursor in the oxalate biosynthetic pathway for druse crystal formation. Further support was obtained by the ability of an exogenous supply of ascorbate to induce druse crystal formation while other tested organic acids did not induce crystal production. PMID:17400466

  3. In vivo oxalate degradation by liposome encapsulated oxalate oxidase in rat model of hyperoxaluria

    PubMed Central

    Dahiya, Tulika; Pundir, C.S.

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: High level of urinary oxalate substantially increases the risk of hyperoxaluria, a significant risk factor for urolithiasis. The primary goal of this study was to reduce urinary oxalate excretion employing liposome encapsulated oxalate oxidase in animal model. Methods: A membrane bound oxalate oxidase was purified from Bougainvillea leaves. The enzyme in its native form was less effective at the physiological pH of the recipient animal. To increase its functional viability, the enzyme was immobilized on to ethylene maleic anhydride (EMA). Rats were injected with liposome encapsulated EMA- oxalate oxidase and the effect was observed on degradation of oxalic acid. Results: The enzyme was purified to apparent homogeneity with 60-fold purification and 31 per cent yield. The optimum pH of EMA-derivative enzyme was 6.0 and it showed 70 per cent of its optimal activity at pH 7.0. The EMA-bound enzyme encapsulated into liposome showed greater oxalate degradation in 15 per cent casein vitamin B6 deficient fed rats as compared with 30 per cent casein vitamin B6 deficient fed rats and control rats. Interpretation & conclusions: EMA-oxalate oxidase encapsulated liposome caused oxalate degradation in experimental hyperoxaluria indicating that the enzyme could be used as a therapeutic agent in hyperoxaluria leading to urinary stones. PMID:23481063

  4. Nanouric acid or nanocalcium phosphate as central nidus to induce calcium oxalate stone formation: a high-resolution transmission electron microscopy study on urinary nanocrystallites

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jie; Xue, Jun-Fa; Xu, Meng; Gui, Bao-Song; Wang, Feng-Xin; Ouyang, Jian-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to accurately analyze the relationship between calcium oxalate (CaOx) stone formation and the components of urinary nanocrystallites. Method High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction, fast Fourier transformation of HRTEM, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were performed to analyze the components of these nanocrystallites. Results The main components of CaOx stones are calcium oxalate monohydrate and a small amount of dehydrate, while those of urinary nanocrystallites are calcium oxalate monohydrate, uric acid, and calcium phosphate. The mechanism of formation of CaOx stones was discussed based on the components of urinary nanocrystallites. Conclusion The formation of CaOx stones is closely related both to the properties of urinary nanocrystallites and to the urinary components. The combination of HRTEM, fast Fourier transformation, selected area electron diffraction, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy could be accurately performed to analyze the components of single urinary nanocrystallites. This result provides evidence for nanouric acid and/or nanocalcium phosphate crystallites as the central nidus to induce CaOx stone formation. PMID:25258530

  5. Selective inclusion of proteins into urinary calcium oxalate crystals: comparison between stone-prone and stone-free population groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webber, D.; Rodgers, A. L.; Sturrock, E. D.

    2003-11-01

    This study investigated whether incorporation of proteins into calcium oxalate urinary crystals is different in the black and white populations in South Africa and whether such differences could provide insight into the former group's remarkably low stone incidence. CaOx monohydrate (COM) and dihydrate (COD) crystals were precipitated from each group's urine after adjustment of the calcium concentrations to 0.5 and 12 mmol/l, respectively. Crystals were characterised by X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Intracrystalline proteins were analysed by SDS-PAGE and immunodetected for urinary prothrombin fragment 1 (UPTF1) and osteopontin. Crystals precipitated from the black and white groups' control urines comprised mainly COM and COD, respectively. In both race groups UPTF1 was the major protein included in pure COM crystals while in pure COD it was osteopontin, but in the black group osteopontin was also included in COM. The black group's urine crystals incorporated significantly more intracrystalline protein. Selective inclusion of UPTF1 and osteopontin may be due to the unique crystal structure of COM and COD and the proteins' conformation at the different calcium concentrations at which these hydrates precipitate. The greater amount of intracrystalline inhibitory protein in the black group may be a factor in their low stone incidence.

  6. [Studies on the crystallization tendency of calcium oxalate in urine--a study of experimental and computer-assisted determination of the risk of urinary calculi formation].

    PubMed

    Berg, W; Bothor, C; Geyer, H

    1990-07-01

    In this study a method o the semiquantitative determination of the crystallization tendency for calcium oxalate in urine is described. It is based on the addition of a well-defined amount of ammonium oxalate (31.3 nmol) to a urine sample (30 ml). The so caused clouding of the urine is measured by a photometer 20 min later. The method guarantees an acceptable reproducibility and is simple to be performed in each clinical laboratory. The results of mathematical correlation and discriminant analysis show that the calcium concentration influences the crystallization of calcium oxalate as most of all urinary constituents. Furthermore, evidence of a high specificity of the method is given by a reclassification rate of about 80% in the discriminant analytical computation. PMID:2238876

  7. The Interaction between Enterobacteriaceae and Calcium Oxalate Deposits

    PubMed Central

    Barr-Beare, Evan; Saxena, Vijay; Hilt, Evann E.; Thomas-White, Krystal; Schober, Megan; Li, Birong; Becknell, Brian; Hains, David S.; Wolfe, Alan J.; Schwaderer, Andrew L.

    2015-01-01

    Background The role of calcium oxalate crystals and deposits in UTI pathogenesis has not been established. The objectives of this study were to identify bacteria present in pediatric urolithiasis and, using in vitro and in vivo models, to determine the relevance of calcium oxalate deposits during experimental pyelonephritis. Methods Pediatric kidney stones and urine were collected and both cultured and sequenced for bacteria. Bacterial adhesion to calcium oxalate was compared. Murine kidney calcium oxalate deposits were induced by intraperitoneal glyoxalate injection and kidneys were transurethrally inoculated with uropathogenic Escherichia coli to induce pyelonephritis Results E. coli of the family Enterobacteriaceae was identified in patients by calcium oxalate stone culture. Additionally Enterobacteriaceae DNA was sequenced from multiple calcium oxalate kidney stones. E. coli selectively aggregated on and around calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals. Mice inoculated with glyoxalate and uropathogenic E. coli had higher bacterial burdens, increased kidney calcium oxalate deposits and an increased kidney innate immune response compared to mice with only calcium oxalate deposits or only pyelonephritis. Conclusions In a murine model, the presence of calcium oxalate deposits increases pyelonephritis risk, likely due to preferential aggregation of bacteria on and around calcium oxalate crystals. When both calcium oxalate deposits and uropathogenic bacteria were present, calcium oxalate deposit number increased along with renal gene transcription of inner stone core matrix proteins increased. Therefore renal calcium oxalate deposits may be a modifiable risk factor for infections of the kidney and urinary tract. Furthermore, bacteria may be present in calcium oxalate deposits and potentially contribute to calcium oxalate renal disease. PMID:26448465

  8. A ferrous oxalate mediated photo-Fenton system: toward an increased biodegradability of indigo dyed wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Vedrenne, Michel; Vasquez-Medrano, Ruben; Prato-Garcia, Dorian; Frontana-Uribe, Bernardo A; Hernandez-Esparza, Margarita; de Andrés, Juan Manuel

    2012-12-01

    This study assessed the applicability of a ferrous oxalate mediated photo-Fenton pretreatment for indigo-dyed wastewaters as to produce a biodegradable enough effluent, likely of being derived to conventional biological processes. The photochemical treatment was performed with ferrous oxalate and hydrogen peroxide in a Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) under batch operation conditions. The reaction was studied at natural pH conditions (5-6) with indigo concentrations in the range of 6.67-33.33 mg L(-1), using a fixed oxalate-to-iron mass ratio (C(2)O(4)(2-)/Fe(2+)=35) and assessing the system's biodegradability at low (257 mg L(-1)) and high (1280 mg L(-1)) H(2)O(2) concentrations. In order to seek the optimal conditions for the treatment of indigo dyed wastewaters, an experimental design consisting in a statistical surface response approach was carried out. This analysis revealed that the best removal efficiencies for Total Organic Carbon (TOC) were obtained for low peroxide doses. In general it was observed that after 20 kJ L(-1), almost every treated effluent increased its biodegradability from a BOD(5)/COD value of 0.4. This increase in the biodegradability was confirmed by the presence of short chain carboxylic acids as intermediate products and by the mineralization of organic nitrogen into nitrate. Finally, an overall decrease in the LC(50) for Artemia salina indicated a successful detoxification of the effluent. PMID:23142056

  9. Acute oxalate nephropathy due to pancreatic atrophy in newly diagnosed pancreatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Moinuddin, Irfan; Bala, Asif; Ali, Butool; Khan, Husna; Bracamonte, Erika; Sussman, Amy

    2016-02-01

    Acute oxalate nephropathy can occur due to primary hyperoxaluria and secondary hyperoxaluria. The primary hyperoxalurias are a group of autosomal recessive disorders of endogenous oxalate overproduction. Secondary hyperoxaluria may occur as a result of excess dietary intake, poisoning with oxalate precursors (ethylene glycol), or enteric hyperoxaluria. The differential diagnosis of enteric hyperoxaluria includes inflammatory bowel disease, short bowel syndrome, bariatric surgery (with jejunoileal bypass or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass), celiac disease, partial colectomy, and chronic pancreatitis. The common etiology in all these processes is fat malabsorption, steatorrhea, saponification of calcium, and absorption of free oxalate. Hyperoxaluria causes increased urinary oxalate excretion, urolithiasis (promoted by hypovolemia, decreased urinary pH caused by metabolic acidosis, and decreased citrate and magnesium concentrations in urine), tubulointerstitial oxalate deposits, and tubulointerstitial nephritis. We report a rare case of acute oxalate nephropathy due to pancreatic atrophy and exocrine insufficiency caused by newly diagnosed pancreatic cancer. PMID:26614399

  10. ISOLATED MEDICAGO TRUNCATULA MUTANTS WITH INCREASED CALCIUM OXALATE CRYSTAL ACCUMULATION HAVE DECREASED ASCORBIC ACID LEVELS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mechanisms controlling oxalate biosynthesis and calcium oxalate formation in plants remains largely unknown. As an initial step toward gaining insight into these regulatory mechanisms we initiated a mutant screen to identify plants that over-accumulate crystals of calcium oxalate. Four new mut...

  11. Therapeutic effect of Xue Niao An on glyoxylate-induced calcium oxalate crystal deposition based on urinary metabonomics approach

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Zhongjiang; Chen, Wei; Gao, Songyan; Su, Li; Li, Na; Wang, Li; Lou, Ziyang; Dong, Xin; Guo, Zhiyong

    2014-01-01

    The anti-nephrolithiasis effect of Xue Niao An (XNA) capsules is explored by analyzing urine metabolic profiles in mouse models, with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS). An animal model of calcium oxalate crystal renal deposition was established in mice by intra-abdominal injection of glyoxylate. Then, treatment with XNA by intra-gastric administration was performed. At the end of the study, calcium deposition in kidney was measured by Von Kossa staining under light microscopy, and the Von Kossa staining changes showed that XNA significantly alleviated the calcium oxalate crystal deposition. Meanwhile, urine samples for fifteen metabolites, including amino acids and fatty acids, with significant differences were detected in the calcium oxalate group, while XNA treatment attenuated metabolic imbalances. Our study indicated that the metabonomic strategy provided comprehensive insight on the metabolic response to XNA treatment of rodent renal calcium oxalate deposition. PMID:25411524

  12. Environmental factors of urinary stones mineralogy, Khouzestan Province, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarasvandi, Alireza; Carranza, E. J. M.; Heidari, Majid; Mousapour, Esmaeil

    2014-09-01

    Urinary stone diseases in the Khouzestan province (southwest Iran) are growing in number and it required extensive studies on various factors of the urinary stones formation in this province. In this research, in addition to distribution of urinary stones in different areas of province, the role of bioenvironmental (race), climate (temperature) and geology (water hardness) factors in urinary stones diversity has been studied. Mineralogical studied using X-ray diffraction showed that uricite and whewellite are the most frequency mineral phases. Struvite, Cystine, hydroxyapatite, weddellite, and Niahite can be observed as urinary stones, too. These data show that the urinary stone in the Khouzestan province can divide into 7 groups: calcium oxalate, phosphate, calcium oxalate/ phosphate, Urate, Urate/calcium, Urate/calcium oxalate/phosphate, Cystine/calcium oxalate. Also the results which attained from temperature effect investigation on the mineralogy of urinary stones, confirms that from Mediterranean sub-humid climates (northeastern area) to warm and dry climates (south and southwest area), calcium oxalate stones and urate stones concentration decreases and increases respectively. Comparison of data related to the drinking water hardness and mineralogy of urinary stones in different areas of Khouzestan province show that the combination of drinking water (especially water hardness) affects mineralogy of urinary stones in some areas (such az Ramhormoz and Hendijan). Finally, the data suggest that frequency of calcium oxalate in women is more than that of men. Moreover, there is direct relationship between the age (>45 years) and the increase in frequency of Urate minerals.

  13. Determination of Oxalate Content in Herbal Remedies and Dietary Supplements Based on Plant Extracts.

    PubMed

    Siener, Roswitha; López-Mesas, Montserrat; Valiente, Manuel; Blanco, Francisco

    2016-02-01

    Lifestyle, especially diet, is a prominent risk factor that affects the formation of calcium oxalate stones. Urinary oxalate excretion is directly related to the amount of oral intake and intestinal absorption rate of oxalate. This work evaluated the possibility of increasing oxalate ingestion, which could lead to secondary hyperoxaluria, associated with the intake of herbal remedies and dietary supplements containing plant extracts. A wide variety of 17 commercially available drugs and dietary supplements were analyzed using ion chromatography. The results showed remarkable differences in oxalate contents of the extracts. Total oxalate concentrations ranged from 0.03 to 2.2 mg/g in solid samples and from 0.005 to 0.073 mg/mL in liquid samples. The selected herbal remedies and dietary supplements containing plant extracts represent only a low risk for calcium oxalate stone formers, if the recommended daily dose is not exceeded. PMID:26670692

  14. Urinary excretion of calcium, magnesium, phosphate, citrate, oxalate, and uric acid by healthy schoolchildren using a 12-h collection protocol.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Bernd

    2014-11-01

    Although we do not have reliable data for the true prevalence of urolithiasis during childhood, the number of patients seen in outpatient clinics and admitted for stone-related problems is steadily increasing worldwide. As for most pediatric patients a metabolic disease is the reason for stone development, because a high number of patients have severely recurrent urolithiasis, early and proper diagnostic evaluation is necessary to begin adequate and preventive treatment. However, diagnostic evaluation, especially in infants and younger children, is not always easy, and frequently a diagnosis is made late. Diagnostic evaluation should start with repeated urine analysis; but how and which urine should be collected and analyzed? What is the best and most accurate method for urine collection? In a paper published in a recent issue of Pediatric Nephrology, Torres and colleagues describe a more simplified method of urine collection. They propose analysis of late-afternoon spot-urine samples as well as an overnight collection of urine as the most appropriate to evaluate patient-specific urinary risk factors. Is this truly the case? PMID:25173356

  15. Effects of pyruvate salts, pyruvic acid, and bicarbonate salts in preventing experimental oxalate urolithiasis in rats.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Y; Yamaguchi, K; Tanaka, T; Morozumi, M

    1986-05-01

    Sodium pyruvate, potassium pyruvate, pyruvic acid, sodium bicarbonate and potassium bicarbonate were added to a calcium-oxalate lithogenic diet (a glycolic-acid diet) in order to determine their effects in preventing lithogenicity. Male Wistar-strain rats who had been fed the glycolic-acid diet developed marked urinary calculi within four weeks. Rats in the sodium and potassium pyruvate groups had, however, almost no stones in the urinary system. Rats in the bicarbonate and pyruvic-acid groups showed slightly less effect than those in the pyruvate groups. Urinary oxalate excretion was high in all the groups during the experiment. The urinary oxalate concentration was relatively higher in the sodium-pyruvate group, and significantly higher in the potassium-pyruvate group, than in the glycolic-acid group. Urinary citrate excretion was high both in the pyruvate and bicarbonate groups; the urinary citrate concentration was, however, significantly higher in the pyruvate groups than in the bicarbonate groups at the fourth experimental week. The urinary calcium and magnesium concentrations were irrelevant to the diets administered. Therefore, it can be concluded that pyruvate salts inhibit urinary calculi formation, not by decreasing oxalate synthesis, but by increasing the urinary citrate concentration; bicarbonate salts work in the same manner, but a little less effectively. PMID:3007782

  16. A GENETIC MUTATION THAT REDUCES CALCIUM OXALATE CONTENT INCREASES CALCIUM AVAILABILITY IN MEDICAGO TRUNCATULA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxalate is considered an antinutrient that renders calcium unavailable for nutritional absorption by humans. Efforts have been made to generate and identify edible plants with decreased levels of this antinutrient. The extent to which a food can be nutritionally improved through genetic alterations ...

  17. A GENETIC MUTATION THAT REDUCES CALCIUM OXALATE CONTENT INCREASES CALCIUM AVAILABILITY IN MEDICAGO TRUNCATULA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxalate is considered an antinutrient that renders calcium unavailable for nutritional absorption by humans. Efforts have been made to generate and identify edible plants with decreased levels of this antinutrient. The extent to which a food can be nutritionally improved through genetic alteration...

  18. Medicago truncatula mutants with an increase in mesophyll calcium oxalate accumulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants invest a considerable amount of resources and energy into the formation of calcium oxalate crystals. A number of roles for crystal formation in plant growth and development have been assigned based on the prevalence of crystals, their spatial distribution, and the variety of crystal shapes. ...

  19. Effect of Tribulus terrestris on oxalate metabolism in rats.

    PubMed

    Sangeeta, D; Sidhu, H; Thind, S K; Nath, R

    1994-10-01

    This study concerns the effect of an aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris on the metabolism of oxalate in male rats fed sodium glycolate. Glycolate feeding resulted in hyperoxaluria as well as increased activities of oxalate synthesizing enzymes of the liver i.e. glycolate oxidase (GAO), glycolate dehydrogenase (GAD) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and decreased kidney LDH activity. T. terrestris administration to sodium glycolate fed rats produced a significant decrease in urinary oxalate excretion, and a significant increase in urinary glyoxylate excretion, as compared to sodium glycolate fed animals. The supplementation of T. terrestris with sodium glycolate also caused a reduction in liver GAO and GAD activities, whereas liver LDH activity remained unaltered. The isoenzyme pattern of kidney LDH revealed that normalization of kidney LDH by T. terrestris feeding was mainly due to an increase in the LDH 5 fraction. The LDH 1 isoenzyme remained unchanged in all the groups. PMID:7853865

  20. Calcium oxalate crystallization index (COCI): an alternative method for distinguishing nephrolithiasis patients from healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bowei; Dissayabutra, Thasinas; Ungjaroenwathana, Wattanachai; Tosukhowong, Piyaratana; Srisa-Art, Monpichar; Supaprom, Thavorn; Insin, Numpon; Boonla, Chanchai

    2014-01-01

    Urinary supersaturation triggers lithogenic crystal formation. We developed an alternative test, designated calcium oxalate crystallization index (COCI), to distinguish nephrolithiasis patients from healthy individuals based on their urinary crystallization capability. The effect of urine volume, oxalate, phosphate, citrate, potassium, and sodium on COCI values was investigated. COCI values were determined in 24-hr urine obtained from nephrolithiasis patients (n=72) and matched healthy controls (n=71). Increases in urine oxalate and phosphate and decreases in urine volume and citrate resulted in significantly increased COCI values. The urinary COCI in nephrolithiasis patients was significantly higher than that in healthy individuals. Two healthy subjects who had elevated COCI values were found to have asymptomatic kidney calculi. The receiver operating characteristic analysis showed an area under the curve of the urinary COCI test of 0.9499 (95%CI: 0.9131-0.9868) for distinguishing between nephrolithiasis and healthy subjects. At the cutoff of 165 mg oxalate equivalence/day, the urinary COCI test provided sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy amounts of 83.33%, 97.18%, and 90.21%, respectively. Urinary COCI values were primarily dependent on urine volume, oxalate, and phosphate. The test provided high sensitivity and specificity for clinically discriminating nephrolithiasis patients from healthy controls. It might be used to detect individuals with asymptomatic kidney calculi. PMID:25117095

  1. Urinary Phthalates and Increased Insulin Resistance in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Spanier, Adam J.; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Attina, Teresa M.; Blustein, Jan

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Di-2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) is an environmental chemical commonly found in processed foods. Phthalate exposures, in particular to DEHP, have been associated with insulin resistance in adults, but have not been studied in adolescents. METHODS: Using cross-sectional data from 766 fasting 12- to 19-year-olds in the 20032008 NHANES, we examined associations of phthalate metabolites with continuous and categorical measures of homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). RESULTS: Controlling for demographic and behavioral factors, diet, continuous age, BMI category, and urinary creatinine, for each log (roughly threefold) increase in DEHP metabolites, a 0.27 increase (95% confidence interval 0.140.40; P < .001) in HOMA-IR was identified. Compared with the first tertile of DEHP metabolite in the study population (14.5% insulin resistant), the third tertile had 21.6% prevalence (95% confidence interval 17.2%26.0%; P = .02). Associations persisted despite controlling for bisphenol A, another endocrine-disrupting chemical commonly found in foods, and HOMA-IR and insulin resistance were not significantly associated with metabolites of lower molecular weight phthalates commonly found in cosmetics and other personal care products. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary DEHP concentrations were associated with increased insulin resistance in this cross-sectional study of adolescents. This study cannot rule out the possibility that insulin-resistant children ingest food with higher phthalate content, or that insulin-resistant children excrete more DEHP. PMID:23958772

  2. Oxalate content of cereals and cereal products.

    PubMed

    Siener, Roswitha; Hnow, Ruth; Voss, Susanne; Seidler, Ana; Hesse, Albrecht

    2006-04-19

    Detailed knowledge of food oxalate content is of essential importance for dietary treatment of recurrent calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Dietary oxalate can contribute considerably to the amount of urinary oxalate excretion. Because cereal foods play an important role in daily nutrition, the soluble and total oxalate contents of various types of cereal grains, milling products, bread, pastries, and pasta were analyzed using an HPLC-enzyme-reactor method. A high total oxalate content (>50 mg/100 g) was found in whole grain wheat species Triticum durum (76.6 mg/100 g), Triticum sativum (71.2 mg/100 g), and Triticum aestivum (53.3 mg/100 g). Total oxalate content was comparably high in whole grain products of T. aestivum, that is, wheat flakes and flour, as well as in whole grain products of T. durum, that is, couscous, bulgur, and pasta. The highest oxalate content was demonstrated for wheat bran (457.4 mg/100 g). The higher oxalate content in whole grain than in refined grain cereals suggests that oxalic acid is primarily located in the outer layers of cereal grains. Cereals and cereal products contribute to the daily oxalate intake to a considerable extent. Vegetarian diets may contain high amounts of oxalate when whole grain wheat and wheat products are ingested. Recommendations for prevention of recurrence of calcium oxalate stone disease have to take into account the oxalate content of these foodstuffs. PMID:16608223

  3. Dietary protein-induced increases in urinary calcium are accompanied by similar increases in urinary nitrogen and urinary urea: a controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Bihuniak, Jessica D; Simpson, Christine A; Sullivan, Rebecca R; Caseria, Donna M; Kerstetter, Jane E; Insogna, Karl L

    2013-03-01

    To determine the usefulness of urinary urea as an index of dietary protein intake, 10 postmenopausal women were enrolled in and completed a randomized, double-blind, cross-over feeding trial from September 2008 to May 2010 that compared 10 days of a 45-g whey supplement with 10 days of a 45-g maltodextrin control. Urinary nitrogen, urinary calcium, urinary urea, and bone turnover markers were measured at days 0, 7, and 10. Paired sample t tests, Pearson's correlation statistic, and simple linear regression were used to assess differences between treatments and associations among urinary metabolites. Urinary nitrogen/urinary creatinine rose from 12.3±1.7 g/g (99.6±13.8 mmol/mmol) to 16.8±2.2 g/g (135.5±17.8 mmol/mmol) with whey supplementation, but did not change with maltodextrin. Whey supplementation caused urinary calcium to rise by 4.76±1.84 mg (1.19±0.46 mmol) without a change in bone turnover markers. Because our goal was to estimate protein intake from urinary nitrogen/urinary creatinine, we used our data to develop the following equation: protein intake (g/day)=71.221+1.719×(urinary nitrogen, g)/creatinine, g) (R=0.46, R(2)=0.21). As a more rapid and less costly alternative to urinary nitrogen/urinary creatinine, we next determined whether urinary urea could predict protein intake and found that protein intake (g/day)=63.844+1.11×(urinary urea, g/creatinine, g) (R=0.58, R(2)=0.34). These data indicate that urinary urea/urinary creatinine is at least as good a marker of dietary protein intake as urinary nitrogen and is easier to quantitate in nutrition intervention trials. PMID:23438496

  4. Pre-harvest application of oxalic acid increases quality and resistance to Penicillium expansum in kiwifruit during postharvest storage.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yuyan; Yu, Jie; Brecht, Jeffrey K; Jiang, Tianjia; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2016-01-01

    Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Bruno) fruits were sprayed with 5mM oxalic acid (OA) at 130, 137, and 144 days after full blossom, and then harvested at commercial maturity [soluble solid content (SSC) around 10.0%] and stored at room temperature (20 ± 1 °C). Pre-harvest application of OA led to fruit with higher ascorbic acid content at harvest, slowed the decreases in fruit firmness and ascorbic acid content and increase in SSC during storage, and also decreased the natural disease incidence, lesion diameter, and patulin accumulation in fruit inoculated with Penicillium expansum, indicating that the OA treatment increased quality and induced disease resistance in kiwifruit. It was suggested that the increase in activities of defense-related enzymes and in levels of substances related to disease resistance might collectively contribute to resistance in kiwifruit against fungi such as P. expansum in storage. PMID:26213007

  5. Aluminum Citrate Prevents Renal Injury from Calcium Oxalate Crystal Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Besenhofer, Lauren M.; Cain, Marie C.; Dunning, Cody

    2012-01-01

    Calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals are responsible for the kidney injury associated with exposure to ethylene glycol or severe hyperoxaluria. Current treatment strategies target the formation of calcium oxalate but not its interaction with kidney tissue. Because aluminum citrate blocks calcium oxalate binding and toxicity in human kidney cells, it may provide a different therapeutic approach to calcium oxalate-induced injury. Here, we tested the effects of aluminum citrate and sodium citrate in a Wistar rat model of acute high-dose ethylene glycol exposure. Aluminum citrate, but not sodium citrate, attenuated increases in urea nitrogen, creatinine, and the ratio of kidney to body weight in ethylene glycol–treated rats. Compared with ethylene glycol alone, the addition of aluminum citrate significantly increased the urinary excretion of both crystalline calcium and crystalline oxalate and decreased the deposition of crystals in renal tissue. In vitro, aluminum citrate interacted directly with oxalate crystals to inhibit their uptake by proximal tubule cells. These results suggest that treating with aluminum citrate attenuates renal injury in rats with severe ethylene glycol toxicity, apparently by inhibiting calcium oxalate’s interaction with, and retention by, the kidney epithelium. PMID:23138489

  6. [Oxalobacter formigenes--characteristics and role in development of calcium oxalate urolithiasis].

    PubMed

    Torzewska, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms are one of the important factors for urinary calculi formation. While urease-positive bacteria and nanobacteria contribute to stone formation, Oxalobacter formigenes rods play a protective role against the development of urolithiasis. Proteus mirabilis alkaline environment of the urinary tract and cause crystallization mainly of struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate). However, nanobacteria, due to the possibility of apatite deposition on the surface of their cells, have long been considered as an etiological factor of urinary calculi consisting of calcium phosphates. O. formigenes is an anaerobe using oxalate as the main source of carbon and energy and occurs as natural gastrointestinal microflora of humans and animals. These bacteria control the amount of oxalate excretion degrading oxalates and regulating their transport by intestinal epithelium. Lower colonization of the human colon by O. formigenes can cause increased oxalate excretion and lead to the development of oxalate urolithiasis. Due to the positive influence of O. formigenes, there is ongoing research into the use of this microorganism as a probiotic in the prophylaxis or treatment of hyperoxaluria, both secondary and primary. The results of these studies are very promising, but they still require continuation. Future studies focus on the exact characteristics of O. formigenes including their metabolism and the development of methods for applying as a therapeutic agent the bacteria or their enzymes degrading the oxalate. PMID:24379255

  7. Adsorption characteristics of amino acids on to calcium oxalate.

    PubMed

    He, Junbin; Lin, Rihui; Long, Han; Liang, Yuwei; Chen, Yangyang

    2015-09-15

    Adsorption of amino acids on to calcium oxalate found in urinary calculus has been studied and the adsorption characteristics were analyzed. Pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models were used to fit the kinetics data. The pseudo-second-order model best described the dynamic behavior of the adsorption process. The uptake of glutamic acid and aspartic acid were found to decrease as solution pH increasing from 4 to 8. The experimental data obtained at different pH conditions were analyzed and fitted by Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson, Temkin and Sips isotherm models using linear and nonlinear regression analysis. Error analysis (correlation coefficient, residual root mean square error and chi-square test) showed that the Langmuir I isotherm model and the non-linear form of Sips isotherm model should be primarily adopted for fitting the equilibrium data. The maximum adsorption capacity of glutamic acid and aspartic acid onto calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals are 0.059 and 0.066?mol/g at pH 4, respectively. These studies have the vital significance for research aimed at exploring the role of urinary amino acids effect the formation process of calcium oxalate crystals found in urinary calculus and for potential application in the design of synthetic peptides used for urinary calculi therapy. PMID:26021431

  8. Increased urinary clearance of lysine vasopressin in the deoxycorticosterone acetate-hypertensive pig.

    PubMed

    Ling, W D; Brooks, D P; Crofton, J T; Share, L; Bohr, D F

    1989-12-01

    We have previously reported an increased urinary excretion of vasopressin without a rise in circulating levels of this hormone in the deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-hypertensive pig (DH). The present study was designed to characterize the renal handling of vasopressin in DH that might account for this paradox. DOCA hypertension was produced in seven domestic female pigs by means of subcutaneous implants of Silastic rubber impregnated with DOCA. Thirty days after DOCA implantation, urinary clearances of inulin, para-aminohippurate (PAH), and vasopressin were measured in the conscious animals during infusion of a 5% dextrose solution, first without and then with lysine vasopressin. Subsequent to this study, four of the pigs were placed on a low-sodium (10 meq/kg food) diet for 4 wk. At the end of this period, the clearances were again evaluated. We observed an increased urinary vasopressin clearance (CLVP) in the DH associated with an increased urinary flow but without significant changes in the clearances of inulin or PAH. Dietary sodium restrictions reversed the hypertension and the increased urinary flow and returned the CLVP to normotensive levels. These results indicate that the increased urinary excretion of vasopressin in DH is because of an increased urinary clearance of this hormone. This increased urinary CLVP is the consequence of the high urine flow in these pigs. PMID:2690649

  9. Estimation of the oxalate content of foods and daily oxalate intake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, R. P.; Kennedy, M.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The amount of oxalate ingested may be an important risk factor in the development of idiopathic calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. Reliable food tables listing the oxalate content of foods are currently not available. The aim of this research was to develop an accurate and reliable method to measure the food content of oxalate. METHODS: Capillary electrophoresis (CE) and ion chromatography (IC) were compared as direct techniques for the estimation of the oxalate content of foods. Foods were thoroughly homogenized in acid, heat extracted, and clarified by centrifugation and filtration before dilution in water for analysis. Five individuals consuming self-selected diets maintained food records for three days to determine their mean daily oxalate intakes. RESULTS: Both techniques were capable of adequately measuring the oxalate in foods with a significant oxalate content. With foods of very low oxalate content (<1.8 mg/100 g), IC was more reliable than CE. The mean daily intake of oxalate by the five individuals tested was 152 +/- 83 mg, ranging from 44 to 352 mg/day. CONCLUSIONS: CE appears to be the method of choice over IC for estimating the oxalate content of foods with a medium (>10 mg/100 g) to high oxalate content due to a faster analysis time and lower running costs, whereas IC may be better suited for the analysis of foods with a low oxalate content. Accurate estimates of the oxalate content of foods should permit the role of dietary oxalate in urinary oxalate excretion and stone formation to be clarified. Other factors, apart from the amount of oxalate ingested, appear to exert a major influence over the amount of oxalate excreted in the urine.

  10. The influence of scale inhibitors on calcium oxalate

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, J.S.

    1999-11-01

    Precipitation of calcium oxalate is a common occurrence in mammalian urinary tract deposits and in various industrial processes such as paper making, brewery fermentation, sugar evaporation, and tannin concentration. Between pH 3.5 to 4.5 the driving force for calcium oxalate precipitation increases almost by three fold. It is a complicated process to predict both the nature of a deposit and at which stage of a multi-effect evaporator a particular mineral will deposit, as this depends on temperature, pH, total solids, and kinetics of mineralization. It is quite a challenge to inhibit calcium oxalate precipitation in the pH range of 4--6. Al{sup 3+} ions provide excellent threshold inhibition in this pH range and can be used to augment traditional inhibitors such as polyphosphates and polycarboxylates.

  11. Preharvest application of oxalic acid increased fruit size, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant capacity in sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.).

    PubMed

    Martnez-Espl, Alejandra; Zapata, Pedro Javier; Valero, Daniel; Garca-Viguera, Cristina; Castillo, Salvador; Serrano, Mara

    2014-04-16

    Trees of 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late' sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.) were treated with oxalic acid (OA) at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mM at 98, 112, and 126 days after full blossom. Results showed that all treatments increased fruit size at harvest, manifested by higher fruit volume and weight in cherries from treated trees than from controls, the higher effect being found with 2.0 mM OA (18 and 30% higher weight for 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late', respectively). Other quality parameters, such as color and firmness, were also increased by OA treatments, although no significant differences were found in total soluble solids or total acidity, showing that OA treatments did not affect the on-tree ripening process of sweet cherry. However, the increases in total anthocyanins, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity associated with the ripening process were higher in treated than in control cherries, leading to fruit with high bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential at commercial harvest (?45% more anthocyanins and ?20% more total phenolics). In addition, individual anthocyanins, flavonols, and chlorogenic acid derivatives were also increased by OA treatment. Thus, OA preharvest treatments could be an efficient and natural way to increase the quality and functional properties of sweet cherries. PMID:24684635

  12. Surface aggregation of urinary proteins and aspartic acid-rich peptides on the faces of calcium oxalate monohydrate investigated by in situ force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, M L; Qiu, S R; Hoyer, J R; Casey, W H; Nancollas, G H; De Yoreo, J J

    2008-05-28

    The growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate in the presence of Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP), osteopontin (OPN), and the 27-residue synthetic peptides (DDDS){sub 6}DDD and (DDDG){sub 6}DDD [where D = aspartic acid and X = S (serine) or G (glycine)] was investigated via in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that these three growth modulators create extensive deposits on the crystal faces. Depending on the modulator and crystal face, these deposits can occur as discrete aggregates, filamentary structures, or uniform coatings. These proteinaceous films can lead to either the inhibition or increase of the step speeds (with respect to the impurity-free system) depending on a range of factors that include peptide or protein concentration, supersaturation and ionic strength. While THP and the linear peptides act, respectively, to exclusively increase and inhibit growth on the (-101) face, both exhibit dual functionality on the (010) face, inhibiting growth at low supersaturation or high modulator concentration and accelerating growth at high supersaturation or low modulator concentration. Based on analyses of growth morphologies and dependencies of step speeds on supersaturation and protein or peptide concentration, we argue for a picture of growth modulation that accounts for the observations in terms of the strength of binding to the surfaces and steps and the interplay of electrostatic and solvent-induced forces at crystal surface.

  13. Food oxalate: factors affecting measurement, biological variation, and bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Massey, Linda K

    2007-07-01

    Food and nutrition professionals provide medical nutrition therapy for patients with kidney stones. If the stones contain oxalate or the patient has been diagnosed with hyperoxaluria, reduction of dietary oxalate may be appropriate. Differences in oxalate values for a single food may be due to analytical methods, and/or biological variation from several sources, including cultivar, time of harvest, and growing conditions. Bioavailability of food oxalate and, thus, urine oxalate, will also be affected by salt forms of oxalate, food processing and cooking methods, meal composition, and the presence of Oxalabacter formigenes in the patient's gut. Dietary advice for reducing urinary oxalate should include both reduction of dietary oxalate and simultaneous consumption of calcium-rich food or supplement to reduce oxalate absorption. PMID:17604750

  14. Preoperative Urinary Retention Increased the Risk of Urinary Retention after Photoselective Vaporization of the Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung Yong; Ro, Yun Kwan; Kim, Hwanik

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the present study was to evaluate preoperative acute urinary retention (AUR) as a factor affecting the outcomes of patients who underwent photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP), both in terms of overall effectiveness and the postoperative incidence of AUR. Materials and Methods Baseline prostate characteristics were obtained for patients who underwent PVP, including prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, transrectal ultrasound findings, voiding diary parameters, the International Prostate Symptoms Score (IPSS), and uroflowmetry parameters. These parameters were assessed two weeks, one month, three months, six months, and three years postoperatively. Subjects were divided into AUR and non-AUR groups based on the preoperative occurrence of AUR. Results Of the 476 patients, 91 had at least one episode of preoperative AUR. The AUR group was found to be significantly older and to have significantly higher PSA levels, lower body mass indices, and larger prostates. At one year of follow-up, the total IPSS was 7.6±6.8 in the AUR group and 11.4±8.2 in the non-AUR group, with the AUR group showing a more significant improvement. In the non-AUR group, 17 of the 385 patients (4.4%) experienced postoperative retention, compared to 16 of the 91 patients (17.6%) patients in the AUR group. Conclusions Almost all patients exhibited improvements in subjective and objective voiding parameters following PVP, regardless of the presence of preoperative urinary retention. Patients with a preoperative history of AUR had a higher risk of postoperative retention. PMID:26770938

  15. Characterization of Urinary Stone Composition by Use of Third-Generation Dual-Source Dual-Energy CT With Increased Spectral Separation

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Xinhui; Li, Zhoubo; Yu, Lifeng; Leng, Shuai; Halaweish, Ahmed F.; Fletcher, Joel G.; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this phantom study was to determine the utility of a third-generation dual-source CT scanner with increased dual-energy spectral separation in differentiating urinary stone composition. MATERIALS AND METHODS Eighty-seven urinary stones from humans were scanned in 35-, 40-, 45-, and 50-cm wide anthropomorphic phantoms with a third-generation dual-source scanner (system A) with a high-energy beam of 150 kV plus 0.6-mm tin filtration (Sn). The low-energy data were acquired at 70, 80, 90, and 100 kV. A second-generation dual-source scanner (system B) was used to acquire data at 140 kV plus 0.4-mm Sn for the high-energy and 80 or 100 kV for the low-energy images. Volume CT dose index was matched for a given phantom size. CT number ratios were calculated and used to differentiate uric acid from nonuric acid stones and oxalate from apatite stones in an ROC analysis. RESULTS The area under the curve (AUC) of the ROC curve for uric acid versus nonuric acid stones increased for large phantoms. For example, for imaging of the 45-cm wide phantom with system A at the 100- and 150-kV Sn low- and high-energy combination, the AUC was 0.99, whereas for system B at the 100- and 140-kV Sn combination, the AUC was 0.86. At each phantom size and for all energy combinations, the AUC values for oxalate versus apatite stones were higher for system A than they were for any energy combination for system B. CONCLUSION Compared with use of second-generation dual-source CT, use of third-generation dual-source CT at the energy combination of 100 and 150 kV Sn improved classification of urinary stones across a wide range of phantom sizes and increased the ability to differentiate oxalate from apatite stones. PMID:26587926

  16. Prophylactic and therapeutic properties of a sodium citrate preparation in the management of calcium oxalate urolithiasis: randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Allie-Hamdulay, Shameez; Rodgers, Allen L

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prophylactic and therapeutic effects of a hitherto untested preparation containing sodium citrate in the management of calcium oxalate urolithiasis. In this study, a host of calcium oxalate kidney stone risk factors was investigated using a randomised, placebo controlled, "within-patient" clinical trial. The trial involved four groups of subjects: healthy male controls, healthy female controls , calcium oxalate stone-forming males and calcium oxalate stone-forming females. There were 30 subjects in each group. Twenty subjects in each group ingested the preparation containing sodium citrate and ten subjects in each group ingested a placebo for 7 days. Collection of 24 h urines were carried out at baseline, at day 7 and day 10 (i.e. 3 days after suspension of drug/placebo ingestion). These were analysed for biochemical and physicochemical risk factors. They were also tested for their inhibitory properties in crystallization experiments. Data were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Key risk factors were significantly and beneficially altered across all groups after ingestion of the preparation. The pH and urinary citrate excretion increased while urinary oxalate and calcium excretions decreased, as did relative supersaturations of calcium oxalate and uric acid. In addition, inhibition of calcium oxalate crystallization increased. Beneficial carryover effects were observed for some risk factors. The results of this study have demonstrated, for the first time, that a sodium citrate-containing preparation favourably alters the risk factors for calcium oxalate urolithiasis. PMID:15871014

  17. Increased Klk9 Urinary Excretion Is Associated to Hypertension-Induced Cardiovascular Damage and Renal Alterations

    PubMed Central

    Blázquez-Medela, Ana M.; García-Sánchez, Omar; Quirós, Yaremi; Blanco-Gozalo, Victor; Prieto-García, Laura; Sancho-Martínez, Sandra M.; Romero, Miguel; Duarte, Juan M.; López-Hernández, Francisco J.; López-Novoa, José M.; Martínez-Salgado, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Early detection of hypertensive end-organ damage and secondary diseases are key determinants of cardiovascular prognosis in patients suffering from arterial hypertension. Presently, there are no biomarkers for the detection of hypertensive target organ damage, most outstandingly including blood vessels, the heart, and the kidneys. We aimed to validate the usefulness of the urinary excretion of the serine protease kallikrein-related peptidase 9 (KLK9) as a biomarker of hypertension-induced target organ damage. Urinary, plasma, and renal tissue levels of KLK9 were measured by the Western blot in different rat models of hypertension, including angiotensin-II infusion, DOCA-salt, L-NAME administration, and spontaneous hypertension. Urinary levels were associated to cardiovascular and renal injury, assessed by histopathology. The origin of urinary KLK9 was investigated through in situ renal perfusion experiments. The urinary excretion of KLK9 is increased in different experimental models of hypertension in rats. The ACE inhibitor trandolapril significantly reduced arterial pressure and the urinary level of KLK9. Hypertension did not increase kidney, heart, liver, lung, or plasma KLK9 levels. Hypertension-induced increased urinary excretion of KLK9 results from specific alterations in its tubular reabsorption, even in the absence of overt nephropathy. KLK9 urinary excretion strongly correlates with cardiac hypertrophy and aortic wall thickening. KLK9 appears in the urine in the presence of hypertension as a result of subtle renal handling alterations. Urinary KLK9 might be potentially used as an indicator of hypertensive cardiac and vascular damage. PMID:26469898

  18. Genetically modified Medicago truncatula lacking calcium oxalate has increased calcium bioavailability and partially rescues vitamin D receptor knockout mice phenotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    How the distribution and sequestered form of plant macro/micro-nutrients influence their bioavailability, and ultimately impact human health, is poorly understood. The legume Medicago truncatula has a portion of its tissue calcium sequestered in the form of the calcium oxalate crystal, which reduces...

  19. Oxalobacter formigenes Colonization and Oxalate Dynamics in a Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Li, Xingsheng; Ellis, Melissa L; Knight, John

    2015-08-01

    Animal and human studies have provided compelling evidence that colonization of the intestine with Oxalobacter formigenes reduces urinary oxalate excretion and lowers the risk of forming calcium oxalate kidney stones. The mechanism providing protection appears to be related to the unique ability of O. formigenes to rely on oxalate as a major source of carbon and energy for growth. However, much is not known about the factors that influence colonization and host-bacterium interactions. We have colonized mice with O. formigenes OxCC13 and systematically investigated the impacts of diets with different levels of calcium and oxalate on O. formigenes intestinal densities and urinary and intestinal oxalate levels. Measurement of intestinal oxalate levels in mice colonized or not colonized with O. formigenes demonstrated the highly efficient degradation of soluble oxalate by O. formigenes relative to other microbiota. The ratio of calcium to oxalate in diets was important in determining colonization densities and conditions where urinary oxalate and fecal oxalate excretion were modified, and the results were consistent with those from studies we have performed with colonized and noncolonized humans. The use of low-oxalate purified diets showed that 80% of animals retained O. formigenes colonization after a 1-week dietary oxalate deprivation. Animals not colonized with O. formigenes excreted two times more oxalate in feces than they had ingested. This nondietary source of oxalate may play an important role in the survival of O. formigenes during periods of dietary oxalate deprivation. These studies suggest that the mouse will be a useful model to further characterize interactions between O. formigenes and the host and factors that impact colonization. PMID:25979889

  20. Increased urinary excretion rates of serotonin and metabolites during bedrest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platen, Petra; Lebenstedt, Marion; Schneider, Myriam; Boese, Andrea; Heer, Martina

    2005-05-01

    Astronauts are often on a voluntarily reduced energy intake during space missions, possibly caused by a metabolic or emotional stress response with involvement of the central serotonergic system (SES). We investigated 24 h urinary excretion (24 h-E) of serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindol acidic acid as indicators of the SES in healthy males under two different normocaloric conditions: normal physical activity (NPA) and -6∘ head-down-tilt (HDT). HDT or NPA were randomly arranged with a recovery period of 6 months in between. 24 h-E of hormones varied widely among individuals. Values were higher in HDT compared to NPA. Assuming that the 24 h-E values are, beside being indicators for alterations in the number and metabolism of platelets, Also indicators of central SES, HDT condition seems to activate central SES in a higher degree compared to NPA. Therefore, changes in central SES might be involved in the mechanisms associated with space flight or microgravity, including possible maladaptations such as voluntary undernutrition.

  1. Effect of vitamin D3 on the conversion of ethylene glycol to glycolate and oxalate in ethylene glycol-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Halabe, A; Shor, R; Wong, N L M; Sutton, R A L

    2003-04-01

    Hypercalciuria and hyperoxaluria are important risk factors in the pathogenesis of kidney stones. Urinary glycolate has also been reported to be elevated in patients with renal stones. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D(3), the active metabolite of vitamin D, has been reported to induce hyperoxaluria after either oral or intravenous administration. 1-alpha-D(3), a synthetic derivative of vitamin D, together with ethylene glycol, has been reported to induce renal stones in experimental rats. We have examined the effect of 1-alpha-vitamin D(3) on urinary oxalate and glycolate excretion. Our results indicate that 1-alpha-D(3), together with ethylene glycol, caused a significant increase in urinary glycolate, without a parallel rise in urinary oxalate excretion, in ethylene glycol-fed rats. This increase in urinary glycolate was due to the synergistic effect of both drugs. PMID:12636932

  2. Exercise but not mannitol provocation increases urinary Clara cell protein (CC16) in elite swimmers.

    PubMed

    Romberg, Kerstin; Bjermer, Leif; Tufvesson, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Elite swimmers have an increased risk of developing asthma, and exposure to chloramine is believed to be an important trigger factor. The aim of the present study was to explore pathophysiological mechanisms behind induced bronchoconstriction in swimmers exposed to chloramine, before and after swim exercise provocation as well as mannitol provocation. Urinary Clara cell protein (CC16) was used as a possible marker for epithelial stress. 101 elite aspiring swim athletes were investigated and urinary samples were collected before and 1h after completed exercise and mannitol challenge. CC16, 11?-prostaglandin (PG)F(2?) and leukotriene E(4) (LTE(4)) were measured. Urinary levels of CC16 were clearly increased after exercise challenge, while no reaction was seen after mannitol challenge. Similar to CC16, the level of 11?-PGF(2?) was increased after exercise challenge, but not after mannitol challenge, while LTE(4) was reduced after exercise. There was no significant difference in urinary response between those with a negative compared to positive challenge, but a tendency of increased baseline levels of 11?-PGF(2?) and LTE(4) in individuals with a positive mannitol challenge. The uniform increase of CC16 after swim exercise indicates that CC16 is of importance in epithelial stress, and may as such be an important pathogenic factor behind asthma development in swimmers. The changes seen in urinary levels of 11?-PGF(2?) and LTE(4) indicate a pathophysiological role in both mannitol and exercise challenge. PMID:20696561

  3. KIDNEY STONE INCIDENCE AND METABOLIC URINARY CHANGES AFTER MODERN BARIATRIC SURGERY: REVIEW OF CLINICAL STUDIES, EXPERIMENTAL MODELS, AND PREVENTION STRATEGIES

    PubMed Central

    Canales, Benjamin K.; Hatch, Marguerite

    2014-01-01

    Bariatric surgery has been associated with increased metabolic kidney stone risk and post-operative stone formation. A MEDLINE search, performed for articles published between January 2005 and November 2013, identified 24 pertinent studies containing 683 bariatric patients with 24-hour urine profiles, 6,777 bariatric patients with kidney stone incidence, and 7,089 non-stone forming controls. Of all procedures reviewed, only Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) was linked to post-operative kidney stone development, increasing stone incidence two-fold in non-stone formers (8.5%) and four-fold in patients with previous stone history (16.7%). High quality evidence from 7 studies (n=277 patients) before and after RYGB identified the following post-RYGB urinary lithogenic risk factors: 30% reduction in urine volume (the main driver of urinary crystal saturation), 40% reduction in urinary citrate (a potent stone inhibitor), and 50% increase in urinary oxalate (a stone promotor). Based on this, a summary of strategies to reduce calcium oxalate stone risk following RYGB is provided. Furthermore, recent experimental RYGB studies are assessed for insights into the pathophysiology of oxalate handling, and the literature in gut anion (oxalate) transport is reviewed. Finally, as a potential probiotic therapy for hyperoxaluria, primary data from our laboratory is presented, demonstrating a 70% reduction in urinary oxalate levels in four experimental RYGB animals after colonization with Oxalobacter formigines, a non-pathogenic gut commensal that uses oxalate as an energy source. Overall, urine profiles and kidney stone risk following bariatric surgery appear modifiable by dietary adjustments, appropriate supplementation, and lifestyle changes. For hyperoxaluria resistant to dietary oxalate restriction and calcium binding, well-designed human investigations are needed to identify additional means of lowering urinary oxalate, such as Oxalobacter colonization or empiric pyridoxine therapy. Further investigations are also needed to determine tolerability and compliance of stone prevention strategies, such as citrate supplementation and hydration, in this population. PMID:24969092

  4. NHANES Data Support Link between Handling of Thermal Paper Receipts and Increased Urinary Bisphenol A Excretion.

    PubMed

    Hehn, Rebecca Simonne

    2016-01-01

    Some thermal paper receipts, commonly referred to as cash register receipts, contain high levels of bisphenol A (BPA). The goal of this study is to investigate whether increased contact with thermal paper receipts is associated with an increase in urinary BPA excretion. Individuals from the NHANES 2003-2004 survey were stratified based on occupation to compare urinary BPA excretion levels. The first major finding demonstrates that individuals with potential occupational exposure to thermal paper receipts are more likely to have detectable levels of urinary BPA compared to individuals with unlikely occupational exposure (p-value <0.001). The second major finding is that females with potential occupational exposure to thermal paper receipts have significantly higher levels of urinary BPA excretion (geometric mean (GM): 5.45 ?g/L, 95% CI: (4.02, 7.39)) compared to females with unlikely occupational exposure (GM: 2.16 ?g/L, 95% CI: (1.73, 2.70)). This association continues to remain statistically significant when controlling for creatinine, race, body mass index (BMI), and age. Notably, there was no statistically significant association between occupation and urinary BPA excretion among males. These results suggest that exposure to BPA from thermal paper should be considered when determining aggregate BPA exposure. PMID:26583963

  5. Update on Oxalate Crystal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Elizabeth C.; Michet, Claude J.; Milliner, Dawn S.; Lieske, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Oxalate arthropathy is a rare cause of arthritis characterized by deposition of calcium oxalate crystals within synovial fluid. This condition typically occurs in patients with underlying primary or secondary hyperoxaluria. Primary hyperoxaluria constitutes a group of genetic disorders resulting in endogenous overproduction of oxalate, whereas secondary hyperoxaluria results from gastrointestinal disorders associated with fat malabsorption and increased absorption of dietary oxalate. In both conditions oxalate crystals can deposit in the kidney leading to renal failure. Since oxalate is primarily renally eliminated, it accumulates throughout the body in renal failure, a state termed oxalosis. Affected organs can include bones, joints, heart, eyes and skin. Since patients can present with renal failure and oxalosis before the underlying diagnosis of hyperoxaluria has been made, it is important to consider hyperoxaluria in patients who present with unexplained soft tissue crystal deposition. The best treatment of oxalosis is prevention. If patients present with advanced disease, treatment of oxalate arthritis consists of symptom management and control of the underlying disease process. PMID:23666469

  6. Oxalate is overestimated in alkaline urines collected during administration of bicarbonate with no specimen pH adjustment.

    PubMed

    Lemann, J; Hornick, L J; Pleuss, J A; Gray, R W

    1989-10-01

    We compared measurements of daily urine oxalate excretion in urines collected at the prevailing urine pH with measurements of urine oxalate excretion in urines collected into 20 mL of 6 mol/L HCl. We studied eight healthy adults fed constant diets. Urines were collected during control conditions and, in each subject, during the administration of NaCl, KCl, NaHCO3, or KHCO3, 90 mmol/day. Daily urine oxalate excretion calculated for collections made in acid averaged 271 (SD 79) mumol/day and did not vary with any of the salt supplements. When urines were collected at ambient urine pH (average 5.94, SD 0.23) during control conditions, and during the administration of NaCl or KCl, urine oxalate excretion averaged 263 (SD 88) mumol/day, a value not different from that for collections in acid. However, when urine was collected with no pH adjustment during NaHCO3 or KHCO3 administration (average pH 6.90, SD 0.14), apparent urine oxalate excretion averaged 398 (SD 132) mumol/day, significantly (P less than 0.025) exceeding the mean observed when urines were collected in acid. Moreover, the percentage increase in apparent oxalate excretion increased with urinary pH. These observations reinforce recommendations that urine specimens for measurement of oxalate be collected in acid to avoid the increase in apparent oxalate content that occurs during collection of alkaline urines. This increase presumably results from the well-known in vitro nonenzymatic conversion of ascorbate to oxalate. PMID:2551541

  7. Mineralogy and chemistry of urinary stones: patients from North Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abboud, Iyad Ahmed

    2008-10-01

    Urinary stone diseases are increasing in the Middle East. The majority of urinary stone cases are found in the northern part of the country. Stone samples taken from patients living in the Irbid area were collected from Princess Basma Hospital. The present study concentrates on the mineralogical and chemical composition of the urinary stones and on the effective environmental factors that assist in developing the different types of urinary stones. Using X-ray diffraction techniques, the mineralogical composition of the urinary stones was found to be as follows: oxalate, cholesten, and uric acid, with cystine stones occuring more frequently than the others. Cholesten and calcium oxalate stones are the most dominant types of stones. Calcium oxalate is the most common type of oxalate stone. Calcium oxalate is represented in: whewellite, wheddellite, and calcium carbonate oxalate hydrate minerals, in addition to other minerals such as brushite, ammonium phosphate, vaterite, valleriite, and bobierrite from other types of stones. Bobierrite (phosphate group) is a new mineral reported in urinary stones, and this has not been determined in any previous study worldwide. Apatite (calcium phosphate) is deduced using scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. The SEM technique determined crystal forms and systems, shapes, morphological features, and the names of the minerals forming urine stones, while optical properties are studied by polarizing microscope. X-ray fluorescence technique determined the concentrations of major and some trace elements. It revealed that Ca is the main constituent of the urinary stones, especially those composed of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate. The concentration of trace elements was Ba = 1.57, P = 3.61, Fe = 1.78, S = 2.08, Zr = 4.63, Mo = 3.92, Cu = 1.89, Co = 1.56, and F = 4.2% and was higher in the urinary stones of Jordanian patients than in foreigners in the country. Questionnaires completed by patients suggest that the most significant factors directly effecting the formation of stones are water, climate conditions, food rich in protein and rich in different chemicals. Moreover, some drugs and diseases might also help in developing other stones. PMID:18064405

  8. Chaga mushroom-induced oxalate nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Yuko; Seta, Koichi; Ogawa, Yayoi; Takayama, Tatsuya; Nagata, Masao; Taguchi, Takashi; Yahata, Kensei

    2014-06-01

    Chaga mushrooms have been used in folk and botanical medicine as a remedy for cancer, gastritis, ulcers, and tuberculosis of the bones. A 72-year-old Japanese female had been diagnosed with liver cancer 1 year prior to presenting at our department. She underwent hepatectomy of the left lobe 3 months later. Chaga mushroom powder (4 - 5 teaspoons per day) had been ingested for the past 6 months for liver cancer. Renal function decreased and hemodialysis was initiated. Renal biopsy specimens showed diffuse tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. Oxalate crystals were detected in the tubular lumina and urinary sediment and oxalate nephropathy was diagnosed. Chaga mushrooms contain extremely high oxalate concentrations. This is the first report of a case of oxalate nephropathy associated with ingestion of Chaga mushrooms. PMID:23149251

  9. Increase of urinary and serum hydroxyproline in subjects exposed to cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Nishino, H.; Tanaka, T.; Shiroishi, K.; Sato, S. ); Naruse, Y.; Kagamimori, S. )

    1991-10-01

    Itai-itai disease (I disease) is characterized mainly by renal tubular damage and osteomalacia accompanied by osteoporosis in subjects with long-term ingestion of excessive cadmium (Cd). Most of the studies on the osteopathies of this disease have focused on mineral metabolism. For a better understanding of the osteopathies of I disease, the authors have been interested in collagen metabolism in relation to that of minerals. It is possible that the increased urinary concentration of Hyp may be associated with the osteopathies of patients with I disease. To provide more information about the increased urinary concentration resulting from Cd exposure the measurement of serum concentration of Hyp was also carried out in the present study.

  10. Salt loading increases urinary excretion of linoleic acid diols and triols in healthy human subjects.

    PubMed

    Dreisbach, Albert W; Rice, Janet C; Japa, Shanker; Newman, John W; Sigel, Aster; Gill, Rajan S; Hess, Arthur E; Cemo, Angela C; Fonseca, Juan P; Hammock, Bruce D; Lertora, Juan J L; Hamm, L Lee

    2008-03-01

    Increased dietary linoleic acid has been associated with reduced blood pressure in clinical and animal studies possibly mediated by prostaglandins. Urinary linoleate and prostaglandin metabolite excretion were investigated in subjects exposed to a salt-loading/salt-depletion regimen. Twelve healthy subjects were recruited from the New Orleans population (before Hurricaine Katrina) and admitted to the Tulane-Louisiana State University-Charity Hospital General Clinical Research Center after a 5-day outpatient lead-in phase on a 160-mmol sodium diet. On inpatient day 1, the subjects were maintained on the 160-mmol sodium diet, and a 24-hour urine specimen was collected. On day 2, the subjects received 2 L of IV normal saline over 4 hours and continued on a 160-mmol Na(+) diet (total: 460 mmol of sodium). Two 12-hour urine collections were obtained. On day 3, the subjects received three 40-mg oral doses of furosemide, two 12-hour urine collections were obtained, and the subjects were given a 10-mmol sodium diet. Urinary oxidized lipids were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectroscopy. The excretion of the urinary linoleate metabolites, dihydroxyoctadecamonoenoic acids, and trihydroxyoctadecamonoenoic acids increased significantly during intravenous salt loading as compared with day 1 and the salt-depleted periods. The urinary excretion of 6-keto- prostaglandin F1alpha was unaffected by salt loading but was dramatically increased 7- to 10-fold by salt depletion. Prostaglandin E2 excretion was positively correlated with sodium excretion. The salt-stimulated production of linoleic acid diols and triols may inhibit tubular sodium reabsorption, thereby assisting in the excretion of the sodium load. PMID:18227407

  11. Increased urinary excretion of platelet activating factor in mice with lupus nephritis

    SciTech Connect

    Macconi, D.; Noris, M.; Benfenati, E.; Quaglia, R.; Pagliarino, G. ); Remuzzi, G. Ospedali Riuniti di Bergamo )

    1991-01-01

    Platelet activating factor (PAF) is present in urine from humans and experimental animals in normal conditions. Very little is known about changes in PAF urinary excretion under pathologic conditions and no data are available about the origin of PAF in the urine. In the present study we explored the possibility that immunologic renal disease is associated with an increase in PAF urinary excretion using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique. To clarify the renal or extrarenal origin of urinary PAF we evaluated whether exogenously administered PAF (1-(1{prime},2{prime}-{sup 3}H)alkyl) is filtered through the glomerulus and excreted in the urine. The results show that: (1) urine from mice with lupus nephritis in the early phase of the disease contained amounts of PAF comparable to those excreted in normal mouse urine, (2) PAF levels increased when animals started to develop high grade proteinuria, (3) after intravenous injection of ({sup 3}H) PAF In nephritic mice, a negligible amount of ({sup 3}H) ether lipid, corresponding to ({sup 3}H)1-alkyl -2-acyl-3-phosphocholine (alkyl-2-acyl-GPC), was recovered from the 24 h urine extract.

  12. Oxalate catabolism in Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxalic acid is found in most plant species and can serve beneficial roles that protect the plant from a variety of environmental stresses. Excessive amounts of oxalate, however, can be detrimental to plant health. Thus, careful coordination of oxalate metabolism is needed. Despite the important impa...

  13. Protective effect of Urtica dioica methanol extract against experimentally induced urinary calculi in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiying; Li, Ning; Li, Kun; Li, Peng

    2014-12-01

    Renal calculi formation is one of the most common urological disorders. Urinary stone disease is a common disease, which affects 10‑12% of the population in industrialized countries. In males, the highest prevalence of the disease occurs between the age of 20 and 40 years, while in females, the highest incidence of the disease occurs later. Previous studies have shown that long‑term exposure to oxalate is toxic to renal epithelial cells and results in oxidative stress. In the present study, a methanolic extract of aerial parts of Urtica dioica was screened for antiurolithiatic activity against ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride‑induced calcium oxalate renal stones in male rats. In the control rats, ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride administration was observed to cause an increase in urinary calcium, oxalate and creatinine levels, as well as an increase in renal calcium and oxalate deposition. Histopathological observations revealed calcium oxalate microcrystal deposits in the kidney sections of the rats treated with ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride, indicating the induction of lithiasis. In the test rats, treatment with the methanolic extract of Urtica dioica was found to decrease the elevated levels of urinary calcium, oxalate and creatinine, and significantly decrease the renal deposition of calcium and oxalate. Furthermore, renal histological observations revealed a significant reduction in calcium oxalate crystal deposition in the test rats. Phytochemical analysis of the Urtica dioica extract was also performed using liquid chromatography‑electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection, to determine the chemical composition of the extract. The eight chemical constituents identified in the extract were protocatechuic acid, salicylic acid, luteolin, gossypetin, rutin, kaempferol‑3‑O‑rutinoside, kaempferol‑3‑O‑glucoside and chlorogenic acid. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that Urtica dioica has strong antiurolithiatic activity and may have potential as a natural therapeutic agent for various urological disorders. PMID:25310585

  14. Acute oxalate nephropathy following kidney transplantation: Report of three cases

    PubMed Central

    Taheri, Diana; Gheissari, Alaleh; Shaabani, Pooria; Tabibian, Seyed Reza; Mortazavi, Mojgan; Seirafian, Shiva; Merrikhi, Alireza; Fesharakizadeh, Mehdi; Dolatkhah, Shahaboddin

    2015-01-01

    Calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystal deposition is a common finding immediately after kidney transplantation. However, small depositions of CaOx could be benign while extensive depositions lead to poor graft outcome. Here we report three cases with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), bilateral nephrolithiasis, and unknown diagnosis of primary hyperoxaluria (PH) who underwent a renal transplant and experienced an early-onset graft failure. Although an acute rejection was suspected, renal allograft biopsies and subsequent allograft nephrectomies showed extensive CaOx deposition, which raised a suspicion of PH. Even though increased urinary excretion of CaOx was found in all patients, this diagnosis could be confirmed with further tests including genetic study and metabolic assay. In conclusion, massive CaOx deposition in kidney allograft is an important cause of poor allograft survival and needs special management. Furthermore, our cases suggest patients with ESRD and a history of nephrolithiasis should be screened for elevated urinary oxalate excretion and rule out of PH. PMID:26664431

  15. Effect of Lagenaria siceraria fruit powder on sodium oxalate induced urolithiasis in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Takawale, Rahul V.; Mali, Vishal R.; Kapase, Chinmay U.; Bodhankar, Subhash L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In spite of advances in the present practice of medicine, the formation and growth of calculi continues to trouble mankind, as there is no satisfactory drug to treat kidney stones. In India, many indigenous drugs are in use for the treatment of urinary calculus disease. Objective: The present study was intended to determine anti-urolithiatic effect of Lagenaria siceraria fruit powder (LSFP) against sodium oxalate (NaOx) induced urolithiasis in rats. Materials and Methods: Animals were grouped as Vehicle Group (received vehicle gum acacia 2% w/v 1 mL/kg/p.o.), NaOx Group(Sodium oxalate 70 mg/kg,i.p.), LSFP Group (500 mg/kg, p.o. LSFP suspended in gum acacia 2% + Sodium oxalate 70 mg/kg), Cystone Group (500 mg/kg, p.o. Cystone suspended in gum acacia 2% + Sodium oxalate 70 mg/kg). Result: The increased severity of microscopic calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals deposition along with increased concentration in the kidney was seen after 7 days of NaOx (70 mg/kg, i.p.) pre-treatment. LSFP (500 mg/kg, p.o.) and standard marketed formulation Cystone (500 mg/kg, p.o.) caused a significant reversal of NaOx-induced changes in ion excretion and urinary CaOx concentration in 7 days treatment. Conclusion: From the results, it was concluded that LSFP showed beneficial effect against urolithiasis by decreasing CaOx excretion and preventing crystal deposition in the kidney tubules. PMID:22707863

  16. Increased Urinary Exosomal MicroRNAs in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Hernandez, Javier; Forner, Maria J.; Pinto, Carolina; Chaves, Felipe J.

    2015-01-01

    There is increased interest in using microRNAs (miRNAs) as biomarkers in different diseases. Present in body fluids, it is controversial whether or not they are mainly enclosed in exosomes, thus we studied if urinary miRNAs are concentrated inside exosomes and if the presence of systemic lupus erythematosus with or without lupus nephritis modifies their distribution pattern. We quantified specific miRNAs in urine of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (n = 38) and healthy controls (n = 12) by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR in cell-free urine, exosome-depleted supernatant and exosome pellet obtained by ultracentrifugation. In control group, miR-335* and miR-302d were consistently higher in exosomes than in exosome-depleted supernatant, and miR-200c and miR-146a were higher in cell-free fraction. In lupus patients, all urinary miRNAs tested were mainly in exosomes with lower levels outside them (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). This pattern is especially relevant in patients with active lupus nephritis compared to the control group or to the SLE patients in absence of lupus nephritis, with miR-146a being the most augmented (100-fold change, p<0.001). Among the exosomal miRNAs tested, only the miR-146a discriminates the presence of active lupus nephritis. In conclusion, urinary miRNAs are contained primarily in exosomes in systemic lupus erythematosus, and the main increment was found in the presence of active lupus nephritis. These findings underscore the attractiveness of exosomal miRNAs in urine, a non-invasive method, as potential renal disease markers. PMID:26390437

  17. A seven day running training period increases basal urinary hepcidin levels as compared to cycling

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This investigation compared the effects of an extended period of weight-bearing (running) vs. non-weight-bearing (cycling) exercise on hepcidin production and its implications for iron status. Methods Ten active males performed two separate exercise training blocks with either running (RTB) or cycling (CTB) as the exercise mode. Each block consisted of five training sessions (Day 1, 2, 4, 5, 6) performed over a seven day period that were matched for exercise intensity. Basal venous blood samples were obtained on Day 1 (D1), and on Recovery Days 3 (R3) and 7 (R7) to assess iron status, while basal and 3 h post-exercise urinary hepcidin levels were measured on D1, D2, D6, as well as R3 and R7 (basal levels only) for each condition. Results Basal urinary hepcidin levels were significantly elevated (p ≤ 0.05) at D2, R3 and R7 as compared to D1 in RTB. Furthermore, 3 h post-exercise urinary hepcidin levels on D1 were also significantly higher in RTB compared to CTB (p ≤ 0.05). In CTB, urinary hepcidin levels were not statistically different on D1 as compared to R7. Iron parameters were not significantly different at D1 compared to R3 and R7 during both conditions. Conclusions These results suggest that basal hepcidin levels may increase over the course of an extended training program, especially if a weight-bearing exercise modality is undertaken. However, despite any variations in hepcidin production, serum iron parameters in both RTB and CTB were unaffected, possibly due to the short duration of each training block. In comparing running to cycling, non-weight-bearing activity may require more training sessions, or sessions of extended duration, before any significant changes in basal hepcidin levels appear. Chronic elevations in hepcidin levels may help to explain the high incidence of iron deficiency in athletes. PMID:24716892

  18. Urinary Hypoxanthine as a Measure of Increased ATP Utilization in Late Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Megan S.; Hopper, Andrew; Slater, Laurel; Asmerom, Yayesh; Esiaba, Ijeoma; Boskovic, Danilo S.; Angeles, Danilyn M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of neonatal morbidity on ATP breakdown in late preterm infants. Study Design Urinary hypoxanthine concentration, a marker of ATP breakdown, was measured from 82 late preterm infants on days of life (DOL) 3 to 6 using high-performance liquid chromatography. Infants were grouped according to the following diagnoses: poor nippling alone (n = 8), poor nippling plus hyperbilirubinemia (n = 21), poor nippling plus early respiratory disease (n = 26), and respiratory disease alone (n = 27). Results Neonates with respiratory disease alone had significantly higher urinary hypoxanthine over DOL 3 to 6 when compared with neonates with poor nippling (P = .020), poor nippling plus hyperbilirubinemia (P < .001), and poor nippling plus early respiratory disease (P = .017). Neonates with poor nippling who received respiratory support for 2 to 3 days had significantly higher hypoxanthine compared with infants who received respiratory support for 1 day (P = .017) or no days (P = .007). Conclusions These findings suggest that respiratory disorders significantly increase ATP degradation in late premature infants. PMID:26413195

  19. In Utero and Lactational TCDD Exposure Increases Susceptibility to Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction in Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Ricke, William A; Lee, Calvin W; Clapper, Tyler R; Schneider, Andrew J; Moore, Robert W; Keil, Kimberly P; Abler, Lisa L; Wynder, Jalissa L; López Alvarado, Arnaldo; Beaubrun, Isaac; Vo, Jenny; Bauman, Tyler M; Ricke, Emily A; Peterson, Richard E; Vezina, Chad M

    2016-04-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostate cancer, and changes in the ratio of circulating testosterone and estradiol often occur concurrently in aging men and can lead to lower urinary tract (LUT) dysfunction. To explore the possibility of a fetal basis for the development of LUT dysfunction in adulthood, Tg(CMV-cre);Nkx3-1(+/-);Pten(fl/+) mice, which are genetically predisposed to prostate neoplasia, were exposedin uteroand during lactation to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, 1 μg/kg po) or corn oil vehicle (5 ml/kg) after a single maternal dose on 13 days post coitus, and subsequently were aged without further manipulation, or at 8 weeks of age were exposed to exogenous 17 β-estradiol (2.5 mg) and testosterone (25 mg) (T+E2) via slow release subcutaneous implants.In uteroand lactational (IUL) TCDD exposure in the absence of exogenous hormone treatment reduced voiding pressure in adult mice, but otherwise had little effect on mouse LUT anatomy or function. By comparison, IUL TCDD exposure followed by exogenous hormone treatment increased relative kidney, bladder, dorsolateral prostate, and seminal vesicle weights, hydronephrosis incidence, and prostate epithelial cell proliferation, thickened prostate periductal smooth muscle, and altered prostate and bladder collagen fiber distribution. We propose a 2-hit model whereby IUL TCDD exposure sensitizes mice to exogenous-hormone-induced urinary tract dysfunction later in life. PMID:26865671

  20. Increased urinary levels of RNA catabolites in mice as early indicators for malignant growth

    SciTech Connect

    Thomale, J.; Luz, A.; Nass, G.

