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Sample records for increased avian diversity

  1. Next generation sequencing technologies: tool to study avian virus diversity.

    PubMed

    Kapgate, S S; Barbuddhe, S B; Kumanan, K

    2015-03-01

    Increased globalisation, climatic changes and wildlife-livestock interface led to emergence of novel viral pathogens or zoonoses that have become serious concern to avian, animal and human health. High biodiversity and bird migration facilitate spread of the pathogen and provide reservoirs for emerging infectious diseases. Current classical diagnostic methods designed to be virus-specific or aim to be limited to group of viral agents, hinder identifying of novel viruses or viral variants. Recently developed approaches of next-generation sequencing (NGS) provide culture-independent methods that are useful for understanding viral diversity and discovery of novel virus, thereby enabling a better diagnosis and disease control. This review discusses the different possible steps of a NGS study utilizing sequence-independent amplification, high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics approaches to identify novel avian viruses and their diversity. NGS lead to the identification of a wide range of new viruses such as picobirnavirus, picornavirus, orthoreovirus and avian gamma coronavirus associated with fulminating disease in guinea fowl and is also used in describing viral diversity among avian species. The review also briefly discusses areas of viral-host interaction and disease associated causalities with newly identified avian viruses. PMID:25790045

  2. Conservation of avian diversity in the Sierra Nevada: moving beyond a single-species management focus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Angela M.; Zipkin, Elise F.; Manley, Patricia N.; Schlesinger, Matthew D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: As a result of past practices, many of the dry coniferous forests of the western United States contain dense, even-aged stands with uncharacteristically high levels of litter and downed woody debris. These changes to the forest have received considerable attention as they elevate concerns regarding the outcome of wildland fire. However, attempts to reduce biomass through fuel reduction (i.e., thinning of trees) are often opposed by public interest groups whose objectives include maintaining habitat for species of concern such as the spotted owl, Strix occidentalis, the northern goshawk, Accipiter gentilis, and the Pacific fisher, Martes pennanti. Whether protection of these upper-trophic level species confers adequate conservation of avian forest diversity is unknown. Methodology and Principal Findings: We use a multi-species occurrence model to estimate the habitat associations of 47 avian species detected at 742 sampling locations within an 880-km2 area in the Sierra Nevada. Our approach, which accounts for variations in detectability of species, estimates occurrence probabilities of all species in a community by linking species occurrence models into one hierarchical community model, thus improving inferences on all species, especially those that are rare or observed infrequently. We address how the avian community is influenced by covariates related to canopy cover, tree size and shrub cover while accounting for the impacts of abiotic variables known to affect species distributions. Conclusions and Significance: Environmental parameters estimated through our approach emphasize the importance of within and between stand-level heterogeneity in meeting biodiversity objectives and suggests that many avian species would increase under more open canopy habitat conditions than those favored by umbrella species of high conservation concern. Our results suggest that a more integrated approach that emphasizes maintaining a diversity of habitats across

  3. Conservation of Avian Diversity in the Sierra Nevada: Moving beyond a Single-Species Management Focus

    PubMed Central

    White, Angela M.; Zipkin, Elise F.; Manley, Patricia N.; Schlesinger, Matthew D.

    2013-01-01

    Background As a result of past practices, many of the dry coniferous forests of the western United States contain dense, even-aged stands with uncharacteristically high levels of litter and downed woody debris. These changes to the forest have received considerable attention as they elevate concerns regarding the outcome of wildland fire. However, attempts to reduce biomass through fuel reduction (i.e., thinning of trees) are often opposed by public interest groups whose objectives include maintaining habitat for species of concern such as the spotted owl, Strix occidentalis, the northern goshawk, Accipiter gentilis, and the Pacific fisher, Martes pennanti. Whether protection of these upper-trophic level species confers adequate conservation of avian forest diversity is unknown. Methodology and Principal Findings We use a multi-species occurrence model to estimate the habitat associations of 47 avian species detected at 742 sampling locations within an 880-km2 area in the Sierra Nevada. Our approach, which accounts for variations in detectability of species, estimates occurrence probabilities of all species in a community by linking species occurrence models into one hierarchical community model, thus improving inferences on all species, especially those that are rare or observed infrequently. We address how the avian community is influenced by covariates related to canopy cover, tree size and shrub cover while accounting for the impacts of abiotic variables known to affect species distributions. Conclusions and Significance Environmental parameters estimated through our approach emphasize the importance of within and between stand-level heterogeneity in meeting biodiversity objectives and suggests that many avian species would increase under more open canopy habitat conditions than those favored by umbrella species of high conservation concern. Our results suggest that a more integrated approach that emphasizes maintaining a diversity of habitats across

  4. Evaluation of the genetic diversity of avian paramyxovirus type 4

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Baibaswata; Nayak, Shreeraj; Paldurai, Anandan; Kumar, Sachin; De Nardi, Roberta; Terregino, Calogero; Collins, Peter L; Samal, Siba K

    2012-01-01

    Avian paramyxoviruses (APMVs) belong to the genus Avulavirus in the family Paramyxoviridae and include at least nine serotypes, APMV-1 to -9, as well as two additional provisional serotypes. Newcastle disease virus (NDV), which comprises APMV-1, is the most extensively studied APMV because it is an important poultry pathogen. A moderate level of antigenic and genetic diversity is recognized for APMV-1 isolates, but our knowledge of the antigenic and genetic diversity of the other APMV serotypes is limited. APMV-4 is frequently isolated from waterfowl around the world. To date complete genome sequences of APMV-4 are available for only strains, which were isolated from ducks in Hong Kong, Korea and Belgium over a period of 37 years. We have carried out genome sequencing from the nucleocapsid (N) gene-end signal to the polymerase (L) gene-start signal of five APMV-4 strains recently isolated from Italy. Each of the eight APMV-4 strains has the same F protein cleavage site, DIQPR↓F. They also share a high level of nucleotide and amino acid sequence identity: for example, the F and HN glycoproteins have greater than 97% sequence identity between the various strains. Thus, comparison of these eight strains of APMV-4 did not provide evidence of substantial diversity, in contrast to similar studies with APMV-2, -3, and -6, in which the F and HN glycoproteins exhibited up to 20-30% amino acid sequence variation within a subgroup. Reciprocal cross-HI assay using post infection chicken sera also failed to detect significant antigenic variation among the available APMV-4 strains. PMID:23178589

  5. Individual genetic diversity and probability of infection by avian malaria parasites in blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus).

    PubMed

    Ferrer, E S; García-Navas, V; Sanz, J J; Ortego, J

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the importance of host genetic diversity for coping with parasites and infectious diseases is a long-standing goal in evolutionary biology. Here, we study the association between probability of infection by avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) and individual genetic diversity in three blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) populations that strongly differ in prevalence of this parasite. For this purpose, we screened avian malaria infections and genotyped 789 blue tits across 26 microsatellite markers. We used two different arrays of markers: 14 loci classified as neutral and 12 loci classified as putatively functional. We found a significant relationship between probability of infection and host genetic diversity estimated at the subset of neutral markers that was not explained by strong local effects and did not differ among the studied populations. This relationship was not linear, and probability of infection increased up to values of homozygosity by locus (HL) around 0.15, reached a plateau at values of HL from 0.15 to 0.40 and finally declined among a small proportion of highly homozygous individuals (HL > 0.4). We did not find evidence for significant identity disequilibrium, which may have resulted from a low variance of inbreeding in the study populations and/or the small power of our set of markers to detect it. A combination of subtle positive and negative local effects and/or a saturation threshold in the association between probability of infection and host genetic diversity in combination with increased resistance to parasites in highly homozygous individuals may explain the observed negative quadratic relationship. Overall, our study highlights that parasites play an important role in shaping host genetic variation and suggests that the use of large sets of neutral markers may be more appropriate for the study of heterozygosity-fitness correlations. PMID:25264126

  6. New host and lineage diversity of avian haemosporidia in the northern Andes

    PubMed Central

    Harrigan, Ryan J; Sedano, Raul; Chasar, Anthony C; Chaves, Jaime A; Nguyen, Jennifer T; Whitaker, Alexis; Smith, Thomas B

    2014-01-01

    The northern Andes, with their steep elevational and climate gradients, are home to an exceptional diversity of flora and fauna, particularly rich in avian species that have adapted to divergent ecological conditions. With this diversity comes the opportunity for parasites to exploit a wide breadth of avian hosts. However, little research has focused on examining the patterns of prevalence and lineage diversity of avian parasites in the Andes. Here, we screened a total of 428 birds from 19 species (representing nine families) and identified 133 infections of avian haemosporidia (31%), including lineages of Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, and Leucocytozoon. We document a higher prevalence of haemosporidia at higher elevations and lower temperatures, as well as an overall high diversity of lineages in the northern Andes, including the first sequences of haemosporidians reported in hummingbirds (31 sequences found in 11 species within the family Trochilidae). Double infections were distinguished using PHASE, which enables the separation of distinct parasite lineages. Results suggest that the ecological heterogeneity of the northern Andes that has given rise to a rich diversity of avian hosts may also be particularly conducive to parasite diversification and specialization. PMID:25469161

  7. New host and lineage diversity of avian haemosporidia in the northern Andes.

    PubMed

    Harrigan, Ryan J; Sedano, Raul; Chasar, Anthony C; Chaves, Jaime A; Nguyen, Jennifer T; Whitaker, Alexis; Smith, Thomas B

    2014-08-01

    The northern Andes, with their steep elevational and climate gradients, are home to an exceptional diversity of flora and fauna, particularly rich in avian species that have adapted to divergent ecological conditions. With this diversity comes the opportunity for parasites to exploit a wide breadth of avian hosts. However, little research has focused on examining the patterns of prevalence and lineage diversity of avian parasites in the Andes. Here, we screened a total of 428 birds from 19 species (representing nine families) and identified 133 infections of avian haemosporidia (31%), including lineages of Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, and Leucocytozoon. We document a higher prevalence of haemosporidia at higher elevations and lower temperatures, as well as an overall high diversity of lineages in the northern Andes, including the first sequences of haemosporidians reported in hummingbirds (31 sequences found in 11 species within the family Trochilidae). Double infections were distinguished using PHASE, which enables the separation of distinct parasite lineages. Results suggest that the ecological heterogeneity of the northern Andes that has given rise to a rich diversity of avian hosts may also be particularly conducive to parasite diversification and specialization. PMID:25469161

  8. Land-Sparing Agriculture Best Protects Avian Phylogenetic Diversity.

    PubMed

    Edwards, David P; Gilroy, James J; Thomas, Gavin H; Uribe, Claudia A Medina; Haugaasen, Torbjørn

    2015-09-21

    The conversion of natural habitats to farmland is a major driver of the global extinction crisis. Two strategies are promoted to mitigate the impacts of agricultural expansion on biodiversity: land sharing integrates wildlife-friendly habitats within farmland landscapes, and land sparing intensifies farming to allow the offset of natural reserves. A key question is which strategy would protect the most phylogenetic diversity--the total evolutionary history shared across all species within a community. Conserving phylogenetic diversity decreases the chance of losing unique phenotypic and ecological traits and provides benefits for ecosystem function and stability. Focusing on birds in the threatened Chocó-Andes hotspot of endemism, we tested the relative benefits of each strategy for retaining phylogenetic diversity in tropical cloud forest landscapes threatened by cattle pastures. Using landscape simulations, we find that land sharing would protect lower community-level phylogenetic diversity than land sparing and that with increasing distance from forest (from 500 to >1,500 m), land sharing is increasingly inferior to land sparing. Isolation from forest also leads to the loss of more evolutionarily distinct species from communities within land-sharing landscapes, which can be avoided with effective land sparing. Land-sharing policies that promote the integration of small-scale wildlife-friendly habitats might be of limited benefit without the simultaneous protection of larger blocks of natural habitat, which is most likely to be achieved via land-sparing measures. PMID:26344093

  9. Prevalence and diversity patterns of avian blood parasites in degraded African rainforest habitats.

    PubMed

    Chasar, Anthony; Loiseau, Claire; Valkiūnas, Gediminas; Iezhova, Tatjana; Smith, Thomas B; Sehgal, Ravinder N M

    2009-10-01

    Land use changes including deforestation, road construction and agricultural encroachments have been linked to the increased prevalence of several infectious diseases. In order to better understand how deforestation affects the prevalence of vector-borne infectious diseases in wildlife, nine paired sites were sampled (disturbed vs. undisturbed habitats) in Southern Cameroon. We studied the diversity, prevalence and distribution of avian malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.) and other related haemosporidians (species of Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon) from these sites in two widespread species of African rainforest birds, the yellow-whiskered greenbul (Andropadus latirostris, Pycnonotidae) and the olive sunbird (Cyanomitra olivacea, Nectariniidae). Twenty-six mitochondrial cytochrome b lineages were identified: 20 Plasmodium lineages and 6 Haemoproteus lineages. These lineages showed no geographic specificity, nor significant differences in lineage diversity between habitat types. However, we found that the prevalence of Leucocytozoon and Haemoproteus infections were significantly higher in undisturbed than in deforested habitats (Leucocytozoon spp. 50.3% vs. 35.8%, Haemoproteus spp. 16.3% vs. 10.8%). We also found higher prevalence for all haemosporidian parasites in C. olivacea than in A. latirostris species (70.2% vs. 58.2%). Interestingly, we found one morphospecies of Plasmodium in C. olivacea, as represented by a clade of related lineages, showed increased prevalence at disturbed sites, while another showed a decrease, testifying to different patterns of transmission, even among closely related lineages of avian malaria, in relation to deforestation. Our work demonstrates that anthropogenic habitat change can affect host-parasite systems and result in opposing trends in prevalence of haemosporidian parasites in wild bird populations. PMID:19754513

  10. Global avian influenza surveillance in wild birds: A strategy to capture viral diversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) is a global threat to food animal production and distribution systems as well as human health. However, a sustained, comprehensive and coordinated global effort to monitor the continually changing genetic diversity of AI viruses (AIVs) circulating in nature is lacking. Two strai...

  11. Molecular diversity of avian schistosomes in Danish freshwater snails.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Anne Ø; Olsen, Annette; Buchmann, Kurt; Kania, Per W; Nejsum, Peter; Vennervald, Birgitte J

    2016-03-01

    Avian schistosomes are widespread parasites of snails and waterfowl and may cause cercarial dermatitis (swimmer's itch) in humans, a disease that is frequently reported in European countries. These parasites are known to occur in Denmark, but here, we applied a new approach using molecular tools to identify the parasites at species level. In order to do that, 499 pulmonate freshwater snails (Radix sp., Lymnaea stagnalis, Stagnicola sp. and Planorbarius corneus) were sampled from 12 lakes, ponds, and marshes in the greater Copenhagen area. Avian schistosome cercariae were identified by microscopy and subjected to molecular investigation by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the 5.8S and ITS2 ribosomal DNA for species identification. Additionally, snail hosts belonging to the genus Radix were identified by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of partial ITS2 ribosomal DNA. Three out of 499 snails shed different species of Trichobilharzia cercariae: Trichobilharzia szidati was isolated from L. stagnalis, Trichobilharzia franki from Radix auricularia and Trichobilharzia regenti from Radix peregra. In the light of the public health risk represented by bird schistosomes, these findings are of concern and, particularly, the presence of the potentially neuro-pathogenic species, T. regenti, in Danish freshwaters calls for attention. PMID:26573519

  12. Urbanisation tolerance and the loss of avian diversity.

    PubMed

    Sol, Daniel; González-Lagos, Cesar; Moreira, Darío; Maspons, Joan; Lapiedra, Oriol

    2014-08-01

    Urbanisation is considered an important driver of current biodiversity loss, but the underlying causes are not fully understood. It is generally assumed that this loss reflects the fact that most organisms do not tolerate well the environmental alterations associated with urbanisation. Nevertheless, current evidence is inconclusive and the alternative that the biodiversity loss is the result of random mechanisms has never been evaluated. Analysing changes in abundance between urbanised environments and their non-urbanised surroundings of > 800 avian species from five continents, we show here that although random processes account for part of the species loss associated with urbanisation, much of the loss is associated with a lack of appropriate adaptations of most species for exploiting resources and avoiding risks of the urban environments. These findings have important conservation implications because the extinction of species with particular features should have higher impact on biodiversity and ecosystem function than a random loss. PMID:24835452

  13. A High Diversity of Eurasian Lineage Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza A Viruses Circulate among Wild Birds Sampled in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Gerloff, Nancy A.; Jones, Joyce; Simpson, Natosha; Balish, Amanda; ElBadry, Maha Adel; Baghat, Verina; Rusev, Ivan; de Mattos, Cecilia C.; de Mattos, Carlos A.; Zonkle, Luay Elsayed Ahmed; Kis, Zoltan; Davis, C. Todd; Yingst, Sam; Cornelius, Claire; Soliman, Atef; Mohareb, Emad; Klimov, Alexander; Donis, Ruben O.

    2013-01-01

    Surveillance for influenza A viruses in wild birds has increased substantially as part of efforts to control the global movement of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus. Studies conducted in Egypt from 2003 to 2007 to monitor birds for H5N1 identified multiple subtypes of low pathogenicity avian influenza A viruses isolated primarily from migratory waterfowl collected in the Nile Delta. Phylogenetic analysis of 28 viral genomes was performed to estimate their nearest ancestors and identify possible reassortants. Migratory flyway patterns were included in the analysis to assess gene flow between overlapping flyways. Overall, the viruses were most closely related to Eurasian, African and/or Central Asian lineage low pathogenicity viruses and belonged to 15 different subtypes. A subset of the internal genes seemed to originate from specific flyways (Black Sea-Mediterranean, East African-West Asian). The remaining genes were derived from a mixture of viruses broadly distributed across as many as 4 different flyways suggesting the importance of the Nile Delta for virus dispersal. Molecular clock date estimates suggested that the time to the nearest common ancestor of all viruses analyzed ranged from 5 to 10 years, indicating frequent genetic exchange with viruses sampled elsewhere. The intersection of multiple migratory bird flyways and the resulting diversity of influenza virus gene lineages in the Nile Delta create conditions favoring reassortment, as evident from the gene constellations identified by this study. In conclusion, we present for the first time a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of full genome sequences from low pathogenic avian influenza viruses circulating in Egypt, underscoring the significance of the region for viral reassortment and the potential emergence of novel avian influenza A viruses, as well as representing a highly diverse influenza A virus gene pool that merits continued monitoring. PMID:23874653

  14. Global avian influenza surveillance in wild birds: a strategy to capture viral diversity.

    PubMed

    Machalaba, Catherine C; Elwood, Sarah E; Forcella, Simona; Smith, Kristine M; Hamilton, Keith; Jebara, Karim B; Swayne, David E; Webby, Richard J; Mumford, Elizabeth; Mazet, Jonna A K; Gaidet, Nicolas; Daszak, Peter; Karesh, William B

    2015-04-01

    Wild birds play a major role in the evolution, maintenance, and spread of avian influenza viruses. However, surveillance for these viruses in wild birds is sporadic, geographically biased, and often limited to the last outbreak virus. To identify opportunities to optimize wild bird surveillance for understanding viral diversity, we reviewed responses to a World Organisation for Animal Health-administered survey, government reports to this organization, articles on Web of Knowledge, and the Influenza Research Database. At least 119 countries conducted avian influenza virus surveillance in wild birds during 2008-2013, but coordination and standardization was lacking among surveillance efforts, and most focused on limited subsets of influenza viruses. Given high financial and public health burdens of recent avian influenza outbreaks, we call for sustained, cost-effective investments in locations with high avian influenza diversity in wild birds and efforts to promote standardized sampling, testing, and reporting methods, including full-genome sequencing and sharing of isolates with the scientific community. PMID:25811221

  15. Global Avian Influenza Surveillance in Wild Birds: A Strategy to Capture Viral Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Machalaba, Catherine C.; Elwood, Sarah E.; Forcella, Simona; Smith, Kristine M.; Hamilton, Keith; Jebara, Karim B.; Swayne, David E.; Webby, Richard J.; Mumford, Elizabeth; Mazet, Jonna A.K.; Gaidet, Nicolas; Daszak, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Wild birds play a major role in the evolution, maintenance, and spread of avian influenza viruses. However, surveillance for these viruses in wild birds is sporadic, geographically biased, and often limited to the last outbreak virus. To identify opportunities to optimize wild bird surveillance for understanding viral diversity, we reviewed responses to a World Organisation for Animal Health–administered survey, government reports to this organization, articles on Web of Knowledge, and the Influenza Research Database. At least 119 countries conducted avian influenza virus surveillance in wild birds during 2008–2013, but coordination and standardization was lacking among surveillance efforts, and most focused on limited subsets of influenza viruses. Given high financial and public health burdens of recent avian influenza outbreaks, we call for sustained, cost-effective investments in locations with high avian influenza diversity in wild birds and efforts to promote standardized sampling, testing, and reporting methods, including full-genome sequencing and sharing of isolates with the scientific community. PMID:25811221

  16. Avian Astrovirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian astroviruses comprise a diverse group of viruses affecting many avian species and causing enteritis, hepatitis and nephritis. To date, six different astroviruses have been identified in avian species based on the species of origin and viral genome characteristics: two turkey-origin astroviru...

  17. Extinction as a driver of avian latitudinal diversity gradients.

    PubMed

    Pulido-Santacruz, Paola; Weir, Jason T

    2016-04-01

    The role of historical factors in driving latitudinal diversity gradients is poorly understood. Here, we used an updated global phylogeny of terrestrial birds to test the role of three key historical factors-speciation, extinction, and dispersal rates-in generating latitudinal diversity gradients for eight major clades. We fit a model that allows speciation, extinction, and dispersal rates to differ, both with latitude and between the New and Old World. Our results consistently support extinction (all clades had lowest extinction where species richness was highest) as a key driver of species richness gradients across each of eight major clades. In contrast, speciation and dispersal rates showed no consistent latitudinal patterns across replicate bird clades, and thus are unlikely to represent general underlying drivers of latitudinal diversity gradients. PMID:26940812

  18. Towards the conservation of endangered avian species: a recombinant West Nile Virus vaccine results in increased humoral and cellular immune responses in Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Young, Jay A; Young, Joanne A; Jefferies, Wilfred

    2013-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) arrived in North America in 1999 and is now endemic. Many families of birds, especially corvids, are highly susceptible to WNV and infection often results in fatality. Avian species susceptible to WNV infection also include endangered species, such as the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus uropbasianuts) and the Eastern Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus migrans). The virus has been shown to contribute towards the likelihood of their extinction. Although a clear and present threat, there exists no avian WNV vaccine available to combat this lethal menace. As a first step in establishing an avian model for testing candidate WNV vaccines, avian antibody based reagents were assessed for cross-reactivity with Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) T cell markers CD4 and CD8; the most reactive were found to be the anti-duck CD8 antibody, clone Du-CD8-1, and the anti-chicken/turkey CD4 antibody, clone CT4. These reagents were then used to assess vaccine performance as well as to establish T cell populations in quail, with a novel population of CD4/CD8 double positive T cells being identified in Japanese quail. Concurrently, non-replicating recombinant adenoviruses, expressing either the WNV envelope or NS3 'genes' were constructed and assessed for effectiveness as avian vaccines. Japanese Quail were selected for testing the vaccines, as they provide an avian model that parallels the population diversity of bird species in the wild. Both the level of WNV specific antibodies and the number of T cells in vaccinated birds were increased compared to unvaccinated controls. The results indicate the vaccines to be effective in increasing both humoral and cellular immune responses. These recombinant vaccines therefore may find utility as tools to protect and maintain domestic and wild avian populations. Their implementation may also arrest the progression towards extinction of endangered avian species and reduce the viral reservoir that potentiates infection

  19. Impact of antigenic diversity on laboratory diagnosis of Avian bornavirus infections in birds.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Vanessa; Rinder, Monika; Kaspers, Bernd; Staeheli, Peter; Rubbenstroth, Dennis

    2014-11-01

    Avian bornaviruses (ABVs) are a group of genetically diverse viruses within the Bornaviridae family that can infect numerous avian species and represent the causative agents of proventricular dilatation disease, an often fatal disease that is widely distributed in captive populations of parrots and related species. The current study was designed to assess the antigenic variability of the family Bornaviridae and to determine its impact on ABV diagnosis by employing fluorescent antibody assays. It was shown that polyclonal rabbit sera directed against recombinant bornavirus nucleoprotein, X protein, phosphoprotein, and matrix protein provided sufficient cross-reactivity for the detection of viral antigen from a broad range of bornavirus genotypes grown in cell culture. In contrast, a rabbit anti-glycoprotein serum and 2 monoclonal antibodies directed against nucleoprotein and phosphoprotein proteins reacted more specifically. Antibodies were readily detected in sera from avian patients infected with known ABV genotypes if cells persistently infected with a variety of different bornavirus genotypes were used for analysis. For all sera, calculated antibody titers were highest when the homologous or a closely related target virus was used for the assay. Cross-reactivity with more distantly related genotypes of other phylogenetic groups was usually reduced, resulting in titer reduction of up to 3 log units. The presented results contribute to a better understanding of the antigenic diversity of family Bornaviridae and further emphasize the importance of choosing appropriate diagnostic tools for sensitive detection of ABV infections. PMID:25135010

  20. Avian nesting success and diversity in conventionally and organically managed apple orchards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fluetsch, K.M.; Sparling, D.W.

    1994-01-01

    This study examines the effects of operational use of pesticides on avian species inhabiting apple orchards in Pennsylvania. Mourning dove (Zenaida rnacroura) and American robin (Turdus migratorius) nests were monitored in three organic and three conventional apple orchards during 1990 and 1991. In 1991 we surveyed the avian communities of these orchards by using line transects. Organophosphorus (OP) (e.g., azinphos-methyl, phosphamidon, parathion, dimethoate), carbamate (CA) (e.g., methomyl, formetanate, oxamyl), and organochlorine (endosulfan) pesticides, known to be highly toxic to birds, were sprayed individually or in mixtures as part of routine pest management as many as 19 times during peaks in breeding activity. Spray card tests revealed that OP pesticides were deposited on 86% of the nests in conventional orchards. Daily survival rates (DSRs) for nests of both species were higher in the organic orchards than in the conventional orchards for 1991 and for years combined (p < 0.05). Species diversity was greater in the organic orchards (H= 2.43) than in the conventional orchards (H=1.79). Repeated applications of pesticides within the conventional orchards reduced the reproductive success of doves and robins and may have lowered avian species diversity compared with organic orchards.

  1. Increasing ICU bed capacity cuts diversions.

    PubMed

    2006-09-01

    A new study demonstrates a real dollar cost to diversions, which can give ED managers added ammunition when lobbying administration for increased bed capacity hospitalwide. Here are some strategies you can use: Point out the demonstrated link between increased bed capacity in the intensive care unit and reduced diversions. Emphasize the fact that when patients are boarded, staff morale is negatively affected. Because your ED may represent 30% of your hospital's volume, note the connection between improved flow and patient satisfaction. PMID:16981481

  2. Diversity and distribution of avian haematozoan parasites in the western Indian Ocean region: a molecular survey.

    PubMed

    Ishtiaq, Farah; Beadell, Jon S; Warren, Ben H; Fleischer, Robert C

    2012-02-01

    The genetic diversity of haematozoan parasites in island avifauna has only recently begun to be explored, despite the potential insight that these data can provide into the history of association between hosts and parasites and the possible threat posed to island endemics. We used mitochondrial DNA sequencing to characterize the diversity of 2 genera of vector-mediated parasites (Plasmodium and Haemoproteus) in avian blood samples from the western Indian Ocean region and explored their relationship with parasites from continental Africa. We detected infections in 68 out of 150 (45·3%) individuals and cytochrome b sequences identified 9 genetically distinct lineages of Plasmodium spp. and 7 lineages of Haemoproteus spp. We found considerable heterogeneity in parasite lineage composition across islands, although limited sampling may, in part, be responsible for perceived differences. Two lineages of Plasmodium spp. and 2 lineages of Haemoproteus spp. were shared by hosts in the Indian Ocean and also on mainland Africa, suggesting that these lineages may have arrived relatively recently. Polyphyly of island parasites indicated that these parasites were unlikely to constitute an endemic radiation and instead probably represent multiple colonization events. This study represents the first molecular survey of vector-mediated parasites in the western Indian Ocean, and has uncovered a diversity of parasites. Full understanding of parasite community composition and possible threats to endemic avian hosts will require comprehensive surveys across the avifauna of this region. PMID:22075855

  3. Increasing Response Diversity in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napolitano, Deborah A.; Smith, Tristram; Zarcone, Jennifer R.; Goodkin, Karen; McAdam, David B.

    2010-01-01

    Repetitive and invariant behavior is a diagnostic feature of autism. We implemented a lag reinforcement schedule to increase response diversity for 6 participants with autism aged 6 to 10 years, 4 of whom also received prompting plus additional training. These procedures appeared to increase the variety of building-block structures, demonstrating…

  4. Increased virulence in ducks of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses from Egypt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pathogenicity of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses in domestic ducks has increased over time. These changes in virulence have been reported with viruses from countries with high population of domestic ducks. Since 2006, H5N1 HPAI outbreaks in Egypt have been occurring in po...

  5. Prevalence and beta diversity in avian malaria communities: host species is a better predictor than geography.

    PubMed

    Scordato, Elizabeth S C; Kardish, Melissa R

    2014-11-01

    Patterns of diversity and turnover in macroorganism communities can often be predicted from differences in habitat, phylogenetic relationships among species and the geographical scale of comparisons. In this study, we asked whether these factors also predict diversity and turnover in parasite communities. We studied communities of avian malaria in two sympatric, ecologically similar, congeneric host species at three different sites. We asked whether parasite prevalence and community structure varied with host population, host phylogeography or geographical distance. We used PCR to screen birds for infections and then used Bayesian methods to determine phylogenetic relationships among malaria strains. Metrics of both community and phylogenetic beta diversity were used to examine patterns of malaria strain turnover between host populations, and partial Mantel tests were used determine the correlation between malaria beta diversity and geographical distance. Finally, we developed microsatellite markers to describe the genetic structure of host populations and assess the relationship between host phylogeography and parasite beta diversity. We found that different genera of malaria parasites infect the two hosts at different rates. Within hosts, parasite communities in one population were phylogenetically clustered, but there was otherwise no correlation between metrics of parasite beta diversity and geographical or genetic distance between host populations. Patterns of parasite turnover among host populations are consistent with malaria transmission occurring in the winter rather than on the breeding grounds. Our results indicate greater turnover in parasite communities between different hosts than between different study sites. Differences in host species, as well as transmission location and vector ecology, seem to be more important in structuring malaria communities than the distance-decay relationships frequently found in macroorganisms. Determining the factors

  6. Do birds see the forest for the trees? Scale-dependent effects of tree diversity on avian predation of artificial larvae.

    PubMed

    Muiruri, Evalyne W; Rainio, Kalle; Koricheva, Julia

    2016-03-01

    The enemies hypothesis states that reduced insect herbivory in mixed-species stands can be attributed to more effective top-down control by predators with increasing plant diversity. Although evidence for this mechanism exists for invertebrate predators, studies on avian predation are comparatively rare and have not explicitly tested the effects of diversity at different spatial scales, even though heterogeneity at macro- and micro-scales can influence bird foraging selection. We studied bird predation in an established forest diversity experiment in SW Finland, using artificial larvae installed on birch, alder and pine trees. Effects of tree species diversity and densities on bird predation were tested at two different scales: between plots and within the neighbourhood around focal trees. At the neighbourhood scale, birds preferentially foraged on focal trees surrounded by a higher diversity of neighbours. However, predation rates did not increase with tree species richness at the plot level and were instead negatively affected by tree height variation within the plot. The highest probability of predation was observed on pine, and rates of predation increased with the density of pine regardless of scale. Strong tree species preferences observed may be due to a combination of innate bird species preferences and opportunistic foraging on profitable-looking artificial prey. This study therefore finds partial support for the enemies hypothesis and highlights the importance of spatial scale and focal tree species in modifying trophic interactions between avian predators and insect herbivores in forest ecosystems. PMID:26201260

  7. Manifold habitat effects on the prevalence and diversity of avian blood parasites.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Ravinder N M

    2015-12-01

    Habitats are rapidly changing across the planet and the consequences will have major and long-lasting effects on wildlife and their parasites. Birds harbor many types of blood parasites, but because of their relatively high prevalence and ease of diagnosis, it is the haemosporidians - Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, and Leucocytozoon - that are the best studied in terms of ecology and evolution. For parasite transmission to occur, environmental conditions must be permissive, and given the many constraints on the competency of parasites, vectors and hosts, it is rather remarkable that these parasites are so prevalent and successful. Over the last decade, a rapidly growing body of literature has begun to clarify how environmental factors affect birds and the insects that vector their hematozoan parasites. Moreover, several studies have modeled how anthropogenic effects such as global climate change, deforestation and urbanization will impact the dynamics of parasite transmission. This review highlights recent research that impacts our understanding of how habitat and environmental changes can affect the distribution, diversity, prevalence and parasitemia of these avian blood parasites. Given the importance of environmental factors on transmission, it remains essential that researchers studying avian hematozoa document abiotic factors such as temperature, moisture and landscape elements. Ultimately, this continued research has the potential to inform conservation policies and help avert the loss of bird species and threatened habitats. PMID:26835250

  8. Rapid assessment indicator of wetland integrity as an unintended predictor of avian diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Waite, Thomas A.; Krzys, Gregory; Mack, John J.; Micacchion, Mick

    2004-01-01

    Rapid assessment of aquatic ecosystems has been widely implemented, sometimes without thorough evaluation of the robustness of rapid assessment metrics as indicators of ecological integrity. Here, we evaluate whether the Ohio Rapid Assessment Method (ORAM) for Wetlands Version 5.0 is a useful indicator of ecological integrity beyond its intended purpose. ORAM was developed to categorize natural wetlands for regulatory purposes and to contribute to the development of indicators of biotic integrity. It was never intended for use as an index of the quality of habitat for wetland birds. Nonetheless, it is conceivable that ORAM scores could serve as adequate predictors of avian diversity. We evaluated whether avian species richness in wetlands could be reliably predicted from each of the following variables: (1) total ORAM score, (2) total score minus the score for one metric that did not apply to all wetlands, and (3) sum of scores for the four ORAM components (of 16 scored) with the highest potential point total. These four components corresponded to aquatic vegetation communities, microtopography, modifications to natural hydrologic regime, and sources of water. All three variables were significant predictors of both total species richness and mean species richness of birds of conservation concern. Variable (3) was a significant predictor of mean species richness of wetland-dependent birds. Variable (2) was a weak predictor of both total and mean species richness of all birds combined. These results extend the robustness of ORAM as an indicator of the ecological integrity of wetlands.

  9. Manifold habitat effects on the prevalence and diversity of avian blood parasites

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, Ravinder N.M.