    1983-01-01

    It is known that human cancer patients exhibit an altered urinary excretion pattern of modified nucleosides and bases, that mice bearing skin tumors excrete increased amounts of various modified nucleosides and bases, and that the onset of altered excretion of modified RNA constituents precedes tumor diagnosis. We have now obtained similar results in mice for lymphoblastic leukemia induced by a single exposure to X-ray irradiation. Mice showing severe leukemic symptoms excrete several fold amounts of modified nucleosides in their 24-hr urine, when compared with untreated controls. X-ray-treated mice, showing no visible symptoms except increased excretion rates of these RNA constituents, were sacrificed and histologically examined. (Pre)leukemic features in spleen and lymph nodes were observed. Our results provide further evidence in support of the use of RNA catabolites as a basis for the development of an early noninvasive screening method for cancer in human beings.

  1. Effect of Increased Water Intake on Urinary DNA Adduct Levels and Mutagenicity in Smokers: A Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Buendia Jimenez, Inmaculada; Richardot, Pascaline; Picard, Pascaline; Lepicard, Eve M.; De Meo, Michel; Talaska, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    The association between fluid intake and bladder cancer risk remains controversial. Very little is known about to which extent the amount of water intake influences the action of excreting toxics upon the urinary system. This proof of concept trial investigates the effect of water intake on mutagenesis in smokers, a high risk population for bladder cancer. Methods. Monocentric randomized controlled trial. Inclusion Criteria. Male subjects aged 204545?y/o, smokers, and small drinkers (24-hour urinary volume <1?L and osmolality >700?mOsmol/kg). Outcomes. 4-ABP DNA adducts formation in exfoliated bladder cells in 24-hour urine collection and urinary mutagenicity in 24-hour urine. Test Group. Subjects consumed 1.5?L daily of the study product (EVIAN) on top of their usual water intake for 50 days. Control Group. Subjects continued their usual lifestyle habits. Results. 65 subjects were randomized. Mean age was 30?y/o and mean cigarettes per day were 20. A slight decrease in adducts formation was observed between baseline and last visit but no statistically significant difference was demonstrated between the groups. Urinary mutagenicity significantly decreased. The study shows that increasing water intake decreases urinary mutagenicity. It is not confirmed by urinary adducts formation. Further research would be necessary. PMID:26357419

  2. Spectroscopic study of the inhibition of calcium oxalate calculi by Larrea tridentata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinales, Luis Alonso

    The causes of urolithiasis include such influences as diet, metabolic disorders, and genetic factors which have been documented as sources that aggravate urinary calculi depositions and aggregations, and, implicitly, as causes of urolithiasis. This study endeavors to detail the scientific mechanisms involved in calcium oxalate calculi formation, and, more importantly, their inhibition under growth conditions imposed by the traditional medicinal approach using the herbal extract, Larrea tridentata. The calculi were synthesized without and with Larrea tridentata infusion by employing the single diffusion gel technique. A visible decrease in calcium oxalate crystal growth with increasing amounts of Larrea tridentata herbal infusion was observed in photomicrographs, as well as a color change from white-transparent for pure crystals to light orange-brown for crystals with inhibitor. Analysis of the samples, which includes Raman, infrared absorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) techniques, demonstrate an overall transition in morphology of the crystals from monohydrate without herbal extract to dihydrate with inhibitor. Furthermore, the resulting data from Raman and infrared absorption support the possibilities of the influences, in this complex process, of NDGA and its derivative compounds from Larrea tridentata, and of the bonding of the magnesium of the inhibitor with the oxalate ion on the surface of the calculi crystals. This assumption corroborates well with the micrographs obtained under higher magnification, which show that the separated small crystallites consist of darker brownish cores, which we attribute to the dominance of growth inhibition by NDGA, surrounded by light transparent thin shells, which possibly correspond to passivation of the crystals by magnesium oxalate. The SEM results reveal the transformation from the dominant monoclinic structure of the calcium oxalate crystals grown alone to the tetragonal dipyramidal crystal structure of the calcium oxalate crystals grown with Larrea tridentata. Comparison between XRD experimental and simulated data, besides corroborating with our previous results, show that each sample is a combination of different structures.

  3. Dietary pectin shortens the biologic half-life of vitamin B-12 in rats by increasing fecal and urinary losses

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, R.W.; Oace, S.M. )

    1989-08-01

    As little as 5% of pectin added to a fiber-free diet elevates urinary methylmalonic acid (MMA) severalfold in vitamin B-12--deprived rats. The present study examines whether increased urinary MMA reflects lower vitamin B-12 status or occurs only because of fermentation of pectin by intestinal bacteria and increased production of propionate, a precursor of MMA. By monitoring urinary and fecal excretion of {sup 57}Co after a tracer dose of ({sup 57}Co)vitamin B-12, we found the biologic half-life of vitamin B-12 to be 59 d for rats fed a fiber-free diet and only 19 d for rats fed a 5% pectin diet. Also, pectin-fed rats oxidized only 12% of a 1-mmol dose of ({sup 14}C)propionate to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} in 2 h, whereas rats fed the fiber-free diet expired 33% of the dose. Finally, high urinary MMA persisted even after the removal of pectin from the diet. We conclude that dietary pectin accelerates vitamin B-12 depletion in rats, possibly by interfering with enterohepatic recycling of vitamin B-12. By stimulating microbial propionate production, pectin and other fermentable fibers may also contribute to increased urinary MMA in vitamin B-12 deficiency, but a larger propionate pool does not account for the other effects of pectin on vitamin B-12 status.

  4. [*calcium-oxalate lithogenesis: crystallization in the presence of urine from healthy subjects].

    PubMed

    Beaufays, J P; Bouche, R; Boistelle, R

    1995-01-01

    In the present study we aim at describing the influence of urine of non-lithiasic subjects on the different crystallization stages of calcium oxalates. The experimental method consists in comparing the turbidimetric curves obtained by crystallization in pure synthetic urine to the curves obtained after addition of natural urine to the solution. Natural urine plays an important role on nucleation, crystal growth and agglomeration even if only small amounts (4% v/v) are added to the mother solution. Nucleation is favoured (decrease of the induction period and increase of the crystal number) by the presence of solid particles, such as cellular fragments, which play the role of substrates for heterogeneous nucleation. On the other hand, both the growth rate of the crystals and their degree of agglomeration are reduced. Moreover, the physical nature of the crystals which precipitate is different from that of the crystals which nucleate in synthetic urine. Under our conditions of high super-saturation, natural urine favours the nucleation of calcium oxalate dihydrate at the expenses of calcium oxalate trihydrate which forms in pure synthetic urine. A hypothesis on the origin of the lithogenesis process is made and a correlation between the localization of the calcium oxalate stones in the urinary tracts and their main constituents is proposed. PMID:7630471

  5. Alterations in some risk factors and urinary enzymes in urolithiatic rats treated with sodium pentosan polysulphate.

    PubMed

    Subha, K; Varalakshmi, P

    1993-02-01

    The effect of sodium pentosan polysulphate (SPP) was investigated in calcium oxalate stone forming rats with respect to the urinary excretion of certain risk factors and enzymes. Calcium oxalate stones were induced by feeding 3% w/w sodium glycollate to the rats. Urinary calcium, oxalate, phosphorus and uric acid levels were increased in stone formers. In contrast magnesium excretion was low in this group. SPP treatment lowered oxalate and calcium levels in both controls and experimental animals. Magnesium levels were increased moderately. Increased excretion of urinary enzymes--LDH, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-GT and beta glucuronidase--in calculogenic rats indicates membranuria and damage to proximal tubules during stone formation. Decreased pyrophosphatase activity was observed in glycollate fed rats. SPP treatment decreased the excretion of the above enzymes in the treated groups. Stone formers exhibited decreased LAP and fibrinolytic (urokinase) activities. SPP being associated with fibrinolytic properties, increased the activities of the above two enzymes to that of control levels in calculogenic rats. PMID:7684293

  6. Single aggressive interactions increase urinary glucocorticoid levels in wild male chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Wittig, Roman M; Crockford, Catherine; Weltring, Anja; Deschner, Tobias; Zuberbhler, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    A basic premise in behavioural ecology is the cost-benefit arithmetic, which determines both behavioural decisions and evolutionary processes. Aggressive interactions can be costly on an energetic level, demanding increased energy or causing injuries, and on a psychological level, in the form of increased anxiety and damaged relationships between opponents. Here we used urinary glucocorticoid (uGC) levels to assess the costs of aggression in wild chimpanzees of Budongo Forest, Uganda. We collected 169 urine samples from nine adult male chimpanzees following 14 aggressive interactions (test condition) and 10 resting events (control condition). Subjects showed significantly higher uGC levels after single aggressive interactions compared to control conditions, likely for aggressors as well as victims. Higher ranking males had greater increases of uGC levels after aggression than lower ranking males. In contrast, uGC levels showed no significant change in relation to aggression length or intensity, indicating that psychological factors might have played a larger role than mere energetic expenditure. We concluded that aggressive behaviour is costly for both aggressors and victims and that costs seem poorly explained by energetic demands of the interaction. Our findings are relevant for studies of post-conflict interactions, since we provide evidence that both aggressors and victims experience a stress response to conflict. PMID:25714095

  7. Single Aggressive Interactions Increase Urinary Glucocorticoid Levels in Wild Male Chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Weltring, Anja; Deschner, Tobias; Zuberbhler, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    A basic premise in behavioural ecology is the cost-benefit arithmetic, which determines both behavioural decisions and evolutionary processes. Aggressive interactions can be costly on an energetic level, demanding increased energy or causing injuries, and on a psychological level, in the form of increased anxiety and damaged relationships between opponents. Here we used urinary glucocorticoid (uGC) levels to assess the costs of aggression in wild chimpanzees of Budongo Forest, Uganda. We collected 169 urine samples from nine adult male chimpanzees following 14 aggressive interactions (test condition) and 10 resting events (control condition). Subjects showed significantly higher uGC levels after single aggressive interactions compared to control conditions, likely for aggressors as well as victims. Higher ranking males had greater increases of uGC levels after aggression than lower ranking males. In contrast, uGC levels showed no significant change in relation to aggression length or intensity, indicating that psychological factors might have played a larger role than mere energetic expenditure. We concluded that aggressive behaviour is costly for both aggressors and victims and that costs seem poorly explained by energetic demands of the interaction. Our findings are relevant for studies of post-conflict interactions, since we provide evidence that both aggressors and victims experience a stress response to conflict. PMID:25714095

  8. Relevance of dietary protein concentration and quality as risk factors for the formation of calcium oxalate stones in cats.

    PubMed

    Palack, Nadine; Burmeier, Hannes; Brenten, Thomas; Neumann, Konrad; Zentek, Jrgen

    2014-01-01

    The role of dietary protein for the development of feline calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths has not been conclusively clarified. The present study evaluated the effects of a varying dietary protein concentration and quality on critical indices for the formation of CaOx uroliths. Three diets with a high protein quality (10-11 % greaves meal/diet) and a varying crude protein (CP) concentration (35, 44 and 57 % in DM) were compared. Additionally, the 57 % CP diet was compared with a fourth diet that had a similar CP concentration (55 % in DM), but a lower protein quality (34 % greaves meal/diet). The Ca and oxalate (Ox) concentrations were similar in all diets. A group of eight cats received the same diet at the same time. Each feeding period was divided into a 21 d adaptation period and a 7 d sampling period to collect urine. There were increases in urinary volume, urinary Ca concentrations, renal Ca and Ox excretion and urinary relative supersaturation (RSS) with CaOx with increasing dietary protein concentrations. Urinary pH ranged between 634 and 666 among all groups, with no unidirectional effect of dietary protein. Lower renal Ca excretion was observed when feeding the diet with the lower protein quality, however, the underlying mechanism needs further evaluation. In conclusion, although the observed higher urinary volume is beneficial, the increase in urinary Ca concentrations, renal Ca and Ox excretion and urinary RSS CaOx associated with a high-protein diet may be critical for the development of CaOx uroliths in cats. PMID:26101619

  9. Risk factors associated with calcium oxalate urolithiasis in dogs evaluated at general care veterinary hospitals in the United States.

    PubMed

    Okafor, Chika C; Lefebvre, Sandra L; Pearl, David L; Yang, Mingyin; Wang, Mansen; Blois, Shauna L; Lund, Elizabeth M; Dewey, Cate E

    2014-08-01

    Calcium oxalate urolithiasis results from the formation of aggregates of calcium salts in the urinary tract. Difficulties associated with effectively treating calcium oxalate urolithiasis and the proportional increase in the prevalence of calcium oxalate uroliths relative to other urolith types over the last 2 decades has increased the concern of clinicians about this disease. To determine factors associated with the development of calcium oxalate urolithiasis in dogs evaluated at general care veterinary hospitals in the United States, a retrospective case-control study was performed. A national electronic database of medical records of all dogs evaluated between October 1, 2007 and December 31, 2010 at 787 general care veterinary hospitals in the United States was reviewed. Dogs were selected as cases at the first-time diagnosis of a laboratory-confirmed urolith comprised of at least 70% calcium oxalate (n=452). Two sets of control dogs with no history of urolithiasis diagnosis were randomly selected after the medical records of all remaining dogs were reviewed: urinalysis examination was a requirement in the selection of one set (n=1808) but was not required in the other set (n=1808). Historical information extracted included urolith composition, dog's diet, age, sex, neuter status, breed size category, hospital location, date of diagnosis, and urinalysis results. Multivariable analysis showed that the odds of first-time diagnosis of calcium oxalate urolithiasis were significantly (P<0.05) greater for dogs<7 years, males (OR: 7.77, 95% CI: 4.93-12.26), neutered (OR: 2.58, 1.44-4.63), toy- vs. medium-sized breeds (OR: 3.15, 1.90-5.22), small- vs. medium-sized breeds (OR: 3.05, 1.83-5.08), large- vs. medium-sized breeds (OR: 0.05, 0.01-0.19), and those with a diagnosis of cystitis within the previous year (OR: 6.49, 4.14-10.16). Urinary factors significantly associated with first-time diagnosis of calcium oxalate urolithiasis were acidic vs. basic pH (OR: 1.94, 1.22-3.10), presence of RBCs (OR: 6.20, 3.91-9.83) or WBCs (OR: 1.62, 1.03-2.54), and protein concentration>30 mg/dL (OR: 1.55, 1.04-2.30). Patient demographics and urinalysis results are important factors that can support risk assessment and early identification of canine oxalate urolithiasis. Therefore, periodic urolith screening and monitoring of urine parameters should be encouraged for dogs at risk of developing these uroliths. PMID:24834804

  10. Neonatal urinary tract infection may increase the risk of childhood asthma.

    PubMed

    Lin, C-H; Wang, Y-C; Lin, W-C; Kao, C-H

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this population-based retrospective cohort study was to investigate the onset of urinary tract infection in newborns and the associated risks of childhood asthma. Children with neonatal UTI (n = 3,312) and randomly selected controls (n = 13,243) were enrolled for our analysis. We calculated the follow-up person-years for each participant from the index date until the diagnosis of asthma, the end of 2008, or withdrawal from the insurance system (because of death or loss to follow-up). Furthermore, we compared the risk of asthma between non-UTI and UTI cohorts by using Cox proportional hazards model analysis, the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR), and a 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI). The overall asthma incidence rate was found to be 1.53-fold significantly higher in the UTI cohort than in the non-UTI cohort (70.3 vs 45.8 per 1000 person-years). After we adjusted for potential risk factors, the overall risk of asthma remained higher in the UTI cohort (aHR = 1.47, 95 % CI = 1.35-1.59). The incidence rate was higher in boys than in girls. Overall, patients suffering from UTI may have a greater risk of developing asthma than patients without UTI. This nationwide retrospective cohort study demonstrates that neonatal UTI may increase the risk of childhood asthma. PMID:26003311

  11. Activation of the Endogenous Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System or Aldosterone Administration Increases Urinary Exosomal Sodium Channel Excretion.

    PubMed

    Qi, Ying; Wang, Xiaojing; Rose, Kristie L; MacDonald, W Hayes; Zhang, Bing; Schey, Kevin L; Luther, James M

    2016-02-01

    Urinary exosomes secreted by multiple cell types in the kidney may participate in intercellular signaling and provide an enriched source of kidney-specific proteins for biomarker discovery. Factors that alter the exosomal protein content remain unknown. To determine whether endogenous and exogenous hormones modify urinary exosomal protein content, we analyzed samples from 14 mildly hypertensive patients in a crossover study during a high-sodium (HS, 160 mmol/d) diet and low-sodium (LS, 20 mmol/d) diet to activate the endogenous renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. We further analyzed selected exosomal protein content in a separate cohort of healthy persons receiving intravenous aldosterone (0.7 ?g/kg per hour for 10 hours) versus vehicle infusion. The LS diet increased plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentration, whereas aldosterone infusion increased only aldosterone concentration. Protein analysis of paired urine exosome samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based multidimensional protein identification technology detected 2775 unique proteins, of which 316 exhibited significantly altered abundance during LS diet. Sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) and ?- and ?-epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) subunits from the discovery set were verified using targeted multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry quantified with isotope-labeled peptide standards. Dietary sodium restriction or acute aldosterone infusion similarly increased urine exosomal ?ENaC[112-122] peptide concentrations nearly 20-fold, which correlated with plasma aldosterone concentration and urinary Na/K ratio. Urine exosomal NCC and ?ENaC concentrations were relatively unchanged during these interventions. We conclude that urinary exosome content is altered by renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation. Urinary measurement of exosomal ?ENaC[112-122] concentration may provide a useful biomarker of ENaC activation in future clinical studies. PMID:26113616

  12. Effects of microgravity on urinary osteopontin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyer, J. R.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Liu, H.; Whitson, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    Increased risk of renal stone formation during space flight has been linked primarily to increased calcium excretion from bone demineralization induced by space flight. Other factors contributing to increased risk include increased urinary calcium oxalate supersaturation, while urinary citrate, magnesium and volume are all decreased. The aim of this study was to increase the predictive value of stone risk profiles for crew members during space flight by evaluating the excretion of urinary protein inhibitors of calcium crystallization so that more comprehensive stone risk profiles could relate mineral saturation to the concentrations of inhibitor proteins. Levels of urinary osteopontin (uropontin) are reported in a series of 14 astronauts studied before, during, and after space flights. During space flight, a compensatory increase in uropontin excretion was not observed. However, the uropontin excretion of a majority of astronauts was increased during the period after space flight and was maximal at 2 wk after landing. The downward shift in the molecular size of uropontin observed in samples obtained during space flight was shown to result from storage at ambient temperature during flight, rather than an effect of microgravity on uropontin synthesis.

  13. Oxalate minerals on Mars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Applin, D. M.; Izawa, M. R. M.; Cloutis, E. A.; Goltz, D.; Johnson, J. R.

    2015-06-01

    Small amounts of unidentified organic compounds have only recently been inferred on Mars despite strong reasons to expect significant concentrations and decades of searching. Based on X-ray diffraction and reflectance spectroscopic analyses we show that solid oxalic acid and its most common mineral salts are stable under the pressure and ultraviolet irradiation environment of the surface of Mars, and could represent a heretofore largely overlooked reservoir of organic carbon in the martian near-surface. In addition to the delivery to Mars by carbonaceous chondrites, oxalate minerals are among the predicted breakdown products of meteoritic organic matter delivered to the martian surface, as well as any endogenic organic carbon reaching the martian surface from the interior. A reinterpretation of pyrolysis experiments from the Viking, Phoenix, and Mars Science Laboratory missions shows that all are consistent with the presence of significant concentrations of oxalate minerals. Oxalate minerals could be important in numerous martian geochemical processes, including acting as a possible nitrogen sink (as ammonium oxalate), and contributing to the formation of organic carbonates, methane, and hydroxyl radicals.

  14. Increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2 protein in rat urinary bladder tumors induced by N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine.

    PubMed

    Kitayama, W; Denda, A; Okajima, E; Tsujiuchi, T; Konishi, Y

    1999-12-01

    The anti-inflammatory drugs, aspirin and piroxicam, are known to possess chemopreventive potential against rat superficial urinary bladder carcinogenesis induced by N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN). Recently, we found similar inhibitory effects with a selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor, nimesulide. In order to clarify the inhibitory mechanisms, we have further studied the expression of COX-2 protein in urinary bladder tumors induced by BBN in Fischer 344 male rats. For comparison, papillomatosis caused by uracil-induced urolithiasis, and normal epithelial cells, were also investigated. Western blot analysis revealed COX-2 protein to be barely expressed in the normal epithelial cells, whereas it was increased 13-22-fold in varying sizes of urinary bladder tumors and 7-fold in papillomatosis. Immunohistochemically, COX-2 protein was diffusely expressed in transitional cell carcinomas and nodulo-papillary hyperplasia but weakly expressed only in basal cells in simple hyperplasia and normal-looking surrounding epithelia. In papillomatosis, it was moderately expressed only in endothelial cells in stroma. These results indicate that COX-2 plays important roles in the development of preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions in the rat urinary bladder, and therefore could be a good target for chemoprevention of superficial lesions. PMID:10590224

  15. SALT LOADING INCREASES URINARY EXCRETION OF LINOLEIC ACID DIOLS AND TRIOLS IN HEALTHY HUMAN SUBJECTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Urinary linoleate (LA) metabolite excretion was investigated in subjects exposed to a salt loading/salt depletion regimen. Twelve healthy subjects were recruited from the New Orleans population (pre-Katrina) and admitted to Tulane-LSU Charity Hospital GCRC after a 5-day outpatient lead in phase on a...

  16. Growth Conditions To Reduce Oxalic Acid Content of Spinach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson-Rutzke, Corinne

    2003-01-01

    A controlled-environment agricultural (CEA) technique to increase the nutritive value of spinach has been developed. This technique makes it possible to reduce the concentration of oxalic acid in spinach leaves. It is desirable to reduce the oxalic acid content because oxalic acid acts as an anti-nutritive calcium-binding component. More than 30 years ago, an enzyme (an oxidase) that breaks down oxalic acid into CO2 and H2O2 was discovered and found to be naturally present in spinach leaves. However, nitrate, which can also be present because of the use of common nitratebased fertilizers, inactivates the enzyme. In the CEA technique, one cuts off the supply of nitrate and keeps the spinach plants cool while providing sufficient oxygen. This technique provides the precise environment that enables the enzyme to naturally break down oxalate. The result of application of this technique is that the oxalate content is reduced by 2/3 in one week.

  17. High Sodium-Induced Oxidative Stress and Poor Anticrystallization Defense Aggravate Calcium Oxalate Crystal Formation in Rat Hyperoxaluric Kidneys.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ho-Shiang; Ma, Ming-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced sodium excretion is associated with intrarenal oxidative stress. The present study evaluated whether oxidative stress caused by high sodium (HS) may be involved in calcium oxalate crystal formation. Male rats were fed a sodium-depleted diet. Normal-sodium and HS diets were achieved by providing drinking water containing 0.3% and 3% NaCl, respectively. Rats were fed a sodium-depleted diet with 5% hydroxyl-L-proline (HP) for 7 and 42 days to induce hyperoxaluria and/or calcium oxalate deposition. Compared to normal sodium, HS slightly increased calcium excretion despite diuresis; however, the result did not reach statistical significance. HS did not affect the hyperoxaluria, hypocalciuria or supersaturation caused by HP; however, it increased calcium oxalate crystal deposition soon after 7 days of co-treatment. Massive calcium oxalate formation and calcium crystal excretion in HS+HP rats were seen after 42 days of treatment. HP-mediated hypocitraturia was further exacerbated by HS. Moreover, HS aggravated HP-induced renal injury and tubular damage via increased apoptosis and oxidative stress. Increased urinary malondialdehyde excretion, in situ superoxide production, NAD(P)H oxidase and xanthine oxidase expression and activity, and decreased antioxidant enzyme expression or activity in the HS+HP kidney indicated exaggerated oxidative stress. Interestingly, this redox imbalance was associated with reduced renal osteopontin and Tamm-Horsfall protein expression (via increased excretion) and sodium-dependent dicarboxylate cotransporter NaDC-1 upregulation. Collectively, our results demonstrate that a HS diet induces massive crystal formation in the hyperoxaluric kidney; this is not due to increased urinary calcium excretion but is related to oxidative injury and loss of anticrystallization defense. PMID:26241473

  18. High Sodium-Induced Oxidative Stress and Poor Anticrystallization Defense Aggravate Calcium Oxalate Crystal Formation in Rat Hyperoxaluric Kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ho-Shiang; Ma, Ming-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced sodium excretion is associated with intrarenal oxidative stress. The present study evaluated whether oxidative stress caused by high sodium (HS) may be involved in calcium oxalate crystal formation. Male rats were fed a sodium-depleted diet. Normal-sodium and HS diets were achieved by providing drinking water containing 0.3% and 3% NaCl, respectively. Rats were fed a sodium-depleted diet with 5% hydroxyl-L-proline (HP) for 7 and 42 days to induce hyperoxaluria and/or calcium oxalate deposition. Compared to normal sodium, HS slightly increased calcium excretion despite diuresis; however, the result did not reach statistical significance. HS did not affect the hyperoxaluria, hypocalciuria or supersaturation caused by HP; however, it increased calcium oxalate crystal deposition soon after 7 days of co-treatment. Massive calcium oxalate formation and calcium crystal excretion in HS+HP rats were seen after 42 days of treatment. HP-mediated hypocitraturia was further exacerbated by HS. Moreover, HS aggravated HP-induced renal injury and tubular damage via increased apoptosis and oxidative stress. Increased urinary malondialdehyde excretion, in situ superoxide production, NAD(P)H oxidase and xanthine oxidase expression and activity, and decreased antioxidant enzyme expression or activity in the HS+HP kidney indicated exaggerated oxidative stress. Interestingly, this redox imbalance was associated with reduced renal osteopontin and Tamm-Horsfall protein expression (via increased excretion) and sodium-dependent dicarboxylate cotransporter NaDC-1 upregulation. Collectively, our results demonstrate that a HS diet induces massive crystal formation in the hyperoxaluric kidney; this is not due to increased urinary calcium excretion but is related to oxidative injury and loss of anticrystallization defense. PMID:26241473

  19. Cerium oxalate precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, T.P.

    1987-02-01

    Cerium, a nonradioactive, common stand-in for plutonium in development work, has been used to simulate several plutonium precipitation processes at the Savannah River Laboratory. There are similarities between the plutonium trifluoride and the cerium oxalate precipitations in particle size and extent of plating, but not particle morphology. The equilibrium solubility, precipitation kinetics, particle size, extent of plating, and dissolution characteristics of cerium oxalate have been investigated. Interpretations of particle size and plating based on precipitation kinetics (i.e., nucleation and crystal growth) are presented. 16 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Hypertension and Hyperglycemia Synergize to Cause Incipient Renal Tubular Alterations Resulting in Increased NGAL Urinary Excretion in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Blázquez-Medela, Ana M.; García-Sánchez, Omar; Blanco-Gozalo, Víctor; Quiros, Yaremi; Montero, María J.; Martínez-Salgado, Carlos; López-Novoa, José M.; López-Hernández, Francisco J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypertension and diabetes are the two leading causes of chronic kidney disease (CKD) eventually leading to end stage renal disease (ESRD) and the need of renal replacement therapy. Mortality among CKD and ESRD patients is high, mostly due to cardiovascular events. New early markers of risk are necessary to better anticipate the course of the disease, to detect the renal affection of additive risk factors, and to appropriately handle patients in a pre-emptive and personalized manner. Methods Renal function and NGAL urinary excretion was monitored in rats with spontaneous (SHR) or L-NAME induced hypertension rendered hyperglycemic (or not as controls). Results Combination of hypertension and hyperglycemia (but not each of these factors independently) causes an increased urinary excretion of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in the rat, in the absence of signs of renal damage. Increased NGAL excretion is observed in diabetic animals with two independent models of hypertension. Elevated urinary NGAL results from a specific alteration in its tubular handling, rather than from an increase in its renal expression. In fact, when kidneys of hyperglycaemic-hypertensive rats are perfused in situ with Krebs-dextran solution containing exogenous NGAL, they excrete more NGAL in the urine than hypertensive rats. We also show that albuminuria is not capable of detecting the additive effect posed by the coexistence of these two risk factors. Conclusions Our results suggest that accumulation of hypertension and hyperglycemia induces an incipient and quite specific alteration in the tubular handling of NGAL resulting in its increased urinary excretion. PMID:25148248

  1. Ammonium reduces oxalate accumulation in different spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) genotypes by inhibiting root uptake of nitrate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoxia; Lu, Lingli; Chen, Qiuhui; Ding, Wenya; Dai, Peibin; Hu, Yan; Yu, Yan; Jin, Chongwei; Lin, Xianyong

    2015-11-01

    Excessive accumulation of oxalate negatively affects nutritional value of many vegetables, such as spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). Mixed solution of ammonium and nitrate could effectively reduce oxalate accumulation, while the mechanism involved remains unknown. High (Heizhenzhu) and low (Weilv) oxalate-accumulated spinach genotypes were used in this study to investigate the association of oxalate accumulation and root uptake of nitrogen. Exposure of increasing nitrate or mixed-nitrogen (nitrate:ammonium = 1:1) significantly increased leaf total and soluble oxalate contents. In contrast, increasing ammonium did not result in elevation of leaf oxalate. Correlation analysis confirmed that leaf oxalate accumulation was positively associated with root uptake of nitrate but not ammonium. Moreover, addition of ammonium significantly reduced nitrate uptake rate, and subsequently decreased leaf oxalate accumulation. The results suggest that oxalate synthesis in spinach leaves is associated with its root uptake of nitrate, and ammonium is able to reduce oxalate accumulation by inhibiting uptake of nitrate. PMID:25976827

  2. Internalization of Calcium Oxalate Calculi Developed in Narrow Cavities

    PubMed Central

    Grases, Fèlix; Costa-Bauzá, Antonia; Prieto, Rafel M.; Servera, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    We describe the case of a patient with calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium oxalate dihydrate calculi occluded in cavities. All those calculi were located inside narrow cavities covered with a thin epithelium that permits their visualization. Urinary biochemical analysis showed high calciuria, not hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, and a ratio [calcium]/[citrate] >0.33. The existence of cavities of very low urodynamic efficacy was decisive in the formation of such calculi. It is important to emphasize that we observed a thin epithelium covering such cavities, demonstrating that this epithelium may be formed after the development of the calculi through a re-epithelialization process.

  3. Time Related Increase in Urinary Testosterone Levels and Stable Semen Analysis Parameters after Bariatric Surgery in Men

    PubMed Central

    Legro, Richard S; Kunselman, Allen R; Meadows, Juliana W; Kesner, James S; Krieg, Edward F; Rogers, Ann M; Cooney, Robert N

    2015-01-01

    We sought to determine the time-course in androgen and semen parameters in men after weight loss associated with bariatric surgery with a prospective cohort study of 6 male subjects, age 18-40 years, meeting NIH bariatric surgery guidelines, conducted in 2005-2008, with study visits at baseline, then 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery. All men had a Roux-en-y-Gastric-Bypass (RYGB) performed at Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center. We collected at each visit biometric, questionnaire, serum, and urinary specimens as well as a semen analysis. Urinary integrated total testosterone levels increased significantly by 3 months after surgery, and remained elevated throughout the study. Circulating testosterone levels were also higher at 1 and 6 months after surgery, compared to baseline. Serum SHBG levels were significantly elevated at all time points post-operatively. After RYGB surgery, there were no significant changes in urinary estrogen metabolites (estrone 3-glucuronide) or serum estradiol levels, serial semen parameters, or male sexual function by questionnaire. This study supports the idea that a threshold of weight loss is necessary to improve male reproductive function by reversing male hypogonadism, manifested as increased testosterone levels. Further serial semen analysis results showed normal ranges for most parameters despite massive weight loss. PMID:25498592

  4. Time-related increase in urinary testosterone levels and stable semen analysis parameters after bariatric surgery in men.

    PubMed

    Legro, Richard S; Kunselman, Allen R; Meadows, Juliana W; Kesner, James S; Krieg, Edward F; Rogers, Ann M; Cooney, Robert N

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this prospective cohort study was to determine the time-course in androgen and semen parameters in men after weight loss associated with bariatric surgery. Six men aged 18-40 years, meeting National Institutes of Health bariatric surgery guidelines, were followed between 2005 and 2008. Study visits took place at baseline, then 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery. All men underwent Roux-en-y gastric bypass (RYGB). At each visit, biometric, questionnaire, serum, and urinary specimens and seman analysis were collected. Urinary integrated total testosterone levels increased significantly (P < 0.0001) by 3 months after surgery, and remained elevated throughout the study. Circulating testosterone levels were also higher at 1 and 6 months after surgery, compared with baseline. Serum sex hormone-binding globulin levels were significantly elevated at all time points after surgery (P < 0.01 to P = 0.02). After RYGB surgery, no significant changes occurred in urinary oestrogen metabolites (oestrone 3-glucuronide), serum oestradiol levels, serial semen parameters or male sexual function by questionnaire. A threshold of weight loss is necessary to improve male reproductive function by reversing male hypogonadism, manifested as increased testosterone levels. Further serial semen analyses showed normal ranges for most parameters despite massive weight loss. PMID:25498592

  5. Pantothenic acid deficiency may increase the urinary excretion of 2-oxo acids and nicotinamide catabolites in rats.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Katsumi; Inomoto, Kasumi; Nakata, Chifumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    Pantothenic acid (PaA) is involved in the metabolism of amino acids as well as fatty acid. We investigated the systemic metabolism of amino acids in PaA-deficient rats. For this purpose, urine samples were collected and 2-oxo acids and L-tryptophan (L-Trp) and its metabolites including nicotinamide were measured. Group 1 was freely fed a conventional chemically-defined complete diet and used as an ad lib-fed control, which group was used for showing reference values. Group 2 was freely fed the complete diet without PaA (PaA-free diet) and used as a PaA-deficient group. Group 3 was fed the complete diet, but the daily food amount was equal to the amount of the PaA-deficient group and used as a pair-fed control group. All rats were orally administered 100 mg of L-Trp/kg body weight at 09:00 on day 34 of the experiment and the following 24-h urine samples were collected. The urinary excretion of the sum of pyruvic acid and oxaloacetic acid was higher in rats fed the PaA-free diets than in the rats fed pair-fed the complete diet. PaA deficiency elicited the increased urinary excretion of anthranilic acid and kynurenic acid, while the urinary excretion of xanthurenic acid decreased. The urinary excretion of L-Trp itself, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, and quinolinic acid revealed no differences between the rats fed the PaA-free and pair-fed the complete diets. PaA deficiency elicited the increased excretion of N(1)-methylnicotinamide, N(1)-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide, and N(1)-methyl-4-pyridone-3-carboxamide. These findings suggest that PaA deficiency disturbs the amino acid catabolism. PMID:24477247

  6. Developing strategies to improve the nutritional quality and production of plant foods through manipulation of calcium oxalate formation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The production of oxalate commonly occurs in numerous organisms. Oxalate negatively affects human health by acting as an antinutrient affecting calcium bioavailability and/or contributing to the pathological condition of urinary stone formation where it is a primary component. In some microbes, ox...

  7. Thorium oxalate solubility and morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Monson, P.R. Jr.; Hall, R.

    1981-10-01

    Thorium was used as a stand-in for studying the solubility and precipitation of neptunium and plutonium oxalates. Thorium oxalate solubility was determined over a range of 0.001 to 10.0 in the concentration parameter (H/sub 2/C/sub 2/O/sub 4/)/(HNO/sub 3/)/sup 2/. Morphology of thorium oxide made from the oxalate precipitates was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The different morphologies found for oxalate-lean and oxalate-rich precipitations were in agreement with predictions based on precipitation theory.

  8. Urinary trichlorophenol levels and increased risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among US school-aged children

    PubMed Central

    Nembhard, Wendy N; Kan, Haidong; Kearney, Greg; Zhang, Zhi-Jiang; Talbott, Evelyn O

    2011-01-01

    Background Trichlorophenols (TCPs) are organochlorine compounds which are ubiquitous in the environment and well known for their carcinogenic effects. However, little is known about their neurotoxicity in humans. Objectives Our goal was to examine the association between body burden of TCPs (ie, 2,4,5-TCP and 2,4,6-TCP) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods We calculated ORs and 95% CIs from logistic regression analyses using data from the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to evaluate the association between urinary TCPs and parent-reported ADHD among 2546 children aged 6–15 years. Results Children with low levels (<3.58 μg/g) and high levels (≥3.58 μg/g) of urinary 2,4,6-TCP had a higher risk of parent-reported ADHD compared to children with levels below the limit of detection (OR 1.54, 95% CI 0.97 to 2.43 and OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.18 to 2.66, respectively; p for trend=0.006) after adjusting for covariates. No association was found between urinary 2,4,5-TCP and parent-reported ADHD. Conclusion Exposure to TCP may increase the risk of behavioural impairment in children. The potential neurotoxicity of these chemicals should be considered in public health efforts to reduce environmental exposures/contamination, especially in countries where organochlorine pesticides are still commonly used. PMID:21540483

  9. ADVANCED OXIDATION: OXALATE DECOMPOSITION TESTING WITH OZONE

    SciTech Connect

    Ketusky, E.; Subramanian, K.

    2012-02-29

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), oxalic acid is currently considered the preferred agent for chemically cleaning the large underground Liquid Radioactive Waste Tanks. It is applied only in the final stages of emptying a tank when generally less than 5,000 kg of waste solids remain, and slurrying based removal methods are no-longer effective. The use of oxalic acid is preferred because of its combined dissolution and chelating properties, as well as the fact that corrosion to the carbon steel tank walls can be controlled. Although oxalic acid is the preferred agent, there are significant potential downstream impacts. Impacts include: (1) Degraded evaporator operation; (2) Resultant oxalate precipitates taking away critically needed operating volume; and (3) Eventual creation of significant volumes of additional feed to salt processing. As an alternative to dealing with the downstream impacts, oxalate decomposition using variations of ozone based Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) were investigated. In general AOPs use ozone or peroxide and a catalyst to create hydroxyl radicals. Hydroxyl radicals have among the highest oxidation potentials, and are commonly used to decompose organics. Although oxalate is considered among the most difficult organic to decompose, the ability of hydroxyl radicals to decompose oxalate is considered to be well demonstrated. In addition, as AOPs are considered to be 'green' their use enables any net chemical additions to the waste to be minimized. In order to test the ability to decompose the oxalate and determine the decomposition rates, a test rig was designed, where 10 vol% ozone would be educted into a spent oxalic acid decomposition loop, with the loop maintained at 70 C and recirculated at 40L/min. Each of the spent oxalic acid streams would be created from three oxalic acid strikes of an F-area simulant (i.e., Purex = high Fe/Al concentration) and H-area simulant (i.e., H area modified Purex = high Al/Fe concentration) after nearing dissolution equilibrium, and then decomposed to {le} 100 Parts per Million (ppm) oxalate. Since AOP technology largely originated on using ultraviolet (UV) light as a primary catalyst, decomposition of the spent oxalic acid, well exposed to a medium pressure mercury vapor light was considered the benchmark. However, with multi-valent metals already contained in the feed, and maintenance of the UV light a concern; testing was conducted to evaluate the impact from removing the UV light. Using current AOP terminology, the test without the UV light would likely be considered an ozone based, dark, ferrioxalate type, decomposition process. Specifically, as part of the testing, the impacts from the following were investigated: (1) Importance of the UV light on the decomposition rates when decomposing 1 wt% spent oxalic acid; (2) Impact of increasing the oxalic acid strength from 1 to 2.5 wt% on the decomposition rates; and (3) For F-area testing, the advantage of increasing the spent oxalic acid flowrate from 40 L/min (liters/minute) to 50 L/min during decomposition of the 2.5 wt% spent oxalic acid. The results showed that removal of the UV light (from 1 wt% testing) slowed the decomposition rates in both the F & H testing. Specifically, for F-Area Strike 1, the time increased from about 6 hours to 8 hours. In H-Area, the impact was not as significant, with the time required for Strike 1 to be decomposed to less than 100 ppm increasing slightly, from 5.4 to 6.4 hours. For the spent 2.5 wt% oxalic acid decomposition tests (all) without the UV light, the F-area decompositions required approx. 10 to 13 hours, while the corresponding required H-Area decompositions times ranged from 10 to 21 hours. For the 2.5 wt% F-Area sludge, the increased availability of iron likely caused the increased decomposition rates compared to the 1 wt% oxalic acid based tests. In addition, for the F-testing, increasing the recirculation flow rates from 40 liter/minute to 50 liter/minute resulted in an increased decomposition rate, suggesting a better use of ozone.

  10. Significance of rises in urinary bicarbonate contents and pH related with increased atmospheric carbon dioxide in Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Tomoda, A; Kazuka, M; Yashima, K; Niiyama, K; Muro, D

    1997-09-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration was measured at several locations in Tokyo, for two weeks, in December, 1995 and 1996, and was found to be increased up to 550 ppm, while it was shown by us to be 450 ppm in December, 1994. These results demonstrate that atmospheric carbon dioxide is steadily increasing at faster rates in Tokyo than we expect, though it has been considered that the atmospheric carbon dioxide is still as much as 350 ppm. Bicarbonate concentration and pH of urine of 13 medical students in Tokyo were also measured for the same period in December of 1995 and 1996, and were found to be significantly increased compared with the values that were reported in the past. Furthermore, urinary bicarbonate and pH were extensively increased, when 4 and 5 students made 3-hour car trip in two different cars with all windows closed, where carbon dioxide was increased up to about 5000 ppm within 1 hour. These results support our previous hypothesis that the increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide may be reflected by the increase of urinary bicarbonate and pH. Our results also suggest that the environmental situation is being seriously aggravated in Tokyo, year by year, in terms of atmospheric carbon dioxide. PMID:9453118

  11. Increased risk of depressive disorder within 1 year after diagnosis with urinary calculi in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chung, Shiu-Dong; Keller, Joseph J; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2012-07-30

    This study investigated the risk of subsequent depressive disorders (DD) following a diagnosis of urinary calculi (UC) in Taiwan. In total, 67,917 adult patients newly diagnosed with UC were recruited, along with 153,951 age-matched enrollees who were used as a comparison group. A stratified Cox proportional hazard regression analysis revealed that the adjusted hazard of DD within a 1-year period following diagnosis with UC was 1.75 times greater for patients with UC than for comparison patients. PMID:22417936

  12. Functionally active ganglioneuroma with increased plasma and urinary catecholamines and positive iodine 131-meta-iodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Clerico, A.; Jenkner, A.; Castello, M.A.; Ciofetta, G.; Lucarelli, C.; Codini, M. )

    1991-01-01

    Ganglioneuromas are usually considered not to be functionally active. Studies of their catecholamine excretory pattern and of their imaging by means of the adrenergic tracing agent 131-I-MIBG have been therefore sparse. We report on a case of secretory ganglioneuroma, as demonstrated by the increased urinary excretion of the catecholamine metabolites HVA and VMA, increased plasma dopamine and epinephrine levels, and positive 131-I-MIBG scintigraphy. We must therefore be aware that a functionally active tumor is not necessarily a neuroblastoma, and that the diagnosis should be biopsy proven.

  13. Urinary stone analysis on 12,846 patients: a report from a single center in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenqi; Yang, Bicheng; Ou, Lili; Liang, Yeping; Wan, Shawpong; Li, Shujue; Zeng, Guohua

    2014-02-01

    We reported a retrospective review of the urinary stone compositions in 12,846 patients. Data on urinary stone compositions analyzed between January 2003 and December 2012 in our center were collected. Infrared spectroscopy was used for stone analysis. Predominant stone component was recorded. Patients were divided into four age groups: 0-18, 19-40, 41-60, and 61-92, and five categories by components. In order to determine the change of stone characteristics with respect to time, data were also divided into two periods, 2003-2007 and 2008-2012. A total of 12,846 stones were included in this study. The age of the patients ranged from 1 to 92 years with 7,736 males and 5,110 females. Stone made of single component was rare, 2.61%. Calcium oxalate stone was the most common component at 82.56%. Calcium oxalate and uric acid stones were more common in male than in female. The incidence of calcium phosphate stones and uric acid stones had increased during the past 5 years, while calcium oxalate stones decreased. We found the highest incidence of stone disease in the 41-60 years old group and the lowest in the 1-18 years old for both genders. Calcium oxalate was the dominant component in every group but was more prevalent in 19-40 years group. The percentage of magnesium ammonium phosphate stone and uric acid stone increased with age. PMID:24362574

  14. Elimination of oxalate by fat sand rats (Psammomys obesus): wild and laboratory-bred animals compared.

    PubMed

    Palgi, Niv; Taleisnik, Hanna; Pinshow, Berry

    2008-02-01

    Wild fat sand rats (Psammomys obesus) can feed exclusively on plants containing much oxalate, but little calcium; oxalate intake may exceed 300 mg/d, while calcium intake is approximately 30 mg/day. By contrast, for generations, laboratory bred P. obesus have been fed a low-oxalate (<100 mg/day), high-calcium (approximately 150 mg/day) rodent chow. We compared oxalate intake and excretion between wild and laboratory-bred animals, both fed the natural high-oxalate diet, to determine whether these different dietary histories are reflected in the animal's ability to eliminate dietary oxalate. Since both wild and laboratory-bred P. obesus harbor intestinal oxalate-degrading bacteria, we predicted that their oxalate intake and excretion would be similar. Indeed, we found no significant differences in oxalate intake or excretion between the groups fed either saltbush or alfalfa (p>0.05). However, due to the differences in dietary calcium intake between the two diets, in both groups only part (23-25%) of the ingested oxalate was excreted when the animals were fed the oxalate-rich saltbush, yet most (87-90%) was excreted when feeding on calcium-rich alfalfa. Thus, even after generations of feeding on a commercial low-oxalate diet, fat sand rats maintain intestinal oxalate-degrading bacteria that appear to increase in number and activity when presented with their natural diet. PMID:18187353

  15. Literature review for oxalate oxidation processes and plutonium oxalate solubility

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, C. A.

    2015-10-01

    A literature review of oxalate oxidation processes finds that manganese(II)-catalyzed nitric acid oxidation of oxalate in precipitate filtrate is a viable and well-documented process. The process has been operated on the large scale at Savannah River in the past, including oxidation of 20 tons of oxalic acid in F-Canyon. Research data under a variety of conditions show the process to be robust. This process is recommended for oxalate destruction in H-Canyon in the upcoming program to produce feed for the MOX facility. Prevention of plutonium oxalate precipitation in filtrate can be achieved by concentrated nitric acid/ferric nitrate sequestration of oxalate. Organic complexants do not appear practical to sequester plutonium. Testing is proposed to confirm the literature and calculation findings of this review at projected operating conditions for the upcoming campaign.

  16. Oxalic acid production and aluminum tolerance in Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Hamel, R; Levasseur, R; Appanna, V D

    1999-08-30

    13C NMR studies on intact cells from Al-stressed Pseudomonas fluorescens incubated with citric acid or Al-citrate yielded peaks at 158 and 166 ppm that were attributable to free and complexed oxalic acid, respectively. The presence of oxalic acid was further confirmed with the aid of oxalate oxidase. These peaks were not discernable in experiments performed with cells taken from control cultures. Enzymatic analyses of cell fractions showed the highest production of oxalic acid in the inner membrane fraction of Al-stressed cells incubated with glyoxylate. There was an eight-fold increase in the synthesis of oxalic acid in the inner membrane fraction from the Al-stressed cells compared to the control cells. Although oxalic acid production was observed when citrate, Al-citrate and isocitrate were utilized as substrates, the inner membrane fraction did not mediate the formation of oxalic acid from glycine/pyruvate, glycolic acid, oxaloacetate or ascorbate. These data suggest that the increased oxalic acid production in response to Al stress is effected via the oxidation of glyoxylate. PMID:10612061

  17. Effect of Cystone on Urinary Composition and Stone Formation Over a One Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, S. B.; Vrtiska, T. J.; Lieske, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Kidney stones are a common problem for which inadequate prevention exists. We recruited ten recurrent kidney stone formers with documented calcium oxalate stones into a two phased study to assess safety and effectiveness of Cystone, an herbal treatment for prevention of kidney stones. The first phase was a randomized double-blinded 12 week cross over study assessing the effect of Cystone vs. placebo on urinary supersaturation. The second phase was an open label one year study of Cystone to determine if renal stone burden decreased, as assessed by quantitative and subjective assessment of CT. Results revealed no statistically significant effect of Cystone on urinary composition short (6 weeks) or long (52 weeks) term. Average renal stone burden increased rather than decreased on Cystone. Therefore, this study does not support the efficacy of Cystone to treat calcium oxalate stone formers. Future studies will be needed to assess effects on stone passage, or on other stone types. PMID:21419609

  18. Effect of zeolite nano-materials and artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) leaf extract on increase in urinary clearance of systematically absorbed nicotine.

    PubMed

    Malekshah, R E; Mahjub, R; Rastgarpanah, M; Ghorbani, M; Partoazar, A R; Mehr, S E; Dehpour, A R; Dorkoosh, F A

    2012-12-01

    Nicotine, the main pharmacologically active component in tobacco and cigarette, has some toxic effects and also high potential for addiction. In this study, the effect of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) and zeolite nano-materials on urinary excretion of nicotine and consequently elimination of systematically absorbed nicotine was investigated. A simple, valid and highly sensitive high performance liquid chromatography method has been developed for determination of nicotine in rat urine according to guidelines for bioanalysis.It was found that nano-zeolites can cause increase in urinary concentration of nicotine due to its high surface adsorption. Artichoke leaf extract can cause increase in urinary excretion of nicotine in longer post administration times. It was observed that co-administration of nanozeolites and the leaf extract has the synergetic effect on increasing the urinary excretion of nicotine. PMID:23196970

  19. Reduction of Oxalate Levels in Tomato Fruit and Consequent Metabolic Remodeling Following Overexpression of a Fungal Oxalate Decarboxylase1[W

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Niranjan; Ghosh, Rajgourab; Ghosh, Sudip; Narula, Kanika; Tayal, Rajul; Datta, Asis; Chakraborty, Subhra

    2013-01-01

    The plant metabolite oxalic acid is increasingly recognized as a food toxin with negative effects on human nutrition. Decarboxylative degradation of oxalic acid is catalyzed, in a substrate-specific reaction, by oxalate decarboxylase (OXDC), forming formic acid and carbon dioxide. Attempts to date to reduce oxalic acid levels and to understand the biological significance of OXDC in crop plants have met with little success. To investigate the role of OXDC and the metabolic consequences of oxalate down-regulation in a heterotrophic, oxalic acid-accumulating fruit, we generated transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants expressing an OXDC (FvOXDC) from the fungus Flammulina velutipes specifically in the fruit. These E8.2-OXDC fruit showed up to a 90% reduction in oxalate content, which correlated with concomitant increases in calcium, iron, and citrate. Expression of OXDC affected neither carbon dioxide assimilation rates nor resulted in any detectable morphological differences in the transgenic plants. Comparative proteomic analysis suggested that metabolic remodeling was associated with the decrease in oxalate content in transgenic fruit. Examination of the E8.2-OXDC fruit proteome revealed that OXDC-responsive proteins involved in metabolism and stress responses represented the most substantially up- and down-regulated categories, respectively, in the transgenic fruit, compared with those of wild-type plants. Collectively, our study provides insights into OXDC-regulated metabolic networks and may provide a widely applicable strategy for enhancing crop nutritional value. PMID:23482874

  20. Reduction of oxalate levels in tomato fruit and consequent metabolic remodeling following overexpression of a fungal oxalate decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Niranjan; Ghosh, Rajgourab; Ghosh, Sudip; Narula, Kanika; Tayal, Rajul; Datta, Asis; Chakraborty, Subhra

    2013-05-01

    The plant metabolite oxalic acid is increasingly recognized as a food toxin with negative effects on human nutrition. Decarboxylative degradation of oxalic acid is catalyzed, in a substrate-specific reaction, by oxalate decarboxylase (OXDC), forming formic acid and carbon dioxide. Attempts to date to reduce oxalic acid levels and to understand the biological significance of OXDC in crop plants have met with little success. To investigate the role of OXDC and the metabolic consequences of oxalate down-regulation in a heterotrophic, oxalic acid-accumulating fruit, we generated transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants expressing an OXDC (FvOXDC) from the fungus Flammulina velutipes specifically in the fruit. These E8.2-OXDC fruit showed up to a 90% reduction in oxalate content, which correlated with concomitant increases in calcium, iron, and citrate. Expression of OXDC affected neither carbon dioxide assimilation rates nor resulted in any detectable morphological differences in the transgenic plants. Comparative proteomic analysis suggested that metabolic remodeling was associated with the decrease in oxalate content in transgenic fruit. Examination of the E8.2-OXDC fruit proteome revealed that OXDC-responsive proteins involved in metabolism and stress responses represented the most substantially up- and down-regulated categories, respectively, in the transgenic fruit, compared with those of wild-type plants. Collectively, our study provides insights into OXDC-regulated metabolic networks and may provide a widely applicable strategy for enhancing crop nutritional value. PMID:23482874

  1. A Problem Protein: Unexpected Analytical Irregularities in the Measurement of Urinary Osteopontin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurgood, L. A.; Grover, P. K.; Ryall, R. L.

    2007-04-01

    Reported mean urinary values of osteopontin (OPN) have varied widely, from <1?g/mL to more than 20 times that value. Since OPN binds to calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals, the presence of crystals in urine may cause underestimation of its urinary levels. We measured urinary OPN levels in the presence of endogenous or exogenous CaOx monohydrate (COM) and dihydrate (COD) crystals. OPN concentrations decreased in the presence of endogenous and exogenous CaOx crystals, but never below 2?g/mL. Increasing the urinary calcium concentration decreased detectable osteopontin levels, which is likely due to changes in the 3D-confirmation shape of the protein. The value of measuring OPN as a diagnostic marker of urolithiasis must therefore be seriously questioned.

  2. Absorption kinetics of oxalate from oxalate-rich food in man

    SciTech Connect

    Prenen, J.A.; Boer, P.; Dorhout Mees, E.J.

    1984-11-01

    The absorption of oxalate was investigated in a healthy subject after ingestion of oxalate-rich meals (spinach and rhubarb) with and without addition of /sup 14/C-labeled oxalic acid and calcium oxalate, and after oxalate-free meals with addition of nonlabeled sodium oxalate and calcium oxalate. Under these conditions, calcium oxalate was absorbed to the same extent as soluble oxalate; only a small percentage (2.4 +/- 0.7) of the total oxalate load was absorbed. Significant oxalate absorption occurred within 1 to 8 h after ingestion. The results suggest that under normal conditions the proximal part of the small bowel is a major absorption site.

  3. LITERATURE REVIEW FOR OXALATE OXIDATION PROCESSES AND PLUTONIUM OXALATE SOLUBILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, C.

    2012-02-03

    A literature review of oxalate oxidation processes finds that manganese(II)-catalyzed nitric acid oxidation of oxalate in precipitate filtrate is a viable and well-documented process. The process has been operated on the large scale at Savannah River in the past, including oxidation of 20 tons of oxalic acid in F-Canyon. Research data under a variety of conditions show the process to be robust. This process is recommended for oxalate destruction in H-Canyon in the upcoming program to produce feed for the MOX facility. Prevention of plutonium oxalate precipitation in filtrate can be achieved by concentrated nitric acid/ferric nitrate sequestration of oxalate. Organic complexants do not appear practical to sequester plutonium. Testing is proposed to confirm the literature and calculation findings of this review at projected operating conditions for the upcoming campaign. H Canyon plans to commence conversion of plutonium metal to low-fired plutonium oxide in 2012 for eventual use in the Mixed Oxide Fuel (MOX) Facility. The flowsheet includes sequential operations of metal dissolution, ion exchange, elution, oxalate precipitation, filtration, and calcination. All processes beyond dissolution will occur in HB-Line. The filtration step produces an aqueous filtrate that may have as much as 4 M nitric acid and 0.15 M oxalate. The oxalate needs to be removed from the stream to prevent possible downstream precipitation of residual plutonium when the solution is processed in H Canyon. In addition, sending the oxalate to the waste tank farm is undesirable. This report addresses the processing options for destroying the oxalate in existing H Canyon equipment.

  4. Fumonisin B1 consumption by rats causes reversible, dose-dependent increases in urinary sphinganine and sphingosine.

    PubMed

    Wang, E; Riley, R T; Meredith, F I; Merrill, A H

    1999-01-01

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a frequently encountered mycotoxin that inhibits ceramide synthase, the enzyme that acylates sphinganine, sphingosine and other "sphingoid" bases. Exposure of rats, rabbits, pigs and nonhuman primates to fumonisin-contaminated feed elevates sphingoid base amounts in urine; therefore, this study examined the time course and reversibility of these changes. When an AIN-76 diet supplemented with >/=5 microg FB1/g was fed to male Sprague-Dawley rats, there was a significant increase in sphinganine (ca. 50-fold in urine from rats fed 50 microg FB1/g diet) and smaller changes in sphingosine within 5 to 7 d, compared to rats fed the same diet without FB1. No change occurred in sphingoid bases upon feeding 1 microg FB1/g for up to 60 d. When rats were fed FB1 (10 microg FB1/g diet for 10 d), then changed to the same diet minus FB1, urinary sphingoid bases returned to normal within 10 d. However, if the rats were fed 10 microg FB1/g for 10 d, then changed to 1 microg FB1/g, the amounts of sphingoid bases in urine were the same as for rats that were continuously fed 10 microg FB1/g. These results establish that consumption of FB1 causes dose-dependent and reversible elevations in the amounts of urinary sphingoid bases. The finding that 1 microg FB1/g (which does not, alone, alter urinary sphingoid bases) will sustain the elevation caused by previous exposure to 10 microg FB1/g raises the possibility that even low levels of fumonisins could be deleterious when an animal is occasionally exposed to higher amounts. PMID:9915902

  5. Men With Severe Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Are at Increased Risk of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hong Yong; Nam, Ji Won; Kim, Shin Ah; Choi, Bo Youl; Moon, Hong Sang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) comprise a set of common, bothersome symptoms in middle-aged and elderly men. Recent research suggests that depressive symptoms may influence the symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We performed a community-based cross-sectional study to evaluate the correlation between LUTS and depression. Methods: The survey was conducted in a rural community during four periods in August 2009, 2010, 2011, and 2012. Two validated questionnaires were used to examine LUTS and depressive symptoms. These included the International Prostate Symptom Score/quality of life (IPSS/QoL) and the Korean version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CES-D-K). Patients were categorized in the depressive symptom group if their CES-D-K score was >16 points. Results: A total of 711 men were included in this study. Thirty-five participants (4.92%) were found to have depressive symptoms. There was a positive correlation between depressive symptoms and LUTS severity (P<0.001). As compared to the mild LUTS group, the odds ratio (OR) of depression was 2.868 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.293–6.362; P for trend<0.001) in the moderate LUTS group, and 4.133 (95% CI, 1.510–11.313; P for trend<0.001) in the severe LUTS group. In a model considering multiple variables such as age, education level, smoking, and exercise, the OR in the moderate LUTS group was 2.534 (1.125–5.708, 95% CI, P for trend=0.005), while that in the severe LUTS group was 3.910 (95% CI, 5.708–11.154; P for trend=0.005). In addition, depression was related to voiding symptoms. Conclusions: Men with severe LUTS are at higher risk of depression than those with less severe urinary symptoms. The severity of voiding symptoms worsens depression. More aggressive urological diagnosis and treatment is needed in patients with severe LUTS, due to the impact on depressive symptoms and QoL. PMID:26739184

  6. The effect of climate variability on urinary stone attacks: increased incidence associated with temperature over 18 °C: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyoung Keun; Bae, Sang Rak; Kim, Satbyul E; Choi, Woo Suk; Paick, Sung Hyun; Ho, Kim; Kim, Hyeong Gon; Lho, Yong Soo

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of seasonal variation and climate parameters on urinary tract stone attack and investigate whether stone attack is increased sharply at a specific point. Nationwide data of total urinary tract stone attack numbers per month between January 2006 and December 2010 were obtained from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. The effects of climatic factors on monthly urinary stone attack were assessed using auto-regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) regression method. A total of 1,702,913 stone attack cases were identified. Mean monthly and monthly average daily urinary stone attack cases were 28,382 ± 2,760 and 933 ± 85, respectively. The stone attack showed seasonal trends of sharp incline in June, a peak plateau from July to September, and a sharp decline after September. The correlation analysis showed that ambient temperature (r = 0.557, p < 0.001) and relative humidity (r = 0.513, p < 0.001) were significantly associated with urinary stone attack cases. However, after adjustment for trends and seasonality, ambient temperature was the only climate factor associated with the stone attack cases in ARIMA regression test (p = 0.04). Threshold temperature was estimated as 18.4 °C. Risk of urinary stone attack significantly increases 1.71% (1.02-2.41 %, 95% confidence intervals) with a 1 °C increase of ambient temperature above the threshold point. In conclusion, monthly urinary stone attack cases were changed according to seasonal variation. Among the climates variables, only temperature had consistent association with stone attack and when the temperature is over 18.4 °C, urinary stone attack would be increased sharply. PMID:25407800

  7. Can the manipulation of urinary pH by beverages assist with the prevention of stone recurrence?

    PubMed

    Siener, Roswitha

    2016-02-01

    The formation of various types of stones in the urinary tract is strongly influenced by urinary pH. An acidic urinary pH promotes the crystallization of uric acid and cystine, respectively. Moreover, changes in systemic acid-base homeostasis alter urinary excretion of citrate, an important inhibitor of calcium oxalate stone formation. The effect of beverages on urinary pH and citrate excretion is mainly determined by the presence of bicarbonate and citrate. The bicarbonate content of mineral water can replace alkalization therapy with potassium citrate and contribute to urine inhibitory power by increasing urinary pH and citrate excretion. Citrus juices are rich sources of citrate. Oral citrate is absorbed in the intestine and nearly completely metabolized to bicarbonate, providing an alkali load, which in turn increases urinary pH and citrate excretion. However, data from observational and interventional studies on the effect of different types of citrus juices on the risk of urinary stone formation are conflicting. In conclusion, favourable changes in urinary pH and citrate excretion can be attained by various beverages. However, the long-term efficacy of certain beverages for the recurrence prevention of different types of stones has yet to be determined. PMID:26614113

  8. Chemical composition and binary mixture of human urinary stones using FT-Raman spectroscopy method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvaraju, R.; Raja, A.; Thiruppathi, G.

    2013-10-01

    In the present study the human urinary stones were observed in their different chemical compositions of calcium oxalate monohydrate, calcium oxalate dihydrate, calcium phosphate, struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate), uric acid, cystine, oxammite (ammonium oxalate monohydrate), natroxalate (sodium oxalate), glushinkite (magnesium oxalate dihydrate) and moolooite (copper oxalate) were analyzed using Fourier Transform-Raman (FT-Raman) spectroscopy. For the quantitative analysis, various human urinary stone samples are used for ratios calculation of binary mixtures compositions such as COM/COD, HAP/COD, HAP/COD, Uric acid/COM, uric acid/COD and uric acid/HAP. The calibration curve is used for further analysis of binary mixture of human urinary stones. For the binary mixture calculation the various intensities bands at 1462 cm-1 (ICOM), 1473 cm-1 (ICOD), 961 cm-1 (IHAP) and 1282 cm-1 (IUA) were used.

  9. Chemical composition and binary mixture of human urinary stones using FT-Raman spectroscopy method.

    PubMed

    Selvaraju, R; Raja, A; Thiruppathi, G

    2013-10-01

    In the present study the human urinary stones were observed in their different chemical compositions of calcium oxalate monohydrate, calcium oxalate dihydrate, calcium phosphate, struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate), uric acid, cystine, oxammite (ammonium oxalate monohydrate), natroxalate (sodium oxalate), glushinkite (magnesium oxalate dihydrate) and moolooite (copper oxalate) were analyzed using Fourier Transform-Raman (FT-Raman) spectroscopy. For the quantitative analysis, various human urinary stone samples are used for ratios calculation of binary mixtures compositions such as COM/COD, HAP/COD, HAP/COD, Uric acid/COM, uric acid/COD and uric acid/HAP. The calibration curve is used for further analysis of binary mixture of human urinary stones. For the binary mixture calculation the various intensities bands at 1462 cm(-1) (I(COM)), 1473 cm(-1) (I(COD)), 961 cm(-1) (I(HAP)) and 1282 cm(-1) (I(UA)) were used. PMID:23816485

  10. Calcium oxalate crystal formation in patients with hyperparathyroidism and hyperthyroidism and related metabolic disturbances.

    PubMed

    Kohri, K; Kodama, M; Umekawa, T; Ishikawa, Y; Katayama, Y; Takada, M; Katoh, Y; Kataoka, K; Iguchi, M; Kurita, T

    1990-01-01

    The crystallization of calcium oxalate in the urine of patients with hyperparathyroidism and hyperthyroidism was studied using a mixed suspension mixed product removal (MSMPR) system. In addition, calcium metabolism in hyperthyroidism and its relationship to urolithiasis was investigated. The urines from all the three groups (normal subjects, hyperparathyroid and hyperthyroid patients) showed reduced nucleation rates and increased growth rates in comparison with the control synthetic urine. The nucleation rate was not significantly different between the three human urine groups, while the growth rate was significantly higher in the hyperparathyroid group compared to the normal and hyperthyroid groups. Crystal volume (suspension density) in the hyperparathyroid group was approximately twice that in the other two groups. Serum and ionized calcium levels in hyperparathyroid patients were higher than in normal subjects, while hyperthyroid patients had levels only slightly higher than those in normal subjects. The hyperparathyroid and hyperthyroid groups differed significantly from the normal group in urinary calcium excretion. These two groups also showed significantly higher levels of serum alkaline phosphatase and urinary hydroxyproline than did the normal group. Although hyperthyroid patients have a calcium metabolism similar to hyperparathyroid patients, the incidence of urolithiasis is no different between hyperthyroid and normal subjects. The results of both crystallization and calcium metabolism in hyperparathyroid patients were not significantly different between those with and without urolithiasis. The result of crystallization was also not significantly different between hyperparathyroid patients with and without hypercalciuria. This study suggests that hypercalciuria alone does not produce urinary stones and that urine from hyperparathyroid patients may contain promotors of calcium oxalate crystallization and calcium stone formation. PMID:2306555

  11. OXALATE DEPOSITION ON ASBESTOS BODIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The clinical and histopathologic findings in three patients with a deposition of calcium oxalate crystals on ferruginous bodies after occupational exposure to asbestos are provided. In addition, we test the hypothesis that this oxalate can be generated through a nonenzymatic o...

  12. Biogeochemistry of oxalate in the antarctic cryptoendolithic lichen-dominated community.

    PubMed

    Johnston, C G; Vestal, J R

    1993-05-01

    Cryptoendolithic (hidden in rock) lichen-dominated microbial communities from the Ross Desert of Antarctica were shown to produce oxalate (oxalic acid). Oxalate increased mineral dissolution, which provides nutrients, creates characteristic weathering patterns, and may ultimately influence the biological residence time of the community. Oxalate was the only organic acid detectable by HPLC, and its presence was verified by GC/MS. Community photosynthetic metabolism was involved in oxalate production since rates of (14)C-oxalate production from (14)C02 were higher in light than in dark incubations. Flaking of the sandstone at the level of the lichen-dominated zone a few millimeters beneath the rock surface can be explained by dissolution of the sandstone cement, which was enhanced by Si, Fe, and Al oxalate complex formation. Added oxalate was observed to increase the solubility of Si, Fe, Al, P, and K. Oxalate's ability to form soluble trivalent metal-oxalate complexes correlated with the observed order of metal oxide depletion from the lichen-dominated zone (Mn > Fe > Al). Thermodynamic calculations predict that Fe oxalate complex formation mobilizes amorphous Fe oxides (ferrihydrite) in the lichen-dominated zone, and where oxalate is depleted, ferrihydrite should precipitate. Hematite, a more crystalline Fe oxide, should remain solid at in situ oxalate concentrations. Oxalate was not a carbon source for the indigenous heterotrophs, but the microbiota were involved in oxalate mineralization to CO2, since oxalate mineralization was reduced in poisoned incubations. Photooxidation of oxalate to C02 coupled with photoreduction of Fe(Ill) may be responsible for oxalate removal in situ, since rates of (14)C-oxalate mineralization in dark incubations were at least 50% lower than those in the light. Removal of oxalate from Si, Fe, and Al complexes should allow free dissolved Si, Fe, and Al to precipitate as amorphous silicates and metal oxides. This may explain increased siliceous crust (rock varnish or desert varnish) formation near the surface of colonized rocks were light intensity is greatest. PMID:24189925

  13. Dietary Ascophyllum nodosum increases urinary excretion of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates in male Sprague-dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Simmons-Boyce, Joanne L; Purcell, Sara L; Nelson, Carolanne M; MacKinnon, Shawna L

    2009-08-01

    We used a (1)H NMR-based metabonomics approach to examine the physiological effects of the seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum in a mammalian model, assess the dosage level required to elicit a response in the urinary profile, and identify potential toxic effects. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6/group) were fed a control or 5, 10, or 15% freeze-dried, ground A. nodosum diet for 4 wk. Urine samples were collected 3 times daily (0-4, 4-8, and 8-24 h) prior to feeding experimental diets and, at the end of the study, were profiled using (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Food intake, weight gain, and serum enzyme (alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase) levels indicated that seaweed diets were well tolerated. The spectral data and principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that rats fed 5, 10, and 15% seaweed diets had increased urinary excretion of citrate, 2-oxoglutarate, succinate, trimethylamine (TMA), TMA-N-oxide, and malonate and decreased excretion of taurine, creatinine, and acetate compared with the controls. In addition, mannitol was detected in the 8- to 24-h urine samples from seaweed-fed rats. Metabolic responses related to ingestion of seaweed polyphenolics and fiber were not observed in the spectral profiles. Increased seaweed concentration in the diet did not increase the magnitude of the rats' response as detected by (1)H NMR. Visual analysis and PCA of the spectral data for serum samples collected at the end of the study did not show diet-related clustering. The lack of toxicity at 15% seaweed incorporation allows the use of this concentration in future A. nodosum intervention studies. PMID:19535424

  14. Dietary Ascophyllum nodosum increases urinary excretion of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates in male Sprague-dawley rats.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Simmons-Boyce JL; Purcell SL; Nelson CM; MacKinnon SL

    2009-08-01

    We used a (1)H NMR-based metabonomics approach to examine the physiological effects of the seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum in a mammalian model, assess the dosage level required to elicit a response in the urinary profile, and identify potential toxic effects. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6/group) were fed a control or 5, 10, or 15% freeze-dried, ground A. nodosum diet for 4 wk. Urine samples were collected 3 times daily (0-4, 4-8, and 8-24 h) prior to feeding experimental diets and, at the end of the study, were profiled using (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Food intake, weight gain, and serum enzyme (alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase) levels indicated that seaweed diets were well tolerated. The spectral data and principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that rats fed 5, 10, and 15% seaweed diets had increased urinary excretion of citrate, 2-oxoglutarate, succinate, trimethylamine (TMA), TMA-N-oxide, and malonate and decreased excretion of taurine, creatinine, and acetate compared with the controls. In addition, mannitol was detected in the 8- to 24-h urine samples from seaweed-fed rats. Metabolic responses related to ingestion of seaweed polyphenolics and fiber were not observed in the spectral profiles. Increased seaweed concentration in the diet did not increase the magnitude of the rats' response as detected by (1)H NMR. Visual analysis and PCA of the spectral data for serum samples collected at the end of the study did not show diet-related clustering. The lack of toxicity at 15% seaweed incorporation allows the use of this concentration in future A. nodosum intervention studies.

  15. Cholinergic signaling inhibits oxalate transport by human intestinal T84 cells

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ming; Aronson, Peter S.

    2012-01-01

    Urolithiasis remains a very common disease in Western countries. Seventy to eighty percent of kidney stones are composed of calcium oxalate, and minor changes in urinary oxalate affect stone risk. Intestinal oxalate secretion mediated by anion exchanger SLC26A6 plays a major constitutive role in limiting net absorption of ingested oxalate, thereby preventing hyperoxaluria and calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Using the relatively selective PKC-δ inhibitor rottlerin, we had previously found that PKC-δ activation inhibits Slc26a6 activity in mouse duodenal tissue. To identify a model system to study physiologic agonists upstream of PKC-δ, we characterized the human intestinal cell line T84. Knockdown studies demonstrated that endogenous SLC26A6 mediates most of the oxalate transport by T84 cells. Cholinergic stimulation with carbachol modulates intestinal ion transport through signaling pathways including PKC activation. We therefore examined whether carbachol affects oxalate transport in T84 cells. We found that carbachol significantly inhibited oxalate transport by T84 cells, an effect blocked by rottlerin. Carbachol also led to significant translocation of PKC-δ from the cytosol to the membrane of T84 cells. Using pharmacological inhibitors, we observed that carbachol inhibits oxalate transport through the M3 muscarinic receptor and phospholipase C. Utilizing the Src inhibitor PP2 and phosphorylation studies, we found that the observed regulation downstream of PKC-δ is partially mediated by c-Src. Biotinylation studies revealed that carbachol inhibits oxalate transport by reducing SLC26A6 surface expression. We conclude that carbachol negatively regulates oxalate transport by reducing SLC26A6 surface expression in T84 cells through signaling pathways including the M3 muscarinic receptor, phospholipase C, PKC-δ, and c-Src. PMID:21956166

  16. Oxalate- and Glyoxylate-Dependent Growth and Acetogenesis by Clostridium thermoaceticum

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Steven L.; Drake, Harold L.

    1993-01-01

    The acetogenic bacterium Clostridium thermoaceticum ATCC 39073 grew at the expense of the two-carbon substrates oxalate and glyoxylate. Other two-carbon substrates (acetaldehyde, acetate, ethanol, ethylene glycol, glycolaldehyde, glycolate, and glyoxal) were not growth supportive. Growth increased linearly with increasing substrate concentrations up to 45 mM oxalate and glyoxylate, and supplemental CO2 was not required for growth. Oxalate and glyoxylate yielded 4.9 and 9.4 g, respectively, of cell biomass (dry weight) per mol of substrate utilized. Acetate was the major reduced end product recovered from oxalate and glyoxylate cultures. 14C labeling studies showed that oxalate was subject to decarboxylation, and product analysis indicated that oxalate was utilized by the following reaction: 4-OOC-COO- + 5H2O ? CH3COO- + 6HCO3- + OH-. Oxalate- and glyoxylate-dependent growth produced lower acetate concentrations per unit of cell biomass synthesized than did H2-, CO-, methanol-, formate-, O-methyl-, or glucose-dependent growth. Protein profiles of oxalate-grown cells were dissimilar from protein profiles of glyoxylate-, CO-, or formate-grown cells, suggesting induction of new proteins for the utilization of oxalate. C. thermoaceticum DSM 2955 and Clostridium thermoautotrophicum JW 701/3 also grew at the expense of oxalate and glyoxylate. However, oxalate and glyoxylate did not support the growth of C. thermoaceticum OMD (a nonautotrophic strain) or six other species of acetogenic bacteria tested. Images PMID:16349048

  17. FT-Raman spectral analysis of human urinary stones.

    PubMed

    Selvaraju, R; Raja, A; Thiruppathi, G

    2012-12-01

    FT-Raman spectroscopy is the most useful tool for the purpose of bio-medical diagnostics. In the present study, FT-Raman spectral method is used to investigate the chemical composition of urinary calculi. Urinary calculi multi-components such as calcium oxalate, hydroxyl apatite, struvite and uric acid are studied. FT-Raman spectrum has been recorded in the range of 3500-400 cm(-1). Chemical compounds are identified by Raman spectroscopic technique. The quantitative estimations of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) 1463 cm(-1), calcium oxalate dehydrate (COD) 1478 cm(-1), hydroxyl apatite 959 cm(-1), struvite 575 cm(-1), uric acid 1283 cm(-1) and oxammite (ammonium oxalate monohydrate) 2129 cm(-1) are calculated using particular peaks of FT-Raman spectrum. The quantitative estimation of human urinary stones suitable for the single calibration curve was performed. PMID:23069621

  18. A simple method for quantitating the propensity for calcium oxalate crystallization in urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wabner, C. L.; Pak, C. Y.

    1991-01-01

    To assess the propensity for spontaneous crystallization of calcium oxalate in urine, the permissible increment in oxalate is calculated. The previous method required visual observation of crystallization with the addition of oxalate, this warranted the need for a large volume of urine and a sacrifice in accuracy in defining differences between small incremental changes of added oxalate. Therefore, this method has been miniaturized and spontaneous crystallization is detected from the depletion of radioactive oxalate. The new "micro" method demonstrated a marked decrease (p < 0.001) in the permissible increment in oxalate in urine of stone formers versus normal subjects. Moreover, crystallization inhibitors added to urine, in vitro (heparin or diphosphonate) or in vivo (potassium citrate administration), substantially increased the permissible increment in oxalate. Thus, the "micro" method has proven reliable and accurate in discriminating stone forming from control urine and in distinguishing changes of inhibitory activity.

  19. Abortiporus biennis tolerance to insoluble metal oxides: oxalate secretion, oxalate oxidase activity, and mycelial morphology.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Graz M; Jarosz-Wilko?azka A; Pawlikowska-Pawlega B

    2009-06-01

    The ability of Abortiporus biennis to tolerate and solubilize toxic metal oxides (Cu(2)O, Al(2)O(3), ZnO, CuFe(2)O(4)Zn, CdO, and MnO(2)) incorporated into agar media was investigated and the growth rate, oxalic acid secretion, and mycelial morphology were monitored. Among the tested metal oxides, formation of clear zones underneath the mycelium growing on Cu(2)O- and ZnO-amended plates was observed. ZnO, CdO and Cu(2)O caused the highest rate of fungal growth inhibition. An increased level of oxalic acid concentration was detected as a response of A. biennis to the presence of Cu(2)O, MnO(2), ZnO and CuFe(2)O(4)Zn in growth medium. The oxalate oxidase (OXO) was found to be responsible for oxalic acid degradation in A. biennis cultivated in metal-amended media. An increased level of OXO was observed in media amended with Cu(2)O, ZnO and MnO(2). Confocal microscopy used in this study revealed changes in mycelial morphology which appeared as increased hyphal branching, increased septation and increased spore number.

  20. In vitro inhibition of calcium oxalate crystallization and crystal adherence to renal tubular epithelial cells by Terminalia arjuna.

    PubMed

    Mittal, A; Tandon, S; Singla, S K; Tandon, C

    2016-04-01

    Urolithiasis is a multifactorial disease and remains a public health problem around the world. Of all types of renal stones, calcium oxalate (CaOx) is the most common composition formed in the urinary system of the patients with urolithiasis. The present study is aimed at evaluating the antiurolithiatic properties of the Tris-Cl extract (TE) of Terminalia arjuna (T. arjuna). The antilithiatic activity of TE of T. arjuna was investigated on nucleation, aggregation, and growth of the CaOx crystals, as well as its protective potency was tested on oxalate-induced cell injury of NRK-52E renal epithelial cells. Also, in vitro antioxidant activity of TE T. arjuna bark was also determined. The TE of T. arjuna exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibition of nucleation and growth of CaOx crystals. Inhibition of aggregation of CaOx crystals remains constant. When NRK-52E cells were injured by exposure to oxalate for 48 h, the TE prevented the cells from injury and CaOx crystal adherence resulting in increased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. The TE also scavenged the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals with an IC50 at 51.72 µg/mL. The results indicated that T. arjuna is a potential candidate for phytotherapy against urolithiasis as it attains the ability to inhibit CaOx crystallization and scavenge DPPH free radicals in vitro along with a cytoprotective role. PMID:26424092

  1. Modulation of polyepoxysuccinic acid on crystallization of calcium oxalate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanqing; Tang, Yongming; Xu, Jinqiu; Zhang, Dongqin; Lu, Gang; Jing, Wenheng

    2015-11-01

    The influence of polyepoxysuccinic acid (PESA) on the phase composition and crystal morphology of calcium oxalate was investigated in this paper. It was found that the presence of PESA inhibited the growth of the monoclinic calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystal and promoted the nucleation of the tetragonal calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD). In addition, with the increase in PESA concentration, the aggregation of COD crystals was reduced but the particle size was increased. Under the conditions of low calcium-to-oxalate ratio and high CaOx concentration, PESA could not effectively stabilize the formation of COD. Based on molecular dynamic simulations, the adsorption of PESA on CaOx crystal faces was confirmed.

  2. Modification of cement systems with oxalic aldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subbotina, N. V.; Gorlenko, N. P.; Sarkisov, Ju S.; Naumova, L. B.; Minakova, T. S.

    2015-01-01

    The experimental results of physical-chemical properties of composite materials on the basis of cement and wood waste modified by an aquatic solution of oxalic aldehyde are presented in this paper. The injection of a chemical addition agent being in optimal concentration is shown to result in the increase of compressive strength of a cement stone by 30%, that of wood-cement composition - in 7 times. IR spectroscopy investigations, microphotographs of structures, kinetics of samples strength changes are shown.

  3. Oxygen nano-bubble water reduces calcium oxalate deposits and tubular cell injury in ethylene glycol-treated rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Yasuhiko; Yasui, Takahiro; Taguchi, Kazumi; Fujii, Yasuhiro; Niimi, Kazuhiro; Hamamoto, Shuzo; Okada, Atsushi; Kubota, Yasue; Kawai, Noriyasu; Itoh, Yasunori; Tozawa, Keiichi; Sasaki, Shoichi; Kohri, Kenjiro

    2013-08-01

    Renal tubular cell injury induced by oxalate plays an important role in kidney stone formation. Water containing oxygen nano-bubbles (nanometer-sized bubbles generated from oxygen micro-bubbles; ONB) has anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, we investigated the inhibitory effects of ONB water on kidney stone formation in ethylene glycol (EG)-treated rats. We divided 60 rats, aged 4weeks, into 5 groups: control, the water-fed group; 100% ONB, the 100% ONB water-fed group; EG, the EG treated water-fed group; EG+50% ONB and EG+100% ONB, water containing EG and 50% or 100% ONB, respectively. Renal calcium oxalate (CaOx) deposition, urinary excretion of N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), and renal expression of inflammation-related proteins, oxidative stress biomarkers, and the crystal-binding molecule hyaluronic acid were compared among the 5 groups. In the control and 100% ONB groups, no renal CaOx deposits were detected. In the EG+50% ONB and EG+100% ONB groups, ONB water significantly decreased renal CaOx deposits, urinary NAG excretion, and renal monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, osteopontin, and hyaluronic acid expression and increased renal superoxide dismutase-1 expression compared with the EG group. ONB water substantially affected kidney stone formation in the rat kidney by reducing renal tubular cell injury. ONB water is a potential prophylactic agent for kidney stones. PMID:23754513

  4. Social stress in mice induces urinary bladder overactivity and increases TRPV1 channel-dependent afferent nerve activity.

    PubMed

    Mingin, Gerald C; Heppner, Thomas J; Tykocki, Nathan R; Erickson, Cuixia Shi; Vizzard, Margaret A; Nelson, Mark T

    2015-09-15

    Social stress has been implicated as a cause of urinary bladder hypertrophy and dysfunction in humans. Using a murine model of social stress, we and others have shown that social stress leads to bladder overactivity. Here, we show that social stress leads to bladder overactivity, increased bladder compliance, and increased afferent nerve activity. In the social stress paradigm, 6-wk-old male C57BL/6 mice were exposed for a total of 2 wk, via barrier cage, to a C57BL/6 retired breeder aggressor mouse. We performed conscious cystometry with and without intravesical infusion of the TRPV1 inhibitor capsazepine, and measured pressure-volume relationships and afferent nerve activity during bladder filling using an ex vivo bladder model. Stress leads to a decrease in intermicturition interval and void volume in vivo, which was restored by capsazepine. Ex vivo studies demonstrated that at low pressures, bladder compliance and afferent activity were elevated in stressed bladders compared with unstressed bladders. Capsazepine did not significantly change afferent activity in unstressed mice, but significantly decreased afferent activity at all pressures in stressed bladders. Immunohistochemistry revealed that TRPV1 colocalizes with CGRP to stain nerve fibers in unstressed bladders. Colocalization significantly increased along the same nerve fibers in the stressed bladders. Our results support the concept that social stress induces TRPV1-dependent afferent nerve activity, ultimately leading to the development of overactive bladder symptoms. PMID:26224686

  5. An Oxalyl-CoA Dependent Pathway of Oxalate Catabolism Plays a Role in Regulating Calcium Oxalate Crystal Accumulation and Defending against Oxalate-Secreting Phytopathogens in Medicago truncatula

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Justin; Luo, Bin; Nakata, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Considering the widespread occurrence of oxalate in nature and its broad impact on a host of organisms, it is surprising that so little is known about the turnover of this important acid. In plants, oxalate oxidase is the most well studied enzyme capable of degrading oxalate, but not all plants possess this activity. Recently, an Acyl Activating Enzyme 3 (AAE3), encoding an oxalyl-CoA synthetase, was identified in Arabidopsis. AAE3 has been proposed to catalyze the first step in an alternative pathway of oxalate degradation. Whether this enzyme and proposed pathway is important to other plants is unknown. Here, we identify the Medicago truncatula AAE3 (MtAAE3) and show that it encodes an oxalyl-CoA synthetase activity exhibiting high activity against oxalate with a Km = 81 ± 9 μM and Vmax = 19 ± 0.9 μmoles min-1mg protein-1. GFP-MtAAE3 localization suggested that this enzyme functions within the cytosol of the cell. Mtaae3 knock-down line showed a reduction in its ability to degrade oxalate into CO2. This reduction in the capacity to degrade oxalate resulted in the accumulation of druse crystals of calcium oxalate in the Mtaae3 knock-down line and an increased susceptibility to oxalate-secreting phytopathogens such as Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Taken together, these results suggest that AAE3 dependent turnover of oxalate is important to different plants and functions in the regulation of tissue calcium oxalate crystal accumulation and in defense against oxalate-secreting phytopathogens. PMID:26900946

  6. An Oxalyl-CoA Dependent Pathway of Oxalate Catabolism Plays a Role in Regulating Calcium Oxalate Crystal Accumulation and Defending against Oxalate-Secreting Phytopathogens in Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Foster, Justin; Luo, Bin; Nakata, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    Considering the widespread occurrence of oxalate in nature and its broad impact on a host of organisms, it is surprising that so little is known about the turnover of this important acid. In plants, oxalate oxidase is the most well studied enzyme capable of degrading oxalate, but not all plants possess this activity. Recently, an Acyl Activating Enzyme 3 (AAE3), encoding an oxalyl-CoA synthetase, was identified in Arabidopsis. AAE3 has been proposed to catalyze the first step in an alternative pathway of oxalate degradation. Whether this enzyme and proposed pathway is important to other plants is unknown. Here, we identify the Medicago truncatula AAE3 (MtAAE3) and show that it encodes an oxalyl-CoA synthetase activity exhibiting high activity against oxalate with a Km = 81 9 ?M and Vmax = 19 0.9 ?moles min-1mg protein-1. GFP-MtAAE3 localization suggested that this enzyme functions within the cytosol of the cell. Mtaae3 knock-down line showed a reduction in its ability to degrade oxalate into CO2. This reduction in the capacity to degrade oxalate resulted in the accumulation of druse crystals of calcium oxalate in the Mtaae3 knock-down line and an increased susceptibility to oxalate-secreting phytopathogens such as Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Taken together, these results suggest that AAE3 dependent turnover of oxalate is important to different plants and functions in the regulation of tissue calcium oxalate crystal accumulation and in defense against oxalate-secreting phytopathogens. PMID:26900946

  7. Medical therapy, calcium oxalate urolithiasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruml, L. A.; Pearle, M. S.; Pak, C. Y.

    1997-01-01

    The development of diagnostic protocols that identify specific risk factors for calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis has led to the formulation of directed medical regimens that are aimed at correcting the underlying metabolic disturbances. Initiation of these treatment programs has reduced markedly the rate of stone formation in the majority of patients who form stones. This article discusses the rationale that underlies the choice of medical therapy for the various pathophysiologic causes of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis and the appropriate use of available medications.

  8. Medical therapy, calcium oxalate urolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Ruml, L A; Pearle, M S; Pak, C Y

    1997-02-01

    The development of diagnostic protocols that identify specific risk factors for calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis has led to the formulation of directed medical regimens that are aimed at correcting the underlying metabolic disturbances. Initiation of these treatment programs has reduced markedly the rate of stone formation in the majority of patients who form stones. This article discusses the rationale that underlies the choice of medical therapy for the various pathophysiologic causes of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis and the appropriate use of available medications. PMID:9048856

  9. Inhibition of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystallization by the combination of citrate and osteopontin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lijun; Zhang, Wei; Qiu, S. Roger; Zachowicz, William J.; Guan, Xiangying; Tang, Ruikang; Hoyer, John R.; De Yoreo, James J.; Nancollas, George H.

    2006-05-01

    The design of effective crystallization inhibitors of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM), the primary constituent of kidney stones, is a significant goal. Inhibitory molecules identified in urine include a small organic anion, citrate, and osteopontin (OPN), an aspartic acid-rich protein. The results of molecular-scale analyses combining force microscopy with molecular modeling raised the possibility that inhibition of COM crystallization might be increased by the additive effects of citrate and OPN because they act on different crystal faces. Constant composition (CC) kinetics studies of COM crystal growth now confirm that additive effects are, indeed, achieved in vitro when both citrate and OPN are present. These results suggest that a strategy employing combinations of inhibitors may provide a useful therapeutic approach to urinary stone disease.

  10. INSIGHTS INTO OXALATE BIOSYNTHESIS: DEVELOPING STRATEGIES TO IMPROVE THE NUTRITIONAL QUALITY AND PRODUCTION OF PLANT FOODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxalate is known to be produced in a vast number of organisms, from simple microbes to complex animals. In animals the accumulation of these crystals is often associated with the pathological condition of urinary stone formation. In contrast to animals, other organisms appear to benefit from the a...

  11. Urinary excretion of bufotenin (N,N-dimethyl-5-hydroxytryptamine) is increased in suspicious violent offenders: a confirmatory study.

    PubMed

    Kärkkäinen, J; Räisänen, M; Huttunen, M O; Kallio, E; Naukkarinen, H; Virkkunen, M

    1995-09-29

    We previously reported that violent offenders with paranoid symptoms or whose violent actions had been directed against family members had higher urinary levels of bufotenin than other violent offenders. In the present study, patients were evaluated with the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP), and urinary levels of bufotenin were determined by mass spectrometry. In drug-free patients suspiciousness was positively correlated, and socialization was negatively correlated, with urinary bufotenin excretion. These two personality variables were strongly interdependent. In drug users, bufotenin excretion was correlated positively with social desirability and negatively with irritability, but not with suspiciousness. Bufotenin excretion was not found to be associated with violence toward family members in the present study. The results are in keeping with the earlier finding that violent offenders with paranoid personality traits have higher urinary levels of bufotenin than other violent offenders. PMID:8570766

  12. Experimental approach to the correlation of hemodynamic changes with increases in urinary lactate dehydrogenase as a new parameter reflecting serious renal tissue damages.

    PubMed

    Schoenenberger, G A; Buser, S; Hagmaier, V; Locher, J T; Mihatsch, M; Rist, M; Rutishauser, G; Scheidegger, A M; Stdtler, K

    1979-01-01

    From previous investigations with nephroptotic patients increased urinary LDH was assumed to be a reliable marker indicating a renal tissue defect due to the organs descent in erect position. Animal experiments now allowed correlation of this enzymatic activity with controlled changes of anatomical and physiological parameters. Changes of the renal hemodynamics or urinary flow induced in acute experiments in dogs simulated kidney displacement in nephroptotic patients. Both ureters were cannulated for separate urine collection and one kidney was manipulated. The renal arterial or venous flow was reduced or the ureter was occluded under electromagnetic blood-flow control. Arterial constriction alone (30%/15 min) selectively caused a drastic decrease (approximately 80%) of Xenon wash-out (= nutrient-flow) in the renal cortex. Under the same conditions radio-labeled microspheres injected intracardially showed a centralization of the renal capillary blood flow from the outer cortex to the juxtamedullary zone. Urinary LDH activities increased up to 800% immediately after arterial constriction. In accordance with total LDH activity the percentage distribution of isoenzymes changed: LDH-I increased and the LDH-V decreased. Neither constriction of the renal vein nor ureteral occlusion had similar effects. In long-term experiments backward fixation of one kidney in rats would reflect the effects of kidney displacement over years in nephroptotic patients: animals were unilaterally nephrectomized and the remaining kidney was dislocated backwards (approximately 2,5 vertebrae) and fixed to the lateral pelvic wall. "Ptotic" rats showed during the following examinations a constant increase of urinary LDH up to 50% by 26 weeks postoperatively. In accordance with increased LDH the isotope nephrogram was pathological and arteriographies showed a stretched and narrowed renal artery. In a number of rats "ptotic" fixation was not effective enough. All these animals showed normal LDH, isotope nephrograms and arteriographies. Both animal experiments documented that reduced flow/hypoxia is essentially responsible for the tissue damage in the kidney manifested by increased release of urinary LDH. PMID:446069

  13. Increased urinary 6-hydroxymelatoninsulfate levels in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder diagnosed children and adolescent.

    PubMed

    Büber, Ahmet; Çakaloz, Burcu; Işıldar, Yetiş; Ünlü, Gülşen; Bostancı, Hayrani Eren; Aybek, Hülya; Herken, Hasan

    2016-03-23

    There are some studies in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) which note altered circadian rhythms, suggesting abnormalities in melatonin physiology. In order to better characterize the possible melatonin alteration in ADHD, in this study we aimed to detect daytime, nighttime and 24h levels of 6-hydroxymelatoninsulfate (6-OH MS) in the patients diagnosed with ADHD. Twenty-seven patients between 6 and 16 years-old, who had been diagnosed initially with ADHD, but without other physical and psychiatric disease history and who had not taken psychotropic pharmacotherapy for six months, plus 28 healthy volunteer controls, were included in the study. Urine samples were collected during the whole 24h cycle, daytime and nighttime separately to assess the time-dependent excretion of the 6-OH MS, which is the main urine metabolite of melatonin. The Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method was used for measuring the urine 6-OH MS level. Daytime (15.4 (8.9-24.8) ng/ml vs 6.9 (2.5-15.9) ng/ml, p=0.002), nighttime (102.9 (65.3-197.7) ng/ml vs 61.5 (37.2-114.4) ng/ml, p=0.012) and 24h (54.1 (34.6-83.9) ng/ml vs 27.3 (14.3-48.9) ng/ml, p=0.000) 6-OH MS levels median (25p-75p) were found to be significantly higher in the ADHD group. After adjustment for age and sex, there was a statistically significant difference between the ADHD group (59.8±4.9) and control group (33.8±4.8) in 24-h 6-OH MS levels (F(1, 51)=13.673, p=.001, partial η2=.211). There was no relationship between 6-OH MS levels and Conners Parent Rating Scale short form subscale scores for the ADHD group. These findings indicate that melatonin production is increased in ADHD cases. Further research is needed to determine and thereby understand the mechanisms underlying the higher melatonin production, to assess the impact of altered melatonin on the pathophysiology of ADHD. PMID:26879834

  14. Urinary excretion of LH and testosterone from male rats during exposure to increased gravity: post-spaceflight and centrifugation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, R. M.; Wade, C. E.; Morey-Holton, E.

    2000-01-01

    A dissociation between plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone (T) appears to exist during exposure to altered gravity. The pulsatile nature of LH release and the diurnal variability of T secretion may mask or bias the effects of altered gravity on the pituitary-gonadal axis when analyzing plasma concentrations. Therefore, we examined the relationship between the excretion of urinary LH and T in male Sprague-Dawley rats during exposure to increased gravity upon return to Earth following a 14-day spaceflight (n = 6) and by 12 days of centrifugation at 2g (n = 8). Excreted LH and T were elevated on the first 3 days postflight. Excreted T was elevated between Days 1 and 8 of centrifugation; however, excreted LH was reduced on Days 2 and 3 compared with control animals. Excreted LH and T were significantly correlated (R = 0.731 and 0.706, respectively) in postspaceflight and centrifuged animals. Correlation curves had similar slopes (0.0213 and 0.023, respectively), but different y-intercepts (-1.43 and 3.32, respectively). The sustained increase in excreted T during centrifugation suggests that the pituitary-gonadal axis in postspaceflight animals may adapt quicker to increased gravity. The upward shift in the correlation curve exhibited by the centrifuged animals suggests that the sensitivity of LH-induced T release is increased in these animals. The previous dissociation between plasma LH and T during altered gravity was not observed in the present study in which excreted LH and T were measured.

  15. Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Are Associated with Increased Risk of Dementia among the Elderly: A Nationwide Study

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Chi-Hsiang; Wu, Ming-Ping; Ho, Chung-Han; Weng, Shih-Feng; Huang, Chien-Cheng; Hsieh, Wan-Ting; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Chen, Ping-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Studies show a strong association between dementia and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). The aim of this study was to investigate whether LUTS are a risk factor for cognitive impairment. We enrolled 50-year-old and older subjects with LUTS (LUTS[+]) (n = 6801) and controls without LUTS (LUTS[?]) (n = 20,403) from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. LUTS, dementia, and other confounding factors are defined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification Codes. Participants were recruited from 2000 to 2004 and then followed up until death or the end of 2011. The outcome was the onset of dementia, which was assessed using Poisson regression analysis, Cox hazards models, and Kaplan-Meier survival curves. The incidence of dementia was significantly higher in the LUTS[+] group than in the LUTS[?] group (124.76 versus 77.59/1000 person-years). The increased risk of dementia related to LUTS remained significant after adjustment for potential confounders (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR): 1.61, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.471.76, P < 0.0001) and higher than that related to cerebrovascular disease (AHR: 1.43, 95% CI 1.261.61, P < 0.0001). The outcome suggests the need for early screening and appropriate intervention to help prevent cognitive impairment of patients with LUTS. PMID:26290863

  16. Elevated cholinesterase activity and increased urinary excretion of inorganic fluorides in the workers producing fluorine-containing plastic (polytetrafluoroethylene)

    SciTech Connect

    Baohui Xu |; Jiusun Zhang; Guaogeng Mao; Guifen Yang; Aini Chen; Aoyama, Kohji; Matsushita, Toshio; Ueda, Atsushi

    1992-07-01

    Fluoropolymers are widely used in thermal and electrical industries. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) plastic is a typical one. During its production, workers are occupationally exposed to many organic fluorides, especially tetrafluoroethylene, chlorodifluoromethane, PTFE and its thermal decomposition products. Of these compounds, it has been documented that following inhalation of combustion products of PTFE the focal hemorrhages, edema, fibrin deposition in lungs and renal infarcts were observed in rats. Odum and Green have demonstrated a marked damage to proximal tubule of kidney with no effects on the liver in rats exposed to 6000 ppm tetrafluoroethylene for 6 hr. The investigations of the hazards of these compounds to workers have been mainly focused on acute toxicity. There have been some reports that polymers and its pyrolysis caused polymer fume fever and pulmonary edema. In practice, workers engaged in PTFE manufacture are chronically exposed to the above-mentioned chemicals, but little was known about the hazards ascribed to these chemicals. To clarify the influences of the exposed chemicals on health in PTFE production we conducted a mass survey investigation in a PTFE production factory. As a result, in addition to the nephrotoxicity characterized by elevated ALP and NAG activities in urine, more interestingly, we have also found a reversible increase in cholinesterase (ChE) activity and enhanced urinary excretion of inorganic fluorides in workers engaged in PTFE production. We report here these findings and discuss their physiological significance. 18 refs., 4 tabs.

  17. Chronic Indwelling Urinary Catheter Increase the Risk of Bladder Cancer, Even in Patients Without Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chung-Han; Sung, Kuan-Chin; Lim, Sher-Wei; Liao, Chien-Hwa; Liang, Fu-Wen; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Wu, Chia-Chun

    2015-10-01

    Chronic indwelling urinary catheters (CIDCs) are known as a risk factor for bladder cancer in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). This study examined the potential risk of bladder cancer from CIDCs in patients without SCI.The National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan was used to identify SCI patients (N?=?1816). This group was compared against a control CIDC cohort without SCI (N?=?1816) and a reference cohort with normal individuals without SCI and a record of CIDC (N?=?7264). Comparisons were made based on age and gender matching over a maximum of 11 follow-up years. The incidence risk and hazard ratio (HR) of bladder cancer were estimated in all 3 groups.During the follow-up period, the bladder cancer incidence rates were 68.90 and 102.53 per 100,000 person-years in the SCI and CIDC-non-SCI groups, respectively. These values were both higher than that of the reference cohort (12.00 per 100,000 person-years). Patients who had history of SCI (HR: 6.51; 95% CI, 2.56-16.52) or CIDC without SCI (HR: 9.11; 95% CI, 3.9-21.29) had a higher risk of bladder cancer compared with the reference cohort.Patients with CIDCs may have an increased risk of bladder cancer development, especially in older aged and male patients compared with general population. PMID:26512566

  18. Comparison of oxalate formation from ascorbic and glyoxyl acids in detached glandular heads of tobacco trichomes

    SciTech Connect

    Vogeli-Lange, R.; Wagner, G.J.

    1987-08-01

    Ca-oxalate crystal containing cells from detached glandular heads of trichomes from Nicotiana tabacum, TI 1068, are capable of converting (1-/sup 14/C) ascorbic acid (AA) and (1-/sup 14/C) glyoxylic acid (GA) to oxalate. AA was found to be a better precursor for oxalate formation than GA. In detached glandular heads, 3.6x more label was converted to oxalate from AA than from GA, in the epidermis the factor was 3x while that with petiole tissue was 7x. Oxalate formation from AA, in detached glandular heads, was only partially inhibited in the dark and in the presence of metabolic inhibitors, suggesting that a nonenzymatic component might be involved. Oxalate formation from GA increased in the presence of metabolic inhibitors. During treatment of detached glandular heads with 2 mM Ca-acetate for 2 days, oxalate formation from AA was stimulated 3 fold, while the presence of 2mM Ca-acetate had no effect on the oxalate formation from GA. These results suggest that Ca/sup 2 +/ stimulates the formation of Ca-oxalate crystals in glandular head cells, and that AA can serve as a precursor for oxalate production.

  19. Increased levels of urinary phenylacetylglycine associated with mitochondrial toxicity in a model of drug-induced phospholipidosis

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Georg; Lenz, Barbara; Fischer, Holger; Schlotterbeck, Götz; Atzpodien, Elke-Astrid; Senn, Hans; Suter, Laura; Csato, Miklos; Evers, Stefan; Singer, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background: Phospholipidosis (PLD) is a lysosomal storage disorder induced by a class of cationic amphiphilic drugs. However, drug-induced PLD is reversible. Evidence of PLD from animal studies with some compounds has led to discontinuation of development. Regulatory authorities are likely to request additional studies when PLD is linked to toxicity. Objective: We conducted a trial to investigate urinary phenylacetylglycine (uPAG) as a biomarker for PLD. Materials and methods: Five groups of 12 male Wistar rats were dosed once with vehicle, 300 mg/kg or 1500 mg/kg of compound A (known to induce PLD), or 300 mg/kg or 1000 mg/kg of compound B (similar structure, but does not induce PLD) to achieve similar plasma exposures. Following dosing, urine and blood samples underwent nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), proteomic, and biochemical analyses. Necropsies were performed at 48 and 168 h, organ histopathology evaluated, and gene expression in liver analyzed by microarray. Electron microscopic examination of peripheral lymphocytes was performed. Results: For compound A, uPAG increased with dose, correlating with lamellar inclusion bodies formation in peripheral lymphocytes. NMR analysis showed decreased tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, inferring mitochondrial toxicity. Mitochondrial dysfunction was suggested by uPAG increase, resulting from a switch to anaerobic metabolism or disruption of the urea cycle. Discussion and conclusion: uPAG shows utility as a noninvasive biomarker for mitochondrial toxicity associated with drug-induced PLD, providing a mechanistic hypothesis for toxicity associated with PLD likely resulting from combined direct and indirect mitochondrial toxicity via impairment of the proton motor force and alteration of fatty acid catabolism. PMID:25083254

  20. Urinary Catheter Management

    PubMed Central

    Hendren, Samantha

    2013-01-01

    After colorectal resection surgery, early urinary catheter removal has been promoted as a part of the national Surgical Care Improvement Project. However, the decrease in urinary tract infection expected with this strategy must be balanced against an increased risk for urinary retention. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to summarize the evidence for and against early postoperative urinary catheter removal. For nonpelvic colorectal resection, the evidence supports removal of the catheter on postoperative day 1 for patients who are not at high risk for urinary retention, including patients with thoracic epidurals. For mid-to-low rectal surgery, the risk of urinary retention is increased, and catheter removal on day 3 to day 6 is recommended; however, the exact timing of removal cannot be recommended based on current studies. PMID:24436671

  1. Increased urinary excretion of carnitine and acylcarnitine by mercuric chloride is reversed by 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid in rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Madani, Waleed A; Siddiqi, Nikhat J; Alhomida, Abdullah S; Khan, Haseeb A; Arif, Ibrahim A; Kishore, Uday

    2010-01-01

    This investigation was aimed to study the effect of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS) on mercuric chloride (HgCl(2))-induced alterations in urinary excretion of various carnitine fractions including free carnitine (FC), acylcarnitine (AC), and total carnitine (TC). Different groups of Wistar male rats were treated with HgCl(2) at the doses of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 mg/kg body weight, and the animals were sacrificed at 24 hours following HgCl(2) injection. A separate batch of animals received HgCl(2) (2 mg/kg) with or without DMPS (100 mg/kg) and sacrificed at 24 or 48 hours after dosing. Administration of HgCl(2) resulted in statistically significant and dose-dependent increase in the urinary excretion of FC, AC, and TC in rats. However, the ratio of urinary AC:FC was significantly decreased by HgCl(2). Pretreatment with DMPS offered statistically significant protection against HgCl(2)-induced alterations in various urinary carnitine fractions in rats. PMID:20448264

  2. Increased Risk of Acute Coronary Syndrome among Patients with Urinary Stone Disease: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Cheng-Li; Chung, Shiu-Dong; Chung, Chi-Jung; Kao, Chia-Hung; Chang, Chao-Hsiang

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives Urinary stones (US) are associated with systemic metabolic and endocrine disorders that share risk factors typically associated with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods For this investigation, 30 142 patients with US were set as the research group, and 121 768 randomly selected patients were set as the comparison group through frequency matching by age, sex, and index year. Each patient was individually tracked to identify those who developed ACS during the follow-up period. Cox proportional hazards regression and the Kaplan-Meier method were adopted to calculate the hazard ratios of ACS risk and plot the survival curve. Results Overall, 275 (13.4 per 10 000 person-y) and 736 events (9.1 per 10 000 person-y) were observed among patients in the research and comparison cohorts, respectively. The patients with US had a substantially lower ACS-free survival rate compared with that of the patients in the comparison cohort (P<.001). After adjusting for potential risk factors, the patients with US were observed to have a 1.22-fold higher risk of ACS compared with patients in the comparison cohort (95% confidence interval = 1.05–1.40, P<.001), particularly among younger patients. Conclusions The results indicate that US is associated with increased risk of developing ACS, particularly among young (≤49 years) and male adults. Future studies should examine the possible mechanisms of US-related ACS morbidity by conducting multicenter recruitment and measurements of laboratory data. PMID:25010058

  3. Effects of water hardness on urinary risk factors for kidney stones in patients with idiopathic nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Bellizzi, V; De Nicola, L; Minutolo, R; Russo, D; Cianciaruso, B; Andreucci, M; Conte, G; Andreucci, V E

    1999-01-01

    Both amount and timing of dietary calcium intake influence the recurrence of renal calcium stones. We have evaluated whether the hardness of extra meal drinking water modifies the risk for calcium stones. The urinary levels of calcium, oxalate and citrate, i.e., the main urinary risk factors for calcium stones, were measured in 18 patients with idiopathic nephrolithiasis, maintained at fixed dietary intake of calcium (800 mg/day), after drinking for 1 week 2 liters per day, between meals, of tap water and at the end of 1 week of the same amount of bottled hard (Ca2+ 255 mg/l) or soft (Ca2+ 22 mg/l, Fiuggi water) water, in a double-blind randomized, crossover fashion. As compared with both tap and soft water, hard water was associated with a significant 50% increase of the urinary calcium concentration in the absence of changes of oxalate excretion; the calcium-citrate index revealed a significant threefold increase during ingestion of hard water as compared with respect to soft water (Fiuggi water), making the latter preferable even when compared with tap water. This study suggests that, in the preventive approach to calcium nephrolithiasis, the extra meal intake of soft water is preferable to hard water, since it is associated with a lower risk for recurrence of calcium stones. PMID:9873217

  4. Immunohistochemical localization and mRNA quantification of osteopontin and Tamm-Horsfall protein in canine renal tissue after potassium oxalate injection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Urinary macromolecules contribute to promoting or inhibiting crystal retention in renal tissue and stone formation. Osteopontin (OPN) and Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) are the most important proteins involved in this process. Although these two proteins were discovered a long time ago, their role in setting kidney stone formation has not yet been fully investigated. We conducted a study to explore the role of OPN and THP in canine renal oxalosis. Ten dogs were carefully examined prior to the study. Six dogs were assigned to the treatment group and were injected intravenously with 0.5M potassium oxalate (KOx). The other four dogs were assigned to a control group and were injected intravenously with 0.9% NaCl three times a day (tid) for 7 consecutive days. Then kidneys were harvested for pathological, immunohistochemical examination and OPN and THP mRNA expression levels were quantified by quantitative real-time PCR. Results Calcium oxalate crystals deposition was observed in both renal cortex and medulla. Immunohistochemistry examination revealed increased tissue expression of OPN in the renal tissue while THP was significantly decreased. OPN mRNA expression level significantly increased in treated dogs compared to that in the controls, while THP mRNA level significantly decreased. Conclusion Together, these results suggest that THP and OPN are both involved in the pathogenesis and response to oxalate exposure. PMID:24628885

  5. Contribution of calcium oxalate to soil-exchangeable calcium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dauer, Jenny M.; Perakis, Steven S.

    2013-01-01

    Acid deposition and repeated biomass harvest have decreased soil calcium (Ca) availability in many temperate forests worldwide, yet existing methods for assessing available soil Ca do not fully characterize soil Ca forms. To account for discrepancies in ecosystem Ca budgets, it has been hypothesized that the highly insoluble biomineral Ca oxalate might represent an additional soil Ca pool that is not detected in standard measures of soil-exchangeable Ca. We asked whether several standard method extractants for soil-exchangeable Ca could also access Ca held in Ca oxalate crystals using spike recovery tests in both pure solutions and soil extractions. In solutions of the extractants ammonium chloride, ammonium acetate, and barium chloride, we observed 2% to 104% dissolution of Ca oxalate crystals, with dissolution increasing with both solution molarity and ionic potential of cation extractant. In spike recovery tests using a low-Ca soil, we estimate that 1 M ammonium acetate extraction dissolved sufficient Ca oxalate to contribute an additional 52% to standard measurements of soil-exchangeable Ca. However, in a high-Ca soil, the amount of Ca oxalate spike that would dissolve in 1 M ammonium acetate extraction was difficult to detect against the large pool of exchangeable Ca. We conclude that Ca oxalate can contribute substantially to standard estimates of soil-exchangeable Ca in acid forest soils with low soil-exchangeable Ca. Consequently, measures of exchangeable Ca are unlikely to fully resolve discrepancies in ecosystem Ca mass balance unless the contribution of Ca oxalate to exchangeable Ca is also assessed.

  6. Are changes in urinary parameters during pregnancy clinically significant?

    PubMed

    Resim, Sefa; Sefa, Resim; Ekerbicer, Hasan Cetin; Cetin, Ekerbicer Hasan; Kiran, Gurkan; Gurkan, Kiran; Kilinc, Metin; Metin, Kilinc

    2006-08-01

    We aimed to objectively determine changes in the various urinary parameters along with CaOx saturation level during pregnancy. The study included 15 pregnant women who had no known diseases and were taking no medication except prenatal supplements. Mean age of the patients was 26 years (range 20-30). In all of them, this study was carried out in each trimester and 3 months post partum. All participants were followed up, and blood and urine samples were obtained during the pregnancy and during 3 months post partum. All subjects collected 24-h urine samples. The pregnant women had hypercalciuria in all three trimesters. Except for the first trimester, urine calcium levels in all trimesters were significantly higher when compared with the post-partum period (P<0.01 for second trimester, P<0.05 for third trimester). Urine oxalate level in post-partum period was significantly higher than urine oxalate levels in each trimester (P<0.05). The urine citrate levels were similarly higher than normal levels in three trimesters. Urine citrate level of the post-partum period was in normal reference ranges. This difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). We believe that hypercalciuria encountered at pregnancy is a reversible physiologic condition. Also, citrate and magnesium as urinary inhibitors increased in urine during gestation preventing stone formation. We think that long time periods are needed for hypercalciuria to be able to lead to the formation of urinary calculi in pregnant women (except women having a positive family history). Therefore, we think that the pregnancy alone does not predispose to a suitable condition for calculi. PMID:16614847

  7. Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 Containing an Artificial Oxalate Operon and Vitreoscilla Hemoglobin Secretes Oxalic Acid and Solubilizes Rock Phosphate in Acidic Alfisols

    PubMed Central

    Archana, G.; Naresh Kumar, G.

    2014-01-01

    Oxalate secretion was achieved in Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 by incorporation of genes encoding Aspergillus niger oxaloacetate acetyl hydrolase (oah), Fomitopsis plaustris oxalate transporter (FpOAR) and Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (vgb) in various combinations. Pf (pKCN2) transformant containing oah alone accumulated 19 mM oxalic acid intracellularly but secreted 1.2 mM. However, in the presence of an artificial oxalate operon containing oah and FpOAR genes in plasmid pKCN4, Pf (pKCN4) secreted 13.6 mM oxalate in the medium while 3.6 mM remained inside. This transformant solubilized 509 μM of phosphorus from rock phosphate in alfisol which is 4.5 fold higher than the Pf (pKCN2) transformant. Genomic integrants of P. fluorescens (Pf int1 and Pf int2) containing artificial oxalate operon (plac-FpOAR-oah) and artificial oxalate gene cluster (plac-FpOAR-oah, vgb, egfp) secreted 4.8 mM and 5.4 mM oxalic acid, released 329 μM and 351 μM P, respectively, in alfisol. The integrants showed enhanced root colonization, improved growth and increased P content of Vigna radiata plants. This study demonstrates oxalic acid secretion in P. fluorescens by incorporation of an artificial operon constituted of genes for oxalate synthesis and transport, which imparts mineral phosphate solubilizing ability to the organism leading to enhanced growth and P content of V. radiata in alfisol soil. PMID:24705024

  8. Characterization of wheat germin (oxalate oxidase) expressed by Pichia pastoris

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Heng-Yen; Whittaker, Mei M.; Bouveret, Romaric; Berna, Anne; Bernier, Francois; Whittaker, James W. . E-mail: jim@ebs.ogi.edu

    2007-05-18

    High-level secretory expression of wheat (Triticum aestivum) germin/oxalate oxidase was achieved in Pichia pastoris fermentation cultures as an {alpha}-mating factor signal peptide fusion, based on the native wheat cDNA coding sequence. The oxalate oxidase activity of the recombinant enzyme is substantially increased (7-fold) by treatment with sodium periodate, followed by ascorbate reduction. Using these methods, approximately 1 g (4 x 10{sup 4} U) of purified, activated enzyme was obtained following eight days of induction of a high density Pichia fermentation culture, demonstrating suitability for large-scale production of oxalate oxidase for biotechnological applications. Characterization of the recombinant protein shows that it is glycosylated, with N-linked glycan attached at Asn47. For potential biomedical applications, a nonglycosylated (S49A) variant was also prepared which retains essentially full enzyme activity, but exhibits altered protein-protein interactions.

  9. Oxalate, calcium and ash intake and excretion balances in fat sand rats (Psammomys obesus) feeding on two different diets.

    PubMed

    Palgi, Niv; Vatnick, Itzick; Pinshow, Berry

    2005-05-01

    Fat sand rats Psammomys obesus feed exclusively on plants of the family Chenopodiaceae, which contain high concentrations of chloride salts (NaCl, KCl) and oxalate salts. Ingestion of large quantities of oxalate is challenging for mammals because oxalate chelates Ca(2+) cations, reducing Ca(2+) availability. Oxalate is a metabolic end-point in mammalian metabolism, however it can be broken-down by intestinal bacteria. We predicted that in fat sand rats microbial breakdown of oxalate will be substantial due to the high dietary load. In addition, since a high concentration of soluble chloride salts increases the solubility of calcium oxalate in solution, we examined whether a change in the intake of chloride salts affects microbial oxalate breakdown and calcium excretion in fat sand rats. We measured oxalate, calcium and other inorganic matter (ash) intake and excretion in fat sand rats feeding on two different diets: saltbush (Atriplex halimus), their natural diet, and goose-foot (Chenopodium album), a non-native chenopod on which fat sand rats will readily feed and that has a similar oxalate content to saltbush but only 2/3 of the ash content. In animals feeding on both diets, 65-80% of the oxalate ingested did not appear in urine or faeces. In animals consuming the more saline saltbush, significantly more oxalate was apparently degraded (p<0.001), while significantly less oxalate was excreted in urine (p<0.01) and in faeces (p<0.05). We propose, therefore, that fat sand rats rely on symbiotic bacteria to remove a large portion of the oxalates ingested with their diet, and that the high dietary salt intake may play a beneficial role in their oxalate and calcium metabolism. PMID:15922640

  10. Oxalic acid decreases calcium absorption in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, C.M.; Martin, B.R.; Ebner, J.S.; Krueger, C.A.

    1987-11-01

    Calcium absorption from salts and foods intrinsically labeled with /sup 45/Ca was determined in the rat model. Calcium bioavailability was nearly 10 times greater for low oxalate kale, CaCO/sub 3/ and CaCl/sub 2/ than from CaC/sub 2/O/sub 4/ (calcium oxalate) and spinach (high in oxalates). Extrinsic and intrinsic labeling techniques gave a similar assessment of calcium bioavailability from kale but not from spinach.

  11. Sulfate and thiosulfate inhibit oxalate transport via a dPrestin (Slc26a6)-dependent mechanism in an insect model of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Landry, Greg M; Hirata, Taku; Anderson, Jacob B; Cabrero, Pablo; Gallo, Christopher J R; Dow, Julian A T; Romero, Michael F

    2016-01-15

    Nephrolithiasis is one of the most common urinary tract disorders, with the majority of kidney stones composed of calcium oxalate (CaOx). Given its prevalence (US occurrence 10%), it is still poorly understood, lacking progress in identifying new therapies because of its complex etiology. Drosophila melanogaster (fruitfly) is a recently developed model of CaOx nephrolithiasis. Effects of sulfate and thiosulfate on crystal formation were investigated using the Drosophila model, as well as electrophysiological effects on both Drosophila (Slc26a5/6; dPrestin) and mouse (mSlc26a6) oxalate transporters utilizing the Xenopus laevis oocyte heterologous expression system. Results indicate that both transport thiosulfate with a much higher affinity than sulfate Additionally, both compounds were effective at decreasing CaOx crystallization when added to the diet. However, these results were not observed when compounds were applied to Malpighian tubules ex vivo. Neither compound affected CaOx crystallization in dPrestin knockdown animals, indicating a role for principal cell-specific dPrestin in luminal oxalate transport. Furthermore, thiosulfate has a higher affinity for dPrestin and mSlc26a6 compared with oxalate These data indicate that thiosulfate's ability to act as a competitive inhibitor of oxalate via dPrestin, can explain the decrease in CaOx crystallization seen in the presence of thiosulfate, but not sulfate. Overall, our findings predict that thiosulfate or oxalate-mimics may be effective as therapeutic competitive inhibitors of CaOx crystallization. PMID:26538444

  12. Frog urinary bladder epithelial cells express TLR4 and respond to bacterial LPS by increase of iNOS expression and L-arginine uptake.

    PubMed

    Nikolaeva, Svetlana; Bachteeva, Vera; Fock, Ekaterina; Herterich, Sabine; Lavrova, Elena; Borodkina, Alexandra; Gambaryan, Stepan; Parnova, Rimma

    2012-11-15

    As in mammals, epithelium of the amphibian urinary bladder forms a barrier to pathogen entry and is a first line of defense against penetrating microorganisms. We investigated the effect of Escherichia coli LPS on generation of nitric oxide (NO), a critically important mediator during infectious processes, by primary cultured frog (Rana temporaria) urinary bladder epithelial cells (FUBEC). It was found that FUBEC constitutively express Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a receptor of LPS, and respond to LPS (10 ?g/ml) by stimulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA/protein expression and NOS activity measured by nitrite produced in the culture medium and by citrulline assay. We characterized uptake of l-arginine, a precursor in NO synthesis, by FUBEC and showed that it is mediated mainly by the y+ cationic amino acid transport system. LPS stimulated l-arginine uptake, and this effect was blocked by the iNOS inhibitor 1400W. Arginase II was found to be expressed in FUBEC. Inhibition of arginase activity by (S)-(boronoethyl)-l-cysteine increased generation of NO, suggesting contribution of arginase to NO production via competing with NOS for the substrate. LPS altered neither total arginase activity nor arginase II expression. Among epithelial cells, phagocytic macrophage-like cells were observed, but they did not contribute to LPS-induced NO production. These data demonstrate that amphibian urinary bladder epithelial cells recognize LPS and respond to it by increased generation of NO via stimulation of iNOS expression and l-arginine uptake, which appears to be essential for the regulation of the innate immune response and the inflammation in bladder epithelium. PMID:23019216

  13. Potassium citrate decreases urine calcium excretion in patients with hypocitraturic calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Song, Yan; Hernandez, Natalia; Shoag, Jonathan; Goldfarb, David S; Eisner, Brian H

    2016-04-01

    Two previous studies (<10 patients each) have demonstrated that alkali therapy may reduce urine calcium excretion in patients with calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. The hypothesized mechanisms are (1) a decrease in bone turnover due to systemic alkalinization by the medications; (2) binding of calcium by citrate in the gastrointestinal tract; (3) direct effects on TRPV5 activity in the distal tubule. We performed a retrospective review of patients on potassium citrate therapy to evaluate the effects of this medication on urinary calcium excretion. A retrospective review was performed of a metabolic stone database at a tertiary care academic hospital. Patients were identified with a history of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis and hypocitraturia who were on potassium citrate therapy for a minimum of 3 months. 24-h urine composition was assessed prior to the initiation of potassium citrate therapy and after 3 months of therapy. Patients received 30-60 mEq potassium citrate by mouth daily. Inclusion criterion was a change in urine potassium of 20 mEq/day or greater, which suggests compliance with potassium citrate therapy. Paired t test was used to compare therapeutic effect. Twenty-two patients were evaluated. Mean age was 58.8 years (SD 14.0), mean BMI was 29.6 kg/m(2) (SD 5.9), and gender prevalence was 36.4 % female:63.6 % male. Mean pre-treatment 24-h urine values were as follows: citrate 280.0 mg/day, potassium 58.7 mEq/day, calcium 216.0 mg/day, pH 5.87. Potassium citrate therapy was associated with statistically significant changes in each of these parameters-citrate increased to 548.4 mg/day (p < 0.0001), potassium increased to 94.1 mEq/day (p < 0.0001), calcium decreased to 156.5 mg/day (p = 0.04), pH increased to 6.47 (p = 0.001). Urine sodium excretion was not different pre- and post-therapy (175 mEq/day pre-therapy versus 201 mEq/day post-therapy, p = NS). Urinary calcium excretion decreased by a mean of 60 mg/day on potassium citrate therapy-a nearly 30 % decrease in urine calcium excretion. These data lend support to the hypothesis that alkali therapy reduces urine calcium excretion. PMID:26582172

  14. The abiotic degradation of soil organic matter to oxalic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studenroth, Sabine; Huber, Stefan; Schler, H. F.

    2010-05-01

    The abiotic degradation of soil organic matter to volatile organic compounds was studied intensely over the last years (Keppler et al., 2000; Huber et al., 2009). It was shown that soil organic matter is oxidised due to the presence of iron (III), hydrogen peroxide and chloride and thereby produces diverse alkyl halides, which are emitted into the atmosphere. The formation of polar halogenated compounds like chlorinated acetic acids which are relevant toxic environmental substances was also found in soils and sediments (Kilian et al., 2002). The investigation of the formation of other polar halogenated and non-halogenated compounds like diverse mono- and dicarboxylic acids is going to attain more and more importance. Due to its high acidity oxalic acid might have impacts on the environment e.g., nutrient leaching, plant diseases and negative influence on microbial growth. In this study, the abiotic formation of oxalic acid in soil is examined. For a better understanding of natural degradation processes mechanistic studies were conducted using the model compound catechol as representative for structural elements of the humic substances and its reaction with iron (III) and hydrogen peroxide. Iron is one of the most abundant elements on earth and hydrogen peroxide is produced by bacteria or through incomplete reduction of oxygen. To find suitable parameters for an optimal reaction and a qualitative and quantitative analysis method the following reaction parameters are varied: concentration of iron (III) and hydrogen peroxide, time dependence, pH-value and influence of chloride. Analysis of oxalic acid was performed employing an ion chromatograph equipped with a conductivity detector. The time dependent reaction shows a relatively fast formation of oxalic acid, the optimum yield is achieved after 60 minutes. Compared to the concentration of catechol an excess of hydrogen peroxide as well as a low concentration of iron (III) are required. In absence of chloride the degradation of catechol to oxalic acid delivers a maximum yield of approximately 60 %, whereas the presence of chloride reduces the formation of oxalic acid to 30 %. Chloride possibly induces further competing reactions of catechol leading to a lower concentration of oxalic acid. Freeze-dried soil samples have been tested for production of oxalic acid, where the rate of organic matter seems to play an important role for the formation. By adding iron (III) and/or hydrogen peroxide oxalic acid yields increase, which demonstrates the reaction of soil organic matter with iron (III) and hydrogen peroxide as expected. Thus the natural abiotic formation of oxalic acid is confirmed. The results of the soil measurements are similar to those obtained with catechol. Therefore, the newly gained insights with model compounds appear to be applicable to soil conditions and these findings increase our understanding of the degradation pathways of soil organic matter. Furthermore an overview of the rates of oxalic acid formation of a variety of soil samples is shown and discussed in the light of different soil parameter.

  15. Selective Rac1 inhibition protects renal tubular epithelial cells from oxalate-induced NADPH oxidase-mediated oxidative cell injury

    PubMed Central

    Thamilselvan, Vijayalakshmi; Menon, Mani

    2013-01-01

    Oxalate-induced oxidative cell injury is one of the major mechanisms implicated in calcium oxalate nucleation, aggregation and growth of kidney stones. We previously demonstrated that oxalate-induced NADPH oxidase-derived free radicals play a significant role in renal injury. Since NADPH oxidase activation requires several regulatory proteins, the primary goal of this study was to characterize the role of Rac GTPase in oxalate-induced NADPH oxidase-mediated oxidative injury in renal epithelial cells. Our results show that oxalate significantly increased membrane translocation of Rac1 and NADPH oxidase activity of renal epithelial cells in a time-dependent manner. We found that NSC23766, a selective inhibitor of Rac1, blocked oxalate-induced membrane translocation of Rac1 and NADPH oxidase activity. In the absence of Rac1 inhibitor, oxalate exposure significantly increased hydrogen peroxide formation and LDH release in renal epithelial cells. In contrast, Rac1 inhibitor pretreatment, significantly decreased oxalate-induced hydrogen peroxide production and LDH release. Furthermore, PKC α and δ inhibitor, oxalate exposure did not increase Rac1 protein translocation, suggesting that PKC resides upstream from Rac1 in the pathway that regulates NADPH oxidase. In conclusion, our data demonstrate for the first time that Rac1-dependent activation of NADPH oxidase might be a crucial mechanism responsible for oxalate-induced oxidative renal cell injury. These findings suggest that Rac1 signaling plays a key role in oxalate-induced renal injury, and may serve as a potential therapeutic target to prevent calcium oxalate crystal deposition in stone formers and reduce recurrence. PMID:21814770

  16. Peanut-induced acute oxalate nephropathy with acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyeoncheol; Eom, Minseob; Won Yang, Jae; Geun Han, Byoung; Ok Choi, Seung; Kim, Jae Seok

    2014-01-01

    Oxalate nephropathy is commonly caused by ethylene glycol, vitamin C, and foods like star fruit that contain a lot of oxalate. Peanuts also have high oxalate contents. However, case reports of peanut-induced oxalate nephropathy are not common. Here, we describe a case of peanut-induced acute oxalate nephropathy with acute kidney injury and intend to demonstrate the conditions under which peanut-induced oxalate nephropathy is likely to occur. PMID:26877960

  17. Of Mice and Men: Experimental Induction of Calcium Oxalate Nephrolithiasis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Saeed R.; Glenton, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Availability of various transgenic and knockout mice provides an excellent opportunity to better understand the pathophysiology of calcium oxalate (CaOx) stone disease. However attempts to produce CaOx nephrolithiasis in mice have not been very successful. We have hypothesized that CaOx nephrolithiasis in mice requires increasing the urinary excretion of calcium as well as oxalate and that experimentally induced hyperoxaluria alone is not sufficient. To provide evidence we induced hyperoxaluria by administering hyperoxaluria inducing agents to normocalciuric as well as hypercalciuric mice and investigated various aspects of nephrolithiasis. Materials and Methods Ethylene glycol (EG), glyoxylate (GOx) or hydroxyl proline (HLP) were administered through diet to male and female normocalciuric B6 mice as well as hypercalciuric Npt2a −/− mice for 4 weeks. 24 hour urine samples were collected on 0.3,7,14,21 and 28 days and analyzed for pH, creatinine, lactate dehydrogensae (LDH) calcium and oxalate. Kidneys were examined using light microscopy. Urine was examined for crystals using both light and scanning electron microscopy. Results Hypercalciuric mice on HLP did not tolerate the treatment and had to be sacrificed before 28 days. All mice receiving EG, GOx or HLP became hyperoxaluric and demonstrated CaOx crystalluria. None of the female mice, normo or hypercalciuric developed renal CaOx crystal deposits. All mice on Gox and some on EG developed CaOx nephrolithiais. Kidneys of all mice showed epithelial injury. Male mice particularly on GOx showed more renal injury and migration of inflammatory cells into the interstitium around the crystal deposits. Conclusions Results confirm that induction of hyperoxaluria alone is not sufficient for CaOx nephrolithiais in mice. Hypercalciuria is also required. Kidneys of male mice are more prone to injury than those of female mice and are susceptible to CaOx crystal deposition. Perhaps epithelial injury promotes crystal retention. Thus CaOx nephrolithiais in mice is gender dependent and requires both hypercalciuria and hyperoxaluria. PMID:20663521

  18. Engineering calcium oxalate crystal formation in Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many plants accumulate crystals of calcium oxalate. Just how these crystals form remains unknown. To gain insight into the mechanisms regulating calcium oxalate crystal formation, a crystal engineering approach was initiated utilizing the non-crystal accumulating plant, Arabidopsis. The success of t...

  19. Neptunium (IV) oxalate solubility. [22, 45, 60/sup 0/C

    SciTech Connect

    Luerkens, D W

    1983-07-01

    The equilibrium solubility of neptunium (IV) oxalate in nitric/oxalic acid solutions was determined at 22/sup 0/C, 45/sup 0/C, and 60/sup 0/C. The concentrations of nitric/oxalic acid solutions represented a wide range of free oxalate ion concentration. A mathematical solubility model was developed which is based on the formation of the known complexes of neptunium (IV) oxalate. the solubility model uses a simplified concentration parameter which is proportional to the free oxalate ion concentration. The solubility model can be used to estimate the equilibrium solubility of neptunium (IV) oxalate over a wide range of oxalic and nitric acid concentrations at each temperature.

  20. Modulation of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystallization kinetics in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kok, D J; Papapoulos, S E; Blomen, L J; Bijvoet, O L

    1988-09-01

    The effects of several low and high molecular weight (mol wt) compounds on the kinetics of calcium oxalate crystallization were examined using a seeded crystal growth method in which the solubility, the growth and the agglomeration of calcium oxalate crystals were measured as three separate and system-independent parameters. Citrate, magnesium, phosphate, pyrophosphate, chondroitinsulphate, pentosanpolysulphate and heparin were tested in a wide range of concentrations. The solubility of calcium oxalate crystals was increased only by citrate and magnesium. The crystal growth was inhibited by all compounds tested, but those with the high mol wt had the greatest effect at low concentrations. In contrast, inhibition of crystal agglomeration was achieved only by the low mol wt compounds; citrate was found to be the most potent inhibitor at concentrations likely to be present in normal urine. The high mol wt substances, despite their potent crystal growth inhibitory activity, had no effect on agglomeration. The results show that growth and agglomeration of calcium oxalate crystals are separate processes which are differently modulated by various compounds. They further provide a possible explanation for the pathogenetic role of citrate in hypocitraturic renal stone disease. PMID:2459439

  1. Biogenesis of Oxalate in Plant Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chi-Cheng; Beevers, Harry

    1968-01-01

    Red beet root discs aerated in potassium phosphate for 2 to 3 days and young spinach leaves actively produce oxalate. A series of labeled compounds was supplied to each of these tissues to determine the extent of conversion to oxalate. Similar results were obtained with the 2 tissues except that in the leaf tissue glyoxylate and glycolate were outstandingly good precursors. Carbon from glucose, acetate, and particularly from some acids of the tricarboxylic acid cycle was recovered in oxalate. Extracts from both tissues were found to contain an enzyme which converts oxaloacetate to oxalate and acetate. The enzyme was partially purified and some of its properties are described. A pathway of oxalate synthesis which does not include glycolate or its oxidase is therefore proposed. PMID:16656975

  2. [The quantitative study of inhibitory effect of pentosan polysulfate and chlorophyllin on the experimental calcium oxalate stone].

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, K; Suzuki, K; Tsugawa, R

    1989-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of sodium pentosan polysulfate (SPP) and sodium copper chlorophyllin (SCC) on the formation, growth and aggregation of calcium oxalate crystals in vivo, and to measure the number and the volume of crystals formed in the rat kidney, quantitatively, with a Coulter counter TA-II. The deposition of calcium oxalate crystals in the rat kidney was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 2.5 g per Kg of body weight of hydroxy-L-proline and administration of 0.4% ethylene glycol as the drinking fluid ad libitum for 7 days. Daily excretions of urinary oxalate, calcium (ratio to urinary creatinine) and urinary volume were measured. Both kidneys were removed after protocol. The kidneys were homogenized with 0.2 M Tris-buffer (pH 8.0) and subsequently digested in soluene-100. After calcium oxalate crystals were collected, they were suspended in saline saturated with calcium oxalate. The crystal size distribution was measured with a Coulter counter TA-II. In addition, the renal calcium content was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry, and the kidneys were examined by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The crystals formed in the rats' kidneys were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy. The results were as follows: 1. There was no deposition of crystals in the kidney of the rats which were not treated. There was intratubular deposition of crystals in the kidneys of the rats injected with hydroxy-L-proline and administered 0.4% ethylene glycol. They consisted of calcium oxalate monohydrate. 2. Renal calcium content was significantly higher in the groups with induced crystals than the control group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2477580

  3. Hydrothermal synthesis of uranyl squarates and squarate-oxalates. Hydrolysis trends and in situ oxalate formation

    SciTech Connect

    Rowland, Clare E.; Cahill, Christopher L.

    2010-06-16

    We report the synthesis of two uranyl squarates and two mixed-ligand uranyl squarate-oxalates from aqueous solutions under hydrothermal conditions. These products exhibit a range of uranyl building units from squarates with monomers in (UO2)2(C4O4)56NH44H2O (1; a = 16.731(17) , b = 7.280(8) , c = 15.872(16) , ? = 113.294(16), monoclinic, P21/c) and chains in (UO2)2(OH)2(H2O)2(C4O4) (2; a = 12.909(5) , b = 8.400(3) , c = 10.322(4) , ? = 100.056(7), monoclinic, C2/c) to two squarate-oxalate polymorphs with dimers in (UO2)2(OH)(C4O4)(C2O4)NH4H2O (3; a = 9.0601(7) , b = 15.7299(12) , c = 10.5108(8) , ? = 106.394(1), monoclinic, P21/n; and 4; a = 8.4469(6) , b = 7.7589(5) , c = 10.5257(7) , ? = 105.696(1), monoclinic, P21/m). The dominance at low pH of monomeric species and the increasing occurrence of oligomeric species with increasing pH suggests that uranyl hydrolysis, mUO22+ + NH2O ? [(UO2)m(OH)n]2m-n + nH+, has a significant role in the identity of the inorganic building unit. Additional factors that influence product assembly include in situ hydrolysis of squaric acid to oxalic acid, dynamic metal to ligand concentration, and additional binding modes resulting from the introduction of oxalate anions. These points and the effects of uranyl hydrolysis with changing pH are discussed in the context of the compounds presented herein.

  4. Protein adsorption at calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal surfaces.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesson, J.; Sheng, X.; Rimer, J.; Jung, T.; Ward, M.

    2008-03-01

    Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals are the dominant inorganic phase in most kidney stones, and kidney stones form as aggregates of COM crystals and organic material, principally proteins, but little is known about the molecular level events at COM surfaces that regulate COM aggregation. We have examined the influence of polyelectrolytes on the force of adhesion between chemically modified atomic force microscopy (AFM) tips and selected COM crystal faces in saturated solution. In general, we found that polyanions bind to COM surfaces and block adhesion of a carboxylate functionalized AFM tip, while polycations had no measureable effect on adhesion force under the same conditions. We did observe a unique absence of interaction between poly(glutamic acid) and the COM (100) face compared to other synthetic polyanions, and some native urinary protein structures also exhibited unique face selective interactions, suggesting that simple electrostatic models will not completely explain the data.

  5. Turning sunlight into stone: the oxalate-carbonate pathway in a tropical tree ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cailleau, G.; Braissant, O.; Verrecchia, E. P.

    2011-02-01

    An African oxalogenic tree, the iroko tree (Milicia excelsa), has the property to enhance carbonate precipitation in tropical oxisols, where such accumulations are not expected due to the theoretical acidic conditions of these soils. This uncommon process is linked to the oxalate-carbonate pathway, which increases soil pH through oxalate oxidation. In order to investigate the oxalate-carbonate pathway in the iroko system, fluxes of matter have been identified, described, and evaluated from field to microscopic scales. In the first centimeters of the soil profile, decaying of the organic matter allows the release of whewellite crystals, mainly due to the action of termites and saprophytic fungi. Regarding the carbonate flux, another direct consequence of wood feeding is a concomitant flux of carbonate formed in wood tissues, which is not consumed by termites. Nevertheless, calcite biomineralization of the tree is not a consequence of in situ oxalate consumption, but rather related to the oxalate oxidation inside the upper part of the soil. The consequence of this oxidation is the presence of carbonate ions in the soil solution pumped through the roots, leading to preferential mineralization of the roots and the trunk base. An ideal scenario for the iroko biomineralization and soil carbonate accumulation starts with oxalatization: as the iroko tree grows, the organic matter flux to the soil constitutes the litter. Therefore, an oxalate pool is formed on the forest ground. Then, wood rotting gents (mainly termites, fungi, and bacteria) release significant amounts of oxalate crystals from decaying plant tissues. In addition some of these gents are themselves producers of oxalate (fungi). Both processes contribute to a soil pool of "available" oxalate crystals. Oxalate consumption by oxalotrophic bacteria can start. Carbonate and calcium ions present in the soil solution represent the end products of the oxalate-carbonate pathway. The solution is pumped through the roots, leading to carbonate precipitation. The main pools of carbon are clearly identified as the organic matter (the tree and its organic products), the oxalate crystals, and the various carbonate features. A functional model based on field observations and diagenetic investigations with δ13C signatures of the various compartments involved in the local carbon cycle is proposed. It suggests that the iroko ecosystem can act as a long-term carbon sink, as long as the calcium source is related to non-carbonate rocks. Consequently, this carbon sink, driven by the oxalate carbonate pathway around an iroko tree, constitutes a true carbon trapping ecosystem as define by the ecological theory.

  6. Turning sunlight into stone: the oxalate-carbonate pathway in a tropical tree ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cailleau, G.; Braissant, O.; Verrecchia, E. P.

    2011-07-01

    An African oxalogenic tree, the iroko tree (Milicia excelsa), has the property to enhance carbonate precipitation in tropical oxisols, where such accumulations are not expected due to the acidic conditions in these types of soils. This uncommon process is linked to the oxalate-carbonate pathway, which increases soil pH through oxalate oxidation. In order to investigate the oxalate-carbonate pathway in the iroko system, fluxes of matter have been identified, described, and evaluated from field to microscopic scales. In the first centimeters of the soil profile, decaying of the organic matter allows the release of whewellite crystals, mainly due to the action of termites and saprophytic fungi. In addition, a concomitant flux of carbonate formed in wood tissues contributes to the carbonate flux and is identified as a direct consequence of wood feeding by termites. Nevertheless, calcite biomineralization of the tree is not a consequence of in situ oxalate consumption, but rather related to the oxalate oxidation inside the upper part of the soil. The consequence of this oxidation is the presence of carbonate ions in the soil solution pumped through the roots, leading to preferential mineralization of the roots and the trunk base. An ideal scenario for the iroko biomineralization and soil carbonate accumulation starts with oxalatization: as the iroko tree grows, the organic matter flux to the soil constitutes the litter, and an oxalate pool is formed on the forest ground. Then, wood rotting agents (mainly termites, saprophytic fungi, and bacteria) release significant amounts of oxalate crystals from decaying plant tissues. In addition, some of these agents are themselves producers of oxalate (e.g. fungi). Both processes contribute to a soil pool of "available" oxalate crystals. Oxalate consumption by oxalotrophic bacteria can then start. Carbonate and calcium ions present in the soil solution represent the end products of the oxalate-carbonate pathway. The solution is pumped through the roots, leading to carbonate precipitation. The main pools of carbon are clearly identified as the organic matter (the tree and its organic products), the oxalate crystals, and the various carbonate features. A functional model based on field observations and diagenetic investigations with δ13C signatures of the various compartments involved in the local carbon cycle is proposed. It suggests that the iroko ecosystem can act as a long-term carbon sink, as long as the calcium source is related to non-carbonate rocks. Consequently, this carbon sink, driven by the oxalate carbonate pathway around an iroko tree, constitutes a true carbon trapping ecosystem as defined by ecological theory.