    2015-01-01

    Habitats are rapidly changing across the planet and the consequences will have major and long-lasting effects on wildlife and their parasites. Birds harbor many types of blood parasites, but because of their relatively high prevalence and ease of diagnosis, it is the haemosporidians – Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, and Leucocytozoon – that are the best studied in terms of ecology and evolution. For parasite transmission to occur, environmental conditions must be permissive, and given the many constraints on the competency of parasites, vectors and hosts, it is rather remarkable that these parasites are so prevalent and successful. Over the last decade, a rapidly growing body of literature has begun to clarify how environmental factors affect birds and the insects that vector their hematozoan parasites. Moreover, several studies have modeled how anthropogenic effects such as global climate change, deforestation and urbanization will impact the dynamics of parasite transmission. This review highlights recent research that impacts our understanding of how habitat and environmental changes can affect the distribution, diversity, prevalence and parasitemia of these avian blood parasites. Given the importance of environmental factors on transmission, it remains essential that researchers studying avian hematozoa document abiotic factors such as temperature, moisture and landscape elements. Ultimately, this continued research has the potential to inform conservation policies and help avert the loss of bird species and threatened habitats. PMID:26835250

  10. Limited Antigenic Diversity in Contemporary H7 Avian-Origin Influenza A Viruses from North America.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yifei; Bailey, Elizabeth; Spackman, Erica; Li, Tao; Wang, Hui; Long, Li-Ping; Baroch, John A; Cunningham, Fred L; Lin, Xiaoxu; Jarman, Richard G; DeLiberto, Thomas J; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Subtype H7 avian-origin influenza A viruses (AIVs) have caused at least 500 confirmed human infections since 2003 and culling of >75 million birds in recent years. Here we antigenically and genetically characterized 93 AIV isolates from North America (85 from migratory waterfowl [1976-2010], 7 from domestic poultry [1971-2012], and 1 from a seal [1980]). The hemagglutinin gene of these H7 viruses are separated from those from Eurasia. Gradual accumulation of nucleotide and amino acid substitutions was observed in the hemagglutinin of H7 AIVs from waterfowl and domestic poultry. Genotype characterization suggested that H7 AIVs in wild birds form diverse and transient internal gene constellations. Serologic analyses showed that the 93 isolates cross-reacted with each other to different extents. Antigenic cartography showed that the average antigenic distance among them was 1.14 units (standard deviation [SD], 0.57 unit) and that antigenic diversity among the H7 isolates we tested was limited. Our results suggest that the continuous genetic evolution has not led to significant antigenic diversity for H7 AIVs from North America. These findings add to our understanding of the natural history of IAVs and will inform public health decision-making regarding the threat these viruses pose to humans and poultry. PMID:26858078

  11. Increased immunogenicity of avian influenza DNA vaccine delivered to the skin using a microneedle patch

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeu-Chun; Song, Jae-Min; Lipatov, Aleksandr S.; Choi, Seong-O; Lee, Jeong Woo; Donis, Ruben O.; Compans, Richard W.; Kang, Sang-Moo; Prausnitz, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    Effective public health responses to an influenza pandemic require an effective vaccine that can be manufactured and administered to large populations in the shortest possible time. In this study, we evaluated a method for vaccination against avian influenza virus that uses a DNA vaccine for rapid manufacturing and delivered by a microneedle skin patch for simplified administration and increased immunogenicity. We prepared patches containing 700 µm-long microneedles coated with an avian H5 influenza hemagglutinin DNA vaccine from A/Viet Nam/1203/04 influenza virus. The coating DNA dose increased with DNA concentration in the coating solution and the number of dip coating cycles. Coated DNA was released into the skin tissue by dissolution within minutes. Vaccination of mice using microneedles induced higher levels of antibody responses and hemagglutination inhibition titers, and improved protection against lethal infection with avian influenza as compared to conventional intramuscular delivery of the same dose of the DNA vaccine. Additional analysis showed that the microneedle coating solution containing carboxymethylcellulose and a surfactant may have negatively affected the immunogenicity of the DNA vaccine. Overall, this study shows that DNA vaccine delivery by microneedles can be a promising approach for improved vaccination to mitigate an influenza pandemic. PMID:22504442

  12. The price of conserving avian phylogenetic diversity: a global prioritization approach.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Laura A; Turvey, Samuel T; Rosindell, James

    2015-02-19

    The combination of rapid biodiversity loss and limited funds available for conservation represents a major global concern. While there are many approaches for conservation prioritization, few are framed as financial optimization problems. We use recently published avian data to conduct a global analysis of the financial resources required to conserve different quantities of phylogenetic diversity (PD). We introduce a new prioritization metric (ADEPD) that After Downlisting a species gives the Expected Phylogenetic Diversity at some future time. Unlike other metrics, ADEPD considers the benefits to future PD associated with downlisting a species (e.g. moving from Endangered to Vulnerable in the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List). Combining ADEPD scores with data on the financial cost of downlisting different species provides a cost-benefit prioritization approach for conservation. We find that under worst-case spending $3915 can save 1 year of PD, while under optimal spending $1 can preserve over 16.7 years of PD. We find that current conservation spending patterns are only expected to preserve one quarter of the PD that optimal spending could achieve with the same total budget. Maximizing PD is only one approach within the wider goal of biodiversity conservation, but our analysis highlights more generally the danger involved in uninformed spending of limited resources. PMID:25561665

  13. Non-Human Primates Harbor Diverse Mammalian and Avian Astroviruses Including Those Associated with Human Infections

    PubMed Central

    Freiden, Pamela; Feeroz, MM; Matsen, Frederick A; San, Sorn; Hasan, M Kamrul; Wang, David; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    Astroviruses (AstVs) are positive sense, single-stranded RNA viruses transmitted to a wide range of hosts via the fecal-oral route. The number of AstV-infected animal hosts has rapidly expanded in recent years with many more likely to be discovered because of the advances in viral surveillance and next generation sequencing. Yet no study to date has identified human AstV genotypes in animals, although diverse AstV genotypes similar to animal-origin viruses have been found in children with diarrhea and in one instance of encephalitis. Here we provide important new evidence that non-human primates (NHP) can harbor a wide variety of mammalian and avian AstV genotypes, including those only associated with human infection. Serological analyses confirmed that >25% of the NHP tested had antibodies to human AstVs. Further, we identified a recombinant AstV with parental relationships to known human AstVs. Phylogenetic analysis suggests AstVs in NHP are on average evolutionarily much closer to AstVs from other animals than are AstVs from bats, a frequently proposed reservoir. Our studies not only demonstrate that human astroviruses can be detected in NHP but also suggest that NHP are unique in their ability to support diverse AstV genotypes, further challenging the paradigm that astrovirus infection is species-specific. PMID:26571270

  14. Genetically Diverse Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza A Virus Subtypes Co-Circulate among Poultry in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Gerloff, Nancy A; Khan, Salah Uddin; Zanders, Natosha; Balish, Amanda; Haider, Najmul; Islam, Ausraful; Chowdhury, Sukanta; Rahman, Mahmudur Ziaur; Haque, Ainul; Hosseini, Parviez; Gurley, Emily S; Luby, Stephen P; Wentworth, David E; Donis, Ruben O; Sturm-Ramirez, Katharine; Davis, C Todd

    2016-01-01

    Influenza virus surveillance, poultry outbreak investigations and genomic sequencing were assessed to understand the ecology and evolution of low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) A viruses in Bangladesh from 2007 to 2013. We analyzed 506 avian specimens collected from poultry in live bird markets and backyard flocks to identify influenza A viruses. Virus isolation-positive specimens (n = 50) were subtyped and their coding-complete genomes were sequenced. The most frequently identified subtypes among LPAI isolates were H9N2, H11N3, H4N6, and H1N1. Less frequently detected subtypes included H1N3, H2N4, H3N2, H3N6, H3N8, H4N2, H5N2, H6N1, H6N7, and H7N9. Gene sequences were compared to publicly available sequences using phylogenetic inference approaches. Among the 14 subtypes identified, the majority of viral gene segments were most closely related to poultry or wild bird viruses commonly found in Southeast Asia, Europe, and/or northern Africa. LPAI subtypes were distributed over several geographic locations in Bangladesh, and surface and internal protein gene segments clustered phylogenetically with a diverse number of viral subtypes suggesting extensive reassortment among these LPAI viruses. H9N2 subtype viruses differed from other LPAI subtypes because genes from these viruses consistently clustered together, indicating this subtype is enzootic in Bangladesh. The H9N2 strains identified in Bangladesh were phylogenetically and antigenically related to previous human-derived H9N2 viruses detected in Bangladesh representing a potential source for human infection. In contrast, the circulating LPAI H5N2 and H7N9 viruses were both phylogenetically and antigenically unrelated to H5 viruses identified previously in humans in Bangladesh and H7N9 strains isolated from humans in China. In Bangladesh, domestic poultry sold in live bird markets carried a wide range of LPAI virus subtypes and a high diversity of genotypes. These findings, combined with the seven year

  15. Genetically Diverse Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza A Virus Subtypes Co-Circulate among Poultry in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Gerloff, Nancy A.; Khan, Salah Uddin; Zanders, Natosha; Balish, Amanda; Haider, Najmul; Islam, Ausraful; Chowdhury, Sukanta; Rahman, Mahmudur Ziaur; Haque, Ainul; Hosseini, Parviez; Gurley, Emily S.; Luby, Stephen P.; Wentworth, David E.; Donis, Ruben O.; Sturm-Ramirez, Katharine; Davis, C. Todd

    2016-01-01

    Influenza virus surveillance, poultry outbreak investigations and genomic sequencing were assessed to understand the ecology and evolution of low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) A viruses in Bangladesh from 2007 to 2013. We analyzed 506 avian specimens collected from poultry in live bird markets and backyard flocks to identify influenza A viruses. Virus isolation-positive specimens (n = 50) were subtyped and their coding-complete genomes were sequenced. The most frequently identified subtypes among LPAI isolates were H9N2, H11N3, H4N6, and H1N1. Less frequently detected subtypes included H1N3, H2N4, H3N2, H3N6, H3N8, H4N2, H5N2, H6N1, H6N7, and H7N9. Gene sequences were compared to publicly available sequences using phylogenetic inference approaches. Among the 14 subtypes identified, the majority of viral gene segments were most closely related to poultry or wild bird viruses commonly found in Southeast Asia, Europe, and/or northern Africa. LPAI subtypes were distributed over several geographic locations in Bangladesh, and surface and internal protein gene segments clustered phylogenetically with a diverse number of viral subtypes suggesting extensive reassortment among these LPAI viruses. H9N2 subtype viruses differed from other LPAI subtypes because genes from these viruses consistently clustered together, indicating this subtype is enzootic in Bangladesh. The H9N2 strains identified in Bangladesh were phylogenetically and antigenically related to previous human-derived H9N2 viruses detected in Bangladesh representing a potential source for human infection. In contrast, the circulating LPAI H5N2 and H7N9 viruses were both phylogenetically and antigenically unrelated to H5 viruses identified previously in humans in Bangladesh and H7N9 strains isolated from humans in China. In Bangladesh, domestic poultry sold in live bird markets carried a wide range of LPAI virus subtypes and a high diversity of genotypes. These findings, combined with the seven year

  16. The AISP Model on Increasingly Diverse Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shang, Paul; Barkis, Marita

    2009-01-01

    It would be an amazing understatement to say that much has changed on college and university campuses since Delworth introduced the Assessment-Intervention of Student Problems (AISP) model. For one thing, the term "minority" has been replaced by phrases like "students of color" and "diverse students." Another change is that campus diversity…

  17. Increasing Diversity in Earth and Space Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinke, B. K.; Ali, N. A.; Shackelford, R.; Mendez, B.; Acevedo, S.; Basri, G.; Kenney, K.; Lee, A. S.

    2015-11-01

    In this interactive discussion, panelists shared their perspectives from working with diverse audiences, including Native Americans, African Americans, Hispanic/Latinos, and girls and women. Among the objectives of the panel discussion was to identify and discuss the challenges to engagement of specific audiences, learn strategies for connecting to various audiences, and understand how to adapt engagement for different educational settings with various audiences.

  18. Composition and Diversity of Avian Communities Using a New Urban Habitat: Green Roofs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washburn, Brian E.; Swearingin, Ryan M.; Pullins, Craig K.; Rice, Matthew E.

    2016-06-01

    Green roofs on buildings are becoming popular and represent a new component of the urban landscape. Public benefits of green roof projects include reduced stormwater runoff, improved air quality, reduced urban heat island effects, and aesthetic values. As part of a city-wide plan, several green roofs have been constructed at Chicago's O'Hare International Airport (ORD). Like some other landscaping features, green roofs on or near an airport might attract wildlife and thus increase the risk of bird-aircraft collisions. During 2007-2011, we conducted a series of studies to evaluate wildlife use of newly constructed green roofs and traditional (gravel) roofs on buildings at ORD. These green roofs were 0.04-1.62 ha in area and consisted of primarily stonecrop species for vegetation. A total of 188 birds were observed using roofs during this research. Of the birds using green roofs, 66, 23, and 4 % were Killdeer, European Starlings, and Mourning Doves, respectively. Killdeer nested on green roofs, whereas the other species perched, foraged, or loafed. Birds used green roofs almost exclusively between May and October. Overall, avian use of the green roofs was minimal and similar to that of buildings with traditional roofs. Although green roofs with other vegetation types might offer forage or cover to birds and thus attract potentially hazardous wildlife, the stonecrop-vegetated green roofs in this study did not increase the risk of bird-aircraft collisions.

  19. Composition and Diversity of Avian Communities Using a New Urban Habitat: Green Roofs.

    PubMed

    Washburn, Brian E; Swearingin, Ryan M; Pullins, Craig K; Rice, Matthew E

    2016-06-01

    Green roofs on buildings are becoming popular and represent a new component of the urban landscape. Public benefits of green roof projects include reduced stormwater runoff, improved air quality, reduced urban heat island effects, and aesthetic values. As part of a city-wide plan, several green roofs have been constructed at Chicago's O'Hare International Airport (ORD). Like some other landscaping features, green roofs on or near an airport might attract wildlife and thus increase the risk of bird-aircraft collisions. During 2007-2011, we conducted a series of studies to evaluate wildlife use of newly constructed green roofs and traditional (gravel) roofs on buildings at ORD. These green roofs were 0.04-1.62 ha in area and consisted of primarily stonecrop species for vegetation. A total of 188 birds were observed using roofs during this research. Of the birds using green roofs, 66, 23, and 4 % were Killdeer, European Starlings, and Mourning Doves, respectively. Killdeer nested on green roofs, whereas the other species perched, foraged, or loafed. Birds used green roofs almost exclusively between May and October. Overall, avian use of the green roofs was minimal and similar to that of buildings with traditional roofs. Although green roofs with other vegetation types might offer forage or cover to birds and thus attract potentially hazardous wildlife, the stonecrop-vegetated green roofs in this study did not increase the risk of bird-aircraft collisions. PMID:26956765

  20. Increasing Diversity in Pediatric Hematology/Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Frugé, Ernest; Lakoski, Joan M.; Luban, Naomi; Lipton, Jeffrey M.; Poplack, David G.; Hagey, Anne; Felgenhauer, Judy; Hilden, Joanne; Margolin, Judith; Vaiselbuh, Sarah R.; Sakamoto, Kathleen M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Diversity is necessary for the survival and success of both biological and social systems including societies. There is a lack of diversity, particularly the proportion of women and minorities in leadership positions, within medicine.1;2 In 2009 a group of ASPHO members recognized the need to support the career advancement of women and minority members. This article reports the results of a survey designed to characterize the comparative career pathway experience of women and minority ASPHO members. Procedure A group of ASPHO colleagues modified a published Faculty Worklife survey3 for use by Pediatric Hematologist-Oncologists (PHOs). A link to an online version of the survey was sent to all ASPHO members. Results Of 1228 ASPHO members polled, 213 responded (17%). Women and minority PHOs reported less satisfaction than their counterparts on 70 of the 90 issues addressed in the survey including the hiring process, access to resources as well as integration and satisfaction with their organizations. Women also expressed greater dissatisfaction with issues of work-life balance, support for family obligations and personal health. Conclusions The current literature suggests that there are significant disparities in career opportunities, compensation and satisfaction for women compared to men and minority compared to majority faculty in academic medicine.4–7 Our data, derived from a survey of ASPHO members, suggests that this holds true for PHOs as well. PMID:21284078

  1. Predicting Toxicities of Diverse Chemical Pesticides in Multiple Avian Species Using Tree-Based QSAR Approaches for Regulatory Purposes.

    PubMed

    Basant, Nikita; Gupta, Shikha; Singh, Kunwar P

    2015-07-27

    A comprehensive safety evaluation of chemicals should require toxicity assessment in both the aquatic and terrestrial test species. Due to the application practices and nature of chemical pesticides, the avian toxicity testing is considered as an essential requirement in the risk assessment process. In this study, tree-based multispecies QSAR (quantitative-structure activity relationship) models were constructed for predicting the avian toxicity of pesticides using a set of nine descriptors derived directly from the chemical structures and following the OECD guidelines. Accordingly, the Bobwhite quail toxicity data was used to construct the QSAR models (SDT, DTF, DTB) and were externally validated using the toxicity data in four other test species (Mallard duck, Ring-necked pheasant, Japanese quail, House sparrow). Prior to the model development, the diversity in the chemical structures and end-point were verified. The external predictive power of the QSAR models was tested through rigorous validation deriving a wide series of statistical checks. Intercorrelation analysis and PCA methods provided information on the association of the molecular descriptors related to MW and topology. The S36 and MW were the most influential descriptors identified by DTF and DTB models. The DTF and DTB performed better than the SDT model and yielded a correlation (R(2)) of 0.945 and 0.966 between the measured and predicted toxicity values in test data array. Both these models also performed well in four other test species (R(2) > 0.918). ChemoTyper was used to identify the substructure alerts responsible for the avian toxicity. The results suggest for the appropriateness of the developed QSAR models to reliably predict the toxicity of pesticides in multiple avian test species and can be useful tools in screening the new chemical pesticides for regulatory purposes. PMID:26158470

  2. Increased sensitivity for detecting avian influenza-specific antibodies by a modified hemagglutination inhibition assay using horse erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Jia, Na; Wang, Shi-Xia; Liu, Yun-Xi; Zhang, Pan-He; Zuo, Shu-Qing; Lin-Zhan; Dang, Rong-Li; Ma, Yong-Hong; Zhang, Chunhua; Zhang, Lu; Lu, Shan; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2008-10-01

    The hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay is a widely used serological method to measure the levels of protective antibody responses against influenza viruses. However, the traditional HI assay which uses chicken erythrocytes is not sufficiently sensitive for detecting HI antibodies specific to avian influenza viruses. Previously, it was demonstrated that employing an assay using horse erythrocytes was able to increase the sensitivity of HI assay. The current report describes further optimization of this modified HI assay. It was shown that this method was able to increase detection of HI activities in rabbit sera immunized with H5 HA antigens, and proved that this increased sensitivity is useful in dissecting the strain specificity of HI antibody responses. In addition, the modified HI assay using horse erythrocytes increased the sensitivity of detecting HI antibodies specific for three major serotypes of avian influenza viruses, H5, H7 and H9, in people who may have asymptomatic infection with avian influenza viruses. Based on these results, the optimized use of horse erythrocytes should be standard practice for detecting HI activities against avian influenza viruses. PMID:18634828

  3. Plant diversity increases soil microbial activity and soil carbon storage.

    PubMed

    Lange, Markus; Eisenhauer, Nico; Sierra, Carlos A; Bessler, Holger; Engels, Christoph; Griffiths, Robert I; Mellado-Vázquez, Perla G; Malik, Ashish A; Roy, Jacques; Scheu, Stefan; Steinbeiss, Sibylle; Thomson, Bruce C; Trumbore, Susan E; Gleixner, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Plant diversity strongly influences ecosystem functions and services, such as soil carbon storage. However, the mechanisms underlying the positive plant diversity effects on soil carbon storage are poorly understood. We explored this relationship using long-term data from a grassland biodiversity experiment (The Jena Experiment) and radiocarbon ((14)C) modelling. Here we show that higher plant diversity increases rhizosphere carbon inputs into the microbial community resulting in both increased microbial activity and carbon storage. Increases in soil carbon were related to the enhanced accumulation of recently fixed carbon in high-diversity plots, while plant diversity had less pronounced effects on the decomposition rate of existing carbon. The present study shows that elevated carbon storage at high plant diversity is a direct function of the soil microbial community, indicating that the increase in carbon storage is mainly limited by the integration of new carbon into soil and less by the decomposition of existing soil carbon. PMID:25848862

  4. Prevalence and diversity of avian malaria parasites in migratory Black Skimmers (Rynchops niger, Laridae, Charadriiformes) from the Brazilian Amazon Basin.

    PubMed

    Roos, F L; Belo, N O; Silveira, P; Braga, E M

    2015-10-01

    The Medium Solimões River region in the Brazilian Amazon Basin is an area utilized for reproduction and nesting by a variety of species of migratory aquatic birds such as Black Skimmers (Rynchops niger). These migratory birds form mixed-species reproductive colonies with high population densities and exhibit a large range of migration routes. This study aimed to describe the prevalence and diversity of the avian malaria parasites Plasmodium and Haemoproteus in Black Skimmers, on the basis of the association between microscopic observation of blood smears and amplification of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (mtDNA cyt-b). The overall prevalence rates of the parasites for juvenile and adult bird specimens were 16% (5/31) and 22% (15/68), respectively. Sequencing the mtDNA cyt-b marker revealed two Plasmodium lineages, which had been previously described in different regions of the American continent, including a Neotropical region in Southeast Brazil, and one Haemoproteus lineage. The fact that avian malarial parasites have been found infecting the Black Skimmers in the Brazilian Amazon ecosystem, which exhibits considerable diversity, highlights the importance of these migratory birds as a potential source of infection and dispersion of pathogens to other susceptible birds of the Nearctic and Neotropical regions. PMID:26193823

  5. H7 avian influenza virus vaccines protect chickens against challenge with antigenically diverse isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccination has been a critical tool in the control of some avian influenza viruses (AIV) and has been used routinely in Pakistan to help control sporadic outbreaks of highly pathogenic (HP) H7 AIV since 1995. During that time, several AIV isolates were utilized as inactivated vaccines with varying...

  6. Increasing Diversity in Geoscience Through Research Internships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlevoix, Donna J.; Morris, Aisha R.

    2014-02-01

    Over the past 9 years, UNAVCO—a university-governed consortium fostering geoscience research and education focused on geodesy—supported 44 interns through the Research Experiences in Solid Earth Science for Students (RESESS) program. The primary goal of the program is to increase the number of historically underrepresented students entering the geosciences.

  7. INCREASING DIVERSITY IN OUR SCHOOLS OF NURSING.

    PubMed

    Neubrander, Judy; Metcalfe, Sharon E

    2016-01-01

    This article will review one school's quest to address the multi-level social, historical, environmental and structural determinants faced by under-represented ethnic minorities (UREM) and disadvantaged background (DB) students as they seek entrance into a nursing program. Nursing Network Careers and Technology (NN-CAT) provides a nursing career network for underrepresented and disadvantaged students in western North Carolina and has increased the number of underrepresented and disadvantaged students who are admitted, retained and graduate with a bachelor's degree in nursing from Western Carolina University. Initial data from this NN-CAT program have demonstrated that addressing social determinants and eliminating barriers can increase the number of UREM and educationally disadvantaged students who successfully matriculate in our schools of Nursing and subsequently graduate. These nurses then enter the workforce and provide culturally meaningful care in their local communities. PMID:27439229

  8. Genetic Diversity Increases Insect Herbivory on Oak Saplings

    PubMed Central

    Castagneyrol, Bastien; Lagache, Lélia; Giffard, Brice; Kremer, Antoine; Jactel, Hervé

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of evidence from community genetics studies suggests that ecosystem functions supported by plant species richness can also be provided by genetic diversity within plant species. This is not yet true for the diversity-resistance relationship as it is still unclear whether damage by insect herbivores responds to genetic diversity in host plant populations. We developed a manipulative field experiment based on a synthetic community approach, with 15 mixtures of one to four oak (Quercus robur) half-sib families. We quantified genetic diversity at the plot level by genotyping all oak saplings and assessed overall damage caused by ectophagous and endophagous herbivores along a gradient of increasing genetic diversity. Damage due to ectophagous herbivores increased with the genetic diversity in oak sapling populations as a result of higher levels of damage in mixtures than in monocultures for all families (complementarity effect) rather than because of the presence of more susceptible oak genotypes in mixtures (selection effect). Assemblages of different oak genotypes would benefit polyphagous herbivores via improved host patch location, spill over among neighbouring saplings and diet mixing. By contrast, genetic diversity was a poor predictor of the abundance of endophagous herbivores, which increased with individual sapling apparency. Plant genetic diversity may not provide sufficient functional contrast to prevent tree sapling colonization by specialist herbivores while enhancing the foraging of generalist herbivores. Long term studies are nevertheless required to test whether the effect of genetic diversity on herbivory change with the ontogeny of trees and local adaptation of specialist herbivores. PMID:22937168

  9. Genetic diversity of avian and mammalian Chlamydia psittaci strains and relation to host origin.

    PubMed Central

    Fukushi, H; Hirai, K

    1989-01-01

    Genetic relationships were reported for Chlamydia psittaci derived from psittacine birds, pigeons, turkeys, humans, cats, muskrats, cattle, and sheep and for C. trachomatis, including representative strains of the three biovars, through physical analysis of genomic DNA including DNA fingerprinting with restriction endonuclease SalI, DNA-DNA hybridization in solution with S1 nuclease, and Southern analysis with genomic DNA probes. A total of 26 strains were divided into four groups of C. psittaci and two groups of C. trachomatis, on the basis of DNA fingerprints. The six groups of Chlamydia spp. were related to host origin: two avian groups (Av1 and Av2), one feline and muskrat group (Fe1), one ruminant group (Ru1), one C. trachomatis biovars trachoma and lymphogranuloma group (CtHu), and one C. trachomatis mouse biovar group (CtMo), although an ovine abortion strain belonged to the avian group Av2. DNA-DNA hybridization assay and Southern analysis with genomic DNA probes indicated three DNA homology groups in the genus Chlamydia: an avian-feline group (groups Av1, Av2, and Fe1), a ruminant group (group Ru1), and a C. trachomatis group (groups CtHu and CtMo). Furthermore, the Southern analysis indicated that the homologous sequences (DNA homology of at least 14%) within the avian-feline group were distributed along the whole genome, whereas the homologous sequences (DNA homology of less than 24%) among the three DNA homology groups were localized in distinct regions of the genome DNA. These results suggest that Chlamydia spp. are derived from a common ancestor and have diverged into various groups showing restricted host ranges as a natural characteristic and that the species C. psittaci should be differentiated into groups related to host origin and DNA homology. Images PMID:2565333

  10. Genetic diversity and mutation of avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (Newcastle disease virus) in wild birds and evidence for intercontinental spread

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramey, Andy M.; Reeves, Andrew B.; Ogawa, Haruko; Ip, Hon S.; Imai, Kunitoshi; Bui, V. N.; Yamaguchi, Emi; Silko, N. Y.; Afonso, C.L.

    2013-01-01

    Avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1), or Newcastle disease virus, is the causative agent of Newcastle disease, one of the most economically important diseases for poultry production worldwide and a cause of periodic epizootics in wild birds in North America. In this study, we examined the genetic diversity of APMV-1 isolated from migratory birds sampled in Alaska, Japan, and Russia and assessed the evidence for intercontinental virus spread using phylogenetic methods. Additionally, we predicted viral virulence using deduced amino acid residues for the fusion protein cleavage site and estimated mutation rates for the fusion gene of class I and class II migratory bird isolates. All 73 isolates sequenced as part of this study were most closely related to virus genotypes previously reported for wild birds; however, five class II genotype I isolates formed a monophyletic clade exhibiting previously unreported genetic diversity, which met criteria for the designation of a new sub-genotype. Phylogenetic analysis of wild-bird isolates provided evidence for intercontinental virus spread, specifically viral lineages of APMV-1 class II genotype I sub-genotypes Ib and Ic. This result supports migratory bird movement as a possible mechanism for the redistribution of APMV-1. None of the predicted deduced amino acid motifs for the fusion protein cleavage site of APMV-1 strains isolated from migratory birds in Alaska, Japan, and Russia were consistent with those of previously identified virulent viruses. These data therefore provide no support for these strains contributing to the emergence of avian pathogens. The estimated mutation rates for fusion genes of class I and class II wild-bird isolates were faster than those reported previously for non-virulent APMV-1 strains. Collectively, these findings provide new insight into the diversity, spread, and evolution of APMV-1 in wild birds.

  11. Increasing Teacher Diversity: Growing Your Own through Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Steven A.; Nourse, Steven W.; Ross, Molly E.

    2012-01-01

    That the student population in public schools is becoming increasingly diverse is not all that surprising. Studies indicate that in less than three decades, a majority of children will likely belong to race-ethnic minorities. Conversely, teacher candidates are not keeping pace with the diversity ratio of students in the PK-12 public school…

  12. Diversity, physiology, and evolution of avian plumage carotenoids and the role of carotenoid-protein interactions in plumage color appearance.

    PubMed

    LaFountain, Amy M; Prum, Richard O; Frank, Harry A

    2015-04-15

    The diversity of vibrant plumage colors in birds has evolved as a direct result of social and environmental pressures. To fully understand these underlying pressures it is necessary to elucidate the mechanisms for the creation of novel plumage colors which include the metabolic transformations of dietary carotenoids and spectral tuning of the molecules within the feather protein environment. Recent advances in this field have greatly expanded the number and breadth of avian species for which plumage pigmentation has been characterized, making it possible to reconstruct the phylogenetic history of carotenoid usage in plumage. Resonance Raman and classical Raman spectroscopic techniques have been employed with great effect in the study of carotenoids in situ. The application of these methods have two benefits: to identify carotenoids in feathers that are unavailable for destructive sampling; and to study the spectral tuning resulting from the interaction between the carotenoids and the proteins to which they are bound. This review presents a summary of recent advances in the understanding of the molecular factors controlling the coloration of avian carotenoid plumage obtained through the application of both bioanalytical and spectroscopic methodologies. PMID:25637658

  13. Cryptic diversity in Afro-tropical lowland forests: The systematics and biogeography of the avian genus Bleda.

    PubMed

    Huntley, Jerry W; Voelker, Gary

    2016-06-01

    differentiated geographic structuring of genetic diversity in West and Central Africa in three of five species, with many of the diversification events dating to the Pleistocene. The biogeographic patterns observed in Bleda can be explained through a combination of isolation via forest refuges during the Plio-Pleistocene and riverine barriers limiting secondary contact after forest expansion. We find evidence for the PFRH as a driver of intra-specific diversity, but conclude that it does not facilitate an explanation for speciation in the genus Bleda. The "evolutionary museum" concept furnished by the MSH is countered by our evidence of in situ diversification in the lowland forests of Africa. Additionally, our results provide strong evidence of the value of seemingly "uninformative" widespread avian taxa for revealing complex patterns of forest diversity. Overall, our study highlights that past researchers have both underestimated the amount of diversity found in lowland forests and failed to understand the complexity of historical forces shaping that diversity. Gaining a better understanding of lowland forest diversity and the historical factors which have shaped it will crucial in determining conservation tactics in the near future. PMID:27058121

  14. Increasing dental student diversity through the UNLV Dental Prospects Program.

    PubMed

    McClain, Mildred A; Jones, Francis R; McClain, Clifford R; Curd, Francis M

    2013-05-01

    Adequately providing for the health care of the growing minority population in the United States requires increased racial and ethnic diversity of the health care workforce. Long-term diversity in the dental profession depends on a more diverse student population in dental schools. The University of Nevada, Las Vegas School of Dental Medicine's (UNLV SDM) Dental Prospects Club is a predental education program that has increased the number of underrepresented minority and disadvantaged students in the school by concentrating on outreach, recruitment, and retention initiatives. The approaches used by the club members and faculty advisors to increase the number of underrepresented minority students recruited to and enrolled in the UNLV SDM are discussed in this report. Also described are the strategies, methods, internal infrastructure, and organizational support used to increase the number of underrepresented minority students at the school. PMID:23658399

  15. INCREASING THE DIVERSITY OF EST SEQUENCES FOR FRAGARIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This project aims to substantially increase the amount of strawberry expressed sequence tag (EST) data available to the community, and increase the diversity of EST sequences for the family Rosaceae. Currently, there are approximately 19,000 Fragaria ESTs in GenBank, 50% of which have been generated...

  16. Global phylogeography of the avian malaria pathogen Plasmodium relictum based on MSP1 allelic diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hellgren, Olof; Atkinson, Carter T.; Bensch, Staffan; Albayrak, Tamer; Dimitrov, Dimitar; Ewen, John G.; Kim, Kyeong Soon; Lima, Marcos R.; Martin, Lynn; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Ricklefs, Robert; Sehgal, Ravinder N. M.; Gediminas, Valkiunas; Tsuda, Yoshio; Marzal, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Knowing the genetic variation that occurs in pathogen populations and how it is distributed across geographical areas is essential to understand parasite epidemiology, local patterns of virulence, and evolution of host-resistance. In addition, it is important to identify populations of pathogens that are evolutionarily independent and thus ‘free’ to adapt to hosts and environments. Here, we investigated genetic variation in the globally distributed, highly invasive avian malaria parasite Plasmodium relictum, which has several distinctive mitochondrial haplotyps (cyt b lineages, SGS1, GRW11 and GRW4). The phylogeography of P. relictum was accessed using the highly variable nuclear gene merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1), a gene linked to the invasion biology of the parasite. We show that the lineage GRW4 is evolutionarily independent of GRW11 and SGS1 whereas GRW11 and SGS1 share MSP1 alleles and thus suggesting the presence of two distinct species (GRW4 versus SGS1 and GRW11). Further, there were significant differences in the global distribution of MSP1 alleles with differences between GRW4 alleles in the New and the Old World. For SGS1, a lineage formerly believed to have both tropical and temperate transmission, there were clear differences in MSP1 alleles transmitted in tropical Africa compared to the temperate regions of Europe and Asia. Further, we highlight the occurrence of multiple MSP1 alleles in GRW4 isolates from the Hawaiian Islands, where the parasite has contributed to declines and extinctions of endemic forest birds since it was introduced. This study stresses the importance of multiple independent loci for understanding patterns of transmission and evolutionary independence across avian malaria parasites.

  17. Mechanisms for increased soil C storage with increasing temporal and spatial plant diversity in Agroecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiemann, L. K.; Grandy, S.; Marin-Spiotta, E.; Atkinson, E. E.

    2012-12-01

    Generally, there are positive relationships between plant species diversity and net primary production and other key ecosystem functions. However, the effects of aboveground diversity on soil microbial communities and ecosystem processes they mediate, such as soil C sequestration, remain unclear. In this study, we used an 11-y cropping diversity study where increases in diversity have increased crop yields. At the experimental site, temporal diversity is altered using combinations of annual crop rotations, while spatial diversity is altered using cover crop species. We used five treatments ranging in diversity from one to five species consisting of continuous corn with no cover crop or one cover crop and corn-soy-wheat rotations with no cover, one cover or two cover crop species. We collected soils from four replicate plots of each treatment and measured the distribution of mega- (>2 mm), macro- (0.25-2 mm), and micro- (0.053-0.25 mm) aggregates. Within each aggregate size class, we also measured total soil C and N, permanganate oxidizable C (POXC), extracellular enzyme activities (EEA), and microbial community structure with phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. We use these data to address the impacts of both rotational and cover crop diversity on soil physical structure, associated microbial community structure and activity and soil C storage. As spatial diversity increased, we found concurrent increases in mega-aggregate abundance as well as increasing soil C in the mega- and micro-aggregates but not macro-aggregates. The proportion of total soil C in each aggregate size class that is relatively labile (POXC) was highest in the micro-aggregates, as was enzyme activity associated with labile C acquisition across all levels of diversity. Enzyme activity associated with more recalcitrant forms of soil C was highest in the mega-aggregate class, also across all diversity levels; however, the ratio of labile to recalcitrant EEA increased with increasing diversity

  18. Increasing Diversity in Cognitive Developmental Research: Issues and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Stephanie J.; Camacho, Tissyana C.

    2015-01-01

    The current article discusses the importance of increasing racial-ethnic and socioeconomic diversity in cognitive developmental research. It begins with discussion of the implications of the underrepresentation of ethnic minority children in cognitive developmental research. It goes on to suggest reasons underlying these omissions, such as the…

  19. Increasing Academic Excellence and Enhancing Diversity Are Compatible Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    It is possible to simultaneously increase academic excellence and diversity. This article describes how the theory of successful intelligence can be used to accomplish both of these goals. The theory postulates that intelligence comprises creative skills in generating novel ideas, analytical skills in discerning whether they are good ideas, and…

  20. Prevalence and Diversity of Avian Haematozoan Parasites in Wetlands of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Mohiuddin, Khaja; Mikolon, Andrea; Paul, Suman Kumer; Hosseini, Parviez Rana; Daszak, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The parasites of genera Haemoproteus, Plasmodium, and Leucocytozoon are well-known avian haematozoa and can cause declined productivity and high mortality in wild birds. The objective of the study was to record the prevalence of haematozoan parasites in a wide range of wetland birds in Bangladesh. Six species of Haemoproteus, seven species of Plasmodium, one unidentified species of Leucocytozoon, and one unidentified microfilaria of the genus Paronchocerca were found. Data on the morphology, size, hosts, prevalence, and infection intensity of the parasites are provided. The overall prevalence among the birds was 29.5% (95 out of 322 birds). Of those, 13.2% (42 of 319) of birds were infected with Haemoproteus spp., 15.1% with Plasmodium spp. (48 of 319) and 0.6% with Leucocytozoon spp. (2 of 319). Two birds were positive for both Haemoproteus sp. and Plasmodium sp. A single resident bird, Ardeola grayii, was found positive for an unidentified microfilaria. Prevalence of infection varied significantly among different bird families. Wild birds of Bangladesh carry several types of haematozoan parasites. Further investigation with a larger sample size is necessary to estimate more accurately the prevalence of haematozoan parasites among wild birds as well as domestic ducks for better understanding of the disease ecology. PMID:24587896

  1. A comment on "Novel scavenger removal trials increase wind turbine-caused avian fatality estimates"

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huso, Manuela M.P.; Erickson, Wallace P.

    2013-01-01

    In a recent paper, Smallwood et al. (2010) conducted a study to compare their “novel” approach to conducting carcass removal trials with what they term the “conventional” approach and to evaluate the effects of the different methods on estimated avian fatality at a wind power facility in California. A quick glance at Table 3 that succinctly summarizes their results and provides estimated fatality rates and 80% confidence intervals calculated using the 2 methods reveals a surprising result. The confidence intervals of all of their estimates and most of the conventional estimates extend below 0. These results imply that wind turbines may have the capacity to create live birds. But a more likely interpretation is that a serious error occurred in the calculation of either the average fatality rate or its standard error or both. Further evaluation of their methods reveals that the scientific basis for concluding that “many estimates of scavenger removal rates prior to [their] study were likely biased low due to scavenger swamping” and “previously reported estimates of avian fatality rates … should be adjusted upwards” was not evident in their analysis and results. Their comparison to conventional approaches was not applicable, their statistical models were questionable, and the conclusions they drew were unsupported.

  2. Responses of primary productivity to increased temperature and phytoplankton diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowska, Aleksandra M.; Breithaupt, Petra; Hillebrand, Helmut; Hoppe, Hans-Georg; Jürgens, Klaus; Sommer, Ulrich

    2012-08-01

    In order to examine the effects of warming and diversity changes on primary productivity, we conducted a meta-analysis on six independent indoor mesocosm experiments with a natural plankton community from the Baltic Sea. Temperature effects on primary productivity changed with light intensity and zooplankton density and analysed pathways between temperature, diversity and productivity, elucidating direct and indirect effects of warming on primary productivity during the spring phytoplankton bloom. Our findings indicate that warming directly increased carbon specific primary productivity, which was more pronounced under low grazing pressure. On the other hand, primary productivity per unit water volume did not respond to increased temperature, because of a negative temperature effect on phytoplankton biomass. Moreover, primary productivity response to temperature changes depended on light limitation. Using path analysis, we tested whether temperature effects were direct or mediated by warming effects on phytoplankton diversity. Although phytoplankton species richness had a positive impact on both net primary productivity and carbon specific primary productivity - and evenness had a negative effect on net primary productivity - both richness and evenness were not affected by temperature. Thus, we suggest that diversity effects on primary productivity depended mainly on other factors than temperature like grazing, sinking or nutrient limitation, which themselves are temperature dependent.

  3. Genomic Organization, Transcriptomic Analysis, and Functional Characterization of Avian α- and β-Keratins in Diverse Feather Forms

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Wen-Lang; Yan, Jie; Chen, Chih-Kuan; Lai, Yu-Ting; Wu, Siao-Man; Mao, Chi-Tang; Chen, Jun-Jie; Lu, Mei-Yeh Jade; Ho, Meng-Ru; Widelitz, Randall B.; Chen, Chih-Feng; Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Li, Wen-Hsiung

    2014-01-01

    Feathers are hallmark avian integument appendages, although they were also present on theropods. They are composed of flexible corneous materials made of α- and β-keratins, but their genomic organization and their functional roles in feathers have not been well studied. First, we made an exhaustive search of α- and β-keratin genes in the new chicken genome assembly (Galgal4). Then, using transcriptomic analysis, we studied α- and β-keratin gene expression patterns in five types of feather epidermis. The expression patterns of β-keratin genes were different in different feather types, whereas those of α-keratin genes were less variable. In addition, we obtained extensive α- and β-keratin mRNA in situ hybridization data, showing that α-keratins and β-keratins are preferentially expressed in different parts of the feather components. Together, our data suggest that feather morphological and structural diversity can largely be attributed to differential combinations of α- and β-keratin genes in different intrafeather regions and/or feather types from different body parts. The expression profiles provide new insights into the evolutionary origin and diversification of feathers. Finally, functional analysis using mutant chicken keratin forms based on those found in the human α-keratin mutation database led to abnormal phenotypes. This demonstrates that the chicken can be a convenient model for studying the molecular biology of human keratin-based diseases. PMID:25152353

  4. Increasing Crop Diversity Mitigates Weather Variations and Improves Yield Stability

    PubMed Central

    Gaudin, Amélie C. M.; Tolhurst, Tor N.; Ker, Alan P.; Janovicek, Ken; Tortora, Cristina; Martin, Ralph C.; Deen, William

    2015-01-01

    Cropping sequence diversification provides a systems approach to reduce yield variations and improve resilience to multiple environmental stresses. Yield advantages of more diverse crop rotations and their synergistic effects with reduced tillage are well documented, but few studies have quantified the impact of these management practices on yields and their stability when soil moisture is limiting or in excess. Using yield and weather data obtained from a 31-year long term rotation and tillage trial in Ontario, we tested whether crop rotation diversity is associated with greater yield stability when abnormal weather conditions occur. We used parametric and non-parametric approaches to quantify the impact of rotation diversity (monocrop, 2-crops, 3-crops without or with one or two legume cover crops) and tillage (conventional or reduced tillage) on yield probabilities and the benefits of crop diversity under different soil moisture and temperature scenarios. Although the magnitude of rotation benefits varied with crops, weather patterns and tillage, yield stability significantly increased when corn and soybean were integrated into more diverse rotations. Introducing small grains into short corn-soybean rotation was enough to provide substantial benefits on long-term soybean yields and their stability while the effects on corn were mostly associated with the temporal niche provided by small grains for underseeded red clover or alfalfa. Crop diversification strategies increased the probability of harnessing favorable growing conditions while decreasing the risk of crop failure. In hot and dry years, diversification of corn-soybean rotations and reduced tillage increased yield by 7% and 22% for corn and soybean respectively. Given the additional advantages associated with cropping system diversification, such a strategy provides a more comprehensive approach to lowering yield variability and improving the resilience of cropping systems to multiple environmental

  5. Avian diversity and West Nile virus: Testing associations between biodiversity and infectious disease risk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ezenwa, V.O.; Godsey, M.S.; King, R.J.; Guptill, S.C.

    2006-01-01

    The emergence of several high profile infectious diseases in recent years has focused attention on our need to understand the ecological factors contributing to the spread of infectious diseases. West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease that was first detected in the United States in 1999. The factors accounting for variation in the prevalence of WNV are poorly understood, but recent ideas suggesting links between high biodiversity and reduced vector-borne disease risk may help account for distribution patterns of this disease. Since wild birds are the primary reservoir hosts for WNV, we tested associations between passerine (Passeriform) bird diversity, non-passerine (all other orders) bird diversity and virus infection rates in mosquitoes and humans to examine the extent to which bird diversity is associated with WNV infection risk. We found that non-passerine species richness (number of non-passerine species) was significantly negatively correlated with both mosquito and human infection rates, whereas there was no significant association between passerine species richness and any measure of infection risk. Our findings suggest that non-passerine diversity may play a role in dampening WNV amplification rates in mosquitoes, minimizing human disease risk. ?? 2005 The Royal Society.

  6. Avian diversity and West Nile virus: testing associations between biodiversity and infectious disease risk.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ezenwa, V.O.; Godsey, M.S.; King, R.J.; Guptill, S.C.

    2006-01-01

    The emergence of several high profile infectious diseases in recent years has focused attention on our need to understand the ecological factors contributing to the spread of infectious diseases. West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease that was first detected in the United States in 1999. The factors accounting for variation in the prevalence of WNV are poorly understood, but recentideas suggesting links between high biodiversity and reduced vector-borne disease risk may help account for distribution patterns of this disease. Since wild birds are the primary reservoir hosts for WNV, we tested associations between passerine (Passeriform) bird diversity, non-passerine (all other orders) bird diversity and virus infection rates in mosquitoes and humans to examine the extent to which bird diversity is associated with WNV infection risk. We found t h at non-passerine species richness (number of non-passerine species) was significantly negatively correlated with both mosquito and human infection rates, whereas there was no significant association between passerine species richness and any measure of infection risk. Our findings suggest that non-passerine diversity may play a role in dampening WNV amplification rates in mosquitoes, minimizing human disease risk.

  7. Alternative mechanisms of increased eggshell hardness of avian brood parasites relative to host species

    PubMed Central

    Igic, Branislav; Braganza, Kim; Hyland, Margaret M.; Silyn-Roberts, Heather; Cassey, Phillip; Grim, Tomas; Rutila, Jarkko; Moskát, Csaba; Hauber, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    Obligate brood parasitic birds lay their eggs in nests of other species and parasite eggs typically have evolved greater structural strength relative to host eggs. Increased mechanical strength of the parasite eggshell is an adaptation that can interfere with puncture ejection behaviours of discriminating hosts. We investigated whether hardness of eggshells is related to differences between physical and chemical traits from three different races of the parasitic common cuckoo Cuculus canorus, and their respective hosts. Using tools developed for materials science, we discovered a novel correlate of increased strength of parasite eggs: the common cuckoo's egg exhibits a greater microhardness, especially in the inner region of the shell matrix, relative to its host and sympatric non-host species. We then tested predictions of four potential mechanisms of shell strength: (i) increased relative thickness overall, (ii) greater proportion of the structurally harder shell layers, (iii) higher concentration of inorganic components in the shell matrix, and (iv) elevated deposition of a high density compound, MgCO3, in the shell matrix. We confirmed support only for hypothesis (i). Eggshell characteristics did not differ between parasite eggs sampled from different host nests in distant geographical sites, suggesting an evolutionarily shared microstructural mechanism of stronger parasite eggshells across diverse host-races of brood parasitic cuckoos. PMID:21561966

  8. Alternative mechanisms of increased eggshell hardness of avian brood parasites relative to host species.

    PubMed

    Igic, Branislav; Braganza, Kim; Hyland, Margaret M; Silyn-Roberts, Heather; Cassey, Phillip; Grim, Tomas; Rutila, Jarkko; Moskát, Csaba; Hauber, Mark E

    2011-11-01

    Obligate brood parasitic birds lay their eggs in nests of other species and parasite eggs typically have evolved greater structural strength relative to host eggs. Increased mechanical strength of the parasite eggshell is an adaptation that can interfere with puncture ejection behaviours of discriminating hosts. We investigated whether hardness of eggshells is related to differences between physical and chemical traits from three different races of the parasitic common cuckoo Cuculus canorus, and their respective hosts. Using tools developed for materials science, we discovered a novel correlate of increased strength of parasite eggs: the common cuckoo's egg exhibits a greater microhardness, especially in the inner region of the shell matrix, relative to its host and sympatric non-host species. We then tested predictions of four potential mechanisms of shell strength: (i) increased relative thickness overall, (ii) greater proportion of the structurally harder shell layers, (iii) higher concentration of inorganic components in the shell matrix, and (iv) elevated deposition of a high density compound, MgCO(3), in the shell matrix. We confirmed support only for hypothesis (i). Eggshell characteristics did not differ between parasite eggs sampled from different host nests in distant geographical sites, suggesting an evolutionarily shared microstructural mechanism of stronger parasite eggshells across diverse host-races of brood parasitic cuckoos. PMID:21561966

  9. Low Pore Connectivity Increases Bacterial Diversity in Soil▿

    PubMed Central

    Carson, Jennifer K.; Gonzalez-Quiñones, Vanesa; Murphy, Daniel V.; Hinz, Christoph; Shaw, Jeremy A.; Gleeson, Deirdre B.

    2010-01-01

    One of soil microbiology's most intriguing puzzles is how so many different bacterial species can coexist in small volumes of soil when competition theory predicts that less competitive species should decline and eventually disappear. We provide evidence supporting the theory that low pore connectivity caused by low water potential (and therefore low water content) increases the diversity of a complex bacterial community in soil. We altered the pore connectivity of a soil by decreasing water potential and increasing the content of silt- and clay-sized particles. Two textures were created, without altering the chemical properties or mineral composition of the soil, by adding silt- and clay-sized particles of quartz to a quartz-based sandy soil at rates of 0% (sand) or 10% (silt+clay). Both textures were incubated at several water potentials, and the effect on the active bacterial communities was measured using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) of bacterial 16S rRNA. Bacterial richness and diversity increased as water potential decreased and soil became drier (P < 0.012), but they were not affected by texture (P > 0.553). Bacterial diversity increased at water potentials of ≤2.5 kPa in sand and ≤4.0 kPa in silt+clay, equivalent to ≤56% water-filled pore space (WFPS) in both textures. The bacterial community structure in soil was affected by both water potential and texture (P < 0.001) and was correlated with WFPS (sum of squared correlations [δ2] = 0.88, P < 0.001). These findings suggest that low pore connectivity is commonly experienced by soil bacteria under field conditions and that the theory of pore connectivity may provide a fundamental principle to explain the high diversity of bacteria in soil. PMID:20418420

  10. Limited Antigenic Diversity in Contemporary H7 Avian-Origin Influenza A Viruses from North America

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yifei; Bailey, Elizabeth; Spackman, Erica; Li, Tao; Wang, Hui; Long, Li-Ping; Baroch, John A.; Cunningham, Fred L.; Lin, Xiaoxu; Jarman, Richard G.; DeLiberto, Thomas J.; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Subtype H7 avian–origin influenza A viruses (AIVs) have caused at least 500 confirmed human infections since 2003 and culling of >75 million birds in recent years. Here we antigenically and genetically characterized 93 AIV isolates from North America (85 from migratory waterfowl [1976–2010], 7 from domestic poultry [1971–2012], and 1 from a seal [1980]). The hemagglutinin gene of these H7 viruses are separated from those from Eurasia. Gradual accumulation of nucleotide and amino acid substitutions was observed in the hemagglutinin of H7 AIVs from waterfowl and domestic poultry. Genotype characterization suggested that H7 AIVs in wild birds form diverse and transient internal gene constellations. Serologic analyses showed that the 93 isolates cross-reacted with each other to different extents. Antigenic cartography showed that the average antigenic distance among them was 1.14 units (standard deviation [SD], 0.57 unit) and that antigenic diversity among the H7 isolates we tested was limited. Our results suggest that the continuous genetic evolution has not led to significant antigenic diversity for H7 AIVs from North America. These findings add to our understanding of the natural history of IAVs and will inform public health decision-making regarding the threat these viruses pose to humans and poultry. PMID:26858078

  11. Prebiotically plausible mechanisms increase compositional diversity of nucleic acid sequences

    PubMed Central

    Derr, Julien; Manapat, Michael L.; Rajamani, Sudha; Leu, Kevin; Xulvi-Brunet, Ramon; Joseph, Isaac; Nowak, Martin A.; Chen, Irene A.

    2012-01-01

    During the origin of life, the biological information of nucleic acid polymers must have increased to encode functional molecules (the RNA world). Ribozymes tend to be compositionally unbiased, as is the vast majority of possible sequence space. However, ribonucleotides vary greatly in synthetic yield, reactivity and degradation rate, and their non-enzymatic polymerization results in compositionally biased sequences. While natural selection could lead to complex sequences, molecules with some activity are required to begin this process. Was the emergence of compositionally diverse sequences a matter of chance, or could prebiotically plausible reactions counter chemical biases to increase the probability of finding a ribozyme? Our in silico simulations using a two-letter alphabet show that template-directed ligation and high concatenation rates counter compositional bias and shift the pool toward longer sequences, permitting greater exploration of sequence space and stable folding. We verified experimentally that unbiased DNA sequences are more efficient templates for ligation, thus increasing the compositional diversity of the pool. Our work suggests that prebiotically plausible chemical mechanisms of nucleic acid polymerization and ligation could predispose toward a diverse pool of longer, potentially structured molecules. Such mechanisms could have set the stage for the appearance of functional activity very early in the emergence of life. PMID:22319215

  12. Wild Birds and Increased Transmission of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1) among Poultry, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Keawcharoen, Juthatip; van den Broek, Jan; Bouma, Annemarie; Tiensin, Thanawat; Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E

    2011-01-01

    Since the outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N1 virus, wild birds have been suspected of transmitting this virus to poultry. On January 23, 2004, the Ministry of Public Health in Thailand informed the World Health Organization of an avian influenza A (H5N1) outbreak. To determine the epidemiology of this viral infection and its relation to poultry outbreaks in Thailand from 2004 through 2007, we investigated how wild birds play a role in transmission. A total of 24,712 serum samples were collected from migratory and resident wild birds. Reverse transcription PCR showed a 0.7% HPAI (H5N1) prevalence. The highest prevalence was observed during January–February 2004 and March–June 2004, predominantly in central Thailand, which harbors most of the country’s poultry flocks. Analysis of the relationship between poultry and wild bird outbreaks was done by using a nonhomogeneous birth and death statistical model. Transmission efficiency among poultry flocks was 1.7× higher in regions with infected wild birds in the given or preceding month. The joint presence of wild birds and poultry is associated with increased spread among poultry flocks. PMID:21749762

  13. Land-cover change and avian diversity in the conterminous United States.

    PubMed

    Rittenhouse, Chadwick D; Pidgeon, Anna M; Albright, Thomas P; Culbert, Patrick D; Clayton, Murray K; Flather, Curtis H; Masek, Jeffrey G; Radeloff, Volker C

    2012-10-01

    Changes in land use and land cover have affected and will continue to affect biological diversity worldwide. Yet, understanding the spatially extensive effects of land-cover change has been challenging because data that are consistent over space and time are lacking. We used the U.S. National Land Cover Dataset Land Cover Change Retrofit Product and North American Breeding Bird Survey data to examine land-cover change and its associations with diversity of birds with principally terrestrial life cycles (landbirds) in the conterminous United States. We used mixed-effects models and model selection to rank associations by ecoregion. Land cover in 3.22% of the area considered in our analyses changed from 1992 to 2001, and changes in species richness and abundance of birds were strongly associated with land-cover changes. Changes in species richness and abundance were primarily associated with changes in nondominant types of land cover, yet in many ecoregions different types of land cover were associated with species richness than were associated with abundance. Conversion of natural land cover to anthropogenic land cover was more strongly associated with changes in bird species richness and abundance than persistence of natural land cover in nearly all ecoregions and different covariates were most strongly associated with species richness than with abundance in 11 of 17 ecoregions. Loss of grassland and shrubland affected bird species richness and abundance in forested ecoregions. Loss of wetland was associated with bird abundance in forested ecoregions. Our findings highlight the value of understanding changes in nondominant land cover types and their association with bird diversity in the United States. PMID:22731630

  14. Increasing Diversity in Computer Science: Acknowledging, yet Moving Beyond, Gender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Elizabeth A.; Stubbs, Margaret L.

    Lack of diversity within the computer science field has, thus far, been examined most fully through the lens of gender. This article is based on a follow-on to Margolis and Fisher's (2002) study and includes interviews with 33 Carnegie Mellon University students from the undergraduate senior class of 2002 in the School of Computer Science. We found evidence of similarities among the perceptions of these women and men on definitions of computer science, explanations for the notoriously low proportion of women in the field, characterizations of a typical computer science student, impressions of recent curricular changes, a sense of the atmosphere/culture in the program, views of the Women@SCS campus organization, and suggestions for attracting and retaining well-rounded students in computer science. We conclude that efforts to increase diversity in the computer science field will benefit from a more broad-based approach that considers, but is not limited to, notions of gender difference.

  15. Functional group diversity increases with modularity in complex food webs

    PubMed Central

    Montoya, D.; Yallop, M.L.; Memmott, J.

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity increases the ability of ecosystems to provide multiple functions. Most studies report a positive relationship between species richness and the number of ecosystem functions. However, it is not known whether the number of functional groups is related to the structure of the underlying species interaction network. Here we present food web data from 115 salt marsh islands and show that network structure is associated with the number of functional groups present. Functional group diversity is heterogeneously distributed across spatial scales, with some islands hosting more functional groups than others. Functional groups form modules within the community so that food webs with more modular architectures have more functional group diversity. Further, in communities with different interaction types, modularity can be seen as the multifunctional equivalent of trophic complementarity. Collectively, these findings reveal spatial heterogeneity in the number of functional groups that emerges from patterns in the structure of the food web. PMID:26059871

  16. Avian utilization of subsidence wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Nawrot, J.R.; Conley, P.S.; Smout, C.L.

    1995-09-01

    Diverse and productive wetlands have resulted from coal mining in the midwest. The trend from surface to underground mining has increased the potential for subsidence. Planned subsidence of longwall mining areas provides increased opportunities for wetland habitat establishment. Planned subsidence over a 180 meter (590 foot) deep longwall mine in southern Illinois during 1984 to 1986 produced three subsidence wetlands totaling 15 hectares (38 acres). The resulting palustrine emergent wetlands enhanced habitat diversity within the surrounding palustrine forested unsubsided area. Habitat assessments and evaluations of avian utilization of the subsidence wetlands were conducted during February 1990 through October 1991. Avian utilization was greatest within the subsided wetlands. Fifty-three bird species representing seven foraging guilds utilized the subsidence wetlands. Wading/fishing, dabbling waterfowl, and insectivorous avian guilds dominated the subsidence wetlands. The subsidence wetlands represented ideal habitat for wood ducks and great blue herons which utilized snags adjacent to and within the wetlands for nesting (19 great blue heron nests produced 25 young). Dense cover and a rich supply of macroinvertebrates provide excellent brood habitat for wood ducks, while herpetofauna and ichthyofauna provided abundant forage in shallow water zones for great blue herons and other wetland wading birds. The diversity of game and non-game avifauna utilizing the subsidence areas demonstrated the unique value of these wetlands. Preplanned subsidence wetlands can help mitigate loss of wetland habitats in the midwest.

  17. Increasing Diversity in the Earth Sciences (IDES) - An Oregon Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Silva, S. L.; Duncan, R. A.; Wright, D. J.; de Silva, L.; Guerrero, E. F.

    2011-12-01

    The IDES (Increasing Diversity in Earth Sciences) Program is the first partnership of its kind in the state of Oregon targeted at broadening participation in the Earth Science enterprise. Funded by the National Science Foundation Opportunities to Enhance Diversity in the Geosciences program (NSF-OEDG), this partnership involves community colleges, a research university with major strengths in Earth Science research and education and an institutionalized commitment to enhancing diversity, state and federal agencies, centers of informal education, and the Oregon Space Grant Consortium, IDES has two integrated goals: 1) to increase the number of students from under-represented groups who pursue careers in Earth Science research and education, and 2) to strengthen the understanding of Earth Sciences and their relevance to society among broad and diverse segments of the population. Built around the best practices of tiered mentoring, interactive student cohort, research and education internships, and financial support, this 4-year program recruits 10 to 12 students (mainly rising juniors) each year from science majors at Oregon State University and five Oregon community colleges. The program is reaching its goals by: a) training participants in the application of geospatial to Earth Science problems of personal relevance b) immersing participants in a two-year mentored research project that involves summer internships with academic units, state and federal agencies, and centers for informal education in Oregon. c) exposing, educating, and involving participants in the breadth of Earth Science careers through contact with Earth Science professionals through mentors, a professional internship, and a learning community that includes a speaker series. d) instilling an understanding of context and relevance of the Earth Science Enterprise to the participants, their families, their communities, and the general public. We report on the first two years of this program during

  18. Avihepadnavirus diversity in parrots is comparable to that found amongst all other avian species.

    PubMed

    Piasecki, Tomasz; Harkins, Gordon W; Chrząstek, Klaudia; Julian, Laurel; Martin, Darren P; Varsani, Arvind

    2013-04-10

    Avihepadnaviruses have previously been isolated from various species of duck, goose, stork, heron and crane. Recently the first parrot avihepadnavirus was isolated from a Ring-necked Parakeet in Poland. In this study, 41 psittacine liver samples archived in Poland over the last nine years were tested for presence of Parrot hepatitis B virus (PHBV). We cloned and sequenced PHBV isolates from 18 birds including a Crimson Rosella, an African grey parrot and sixteen Ring-necked Parakeets. PHBV isolates display a degree of diversity (>78% genome wide pairwise identity) that is comparable to that found amongst all other avihepadnaviruses (>79% genome wide pairwise identity). The PHBV viruses can be subdivided into seven genetically distinct groups (tentatively named A-G) of which the two isolated of PHBV-G are the most divergent sharing ∼79% genome wide pairwise identity with all their PHBVs. All PHBV isolates display classical avihepadnavirus genome architecture. PMID:23411008

  19. Formation of National Partnerships by Centers to Increase Diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolbert, M. E.

    2008-05-01

    As scientists seek innovative ways for their research results to have greater impact, they are using many strategies to implement their ideas to add value to the process. Some have decided to remain individual researchers while others have identified partners with whom to work. The idea behind forming partnerships is that a synergistic effect would result and there would be value added with a research center approach. Eight research center programs are sponsored by the National Science Foundation (NSF) to take advantage of this type of synergy. These centers form strong partnerships with multiple institutions thereby enabling the conduct of research, education, and knowledge transfer. The added value of the centers is critical as these interdisciplinary entities exploit opportunities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Additionally, they address racial and ethnic diversity while conducting innovative research. Important for the survival of these centers is the formation of strong, long-term partnerships. In this presentation, Science and Technology Centers that focus on earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences - fields in which racial and ethnic diversity is lacking - will be highlighted. These centers have developed recruitment and retention strategies to increase the number of under- represented minorities in these fields. The discussion will include a description of these strategies, degrees earned, and employment data on persons in the target fields. Special attention will be paid to partnerships and other characteristics that put these centers on the road to success, especially in the integration of research and education and the fostering of ethnic and racial diversity.

  20. Severe plant invasions can increase mycorrhizal fungal abundance and diversity

    PubMed Central

    Lekberg, Ylva; Gibbons, Sean M; Rosendahl, Søren; Ramsey, Philip W

    2013-01-01

    Invasions by non-native plants can alter ecosystem functions and reduce native plant diversity, but relatively little is known about their effect on belowground microbial communities. We show that invasions by knapweed (Centaurea stoebe) and leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula, hereafter spurge)—but not cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum)—support a higher abundance and diversity of symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) than multi-species native plant communities. The higher AMF richness associated with knapweed and spurge is unlikely due to a co-invasion by AMF, because a separate sampling showed that individual native forbs hosted a similar AMF abundance and richness as exotic forbs. Native grasses associated with fewer AMF taxa, which could explain the reduced AMF richness in native, grass-dominated communities. The three invasive plant species harbored distinct AMF communities, and analyses of co-occurring native and invasive plants indicate that differences were partly driven by the invasive plants and were not the result of pre-invasion conditions. Our results suggest that invasions by mycotrophic plants that replace poorer hosts can increase AMF abundance and richness. The high AMF richness in monodominant plant invasions also indicates that the proposed positive relationship between above and belowground diversity is not always strong. Finally, the disparate responses among exotic plants and consistent results between grasses and forbs suggest that AMF respond more to plant functional group than plant provenance. PMID:23486251

  1. Can repeated fertilizer applications to young Norway spruce enhance avian diversity in intensively managed forests?

    PubMed

    Edenius, Lars; Mikusiński, Grzegorz; Bergh, Johan

    2011-07-01

    Repeated fertilization of forests to increase biomass production is an environmentally controversial proposal, the effects of which we assessed on breeding birds in stands of young Norway spruce (Picea abies), in an intensively managed forest area in southern Sweden. Our results show that fertilized stands had 38% more species and 21% more individuals than unfertilized stands. Compared with stands under traditional management, the further intensification of forestry by repeated applications of fertilizers thus seemed to enhance species richness and abundance of forest birds. We cannot conclude at this stage whether the response in the bird community was caused by changes in food resources or increased structural complexity in the forest canopy due to the skid roads used for the application of the fertilizers. Future studies should focus on structural and compositional effects of fertilization processes during the entire rotation period and at assessing its effects in a landscape PMID:21848140

  2. Diverse urban plantings managed with sufficient resource availability can increase plant productivity and arthropod diversity

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Jonathon N.; Loh, Susan; Braggion, Ligia; Cameron, Stephen; Firn, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Buildings structures and surfaces are explicitly being used to grow plants, and these “urban plantings” are generally designed for aesthetic value. Urban plantings also have the potential to contribute significant “ecological values” by increasing urban habitat for animals such as arthropods and by increasing plant productivity. In this study, we evaluated how the provision of these additional ecological values is affected by plant species richness; the availability of essential resources for plants, such as water, light, space; and soil characteristics. We sampled 33 plantings located on the exterior of three buildings in the urban center of Brisbane, Australia (subtropical climatic region) over 2, 6 week sampling periods characterized by different temperature and rainfall conditions. Plant cover was estimated as a surrogate for productivity as destructive sampling of biomass was not possible. We measured weekly light levels (photosynthetically active radiation), plant CO2 assimilation, soil CO2 efflux, and arthropod diversity. Differences in plant cover were best explained by a three-way interaction of plant species richness, management water regime and sampling period. As the richness of plant species increased in a planter, productivity and total arthropod richness also increased significantly—likely due to greater habitat heterogeneity and quality. Overall we found urban plantings can provide additional ecological values if essential resources are maintained within a planter such as water, light and soil temperature. Diverse urban plantings that are managed with these principles in mind can contribute to the attraction of diverse arthropod communities, and lead to increased plant productivity within a dense urban context. PMID:25400642

  3. Avian Influenza.

    PubMed

    Zeitlin, Gary Adam; Maslow, Melanie Jane

    2005-05-01

    The current epidemic of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza in Southeast Asia raises serious concerns that genetic reassortment will result in the next influenza pandemic. There have been 164 confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza since 1996. In 2004, there were 45 cases of human H5N1 in Vietnam and Thailand, with a mortality rate more than 70%. In addition to the potential public health hazard, the current zoonotic epidemic has caused severe economic losses. Efforts must be concentrated on early detection of bird outbreaks with aggressive culling, quarantining, and disinfection. To prepare for and prevent an increase in human cases, it is essential to improve detection methods and stockpile effective antivirals. Novel therapeutic modalities, including short-interfering RNAs and new vaccine strategies that use plasmid-based genetic systems, offer promise should a pandemic occur. PMID:15847721

  4. Avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Zeitlin, Gary A; Maslow, Melanie J

    2006-03-01

    The current epidemic of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza in Southeast Asia raises serious concerns that genetic reassortment will result in the next influenza pandemic. There have been 164 confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza since 1996. In 2004 alone, there were 45 cases of human H5N1 in Vietnam and Thailand, with a mortality rate over 70%. In addition to the potential public health hazard, the current zoonotic epidemic has caused severe economic losses. Efforts must be concentrated on early detection of bird outbreaks with aggressive culling, quarantines, and disinfection. To prepare for and prevent increased human cases, it is essential to improve detection methods and stockpile effective antivirals. Novel therapeutic modalities, including short, interfering RNAs and new vaccine strategies that use plasmid-based genetic systems offer promise, should a pandemic occur. PMID:16566867

  5. Avian malaria in a boreal resident species: long-term temporal variability, and increased prevalence in birds with avian keratin disorder.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Laura C; Handel, Colleen M; Van Hemert, Caroline; Loiseau, Claire; Sehgal, Ravinder N M

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of vector-borne parasitic diseases is widely influenced by biological and ecological factors. Environmental conditions such as temperature and precipitation can have a marked effect on haemosporidian parasites (Plasmodium spp.) that cause malaria and those that cause other malaria-like diseases in birds. However, there have been few long-term studies monitoring haemosporidian infections in birds in northern latitudes, where weather conditions can be highly variable and the effects of climate change are becoming more pronounced. We used molecular methods to screen more than 2,000 blood samples collected from black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus), a resident passerine bird. Samples were collected over a 10 year period, mostly during the non-breeding season, at seven sites in Alaska, USA. We tested for associations between Plasmodium prevalence and local environmental conditions including temperature, precipitation, site, year and season. We also evaluated the relationship between parasite prevalence and individual host factors of age, sex and presence or absence of avian keratin disorder. This disease, which causes accelerated keratin growth in the beak, provided a natural study system in which to test the interaction between disease state and malaria prevalence. Prevalence of Plasmodium infection varied by year, site, age and individual disease status but there was no support for an effect of sex or seasonal period. Significantly, birds with avian keratin disorder were 2.6 times more likely to be infected by Plasmodium than birds without the disorder. Interannual variation in the prevalence of Plasmodium infection at different sites was positively correlated with summer temperatures at the local but not statewide scale. Sequence analysis of the parasite cytochrome b gene revealed a single Plasmodium spp. lineage, P43. Our results demonstrate associations between prevalence of avian malaria and a variety of biological and ecological factors

  6. Addressing the Needs of an Increasingly Diverse Society. OUS Diversity Report, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon University System, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The report includes an overview of the relevance of diverse educational environments and descriptions of the current initiatives within OUS to enhance the representation, inclusion, and engagement of diverse racial/ethnic populations. The issues associated with higher education diversity are multifaceted. Within OUS, the vision for diversity is a…

  7. Bio-inspired diversity for increasing attacker workload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Stephen

    2014-05-01

    Much of the traffic in modern computer networks is conducted between clients and servers, rather than client-toclient. As a result, servers represent a high-value target for collection and analysis of network traffic. As they reside at a single network location (i.e. IP/MAC address) for long periods of time. Servers present a static target for surveillance, and a unique opportunity to observe the network traffic. Although servers present a heightened value for attackers, the security community as a whole has shifted more towards protecting clients in recent years leaving a gap in coverage. In addition, servers typically remain active on networks for years, potentially decades. This paper builds on previous work that demonstrated a proof of concept leveraging existing technology for increasing attacker workload. Here we present our clean slate approach to increasing attacker workload through a novel hypervisor and micro-kernel, utilizing next generation virtualization technology to create synthetic diversity of the server's presence including the hardware components.

  8. Genetic diversity and mutation of avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (Newcastle disease virus) in wild birds and evidence for intercontinental spread

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1), or Newcastle disease virus, is the causative agent of Newcastle disease (ND), one of the most economically important diseases for poultry production worldwide and a cause of periodic epornitics in wild birds in North America. In this study, we explored the ge...

  9. Avian influenza at both ends of a migratory flyway: characterizing viral genomic diversity to optimize surveillance plans for North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearce, John M.; Ramey, Andrew M.; Flint, Paul L.; Koehler, Anson V.; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Franson, J. Christian; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Derksen, Dirk V.; Ip, Hon S.

    2009-01-01

    Although continental populations of avian influenza viruses are genetically distinct, transcontinental reassortment in low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses has been detected in migratory birds. Thus, genomic analyses of LPAI viruses could serve as an approach to prioritize species and regions targeted by North American surveillance activities for foreign origin highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). To assess the applicability of this approach, we conducted a phylogenetic and population genetic analysis of 68 viral genomes isolated from the northern pintail (Anas acuta) at opposite ends of the Pacific migratory flyway in North America. We found limited evidence for Asian LPAI lineages on wintering areas used by northern pintails in California in contrast to a higher frequency on breeding locales of Alaska. Our results indicate that the number of Asian LPAI lineages observed in Alaskan northern pintails, and the nucleotide composition of LPAI lineages, is not maintained through fall migration. Accordingly, our data indicate that surveillance of Pacific Flyway northern pintails to detect foreign avian influenza viruses would be most effective in Alaska. North American surveillance plans could be optimized through an analysis of LPAI genomics from species that demonstrate evolutionary linkages with European or Asian lineages and in regions that have overlapping migratory flyways with areas of HPAI outbreaks.

  10. Pathobiological characterization of low-pathogenicity H5 avian influenza viruses of diverse origins in chickens, ducks and turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We undertook one of the most comprehensive studies on the replication and intraspecies transmission characteristics of 20 low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses of different origins, which included 8 isolates from wild aquatic birds. We studied virus replication in infected and contact control bi...

  11. Professional Development Scholarships Increase Qualifications of Diverse Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipscomb, Shannon T.; Schmitt, Sara A.; Pratt, Megan E.

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to improve school readiness call for improvements in the professional qualifications of the early childhood workforce. It is critically important that these efforts are inclusive of a diverse workforce. Providers from diverse ethnic and linguistic backgrounds make up a sizable portion of the early childhood workforce, yet diversity…

  12. Avian malaria in a boreal resident species: long-term temporal variability, and increased prevalence in birds with avian keratin disorder

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilkinson, Laura C.; Handel, Colleen M.; Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Loiseau, Claire; Sehgal, Ravinder N. M.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of vector-borne parasitic diseases is widely influenced by biological and ecological factors. Environmental conditions such as temperature and precipitation can have a marked effect on haemosporidian parasites (Plasmodium spp.) that cause malaria and those that cause other malaria-like diseases in birds. However, there have been few long-term studies monitoring haemosporidian infections in birds in northern latitudes, where weather conditions can be highly variable and the effects of climate change are becoming more pronounced. We used molecular methods to screen more than 2,000 blood samples collected from black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus), a resident passerine bird. Samples were collected over a 10 year period, mostly during the non-breeding season, at seven sites in Alaska, USA. We tested for associations between Plasmodium prevalence and local environmental conditions including temperature, precipitation, site, year and season. We also evaluated the relationship between parasite prevalence and individual host factors of age, sex and presence or absence of avian keratin disorder. This disease, which causes accelerated keratin growth in the beak, provided a natural study system in which to test the interaction between disease state and malaria prevalence. Prevalence of Plasmodium infection varied by year, site, age and individual disease status but there was no support for an effect of sex or seasonal period. Significantly, birds with avian keratin disorder were 2.6 times more likely to be infected by Plasmodium than birds without the disorder. Interannual variation in the prevalence of Plasmodium infection at different sites was positively correlated with summer temperatures at the local but not statewide scale. Sequence analysis of the parasite cytochrome b gene revealed a single Plasmodiumspp. lineage, P43. Our results demonstrate associations between prevalence of avian malaria and a variety of biological and

  13. Endogenous flow of amino acids in the avian ileum as influenced by increasing dietary peptide concentrations.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, Velmurugu; Morel, Patrick C H; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Thomas, Donald V

    2009-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to establish whether feeding broiler chickens with diets containing increasing dietary peptide concentrations would cause increases in ileal endogenous amino acid flow. The flow of N and most amino acids increased quadratically (P < 0.05 to 0.001) with increasing dietary concentrations of peptides. The exceptions were the flow of threonine, serine, glycine, tyrosine and cystine, which increased linearly (P < 0.001) with dietary peptide levels. Another notable exception to the general trend was the flow of proline, which was significantly higher (P < 0.01) in birds fed the protein-free diet. The amino acid profile of endogenous protein, expressed as proportion of crude protein, indicated that the ratios of threonine, glutamic acid, proline, glycine, leucine, histidine, arginine and cystine were influenced (P < 0.05) with increasing dietary peptide concentrations. In general, compared with the protein-free diet, the ratios of threonine and arginine in endogenous protein were lower (P < 0.05) and those of glutamic acid, glycine and histidine were greater (P < 0.05) in diets with high concentrations of peptides. The ratio of proline was found to decrease (P < 0.05) with increasing dietary peptide concentrations. These changes in the amino acid profile of endogenous protein are probably reflective of changes in the output of one or more of the components of endogenous protein. Overall, the present results demonstrated that increasing dietary peptide concentrations increased the flow of endogenous amino acid flow at the terminal ileum of broiler chickens in a dose-dependent manner and also caused changes in the composition of endogenous protein. The observed changes in endogenous amino flow will influence the maintenance requirements for amino acids and also have implications for the calculation of true digestibility coefficient of feedstuffs. PMID:18662428

  14. OUS Diversity Report, 2004: Addressing the Needs of an Increasingly Diverse Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon University System, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The Oregon University System (OUS) annual diversity report provides: (1) a "vision" for diversity with continuing themes regarding the enhancement of representation, inclusion, and engagement; and (2) an overview of the progress made in racial/ethnic diversity within the populations of OUS students, faculty and staff. The purposes of this report…

  15. Diversity of Multi-Drug Resistant Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) Causing Outbreaks of Colibacillosis in Broilers during 2012 in Spain.

    PubMed

    Solà-Ginés, Marc; Cameron-Veas, Karla; Badiola, Ignacio; Dolz, Roser; Majó, Natalia; Dahbi, Ghizlane; Viso, Susana; Mora, Azucena; Blanco, Jorge; Piedra-Carrasco, Nuria; González-López, Juan José; Migura-Garcia, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) are the major cause of colibacillosis in poultry production. In this study, a total of 22 E. coli isolated from colibacillosis field cases and 10 avian faecal E. coli (AFEC) were analysed. All strains were characterised phenotypically by susceptibility testing and molecular typing methods such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). The presence of 29 virulence genes associated to APEC and human extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) was also evaluated. For cephalosporin resistant isolates, cephalosporin resistance genes, plasmid location and replicon typing was assessed. Avian isolates belonged to 26 O:H serotypes and 24 sequence types. Out of 22 APEC isolates, 91% contained the virulence genes predictors of APEC; iutA, hlyF, iss, iroN and ompT. Of all strains, 34% were considered ExPEC. PFGE analysis demonstrated a high degree of genetic polymorphism. All strains were multi-resistant, including those isolated from healthy animals. Eleven strains were resistant to cephalosporins; six contained blaCTX-M-14, two blaSHV-12, two blaCMY-2 and one blaSHV-2. Two strains harboured qnrA, and two qnrA together with aac(6')-Ib-cr. Additionally, the emergent clone O25b:H4-B2-ST131 was isolated from a healthy animal which harboured blaCMY-2 and qnrS genes. Cephalosporin resistant genes were mainly associated to the presence of IncK replicons. This study demonstrates a very diverse population of multi-drug resistant E. coli containing a high number of virulent genes. The E. coli population among broilers is a reservoir of resistance and virulence-associated genes that could be transmitted into the community through the food chain. More epidemiological studies are necessary to identify clonal groups and resistance mechanisms with potential relevance to public health. PMID:26600205

  16. Diversity of Multi-Drug Resistant Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) Causing Outbreaks of Colibacillosis in Broilers during 2012 in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Solà-Ginés, Marc; Cameron-Veas, Karla; Badiola, Ignacio; Dolz, Roser; Majó, Natalia; Dahbi, Ghizlane; Viso, Susana; Mora, Azucena; Blanco, Jorge; Piedra-Carrasco, Nuria; González-López, Juan José; Migura-Garcia, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) are the major cause of colibacillosis in poultry production. In this study, a total of 22 E. coli isolated from colibacillosis field cases and 10 avian faecal E. coli (AFEC) were analysed. All strains were characterised phenotypically by susceptibility testing and molecular typing methods such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). The presence of 29 virulence genes associated to APEC and human extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) was also evaluated. For cephalosporin resistant isolates, cephalosporin resistance genes, plasmid location and replicon typing was assessed. Avian isolates belonged to 26 O:H serotypes and 24 sequence types. Out of 22 APEC isolates, 91% contained the virulence genes predictors of APEC; iutA, hlyF, iss, iroN and ompT. Of all strains, 34% were considered ExPEC. PFGE analysis demonstrated a high degree of genetic polymorphism. All strains were multi-resistant, including those isolated from healthy animals. Eleven strains were resistant to cephalosporins; six contained blaCTX-M-14, two blaSHV-12, two blaCMY-2 and one blaSHV-2. Two strains harboured qnrA, and two qnrA together with aac(6’)-Ib-cr. Additionally, the emergent clone O25b:H4-B2-ST131 was isolated from a healthy animal which harboured blaCMY-2 and qnrS genes. Cephalosporin resistant genes were mainly associated to the presence of IncK replicons. This study demonstrates a very diverse population of multi-drug resistant E. coli containing a high number of virulent genes. The E. coli population among broilers is a reservoir of resistance and virulence-associated genes that could be transmitted into the community through the food chain. More epidemiological studies are necessary to identify clonal groups and resistance mechanisms with potential relevance to public health. PMID:26600205

  17. Avian influenza

    MedlinePlus

    Bird flu; H5N1; H5N2; H5N8; H7N9; Avian influenza A (HPAI) H5 ... The first avian influenza in humans was reported in Hong Kong in 1997. It was called avian influenza (H5N1). The outbreak was linked ...

  18. Avian influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) is a viral infection of birds that varies in severity from asymptomatic infections to mild respiratory and reproductive diseases to an acute, highly fatal systemic disease of chickens, turkeys, guinea fowls, and other avian species. Avian influenza viruses are divided into two ...

  19. High Prevalence and Lineage Diversity of Avian Malaria in Wild Populations of Great Tits (Parus major) and Mosquitoes (Culex pipiens)

    PubMed Central

    Glaizot, Olivier; Fumagalli, Luca; Iritano, Katia; Lalubin, Fabrice; Van Rooyen, Juan; Christe, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Avian malaria studies have taken a prominent place in different aspects of evolutionary ecology. Despite a recent interest in the role of vectors within the complex interaction system of the malaria parasite, they have largely been ignored in most epidemiological studies. Epidemiology of the disease is however strongly related to the vector's ecology and behaviour, and there is a need for basic investigations to obtain a better picture of the natural associations between Plasmodium lineages, vector species and bird hosts. The aim of the present study was to identify the mosquito species involved in the transmission of the haemosporidian parasites Plasmodium spp. in two wild populations of breeding great tits (Parus major) in western Switzerland. Additionally, we compared Plasmodium lineages, based on mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b sequences, between the vertebrate and dipteran hosts, and evaluated the prevalence of the parasite in the mosquito populations. Plasmodium spp. were detected in Culex pipiens only, with an overall 6.6% prevalence. Among the six cytochrome b lineages of Plasmodium identified in the mosquitoes, three were also present in great tits. The results provide evidence for the first time that C. pipiens can act as a natural vector of avian malaria in Europe and yield baseline data for future research on the epidemiology of avian malaria in European countries. PMID:22506060

  20. Promiscuity in mice is associated with increased vaginal bacterial diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macmanes, Matthew David

    2011-11-01

    Differences in the number of sexual partners (i.e., mating system) have the potential to exert a strong influence on the bacterial communities present in reproductive structures like the vagina. Because this structure serves as a conduit for gametes, bacteria present there may have a pronounced, direct effect on host reproductive success. As a first step towards the identification of the relationship between sexual behavior and potentially pathogenic bacterial communities inhabiting vital reproductive structures, as well as their potential effects on fitness, I sought to quantify differences in bacterial diversity in a promiscuous and monogamous mammal species. To accomplish this, I used two sympatric species of Peromyscus rodents— Peromyscus californicus and Peromyscus maniculatus that differ with regard to the number of sexual partners per individual to test the hypothesis that bacterial diversity should be greater in the promiscuous P. maniculatus relative to the monogamous P. californicus. As predicted, phylogenetically controlled and operational taxonomic unit-based indices of bacterial diversity indicated that diversity is greater in the promiscuous species. These results provide important new insights into the effects of mating system on bacterial diversity in free-living vertebrates, and may suggest a potential cost of promiscuity.