  7. FT-IR spectral studies on certain human urinary stones in the patients of rural area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvaraju, R.; Thiruppathi, G.; Raja, A.

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) has been carried out to analyze the organic and inorganic constituent of human urinary stones. Patient's hailing from Rajah Muthiah Medical College and Hospital, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu, India was selected for the study. The FT-IR results indicate that stones have different composition, i.e., namely calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, carbonate apatite and magnesium ammonium phosphate and uric acid. From the spectral and powder X-ray diffraction pattern, the chemical constituents of urinary stones were identified. The quantitative estimations of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) 1620 cm-1, calcium phosphate (apatite) 1037 cm-1, magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) 1010 cm-1, calcium carbonate 1460 cm-1 and uric acid 1441 cm-1 were calculated using particular peaks of FT-IR studies. The study reveals that calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium phosphate type urinary stones were predominant whereas magnesium ammonium phosphate are in moderate level, and calcium carbonate and uric acid are in low. Calcium phosphate is found in all the stones and calcium oxalate monohydrate is found to be higher. Quantitative analyses of urinary stones show that calcium oxalate monohydrate (40%), apatite (30%), magnesium ammonium phosphate (23%) and uric acid (7%) are present in all the urinary stone samples.

  8. FT-IR spectral studies on certain human urinary stones in the patients of rural area.

    PubMed

    Selvaraju, R; Thiruppathi, G; Raja, A

    2012-07-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) has been carried out to analyze the organic and inorganic constituent of human urinary stones. Patient's hailing from Rajah Muthiah Medical College and Hospital, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu, India was selected for the study. The FT-IR results indicate that stones have different composition, i.e., namely calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, carbonate apatite and magnesium ammonium phosphate and uric acid. From the spectral and powder X-ray diffraction pattern, the chemical constituents of urinary stones were identified. The quantitative estimations of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) 1,620 cm(-1), calcium phosphate (apatite) 1,037 cm(-1), magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) 1,010 cm(-1), calcium carbonate 1,460 cm(-1) and uric acid 1,441 cm(-1) were calculated using particular peaks of FT-IR studies. The study reveals that calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium phosphate type urinary stones were predominant whereas magnesium ammonium phosphate are in moderate level, and calcium carbonate and uric acid are in low. Calcium phosphate is found in all the stones and calcium oxalate monohydrate is found to be higher. Quantitative analyses of urinary stones show that calcium oxalate monohydrate (40%), apatite (30%), magnesium ammonium phosphate (23%) and uric acid (7%) are present in all the urinary stone samples. PMID:22484261

  9. Hippuric Acid as a Significant Regulator of Supersaturation in Calcium Oxalate Lithiasis: The Physiological Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Atanassova, Stoyanka S.; Gutzow, Ivan S.

    2013-01-01

    At present, the clinical significance of existing physicochemical and biological evidence and especially the results we have obtained from our previous in vitro experiments have been analyzed, and we have come to the conclusion that hippuric acid (C6H5CONHCH2COOH) is a very active solvent of Calcium Oxalate (CaOX) in physiological solutions. Two types of experiments have been discussed: clinical laboratory analysis on the urine excretion of hippuric acid (HA) in patients with CaOX lithiasis and detailed measurements of the kinetics of the dissolution of CaOX calculi in artificial urine, containing various concentrations of HA. It turns out that the most probable value of the HA concentration in the control group is approximately ten times higher than the corresponding value in the group of the stone-formers. Our in vitro analytical measurements demonstrate even a possibility to dissolve CaOX stones in human urine, in which increased concentration of HA have been established. A conclusion can be that drowning out HA is a significant regulator of CaOX supersaturation and thus a regulation of CaOX stone formation in human urine. Discussions have arisen to use increased concentration of HA in urine both as a solubilizator of CaOX stones in the urinary tract and on the purpose of a prolonged metaphylactic treatment. PMID:24307993

  10. Trace elements in urinary stones: a preliminary investigation in Fars province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Keshavarzi, Behnam; Yavarashayeri, Nasrin; Irani, Dariush; Moore, Farid; Zarasvandi, Alireza; Salari, Mehrdad

    2015-04-01

    In view of the high incidence rate of urinary stones in the south and southwest of Iran, this paper investigates trace elements content including heavy metals in 39 urinary stones, collected from patients in Fars province, Iran. The mineralogy of the stones is investigated using X-ray diffractometry. The samples are classified into five mineral groups (calcium oxalate, uric acid, cystine, calcium phosphate and mixed stone). Major and trace elements in each group were determined using ICP-MS method. P and Ca constitute the main elements in urinary stones with Ca being more affine to oxalates while other alkali and alkaline earths precipitate with phosphate. Significant amounts of trace elements, especially Zn and Sr, were found in urinary calculi (calcium oxalate and phosphates) relative to biominerals (uric acid and cystine). Among urinary calculi, calcium phosphate contains greater amounts of trace metal than calcium oxalate. Phosphates seem to be the most important metal-bearing phases in urinary stones. Results indicate that concentrations of elements in urinary stones depend on the type of mineral phases. Significant differences in elements content across various mineralogical groups were found by applying statistical methods. Kruskal-Wallis test reveals significant difference between Ca, P, K, Na, Mg, S, Zn, Sr, Se, Cd, and Co content in different investigated mineral groups. Moreover, Mann-Whitney test differentiates Ca, Na, Zn, Sr, Co, and Ni between minerals in oxalate and uric acid stones. This study shows that urinary stone can provide complementary information on human exposure to elements and estimate the environmental risks involved in urinary stones formation. PMID:25433503

  11. Remediation of arsenic contaminated soil by coupling oxalate washing with subsequent ZVI/Air treatment.

    PubMed

    Cao, Menghua; Ye, Yuanyao; Chen, Jing; Lu, Xiaohua

    2016-02-01

    The application of a novel coupled process with oxalate washing and subsequent zero-valent iron (ZVI)/Air treatment for remediation of arsenic contaminated soil was investigated in the present study. Oxalate is biodegradable and widely present in the environment. With addition of 0.1molL(-1) oxalate under circumneutral condition, 83.7% and 52.6% of arsenic could be removed from a spiked kaolin and an actual contaminated soil respectively. Much more oxalate adsorption on the actual soil was attributed to the higher soil organic matter and clay content. Interestingly, oxalate retained in the washing effluent could act as an organic ligand to promote the oxidation efficiency of ZVI/Air at near neutral pH. Compared with the absence of oxalate, much more As(III) was oxidized. Arsenic was effectively adsorbed on iron (hydr)oxides as the consumption of oxalate and the increase of pH value. For the actual soil washing effluent, about 94.9% of total arsenic was removed after 120min's treatment without pH adjustment. It has been demonstrated that As(V) was the dominant arsenic speciation adsorbed on iron (hydr)oxides. This study provides a promising alternative for remediation of arsenic contaminated soil in view of its low cost and environmental benign. PMID:26476769

  12. Enhancing Resistance to Sclerotinia minor in Peanut by Expressing a Barley Oxalate Oxidase Gene1

    PubMed Central

    Livingstone, D. Malcolm; Hampton, Jaime L.; Phipps, Patrick M.; Grabau, Elizabeth A.

    2005-01-01

    Sclerotinia minor Jagger is the causal agent of Sclerotinia blight, a highly destructive disease of peanut (Arachis hypogaea). Based on evidence that oxalic acid is involved in the pathogenicity of many Sclerotinia species, our objectives were to recover transgenic peanut plants expressing an oxalic acid-degrading oxalate oxidase and to evaluate them for increased resistance to S. minor. Transformed plants were regenerated from embryogenic cultures of three Virginia peanut cultivars (Wilson, Perry, and NC-7). A colorimetric enzyme assay was used to screen for oxalate oxidase activity in leaf tissue. Candidate plants with a range of expression levels were chosen for further analysis. Integration of the transgene was confirmed by Southern-blot analysis, and gene expression was demonstrated in transformants by northern-blot analysis. A sensitive fluorescent enzyme assay was used to quantify expression levels for comparison to the colorimetric protocol. A detached leaflet assay tested whether transgene expression could limit lesion size resulting from direct application of oxalic acid. Lesion size was significantly reduced in transgenic plants compared to nontransformed controls (65%89% reduction at high oxalic acid concentrations). A second bioassay examined lesion size after inoculation of leaflets with S. minor mycelia. Lesion size was reduced by 75% to 97% in transformed plants, providing evidence that oxalate oxidase can confer enhanced resistance to Sclerotinia blight in peanut. PMID:15778458

  13. Oxalate-induced changes in the viability and growth of human renal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Jonassen, J A; Cooney, R; Kennington, L; Gravel, K; Honeyman, T; Scheid, C R

    1999-11-01

    Previous studies on the porcine renal epithelial LLC-PK1 cell line demonstrated that oxalate exposure produces concentration-dependent effects on renal cell growth and viability via process(es) involving free radicals. The present studies were conducted to determine whether these findings could be extended to a renal proximal tubular epithelial cell line derived from the human kidney. These studies examined oxalate-induced changes in membrane integrity after short-term exposure (4 h) and changes in cell survival after longer-term exposure (24 to 72 h). Oxalate-induced changes were also assessed in the expression of two genes: egr-1, a zinc-finger transcription factor, and osteopontin, a protein associated with tissue remodeling. The present studies also determined whether oxalate-induced changes in either cell viability or gene expression depended on free radicals. Oxalate at a concentration > or = 175 microM (free) produced membrane damage within 4 h. This effect was inhibited by Mn(III) tetrakis (1-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphyrin (MnTMPyP), a superoxide dismutase mimetic, but not by N-acetyl cysteine, a glutathione precursor, or by deferoxamine, an iron chelator. Acute oxalate-induced injury was followed by cell loss within 24 h, an effect maintained at 48 and 72 h at high concentrations of oxalate. Oxalate also promoted DNA synthesis. This mitogenic effect offset cell loss at lower oxalate concentrations (88 microM) leading to a small but significant increase in cell number at 72 h. Treatment with oxalate also increased expression of egr-1 mRNA within 1 h, a response that was attenuated by MnTMPyP; oxalate treatment for 8 h also increased abundance of osteopontin mRNA. These studies suggest that oxalate exposure produces changes in human renal cell growth and viability via a process(es) dependent on reactive oxygen intermediates. Such changes may play a role in the development and/or progression of renal disease via generation of reactive oxygen intermediates. PMID:10541281

  14. Urinary stone composition in Oman: with high incidence of cystinuria.

    PubMed

    Al-Marhoon, Mohammed S; Bayoumi, Riad; Al-Farsi, Yahya; Al-Hinai, Abdullhakeem; Al-Maskary, Sultan; Venkiteswaran, Krishna; Al-Busaidi, Qassim; Mathew, Josephkunju; Rhman, Khalid; Sharif, Omar; Aquil, Shahid; Al-Hashmi, Intisar

    2015-06-01

    Urinary stones are a common problem in Oman and their composition is unknown. The aim of this study is to analyze the components of urinary stones of Omani patients and use the obtained data for future studies of etiology, treatment, and prevention. Urinary stones of 255 consecutive patients were collected at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital. Stones were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer. The biochemical, metabolic, and radiological data relating to the patients and stones were collected. The mean age was 41 years, with M:F ratio of 3.7:1. The common comorbidities associated with stone formation were hypertension; diabetes, benign prostate hyperplasia; urinary tract infection; obesity; and atrophic kidney. The common presentation was renal colic and flank pain (96%). Stones were surgically retrieved in 70% of patients. Mean stone size was 9 ± 0.5 mm (range 1.3-80). Stone formers had a BMI ≥ 25 in 56% (P = 0.006) and positive family history of stones in 3.8%. The most common stones in Oman were as follows: Calcium Oxalates 45% (114/255); Mixed calcium phosphates & calcium oxalates 22% (55/255); Uric Acid 16% (40/255); and Cystine 4% (10/255). The most common urinary stones in Oman are Calcium Oxalates. Overweight is an important risk factor associated with stone formation. The hereditary Cystine stones are three times more common in Oman than what is reported in the literature that needs further genetic studies. PMID:25805105

  15. Determination of urinary lithogenic parameters in murine models orthologous to autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, Renato Ribeiro Nogueira; Fonseca, Jonathan Mackowiak; Germino, Gregory George; Onuchic, Luiz Fernando; Heilberg, Ita Pfeferman

    2014-08-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), a genetic disease caused by mutations in PKD1 or PKD2 genes, is associated with a high prevalence of nephrolithiasis. The underlying mechanisms may encompass structural abnormalities resulting from cyst growth, urinary metabolic abnormalities or both. An increased frequency of hypocitraturia has been described in ADPKD even in the absence of nephrolithiasis, suggesting that metabolic alterations may be associated with ADPKD per se. We aimed to investigate whether non-cystic Pkd1-haploinsufficient (Pkd1(+/-)) and/or nestin-Cre Pkd1-targeted cystic (Pkd1(cond/cond):Nestin(cre)) mouse models develop urinary metabolic abnormalities potentially related to nephrolithiasis in ADPKD. 24-h urine samples were collected during three non-consecutive days from 10-12 and 18-20 week-old animals. At 10-12 weeks of age, urinary oxalate, calcium, magnesium, citrate and uric acid did not differ between test and their respective control groups. At 18-20 weeks, Pkd1(+/-) showed slightly but significantly higher urinary uric acid vs. controls while cystic animals did not. The absence of hypocitraturia, hyperoxaluria and hyperuricosuria in the cystic model at both ages and the finding of hyperuricosuria in the 18-20 week-old animals suggest that anatomic cystic distortions per se do not generate the metabolic disturbances described in human ADPKD-related nephrolithiasis, while Pkd1 haploinsufficiency may contribute to this phenotype in this animal model. PMID:24817661

  16. Glyoxylate rather than ascorbate is an efficient precursor for oxalate biosynthesis in rice

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Le; Jiang, Jingzhe; Zhang, Chan; Jiang, Linrong; Ye, Nenghui; Lu, Yusheng; Yang, Guozheng; Liu, Ee; Peng, Changlian; He, Zhenghui; Peng, Xinxiang

    2010-01-01

    Oxalate is widely distributed in the plant kingdom. While excess oxalate in food crops is detrimental to animal and human health, it may play various functional roles in plants, particularly for coping with environmental stresses. Understanding its biosynthetic mechanism in plants, therefore, becomes increasingly important both theoretically and practically. However, it is still a matter of debate as to what precursor and pathway are ultimately used for oxalate biosynthesis in plants. In this study, both physiological and molecular approaches were applied to address these questions. First, it was observed that when glycolate or glyoxylate was fed into detached leaves, both organic acids were equally effective in stimulating oxalate accumulation. In addition, the stimulation could be completely inhibited by cysteine, a glyoxylate scavenger that forms cysteine–glyoxylate adducts. To verify the role of glyoxylate further, various transgenic plants were generated, in which several genes involved in glyoxylate metabolism [i.e. SGAT (serine-glyoxylate aminotransferase), GGAT (glutamate-glyoxylate aminotransferase), HPR (hydroxypyruvate reductase), ICL (isocitrate lyase)], were transcriptionally regulated through RNAi or over-expression. Analyses on these transgenic plants consistently revealed that glyoxylate acted as an efficient precursor for oxalate biosynthesis in rice. Unexpectedly, it was found that oxalate accumulation was not correlated with photorespiration, even though this pathway is known to be a major source of glyoxylate. Further, when GLDH (L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase), a key enzyme gene for ascorbate biosynthesis, was down-regulated, the oxalate abundance remained constant, despite ascorbate having been largely reduced as expected in these transgenic plants. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that glyoxylate rather than ascorbate is an efficient precursor for oxalate biosynthesis, and that oxalate accumulation and regulation do not necessarily depend on photorespiration, possibly due to the occurrence of the anaplerotic reaction that may compensate for glyoxylate formation in rice. PMID:20194922

  17. Oxalate-induced activation of PKC-α and -δ regulates NADPH oxidase-mediated oxidative injury in renal tubular epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Mani; Thamilselvan, Sivagnanam

    2009-01-01

    Oxalate-induced oxidative stress contributes to cell injury and promotes renal deposition of calcium oxalate crystals. However, we do not know how oxalate stimulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) in renal tubular epithelial cells. We investigated the signaling mechanism of oxalate-induced ROS formation in these cells and found that oxalate significantly increased membrane-associated protein kinase C (PKC) activity while at the same time lowering cytosolic PKC activity. Oxalate markedly translocated PKC-α and -δ from the cytosol to the cell membrane. Pretreatment of LLC-PK1 cells with specific inhibitors of PKC-α or -δ significantly blocked oxalate-induced generation of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide along with NADPH oxidase activity, LDH release, lipid hydroperoxide formation, and apoptosis. The PKC activator PMA mimicked oxalate's effect on oxidative stress in LLC-PK1 cells as well as cytosol-to-membrane translocation of PKC-α and -δ. Silencing of PKC-α expression by PKC-α-specific small interfering RNA significantly attenuated oxalate-induced cell injury by decreasing hydrogen peroxide generation and LDH release. We believe this is the first demonstration that PKC-α- and -δ-dependent activation of NADPH oxidase is one of the mechanisms responsible for oxalate-induced oxidative injury in renal tubular epithelial cells. The study suggests that the therapeutic approach might be considered toward attenuating oxalate-induced PKC signaling-mediated oxidative injury in recurrent stone formers. PMID:19692488

  18. Seasonal variations in urinary risk factors among patients with nephrolithiasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, K.; Poindexter, J.; Pak, C. Y.

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-four hour urine specimens from 5,677 stone-forming patients throughout the United States were analyzed for seasonal variations in urinary risk factors for nephrolithiasis. Determinations were performed for urine volume, pH, calcium, oxalate, phosphorus, sodium, magnesium, citrate, sulfate, uric acid, and the relative supersaturation (RS) of calcium oxalate, brushite, monosodium urate, and uric acid. Criteria for significant seasonal variation included a significant difference in monthly means of risk factors, seasonal grouping of the data by the Student-Newman-Keuls multiple range test, consistent year-to-year trends and a physiologically significant range. Minimum urine volume of 1.54 +/- 0.70 SD L/day occurred in October while a maximum urine volume of 1.76 +/- 0.78 SD L/day was observed during February. Minimum urine pH of 5.94 +/- 0.64 SD was observed during July and August while a maximum pH of 6.18 +/- 0.61 SD was observed during February. Daily urinary excretion of sodium was lowest during August, 158 +/- 74 SD mEq/day and highest during February 177 +/- 70 SD mEq/day. The RS of brushite and uric acid were found to display significant pH-dependent seasonal variation with a maximum RS of uric acid 2.26 +/- 1.98 SD in June and a low of 1.48 +/- 1.30 SD in February. Maximum RS of brushite 2.75 +/- 2.58 was observed during February. Minimum RS of brushite 1.93 +/- 1.70 SD was observed in June. Phosphorus excretion displayed seasonal variation about a spring-fall axis with a maximum value 1042 +/- 373 SD mg/day in April and a minimum value of 895 +/- 289 SD mg/day. Urine volume, sodium, and pH were significantly lower during the summer (June, July, August) than in the winter (December, January, February). The RS of uric acid was higher, but that of brushite and monosodium urate was lower in the summer than in the winter. The seasonal changes observed in urine volume, pH, sodium, and the RS of brushite and uric acid are consistent with summertime sweating and increased physical activity. Seasonal variations in phosphorus excretion are probably dietary in origin. The summertime was characterized by an increased propensity for the crystallization of uric acid but not of calcium oxalate or calcium phosphate.

  19. Urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin excretion is increased in rats after 24 hours of exposure to vertical 50 Hz, 100 {micro}T magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Bakos, J.; Nagy, N.; Thuroczy, G.; Szabo, L.D.

    1997-05-01

    The effect of exposure to a 50 Hz, vertical magnetic field on the excretion of urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) of rats was studied in a self-controlled experiment. Ten male Wistar rats were kept under 9:15 h light:dark conditions in metabolic cages. The rats were exposed to 1.0 or 100 {micro}T flux density for 24 h. The excretion of aMT6s, which is the primary metabolite of melatonin in the urine, did not show a statistically significant decrease, as measured by {sup 125}I radioimmunoassay, during or after magnetic field exposure of rats to either flux density. At 100 {micro}T flux density, the increase of aMT6s excretion on the day after exposure was statistically significant (P < .02), compared with the value under exposure, but was not significant compared with the baseline values before exposure.

  20. Urinary Incontinence

    MedlinePLUS

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is loss of bladder control. Symptoms can range from mild leaking to uncontrollable wetting. It can happen to anyone, but it becomes more common with age. Women experience ...

  1. Urinary Bladder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ureters Urinary Bladder Urethra Review Quiz Reproductive System Male Reproductive System Testes Duct System Accessory Glands Penis Male Sexual Response & Hormone Control Female Reproductive System Ovaries Genital Tract External Genitalia Female Sexual Response & ...

  2. Short term effects of increasing dietary salt concentrations on urine composition in healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Paßlack, N; Burmeier, H; Brenten, T; Neumann, K; Zentek, J

    2014-09-01

    High dietary salt (NaCl) concentrations are assumed to be beneficial in preventing the formation of calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths in cats, since increased water intake and urine volume have been observed subsequent to intake. In human beings, dietary NaCl restriction is recommended for the prevention of CaOx urolith formation, since high NaCl intake is associated with increased urinary Ca excretion. The aim of the present study was to clarify the role of dietary NaCl in the formation of CaOx uroliths in cats. Eight cats received four diets that differed in Na and Cl concentrations (0.38-1.43% Na and 0.56-2.52% Cl dry matter, DM). Each feeding period consisted of a 21 day adaptation period, followed by a 7 day sampling period for urine collection. Higher dietary NaCl concentrations were associated with increased urine volume and renal Na excretion. Urinary Ca concentration was constant, but renal Ca excretion increased from 0.62 to 1.05 mg/kg bodyweight (BW)/day with higher dietary NaCl concentrations (P ≤ 0.05). Urinary oxalate (Ox), citrate, P and K concentrations decreased when NaCl intake was high (P ≤ 0.05), and urinary pH was low in all groups (6.33-6.45; P > 0.05). Relative supersaturation of CaOx in the urine was unaffected by dietary NaCl concentrations. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated several beneficial effects of high dietary NaCl intake over a relatively short time period. In particular, urinary Ca concentration remained unchanged because of increased urine volume. Decreased urinary Ox concentrations might help to prevent the formation of CaOx uroliths, but this should be verified in future studies in diseased or predisposed cats. PMID:24881513

  3. [Urinary tract infections].

    PubMed

    Hrl, W H

    2011-09-01

    Urinary tract infections occur very frequently in the community and in hospitalized patients and are mainly caused by Escherichia (E.) coli. Depending on virulence determinants of uropathogenic microorganisms and host-specific defense mechanisms, urinary tract infections can manifest as cystitis, pyelonephritis (bacterial interstitial nephritis), bacteremia or urosepsis. Uncomplicated urinary tract infections in otherwise healthy women should be treated for 3-7 days depending on the antibiotic therapy chosen, even if spontaneous remission rates of up to 40% have been reported. Antibiotics of the first choice for empirical treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infection are fluoroquinolones, pivmecillinam and fosfomycin. A huge problem is the increasing antimicrobial resistance of uropathogenic microorganisms. Complicated urinary tract infections associated with anatomical and/or functional abnormalities of the urinary tract and/or comorbidities such as diabetes or immunosuppressive therapy, need longer antibiotic treatment (e.g. 10-14 days) as well as interdisciplinary diagnostic procedures. Treatment of community acquired urosepsis includes cephalosporins of the third generation, piperacillin/tazobactam or ciprofloxacin. For nosocomial urosepsis the combination with an aminoglycoside or a carbapenem is recommended. PMID:21850538

  4. Automated homogeneous oxalate precipitation of Pu(III)

    SciTech Connect

    Yarbro, S.L.; Schreiber, S.B.; Dunn, S.L.; Mills, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    Homogeneous oxalate precipitation using diethyl oxalate was compared to precipitating Pu(III) oxalate with solid oxalic acid. The diethyl oxalate technique at 75{degree}C is better because it gives 50% less plutonium in the filtrate with a reasonable filtering time. Also, the procedure for the homogeneous precipitation is easier to automate because the liquid diethyl oxalate is simpler to introduce into the precipitator than solid oxalic acid. It also provides flexibility because the hydrolysis rate and therefore the precipitation rate can be controlled by varying the temperature. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Artificial photosynthesis of oxalate and oxalate-based polymer by a photovoltaic reactor

    PubMed Central

    Nong, Guangzai; Chen, Shan; Xu, Yuanjin; Huang, Lijie; Zou, Qingsong; Li, Shiqiang; Mo, Haitao; Zhu, Pingchuan; Cen, Weijian; Wang, Shuangfei

    2014-01-01

    A photovoltaic reactor was designed for artificial photosynthesis, based on the reactions involved in high energy hydrogen atoms, which were produced from water electrolysis. Water and CO2, under the conditions studied, were converted to oxalate (H2C2O4) and a polymer. This was the first time that the oxalates and oxalate-based polymer were produced from the artificial photosynthesis process. PMID:24389750

  6. Effect of alkalinization on calcium oxalate monohydrate calculi during extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy: in vivo experiments.

    PubMed

    Vandeursen, H; De Ridder, D; Demeulenaere, R; Pittomvils, G; Boving, R; Baert, L

    1992-01-01

    Previous in vitro experiments demonstrated the reduced microhardness of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) calculi, relative to dry values, when saturated with an alkaline solution (pH = 9.5). Nineteen patients with a COM calculus in the distal ureter which had been resistant to prior extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in situ, were treated when the stone was surrounded by alkaline urine. The urine of 14 patients was alkalinized orally by administration of acetazolamine and citrate solution; in 5 other patients direct percutaneous irrigation of sodium bicarbonate via a nephrostomy tube was carried out. The urinary pH just before lithotripsy was greater than or equal to 9 in 17/19 patients. 4,000 shock waves, averaging 18.1 kV generated by the Siemens Lithostar, were delivered onto the calculus. No significant increase of comminution rate was apparent at radiographic control immediately after the treatment and only in half of the cases was evacuation obtained within 3 months. PMID:1316663

  7. Aggregation of Calcium Phosphate and Oxalate Phases in the Formation of Renal Stones

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The majority of human kidney stones are comprised of multiple calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals encasing a calcium phosphate nucleus. The physiochemical mechanism of nephrolithiasis has not been well determined on the molecular level; this is crucial to the control and prevention of renal stone formation. This work investigates the role of phosphate ions on the formation of calcium oxalate stones; recent work has identified amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) as a rapidly forming initial precursor to the formation of calcium phosphate minerals in vivo. The effect of phosphate on the nucleation of COM has been investigated using the constant composition (CC) method in combination with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our findings indicate COM nucleation is strongly promoted by the presence of phosphate; this occurs at relatively low phosphate concentrations, undersaturated with respect to brushite (dicalcium phosphate dehydrate, DCPD) formation. The results show that ACP plays a crucial role in the nucleation of calcium oxalate stones by promoting the aggregation of amorphous calcium oxalate (ACO) precursors at early induction times. The coaggregations of ACP and ACO precursors induce the multiple-point nucleation of COM. These novel findings expand our knowledge of urinary stone development, providing potential targets for treating the condition at the molecular level. PMID:25598742

  8. Photoconductivity of Yttrium Neodymium Gadolinium Oxalate Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuryan, Soosy; Abraham, Rosalin; Isac, Jayakumari

    2007-03-01

    Crystals are pillars of modern technology..Yttrium Neodymium Gadolinium oxalate (YNdGaOx) crystals were grown by gel method by the diffusion of Yttrium Chloride, Neodymium Chloride, and Gadolinium Chloride into the set gel containing Oxalic acid. Silica gel method is capable of yielding crystals of high optical perfection and wide morphology. The growing crystals are held in the gel medium in a strain free manner and at the same time nucleation and super saturation are well controlled. Photo conductivity studies of these crystals revealed negative photoconductivity nature. The photocurrent is found to be less than the dark current at every applied electric field. Rare Earth compounds are known for their interesting electric, magnetic and luminescent properties. Recent investigations on the fluorescence of some rare earth oxalates suggest their potentiality for their optical applications. Rare Earth oxalates evoked greater attention because of their ionic conduction.

  9. Photoconductivity of Yttrium Praseodymium Gadolinium Oxalate Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuryan, Soosy; Abraham, Rosalin; Isac, Jayakumari

    2007-06-01

    Crystals are pillars of modern technology. Yttrium Praseodymium Gadolinium oxalate (YPrGaOx) crystals were grown by gel method by the diffusion of Yttrium Chloride, Praseodymium Chloride, and Gadolinium Chloride into the set gel containing Oxalic acid. Silica gel method is capable of yielding crystals of high optical perfection and wide morphology. The growing crystals are held in the gel medium in a strain free manner and at the same time nucleation and super saturation are well controlled. Photo conductivity studies of these crystals revealed negative photoconductivity nature. The photocurrent is found to be less than the dark current at every applied electric field. Rare Earth compounds are known for their interesting electric, magnetic and luminescent properties. Recent investigations on the fluorescence of some rare earth oxalates suggest their potentiality for their optical applications. Rare Earth oxalates evoked greater attention because of their ionic conduction.

  10. Response of extracellular carboxylic and thiol ligands (oxalate, thiol compounds) to Pb? stress in Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    PubMed

    Li, Ningjie; Zeng, Guangming; Huang, Danlian; Huang, Chao; Lai, Cui; Wei, Zhen; Xu, Piao; Zhang, Chen; Cheng, Min; Yan, Ming

    2015-08-01

    When exposed to higher Pb(2+) concentration, Phanerochaete chrysosporium secreted higher content of oxalate and thiol compounds. An earlier and faster increase in oxalate was observed after short-term exposure, comparing with a gentle increase in the thiol compounds. In the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) extract, more oxalate and T-SH were detected when the initial Pb(2+) was higher, and the variations were different from the situation in the culture medium. In EPS solution, the oxalate amount was more closely related with Pb than that of thiol compounds. pH condition in the whole Pb removal process by P. chrysosporium ranged from 4 to 6.5 and was more beneficial for the binding of Pb(2+) to carboxylic groups in the oxalic acid. More Pb(2+) induced more EPS amount, and the increase of EPS amount influenced the immobilized oxalate more seriously. The present study can supply more comprehensive information about the metal passivation mechanism in white-rot fungi and provide meaningful references for an enhanced removal of heavy metals. PMID:25913307

  11. Stability Constants of Technetium (IV) Oxalate Complexes as a Function of Ionic Strength

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Yuanxian; Hess, Nancy J.; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2006-03-01

    Solvent extraction methods were used to determine the stability constants of Tc(IV) with oxalate anions in NaCl solutions ranging in concentration from 0.5 M to 2.0 M. All experiments were conducted in an atmosphere-controlled chamber under Ar atmosphere (< 1.0ppm O2). A reducing agent (hydrazine) was used during extractions to maintain technetium in the tetravalent oxidation state. Independent tests confirmed that the oxidation state of technetium did not change during extractions. The distribution ratio of Tc(IV) between the organic and aqueous phases was found to decrease as the concentration of oxalic acid increased. At the oxalic acid concentrations used in these experiments, the complexes TcO(Ox) and TcO(Ox)22- were found to be the dominant aqueous species. Based on these data, the thermodynamic stability constants of Tc(IV) with oxalate complexes were calculated by the Specific Ion Interaction Theory (SIT).

  12. Effect of calcium oxalate on the photocatalytic degradation of Orange II on ZnO surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassaid, S.; Ziane, B.; Badaoui, M.; Chaib, M.; Robert, D.

    2013-06-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of aqueous solution of Orange II, has been investigated in the presence of ZnO catalyst with calcium oxalate as sacrificial agent. This study demonstrated that the performance of ZnO photocatalyst can be improved by addition of calcium oxalate. Results show that adsorption is an important parameter controlling the degradation phenomena. Indeed, the added oxalate causes a drop in the pH medium, what causes a better adsorption of Orange II on the ZnO surface. The effect of calcium oxalate is to increase the concentration of superoxides (O{2/-}) and hydroperoxides (HO2) radicals, which are key intermediaries in the mechanism of photodegradation because of their powerful force of oxidation.

  13. Developing precipitation modes for preventing the calcium-oxalate contamination of sugar beet pectins.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoming; Meng, Hecheng; Zhu, Siming; Tang, Qiang; Pan, Runquan; Yu, Shujuan

    2015-09-01

    Effects of precipitation modes on the co-precipitation of insoluble oxalates particles during the purification of sugar beet pectins (SBP) from the extract were investigated. It was observed that soluble oxalate ions formed insoluble oxalate salts with calcium and precipitated with pectins during ethanol precipitation as pH of the medium increased and the solvent changed from water to ethanol-water mixture. Comparison among the employed precipitation methods revealed that both the dialysis-ethanol-precipitation and metal precipitation effectively prevented the calcium-oxalate contamination of SBP. Emulsifying properties of DEPP, EPP and MPP were also studied. It was observed that DEPP performed better than the remainder with respect to emulsifying ability. Based on these results, we concluded that the dialysis-ethanolic-precipitation can be a suitable method for improving the purity as well as emulsifying properties of the resulting pectins. PMID:25842309

  14. Modeling the Adsorption of Oxalate onto Montmorillonite.

    PubMed

    Ramos, M Elena; Emiroglu, Caglayan; Garca, David; Sainz-Daz, C Ignacio; Huertas, F Javier

    2015-11-01

    In this work, a multiscale modeling of the interaction of oxalate with clay mineral surfaces from macroscale thermodynamic equilibria simulations to atomistic calculations is presented. Previous results from macroscopic adsorption data of oxalate on montmorillonite in 0.01 M KNO3 media at 25 C within the pH range from 2.5 to 9 have been used to develop a surface complexation model. The experimental adsorption edge data were fitted using the triple-layer model (TLM) with the aid of the FITEQL 4.0 computer program. Surface complexation of oxalate is described by two reactions: >AlOH + Ox(2-) + 2H(+) = >AlOxH + H2O (log K = 14.39) and >AlOH + Ox(2-) + H(+) = >AlOx(-) + H2O (log K = 10.39). The monodentate complex >AlOxH dominated adsorption below pH 4, and the bidentate complex >AlOx(-) was predominant at higher pH values. Both of the proposed inner-sphere oxalate species are qualitatively consistent with previously published diffuse reflectance FTIR spectroscopic results for oxalate on montmorillonite edge surface (Chem. Geol. 2014, 363, 283-292). Atomistic computational studies have been performed to understand the interactions at the molecular level between adsorbates and mineral surface, showing the atomic structures and IR frequency shifts of the adsorption complexes of oxalate with the edge surface of a periodic montmorillonite model. PMID:26444928

  15. Oxalate Content of Different Drinkable Dilutions of Tea Infusions after Different Brewing Times

    PubMed Central

    Lotfi Yagin, Neda; Mahdavi, Reza; Nikniaz, Zeinab

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aims of this study were to determine the effect of different brewing times and diluting on oxalate content of loose-packed black teas consumed in Tabriz, Iran. Methods: The oxalate content of black teas after brewing for 5, 10, 15, 30, 60 minutes was measured in triplicate by enzymatic assay. In order to attain the most acceptable dilution of tea infusions, tea samples which were brewed for 15, 30 and 60 minutes were diluted two (120 ml), three (80 ml) and four (60 ml) times respectively. Results: There was a stepwise increase in oxalate concentrations associated with increased brewing times (P< 0.001) with oxalate contents ranging from 4.4 mg/240 ml for the 5 min to 6.3 mg/240 ml for 60 min brewing times, respectively. There were significant differences between the mean oxalate content of different dilutions after brewing for 15, 30 and 60 minutes (P< 0.001). Conclusion: The oxalate content of Iranian consumed black tea after different brewing times and different dilution was below the recommended levels. Therefore, it seems that consumption of black tea several times per day would not pose significant health risk in kidney stone patients and susceptible individuals. PMID:24688937

  16. Increased Risk of Urinary Tract Cancer in ESRD Patients Associated with Usage of Chinese Herbal Products Suspected of Containing Aristolochic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuo-Meng; Lai, Ming-Nan; Wei, Alan; Chen, Ya-Yin; Pu, Yeong-Shiau; Chen, Pau-Chung; Wang, Jung-Der

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Both end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and urothelial cancer (UC) are associated with the consumption of Chinese herbal products containing aristolochic acid (AA) by the general population. The objective of this study was to determine the risk of UC associated with AA-related Chinese herbal products among ESRD patients. Methods We conducted a cohort study using the National Health Insurance reimbursement database to enroll all ESRD patients in Taiwan from 19982002. Cox regression models were constructed and hazard ratios and confidence intervals were estimated after controlling for potential confounders, including age, sex, residence in region with endemic black foot disease, urinary tract infection, and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and acetaminophen. Results A total of 38,995 ESRD patients were included in the final analysis, and 320 patients developed UC after ESRD. Having been prescribed Mu Tong that was adulterated with Guan Mu Tong (Aristolochia manshuriensis) before 2004, or an estimated consumption of more than 1100 mg of aristolochic acid, were both associated with an increased risk of UC in the multivariable analyses. Analgesic consumption of more than 150 pills was also associated with an increased risk of UC, although there was little correlation between the two risk factors. Conclusion Consumption of aristolochic acid-related Chinese herbal products was associated with an increased risk of developing UC in ESRD patients. Regular follow-up screening for UC in ESRD patients who have consumed Chinese herbal products is thus necessary. PMID:25170766

  17. Increasing burden of urinary tract infections due to intrinsic colistin-resistant bacteria in hospitals in Marseille, France.

    PubMed

    Abat, Cdric; Desboves, Guillaume; Olaitan, Abiola Olumuyiwa; Chaudet, Herv; Roattino, Nicole; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Colson, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2015-02-01

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria has become a major public health problem, eliciting renewed interest in colistin, an old antibiotic that is now routinely used to treat MDR bacterial infections. Here we investigated whether colistin use has affected the prevalence of infections due to intrinsic colistin-resistant bacteria (CRB) in university hospitals in Marseille (France) over a 5-year period. All data from patients infected by intrinsic CRB were compiled from January 2009 to December 2013. Escherichia coli infections were used for comparison. Colistin consumption data were also collected from pharmacy records from 2008 to 2013. A total of 4847 intrinsic CRB infections, including 3150 Proteus spp., 847 Morganella spp., 704 Serratia spp. and 146 Providencia spp., were collected between 2009 and 2013. During this period, the annual incidence rate of hospital-acquired CRB infections increased from 220 per 1000 patients to 230 per 1000 patients and that of community-acquired CRB infections increased from 100 per 1000 patients to 140 per 1000 patients. In parallel, colistin consumption increased 2.2-fold from 2008 to 2013, mainly because of an increase in the use of colistin aerosol forms (from 50 unitary doses to 2926 unitary doses; P<10(-5)) that was significantly correlated with an increase in the number of patients positive for CRB admitted to ICUs and units of long-term care between 2009 and 2013 (r=0.91; P=0.03). The global rise in infections due to intrinsic CRB is worrying and surveillance is warranted to better characterise this intriguing epidemiological change. PMID:25497970

  18. Increased urinary levels of podocyte glycoproteins, matrix metallopeptidases, inflammatory cytokines, and kidney injury biomarkers in women with preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuping; Gu, Yang; Loyd, Susan; Jia, Xiuyue; Groome, Lynn J

    2015-12-15

    To investigate kidney injury in preeclampsia, we analyzed 14 biomarkers in urine specimen from 4 groups of pregnant women (normotensive pregnant women and those with pregnancy complicated with chronic hypertension or mild or severe preeclampsia). These biomarkers included 1) podocyte glycoproteins nephrin and podocalyxin, 2) matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 and their inhibitor tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2, 3) inflammatory molecules and cytokines soluble VCAM-1, TNF-?, soluble TNF receptor receptor-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and IL-18, and 4) kidney injury biomarkers neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and kidney injury molecule-1. Postpartum urine specimens (6-8 wk) from normotensive women and those with severe preeclampsia were also evaluated. We found that, first, urine levels of nephrin, MMP-2, MMP-9, and kidney injury molecule-1 were significantly higher before delivery in severe preeclampsia than normotensive groups. The increased levels were all reduced to levels similar to those of the normotensive control group in postpartum specimens from the severe preeclampsia group. Second, soluble VCAM-1, soluble TNF receptor-1, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels were significantly increased in the severe preeclampsia group compared with the normotensive control group before delivery, but levels of these molecules were significantly reduced in postpartum specimens in both groups. Third, IL-6 and IL-8 levels were not different between preeclampsia and normotensive groups but significantly increased in pregnancy complicated with chronic hypertension. Finally, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 and IL-18 levels were not different among the study groups before delivery but were significantly reduced in postpartum specimens from normotensive controls. Our results indicate that the kidney experiences an increased inflammatory response during pregnancy. Most interestingly, tubular epithelial cell injury may also occur in severe preeclampsia. These biomarkers could be used to assess podocyte or tubular injury and kidney inflammatory responses during pregnancy and to evaluate postpartum kidney injury recovery in pregnancy-complicated disorders. PMID:26671966

  19. Urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein linked with increased risk of acute kidney injury after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Shingai, Naoki; Morito, Taku; Najima, Yuho; Igarashi, Aiko; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Doki, Noriko; Kakihana, Kazuhiko; Ohashi, Kazuteru; Ando, Minoru

    2014-12-01

    Stem cell transplantation (SCT) involves a great risk of acute kidney injury (AKI). Urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (uL-FABP) is a sensitive biomarker to detect kidney damage before an increase in serum creatinine (Cr); however, the utility of uL-FABP is not fully understood in the platform of SCT. A prospective study was conducted in 84 allogeneic SCT recipients to ascertain a link between the uL-FABP level before preparative procedures and AKI incidence after SCT. The association between them was analyzed using Gray's method and a multivariate Fine-Gray proportional hazards regression model. The recipients were stratified into high and low uL-FABP groups, according to the reference value for healthy subjects (8.4 μg/g Cr). AKI developed more frequently in the high (n = 20) than low (n = 64) group (55.0% versus 26.6% at day 30, P = .005), and high uL-FABP was an independent risk for the emergence of AKI (hazard ratio, 2.78; 95% confidence interval, 1.24 to 6.22, P = .01). In conclusion, increased baseline uL-FABP, which may indicate previous incipient kidney injury, is linked with a high risk of AKI after allogeneic SCT. PMID:25193082

  20. Patients With Neurogenic Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction Following Spinal Cord Injury Are at Increased Risk of Developing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Lien, Wei-Chih; Kuan, Ta-Shen; Lin, Yu-Ching; Liang, Fu-Wen; Hsieh, Pei-Chun; Li, Chung-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To investigate whether patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD) following spinal cord injury (SCI) are at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The retrospective cohort study used a subset of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) comprising information on 2 million beneficiaries randomly sampled from the general population. A total of 3515 patients with newly diagnosed SCI were identified during the period of 2001 to 2008. Among them, 170 developed NLUTD following SCI. The control group was consisted of 656 patients without NLUTD over the study period randomly selected by matching NLUTD cases on the date of NLUTD incidence, age, sex, and duration since diagnosis of SCI. The study groups were then followed to the end of 2009. T2DM was the end-point. The incidence rate ratios of T2DM were higher in the NLUTD group than in the control group (4.94 vs. 2.61 per 10,000 person-years), representing an adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) of 1.70 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.112.61). Age-specific AHR was significantly elevated only in patients aged >?=?60 years (AHR?=?2.52 (95% CI 1.354.70)). This study showed that the NLUTD following SCI may significantly increase the risk of developing T2DM. PMID:26765476

  1. Patients With Neurogenic Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction Following Spinal Cord Injury Are at Increased Risk of Developing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lien, Wei-Chih; Kuan, Ta-Shen; Lin, Yu-Ching; Liang, Fu-Wen; Hsieh, Pei-Chun; Li, Chung-Yi

    2016-01-01

    To investigate whether patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD) following spinal cord injury (SCI) are at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).The retrospective cohort study used a subset of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) comprising information on 2 million beneficiaries randomly sampled from the general population. A total of 3515 patients with newly diagnosed SCI were identified during the period of 2001 to 2008. Among them, 170 developed NLUTD following SCI. The control group was consisted of 656 patients without NLUTD over the study period randomly selected by matching NLUTD cases on the date of NLUTD incidence, age, sex, and duration since diagnosis of SCI. The study groups were then followed to the end of 2009. T2DM was the end-point.The incidence rate ratios of T2DM were higher in the NLUTD group than in the control group (4.94 vs. 2.61 per 10,000 person-years), representing an adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) of 1.70 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11-2.61). Age-specific AHR was significantly elevated only in patients aged >?=?60 years (AHR?=?2.52 (95% CI 1.35-4.70)).This study showed that the NLUTD following SCI may significantly increase the risk of developing T2DM. PMID:26765476

  2. c.29C>T polymorphism in the transforming growth factor-?1 (TGFB1) gene correlates with increased risk of urinary bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Kirti Amresh; Pooja, Singh; Sankhwar, Satya Narayan; Sankhwar, Pushp Lata; Goel, Apul; Rajender, Singh

    2015-10-01

    TGF-?1 is a pleiotropic cytokine, which plays a dual role in tumor development. In the early stages, it inhibits the growth of tumor while in the late stages of carcinoma, it promotes tumor growth. The purpose of this study was to analyze the distribution of the TGFB1 gene polymorphisms between cases and controls so as to assess their correlation with bladder cancer risk. This study included 237 cases of urinary bladder cancer and 290 age matched controls from the same ethnic background. Three polymorphisms in the TGFB1 gene, c.29C>T (rs-1800470), c.74G>C (rs-1800471) and +140A>G (rs-13447341), were analyzed by direct DNA sequencing. Statistical analyses revealed no significant differences in the demographical data, except that the frequencies of smokers and non-vegetarians were higher in the cases. Eighty percent of the bladder cancer patients had superficial transitional cell carcinoma, and 53.16% and 26.31% of the patients were in grade I and grade II, respectively. We found that c.29C>T substitution increased the risk of bladder cancer significantly and recessive model of analysis was the best fitted model (p=0.004; OR=1.72 95% CI 1.18-2.50). A significantly higher risk in the recessive form was also suggested by co-dominant analysis showing that the homozygous form (TT) was a significant risk factor in comparison to CC and CT genotypes. The other two polymorphisms, c.74G>C (p=0.18, OR=0.67 95% CI 0.37-1.21) and +140A>G (p=0.416, OR=0.77 95% CI 0.41-1.45) did not affect the risk of urinary bladder cancer. In conclusion, we found that the TGFB1 c.29C>T substitution increases the risk of bladder cancer significantly while c.74G>C and +140A>G polymorphisms do not affect the risk. PMID:26048435

  3. Photodegradation mechanism of sulfadiazine catalyzed by Fe(III), oxalate and algae under UV irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junwei; Ma, Li

    2013-01-01

    Photodegradation mechanism of sulfadiazine (SD) in a solution containing Fe(III), oxalate and algae were investigated in this study. The results indicated that the degradation of SD was slow in a solution containing Fe(III) or oxalate, whereas it was markedly enhanced when Fe(III) and oxalate coexisted. The optimal pH for formation of *OH was 4; a higher or lower pH resulted in a decrease in formation of OH. A moderate increase of oxalate concentration was beneficial to the formation of *OH and the degradation of SD, and the algae enhanced the degradation rate of SD in a solution containing Fe(III) and oxalate. Also, the degradation rate of SD rapidly decreased at low initial concentrations but slowly decreased at high initial concentrations, and pseudo-first order kinetics described the degradation process of SD well. A possible reaction mechanism in solution containing Fe(III), oxalate and algae was proposed, and attack by *OH was the main pathway of SD degradation in the photocatalytic reaction. PMID:24191497

  4. Kinetic factors influencing the dissolution behavior of calcium oxalate renal stones: a constant composition study.

    PubMed

    White, D J; Coyle-Rees, M; Nancollas, G H

    1988-11-01

    A constant composition method has been used to examine the dissolution kinetics of calcium oxalate renal stones over a wide range of undersaturation in vitro. Demineralization experiments have been carried out with the concentrations of calcium and oxalate ions and ionic strength (hence the solution undersaturation) held constant by the potentiometrically controlled addition of medium electrolyte solution as diluent, triggered by a calcium ion electrode. Kinetic data for renal stones have been compared with results obtained for synthetic calcium oxalate. In addition, constant composition results have been directly compared with results obtained using conventional dissolution methods for both calculi and synthetic calcium oxalate. Overall, calcium oxalate renal stones exhibited markedly different kinetic dissolution behavior as compared with synthetic controls. The renal stone samples dissolved more slowly at all undersaturations, exhibited increased kinetic orders of reaction, and showed reduced sensitivity to solution hydrodynamics. Stones composed of mixed hydrates of calcium oxalate (mono- and di-) came to dihydrate equilibrium in conventional experiments and underwent net dissolution in solutions supersaturated to monohydrate under constant composition conditions. No conversion of di- to monohydrate was observed under these experimental conditions. These results indicate that stone dissolution is strongly influenced by adsorbed inhibitors, presumably including matrix components, which may complicate efforts to develop systemic and/or irrigation measures effective for in situ solubilization. PMID:3145798

  5. Probiotics and Other Key Determinants of Dietary Oxalate Absorption1

    PubMed Central

    Liebman, Michael; Al-Wahsh, Ismail A.

    2011-01-01

    Oxalate is a common component of many foods of plant origin, including nuts, fruits, vegetables, grains, and legumes, and is typically present as a salt of oxalic acid. Because virtually all absorbed oxalic acid is excreted in the urine and hyperoxaluria is known to be a considerable risk factor for urolithiasis, it is important to understand the factors that have the potential to alter the efficiency of oxalate absorption. Oxalate bioavailability, a term that has been used to refer to that portion of food-derived oxalate that is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), is estimated to range from 2 to 15% for different foods. Oxalate bioavailability appears to be decreased by concomitant food ingestion due to interactions between oxalate and coingested food components that likely result in less oxalic acid remaining in a soluble form. There is a lack of consensus in the literature as to whether efficiency of oxalate absorption is dependent on the proportion of total dietary oxalate that is in a soluble form. However, studies that directly compared foods of varying soluble oxalate contents have generally supported the proposition that the amount of soluble oxalate in food is an important determinant of oxalate bioavailability. Oxalate degradation by oxalate-degrading bacteria within the GIT is another key factor that could affect oxalate absorption and degree of oxaluria. Studies that have assessed the efficacy of oral ingestion of probiotics that provide bacteria with oxalate-degrading capacity have led to promising but generally mixed results, and this remains a fertile area for future studies. PMID:22332057

  6. Urinary Adiponectin Excretion

    PubMed Central

    von Eynatten, Maximilian; Liu, Dan; Hock, Cornelia; Oikonomou, Dimitrios; Baumann, Marcus; Allolio, Bruno; Korosoglou, Grigorios; Morcos, Michael; Campean, Valentina; Amann, Kerstin; Lutz, Jens; Heemann, Uwe; Nawroth, Peter P.; Bierhaus, Angelika; Humpert, Per M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Markers reliably identifying vascular damage and risk in diabetic patients are rare, and reports on associations of serum adiponectin with macrovascular disease have been inconsistent. In contrast to existing data on serum adiponectin, this study assesses whether urinary adiponectin excretion might represent a more consistent vascular damage marker in type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Adiponectin distribution in human kidney biopsies was assessed by immunohistochemistry, and urinary adiponectin isoforms were characterized by Western blot analysis. Total urinary adiponectin excretion rate was measured in 156 patients with type 2 diabetes who had a history of diabetic nephropathy and 40 healthy control subjects using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Atherosclerotic burden was assessed by common carotid artery intima-media-thickness (IMT). RESULTS A homogenous staining of adiponectin was found on the endothelial surface of glomerular capillaries and intrarenal arterioles in nondiabetic kidneys, whereas staining was decreased in diabetic nephropathy. Low-molecular adiponectin isoforms (?3070 kDa) were detected in urine by Western blot analysis. Urinary adiponectin was significantly increased in type 2 diabetes (7.68 14.26 vs. control subjects: 2.91 3.85 ?g/g creatinine, P = 0.008). Among type 2 diabetic patients, adiponectinuria was associated with IMT (r = 0.479, P < 0.001) and proved to be a powerful independent predictor of IMT (? = 0.360, P < 0.001) in multivariable regression analyses. In a risk prediction model including variables of the UK Prospective Diabetes Study coronary heart disease risk engine urinary adiponectin, but not the albumin excretion rate, added significant value for the prediction of increased IMT (P = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS Quantification of urinary adiponectin excretion appears to be an independent indicator of vascular damage potentially identifying an increased risk for vascular events. PMID:19509019

  7. Supplementing a Low-Protein Diet with Dibasic Amino Acids Increases Urinary Calcium Excretion in Young Women12

    PubMed Central

    Bihuniak, Jessica D.; Sullivan, Rebecca R.; Simpson, Christine A.; Caseria, Donna M.; Huedo-Medina, Tania B.; OBrien, Kimberly O.; Kerstetter, Jane E.; Insogna, Karl L.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing dietary protein within a physiologic range stimulates intestinal calcium absorption, but it is not known if specific amino acids or dietary protein as a whole are responsible for this effect. Therefore, we selectively supplemented a low-protein (0.7 g/kg) diet with either the calcium-sensing receptor-activating amino acids (CaSR-AAAs) L-tryptophan, L-phenylalanine, and L-histidine, or the dibasic amino acids (DAAs) L-arginine and L-lysine, to achieve intakes comparable to the content of a high-protein diet (2.1 g/kg) and measured intestinal calcium absorption. Fourteen young women took part in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover feeding trial in which each participant ingested a 6-d low-protein diet supplemented with CaSR-AAAs, DAAs, or methylcellulose capsules (control) after an 11-d adjustment period. All participants ingested all 3 diets in random order. Intestinal calcium absorption was measured between days 5 and 6 using dual-stable calcium isotopes (42Ca, 43Ca, and 44Ca). There was no difference in calcium absorption between the diet supplemented with CaSR-AAAs (22.9 2.0%) and the control diet (22.3 1.4%) (P = 0.64). However, calcium absorption tended to be greater during the DAA supplementation period (25.2 1.4%) compared with the control diet period (22.3 1.4%) (P < 0.10). Larger and longer clinical trials are needed to clarify the possible benefit of arginine and lysine on calcium absorption. PMID:24431325

  8. High variability of the heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, R.; Möhler, O.; Saathoff, H.; Schnaiter, M.; Leisner, T.

    2010-04-01

    The heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of airborne oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate particles in the deposition and condensation mode has been investigated by controlled expansion cooling cycles in the AIDA aerosol and cloud chamber of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology at temperatures between 244 and 228 K. Previous laboratory studies have highlighted the particular role of oxalic acid dihydrate as the only species amongst a variety of other investigated dicarboxylic acids to be capable of acting as a heterogeneous ice nucleus in both the deposition and immersion mode. We could confirm a high deposition mode ice activity for 0.03 to 0.8 μm sized oxalic acid dihydrate particles that were either formed by nucleation from a gaseous oxalic acid/air mixture or by rapid crystallisation of highly supersaturated aqueous oxalic acid solution droplets. The critical saturation ratio with respect to ice required for deposition nucleation was found to be less than 1.1 and the size-dependent ice-active fraction of the aerosol population was in the range from 0.1 to 22%. In contrast, oxalic acid dihydrate particles that had crystallised from less supersaturated solution droplets and had been allowed to slowly grow in a supersaturated environment from still unfrozen oxalic acid solution droplets over a time period of several hours were found to be much poorer heterogeneous ice nuclei. We speculate that under these conditions a crystal surface structure with less-active sites for the initiation of ice nucleation was generated. Such particles partially proved to be almost ice-inactive in both the deposition and condensation mode. At times, the heterogeneous ice nucleation ability of oxalic acid dihydrate significantly changed when the particles had been processed in preceding cloud droplet activation steps. Such behaviour was also observed for the second investigated species, namely sodium oxalate. Our experiments address the atmospheric scenario that coating layers of oxalic acid or its salts may be formed by physical and chemical processing on pre-existing particulates such as mineral dust and soot. Given the broad diversity of the observed heterogeneous ice nucleability of the oxalate species, it is not straightforward to predict whether an oxalate coating layer will improve or reduce the ice nucleation ability of the seed aerosol particles.

  9. High variability of the heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, R.; Möhler, O.; Saathoff, H.; Schnaiter, M.; Leisner, T.

    2010-08-01

    The heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of airborne oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate particles in the deposition and condensation mode has been investigated by controlled expansion cooling cycles in the AIDA aerosol and cloud chamber of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology at temperatures between 244 and 228 K. Previous laboratory studies have highlighted the particular role of oxalic acid dihydrate as the only species amongst a variety of other investigated dicarboxylic acids to be capable of acting as a heterogeneous ice nucleus in both the deposition and immersion mode. We could confirm a high deposition mode ice activity for 0.03 to 0.8 μm sized oxalic acid dihydrate particles that were either formed by nucleation from a gaseous oxalic acid/air mixture or by rapid crystallisation of highly supersaturated aqueous oxalic acid solution droplets. The critical saturation ratio with respect to ice required for deposition nucleation was found to be less than 1.1 and the size-dependent ice-active fraction of the aerosol population was in the range from 0.1 to 22%. In contrast, oxalic acid dihydrate particles that had crystallised from less supersaturated solution droplets and had been allowed to slowly grow in a supersaturated environment from still unfrozen oxalic acid solution droplets over a time period of several hours were found to be much poorer heterogeneous ice nuclei. We speculate that under these conditions a crystal surface structure with less-active sites for the initiation of ice nucleation was generated. Such particles partially proved to be almost ice-inactive in both the deposition and condensation mode. At times, the heterogeneous ice nucleation ability of oxalic acid dihydrate significantly changed when the particles had been processed in preceding cloud droplet activation steps. Such behaviour was also observed for the second investigated species, namely sodium oxalate. Our experiments address the atmospheric scenario that coating layers of oxalic acid or its salts may be formed by physical and chemical processing on pre-existing particulates such as mineral dust and soot. Given the broad diversity of the observed heterogeneous ice nucleability of the oxalate species, it is not straightforward to predict whether an oxalate coating layer will improve or reduce the ice nucleation ability of the seed aerosol particles.

  10. Effect of NADPH oxidase inhibition on the expression of kidney injury molecule and calcium oxalate crystal deposition in hydroxy-L-proline-induced hyperoxaluria in the male Sprague–Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Jian; Khan, Aslam; Glenton, Patricia A.; Khan, Saeed R.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Renal calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystal deposition is associated with epithelial injury and movement of inflammatory cells into the interstitium. We have proposed that oxalate (Ox)- and CaOx crystal-induced injury is most likely caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by activation of membrane nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase. Methods. Present study was undertaken to determine the effect of NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin on the expression of kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and renal CaOx crystal deposition in rats with hyperoxaluria. We also investigated the urinary excretion of KIM-1, osteopontin (OPN) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and renal expression of OPN and ED-1. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a diet containing 5% hydroxyl-L-proline (HLP) and 4 mmol apocynin to drink for 28 days. Urine was collected on Days 7, 14, 21 and 28. After that, rats were sacrificed and their kidneys processed for various microscopic and molecular investigations. Results. HLP consumption produced heavy deposits of CaOx crystals. Renal expression of KIM-1 and OPN and urinary excretion of KIM-1, OPN, H2O2 and MCP-1 was significantly increased. ED-1-positive cells migrated into renal interstitium. Apocynin treatment caused significant reduction of crystal deposits, injured and dilated tubules; renal expression of KIM-1, OPN and ED-1 and urinary excretion of KIM-1, OPN, MCP-1 and H2O2. Apocynin had no effect on the urinary excretion of Ox. Conclusions. This is the first study of urinary excretion and renal expression of KIM-1 in association with renal CaOx crystal deposition, experimental or clinical. The results indicate that NADPH oxidase inhibition leads to reduction in KIM-1 expression and urinary excretion as well as renal CaOx crystal deposition. KIM-1 is an important marker of renal epithelial injury. The results provide further support to our proposal that renal epithelial injury is critical for crystal retention and that injury is in part caused by the production of ROS with the involvement of NADPH oxidase. PMID:21378157

  11. Fluoroquinolone resistance mechanisms in urinary tract pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated during rapidly increasing fluoroquinolone consumption in a low-use country.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Nina; Nielsen, Lene; Jakobsen, Lotte; Stegger, Marc; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg; Frimodt-Mller, Niels

    2011-09-01

    Resistance to ciprofloxacin in Escherichia coli from urinary tract infections (UTI) in Denmark is increasing parallel to increased use of fluoroquinolones both in Denmark and in other European countries. The objective was to investigate the occurrence of ciprofloxacin resistance mechanisms, phenotypic coresistance, and if ciprofloxacin resistance was caused by clonal spread or to individual mutational events in a collection of consecutively obtained E. coli submitted to a clinical microbiology department at a Danish hospital. One hundred four UTI-related E. coli resistant toward nalidixic acid by disc diffusion were typed by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) with XbaI. One isolate representing each PFGE type and only one patient (n = 77) were investigated for point mutations in sequenced PCR amplicons of the four topoisomerase genes; qnr genes by use of PCR; aac(6')-Ib-cr by BtsCI restriction of PCR products; and efflux using efflux pump inhibitors in a broth dilution assay. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for 21 antibacterial agents, including ciprofloxacin. Of the 77 isolates, the majority were resistant to ciprofloxacin (91%) and multiresistant (resistant to ? 3 antimicrobial classes, 83%). Ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates showed at least one target mutation. A significant, positive correlation was found regarding MIC of ciprofloxacin and the number of target mutations. Efflux was found as a resistance mechanism in 77% of isolates tested (n = 60). The aac(6')-Ib-cr gene was detected on plasmids from five isolates showing ciprofloxacin MICs >512 mg/L. No overall clonal relationship among isolates was found according to PFGE. Target modification is the dominating fluoroquinolone resistance mechanism often found in combination with efflux and sometimes aac(6')-Ib-cr. In Denmark, increasing ciprofloxacin resistance in E. coli is mainly due to mutational events and not to spread of clones. PMID:21668371

  12. Urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, J. Graham; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Skelly, Jennifer; Finkelstein, Murray

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine age-specific prevalence and correlates of urinary incontinence (UI) among community-dwelling women. DESIGN A questionnaire survey used a modified Dillman method. SETTING Two family practice clinics in Hamilton, Ont. PARTICIPANTS Questionnaires were mailed to 1082 women 45 years old and older. Ninety women were disqualified; 606 recipients responded. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Self-reported prevalence of UI and potential risk factors. RESULTS Overall response rate was 61% (606/992); 51% (311/606; 95% confidence interval 47.3% to 55.3%) reported an episode of UI during the last month. Of the 311 women reporting UI, 35.7% perceived it as a problem, 27% had had it for less than a year, 41.9% had had it for 1 to 4 years, and 31.1% had had it for 5 years or longer. Three kinds of UI were reported: 34% (106/311) reported stress UI, 14.5% (45/311) reported urge UI, and 51.4% (160/311) reported a mixed pattern. In multivariate analysis, the overall prevalence of incontinence increased significantly with usually having a cough, being troubled by swollen ankles, giving birth, ever smoking cigarettes, and being troubled by headaches. Stress UI was associated with usually having a cough and ever smoking cigarettes. Urge UI was associated with having troubles with constipation and swollen ankles. Mixed incontinence was associated with get sick more than other people, usually having a cough, taken hormones for menopause, and body mass index in the 50th to 75th percentile or greater. Age was not significantly associated with prevalence of UI or any of its subtypes. Only 40% of incontinent women indicated they had discussed urine loss with their physicians; 70% of these women felt satisfied with physicians responses. CONCLUSION Incontinence occurs in more than half of community-dwelling women 45 years old and older. Almost one of five women in the community reported UI that affected normal activities. Treating the effect of incontinence will require further understanding of womens coping skills and self-perceptions. Prevalence does not appear to increase with age. PMID:16926957

  13. 3-Cyanoanilinium hydrogen oxalate hemihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xin-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    In the title hydrated molecular salt, C7H7N2 +C2HO4 ?0.5H2O, contains a 3-cyanoanilinium cation, a hydrogen oxalate anion and half a water molecule in an asymmetric unit. The dihedral angle between the CO2(H) and CO2 planes of the hydrogen oxalate ion is 7.96?(1). In the crystal, the components are linked by NH?O and OH?O hydrogen bonds, forming a layer lying parallel to the ac plane. PMID:22719472

  14. C-phycocyanin confers protection against oxalate-mediated oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunctions in MDCK cells.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Shukkur M; Boppana, Nithin B; Devarajan, Asokan; Asokan, Devarajan; Sekaran, Shamala D; Shankar, Esaki M; Li, Chunying; Gopal, Kaliappan; Bakar, Sazaly A; Karthik, Harve S; Ebrahim, Abdul S

    2014-01-01

    Oxalate toxicity is mediated through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via a process that is partly dependent on mitochondrial dysfunction. Here, we investigated whether C-phycocyanin (CP) could protect against oxidative stress-mediated intracellular damage triggered by oxalate in MDCK cells. DCFDA, a fluorescence-based probe and hexanoyl-lysine adduct (HEL), an oxidative stress marker were used to investigate the effect of CP on oxalate-induced ROS production and membrane lipid peroxidation (LPO). The role of CP against oxalate-induced oxidative stress was studied by the evaluation of mitochondrial membrane potential by JC1 fluorescein staining, quantification of ATP synthesis and stress-induced MAP kinases (JNK/SAPK and ERK1/2). Our results revealed that oxalate-induced cells show markedly increased ROS levels and HEL protein expression that were significantly decreased following pre-treatment with CP. Further, JC1 staining showed that CP pre-treatment conferred significant protection from mitochondrial membrane permeability and increased ATP production in CP-treated cells than oxalate-alone-treated cells. In addition, CP treated cells significantly decreased the expression of phosphorylated JNK/SAPK and ERK1/2 as compared to oxalate-alone-treated cells. We concluded that CP could be used as a potential free radical-scavenging therapeutic strategy against oxidative stress-associated diseases including urolithiasis. PMID:24691130

  15. C-Phycocyanin Confers Protection against Oxalate-Mediated Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunctions in MDCK Cells

    PubMed Central

    Farooq, Shukkur M.; Boppana, Nithin B.; Asokan, Devarajan; Sekaran, Shamala D.; Shankar, Esaki M.; Li, Chunying; Gopal, Kaliappan; Bakar, Sazaly A.; Karthik, Harve S.; Ebrahim, Abdul S.

    2014-01-01

    Oxalate toxicity is mediated through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via a process that is partly dependent on mitochondrial dysfunction. Here, we investigated whether C-phycocyanin (CP) could protect against oxidative stress-mediated intracellular damage triggered by oxalate in MDCK cells. DCFDA, a fluorescence-based probe and hexanoyl-lysine adduct (HEL), an oxidative stress marker were used to investigate the effect of CP on oxalate-induced ROS production and membrane lipid peroxidation (LPO). The role of CP against oxalate-induced oxidative stress was studied by the evaluation of mitochondrial membrane potential by JC1 fluorescein staining, quantification of ATP synthesis and stress-induced MAP kinases (JNK/SAPK and ERK1/2). Our results revealed that oxalate-induced cells show markedly increased ROS levels and HEL protein expression that were significantly decreased following pre-treatment with CP. Further, JC1 staining showed that CP pre-treatment conferred significant protection from mitochondrial membrane permeability and increased ATP production in CP-treated cells than oxalate-alone-treated cells. In addition, CP treated cells significantly decreased the expression of phosphorylated JNK/SAPK and ERK1/2 as compared to oxalate-alone-treated cells. We concluded that CP could be used as a potential free radical-scavenging therapeutic strategy against oxidative stress-associated diseases including urolithiasis. PMID:24691130

  16. Urinary Diversions

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Ian

    1991-01-01

    Once the bladder has been removed or declared non-functional, some form of urinary diversion must be performed. The diversion can be as simple as bringing the ureters to the skin and as complicated as the creation of a functioning neobladder. The indications for and expectations of the most common types of diversion are explained. Some new techniques for continent diversion are described. PMID:21229045

  17. Generation of a proton motive force by the anaerobic oxalate-degrading bacterium Oxalobacter formigenes.

    PubMed

    Kuhner, C H; Hartman, P A; Allison, M J

    1996-07-01

    The generation of transmembrane ion gradients by Oxalobacter formigenes cells metabolizing oxalate was studied. The magnitudes of both the transmembrane electrical potential (delta psi) and the pH gradient (internal alkaline) decreased with increasing external pH; quantitatively, the delta psi was the most important component of the proton motive force. As the extracellular pH of metabolizing cells was increased, intracellular pH increased and remained alkaline relative to the external pH, indicating that O. formigenes possesses a limited capacity to regulate internal pH. The generation of a delta psi by concentrated suspensions of O. formigenes cells was inhibited by the K+ ionophore valinomycin and the protonophore carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone, but not by the Na+ ionophore monensin. The H+ ATPase inhibitor N,N'-dicyclohexyl-carbodiimide inhibited oxalate catabolism but did not dissipate the delta psi. The results support the concept that energy from oxalate metabolism by O. formigenes is conserved not as a sodium ion gradient but rather, at least partially, as a transmembrane hydrogen ion gradient produced during the electrogenic exchange of substrate (oxalate) and product (formate) and from internal proton consumption during oxalate decarboxylation. PMID:8779588

  18. 40 CFR 721.10628 - Mixed metal oxalate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mixed metal oxalate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10628 Mixed metal oxalate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as mixed metal oxalate (PMN...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10628 - Mixed metal oxalate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mixed metal oxalate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10628 Mixed metal oxalate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as mixed metal oxalate (PMN...

  20. ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING: EFFECTIVENESS OF THE UV LAMP TO DECOMPOSE OXALATES

    SciTech Connect

    Ketusky, E.; Huff, T.; Sudduth, C.

    2010-01-19

    Enhanced Chemical Cleaning is a new process scheduled to begin cleaning Savannah River Site High Level Waste Tanks in 2012. It is an improvement over the current chemical cleaning method, in that it minimizes downstream impacts on the High Level Waste System. It is based on a state of the art scale removal process used on the secondary side of nuclear power plants, with modifications to accommodate the unique constraints created by the tanks. Both Enhanced Chemical Cleaning and the scale removal process are founded on dissolving metal oxides/hydroxides using oxalic acid, with subsequent oxalate decomposition via hydroxylation using ozone or peroxide, and UV light as a catalyst. A divergence Enhanced Chemical Cleaning has from nuclear power scale removal is the significantly increased solids concentration during oxalate decomposition. These solids can limit the ability of the UV light to create hydroxyl radicals, either by limiting the ability of the light to penetrate through the solution, or by increasing the fouling rate on the UV light. Both will decrease the overall catalytic effectiveness, thereby decreasing the concentration of formed hydroxyl radicals. The hydroxyl radicals are the driving force behind the oxalate decomposition. To understand the impact of increased solids, testing was performed using a medium pressure UV light inside an ozone supplied Oxalate Decomposition Reactor. Using a dissolved metal sludge simulant with an initial oxalate concentration greater than 12,000 ppm, and an initial pH of about 2.0, the spent acid solution was recirculated through the reactor, while the UV light was allowed to foul. For the first few hours, the oxalate decomposition rate was about 1,300 ppm/hour. After about 3 hours, enough time for the UV lamp to foul, the oxalate decomposition rate decreased to about 500 ppm/hour. The decomposition rate then remained roughly constant for the next 16 hours. Overall, testing showed that the oxalate destruction rate decreased by about 2.8. Results from very similartests with similar chemistry suggest that the impact should be about 10. Based on the limited reaction pathwayfor the creation of hydroxyl radicals with iron, ozone, and no UV, the discrepancy suggests that initially, at 'time zero' the UV light failed to perform up to expectations. It is therefore concluded that regardless of the fouling rate, either the increased solids concentration is impacting the initial penetrability (i.e. to many solids), or the light is not adequately sized/configured to have the appropriate flux.