  1. Increasing Cropping System Diversity Balances Productivity, Profitability and Environmental Health

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Adam S.; Hill, Jason D.; Chase, Craig A.; Johanns, Ann M.; Liebman, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Balancing productivity, profitability, and environmental health is a key challenge for agricultural sustainability. Most crop production systems in the United States are characterized by low species and management diversity, high use of fossil energy and agrichemicals, and large negative impacts on the environment. We hypothesized that cropping system diversification would promote ecosystem services that would supplement, and eventually displace, synthetic external inputs used to maintain crop productivity. To test this, we conducted a field study from 2003–2011 in Iowa that included three contrasting systems varying in length of crop sequence and inputs. We compared a conventionally managed 2-yr rotation (maize-soybean) that received fertilizers and herbicides at rates comparable to those used on nearby farms with two more diverse cropping systems: a 3-yr rotation (maize-soybean-small grain + red clover) and a 4-yr rotation (maize-soybean-small grain + alfalfa-alfalfa) managed with lower synthetic N fertilizer and herbicide inputs and periodic applications of cattle manure. Grain yields, mass of harvested products, and profit in the more diverse systems were similar to, or greater than, those in the conventional system, despite reductions of agrichemical inputs. Weeds were suppressed effectively in all systems, but freshwater toxicity of the more diverse systems was two orders of magnitude lower than in the conventional system. Results of our study indicate that more diverse cropping systems can use small amounts of synthetic agrichemical inputs as powerful tools with which to tune, rather than drive, agroecosystem performance, while meeting or exceeding the performance of less diverse systems. PMID:23071739

  2. Avian, salamander, and forest floor mercury concentrations increase with elevation in a terrestrial ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Jason M; Driscoll, Charles T; Rimmer, Christopher C; McFarland, Kent P

    2014-01-01

    High-elevation ecosystems of the northeastern United States are vulnerable to deposition and environmental accumulation of atmospheric pollutants, yet little work has been done to assess mercury (Hg) concentrations in organisms occupying montane ecosystems. The authors present data on Hg concentrations in ground-foraging insectivorous songbirds, a terrestrial salamander, and forest floor horizons sampled along a forested elevational gradient from 185 m to 1273 m in the Catskill Mountains, New York, USA. Mean Hg concentrations in Catharus thrushes and the salamander Plethodon cinereus increased with elevation, as did Hg concentrations in all forest floor horizons. Mean Hg concentrations in organic soils at approximately 1200 m elevation (503.5 ± 17.7 ng/g, dry wt) were 4.4-fold greater than those at approximately 200 m. Montane ecosystems of the northeastern United States, and probably elsewhere, are exposed to higher levels of atmospheric Hg deposition as reflected in accumulation patterns in the forest floor and associated high-elevation fauna. This information can be used to parameterize and test Hg transport and bioaccumulation models of landscape-specific patterns and may serve as a monitoring tool for decision makers considering future controls on Hg emissions. Further investigation is needed into the potential effects of increased Hg concentrations on high-elevation fauna. PMID:24302165

  3. Chlamydia psittaci infection increases mortality of avian influenza virus H9N2 by suppressing host immune response

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Jun; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Tianyuan; Han, Er; Zhao, Peng; Khan, Ahrar; He, Cheng; Wu, Yongzheng

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza virus subtype H9N2 (H9N2) and Chlamydia psittaci (C. psittaci) are frequently isolated in chickens with respiratory disease. However, their roles in co-infection remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that C. psittaci enhances H9N2 infection through suppression of host immunity. Thus, 10-day-old SPF chickens were inoculated intra-tracheally with a high or low virulence C. psittaci strain, and were simultaneously vaccinated against Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Significant decreases in body weight, NDV antibodies and immune organ indices occurred in birds with the virulent C. psittaci infection, while the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ T cells increased significantly compared to that of the lower virulence strain. A second group of birds were inoculated with C. psittaci and H9N2 simultaneously (C. psittaci+H9N2), C. psittaci 3 days prior to H9N2 (C. psittaci/H9N2), or 3 days after H9N2 (H9N2/C. psittaci), C. psittaci or H9N2 alone. Survival rates were 65%, 80% and 90% in the C. psittaci/H9N2, C. psittaci+H9N2 and H9N2/C. psittaci groups, respectively and respiratory clinical signs, lower expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and higher pathogen loads were found in both C. psittaci/H9N2 and C. psittaci+H9N2 groups. Hence, virulent C. psittaci infection suppresses immune response by inhibiting humoral responses and altering Th1/Th2 balance, increasing mortality in H9N2 infected birds. PMID:27405059

  4. Chlamydia psittaci infection increases mortality of avian influenza virus H9N2 by suppressing host immune response.

    PubMed

    Chu, Jun; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Tianyuan; Han, Er; Zhao, Peng; Khan, Ahrar; He, Cheng; Wu, Yongzheng

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza virus subtype H9N2 (H9N2) and Chlamydia psittaci (C. psittaci) are frequently isolated in chickens with respiratory disease. However, their roles in co-infection remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that C. psittaci enhances H9N2 infection through suppression of host immunity. Thus, 10-day-old SPF chickens were inoculated intra-tracheally with a high or low virulence C. psittaci strain, and were simultaneously vaccinated against Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Significant decreases in body weight, NDV antibodies and immune organ indices occurred in birds with the virulent C. psittaci infection, while the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ T cells increased significantly compared to that of the lower virulence strain. A second group of birds were inoculated with C. psittaci and H9N2 simultaneously (C. psittaci+H9N2), C. psittaci 3 days prior to H9N2 (C. psittaci/H9N2), or 3 days after H9N2 (H9N2/C. psittaci), C. psittaci or H9N2 alone. Survival rates were 65%, 80% and 90% in the C. psittaci/H9N2, C. psittaci+H9N2 and H9N2/C. psittaci groups, respectively and respiratory clinical signs, lower expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and higher pathogen loads were found in both C. psittaci/H9N2 and C. psittaci+H9N2 groups. Hence, virulent C. psittaci infection suppresses immune response by inhibiting humoral responses and altering Th1/Th2 balance, increasing mortality in H9N2 infected birds. PMID:27405059

  5. Exoskeletons and economics: indoor arthropod diversity increases in affluent neighbourhoods.

    PubMed

    Leong, Misha; Bertone, Matthew A; Bayless, Keith M; Dunn, Robert R; Trautwein, Michelle D

    2016-08-01

    In urban ecosystems, socioeconomics contribute to patterns of biodiversity. The 'luxury effect', in which wealthier neighbourhoods are more biologically diverse, has been observed for plants, birds, bats and lizards. Here, we used data from a survey of indoor arthropod diversity (defined throughout as family-level richness) from 50 urban houses and found that house size, surrounding vegetation, as well as mean neighbourhood income best predict the number of kinds of arthropods found indoors. Our finding, that homes in wealthier neighbourhoods host higher indoor arthropod diversity (consisting of primarily non-pest species), shows that the luxury effect can extend to the indoor environment. The effect of mean neighbourhood income on indoor arthropod diversity was particularly strong for individual houses that lacked high surrounding vegetation ground cover, suggesting that neighbourhood dynamics can compensate for local choices of homeowners. Our work suggests that the management of neighbourhoods and cities can have effects on biodiversity that can extend from trees and birds all the way to the arthropod life in bedrooms and basements. PMID:27484644

  6. Increasing cropping system diversity balances productivity, profitability and environmental health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Balancing productivity, profitability, and environmental health is a key challenge for agricultural sustainability. Most crop production systems in the United States are characterized by low species and management diversity, high use of fossil energy and agrichemicals, and can have large negative im...

  7. Increasing Teacher Diversity: Strategies to Improve the Teacher Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bireda, Saba; Chait, Robin

    2011-01-01

    The lack of diversity in the teaching force is troubling for several reasons. Fewer minority teachers may indicate that few minorities are interested in pursuing a career in teaching. The low number of minority teachers also may indicate that there are fewer minority candidates with the skills and qualifications to enter the field. The inability…

  8. Evaluating the cell mediated immune response of avian species to avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The measurement of avian cellular immunity is critical to understanding the role and regulation of avian lymphocytes following avian influenza virus infection. Although the ability to measure avian T cell responses has steadily increased over the last few years, few studies have examined the role o...

  9. Synergy of subgroup J avian leukosis virus and Eimeria tenella to increase pathogenesis in specific-pathogen-free chickens.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ning; Wang, Qi; Shi, Wenyan; Han, Linzhen; Wang, Jiazhong; Ma, Xingjiang; Li, Hongmei; Wang, Fangkun; Su, Shuai; Zhao, Xiaomin

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the effects of co-infections of subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) and Eimeria tenella on the pathogenesis in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) white leghorn chickens, groups of chickens were infected with ALV-J strain NX0101 at one day of age or with E. tenella at 14 days of age or both. The control group was left uninfected and was mock-inoculated with phosphate buffer saline (PBS). Mortality rates, body weights, cecal lesions, and viremia of infected chickens in each group were evaluated. Immune status was evaluated by measuring several parameters: immune organ weight/body weight index, specific humoral responses to inactivated NDV vaccine and to inoculated E. tenella, proportions of blood CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8α+ lymphocytes and transcriptional levels of cytokines in blood and cecal tonsils. The results show that co-infections of ALV-J and E. tenella induced a higher mortality rate and a lower body weight in SPF chickens compared to single-pathogen infection. In co-infected chickens, ALV-J accelerated the disease symptoms induced by E. tenella, and the E. tenella extended the ALV-J viremia. Thymus atrophy, decrease in the humoral response levels to pathogens and the NDV vaccine, modifications in the blood lymphocyte sub-populations and transcriptional cytokine disorders were found in co-infected chickens compared to chickens infected with one pathogen alone and to controls. We underline a synergy between ALV-J and E. tenella that results in increasing pathogenesis in SPF chickens. PMID:27436443

  10. Intracolonial genetic diversity in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies increases pollen foraging efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiple mating by honey bee queens results in colonies of genotypically diverse workers. Recent studies have demonstrated that increased genetic diversity within a honey bee colony increases the variation in the frequency of tasks performed by workers. We show that genotypically diverse colonies, ...

  11. More Diverse Yet Less Tolerant? How the Increasingly Diverse Racial Landscape Affects White Americans' Racial Attitudes.

    PubMed

    Craig, Maureen A; Richeson, Jennifer A

    2014-03-13

    Recent Census Bureau projections indicate that racial/ethnic minorities will comprise over 50% of the U.S. population by 2042, effectively creating a so-called "majority-minority" nation. Across four experiments, we explore how presenting information about these changing racial demographics influences White Americans' racial attitudes. Results reveal that exposure to the changing demographics evokes the expression of greater explicit and implicit racial bias. Specifically, Whites exposed to the racial demographic shift information preferred interactions/settings with their own ethnic group over minority ethnic groups; expressed more negative attitudes toward Latinos, Blacks, and Asian Americans; and expressed more automatic pro-White/anti-minority bias. Perceived threat to Whites' societal status mediated the effects of the racial shift information on explicit racial attitudes. These results suggest that rather than ushering in a more tolerant future, the increasing diversity of the nation may instead yield intergroup hostility. Implications for intergroup relations and media framing of the racial shift are discussed. PMID:24625658

  12. Pathobiological characterization of low-pathogenicity H5 avian influenza viruses of diverse origins in chickens, ducks and turkeys.

    PubMed

    Pillai, S P S; Pantin-Jackwood, M; Suarez, D L; Saif, Y M; Lee, C-W

    2010-09-01

    We undertook one of the most comprehensive studies on the replication and intraspecies transmission characteristics of low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses in ducks, chickens and turkeys. Our results indicated that most of these isolates could replicate and be transmitted in poultry without inducing clinical disease. However, differences in transmission to contact control birds were noted, emphasizing the importance of having contact control cage mates in biological characterization experiments. Ducks supported the replication of viruses of wild aquatic bird origin in their respiratory and digestive tracts equally well. The viruses from wild aquatic birds were not effectively transmitted among chickens. In contrast, the wild-bird isolates and viruses of domestic bird origin from live-bird markets and commercial poultry operations replicated and were transmitted more efficiently in turkeys than in chickens or ducks. We also found a lower minimal infectious dose requirement for infection of turkeys compared to chickens and ducks. Our data support an important role of turkeys as being more susceptible hosts for avian influenza viruses than domestic ducks and chickens. These results highlight the role of turkeys as intermediate or bridging hosts in the transmission of influenza viruses from wild birds to land-based domestic poultry or among different land-based bird species. PMID:20577770

  13. Viral entry mechanisms: the increasing diversity of paramyxovirus entry

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Everett Clinton; Popa, Andreea; Chang, Andres; Masante, Cyril; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis

    2009-01-01

    The paramyxovirus family contains established human pathogens such as measles virus and human respiratory syncytial virus, and emerging pathogens including the Hendra and Nipah viruses and the recently identified human metapneumovirus. Two major envelope glycoproteins, the attachment protein and the fusion protein, promote the processes of viral attachment and virus-cell membrane fusion required for entry. While common mechanisms of fusion protein proteolytic activation and the mechanism of membrane fusion promotion have been shown in recent years, considerable diversity exists in the family related to receptor binding and the potential mechanisms of fusion triggering. PMID:19878307

  14. Mischaracterizing social psychology to support the laudable goal of increasing its political diversity.

    PubMed

    Eagly, Alice H

    2015-01-01

    Duarte et al.'s arguments for increasing political diversity in social psychology are based on mischaracterizations of social psychology as fundamentally flawed in understanding stereotype accuracy and the effects of attitudes on information processing. I correct their misunderstandings while agreeing with their view that political diversity, along with other forms of diversity, stands to benefit social psychology. PMID:26786762

  15. Antigenic and genetic diversity of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses isolated in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Balish, Amanda L; Davis, C Todd; Saad, Magdi D; El-Sayed, Nasr; Esmat, Hala; Tjaden, Jeffrey A; Earhart, Kenneth C; Ahmed, Lu'ay E; Abd El-Halem, Mohamed; Ali, Abdel Hakem M; Nassif, Samir A; El-Ebiary, Elham A; Taha, M; Aly, Mona M; Arafa, Abdelstattar; O'Neill, Eduardo; Xiyan, Xu; Cox, Nancy J; Donis, Ruben O; Klimov, Alexander I

    2010-03-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (H5N1) has diverged antigenically and genetically since its initial detection in Asia in 1997. Viruses belonging to clade 2.2 in particular have been reported in numerous countries with the majority occurring in Egypt. Previous reports identified antigenic similarities between viruses belonging to clade 2.2. However, poultry and human viruses isolated in northern Egypt during 2007 and 2008 were found to be antigenically distinct from other clade 2.2 viruses from this country. Genetic analysis of the hemagglutinin revealed a high degree of nucleotide and amino acid divergence. The antigenic changes in Egyptian viruses isolated during 2007-08 necessitated that two of these strains be considered as potential H5N1 pre-pandemic vaccine candidates. PMID:20521654

  16. On the study of the transmission networks of blood parasites from SW Spain: diversity of avian haemosporidians in the biting midge Culicoides circumscriptus and wild birds

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    of the parasite lineages isolated in this study with those previously found infecting birds allowed us to identify some potential nodes in the transmission network of avian blood parasite lineages. These results highlight the complexity of the transmission networks of blood parasites in the wild that may involve a high diversity of susceptible birds and insect vectors. PMID:23856348

  17. Occurrence of diarrheagenic virulence genes and genetic diversity in Escherichia coli isolates from fecal material of various avian hosts in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Abhirosh; Mazumder, Asit

    2014-03-01

    Contamination of surface water by fecal microorganisms originating from human and nonhuman sources is a public health concern. In the present study, Escherichia coli isolates (n = 412) from the feces of various avian host sources were screened for various virulence genes: stx1 and stx2 (Shiga toxin-producing E. coli [STEC]), eae (enteropathogenic E. coli [EPEC]), est-h, est-p, and elt (encoding heat-stable toxin [ST] variants STh and STp and heat-labile toxin [LT], respectively) (enterotoxigenic E. coli [ETEC]), and ipaH (enteroinvasive E. coli [EIEC]). None of the isolates were found to be positive for stx1, while 23% (n = 93) were positive for only stx2, representing STEC, and 15% (n = 63) were positive for only eae, representing EPEC. In addition, five strains obtained from pheasant were positive for both stx2 and eae and were confirmed as non-O157 by using an E. coli O157 rfb (rfbO157) TaqMan assay. Isolates positive for the virulence genes associated with ETEC and EIEC were not detected in any of the hosts. The repetitive element palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) fingerprint analysis identified 143 unique fingerprints, with an overall Shannon diversity index of 2.36. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) showed that the majority of the STEC and EPEC isolates were genotypically distinct from nonpathogenic E. coli and clustered independently. MANOVA analysis also revealed spatial variation among the E. coli isolates, since the majority of the isolates clustered according to the sampling locations. Although the presence of virulence genes alone cannot be used to determine the pathogenicity of strains, results from this study show that potentially pathogenic STEC and EPEC strains can be found in some of the avian hosts studied and may contaminate surface water and potentially impact human health. PMID:24441159

  18. Diversity and evolution of avian influenza viruses in live poultry markets, free-range poultry and wild wetland birds in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang-Jun; Lin, Xian-Dan; Guo, Wen-Ping; Tian, Jun-Hua; Wang, Wen; Ying, Xu-Hua; Wang, Miao-Ruo; Yu, Bin; Yang, Zhan-Qiu; Shi, Mang; Holmes, Edward C; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2016-04-01

    The wide circulation of novel avian influenza viruses (AIVs) highlights the risk of pandemic influenza emergence in China. To investigate the prevalence and genetic diversity of AIVs in different ecological contexts, we surveyed AIVs in live poultry markets (LPMs), free-range poultry and the wetland habitats of wild birds in Zhejiang and Hubei provinces. Notably, LPMs contained the highest frequency of AIV infection, and the greatest number of subtypes (n = 9) and subtype co-infections (n = 14), as well as frequent reassortment, suggesting that they play an active role in fuelling AIV transmission. AIV-positive samples were also identified in wild birds in both provinces and free-range poultry in one sampling site close to a wetland region in Hubei. H9N2, H7N9 and H5N1 were the most commonly sampled subtypes in the LPMs from Zhejiang, whilst H5N6 and H9N2 were the dominant subtypes in the LPMs from Hubei. Phylogenetic analyses of the whole-genome sequences of 43 AIVs revealed that three reassortant H5 subtypes were circulating in LMPs in both geographical regions. Notably, the viruses sampled from the wetland regions and free-range poultry contained complex reassortants, for which the origins of some segments were unclear. Overall, our study highlights the extent of AIV genetic diversity in two highly populated parts of central and south-eastern China, particularly in LPMs, and emphasizes the need for continual surveillance. PMID:26758561

  19. High genetic diversity and frequent genetic reassortment of avian influenza A(H9N2) viruses along the East Asian-Australian migratory flyway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiming; Zhang, Zhenjie; Chen, Zhanqiang; Zhang, Yanru; Lv, Qiang; An, Xiaoping; Tong, Yigang; Carr, Michael J; Sun, Shuhong; Shi, Weifeng

    2016-04-01

    To understand the molecular epidemiology and evolution of avian influenza viruses (AIV) along the East Asian-Australian migration flyway, we collected faecal samples (n=2859) between November 2014 and March 2015 from poultry, environmental sources and wild birds in Dongying, Shandong province and Yancheng, Jiangsu province in eastern China. The presence of AIV RNA was evaluated by real-time PCR and the positivity rate ranged from 0 to 29.3%. In both Dongying and Yancheng, samples collected from live poultry markets had the highest positivity rate for AIV RNA. AIV whole genomes were generated and phylogenetically analysed. Our results demonstrate that most of the viruses belonged to the H9N2 subtype, and could be classified into nine novel genotypes based on the phylogenetic analysis of the eight gene segments of the AIV genomes. This revealed a high genetic diversity of H9N2 in this region and suggested that they might have undergone frequent genetic reassortment. In addition, the internal genes (PB2, etc.) of two viruses from wild birds and several viruses from poultry belonged to the same gene constellation, suggesting a potential inter-host transmission of AIV between wild birds and poultry in live markets along routes of migratory flyways. Our results highlight the high genetic diversity of AIV along the East Asian-Australian migration flyway and the need for more extensive AIV surveillance in eastern China. PMID:26876220

  20. Increased Bile Acid Synthesis and Deconjugation After Biliopancreatic Diversion.

    PubMed

    Ferrannini, Ele; Camastra, Stefania; Astiarraga, Brenno; Nannipieri, Monica; Castro-Perez, Jose; Xie, Dan; Wang, Liangsu; Chakravarthy, Manu; Haeusler, Rebecca A

    2015-10-01

    Biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) improves insulin sensitivity and decreases serum cholesterol out of proportion with weight loss. Mechanisms of these effects are unknown. One set of proposed contributors to metabolic improvements after bariatric surgeries is bile acids (BAs). We investigated the early and late effects of BPD on plasma BA levels, composition, and markers of BA synthesis in 15 patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). We compared these to the early and late effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) in 22 patients with T2D and 16 with normal glucose tolerance. Seven weeks after BPD, insulin sensitivity had doubled and serum cholesterol had halved. At this time, BA synthesis markers and total plasma BAs, particularly unconjugated BAs, had markedly risen; this effect could not be entirely explained by low FGF19. In contrast, after RYGB, insulin sensitivity improved gradually with weight loss and cholesterol levels declined marginally; BA synthesis markers were decreased at an early time point (2 weeks) after surgery and returned to the normal range 1 year later. These findings indicate that BA synthesis contributes to the decreased serum cholesterol after BPD. Moreover, they suggest a potential role for altered enterohepatic circulation of BAs in improving insulin sensitivity and cholesterol metabolism after BPD. PMID:26015549

  1. Developing a Program to Increase Diversity in the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prendeville, J. C.

    2001-05-01

    The Geosciences have a history of poor participation by minorities- African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans and persons with disabilities. Demographic data concerning population trends over the next decades make it clear that, without intervention, underrepresentation of these groups in the geosciences will only worsen. The Directorate for Geosciences of the National Science Foundation has acknowledged the problem of underrepresentation and the loss of intellectual resources that it represents. The Directorate has established a program to create a pool of students from underrepresented groups who will take their place in the future as both scientific researchers and educators, as well as scientifically knowledgeable citizens. The strategy employed in developing the Geosciences Diversity program emphasizes community direction and inclusion. Steps in developing the program included examining data that demonstrate where the "leaks" in the educational pipeline occur; reviewing the programs that are offered by the NSF, by other federal agencies and by professional societies; and gaining insights from individuals who have developed or managed programs that have similar goals.

  2. Impediments to Increasing Diversity in Post-Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carol Siri

    2007-01-01

    Due to the increasing complexity in the financial aid process and the movement of available financial aid up the economic scale, poor people and minorities have less access to college, including engineering programs. Some impediments are lack of access to knowledge about college, increasing complexity and up-front costs in the application process…

  3. A generalized fecal glucocorticoid assay for use in a diverse array of nondomestic mammalian and avian species.

    PubMed

    Wasser, S K; Hunt, K E; Brown, J L; Cooper, K; Crockett, C M; Bechert, U; Millspaugh, J J; Larson, S; Monfort, S L

    2000-12-01

    Noninvasive fecal glucocorticoid analysis has tremendous potential as a means of assessing stress associated with environmental disturbance in wildlife. However, interspecific variation in excreted glucocorticoid metabolites requires careful selection of the antibody used in their quantification. We compared four antibodies for detecting the major fecal cortisol metabolites in yellow baboons following (3)H cortisol administration, ACTH challenge, and HPLC separation of fecal glucocorticoid metabolites. The most effective antibody (ICN corticosterone RIA; Cat. No. 07-120102) demonstrated relatively high cross-reactivities to the major cortisol metabolites present in feces during peak excretion, following both radiolabel infusion and ACTH challenge. This same antibody also detected increased fecal glucocorticoid metabolites after ACTH administration in the African elephant, black rhinoceros, Roosevelt elk, gerenuk, scimitar-horned oryx, Alaskan sea otter, Malayan sun bear, cheetah, clouded leopard, longtailed macaque, and northern spotted owl. Results suggest that (1) fecal glucocorticoid assays reliably detect endogenous changes in adrenal activity of a diverse array of species and (2) where comparisons were made, the ICN corticosterone antibody generally was superior to other antibodies for measuring glucocorticoid metabolites in feces. PMID:11121291

  4. Avian Metapneumoviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is an economically important virus that is the primary causal agent of turkey rhinotracheitis (TRT), also known as avian rhinotracheitis (ART). The virus causes an acute highly contagious infection of the upper respiratory tract in turkeys and was first isolated from tur...

  5. Tools for Increasing Undergraduate Diversity in Your Department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenfield, Philip; Loebman, S. R.; Hilton, E. J.; Garner, S.; Agol, E.; Bellovary, J. M.; Christensen, C. R.; Cowan, N. B.; Gogarten, S. M.; Haggard, D.; Munshi, F. A.; Schmidt, S. J.; Stilp, A. M.; Agueros, M. A.; Covey, K. R.; West, A. A.; Carroll, P.; Murphy, J.

    2010-01-01

    Now in its fifth year, the Pre-Major in Astronomy Program at the University of Washington has increased the number of underrepresented undergraduate astronomy majors, raised the level of undergraduate research, and expanded the roll of departmental mentoring. We exploit the use of peer instruction, teaching of study skills, accessible research and mentoring, community building events, and professional development training in order to increase retention. We present our supporting materials, techniques, and best-practices to export this successful model to other institutions.

  6. The effects of habitat resolution on models of avian diversity and distributions: A comparison of two land-cover classifications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawler, J.J.; O'Connor, R.J.; Hunsaker, C.T.; Jones, K.B.; Loveland, T.R.; White, D.

    2004-01-01

    Quantifying patterns is a key element of landscape analysis. One aspect of this quantification of particular importance to landscape ecologists is the classification of continuous variables to produce categorical variables such as land-cover type or elevation stratum. Although landscape ecologists are fully aware of the importance of spatial resolution in ecological investigations, the potential importance of the resolution of classifications has received little attention. Here we demonstrate the effects of using two different land-cover classifications to predict avian species richness and the occurrences of six individual species across the conterminous United States. We compared models built with a data set based on 14 coarsely resolved land-cover variables to models built with a data set based on 160 finely resolved land-cover variables. In general, comparable models built with the two data sets fit the data to similar degrees, but often produced strikingly different predictions in various parts of the country. By comparing the predictions made by pairs of models, we determined in which regions of the US predictions were most sensitive to differences in land-cover classification. In general, these sensitive areas were different for four of the individual species and for predictions of species richness, indicating that alternate classifications will have different effects in the analyses of different ecological phenomena and that these effects will likely vary geographically. Our results lead us to emphasize the importance of the resolution to which continuous variables are classified in the design of ecological studies.

  7. Geno- and Phenotypic Diversity of Avian Isolates of Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (Streptococcus bovis) and Associated Diagnostic Problems▿

    PubMed Central

    Chadfield, M. S.; Christensen, J. P.; Decostere, A.; Christensen, H.; Bisgaard, M.

    2007-01-01

    Recently, strains of Streptococcus bovis were reclassified as Streptococcus gallolyticus. In the present study we describe for the first time an outbreak of S. gallolyticus in a broiler flock. Mortality during the first week was normal (<1%), with a final total mortality at the end of production reaching 4.3%. Specific symptoms were not observed. Postmortem pathology demonstrated enlarged and light spleens and livers accompanied by multifocal irregular necroses surrounded by a hemorrhagic zone. In addition, these birds suffered from arthritis and osteomyelitis. Strains isolated from liver and spleen lesions showed clonality as demonstrated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Compared to strains representing previously derived phylogeny, including the S. bovis-S. equinus complex, the 16S rRNA-derived phylogeny of the strains investigated in this study demonstrated a paraphyletic group (S. gallolyticus) well separated from two monophyletic groups: (i) S. equinus-S. bovis plus S. infantarius and (ii) S. alactolyticus plus S. intestinalis. According to information in GenBank, none of the strains included from the two monophyletic groups have been isolated from birds. Further biochemical analyses, including tannase activity, identified for the first time avian isolates belonging to S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus. However, these investigations also demonstrated a clear heterogeneity with pigeon isolates. PMID:17166965

  8. Increasing the Diversity of Engineering Education--A Gender Analysis in a PBL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Xiangyun; Kolmos, Anette

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses how to increase the diversity of engineering education by making it more relevant and gainful for all students, as well as more attractive to women. Questions were raised whether, and in which ways the problem-based and project-based learning (PBL) method is apt for increasing gender diversity from both the quality and the…

  9. Skill improvement from increased ensemble size and model diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DelSole, Timothy; Nattala, Jyothi; Tippett, Michael K.

    2014-10-01

    This paper proposes an objective procedure for deciding if the skill of a combination of forecasts is significantly larger than that of a single forecast, and for deciding if the observed improvement is dominated by reduction of noise associated with ensemble averaging, or by addition of new predictable signals. Information theory provides an attractive framework for addressing these questions. The procedure is applied to El Niño-Southern Oscillation hindcasts from the North American Multimodel Ensemble (NMME) and reveals that the observed skill advantage of the NMME compared to individual models is substantially greater than that expected from increased ensemble size alone and is more consistent with the addition of new signals.

  10. Soil fertility increases with plant species diversity in a long-term biodiversity experiment.

    PubMed

    Dybzinski, Ray; Fargione, Joseph E; Zak, Donald R; Fornara, Dario; Tilman, David

    2008-11-01

    Most explanations for the positive effect of plant species diversity on productivity have focused on the efficiency of resource use, implicitly assuming that resource supply is constant. To test this assumption, we grew seedlings of Echinacea purpurea in soil collected beneath 10-year-old, experimental plant communities containing one, two, four, eight, or 16 native grassland species. The results of this greenhouse bioassay challenge the assumption of constant resource supply; we found that bioassay seedlings grown in soil collected from experimental communities containing 16 plant species produced 70% more biomass than seedlings grown in soil collected beneath monocultures. This increase was likely attributable to greater soil N availability, which had increased in higher diversity communities over the 10-year-duration of the experiment. In a distinction akin to the selection/complementarity partition commonly made in studies of diversity and productivity, we further determined whether the additive effects of functional groups or the interactive effects of functional groups explained the increase in fertility with diversity. The increase in bioassay seedling biomass with diversity was largely explained by a concomitant increase in N-fixer, C4 grass, forb, and C3 grass biomass with diversity, suggesting that the additive effects of these four functional groups at higher diversity contributed to enhance N availability and retention. Nevertheless, diversity still explained a significant amount of the residual variation in bioassay seedling biomass after functional group biomass was included in a multiple regression, suggesting that interactions also increased fertility in diverse communities. Our results suggest a mechanism, the fertility effect, by which increased plant species diversity may increase community productivity over time by increasing the supply of nutrients via both greater inputs and greater retention. PMID:18690478

  11. Genetic Diversity of NHE1, Receptor for Subgroup J Avian Leukosis Virus, in Domestic Chicken and Wild Anseriform Species.

    PubMed

    Reinišová, Markéta; Plachý, Jiří; Kučerová, Dana; Šenigl, Filip; Vinkler, Michal; Hejnar, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    J subgroup avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) infects domestic chicken, jungle fowl, and turkey and enters the host cell through a receptor encoded by tvj locus and identified as Na+/H+ exchanger 1 (NHE1). The resistance to ALV-J in a great majority of examined galliform species was explained by deletions or substitutions of the critical tryptophan 38 in the first extracellular loop of NHE1, and genetic polymorphisms around this site predict the susceptibility or resistance of a given species or individual. In this study, we examined the NHE1 polymorphism in domestic chicken breeds and documented quantitative differences in their susceptibility to ALV-J in vitro. In a panel of chicken breeds assembled with the aim to cover the maximum variability encountered in domestic chickens, we found a completely uniform sequence of NHE1 extracellular loop 1 (ECL1) without any source of genetic variation for the selection of ALV-J-resistant poultry. In parallel, we studied the natural polymorphisms of NHE1 in wild ducks and geese because of recent reports on ALV-J positivity in feral Asian species. In anseriform species, we demonstrate a specific and highly conserved critical ECL1 sequence without any homologue of tryptophan 38 in accordance with the resistance of duck cells to prototype ALV-J. Last, we demonstrated that the new Asian strains of ALV-J have not evolved their envelope glycoprotein to the entry the duck cells. Our results contribute substantially to the current discussion of possible heterotransmission of ALV-J and its spill-over into the wild ducks and geese. PMID:26978658

  12. Genetic Diversity of NHE1, Receptor for Subgroup J Avian Leukosis Virus, in Domestic Chicken and Wild Anseriform Species

    PubMed Central

    Šenigl, Filip; Vinkler, Michal; Hejnar, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    J subgroup avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) infects domestic chicken, jungle fowl, and turkey and enters the host cell through a receptor encoded by tvj locus and identified as Na+/H+ exchanger 1 (NHE1). The resistance to ALV-J in a great majority of examined galliform species was explained by deletions or substitutions of the critical tryptophan 38 in the first extracellular loop of NHE1, and genetic polymorphisms around this site predict the susceptibility or resistance of a given species or individual. In this study, we examined the NHE1 polymorphism in domestic chicken breeds and documented quantitative differences in their susceptibility to ALV-J in vitro. In a panel of chicken breeds assembled with the aim to cover the maximum variability encountered in domestic chickens, we found a completely uniform sequence of NHE1 extracellular loop 1 (ECL1) without any source of genetic variation for the selection of ALV-J-resistant poultry. In parallel, we studied the natural polymorphisms of NHE1 in wild ducks and geese because of recent reports on ALV-J positivity in feral Asian species. In anseriform species, we demonstrate a specific and highly conserved critical ECL1 sequence without any homologue of tryptophan 38 in accordance with the resistance of duck cells to prototype ALV-J. Last, we demonstrated that the new Asian strains of ALV-J have not evolved their envelope glycoprotein to the entry the duck cells. Our results contribute substantially to the current discussion of possible heterotransmission of ALV-J and its spill-over into the wild ducks and geese. PMID:26978658

  13. Lack of antigenic diversity in contemporary H7 avian-origin influenza A viruses from North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Subtype H7 avian–origin influenza A viruses (AIVs) have caused at least 500 confirmed human infections since 2003 and culling of >75 million birds in recent years. Understanding the antigenic diversity and genetic evolution of H7 AIVs is critical for developing effective strategies for disease prev...

  14. Avian Influenza

    MedlinePlus

    ... infectious viral disease of birds. Most avian influenza viruses do not infect humans; however some, such as ... often causing no apparent signs of illness. AI viruses can sometimes spread to domestic poultry and cause ...

  15. Avian Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Tianshu; Kuykendoll, K.; Rhew, R.; Jones, S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the avian wing geometry (Seagull, Merganser, Teal and Owl) extracted from non-contact surface measurements using a three-dimensional laser scanner. The geometric quantities, including the camber line and thickness distribution of airfoil, wing planform, chord distribution, and twist distribution, are given in convenient analytical expressions. Thus, the avian wing surfaces can be generated and the wing kinematics can be simulated. The aerodynamic characteristics of avian airfoils in steady inviscid flows are briefly discussed. The avian wing kinematics is recovered from videos of three level-flying birds (Crane, Seagull and Goose) based on a two-jointed arm model. A flapping seagull wing in the 3D physical space is re-constructed from the extracted wing geometry and kinematics.

  16. Increasing Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Richard D.; Wood, Douglas

    1996-01-01

    Educators in dentistry and osteopathy discuss efforts within their fields to diversify clinical education. Dental school changes focus on curriculum reform, closer education-care delivery relationship, patient centeredness, comprehensive care experiences, and patient care as a distinct mission of dental education. Efforts in osteopathy emphasize…

  17. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses isolated during 2006–2008 outbreaks in Pakistan reveals genetic diversity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Since the first outbreak recorded in northern areas of Pakistan in early 2006, highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses were isolated from commercial poultry and wild/domestic birds from different areas of Pakistan up to July 2008. Different isolates of H5N1 were sequenced to explore the genetic diversity of these viruses. Results Phylogenetic analysis revealed close clustering and highest sequence identity in all 8 genes to HPAI H5N1 isolates belonging to unified H5 clade 2.2, sub-lineage EMA-3 recovered from Afghanistan during the same time period. Two subgroups within Pakistani H5N1 viruses, from domestic and wild birds, were observed on the basis of their sequence homology and mutations. HPAI motif, preferred receptor specificity for α-(2, 3) linkages, potential N-linked glycosylation sites and an additional glycosylation site at the globular head of HA protein of four Pakistani H5N1 isolates. While, the amino acids associated with sensitivities to various antiviral drugs (Oseltamivir, Zanamivir, Amantadine) were found conserved for the Pakistani H5N1 isolates. Conspicuously, some important mutations observed at critical positions of antigenic sites (S141P, D155S, R162I & P181S) and at receptor binding pocket (A185T, R189K & S217P) of HA-1. A high sequence similarity between Pakistani HP H5N1 and LP H9N2 viruses was also observed. Avian like host specific markers with the exception of E627K in PB2, K356R in PA, V33I in NP, I28V in M2 and L107F in NS2 proteins were also observed. Conclusions Various point mutations in different genes of H5 viruses from Pakistan were observed during its circulation in the field. The outbreaks started in Khyber Pakhtoon Khawa (North West) province in 2006 and spread to the Southern regions over a period of time. Though migratory birds may have a role for this continued endemicity of clade 2.2 H5N1 viruses during 2006–2008 in Pakistan, the possibility of their transmission through legal or illegal poultry trade

  18. Avian Flu

    SciTech Connect

    Eckburg, Paul

    2006-11-06

    Since 2003, a severe form of H5N1 avian influenza has rapidly spread throughout Asia and Europe, infecting over 200 humans in 10 countries. The spread of H5N1 virus from person-to-person has been rare, thus preventing the emergence of a widespread pandemic. However, this ongoing epidemic continues to pose an important public health threat. Avian flu and its pandemic potential in humans will be discussed.

  19. Avian botulism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friend, Milton; Locke, Louis N.; Kennelly, James J.

    1985-01-01

    What is avian botulism? Avian botulism, or Western duck sickness, is one of the three most important disease problems of wild migratory birds. Each year, many birds are paralyzed or die after exposure to a toxin produced by the botulinum bacterium. Two of the seven toxin types that have been identifies cause mortality in wild birds; one of these types, type C, is most often associated with dieoffs of ducks, while type E primarily affects gulls and loons.

  20. Avian community response to small-scale habitat disturbance in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Derleth, E.L.; McAuley, D.G.; Dwyer, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of small clearcuts (1 - 8 ha) on avian communities in the forest of eastern Maine were studied using point counts during spring 1978 - 1981. Surveys were conducted in uncut (control) and clear-cut (treatment) plots in three stand types: conifer, hardwood, and mixed growth. We used a mark-recapture model and its associated jackknife species richness estimator (N), as an indicator of avian community structure. Increases in estimated richness (N) and Shannon - Weaver diversity (H') were noted in the treated hardwood and mixed growth, but not in the conifer stands. Seventeen avian species increased in relative abundance, whereas two species declined. Stand treatment was associated with important changes in bird species composition. Increased habitat patchiness and the creation of forest edge are hypothesized as causes for the greater estimates of richness and diversity.

  1. Prevalence and diversity of low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses in wild birds in Guatemala, 2010-2013

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Reiche, Ana S.; Müller, Maria L.; Ortiz, Lucía; Cordón-Rosales, Celia; Perez, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Waterfowl species are known to harbor the greatest diversity of low pathogenicity influenza A virus (LPAIV) subtypes and are recognized as their main natural reservoir. In Guatemala there is evidence of circulation of LPAIV in wild ducks, however the bird species contributing to viral diversity during the winter migration in Central America are unknown. In this study, samples obtained from 1,250 hunter-killed birds from 22 different species were collected on the Pacific coast of Guatemala during three winter migration seasons between 2010 and 2013. Prevalence of LPAIV detected by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was 38.2%, 23.5% and 24.7% in the 2010-11, 2011-12, and 2012-13 seasons respectively. The highest virus prevalence was detected in the northern shoveler (Anas clypeata), followed by the blue-winged teal (Anas discors). The majority of positive samples and viral isolates were obtained from the blue-winged teal. Analysis of LPAIV prevalence over time in this species indicated a decreasing trend in monthly prevalence within a migration season. Sixty-eight viruses were isolated and 9 HA and 7 NA subtypes were identified in 19 subtype combinations. In 2012-13, the most prevalent subtype was H14, a subtype identified for the first time in the western hemisphere in 2010. The results from this study represent the most detailed description available to date of LPAIV circulation in Central America. PMID:27309080

  2. Prevalence and Diversity of Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza Viruses in Wild Birds in Guatemala, 2010-2013.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Reiche, Ana S; Müller, Maria L; Ortiz, Lucía; Cordón-Rosales, Celia; Perez, Daniel R

    2016-05-01

    Waterfowl species are known to harbor the greatest diversity of low pathogenicity influenza A virus (LPAIV) subtypes and are recognized as their main natural reservoir. In Guatemala there is evidence of circulation of LPAIV in wild ducks; however, the bird species contributing to viral diversity during the winter migration in Central America are unknown. In this study, samples obtained from 1250 hunter-killed birds from 22 different species were collected on the Pacific coast of Guatemala during three winter migration seasons between 2010 and 2013. Prevalence of LPAIV detected by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was 38.2%, 23.5%, and 24.7% in the 2010-11, 2011-12, and 2012-13 seasons, respectively. The highest virus prevalence was detected in the northern shoveler (Anas clypeata), followed by the blue-winged teal (Anas discors). The majority of positive samples and viral isolates were obtained from the blue-winged teal. Analysis of LPAIV prevalence over time in this species indicated a decreasing trend in monthly prevalence within a migration season. Sixty-eight viruses were isolated, and nine HA and seven NA subtypes were identified in 19 subtype combinations. In 2012-13 the most prevalent subtype was H14, a subtype identified for the first time in the Western Hemisphere in 2010. The results from this study represent the most detailed description available to date of LPAIV circulation in Central America. PMID:27309080

  3. Enhanced interannual precipitation variability increases plant functional diversity that in turn ameliorates negative impact on productivity.

    PubMed

    Gherardi, Laureano A; Sala, Osvaldo E

    2015-12-01

    Although precipitation interannual variability is projected to increase due to climate change, effects of changes in precipitation variance have received considerable less attention than effects of changes in the mean state of climate. Interannual precipitation variability effects on functional diversity and its consequences for ecosystem functioning are assessed here using a 6-year rainfall manipulation experiment. Five precipitation treatments were switched annually resulting in increased levels of precipitation variability while maintaining average precipitation constant. Functional diversity showed a positive response to increased variability due to increased evenness. Dominant grasses decreased and rare plant functional types increased in abundance because grasses showed a hump-shaped response to precipitation with a maximum around modal precipitation, whereas rare species peaked at high precipitation values. Increased functional diversity ameliorated negative effects of precipitation variability on primary production. Rare species buffered the effect of precipitation variability on the variability in total productivity because their variance decreases with increasing precipitation variance. PMID:26437913

  4. Temporal stability in forest productivity increases with tree diversity due to asynchrony in species dynamics.

    PubMed

    Morin, Xavier; Fahse, Lorenz; de Mazancourt, Claire; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Bugmann, Harald

    2014-12-01

    Theory predicts a positive relationship between biodiversity and stability in ecosystem properties, while diversity is expected to have a negative impact on stability at the species level. We used virtual experiments based on a dynamic simulation model to test for the diversity-stability relationship and its underlying mechanisms in Central European forests. First our results show that variability in productivity between stands differing in species composition decreases as species richness and functional diversity increase. Second we show temporal stability increases with increasing diversity due to compensatory dynamics across species, supporting the biodiversity insurance hypothesis. We demonstrate that this pattern is mainly driven by the asynchrony of species responses to small disturbances rather than to environmental fluctuations, and is only weakly affected by the net biodiversity effect on productivity. Furthermore, our results suggest that compensatory dynamics between species may enhance ecosystem stability through an optimisation of canopy occupancy by coexisting species. PMID:25212251

  5. Evolution of increased phenotypic diversity enhances population performance by reducing sexual harassment in damselflies.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yuma; Kagawa, Kotaro; Svensson, Erik I; Kawata, Masakado

    2014-01-01

    The effect of evolutionary changes in traits and phenotypic/genetic diversity on ecological dynamics has received much theoretical attention; however, the mechanisms and ecological consequences are usually unknown. Female-limited colour polymorphism in damselflies is a counter-adaptation to male mating harassment, and thus, is expected to alter population dynamics through relaxing sexual conflict. Here we show the side effect of the evolution of female morph diversity on population performance (for example, population productivity and sustainability) in damselflies. Our theoretical model incorporating key features of the sexual interaction predicts that the evolution of increased phenotypic diversity will reduce overall fitness costs to females from sexual conflict, which in turn will increase productivity, density and stability of a population. Field data and mesocosm experiments support these model predictions. Our study suggests that increased phenotypic diversity can enhance population performance that can potentially reduce extinction rates and thereby influence macroevolutionary processes. PMID:25034518

  6. Searching for Excellence & Diversity: Increasing the Hiring of Women Faculty at One Academic Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    Sheridan, Jennifer T.; Fine, Eve; Pribbenow, Christine Maidl; Handelsman, Jo; Carnes, Molly

    2014-01-01

    One opportunity to realize the diversity goals of academic health centers comes at the time of hiring new faculty. To improve the effectiveness of search committees in increasing the gender diversity of faculty hires, the authors created and implemented a training workshop for faculty search committees designed to improve the hiring process and increase the diversity of faculty hires at the University of Wisconsin–Madison. They describe the workshops, which they presented in the School of Medicine and Public Health between 2004 and 2007, and they compare the subsequent hiring of women faculty in participating and nonparticipating departments and the self-reported experience of new faculty within the hiring process. Attendance at the workshop correlates with improved hiring of women faculty and with a better hiring experience for faculty recruits, especially women. The authors articulate successful elements of workshop implementation for other medical schools seeking to increase gender diversity on their faculties. PMID:20505400

  7. Ambulance Diversion Associated With Reduced Access To Cardiac Technology And Increased One-Year Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yu-Chu; Hsia, Renee Y.

    2015-01-01

    Ambulance diversion, where emergency departments (ED) are temporarily closed to ambulance traffic, is an important system-level interruption that causes delays in treatment and potentially decreased quality of care. There is little empirical evidence investigating the mechanisms through which ambulance diversion might affect patient outcomes, however. We investigated whether ambulance diversion affects access to technology, likelihood of treatment, and ultimately health outcomes for patients with acute myocardial infarction. We found that patients whose nearest hospital experiences significant diversion indeed have reduced access to hospitals with cardiac technology. This leads to a 4.6% decreased likelihood of revascularization and a 9.8% increase in 1-year mortality. Policymakers may consider creating targeted policies to specifically manage certain time-sensitive conditions requiring technological intervention during periods of ambulance diversion. PMID:26240239

  8. Increased Extinction Potential of Insular Fish Populations with Reduced Life History Variation and Low Genetic Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Hellmair, Michael; Kinziger, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical work has shown that reduced phenotypic heterogeneity leads to population instability and can increase extinction potential, yet few examples exist of natural populations that illustrate how varying levels expressed diversity may influence population persistence, particularly during periods of stochastic environmental fluctuation. In this study, we assess levels of expressed variation and genetic diversity among demographically independent populations of tidewater goby (Eucyclogobius newberryi), show that reductions in both factors typically coincide, and describe how low levels of diversity contribute to the extinction risk of these isolated populations. We illustrate that, for this annual species, continuous reproduction is a safeguard against reproductive failure by any one population segment, as natural, stochastically driven salinity increases frequently result in high mortality among juvenile individuals. Several study populations deviated from the natural pattern of year-round reproduction typical for the species, rendering those with severely truncated reproductive periods vulnerable to extinction in the event of environmental fluctuation. In contrast, demographically diverse populations are more likely to persist through such periods through the continuous presence of adults with broader physiological tolerance to abrupt salinity changes. Notably, we found a significant correlation between genetic diversity and demographic variation in the study populations, which could be the result of population stressors that restrict both of these diversity measures simultaneously, or suggestive of a causative relationship between these population characteristics. These findings demonstrate the importance of biocomplexity at the population level, and assert that the maintenance of diversity contributes to population resilience and conservation of this endangered species. PMID:25409501

  9. Increased extinction potential of insular fish populations with reduced life history variation and low genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Hellmair, Michael; Kinziger, Andrew P

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical work has shown that reduced phenotypic heterogeneity leads to population instability and can increase extinction potential, yet few examples exist of natural populations that illustrate how varying levels expressed diversity may influence population persistence, particularly during periods of stochastic environmental fluctuation. In this study, we assess levels of expressed variation and genetic diversity among demographically independent populations of tidewater goby (Eucyclogobius newberryi), show that reductions in both factors typically coincide, and describe how low levels of diversity contribute to the extinction risk of these isolated populations. We illustrate that, for this annual species, continuous reproduction is a safeguard against reproductive failure by any one population segment, as natural, stochastically driven salinity increases frequently result in high mortality among juvenile individuals. Several study populations deviated from the natural pattern of year-round reproduction typical for the species, rendering those with severely truncated reproductive periods vulnerable to extinction in the event of environmental fluctuation. In contrast, demographically diverse populations are more likely to persist through such periods through the continuous presence of adults with broader physiological tolerance to abrupt salinity changes. Notably, we found a significant correlation between genetic diversity and demographic variation in the study populations, which could be the result of population stressors that restrict both of these diversity measures simultaneously, or suggestive of a causative relationship between these population characteristics. These findings demonstrate the importance of biocomplexity at the population level, and assert that the maintenance of diversity contributes to population resilience and conservation of this endangered species. PMID:25409501

  10. Increasing board diversity: an imperative for success in the next era.

    PubMed

    Hardy-Waller, Antoinette Toni

    2015-01-01

    As health care organizations undertake transformational change, governance will evolve along with organizational leadership. Increasing diversity on Boards of Directors should be a goal for all health care systems to understand and address. This will include a consideration of previously underrepresented professionals such as nurses. It will also involve the recruitment of culturally and racially diverse trustees, as a reflection of the organization's community. As a strategic plan for adding diversity to a board, individuals with varied experience, background, culture, age, race, and gender should be pursued. Boards that attain a new blend of trustees will increase their potential for innovative and effective governance, but this will require looking for candidates in new places. This article discusses why this is an important issue for the future, as well as where prospective diverse candidates may be discovered. PMID:25474662

  11. Evolution of olfaction in non-avian theropod dinosaurs and birds

    PubMed Central

    Zelenitsky, Darla K.; Therrien, François; Ridgely, Ryan C.; McGee, Amanda R.; Witmer, Lawrence M.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the olfactory capabilities of extinct basal (non-neornithine) birds or the evolutionary changes in olfaction that occurred from non-avian theropods through modern birds. Although modern birds are known to have diverse olfactory capabilities, olfaction is generally considered to have declined during avian evolution as visual and vestibular sensory enhancements occurred in association with flight. To test the hypothesis that olfaction diminished through avian evolution, we assessed relative olfactory bulb size, here used as a neuroanatomical proxy for olfactory capabilities, in 157 species of non-avian theropods, fossil birds and living birds. We show that relative olfactory bulb size increased during non-avian maniraptoriform evolution, remained stable across the non-avian theropod/bird transition, and increased during basal bird and early neornithine evolution. From early neornithines through a major part of neornithine evolution, the relative size of the olfactory bulbs remained stable before decreasing in derived neoavian clades. Our results show that, rather than decreasing, the importance of olfaction actually increased during early bird evolution, representing a previously unrecognized sensory enhancement. The relatively larger olfactory bulbs of earliest neornithines, compared with those of basal birds, may have endowed neornithines with improved olfaction for more effective foraging or navigation skills, which in turn may have been a factor allowing them to survive the end-Cretaceous mass extinction. PMID:21490022

  12. The effect of land-use on the diversity and mass-abundance relationships of understory avian insectivores in Sri Lanka and southern India

    PubMed Central

    Sreekar, Rachakonda; Srinivasan, Umesh; Mammides, Christos; Chen, Jin; Manage Goodale, Uromi; Wimalabandara Kotagama, Sarath; Sidhu, Swati; Goodale, Eben

    2015-01-01

    Understory avian insectivores are especially sensitive to deforestation, although regional differences in how these species respond to human disturbance may be linked to varying land-use histories. South Asia experienced widespread conversion of forest to agriculture in the nineteenth century, providing a comparison to tropical areas deforested more recently. In Sri Lanka and the Western Ghats of India, we compared understory insectivores to other guilds, and to insectivores with different vertical strata preferences, both inside mixed-species flocks and for the whole bird community. Overall species richness did not change across the land-use gradient, although there was substantial turnover in species composition between land-use types. We found that the proportion of species represented by insectivores was ~1.14 times higher in forest compared to agriculture, and the proportion of insectivores represented by understory species was ~1.32 times higher in forests. Mass-abundance relationships were very different when analyzed on mixed-species flocks compared to the total community, perhaps indicating reduced competition in these mutualisms. We show that South Asia fits the worldwide pattern of understory insectivores declining with increased land-use intensity, and conclude that these species can be used globally as indicator and/or umbrella species for conservation across different disturbance time scales. PMID:26108368

  13. The effect of land-use on the diversity and mass-abundance relationships of understory avian insectivores in Sri Lanka and southern India.

    PubMed

    Sreekar, Rachakonda; Srinivasan, Umesh; Mammides, Christos; Chen, Jin; Manage Goodale, Uromi; Kotagama, Sarath Wimalabandara; Sidhu, Swati; Goodale, Eben

    2015-01-01

    Understory avian insectivores are especially sensitive to deforestation, although regional differences in how these species respond to human disturbance may be linked to varying land-use histories. South Asia experienced widespread conversion of forest to agriculture in the nineteenth century, providing a comparison to tropical areas deforested more recently. In Sri Lanka and the Western Ghats of India, we compared understory insectivores to other guilds, and to insectivores with different vertical strata preferences, both inside mixed-species flocks and for the whole bird community. Overall species richness did not change across the land-use gradient, although there was substantial turnover in species composition between land-use types. We found that the proportion of species represented by insectivores was ~1.14 times higher in forest compared to agriculture, and the proportion of insectivores represented by understory species was ~1.32 times higher in forests. Mass-abundance relationships were very different when analyzed on mixed-species flocks compared to the total community, perhaps indicating reduced competition in these mutualisms. We show that South Asia fits the worldwide pattern of understory insectivores declining with increased land-use intensity, and conclude that these species can be used globally as indicator and/or umbrella species for conservation across different disturbance time scales. PMID:26108368

  14. Avian influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) viruses infect domestic poultry and wild birds. In domestic poultry, AI viruses are typically of low pathogenicity (LP) causing subclinical infections, respiratory disease or drops in egg production. However, a few AI viruses cause severe systemic disease with high mortality; i....

  15. AVIAN INFLUENZA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian Influenza (AI) viruses infect domestic poultry and wild birds. In domestic poultry, AI viruses are typically of low pathogenicity (LP) causing subclinical infections, respiratory disease or drops in egg production. However, a few AI viruses cause severe systemic disease with high mortality; ...

  16. AVIAN IMMUNOTOXICOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods for studying the avian immune system have matured during the past two decades, with laboratory studies predominating in earlier years and field studies being conducted only in the past decade. One application has been to determine the potential for environmental contamina...

  17. Avian influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The natural host for avian influenza virus (AIV) is in wild birds, including ducks, gulls, and shorebirds, where the virus causes primarily an enteric infection with little disease. However, AIV can infect a wide variety of host species, and with a certain level of adaptation for the aberrant host ...

  18. Rapid increase in southern elephant seal genetic diversity after a founder event

    PubMed Central

    de Bruyn, Mark; Pinsky, Malin L.; Hall, Brenda; Koch, Paul; Baroni, Carlo; Hoelzel, A. Rus

    2014-01-01

    Genetic diversity provides the raw material for populations to respond to changing environmental conditions. The evolution of diversity within populations is based on the accumulation of mutations and their retention or loss through selection and genetic drift, while migration can also introduce new variation. However, the extent to which population growth and sustained large population size can lead to rapid and significant increases in diversity has not been widely investigated. Here, we assess this empirically by applying approximate Bayesian computation to a novel ancient DNA dataset that spans the life of a southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina) population, from initial founding approximately 7000 years ago to eventual extinction within the past millennium. We find that rapid population growth and sustained large population size can explain substantial increases in population genetic diversity over a period of several hundred generations, subsequently lost when the population went to extinction. Results suggest that the impact of diversity introduced through migration was relatively minor. We thus demonstrate, by examining genetic diversity across the life of a population, that environmental change could generate the raw material for adaptive evolution over a very short evolutionary time scale through rapid establishment of a large, stable population. PMID:24478305

  19. Rapid increase in southern elephant seal genetic diversity after a founder event.

    PubMed

    de Bruyn, Mark; Pinsky, Malin L; Hall, Brenda; Koch, Paul; Baroni, Carlo; Hoelzel, A Rus

    2014-03-22

    Genetic diversity provides the raw material for populations to respond to changing environmental conditions. The evolution of diversity within populations is based on the accumulation of mutations and their retention or loss through selection and genetic drift, while migration can also introduce new variation. However, the extent to which population growth and sustained large population size can lead to rapid and significant increases in diversity has not been widely investigated. Here, we assess this empirically by applying approximate Bayesian computation to a novel ancient DNA dataset that spans the life of a southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina) population, from initial founding approximately 7000 years ago to eventual extinction within the past millennium. We find that rapid population growth and sustained large population size can explain substantial increases in population genetic diversity over a period of several hundred generations, subsequently lost when the population went to extinction. Results suggest that the impact of diversity introduced through migration was relatively minor. We thus demonstrate, by examining genetic diversity across the life of a population, that environmental change could generate the raw material for adaptive evolution over a very short evolutionary time scale through rapid establishment of a large, stable population. PMID:24478305

  20. Dramatic Increases of Soil Microbial Functional Gene Diversity at the Treeline Ecotone of Changbai Mountain

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Congcong; Shi, Yu; Ni, Yingying; Deng, Ye; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; He, Zhili; Zhou, Jizhong; Chu, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    The elevational and latitudinal diversity patterns of microbial taxa have attracted great attention in the past decade. Recently, the distribution of functional attributes has been in the spotlight. Here, we report a study profiling soil microbial communities along an elevation gradient (500–2200 m) on Changbai Mountain. Using a comprehensive functional gene microarray (GeoChip 5.0), we found that microbial functional gene richness exhibited a dramatic increase at the treeline ecotone, but the bacterial taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing did not exhibit such a similar trend. However, the β-diversity (compositional dissimilarity among sites) pattern for both bacterial taxa and functional genes was similar, showing significant elevational distance-decay patterns which presented increased dissimilarity with elevation. The bacterial taxonomic diversity/structure was strongly influenced by soil pH, while the functional gene diversity/structure was significantly correlated with soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC). This finding highlights that soil DOC may be a good predictor in determining the elevational distribution of microbial functional genes. The finding of significant shifts in functional gene diversity at the treeline ecotone could also provide valuable information for predicting the responses of microbial functions to climate change. PMID:27524983

  1. Dramatic Increases of Soil Microbial Functional Gene Diversity at the Treeline Ecotone of Changbai Mountain.

    PubMed

    Shen, Congcong; Shi, Yu; Ni, Yingying; Deng, Ye; Van Nostrand, Joy D; He, Zhili; Zhou, Jizhong; Chu, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    The elevational and latitudinal diversity patterns of microbial taxa have attracted great attention in the past decade. Recently, the distribution of functional attributes has been in the spotlight. Here, we report a study profiling soil microbial communities along an elevation gradient (500-2200 m) on Changbai Mountain. Using a comprehensive functional gene microarray (GeoChip 5.0), we found that microbial functional gene richness exhibited a dramatic increase at the treeline ecotone, but the bacterial taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing did not exhibit such a similar trend. However, the β-diversity (compositional dissimilarity among sites) pattern for both bacterial taxa and functional genes was similar, showing significant elevational distance-decay patterns which presented increased dissimilarity with elevation. The bacterial taxonomic diversity/structure was strongly influenced by soil pH, while the functional gene diversity/structure was significantly correlated with soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC). This finding highlights that soil DOC may be a good predictor in determining the elevational distribution of microbial functional genes. The finding of significant shifts in functional gene diversity at the treeline ecotone could also provide valuable information for predicting the responses of microbial functions to climate change. PMID:27524983

  2. Admixture increases diversity in managed honey bees: reply to De la Rúa et al. (2013).

    PubMed

    Harpur, Brock A; Minaei, Shermineh; Kent, Clement F; Zayed, Amro

    2013-06-01

    De la Rúa et al. (2013) express some concerns about the conclusions of our recent study showing that management increases genetic diversity of honey bees (Apis mellifera) by promoting admixture (Harpur et al. 2012). We provide a brief review of the literature on the population genetics of A. mellifera and show that we utilized appropriate sampling methods to estimate genetic diversity in the focal populations. Our finding of higher genetic diversity in two managed A. mellifera populations on two different continents is expected to be the norm given the large number of studies documenting admixture in honey bees. Our study focused on elucidating how management affects genetic diversity in honey bees, not on how to best manage bee colonies. We do not endorse the intentional admixture of honey bee populations, and we agree with De la Rúa et al. (2013) that native honey bee subspecies should be conserved. PMID:24433573

  3. Relationships between avian richness and landscape structure at multiple scales using multiple landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mitchell, M.S.; Rutzmoser, S.H.; Wigley, T.B.; Loehle, C.; Gerwin, J.A.; Keyser, P.D.; Lancia, R.A.; Perry, R.W.; Reynolds, C.J.; Thill, R.E.; Weih, R.; White, D.; Wood, P.B.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about factors that structure biodiversity on landscape scales, yet current land management protocols, such as forest certification programs, place an increasing emphasis on managing for sustainable biodiversity at landscape scales. We used a replicated landscape study to evaluate relationships between forest structure and avian diversity at both stand and landscape-levels. We used data on bird communities collected under comparable sampling protocols on four managed forests located across the Southeastern US to develop logistic regression models describing relationships between habitat factors and the distribution of overall richness and richness of selected guilds. Landscape models generated for eight of nine guilds showed a strong relationship between richness and both availability and configuration of landscape features. Diversity of topographic features and heterogeneity of forest structure were primary determinants of avian species richness. Forest heterogeneity, in both age and forest type, were strongly and positively associated with overall avian richness and richness for most guilds. Road density was associated positively but weakly with avian richness. Landscape variables dominated all models generated, but no consistent patterns in metrics or scale were evident. Model fit was strong for neotropical migrants and relatively weak for short-distance migrants and resident species. Our models provide a tool that will allow managers to evaluate and demonstrate quantitatively how management practices affect avian diversity on landscapes.

  4. Response of avian communities to herbicide-induced vegetation changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrison, M.L.; Meslow, E.C.

    1984-01-01

    The relationships between avian communities and herbicide modification of vegetation were analyzed on early-growth clear-cuts in western Oregon that had received phenoxy herbicide treatment 1 or 4 years previously. For both 1 and 4 years post-spray, vegetation development was greater in the third height interval (> 3.0 m) on untreated sites. All measures of vegetative diversity on untreated sites exceeded those on treated sites. Overall density and diversity of birds were similar between treated and untreated sites. Several bird species altered their foraging behavior on treated sites, i.e., birds using deciduous trees increased use of shrubs on treated sites. The primary effect of herbicide application was a reduction in the complexity of vegetation, a condition due primarity to the removal of deciduous trees. Small patches of deciduous trees scattered in clear-cuts treated with phenoxy herbicides can maintain an avian community similar to that on untreated sites.

  5. Genotypic diversity effects on the performance of Taraxacum officinale populations increase with time and environmental favorability.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Emily B M; Vellend, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Within-population genetic diversity influences many ecological processes, but few studies have examined how environmental conditions may impact these short-term diversity effects. Over four growing seasons, we followed experimental populations of a clonal, ubiquitous weed, Taraxacum officinale, with different numbers of genotypes in relatively favorable fallow field and unfavorable mowed lawn environmental treatments. Population performance (measured as total leaf area, seed production or biomass) clearly and consistently increased with diversity, and this effect became stronger over the course of the experiment. Diversity effects were stronger, and with different underlying mechanisms, in the fallow field versus the mowed lawn. Large genotypes dominated in the fallow field driving overyielding (via positive selection effects), whereas in the mowed lawn, where performance was limited by regular disturbance, there was evidence for complementarity among genotypes (with one compact genotype in particular performing better in mixture than monoculture). Hence, we predict stronger genotypic diversity effects in environments where intense intraspecific competition enhances genotypic differences. Our four-year field experiment plus seedling establishment trials indicate that genotypic diversity effects have far-reaching and context-dependent consequences across generations. PMID:22348004

  6. Ambulance diversion associated with reduced access to cardiac technology and increased one-year mortality.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yu-Chu; Hsia, Renee Y

    2015-08-01

    Ambulance diversion, which occurs when a hospital emergency department (ED) is temporarily closed to incoming ambulance traffic, is an important system-level interruption that causes delays in treatment and potentially lower quality of care. There is little empirical evidence investigating the mechanisms through which ambulance diversion might affect patient outcomes. We investigated whether ambulance diversion affects access to technology, likelihood of treatment, and ultimately health outcomes for Medicare patients with acute myocardial infarction in twenty-six California counties. We found that patients whose nearest hospital ED had significant ambulance diversions experienced reduced access to hospitals with cardiac technology. This led to a 4.6 percent decreased likelihood of revascularization and a 9.8 percent increase in one-year mortality compared to patients who did not experience diversion. Policy makers may wish to consider creating a policy to specifically manage certain time-sensitive conditions that require technological intervention during periods of ambulance diversion. PMID:26240239

  7. Lower Within-Community Variance of Negative Density Dependence Increases Forest Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, António; Carvalho, Luís M.; Dionisio, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Local abundance of adult trees impedes growth of conspecific seedlings through host-specific enemies, a mechanism first proposed by Janzen and Connell to explain plant diversity in forests. While several studies suggest the importance of this mechanism, there is still little information of how the variance of negative density dependence (NDD) affects diversity of forest communities. With computer simulations, we analyzed the impact of strength and variance of NDD within tree communities on species diversity. We show that stronger NDD leads to higher species diversity. Furthermore, lower range of strengths of NDD within a community increases species richness and decreases variance of species abundances. Our results show that, beyond the average strength of NDD, the variance of NDD is also crucially important to explain species diversity. This can explain the dissimilarity of biodiversity between tropical and temperate forest: highly diverse forests could have lower NDD variance. This report suggests that natural enemies and the variety of the magnitude of their effects can contribute to the maintenance of biodiversity. PMID:25992631

  8. Avian influenza: recent developments.

    PubMed

    Capua, Ilaria; Alexander, Dennis J

    2004-08-01

    This paper reviews the worldwide situation regarding avian influenza infections in poultry from 1997 to March 2004. The increase in the number of primary introductions and the scientific data available on the molecular basis of pathogenicity have generated concerns particularly for legislative purposes and for international trade. This has led to a new proposed definition of 'avian influenza' to extend all infections caused by H5 and H7 viruses regardless of their virulence as notifiable diseases, although this has encountered some difficulties in being approved. The paper also reviews the major outbreaks caused by viruses of the H5 or H7 subtype and the control measures applied. The zoonotic aspects of avian influenza, which until 1997 were considered to be of limited relevance in human medicine, are also discussed. The human health implications have now gained importance, both for illness and fatalities that have occurred following natural infection with avian viruses, and for the potential of generating a reassortant virus that could give rise to the next human influenza pandemic. PMID:15370036

  9. Disturbance, A Mechanism for Increased Microbial Diversity in a Yellowstone National Park Hot Spring Mixing Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howells, A. E.; Oiler, J.; Fecteau, K.; Boyd, E. S.; Shock, E.

    2014-12-01

    The parameters influencing species diversity in natural ecosystems are difficult to assess due to the long and experimentally prohibitive timescales needed to develop causative relationships among measurements. Ecological diversity-disturbance models suggest that disturbance is a mechanism for increased species diversity, allowing for coexistence of species at an intermediate level of disturbance. Observing this mechanism often requires long timescales, such as the succession of a forest after a fire. In this study we evaluated the effect of mixing of two end member hydrothermal fluids on the diversity and structure of a microbial community where disturbance occurs on small temporal and spatial scales. Outflow channels from two hot springs of differing geochemical composition in Yellowstone National Park, one pH 3.3 and 36 °C and the other pH 7.6 and 61 °C flow together to create a mixing zone on the order of a few meters. Geochemical measurements were made at both in-coming streams and at a site of complete mixing downstream of the mixing zone, at pH 6.5 and 46 °C. Compositions were estimated across the mixing zone at 1 cm intervals using microsensor temperature and conductivity measurements and a mixing model. Qualitatively, there are four distinct ecotones existing over ranges in temperature and pH across the mixing zone. Community analysis of the 16S rRNA genes of these ecotones show a peak in diversity at maximal mixing. Principle component analysis of community 16S rRNA genes reflects coexistence of species with communities at maximal mixing plotting intermediate to communities at distal ends of the mixing zone. These spatial biological and geochemical observations suggest that the mixing zone is a dynamic ecosystem where geochemistry and biological diversity are governed by changes in the flow rate and geochemical composition of the two hot spring sources. In ecology, understanding how environmental disruption increases species diversity is a foundation

  10. Flooding disturbances increase resource availability and productivity but reduce stability in diverse plant communities.

    PubMed

    Wright, Alexandra J; Ebeling, Anne; de Kroon, Hans; Roscher, Christiane; Weigelt, Alexandra; Buchmann, Nina; Buchmann, Tina; Fischer, Christine; Hacker, Nina; Hildebrandt, Anke; Leimer, Sophia; Mommer, Liesje; Oelmann, Yvonne; Scheu, Stefan; Steinauer, Katja; Strecker, Tanja; Weisser, Wolfgang; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Eisenhauer, Nico

    2015-01-01

    The natural world is increasingly defined by change. Within the next 100 years, rising atmospheric CO₂ concentrations will continue to increase the frequency and magnitude of extreme weather events. Simultaneously, human activities are reducing global biodiversity, with current extinction rates at ~1,000 × what they were before human domination of Earth's ecosystems. The co-occurrence of these trends may be of particular concern, as greater biological diversity could help ecosystems resist change during large perturbations. We use data from a 200-year flood event to show that when a disturbance is associated with an increase in resource availability, the opposite may occur. Flooding was associated with increases in productivity and decreases in stability, particularly in the highest diversity communities. Our results undermine the utility of the biodiversity-stability hypothesis during a large number of disturbances where resource availability increases. We propose a conceptual framework that can be widely applied during natural disturbances. PMID:25600177

  11. Microbial diversity and activity are increased by compost amendment of metal-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Mark; Griffith, Gareth W; Hobbs, Phil J; Perkins, William T; Jones, Davey L

    2010-01-01

    Unlike organic pollutants, heavy metals cannot be degraded and can constitute a persistent environmental hazard. Here, we investigated the success of different remediation strategies in promoting microbial diversity and function with depth in an acidic soil heavily contaminated with Cu, Pb and Zn. Remediation involved the incorporation of either a high- or a low-quality compost or inorganic fertilizer into the topsoil and monitoring of microbial activity and diversity with soil depth over a 4-month period. While changes in topsoil microbial activity were expected, the possible effects on the subsurface microbial community due to the downward movement of metals, nutrients and/or soluble organic matter have not been examined previously. The results showed that both compost additions, especially the low-quality compost, resulted in significantly increased bacterial and fungal diversity (as assessed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) and activity compared with the inorganic and control treatments in the topsoil. Although phospholipid fatty acid profiling indicated that compost addition had promoted enhanced microbial diversity in the subsoil, no concomitant increase in subsoil microbial activity was observed, suggesting that amelioration of the heavy metals remained localized in the topsoil. We conclude that although composts can successfully immobilize heavy metals and promote ecosystem diversity/function, surface incorporation had little remedial effect below the surface layer over the course of our short-term trial. PMID:19845764

  12. Bullying in an Increasingly Diverse School Population: A Socio-Ecological Model Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Seok Jeng Jane; Hoot, James L.

    2015-01-01

    Systematic research into bullying has a short history spanning about 40 years. However, investigations into school bullying from a multicultural context are especially limited. As schools in the 21st century become increasingly diverse due to rapid globalization and immigration, there is a need to consider bullying within changing populations. The…

  13. Are Charter Schools Using Recruitment Strategies to Increase Student Body Diversity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckes, Suzanne E.; Trotter, Anne E.

    2007-01-01

    Depending on state statutory language, charter schools may be able to exercise more control over their student body composition. Unlike traditional public schools, charter schools may have the opportunity to increase student body diversity by drawing students from across traditional school district boundary lines. Specifically, depending on the…

  14. Efforts in Increasing Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the Field of Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awais, Yasmine J.; Yali, Ann Marie

    2015-01-01

    There is a clear need for greater diversity in the field of art therapy, with a particular need to increase the representation of racial and ethnic minorities in educational programs. In a sample of 16 art therapy program directors, strategies and barriers to recruitment were identified through an anonymous online survey. The results of the survey…

  15. Reassortant H5N1 avian influenza viruses containing PA or NP gene from an H9N2 virus significantly increase the pathogenicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiaoli; Hu, Jiao; Wang, Jiongjiong; Xu, Jing; Cheng, Hao; Xu, Yunpeng; Li, Qunhui; He, Dongchang; Liu, Xiaowen; Wang, Xiaoquan; Gu, Min; Hu, Shunlin; Xu, Xiulong; Liu, Huimou; Chen, Sujuan; Peng, Daxin; Liu, Xiufan

    2016-08-30

    Reassortment between different influenza viruses is a crucial way to generate novel influenza viruses with unpredictable virulence and transmissibility, which may threaten the public health. As currently in China, avian influenza viruses (AIVs) of H9N2 and H5N1 subtypes are endemic in poultry in many areas, while they are prone to reassort with each other naturally. In order to evaluate the risk of the reassortment to public health, A/Goose/Jiangsu/k0403/2010 [GS/10(H5N1)] virus was used as a backbone to generate a series of reassortants, each contained a single internal gene derived from the predominant S genotype of the A/Chicken/Jiangsu/WJ57/2012 [WJ/57(H9N2)]. We next assessed the biological characteristics of these assortments, including pathogenicity, replication efficiency and polymerase activity. We found that the parental WJ/57(H9N2) and GS/10(H5N1) viruses displayed high genetic compatibility. Notably, the H5N1 reassortants containing the PA or NP gene from WJ/57(H9N2) virus significantly increased virulence and replication ability in mice, as well as markedly enhanced polymerase activity. Our results indicate that the endemicity of H9N2 and H5N1 in domestic poultry greatly increases the possibility of generating new viruses by reassortment that may pose a great threat to poultry industry and public health. PMID:27527770

  16. Increasing land-use intensity decreases floral colour diversity of plant communities in temperate grasslands.

    PubMed

    Binkenstein, Julia; Renoult, Julien P; Schaefer, H Martin

    2013-10-01

    To preserve biodiversity and ecosystem functions in a globally changing world it is crucial to understand the effect of land use on ecosystem processes such as pollination. Floral colouration is known to be central in plant-pollinator interactions. To date, it is still unknown whether land use affects the colouration of flowering plant communities. To assess the effect of land use on the diversity and composition of flower colours in temperate grasslands, we collected data on the number of flowering plant species, blossom cover and flower reflectance spectra from 69 plant communities in two German regions, Schwäbische Alb (SA) and Hainich-Dün (HD). We analysed reflectance data of flower colours as they are perceived by honeybees and studied floral colour diversity based upon spectral loci of each flowering plant species in the Maxwell triangle. Before the first mowing, flower colour diversity decreased with increasing land-use intensity in SA, accompanied by a shift of mean flower colours of communities towards an increasing proportion of white blossom cover in both regions. By changing colour characteristics of grasslands, we suggest that increasing land-use intensity can affect the flower visitor fauna in terms of visitor behaviour and diversity. These changes may in turn influence plant reproduction in grassland plant communities. Our results indicate that land use is likely to affect communication processes between plants and flower visitors by altering flower colour traits. PMID:23568710

  17. Forest-to-pasture conversion increases the diversity of the phylum Verrucomicrobia in Amazon rainforest soils.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Kshitij; Paula, Fabiana S; Mueller, Rebecca C; Jesus, Ederson da C; Cenciani, Karina; Bohannan, Brendan J M; Nüsslein, Klaus; Rodrigues, Jorge L M

    2015-01-01

    The Amazon rainforest is well known for its rich plant and animal diversity, but its bacterial diversity is virtually unexplored. Due to ongoing and widespread deforestation followed by conversion to agriculture, there is an urgent need to quantify the soil biological diversity within this tropical ecosystem. Given the abundance of the phylum Verrucomicrobia in soils, we targeted this group to examine its response to forest-to-pasture conversion. Both taxonomic and phylogenetic diversities were higher for pasture in comparison to primary and secondary forests. The community composition of Verrucomicrobia in pasture soils was significantly different from those of forests, with a 11.6% increase in the number of sequences belonging to subphylum 3 and a proportional decrease in sequences belonging to the class Spartobacteria. Based on 99% operational taxonomic unit identity, 40% of the sequences have not been detected in previous studies, underscoring the limited knowledge regarding the diversity of microorganisms in tropical ecosystems. The abundance of Verrucomicrobia, measured with quantitative PCR, was strongly correlated with soil C content (r = 0.80, P = 0.0016), indicating their importance in metabolizing plant-derived carbon compounds in soils. PMID:26284056

  18. Forest-to-pasture conversion increases the diversity of the phylum Verrucomicrobia in Amazon rainforest soils

    PubMed Central

    Ranjan, Kshitij; Paula, Fabiana S.; Mueller, Rebecca C.; Jesus, Ederson da C.; Cenciani, Karina; Bohannan, Brendan J. M.; Nüsslein, Klaus; Rodrigues, Jorge L. M.

    2015-01-01

    The Amazon rainforest is well known for its rich plant and animal diversity, but its bacterial diversity is virtually unexplored. Due to ongoing and widespread deforestation followed by conversion to agriculture, there is an urgent need to quantify the soil biological diversity within this tropical ecosystem. Given the abundance of the phylum Verrucomicrobia in soils, we targeted this group to examine its response to forest-to-pasture conversion. Both taxonomic and phylogenetic diversities were higher for pasture in comparison to primary and secondary forests. The community composition of Verrucomicrobia in pasture soils was significantly different from those of forests, with a 11.6% increase in the number of sequences belonging to subphylum 3 and a proportional decrease in sequences belonging to the class Spartobacteria. Based on 99% operational taxonomic unit identity, 40% of the sequences have not been detected in previous studies, underscoring the limited knowledge regarding the diversity of microorganisms in tropical ecosystems. The abundance of Verrucomicrobia, measured with quantitative PCR, was strongly correlated with soil C content (r = 0.80, P = 0.0016), indicating their importance in metabolizing plant-derived carbon compounds in soils. PMID:26284056

  19. Increasing aridity reduces soil microbial diversity and abundance in global drylands

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Jeffries, Thomas C.; Eldridge, David J.; Ochoa, Victoria; Gozalo, Beatriz; Quero, José Luis; García-Gómez, Miguel; Gallardo, Antonio; Ulrich, Werner; Bowker, Matthew A.; Arredondo, Tulio; Barraza-Zepeda, Claudia; Bran, Donaldo; Florentino, Adriana; Gaitán, Juan; Gutiérrez, Julio R.; Huber-Sannwald, Elisabeth; Jankju, Mohammad; Mau, Rebecca L.; Miriti, Maria; Naseri, Kamal; Ospina, Abelardo; Stavi, Ilan; Wang, Deli; Woods, Natasha N.; Yuan, Xia; Zaady, Eli; Singh, Brajesh K.