  1. Role of magnesium in the growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium oxalate dihydrate crystals.

    PubMed

    Oka, T; Yoshioka, T; Koide, T; Takaha, M; Sonoda, T

    1987-01-01

    Since about 85% of synthesized calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) crystals proved not to have changed into calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals at 30 min of incubation time at 37 degrees C when our evaluation method of the COD-to-COM ratio was being used, we made a comparative study of the inhibitory effects of magnesium, one of the well-known inhibitors of calcium oxalate stone formation, on the growth of seeded COM and COD crystals. The results demonstrated that magnesium in identical concentrations might have stronger inhibitory effects on the growth of COM crystals than on that of COD crystals and suggested that these different effects of magnesium on the growth of COM and COD crystals might arise not only from the difference between the specific surface areas of COM and COD crystals, but also from that between the direct inhibitory effects of magnesium on these two types of calcium oxalate crystal growth. PMID:3617248

  2. Direct carbothermic reduction of actinide oxalates: Example of Nd(III) oxalate-carbon mixtures conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handschuh, A.; Dubois, S.; Vaudez, S.; Grandjean, S.; Leturcq, G.; Abraham, F.

    2009-03-01

    Mixed uranium-plutonium monocarbide was obtained by carbothermic reduction of mixture of UO 2, PuO 2 and C at around 1500 C under vacuum or argon for 4 h followed by sintering at around 1650 C under mixture of Ar + 8%H 2 for 10 h. Moreover, PuO 2 was synthesized by oxalic precipitation followed by calcination at around 700 C (PUREX process). This work deals with a process simplification, i.e. fabrication of carbide by calcination of actinide oxalate, precipitated in presence of carbon, at 1600 C for 13 h under argon. In this preliminary study, neodymium was used as a surrogate of actinides. No carbon influence was noticed during calcination of neodymium oxalate into oxide. Carbon content was the same before and after calcination making possible conversion to carbide directly from mixture of neodymium oxalate and C.

  3. Oxalate-Metabolising Genes of the White-Rot Fungus Dichomitus squalens Are Differentially Induced on Wood and at High Proton Concentration

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Ronald P.; Timonen, Sari; Hildn, Kristiina

    2014-01-01

    Oxalic acid is a prevalent fungal metabolite with versatile roles in growth and nutrition, including degradation of plant biomass. However, the toxicity of oxalic acid makes regulation of its intra- and extracellular concentration crucial. To increase the knowledge of fungal oxalate metabolism, a transcriptional level study on oxalate-catabolising genes was performed with an effective lignin-degrading white-rot fungus Dichomitus squalens, which has demonstrated particular abilities in production and degradation of oxalic acid. The expression of oxalic-acid decomposing oxalate decarboxylase (ODC) and formic-acid decomposing formate dehydrogenase (FDH) encoding genes was followed during the growth of D. squalens on its natural spruce wood substrate. The effect of high proton concentration on the regulation of the oxalate-catabolising genes was determined after addition of organic acid (oxalic acid) and inorganic acid (hydrochloric acid) to the liquid cultures of D. squalens. In order to evaluate the co-expression of oxalate-catabolising and manganese peroxidase (MnP) encoding genes, the expression of one MnP encoding gene, mnp1, of D. squalens was also surveyed in the solid state and liquid cultures. Sequential action of ODC and FDH encoding genes was detected in the studied cultivations. The odc1, fdh2 and fdh3 genes of D. squalens showed constitutive expression, whereas ODC2 and FHD1 most likely are the main responsible enzymes for detoxification of high concentrations of oxalic and formic acids. The results also confirmed the central role of ODC1 when D. squalens grows on coniferous wood. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that fungal ODCs have evolved from at least two gene copies whereas FDHs have a single ancestral gene. As a conclusion, the multiplicity of oxalate-catabolising genes and their differential regulation on wood and in acid-amended cultures of D. squalens point to divergent physiological roles for the corresponding enzymes. PMID:24505339

  4. Ultrastructural and biochemical studies on formation of calcium oxalate in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelmottaleb, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Plant calcium oxalate crystals occur within cells called crystal idioblasts. Important aspects of this calcification phenomenon have not been characterized. This dissertation examines some of the aspects of this ubiquitous type of calcification including (1) characterization of ultrastructural features of developing crystal idioblasts, (2) determination of the relationship of specialized ultrastructural features of the idioblasts to transport of compounds and mechanisms of crystal deposition, and (3) the biochemical relationship between ascorbic acid metabolism and production of oxalic acid used for crystal formation. Structural and cytochemical studies revealed that crystal idioblasts have dense cytoplasm, modified plastids, enlarged nuclei, extensive endoplasmic reticulum, numerous dictyosomes and vesicles, and a bundle of raphide crystals in their vacuoles. A mechanism for Ca transport and crystal precipitation is proposed, based on these results. There is a strong and dynamic relationship between Ca concentration and oxalic acid produced for crystal formation, where increasing Ca level in the growth medium lead to increased total and insoluble oxalate in the plant. Calmodulin antagonists reduced oxalic acid production.

  5. Aripiprazole salts. III. Bis(aripiprazolium) oxalate-oxalic acid (1/1).

    PubMed

    Freire, Eleonora; Polla, Griselda; Baggio, Ricardo

    2013-02-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title salt [systematic name: bis(4-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-1-{4-[(2-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolin-7-yl)oxy]butyl}piperazin-1-ium) oxalate-oxalic acid (1/1)], 2C(23)H(28)Cl(2)N(3)O(2)(+)C(2)O(4)(2-)C(2)H(2)O(4), consists of one protonated aripiprazole unit (HArip(+)), half an oxalate dianion and half an oxalic acid molecule, the latter two lying on inversion centres. The conformation of the HArip(+) cation differs from that in other reported salts and resembles more the conformation of neutral Arip units in reported polymorphs and solvates. The intermolecular interaction linking HArip(+) cations is also similar to those in reported Arip compounds crystallizing in the space group P1, with head-to-head N-HO hydrogen bonds generating centrosymmetric dimers, which are further organized into planar ribbons parallel to (012). The oxalate anions and oxalic acid molecules form hydrogen-bonded chains running along [010], which 'pierce' the planar ribbons, interacting with them through a number of stronger N-HO and weaker C-HO hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network. PMID:23377689

  6. Intra-abdominal pressure measurement using the FoleyManometer does not increase the risk for urinary tract infection in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to determine whether intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) monitoring using the FoleyManometer (Holtech Medical, Charlottenlund, Denmark) increases the risk of urinary tract infection (UTI). Design A retrospective database review was conducted. Setting The study was conducted in the 12-bed medical intensive care unit of ZNA Stuivenberg Hospital (Antwerp, Belgium), a tertiary hospital. Patients There were 5,890 patients admitted to the medical intensive care unit of which 1,097 patients underwent intrabladder pressure (IBP) monitoring as estimate for IAP. Interventions Crude and adjusted UTI rates were compared among patients undergoing IAP measurements with three different intrabladder methods: a modified homemade technique, a FoleyManometer with 35 ml reservoir, and a FoleyManometer low volume (FoleyManometerLV) with less than 10 ml priming volume. Measurements and results Four consecutive time periods of 24 months were defined and compared with regard to IAP measurement: period 1 (2000-2001), during which IAP monitoring was not used routinely (which serves as a control group), was compared with period 2 (2002-2003), using a modified homemade technique; period 3 (2004-2005), introducing the FoleyManometer; and finally period 4 (2006-2007), in which the FoleyManometerLV was introduced. The incidence of IBP measurements increased from 1.4% in period 1 to 45.4% in period 4 (p < 0.001). At the same time, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (version 2) (SAPS-II) increased significantly from 24.4 21.5 to 34.9 18.7 (p < 0.001) together with the percentage of ventilated patients from 18.6% to 40.7% (p < 0.001). In total, 1,097 patients had IAP measurements via the bladder. The UTI rates were adjusted for disease severity by multiplying each crude rate with the ratio of control versus study patient SAPS-II probability of mortality. Crude and adjusted UTI rates per 1,000 catheter days (CD) were on average 16.1 and 12.8/1,000 CD, respectively, and were not significantly different between the four time periods. Conclusions Intrabladder pressure monitoring as estimate for IAP either via a closed transducer technique or the closed FoleyManometer technique seems safe and does not alter the risk of UTI in critically ill patients. PMID:22873411

  7. Urinary Tract Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Urinary Tract Health: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What is urinary tract health? The urinary (pronounced YOOR-uh-ner-ee ) tract― ...

  8. Urinary Incontinence: Bladder Training

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Urinary Incontinence | Bladder Training for Urinary Incontinence What is bladder training? Bladder training is a way of learning to manage urinary incontinence. It is generally used ...

  9. Oxalate-degrading microorganisms or oxalate-degrading enzymes: which is the future therapy for enzymatic dissolution of calcium-oxalate uroliths in recurrent stone disease?

    PubMed

    Peck, Ammon B; Canales, Benjamin K; Nguyen, Cuong Q

    2016-02-01

    Renal urolithiasis is a pathological condition common to a multitude of genetic, physiological and nutritional disorders, ranging from general hyperoxaluria to obesity. The concept of quickly dissolving renal uroliths via chemolysis, especially calcium-oxalate kidney stones, has long been a clinical goal, but yet to be achieved. Over the past 25 years, there has been a serious effort to examine the prospects of using plant and microbial oxalate-degrading enzymes known to catabolize oxalic acid and oxalate salts. While evidence is emerging that bacterial probiotics can reduce recurrent calcium-oxalate kidney stone disease by lowering systemic hyperoxaluria, the possible use of free oxalate-degrading enzyme therapy remains a challenge with several hurdles to overcome before reaching clinical practice. PMID:26645869

  10. Effect of Potassium Magnesium Citrate and Vitamin B-6 Prophylaxis for Recurrent and Multiple Calcium Oxalate and Phosphate Urolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Shaik, Ahammad Basha; Bokkisam, Suneel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To study the effects of long-term treatment with potassium magnesium citrate and vitamin B-6 prophylaxis (Urikind-KM6; 1,100-mg potassium citrate, 375-mg magnesium citrate, and 20-mg pyridoxine hydrochloride/5 mL) every 8 hours over 3 years. Materials and Methods A total of 247 patients with recurrent idiopathic hypocitraturia with or without hyperuricosuria and randomized controls were studied prospectively for 3 years. The total patients were divided into three groups. Control group 1 consisted of 61 patients (24.7%) who had moderate to severe hypocitraturia with or without hyperuricosuria and were recurrent stone formers but discontinued prophylaxis because of drug intolerance within 1 month of therapy. Control group 2 constituted 53 patients (21.5%) who were first-time stone formers and who had mild hypocitraturia with or without hyperuricosuria and were not put on prophylactic therapy and were followed for 3.160.08 years. Control group 3 constituted 133 patients (54.8%) who were recurrent stone formers who had moderate to severe hypocitraturia with or without hyperuricosuria and were put on prophylaxis therapy and were followed for 3.160.08 years. All patients were followed up at 6-month intervals. Results Potassium magnesium citrate prophylaxis produced a sustained increase in 24-hour urinary citrate excretion from initially low values (221.7913.39 mg/dL) to within normal to high limits (604.045.00 mg/dL) at the 6-month follow-up. Urinary pH rose significantly from 5.620.2 to 6.870.01 and was maintained at 6.870.01. The stone recurrence rate declined from 3.231.04 per patient per year to 0.350.47 per patient per year. Conclusions Potassium magnesium citrate prophylaxis was effective in reducing the recurrence of calcium oxalate and phosphate urolithiasis. PMID:24955227

  11. Interaction of Gas Phase Oxalic Acid with Ammonia and its Atmospheric Implications

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Xiu-Qiu; Liu, Yi-Rong; Huang, Teng; Jiang, Shuai; Huang, Wei

    2015-04-14

    Oxalic acid is believed to play an important role in the formation and growth of atmospheric organic aerosols. However, as a common organic acid, the understanding of the larger clusters formed by gas phase oxalic acid with multiple ammonia molecules is incomplete. In this work, the structural characteristics and thermodynamics of oxalic acid clusters with up to six ammonia molecules have been investigated at the PW91PW91/6-311++G(3df,3pd) level of theory. We found that oxalic acid forms relatively stable clusters with ammonia molecules, and that ionization events play a key role. The analyses of the thermodynamics and atmospheric relevance indicate that the heterodimer (H2C2O4)(NH3) shows an obvious relative concentration in the atmosphere, and thus likely participates in new particle formation. However, with increasing number of ammonia molecules, the concentration of clusters decreases gradually. Additionally, clusters of oxalic acid with ammonia molecules are predicted to form favorably in low temperature conditions and show high Rayleigh scattering intensities.

  12. Vorinostat protects against calcium oxalate-induced kidney injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Chen, Wei; Peng, Zhongjiang; Liu, Changcheng; Zhang, Caihong; Guo, Zhiyong

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed to examine the effect of the histone deacetylase inhibitor, vorinostat (SAHA), on renal function in a calcium oxalate crystal mouse model, and to investigate the mechanism underlying the renoprotective effect of SAHA. Calcium oxalate crystal formation was induced in 8 week?old male C57BL/6 mice by administering 100 mg/kg glyoxylate for 7 days. A total of 24 male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into a control group and the following experimental groups: 50 mg/kg normal saline + 100 mg/kg glyoxylate; 50 mg/kg dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) + 100 mg/kg glyoxylate; and 50 mg/kg SAHA + 100 mg/kg glyoxylate. The mice in each of the experimental groups were injected with the saline, DMSO or SAHA into their abdominal cavities 6 h prior to the glyoxylate injection. The mice were sacrificed after 7 days, following which blood and urine samples were collected. The kidneys were harvested to analyze the levels of calcium concentrations and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase. Immunohistochemical staining and semi?quantitative analyses were performed to detect the expression levels of osteopontin (OPN) and CD44. Renal tubular cell apoptosis was detected using a TUNEL assay. The concentrations of calcium and malondialdehyde were significantly decreased in the SAHA group, and calcium oxalate crystals in the kidney tissue and the expression levels of OPN and CD44 in the SAHA group were lower, compared with the other experimental groups. SAHA significantly reduced the urinary excretion of KIM?1 and renal tubular cell apoptosis. In conclusion, SAHA reduced calcium oxalate crystal deposition and protected against kidney injury. PMID:26095064

  13. An association between urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in persons living in cadmium-contaminated villages in northwestern Thailand: A population study

    SciTech Connect

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Mahasakpan, Pranee; Limpatanachote, Pisit; Krintratun, Somyot

    2011-05-15

    Excessive urinary calcium excretion is the major risk of urinary stone formation. Very few population studies have been performed to determine the relationship between environmental cadmium exposure and urinary stone disease. This population-based study examined an association between urinary cadmium excretion, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, and prevalence of urinary stones in persons aged 15 years and older, who lived in the 12 cadmium-contaminated villages in the Mae Sot District, Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. A total of 6748 persons were interviewed and screened for urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in 2009. To test a correlation between urinary excretion of cadmium and calcium, we measured urinary calcium content in 1492 persons, who lived in 3 villages randomly selected from the 12 contaminated villages. The rate of urinary stones significantly increased from 4.3% among persons in the lowest quartile of urinary cadmium to 11.3% in the highest quartile. An increase in stone prevalence with increasing urinary cadmium levels was similarly observed in both genders. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed a positive association between urinary cadmium levels and stone prevalence, after adjusting for other co-variables. The urinary calcium excretion significantly increased with increasing urinary cadmium levels in both genders, after adjusting for other co-variables. Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium might increase the risk of urinary stone formation in this environmentally exposed population. - Research highlights: {yields} Excessive calciuria is the major risk of urinary stone formation. {yields} We examine cadmium-exposed persons for urinary cadmium, calcium, and stones. {yields} The rate of urinary stones increases with increasing urinary cadmium. {yields} Urinary calcium excretion increases with increasing urinary cadmium. {yields} Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium may increase the risk of urinary stones.

  14. Diabetes related risk factors did not explain the increased risk for urinary incontinence among women with diabetes. The Norwegian HUNT/EPINCONT study

    PubMed Central

    Ebbesen, Marit Helen; Hannestad, Yngvild S; Midthjell, Kristian; Hunskaar, Steinar

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown an association between diabetes mellitus (DM) and urinary incontinence (UI) in women, especially severe UI. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether diabetes related variables could explain this association. Methods The study is part of the EPINCONT study, which is based on the large Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 2 (HUNT 2), performed in the county of Nord-Trøndelag, Norway, during the years 1995 - 1997. Questions on diabetes and UI were answered by a total of 21 057 women aged 20 years and older. Of these 685 were identified as having diabetes, and thus comprise the population of our study. A variety of clinical and biochemical variables were recorded from the participants. Results Blood-glucose, HbA1c, albumine:creatinine ratio (ACR), duration of diabetes, diabetes treatment, type of diabetes, cholesterol and triglycerides did not significantly differ in women with and without UI in crude analyses. However, the diabetic women with UI had more hospitalizations during the last 12 months, more homecare, and a higher prevalence of angina and use of oestrogene treatment (both local and oral/patch). After adjusting for age, BMI, parity and smoking, there were statistically significant associations between any UI and angina (OR 1.89; 95% CI: 1.22 - 2.93), homecare (OR 1.72; 95% CI: 1.02 - 2.89), and hospitalization during the last 12 months (OR 1.67; 95% CI: 1.18 - 2.38). In adjusted analyses severe UI was also significantly associated with the same variables, and also with diabetes drug treatment (OR 2.10; 95% CI: 1.07 - 4.10) and stroke (OR 2.47; 95% CI: 1.09 - 5.59). Conclusion No single diabetes related risk factor seems to explain the increased risk for UI among women with diabetes. However, we found associations between UI and some clinical correlates of diabetes. PMID:19740449

  15. Ethylene glycol induces calcium oxalate crystal deposition in Malpighian tubules: a Drosophila model for nephrolithiasis/urolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Liu, Hsin-Ping; Chen, Huey-Yi; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Chang, Chiao-Hui; Lee, Yuan-Ju; Lin, Wei-Yong; Chen, Wen-Chi

    2011-08-01

    Several animal species are used to study calcium oxalate urolithiasis; however, an ideal model has yet to be identified. We used Drosophila as a model organism and fed the flies lithogenic agents such as ethylene glycol, hydroxyl-L-proline, and sodium oxalate. At different times, the Malpighian tubules, the kidney equivalent of insects, were dissected and a polarized light microscope used to highlight the birefringent crystals. Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirmed that the crystal composition was predominately calcium oxalate. Furthermore, administration of potassium citrate successfully reduced the quantity of and modulated the integrity of the ethylene glycol-induced crystals. Thus, the Drosophila model of bio-mineralization produces crystals in the urinary system through many lithogenic agents, permits observation of crystal formation, and is amenable to genetic manipulation. This model may mimic the etiology and clinical manifestations of calcium oxalate stone formation and aid in identification of the genetic basis of this disease. PMID:21451462

  16. Oxalic acid as a heterogeneous ice nucleus in the upper troposphere and its indirect aerosol effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zobrist, B.; Marcolli, C.; Koop, T.; Luo, B. P.; Murphy, D. M.; Lohmann, U.; Zardini, A. A.; Krieger, U. K.; Corti, T.; Cziczo, D. J.; Fueglistaler, S.; Hudson, P. K.; Thomson, D. S.; Peter, T.

    2006-07-01

    Heterogeneous ice freezing points of aqueous solutions containing various immersed solid dicarboxylic acids (oxalic, adipic, succinic, phthalic and fumaric) have been measured with a differential scanning calorimeter. The results show that only the dihydrate of oxalic acid (OAD) acts as a heterogeneous ice nucleus, with an increase in freezing temperature between 2 and 5 K depending on solution composition. In several field campaigns, oxalic acid enriched particles have been detected in the upper troposphere with single particle aerosol mass spectrometry. Simulations with a microphysical box model indicate that the presence of OAD may reduce the ice particle number density in cirrus clouds by up to ~50% when compared to exclusively homogeneous cirrus formation without OAD. Using the ECHAM4 climate model we estimate the global net radiative effect caused by this heterogeneous freezing to result in a cooling as high as -0.3 Wm-2.

  17. Oxalic acid as a heterogeneous ice nucleus in the upper troposphere and its indirect aerosol effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zobrist, B.; Marcolli, C.; Koop, T.; Luo, B. P.; Murphy, D. M.; Lohmann, U.; Zardini, A.; Krieger, U. K.; Corti, T.; Cziczo, D. J.; Fueglistaler, S.; Hudson, P. K.; Thomson, D. S.; Peter, T.

    2006-05-01

    Heterogeneous ice freezing points of aqueous solutions containing various immersed solid dicarboxylic acids (oxalic, adipic, succinic, phthalic and fumaric) have been measured with a differential scanning calorimeter. The results show that only the dihydrate of oxalic acid (OAD) acts as a heterogeneous ice nucleus, with an increase in freezing temperature between 2-5 K depending on solution composition. In several field campaigns, oxalic acid enriched particles have been detected in the upper troposphere with single particle aerosol mass spectrometry. Simulations with a microphysical box model indicate that the presence of OAD may reduce the ice particle number density in cirrus clouds by up to ~50% when compared to exclusively homogeneous cirrus formation without OAD. Using the ECHAM4 climate model we estimate the global net radiative effect caused by this heterogeneous freezing to result in a cooling as high as -0.3 Wm-2.

  18. Red facts: Oxalic acid. Fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    All pesticides sold or used in the United States must be registered by EPA, based on scientific studies showing that they can be used without posing unreasonable risks to people or the environment. Because of advances in scientific knowledge, the law requires that pesticides which were first registered years ago be reregistered to ensure that they meet today's more stringent standards. Oxalic acid is registered for use as a disinfectant to control bacteria and germs, and as a sanitizer, in toilet bowls, urinals and bathroom premises. Oxalic acid also has many diverse, non-pesticidal, manufacturing and industrial uses including use in fabric printing and dyeing; bleaching straw hats; removing paint, varnish, rust or ink stains; and cleaning wood.

  19. Reactive oxygen species, inflammation and calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Khan, Saeed R

    2014-09-01

    Calcium oxalate (CaOx) kidney stones are formed attached to Randall's plaques (RPs) or Randall's plugs. Mechanisms involved in the formation and growth are poorly understood. It is our hypothesis that stone formation is a form of pathological biomineralization or ectopic calcification. Pathological calcification and plaque formation in the body is triggered by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the development of oxidative stress (OS). This review explores clinical and experimental data in support of ROS involvement in the formation of CaOx kidney stones. Under normal conditions the production of ROS is tightly controlled, increasing when and where needed. Results of clinical and experimental studies show that renal epithelial exposure to high oxalate and crystals of CaOx/calcium phosphate (CaP) generates excess ROS, causing injury and inflammation. Major markers of OS and inflammation are detectable in urine of stone patients as well as rats with experimentally induced CaOx nephrolithiasis. Antioxidant treatments reduce crystal and oxalate induced injury in tissue culture and animal models. Significantly lower serum levels of antioxidants, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthine have been found in individuals with a history of kidney stones. A diet rich in antioxidants has been shown to reduce stone episodes. ROS regulate crystal formation, growth and retention through the timely production of crystallization modulators. In the presence of abnormal calcium, citrate, oxalate, and/or phosphate, however, there is an overproduction of ROS and a decrease in the antioxidant capacity resulting in OS, renal injury and inflammation. Cellular degradation products in the urine promote crystallization in the tubular lumen at a faster rate thus blocking the tubule and plugging the tubular openings at the papillary tips forming Randall's plugs. Renal epithelial cells lining the loops of Henle/collecting ducts may become osteogenic, producing membrane vesicles at the basal side. In addition endothelial cells lining the blood vessels may also become osteogenic producing membrane vesicles. Calcification of the vesicles gives rise to RPs. The growth of the RP's is sustained by mineralization of collagen laid down as result of inflammation and fibrosis. PMID:25383321

  20. Reactive oxygen species, inflammation and calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Calcium oxalate (CaOx) kidney stones are formed attached to Randall’s plaques (RPs) or Randall’s plugs. Mechanisms involved in the formation and growth are poorly understood. It is our hypothesis that stone formation is a form of pathological biomineralization or ectopic calcification. Pathological calcification and plaque formation in the body is triggered by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the development of oxidative stress (OS). This review explores clinical and experimental data in support of ROS involvement in the formation of CaOx kidney stones. Under normal conditions the production of ROS is tightly controlled, increasing when and where needed. Results of clinical and experimental studies show that renal epithelial exposure to high oxalate and crystals of CaOx/calcium phosphate (CaP) generates excess ROS, causing injury and inflammation. Major markers of OS and inflammation are detectable in urine of stone patients as well as rats with experimentally induced CaOx nephrolithiasis. Antioxidant treatments reduce crystal and oxalate induced injury in tissue culture and animal models. Significantly lower serum levels of antioxidants, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthine have been found in individuals with a history of kidney stones. A diet rich in antioxidants has been shown to reduce stone episodes. ROS regulate crystal formation, growth and retention through the timely production of crystallization modulators. In the presence of abnormal calcium, citrate, oxalate, and/or phosphate, however, there is an overproduction of ROS and a decrease in the antioxidant capacity resulting in OS, renal injury and inflammation. Cellular degradation products in the urine promote crystallization in the tubular lumen at a faster rate thus blocking the tubule and plugging the tubular openings at the papillary tips forming Randall’s plugs. Renal epithelial cells lining the loops of Henle/collecting ducts may become osteogenic, producing membrane vesicles at the basal side. In addition endothelial cells lining the blood vessels may also become osteogenic producing membrane vesicles. Calcification of the vesicles gives rise to RPs. The growth of the RP’s is sustained by mineralization of collagen laid down as result of inflammation and fibrosis. PMID:25383321

  1. Effect of oxalic acid on Nosema ceranae infection.

    PubMed

    Nanetti, Antonio; Rodriguez-Garca, Cristina; Meana, Arnzazu; Martn-Hernndez, Raquel; Higes, Mariano

    2015-10-01

    Nosema ceranae is a honey bee pathogen parasitizing the ventricular epithelium and potentially causing colony death. The effect of 0.25 M oxalic acid solution administered to the bees in the form of sugar syrup was determined in laboratory and field trials. The spore numbers in an 8-day laboratory experiment were significantly lower when AO was administered (treated: 11.86 0.94 s.e. 10^6; untreated: 30.64 0.31 s.e.x10^6). When administered in autumn to free flying colonies twice, 3 weeks apart, the infection prevalence decreased in young (relative reduction of 53.8% 6.5 s.e.) and old bees (relative reduction of 44.4% 6.0 s.e.). Meanwhile increased prevalence in all the controls was detected (young and old bees: relative increase of 45.7% 22.8 s.e. and 10.2% 5.9 s.e., respectively). While all the treated colonies overwintered correctly, the untreated ones did not (3 out of 5 were dead). In the absence of commercial products approved in several countries to control nosemosis, oxalic acid syrup appears promising in the development of alternative management strategies. PMID:26412538

  2. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE TANK CLEANING: CORROSION RATE FOR ONE VERSUS EIGHT PERCENT OXALIC ACID SOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Ketusky, E.; Subramanian, K.

    2011-01-20

    Until recently, the use of oxalic acid for chemically cleaning the Savannah River Site (SRS) radioactive waste tanks focused on using concentrated 4 and 8-wt% solutions. Recent testing and research on applicable dissolution mechanisms have concluded that under appropriate conditions, dilute solutions of oxalic acid (i.e., 1-wt%) may be more effective. Based on the need to maximize cleaning effectiveness, coupled with the need to minimize downstream impacts, SRS is now developing plans for using a 1-wt% oxalic acid solution. A technology gap associated with using a 1-wt% oxalic acid solution was a dearth of suitable corrosion data. Assuming oxalic acid's passivation of carbon steel was proportional to the free oxalate concentration, the general corrosion rate (CR) from a 1-wt% solution may not be bound by those from 8-wt%. Therefore, after developing the test strategy and plan, the corrosion testing was performed. Starting with the envisioned process specific baseline solvent, a 1-wt% oxalic acid solution, with sludge (limited to Purex type sludge-simulant for this initial effort) at 75 C and agitated, the corrosion rate (CR) was determined from the measured weight loss of the exposed coupon. Environmental variations tested were: (a) Inclusion of sludge in the test vessel or assuming a pure oxalic acid solution; (b) acid solution temperature maintained at 75 or 45 C; and (c) agitation of the acid solution or stagnant. Application of select electrochemical testing (EC) explored the impact of each variation on the passivation mechanisms and confirmed the CR. The 1-wt% results were then compared to those from the 8-wt%. The immersion coupons showed that the maximum time averaged CR for a 1-wt% solution with sludge was less than 25-mils/yr for all conditions. For an agitated 8-wt% solution with sludge, the maximum time averaged CR was about 30-mils/yr at 50 C, and 86-mils/yr at 75 C. Both the 1-wt% and the 8-wt% testing demonstrated that if the sludge was removed from the testing, there would be a significant increase in the CR. Specifically, the CR for an agitated 1-wt% pure oxalic acid solution at 45 or 75 C was about 4 to 10 times greater than those for a 1-wt% solution with sludge. For 8-wt% at 50 C, the effect was even larger. The lower CRs suggest that the cathodic reactions were altered by the sludge. For both the 1-wt% and 8-wt% solution, increasing the temperature did not result in an increased CR. Although the CR for a 1-wt% acid with sludge was considered to be non-temperature dependent, a stagnant solution with sludge resulted in a CR that was greater at 45 C than at 75 C, suggesting that the oxalate film formed at a higher temperature was better in mitigating corrosion. For both a 1 and an 8-wt% solution, agitation typically resulted in a higher CR. Overall, the testing showed that the general CR to the SRS carbon steel tanks from 1-wt% oxalic acid solution will remain bounded by those from an 8-wt% oxalic acid solution.

  3. OXALATE MASS BALANCE DURING CHEMICAL CLEANING IN TANK 6F

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.; Fink, S.

    2011-07-22

    The Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is preparing Tank 6F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. Following mechanical sludge removal, SRS performed chemical cleaning with oxalic acid to remove the sludge heel. Personnel are currently assessing the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning to determine whether the tank is ready for closure. SRR personnel collected liquid samples during chemical cleaning and submitted them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. Following chemical cleaning, they collected a solid sample (also known as 'process sample') and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. The authors analyzed these samples to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning process. Analysis of the anions showed the measured oxalate removed from Tank 6F to be approximately 50% of the amount added in the oxalic acid. To close the oxalate mass balance, the author collected solid samples, leached them with nitric acid, and measured the concentration of cations and anions in the leachate. Some conclusions from this work are: (1) Approximately 65% of the oxalate added as oxalic acid was removed with the decanted liquid. (2) Approximately 1% of the oxalate (added to the tank as oxalic acid) formed precipitates with compounds such as nickel, manganese, sodium, and iron (II), and was dissolved with nitric acid. (3) As much as 30% of the oxalate may have decomposed forming carbon dioxide. The balance does not fully account for all the oxalate added. The offset represents the combined uncertainty in the analyses and sampling.

  4. Fad diets and their effect on urinary stone formation

    PubMed Central

    Nouvenne, Antonio; Ticinesi, Andrea; Morelli, Ilaria; Guida, Loredana; Meschi, Tiziana

    2014-01-01

    The influence of unhealthy dietary habits on urinary stone formation has been widely recognized in literature. Dietary advice is indeed the cornerstone prescription for prevention of nephrolithiasis as well. However, only a small amount of medical literature has addressed the influence of popular or fad diets, often self-prescribed for the management of obesity and overweight or for cultural beliefs, on the risk of kidney stones. Thereby in this paper we analyze the current knowledge on the effects of some popular diets on overall lithogenic risk. High-protein diets, like Dukan diet, raise some concerns, since animal proteins are able to increase urinary calcium and to decrease urinary citrate excretion, thus leading to a high overall lithogenic risk. Low-carbohydrate diets, like Atkins diet or zone diet, may have a protective role against kidney stone formation, but there are also evidences stating that this dietary approach may rise calciuria and decrease citraturia, since it is generally associated to a relatively high intake of animal proteins. Vegan diet can be harmful for urinary stone disease, especially for the risk of hyperuricemia and micronutrient deficiencies, even if only few studies have addressed this specific matter. On the other side, the benefits of a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet on kidney stone prevention have been largely emphasized, provided that the intake of calcium and oxalate is balanced. Traditional Mediterranean diet should exert a protective effect on nephrolithiasis as well, even if specific studies have not been carried out yet. High phytate and antioxidant content of this diet have however demonstrated to be beneficial in preventing the formation of new or recurrent calculi. Anyway, at the current state of knowledge, the most effective dietary approach to prevent kidney stone disease is a mild animal protein restriction, a balanced intake of carbohydrates and fats and a high intake of fruit and vegetables. Other fundamental aspects, which are often neglected in fad diets, are a normal intake of milk and dairy products and salt restriction. All these nutritional aspects should be greatly taken into account when patients who are willing to undergo fad or commercial diets ask for dietary advice. PMID:26816783

  5. Fad diets and their effect on urinary stone formation.

    PubMed

    Nouvenne, Antonio; Ticinesi, Andrea; Morelli, Ilaria; Guida, Loredana; Borghi, Loris; Meschi, Tiziana

    2014-09-01

    The influence of unhealthy dietary habits on urinary stone formation has been widely recognized in literature. Dietary advice is indeed the cornerstone prescription for prevention of nephrolithiasis as well. However, only a small amount of medical literature has addressed the influence of popular or fad diets, often self-prescribed for the management of obesity and overweight or for cultural beliefs, on the risk of kidney stones. Thereby in this paper we analyze the current knowledge on the effects of some popular diets on overall lithogenic risk. High-protein diets, like Dukan diet, raise some concerns, since animal proteins are able to increase urinary calcium and to decrease urinary citrate excretion, thus leading to a high overall lithogenic risk. Low-carbohydrate diets, like Atkins diet or zone diet, may have a protective role against kidney stone formation, but there are also evidences stating that this dietary approach may rise calciuria and decrease citraturia, since it is generally associated to a relatively high intake of animal proteins. Vegan diet can be harmful for urinary stone disease, especially for the risk of hyperuricemia and micronutrient deficiencies, even if only few studies have addressed this specific matter. On the other side, the benefits of a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet on kidney stone prevention have been largely emphasized, provided that the intake of calcium and oxalate is balanced. Traditional Mediterranean diet should exert a protective effect on nephrolithiasis as well, even if specific studies have not been carried out yet. High phytate and antioxidant content of this diet have however demonstrated to be beneficial in preventing the formation of new or recurrent calculi. Anyway, at the current state of knowledge, the most effective dietary approach to prevent kidney stone disease is a mild animal protein restriction, a balanced intake of carbohydrates and fats and a high intake of fruit and vegetables. Other fundamental aspects, which are often neglected in fad diets, are a normal intake of milk and dairy products and salt restriction. All these nutritional aspects should be greatly taken into account when patients who are willing to undergo fad or commercial diets ask for dietary advice. PMID:26816783

  6. Suppressive effects of acid-forming diet against the tumorigenic potential of pioglitazone hydrochloride in the urinary bladder of male rats

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Keiichiro; Awasaki, Yasuyuki; Kandori, Hitoshi; Tanakamaru, Zen-yo; Nagai, Hirofumi; Baron, David; Yamamoto, Masaki

    2011-03-15

    Pioglitazone hydrochloride (PIO), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) agonist, was administered orally for 85 weeks at 16 mg/kg/day to male rats fed either a diet containing 1.5% ammonium chloride (acid-forming diet) or a control diet to investigate the effects of urinary acidification induced by the acid-forming diet on the tumorigenic potential of PIO in the urinary bladder. The surviving animals at the end of the administration period were followed to the end of the 2-year study period without changes in the diet and were subjected to terminal necropsy on Week 104. The number of urinary microcrystals, evaluated by manual counting with light microscopy and by an objective method with a laser diffraction particle size analyzer, was increased by PIO on Weeks 12 and 25 and the increases were markedly suppressed by urinary acidification. Urinary citrate was decreased by PIO throughout the study period, but no changes were seen in urinary oxalate at any timepoint. The incidences of PIO-treated males bearing at least one of the advanced proliferative changes consisting of papillary hyperplasia, nodular hyperplasia, papilloma or carcinoma were significantly decreased from 11 of 82 males fed the control diet to 2 of 80 males fed the acid-forming diet. The acid-forming diet did not show any effects on the toxicokinetic parameters of PIO and its metabolites. Microcrystalluria appears to be involved in the development of the advanced stage proliferative lesions in bladder tumorigenesis induced by PIO in male rats.

  7. Proteome Dynamics of the Specialist Oxalate Degrader Oxalobacter formigenes

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Melissa E; Mobley, James A; Holmes, Ross P; Knight, John

    2016-01-01

    Oxalobacter formigenes is a unique intestinal organism that relies on oxalate degradation to meet most of its energy and carbon needs. A lack of colonization is a risk factor for calcium oxalate kidney stone disease. The release of the genome sequence of O. formigenes has provided an opportunity to increase our understanding of the biology of O. formigenes. This study used mass spectrometry based shotgun proteomics to examine changes in protein levels associated with the transition of growth from log to stationary phase. Of the 1867 unique protein coding genes in the genome of O. formigenes strain OxCC13, 1822 proteins were detected, which is at the lower end of the range of 1500–7500 proteins found in free-living bacteria. From the protein datasets presented here it is clear that O. formigenes contains a repertoire of metabolic pathways expected of an intestinal microbe that permit it to survive and adapt to new environments. Although further experimental testing is needed to confirm the physiological and regulatory processes that mediate adaptation with nutrient shifts, the O. formigenes protein datasets presented here can be used as a reference for studying proteome dynamics under different conditions and have significant potential for hypothesis development. PMID:26924912

  8. Calcium Oxalate Crystals in Eucalypt Ectomycorrhizae: Morphochemical Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Pylro, Victor Satler; de Freitas, Andr Luiz Moreira; Otoni, Wagner Campos; da Silva, Ivo Ribeiro; Borges, Arnaldo Chaer; Costa, Maurcio Dutra

    2013-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi are ubiquitous in forest ecosystems, benefitting plants principally by increasing the uptake of water and nutrients such as calcium from the soil. Previous work has demonstrated accumulation of crystallites in eucalypt ectomycorrhizas, but detailed morphological and chemical characterization of these crystals has not been performed. In this work, cross sections of acetic acid-treated and cleared ectomycorrhizal fragments were visualized by polarized light microscopy to evaluate the location of crystals within cortical root cells. Ectomycorrhizal sections were also observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive x-ray (EDS) microprobe analysis. The predominant forms of crystals were crystal sand (granules) and concretions. Calcium, carbon and oxygen were detected by EDS as constituent elements and similar elemental profiles were observed between both crystal morphologies. All analyzed crystalline structures were characterized as calcium oxalate crystals. This is the first report of the stoichiometry and morphology of crystals occurring in eucalypt ectomycorrhizas in tropical soils. The data corroborates the role of ectomycorrhizae in the uptake and accumulation of calcium in the form of calcium oxalate crystals in hybrid eucalypt plants. PMID:23844062

  9. Calcium oxalate crystals in eucalypt ectomycorrhizae: morphochemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Pylro, Victor Satler; de Freitas, Andr Luiz Moreira; Otoni, Wagner Campos; da Silva, Ivo Ribeiro; Borges, Arnaldo Chaer; Costa, Maurcio Dutra

    2013-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi are ubiquitous in forest ecosystems, benefitting plants principally by increasing the uptake of water and nutrients such as calcium from the soil. Previous work has demonstrated accumulation of crystallites in eucalypt ectomycorrhizas, but detailed morphological and chemical characterization of these crystals has not been performed. In this work, cross sections of acetic acid-treated and cleared ectomycorrhizal fragments were visualized by polarized light microscopy to evaluate the location of crystals within cortical root cells. Ectomycorrhizal sections were also observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive x-ray (EDS) microprobe analysis. The predominant forms of crystals were crystal sand (granules) and concretions. Calcium, carbon and oxygen were detected by EDS as constituent elements and similar elemental profiles were observed between both crystal morphologies. All analyzed crystalline structures were characterized as calcium oxalate crystals. This is the first report of the stoichiometry and morphology of crystals occurring in eucalypt ectomycorrhizas in tropical soils. The data corroborates the role of ectomycorrhizae in the uptake and accumulation of calcium in the form of calcium oxalate crystals in hybrid eucalypt plants. PMID:23844062

  10. Urinary protease inhibitor Serpin B3 is higher in women and is further increased in female patients affected by aldosterone producing adenoma.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, Oliviero; Cecconi, Daniela; Castagna, Annalisa; Chiecchi, Laura; Guarini, Patrizia; Gunasekaran, Muthukumar; Morandini, Francesca; Brazzarola, Paolo; Zolla, Lello; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Veglio, Franco; Mulatero, Paolo; Pizzolo, Francesca

    2014-06-01

    A correct diagnosis of primary aldosteronism (PA) requires adrenal venous sampling (AVS) for the classification of subtypes (bilateral hyperplasia, BAH, or adenoma, APA). Since such testing is not easily practicable, appropriate markers for the definition of subtypes are desirable. We hypothesized that an aldosterone excess was associated with abnormalities in urinary proteome, specific for PA subtypes. The project work was divided into 3 phases: (1) screening/identification by proteomic analysis and further characterization by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry of the candidate protein; (2) clinical validation by quantitative ELISA assay of 57 (33 M, 24 F) PA patients and 50 normotensive controls (21 M, 29 F); (3) analysis of adrenal tissue of 8 individuals who had undergone adrenalectomy for APA or other adrenal tumors. The proteomic analysis showed a different expression of Serpin B3 Inhibitor-SCCA1 (SB3) in APA and BAH patients. Urine SB3 concentrations in normotensive controls, quantified by ELISA assay and normalized by urinary creatinine, resulted much lower in males (6.72 ng SB3 per mg creatinine, C.I. 4.43-10.19) than in females (20.56 ng SB3 per mg creatinine, C.I. 12.43-33.99, p < 0.00001). SB3 concentrations were not significantly different in males affected by different PA subtypes (BAH, n = 19 and APA, n = 14) compared with normotensive subjects (n = 21). In contrast, in PA females, SB3 was significantly higher in APA (n = 13) than in BAH patients (n = 11) or in normotensive controls (n = 29) (P < 0.01 and <0.05, respectively). Neither messenger RNA nor SB3 protein were identified in tissue obtained from adrenal tumors and from the surrounding normal gland. In conclusion urine SB3 concentrations are physiologically much lower in males than in females. Hypertensive women, affected by APA, present urinary SB3 concentrations significantly higher than women affected by BAH. PMID:24503858

  11. Stimulation of synovial fibroblasts by calcium oxalate and monosodium urate monohydrate. A mechanism of connective tissue degradation in oxalosis and gout.

    PubMed

    Hasselbacher, P

    1982-12-01

    The responses of cultured rabbit synovial fibroblasts to amorphous and microcrystalline calcium oxalate were compared with responses to MSUM. Like urate crystals, crystalline calcium oxalate (but not amorphous oxalate) caused marked stimulation of secretion of latent collagenase and PGE2 after 3 days of culture without significant change in cell protein or gross cellular morphology. Collagenase rose from undetectable levels in control cultures to 32.4 +/- 6.0 and 27.4 +/- 7.9 U/mg of cell protein for crystalline calcium oxalate and MSUM, respectively. PGE2 rose from a control level of 0.24 +/- 0.14 to 19.47 +/- 5.15 and 23 +/- 4.84 micrograms/mg of cell protein for crystalline calcium oxalate and sodium urate compared to 1.22 +/- 0.48 microgram for amorphous calcium oxalate. Although the crystalline species studied caused LDH in the media to increase threefold, this was minimal. Cell stimulation by amorphous oxalate and the crystals did not correlate with membranolytic potential as measured with an erythrocyte lysis assay. Stimulation of resident synovial cells by crystalline calcium oxalate and sodium urate may contribute to the chronic inflammation and destruction of joint tissues that occurs in oxalosis and gout. PMID:6292314

  12. Urinary tract infections and Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Behzadi, Payam; Behzadi, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Urinary tract candidiasis is known as the most frequent nosocomial fungal infection worldwide. Candida albicans is the most common cause of nosocomial fungal urinary tract infections; however, a rapid change in the distribution of Candida species is undergoing. Simultaneously, the increase of urinary tract candidiasis has led to the appearance of antifungal resistant Candida species. In this review, we have an in depth look into Candida albicans uropathogenesis and distribution of the three most frequent Candida species contributing to urinary tract candidiasis in different countries around the world. Material and methods For writing this review, Google Scholar –a scholarly search engine– (http://scholar.google.com/) and PubMed database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/) were used. The most recently published original articles and reviews of literature relating to the first three Candida species causing urinary tract infections in different countries and the pathogenicity of Candida albicans were selected and studied. Results Although some studies show rapid changes in the uropathogenesis of Candida species causing urinary tract infections in some countries, Candida albicans is still the most important cause of candidal urinary tract infections. Conclusions Despite the ranking of Candida albicans as the dominant species for urinary tract candidiasis, specific changes have occurred in some countries. At this time, it is important to continue the surveillance related to Candida species causing urinary tract infections to prevent, control and treat urinary tract candidiasis in future. PMID:25914847

  13. Herbal extracts of Tribulus terrestris and Bergenia ligulata inhibit growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, V. S.; Parekh, B. B.; Joshi, M. J.; Vaidya, A. B.

    2005-02-01

    A large number of people in this world are suffering from urinary stone problem. Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) containing stones (calculi) are commonly found. In the present study, COM crystals were grown by a double diffusion gel growth technique using U-tubes. The gel was prepared from hydrated sodium metasilicate solution. The gel framework acts like a three-dimensional crucible in which the crystal nuclei are delicately held in the position of their formation, and nutrients are supplied for the growth. This technique can be utilized as a simplified screening static model to study the growth, inhibition and dissolution of urinary stones in vitro. The action of putative litholytic medicinal plants, Tribulus terrestris Linn. ( T.t) and Bergenia ligulata Linn. ( B.l.), has been studied in the growth of COM crystals. Tribulus terrestris and Bergenia ligulata are commonly used as herbal medicines for urinary calculi in India. To verify the inhibitive effect, aqueous extracts of Tribulus terrestris and Bergenia ligulata were added along with the supernatant solutions. The growth was measured and compared, with and without the aqueous extracts. Inhibition of COM crystal growth was observed in the herbal extracts. Maximum inhibition was observed in Bergenia ligulata followed by Tribulus terrestris. The results are discussed.

  14. Comparative structural modeling and docking studies of oxalate oxidase: Possible implication in enzyme supplementation therapy for urolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Khobragade, C N; Beedkar, Supriya D; Bodade, Ragini G; Vinchurkar, Aruna S

    2011-04-01

    In humans oxalate is end product of protein metabolism, with no enzyme present to act on it. In conditions of its enhanced endogenous synthesis or increased absorption from the diet, oxalate accumulation leads to hyperoxaluria which can further lead to a number of pathological conditions including urolithiasis. Urolithiasis has been a perplexing problem due to its high incidence and rate of recurrence after treatment like Extracorporeal-shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Hence other prophylactic treatment becomes necessary. One of the newer approaches of curing such metabolic disorders is the enzyme supplementation therapy. Oxalate oxidase (OxOx) is a commonly occurring enzyme in plants, bacteria and fungi that catalyses oxidative cleavage of oxalate to CO(2) with reduction of dioxygen to H(2)O(2). Present study, used Hordeum vulgare OxOx crystal structure (PDB ID 2ET1A) as a template for constructing 3D models of OxOx from Triticum aestivum, Arabidopsis thaliana, Sclerotiana sclerotiarum. Similarly Homology models for isoforms Ceriporiopsis subvermispora 336, C. subvermispora 422 were constructed by using template Bacillus subtilis oxalate decarboxylase (Oxdc) (PDB ID 2UY8A) by comparative modeling approach in SWISS MODEL, MODELLER, 3D JIGSAW and GENO 3D program server. Based on overall stereochemical quality (PROCHECK, PROSA, VARIFY 3D), best models were selected, energy minimized, refined and characterized for active site in BioMed CaChe V 6.1 workspace. Selected models were further studied for structure function relationship with substrate (oxalate) and its analogue (glycolate) by using docking approach. Calculated interaction energy between the oxalate and constructed enzyme indicated that homology models for OxOx of T. aestivum, A. thaliana and S. sclerotiarum, can account for better regio-specificity of this enzyme towards oxalate. That supports the interested metabolism and thus may further implement in enzyme supplementation therapy for urolithiasis. PMID:21255608

  15. The oxalic acid: 2-chloroacetamide crystallization: A new revelation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitra, R.; Choudhury, R. R.; Capet, Frederic; Roussel, Pascal

    2013-02-01

    The OH of COOH can acts as both donor and acceptor of hydrogen bond. OH of COOH as an acceptor was primarily observed in Oxalic acid Amide complexes. In order to further understand the packing in these complexes, oxalic acid was complexed with 2-tricholoroacetamide. This crystallization resulted in the formation of ammonium tetraoxalate dehydrate. A result similar to what was observed in complexation of oxalic acid with amide containing amino acids (asparagine and glutamine). Interestingly in all these cases, the amide bond is broken, to form the ammonium ion when trying to complex with oxalic acid.

  16. Electrochemical synthesis and characterization of zinc oxalate nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Roushani, Mahmoud; Pourmortazavi, Seied Mahdi

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ? Synthesis of zinc oxalate nanoparticles via electrolysis of a zinc plate anode in sodium oxalate solutions. ? Design of a Taguchi orthogonal array to identify the optimal experimental conditions. ? Controlling the size and shape of particles via applied voltage and oxalate concentration. ? Characterization of zinc oxalate nanoparticles by SEM, UVvis, FT-IR and TGDTA. - Abstract: A rapid, clean and simple electrodeposition method was designed for the synthesis of zinc oxalate nanoparticles. Zinc oxalate nanoparticles in different size and shapes were electrodeposited by electrolysis of a zinc plate anode in sodium oxalate aqueous solutions. It was found that the size and shape of the product could be tuned by electrolysis voltage, oxalate ion concentration, and stirring rate of electrolyte solution. A Taguchi orthogonal array design was designed to identify the optimal experimental conditions. The morphological characterization of the product was carried out by scanning electron microscopy. UVvis and FT-IR spectroscopies were also used to characterize the electrodeposited nanoparticles. The TGDTA studies of the nanoparticles indicated that the main thermal degradation occurs in two steps over a temperature range of 350430 C. In contrast to the existing methods, the present study describes a process which can be easily scaled up for the production of nano-sized zinc oxalate powder.

  17. Promoting urinary continence in older women.

    PubMed

    Bardsley, Alison

    2014-10-28

    Continence promotion involves informing and educating the public and healthcare professionals that urinary incontinence is not an inevitable part of ageing, and can be treated or at least made more manageable. While awareness of urinary continence is improving slowly, the taboo around discussing incontinence remains. Women are at increased risk of developing urinary incontinence as they grow older because of physiological, functional and cognitive changes. Healthcare professionals can identify women with bladder symptoms by routinely asking trigger questions and can promote continence through education about lifestyle choices that aggravate or ameliorate urinary incontinence. This article discusses the main risk factors associated with urinary incontinence in older women and the ways in which healthcare professionals can help to identify those with symptoms of urinary incontinence. PMID:25335630

  18. Urinary disorders and female sexual function.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jaclyn; Sweet, Genevieve; Shindel, Alan

    2013-08-01

    Overactive bladder urinary incontinence and female sexual dysfunction are common in women, but often go unreported and/or untreated. All of these conditions can have a markedly negative impact on quality of life. There is a growing body of evidence that sexual and urinary problems are often comorbid and possibly synergistic in women. Increasingly robust evidence indicates that management of urinary concerns may enhance sexual function and quality of life. It is important for health care providers who see women to consider both urinary and sexual health concerns during patient encounters. Additional research attention to the interrelationships between these genitourinary disorders is warranted. PMID:23716031

  19. [Urinary calculi and infection].

    PubMed

    Trinchieri, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Infection urinary stones resulting from urease-producing bacteria are composed by struvite and/or carbonate apatite. Bacterial urease splits urea and promotes the formation of ammonia and carbon dioxide leading to urine alkalinization and formation of phosphate salts. Proteus species are urease-producers, whereas a limited number of strains of other Gram negative and positive species may produce urease. Ureaplasma urealyticum and Corynebacterium urealyticum are urease-producers that are not isolated by conventional urine cultures, but require specific tests for identification. Primary treatment requires surgical removal of stones as complete as possible. Extracorporeal and endoscopic treatments are usually preferred, while open surgery is actually limited to few selected cases. Residual stones or fragments should be treated by chemolysis via ureteral catheter or nephrostomy or administration of citrate salts in order to achieve a stone-free renal unit. Postoperatively, recurrent urinary tract infection should be treated with appropriate antibiotic treatment although long-term antibiotic prophylaxis can cause resistance. Urinary acidification has been proposed for the prophylaxis of infection stones, but long-term acidification is difficult to achieve in urine infected by urease-producing bacteria. Urease inhibitors lead to prevention and/or dissolution of stones and encrustations in patients with infection by urea-splitting bacteria, but their use is limited by their toxicity. The administration of citrate salts involves an increase of the value of nucleation pH (pHn), that is the pH value at which calcium and magnesium phosphate crystallization occurs, in a greater way than the corresponding increase in the urinary pH due to its alkalinizing effect and resulting in a reduction of the risk of struvite crystallization. In conclusion prevention of the recurrence of infection stones can be achieved by an integrated approach tailored on the single patient. Complete clearance of the stone must be achieved by primary surgical procedure and residual fragments should be extensively treated. In the case of persistent infection, conservative measures, such as acidification and urease inhibitors or citrate administration, should be adopted to minimize its effect on urinary saturation with respect to struvite. PMID:24874306

  20. Metal Dependence of Oxalate Decarboxylase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Moomaw, Ellen W.; Angerhofer, Alexander; Moussatche, Patricia; Ozarowski, Andrew; Garca-Rubio, Ins; Richards, Nigel G. J.

    2009-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis oxalate decarboxylase (OxDC) catalyzes the conversion of oxalate into CO2 and formate. The enzyme is composed of two cupin domains, each of which contains a Mn(II) ion. Although there is general agreement that Mn(II) in the N-terminal domain mediates OxDC-catalyzed decarboxylation, legitimate questions have been raised concerning the function (if any) of the Mn(II) bound in the C-terminal cupin domain. We have investigated this problem using a series of OxDC mutants in which Mn(II) binding is perturbed by mutagenesis of Glu-101 and Glu-280, which coordinate the metal in the N-terminal and C-terminal domains, respectively. We now demonstrate that decarboxylase activity and total manganese content are sensitive to modifications in either metal-binding glutamate residue. These findings, in combination with EPR measurements, raise the possibility that the C-terminal Mn(II) center can catalyze the decarboxylation reaction. Further support for this conclusion has been provided from a combination of in vivo and in vitro strategies for preparing wild-type OxDC in which Mn(II) is incorporated to a variety of extents. Kinetic characterization of these variants shows that OxDC activity is linearly correlated with manganese content, as might be expected if both sites can catalyze the breakdown of oxalate into formate and CO2. These studies also represent the first unequivocal demonstration that OxDC activity is uniquely mediated by manganese. PMID:19473032

  1. Reregistration eligibility document (RED): Oxalic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    EPA is directed by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act as amended in 1988 (FIFRA '88) to review all pesticide products containing active ingredients initially registered before November 1, 1984, and to reregister those products that have a substantially complete data base and do not pose unreasonable adverse effects to people or the environment. This pesticide reregistration program is to be completed by the late 1990's. The Reregistration Eligibility Document (or RED) for oxalic acid discusses the scientific data and other information supporting EPA's regulatory conclusion that products containing a pesticide do not pose unreasonable risks when used as directed by Agency-approved labeling, and are eligible for reregistration.

  2. High levels of urinary schistosomiasis among children in Bunuso, a rural community in Ghana: an urgent call for increased surveillance and control programs.

    PubMed

    Ayeh-Kumi, P F; Obeng-Nkrumah, N; Baidoo, D; Teye, J; Asmah, R H

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the occurrence of urinary schistosomiasis and estimated predictors for risk of infection among children in the Bunuso community of Ashanti Region of Ghana, West Africa. The cross-sectional survey was conducted between June and December 2009. Information was obtained on socio-demographic characteristics, schistosomiasis symptoms and other risk factors through interviews and questionnaires. Urine samples were analysed for Schistosoma haematobium ova using centrifugation and sedimentation, filtration and microscopy. Bivariate estimations and multiple logistic regression modelling with odds ratios (OR) were used to assess risk factors for S. haematobium infections. Inspections at River Nanakwaw revealed snail vectors, Bulinus truncatus. Overall, 95 out of 100 (95% confidence interval [CI] 88.8-97.6) children tested positive for S. haematobium infection. The mean ova density (eggs/10ml of urine) of infections was 58.12 (95% CI 31.3-71.6) and varied significantly between age-group distributions (P value=0.001; Post Hoc, P>0.05 for ?8 vs 15-17years, and 9-11 vs 12-14years), sources of house-hold water (P value=0.019; Post Hoc, P<0.05 for Borehole vs River Nanakwaw), children activities in River Nanakwaw (P value=0.001), and haematuria (P value=0.007). Independent variables significantly associated with S. haematobium infections were the use of River Nanakwaw as source of household water (OR 12.54; 95% CI 3.932-42.12, P value=0.003), engaging activities in River Nanakwaw (OR 8.76; 95% CI 1.759-31.871; P value=0.008) and haematuria (OR 36.71; 95% CI 10.18-48.47; P value=0.001). The passage of blood urine was prognostic of urinary schistosomiasis with a positive predictive value of 97.5%. Our results demonstrate the endemicity of urinary schistosomiasis in Bunuso. Schistosomiasis remains a disease of great public health importance in Ghana, and there is the urgent need to intensify surveillance and control programs in remote riparian communities. PMID:26688622

  3. A nurse-family partnership intervention to increase the self-efficacy of family caregivers and reduce catheter-associated urinary tract infection in catheterized patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwo-Chen; Chao, Yann-Fen C; Wang, Yueh-Mien; Lin, Pi-Chu

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a nurse-family partnership model on the self-efficacy of family caregivers (FCs) and the incidence of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) among patients. A randomized controlled study was conducted. We recruited 61 patients and their FCs, who were randomly divided into an experimental group (n?=?30) and a control group (n?=?31). In the experimental group, the main caregivers comprised a nurse-family partnership, whereas the control participants received routine care. The findings were as follows: (i) the incidence of CAUTI was lower in the experimental group than in the control group (20% vs. 38.8%), but the difference was not statistically significant; and (ii) no significant difference emerged for reported Caregiver Self-Efficacy Score between the two groups. The nursing team and FCs must become partners in cooperative caregiving to enhance the quality of patient care. PMID:24750286

  4. Adaptable coordination of U(IV) in the 2D-(4,4) uranium oxalate network: From 8 to 10 coordinations in the uranium (IV) oxalate hydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duvieubourg-Garela, L.; Vigier, N.; Abraham, F.; Grandjean, S.

    2008-08-01

    Crystals of uranium (IV) oxalate hydrates, U(C 2O 4) 26H 2O ( 1) and U(C 2O 4) 22H 2O ( 2), were obtained by hydrothermal methods using two different U(IV) precursors, U 3O 8 oxide and nitric U(IV) solution in presence of hydrazine to avoid oxidation of U(IV) into uranyl ion. Growth of crystals of solvated monohydrated uranium (IV) oxalate, U(C 2O 4) 2H 2O(dma) ( 3), dma=dimethylamine, was achieved by slow diffusion of U(IV) into a gel containing oxalate ions. The three structures are built on a bi-dimensional complex polymer of U(IV) atoms connected through bis-bidentate oxalate ions forming [U(C 2O 4)] 4 pseudo-squares. The flexibility of this supramolecular arrangement allows modifications of the coordination number of the U(IV) atom which, starting from 8 in 1 increases to 9 in 3 and, finally increases, to 10 in 2. The coordination polyhedron changes from a distorted cube, formed by eight oxygen atoms of four oxalate ions, in 1, to a mono-capped square anti-prism in 3 and, finally, to a di-capped square anti-prism in 2, resulting from rotation of the oxalate ions and addition of one and two water oxygen atoms in the coordination of U(IV). In 1, the space between the ?2[U(C 2O 4) 2] planar layers is occupied by non-coordinated water molecules; in 2, the space between the staggered ?2[U(C 2O 4) 22H 2O] layers is empty, finally in 3, the solvate molecules occupy the interlayer space between corrugated ?2[U(C 2O 4) 2H 2O] sheets. The thermal decomposition of U(C 2O 4) 26H 2O under air and argon atmospheres gives U 3O 8 and UO 2, respectively.

  5. Characterization of Medicago truncatula reduced calcium oxalate crystal mutant alleles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium oxalate crystal formation is common in plants. Formation of these crystals has been shown to function in plant defense, calcium regulation, and aluminum tolerance. Although calcium oxalate is common and plays important roles in plant development, our understanding of how these crystals form ...

  6. Oxalate Synthesis and Pyrolysis: A Colorful Introduction to Stoichiometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannatta, Michael W.; Richards-Babb, Michelle; Sweeney, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Metal oxalate synthesis and pyrolysis provides an opportunity for students to (i) learn stoichiometry, (ii) experience the consequences of proper stoichiometric calculations and experimental techniques, and (iii) be introduced to the relevance of chemistry by highlighting oxalates in context, for example, usages and health effects. At our…

  7. Oxalate Synthesis and Pyrolysis: A Colorful Introduction to Stoichiometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannatta, Michael W.; Richards-Babb, Michelle; Sweeney, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Metal oxalate synthesis and pyrolysis provides an opportunity for students to (i) learn stoichiometry, (ii) experience the consequences of proper stoichiometric calculations and experimental techniques, and (iii) be introduced to the relevance of chemistry by highlighting oxalates in context, for example, usages and health effects. At our

  8. Calcium Oxalate Accumulation in Malpighian Tubules of Silkworm (Bombyx mori)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyman, Aaron J.; Webb, Mary Alice

    2007-04-01

    Silkworm provides an ideal model system for study of calcium oxalate crystallization in kidney-like organs, called Malpighian tubules. During their growth and development, silkworm larvae accumulate massive amounts of calcium oxalate crystals in their Malpighian tubules with no apparent harm to the organism. This manuscript reports studies of crystal structure in the tubules along with analyses identifying molecular constituents of tubule exudate.

  9. Total and soluble oxalate content of some Indian spices.

    PubMed

    Ghosh Das, Sumana; Savage, G P

    2012-06-01

    Spices, such as cinnamon, cloves, cardamom, garlic, ginger, cumin, coriander and turmeric are used all over the world as flavouring and colouring ingredients in Indian foods. Previous studies have shown that spices contain variable amounts of total oxalates but there are few reports of soluble oxalate contents. In this study, the total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of ten different spices commonly used in Indian cuisine were measured. Total oxalate content ranged from 194 (nutmeg) to 4,014 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM, while the soluble oxalate contents ranged from 41 (nutmeg) to 3,977 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM. Overall, the percentage of soluble oxalate content of the spices ranged from 4.7 to 99.1% of the total oxalate content which suggests that some spices present no risk to people liable to kidney stone formation, while other spices can supply significant amounts of soluble oxalates and therefore should be used in moderation. PMID:22492273

  10. An ATP and oxalate generating variant tricarboxylic acid cycle counters aluminum toxicity in Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ranji; Lemire, Joseph; Mailloux, Ryan J; Chnier, Daniel; Hamel, Robert; Appanna, Vasu D

    2009-01-01

    Although the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is essential in almost all aerobic organisms, its precise modulation and integration in global cellular metabolism is not fully understood. Here, we report on an alternative TCA cycle uniquely aimed at generating ATP and oxalate, two metabolites critical for the survival of Pseudomonas fluorescens. The upregulation of isocitrate lyase (ICL) and acylating glyoxylate dehydrogenase (AGODH) led to the enhanced synthesis of oxalate, a dicarboxylic acid involved in the immobilization of aluminum (Al). The increased activity of succinyl-CoA synthetase (SCS) and oxalate CoA-transferase (OCT) in the Al-stressed cells afforded an effective route to ATP synthesis from oxalyl-CoA via substrate level phosphorylation. This modified TCA cycle with diminished efficacy in NADH production and decreased CO(2)-evolving capacity, orchestrates the synthesis of oxalate, NADPH, and ATP, ingredients pivotal to the survival of P. fluorescens in an Al environment. The channeling of succinyl-CoA towards ATP formation may be an important function of the TCA cycle during anaerobiosis, Fe starvation and O(2)-limited conditions. PMID:19809498

  11. An ATP and Oxalate Generating Variant Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Counters Aluminum Toxicity in Pseudomonas fluorescens

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ranji; Lemire, Joseph; Mailloux, Ryan J.; Chnier, Daniel; Hamel, Robert; Appanna, Vasu D.

    2009-01-01

    Although the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is essential in almost all aerobic organisms, its precise modulation and integration in global cellular metabolism is not fully understood. Here, we report on an alternative TCA cycle uniquely aimed at generating ATP and oxalate, two metabolites critical for the survival of Pseudomonas fluorescens. The upregulation of isocitrate lyase (ICL) and acylating glyoxylate dehydrogenase (AGODH) led to the enhanced synthesis of oxalate, a dicarboxylic acid involved in the immobilization of aluminum (Al). The increased activity of succinyl-CoA synthetase (SCS) and oxalate CoA-transferase (OCT) in the Al-stressed cells afforded an effective route to ATP synthesis from oxalyl-CoA via substrate level phosphorylation. This modified TCA cycle with diminished efficacy in NADH production and decreased CO2-evolving capacity, orchestrates the synthesis of oxalate, NADPH, and ATP, ingredients pivotal to the survival of P. fluorescens in an Al environment. The channeling of succinyl-CoA towards ATP formation may be an important function of the TCA cycle during anaerobiosis, Fe starvation and O2-limited conditions. PMID:19809498

  12. Alleviation of chilling injury in tomato fruit by exogenous application of oxalic acid.

    PubMed

    Li, Peiyan; Yin, Fei; Song, Lijun; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2016-07-01

    The effects of oxalic acid on the development of chilling injury (CI), energy metabolism and lycopene metabolism in tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum L.) were investigated. Mature green tomatoes were dipped in 10mmoll(-1) oxalic acid (OA) solution for 10min at 25°C. Tomatoes were subsequently stored at 4±0.5°C for 20days before being transferred to 25°C for 12days. Oxalic acid treatment apparently alleviated CI development and membrane damage; maintained higher levels of ATP and ADP; increased activities of succinic dehydrogenase (SDH), Ca(2+)-adenosine triphosphatase (Ca(2+)-ATPase) and H(+)-adenosine triphosphatase (H(+)-ATPase); and elevated lycopene accumulation associated with the upregulation of PSY1 and ZDS expression in tomatoes during a period at room temperature following exposure to chilling stress. Thus, oxalic acid treatment benefited the control of CI and the maintenance of fruit quality in tomatoes stored for long periods (approximately 32days). PMID:26920276

  13. Stress urinary incontinence

    MedlinePLUS

    ... when the bladder bulges into the vagina (prolapse). Artificial urinary sphincter . This is a device used to ... It is easier to do than placing an artificial urinary sphincter. Retropubic suspensions lift the bladder and ...

  14. Studies on calcium oxalate monohydrate crystallization: influence of inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Grases, F; Kroupa, M; Costa-Bauzá, A

    1994-01-01

    A simple model to study calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystallization on different substrates is presented and the action of different potential inhibitors is evaluated and discussed. COM heterogeneous nucleation was assayed on solid surfaces as calcium phosphate, mixtures of mucin with calcium phosphate, and wax. In the presence of a non-protected non-renewed solid surface in contact with normal urine, COM crystal formation could be detected at short intervals (3 h). The most active heterogeneous nucleation capacity corresponded to calcium phosphate. In the presence of 10% mucin, owing to the renewal of the surface layer no COM crystal were detected on the pellet's surface. The study of citrate and pentosan polysulphate (a semisynthetic polysaccharide) on COM heterogeneous nucleation demonstrated some important inhibitory effects when concentration increased and time decreased. Maximum effects were selectively manifested on calcium phosphate surfaces. Only phytic acid at adequate concentration exhibited a total inhibitory capacity of COM formation, even during longer intervals (15 h). PMID:7521089

  15. Acute oxalate nephropathy caused by ethylene glycol poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jung Woong; Lee, Jong-Ho; Son, In Sung; Kim, Yong Jin; Kim, Do Young; Hwang, Yong; Chung, Hyun Ah; Choi, Hong Seok; Lim, So Dug

    2012-01-01

    Ethylene glycol (EG) is a sweet-tasting, odorless organic solvent found in many agents, such as anti-freeze. EG is composed of four organic acids: glycoaldehyde, glycolic acid, glyoxylic acid and oxalic acid in vivo. These metabolites are cellular toxins that can cause cardio-pulmonary failure, life-threatening metabolic acidosis, central nervous system depression, and kidney injury. Oxalic acid is the end product of EG, which can precipitate to crystals of calcium oxalate monohydrate in the tubular lumen and has been linked to acute kidney injury. We report a case of EG-induced oxalate nephropathy, with the diagnosis confirmed by kidney biopsy, which showed acute tubular injury of the kidneys with extensive intracellular and intraluminal calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal depositions.