    2015-01-01

    Soil bacteria and fungi play key roles in the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, yet our understanding of their responses to climate change lags significantly behind that of other organisms. This gap in our understanding is particularly true for drylands, which occupy ∼41% of Earth´s surface, because no global, systematic assessments of the joint diversity of soil bacteria and fungi have been conducted in these environments to date. Here we present results from a study conducted across 80 dryland sites from all continents, except Antarctica, to assess how changes in aridity affect the composition, abundance, and diversity of soil bacteria and fungi. The diversity and abundance of soil bacteria and fungi was reduced as aridity increased. These results were largely driven by the negative impacts of aridity on soil organic carbon content, which positively affected the abundance and diversity of both bacteria and fungi. Aridity promoted shifts in the composition of soil bacteria, with increases in the relative abundance of Chloroflexi and α-Proteobacteria and decreases in Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia. Contrary to what has been reported by previous continental and global-scale studies, soil pH was not a major driver of bacterial diversity, and fungal communities were dominated by Ascomycota. Our results fill a critical gap in our understanding of soil microbial communities in terrestrial ecosystems. They suggest that changes in aridity, such as those predicted by climate-change models, may reduce microbial abundance and diversity, a response that will likely impact the provision of key ecosystem services by global drylands. PMID:26647180

  20. Increasing aridity reduces soil microbial diversity and abundance in global drylands.

    PubMed

    Maestre, Fernando T; Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Jeffries, Thomas C; Eldridge, David J; Ochoa, Victoria; Gozalo, Beatriz; Quero, José Luis; García-Gómez, Miguel; Gallardo, Antonio; Ulrich, Werner; Bowker, Matthew A; Arredondo, Tulio; Barraza-Zepeda, Claudia; Bran, Donaldo; Florentino, Adriana; Gaitán, Juan; Gutiérrez, Julio R; Huber-Sannwald, Elisabeth; Jankju, Mohammad; Mau, Rebecca L; Miriti, Maria; Naseri, Kamal; Ospina, Abelardo; Stavi, Ilan; Wang, Deli; Woods, Natasha N; Yuan, Xia; Zaady, Eli; Singh, Brajesh K

    2015-12-22

    Soil bacteria and fungi play key roles in the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, yet our understanding of their responses to climate change lags significantly behind that of other organisms. This gap in our understanding is particularly true for drylands, which occupy ∼41% of Earth´s surface, because no global, systematic assessments of the joint diversity of soil bacteria and fungi have been conducted in these environments to date. Here we present results from a study conducted across 80 dryland sites from all continents, except Antarctica, to assess how changes in aridity affect the composition, abundance, and diversity of soil bacteria and fungi. The diversity and abundance of soil bacteria and fungi was reduced as aridity increased. These results were largely driven by the negative impacts of aridity on soil organic carbon content, which positively affected the abundance and diversity of both bacteria and fungi. Aridity promoted shifts in the composition of soil bacteria, with increases in the relative abundance of Chloroflexi and α-Proteobacteria and decreases in Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia. Contrary to what has been reported by previous continental and global-scale studies, soil pH was not a major driver of bacterial diversity, and fungal communities were dominated by Ascomycota. Our results fill a critical gap in our understanding of soil microbial communities in terrestrial ecosystems. They suggest that changes in aridity, such as those predicted by climate-change models, may reduce microbial abundance and diversity, a response that will likely impact the provision of key ecosystem services by global drylands. PMID:26647180

  1. Now Hiring! Empirically Testing a Three-Step Intervention to Increase Faculty Gender Diversity in STEM

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jessi L.; Handley, Ian M.; Zale, Alexander V.; Rushing, Sara; Potvin, Martha A.

    2015-01-01

    Workforce homogeneity limits creativity, discovery, and job satisfaction; nonetheless, the vast majority of university faculty in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields are men. We conducted a randomized and controlled three-step faculty search intervention based in self-determination theory aimed at increasing the number of women faculty in STEM at one US university where increasing diversity had historically proved elusive. Results show that the numbers of women candidates considered for and offered tenure-track positions were significantly higher in the intervention groups compared with those in controls. Searches in the intervention were 6.3 times more likely to make an offer to a woman candidate, and women who were made an offer were 5.8 times more likely to accept the offer from an intervention search. Although the focus was on increasing women faculty within STEM, the intervention can be adapted to other scientific and academic communities to advance diversity along any dimension. PMID:26955075

  2. Chronic heat stress weakened the innate immunity and increased the virulence of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 in mice.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yi; Hu, Yanxin; Han, Deping; Wang, Ming

    2011-01-01

    Chronic heat stress (CHS) can negatively affect immune response in animals. In this study we assessed the effects of CHS on host innate immunity and avian influenza virus H5N1 infection in mice. Mice were divided into two groups: CHS and thermally neutral (TN). The CHS treatment group exhibited reduced local immunity in the respiratory tract, including the number of pulmonary alveolar macrophages and lesions in the nasal mucosa, trachea, and lungs. Meanwhile, CHS retarded dendritic cells (DCs) maturation and reduced the mRNA levels of IL-6 and IFN-β significantly (P < .05). After the CHS treatment, mice were infected with H5N1 virus. The mortality rate and viral load in the lungs of CHS group were higher than those of TN group. The results suggest that the CHS treatment could suppress local immunity in the respiratory tract and innate host immunity in mice significantly and moderately increased the virulence in H5N1-infected mice. PMID:21687549

  3. Genetic diversity among Pasteurella multocida strains of avian, bovine, ovine and porcine origin from England and Wales by comparative sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene.

    PubMed

    Davies, Robert L

    2004-12-01

    Genetic diversity among 86 Pasteurella multocida isolates was investigated by comparative sequence analysis of a 1468 bp fragment of the 16S rRNA gene. The strains included 79 field isolates recovered from birds (poultry) (22), cattle (21), pigs (26) and sheep (10) within England and Wales, four Asian isolates associated with bovine haemorrhagic septicaemia, and the type strains of the three subspecies of P. multocida. Dulcitol and sorbitol fermentation patterns were also determined to establish correlations between subspecies status and phylogenetic relatedness. Nineteen 16S rRNA types were identified, but these were clustered into two distinct phylogenetic lineages, A and B. Sequences within lineages A and B had a mean number of nucleotide differences of 21.12+/-3.90. Isolates within lineage A were associated with birds, cattle, pigs and sheep, whereas those belonging to lineage B were recovered from birds and a cat. Eighty-seven per cent of the isolates were classified as P. multocida subsp. multocida by dulcitol and sorbitol fermentation patterns, but these have diverse 16S rRNA gene sequences that were represented in both lineages A and B. Avian P. multocida subsp. septica isolates were associated exclusively with lineage B, but bovine P. multocida subsp. septica isolates were present in lineage A. P. multocida subsp. gallicida isolates of avian, bovine and porcine origin represent a homogeneous group within lineage A, but they have the same 16S rRNA type as certain P. multocida subsp. multocida isolates. These findings provide strong support for the view that dulcitol and sorbitol fermentation patterns are inaccurate indicators of genetic relatedness among P. multocida strains. Avian capsular type B isolates and capsular type B and E isolates associated with haemorrhagic septicaemia of cattle and water buffaloes are closely related and form a distinct cluster within lineage A. The current subspecies nomenclature of P. multocida neither accurately reflects the

  4. Diversity loss with persistent human disturbance increases vulnerability to ecosystem collapse.

    PubMed

    MacDougall, A S; McCann, K S; Gellner, G; Turkington, R

    2013-02-01

    Long-term and persistent human disturbances have simultaneously altered the stability and diversity of ecological systems, with disturbances directly reducing functional attributes such as invasion resistance, while eliminating the buffering effects of high species diversity. Theory predicts that this combination of environmental change and diversity loss increases the risk of abrupt and potentially irreversible ecosystem collapse, but long-term empirical evidence from natural systems is lacking. Here we demonstrate this relationship in a degraded but species-rich pyrogenic grassland in which the combined effects of fire suppression, invasion and trophic collapse have created a species-poor grassland that is highly productive, resilient to yearly climatic fluctuations, and resistant to invasion, but vulnerable to rapid collapse after the re-introduction of fire. We initially show how human disturbance has created a negative relationship between diversity and function, contrary to theoretical predictions. Fire prevention since the mid-nineteenth century is associated with the loss of plant species but it has stabilized high-yield annual production and invasion resistance, comparable to a managed high-yield low-diversity agricultural system. In managing for fire suppression, however, a hidden vulnerability to sudden environmental change emerges that is explained by the elimination of the buffering effects of high species diversity. With the re-introduction of fire, grasslands only persist in areas with remnant concentrations of native species, in which a range of rare and mostly functionally redundant plants proliferate after burning and prevent extensive invasion including a rapid conversion towards woodland. This research shows how biodiversity can be crucial for ecosystem stability despite appearing functionally insignificant beforehand, a relationship probably applicable to many ecosystems given the globally prevalent combination of intensive long-term land

  5. The avian fossil record in Insular Southeast Asia and its implications for avian biogeography and palaeoecology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Excavations and studies of existing collections during the last decades have significantly increased the abundance as well as the diversity of the avian fossil record for Insular Southeast Asia. The avian fossil record covers the Eocene through the Holocene, with the majority of bird fossils Pleistocene in age. Fossil bird skeletal remains represent at least 63 species in 54 genera and 27 families, and two ichnospecies are represented by fossil footprints. Birds of prey, owls and swiftlets are common elements. Extinctions seem to have been few, suggesting continuity of avian lineages since at least the Late Pleistocene, although some shifts in species ranges have occurred in response to climatic change. Similarities between the Late Pleistocene avifaunas of Flores and Java suggest a dispersal route across southern Sundaland. Late Pleistocene assemblages of Niah Cave (Borneo) and Liang Bua (Flores) support the rainforest refugium hypothesis in Southeast Asia as they indicate the persistence of forest cover, at least locally, throughout the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. PMID:24688871

  6. Vector species richness increases haemorrhagic disease prevalence through functional diversity modulating the duration of seasonal transmission.

    PubMed

    Park, Andrew W; Cleveland, Christopher A; Dallas, Tad A; Corn, Joseph L

    2016-06-01

    Although many parasites are transmitted between hosts by a suite of arthropod vectors, the impact of vector biodiversity on parasite transmission is poorly understood. Positive relationships between host infection prevalence and vector species richness (SR) may operate through multiple mechanisms, including (i) increased vector abundance, (ii) a sampling effect in which species of high vectorial capacity are more likely to occur in species-rich communities, and (iii) functional diversity whereby communities comprised species with distinct phenologies may extend the duration of seasonal transmission. Teasing such mechanisms apart is impeded by a lack of appropriate data, yet could highlight a neglected role for functional diversity in parasite transmission. We used statistical modelling of extensive host, vector and microparasite data to test the hypothesis that functional diversity leading to longer seasonal transmission explained variable levels of disease in a wildlife population. We additionally developed a simple transmission model to guide our expectation of how an increased transmission season translates to infection prevalence. Our study demonstrates that vector SR is associated with increased levels of disease reporting, but not via increases in vector abundance or via a sampling effect. Rather, the relationship operates by extending the length of seasonal transmission, in line with theoretical predictions. PMID:26206418

  7. Avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is type A influenza, which is adapted to an avian host. Although avian influenza has been isolated from numerous avian species, the primary natural hosts for the virus are dabbling ducks, shorebirds, and gulls. The virus can be found world-wide in these species and in o...

  8. Avian disease at the Salton Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friend, M.

    2002-01-01

    A review of existing records and the scientific literature was conducted for occurrences of avian diseases affecting free-ranging avifauna within the Salton Sea ecosystem. The period for evaluation was 1907 through 1999. Records of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Biological Survey and the scientific literature were the data sources for the period of 1907a??1939. The narrative reports of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Sonny Bono National Wildlife Refuge Complex and the epizootic database of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Wildlife Health Center were the primary data sources for the remainder of the evaluation. The pattern of avian disease at the Salton Sea has changed greatly over time. Relative to past decades, there was a greater frequency of major outbreaks of avian disease at the Salton Sea during the 1990s than in previous decades, a greater variety of disease agents causing epizootics, and apparent chronic increases in the attrition of birds from disease. Avian mortality was high for about a decade beginning during the mid-1920s, diminished substantially by the 1940s and was at low to moderate levels until the 1990s when it reached the highest levels reported. Avian botulism (Clostridium botulinum type C) was the only major cause of avian disease until 1979 when the first major epizootic of avian cholera (Pasteurella multocidia) was documented. Waterfowl and shorebirds were the primary species affected by avian botulism. A broader spectrum of species have been killed by avian cholera but waterfowl have suffered the greatest losses. Avian cholera reappeared in 1983 and has joined avian botulism as a recurring cause of avian mortality. In 1989, avian salmonellosis (Salmonella typhimurium) was first diagnosed as a major cause of avian disease within the Salton Sea ecosystem and has since reappeared several times, primarily among cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis). The largest loss from a single epizootic occurred in 1992, when an estimated

  9. Increasing Mathematics and Science Achievement for Culturally Diverse Students through Teaching Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahon, Lee

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this proposal was to field test and evaluate a Teacher Training program that would prepare teachers to increase the motivation and achievement of culturally diverse students in the areas of science and mathematics. Designed as a three year program, this report covers the first two years of the training program at the Ronald McNair School in the Ravenswood School district, using the resources of the NASA Ames Research Center and the California Framework for Mathematics and Science.

  10. Further Evidence of Increasing Diversity of Plasmodium vivax in the Republic of Korea in Recent Years

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung-Yeon; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Zo, Young-Gun; Ji, So-Young; Trimarsanto, Hidayat; To, Sheren; Clark, Taane G.; Price, Ric N.; Auburn, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Background Vivax malaria was successfully eliminated from the Republic of Korea (ROK) in the late 1970s but re-emerged in 1993. Two decades later as the ROK enters the final stages of malaria elimination, dedicated surveillance of the local P. vivax population is critical. We apply a population genetic approach to gauge P. vivax transmission dynamics in the ROK between 2010 and 2012. Methodology/Principal Findings P. vivax positive blood samples from 98 autochthonous cases were collected from patients attending health centers in the ROK in 2010 (n = 27), 2011 (n = 48) and 2012 (n = 23). Parasite genotyping was undertaken at 9 tandem repeat markers. Although not reaching significance, a trend of increasing population diversity was observed from 2010 (HE = 0.50 ± 0.11) to 2011 (HE = 0.56 ± 0.08) and 2012 (HE = 0.60 ± 0.06). Conversely, linkage disequilibrium declined during the same period: IAS = 0.15 in 2010 (P = 0.010), 0.09 in 2011 (P = 0.010) and 0.05 in 2012 (P = 0.010). In combination with data from other ROK studies undertaken between 1994 and 2007, our results are consistent with increasing parasite divergence since re-emergence. Polyclonal infections were rare (3% infections) suggesting that local out-crossing alone was unlikely to explain the increased divergence. Cases introduced from an external reservoir may therefore have contributed to the increased diversity. Aside from one isolate, all infections carried a short MS20 allele (142 or 149 bp), not observed in other studies in tropical endemic countries despite high diversity, inferring that these regions are unlikely reservoirs. Conclusions Whilst a number of factors may explain the observed population genetic trends, the available evidence suggests that an external geographic reservoir with moderate diversity sustains the majority of P. vivax infection in the ROK, with important implications for malaria elimination. PMID:26990869

  11. Fruit set of highland coffee increases with the diversity of pollinating bees.

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Tscharntke, Teja

    2003-01-01

    The worldwide decline of pollinators may negatively affect the fruit set of wild and cultivated plants. Here, we show that fruit set of the self-fertilizing highland coffee (Coffea arabica) is highly variable and related to bee pollination. In a comparison of 24 agroforestry systems in Indonesia, the fruit set of coffee could be predicted by the number of flower-visiting bee species, and it ranged from ca. 60% (three species) to 90% (20 species). Diversity, not abundance, explained variation in fruit set, so the collective role of a species-rich bee community was important for pollination success. Additional experiments showed that single flower visits from rare solitary species led to higher fruit set than with abundant social species. Pollinator diversity was affected by two habitat parameters indicating guild-specific nesting requirements: the diversity of social bees decreased with forest distance, whereas the diversity of solitary bees increased with light intensity of the agroforestry systems. These results give empirical evidence for a positive relationship between ecosystem functions such as pollination and biodiversity. Conservation of rainforest adjacent to adequately managed agroforestry systems could improve the yields of farmers. PMID:12803911

  12. Reduced Genetic Diversity and Increased Dispersal in Guigna (Leopardus guigna) in Chilean Fragmented Landscapes.

    PubMed

    Napolitano, Constanza; Díaz, Diego; Sanderson, Jim; Johnson, Warren E; Ritland, Kermit; Ritland, Carol E; Poulin, Elie

    2015-01-01

    Landscape fragmentation is often a major cause of species extinction as it can affect a wide variety of ecological processes. The impact of fragmentation varies among species depending on many factors, including their life-history traits and dispersal abilities. Felids are one of the groups most threatened by fragmented landscapes because of their large home ranges, territorial behavior, and low population densities. Here, we model the impacts of habitat fragmentation on patterns of genetic diversity in the guigna (Leopardus guigna), a small felid that is closely associated with the heavily human-impacted temperate rainforests of southern South America. We assessed genetic variation in 1798 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA sequences, 15 microsatellite loci, and 2 sex chromosome genes and estimated genetic diversity, kinship, inbreeding, and dispersal in 38 individuals from landscapes with differing degrees of fragmentation on Chiloé Island in southern Chile. Increased fragmentation was associated with reduced genetic diversity, but not with increased kinship or inbreeding. However, in fragmented landscapes, there was a weaker negative correlation between pairwise kinship and geographic distance, suggesting increased dispersal distances. These results highlight the importance of biological corridors to maximize connectivity in fragmented landscapes and contribute to our understanding of the broader genetic consequences of habitat fragmentation, especially for forest-specialist carnivores. PMID:26245787

  13. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia disease progression is associated with increased vaginal microbiome diversity

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, A.; MacIntyre, D. A.; Lee, Y. S.; Smith, A.; Marchesi, J. R.; Lehne, B.; Bhatia, R.; Lyons, D.; Paraskevaidis, E.; Li, J. V.; Holmes, E.; Nicholson, J. K.; Bennett, P. R.; Kyrgiou, M.

    2015-01-01

    Persistent infection with oncogenic Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is necessary for cervical carcinogenesis. Although evidence suggests that the vaginal microbiome plays a functional role in the persistence or regression of HPV infections, this has yet to be described in women with cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN). We hypothesised that increasing microbiome diversity is associated with increasing CIN severity. llumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons was used to characterise the vaginal microbiota of women with low-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions (LSIL; n = 52), high-grade (HSIL; n = 92), invasive cervical cancer (ICC; n = 5) and healthy controls (n = 20). Hierarchical clustering analysis revealed an increased prevalence of microbiomes characterised by high-diversity and low levels of Lactobacillus spp. (community state type-CST IV) with increasing disease severity, irrespective of HPV status (Normal = 2/20,10%; LSIL = 11/52,21%; HSIL = 25/92,27%; ICC = 2/5,40%). Increasing disease severity was associated with decreasing relative abundance of Lactobacillus spp. The vaginal microbiome in HSIL was characterised by higher levels of Sneathia sanguinegens (P < 0.01), Anaerococcus tetradius (P < 0.05) and Peptostreptococcus anaerobius (P < 0.05) and lower levels of Lactobacillus jensenii (P < 0.01) compared to LSIL. Our results suggest advancing CIN disease severity is associated with increasing vaginal microbiota diversity and may be involved in regulating viral persistence and disease progression. PMID:26574055

  14. Avian Metapneumovirus Subgroup C Infection in Chickens, China

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Li; Zhu, Shanshan; Yan, Xv; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Chunyan; She, Ruiping; Hu, Fengjiao; Quan, Rong

    2013-01-01

    Avian metapneumovirus causes acute respiratory tract infection and reductions in egg production in various avian species. We isolated and characterized an increasingly prevalent avian metapneumovirus subgroup C strain from meat-type commercial chickens with severe respiratory signs in China. Culling of infected flocks could lead to economic consequences. PMID:23763901

  15. Pepino (Solanum muricatum) planting increased diversity and abundance of bacterial communities in karst area.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jinxiang; Yang, Hui; Long, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhaopu; Rengel, Zed

    2016-01-01

    Soil nutrients and microbial communities are the two key factors in revegetation of barren environments. Ecological stoichiometry plays an important role in ecosystem function and limitation, but the relationships between above- and belowground stoichiometry and the bacterial communities in a typical karst region are poorly understood. We used pepino (Solanum muricatum) to examine the stoichiometric traits between soil and foliage, and determine diversity and abundance of bacteria in the karst soil. The soil had a relatively high pH, low fertility, and coarse texture. Foliar N:P ratio and the correlations with soil nitrogen and phosphorus suggested nitrogen limitation. The planting of pepino increased soil urease activity and decreased catalase activity. Higher diversity of bacteria was determined in the pepino rhizosphere than bulk soil using a next-generation, Illumina-based sequencing approach. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the dominant phyla in all samples, accounting for more than 80% of the reads. On a genus level, all 625 detected genera were found in all rhizosphere and bulk soils, and 63 genera showed significant differences among samples. Higher Shannon and Chao 1 indices in the rhizosphere than bulk soil indicated that planting of pepino increased diversity and abundance of bacterial communities in karst area. PMID:26902649

  16. Pepino (Solanum muricatum) planting increased diversity and abundance of bacterial communities in karst area

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jinxiang; Yang, Hui; Long, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhaopu; Rengel, Zed

    2016-01-01

    Soil nutrients and microbial communities are the two key factors in revegetation of barren environments. Ecological stoichiometry plays an important role in ecosystem function and limitation, but the relationships between above- and belowground stoichiometry and the bacterial communities in a typical karst region are poorly understood. We used pepino (Solanum muricatum) to examine the stoichiometric traits between soil and foliage, and determine diversity and abundance of bacteria in the karst soil. The soil had a relatively high pH, low fertility, and coarse texture. Foliar N:P ratio and the correlations with soil nitrogen and phosphorus suggested nitrogen limitation. The planting of pepino increased soil urease activity and decreased catalase activity. Higher diversity of bacteria was determined in the pepino rhizosphere than bulk soil using a next-generation, Illumina-based sequencing approach. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the dominant phyla in all samples, accounting for more than 80% of the reads. On a genus level, all 625 detected genera were found in all rhizosphere and bulk soils, and 63 genera showed significant differences among samples. Higher Shannon and Chao 1 indices in the rhizosphere than bulk soil indicated that planting of pepino increased diversity and abundance of bacterial communities in karst area. PMID:26902649

  17. Sampling and Complementarity Effects of Plant Diversity on Resource Use Increases the Invasion Resistance of Communities

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Dan H.; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Wei Z.; Yuan, Yue; Li, Bin; Wang, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Background Although plant diversity is postulated to resist invasion, studies have not provided consistent results, most of which were ascribed to the influences of other covariate environmental factors. Methodology/Principal Findings To explore the mechanisms by which plant diversity influences community invasibility, an experiment was conducted involving grassland sites varying in their species richness (one, two, four, eight, and sixteen species). Light interception efficiency and soil resources (total N, total P, and water content) were measured. The number of species, biomass, and the number of seedlings of the invading species decreased significantly with species richness. The presence of Patrinia scabiosaefolia Fisch. ex Trev. and Mosla dianthera (Buch.-Ham. ex Roxburgh) Maxim. significantly increased the resistance of the communities to invasion. A structural equation model showed that the richness of planted species had no direct and significant effect on invasion. Light interception efficiency had a negative effect on the invasion whereas soil water content had a positive effect. In monocultures, Antenoron filiforme (Thunb.) Rob. et Vaut. showed the highest light interception efficiency and P. scabiosaefolia recorded the lowest soil water content. With increased planted-species richness, a greater percentage of pots showed light use efficiency higher than that of A. filiforme and a lower soil water content than that in P. scabiosaefolia. Conclusions/Significance The results of this study suggest that plant diversity confers resistance to invasion, which is mainly ascribed to the sampling effect of particular species and the complementarity effect among species on resources use. PMID:26556713

  18. Increasing Scientific Literacy at Minority Serving Institutions Nationwide through AMS Professional Development Diversity Workshops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brey, J. A.; Geer, I. W.; Mills, E. W.; Nugnes, K. A.; Moses, M. N.

    2011-12-01

    Increasing students' earth science literacy, especially those at Minority Serving Institutions (MSIs), is a primary goal of the American Meteorological Society (AMS). Through the NSF-supported AMS Weather Studies and AMS Ocean Studies Diversity workshops for Historically Black College and Universities, Hispanic Serving Institutions, Tribal Colleges and Universities, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian Serving Institutions, AMS has brought meteorology and oceanography courses to more students. These workshops trained and mentored faculty implementing AMS Weather Studies and AMS Ocean Studies. Of the 145 institutions that have participated in the AMS Weather Studies Diversity Project, reaching over 13,000 students, it was the first meteorology course offered for more than two-thirds of the institutions. As a result of the AMS Ocean Studies Diversity Project, 75 institutions have offered the course to more than 3000 students. About 50 MSIs implemented both the Weather and Ocean courses, improving the Earth Science curriculum on their campuses. With the support of NSF and NASA, and a partnership with Second Nature, the organizing entity behind the American College and University President's Climate Commitment (ACUPCC), the newest professional development workshop, AMS Climate Studies Diversity Project will recruit MSI faculty members through the vast network of Second Nature's more than 670 signatories. These workshops will begin in early summer 2012. An innovative approach to studying climate science, AMS Climate Studies explores the fundamental science of Earth's climate system and addresses the societal impacts relevant to today's students and teachers. The course utilizes resources from respected organizations, such as the IPCC, the US Global Change Research Program, NASA, and NOAA. In addition, faculty and students learn about basic climate modeling through the AMS Conceptual Energy Model. Following the flow of energy in a clear, simplified model from space to

  19. Increasing Diversity in the Earth Sciences - Impact of the IDES Program in Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Silva, S. L.; Guerrero, E. F.; Duncan, R. A.; de Silva, L. L.; Eriksson, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    The NSF-OEDG funded Increasing Diversity in the Earth Sciences (IDES) program hosted at Oregon State University targets undergraduate students from diverse backgrounds and diverse ethnicity to engage in research. Partnering with local community colleges, non-traditional students are the hallmark of this program. The IDES program has several components to support the students in the transition from community college to the four-year universities of Oregon State University and Portland State University. Over the four years, the program has adapted while adhering to its primary goals: (1) to increase the number of students from underrepresented groups who prepare for and pursue careers in Earth Science research and education, and (2) to strengthen the understanding of Earth Sciences and their relevance to society among broad and diverse segments of the population. Now in its final year under an extension, 53 participants have participated in the program. An ongoing external evaluation of the program reveals that the various stakeholders consider IDES very successful. Participant surveys and interviews document several impacts: expanded opportunities, making professional contacts, building self-confidence, enhanced ability to be employable, and personal acknowledgement. Research mentors and administrators from partner institutions see positive impacts on the students and on their organizations. Challenges include better communication between the IDES program, mentors, and students. IDES is poised to move forward with its current experiences and successes as a foundation for further funding. IDES-like activities can be funded from private sources and it is a good fit for funding from Research Experiences for Undergraduates at NSF. The new emphasis on education and research at community colleges is an exciting opportunity and Oregon State University has already used aspects of the IDES program in current grant proposals to obtain funds for more undergraduate research.

  20. Repeated burning of eastern tallgrass prairie increases richness and diversity, stabilizing late successional vegetation.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Marlin L; Jones, Michael D

    2013-03-01

    Understanding temporal effects of fire frequency on plant species diversity and vegetation structure is critical for managing tallgrass prairie (TGP), which occupies a mid-continental longitudinal precipitation and productivity gradient. Eastern TGP has contributed little information toward understanding whether vegetation-fire interactions are uniform or change across this biome. We resampled 34 fire-managed mid- and late-successional ungrazed TGP remnants occurring across a dry to wet-mesic moisture gradient in the Chicago region of Illinois, USA. We compared hypotheses that burning acts either as a stabilizing force or causes change in diversity and structure, depending upon fire frequency and successional stage. Based on western TGP, we expected a unimodal species richness distribution across a cover-productivity gradient, variable functional group responses to fire frequency, and a negative relationship between fire frequency and species richness. Species diversity was unimodal across the cover gradient and was more strongly humpbacked in stands with greater fire frequency. In support of a stabilizing hypothesis, temporal similarity of late-successional vegetation had a logarithmic relationship with increasing fire frequency, while richness and evenness remained stable. Temporal similarity within mid-successional stands was not correlated with fire frequency, while richness increased and evenness decreased over time. Functional group responses to fire frequency were variable. Summer forb richness increased under high fire frequency, while C4 grasses, spring forbs, and nitrogen-fixing species decreased with fire exclusion. On mesic and wet-mesic sites, vegetation structure measured by the ratio of woody to graminoid species was negatively correlated with abundance of forbs and with fire frequency. Our findings that species richness responds unimodally to an environmental-productivity gradient, and that fire exclusion increases woody vegetation and leads to loss

  1. Vaccination of chickens with recombinant salmonella expressing the M2e and CD154 increase protection and decrease viral shedding following low pathogenic avian influenza challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) is a significant public health concern and serious economic threat to the commercial poultry industry worldwide. Previous research demonstrates that antibodies against M2e confer protection against influenza challenge. Using the Red recombinase system in combination with overl...

  2. Nitrogen Additions Increase the Diversity of Carbon Compounds Degraded by Fungi in Boreal Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gartner, T. B.; Turner, K. M.; Treseder, K. K.

    2004-12-01

    Boreal forest soils in North America harbor a large reservoir of organic C, and this region is increasingly exposed to long-range atmospheric N transport from Eurasia. By examining the responses of decomposers to N deposition in these forests, we hope to improve predictions of the fate of boreal carbon pools under global change. We tested the hypothesis that the functional diversity of decomposer fungi would increase under N fertilization in boreal forests where fungal growth was otherwise N-limited, owing to a reduction in competitive exclusion of fungal groups. We collected soil and leaf litter from three Alaskan sites that represent different successional stages at 5, 17, or 80 years following severe forest fire. Each site had been exposed for two years to nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization in a factorial design, with four plots per treatment. Nutrient limitation of fungal growth varied depending on successional stage. The standing hyphal length of decomposer fungi in soil (i.e. Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) responded to neither N nor P in the 5-year old site, increased under N fertilization in the 17-year old site, and increased where N and P was added simultaneously in the 80-year old site (site x N x P interaction: P = 0.001). We used BIOLOG microplates for filamentous fungi to obtain an index of the diversity of carbon use by decomposer fungi; each of 95 wells of these plates contains a different carbon-based compound, as well as a dye that changes color upon metabolism of the compound. Saline leaf litter extracts were mixed with fungal growth medium and then added to the microplates. The number of wells displaying metabolic activity was counted following incubation for five days. We found that N fertilization raised the average number of positive wells per plate from 14 to 27 (P = 0.012), with no significant differences in responses among sites. Phosphorus additions did not alter functional diversity of fungi in any site. Since increases in functional

  3. Selective Bottlenecks Shape Evolutionary Pathways Taken during Mammalian Adaptation of a 1918-like Avian Influenza Virus.

    PubMed

    Moncla, Louise H; Zhong, Gongxun; Nelson, Chase W; Dinis, Jorge M; Mutschler, James; Hughes, Austin L; Watanabe, Tokiko; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Friedrich, Thomas C

    2016-02-10

    Avian influenza virus reassortants resembling the 1918 human pandemic virus can become transmissible among mammals by acquiring mutations in hemagglutinin (HA) and polymerase. Using the ferret model, we trace the evolutionary pathway by which an avian-like virus evolves the capacity for mammalian replication and airborne transmission. During initial infection, within-host HA diversity increased drastically. Then, airborne transmission fixed two polymerase mutations that do not confer a detectable replication advantage. In later transmissions, selection fixed advantageous HA1 variants. Transmission initially involved a "loose" bottleneck, which became strongly selective after additional HA mutations emerged. The stringency and evolutionary forces governing between-host bottlenecks may therefore change throughout host adaptation. Mutations occurred in multiple combinations in transmitted viruses, suggesting that mammalian transmissibility can evolve through multiple genetic pathways despite phenotypic constraints. Our data provide a glimpse into avian influenza virus adaptation in mammals, with broad implications for surveillance on potentially zoonotic viruses. PMID:26867176

  4. Prokaryotic Community Diversity Along an Increasing Salt Gradient in a Soda Ash Concentration Pond.

    PubMed

    Simachew, Addis; Lanzén, Anders; Gessesse, Amare; Øvreås, Lise

    2016-02-01

    The effect of salinity on prokaryotic community diversity in Abijata-Shalla Soda Ash Concentration Pond system was investigated by using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene 454 pyrosequencing. Surface water and brine samples from five sites spanning a salinity range of 3.4 % (Lake Abijata) to 32 % (SP230F, crystallizer pond) were analyzed. Overall, 33 prokaryotic phyla were detected, and the dominant prokaryotic phyla accounted for more than 95 % of the reads consisting of Planctomycetes, Bacteroidetes, candidate division TM7, Deinococcus-Thermus, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Euryarchaeota. Diversity indices indicated that operational taxonomic unit (OTU) richness decreases drastically with increasing salinity in the pond system. A total of 471 OTUs were found at 3.4 % salinity whereas 49 OTUs were detected in pond SP211 (25 % salinity), and only 19 OTUs in the crystallization pond at 32 % salinity (SP230F). Along the salinity gradient, archaeal community gradually replaced bacterial community. Thus, archaeal community accounted for 0.4 % in Lake Abijata while 99.0 % in pond SP230F. This study demonstrates that salinity appears to be the key environmental parameter in structuring the prokaryotic communities of haloalkaline environments. Further, it confirmed that the prokaryotic diversity in Lake Abijata is high and it harbors taxa with low or no phylogenetic similarities to existing prokaryotic taxa and thus represents novel microorganisms. PMID:26408190

  5. Increasing land use drives changes in plant phylogenetic diversity and prevalence of specialists.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Soraya; Vamosi, Jana C

    2016-01-01

    Increased human land use has resulted in the increased homogenization of biodiversity between sites, yet we lack sufficient indicators to predict which species decline and the consequence of their potential loss on ecosystem services. We used comparative phylogenetic analysis to (1) characterize how increasing conversion of forest and grasslands to grazing pasturelands changes plant diversity and composition; (2) examine how changes in land use relate to declines in functional trait diversity; and (3) specifically investigate how these changes in plant composition affect the prevalence of zygomorphy and the possible consequences that these changes may have on pollinator functional groups. As predicted, we found that the conversion to grazing pasturelands negatively impacted species richness and phylogenetic composition. Clades with significantly more represented taxa in grasslands (GL) were genera with a high representation of agricultural weeds, while the composition was biased towards clades of subalpine herbaceous wildflowers in Mixed Forest (MF). Changes in community composition and structure had strong effects on the prevalence of zygomorphic species likely driven by nitrogen-fixing abilities of certain clades with zygomorphic flowers (e.g., Fabaceae). Land conversion can thus have unexpected impacts on trait distributions relevant for the functioning of the community in other capacities (e.g., cascading effects to other trophic levels (i.e., pollinators). Finally, the combination of traits represented by the current composition of species in GL and MF might enhance the diagnostic value of productivity and ecosystem processes in the most eroded ecosystems. PMID:26966669

  6. Increasing land use drives changes in plant phylogenetic diversity and prevalence of specialists

    PubMed Central

    Vamosi, Jana C.

    2016-01-01

    Increased human land use has resulted in the increased homogenization of biodiversity between sites, yet we lack sufficient indicators to predict which species decline and the consequence of their potential loss on ecosystem services. We used comparative phylogenetic analysis to (1) characterize how increasing conversion of forest and grasslands to grazing pasturelands changes plant diversity and composition; (2) examine how changes in land use relate to declines in functional trait diversity; and (3) specifically investigate how these changes in plant composition affect the prevalence of zygomorphy and the possible consequences that these changes may have on pollinator functional groups. As predicted, we found that the conversion to grazing pasturelands negatively impacted species richness and phylogenetic composition. Clades with significantly more represented taxa in grasslands (GL) were genera with a high representation of agricultural weeds, while the composition was biased towards clades of subalpine herbaceous wildflowers in Mixed Forest (MF). Changes in community composition and structure had strong effects on the prevalence of zygomorphic species likely driven by nitrogen-fixing abilities of certain clades with zygomorphic flowers (e.g., Fabaceae). Land conversion can thus have unexpected impacts on trait distributions relevant for the functioning of the community in other capacities (e.g., cascading effects to other trophic levels (i.e., pollinators). Finally, the combination of traits represented by the current composition of species in GL and MF might enhance the diagnostic value of productivity and ecosystem processes in the most eroded ecosystems. PMID:26966669

  7. Loss of Genetic Diversity and Increased Subdivision in an Endemic Alpine Stonefly Threatened by Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Steve; Giersch, J. Joseph; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Hotaling, Scott; Fanning, Liz; Tappenbeck, Tyler H.; Luikart, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Much remains unknown about the genetic status and population connectivity of high-elevation and high-latitude freshwater invertebrates, which often persist near snow and ice masses that are disappearing due to climate change. Here we report on the conservation genetics of the meltwater stonefly Lednia tumana (Ricker) of Montana, USA, a cold-water obligate species. We sequenced 1530 bp of mtDNA from 116 L. tumana individuals representing “historic” (>10 yr old) and 2010 populations. The dominant haplotype was common in both time periods, while the second-most-common haplotype was found only in historic samples, having been lost in the interim. The 2010 populations also showed reduced gene and nucleotide diversity and increased genetic isolation. We found lower genetic diversity in L. tumana compared to two other North American stonefly species, Amphinemura linda (Ricker) and Pteronarcys californica Newport. Our results imply small effective sizes, increased fragmentation, limited gene flow, and loss of genetic variation among contemporary L. tumana populations, which can lead to reduced adaptive capacity and increased extinction risk. This study reinforces concerns that ongoing glacier loss threatens the persistence of L. tumana, and provides baseline data and analysis of how future environmental change could impact populations of similar organisms. PMID:27348125

  8. Loss of Genetic Diversity and Increased Subdivision in an Endemic Alpine Stonefly Threatened by Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Steve; Giersch, J Joseph; Muhlfeld, Clint C; Hotaling, Scott; Fanning, Liz; Tappenbeck, Tyler H; Luikart, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Much remains unknown about the genetic status and population connectivity of high-elevation and high-latitude freshwater invertebrates, which often persist near snow and ice masses that are disappearing due to climate change. Here we report on the conservation genetics of the meltwater stonefly Lednia tumana (Ricker) of Montana, USA, a cold-water obligate species. We sequenced 1530 bp of mtDNA from 116 L. tumana individuals representing "historic" (>10 yr old) and 2010 populations. The dominant haplotype was common in both time periods, while the second-most-common haplotype was found only in historic samples, having been lost in the interim. The 2010 populations also showed reduced gene and nucleotide diversity and increased genetic isolation. We found lower genetic diversity in L. tumana compared to two other North American stonefly species, Amphinemura linda (Ricker) and Pteronarcys californica Newport. Our results imply small effective sizes, increased fragmentation, limited gene flow, and loss of genetic variation among contemporary L. tumana populations, which can lead to reduced adaptive capacity and increased extinction risk. This study reinforces concerns that ongoing glacier loss threatens the persistence of L. tumana, and provides baseline data and analysis of how future environmental change could impact populations of similar organisms. PMID:27348125

  9. Susceptibility of selected wild avian species to experimental infection with H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 2002, H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses have caused mortality in wide diversity of wild avian species but, to date, the role that different species play in the transmission and maintenance of H5N1 HPAI viruses is poorly understood. To begin to address these uncertainties a...

  10. Lowered Diversity and Increased Inbreeding Depression within Peripheral Populations of Wild Rice Oryza rufipogon

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Li-Zhi; Gao, Cheng-Wen

    2016-01-01

    homozygotes and thus high inbreeding depression in peripheral populations. Conclusions/Significance Our results together suggest that historical contraction of geographical range, demographic changes, and environmental conditions near the northern and northeastern margins of O. rufipogon favor inbreeding and possibly selfing, leading to the rapidly decreased effective population size. Genetic drift, reduced gene flow, and possible local selection, consequently lead to lowered gene diversity, accelerated genetic divergence and increased inbreeding depression found in peripheral populations of O. rufipogon. Given these characteristics observed, northern and northeastern peripheral populations deserve relatively different conservation strategies for either germplasm sampling of ex situ conservation or setting in situ reserves for the adaptation to possible environmental changes and the future germplasm utilization of wild rice. PMID:26963913

  11. Organic amendments increase phylogenetic diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in acid soil contaminated by trace elements.