  16. The Relationship between Serum Oxalic Acid, Central Hemodynamic Parameters and Colonization by Oxalobacter formigenes in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gulhan, Baris; Turkmen, Kultigin; Aydin, Merve; Gunay, Murat; C?kman, Aytekin; Kara, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objective Elevated pulse wave velocity (PWV) and central aortic blood pressures are independent predictors of increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Oxalic acid is a uremic retention molecule that is extensively studied in the pathogenesis of calcium oxalate stones. Oxalobacter formigenes, a member of the colon microbiota, has important roles in oxalate homeostasis. Data regarding the colonization by and the exact role of O. formigenes in the pathogenesis of oxalic acid metabolism in HD patients are scant. Hence, we aimed to determine the relationship between fecal O. formigenes colonization, serum oxalic acid and hemodynamic parameters in HD patients with regard to the colo-reno-cardiac axis. Methods Fifty HD patients were enrolled in this study. PWV and central aortic systolic (cASBP) and diastolic blood pressures (cADBP) were measured with a Mobil-O-Graph (I.E.M. GmbH, Stolberg, Germany). Serum oxalic acid levels were assessed by ELISA, and fecal O. formigenes DNA levels were isolated and measured by real-time PCR. Results Isolation of fecal O. formigenes was found in only 2 HD patients. One of them had 113,609 copies/ml, the other one had 1,056 copies/ml. Serum oxalic acid levels were found to be positively correlated with PWV (r = 0.29, p = 0.03), cASBP (r = 0.33, p = 0.001) and cADBP (r = 0.42, p = 0.002) and negatively correlated with LDL (r = ?0.30, p = 0.03). In multivariate linear regression analysis, PWV was independently predicted by oxalic acid, glucose and triglyceride. Conclusions This is the first study that demonstrates the absence of O. formigenes as well as a relation between serum oxalic acid and cASBP, cADBP and PWV in HD patients. Replacement of O. formigenes with pre- and probiotics might decrease serum oxalic acid levels and improve cardiovascular outcomes in HD patients. PMID:26195968

  17. In Situ Oxalic Acid Injection to Accelerate Arsenic Remediation at a Superfund Site in New Jersey

    PubMed Central

    Wovkulich, Karen; Stute, Martin; Mailloux, Brian J.; Keimowitz, Alison R.; Ross, James; Bostick, Benjamin; Sun, Jing; Chillrud, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic is a prevalent contaminant at a large number of US Superfund sites; establishing techniques that accelerate As remediation could benefit many sites. Hundreds of tons of As were released into the environment by the Vineland Chemical Co. in southern New Jersey during its manufacturing lifetime (1949–1994), resulting in extensive contamination of surface and subsurface soils and sediments, groundwater, and the downstream watershed. Despite substantial intervention at this Superfund site, sufficient aquifer cleanup could require many decades if based on traditional pump and treat technologies only. Laboratory column experiments have suggested that oxalic acid addition to contaminated aquifer solids could promote significant As release from the solid phase. To evaluate the potential of chemical additions to increase As release in situ and boost treatment efficiency, a forced gradient pilot scale study was conducted on the Vineland site. During spring/summer 2009, oxalic acid and bromide tracer were injected into a small portion (~50 m2) of the site for 3 months. Groundwater samples indicate that introduction of oxalic acid led to increased As release. Between 2.9 and 3.6 kg of As were removed from the sampled wells as a result of the oxalic acid treatment during the 3-month injection. A comparison of As concentrations on sediment cores collected before and after treatment and analyzed using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy suggested reduction in As concentrations of ~36% (median difference) to 48% (mean difference). While further study is necessary, the addition of oxalic acid shows potential for accelerating treatment of a highly contaminated site and decreasing the As remediation time-scale. PMID:25598701

  18. AB152. Analysis of altered microRNA expression profile in calcium oxalate stone formation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhuo; Jiang, Hongyang; Wang, Tao; Yang, Jun; Wang, Shaogang; Liu, Jihong; Yang, Weimin; Ye, Zhangqun

    2015-01-01

    Objective Calcium oxalate stones account for over 80% of urinary stones, while the molecular mechanism of its formation has been unclear. Hyperoxaluria plays an important role in the pathophysiological process of stone formation. The difference of miRNA expression profiles between experimental hyperoxaluric rats and normal rats is analyzed in our study, in order to find out the target genes and signaling pathways in the pathogenesis procedure of hyperoxaluria. Methods Feeding ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride to culture male experimental hyperoxaluric rats as the experimental group, and age-matched male rats were selected as the control group. The oxalate concentration of 24 hour urine of each experimental rat was measured, of which the three highest were selected for microarray test. MicroRNA microarray was applied to evaluate the expression difference between the two groups and screen miRNA whose fold change were above 2.0 or below 0.5. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) technology was used to validate the microarray results. Target prediction, Gene Ontology (GO) analysis and pathway analysis were applied to predict the potential roles of microRNAs in biological processes. Results There are 28 miRNAs differentially expressed with a more than 2.0-fold change. Among these miRNAs, 20 were up-regulated while 8 were down-regulated. After GO analysis and pathway analysis, the insulin resistance pathway and PI3K-Akt signaling pathway were associated with miRNA regulation. Conclusions This study identified differentially expressed miRNAs in hyperoxaluric rats, providing new insights into the role of miRNA in the formation of calcium oxalate stones.

  19. [Infection and urinary lithiasis].

    PubMed

    Bruyere, F; Traxer, O; Saussine, C; Lechevallier, E

    2008-12-01

    Urinary infection is a risk factor for lithiasis. Urinary tract infection is a factor of gravity of urinary stone. The stone can exist before the infection which colonizes the stone, infected stone. The infection can be the cause of the stone, infectious stone (struvite stone). Infectious stones can be secondary to a non urinary infectious agent, oxalobacter formigenes (OF) and nanobacteria. The first-line treatment of struvite stone is percutaneous surgery. Perioperative antibiotics, renal urines and stone cultures are obligatory. PMID:19033073

  20. NASA Astronaut Urinary Conditions Associated with Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Law, Jennifer; Cole, Richard; Young, Millennia H.; Mason, Sara

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Spaceflight is associated with many factors which may promote kidney stone formation, urinary retention, and/or Urinary Tract Infection (UTI). According to ISS mission predictions supplied by NASA's Integrated Medical Model, kidney stone is the second and sepsis (urosepsis as primary driver) the third most likely reason for emergent medical evacuation from the International Space Station (ISS). METHODS: Inflight and postflight medical records of NASA astronauts were reviewed for urinary retention, UTI and kidney stones during Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Mir, Shuttle, and ISS expeditions 1-38. RESULTS: NASA astronauts have had 7 cases of kidney stones in the 12 months after flight. Three of these cases occurred within 90 to 180 days after landing and one of the seven cases occurred in the first 90 days after flight. There have been a total of 16 cases (0.018 events per person-flights) of urinary retention during flight. The event rates per mission are nearly identical between Shuttle and ISS flights (0.019 vs 0.021 events per person-flights). In 12 of the 16 cases, astronauts had taken at least one space motion sickness medication. Upon further analysis, it was determined that the odds of developing urinary retention in spaceflight is 3 times higher among astronauts who took promethazine. The female to male odds ratio for inflight urinary retention is 11:14. An astronaut with urinary retention is 25 times more likely to have a UTI with a 17% infection rate per mission. There have been 9 reported UTIs during spaceflight. DISCUSSION: It is unclear if spaceflight carries an increased post-flight risk of kidney stones. Regarding urinary retention, the female to male odds ratio is higher during flight compared to the general population where older males comprise almost all cases due to prostatic hypertrophy. This female prevalence in spaceflight is even more concerning given the fact that there have been many more males in space than females. Terrestrial medications with a known side effect of urinary retention are also associated with urinary retention during flight. However, not all cases of urinary retention surrounded medication use inflight. It is also known that UTI is a terrestrial cause of urinary retention. Furthermore, the treatment of urinary retention with a urinary catheter may be more likely to initiate a UTI in space than on the ground, as aseptic techniques can be particularly challenging with an inexperienced provider in a free-floating environment. Inflight urinary retention and UTI have proven to be highly associated and urinary risks should be considered collectively when planning for space flight.

  1. Variability of Oxalobacter Formigenes and Oxalate in Stool Samples

    PubMed Central

    Prokopovich, Sergey; Knight, John; Assimos, Dean G.; Holmes, Ross P.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The intestinal organism Oxalobacter formigenes is unique in using oxalate as its primary carbon and energy source. Intestinal colonization with O. formigenes may have clinical significance by decreasing intestinal oxalate and its absorption, thereby influencing the concentration of oxalate in plasma and urine, and the development of calcium oxalate stone disease. Because the oxalate content of the diet varies considerably, we hypothesized that the number of O. formigenes and amount of oxalate would vary in feces. Materials and Methods To enumerate the number of O. formigenes in feces an accurate and reproducible real-time polymerase chain reaction assay was developed to quantify O. formigenes DNA. Stool samples were obtained from 10 colonized individuals to determine the levels of O. formigenes by this assay and the oxalate content by ion chromatography. Results Concentrations of O. formigenes ranged from lower than the limit of detection of 5 103 to 1.04 109 cells per gm stool. The total oxalate content of stool samples varied from 0.1 to 1.8 mg/gm and fecal water oxalate varied from 60 to 600 ?M. All parameters measured varied within each stool collection, among stool collections on different days and among individuals. Notably in 7 of 10 individuals at least 1 stool sample contained no detectable O. formigenes. In addition, 7 of 10 subjects had a fecal colonization of less than 4 104 per gm stool. Conclusions This study demonstrates that there is intrastool and interstool sample variability in the amount of O. formigenes measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction that did not correlate with the quantity of oxalate in stool. Most subjects had a fecal colonization of less than 4 104 per gm stool. PMID:17870112

  2. Dissolution of Simulated and Radioactive Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Sludges with Oxalic Acid & Citric Acid Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    STALLINGS, MARY

    2004-07-08

    This report presents findings from tests investigating the dissolution of simulated and radioactive Savannah River Site sludges with 4 per cent oxalic acid and mixtures of oxalic and citric acid previously recommended by a Russian team from the Khlopin Radium Institute and the Mining and Chemical Combine (MCC). Testing also included characterization of the simulated and radioactive waste sludges. Testing results showed the following: Dissolution of simulated HM and PUREX sludges with oxalic and citric acid mixtures at SRTC confirmed general trends reported previously by Russian testing. Unlike the previous Russian testing six sequential contacts of a mixture of oxalic acid citric acids at a 2:1 ratio (v/w) of acid to sludge did not produce complete dissolution of simulated HM and PUREX sludges. We observed that increased sludge dissolution occurred at a higher acid to sludge ratio, 50:1 (v/w), compared to the recommended ratio of 2:1 (v/w). We observed much lower dissolution of aluminum in a simulated HM sludge by sodium hydroxide leaching. We attribute the low aluminum dissolution in caustic to the high fraction of boehmite present in the simulated sludge. Dissolution of HLW sludges with 4 per cent oxalic acid and oxalic/citric acid followed general trends observed with simulated sludges. The limited testing suggests that a mixture of oxalic and citric acids is more efficient for dissolving HM and PUREX sludges and provides a more homogeneous dissolution of HM sludge than oxalic acid alone. Dissolution of HLW sludges in oxalic and oxalic/citric acid mixtures produced residual sludge solids that measured at higher neutron poison to equivalent 235U weight ratios than that in the untreated sludge solids. This finding suggests that residual solids do not present an increased nuclear criticality safety risk. Generally the neutron poison to equivalent 235U weight ratios of the acid solutions containing dissolved sludge components are lower than those in the untreated sludge solids. We recommend that these results be evaluated further to determine if these solutions contain sufficient neutron poisons. We observed low general corrosion rates in tests in which carbon steel coupons were contacted with solutions of oxalic acid, citric acid and mixtures of oxalic and citric acids. Wall thinning can be minimized by maintaining short contact times with these acid solutions. We recommend additional testing with oxalic and oxalic/citric acid mixtures to measure dissolution performance of sludges that have not been previously dried. This testing should include tests to clearly ascertain the effects of total acid strength and metal complexation on dissolution performance. Further work should also evaluate the downstream impacts of citric acid on the SRS High-Level Waste System (e.g., radiochemical separations in the Salt Waste Processing Facility and addition of organic carbon in the Saltstone and Defense Waste Processing facilities).

  3. Use of a calcium tracer to detect stone increments in a rat calcium oxalate xenoplantation model

    PubMed Central

    WANG, SHUO; XU, QINGQUAN; HUANG, XIAOBO; LIN, JINGXING; WANG, JINXING; WANG, XIAOFENG

    2013-01-01

    The majority of urinary stones have been observed to grow by circular increments in the clinic and in animal studies. However, the mechanism of stone formation has not yet been elucidated. Marking the stone at specific time-points during the growth of the stone is likely to enable the clarification of the mechanisms behind lithogenesis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role and efficacy of calcium-tracing fluorescence in the labeling of stone lamination in a rat calcium oxalate xenoplantation model. In the rat calcium oxalate xenoplantation model, human renal stone particles, extracted by percutaneous nephrolithotomy, were xenoplanted into the bladders of Wistar rats in a sterile manner. The rats received 1% ethylene glycol in their drinking water, starting from the day following the stone xenoplantation. Two weeks subsequent to this, three calcium-tracing fluorochromes, alizarin complexone, calcein and xylenol orange were administered by intraperitoneal injection. The newly-formed bladder stones were cut into slices and examined using light and fluorescence microscopy. The newly-formed bladder stones had a large variance in size, and circular increments were observed in the sections of the stones. The stones were successfully labeled with calcein and alizarin complexone, although calcein labeling provided superior results. However, the use of xylenol orange did not result in clear labeling. The calcium-tracing fluorochromes, calcein and alizarin complexone may be effectively used to label stone lamination in rat models. PMID:24137297

  4. Dual roles of brushite crystals in calcium oxalate crystallization provide physicochemical mechanisms underlying renal stone formation.

    PubMed

    Tang, R; Nancollas, G H; Giocondi, J L; Hoyer, J R; Orme, C A

    2006-07-01

    Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals are the major mineral component of most kidney stones, and thus have an important role in chronic human disease. However, the physicochemical mechanisms leading to calcium oxalate (CaOx) stone disease are only partially defined. As spontaneous precipitation of CaOx is rare under renal conditions, an alternative pathway for CaOx crystallization seems necessary to resolve this central issue. We performed kinetic studies using the dual constant composition method to simultaneously analyze the crystallization of COM and brushite, the form of calcium phosphate that is most readily formed in the typical slightly acidic urinary milieu. These studies were supported by parallel analysis by scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. In these studies, mineralization of a thermodynamically stable phase (COM) was induced by the presence of brushite, a more readily precipitated inorganic phase. Furthermore, once formed, the COM crystals grew at the expense of brushite crystals causing the dissolution of the brushite crystals. These studies show that brushite may play crucial roles in the formation of COM crystals. The definition of these two roles for brushite thereby provides physicochemical explanations for the initiation of COM crystallization and also for the relative paucity of calcium phosphate detected in the majority of CaOx renal stones. PMID:16641926

  5. Use of a calcium tracer to detect stone increments in a rat calcium oxalate xenoplantation model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuo; Xu, Qingquan; Huang, Xiaobo; Lin, Jingxing; Wang, Jinxing; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2013-10-01

    The majority of urinary stones have been observed to grow by circular increments in the clinic and in animal studies. However, the mechanism of stone formation has not yet been elucidated. Marking the stone at specific time-points during the growth of the stone is likely to enable the clarification of the mechanisms behind lithogenesis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role and efficacy of calcium-tracing fluorescence in the labeling of stone lamination in a rat calcium oxalate xenoplantation model. In the rat calcium oxalate xenoplantation model, human renal stone particles, extracted by percutaneous nephrolithotomy, were xenoplanted into the bladders of Wistar rats in a sterile manner. The rats received 1% ethylene glycol in their drinking water, starting from the day following the stone xenoplantation. Two weeks subsequent to this, three calcium-tracing fluorochromes, alizarin complexone, calcein and xylenol orange were administered by intraperitoneal injection. The newly-formed bladder stones were cut into slices and examined using light and fluorescence microscopy. The newly-formed bladder stones had a large variance in size, and circular increments were observed in the sections of the stones. The stones were successfully labeled with calcein and alizarin complexone, although calcein labeling provided superior results. However, the use of xylenol orange did not result in clear labeling. The calcium-tracing fluorochromes, calcein and alizarin complexone may be effectively used to label stone lamination in rat models. PMID:24137297

  6. Sources and atmospheric processes impacting oxalate at a suburban coastal site in Hong Kong: Insights inferred from 1 year hourly measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yang; Huang, Xiaohui Hilda; Bian, Qijing; Griffith, Stephen M.; Louie, Peter K. K.; Yu, Jian Zhen

    2015-09-01

    Oxalic acid is one of the most abundant dicarboxylic acids in the atmosphere, receiving a great deal of attention due to its potential influence on cloud condensation nucleus activities. In this work, we report 10 months of hourly oxalate measurements in particulate matter of less than 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) by a Monitor for Aerosols and Gases in ambient Air at a suburban coastal site in Hong Kong from April 2012 to February 2013. A total of more than 6000 sets of oxalate and inorganic ion data were obtained. The mean (±SD) oxalate concentration was 0.34 (±0.18) µg m-3, accounting for 2.8% of the total ion mass and 1.5% of the PM2.5 mass. Seasonal variation showed higher concentrations in fall and winter (0.54 and 0.36 µg m-3, respectively) and lower concentrations in spring and summer (~0.26 µg m-3). Different from the inorganic ions, a shallow dip in the oxalate concentration consistently occurred in the morning after sunrise (around 9:00 A.M.) throughout all seasons. Our analysis suggests that this was likely due to photolysis of oxalate-Fe (III) complex under sunlight. In summer, a small daytime peak was discernable for oxalate and nitrate. This characteristic, together with a more evident diurnal variation of O3, indicates comparatively more active photochemical oxidation in summer than other seasons. High correlations were observed between oxalate and non-sea-salt SO42- (NSS) (R2 = 0.63) and Ox (O3 + NO2) (R2 = 0.48), indicating significant commonality in their secondary formation. Positive matrix factorization analysis of oxalate and other real-time gas and particle-phase component data estimates that secondary formation processes, including secondary gas or aqueous oxidation processes (49%), oxidation processes of biomass burning emissions (37%), accounted for the majority of PM2.5 oxalate. A backward trajectories cluster analysis found that higher oxalate/NSS ratios were associated with low pollution samples under the influence of marine air masses while the ratios were lower in high pollution samples that were typically associated with continental air masses passing through areas of high anthropogenic emissions. Isolating the "low pollution marine" aerosols across the entire data set indicates that oxalate production increased in the summer compared to other seasons, suggesting either more active marine emissions of oxalate precursors or stronger photochemical processes in the summer.

  7. Inhibition of calcium oxalate monohydrate growth by citrate and the effect of the background electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, Matthew L.; Qiu, S. Roger; Hoyer, John R.; Casey, William H.; Nancollas, George H.; De Yoreo, James J.

    2007-08-01

    Pathological mineralization is a common phenomenon in broad range of plants and animals. In humans, kidney stone formation is a well-known example that afflicts approximately 10% of the population. Of the various calcium salt phases that comprise human kidney stones, the primary component is calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM). Citrate, a naturally occurring molecule in the urinary system and a common therapeutic agent for treating stone disease, is a known inhibitor of COM. Understanding the physical mechanisms of citrate inhibition requires quantification of the effects of both background electrolytes and citrate on COM step kinetics. Here we report the results of an in situ AFM study of these effects, in which we measure the effect of the electrolytes LiCl, NaCl, KCl, RbCl, and CsCl, and the dependence of step speed on citrate concentration for a range of COM supersaturations. We find that varying the background electrolyte results in significant differences in the measured step speeds and in step morphology, with KCl clearly producing the smallest impact and NaCl the largest. The kinetic coefficient for the former is nearly three times larger than for the latter, while the steps change from smooth to highly serrated when KCl is changed to NaCl. The results on the dependence of step speed on citrate concentration show that citrate produces a dead zone whose width increases with citrate concentration as well as a continual reduction in kinetic coefficient with increasing citrate level. We relate these results to a molecular-scale view of inhibition that invokes a combination of kink blocking and step pinning. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the classic step-pinning model of Cabrera and Vermilyea (C-V model) does an excellent job of predicting the effect of citrate on COM step kinetics provided the model is reformulated to more realistically account for impurity adsorption, include an expression for the Gibbs-Thomson effect that is correct for all supersaturations, and take into account a reduction in kinetic coefficient through kink blocking. The detailed derivation of this reformulated C-V model is presented and the underlying materials parameters that control its impact are examined. Despite the fact that the basic C-V model was proposed nearly 50 years ago and has seen extensive theoretical treatment, this study represents the first quantitative and molecular scale experimental confirmation for any crystal system.

  8. Modulation of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystallization by citrate through selective binding to atomic steps

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, S R; Wierzbicki, A; Salter, E A; Zepeda, S; Orme, C A; Hoyer, J R; Nancollas, G H; Cody, A M; De Yoreo, J J

    2004-10-19

    The majority of human kidney stones are composed primarily of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals. Thus, determining the molecular mechanisms by which urinary constituents modulate calcium oxalate crystallization is crucial for understanding and controlling urolithiassis in humans. A comprehensive molecular-scale view of COM shape modification by citrate, a common urinary constituent, obtained through a combination of in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) and molecular modeling is now presented. We show that citrate strongly influences the growth morphology and kinetics on the (-101) face but has much lower effect on the (010) face. Moreover, binding energy calculations show that the strength of the citrate-COM interaction is much greater at steps than on terraces and is highly step-specific. The maximum binding energy, -166.5 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, occurs for the [101] step on the (-101) face. In contrast, the value is only -56.9 kJ {center_dot} mol-1 for the [012] step on the (010) face. The binding energies on the (-101) and (010) terraces are also much smaller, -65.4 and -48.9 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1} respectively. All other binding energies lie between these extremes. This high selectivity leads to preferential binding of citrate to the acute [101] atomic steps on the (-101) face. The strong citrate-step interactions on this face leads to pinning of all steps, but the anisotropy in interaction strength results in anisotropic reductions in step kinetics. These anisotropic changes in step kinetics are, in turn, responsible for changes in the shape of macroscopic COM crystals. Thus, the molecular scale growth morphology and the bulk crystal habit in the presence of citrate are similar, and the predictions of molecular simulations are fully consistent with the experimental observations.

  9. Activated carbon enhanced ozonation of oxalate attributed to HO oxidation in bulk solution and surface oxidation: effect of activated carbon dosage and pH.

    PubMed

    Xing, Linlin; Xie, Yongbing; Minakata, Daisuke; Cao, Hongbin; Xiao, Jiadong; Zhang, Yi; Crittenden, John C

    2014-10-01

    Ozonation of oxalate in aqueous phase was performed with a commercial activated carbon (AC) in this work. The effect of AC dosage and solution pH on the contribution of hydroxyl radicals (HO) in bulk solution and oxidation on the AC surface to the removal of oxalate was studied. We found that the removal of oxalate was reduced by tert-butyl alcohol (tBA) with low dosages of AC, while it was hardly affected by tBA when the AC dosage was greater than 0.3g/L. tBA also inhibited ozone decomposition when the AC dosage was no more than 0.05g/L, but it did not work when the AC dosage was no less than 0.1g/L. These observations indicate that HO in bulk solution and oxidation on the AC surface both contribute to the removal of oxalate. HO oxidation in bulk solution is significant when the dosage of AC is low, whereas surface oxidation is dominant when the dosage of AC is high. The oxalate removal decreased with increasing pH of the solution with an AC dosage of 0.5g/L. The degradation of oxalate occurs mainly through surface oxidation in acid and neutral solution, but through HO oxidation in basic bulk solution. A mechanism involving both HO oxidation in bulk solution and surface oxidation was proposed for AC enhanced ozonation of oxalate. PMID:25288554

  10. Thermodynamics of the Complexation of Uranium(VI) by oxalate in aqueous solution at 10-70oC

    SciTech Connect

    Di Bernardo, Plinio; Zanonato, Pier Luigi; Tian, Guoxin; Tolazzi, Marilena; Rao, Linfeng

    2009-03-31

    The protonation reactions of oxalate (ox) and the complex formation of uranium(VI) with oxalate in 1.05 mol kg{sup -1} NaClO{sub 4} were studied at variable temperatures (10-70 C). Three U(VI)/ox complexes (UO{sub 2}ox{sub j}{sup (2-2j){sup +}} with j = 1, 2, 3) were identified in this temperature range. The formation constants and the molar enthalpies of complexation were determined by spectrophotometry and calorimetry. The complexation of uranium(VI) with oxalate ion is exothermic at lower temperatures (10-40 C) and becomes endothermic at higher temperatures (55-70 C). In spite of this, the free energy of complexation becomes more negative at higher temperatures due to increasingly more positive entropy of complexation that exceeds the increase of the enthalpy of complexation. The thermodynamic parameters at different temperatures, in conjunction with the literature data for other dicarboxylic acids, provide insight into the relative strength of U(VI) complexes with a series of dicarboxylic acids (oxalic, malonic and oxydiacetic) and rationalization for the highest stability of U(VI)/oxalate complexes in the series. The data reported in this study are of importance in predicting the migration of uranium(VI) in geological environments in the case of failure of the engineering barriers which protect waste repositories.

  11. Induced urinary crystal formation as an analytical strategy for the prediction and monitoring of urolithiasis and other metabolism-related disorders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Crystal formation reflects the entire composition of the surrounding solution. In case of urolithiasis, induced crystal formation in native urine has led to the development of the Bonn-Risk-Index (BRI), a valuable tool to quantify an individual's risk of calcium oxalate urolithiasis. If the progression of a disease is associated with characteristic changes in the activities of urinary components, this leads to an altered urinary crystallisation capacity. Therefore, the results of induced urinary crystal formation can be used to detect and monitor any disease linked to the altered urinary composition. Since crystal formation inherently takes into account the entire urinary composition, the influence of the disease on individual urinary parameters does not have to be known in order to monitor the consequent pathologic alterations. In this paper, we review the background of urinary crystal formation analysis and describe its established application in urolithiasis monitoring as well as potential further fields of clinical application. PMID:25206937

  12. Face-specific molecular adhesion and binding to calcium oxalate monohydrate: Implication for kidney stone formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Xiaoxia

    This thesis focuses on the face-specific molecular adhesion to calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals, the principal crystalline in kidney stones. The primary technique used is atomic force microscopy (AFM), which allows visualizing the structure and growth of crystals, measuring the adhesion force between functional groups and crystal faces, and examining adhesion and binding of the molecules to crystals. The microscopic events associated with crystal growth on the {100}, {12-1}, and {010} faces have been investigated. Each face exhibits hillocks with step sites that can be assigned to specific crystal planes, enabling direct determination of growth rates along specific crystallographic directions. The growth rates are found to depend on the degree of supersaturation. The addition of macromolecules with anionic side chains results in inhibition of hillock growth. The magnitude of this effect depends on the macromolecule structure & concentration, and the identity of the step site. The different profiles observed for three synthetic macromolecules, which have similar backbones but different side chains, argues that local binding of anionic side chains to crystal surface sites governs growth inhibition rather than any secondary polymer structure. The dependence of adhesion force on the functional group-COM crystal face combinations has been identified. Tip-immobilized carboxylate and amidinium groups display the largest adhesion forces among all the functional groups examined, and the adhesive strength decreases as (100) > (12-1) > (010). The more adherent surface of COM, compared with its dihydrate form COD, corroborates the critical role of COM in stone formation. The influence of small molecules, synthetic polymers and native proteins on adhesion was examined. The introduction of these molecular additives, except osteopontin, result in a reduction in the adhesion force measured for all three faces. The extent of suppression, however, varies for molecule-crystal face combination. Curiously, osteopontin exhibits a unique behavior as it increased the adhesion force between the carboxylate tip and the (100) crystal face. Collectively, the force measurements demonstrate that adhesion of functional groups and binding of soluble additives, including urinary macromolecules, to COM crystal surfaces are highly specific in nature.

  13. Urinary Incontinence

    MedlinePLUS

    ... less caffeine (found in coffee, tea, and many sodas), preventing constipation, and avoiding lifting heavy objects. Visit ... giving drinks like caffeinated coffee, tea, and some sodas that increase urination. But don’t limit water . ...

  14. Urinary kallikrein excretion in renal transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Brouhard, B H; Cunningham, R J; Berger, M; Petrusick, T W; Travis, L B

    1982-05-01

    Urinary kallikrein, as a reflection of the intrarenal kallikrein, is distinct from plasma kallikrein. The kallikrein-kinin system, activated via antigen-antibody complexes, has been implicated in the pathophysiology of acute transplant rejection. We studied urinary excretion of sodium, potassium, protein, and kallikrein following renal transplantation in nine patients, In four patients who took steroids daily and were followed from the time of transplantation (without rejection episodes), urinary kallikrein remained stable (3.7 +/- 0.5 EU/24 hr, x +/- SEM). Since sodium-retaining steroids influence urinary kallikrein excretion, two patients were studied 2 and 3 months post-transplantation while receiving alternate-day prednisone. Values from urinary kallikrein in these patients did not differ from those in patients taking steroids daily (3.7 +/- 0.5 versus 2.7 +/- 0.3 EU/24 hr). In three patients experiencing acute rejection episodes, urinary kallikrein excretion rose markedly (24 to 260 EU/24 hr) and remained elevated until the patients became oliguric. Furthermore, this rise occurred 1-3 days before the clinical diagnosis of rejection was made. For the group as a whole there was no significant correlation between urinary kallikrein excretion, the excretion of sodium or potassium, or urine volume. Although the number of patients studied is small, the increases observed in urinary kallikrein suggest that activation of the intrarenal kallikrein-kinin system is associated with acute transplant rejection. PMID:7047034

  15. Heterogeneous nucleation of calcium oxalate on native oxide surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Song, L.; Pattillo, M.J.; Graff, G.L.; Campbell, A.A.; Bunker, B.C.

    1994-04-01

    The aqueous deposition of calcium oxalate onto colloidal oxides has been studied as a model system for understanding heterogeneous nucleation processes of importance in biomimetic synthesis of ceramic thin films. Calcium oxalate nucleation has been monitored by measuring induction times for nucleation using Constant Composition techniques and by measuring nucleation densities on extended oxide surfaces using an atomic force microscope. Results show that the dependence of calcium oxalate nucleation on solution supersaturation fits the functional form predicted by classical nucleation theories. Anionic surfaces appear to promote nucleation better than cationic surfaces, lowering the effective energy barrier to heterogeneous nucleation.

  16. Oxalate balance in fat sand rats feeding on high and low calcium diets.

    PubMed

    Palgi, Niv; Ronen, Zeev; Pinshow, Berry

    2008-07-01

    Oxalate reduces calcium availability of food because it chelates calcium, forming the sparingly soluble salt calcium-oxalate. Nevertheless, fat sand rats (Psammomys obesus; Gerbillinae) feed exclusively on plants containing much oxalate. We measured the effects of calcium intake on oxalate balance by comparing oxalate intake and excretion in wild fat sand rats feeding on their natural, oxalate-rich, calcium-poor diet with commercially-bred fat sand rats feeding on an artificial, calcium-rich, oxalate-poor diet of rodent pellets. We also tested for the presence of the oxalate degrading bacterium Oxalobacter sp. in the faeces of both groups. Fat sand rats feeding on saltbush ingested significantly more oxalate than fat sand rats feeding on pellets (P < 0.001) and excreted significantly more oxalate in urine and faeces (P < 0.01 for both). However the fraction of oxalate recovered in excreta [(oxalate excreted in urine + oxalate excreted in faeces)/oxalate ingested] was significantly higher in pellet-fed fat sand rats (61%) than saltbush-fed fat sand rats (27%). We found O. sp. in the faeces of both groups indicating that fat sand rats harbor oxalate degrading bacteria, and these are able, to some extent, to degrade oxalate in its insoluble form. PMID:18210126

  17. Analysis of urinary stone composition in Eastern India by X-ray diffraction crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, Tarun; Mandal, Soumendra Nath; Sonar, Pankaj; Kamal, Mir Reza; Ghosh, Nabankur; Karmakar, Dilip

    2014-01-01

    Background: Stones in the urinary system are common in our country. This study was done to assess the composition of the urinary stones in eastern part of India. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was done over a period of thirty months. A total of 90 stones were analyzed in this time period by using X-ray diffraction crystallography. Results: Of the 90 stones analyzed, 77 were renal stones, 12 were ureteric stones and one was a bladder stone. Six stones (all renal) did not have properties to be represented by X-ray diffraction crystallography. The overall prevalence of the oxalate containing stones was 85.7% with calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) being the major constituent. Calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) was the next most common constituent. Struvite stones constituted 9.5% of the stones analyzed. Pure calcium phosphate stones were found in 4.7% of the cases. Conclusion: Our study reveals that the stone composition in the eastern part of India is different from that in other parts of the country. We have a comparatively lower prevalence of oxalate stones while a higher prevalence of phosphate and struvite stones. PMID:25337533

  18. Crystal agglomeration of europium oxalate in reaction crystallization using double-jet semi-batch reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Woo-Sik; Kim, Woon-Soo; Kim, Kwang-Seok; Kim, Joon-Soo; Ward, Michael D

    2004-02-02

    The particle agglomeration of europium oxalate was investigated in a double-jet semi-batch reactor over a wide range of operating variables, including the agitation speed, reactant feed rate, and reactant concentration. The size of the agglomerates was directly dictated by the particle collision and supersaturation promoting agglomeration and the fluid shear force inhibiting agglomeration. Thus, with a longer feeding time and higher feed concentration for the reaction crystallization, the mean particle size increased, while the corresponding total particle population decreased due to the enhanced chance of particle agglomeration, resulting from a longer residence time and higher supersaturation in the reactor. Agitation was found to exhibit a rather complicated influence on particle agglomeration. Although both particle collision and turbulent fluid shear were promoted by an increase in the mixing intensity, the crystal agglomeration of europium oxalate was maximized at around 500 rpm of agitation speed due to an optimized balance between particle aggregation and breakage.

  19. [Epidemiological aspects of the female urinary incontinence].

    PubMed

    Chmel, R; Novckov, M; Vlk, R; Horcicka, L

    2005-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is defined as an involuntary loss of urine, which makes social and hygienic problem. It is a symptom with different causes. According to the typical clinical manifestation it is classified as stress, urge, reflex and paradox urinary incontinence. Loss of small amount of urine related to the increase of intraabdominal pressure (during coughing, sneezing or running) is characteristic for stress urinary incontinence. Sudden and uncontrollable voiding with loss of greater amount of urine is typical for urge incontinence. Reflex incontinence means that urinary bladder is emptying without voiding. Paradox incontinence is caused by an acquired smooth muscle weakness of the bladder and it manifests with incomplete emptying and with growing residual urine. Prevalence of urinary incontinence increases with age. Significant increase of female urinary incontinence symptoms is found in fifth and sixth decade. Urinary incontinence in young women is more a dynamic than a permanent symptom but the postmenopausal incontinence obviously does not disappear spontaneously. Urge and mixed incontinence are less frequent than stress symptomatology (between 10 and 15%). According to the prevalence studies only 1,5 to 6% of incontinent women are looking for a medical help. Because the urge symptoms are more limiting, the patients with urge incontinence are searching treatment possibilities more often than those with stress incontinence. PMID:15807294

  20. Structural characterization and vibrational studies of human urinary stones from Istanbul, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kocademir, Mustafa; Baykal, Abdulhadi; Kumru, Mustafa; Tahmaz, M Lutfu

    2016-05-01

    Seven human urinary stones were collected from urinary bladders of patients hailing from Istanbul, Turkey. Their XRD, EDX, FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra as well as SEM images have been recorded to determine their chemical compositions, morphologies, crystal structures, and crystallite sizes. XRD and vibrational (FT-IR and FT-Raman) analyses indicate that six out of the seven stones have identical contents. The ratios of organic and inorganic contents of the stones have been determined by their thermogravimetric analyses. The stones have been found to contain calcium oxalate monohydrate and apatite as the major components. PMID:26890204

  1. Identification of calcium oxalate crystals using alizarin red S stain.

    PubMed

    Proia, A D; Brinn, N T

    1985-02-01

    Calcium oxalate crystals stain with alizarin red S at a pH of 7.0 but not at a pH of 4.2. In contrast, calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate stain at a pH of both 7.0 and 4.2. This difference allows presumptive identification of calcium oxalate deposits. The identity of calcium oxalate can then be confirmed by its insolubility in 2M acetic acid, since both calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate are soluble. We have applied this procedure for several years and have found it to be a rapid, reliable, and technically simple procedure for distinguishing calcium oxalate from other calcium deposits. PMID:2579619

  2. Urinary incontinence in women.

    PubMed

    Wood, Lauren N; Anger, Jennifer T

    2014-01-01

    Urinary incontinence affects women of all ages. History, physical examination, and certain tests can guide specialists in diagnosing stress urinary incontinence, urgency urinary incontinence, and mixed urinary incontinence. First line management includes lifestyle and behavior modification, as well as pelvic floor strength and bladder training. Drug therapy is helpful in the treatment of urgency incontinence that does not respond to conservative measures. In addition, sacral neuromodulation, intravesical onabotulinumtoxinA injections, and posterior tibial nerve stimulation can be used in select patient populations with drug refractory urgency incontinence. Midurethral synthetic slings, including retropubic and transobturator approaches, are safe and efficacious surgical options for stress urinary incontinence and have replaced more invasive bladder neck slings that use autologous or cadaveric fascia. Despite controversy surrounding vaginal mesh for prolapse, synthetic slings for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence are considered safe and minimally invasive. PMID:25225003

  3. Effect of sodium copper chlorophyllin on the formation of calcium oxalate crystals in rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Tawashi, R; Cousineau, M; Sharkawi, M

    1980-09-01

    We induced the deposition of calcium oxalate crystals in rat kidney by intraperitoneal administration of 4-hydroxy-L-proline or sodium oxalate and studied the amounts and size distribution characteristics of the deposited crystals. Intravenous administration of sodium copper chlorophyllin inhibited the deposition and growth of calcium oxalate crystals induced by 4-hydroxy-L-proline or sodium oxalate. This finding may be of importance in calcium oxalate urolithiasis. PMID:7053081

  4. Thermodynamics of hydrothermal systems with oxalate ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodakovsky, I. L.; Devina, O. A.

    2009-04-01

    The geochemical and industrial significance of oxalates have led to great interest in the behavior of oxalate ion in hydrothermal systems. On the basis of a study by G.B. Naumov et al (1971) of gaseous-liquid inclusions it is shown that whewellite (CaC2O4H2O) which was found in quartz-calcite-fluorite veins in the uranium ore deposit of the Eastern Transbaikal region was formed at temperatures about 150C and pressure CO2 of 600-860 atm. The isotopic composition of carbon for these hydrothermal whewellite samples was determined by Galimov et al (1975): Delta13C from -1.56 to -2.22%. In a continuation of the study of organic-acid-water-rock interactions the thermodynamics of hydrothermal equilibriums for the systems Ox-H, Ox-H-Ca, Ox-H-Mg (where Ox = C2O42-), are described up to 200C. The key network reactions and compounds related to the aqueous ion C2O42- are discussed and used to define the key values. The critical evaluation of thermodynamic properties for this ion is a part of the development of the new key values system for the joint thermodynamic database in the Internet. The evaluation involves the analysis of the enthalpy changes, Gibbs energy changes, and the entropy calculations for all key substances in the key network. A consistent set of thermodynamic property values is given for ?-H2C2O4(cr), ?-H2C2O4(cr), H2C2O4H2O(cr), CaC2O4(cr), CaC2O4H2O(cr,whewellite), NaC2O4(cr,natroxalate), MgC2O42H2O(cr,glushinskite) and aqueous species C2O42-, HC2O4-, H2C2O4, CaC2O4. This study was funded by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project N 07-05-01108).

  5. Multiorgan crystal deposition following intravenous oxalate infusion in rat

    SciTech Connect

    Blumenfrucht, M.J.; Cheeks, C.; Wedeen, R.P.

    1986-06-01

    Deposition of calcium oxalate is responsible for the pathologic manifestations of oxalosis and may contribute to multiorgan dysfunction in uremia and to the progression of renal damage after renal failure is established. We have developed a rat model of oxalosis using a single intravenous injection of sodium oxalate, 0.3 mmol./kg. body weight, in rats. Polarized light microscopy and section freeze-dry autoradiography were used to identify /sup 14/C-oxalate within the renal parenchyma and in extrarenal organs. /sup 14/C-oxalate crystals under three mu in length were identified within one min. of injection in proximal tubule lumens. Section freeze-dry autoradiography showed occasional minute crystals within glomeruli, heart, lung and liver at one hr. In contrast to concentrative cellular uptake demonstrated in rat renal cortical slices in vitro, intracellular accumulation of /sup 14/C-oxalate could not be detected in vivo. Within the first 24 hr., renal oxalate retention reached a maximum of 25 +/- 4 per cent of the injected dose/gm. kidney compared to a maximum of only 7 +/- 3 per cent/gm. kidney after intraperitoneal administration. Although less than one per cent dose/gm. kidney remained after one week, crystal fragments were scattered throughout the cortex and medulla, often surrounded by foci of interstitial nephritis. The retention of crystals in kidney and other body organs following i.v. oxalate provides a model of oxalosis which stimulates pathophysiologic events in a variety of clinical situations characterized by transiently or persistently elevated serum oxalate.

  6. Pre-storage application of oxalic acid alleviates chilling injury in mango fruit by modulating proline metabolism and energy status under chilling stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Peiyan; Zheng, Xiaolin; Liu, Yan; Zhu, Yuyan

    2014-01-01

    Effects of oxalic acid on chilling injury, proline metabolism and energy status in mango fruit were investigated after mango fruit (Mangifera indica L. cv. Zill) were dipped in 5mM oxalic acid solution for 10min at 25C and then stored at low temperature (100.5C) for 49days thereafter transferred to 25C for 4days. Pre-storage application of oxalic acid apparently inhibited the development of chilling injury, notably elevated proline accumulation actually associated with increase in ?(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) activity and decrease in proline dehydrogenase (PDH) activity in the peel and the flesh, without activation of ornithine-?-aminotransferase (OAT) activity, and maintained high ATP level and energy charge in the flesh during storage. It was suggested that these effects of oxalic acid might collectively contribute to improving chilling tolerance, thereby alleviating chilling injury and maintaining quality of mango fruit in long term cold storage. PMID:24001814

  7. Urinary proteomic analysis of chronic allograft nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    ORiordan, Edmond; Orlova, Tatyana N.; Mendelev, Natalia; Patschan, Daniel; Kemp, Rowena; Chander, Praveen N.; Hu, Rena; Hao, Gang; Gross, Steven S.; Iozzo, Renato V.; Delaney, Veronica; Goligorsky, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of progressive renal allograft injury, which is termed chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN), remains obscure and is currently defined by histology. Prospective protocolbiopsy trials have demonstrated that clinical and standard laboratory tests are insufficiently sensitive indicators of the development and progression of CAN. The study aim was to determine if CAN could be characterized by urinary proteomic data and identify the proteins associated with disease. The urinary proteome of 75 renal transplant recipients and 20 healthy volunteers was analyzed using surface enhanced laser desorption and ionization MS. Patients could be classified into subgroups with normal histology and Banff CAN grades 2-3 with a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 92% by applying the classification algorithm Adaboost to urinary proteomic data. Several urinary proteins associated with advanced CAN were identified including ?1-micro-globulin, ?2-micro-globulin, prealbumin, and endorepellin, the antiangiogenic C-terminal fragment of perlecan. Increased urinary endorepellin was confirmed by ELISA and increased tissue expression of the endorepellin/perlecan ratio by immunofluoresence analysis of renal biopsies. In conclusion, analysis of urinary proteomic data has further characterized the more severe CAN grades and identified urinary endorepellin, as a potential biomarker of advanced CAN. PMID:21136903

  8. [Urinary incontinence in men].

    PubMed

    Bauer, R M; Oelke, M; Hbner, W; Grabbert, M; Kirschner-Hermanns, R; Anding, R

    2015-06-01

    Stress urinary incontinence in men is predominantly iatrogenic whereby radical prostatectomy is the most common cause with persistent stress urinary incontinence rates varying between 10?% and 25?%. The first line therapy for postoperative male stress urinary incontinence is physiotherapy, especially pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation. If conservative treatment fails to show sufficient improvement, surgical therapy is recommended. Several treatment options are currently available for the surgical treatment of male stress urinary incontinence including artificial sphincters, adjustable and functional sling systems, bulking agents and implantable balloon systems. PMID:26081822

  9. Biogenic and anthropogenic sources of oxalate in PM2.5 in a mega city, Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fan; Gu, Zeping; Feng, Jialiang; Liu, Xiaohuan; Yao, Xiaohong

    2014-03-01

    In this study, thirty-seven 4-6 h PM2.5 samples were collected in both cold and warm seasons in 2006-2008 at an urban site in Shanghai (3116?47?N, 12127?15?E) for an investigation of the origins of oxalate. In the cold season, the oxalate from biomass burning accounted for 30 11% (average standard deviation) of the observed oxalate using K+ as a tracer, while the oxalate oxidized from biogenic volatile organic species (BVOC) might be negligible because emissions of BVOC were only about 1/50 of volatile anthropogenic aromatics as reported in literature. The secondary oxalate (oxalate not from biomass burning) moderately correlated with sulfate and was more likely oxidized from anthropogenic aromatics. In the warm season, the oxalate from biomass burning accounted for 11 8% of the observed oxalate. The low percentage was partially associated with the southeast wind while the open biomass burning occurred mainly in the northwest to the sampling site. In the warm-season samples containing low concentrations of sulfate, the secondary oxalate was also moderately correlated with sulfate. Further analysis showed that cloud (or fog) processed oxalate from biogenic precursors probably dominated the secondary oxalate in these samples. Higher concentrations of oxalate and higher ratio of oxalate to sulfate in the remaining warm-season samples than in cold-season samples also suggested that the oxalate derived from biogenic precursors was also likely an important contributor to the secondary oxalate.

  10. Acute oxalate nephropathy after ingestion of star fruit.

    PubMed

    Chen, C L; Fang, H C; Chou, K J; Wang, J S; Chung, H M

    2001-02-01

    Acute oxalate nephropathy associated with ingestion of star fruit (carambola) has not been reported before. We report the first two cases. These patients developed nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and backache within hours of ingesting large quantities of sour carambola juice; then acute renal failure followed. Both patients needed hemodialysis for oliguric acute renal failure, and pathologic examinations showed typical changes of acute oxalate nephropathy. The renal function recovered 4 weeks later without specific treatment. Sour carambola juice is a popular beverage in Taiwan. The popularity of star fruit juice is not compatible with the rare discovery of star fruit-associated acute oxalate nephropathy. Commercial carambola juice usually is prepared by pickling and dilution processes that reduce oxalate content markedly, whereas pure fresh juice or mild diluted postpickled juice for traditional remedies, as used in our cases, contain high quantities of oxalate. An empty stomach and dehydrated state may pose an additional risk for development of renal injury. To avoid acute oxalate nephropathy, pure sour carambola juice or mild diluted postpickled juice should not be consumed in large amounts, especially on an empty stomach or in a dehydrated state. PMID:11157385

  11. Oxalate nephropathy in free-living American bullfrog tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Tokiwa, Toshihiro; Kadekaru, Sho; Ito, Masao; Yoshida, Makoto; Une, Yumi

    2015-10-27

    In February 2014, wild American bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus tadpoles from an artificial pond in the Kyusyu region, Japan, presented with coelomic and subcutaneous edema and erythema within the skin. A pathological examination of 57 tadpoles of American bullfrogs in the region was conducted to evaluate the disease. Crystal deposition of varying degrees was found in the kidneys of 35 tadpoles (61.4%). The crystals were transparent, pleomorphic in shape, highly birefringent in polarized light, and arranged in a radial pattern within the renal tubular lumen. Using Alizarin Red S stain and liquid chromatography, these crystals were identified as calcium oxalate. Severe coelomic and subcutaneous edema was observed in 7 of these 35 tadpoles (20.0%). Ammonia levels in coelomic fluid were extremely elevated (>1000 µg dl(-1)) in 4 tadpoles examined. These findings suggest that oxalate deposition in kidneys causes metabolic disorder with renal nephropathy. The source of the oxalate could not be determined; however, the presence of calcium oxalates in pond sediments, as revealed by liquid chromatography, suggested that the deposition was most likely due to ingestion of oxalate materials from the environment. This is the first report of oxalate nephropathy in free-living amphibians. PMID:26503774

  12. Adaptable coordination of U(IV) in the 2D-(4,4) uranium oxalate network: From 8 to 10 coordinations in the uranium (IV) oxalate hydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Duvieubourg-Garela, L.; Vigier, N. Grandjean, S.

    2008-08-15

    Crystals of uranium (IV) oxalate hydrates, U(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O (1) and U(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O (2), were obtained by hydrothermal methods using two different U(IV) precursors, U{sub 3}O{sub 8} oxide and nitric U(IV) solution in presence of hydrazine to avoid oxidation of U(IV) into uranyl ion. Growth of crystals of solvated monohydrated uranium (IV) oxalate, U(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O.(dma) (3), dma=dimethylamine, was achieved by slow diffusion of U(IV) into a gel containing oxalate ions. The three structures are built on a bi-dimensional complex polymer of U(IV) atoms connected through bis-bidentate oxalate ions forming [U(C{sub 2}O{sub 4})]{sub 4} pseudo-squares. The flexibility of this supramolecular arrangement allows modifications of the coordination number of the U(IV) atom which, starting from 8 in 1 increases to 9 in 3 and, finally increases, to 10 in 2. The coordination polyhedron changes from a distorted cube, formed by eight oxygen atoms of four oxalate ions, in 1, to a mono-capped square anti-prism in 3 and, finally, to a di-capped square anti-prism in 2, resulting from rotation of the oxalate ions and addition of one and two water oxygen atoms in the coordination of U(IV). In 1, the space between the {sub {infinity}}{sup 2}[U(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2}] planar layers is occupied by non-coordinated water molecules; in 2, the space between the staggered {sub {infinity}}{sup 2}[U(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O] layers is empty, finally in 3, the solvate molecules occupy the interlayer space between corrugated {sub {infinity}}{sup 2}[U(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O] sheets. The thermal decomposition of U(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O under air and argon atmospheres gives U{sub 3}O{sub 8} and UO{sub 2}, respectively. - Graphical abstract: The adaptable environment of U(IV) in U(IV) oxalates: from eight cubic coordination in U(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O (a) completed by water oxygens to nine in [U(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O](C{sub 2}NH{sub 5}) (b) and ten coordination in U(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O (c)

  13. Urinary prostasin in normotensive individuals: correlation with the aldosterone to renin ratio and urinary sodium.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, Oliviero; Chiecchi, Laura; Pizzolo, Francesca; Castagna, Annalisa; Raffaelli, Ricciarda; Gunasekaran, Muthukumar; Guarini, Patrizia; Consoli, Letizia; Salvagno, Gianluca; Kitamura, Kenichiro

    2013-06-01

    Prostasin, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored serine protease, activates the epithelial sodium (Na) channel (ENaC), and prostasin is released in extracellular fluids, including urine. Previous data have suggested a direct association between urinary prostasin and the activation of an aldosterone-driven pathway, but a quantitative association has never been demonstrated in normotensive subjects. Similarly, physiological relationships with natriuresis or possible gender- or female hormone-related changes in urinary prostasin concentrations have never been investigated. We measured urinary prostasin by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 43 healthy normotensive subjects of similar age presenting different urinary Na levels and in 15 women during the menstrual cycle and after oral estro-progestinic contraceptive (OC) therapy. Exosomal urinary prostasin was also estimated by western blotting of samples from six healthy subjects twice during the morning. Urinary prostasin presented a wide range of values (from 0.5 to 18.9?nM) without gender differences. It was positively correlated with the aldosterone to renin ratio (ARR) but not with circulating aldosterone or renin individually. Urinary prostasin was directly correlated with U-Na levels (up to 200?nmol Na), whereas it decreased for higher Na concentrations. In women, no significant changes of prostasin concentration were observed during menstrual phases. After OC therapy, prostasin increased (from 2.371.27 to 4.855.28?nM), although the increase was not statistically different (P=0.07). Prostasin was detectable in urinary exosomes and displayed a pattern similar to urinary prostasin in relation to urinary Na. In conclusion, urinary prostasin correlates with the ARR, and it is physiologically modulated by natriuresis in normotensive individuals. PMID:23344129

  14. A Pentafluorophenylboron Oxalate Additive in Non-aqueous Electrolytes 3 for Lithium Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, X.Q.; Li, L.F.; Lee, H.S.; Li, H.; Huang, X.J.

    2009-12-01

    A novel compound named pentafluorophenylboron oxalate (PFPBO) has been synthesized. PFPBO has a unique molecular structure containing a boron atom center with electron deficiency and an oxalate group. It is found that when PFPBO is used as additive, the solubility of lithium fluoride (LiF) or lithium oxide (Li{sub 2}O, Li{sub 2}O{sub 2}) in propylene carbonate (PC) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) solvents can be increased dramatically. The new electrolytes show high ionic conductivity, high lithium ion transference number and good compatibility with LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathode and MCMB anode. PFPBO was synthesized with the designed structure to act as a bi-functional additive: boron-based anion receptor (BBAR) additive and stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation additive in PC-based electrolytes. The results show it does possess these two desired functionalities.

  15. Immobilization of oxalate-degrading enzymes into p(HEMA) for inhibiting encrustation on ureteral stents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellman, James Kenneth

    Ureteral stents develop calcium-bearing deposits, called encrustation, that diminish their biocompatibility due to complications, such as chronic abrasion to the lumen of the ureter wall and subsequent infection. A reduction of encrustation, namely calcium oxalate, will improve the lifetime, health care costs, and infection resistance of such devices. The purpose of this research project is to study oxalate-degrading enzymes entrapped into a coating material that will control the interface to the urinary environment for ureteral stents. The coating material was a lightly crosslinked poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (p(HEMA)) matrix in which the active enzymes were entrapped within the bulk material's free volume. The swelling of p(HEMA) films was comparable in ddH2O and urine. This hydrophilic matrix allows oxalate anions to diffuse into the bulk so that enzyme activity against oxalate can lower its local concentration, and thereby reduce the supersaturation of calcium oxalate. Oxalate oxidase (OxO) and oxalate decarboxylase (OxDc) were the oxalate-degrading enzymes examined herein. Michaelis Menten kinetic models were applied to free and immobilized enzyme activity. A substrate inhibition model was applied to OxO. The free form of OxO had a Vmax of 1.8 +/- 0.1 muM/min-mug, a km of 1.8 +/- 0.1 mM, and a ks of 35.4 +/- 3.7 mM while the immobilized form had a Vmax of 1.2 +/- 0.2 muM/min-mug, a km of 4.1 +/- 0.6 mM, and a ks of 660 +/- 140 mM. The free form of OxDc had a Vmax of 23.5 +/- 1.4 muM/min-mug and a km of 0.5 +/- 0.1 mM while the immobilized form had a Vmax of 5.0 +/- 1.9 muM/min-mug and km of 23.2 +/- 9.1 mM. The enzyme activity was measured to indicate viable application conditions for the coating, such as storing the films in urine over time. The maximum activity was shown at pH 4.2 to 4.5 and activity drops to be negligible by pH 7.0. Storing the enzyme at pH 6.1 exhibited a larger retained activity than storing at pH 4.2, yet storing in urine showed the highest retention. In a six moth trial period in urine, immobilized OxO lost 30% activity to 0.7 muM/min-mug, whereas the activity for immobilized OxDc fell 50% from about 5.9 to 2.9 muM/min-mug. Coating p(HEMA) onto polyurethane ureteral stents was applied by dip coating into a monomer-based coating solution. To achieve successful coatings, the viscosity of the coating solution and adhesion to the stent were optimized through a series of experiments with glycerol and superglue to form a primer of p(HEMA). The enzymes were applied to the primer through successive layers without the use of glycerol or superglue. The enzyme activity was used to compare various processing routes, such as dip time, dip cycles, and the use of Triton X-100. An encrustation model was established using artificial and real urine, and an antibiotic/antimycotic solution was added to prevent infection. The solutions were spiked with 0.5 mM oxalate to optimize encrustation conditions. The encrustation study was conducted up to two months in these solutions, and samples were analyzed using polarized light microscopy. Immobilized OxDc inhibited crystal growth up to two-months, although OxO developed encrustation to a similar extent of the control group. This opens the possibility of utilizing the immobilized enzyme as a therapy for degrading oxalate concentrations in urine, which can be employed as a coating on ureteral stents.

  16. Field assessment of yeast- and oxalic Acid-generated carbon dioxide for mosquito surveillance.

    PubMed

    Harwood, James F; Richardson, Alec G; Wright, Jennifer A; Obenauer, Peter J

    2014-12-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) sources improve the efficacy of mosquito traps. However, traditional CO2 sources (dry ice or compressed gas) may be difficult to acquire for vector surveillance during military contingency operations. For this reason, a new and convenient source of CO2 is required. Two novel CO2 generators were evaluated in order to address this capability gap: 1) an electrolyzer that converts solid oxalic acid into CO2 gas, and 2) CO2 produced by yeast as it metabolizes sugar. The flow rate and CO2 concentration produced by each generator were measured, and each generator's ability to attract mosquitoes to BG-Sentinel traps during day surveillance and to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light traps with incandescent bulbs during night surveillance was compared to dry ice and compressed gas in Jacksonville, FL. The electrolyzed oxalic acid only slightly increased the number of mosquitoes captured compared to unbaited traps. Based on the modest increase in mosquito collection for traps paired with the oxalic acid, it is not a suitable stand-in for either of the 2 traditional CO2 sources. Conversely, the yeast-generated CO2 resulted in collections with mosquito abundance and species richness more closely resembling those of the traditional CO2 sources, despite achieving a lower CO2 flow rate. Therefore, if dry ice or compressed gas cannot be acquired for vector surveillance, yeast-generated CO2 can significantly improve trap capability. PMID:25843133

  17. Effects of potassium chloride and potassium bicarbonate in the diet on urinary pH and mineral excretion of adult cats.

    PubMed

    Passlack, Nadine; Brenten, Thomas; Neumann, Konrad; Zentek, Jrgen

    2014-03-14

    Low dietary K levels have been associated with increasing renal Ca excretion in humans, indicating a higher risk of calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolith formation. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether dietary K also affects the urine composition of cats. A total of eight adult cats were fed diets containing 031 % native K and 050, 075 and 100 % K from KCl or KHCO? and were evaluated for the effects of dietary K. High dietary K levels were found to elevate urinary K concentrations (P<0001). Renal Ca excretion was higher in cats fed the KCl diets than in those fed the KHCO? diets (P=0026), while urinary oxalate concentrations were generally lower in cats fed the KCl diets and only dependent on dietary K levels in cats fed the KHCO? diets (P<005). Fasting urine pH increased with higher dietary K levels (P=0022), reaching values of 638 (100 % KCl) and 765 (100 % KHCO?). K retention was markedly negative after feeding the cats with the basal diet (-197 mg/d) and the 050 % KCl diet (-131 mg/d), while the cats tended to maintain their balance on being fed the highest-KCl diet (-233 mg/d). In contrast, K from KHCO? was more efficiently retained (P=0018), with K retention being between -825 and 525 mg/d. In conclusion, the dietary inclusion of KHCO? instead of KCl as K source could be beneficial for the prevention of CaOx urolith formation in cats, since there is an association between a lower renal Ca excretion and a generally higher urine pH. The utilisation of K is distinctly influenced by the K salt, which may be especially practically relevant when using diets with low K levels. PMID:24229496

  18. The Female Urinary Microbiome: a Comparison of Women with and without Urgency Urinary Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Meghan M.; Hilt, Evann E.; Rosenfeld, Amy B.; Zilliox, Michael J.; Thomas-White, Krystal; Fok, Cynthia; Kliethermes, Stephanie; Schreckenberger, Paul C.; Brubaker, Linda

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial DNA and live bacteria have been detected in human urine in the absence of clinical infection, challenging the prevailing dogma that urine is normally sterile. Urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) is a poorly understood urinary condition characterized by symptoms that overlap urinary infection, including urinary urgency and increased frequency with urinary incontinence. The recent discovery of the urinary microbiome warrants investigation into whether bacteria contribute to UUI. In this study, we used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to classify bacterial DNA and expanded quantitative urine culture (EQUC) techniques to isolate live bacteria in urine collected by using a transurethral catheter from women with UUI and, in comparison, a cohort without UUI. For these cohorts, we demonstrated that the UUI and non-UUI urinary microbiomes differ by group based on both sequence and culture evidences. Compared to the non-UUI microbiome, sequencing experiments revealed that the UUI microbiome was composed of increased Gardnerella and decreased Lactobacillus. Nine genera (Actinobaculum, Actinomyces, Aerococcus, Arthrobacter, Corynebacterium, Gardnerella, Oligella, Staphylococcus, and Streptococcus) were more frequently cultured from the UUI cohort. Although Lactobacillus was isolated from both cohorts, distinctions existed at the species level, with Lactobacillus gasseri detected more frequently in the UUI cohort and Lactobacillus crispatus most frequently detected in controls. Combined, these data suggest that potentially important differences exist in the urinary microbiomes of women with and without UUI, which have strong implications in prevention, diagnosis, or treatment of UUI. PMID:25006228

  19. Medicago truncatula Mutants Demonstrate the Role of Plant Calcium Oxalate Crystals as an Effective Defense against Chewing Insects1

    PubMed Central

    Korth, Kenneth L.; Doege, Sarah J.; Park, Sang-Hyuck; Goggin, Fiona L.; Wang, Qin; Gomez, S. Karen; Liu, Guangjie; Jia, Lingling; Nakata, Paul A.

    2006-01-01

    Calcium oxalate is the most abundant insoluble mineral found in plants and its crystals have been reported in more than 200 plant families. In the barrel medic Medicago truncatula Gaertn., these crystals accumulate predominantly in a sheath surrounding secondary veins of leaves. Mutants of M. truncatula with decreased levels of calcium oxalate crystals were used to assess the defensive role of this mineral against insects. Caterpillar larvae of the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua Hbner show a clear feeding preference for tissue from calcium oxalate-defective (cod) mutant lines cod5 and cod6 in choice test comparisons with wild-type M. truncatula. Compared to their performance on mutant lines, larvae feeding on wild-type plants with abundant calcium oxalate crystals suffer significantly reduced growth and increased mortality. Induction of wound-responsive genes appears to be normal in cod5 and cod6, indicating that these lines are not deficient in induced insect defenses. Electron micrographs of insect mouthparts indicate that the prismatic crystals in M. truncatula leaves act as physical abrasives during feeding. Food utilization measurements show that, after consumption, calcium oxalate also interferes with the conversion of plant material into insect biomass during digestion. In contrast to their detrimental effects on a chewing insect, calcium oxalate crystals do not negatively affect the performance of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris, a sap-feeding insect with piercing-sucking mouthparts. The results confirm a long-held hypothesis for the defensive function of these crystals and point to the potential value of genes controlling crystal formation and localization in crop plants. PMID:16514014

  20. Natural promoters of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystallization.

    PubMed

    Farmanesh, Sahar; Chung, Jihae; Sosa, Ricardo D; Kwak, Jun Ha; Karande, Pankaj; Rimer, Jeffrey D

    2014-09-10

    Crystallization is often facilitated by modifiers that interact with specific crystal surfaces and mediate the anisotropic rate of growth. Natural and synthetic modifiers tend to function as growth inhibitors that hinder solute attachment and impede the advancement of layers on crystal surfaces. There are fewer examples of modifiers that operate as growth promoters, whereby modifier-crystal interactions accelerate the kinetic rate of crystallization. Here, we examine two proteins, lysozyme and lactoferrin, which are observed in the organic matrix of three types of pathological stones: renal, prostatic, and pancreatic stones. This work focuses on the role of these proteins in the crystallization of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM), the most prominent constituent of human kidney stones. Using a combination of experimental techniques, we show that these proteins, which are rich in l-arginine and l-lysine amino acids, promote COM growth. The synthesis and testing of peptides derived from contiguous segments of lysozyme's primary amino acid sequence revealed subdomains within the protein that operate either as an inhibitor or promoter of COM growth, with the latter exhibiting efficacies that nearly match that of the protein. We observed that cationic proteins promote COM growth over a wide range of modifier concentration, which differs from calcification promoters in the literature that exhibit dual roles as promoters and inhibitors at low and high concentration, respectively. This seems to suggest a unique mechanism of action for lysozyme and lactoferrin. Possible explanations for their effects on COM growth and crystal habit are proposed on the basis of classical colloidal theories and the physicochemical properties of peptide subdomains, including the number and spatial location of charged or hydrogen-bonding moieties. PMID:25119124

  1. Oxalate decarboxylase of the white-rot fungus Dichomitus squalens demonstrates a novel enzyme primary structure and non-induced expression on wood and in liquid cultures.

    PubMed

    Mäkelä, Miia R; Hildén, Kristiina; Hatakka, Annele; Lundell, Taina K

    2009-08-01

    Oxalate decarboxylase (ODC) catalyses the conversion of oxalic acid to formic acid and CO(2) in bacteria and fungi. In wood-decaying fungi the enzyme has been linked to the regulation of intra- and extracellular quantities of oxalic acid, which is one of the key components in biological decomposition of wood. ODC enzymes are biotechnologically interesting for their potential in diagnostics, agriculture and environmental applications, e.g. removal of oxalic acid from industrial wastewaters. We identified a novel ODC in mycelial extracts of two wild-type isolates of Dichomitus squalens, and cloned the corresponding Ds-odc gene. The primary structure of the Ds-ODC protein contains two conserved Mn-binding cupin motifs, but at the N-terminus, a unique, approximately 60 aa alanine-serine-rich region is found. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed gene expression when the fungus was cultivated on wood and in liquid medium. However, addition of oxalic acid in liquid cultures caused no increase in transcript amounts, thereby indicating a constitutive rather than inducible expression of Ds-odc. The detected stimulation of ODC activity by oxalic acid is more likely due to enzyme activation than to transcriptional upregulation of the Ds-odc gene. Our results support involvement of ODC in primary rather than secondary metabolism in fungi. PMID:19389757

  2. CmpacC regulates mycoparasitism, oxalate degradation and antifungal activity in the mycoparasitic fungus Coniothyrium minitans.

    PubMed

    Lou, Yi; Han, Yongchao; Yang, Long; Wu, Mingde; Zhang, Jing; Cheng, Jiasen; Wang, Moying; Jiang, Daohong; Chen, Weidong; Li, Guoqing

    2015-11-01

    The PacC/Rim101 pH-responsive transcription factor is an important pathogenicity element for many plant-pathogenic fungi. In this study, we investigated the roles of a PacC homologue, CmpacC, in the mycoparasitic fungus Coniothyrium minitans. CmpacC was confirmed to have the transcriptional activation activity by the transcriptional activation test in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Disruption of CmpacC resulted in impaired fungal responses to ambient pH. Compared to the wild-type, the CmpacC-disruption mutant ?CmpacC-29 was significantly suppressed for activities of chitinase and ?-1,3-glucanase at pH 5 and 7, consistent with reduced expression levels of Cmch1 and Cmg1 coding for the two enzymes respectively. However, the mutant displayed acidity-mimicking phenotypes such as improved oxalate degradation and increased antifungal activity at pH 6 or higher. Improved efficacy in oxalate degradation by ?CmpacC-29 was consistent with the enhanced expression level of Cmoxdc1 coding for oxalate decarboxylase. CmpacC transcriptional activation of Cmch1 and Cmg1 and repression of Cmoxdc1 were verified by the presence of the PacC/Rim101 consensus binding-motifs in gene promoter regions and by the promoter DNA-binding assays. This study suggests that CmpacC plays an activator role in regulation of C. minitans mycoparasitism, whereas plays a repressor role in regulation of oxalate degradation and possibly antifungal activity of C. minitans. PMID:26278965

  3. Impact Of Sodium Oxalate, Sodium Aluminosilicate, and Gibbsite/Boehmite on ARP Filter Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.; Burket, P.

    2015-11-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Recently, the low filter flux through the ARP of approximately 5 gallons per minute has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Salt Batch 6 had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. SRR requested SRNL to conduct bench-scale filter tests to evaluate whether sodium oxalate, sodium aluminosilicate, or aluminum solids (i.e., gibbsite and boehmite) could be the cause of excessive fouling of the crossflow or secondary filter at ARP. The authors conducted the tests by preparing slurries containing 6.6 M sodium Salt Batch 6 supernate, 2.5 g MST/L slurry, and varying concentrations of sodium oxalate, sodium aluminosilicate, and aluminum solids, processing the slurry through a bench-scale filter unit that contains a crossflow primary filter and a dead-end secondary filter, and measuring filter flux and transmembrane pressure as a function of time. Among the conclusions drwn from this work are the following: (1) All of the tests showed some evidence of fouling the secondary filter. This fouling could be from fine particles passing through the crossflow filter. (2) The sodium oxalate-containing feeds behaved differently from the sodium aluminosilicate- and gibbsite/boehmite-containing feeds.

  4. Bioethanol production from deacetylated yellow poplar pretreated with oxalic acid recovered through electrodialysis.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Chandan; Jeong, So-Yeon; Lee, Jae-Won

    2016-05-01

    Electrodialysis (ED) was used to develop a multistage oxalic acid recovery and pretreatment system to produce ethanol from deacetylated yellow poplar. Pretreatment of the biomass was performed at 150°C for 42min using 0.16M oxalic acid. The efficiency of oxalic acid recovery from the hydrolysate reached up to 92.32% in all the stages. Ethanol production and ethanol yield of ED-treated hydrolysate in each stage showed a uniform pattern ranging from 6.81g/L to 7.21g/L and 0.40g/g to 0.43g/g, respectively. The results showed that efficiency of ethanol production increased when deacetylated biomass and ED process was used. Ethanol yield from the pretreated biomass using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was in the range of 80.59-83.36% in all the stages. The structural characterization of the pretreated biomass at each stage was investigated and structural changes were not significantly different among the various pretreated biomass. PMID:26943934

  5. Effects of hydroxyethyl cellulose and oxalic acid on the properties of cement

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, N.K.; Mishra, P.C.; Singh, V.K.; Narang, K.K

    2003-09-01

    Effects of hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC), oxalic acid and their binary mixtures {l_brace}1:1, 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4 (by mass){r_brace} on the properties of ordinary Portland cement have been studied using up to 4% admixtures. Variations in setting time, heat of hydration, strength, hardness and fracture toughness have been determined. FT-IR and XRD have been utilized to determine the phase compositions of the material. Corrosion resistance against H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, HCl and seawater has been studied by determining the loss in mass of cement mortars. It was found that HEC acts as a retarder and oxalic acid as an accelerator. The binary mixture (1:3) has increased the heat of hydration, strength, hardness, fracture toughness and corrosion resistance. Interaction between HEC, oxalic acid and cement hydration products takes place, and new phases are formed in the presence of water, which lead to the formation of stronger bonds and the sealing of the pores in the resulting product causing decreased water absorption as compared to ordinary Portland cement.

  6. Possible therapeutic effect of naftidrofuryl oxalate on brain energy metabolism after microsphere-induced cerebral embolism.

    PubMed Central

    Miyake, K.; Tanonaka, K.; Minematsu, R.; Inoue, K.; Takeo, S.

    1989-01-01

    1. The present study was designed to determine whether naftidrofuryl oxalate exerts a possible therapeutic effect on brain energy metabolism impaired by microsphere-induced cerebral embolism in vitro. 2. Injection of microspheres into the right carotid canal resulted in a decrease in tissue high-energy phosphates both in the right and left hemispheres, and an increase in tissue lactate in the right hemisphere, on the 3rd and the 5th day after the embolism. The embolism also induced a marked reduction in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation ability and succinate dehydrogenase activity. The results suggest that severe ischaemia was induced in the brain by the microsphere administration. 3. Treatment of microsphere-injected rats with naftidrofuryl oxalate (15 mg kg-1) for 3 or 5 days elicited a significant recovery of tissue high-energy phosphate and lactate levels. The recovery was associated with a significant restoration of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase activity on the both days and of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation rate on the 5th day. 4. The results suggest that naftidrofuryl oxalate is beneficial in the recovery of cerebral energy metabolism impaired by microsphere-induced cerebral ischaemia, presumably through a mechanism involving its direct effect on the cerebral mitochondrial enzyme activities. PMID:2819326

  7. Spectra investigation on surface characteristics of graphene oxide nanosheets treated with tartaric, malic and oxalic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Xiyao; Yan, Manqing; Bi, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The surface characteristics of graphene oxide nanosheets (GO) treated respectively with tartaric acid, malic acid and oxalic acid, have been investigated by mainly using optical spectroscopic methods including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption and Raman spectroscopy. Additionally, the electrochemical property of the products has also been studied. The data revealed that oxygen-containing groups such as sbnd OH, sbnd COOH and sbnd Cdbnd O on the GO surface have been almost removed and thus reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (RGN) were obtained. Interestingly, the number of sp2 domains of RGN increases as treated by tartaric acid < malic acid < oxalic acid whereas the steric hindrance (SH) decreases and the ionization constant (IC) differs among these three acids. Furthermore, the specific capacitances (Cs) of GO have been greatly promoted from 2.4 F g-1 to 100.8, 112.4, and 147 F g-1 after treated with tartaric, malic and oxalic acids, respectively. This finding agrees well with the spectra result of the tendency of surface conjugated degree alteration. We claim that the difference in both SH and IC among these acids is the main reason for the diverse surface characteristics as well as the improved Cs of the RGN.