    PubMed

    Montiel-Rozas, María Del Mar; López-García, Álvaro; Kjøller, Rasmus; Madejón, Engracia; Rosendahl, Søren

    2016-08-01

    In 1998, a toxic mine spill polluted a 55-km(2) area in a basin southward to Doñana National Park (Spain). Subsequent attempts to restore those trace element-contaminated soils have involved physical, chemical, or biological methodologies. In this study, the restoration approach included application of different types and doses of organic amendments: biosolid compost (BC) and leonardite (LEO). Twelve years after the last addition, molecular analyses of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities associated with target plants (Lamarckia aurea and Chrysanthemum coronarium) as well as analyses of trace element concentrations both in soil and in plants were performed. The results showed an improved soil quality reflected by an increase in soil pH and a decrease in trace element availability as a result of the amendments and dosages. Additionally, the phylogenetic diversity of the AM fungal community increased, reaching the maximum diversity at the highest dose of BC. Trace element concentration was considered the predominant soil factor determining the AM fungal community composition. Thereby, the studied AM fungal community reflects a community adapted to different levels of contamination as a result of the amendments. The study highlights the long-term effect of the amendments in stabilizing the soil system. PMID:27072359

  12. Increasing Diversity in the Sciences: a Partial Solution to the Challenge and the Benefits it Produces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Givan, A. V.

    2009-12-01

    Science is supposed to be about talent devoid of the bias’ and judgments generated by background, gender, ethnicity or any culturally determined discriminators. The scientific, academic, corporate and government communities have a vested interest in developing models, practices and policies that significantly increase the number of U.S. graduates in scientific disciplines. Additionally, it is crucial that these graduates possess the essential competencies and creative problem solving skills to compete in the current global economy. The stakeholders (corporations, researchers, educational practitioners, policymakers and funders) who have the common goal of producing highly qualified scientists must commit to collaborate in developing innovative strategies and solutions to this complex challenge. Volumes of research data from a variety of sources such the social and cognitive sciences, educational psychology, National Science Foundation and non-profit groups have been and are available for use enabling us to rise to the challenge we have been charged with, and are responsible for the outcome. A proposed solution to part of the challenge and discussion of the impacts of increasing diversity in science will be discussed in this paper. The paper will address one element of the issue - strategies for the recruitment and retention of under-represented groups in science focusing on the historical and current culture, climate and barriers encountered by minorities as they progress through the educational system and career pathways. The paper will examine the benefits of diversity to the individual and society as a whole.

  13. Increased diversity of egg-associated bacteria on brown trout (Salmo trutta) at elevated temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, Laetitia G. E.; Rogivue, Aude; Schütz, Frédéric; Fumagalli, Luca; Wedekind, Claus

    2015-01-01

    The taxonomic composition of egg-associated microbial communities can play a crucial role in the development of fish embryos. In response, hosts increasingly influence the composition of their associated microbial communities during embryogenesis, as concluded from recent field studies and laboratory experiments. However, little is known about the taxonomic composition and the diversity of egg-associated microbial communities within ecosystems; e.g., river networks. We sampled late embryonic stages of naturally spawned brown trout at nine locations within two different river networks and applied 16S rRNA pyrosequencing to describe their bacterial communities. We found no evidence for a significant isolation-by-distance effect on the composition of bacterial communities, and no association between neutral genetic divergence of fish host (based on 11 microsatellites) and phylogenetic distances of the composition of their associated bacterial communities. We characterized core bacterial communities on brown trout eggs and compared them to corresponding water samples with regard to bacterial composition and its presumptive function. Bacterial diversity was positively correlated with water temperature at the spawning locations. We discuss this finding in the context of the increased water temperatures that have been recorded during the last 25 years in the study area. PMID:26611640

  14. Increased diversity of egg-associated bacteria on brown trout (Salmo trutta) at elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Laetitia G E; Rogivue, Aude; Schütz, Frédéric; Fumagalli, Luca; Wedekind, Claus

    2015-01-01

    The taxonomic composition of egg-associated microbial communities can play a crucial role in the development of fish embryos. In response, hosts increasingly influence the composition of their associated microbial communities during embryogenesis, as concluded from recent field studies and laboratory experiments. However, little is known about the taxonomic composition and the diversity of egg-associated microbial communities within ecosystems; e.g., river networks. We sampled late embryonic stages of naturally spawned brown trout at nine locations within two different river networks and applied 16S rRNA pyrosequencing to describe their bacterial communities. We found no evidence for a significant isolation-by-distance effect on the composition of bacterial communities, and no association between neutral genetic divergence of fish host (based on 11 microsatellites) and phylogenetic distances of the composition of their associated bacterial communities. We characterized core bacterial communities on brown trout eggs and compared them to corresponding water samples with regard to bacterial composition and its presumptive function. Bacterial diversity was positively correlated with water temperature at the spawning locations. We discuss this finding in the context of the increased water temperatures that have been recorded during the last 25 years in the study area. PMID:26611640

  15. Other avian paramyxovirus infections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian paramyxovirus infections have been reported for chickens and turkeys in association with respiratory disease or drops in egg production. This book chapter provides general information on etiology, clinical signs, lesions, diagnosis, prevention and control of avian paramyxoviruses except Newca...

  16. Other avian paramyxoviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian paramyxovirus infections have been reported for chickens and turkeys in association with respiratory disease or drops in egg production. This book chapter provides general information on etiology, clinical signs, lesions, diagnosis, prevention and control of avian paramyxoviruses except Newcas...

  17. Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: About CDC.gov . Avian Influenza H5 Viruses in the United States Updates and Publications Information ... Humans Examples of Human Infections with Avian Influenza Viruses Outbreaks Health Care and Laboratorian Guidance HPAI A ...

  18. Avian respiratory system disorders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    Diagnosing and treating respiratory diseases in avian species requires a basic knowledge about the anatomy and physiology of this system in birds. Differences between mammalian and avian respiratory system function, diagnosis, and treatment are highlighted.

  19. Assisted dying: the influence of public opinion in an increasingly diverse society.

    PubMed

    Badcott, David

    2010-11-01

    Attitudes to questions of whether physician-assisted dying should be legalised in the UK, reflect one of the greatest challenges to moral stance in health care for both individuals and professional bodies, not least as indicated by public opinion. However, public opinion is a seductively deceptive notion, seemingly readily identifiable but in practice multifarious. At best, consensus regarding public opinion and assisted dying is illusory, sometimes transient and what is relevant in this matter is a comprehension of both majority (popular) opinion and vocal dissent, but which do not them selves have a simple relationship with Parliamentary attitudes and legislation. Arguably, an increasingly important consideration to take account of is the influence of increasing population diversity. PMID:20665117

  20. Avian colibacillosis: still many black holes.

    PubMed

    Guabiraba, Rodrigo; Schouler, Catherine

    2015-08-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strains cause severe respiratory and systemic diseases, threatening food security and avian welfare worldwide. Intensification of poultry production and the quick expansion of free-range production systems will increase the incidence of colibacillosis through greater exposure of birds to pathogens and stress. Therapy is mainly based on antibiotherapy and current vaccines have poor efficacy. Serotyping remains the most frequently used diagnostic method, only allowing the identification of a limited number of APEC strains. Several studies have demonstrated that the most common virulence factors studied in APEC are all rarely present in the same isolate, showing that APEC strains constitute a heterogeneous group. Different isolates may harbor different associations of virulence factors, each one able to induce colibacillosis. Despite its economical relevance, pathogenesis of colibacillosis is poorly understood. Our knowledge on the host response to APEC is based on very descriptive studies, mostly restricted to bacteriological and histopathological analysis of infected organs such as lungs. Furthermore, only a small number of APEC isolates have been used in experimental studies. In the present review, we discuss current knowledge on APEC diversity and virulence, including host response to infection and the associated inflammatory response with a focus on pulmonary colibacillosis. PMID:26204893

  1. Aggregation of Cricket Activity in Response to Resource Addition Increases Local Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Szinwelski, Neucir; Rosa, Cassiano Sousa; Solar, Ricardo Ribeiro de Castro; Sperber, Carlos Frankl

    2015-01-01

    Crickets are often found feeding on fallen fruits among forest litter. Fruits and other sugar-rich resources are not homogeneously distributed, nor are they always available. We therefore expect that crickets dwelling in forest litter have a limited supply of sugar-rich resource, and will perceive this and displace towards resource-supplemented sites. Here we evaluate how sugar availability affects cricket species richness and abundance in old-growth Atlantic forest by spraying sugarcane syrup on leaf litter, simulating increasing availability, and collecting crickets via pitfall trapping. We found an asymptotic positive association between resource addition and species richness, and an interaction between resource addition and species identity on cricket abundance, which indicates differential effects of resource addition among cricket species. Our results indicate that 12 of the 13 cricket species present in forest litter are maintained at low densities by resource scarcity; this highlights sugar-rich resource as a short-term driver of litter cricket community structure in tropical forests. When resource was experimentally increased, species richness increased due to behavioral displacement. We present evidence that the density of many species is limited by resource scarcity and, when resources are added, behavioral displacement promotes increased species packing and alters species composition. Further, our findings have technical applicability for increasing sampling efficiency of local cricket diversity in studies aiming to estimate species richness, but with no regard to local environmental drivers or species-abundance characteristics. PMID:26436669

  2. Response diversity can increase ecological resilience to disturbance in coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Baskett, Marissa L; Fabina, Nicholas S; Gross, Kevin

    2014-08-01

    Community-level resilience depends on the interaction between multiple populations that vary in individual responses to disturbance. For example, in tropical reefs, some corals can survive higher stress (resistance) while others exhibit faster recovery (engineering resilience) following disturbances such as thermal stress. While each type will negatively affect the other through competition, each might also benefit the other by reducing the potential for an additional competitor such as macroalgae to invade after a disturbance. To determine how community composition affects ecological resilience, we modeled coral-macroalgae interactions given either a resistant coral, a resilient coral, or both together. Having both coral types (i.e., response diversity) can lead to observable enhanced ecological resilience if (1) the resilient coral is not a superior competitor and (2) disturbance levels are high enough such that the resilient coral would collapse when considered alone. This enhanced resilience occurs through competitor-enabled rescue where each coral increases the potential for the other to recover from disturbance through external recruitment, such that both corals benefit from the presence of each other in terms of total cover and resilience. Therefore, conservation management aimed at protecting resilience under global change requires consideration of both diversity and connectivity between sites experiencing differential disturbance. PMID:25058289

  3. Avian influenza in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, C

    2009-04-01

    The outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N2 in Mexico in 1994 led to a clear increase in biosecurity measures and improvement of intensive poultry production systems. The control and eradication measures implemented were based on active surveillance, disease detection, depopulation of infected farms and prevention of possible contacts (identified by epidemiological investigations), improvement of biosecurity measures, and restriction of the movement of live birds, poultry products, by-products and infected material. In addition, Mexico introduced a massive vaccination programme, which resulted in the eradication of HPAI in a relatively short time in two affected areas that had a high density of commercial poultry. PMID:19618630

  4. Mutations in the fusion protein cleavage site of avian paramyxovirus serotype 4 confer increased replication and syncytium formation in vitro but not increased replication and pathogenicity in chickens and ducks.

    PubMed

    Kim, Shin-Hee; Xiao, Sa; Shive, Heather; Collins, Peter L; Samal, Siba K

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the role of the F protein cleavage site in the replication and pathogenicity of avian paramyxoviruses (APMVs), we constructed a reverse genetics system for recovery of infectious recombinant APMV-4 from cloned cDNA. The recovered recombinant APMV-4 resembled the biological virus in growth characteristics in vitro and in pathogenicity in vivo. The F cleavage site sequence of APMV-4 (DIQPR↓F) contains a single basic amino acid, at the -1 position. Six mutant APMV-4 viruses were recovered in which the F protein cleavage site was mutated to contain increased numbers of basic amino acids or to mimic the naturally occurring cleavage sites of several paramyxoviruses, including neurovirulent and avirulent strains of NDV. The presence of a glutamine residue at the -3 position was found to be important for mutant virus recovery. In addition, cleavage sites containing the furin protease motif conferred increased replication and syncytium formation in vitro. However, analysis of viral pathogenicity in 9-day-old embryonated chicken eggs, 1-day-old and 2-week-old chickens, and 3-week-old ducks showed that none the F protein cleavage site mutations altered the replication, tropism, and pathogenicity of APMV-4, and no significant differences were observed among the parental and mutant APMV-4 viruses in vivo. Although parental and mutant viruses replicated somewhat better in ducks than in chickens, they all were highly restricted and avirulent in both species. These results suggested that the cleavage site sequence of the F protein is not a limiting determinant of APMV-4 pathogenicity in chickens and ducks. PMID:23341874

  5. Mutations in the Fusion Protein Cleavage Site of Avian Paramyxovirus Serotype 4 Confer Increased Replication and Syncytium Formation In Vitro but Not Increased Replication and Pathogenicity in Chickens and Ducks

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Shin-Hee; Xiao, Sa; Shive, Heather; Collins, Peter L.; Samal, Siba K.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the role of the F protein cleavage site in the replication and pathogenicity of avian paramyxoviruses (APMVs), we constructed a reverse genetics system for recovery of infectious recombinant APMV-4 from cloned cDNA. The recovered recombinant APMV-4 resembled the biological virus in growth characteristics in vitro and in pathogenicity in vivo. The F cleavage site sequence of APMV-4 (DIQPR↓F) contains a single basic amino acid, at the -1 position. Six mutant APMV-4 viruses were recovered in which the F protein cleavage site was mutated to contain increased numbers of basic amino acids or to mimic the naturally occurring cleavage sites of several paramyxoviruses, including neurovirulent and avirulent strains of NDV. The presence of a glutamine residue at the -3 position was found to be important for mutant virus recovery. In addition, cleavage sites containing the furin protease motif conferred increased replication and syncytium formation in vitro. However, analysis of viral pathogenicity in 9-day-old embryonated chicken eggs, 1-day-old and 2-week-old chickens, and 3-week-old ducks showed that none the F protein cleavage site mutations altered the replication, tropism, and pathogenicity of APMV-4, and no significant differences were observed among the parental and mutant APMV-4 viruses in vivo. Although parental and mutant viruses replicated somewhat better in ducks than in chickens, they all were highly restricted and avirulent in both species. These results suggested that the cleavage site sequence of the F protein is not a limiting determinant of APMV-4 pathogenicity in chickens and ducks. PMID:23341874

  6. Mutation of the F-Protein Cleavage Site of Avian Paramyxovirus Type 7 Results in Furin Cleavage, Fusion Promotion, and Increased Replication In Vitro but Not Increased Replication, Tissue Tropism, or Virulence in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Sa; Khattar, Sunil K.; Subbiah, Madhuri; Collins, Peter L.

    2012-01-01

    We constructed a reverse genetics system for avian paramyxovirus serotype 7 (APMV-7) to investigate the role of the fusion F glycoprotein in tissue tropism and virulence. The AMPV-7 F protein has a single basic residue arginine (R) at position −1 in the F cleavage site sequence and also is unusual in having alanine at position +2 (LPSSR↓FA) (underlining indicates the basic amino acids at the F protein cleavage site, and the arrow indicates the site of cleavage.). APMV-7 does not form syncytia or plaques in cell culture, but its replication in vitro does not depend on, and is not increased by, added protease. Two mutants were successfully recovered in which the cleavage site was modified to mimic sites that are found in virulent Newcastle disease virus isolates and to contain 4 or 5 basic residues as well as isoleucine in the +2 position: (RRQKR↓FI) or (RRKKR↓FI), named Fcs-4B or Fcs-5B, respectively. In cell culture, one of the mutants, Fcs-5B, formed protease-independent syncytia and grew to 10-fold-higher titers compared to the parent and Fcs-4B viruses. This indicated the importance of the single additional basic residue (K) at position −3. Syncytium formation and virus yield of the Fcs-5B virus was impaired by the furin inhibitor decanoyl-RVKR-CMK, whereas parental APMV-7 was not affected. APMV-7 is avirulent in chickens and is limited in tropism to the upper respiratory tract of 1-day-old and 2-week-old chickens, and these characteristics were unchanged for the two mutant viruses. Thus, the acquisition of furin cleavability by APMV-7 resulted in syncytium formation and increased virus yield in vitro but did not alter virus yield, tropism, or virulence in chickens. PMID:22258248

  7. Increasing Diversity in the K-16 Pipeline in Earth and Space Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, D.; Payne, L.

    2006-05-01

    We discuss the successes and challenges of a comprehensive program implemented at South Carolina State University (SCSU) that is intended to increase diversity in earth and space science. SCSU is a Historically Black College/University that has partnered with NASA and others over the past decade to develop activities that have largely concentrated on space science. We have effectively brought together scientists and educators to implement teacher training, K-12 student activities, public outreach and an undergraduate research program. Based on our space science experience we are applying the "lessons learned" to a new earth science program. Support has been provided by NASA MUCERPI (NNG04GD62G), NASA MU-SPIN (NNG04GC40A), NASA SERCH (NCC 5-607) and NASA's Science Mission Directorate (NRA NN-H-04-Z-YO-006-N).

  8. Non-native grass invasion associated with increases in insect diversity in temperate forest understory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalf, Judith L.; Emery, Sarah M.

    2015-11-01

    Invasive plants can alter the structure and function of plant communities to such a degree that they can also have significant impacts on the insect communities. Because insects play an important role in many ecosystems, changes in these communities could have important implications, beyond their biodiversity value, for ecosystem function and diversity at other trophic levels. Microstegium vimineum is an annual C4 grass that is invasive in many eastern North American deciduous forests. Because this grass plays an important role in determining the plant community structure in the understory of these forests, it also has the potential to significantly alter understory insect communities. In this study we evaluated the relationship between M. vimineum and understory insect communities in a forest reserve in Kentucky, USA. Total insect abundance, richness and diversity showed a positive association with M. vimineum presence. Trophic analysis showed significantly higher abundances of herbivores where M. vimineum was present. Forb abundance, which serves as the primary food source for herbivorous insects in this system, was lower in sites invaded with M. vimineum. Invasion by this non-native was also associated with significant increases in aboveground plant biomass which was nearly 50% greater in invaded sites. These results indicate that the understory insect community may be responding to increased biomass rather than the loss of native forb food resources, which contradicts other studies that have examined relationships between M. vimineum invasion and insects. Our results provide evidence that invasive plants can provide benefits for other trophic levels, even when native plant biodiversity is lost.

  9. Generation of Avian Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yangqing; West, Franklin D; Jordan, Brian J; Beckstead, Robert B; Jordan, Erin T; Stice, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    Avian species are among the most diverse vertebrates on our planet and significantly contribute to the balance of the ecology. They are also important food source and serve as a central animal model to decipher developmental biology and disease principles. Derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from avian species would enable conservation of genetic diversity as well as offer a valuable cell source that facilitates the use of avian models in many areas of basic and applied research. In this chapter, we describe methods used to successfully reprogram quail fibroblasts into iPSCs by using human transcription factors and the techniques critical to the characterization of their pluripotency. PMID:26621592

  10. Avian influenza virus in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shelan; Sha, Jianping; Yu, Zhao; Hu, Yan; Chan, Ta-Chien; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Pan, Hao; Cheng, Wei; Mao, Shenghua; Zhang, Run Ju; Chen, Enfu

    2016-07-01

    The unprecedented epizootic of avian influenza viruses, such as H5N1, H5N6, H7N1 and H10N8, has continued to cause disease in humans in recent years. In 2013, another novel influenza A (H7N9) virus emerged in China, and 30% of those patients died. Pregnant women are particularly susceptible to avian influenza and are more likely to develop severe complications and to die, especially when infection occurs in the middle and late trimesters. Viremia is believed to occur infrequently, and thus vertical transmission induced by avian influenza appears to be rare. However, avian influenza increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including spontaneous abortion, preterm birth and fatal distress. This review summarises 39 cases of pregnant women and their fetuses from different countries dating back to 1997, including 11, 15 and 13 infections with H7N9, H5N1 and the 2009 pandemic influenza (H1N1), respectively. We analysed the epidemic features, following the geographical, population and pregnancy trimester distributions; underlying diseases; exposure history; medical timelines; human-to-human transmission; pathogenicity and vertical transmission; antivirus treatments; maternal severity and mortality and pregnancy outcome. The common experiences reported in different countries and areas suggest that early identification and treatment are imperative. In the future, vigilant virologic and epidemiologic surveillance systems should be developed to monitor avian influenza viruses during pregnancy. Furthermore, extensive study on the immune mechanisms should be conducted, as this will guide safe, rational immunomodulatory treatment among this high-risk population. Most importantly, we should develop a universal avian influenza virus vaccine to prevent outbreaks of the different subtypes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27187752

  11. Increasing zooplankton size diversity enhances the strength of top-down control on phytoplankton through diet niche partitioning.

    PubMed

    Ye, Lin; Chang, Chun-Yi; García-Comas, Carmen; Gong, Gwo-Ching; Hsieh, Chih-Hao

    2013-09-01

    1. The biodiversity-ecosystem functioning debate is a central topic in ecology. Recently, there has been a growing interest in size diversity because body size is sensitive to environmental changes and is one of the fundamental characteristics of organisms linking many ecosystem properties. However, how size diversity affects ecosystem functioning is an important yet unclear issue. 2. To fill the gap, with large-scale field data from the East China Sea, we tested the novel hypothesis that increasing zooplankton size diversity enhances top-down control on phytoplankton (H1) and compared it with five conventional hypotheses explaining the top-down control: flatter zooplankton size spectrum enhances the strength of top-down control (H2); nutrient enrichment lessens the strength of top-down control (H3); increasing zooplankton taxonomic diversity enhances the strength of top-down control (H4); increasing fish predation decreases the strength of top-down control of zooplankton on phytoplankton through trophic cascade (H5); increasing temperature intensifies the strength of top-down control (H6). 3. The results of univariate analyses support the hypotheses based on zooplankton size diversity (H1), zooplankton size spectrum (H2), nutrient (H3) and zooplankton taxonomic diversity (H4), but not the hypotheses based on fish predation (H5) and temperature (H6). More in-depth analyses indicate that zooplankton size diversity is the most important factor in determining the strength of top-down control on phytoplankton in the East China Sea. 4. Our results suggest a new potential mechanism that increasing predator size diversity enhances the strength of top-down control on prey through diet niche partitioning. This mechanism can be explained by the optimal predator-prey body-mass ratio concept. Suppose each size group of zooplankton predators has its own optimal phytoplankton prey size, increasing size diversity of zooplankton would promote diet niche partitioning of predators

  12. Parasites affect food web structure primarily through increased diversity and complexity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunne, Jennifer A.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Dobson, Andrew P.; Hechinger, Ryan F.; Kuris, Armand M.; Martinez, Neo D.; McLaughlin, John P.; Mouritsen, Kim N.; Poulin, Robert; Reise, Karsten; Stouffer, Daniel B.; Thieltges, David W.; Williams, Richard J.; Zander, Claus Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Comparative research on food web structure has revealed generalities in trophic organization, produced simple models, and allowed assessment of robustness to species loss. These studies have mostly focused on free-living species. Recent research has suggested that inclusion of parasites alters structure. We assess whether such changes in network structure result from unique roles and traits of parasites or from changes to diversity and complexity. We analyzed seven highly resolved food webs that include metazoan parasite data. Our analyses show that adding parasites usually increases link density and connectance (simple measures of complexity), particularly when including concomitant links (links from predators to parasites of their prey). However, we clarify prior claims that parasites ‘‘dominate’’ food web links. Although parasites can be involved in a majority of links, in most cases classic predation links outnumber classic parasitism links. Regarding network structure, observed changes in degree distributions, 14 commonly studied metrics, and link probabilities are consistent with scale-dependent changes in structure associated with changes in diversity and complexity. Parasite and free-living species thus have similar effects on these aspects of structure. However, two changes point to unique roles of parasites. First, adding parasites and concomitant links strongly alters the frequency of most motifs of interactions among three taxa, reflecting parasites’ roles as resources for predators of their hosts, driven by trophic intimacy with their hosts. Second, compared to free-living consumers, many parasites’ feeding niches appear broader and less contiguous, which may reflect complex life cycles and small body sizes. This study provides new insights about generic versus unique impacts of parasites on food web structure, extends the generality of food web theory, gives a more rigorous framework for assessing the impact of any species on trophic

  13. Increased species diversity and extended habitat range of sulfur-oxidizing Thiomicrospira spp.

    PubMed Central

    Brinkhoff, T; Muyzer, G

    1997-01-01

    We combined traditional cultivation methods and new molecular techniques to study the diversity and habitat range of bacteria of the genus Thiomicrospira. Specific primers were designed and used in the PCR to amplify the 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of Thiomicrospira spp. and thus detect the presence of these bacteria in environmental samples and enrichment cultures. By using this genus-specific PCR, we were able to amplify 722-bp-long 16S rDNA fragments from different saltwater habitats as well as from a freshwater ecosystem. Furthermore, we were able to isolate most of these bacteria in pure culture by using enrichment cultures for chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. With denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR-amplified 16S rDNA fragments followed by hybridization analysis with one of the primers as a genus-specific probe, it was possible to monitor the success of isolation. The combined approach resulted in the isolation of several chemolithoautotrophic bacteria from different habitats: e.g., a coastal sediment along the coast of Chile, a microbial mat of the hypersaline pond Solar Lake (Sinai, Egypt), and the saline spring Artern (Thuringia, Germany). In addition, four different isolates were obtained from sediment and water samples taken at Jadebusen, which is part of the German Waddensea. Comparative analysis of the nearly complete 16S rRNA sequences of these isolates indicated several new species, all grouping with the Thiomicrospira species of the gamma subdivision of the class Proteobacteria. A freshwater Thiomicrospira species could not be isolated, but sequence analysis of the PCR product obtained after amplification of the environmental DNA with the Thiomicrospira-specific primers revealed its phylogenetic affiliation. The study indicates an increased species diversity of Thiomicrospira and the ubiquity of this sulfur-oxidizing bacterium in habitats with reduced sulfur compounds. PMID:9327542

  14. Increasing diversity in the geosciences through the AfricaArray geophysics field course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallejo, G.; Emry, E.; Galindo, B. L.; Carranza, V.; Gomez, C. D.; Ortiz, K.; Castro, J. G.; Guandique, J.; Falzone, C.; Webb, S. J.; Manzi, M.; Mngadi, S. B.; Stephens, K.; Chinamora, B.; Whitehead, R.; de Villiers, D. P.; Tshitlho, K.; Delhaye, R. P.; Smith, J. A.; Nyblade, A.

    2014-12-01

    For the past nine years, the AfricaArray diversity program, sponsored by industry, the National Science Foundation, and several partnering universities have supported outstanding U.S. STEM underrepresented minority undergraduates to gain field experience in near-surface geophysical techniques during an 8-week summer program at Penn State University and the University of Witwatersrand (Wits). The AfricaArray geophysics field school, which is run by Wits, has been teaching field-based geophysics to African students for over a decade. In the first 2-3 weeks of the program, the U.S. students are given basic instruction in near-surface geophysics, South African geology, and South African history and culture. The students then join the Wits AfricaArray geophysics field school - working alongside Wits students and students from several other African universities to map the shallow subsurface in prospective areas of South Africa for platinum mining. In addition to the primary goals of collecting and interpreting gravity, magnetic, resistivity, seismic refraction, seismic reflection, and EM data, students spend time mapping geologic units and gathering information on the physical properties of the rocks in the region (i.e. seismic velocity, density, and magnetic susceptibility). Subsurface targets include mafic dikes, faults, the water table, and overburden thickness. Upon returning to the U.S., students spend 2-3 weeks finalizing their project reports and presentations. The program has been effective at not only providing students with fundamental skills in applied geophysics, but also in fostering multicultural relationships, preparing students for graduate work in the geosciences, and attracting STEM students into the geosciences. Student presenters will discuss their experiences gained through the field school and give their impressions about how the program works towards the goal of increasing diversity in the geosciences in the U.S.

  15. The cuticle modulates ultraviolet reflectance of avian eggshells

    PubMed Central

    Fecheyr-Lippens, Daphne C.; Igic, Branislav; D'Alba, Liliana; Hanley, Daniel; Verdes, Aida; Holford, Mande; Waterhouse, Geoffrey I. N.; Grim, Tomas; Hauber, Mark E.; Shawkey, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Avian eggshells are variedly coloured, yet only two pigments, biliverdin and protoporphyrin IX, are known to contribute to the dramatic diversity of their colours. By contrast, the contributions of structural or other chemical components of the eggshell are poorly understood. For example, unpigmented eggshells, which appear white to the human eye, vary in their ultraviolet (UV) reflectance, which may be detectable by birds. We investigated the proximate mechanisms for the variation in UV-reflectance of unpigmented bird eggshells using spectrophotometry, electron microscopy, chemical analyses, and experimental manipulations. We specifically tested how UV-reflectance is affected by the eggshell cuticle, the outermost layer of most avian eggshells. The chemical dissolution of the outer eggshell layers, including the cuticle, increased UV-reflectance for only eggshells that contained a cuticle. Our findings demonstrate that the outer eggshell layers, including the cuticle, absorb UV-light, probably because they contain higher levels of organic components and other chemicals, such as calcium phosphates, compared to the predominantly calcite-based eggshell matrix. These data highlight the need to examine factors other than the known pigments in studies of avian eggshell colour. PMID:25964661

  16. The cuticle modulates ultraviolet reflectance of avian eggshells.

    PubMed

    Fecheyr-Lippens, Daphne C; Igic, Branislav; D'Alba, Liliana; Hanley, Daniel; Verdes, Aida; Holford, Mande; Waterhouse, Geoffrey I N; Grim, Tomas; Hauber, Mark E; Shawkey, Matthew D

    2015-01-01

    Avian eggshells are variedly coloured, yet only two pigments, biliverdin and protoporphyrin IX, are known to contribute to the dramatic diversity of their colours. By contrast, the contributions of structural or other chemical components of the eggshell are poorly understood. For example, unpigmented eggshells, which appear white to the human eye, vary in their ultraviolet (UV) reflectance, which may be detectable by birds. We investigated the proximate mechanisms for the variation in UV-reflectance of unpigmented bird eggshells using spectrophotometry, electron microscopy, chemical analyses, and experimental manipulations. We specifically tested how UV-reflectance is affected by the eggshell cuticle, the outermost layer of most avian eggshells. The chemical dissolution of the outer eggshell layers, including the cuticle, increased UV-reflectance for only eggshells that contained a cuticle. Our findings demonstrate that the outer eggshell layers, including the cuticle, absorb UV-light, probably because they contain higher levels of organic components and other chemicals, such as calcium phosphates, compared to the predominantly calcite-based eggshell matrix. These data highlight the need to examine factors other than the known pigments in studies of avian eggshell colour. PMID:25964661

  17. Avian assemblages in the lower Missouri river floodplain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thogmartin, W.E.; Gallagher, M.; Young, N.; Rohweder, J.J.; Durbian, F.; Knutson, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    Floodplain habitat provides important migration and breeding habitat for birds in the midwestern United States. However, few studies have examined how the avian assemblage changes with different stages of floodplain forest succession in the midwestern United States. In spring and summer from 2002 to 2004, we conducted 839 point counts in wet prairie/forbs fields, 547 point counts in early successional forests, and 434 point counts in mature forests to describe the migrating and breeding bird assemblage in the lower Missouri River floodplain. We recorded 131, 121, and 141 species in the three respective habitats, a number higher than most locations in the midwestern United States and comprising > 15% of all avian species in North America. Avian species diversity generally increased from west to east along the river, differed among land cover classes, but overlapped between seasons (migration and breeding) and years. Wet prairies were particularly important for conservation as there were 20 species of high conservation concern observed, including Dickcissels (Spiza americana). Important species for monitoring biotic integrity included the Northern Harrier (Circus cyaneus) and Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) in wet prairie, Bell's Vireo (Vireo bellii) in early successional forest, and Northern Parula (Parula americana) and Prothonotary Warbler (Protonotaria citrea) in mature forest. ?? 2009, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  18. Avian Diversity and Feeding Guilds in a Secondary Forest, an Oil Palm Plantation and a Paddy Field in Riparian Areas of the Kerian River Basin, Perak, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Azman, Nur Munira; Latip, Nurul Salmi Abdul; Sah, Shahrul Anuar Mohd; Akil, Mohd Abdul Muin Md; Shafie, Nur Juliani; Khairuddin, Nurul Liyana

    2011-01-01

    The diversity and the feeding guilds of birds in three different habitats (secondary forest, oil palm plantation and paddy field) were investigated in riparian areas of the Kerian River Basin (KRB), Perak, Malaysia. Point-count observation and mist-netting methods were used to determine bird diversity and abundance. A total of 132 species of birds from 46 families were recorded in the 3 habitats. Species diversity, measured by Shannon’s diversity index, was 3.561, 3.183 and 1.042 in the secondary forest, the paddy field and the oil palm plantation, respectively. The vegetation diversity and the habitat structure were important determinants of the number of bird species occurring in an area. The relative abundance of the insectivore, insectivore-frugivore and frugivore guilds was greater in the forest than in the monoculture plantation. In contrast, the relative abundance of the carnivore, granivore and omnivore guilds was higher in the plantation. The results of the study show that the conversion of forest to either oil palm plantation or paddy fields produced a decline in bird diversity and changes in the distribution of bird feeding guilds. PMID:24575217

  19. Detection and partial genetic characterisation of a novel variant of Avian nephritis virus in Indian poultry flocks showing diverse clinical signs.

    PubMed

    Gowthaman, Vasudevan; Singh, Sambu; Dhama, Kuldeep; Barathidasan, Rajamani; Srinivasan, Palani; Saravanan, Sellappan; Gopalakrishnamurthy, Thippichettypalayam; Deb, Rajib; Mathapati, Basavaraj; Ramakrishnan, Muthannan

    2015-12-01

    Avian nephritis virus (ANV) infects poultry flocks worldwide, but no confirmed cases have been reported from India so far. In the current study, disease investigation was carried out in 21 broiler flocks at different parts of India with clinical signs of nephritis, uneven and stunted growth, diarrhoea, reduced body weight, and mortality up to 9.72%. Out of the 21 flocks screened, two were found positive for ANV in RT-PCR assay. BLAST analysis revealed that the ANV of Indian origin was closely related to ANV-1 strains reported from Japan, Hungary and China. However, comparison of a small portion (~12% of nucleotides, i.e. ~60 nts, common site for ANV-1 and ANV-3, position 2200-2260 of ORF 1a gene) of the Indian ANV sequence with ANV-3 sequences revealed 89-93% identities with different ANV-3 isolates. Phylogenetically, ANV-1 forms three clades, and the Indian ANV clustered under clade II. This study confirms the existence of ANV in Indian poultry flocks and is the first report on the molecular detection and genetic characterisation of ANV from India. PMID:26599096

  20. A New Approach to Increasing Diversity in Engineering at the Example of Women in Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Andrea I.

    2006-01-01

    A new initiative to incorporate diversity issues into the common engineering curriculum at the University of Wollongong (UoW) in Australia is outlined and the effect on student awareness quantified. The diversity issues were illustrated in the example of women in engineering, seeing that the numbers of women in engineering have dropped drastically…

  1. Increasing Supervisors' Confidence in the Assessment of Students' Religious and Spiritual Diversity Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambroson, Heather M.

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1980s, there has been a movement towards using a competency-based approach as a way to measure and evaluate the progress of students and trainees in professional psychology. A core competency that has been defined is individual and cultural diversity, which includes the areas of religious and spiritual diversity. Research has shown that…

  2. Nitrogen addition, not initial phylogenetic diversity, increases litter decomposition by fungal communities.

    PubMed

    Amend, Anthony S; Matulich, Kristin L; Martiny, Jennifer B H

    2015-01-01

    Fungi play a critical role in the degradation of organic matter. Because different combinations of fungi result in different rates of decomposition, determining how climate change will affect microbial composition and function is fundamental to predicting future environments. Fungal response to global change is patterned by genetic relatedness, resulting in communities with comparatively low phylogenetic diversity (PD). This may have important implications for the functional capacity of disturbed communities if lineages sensitive to disturbance also contain unique traits important for litter decomposition. Here we tested the relationship between PD and decomposition rates. Leaf litter fungi were isolated from the field and deployed in microcosms as mock communities along a gradient of initial PD, while species richness was held constant. Replicate communities were subject to nitrogen fertilization comparable to anthropogenic deposition levels. Carbon mineralization rates were measured over the course of 66 days. We found that nitrogen fertilization increased cumulative respiration by 24.8%, and that differences in respiration between fertilized and ambient communities diminished over the course of the experiment. Initial PD failed to predict respiration rates or their change in response to nitrogen fertilization, and there was no correlation between community similarity and respiration rates. Last, we detected no phylogenetic signal in the contributions of individual isolates to respiration rates. Our results suggest that the degree to which PD predicts ecosystem function will depend on environmental context. PMID:25741330

  3. Two decades of warming increases diversity of a potentially lignolytic bacterial community.

    PubMed

    Pold, Grace; Melillo, Jerry M; DeAngelis, Kristen M

    2015-01-01

    As Earth's climate warms, the massive stores of carbon found in soil are predicted to become depleted, and leave behind a smaller carbon pool that is less accessible to microbes. At a long-term forest soil-warming experiment in central Massachusetts, soil respiration and bacterial diversity have increased, while fungal biomass and microbially-accessible soil carbon have decreased. Here, we evaluate how warming has affected the microbial community's capability to degrade chemically-complex soil carbon using lignin-amended BioSep beads. We profiled the bacterial and fungal communities using PCR-based methods and completed extracellular enzyme assays as a proxy for potential community function. We found that lignin-amended beads selected for a distinct community containing bacterial taxa closely related to known lignin degraders, as well as members of many genera not previously noted as capable of degrading lignin. Warming tended to drive bacterial community structure more strongly in the lignin beads, while the effect on the fungal community was limited to unamended beads. Of those bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) enriched by the warming treatment, many were enriched uniquely on lignin-amended beads. These taxa may be contributing to enhanced soil respiration under warming despite reduced readily available C availability. In aggregate, these results suggest that there is genetic potential for chemically complex soil carbon degradation that may lead to extended elevated soil respiration with long-term warming. PMID:26042112

  4. New Century Scholars: A Mentorship Program to Increase Workforce Diversity in Academic Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Pachter, Lee M; Kodjo, Cheryl

    2015-07-01

    This article describes a program aimed to increase workforce diversity and underrepresented minority (URM) representation in academic pediatric medicine. The New Century Scholars (NCScholars) program is a core program in the Academic Pediatric Association, the largest national organization for academic pediatric generalists. The program selects URM pediatric (or medicine-pediatrics) residents who are interested in academic careers and provides each NCScholar with a junior and senior mentor, as well as travel grants to the Pediatric Academic Societies annual meeting where activities specific to the program are held, and provides ongoing mentorship and career counseling support.The authors discuss the origination, operation, and changes to the program over the first 10 years of its existence, as well as outcome data for the participants in the program. To date, 60 of the 63 NCScholars have finished residency and/or have made postresidency plans, and 38 of these URM pediatricians (63%) have entered academic careers. The authors suggest that this type of mentorship program for URM pediatric trainees can be used as a model for other specialties and medical organizations. PMID:25692562

  5. Two decades of warming increases diversity of a potentially lignolytic bacterial community

    PubMed Central

    Pold, Grace; Melillo, Jerry M.; DeAngelis, Kristen M.

    2015-01-01

    As Earth's climate warms, the massive stores of carbon found in soil are predicted to become depleted, and leave behind a smaller carbon pool that is less accessible to microbes. At a long-term forest soil-warming experiment in central Massachusetts, soil respiration and bacterial diversity have increased, while fungal biomass and microbially-accessible soil carbon have decreased. Here, we evaluate how warming has affected the microbial community's capability to degrade chemically-complex soil carbon using lignin-amended BioSep beads. We profiled the bacterial and fungal communities using PCR-based methods and completed extracellular enzyme assays as a proxy for potential community function. We found that lignin-amended beads selected for a distinct community containing bacterial taxa closely related to known lignin degraders, as well as members of many genera not previously noted as capable of degrading lignin. Warming tended to drive bacterial community structure more strongly in the lignin beads, while the effect on the fungal community was limited to unamended beads. Of those bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) enriched by the warming treatment, many were enriched uniquely on lignin-amended beads. These taxa may be contributing to enhanced soil respiration under warming despite reduced readily available C availability. In aggregate, these results suggest that there is genetic potential for chemically complex soil carbon degradation that may lead to extended elevated soil respiration with long-term warming. PMID:26042112

  6. Nitrogen addition, not initial phylogenetic diversity, increases litter decomposition by fungal communities

    PubMed Central

    Amend, Anthony S.; Matulich, Kristin L.; Martiny, Jennifer B. H.