  8. DETERMINATION OF OXALATE ION DOPANT LEVEL IN POLYPYRROLE USING FT-IR

    PubMed Central

    Benally, Kristal J.; GreyEyes, Shawn D.; McKenzie, Jason T.

    2014-01-01

    A pellet method using standard addition and FT-IR was used to estimate oxalate ion doping levels in electrosynthesized polypyrrole. The method is useful for materials where removal of analyte from an insoluble material is problematic. Here, electrosynthesized oxalate doped polypyrrole is dispersed in potassium bromide. Spikes of sodium oxalate are added and the mixtures pressed into pellets. The oxalate carbonyl absorption peak is then used to quantify the amount of oxalate present in the polypyrrole. The mass fraction of oxalate dopant in polypyrrole was determined to be 0.4 0.1 % and coincides with the original synthesis solution composition. PMID:25598749

  9. [Determination of glyoxalate and oxalate by capillary zone electrophoresis].

    PubMed

    Guan, Jin; Wang, Huize; Ren, Liyan; Niu, Qiuling

    2012-01-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of glyoxalate and oxalate by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) was developed. The influences of type, concentration and pH of the running buffer, and the applied voltage on separation were investigated. Glyoxalate and oxalate were separated within 11 min under the conditions of 20 mmol/L borax-5.5 mmol/L potassium hydrogen phthalate (pH 9.0), applied voltage of 20 kV, and detected wavelength of 212 nm. The calibration curves of glyoxalate and oxalate showed good linearity in the ranges of 0.8 -20 g/L and 1.2-20 g/L, respectively. The correlation coefficients were 0.999 3 and 0.997 5, respectively. The limits of detection for glyoxalate and oxalate were 0.2 and 0.4 g/L (S/N = 3), respectively. The average recoveries at three spiked levels were 98.3%-102.5% with acceptable relative standard deviations of 0.35%-0.61%. This method is simple, low cost and high performance. The method was successfully used for the determination of glyoxalate and oxalate in real samples, and the assay results were satisfactory. PMID:22667103

  10. Mass spectroscopic characteristics of low molecular weight proteins extracted from calcium oxalate stones: preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Chi; Lai, Chien-Chen; Lai, Chein-Cheng; Tsai, Yuhsin; Tsai, Yu-Hsin; Lin, Wei-Yong; Tsai, Fuu-Jen

    2008-01-01

    It is believed that boundary compositions of matrix proteins might play a role in stone formation; however, few proteomic studies concerning matrix proteins in urinary stones have been conducted. In this study, we extracted low molecular weight proteins from calcium oxalate stones and measured their characteristic patterns by mass spectroscopy. A total of 10 stones were surgically removed from patients with urolithiasis. Proteins were extracted from the stones and identified by one-dimensional electrophoresis (sodium dodecyl sulfate buffer [SDS]-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis [SDS-PAGE]). After in-gel digest, samples were analyzed by the surface-enhanced laser desorption ionization-time of flight (SELDI-TOF) technique. The peptide sequences were analyzed from the data of mass spectroscopy. Proteins were identified from Database Search (SwissProt Protein Database; Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics; http://www.expasy.org/sprot) on a MASCOT server (Matrix Science Ltd.; http://www.matrixscience.com). A total of three bands of proteins (27, 18, and 14 kDa) were identified from SDS-PAGE in each stone sample. A database search (SwissProt) on a MASCOT server revealed that the most frequently seen proteins from band 1 (27 kDa) were leukocyte elastase precursor, cathepsin G precursor, azurocidin precursor, and myeloblastin precursor (EC 3.4.21.76) (leukocyte proteinase 3); band 2 (18 kDa) comprised calgranulin B, eosinophil cationic protein precursor, and lysozyme C precursor; band 3 (14 kDa) showed neutrophil defensin 3 precursor, calgranulin A, calgranulin C, and histone H4. The modifications and deamidations found from the mass pattern of these proteins may provide information for the study of matrix proteins. Various lower molecular weight proteins can be extracted from calcium oxalate stones. The characteristic patterns and their functions of those proteins should be further tested to investigate their roles in stone formation. PMID:18200570

  11. Distinguishing Characteristics of Idiopathic Calcium Oxalate Kidney Stone Formers with Low Amounts of Randall's Plaque

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiangling; Krambeck, Amy E.; Williams, James C.; Tang, Xiaojing; Rule, Andrew D.; Zhao, Fang; Bergstralh, Eric; Haskic, Zejfa; Edeh, Samuel; Holmes, David R.; Hernandez, Loren P. Herrera

    2014-01-01

    Background Overgrowth of calcium oxalate on Randall's plaque is a mechanism of stone formation among idiopathic calcium oxalate stone-formers (ICSFs). It is less clear how stones form when there is little or no plaque. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Participants were a consecutive cohort of ICSFs who underwent percutaneous nephroscopic papillary mapping in the kidney or kidneys containing symptomatic stones and a papillary tip biopsy from a representative calyx during a stone removal procedure between 2009 and 2013. The distribution of Randall's plaque coverage was analyzed and used to divide ICSFs into those with a high (?5%; mean, 10.5%; n=10) versus low (<5%; mean, 1.5%; n=32) amount of plaque coverage per papilla. Demographic and laboratory features were compared between these two groups. Results Low-plaque stone formers tended to be obese (50% versus 10%; P=0.03) and have a history of urinary tract infection (34% versus 0%; P=0.04). They were less likely to have multiple prior stone events (22% versus 80%; P=0.002) and had a lower mean 24-hour urine calcium excretion (18786 mg versus 29199 mg; P<0.01). Morphologically, stones from patients with low amounts of plaque lacked a calcium phosphate core by microcomputed tomography. Papillary biopsies from low plaque stone-formers revealed less interstitial and basement membrane punctate crystallization. Conclusions These findings suggest that other pathways independent of Randall's plaque may contribute to stone pathogenesis among a subgroup of ICSFs who harbor low amounts of plaque. PMID:25092598

  12. Reversible inhibition of calcium oxalate monohydrate growth by an osteopontin phosphopeptide.

    PubMed

    Nene, Shailesh S; Hunter, Graeme K; Goldberg, Harvey A; Hutter, Jeffrey L

    2013-05-28

    Calcium oxalate, primarily as calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM), is the primary constituent of most kidney stones. Certain proteins, such as osteopontin (OPN), inhibit stone formation. The complexity of stone formation and the effects of urinary proteins at various stages of the process make it hard to predict the exact physiological roles of these proteins in growth inhibition. The inhibition of crystallization due to adsorbed impurities is usually explained in terms of a model proposed in 1958 by Cabrera and Vermilyea. In this model, impurities adsorb to growth faces and pin growth steps, forcing them to curve, thus impeding their progress via the Gibbs-Thomson effect. To determine the role of OPN in the biomineralization of kidney stones, crystal growth on the {010} face of COM was examined in real time with atomic force microscopy in the presence of a synthetic peptide corresponding to amino acids 65-80 (hereafter referred to as pOPAR) of rat bone OPN. We observed clear changes in the morphology of the growth-step structure and a decrease in step velocity upon addition of pOPAR, which suggest adsorption of inhibitors on the {010} growth hillocks. Experiments in which pOPAR was replaced in the growth cell by a supersaturated solution showed that COM hillocks are able to fully recover to their preinhibited state. Our results suggest that recovery occurs through incorporation of the peptide into the growing crystal, rather than by, e.g., desorption from the growth face. This work provides new insights into the mechanism by which crystal growth is inhibited by adsorbants, with important implications for the design of therapeutic agents for kidney stone disease and other forms of pathological calcification. PMID:23611580

  13. Increased urinary cobalt and whole blood concentrations of cadmium and lead in women with uterine leiomyomata: Findings from the ENDO Study

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, Erica B.; Buck Louis, Germaine M.; Parsons, Patrick J.; Steuerwald, Amy J.; Palmer, Christopher D.; Chen, Zhen; Sun, Liping; Hammoud, Ahmad O.; Dorais, Jessie; Peterson, C. Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Multiple trace elements have estrogen receptor activity, but the association of these elements with uterine leiomyoma has not been defined. A cohort of 473 women aged 1844 undergoing surgery for benign gynecologic indications provided whole blood and urine specimens for trace element analysis, which was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The surgeon documented whether fibroids were present. Geometric mean concentrations were compared between women with and without fibroids, and logistic regression models were generated to assess the impact of the concentration of each trace element on the odds of fibroids. In multivariate regressions, odds of a fibroid diagnosis was higher with increased whole blood cadmium (AOR 1.44, 95% CI 1.02, 2.04) and lead (AOR 1.31 95% CI 1.02, 1.69), and urine cobalt (AOR 1.31, 95% CI 1.02, 1.70). Increased exposure to trace elements may contribute to fibroid growth, and fibroids may serve as a reservoir for these elements. PMID:24994689

  14. Changes in oxalate and some mineral concentrations of Setaria sphacelata under cutting and uncutting conditions.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Tateyama, M; Niimi, M; Abdullah, R B; Khadijah, W E Wan; Kawamura, O

    2014-04-01

    Oxalate concentration in forage plants is important, because it results mineral deficiency in ruminants. Data on oxalate concentration in forage plants in conjunction with cutting and uncutting conditions throughout the growing period are limited. This study was aimed to investigate the changes in oxalate and some mineral concentrations of setaria (Setaria sphacelata). The plants were harvested at different stages (vegetative, boot, pre-flowering, flowering and seed) of maturity and at about 50 cm in length of regrowth (second to sixth cuttings) for evaluation of soluble oxalate, insoluble oxalate and some mineral concentrations. Soluble oxalate and total oxalate concentrations, as well as mineral concentrations, decreased with advancing maturity. Both oxalate concentrations (soluble or insoluble) were higher in leaf compared to stem. Soluble oxalate and total oxalate concentrations of regrowth were the highest at third cutting and lowest at sixth cutting. Insoluble oxalate concentration of regrowth was almost similar in all cuttings, except for the sixth cutting. The highest concentrations of potassium, sodium and magnesium of regrowth were observed at third cutting, while the highest concentration of calcium was observed at sixth cutting. A relationship between oxalate and mineral concentrations was partially observed. Results suggest that cutting materials of setaria from June to October could achieve oxalate levels that are toxic to ruminants. PMID:25911853

  15. [Analytical evaluation of urinary calculi mineral composition].

    PubMed

    Machoy, P

    1995-01-01

    Urolithiasis is the most frequent disease of urinary system. It affects about 3% of people of the productive age. One half of the hospitalized in Departments of Urology is made up of patients with urinary calculi. In some regions of the globe, urolithiasis is a very common pathological disorder. Upper Silesia being such a region in Poland. The objective of the paper is: 1) systematization of calculi according to their mineral composition with regard to eventual prophylaxis of urolithiasis, 2) comparison of mineral components of calculi in the aspect of pollutions for Upper Silesia and West Pomerania territories, and the effect of external factors on the constitution of the formed calculi, 3) making use of X-ray microanalysis in complex determinations of mineral compositions of stones, particularly the trace elements. For that purpose a total of 185 urinary calculi stemming from individuals of both sexes, aged 24 to 82 years were used. The content of calcium, magnesium, zinc and iron was determined by atom absorption method, that of aluminium, chloride, sulphur and copper by X-ray microanalysis method, fluoride by gas chromatographic method, phosphates and urates by colorimetric method. The content of cystine was defined by thermic decomposition and characteristic smell. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. With reference to the first task, the following chemical classification of stones has been suggested, namely; class I: ammonium stones being magnesium-ammonium phosphate, class II: stones with elevated calcium content, calcium oxalate, class III: stones with elevated magnesium content, class IV: calculi rich in calcium and magnesium, class V: calculi deficient in calcium and magnesium, class VI: organic uric stones, class VII: organic cystine stones. The second task consisted in comparing the mineral composition of stones from subjects inhabiting two remote from each other regions-industrialized Silesia and Pomerania (Tab. 10). The statistical analysis has revealed differences being statistically significant only with regard to calcium and magnesium in Silesia and Pomerania groups. Undoubtedly that is of importance when one takes into consideration that calcium and magnesium display high affinity to fluoride, the presence of which was detected in all the stones and which may influence the physicochemical properties of the urinary calculi, first of all their hardness and solubility. The third task consisted in evaluating the possibility of applying the X-ray microanalysis for searching the stone for further elements principally microelements. The performed study comprised 10 stones: Silesia region and Pomerania region, whose composition was compared pairwise. The pairs were selected in such a manner that they should have some features in common found out by previously described atom absorption methods. The established results concerning calcium, magnesium and phosphorus showed in general compatibility of results obtained by the two methods. However, by X-ray microanalysis method it was possible to detect further elements: sulphur, aluminium, chloride and copper. The following conclusions have been drawn, namely: 1) analytic examinations of mineral composition of urinary calculi are the base of their chemical composition with regard to eventual prophylaxis of urolithiasis, 2) a varied composition of urinary calculi from two different regions of Poland may be the reflection of actual state of natural environment pollution in those regions, 3) presence of fluoride in all the urinary calculi allows us to suppose that it is permanent element of urinary calculi. PMID:8615550

  16. Crystal structure of di-methyl-ammonium hydrogen oxalate hemi(oxalic acid).

    PubMed

    Diallo, Waly; Gueye, Ndongo; Crochet, Aurlien; Plasseraud, Laurent; Cattey, Hlne

    2015-05-01

    Single crystals of the title salt, Me2NH2 (+)HC2O4 (-)0.5H2C2O4, were isolated as a side product from the reaction involving Me2NH, H2C2O4 and Sn(n-Bu)3Cl in a 1:2 ratio in methanol or by the reaction of the (Me2NH2)2C2O4 salt and Sn(CH3)3Cl in a 2:1 ratio in ethanol. The asymmetric unit comprises a di-methyl-ammonium cation (Me2NH2 (+)), an hydrogenoxalate anion (HC2O4 (-)), and half a mol-ecule of oxalic acid (H2C2O4) situated about an inversion center. From a supra-molecular point of view, the three components inter-act together via hydrogen bonding. The Me2NH2 (+) cations and the HC2O4 (-) anions are in close proximity through bifurcated N-H?(O,O) hydrogen bonds, while the HC2O4 (-) anions are organized into infinite chains via O-H?O hydrogen bonds, propagating along the a-axis direction. In addition, the oxalic acid (H2C2O4) mol-ecules play the role of connectors between these chains. Both the carbonyl and hydroxyl groups of each diacid are involved in four inter-molecular inter-actions with two Me2NH2 (+) and two HC2O4 (-) ions of four distinct polymeric chains, via two N-H?O and two O-H?O hydrogen bonds, respectively. The resulting mol-ecular assembly can be viewed as a two-dimensional bilayer-like arrangement lying parallel to (010), and reinforced by a C-H?O hydrogen bond. PMID:25995858

  17. [Urinary tract infection in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Herráiz, Miguel Angel; Hernández, Antonio; Asenjo, Eloy; Herráiz, Ignacio

    2005-12-01

    Urinary tract infections, asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB), acute cystitis (AC) and acute pyelonephritis (AP), are favored by the morphological and functional changes involved in pregnancy. AB increases the risk of preterm labor, low birth weight and AP. AB should be detected by uroculture (other methods are not sufficiently effective) and treated early. Approximately 80% of cases are caused by Escherichia coli. The risks and effectiveness of the distinct antibiotic regimens should be evaluated: fosfomycin trometamol in monotherapy or as short course therapy is safe and effective for the treatment of AB and AC. AP is the most frequent cause of hospital admission for medical reasons in pregnant women and can lead to complications in 10% of cases, putting the lives of the mother and fetus at risk. Currently outpatient treatment of AP is recommended in selected cases. Adequate follow-up of pregnant women with urinary tract infections is required due to frequent recurrence. PMID:16854357

  18. Microelectrophoretic study of calcium oxalate monohydrate in macromolecular solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curreri, P. A.; Onoda, G. Y., Jr.; Finlayson, B.

    1987-01-01

    Electrophoretic mobilities were measured for calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) in solutions containing macromolecules. Two mucopolysaccharides (sodium heparin and chondroitin sulfate) and two proteins (positively charged lysozyme and negatively charged bovine serum albumin) were studied as adsorbates. The effects of pH, calcium oxalate surface charge (varied by calcium or oxalate ion activity), and citrate concentration were investigated. All four macromolecules showed evidence for adsorption. The macromolecule concentrations needed for reversing the surface charge indicated that the mucopolysaccharides have greater affinity for the COM surface than the proteins. Citrate ions at high concentrations appear to compete effectively with the negative protein for surface sites but show no evidence for competing with the positively charged protein.

  19. Growth retardation of calcium oxalate by sodium copper chlorophyllin.

    PubMed

    Desjardins, A; Tawashi, R

    1978-01-01

    Earlier reports from our laboratories described the inhibitory effect of Mg++ and pyrophosphate on the dissolution and growth of calcium oxalate. In this report, growth of Ca oxalate in presence of very low concentration of chlorophyllin was followed by the Coulter counter and a multichannel analyser. The effect of chlorophyllin concentration on crystal formation was studied at different levels of supersaturation. A concentration of 0.1 microgram/ml produced a remarkable retardation of the induction period and the growth rate. The findings obtained in this study are discussed in the light of the crystal poisoning theory. Comparison was made between chlorophyllin and other growth inhibitors. PMID:668744

  20. Acute renal failure following oxalic acid poisoning: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Oxalic acid poisoning is being recognized as an emerging epidemic in the rural communities of Sri Lanka as it is a component of locally produced household laundry detergents. Herein we describe a case of a 32?year old female, presenting after direct ingestion of oxalic acid. She then went on to develop significant metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure, requiring dialysis. Renal biopsy revealed acute tubulointerstitial nephritis associated with diffuse moderate acute tubular damage with refractile crystals in some of the tubules. The patient symptomatically improved with haemodialysis and renal functions subsequently returned to normal. PMID:22978510

  1. Hydrogen Bond Symmetrization in Glycinium Oxalate under Pressure.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Himal; Murli, Chitra; Mishra, A K; Verma, Ashok K; Garg, Nandini; Deo, M N; Chitra, R; Sharma, Surinder M

    2016-02-01

    The study of hydrogen bonds near symmetrization limit at high pressures is of importance to understand proton dynamics in complex bio-geological processes. We report here the evidence of hydrogen bond symmetrization in the simplest amino acid-carboxylic acid complex, glycinium oxalate, at moderate pressures of 8 GPa using in-situ infrared and Raman spectroscopic investigations combined with first-principles simulations. The dynamic proton sharing between semioxalate units results in covalent-like infinite oxalate chains. At pressures above 12 GPa, the glycine units systematically reorient with pressure to form hydrogen-bonded supramolecular assemblies held together by these chains. PMID:26730739

  2. Acute renal failure following oxalic acid poisoning: a case report.

    PubMed

    Dassanayake, Uditha; Gnanathasan, Christeine Ariaranee

    2012-01-01

    Oxalic acid poisoning is being recognized as an emerging epidemic in the rural communities of Sri Lanka as it is a component of locally produced household laundry detergents. Herein we describe a case of a 32?year old female, presenting after direct ingestion of oxalic acid. She then went on to develop significant metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure, requiring dialysis. Renal biopsy revealed acute tubulointerstitial nephritis associated with diffuse moderate acute tubular damage with refractile crystals in some of the tubules. The patient symptomatically improved with haemodialysis and renal functions subsequently returned to normal. PMID:22978510

  3. Urinary Tract Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... UTI and it isn't treated, it may lead to a kidney infection. Kidney infections may cause early labor. ... Drink plenty of water to flush out bacteria. Drinking cranberry juice may also help prevent urinary tract ...

  4. Urinary tract infection - children

    MedlinePLUS

    UTI - children; Cystitis - children; Bladder infection - children; Kidney infection - children; Pyelonephritis - children ... Urinary tract infections (UTIs) can occur when bacteria get into the bladder or the kidneys. These bacteria are common on the ...

  5. Urinary incontinence - injectable implant

    MedlinePLUS

    Injectable implants are injections of material into the urethra to help control urine leakage ( urinary incontinence ) caused by a ... into the tissue next to the sphincter. The implant procedure is usually done in the hospital. Or ...

  6. Percutaneous urinary procedures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Lingeman JE. Surgical management of upper urinary tract calculi. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Novick AC, et ... CC, Nakada SY. Treatment selection and outcomes: renal calculi. Urol Clin North Am . 2007;34(3):409- ...

  7. [Urinary sediment analysis].

    PubMed

    Baños-Laredo, Martha E; Núñez-Álvarez, Carlos A; Cabiedes, Javier

    2010-01-01

    Urinary analysis is one of the most requested tests in the clinical laboratory. This test includes the physical, chemical and microscopic analysis of urine. This last one allows for the observation of urinary sediment (US) in search of formed elements (cellular cast, leukocytes, etc.), with different diagnostic uses. Urinary analysis can be assessed by manual or automated methods. In the laboratory diagnosis of autoimmune diseases, US analysis is mainly oriented towards the assessment of renal function in patients with lupus nephritis (LN) as this is a common clinical manifestation associated to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Additionally, its value lies mainly for diagnostic criteria and evaluation of kidney injury, as well as for several damage indexes directed to patients with SLE. In the last years, several groups have sought to establish new urinary biomarkers of kidney damage in patients with SLE; however, this requires a greater number of studies to determine their true diagnostic value in this patients group. PMID:21794729

  8. Androgen receptor enhances kidney stone-CaOx crystal formation via modulation of oxalate biosynthesis & oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Liang, Liang; Li, Lei; Tian, Jing; Lee, Soo Ok; Dang, Qiang; Huang, Chiung-Kuei; Yeh, Shuyuan; Erturk, Erdal; Bushinsky, David; Chang, Luke S; He, Dalin; Chang, Chawnshang

    2014-08-01

    Males develop kidney stones far more frequently than females with a ratio of 2-3:1, suggesting that androgen receptor (AR) signaling might play a key role in the development of nephrolithiasis. Using the cre-loxP system to selectively knock out AR in glyoxylate-induced calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystal mouse models, we found that the mice lacking hepatic AR had less oxalate biosynthesis, which might lead to lower CaOx crystal formation, and that the mice lacking kidney proximal or distal epithelial AR also had lower CaOx crystal formation. We found that AR could directly up-regulate hepatic glycolate oxidase and kidney epithelial NADPH oxidase subunit p22-PHOX at the transcriptional level. This up-regulation might then increase oxalate biosynthesis and oxidative stress that resulted in induction of kidney tubular injury. Targeting AR with the AR degradation enhancer ASC-J9 led to suppression of CaOx crystal formation via modulation of oxalate biosynthesis and oxidative stress in both in vitro and in vivo studies. Taken together, these results established the roles of AR in CaOx crystal formation. PMID:24956378

  9. Androgen Receptor Enhances Kidney Stone-CaOx Crystal Formation via Modulation of Oxalate Biosynthesis & Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Liang; Li, Lei; Tian, Jing; Lee, Soo Ok; Dang, Qiang; Huang, Chiung-Kuei; Yeh, Shuyuan; Erturk, Erdal; Bushinsky, David; Chang, Luke S.

    2014-01-01

    Males develop kidney stones far more frequently than females with a ratio of 2–3:1, suggesting that androgen receptor (AR) signaling might play a key role in the development of nephrolithiasis. Using the cre-loxP system to selectively knock out AR in glyoxylate-induced calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystal mouse models, we found that the mice lacking hepatic AR had less oxalate biosynthesis, which might lead to lower CaOx crystal formation, and that the mice lacking kidney proximal or distal epithelial AR also had lower CaOx crystal formation. We found that AR could directly up-regulate hepatic glycolate oxidase and kidney epithelial NADPH oxidase subunit p22-PHOX at the transcriptional level. This up-regulation might then increase oxalate biosynthesis and oxidative stress that resulted in induction of kidney tubular injury. Targeting AR with the AR degradation enhancer ASC-J9 led to suppression of CaOx crystal formation via modulation of oxalate biosynthesis and oxidative stress in both in vitro and in vivo studies. Taken together, these results established the roles of AR in CaOx crystal formation. PMID:24956378

  10. Screening of indigenous oxalate degrading lactic acid bacteria from human faeces and South Indian fermented foods: assessment of probiotic potential.

    PubMed

    Gomathi, Sivasamy; Sasikumar, Ponnusamy; Anbazhagan, Kolandaswamy; Sasikumar, Sundaresan; Kavitha, Murugan; Selvi, M S; Selvam, Govindan Sadasivam

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have the potential to degrade intestinal oxalate and this is increasingly being studied as a promising probiotic solution to manage kidney stone disease. In this study, oxalate degrading LAB were isolated from human faeces and south Indian fermented foods, subsequently assessed for potential probiotic property in vitro and in vivo. Based on preliminary characteristics, 251 out of 673 bacterial isolates were identified as LAB. A total of 17 strains were found to degrade oxalate significantly between 40.38% and 62.90% and were subjected to acid and bile tolerance test. Among them, nine strains exhibited considerable tolerance up to pH 3.0 and at 0.3% bile. These were identified as Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus salivarius using 16S rDNA sequencing. Three strains, Lactobacillus fermentum TY5, Lactobacillus fermentum AB1, and Lactobacillus salivarius AB11, exhibited good adhesion to HT-29 cells and strong antimicrobial activity. They also conferred resistance to kanamycin, rifampicin, and ampicillin, but were sensitive to chloramphenicol and erythromycin. The faecal recovery rate of these strains was observed as 15.16% (TY5), 6.71% (AB1), and 9.3% (AB11) which indicates the colonization ability. In conclusion, three efficient oxalate degrading LAB were identified and their safety assessments suggest that they may serve as good probiotic candidates for preventing hyperoxaluria. PMID:24723820

  11. [Recurrent urinary tract infection].

    PubMed

    Ali, Adel Ben; Bagnis, Corinne Isnard

    2014-09-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infection involves mainly women and exhibits an ecological as well as economical risk. 4% of all urinary tract infection are recurrent and usually secondary to general or local abnormalities. A multidisciplinary medical and surgical team (urology, nephrology, bacteriology, infectious disease) best performs diagnosis and treatment as well as rules out reversible etiology. Treatment relies on behavioral changes before offering cranberry products and/or antibioprophylaxis if necessary. PMID:25362782

  12. Urinary tract calculi in man and laboratory animals: incidence, composition, and etiology.

    PubMed

    Cheng, L

    1980-08-01

    Calculi in the urinary tract is a disease which afflicts not only man, but also experimental animals. The incidence of human stone disease varies widely according to the geographical area. With the advent of sophisticated physicochemical techniques, the elucidation of structure and the quantification of mineral components of urinary calculi have been greatly facilitated. In addition to calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate, more than ten other minerals and a large number of trace elements have been identified to date. Matrix material consists of such macro-molecules as proteins and mucopolysaccharides. The etiology of urinary calculi is varied; diet, drugs, chemicals, bladder implants, infections, metabolic derangements, and environmental influences are some of the factors that can contribute to the pathogenesis of stones. The literature findings reflect the complexity of urolithiasis as a clinicopathological problem. PMID:7441117

  13. Arthritis associated with calcium oxalate crystals in an anephric patient treated with peritoneal dialysis

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, A.; Ryan, L.M.; McCarty, D.J.

    1988-09-02

    The authors report a case of calcium oxalate arthropathy in a woman undergoing intermittent peritoneal dialysis who was not receiving pharmacologic doses of ascorbic acid. She developed acute arthritis, with calcium oxalate crystals in Heberden's and Bouchard's nodes, a phenomenon previously described in gout. Intermittent peritoneal dialysis may be less efficient than hemodialysis in clearing oxalate, and physicians should now consider calcium oxalate-associated arthritis in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis who are not receiving large doses of ascorbic acid.

  14. Urinary endothellin-1 level in children with pyelonephritis and hydronephrosis.

    PubMed

    Sharifian, Mostafa; Ahmadi, Mitra; Karimi, Abdollah; Zand, Ranna Esmaili; Moghadar, Roozbeh; Ahmadi, Roya; Chimeh, Masoud Dadkhah

    2013-07-01

    Hydronephrosis is a common finding in patients with urinary tract infection (UTI). Endothellin-1 (ET-1) is a potent vasoactive peptide that has vasoconstrictive effects. It has been shown that urinary ET-1 increases in urinary obstructions. In this study, we measured the urinary ET-1 level in patients with UTI and hydronephrosis of various causes. In this case-control study, we evaluated the urinary ET-1 level in 45 patients who had UTI and hydronephrosis, serving as a case group, and 45 patients who had UTI without hydronephrosis, serving as a control group. Urinary ET-1 was quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and urinary creatinine (Cr) by Jaffe method. To rule out the effect of urinary flow rate, the urinary ET-1 to Cr correlation was considered for analysis of the results. The mean age of the patients in the case and control groups was 36.5 27.2 and 26.2 15.5 months, respectively (P >0.01). The mean urinary ET-1 was 89.6 41.7 pg/dL in the case group and 29.3 26 pg/dL in the control group, P <0.001. The mean urinary ET-1 was 121 55.4 pg/dL in patients who had grade 4 hydronephrosis. We conclude that urinary ET-1 was significantly higher in the obstructed than in non-obstructed cases. Urinary ET-1 could be a useful marker that can be utilized in young children for diagnosis of hydronephrosis, especially obstructive cases. PMID:23816722

  15. Adhesion of calcium oxalate crystals to Madin-Darby canine kidney cells and some effects of glycosaminoglycans or cell injuries.

    PubMed

    Ebisuno, S; Kohjimoto, Y; Tamura, M; Ohkawa, T

    1995-01-01

    The present investigation studied the quantitative adhesion of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals to the surface of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, which exhibit many characteristics of renal cortical collecting tubule cells. COM crystals adhered to the cell surface, and the attachment showed a time and concentration dependency with plateau. The results suggested that the attachment of microcrystals to the cortical tubular cell might be one of the earliest processes in the formation of kidney stones. Pretreatment with glycosaminoglycans significantly reduced the adherent crystals. Injuries to the Madin-Darby cells induced by 0.1 M HCl and gentamicin resulted in significant decreases of COM crystal adhesion to the cell surface. It was suggested that urinary glycosaminoglycans might play some critical role in preventing crystal adhesion to these cellular membranes and that cell injuries might not be essential for the attachment of microcrystals to the tubular cells. PMID:8521899

  16. [Hormonal and metabolic disorders as systemic factor for the formation of urinary calculi].

    PubMed

    Aliaev, Iu G; Egshatian, L V; Rapoport, L M; Lartsova, E V

    2014-01-01

    In patients suffering from urolithiasis, metabolic diagnostics often reveals abnormalities contributing to the formation of stones: hypocitraturia, hyper- and hypocalcemia, hypercalciuria, hypomagnesemia/hypomagnesuria, hyperoxalaturia, etc. Before surgery, complex biochemical examination of blood and 24-hourcollection urine in 82 patients with urolithiasis was performed. The analysis of the main laboratory parameters of carbohydrate, lipid, calcium and phosphorus and purine metabolism found the prevalence of violations of calcium and phosphorus metabolism in these patients. Dyslipidemia was diagnosed in 31 (37.8%) patients. There was a significant positive correlation between serum total cholesterol and serum total calcium (rs = 0.3315, P = 0.0103). Low serum calcium levels were associated with hyperoxalaturia (rs = -0.4270, P = 0.0295). There was a significant effect of natriuria on urinary excretion of oxalate (rs = 0.6107, P = 0.0001), Mg (rs = 0.4156, P = 0.0096) and K (rs = 0.5234, P = 0.00005). The study shows the role of magnesium in the prevention of recurrence and manifestation of urolithiasis. The combination of two or more types of hormonal and metabolic disorders increases the incidence of recurrent stones. Timely correction of hormonal-metabolic status allows to reduce the risk of stone formation, and hospitalization attributable to the complications associated. PMID:25807757

  17. Evaluation of Oxalate Concentration in the U.S. Spinach Germplasm Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In addition to its high nutrient content, spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is also known to have greater amount of oxalic acid than most crops. Oxalic acid may form crystals with minerals to reduce the bioavailability and absorption of calcium and iron in diets, and calcium oxalate may deposit in the...

  18. PREPARATION OF OXALATES OF METALS OF ATOMIC NUMBER GREATER THAN 88

    DOEpatents

    Duffield, R.B.

    1959-02-01

    A method is presented for the preparation of oxalates of metals of atomic number greater than 88. A solid peroxide of the heavy metal is contacted with an aqueous oxalic acid solution ai a temperature of about 50 C for a period of time sufficient to form the insoluble metal oxalate which is subsequentiy recovered as a pures crystalline compound.

  19. Genomic evaluation of oxalate-degrading transgenic soybean in response to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxalate oxidases catalyze the degradation of oxalic acid (OA). Highly resistant transgenic soybean carrying an oxalate oxidase (OxO) gene and its susceptible parent soybean line, AC Colibri, were tested for genome-wide gene expression in response to the necrotrophic, OA producing pathogen Sclerotini...

  20. Metal Accumulation without Enhanced Oxalate Secretion in Wood Degraded by Brown Rot Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Schilling, Jonathan S.; Jellison, Jody

    2006-01-01

    Brown rot fungi were incubated in agar and agar-wood microcosms containing metallic or hydroxide forms of Al, Cu, and Fe. Metal dissolution was associated with elevated oxalate concentrations in agar, but metals translocated into wood did not affect oxalate accumulation, crystal production, or decay rate, demonstrating a substrate-dependent oxalate dynamic. PMID:16885326

  1. In vitro anti-lithogenic activity of lime powder regimen (LPR) and the effect of LPR on urinary risk factors for kidney stone formation in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Chariyavilaskul, Pajaree; Poungpairoj, Poonsin; Chaisawadi, Suchada; Boonla, Chanchai; Dissayabutra, Thasinas; Prapunwattana, Phisit; Tosukhowong, Piyaratana

    2015-04-01

    Hypocitraturia, hypokaliuria, and increased oxidative stress are common lithogenic risk factors found in nephrolithiasis patients, especially in Thailand. We previously developed lime powder regimen (LPR), and demonstrated that LPR delivered citraturic, alkalinizing, and antioxidative effects in kidney stone patients. In this study, in vitro anti-lithogenic activity, in vivo acute toxicity, and crossover-designed phase 1 trial (in 13 healthy volunteers) of LPR were investigated. LPR inhibited the growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals in dose-dependent manner, and inhibited the intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in COM-treated HK-2 cells. LPR did not significantly alter viability of HK-2 cells. No acute toxicity was detected in mice orally fed with LPR (10 g/kg). No adverse effect and complaint of LPR ingestion (5 g/dose) were observed in the tested volunteers. Plasma citrate was elevated at 30 min after LPR load, which was higher than the water load control. Plasma potassium was significantly elevated at 30 min after LPR load and remained high for 2 h, and at 2 h, it was significantly higher than the water load. Urinary citrate was significantly increased at 1 h after LPR load and remained high for 2 h, and at 2 h, it was significantly higher than the water load. Urinary potassium was significantly increased at 1 h after LPR load and remained high for 3 h, and its levels at 1, 2, and 3 h were significantly higher than the water load. Urinary total antioxidant status was significantly increased at 2 h after LPR load. In conclusion, LPR had an inhibitory effect on COM growth and exerted as antioxidant to attenuate ROS production in the COM-treated renal tubular cells. LPR provided citraturic, kaliuric, and antioxidative responses in healthy individuals without any adverse events. This suggests that LPR is well tolerated and safe for daily consumption. PMID:25588323

  2. 21 CFR 862.1542 - Oxalate test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems 862... treatment of urinary stones or certain other metabolic disorders. (b) Classification. Class I...

  3. Urinary 3'5' cyclic AMP. Diagnostic test in pseudohypoparathyroidism.

    PubMed Central

    Tze, W J; Saunders, J; Drummond, G I

    1975-01-01

    Measurement of urinary cyclic AMP (adenosine 3'5'-cyclic phosphate) and examination of calcium and phosphorus metabolism was carried out in two children with pseudohypoparathyroidism. In both patients infusion of parathyroid hormone failed to elicit any change in urinary cyclic AMP, while a dose-dependent increase in urinary cyclic AMP occurred in a normal control. The findings agree with concept of unresponsiveness of renal cortical tissue to parathyroid hormone in pseudohypoparathyroidism and provide further evidence that measurement of urinary cyclic AMP during parathyroid hormone infusion may be the method of choice in the diagnosis of this disease. PMID:173244

  4. CALCIUM CHANNELS INVOLVED IN CALCIUM OXALATE CRYSTAL FORMATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pistia stratiotes L. produces calcium (Ca) oxalate crystals in specialized cells called crystal idioblasts. Druse crystal idioblasts are produced in the adaxial mesophyll and raphide idioblasts are produced in the abaxial aerenchyma of this aquatic plant. Leaves formed on plants grown on 0 Ca medi...

  5. CALCIUM OXALATE CRYSTAL MORPHOLOGY MUTANTS FROM MEDICAGO TRUNCATULA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants accumulate crystals of calcium oxalate in a variety of shapes and sizes. Each plant forms a crystal or set of crystals with a specific morphology. The mechanism(s) through which a plant defines the morphology of its crystals remains unknown. To gain insight into the mechanisms regulating c...

  6. Production of battery grade materials via an oxalate method

    SciTech Connect

    Belharouak, Ilias; Amine, Khalil

    2014-04-29

    An active electrode material for electrochemical devices such as lithium ion batteries includes a lithium transition metal oxide which is free of sodium and sulfur contaminants. The lithium transition metal oxide is prepared by calcining a mixture of a lithium precursor and a transition metal oxalate. Electrochemical devices use such active electrodes.

  7. Oxalate Mass Balance During Chemical Cleaning in Tank 5F

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.; Fink, S.

    2011-07-08

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is preparing Tank 5F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. Following mechanical sludge removal, SRS performed chemical cleaning with oxalic acid to remove the sludge heel. Personnel are currently assessing the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning to determine whether the tank is ready for closure. SRS personnel collected liquid samples during chemical cleaning and submitted them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. Following chemical cleaning, they collected a solid sample (also known as 'process sample') and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. The authors analyzed these samples to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning process. Analysis of the anions showed the measured oxalate removed from Tank 5F to be approximately 50% of the amount added in the oxalic acid. To close the oxalate mass balance, the author collected solid samples, leached them with nitric acid, and measured the concentration of cations and anions in the leachate.

  8. 21 CFR 862.1542 - Oxalate test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Oxalate test system. 862.1542 Section 862.1542 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  9. Isolation and characterization of some new oxalate-decomposing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Chandra, T S; Shethna, Y I

    1975-01-01

    Forty-one cultures degrading and assimilating oxalate were isolated from chicken dung. Characterizarion indicated six different types. One of these belonged to thhe genus Alcaligenes hitherto never reported to degrade oxalte. Three groups of Pseudomonas strains differed physiologically from strains already known. PMID:1080384

  10. Interconversions between oxalic acid monoamide rotamers: Photochemical process versus tunneling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Gnther; Endres, Jrg; Reisenauer, Hans Peter

    2012-10-01

    UV irradiation converts matrix isolated (E,E)-oxalic acid monoamide (4) to its energetically less favorable (E,Z)-rotamer 5. The back-reaction 5 ? 4 seems to be governed by [H]tunneling. Matrix IR spectroscopy in combination with density functional computations is the method of choice to identify the bridged and unbridged rotamers 4 and 5.

  11. In vivo Drosophilia genetic model for calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, Taku; Cabrero, Pablo; Berkholz, Donald S.; Bondeson, Daniel P.; Ritman, Erik L.; Thompson, James R.; Dow, Julian A. T.

    2012-01-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a major public health problem with a complex and varied etiology. Most stones are composed of calcium oxalate (CaOx), with dietary excess a risk factor. Because of complexity of mammalian system, the details of stone formation remain to be understood. Here we have developed a nephrolithiasis model using the genetic model Drosophila melanogaster, which has a simple, transparent kidney tubule. Drosophilia reliably develops CaOx stones upon dietary oxalate supplementation, and the nucleation and growth of microliths can be viewed in real time. The Slc26 anion transporter dPrestin (Slc26a5/6) is strongly expressed in Drosophilia kidney, and biophysical analysis shows that it is a potent oxalate transporter. When dPrestin is knocked down by RNAi in fly kidney, formation of microliths is reduced, identifying dPrestin as a key player in oxalate excretion. CaOx stone formation is an ancient conserved process across >400 My of divergent evolution (fly and human), and from this study we can conclude that the fly is a good genetic model of nephrolithiasis. PMID:22993075

  12. Modification of crystal growth mechanism of yttrium oxalate in metastable solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Min-Hyun; Kim, Joon-Soo; Kim, Woon-Soo; Hirasawa, Izumi; Kim, Woo-Sik

    2002-02-01

    In the seeded crystallization of yttrium oxalate from a metastable supersaturated solution, the growth mechanism was observed to become modified by variations in agitation and additive concentration. From the desupersaturation curve, the crystal growth rate was estimated and described using a power law of supersaturation ( RT= Kg? Cp). Without an additive in the metastable solution, the overall growth rate coefficient, Kg, increased with an increase in the agitation speed while the growth rate order, p, was almost independent of the agitation speed. When the additive sodium tripolyphosphate was used to inhibit crystal growth, the desupersaturation in the solution was substantially retarded and the growth rate order varied up to about 2.5 with an increase in the additive concentration. Using a two-step growth model, the kinetic parameter dependencies of the crystal growth of yttrium oxalate, such as the mass transfer coefficient, surface integration order, and surface integration coefficient, were estimated in relation to the agitation speed and additive concentration. The mass transfer coefficient increased with an increase in the agitation, whereas the surface integration coefficient was independent of the agitation speed. However, as the additive concentration in the solution increased, the surface integration coefficient was reduced while the mass transfer coefficient remained almost invariant. The change in the rate-determining step by the additive was examined using an effectiveness factor. It was shown that the effect of the additive on the surface integration followed a Langmuir type isotherm.

  13. Obesity and Urinary Incontinence: Epidemiology and Clinical Research Update

    PubMed Central

    Subak, Leslee L.; Richter, Holly E.; Hunskaar, Steinar

    2010-01-01

    Purpose We reviewed the epidemiological literature on the association of obesity and urinary incontinence, and summarized clinical trial data on the effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence. Materials and Methods We systematically searched for published community based prevalence studies with bivariate or multivariate analysis of the association of urinary incontinence and overweight/obesity in women. Case series and randomized controlled trials of the effect of surgical, behavioral and pharmacological weight loss on urinary incontinence are summarized. Results Epidemiological studies showed that obesity is a strong independent risk factor for prevalent and incident urinary incontinence. There was a clear dose-response effect of weight on urinary incontinence with each 5-unit increase in body mass index associated with about a 20% to 70% increase in the urinary incontinence risk, and the maximum effect of weight rarely exceeded an OR of greater than 4 to 5 on well controlled analyses. The odds of incident urinary incontinence during 5 to 10 years increased by approximately 30% to 60% for each 5-unit increase in body mass index. There may be a stronger association of increasing weight with prevalent and incident stress incontinence, including mixed incontinence, than with urge incontinence and overactive bladder syndrome. Weight loss studies indicated that surgical and nonsurgical weight loss led to significant improvements in urinary incontinence symptoms. Conclusions Epidemiological studies document overweight and obesity as important risk factors for urinary incontinence. Weight loss by surgical and more conservative approaches is effective to decrease urinary incontinence symptoms and should be strongly considered a first line treatment in this patient population. PMID:19846133

  14. GADOLINIUM OXALATE SOLUBILITY MEASUREMENTS IN NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.

    2012-02-22

    HB-Line will begin processing Pu solutions during FY2012 that will involve the recovery of Pu using oxalate precipitation and filtration. After the precipitation and filtration processes, the filtrate solution will be transferred from HB-Line to H-Canyon. The presence of excess oxalate and unfiltered Pu oxalate solids in these solutions create a criticality safety issue if they are sent to H-Canyon without controls in H-Canyon. One approach involves H-Canyon receiving the filtrate solution into a tank that is poisoned with soluble gadolinium (Gd). Decomposition of the oxalate will occur within a subsequent H-Canyon vessel. The receipt of excess oxalate into the H-Canyon receipt tanks has the potential to precipitate a portion of the Gd poison in the receipt tanks. Because the amount of Gd in solution determines the maximum amount of Pu solids that H-Canyon can receive, H-Canyon Engineering requested that SRNL determine the solubility of Gd in aqueous solutions of 4-10 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), 4-12 g/L Gd, and 0.15-0.25 M oxalic acid (H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}) at 25 C. The target soluble Gd concentration is 6 g/L. The data indicate that the target can be achieved above 6 M HNO{sub 3} and below 0.25 M H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}. For 6 M HNO{sub 3}, 10.5 g/L and 7 g/L Gd are soluble in 0.15 M and 0.25 M H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}, respectively. In 4 M HNO{sub 3}, the Gd solubility drops significantly to 2 g/L and 0.25 g/L in 0.15 M and 0.25 M H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}, respectively. The solubility of Gd at 8-10 M HNO{sub 3} exceeds the solubility at 6 M HNO{sub 3}. The data for 4 M HNO{sub 3} showed good agreement with data in the literature. To achieve a target of 6 g/L soluble Gd in solution in the presence of 0.15-0.25 M oxalate, the HNO{sub 3} concentration must be maintained at or above 6 M HNO{sub 3}.

  15. Regulation of urinary thromboxane B2 in man: influence of urinary flow rate and tubular transport

    SciTech Connect

    Zipser, R.D.; Smorlesi, C.

    1984-02-01

    Thromboxane B2 (TxB) is excreted in human urine, but the mechanism of renal excretion and the quantitative relationship of urinary TxB to the active parent compound, thromboxane A2, of renal or extrarenal origin is not established. To determine the effects of vasoactive hormones, uricosuric agents and urinary flow rate on TxB excretion, urinary TxB was measured by radioimmunoassay and mass spectrometry, and renal metabolism of blood TxB was determined by radiochromatography of urine after i.v. (3H)-TxB infusions. Basal TxB was 6.7 +/- 1.1 ng/h during an oral water load, and TxB fell with s.g. antidiuretic hormone (to 3.4 +/- 0.4 ng/h, P less than 0.01) and with fluid restriction (to 2.6 +/- 0.5 ng/hr, P . 0.001) in parallel with urinary volume. Urinary excretion of unmetabolized (3H)-TxB also fell (by 56%) with fluid restriction, implicating altered metabolism rather than synthesis as the mechanism of the urinary flow effect. Angiotensin II infusions slightly reduced both TxB and urine volume, consistent with a flow effect. In contrast, probenecid did not alter urine volume, but increased urinary uric acid (by 244%), TxB (from 5.6 +/- 0.9 to 11.1 +/- 2.9 ng/h) and urinary excretion of blood (3H)-TxB (by 243%) by similar amounts (all P less than 0.05), suggesting that TxB is actively reabsorbed in the proximal tubule, similarly to uric acid. Thus, urinary excretion of TxB of renal and extrarenal origin is regulated by proximal and distal tubule factors.

  16. Partial urethral obstruction of rabbit urinary bladder: stereological evidence that the increase in muscle content is mostly driven by changes in number, rather than size, of smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    de Castro Sasahara, Tais H; Mayhew, Terry M; Rahal, Sheila C; Fioretto, Emerson T; Balieiro, Jlio C C; Ribeiro, Antonio A C M

    2007-01-01

    The effects of partial urethral obstruction on the detrusor muscle of rabbit urinary bladder were investigated using stereological sampling and estimation tools. Twelve female Norfolk rabbits (2.53.0 kg body weight) were divided into four groups: 3, 7 and 12 weeks after surgical intervention to produce a standard partial obstruction and unobstructed controls. Following removal, bladder axes (craniocaudal, dorsoventral and laterolateral) and organ weights were recorded. Bladders were prepared for light microscopy by multistage random sampling procedures. Stereological methods were used to estimate the volume of muscle and the packing density and total number of myocyte nuclei in each bladder. We also estimated mean myocyte volume and the mean cross-sectional area and length of myocytes. Group comparisons were made by one-way analysis of variance. Changes in bladder axes were mainly laterolateral and craniocaudal. Mean bladder weight increased roughly six-fold by 3 weeks and 17-fold by 12 weeks and was accompanied, on average, by 12- and 33-fold increases in total muscle volume. These variables did not differ at 3 and 7 weeks post-obstruction. Increases in muscle content were not accompanied by changes in packing densities but were associated with increases in the total numbers of myocyte nuclei (13-fold by 3 weeks, 28-fold by 12 weeks). Mean myocyte volume did not vary significantly between groups but cells in obstructed groups were shorter and wider. These findings support the notion that partial outflow obstruction leads to an increase in the number, but not mean volume, of myocytes. If due solely to myocyte mitosis, the total of 43 108 cells found at 12 weeks could be generated by the original complement of 15 107 cells if an average of only 2.1 106 new cells was produced every hour. In reality, even this modest proliferation rate is unlikely to be achieved because myocyte proliferation rates are very low and it is possible that new myocytes can arise by differentiation of mesenchymal or other precursor cells. PMID:17362488

  17. Regulation by macromolecules of calcium oxalate crystal aggregation in stone formers.

    PubMed

    Wesson, J A; Ganne, V; Beshensky, A M; Kleinman, J G

    2005-06-01

    Based on the structure of kidney stones, it is likely that they form as aggregations of preformed crystals, mostly calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM). In this study, we examined the ability of a macromolecular mixture isolated from the urine of normal individuals and stone formers to inhibit aggregation of preformed COM seed crystals in a simple ionic solution using measurements of changes in the particle size distribution (PSD) of preformed COM crystal aggregates. We also examined the effect in this assay of a number of synthetic homopolymers, naturally occurring urine macromolecules, and binary mixtures thereof. The macromolecular mixtures from urine of normals and most stone formers reduced the degree of aggregation of the seed crystals, whereas 22% of stone former urine macromolecules either did not disaggregate or actually promoted further aggregation. Stone formers within one family shared this property, but a non-stone forming sibling did not. Polyanions, either synthetic or naturally occurring, induced disaggregation to an extent similar to that exhibited by normal urine macromolecules, while polycations had no effect on the PSD. However, mixing a polyanion, either poly-aspartate or osteopontin, with the polycation poly-arginine, changed their behavior from disaggregation to aggregation promotion. The disaggregating behavior of normal urinary macromolecules provides a defense against aggregation, but a minority of stone forming individuals lacks this defense, which may contribute to stone formation. PMID:15864572

  18. Calcium Channels are Involved in Calcium Oxalate Crystal Formation in Specialized Cells of Pistia stratiotes L.

    PubMed Central

    VOLK, GAYLE M.; GOSS, LENORA J.; FRANCESCHI, VINCENT R.

    2004-01-01

    Background and Aims Pistia stratiotes produces large amounts of calcium (Ca) oxalate crystals in specialized cells called crystal idioblasts. The potential involvement of Ca2+ channels in Ca oxalate crystal formation by crystal idioblasts was investigated. Methods Anatomical, ultrastructural and physiological analyses were used on plants, fresh or fixed tissues, or protoplasts. Ca2+ uptake by protoplasts was measured with 45Ca2+, and the effect of Ca2+ channel blockers studied in intact plants. Labelled Ca2+ channel blockers and a channel protein antibody were used to determine if Ca2+ channels were associated with crystal idioblasts. Key Results 45Ca2+ uptake was more than two orders of magnitude greater for crystal idioblast protoplasts than mesophyll protoplasts, and idioblast number increased when medium Ca was increased. Plants grown on media containing 150m of the Ca2+ channel blockers, isradipine, nifedipine or fluspirilene, showed almost complete inhibition of crystal formation. When fresh tissue sections were treated with the fluorescent dihydropyridine?type Ca2+ channel blocker, DM?Bodipy?DHP, crystal idioblasts were intensely labelled compared with surrounding mesophyll, and the label appeared to be associated with the plasma membrane and the endoplasmic reticulum, which is shown to be abundant in idioblasts. An antibody to a mammalian Ca2+ channel ?1 subunit recognized a single band in a microsomal protein fraction but not soluble protein fraction on western blots, and it selectively and heavily labelled developing crystal idioblasts in tissue sections. Conclusions The results demonstrate that Ca oxalate crystal idioblasts are enriched, relative to mesophyll cells, in dihydropyridine?type Ca2+ channels and that the activity of these channels is important to transport and accumulation of Ca2+ required for crystal formation. PMID:15087302

  19. Predictors of Urinary Morbidity in Cs-131 Prostate Brachytherapy Implants

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Ryan P.; Jones, Heather A.; Beriwal, Sushil; Gokhale, Abhay; Benoit, Ronald

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: Cesium-131 is a newer radioisotope being used in prostate brachytherapy (PB). This study was conducted to determine the predictors of urinary morbidity with Cs-131 PB. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 159 patients underwent PB with Cs-131 at our institution and were followed by using Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) surveys to determine urinary morbidity over time. EPIC scores were obtained preoperatively and postoperatively at 2 and 4 weeks, and 3 and 6 months. Different factors were evaluated to determine their individual effect on urinary morbidity, including patient characteristics, disease characteristics, treatment, and dosimetry. Multivariate analysis of covariance was carried out to identify baseline determinants affecting urinary morbidity. Factors contributing to the need for postoperative catheterization were also studied and reported. Results: At 2 weeks, patient age, dose to 90% of the organ (D90), bladder neck maximum dose (D{sub max}), and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) predicted for worse function. At 4 weeks, age and EBRT continued to predict for worse function. At the 3-month mark, better preoperative urinary function, preoperative alpha blockers, bladder neck D{sub max}, and EBRT predicted for worse urinary morbidity. At 6 months, better preoperative urinary function, preoperative alpha blockers, bladder neck D{sub max}, and EBRT were predictive of increased urinary problems. High bladder neck D{sub max} and poor preoperative urinary function predicted for the need for catheterization. Conclusions: The use of EBRT plus Cs-131 PB predicts for worse urinary toxicity at all time points studied. Patients should be cautioned about this. Age was a consistent predictor of worsened morbidity immediately following Cs-131 PB, while bladder D{sub max} was the only consistent dosimetric predictor. Paradoxically, patients with better preoperative urinary function had worse urinary morbidity at 3 and 6 months, consistent with recently published literature.

  20. Urinary and metabolic clearances of arginine vasopressin in normal subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, A.M.; Steciak, E.

    1986-08-01

    Synthetic arginine vasopressin (AVP) was infused into 11 hydrated normal subjects at five different infusion rates ranging from 10 to 350 U kg min . Each infusion rate was continued for 1 h, and urinary determinations were made on the 30- to 60-min specimens during which time there was no further rise in plasma AVP. Urinary AVP concentrations ( U/ml) and excretion rates ( U/min) increased linearly with increasing infusion rates, and the concentration of AVP in urine increased 120 times more rapid than plasma. Urinary and metabolic clearances of AVP also increased linearly with the maximum urinary clearance being 60.6% of the creatinine clearance. The total metabolic clearance of AVP (including urinary clearance) was 17.8 times that of the urinary clearance of AVP alone. These data clarify the relationships between plasma and urinary AVP in normal hydrated subjects during AVP infusion under steady-state conditions and emphasize the potential advantage of measuring urinary AVP as a monitor of endogenous AVP secretion. AVP was measured by radioimmunoassay.

  1. Diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infections in children.

    PubMed

    White, Brett

    2011-02-15

    Acute urinary tract infections are relatively common in children, with 8 percent of girls and 2 percent of boys having at least one episode by seven years of age. The most common pathogen is Escherichia coli, accounting for approximately 85 percent of urinary tract infections in children. Renal parenchymal defects are present in 3 to 15 percent of children within one to two years of their first diagnosed urinary tract infection. Clinical signs and symptoms of a urinary tract infection depend on the age of the child, but all febrile children two to 24 months of age with no obvious cause of infection should be evaluated for urinary tract infection (with the exception of circumcised boys older than 12 months). Evaluation of older children may depend on the clinical presentation and symptoms that point toward a urinary source (e.g., leukocyte esterase or nitrite present on dipstick testing; pyuria of at least 10 white blood cells per high-power field and bacteriuria on microscopy). Increased rates of E. coli resistance have made amoxicillin a less acceptable choice for treatment, and studies have found higher cure rates with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Other treatment options include amoxicillin/clavulanate and cephalosporins. Prophylactic antibiotics do not reduce the risk of subsequent urinary tract infections, even in children with mild to moderate vesicoureteral reflux. Constipation should be avoided to help prevent urinary tract infections. Ultrasonography, cystography, and a renal cortical scan should be considered in children with urinary tract infections. PMID:21322515

  2. Reduction of carbon dioxide to oxalate by a binuclear copper complex.

    PubMed

    Pokharel, Uttam R; Fronczek, Frank R; Maverick, Andrew W

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of carbon dioxide to products such as oxalate (C2O4(2-)) is an active area of research, as the process converts an environmental pollutant into more useful organic compounds. However, carbon dioxide reduction remains a major challenge. Here we demonstrate a three-step reaction sequence in which a copper complex converts carbon dioxide to oxalate under mild conditions. The copper(II) complex is reduced to copper(I) in solution, either electrochemically or using sodium ascorbate. The reduced complex selectively reacts with carbon dioxide from air and fixes it into oxalate, with the oxalate ion bridging between two copper atoms. The bound oxalate ion is released as oxalic acid on treatment with mineral acids, regenerating the original copper(II) complex. This completes the process for conversion of carbon dioxide into oxalate using a binuclear copper complex and a mild reducing agent. PMID:25522935

  3. GADOLINIUM OXALATE SOLUBILITY MEASUREMENTS IN NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R. A.

    2012-03-12

    HB-Line will begin processing Pu solutions during FY2012 that will involve the recovery of Pu using oxalate precipitation and filtration. After the precipitation and filtration processes, the filtrate solution will be transferred from HB-Line to H-Canyon. The presence of excess oxalate and unfiltered Pu oxalate solids in these solutions create a criticality safety issue if they are sent to H-Canyon without controls in H-Canyon. One approach involves H-Canyon receiving the filtrate solution into a tank that is poisoned with soluble gadolinium (Gd). Decomposition of the oxalate will occur within a subsequent H-Canyon vessel. The receipt of excess oxalate into the H-Canyon receipt tanks has the potential to precipitate a portion of the Gd poison in the receipt tanks. Because the amount of Gd in solution determines the maximum amount of Pu solids that H-Canyon can receive, H-Canyon Engineering requested that SRNL determine the solubility of Gd in aqueous solutions of 4-10 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), 4-12 g/L Gd, and 0.15-0.25 M oxalic acid (H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}) at 25 °C. The target soluble Gd concentration is 6 g/L. The data indicate that the target can be achieved above 6 M HNO{sub 3} and below 0.25 M H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}. At 25 °C, for 6 M HNO{sub 3}, 11 g/L and 7 g/L Gd are soluble in 0.15 M and 0.25 M H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}, respectively. In 4 M HNO{sub 3}, the Gd solubility drops significantly to 2.5 g/L and 0.8 g/L in 0.15 M and 0.25 M H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}, respectively. The solubility of Gd at 8-10 M HNO{sub 3} exceeds the solubility at 6 M HNO{sub 3}. The data for 4 M HNO{sub 3} showed good agreement with data in the literature. To achieve a target of 6 g/L soluble Gd in solution in the presence of 0.15-0.25 M oxalate, the HNO{sub 3} concentration must be maintained at or above 6 M HNO{sub 3}. The solubility of Gd in 4 M HNO{sub 3} with 0.15 M oxalate at 10 °C is about 1.5 g/L. For 6 M HNO{sub 3} with 0.15 M oxalate, the solubility of Gd at 10 °C is about 10 g/L. Gadolinium nitrate is very soluble in HNO{sub 3}. The solubility of Gd is linear as a function of HNO{sub 3} from 343 g/L Gd in 2.88 M HNO{sub 3} to 149 g/L in 8.16 M HNO{sub 3}. Below 2.88 M HNO{sub 3}, the solubility of Gd approaches a limit of about 360 g/L. However, there are no data available below 1.40 M HNO{sub 3}, which has a Gd solubility of 353 g/L.

  4. Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gland) can cause lower urinary tract disease in cats. Although they are much less common causes, FLUTD ... your veterinarian about the best diet for your cat. Many commercial diets are acceptable, but some urinary ...

  5. Urinary melatonin in depression.

    PubMed

    Rao, A V; Devi, S P; Srinivasan, V

    1983-07-01

    This report is based on a study of 12 cases of depression (8 endogenous, 4 neurotic) with a view to explore the possible association between urinary melatonin and the illness prior to and following treatment. While cases of endogenous depression had low 24 hour as well as nocturnal urinary melatonin levels, the neurotic depressives showed higher than normal levels. A rise in the 24 hour melatonin levels occurred in all cases of endogenous depression though this did not apply, to the nocturnal levels. An association between melatonin levels with suicide behaviour, insomnia, psychomotor retardation and diurnal variation is discussed. PMID:21847281

  6. Calcium oxalate contribution to calcium cycling in forests of contrasting nutrient status

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dauer, Jenny M.; Perakis, Steven S.

    2014-01-01

    Calcium oxalate (Ca oxalate) is an insoluble biomineral that forms in plants and fungi, and occurs in soils across many types of ecosystems. Assessing how Ca oxalate may shape ecosystem Ca cycling requires information on the distribution of Ca oxalate among plant biomass, detritus, and mineral soil, and how it varies with ecosystem Ca status. We compared two Douglas-fir forests of contrasting ecosystem Ca availability, and found that Ca oxalate was partitioned similarly among plant biomass, detritus and mineral soil major ecosystem compartments at both sites, and total pools of Ca oxalate were greater in the high-Ca forest. However, the proportional importance of Ca oxalate was greater in the low-Ca than high-Ca forest (18% versus 4% of actively cycling ecosystem Ca, respectively). And calcium oxalate in mineral soil, which is of particular interest as a potential long-term Ca reservoir, was a larger portion of total available Ca (exchangeable Ca plus Ca oxalate Ca) in the low-Ca site than the high-Ca site (9% versus 1% of available soil Ca, respectively). Calcium oxalate was the dominant form of Ca returned from plants to soil as leaf litterfall at the high-Ca site, yet calcium oxalate disappeared rapidly from decomposing litter (0.28 yr−1 or faster) at both sites. We conclude that accumulation of Ca oxalate in forest ecosystems appears most closely related to overall Ca supply for live biomass pools, and that the accumulation of Ca oxalate in forest floor and mineral soil is limited by rapid microbial degradation of putatively unavailable Ca oxalate.

  7. In female rats, ethylene glycol treatment elevates protein expression of hepatic and renal oxalate transporter sat-1 (Slc26a1) without inducing hyperoxaluria

    PubMed Central

    Breljak, Davorka; Brzica, Hrvoje; Vrhovac, Ivana; Micek, Vedran; Karaica, Dean; Ljubojević, Marija; Sekovanić, Ankica; Jurasović, Jasna; Rašić, Dubravka; Peraica, Maja; Lovrić, Mila; Schnedler, Nina; Henjakovic, Maja; Wegner, Waja; Burckhardt, Gerhard; Burckhardt, Birgitta C.; Sabolić, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Aim To investigate whether the sex-dependent expression of hepatic and renal oxalate transporter sat-1 (Slc26a1) changes in a rat model of ethylene glycol (EG)-induced hyperoxaluria. Methods Rats were given tap water (12 males and 12 females; controls) or EG (12 males and 12 females; 0.75% v/v in tap water) for one month. Oxaluric state was confirmed by biochemical parameters in blood plasma, urine, and tissues. Expression of sat-1 and rate-limiting enzymes of oxalate synthesis, alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (Adh1) and hydroxy-acid oxidase 1 (Hao1), was determined by immunocytochemistry (protein) and/or real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (mRNA). Results EG-treated males had significantly higher (in μmol/L; mean ± standard deviation) plasma (59.7 ± 27.2 vs 12.9 ± 4.1, P < 0.001) and urine (3716 ± 1726 vs 241 ± 204, P < 0.001) oxalate levels, and more abundant oxalate crystaluria than controls, while the liver and kidney sat-1 protein and mRNA expression did not differ significantly between these groups. EG-treated females, in comparison with controls had significantly higher (in μmol/L) serum oxalate levels (18.8 ± 2.9 vs 11.6 ± 4.9, P < 0.001), unchanged urine oxalate levels, low oxalate crystaluria, and significantly higher expression (in relative fluorescence units) of the liver (1.59 ± 0.61 vs 0.56 ± 0.39, P = 0.006) and kidney (1.77 ± 0.42 vs 0.69 ± 0.27, P < 0.001) sat-1 protein, but not mRNA. The mRNA expression of Adh1 was female-dominant and that of Hao1 male-dominant, but both were unaffected by EG treatment. Conclusions An increased expression of hepatic and renal oxalate transporting protein sat-1 in EG-treated female rats could protect from hyperoxaluria and oxalate urolithiasis. PMID:26526882

  8. Applications in environmental bioinorganic: Nutritional and ultrastructural evaluation and calculus of thermodynamic and structural properties of metal-oxalate complexes.

    PubMed

    Tolentino, Terezinha Alves; Bertoli, Alexandre Carvalho; dos Santos Pires, Maíra; Carvalho, Ruy; Labory, Claudia Regina Gontijo; Nunes, Janaira Santana; Bastos, Ana Rosa Ribeiro; de Freitas, Matheus Puggina

    2015-11-01

    Lead (Pb) is known by its toxicity both for animals and plants. In order to evaluate its toxicity, plants of Brachiaria brizantha were cultivated on nutritive solution of Hoagland during 90 days and submitted to different concentrations of Pb. The content of macro and micronutrients was evaluated and there was a reduction on root content of Ca, besides the lowest dosages of Pb had induced an increase of N, S, Mn, Cu, Zn and Fe. The cell ultrastructure of leaves and roots were analyzed by transmission electronic microscopy (TEM). Among the main alterations occurred there were invaginations on cell walls, the presence of crystals on the root cells, accumulation of material on the interior of cells and vacuolar compartmentalization. On the leaves the degradation of chloroplasts was observed, as well as the increase of vacuoles. Structures for the formation of oxalate crystals were proposed through molecular modeling and thermodynamic stability. Calculi suggest the formation of highly stable metal-oxalate complexes. PMID:26099826

  9. Exposure of Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) Cells to Oxalate and Calcium Oxalate Crystals Activates Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate (NADPH)-Oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Aslam; Byer, Karen; Khan, Saeed R.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-oxidase activity in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and the production of reactive oxygen species on exposure to oxalate (Ox) or calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals. METHODS Monolayers of confluent Madin-Darby canine kidney cells were exposed to 100, 300, 500 μmol, 1 mmol Ox or 33, 66, 132 μg/cm2 CaOx crystals for 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, or 3 hours. After specified periods of exposure to Ox and CaOx crystals, lactate dehydrogenase release, trypan blue exclusion, activation of NADPH oxidase, and superoxide production were determined using standard procedures. The production of Nox4, a membrane associated subunit of the NADPH oxidase enzyme, was determined by western blot analysis. RESULTS Exposure to Ox and CaOx crystals leads to time- and concentration-dependent activation of NADPH oxidase. Western blot analysis showed an increase in the production of Nox4. The production of superoxide also changed in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, with maximum increases after 30-minute exposure to the highest concentrations of Ox and CaOx crystals. Longer exposures did not change the results or resulted in decreased activities. Exposure to higher concentrations also caused increased lactate dehydrogenase release and trypan blue exclusion indicating cell damage. CONCLUSION Results indicate that cells of the distal tubular origin are equipped with NADPH oxidase that is activated by exposures to Ox and CaOx crystals. Higher concentrations of both lead to cell injury, most probably through the increased reactive oxygen species production by the exposed cells. PMID:24360063

  10. Urinary Tract Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... reach your doctor, you can visit an urgent care center or hospital emergency room. The most important thing is to take action as soon as possible. previous continue Battling the Bacteria Only your health care provider can treat urinary tract infections. The first ...

  11. Urinary Tract Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... urethra or bladder. Couples who use lubrication during sex should use a water-soluble lubricant such as K-Y Jelly. Finally, drinking lots of water each day keeps the bladder active and bacteria free. Remember that although urinary tract infections are uncomfortable ...

  12. [Urinary catheter biofilm infections].

    PubMed

    Holá, V; Růzicka, F

    2008-04-01

    Urinary tract infections, most of which are biofilm infections in catheterized patients, account for more than 40% of hospital infections. Bacterial colonization of the urinary tract and catheters causes not only infection but also other complications such as catheter blockage by bacterial encrustation, urolithiasis and pyelonephritis. About 50% of long-term catheterized patients face urinary flow obstruction due to catheter encrustation, but no measure is currently available to prevent it. Encrustation has been known either to result from metabolic dysfunction or to be of microbial origin, with urease positive bacterial species implicated most often. Infectious calculi account for about 15-20% of all cases of urolithiasis and are often associated with biofilm colonization of a long-term indwelling urinary catheter or urethral stent. The use of closed catheter systems is helpful in reducing such problems; nevertheless, such a system only delays the inevitable, with infections emerging a little later. Various coatings intended to prevent the bacterial adhesion to the surface of catheters and implants and thus also the emergence of biofilm infections, unfortunately, do not inhibit the microbial adhesion completely and permanently and the only reliable method for biofilm eradication remains the removal of the foreign body from the patient. PMID:18578409

  13. Urinary creatinine concentrations in the U.S. population: implications for urinary biologic monitoring measurements.

    PubMed

    Barr, Dana B; Wilder, Lynn C; Caudill, Samuel P; Gonzalez, Amanda J; Needham, Lance L; Pirkle, James L

    2005-02-01

    Biologic monitoring (i.e., biomonitoring) is used to assess human exposures to environmental and workplace chemicals. Urinary biomonitoring data typically are adjusted to a constant creatinine concentration to correct for variable dilutions among spot samples. Traditionally, this approach has been used in population groups without much diversity. The inclusion of multiple demographic groups in studies using biomonitoring for exposure assessment has increased the variability in the urinary creatinine levels in these study populations. Our objectives were to document the normal range of urinary creatinine concentrations among various demographic groups, evaluate the impact that variations in creatinine concentrations can have on classifying exposure status of individuals in epidemiologic studies, and recommend an approach using multiple regression to adjust for variations in creatinine in multivariate analyses. We performed a weighted multivariate analysis of urinary creatinine concentrations in 22,245 participants of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994) and established reference ranges (10th-90th percentiles) for each demographic and age category. Significant predictors of urinary creatinine concentration included age group, sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index, and fat-free mass. Time of day that urine samples were collected made a small but statistically significant difference in creatinine concentrations. For an individual, the creatinine-adjusted concentration of an analyte should be compared with a "reference" range derived from persons in a similar demographic group (e.g., children with children, adults with adults). For multiple regression analysis of population groups, we recommend that the analyte concentration (unadjusted for creatinine) should be included in the analysis with urinary creatinine added as a separate independent variable. This approach allows the urinary analyte concentration to be appropriately adjusted for urinary creatinine and the statistical significance of other variables in the model to be independent of effects of creatinine concentration. PMID:15687057

  14. Synthesis, structural and spectroscopic investigations of nanostructured samarium oxalate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vimal, G.; Mani, Kamal P.; Biju, P. R.; Joseph, Cyriac; Unnikrishnan, N. V.; Ittyachen, M. A.

    2014-03-01

    Nanostructured samarium oxalate crystals were prepared via microwave assisted co-precipitation method. The crystal structure and morphology of the sample were analyzed using X-ray powder diffraction, Scanning electron microscopy and Transmission electron microscopy. The presence of functional groups is ascertained by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Samarium oxalate nanocrystals of average size 20 nm were aggregated together to form nano-plate structure in sub-microrange. Detailed spectroscopic investigation of the prepared phosphor material was carried out by Judd-Ofelt analysis based on the UV-Visible-NIR absorption spectra and photoluminescence emission spectra. The analysis reveals that the transition from energy level 4G5/2 to 6H7/2 of Sm3+ ion has maximum branching ratio and the corresponding orange emission can be used for display applications.

  15. Coupling Ratio for Ca(2+) Transport by Calcium Oxalate Precipitation.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Pankaj; Olesen, Claus; Mller, Jesper V

    2016-01-01

    The SERCA isoform 1a is constructed to transport 2 Ca(2+) ions across the sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane coupled to the hydrolysis of one molecule of MgATP. However, observed coupling ratios for Ca(2+) transported/ATP hydrolzyed are usually less than 2:1, since part of the Ca(2+) accumulated at high intravesicular concentrations by the active transport of Ca(2+) leaks out of the vesicles because of Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) exchange. However, in the presence of a high concentration of oxalate (5 mM) Ca(2+) will precipitate as Ca-oxalate inside the vesicles and thereby be prevented from leaking out and, in addition, this treatment will reduce the intravesicular free concentration of Ca(2+) to a level where optimal coupling ratios of 2:1 can be achieved. PMID:26695030

  16. Urinary Tract Infection and Bacteriuria in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Alexander P; Schaeffer, Anthony J

    2015-11-01

    Bacteriuria during pregnancy may be classified as asymptomatic bacteriuria, infections of the lower urinary tract (cystitis), or infections of the upper urinary tract (pyelonephritis). Lower tract bacteriuria is associated with an increased risk of developing pyelonephritis in pregnancy, which is itself associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Pregnant women should be screened for the presence of bacteriuria early in pregnancy. All bacteriuria in pregnancy should be treated, and antimicrobial choice in pregnancy should reflect safety for both the mother and the fetus. After treatment of bacteriuria, patients should be followed closely due to risk of recurrent bacteriuria. PMID:26475951

  17. Urinary Tract Infection and Neurogenic Bladder.

    PubMed

    McKibben, Maxim J; Seed, Patrick; Ross, Sherry S; Borawski, Kristy M

    2015-11-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are frequent, recurrent, and lifelong for patients with neurogenic bladder and present challenges in diagnosis and treatment. Patients often present without classic symptoms of UTI but with abdominal or back pain, increased spasticity, and urinary incontinence. Failure to recognize and treat infections can quickly lead to life-threatening autonomic dysreflexia or sepsis, whereas overtreatment contributes to antibiotic resistance, thus limiting future treatment options. Multiple prevention methods are used but evidence-based practices are few. Prevention and treatment of symptomatic UTI requires a multimodal approach that focuses on bladder management as well as accurate diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic treatment. PMID:26475949

  18. Resistance of bacteria in urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Chomarat, M

    2000-12-01

    Bacterial infection of the urinary tract is a common health problem in young women but also the most common nosocomial infection (>33%) contributing to the mortality of patients, and increasing the duration and cost of hospitalization. Escherichia coli is the most predominant organism and its prevalence varies in different studies. The high consumption of inappropriately prescribed antibiotics, combined with multiple pathology and frequent use of invasive devices, is a major factor contributing to high levels of resistance. There is a serious decrease in susceptibility of E. coli strains to amoxycillin, due to the presence of R-TEM enzymes, to cotrimoxazole and trimethoprim. Nitrofurantoin and fosfomycin-trometamol remain highly active against urinary Enterobacteriaceae, with over 90% of E. coli being susceptible. Knowledge of the most likely causative organisms and the prevalence of resistance pathogens to antimicrobial agents is essential to select antibiotics and to establish guidelines for the empirical treatment of urinary tract infections. PMID:11118863

  19. DEPOSITION TANK CORROSION TESTING FOR ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING POST OXALIC ACID DESTRUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Mickalonis, J.

    2011-08-29

    An Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process is being developed to aid in the high level waste tank closure at the Savannah River Site. The ECC process uses an advanced oxidation process (AOP) to destroy the oxalic acid that is used to remove residual sludge from a waste tank prior to closure. The AOP process treats the dissolved sludge with ozone to decompose the oxalic acid through reactions with hydroxyl radicals. The effluent from this oxalic acid decomposition is to be sent to a Type III waste tank and may be corrosive to these tanks. As part of the hazardous simulant testing that was conducted at the ECC vendor location, corrosion testing was conducted to determine the general corrosion rate for the deposition tank and to assess the susceptibility to localized corrosion, especially pitting. Both of these factors impact the calculation of hydrogen gas generation and the structural integrity of the tanks, which are considered safety class functions. The testing consisted of immersion and electrochemical testing of A537 carbon steel, the material of construction of Type III tanks, and 304L stainless steel, the material of construction for transfer piping. Tests were conducted in solutions removed from the destruction loop of the prototype ECC set up. Hazardous simulants, which were manufactured at SRNL, were used as representative sludges for F-area and H-area waste tanks. Oxalic acid concentrations of 1 and 2.5% were used to dissolve the sludge as a feed to the ECC process. Test solutions included the uninhibited effluent, as well as the effluent treated for corrosion control. The corrosion control options included mixing with an inhibited supernate and the addition of hydroxide. Evaporation of the uninhibited effluent was also tested since it may have a positive impact on reducing corrosion. All corrosion testing was conducted at 50 C. The uninhibited effluent was found to increase the corrosion rate by an order of magnitude from less than 1 mil per year (mpy) for an inhibited waste to a range of 5 to 23.4 mpy, depending on sludge chemistry. F-area-based effluents were, in general, more corrosive. Effective corrosion control measures included evaporation, hydroxide additions and mixing with supernates containing a representative supernate chemistry (5 M hydroxide and 1.5 M nitrite). Corrosion rates with these measures were generally 0.2 mpy. The A537 carbon steel was found to be susceptible to pitting when the corrosion control measure involved mixing the ECC effluent with a supernate chemistry having minimal inhibitor concentrations (0.5 M hydroxide and 0.3 M nitrite). Corrosion rates in this case were near 1 mpy.

  20. INFLUENCE OF THE CALCIUM OXALATE DEFECTIVE 4 (COD4) MUTATION ON THE GROWTH, OXALATE CONTENT, AND CALCIUM CONTENT OF MEDICAGO TRUNCATULA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium oxalate crystal formation has been well documented in plants. The pathway(s) and regulatory mechanism(s) of crystal formation and function, however, remain largely unknown. As a step toward expanding our understanding of crystal formation and function, we characterize the oxalate over-accu...

  1. Equilibrium studies of oxalate and aluminum containing solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, M. S.; King, W. D.; Peters, T. B.; Jones, D. H.

    2015-11-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked to develop data on the solubility and conditions leading to precipitation of sodium oxalate, sodium nitrate, Bayerite (a polymorph of gibbsite, Al(OH)3), and sodium aluminosilicate solids recently found in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). The data generated will be used to improve the OLI Systems thermodynamic database for these compounds allowing better prediction of solids formation by the modeling software in the future.

  2. Oxalate oxidases and differentiating surface structure in wheat: germins.

    PubMed Central

    Lane, B G

    2000-01-01

    Oxalate oxidases (OXOs) have been found to be concentrated in the surface tissues of wheat embryos and grains: germin is concentrated in root and leaf sheaths that surround germinated embryos; pseudogermin (OXO-psi) is concentrated in the epidermis and bracts that 'encircle' mature grains. Most strikingly, the epidermal accumulation of OXO-psi was found to presage the transition of a delicate 'skin', similar to the fragile epidermis of human skin, into the tough shell (the miller's 'beeswing') that is typical of mature wheat grains. A narrow range of oxalate concentration (1--2 mM) in the hydrated tissues of major crop cereals (barley, maize, oat, rice, rye and wheat) contrasted with wide variations in their OXO expression, e.g. cold-tolerant and cold-sensitive varieties of maize have similar oxalate contents but the former was found to contain approx. 20-fold more germin than did the latter. Well-known OXOs in sorghum, a minor cereal, and beet, a dicotyledon, were found to have little antigenic relatedness to the germins, but the beet enzyme did share some of the unique stability properties that are peculiar to the germin-like OXOs that are found only in the major crop cereals. Their concentration in surface structures of domesticated wheat suggests a biochemical role for germin-like OXOs: programmed cell death in surface tissues might be a constitutive as well as an adaptive form of differentiation that helps to produce refractory barriers against tissue invasion by predators. Incidental to the principal investigation, and using an OXO assay (oxalate-dependent release of CO(2)) that did not rely on detecting H(2)O(2), which is often fully degraded in cell extracts, it was found that OXO activity in soluble extracts of wheat was manifested only in standard solution assays if the extract was pretreated in a variety of ways, which included preincubation with pepsin or highly substituted glucuronogalactoarabinoxylans (cell-wall polysaccharides). PMID:10861243

  3. The Metabolic and Ecological Interactions of Oxalate-Degrading Bacteria in the Mammalian Gut

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Aaron W.; Dearing, Denise

    2013-01-01

    Oxalate-degrading bacteria comprise a functional group of microorganisms, commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract of mammals. Oxalate is a plant secondary compound (PSC) widely produced by all major taxa of plants and as a terminal metabolite by the mammalian liver. As a toxin, oxalate can have a significant impact on the health of mammals, including humans. Mammals do not have the enzymes required to metabolize oxalate and rely on their gut microbiota for this function. Thus, significant metabolic interactions between the mammalian host and a complex gut microbiota maintain the balance of oxalate in the body. Over a dozen species of gut bacteria are now known to degrade oxalate. This review focuses on the host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions that regulate the degradation of oxalate by the gut microbiota. We discuss the pathways of oxalate throughout the body and the mammalian gut as a series of differentiated ecosystems that facilitate oxalate degradation. We also explore the mechanisms and functions of microbial oxalate degradation along with the implications for the ecological and evolutionary interactions within the microbiota and for mammalian hosts. Throughout, we consider questions that remain, as well as recent technological advances that can be employed to answer them. PMID:25437337

  4. Triamterene and renal stone formation: the influence of triamterene and triamterene stones on calcium oxalate crystallization.

    PubMed

    White, D J; Nancollas, G H

    1987-02-01

    A constant composition method has been used to compare the effects of triamterene renal stone material, synthetic triamterene precipitates, and soluble triamterene on the nucleation and crystallization kinetics of calcium oxalate in aqueous solution in vitro. Crystallization studies have been carried out with the concentrations of calcium and oxalate ions maintained constant by the potentiometrically controlled addition of concentrated reagent solutions containing these ions. Triamterene renal stones were found to be much less effective than synthetic triamterene towards promoting the nucleation and crystallization of calcium oxalate from supersaturated solution. Renal stones composed of triamterene and matrix did not significantly enhance the deposition of calcium oxalate compared to nonseeded controls. The triamterene stones were also found to be ineffective in promoting calcium oxalate crystallization compared to other precipitates thought to be involved in the etiology of stone disease such as calcium hydroxyapatite. For stones of mixed triamterene/calcium oxalate composition, the enhancement of the nucleation and crystallization of calcium oxalate was directly related to the calcium oxalate content of the stone seed material. The presence of soluble triamterene or its metabolites in solution did not influence the crystallization kinetics of pure calcium oxalate seed materials. The results of this study indicate that triamterene in stones does not significantly contribute to further stone development through the enhancement of calcium oxalate crystallization processes. PMID:3105837

  5. The electrokinetic behavior of calcium oxalate monohydrate in macromolecular solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curreri, P. A.; Onoda, G. Y., Jr.; Finlayson, B.

    1988-01-01

    Electrophoretic mobilities were measured for calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) in solutions containing macromolecules. Two mucopolysaccharides (sodium heparin and chrondroitin sulfate) and two proteins (positively charged lysozyme and negatively charged bovine serum albumin) were studied as adsorbates. The effects of pH, calcium oxalate surface charge (varied by calcium or oxalate ion activity), and citrate concentration were investigated. All four macromolecules showed evidence for chemical adsorption. The macromolecule concentrations needed for reversing the surface charge indicated that the mucopopolysacchrides have greater affinity for the COM surface than the proteins. The amount of proteins that can chemically adsorb appears to be limited to approximately one monomolecular layer. When the surface charge is high, an insufficient number of proteins can chemically adsorb to neutralize or reverse the surface charge. The remaining surface charge is balanced by proteins held near the surface by longer range electrostatic forces only. Citrate ions at high concentrations appear to compete effectively with the negative protein for surface sites but show no evidence for competing with the positively charged protein.

  6. Mssbauer effect of 151Eu in europium oxalate and fluorides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wynter, C. I.; Oliver, F. W.; Davis, Alfred; Spijkerman, J. J.; Stadelmaier, H.; Wolfe, E. A.

    1993-04-01

    In a short communication [C.I. Wynter et al., Radiochimica Acta 55 (1991) 111.] we reported "relative broadening factors" of europium fluoride (EuF 3), europium oxide (Eu 2O 3), europium oxalate decahydrate (Eu 2(C 2O 4) 3.10H 2O and europium benzoate tetrahydrate Eu(C 6H 5COO) 3.4H 2O. Indications of the "relative broadening factor" of the oxalate compared to the fluoride suggested that the oxalate may indeed be a better host for the 21.6-keV gamma ray transition than the fluoride. In a continuing search for a better host matrix for this Mssbauer transition, we have prepared additionally a systematic series of fluorides, namely. EuF 3, NaEuF 4, Na 3EuF 6, and K 3EuF 6 to measure the linewidths and compute the "true" broadening factor using the natural linewidth of 151Eu as 1.31 {mm}/{s}.

  7. Bioavailability of soluble oxalate from spinach eaten with and without milk products.

    PubMed

    Brogren, Madelene; Savage, Geoffrey P

    2003-01-01

    Leafy vegetables such as spinach (Spinacia oleracea) are known to contain moderate amounts of soluble and insoluble oxalates. Frozen commercially available spinach in New Zealand contains 736.6+/-20.4 mg/100g wet matter (WM) soluble oxalate and 220.1+/-96.5mg/100g WM insoluble oxalate. The frozen spinach contained 90mg total calcium/100g WM, 76.7%of this calcium was unavailable as it was bound to oxalate as insoluble oxalate. The oxalate/calcium (mEq) ratio of the frozen spinach was 4.73. When frozen convenience food is grilled there is no opportunity for the soluble oxalates to be leached out into the cooking water and discarded. Soluble oxalates, when consumed, have the ability to bind to calcium in the spinach and any calcium in foods consumed with the spinach, reducing the absorption of soluble oxalate. In this experiment 10 volunteers ingested 100g grilled spinach alone or with 100g additions of cottage cheese, sour cream and sour cream with Calci-Trim milk (180 g) and finally, with 20g olive oil. The availability of oxalate in the spinach was determined by measuring the oxalate output in the urine over a 6-hour and 24-hour period after intake of the test meal. The mean bioavailability of soluble oxalate in the grilled spinach was 0.75+/-0.48% over a 6-hour period after intake and was 1.93+/-0.85% measured over a 24-hour period. Addition of sour cream and Calci-Trim milk reduced the availability of the oxalate in the spinach significantly (P<0.05) in both the 6-hour and 24-hour collection periods. PMID:12810415

  8. Isolation and characterizations of oxalate-binding proteins in the kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Roop-ngam, Piyachat; Chaiyarit, Sakdithep; Pongsakul, Nutkridta; Thongboonkerd, Visith

    2012-08-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The first large-scale characterizations of oxalate-binding kidney proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The recently developed oxalate-conjugated EAH Sepharose 4B beads were applied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 38 forms of 26 unique oxalate-binding kidney proteins were identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 25/26 (96%) of identified proteins had 'L-x(3,5)-R-x(2)-[AGILPV]' domain. -- Abstract: Oxalate-binding proteins are thought to serve as potential modulators of kidney stone formation. However, only few oxalate-binding proteins have been identified from previous studies. Our present study, therefore, aimed for large-scale identification of oxalate-binding proteins in porcine kidney using an oxalate-affinity column containing oxalate-conjugated EAH Sepharose 4B beads for purification followed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) to resolve the recovered proteins. Comparing with those obtained from the controlled column containing uncoupled EAH-Sepharose 4B (to subtract the background of non-specific bindings), a total of 38 protein spots were defined as oxalate-binding proteins. These protein spots were successfully identified by quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS) and/or tandem MS (MS/MS) as 26 unique proteins, including several nuclear proteins, mitochondrial proteins, oxidative stress regulatory proteins, metabolic enzymes and others. Identification of oxalate-binding domain using the PRATT tool revealed 'L-x(3,5)-R-x(2)-[AGILPV]' as a functional domain responsible for oxalate-binding in 25 of 26 (96%) unique identified proteins. We report herein, for the first time, large-scale identification and characterizations of oxalate-binding proteins in the kidney. The presence of positively charged arginine residue in the middle of this functional domain suggested its significance for binding to the negatively charged oxalate. These data will enhance future stone research, particularly on stone modulators.

  9. SLUDGE BATCH 7 (SB7) WASHING DEMONSTRATION TO DETERMINE SULFATE/OXALATE REMOVAL EFFICIENCY AND SETTLING BEHAVIOR

    SciTech Connect

    Reboul, S.; Click, D.; Lambert, D.

    2010-12-10

    To support Sludge Batch 7 (SB7) washing, a demonstration of the proposed Tank Farm washing operation was performed utilizing a real-waste test slurry generated from Tank 4, 7, and 12 samples. The purpose of the demonstration was twofold: (1) to determine the settling time requirements and washing strategy needed to bring the SB7 slurry to the desired endpoint; and (2) to determine the impact of washing on the chemical and physical characteristics of the sludge, particularly those of sulfur content, oxalate content, and rheology. Seven wash cycles were conducted over a four month period to reduce the supernatant sodium concentration to approximately one molar. The long washing duration was due to the slow settling of the sludge and the limited compaction. Approximately 90% of the sulfur was removed through washing, and the vast majority of the sulfur was determined to be soluble from the start. In contrast, only about half of the oxalate was removed through washing, as most of the oxalate was initially insoluble and did not partition to the liquid phase until the latter washes. The final sulfur concentration was 0.45 wt% of the total solids, and the final oxalate concentration was 9,900 mg/kg slurry. More oxalate could have been removed through additional washing, although the washing would have reduced the supernatant sodium concentration.The yield stress of the final washed sludge (35 Pa) was an order of magnitude higher than that of the unwashed sludge ({approx}4 Pa) and was deemed potentially problematic. The high yield stress was related to the significant increase in insoluble solids that occurred ({approx}8 wt% to {approx}18 wt%) as soluble solids and water were removed from the slurry. Reduction of the insoluble solids concentration to {approx}14 wt% was needed to reduce the yield stress to an acceptable level. However, depending on the manner that the insoluble solids adjustment was performed, the final sodium concentration and extent of oxalate removal would be prone to change. As such, the strategy for completing the final wash cycle is integral to maintaining the proper balance of chemical and physical requirements.

  10. Segmental Urethral Dosimetry and Urinary Toxicity in Patients With No Urinary Symptoms Before Permanent Prostate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Carys; Keyes, Mira Liu, Mitchell; Moravan, Veronika

    2008-10-01

    Purpose: To determine whether segmental urethral dosimetry is predictive for the degree of urinary morbidity after prostate brachytherapy in patients with no urinary symptoms before prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Between May 2000 and November 2005, 1,107 patients underwent iodine-125 monotherapy with urethral sparing techniques. A total of 166 patients fulfilled the selection criteria: baseline (International Prostate Symptom Score) IPSS {<=}5, no androgen deprivation therapy, and prostate ultrasound planning volumes (PUTV) <45 mL. The median follow-up was 44 months. Urinary morbidity was defined by maximum increase in IPSS, time to IPSS resolution, maximum Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) score, time to RTOG resolution, and urinary retention. Surrogate deviated urethra was contoured and doses calculated at the base, mid-prostate, apex, and urogenital diaphragm. Univariate and multivariate analysis was used to evaluate urethral and prostate dosimetry, age, PUTV, and number of needles for their association with urinary morbidity. Results: Urethral dose was fairly constant in all urethra segments except prostate base, where the variation in does was large. On multivariate analysis, higher urethral base D50, V100, and larger PUTV were predictive for higher maximum increase in IPSS. Higher urethral base V100 and larger PUTV predicted for prolonged IPSS resolution. Higher urethral base D50 and larger needle number predicted for longer RTOG resolution. Higher urethral base V100 predicted for RTOG {>=}2 toxicity. Conclusions: Radiation dose to the urethral base, larger PUTV, and needle number, predicted for increased urinary toxicity after prostate brachytherapy. Correlation between urinary morbidity and urethral base dosimetry may reflect a large variation in urethral dose observed at the prostate base.

  11. Psychosomatic Aspects of Urinary Incontinence in Women

    PubMed Central

    Debus, G.; Kästner, R.

    2015-01-01

    Urinary incontinence in women is a common problem. With increasing age its prevalence and severity of its manifestations increase. Among nursing home residents the frequency is between 43 and 77 %, 6 to 10 % of all admissions to nursing homes are due to urinary incontinence. The risk for urinary incontinence among women with cognitive deficits is 1.5- to 3.4-fold higher than for women without mental disorders. The most common form is stress incontinence (50 %), followed by mixed stress-urge incontinence (40 %) and purely urge incontinence (OAB = overactive bladder, 20 %). With regard to its cause, the latter remains unclarified in about 80 % of the cases. It is often difficult to treat. There are also cases in which urge incontinence is related to traumatic events. In such cases behavioural and psychotherapeutic options may be helpful. Almost inevitably every form of incontinence has psychological consequences: shame and insecurity are often results of uncontrolled loss of urine. Among others, in the long term, they lead to the avoidance of social contacts and possibly to depression and isolation. Consideration of the psychosomatics is important in the therapy for female urinary incontinence from three points of view: 1) the efficacy of treatment is better suited to the patient, 2) the treatment costs are lower, 3) the professional satisfaction of the responsible physician increases. PMID:25797959

  12. Oxalate secretion by ectomycorrhizal Paxillus involutus is mineral-specific and controls calcium weathering from minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmalenberger, A.; Duran, A. L.; Bray, A. W.; Bridge, J.; Bonneville, S.; Benning, L. G.; Romero-Gonzalez, M. E.; Leake, J. R.; Banwart, S. A.

    2015-07-01

    Trees and their associated rhizosphere organisms play a major role in mineral weathering driving calcium fluxes from the continents to the oceans that ultimately control long-term atmospheric CO2 and climate through the geochemical carbon cycle. Photosynthate allocation to tree roots and their mycorrhizal fungi is hypothesized to fuel the active secretion of protons and organic chelators that enhance calcium dissolution at fungal-mineral interfaces. This was tested using 14CO2 supplied to shoots of Pinus sylvestris ectomycorrhizal with the widespread fungus Paxillus involutus in monoxenic microcosms, revealing preferential allocation by the fungus of plant photoassimilate to weather grains of limestone and silicates each with a combined calcium and magnesium content of over 10 wt.%. Hyphae had acidic surfaces and linear accumulation of weathered calcium with secreted oxalate, increasing significantly in sequence: quartz, granite < basalt, olivine, limestone < gabbro. These findings confirmed the role of mineral-specific oxalate exudation in ectomycorrhizal weathering to dissolve calcium bearing minerals, thus contributing to the geochemical carbon cycle.

  13. Oxalate secretion by ectomycorrhizal Paxillus involutus is mineral-specific and controls calcium weathering from minerals

    PubMed Central

    Schmalenberger, A.; Duran, A. L.; Bray, A. W.; Bridge, J.; Bonneville, S.; Benning, L. G.; Romero-Gonzalez, M. E.; Leake, J. R.; Banwart, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    Trees and their associated rhizosphere organisms play a major role in mineral weathering driving calcium fluxes from the continents to the oceans that ultimately control long-term atmospheric CO2 and climate through the geochemical carbon cycle. Photosynthate allocation to tree roots and their mycorrhizal fungi is hypothesized to fuel the active secretion of protons and organic chelators that enhance calcium dissolution at fungal-mineral interfaces. This was tested using 14CO2 supplied to shoots of Pinus sylvestris ectomycorrhizal with the widespread fungus Paxillus involutus in monoxenic microcosms, revealing preferential allocation by the fungus of plant photoassimilate to weather grains of limestone and silicates each with a combined calcium and magnesium content of over 10 wt.%. Hyphae had acidic surfaces and linear accumulation of weathered calcium with secreted oxalate, increasing significantly in sequence: quartz, granite < basalt, olivine, limestone < gabbro. These findings confirmed the role of mineral-specific oxalate exudation in ectomycorrhizal weathering to dissolve calcium bearing minerals, thus contributing to the geochemical carbon cycle. PMID:26197714

  14. CORROSION TESTING OF CARBON STEEL IN OXALIC ACID CHEMICAL CLEANING SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B.; Mickalonis, J.; Subramanian, K.; Ketusky, E.

    2011-10-14

    Radioactive liquid waste has been stored in underground carbon steel tanks for nearly 60 years at the Savannah River Site. The site is currently in the process of removing the waste from these tanks in order to place it into vitrified, stable state for longer term storage. The last stage in the removal sequence is a chemical cleaning step that breaks up and dissolves metal oxide solids that cannot be easily pumped out of the tank. Oxalic acid has been selected for this purpose because it is an effective chelating agent for the solids and is not as corrosive as other acids. Electrochemical and immersion studies were conducted to investigate the corrosion behavior of carbon steel in simulated chemical cleaning environments. The effects of temperature, agitation, and the presence of sludge solids in the oxalic acid on the corrosion rate and the likelihood of hydrogen evolution were determined. The testing showed that the corrosion rates decreased significantly in the presence of the sludge solids. Corrosion rates increased with agitation, however, the changes were less noticeable.

  15. Oxalate secretion by ectomycorrhizal Paxillus involutus is mineral-specific and controls calcium weathering from minerals.

    PubMed

    Schmalenberger, A; Duran, A L; Bray, A W; Bridge, J; Bonneville, S; Benning, L G; Romero-Gonzalez, M E; Leake, J R; Banwart, S A

    2015-01-01

    Trees and their associated rhizosphere organisms play a major role in mineral weathering driving calcium fluxes from the continents to the oceans that ultimately control long-term atmospheric CO2 and climate through the geochemical carbon cycle. Photosynthate allocation to tree roots and their mycorrhizal fungi is hypothesized to fuel the active secretion of protons and organic chelators that enhance calcium dissolution at fungal-mineral interfaces. This was tested using (14)CO2 supplied to shoots of Pinus sylvestris ectomycorrhizal with the widespread fungus Paxillus involutus in monoxenic microcosms, revealing preferential allocation by the fungus of plant photoassimilate to weather grains of limestone and silicates each with a combined calcium and magnesium content of over 10 wt.%. Hyphae had acidic surfaces and linear accumulation of weathered calcium with secreted oxalate, increasing significantly in sequence: quartz, granite < basalt, olivine, limestone < gabbro. These findings confirmed the role of mineral-specific oxalate exudation in ectomycorrhizal weathering to dissolve calcium bearing minerals, thus contributing to the geochemical carbon cycle. PMID:26197714

  16. Evidence for a cytoplasmic pathway of oxalate biosynthesis in Aspergillus niger

    SciTech Connect

    Kubicek, C.P.; Schreferl-Kunar, G.; Woehrer, W.; Roehr, M.

    1988-03-01

    Oxalate accumulation of up to 8 g/liter was induced in Aspergillus niger by shifting the pH from 6 to 8. This required the presence of P/sub i/ and a nitrogen source and was inhibited by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. Exogenously added /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ was not incorporated into oxalate, but was incorporated into acetate and malate, thus indicating the biosynthesis of oxalate by hydrolytic cleavage of oxaloacetate. Inhibition of mitochondrial citrate metabolism by fluorocitrate did not significantly decrease the oxalate yield. The putative enzyme that was responsible for this oxaloacetate hydrolase (EC 3.7.1.1), which was induced de novo during the pH shift. Subcellular fractionation of oxalic acid-forming mycelia of A. niger showed that this enzyme is located in the cytoplasm of A. niger. The results are consistent with a cytoplasmic pathway of oxalate formation which does not involve the tricarboxylic acid cycle.

  17. Achieving urinary continence in children.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsi-Yang

    2010-07-01

    Achievement of urinary continence is an important developmental step that most children attain with the assistance of their parents and caregivers. Debate continues as to the best time to toilet train; in some Asian and African cultures children are trained as infants, while training at age 2-3 years is more typical in Western cultures. Infant voiding is not merely a spinal reflex, as the sensation of bladder filling is relayed to the brain. However, the ability of the brain to inhibit bladder contractions, and to achieve coordinated bladder contraction with sphincter relaxation, matures over time. While there is a concern that later toilet training may be responsible for an increase in urinary incontinence in children, no controlled studies on early versus late toilet training exist to evaluate this hypothesis. A number of medical conditions such as spina bifida, posterior urethral valves, cerebral palsy and autism can cause incontinence and difficulties in toilet training. The decision to start toilet training a child should take into account both the parents' expectation of how independent the child will be in terms of toileting, and the child's developmental readiness, so that a realistic time course for toilet training can be implemented. PMID:20531385

  18. Growth retardation of weddellite (calcium oxalate dihydrate) by sodium copper chlorophyllin.

    PubMed

    Tawashi, R; Cousineau, M

    1980-09-01

    We studied the growth of calcium oxalate dihydrate crystals (weddellite) in simulated urine and its transformation into the more stable monohydrate (whewellite). Sodium copper chlorophyllin in a concentration of 100 microgram per ml inhibited the growth of calcium oxalate dihydrate crystals in simulated urine. The size distribution parameters of the dihydrate crystals in the presence and absence of chlorophyllin suggest that soluble chlorophyllin could be of clinical significance in calcium oxalate urolithiasis. PMID:7437122

  19. Calcium oxalate crystals in the aragonite-producing green alga penicillus and related genera.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, E I; Roth, W C; Turner, J B; McEwen, R S

    1972-09-01

    Calcium oxalate crystals occur in the marine green algae Penicillus, Rhipocephalus, and Udotea, known as producers of sedimentary aragonite needles. In contrast to the externally deposited aragonite crystals which are generally < 15 micrometers long, the oxalate crystals are larger (up to 150 micrometers) and are located in the vacuolar system of the plant. No calcium oxalate was found in the related but noncalcifying genera Avrainvillea and Cladocephalus. PMID:17780990

  20. Female urinary stress incontinence.

    PubMed

    Cervigni, M; Gambacciani, M

    2015-10-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is more common than any other chronic disease, such as hypertension, depression or diabetes, with the prevalence estimated between 9 and 74%. Among the various forms of urinary incontinence, stress incontinence (SUI) is the most prevalent (50%), with urgency incontinence (UUI) representing 11% and mixed type (MUI) 36% (3% not classified). Nowadays, the restoration of urinary continence is one of the greatest challenges for the well-being and quality of life of women. The introduction of minimally invasive surgical procedures changed the anti-incontinence surgery, leading to similar, or even better results as traditional, invasive techniques. The development of the mid-urethral slings offers a viable alternative to surgical correction of SUI. These further developments of mini-sling procedures are appropriate for local anesthesia, less traumatic, 'tension-free' (to ensure continence without obstruction), simple, rapid and repeatable. The latest minimally invasive approaches can be performed in day surgery, with clear advantages compared to traditional procedures. A novel approach through the use of vaginal laser techniques could represent an additional opportunity, as a non-invasive, outpatient method to treat SUI. PMID:26366798

  1. Urinary markers of malignancy.

    PubMed

    Koenig, F; Jung, K; Schnorr, D; Loening, S A

    2000-07-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the second most common malignancy in the genitourinary tract. The majority of urothelial tumors are superficial when the patient first presents, but despite adequate resection of the primary lesion the recurrence rate is particularly high. In a small but significant group of patients the tumor is primary invasive or subsequently can progress and leads to death. Voided urine can be easily obtained and therefore diagnostic urine tests would be ideal for screening or follow up of TCC. Although many urinary markers have been described, none of them is used routinely in clinical practice. Promising tumor markers still need to be evaluated in multi-center clinical studies. Larger prospective trials are necessary in order to identify prognostic indicators that would help to predict disease progression or response to different treatment modalities (BCG, chemo-, radiotherapy, etc.). Hopefully, new diagnostic urine tests will allow to identify patients who will most benefit from early cystectomy with or without adjuvant treatment, bladder sparing protocols or systemic treatment. In this paper we have reviewed the literature and discuss, from the clinician's point of view, the current status of various diagnostic tests for urinary markers. [Lee SJ, Lee WE, Chang SG, Lee CH, Kim JI. A comparative study of telomerase, Lewis X, BTA, NMP22 and urinary cytology in bladder tumor. J Urol 1999;161(suppl):152.] PMID:10841921

  2. Environmentally related diseases of the urinary tract

    SciTech Connect

    Goyer, R.A. )

    1990-03-01

    Nephrotoxicity from exposure to therapeutic agents and chemicals in the environment and workplace results in a broad spectrum of clinical renal disease that may mimic disorders from other causes. Nephrotoxic agents may, in fact, be responsible for some fraction of renal disease of undetermined etiology. Specific diagnosis and treatment by removal from exposure to the toxic agent is more likely in the early phase of the disorder. Measurement and characterization of proteinuria provides the most sensitive and reliable method of early detection. Increased urinary excretion of serum proteins with molecular weight in excess of 50,000, such as albumin and transferrin, is an early indicator of glomerular injury. Low-molecular-weight proteinuria (beta 2-microglobulin or retinol-binding protein) and enzymuria, particularly excretion of NAG, are sensitive indicators of renal tubular cell injury. Tests that reflect hypersensitivity reactions are often indicative of immunologically mediated nephrotoxicity but are not specific for the kidney. Cancers of the kidney and urinary bladder appear to be increasing and are most common among the socially active and affluent. Susceptibility of the urinary tract to toxicity and carcinogenicity reflect contact of excreted toxins with the epithelial cells of nephrons and urinary bladder. 45 references.

  3. [Pharmacotherapy of urinary incontinence in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Becher, K F

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence and the incidence of Urinary Incontinence is growing. Women suffer predominantly from stress and mixed urinary incontinence and men from urge incontinence. In elderly people, the pathophysiological and the physiological change in the lower urinary tract system must be considered as well as an underlying multimorbidity. Stress urinary incontinence is among others caused by an insufficient urethral closure mechanism and urge incontinence is followed by unhibited detrusor contractions. Medical treatment is beside other important conservative options only one part of the treatment strategy in incontinence. Duloxetine, a serotonine-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitore can increase activity of the external urethral sphincter and is able to reduce incontinence episodes in up to 64 %. Antagonists of muscarinic receptors can reduce urgency, frequency and urge incontinence as well as increase bladder capacity significantly. In Germany, darifenacin, fesoterodin, oxybutynin, propiverine, solifenacin, tolterodine and trospium chloride are available to treat urge incontinence. The efficacy of these agents are almost comparable in the elderly with the exception of oxybutynin IR. However, tolerability is different and not well studied in the elderly population with the exception of fesoterodin. Side effects, especially dry mouth, dizziness and constipation often limit their use. None of the agents show ideal efficacy or tolerability in all patients. Last summer therefore a β3-agonist mirabegron was also introduced in Germany but was withdrawn. PMID:26886709

  4. Urinary Incontinence Risk Rises Slightly After Vaginal Birth, Study Finds

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 157490.html Urinary Incontinence Risk Rises Slightly After Vaginal Birth, Study Finds But the risks that come ... data from 16 studies. The investigators found that vaginal delivery was associated with an 8 percent increased ...

  5. Effects of impurities on phase transition changes according to heat treatment of porous anodic alumina fabricated in oxalic acid and phosphoric acid electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Sam Yeon; Kim, Jin Woo; Bu, Sang Don

    2015-05-01

    In this study, porous anodic alumina (PAA) was fabricated using oxalic acid and phosphoric acid as electrolytes, and the effects of impurities on the phase transition of PAA according to changes in the heat-treatment temperature were investigated. The average pore diameter of PAA fabricated using oxalic acid and phosphoric acid increased from 43 nm to 64 nm and from 145 nm to 183 nm, respectively, in proportion to the increase in the heat-treatment temperature. An X-ray diffraction (XRD) structure analysis revealed the structure of PAA fabricated in oxalic acid to be amorphous at or below 800C and it changed to ?-alumina at 850C. At higher temperatures, as the heattreatment temperature was increased, a coexistence of ?- and ?-alumina phases was observed in the 900-1000C range, and the existence of ?-alumina was observed only at 1050C. Finally, at 1100C, a coexistence of ?- and ?-alumina phases was observed. On the other hand, for PAA fabricated in phosphoric acid, while an amorphous structure appeared at or below 800C, as was the case with PAA fabricated in oxalic acid, only ?-alumina existed in the 850-1100C range. On the basis of 27Al magic-angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR) results, we concluded that such a discrepancy in the phase transition was attributable to interactions between impurities originating from the electrolytes.

  6. Geriatric urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Ouslander, J G

    1992-02-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is now recognized as a prevalent, physically and emotionally disruptive, and costly health problem in the geriatric population. Because incontinence may be a manifestation of a subacute or reversible process within or outside of the lower urinary tract, and because effective treatment is available, it is important for primary care physicians to identify and appropriately assess incontinence in their geriatric patients. The initial evaluation of an incontinent geriatric patients. The initial evaluation of an incontinent geriatric patient includes a targeted history and physical examination, urinalysis, and simple tests of lower urinary tract function. Potentially reversible conditions that may be causing or contributing to the incontinence, such as delirium and urinary tract infection (UTI), should be identified and managed. Patients who may benefit from further testing, including urologic or gynecologic examination and/or complex urodynamic tests, should be identified and referred. Several therapeutic modalities can be used to treat geriatric UI. Behavioral therapies are noninvasive and effective, both in functional community-dwelling geriatric patients and in functionally impaired nursing home residents. Behavioral therapies include bladder training, pelvic muscle exercises, biofeedback, scheduled toileting, habit training, and prompted voiding. Pharmacologic therapy is often used in conjunction with behavioral therapy. For stress incontinence, alpha-adrenergic drugs are used and can be combined with topical or oral estrogen therapy in women. For urge incontinence, pharmacologic treatment involves drugs with anticholinergic and direct bladder muscle relaxant properties. Pharmacologic therapy for overflow incontinence is generally not effective on a long-term basis. Surgical treatment is indicated when a pathologic lesion such as a tumor is diagnosed, or when anatomic obstruction is believed to be the cause of the patient's symptoms. Surgical treatment of stress incontinence can be highly effective in properly selected women. Nonspecific, supportive treatments are also important in managing geriatric UI. Education for patients and caregivers is critical for the success of most therapies. Environmental manipulations and the appropriate use of toilet substitutes are especially important in frail, functionally impaired patients. Highly absorbent adult undergarments are helpful for managing many patients, but should not be used as the initial response to incontinence, and are best used in conjunction with more specific treatment whenever possible. Chronic indwelling catheterization should only be used to manage incontinence when it is associated with clinically significant urinary retention, skin conditions that cannot heal because of incontinence, or severe illness that makes the catheter the most comfortable method of management.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1732088

  7. The use of non-contrast computed tomography and color Doppler ultrasound in the characterization of urinary stones - preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Bulakçı, Mesut; Tefik, Tzevat; Akbulut, Fatih; Örmeci, Mehmet Tolgahan; Beşe, Caner; Şanlı, Öner; Oktar, Tayfun; Salmaslıoğlu, Artür

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of density value in computed tomography (CT) and twinkling artifact observed in color Doppler analysis for the prediction of the mineral composition of urinary stones. Material and methods A total of 42 patients who were operated via percutaneous or endoscopic means and had undergone abdominal non-contrast CT and color Doppler ultrasonography examinations were included in the study. X-ray diffraction method was utilized to analyze a total of 86 stones, and the correlations between calculated density values and twinkling intensities with stone types were investigated for each stone. Results Analyses of extracted stones revealed the presence of 40 calcium oxalate monohydrate, 12 calcium oxalate dihydrate, 9 uric acid, 11 calcium phosphate, and 14 cystine stones. The density values were calculated as 1499±269 Hounsfield Units (HU) for calcium oxalate monohydrate, 1505±221 HU for calcium oxalate dihydrate, 348±67 HU for uric acid, 1106±219 HU for calcium phosphate, and 563±115 HU for cystine stones. The artifact intensities were determined as grade 0 in 15, grade 1 in 32, grade 2 in 24, and grade 3 in 15 stones. Conclusion In case the density value of the stone is measured below 780 HU and grade 3 artifact intensity is determined, it can be inferred that the mineral composition of the stone tends to be cystine. PMID:26623143

  8. Self-Ordered Nanoporous Alumina Templates Formed by Anodization of Aluminum in Oxalic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vida-Simiti, Ioan; Nemes, Dorel; Jumate, Nicolaie; Thalmaier, Gyorgy; Sechel, Niculina

    2012-10-01

    Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes with highly ordered nanopores serve as ideal templates for the formation of various nanostructured materials. The procedure of the template preparation is based on a two-step self-organized anodization of aluminum. In the current study, AAO templates were fabricated in 0.3 M oxalic acid under the anodizing potential range of 30-60 V at an electrolyte temperature of ~5°C. The AAO templates were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and differential thermal analysis. The as obtained layers are amorphous; the mean pore size is between 40 nm and 75 nm and increases with the increase of the anodization potential. Well-defined pores across the whole aluminum template, a pore density of ~1010 pores/cm2, and a tendency to form a porous structure with hexagonal symmetry were observed.

  9. Development of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress during Experimental Oxalate Nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Motin, Yu G; Lepilov, A V; Bgatova, N P; Zharikov, A Yu; Motina, N V; Lapii, G A; Lushnikova, E L; Nepomnyashchikh, L M

    2016-01-01

    Morphological and ultrastructural study of the kidney was performed in rats with oxalate nephrolithiasis. Specific features of endoplasmic reticulum stress were evaluated during nephrolithiasis and treatment with ?-tocopherol. We observed the signs of endoplasmic reticulum stress with activation of proapoptotic pathways and injury to the cell lining in nephron tubules and collecting ducts. Ultrastructural changes were found in the organelles, nuclei, and cell membranes of epitheliocytes. A relationship was revealed between endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative damage, which developed at the early state of lithogenesis. PMID:26750932

  10. Organic Selenium Alleviated the Formation of Ethylene Glycol-Induced Calcium Oxalate Renal Calculi by Improving Osteopontin Expression and Antioxidant Capability in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongwang; Xu, Haibin; Zhong, Wenting; Shen, Qingpeng; Zhuang, Tenghan; Huang, Kehe

    2015-12-01

    Twenty one-year-old local male dogs were randomly assigned into four groups (five dogs per group). The control and the ethylene glycol (EG) groups were fed basal diets without and with EG, and the EG+sodium selenite (EG+SS) and EG+selenium yeast (EG+SY) groups were fed basal diets with EG containing SS and SY, respectively. Blood, urine, and renal samples were taken after 18 weeks of feeding. The results showed that compared with the control group, the serum calcium levels and antioxidase activities significantly decreased in the EG group. Serum creatinine, urea nitrogen, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and urine calcium and oxalate levels significantly increased. Calcium oxalate crystal deposition and osteopontin (OPN) messenger RNA and protein expression in the renal tissues significantly increased. These changes above in the EG group were reversed within limits by adding selenium in the diets (both EG+SS and EG+SY groups). Further, compared with the EG+SS group, the EG+SY group showed better effects in decreasing the formation of EG-induced calcium oxalate renal calculi and OPN expression and improving antioxidant capability in dogs. It indicates that organic selenium has the potential value to alleviate the formation of EG-induced calcium oxalate renal calculi. PMID:26018495

  11. Temporal changes in the expression of mRNA of NADPH oxidase subunits in renal epithelial cells exposed to oxalate or calcium oxalate crystals

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Saeed R.; Khan, Aslam; Byer, Karen J.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Exposure of renal epithelial cells to oxalate (Ox) or calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals leads to the production of reactive oxygen species and cell injury. We have hypothesized that Ox and CaOx crystals activate NADPH oxidase through upregulation of its various subunits. Methods. Human renal epithelial-derived cell line, HK-2, was exposed to 100 μmol Ox or 66.7 μg/cm2 CaOx monohydrate crystals for 6, 12, 24 or 48 h. After exposure, the cells and media were processed to determine activation of NADPH oxidase, production of superoxide and 8-isoprostane (8IP), and release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). RT-PCR was performed to determine mRNA expression of NADPH subunits p22phox, p40phox, p47phox, p67phox and gp91phox as well as Rac-GTPase. Results. Exposure to Ox and CaOx crystals resulted in increase in LDH release, production of 8-IP, NADPH oxidase activity and production of superoxide. Exposure to CaOx crystals resulted in significantly higher NADPH oxidase activity, production of superoxide and LDH release than Ox exposure. Exposure to Ox and CaOx crystals altered the expression of various subunits of NADPH oxidase. More consistent were increases in the expression of membrane-bound p22phox and cytosolic p47phox. Significant and strong correlations were seen between NADPH oxidase activity, the expression of p22phox and p47phox, production of superoxide and release of LDH when cells were exposed to CaOx crystals. The expressions of neither p22phox nor p47phox were significantly correlated with increased NADPH oxidase activity after the Ox exposure. Conclusions. As hypothesized, exposure to Ox or CaOx crystals leads to significant increases in the expression of p22phox and p47phox, leading to activation of NADPH oxidase. Increased NADPH oxidase activity is associated with increased superoxide production and lipid peroxidation. Different pathways appear to be involved in the stimulation of renal epithelial cells by exposure to Ox and CaOx crystals. PMID:21079197

  12. Best pharmacological practice: urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Nicolle, Lindsay

    2003-05-01

    Urinary tract infection is the most frequent bacterial infection. Acute uncomplicated urinary infection and acute non-obstructive pyelonephritis occur in young women with normal genitourinary tracts. Empirical short-course therapy is preferred for the management of acute cystitis, but evolving resistance requires continuing reassessment of optimal antimicrobial selection. Empirical trimethoprim or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole has been recommended, but increasing resistance to these agents suggests that pivmecillinam, nitrofurantoin and perhaps fosfomycin trometamol should be considered. Although flouroquinolones are effective as short-course therapy, widespread empirical use of these agents should be discouraged because of potential promotion of resistance. For acute non-obstructive pyelonephritis, flouroquinolones are the empirical oral treatment of choice, although urine culture results should direct continuing therapy. Complicated urinary tract infection occurs in men or women of all ages with underlying abnormalities of the genitourinary tract. Treatment of complicated urinary infection is individualised, taking into consideration the underlying abnormality and susceptibilities of the infecting organism. Asymptomatic bacteriuria should not be treated except in pregnant women, in patients prior to undergoing an invasive surgical procedure, or renal transplant recipients in the early postrenal transplant period. PMID:12739995

  13. Antimicrobial Stewardship and Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Abbo, Lilian M.; Hooton, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infections are the most common bacterial infections encountered in ambulatory and long-term care settings in the United States. Urine samples are the largest single category of specimens received by most microbiology laboratories and many such cultures are collected from patients who have no or questionable urinary symptoms. Unfortunately, antimicrobials are often prescribed inappropriately in such patients. Antimicrobial use, whether appropriate or inappropriate, is associated with the selection for antimicrobial-resistant organisms colonizing or infecting the urinary tract. Infections caused by antimicrobial-resistant organisms are associated with higher rates of treatment failures, prolonged hospitalizations, increased costs and mortality. Antimicrobial stewardship consists of avoidance of antimicrobials when appropriate and, when antimicrobials are indicated, use of strategies to optimize the selection, dosing, route of administration, duration and timing of antimicrobial therapy to maximize clinical cure while limiting the unintended consequences of antimicrobial use, including toxicity and selection of resistant microorganisms. This article reviews successful antimicrobial stewardship strategies in the diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infections.

  14. [Lower urinary tract infections in urogynaecology].

    PubMed

    Novckov, M; Vlk, R; Horcicka, L

    2005-01-01

    Urinary tract infections belong among the most common infectious diseases in adult women. Sporadic infection is usually not a diagnostic and therapeutic problem. Recurrent lower urinary tract infections significantly decrease the quality of life of the affected women. Colonisation of the vagina, vulva and the perineum by the uropathogens is the main risk factor of any urinary infection, but only concomitant action of some other factor (e.g. immunosuppression, urethral stenosis, urolithiasis, urethral diverticulum, diabetes and urinary incontinence) can induce the recurrent infection. Correct primary treatment and proper used preventive method is highly advantageous not only from the individual but also from the global point of view (high diagnostic and therapeutic expenses, increase of resistance and imminent success decrease of the modern treatment). Continuous low dose antimicrobial treatment is the most common prophylactic modality. Postcoital antimicrobial prophylaxis and immunomodulative therapy are the other used modalities. Local vaginal estrogen therapy is recommended in postmenopausal women. Estrogens improve the symptoms of the urogenital atrophy and decrease the vaginal pH, which is very important in prevention of the pathological bacterial colonisation of the vagina. Decision about the individual therapy and prophylaxis must be preceded by the evaluation of the risk factors with positives and negatives of the used drug. PMID:15945485

  15. Characteristics of the transport of oxalate and other ions across rabbit proximal colon.

    PubMed

    Hatch, M; Freel, R W; Vaziri, N D

    1993-05-01

    In order to characterize oxalate handling by the P2 segment of the rabbit proximal colon, the fluxes of [14C]oxalate, 22Na+, and 36Cl- were measured in vitro using conventional short-circuiting techniques. In standard buffer the proximal colon exhibited net secretion of Na+ (-2.31 +/- 0.64 mu equiv cm-2 h-1), negligible net Cl- transport, and net secretion of oxalate (-12.7 +/- 1.6 pmol cm-2 h-1). Replacement of buffer Na+ or Cl- abolished net oxalate secretion, while HCO(3-)-free media revealed a net absorption of oxalate (19.3 +/- 4.2 pmol cm-2 h-1) and stimulated NaCl absorption. Mucosal amiloride and dimethylamiloride (1 mM) significantly reduced the unidirectional fluxes of oxalate and enhanced sodium secretion by decreasing JNams. The anion exchange inhibitor 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS; 0.1 mM, both sides) reduced the unidirectional fluxes of oxalate and chloride. Serosal epinephrine (50 microM) stimulated oxalate absorption (21.3 +/- 6.3 pmol cm-2 h-1) and sodium absorption (5.71 +/- 1.20 mu equiv cm-2 h-1), whereas dibutyryl-cAMP enhanced oxalate secretion (-43.4 +/- 6.9 pmol cm-2 h-1) and stimulated chloride secretion (-7.27 +/- 0.64 mu equiv cm-2 h-1). These results indicate that the P2 segment of the proximal colon possesses (a) secretory as well as absorptive capacities, (b) oxalate fluxes that are mediated by pathways involving Na+, Cl-, HCO3- transport and (c) a net oxalate flux that is sensitive to absorptive and secretory stimuli. PMID:8391680

  16. In situ characterization of oxalate transport across the basolateral membrane of the proximal tubule.

    PubMed

    Brändle, E; Bernt, U; Hautmann, R E

    1998-05-01

    Oxalate transport across the contraluminal membrane of the proximal tubule was studied in vivo using the "capillary stopped flow microperfusion method" (Pflügers Arch 400:250-256, 1984). Cellular uptake of oxalate was characteristic of a carrier-mediated transport process (Jmax = 1.6 +/- 0.6 pmol/s per cm proximal tubular length, Km = 2.03 +/- 0.77 mmol/l). Sulphate inhibited oxalate transport in a dose-dependent manner (Ki-value = 1.53 +/- 0.38 mmol/l). Sulphate transport across the basolateral membrane was also characteristic of a carrier- mediated transport process (Jmax = 1.83 +/- 0.56 pmol/s per cm proximal tubular length, Km = 1.37 +/- 0.57 mmol/l). Oxalate inhibited the sulphate transport in a dose-dependent manner (Ki = 2. 06 +/- 0.82 mmol/l). No significant differences were found between the Ki values and the Km values of the two substances, indicating that oxalate and sulphate are transported by the same carrier across the basolateral membrane of the proximal tubule. Oxalate transport was not dependent on the extracellular sodium or potassium concentration. Bicarbonate competitively inhibited the oxalate transport. Chloride significantly inhibited the oxalate transport, but not dose dependently. It is, therefore, suggested that oxalate is transported into the cell of the proximal tubule in exchange for sulphate or bicarbonate. The dose-independent inhibition by chloride is suggested to be mediated by the coupling of the sulphate (bicarbonate)/oxalate exchanger with the chloride/bicarbonate exchanger at the basolateral membrane of the proximal tubule. This, furthermore, suggests that the transport of oxalate or sulphate across the basolateral membrane might be indirectly coupled with the reabsorption of chloride at this membrane side. PMID:9518514

  17. Calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis and expression of matrix GLA protein in the kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Aslam; Wang, Wei; Khan, Saeed R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Polymorphism of the gene for matrix GLA protein (MGP), a calcification inhibitor, is associated with nephrolithiasis. However, experimental investigations of MGP role in stone pathogenesis are limited. We determined the effect of renal epithelial exposure to oxalate (Ox), calcium oxalate (CaOx) monohydrate (COM) or hydroxyapatite (HA) crystal on the expression of MGP. Methods MDCK cells in culture were exposed to 0.3, 0.5 or 1 mM Ox and 33, 66 or 133–150 μg/cm2 of COM/HA for 3–72 h. MGP expression and production were determined by Western blotting and densitometric analysis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to determine MGP release into the medium. Hyperoxaluria was induced in male Sprague–Dawley rats by feeding hydroxyl-L-proline. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect renal MGP expression. Results Exposure to Ox and crystals led to time- and concentration-dependent increase in expression of MGP in MDCK cells. Cellular response was quicker to crystal exposure than to the Ox, expression being significantly higher after 3-h exposure to COM or HA crystals and more than 6 h of exposure to Ox. MGP expression was increased in kidneys of hyperoxaluric rats particularly in renal peritubular vessels. Conclusion We demonstrate increased expression of MGP in renal tubular epithelial cells exposed to Ox or CaOx crystals as well as the HA crystals. The most significant finding of this study is the increased staining seen in renal peritubular vessels of the hyperoxaluric rats, indicating involvement of renal endothelial cells in the synthesis of MGP. PMID:23475213

  18. [Urinary antimicrobial prophylaxis].

    PubMed

    Nathanson, S; Deschnes, G

    2002-05-01

    Antibiotics are usually used to prevent childhood recurrent urinary tract infections: cystitis or pyelonephritis. The mechanism of action of these antibiotics, although imperfectly known, seems to be double: the antibiotic acts by its bactericidal effect, but also probably for minimal concentrations by reducing adhesion capability of bacteria to the urothelium. The most commonly used molecules are cotrimoxazole, trimethoprime, pivmecillinam, cefaclor and nalidixic acid. However all have not been studied rigorously as for their prophylactic capacity, and in particular very little is known for patients presenting with vesico-ureteral reflux. PMID:12053547

  19. Prosthetic urinary sphincter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helms, C. R.; Smyly, H. M. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A pump/valve unit for controlling the inflation and deflation of a urethral collar in a prosthetic urinary sphincter device is described. A compressible bulb pump defining a reservoir was integrated with a valve unit for implantation. The valve unit includes a movable valve member operable by depression of a flexible portion of the valve unit housing for controlling fluid flow between the reservoir and collar; and a pressure sensing means which operates the valve member to relieve an excess pressure in the collar should too much pressure be applied by the patient.

  20. Metal oxyhydroxide dissolution as promoted by structurally diverse siderophores and oxalate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akafia, Martin M.; Harrington, James M.; Bargar, John R.; Duckworth, Owen W.

    2014-09-01

    Siderophores, a class of biogenic ligands with high affinities for Fe(III), promote the dissolution of metal ions from sparingly soluble mineral phases. However, most geochemical studies have focused on quantifying the reactivity of DFOB, a model trishydroxamate siderophore. This study utilized three different siderophores, desferrioxamine B, rhizoferrin, and protochelin, with structures that contain the most commonly observed binding moieties of microbial siderophores to examine the siderophore-promoted dissolution rates of FeOOH, CoOOH, and MnOOH in the absence and presence of the ubiquitous low molecular mass organic acid oxalate by utilizing batch dissolution experiments at pH = 5-9. Metal-siderophore complex and total dissolved metal concentrations were monitored for durations of one hour to fourteen days, depending on the metal oxyhydroxide identity and solution pH. The results demonstrate that MnOOH and CoOOH generally dissolve more quickly in the presence of siderophores than FeOOH. Whereas FeOOH dissolved exclusively by a ligand-promoted dissolution mechanism, MnOOH and CoOOH dissolved predominantly by a reductive dissolution mechanism under most experimental conditions. For FeOOH, siderophore-promoted dissolution rates trended with the stability constant of the corresponding aqueous Fe(III) complex. In the presence of oxalate, measured siderophore-promoted dissolution rates were found to increase, decrease, or remain unchanged as compared to the observed rates in single-ligand systems, depending on the pH of the system, the siderophore present, and the identity of the metal oxyhydroxide. Increases in observed dissolution rates in the presence of oxalate were generally greater for FeOOH than for MnOOH or CoOOH. These results elucidate potential dissolution mechanisms of both ferric and non-ferric oxyhydroxide minerals by siderophores in the environment, and may provide further insights into the biological strategies of metal acquisition facilitated by coordinated exudation of low molecular weight organic acids and siderophores.

  1. Catalytic kinetic spectrophotometry for the determination of trace amount of oxalic acid in biological samples with oxalic acid-rhodamine B-potassium dichromate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Qing-Zhou; Zhang, Xiao-Xia; Liu, Qing-Zhou

    2006-09-01

    A new catalytic kinetic spectrophotometric method was proposed for determining trace oxalic acid based on the catalytic effect of oxalate on the oxidation of potassium dichromate with rhodamin B in 0.10 M of sulfuric acid. Good linearity is obtained over the concentration range 0.40-6.0 μg/mL of oxalic acid. After the reactions of the catalytic and non-catalytic systems were terminated by using 2.00 mL of 4 M sodium hydroxide solution, they can be stable for 3 h at room temperature. The apparent activation energy of the catalytic reaction is 12.44 kJ/mol. The effect of 50 coexisting substances was observed. The method was used to determine trace oxalic acid in tea, spinach and urine samples with satisfactory results.

  2. Molecular mechanisms of control of formation of calcium oxalate

    SciTech Connect

    Sikes, C.S.; Wierzbicki, A.; Sallis, J.D.

    1995-11-01

    The design of inhibitors of crystallization is aided by an understanding of the binding of the inhibitors at the molecular level and the influence of the binding on crystal morphology. Binding of citrate and phosphocitrate to calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals has been studied using scanning electron microscopy and molecular modeling. The COM crystal lattice presents two distinct surfaces that are not only calcium-rich but also have oxalate groups that are perpendicular to the liquid interface. This offers the best possibility for interaction with incoming anionic groups of an inhibitor molecule, allowing the most effective coordination with calcium ions of the lattice surface. For example, conformation and binding energies of citrate and phosphocitrate at ({minus}1 0 1) and (0 1 0) surfaces of COM have been evaluated. The superior performance of phosphocitrate as an inhibitor of COM formation can be attributed to the more favorable coordination of its functional groups with calcium ions of the ({minus}1 0 1) and (0 1 0) surfaces. These concepts may be relevant to the design of new antiscalants.

  3. Jahn-Teller Transitions in the Bimetallic Oxalates

    SciTech Connect

    Fishman, Randy Scott

    2011-01-01

    Bimetallic oxalates are a class of layered molecule-based magnets with transition-metal ions M(II) and M'(III) coupled by oxalate molecules (C2O4)-2 in an open honeycomb structure. Magnetic compensation (MC) has been observed in ferrimagnetic Fe(II)Fe(III) compounds with certain cations between the bimetallic layers. This behavior can be explained [1] by considering the C3-symmetric crystal field produced by the six oxygen atoms surrounding each Fe ion, which splits the L = 2, 3d6 multiplet on the Fe(II) sites into two doublets and one singlet. MC occurs when the doublet lies lowest in energy and carries an orbital angular momentum Lz between about 0.25 and 1.0. Because the low-energy doublet is half-filled, a Jahn-Teller (JT) distortion may break the C3 symmetry near the ferrimagnetic transition temperature. In the absence of spin-orbit coupling on the Fe(II) sites, the JT distortion would always occur at T = 0. However, due to the competition between the spin-orbit coupling and JT energies, the JT distortion disappears at low temperatures in compounds that display MC [2]. Comparison is made with recent experiments and predictions are made for controlling the MC and JT critical temperatures.

  4. Aluminum citrate inhibits cytotoxicity and aggregation of oxalate crystals.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chungang; McMartin, Kenneth E

    2007-02-12

    Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM), which represents a major component of kidney stones, is an end metabolite of ethylene glycol. COM accumulation has been linked with acute renal toxicity in ethylene glycol poisoning. COM injures the kidney either by directly producing cytotoxicity to the kidney cells or by aggregating in the kidney lumen leading to the blockage of urine flow. The present studies were designed to examine whether aluminum citrate could reduce the toxicity of COM. Toxicity was determined in human proximal tubule cells by leakage of lactate dehydrogenase or uptake of ethidium homodimer and in erythrocytes by degree of hemolysis. Aluminum citrate significantly inhibited the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase from human proximal tubule cells and protected against cell death from COM. The inhibitory effect of aluminum citrate was greater than that of other citrate or aluminum salts such as sodium citrate, aluminum chloride, calcium citrate, ammonium citrate or potassium citrate. Aluminum citrate significantly inhibited the aggregation of COM crystals in vitro and decreased red cell membrane damage from COM. Aluminum citrate appeared to directly interact with COM, but not with the cell membrane. As such, aluminum citrate reduced the cytotoxicity by a physico-chemical interaction with the COM surface, and not by dissolving the COM crystals. These studies suggest that aluminum citrate may protect against tissue damage that occurs with high levels of oxalate accumulation, especially in ethylene glycol poisoning and possibly in hyperoxaluric states. PMID:17161516

  5. Raman spectroscopy study of calcium oxalate extracted from cacti stems.

    PubMed

    Frausto-Reyes, Claudio; Loza-Cornejo, Sofia; Terrazas, Teresa; Terrazas, Tania; Miranda-Beltrn, Mara de la Luz; Aparicio-Fernndez, Xchitl; Lpez-Macas, Brenda M; Morales-Martnez, Sandra E; Ortiz-Morales, Martn

    2014-01-01

    To find markers that distinguish the different Cactaceae species, by using near infrared Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, we studied the occurrence, in the stem, of solid deposits in five Cactaceae species (Coryphantha clavata, Ferocactus latispinus, Opuntia ficus-indica, O. robusta, and O. strepthacantha) collected from their natural habitats from a region of Mxico. The deposits in the tissues usually occurred as spheroidal aggregates, druses, or prismatic crystals. From the Raman spectra, the crystals were identified either as calcium oxalate monohydrate (CaC2O4H2O) or calcium oxalate dihydrate (CaC2O42H2O). Opuntia species (subfamily Opuntioideae) showed the presence of CaC2O4H2O, and the deposition of CaC2O42H2O was present in C. clavata and F. latispinus (subfamily Cactoideae, Cacteae tribe). As a punctual technique, Raman spectroscopy seems to be a useful tool to identify crystal composition. In addition to allowing the analysis of crystal morphology, this spectroscopic technique can be used to identify Cactaceae species and their chemotaxonomy. PMID:25280368

  6. Artificial urinary conduit construction using tissue engineering methods

    PubMed Central

    Pokrywczy?ska, Marta; Drewa, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Incontinent urinary diversion using an ileal conduit is the most popular method used by urologists after bladder cystectomy resulting from muscle invasive bladder cancer. The use of gastrointestinal tissue is related to a series of complications with the necessity of surgical procedure extension which increases the time of surgery. Regenerative medicine together with tissue engineering techniques gives hope for artificial urinary conduit construction de novo without affecting the ileum. Material and methods In this review we analyzed history of urinary diversion together with current attempts in urinary conduit construction using tissue engineering methods. Based on literature and our own experience we presented future perspectives related to the artificial urinary conduit construction. Results A small number of papers in the field of tissue engineered urinary conduit construction indicates that this topic requires more attention. Three main factors can be distinguished to resolve this topic: proper scaffold construction along with proper regeneration of both the urothelium and smooth muscle layers. Conclusions Artificial urinary conduit has a great chance to become the first commercially available product in urology constructed by regenerative medicine methods. PMID:25914849

  7. Characterization of calcium oxalate defective (cod) 3 mutant from Medicago truncatula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many plants invest a considerable amount of resources and energy into the formation of calcium oxalate crystals. Assigned roles for plant crystal formation include functions in defense, calcium regulation, and aluminum tolerance. From a human health standpoint, oxalate present in edible plant tiss...

  8. Calcium oxalate content affects the nutritional availability of calcium from Medicago truncatula leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is known that oxalate, present in edible plants, can bind calcium in a crystalline form that reduces the availability of the bound calcium for nutritional absorption by humans. It is unknown, however, the degree to which the calcium oxalate content of a plant can be genetically altered and how mu...

  9. ADVANCES IN OUR UNDERSTANDING OF CALCIUM OXALATE CRYSTAL FORMATION AND FUNCTION IN PLANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium oxalate crystal formation in plants appears to play a central role in a variety of important functions, including tissue calcium regulation, protection from herbivory, and metal detoxification. Evidence is mounting to support ascorbic acid as the primary precursor to oxalate biosynthesis. ...

  10. Calcium oxalate precipitation by diffusion using laminar microfluidics: toward a biomimetic model of pathological microcalcifications.

    PubMed

    Laffite, G; Leroy, C; Bonhomme, C; Bonhomme-Coury, L; Letavernier, E; Daudon, M; Frochot, V; Haymann, J P; Rouzière, S; Lucas, I T; Bazin, D; Babonneau, F; Abou-Hassan, A

    2016-03-23

    The effect of mixing calcium and oxalate precursors by diffusion at miscible liquid interfaces on calcium oxalate crystalline phases, and in physiological conditions (concentrations and flow rates), is studied using a microfluidic channel. This channel has similar dimensions as the collection duct in human kidneys and serves as a biomimetic model in order to understand the formation of pathological microcalcifications. PMID:26974287

  11. Influence of calcium oxalate crystal accumulation on the calcium content of seeds from Medicago truncatula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crystals of calcium oxalate often form in cells adjacent to the vascular bundles in the tissues along the xylem stream. This spatial crystal pattern suggests a role for calcium oxalate formation in regulating calcium transport and partitioning to edible organs such as seeds. To investigate this pote...

  12. MICROARRAY ANALYSIS OF OXALATE OXIDASE TRANSGENIC SOYBEAN CHALLENGED WITH SCLEROTINIA SCLEROTIORUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxalate is a major virulence factor of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Research involving fungal mutants as well as transgenic plants, has clearly shown that virulence of S. sclerotiorum is substantially reduced if oxalate is removed from the interaction. We are utilizing a transgenic soybean plant that c...

  13. Oxalic acid biosynthesis is encoded by an operon in Burkholderia glumae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although the biosynthesis of oxalic acid is known to occur in a number of bacteria, the mechanism(s) regulating its production remains largely unknown. To date, there is no report on the identification of an oxalic acid biosynthetic pathway gene from bacteria. In an attempt to identify such a gene...

  14. EFFECT OF OXALATE ON THE DISSOLUTION RATES OF OLIGOCLASE AND TREMOLITE (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of oxalate, a strong chelator for Al and other cations, on the dissolution rates of oligoclase feldspar and tremolite amphibole was investigated in a flow-through reactor at 22 deg C. Oxalate at concentrations of 0.5 and 1 mM has essentially no effect on the dissolutio...

  15. An oxalyl-CoA synthetase is important for oxalate metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although oxalic acid is common in nature, our understanding of the mechanism(s) regulating its turnover remains incomplete. In this study we identify Saccharomyces cerevisiae acyl-activating enzyme 3 (ScAAE3) as an enzyme capable of catalyzing the conversion of oxalate to oxalyl-CoA. Based on our fi...

  16. Plant calcium oxalate crystal formation, function, and its impact on human health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crystals of calcium oxalate have been observed among members from most taxonomic groups of photosynthetic organisms ranging from the smallest algae to the largest trees. The biological roles for calcium oxalate crystal formation in plant growth and development include high capacity calcium regulatio...

  17. Complete genome sequence of Pandoraea oxalativorans DSM 23570(T), an oxalate metabolizing soil bacterium.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kok-Gan; Yong, Delicia; Ee, Robson; Lim, Yan-Lue; Yu, Choo-Yee; Tee, Kok-Keng; Yin, Wai-Fong; Ang, Geik-Yong

    2016-02-10

    Pandoraea oxalativorans DSM 23570(T) is an oxalate-degrading bacterium that was originally isolated from soil litter near to oxalate-producing plant of the genus Oxalis. Here, we report the first complete genome of P. oxalativorans DSM 23570(T) which would allow its potential biotechnological applications to be unravelled. PMID:26742625

  18. Identification and characterization of peanut oxalate genes and development of peanut cultivars resistant to stem rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the southeastern U.S., stem rot (Sclerotium rolfsii) is a common and destructive disease of peanut. Research has suggested the enhancement of resistance to Sclerotinia minor in peanut by expressing a barley oxalate oxidase gene. Oxalate oxidase belongs to the germin family of proteins and acts ...

  19. The oxalic acid biosynthetic activity of Burkholderia mallei is encoded by a single locus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although it is known that oxalic acid provides a selective advantage to the secreting microbe, our understanding of how this acid is biosynthesized remains incomplete. This study reports the identification, cloning, and partial characterization of the oxalic acid biosynthetic enzyme from the animal ...

  20. Urinary infections in children.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Om Prakash; Abhinay, Abhishek; Prasad, Rajniti

    2013-10-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common infection in infants and children. During infancy, boys are more commonly affected than girls and thereafter, female preponderance is found. Presentation varies among different age groups. Clinical features in neonates and young infants are non-specific, manifest as septicemia where a high index of suspicion is needed. Older children typically present as simple or complicated UTI. Rapid diagnosis, institution of early treatment and further evaluation by imaging modalities are of utmost importance. The prevention of recurrent UTI and detection of congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract are major objectives in the management. Use of ultrasound is required to detect underlying congenital abnormalities, whereas voiding cystourethrogram and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan are useful in the diagnosis of obstructive uropathy and vesicoureteric reflux and renal scar, respectively. The children requiring surgical interventions are to be recognised early to prevent recurrent UTI. The treatment of vesicoureteric reflux by chemoprophylaxis in lower grades and surgical treatment in higher grades are important consideration in prevention of recurrent UTI. This is required to prevent renal parenchymal damage and scarring that can cause hypertension and progressive renal insufficiency in later life. PMID:23881478

  1. [Recurrent urinary tract infections].

    PubMed

    Pigrau-Serrallach, Carlos

    2005-12-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI) are a frequent clinical problem in sexually active young women, pregnant or postmenopausal women and in patients with underlying urological abnormalities. The present chapter reviews RUTI based on their classification: relapses, which usually occur early (< 1 month), are caused by the same microorganism and are associated with underlying urological abnormalities, and reinfections, which usually occur later and are caused by a new distinct microorganism (or by the same microorganism usually located in the rectum or uroepithelial cells). The pathogenesis of RUTI is reviewed and the risk factors associated with RUTI in premenopausal women (usually related to sexual activity), postmenopausal women (in whom estrogen deficiency has a significant effect on the vaginal Lactobacillus flora), and in pregnant women are discussed. Likewise, an extensive review of the distinct therapeutic strategies to prevent RUTI is provided: self-treatment of cystitis, continuous antibiotic prophylaxis, postcoital antibiotic prophylaxis, topical vaginal estrogens, Lactobacillus, cranberry juice, intravesical administration of non-virulent E. coli strains and vaccines, among others. Several diagnostic-therapeutic algorithms are included. These algorithms are based on the type of urinary infection (relapse-reinfection), on the type of patient (young, postmenopausal, or pregnant women) and on the number of episodes of RUTI. PMID:16854356