    2015-01-01

    Fungi play a critical role in the degradation of organic matter. Because different combinations of fungi result in different rates of decomposition, determining how climate change will affect microbial composition and function is fundamental to predicting future environments. Fungal response to global change is patterned by genetic relatedness, resulting in communities with comparatively low phylogenetic diversity (PD). This may have important implications for the functional capacity of disturbed communities if lineages sensitive to disturbance also contain unique traits important for litter decomposition. Here we tested the relationship between PD and decomposition rates. Leaf litter fungi were isolated from the field and deployed in microcosms as mock communities along a gradient of initial PD, while species richness was held constant. Replicate communities were subject to nitrogen fertilization comparable to anthropogenic deposition levels. Carbon mineralization rates were measured over the course of 66 days. We found that nitrogen fertilization increased cumulative respiration by 24.8%, and that differences in respiration between fertilized and ambient communities diminished over the course of the experiment. Initial PD failed to predict respiration rates or their change in response to nitrogen fertilization, and there was no correlation between community similarity and respiration rates. Last, we detected no phylogenetic signal in the contributions of individual isolates to respiration rates. Our results suggest that the degree to which PD predicts ecosystem function will depend on environmental context. PMID:25741330

  7. Exposure to West Nile Virus Increases Bacterial Diversity and Immune Gene Expression in Culex pipiens

    PubMed Central

    Zink, Steven D.; Van Slyke, Greta A.; Palumbo, Michael J.; Kramer, Laura D.; Ciota, Alexander T.

    2015-01-01

    Complex interactions between microbial residents of mosquitoes and arboviruses are likely to influence many aspects of vectorial capacity and could potentially have profound effects on patterns of arbovirus transmission. Such interactions have not been well studied for West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) and Culex spp. mosquitoes. We utilized next-generation sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA bacterial genes derived from Culex pipiens Linnaeus following WNV exposure and/or infection and compared bacterial populations and broad immune responses to unexposed mosquitoes. Our results demonstrate that WNV infection increases the diversity of bacterial populations and is associated with up-regulation of classical invertebrate immune pathways including RNA interference (RNAi), Toll, and Jak-STAT (Janus kinase-Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription). In addition, WNV exposure alone, without the establishment of infection, results in similar alterations to microbial and immune signatures, although to a lesser extent. Multiple bacterial genera were found in greater abundance in WNV-exposed and/or infected mosquitoes, yet the most consistent and notable was the genus Serratia. PMID:26516902

  8. Increasing diversity of Americans' faiths alongside Baby Boomers' aging: implications for chaplain intervention in health settings.

    PubMed

    Ai, Amy L; McCormick, Thomas R

    2009-01-01

    Chaplains serving in the health care context provide a ministry to dying patients of inestimable worth as they comfort patients in the last chapter of the journey by being present, listening, and caring. Chaplains also play another important role, helping patients clarify ways in which their beliefs and values might influence health care decisions. This paper reviewed the current trends of spiritual diversity alongside the aging of a large Baby Boomer cohort. Chaplains may be challenged as they participate in the decision-making process, or as they support familes who make decisions about the care of loved ones nearing the end of life. Many of those who seek health care and comfort as the end of life approaches will bring a startling diversity of nonbelief, beliefs, and diverse religious and spiritual practices. This pattern of diversity will profoundly affect patients' decision-making around end-of-life issues. Case studies are used to illustrate possibilities for the chaplain's role at the bedside in the face of such diversity. The dimensional information of a new scale is presented for chaplains to assess diverse afterlife beliefs. As chaplains renew their studies of the worlds living religions, they will be better equipped to serve the needs of this large and spiritually diverse population. PMID:20183111

  9. Non-Additive Effects of Genotypic Diversity Increase Floral Abundance and Abundance of Floral Visitors

    PubMed Central

    Genung, Mark A.; Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Brown, Claire B.; Bunn, Windy A.; Cregger, Melissa A.; Reynolds, Wm. Nicholas; Felker-Quinn, Emmi; Stevenson, Mary L.; Hartley, Amanda S.; Crutsinger, Gregory M.; Schweitzer, Jennifer A.; Bailey, Joseph K.

    2010-01-01

    Background In the emerging field of community and ecosystem genetics, genetic variation and diversity in dominant plant species have been shown to play fundamental roles in maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem function. However, the importance of intraspecific genetic variation and diversity to floral abundance and pollinator visitation has received little attention. Methodology/Principal Findings Using an experimental common garden that manipulated genotypic diversity (the number of distinct genotypes per plot) of Solidago altissima, we document that genotypic diversity of a dominant plant can indirectly influence flower visitor abundance. Across two years, we found that 1) plant genotype explained 45% and 92% of the variation in flower visitor abundance in 2007 and 2008, respectively; and 2) plant genotypic diversity had a positive and non-additive effect on floral abundance and the abundance of flower visitors, as plots established with multiple genotypes produced 25% more flowers and received 45% more flower visits than would be expected under an additive model. Conclusions/Significance These results provide evidence that declines in genotypic diversity may be an important but little considered factor for understanding plant-pollinator dynamics, with implications for the global decline in pollinators due to reduced plant diversity in both agricultural and natural ecosystems. PMID:20090850

  10. CAMPARE and Cal-Bridge: Two Institutional Networks Increasing Diversity in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolph, Alexander L.; Impey, Chris David; Smecker-Hane, Tammy A.

    2016-01-01

    We describe two programs, CAMPARE and Cal-Bridge, with the common mission of increasing participation of groups traditionally underrepresented in astronomy, through summer research opportunities, in the case of CAMPARE, scholarships in the case of Cal-Bridge, and significant mentoring in both programs, leading to an increase in their numbers successfully pursuing a PhD in the field.In 6 years, the CAMPARE program has sent 62 students, >85% from underrepresented groups, to conduct summer research at one of twelve major research institutions in California, Arizona, and Wyoming. The graduation rate among CAMPARE scholars is 97%, and of the 37 CAMPARE scholars who have graduated with a Bachelor's degree, almost 60% (21) have completed or are pursuing graduate education in astronomy or a related field, at institutions including UCLA, USC, UC Riverside, Stanford, Univ. of Rochester, Georgia Tech, Kent State, Indiana Univ., Univ. of Oregon, Syracuse, and the Fisk-Vanderbilt Master's-to-PhD program. The Cal-Bridge program is a CSU-UC Bridge program comprised of faculty form 5 University of California (UC), 8 California State University (CSU), and 8 California Community College (CCC) campuses in Southern California. Cal-Bridge provides much deeper mentoring and professional development experiences over the last two years of undergraduate and first year of graduate school to students from this diverse network of higher education institutions. Cal-Bridge Scholars benefit from financial support, intensive, joint mentoring by CSU and UC faculty, professional development workshops, and exposure to research opportunities at the participating UC campuses.

  11. Using avian radar to examine relationships among avian activity, bird strikes, and meteorological factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.; Halstead, Brian J.; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Laughlin, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Radar systems designed to detect avian activity at airfields are useful in understanding factors that influence the risk of bird and aircraft collisions (bird strikes). We used an avian radar system to measure avian activity at Beale Air Force Base, California, USA, during 2008 and 2009. We conducted a 2-part analysis to examine relationships among avian activity, bird strikes, and meteorological and time-dependent factors. We found that avian activity around the airfield was greater at times when bird strikes occurred than on average using a permutation resampling technique. Second, we developed generalized linear mixed models of an avian activity index (AAI). Variation in AAI was first explained by seasons that were based on average migration dates of birds at the study area. We then modeled AAI by those seasons to further explain variation by meteorological factors and daily light levels within a 24-hour period. In general, avian activity increased with decreased temperature, wind, visibility, precipitation, and increased humidity and cloud cover. These effects differed by season. For example, during the spring bird migration period, most avian activity occurred before sunrise at twilight hours on clear days with low winds, whereas during fall migration, substantial activity occurred after sunrise, and birds generally were more active at lower temperatures. We report parameter estimates (i.e., constants and coefficients) averaged across models and a relatively simple calculation for safety officers and wildlife managers to predict AAI and the relative risk of bird strike based on time, date, and meteorological values. We validated model predictability and assessed model fit. These analyses will be useful for general inference of avian activity and risk assessment efforts. Further investigation and ongoing data collection will refine these inference models and improve our understanding of factors that influence avian activity, which is necessary to inform

  12. Decline in exotic tree density facilitates increased plant diversity: the experience from Melaleuca quinquenervia invaded wetlands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Australian tree Melaleuca quinquenervia (melaleuca) formed dense monocultural forests several decades after invading Florida and the Caribbean islands. These dominant forests have displaced native vegetation in sensitive wetland systems. We hypothesized that native plant diversity would increa...

  13. Evolution of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Macken, Catherine A; Green, Margaret A

    2009-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian H5N1 viruses have circulated in Southeast Asia for more than a decade, are now endemic in parts of this region, and have also spread to more than 60 countries on three continents. The evolution of these viruses is characterized by frequent reassortment events that have created a significant number of different genotypes, both transient and longer lasting. However, fundamental questions remain about the generation and perpetuation of this substantial genetic diversity. These gaps in understanding may, in part, be due to the difficulties of genotyping closely related viruses, and limitations in the size of the data sets used in analysis. Using our recently published novel genotyping procedure ('two-time test'), which is amenable to high throughput analysis and provides an increased level of resolution relative to previous analyses, we propose a detailed model for the evolution and diversification of avian H5N1 viruses. Our analysis suggests that (i) all current H5N1 genotypes are derived from a single, clearly defined sequence of initial reassortment events; (ii) reassortment of the polymerase and NP genes may have played an important role in avian H5N1 virus evolution; (iii) the current genotype Z viruses have diverged into three distinguishable sub-genotypes in the absence of reassortment; (iv) some potentially significant molecular changes appear to be correlated with particular genotypes (for example, reassortment of the internal genes is often paralleled by a change in the HA clade); and (v) as noted in earlier studies of avian influenza A virus evolution, novel segments are typically derived from different donors (i.e., there is no obvious pattern of gene linkage in reassortment). The model of avian H5N1 viral evolution by reassortment and mutation that emerges from our study provides a context within which significant amino acid changes may be revealed; it also may help in predicting the 'success' of newly emerging avian H5N1 viruses.

  14. Rapid Increases in forest understory diversity and productivity following a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak in pine forests.

    PubMed

    Pec, Gregory J; Karst, Justine; Sywenky, Alexandra N; Cigan, Paul W; Erbilgin, Nadir; Simard, Suzanne W; Cahill, James F

    2015-01-01

    The current unprecedented outbreak of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests of western Canada has resulted in a landscape consisting of a mosaic of forest stands at different stages of mortality. Within forest stands, understory communities are the reservoir of the majority of plant species diversity and influence the composition of future forests in response to disturbance. Although changes to stand composition following beetle outbreaks are well documented, information on immediate responses of forest understory plant communities is limited. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of D. ponderosae-induced tree mortality on initial changes in diversity and productivity of understory plant communities. We established a total of 110 1-m2 plots across eleven mature lodgepole pine forests to measure changes in understory diversity and productivity as a function of tree mortality and below ground resource availability across multiple years. Overall, understory community diversity and productivity increased across the gradient of increased tree mortality. Richness of herbaceous perennials increased with tree mortality as well as soil moisture and nutrient levels. In contrast, the diversity of woody perennials did not change across the gradient of tree mortality. Understory vegetation, namely herbaceous perennials, showed an immediate response to improved growing conditions caused by increases in tree mortality. How this increased pulse in understory richness and productivity affects future forest trajectories in a novel system is unknown. PMID:25859663

  15. Rapid Increases in Forest Understory Diversity and Productivity following a Mountain Pine Beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) Outbreak in Pine Forests

    PubMed Central

    Pec, Gregory J.; Karst, Justine; Sywenky, Alexandra N.; Cigan, Paul W.; Erbilgin, Nadir; Simard, Suzanne W.; Cahill, James F.

    2015-01-01

    The current unprecedented outbreak of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests of western Canada has resulted in a landscape consisting of a mosaic of forest stands at different stages of mortality. Within forest stands, understory communities are the reservoir of the majority of plant species diversity and influence the composition of future forests in response to disturbance. Although changes to stand composition following beetle outbreaks are well documented, information on immediate responses of forest understory plant communities is limited. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of D. ponderosae-induced tree mortality on initial changes in diversity and productivity of understory plant communities. We established a total of 110 1-m2 plots across eleven mature lodgepole pine forests to measure changes in understory diversity and productivity as a function of tree mortality and below ground resource availability across multiple years. Overall, understory community diversity and productivity increased across the gradient of increased tree mortality. Richness of herbaceous perennials increased with tree mortality as well as soil moisture and nutrient levels. In contrast, the diversity of woody perennials did not change across the gradient of tree mortality. Understory vegetation, namely herbaceous perennials, showed an immediate response to improved growing conditions caused by increases in tree mortality. How this increased pulse in understory richness and productivity affects future forest trajectories in a novel system is unknown. PMID:25859663

  16. CAMPARE and Cal-Bridge: Two Institutional Networks Increasing Diversity in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolph, Alexander L.; Impey, Chris David; Phillips, Cynthia B.; Povich, Matthew S.; Prather, Edward E.; Smecker-Hane, Tammy A.

    2015-01-01

    We describe two programs, CAMPARE and Cal-Bridge, with the common mission of increasing participation of groups traditionally underrepresented in astronomy, particularly underrepresented minorities and women, through summer research opportunities, in the case of CAMPARE, scholarships in the case of Cal-Bridge, and significant mentoring in both programs, leading to an increase in their numbers successfully pursuing a PhD in the field.CAMPARE is an innovative REU-like summer research program, currently in its sixth year, comprising a network of comprehensive universities and community colleges in Southern California and Arizona (most of which are minority serving institutions), and ten major research institutions (University of Arizona Steward Observatory, the SETI Institute, JPL, Caltech, and the five Southern California UC campuses, UCLA, UCI, UCSD, UCR, and UCSB).In its first five summers, CAMPARE sent a total of 49 students from 10 different CSU and community college campuses to 5 research sites of the program. Of these 49 participants, 25 are women and 24 are men; 22 are Hispanic, 4 are African American, and 1 is Native American, including 6 female Hispanic and 2 female African-American participants. Twenty-one (21) CAMPARE participants have graduated from college, and more than half (11) have attended or are attending a graduate program, including 8 enrolled in PhD or Master's-to-PhD programs. Over twenty CAMPARE students have presented at the AAS and other national meetings.The Cal-Bridge program is a diverse network of higher education institutions in Southern California, including 5 UC campuses, 8 CSU campuses, and 7 community colleges dedicated to the goal of increasing the number of underrepresented minority and female students attending graduate school in astronomy or related fields. We have recently selected our inaugural group of five 2014 Cal-Bridge Scholars, including four women (two Hispanic and one part Native American), and one Hispanic man

  17. CAMPARE and Cal-Bridge: Two Institutional Networks Increasing Diversity in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolph, Alexander L.; Impey, Chris David; Phillips, Cynthia B.; Povich, Matthew S.; Prather, Edward E.; Smecker-Hane, Tammy A.

    2015-01-01

    We describe two programs, CAMPARE and Cal-Bridge, with the common mission of increasing participation of groups traditionally underrepresented in astronomy, particularly underrepresented minorities and women, through summer research opportunities, in the case of CAMPARE, scholarships in the case of Cal-Bridge, and significant mentoring in both programs, leading to an increase in their numbers successfully pursuing a PhD in the field.CAMPARE is an innovative REU-like summer research program, currently in its sixth year, comprising a network of comprehensive universities and community colleges in Southern California and Arizona (most of which are minority serving institutions), and ten major research institutions (University of Arizona Steward Observatory, the SETI Institute, JPL, Caltech, and the five Southern California UC campuses, UCLA, UCI, UCSD, UCR, and UCSB).In its first five summers, CAMPARE sent a total of 49 students from 10 different CSU and community college campuses to 5 research sites of the program. Of these 49 participants, 25 are women and 24 are men; 22 are Hispanic, 4 are African American, and 1 is Native American, including 6 female Hispanic and 2 female African-American participants. Twenty-one (21) CAMPARE participants have graduated from college, and more than half (11) have attended or are attending a graduate program, including 8 enrolled in PhD or Master's-to-PhD programs. Over twenty CAMPARE students have presented at the AAS and other national meetings.The Cal-Bridge program is a diverse network of higher education institutions in Southern California, including 5 UC campuses, 8 CSU campuses, and 7 community colleges dedicated to the goal of increasing the number of underrepresented minority and female students attending graduate school in astronomy or related fields. We have recently selected our inaugural group of five 2014 Cal-Bridge Scholars, including four women (two Hispanic and one part Native American), and one Hispanic man

  18. Ecology and conservation biology of avian malaria.

    PubMed

    Lapointe, Dennis A; Atkinson, Carter T; Samuel, Michael D

    2012-02-01

    Avian malaria is a worldwide mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium parasites. These parasites occur in many avian species but primarily affect passerine birds that have not evolved with the parasite. Host pathogenicity, fitness, and population impacts are poorly understood. In contrast to continental species, introduced avian malaria poses a substantial threat to naive birds on Hawaii, the Galapagos, and other archipelagoes. In Hawaii, transmission is maintained by susceptible native birds, competence and abundance of mosquitoes, and a disease reservoir of chronically infected native birds. Although vector habitat and avian communities determine the geographic distribution of disease, climate drives transmission patterns ranging from continuous high infection in warm lowland forests, seasonal infection in midelevation forests, and disease-free refugia in cool high-elevation forests. Global warming is expected to increase the occurrence, distribution, and intensity of avian malaria across this elevational gradient and threaten high-elevation refugia, which is the key to survival of many susceptible Hawaiian birds. Increased temperatures may have already increased global avian malaria prevalence and contributed to an emergence of disease in New Zealand. PMID:22320256

  19. Ecology and conservation biology of avian malaria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaPointe, Dennis A.; Atkinson, Carter T.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Avian malaria is a worldwide mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium parasites. These parasites occur in many avian species but primarily affect passerine birds that have not evolved with the parasite. Host pathogenicity, fitness, and population impacts are poorly understood. In contrast to continental species, introduced avian malaria poses a substantial threat to naive birds on Hawaii, the Galapagos, and other archipelagoes. In Hawaii, transmission is maintained by susceptible native birds, competence and abundance of mosquitoes, and a disease reservoir of chronically infected native birds. Although vector habitat and avian communities determine the geographic distribution of disease, climate drives transmission patterns ranging from continuous high infection in warm lowland forests, seasonal infection in midelevation forests, and disease-free refugia in cool high-elevation forests. Global warming is expected to increase the occurrence, distribution, and intensity of avian malaria across this elevational gradient and threaten high-elevation refugia, which is the key to survival of many susceptible Hawaiian birds. Increased temperatures may have already increased global avian malaria prevalence and contributed to an emergence of disease in New Zealand.

  20. Avian study protocols and wind energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, K.

    1995-12-01

    This paper identifies the need to develop and use standardized avian study protocols to determine avian impacts at new and existing wind energy facilities. This will allow data collected from various sites to be correlated for better understanding wind energy related avian impacts. Factors contributing to an increased interest in wind energy facilities by electric utilities include: (1) Increased demand for electricity;(2) increased constraints on traditional electrical generating facilities (i.e. hydroelectric and nuclear power plants);(3) improved wind turbine technology. During the 1980`s generous tax credits spawned the development of wind energy facilities, known as wind farms, in California. Commercial scale wind farm proposals are being actively considered in states across the country - Washington, Oregon, Wyoming, Wisconsin, Texas, and Vermont to name a few. From the wind farms in California the unexpected issue of avian impacts, especially to birds-of-prey, or raptor, surfaced and continues to plague the wind industry. However, most of the avian studies did not followed a standardized protocol or methodology and, therefore, data is unavailable to analyze and compare impacts at different sites or with differing technologies and configurations. Effective mitigation can not be designed and applied until these differences are understood. The Bonneville Power Administration is using comparable avian study protocols to collect data for two environmental impact statements being prepared for two separate wind farm proposals. Similar protocol will be required for any other avian impact analysis performed by the agency on proposed or existing wind farms. The knowledge gained from these studies should contribute to a better understanding of avian interactions with wind energy facilities and the identification of effective mitigation measures.

  1. Germline Modification and Engineering in Avian Species.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hong Jo; Lee, Hyung Chul; Han, Jae Yong

    2015-09-01

    Production of genome-edited animals using germline-competent cells and genetic modification tools has provided opportunities for investigation of biological mechanisms in various organisms. The recently reported programmed genome editing technology that can induce gene modification at a target locus in an efficient and precise manner facilitates establishment of animal models. In this regard, the demand for genome-edited avian species, which are some of the most suitable model animals due to their unique embryonic development, has also increased. Furthermore, germline chimera production through long-term culture of chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) has facilitated research on production of genome-edited chickens. Thus, use of avian germline modification is promising for development of novel avian models for research of disease control and various biological mechanisms. Here, we discuss recent progress in genome modification technology in avian species and its applications and future strategies. PMID:26333275

  2. Germline Modification and Engineering in Avian Species

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hong Jo; Lee, Hyung Chul; Han, Jae Yong

    2015-01-01

    Production of genome-edited animals using germline-competent cells and genetic modification tools has provided opportunities for investigation of biological mechanisms in various organisms. The recently reported programmed genome editing technology that can induce gene modification at a target locus in an efficient and precise manner facilitates establishment of animal models. In this regard, the demand for genome-edited avian species, which are some of the most suitable model animals due to their unique embryonic development, has also increased. Furthermore, germline chimera production through long-term culture of chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) has facilitated research on production of genome-edited chickens. Thus, use of avian germline modification is promising for development of novel avian models for research of disease control and various biological mechanisms. Here, we discuss recent progress in genome modification technology in avian species and its applications and future strategies. PMID:26333275

  3. Rethinking avian response to Tamarix on the lower Colorado River: A threshold hypothesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Riper, Charles, III; Paxton, K.L.; O'brien, C.; Shafroth, P.B.; McGrath, L.J.

    2008-01-01

    Many of the world's large river systems have been greatly altered in the past century due to river regulation, agriculture, and invasion of introduced Tamarix spp. (saltcedar, tamarisk). These riverine ecosystems are known to provide important habitat for avian communities, but information on responses of birds to differing levels of Tamarix is not known. Past research on birds along the Colorado River has shown that avian abundance in general is greater in native than in non-native habitat. In this article, we address habitat restoration on the lower Colorado River by comparing abundance and diversity of avian communities at a matrix of different amounts of native and non-native habitats at National Wildlife Refuges in Arizona. Two major patterns emerged from this study: (1) Not all bird species responded to Tamarix in a similar fashion, and for many bird species, abundance was highest at intermediate Tamarix levels (40-60%), suggesting a response threshold. (2) In Tamarix-dominated habitats, the greatest increase in bird abundance occurred when small amounts of native vegetation were present as a component of that habitat. In fact, Tamarix was the best vegetation predictor of avian abundance when compared to vegetation density and canopy cover. Our results suggest that to positively benefit avian abundance and diversity, one cost-effective way to rehabilitate larger monoculture Tamarix stands would be to add relatively low levels of native vegetation (???20-40%) within homogenous Tamarix habitat. In addition, this could be much more cost effective and feasible than attempting to replace all Tamarix with native vegetation. ?? 2008 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

  4. From the NIH: A Systems Approach to Increasing the Diversity of the Biomedical Research Workforce.

    PubMed

    Valantine, Hannah A; Lund, P Kay; Gammie, Alison E

    2016-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is committed to attracting, developing, and supporting the best scientists from all groups as an integral part of excellence in training. Biomedical research workforce diversity, capitalizing on the full spectrum of skills, talents, and viewpoints, is essential for solving complex human health challenges. Over the past few decades, the biomedical research workforce has benefited from NIH programs aimed at enhancing diversity. However, there is considerable room for improvement, particularly at the level of independent scientists and within scientific leadership. We provide a rationale and specific opportunities to develop and sustain a diverse biomedical research workforce through interventions that promote the successful transitions to different stages on the path toward completion of training and entry into the biomedical workforce. PMID:27587850

  5. From the NIH: A Systems Approach to Increasing the Diversity of the Biomedical Research Workforce

    PubMed Central

    Valantine, Hannah A.; Lund, P. Kay; Gammie, Alison E.

    2016-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is committed to attracting, developing, and supporting the best scientists from all groups as an integral part of excellence in training. Biomedical research workforce diversity, capitalizing on the full spectrum of skills, talents, and viewpoints, is essential for solving complex human health challenges. Over the past few decades, the biomedical research workforce has benefited from NIH programs aimed at enhancing diversity. However, there is considerable room for improvement, particularly at the level of independent scientists and within scientific leadership. We provide a rationale and specific opportunities to develop and sustain a diverse biomedical research workforce through interventions that promote the successful transitions to different stages on the path toward completion of training and entry into the biomedical workforce. PMID:27587850

  6. Effects of Local Tree Diversity on Herbivore Communities Diminish with Increasing Forest Fragmentation on the Landscape Scale

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Franziska; Berens, Dana G.; Farwig, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Forest fragmentation and plant diversity have been shown to play a crucial role for herbivorous insects (herbivores, hereafter). In turn, herbivory-induced leaf area loss is known to have direct implications for plant growth and reproduction as well as long-term consequences for ecosystem functioning and forest regeneration. So far, previous studies determined diverging responses of herbivores to forest fragmentation and plant diversity. Those inconsistent results may be owed to complex interactive effects of both co-occurring environmental factors albeit they act on different spatial scales. In this study, we investigated whether forest fragmentation on the landscape scale and tree diversity on the local habitat scale show interactive effects on the herbivore community and leaf area loss in subtropical forests in South Africa. We applied standardized beating samples and a community-based approach to estimate changes in herbivore community composition, herbivore abundance, and the effective number of herbivore species on the tree species-level. We further monitored leaf area loss to link changes in the herbivore community to the associated process of herbivory. Forest fragmentation and tree diversity interactively affected the herbivore community composition, mainly by a species turnover within the family of Curculionidae. Furthermore, herbivore abundance increased and the number of herbivore species decreased with increasing tree diversity in slightly fragmented forests whereas the effects diminished with increasing forest fragmentation. Surprisingly, leaf area loss was neither affected by forest fragmentation or tree diversity, nor by changes in the herbivore community. Our study highlights the need to consider interactive effects of environmental changes across spatial scales in order to draw reliable conclusions for community and interaction patterns. Moreover, forest fragmentation seems to alter the effect of tree diversity on the herbivore community, and thus

  7. Effects of local tree diversity on herbivore communities diminish with increasing forest fragmentation on the landscape scale.

    PubMed

    Peter, Franziska; Berens, Dana G; Farwig, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Forest fragmentation and plant diversity have been shown to play a crucial role for herbivorous insects (herbivores, hereafter). In turn, herbivory-induced leaf area loss is known to have direct implications for plant growth and reproduction as well as long-term consequences for ecosystem functioning and forest regeneration. So far, previous studies determined diverging responses of herbivores to forest fragmentation and plant diversity. Those inconsistent results may be owed to complex interactive effects of both co-occurring environmental factors albeit they act on different spatial scales. In this study, we investigated whether forest fragmentation on the landscape scale and tree diversity on the local habitat scale show interactive effects on the herbivore community and leaf area loss in subtropical forests in South Africa. We applied standardized beating samples and a community-based approach to estimate changes in herbivore community composition, herbivore abundance, and the effective number of herbivore species on the tree species-level. We further monitored leaf area loss to link changes in the herbivore community to the associated process of herbivory. Forest fragmentation and tree diversity interactively affected the herbivore community composition, mainly by a species turnover within the family of Curculionidae. Furthermore, herbivore abundance increased and the number of herbivore species decreased with increasing tree diversity in slightly fragmented forests whereas the effects diminished with increasing forest fragmentation. Surprisingly, leaf area loss was neither affected by forest fragmentation or tree diversity, nor by changes in the herbivore community. Our study highlights the need to consider interactive effects of environmental changes across spatial scales in order to draw reliable conclusions for community and interaction patterns. Moreover, forest fragmentation seems to alter the effect of tree diversity on the herbivore community, and thus

  8. Impact of forest type and management strategy on avian densities in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Wilson, R.R.; Henne-Kerr, J.L.; Hamilton, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    Avian territory densities were determined from 20 Breeding Bird Censuses in mature (>30 years) bottomland hardwood stand: and 18 Breeding Bird Censuses in young (6-9 years old) cottonwood (Populas deltoides) plantations in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. Avian species richness, diversity, and territory density were greater (p 0.05). Even so, detrended correspondence analysis based on avian territory densities readily segregated forest types and silvicultural treatments. Timber harvest within bottomland hardwood stands resulted in a shift in bird communities toward those found in cottonwood stands by increasing the densities of early-successional species such as Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea), Yellow-breasted Chat (Icteria virens), and Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas). Conversely, regenerating cottonwood stands from root sprouts, rather than planting stem cuttings, resulted in a shift in bird communities toward those found in bottomland hardwood stands by increasing densities of species such as White-eyed Vireo (Vireo griseus) and Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina). Tree species diversity, angular canopy cover, and midstory density were positively associated with bird species assemblages in bottomland hardwood stands, whereas vegetation density at ground level was positively associated with bird communities in cottonwood plantations. Conversion of agricultural fields to short-rotation cottonwood plantations results in increased breeding bird populations by adding up to 140 additional territories 40 ha-1. Even so, relative conservation values, derive, from indicator species analysis and Partners in Flight concern scores, suggest that mature bottomland hardwood forests are twice as 'valuable' for bird conservation as are cottonwood plantations.

  9. Increasing faculty diversity: How institutions matter to the PhD aspirations of undergraduate students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deangelo, Linda Teresa

    This study used a Hierarchical Generalized Linear Model (HGLM) to investigate how the experiences a student has in college and the college they attend affects the likelihood that they will aspire to the PhD at the completion of college. This study was particularly interested in ascertaining in what ways postsecondary institutions support or thwart the PhD aspirations of underrepresented racial minority students, and how institutions might improve PhD aspiration outcomes for underrepresented racial minority students, thereby increasing faculty diversity. A three-pronged theoretical lens was used. Status attainment was used to examine how students background characteristics and significant others such as faculty influence PhD aspirations. Relative deprivation and anticipatory socialization were used to explore how institutional characteristics affect PhD aspirations. The longitudinal data came from the Higher Education Research Institute's (HERI) 1994 freshmen and 1998 follow-up survey. Five sample groups -- All Students, underrepresented racial minority students, Caucasian students, initial PhD aspirants, and other initial degree aspirants -- were derived from this dataset. Frequent faculty encouragement for graduate study was the single most important determinant of who aspires to the PhD for all of the student groups, but was particularly important to underrepresented racial minority students and students who begin college as PhD aspirants. Underrepresented racial minority students are more likely to be encouraged frequently at low selectivity institutions, and the encouragement for graduate study they receive at low selectivity institutions is a sort of equalizer that makes up for effects of attending this institutional type. The mean level of initial degree aspirations was the strongest factor at the institutional level for all of the student groups, and the magnitude of the effect was largest for underrepresented racial minority students. Attending a high

  10. Natural enemies thin melaleuca-canopy and help increase plant diversity in the melaleuca stands.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Australian tree Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S.T. Blake (melaleuca) formed dense monocultural forests several decades after invading Florida and the Caribbean islands. These dominant forests have displaced native vegetation in sensitive wetland systems. We assumed that native plant diversity...

  11. Genetic diversity within honeybee colonies increases signal production by waggle-dancing foragers

    PubMed Central

    Mattila, Heather R; Burke, Kelly M; Seeley, Thomas D

    2008-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated considerable benefits of intracolonial genetic diversity for the productivity of honeybee colonies: single-patriline colonies have depressed foraging rates, smaller food stores and slower weight gain relative to multiple-patriline colonies. We explored whether differences in the use of foraging-related communication behaviour (waggle dances and shaking signals) underlie differences in foraging effort of genetically diverse and genetically uniform colonies. We created three pairs of colonies; each pair had one colony headed by a multiply mated queen (inseminated by 15 drones) and one colony headed by a singly mated queen. For each pair, we monitored the production of foraging-related signals over the course of 3 days. Foragers in genetically diverse colonies had substantially more information available to them about food resources than foragers in uniform colonies. On average, in genetically diverse colonies compared with genetically uniform colonies, 36% more waggle dances were identified daily, dancers performed 62% more waggle runs per dance, foragers reported food discoveries that were farther from the nest and 91% more shaking signals were exchanged among workers each morning prior to foraging. Extreme polyandry by honeybee queens enhances the production of worker–worker communication signals that facilitate the swift discovery and exploitation of food resources. PMID:18198143

  12. Genetic diversity within honeybee colonies increases signal production by waggle-dancing foragers.

    PubMed

    Mattila, Heather R; Burke, Kelly M; Seeley, Thomas D

    2008-04-01

    Recent work has demonstrated considerable benefits of intracolonial genetic diversity for the productivity of honeybee colonies: single-patriline colonies have depressed foraging rates, smaller food stores and slower weight gain relative to multiple-patriline colonies. We explored whether differences in the use of foraging-related communication behaviour (waggle dances and shaking signals) underlie differences in foraging effort of genetically diverse and genetically uniform colonies. We created three pairs of colonies; each pair had one colony headed by a multiply mated queen (inseminated by 15 drones) and one colony headed by a singly mated queen. For each pair, we monitored the production of foraging-related signals over the course of 3 days. Foragers in genetically diverse colonies had substantially more information available to them about food resources than foragers in uniform colonies. On average, in genetically diverse colonies compared with genetically uniform colonies, 36% more waggle dances were identified daily, dancers performed 62% more waggle runs per dance, foragers reported food discoveries that were farther from the nest and 91% more shaking signals were exchanged among workers each morning prior to foraging. Extreme polyandry by honeybee queens enhances the production of worker-worker communication signals that facilitate the swift discovery and exploitation of food resources. PMID:18198143

  13. Rapid range expansion increases genetic differentiation while causing limited reduction in genetic diversity in a damselfly

    PubMed Central

    Swaegers, J; Mergeay, J; Therry, L; Larmuseau, M H D; Bonte, D; Stoks, R

    2013-01-01

    Many ectothermic species are currently expanding their geographic range due to global warming. This can modify the population genetic diversity and structure of these species because of genetic drift during the colonization of new areas. Although the genetic signatures of historical range expansions have been investigated in an array of species, the genetic consequences of natural, contemporary range expansions have received little attention, with the only studies available focusing on range expansions along a narrow front. We investigate the genetic consequences of a natural range expansion in the Mediterranean damselfly Coenagrion scitulum, which is currently rapidly expanding along a broad front in different directions. We assessed genetic diversity and genetic structure using 12 microsatellite markers in five centrally located populations and five recently established populations at the edge of the geographic distribution. Our results suggest that, although a marginal significant decrease in the allelic richness was found in the edge populations, genetic diversity has been preserved during the range expansion of this species. Nevertheless, edge populations were genetically more differentiated compared with core populations, suggesting genetic drift during the range expansion. The smaller effective population sizes of the edge populations compared with central populations also suggest a contribution of genetic drift after colonization. We argue and document that range expansion along multiple axes of a broad expansion front generates little reduction in genetic diversity, yet stronger differentiation of the edge populations. PMID:23820582

  14. Rapid range expansion increases genetic differentiation while causing limited reduction in genetic diversity in a damselfly.

    PubMed

    Swaegers, J; Mergeay, J; Therry, L; Larmuseau, M H D; Bonte, D; Stoks, R

    2013-11-01

    Many ectothermic species are currently expanding their geographic range due to global warming. This can modify the population genetic diversity and structure of these species because of genetic drift during the colonization of new areas. Although the genetic signatures of historical range expansions have been investigated in an array of species, the genetic consequences of natural, contemporary range expansions have received little attention, with the only studies available focusing on range expansions along a narrow front. We investigate the genetic consequences of a natural range expansion in the Mediterranean damselfly Coenagrion scitulum, which is currently rapidly expanding along a broad front in different directions. We assessed genetic diversity and genetic structure using 12 microsatellite markers in five centrally located populations and five recently established populations at the edge of the geographic distribution. Our results suggest that, although a marginal significant decrease in the allelic richness was found in the edge populations, genetic diversity has been preserved during the range expansion of this species. Nevertheless, edge populations were genetically more differentiated compared with core populations, suggesting genetic drift during the range expansion. The smaller effective population sizes of the edge populations compared with central populations also suggest a contribution of genetic drift after colonization. We argue and document that range expansion along multiple axes of a broad expansion front generates little reduction in genetic diversity, yet stronger differentiation of the edge populations. PMID:23820582

  15. Increasing Word Recognition with Racially Diverse Second-Grade Students Using Fluency-Oriented Reading Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Franklin Dickerson

    2012-01-01

    The author examined the effectiveness of 2 fluency-oriented reading programs on improving reading fluency for an ethnically diverse sample of second-grade students. The first approach is Fluency-Oriented Reading Instruction (S. A. Stahl & K. Heubach, 2005), which incorporates the repeated reading of a grade-level text over the course of an…

  16. Susceptibility of avian species to north american H13 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gulls are widely recognized reservoirs for low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses; however, the subtypes maintained in these populations and/or the transmission mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Although, a wide diversity of influenza viruses have been isolated from gulls, two hemag...

  17. Comparative susceptibility of avian species to low pathogenic avian influenza viruses of the H13 subtype

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gulls are widely recognized reservoirs for low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses; however, the subtypes maintained in these populations and/or the transmission mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Although, a wide diversity of influenza viruses have been isolated from gulls, two hemag...

  18. Exploring Language Attitudes and Ideologies in University Students' Discussion of Irish in a Context of Increasing Language Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, David; Kelly-Holmes, Helen

    2016-01-01

    The apparent gap between positive attitudes and low levels of everyday usage of the language is often cited as one of the greatest challenges facing Irish language revitalisation. In a context of increasing linguistic and cultural diversity in the Republic of Ireland, this article reports on a research project which set out to explore the…

  19. A Conceptual Framework for Inclusive Digital Storytelling to Increase Diversity and Motivation for Cultural Tourism in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kasemsarn, Kittichai; Nickpour, Farnaz

    2016-01-01

    Cultural tourism is considered to be a niche market and little attention has been paid to it, as compared with mass tourism. Moreover, visitors have little motivation to visit actual historical sites and read the story displayed behind the exhibitions. These issues highlight a good opportunity to increase further potential extended tourism and increase the motivation of visitors. To broaden and increase the potential market, this study applies inclusive design principles as 'understanding and designing for diversity' and presents reports on the first study. To increase the motivation of tourists, this study adopts digital storytelling as 'the guideline to increase motivation' and illustrates this in the second study. PMID:27534335

  20. Increasing the number of psychologists of color: public policy issues for affirmative diversity.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Melba J T; Jones, James M

    2006-01-01

    This article identifies the key issues involved in the debate about affirmative action. The June 2003 Supreme Court decisions allowing consideration of race to ensure that there is a "critical mass" of African American, Latino/Latina, and Native American applicants to higher education are addressed. Social psychologists have identified key myths and provided clarifications about the need for and consequences of strategies used to promote equal opportunity for persons of color and women. A brief history of affirmative action and of the problems it was designed to solve is provided. The accomplishments, benefits, and compelling interest of diversity and affirmative action are described, as well as the concerns and counterpoints. The lack of a substantial applicant pool in psychology hinders progress toward diversity. Alternative strategies for remedying this lack beyond affirmative admissions policies in psychology are briefly discussed. PMID:16478357

  1. Landscape corridors can increase invasion by an exotic species and reduce diversity of native species.

    SciTech Connect

    Resasco, Julian; et al,

    2014-04-01

    Abstract. Landscape corridors are commonly used to mitigate negative effects of habitat fragmentation, but concerns persist that they may facilitate the spread of invasive species. In a replicated landscape experiment of open habitat, we measured effects of corridors on the invasive fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, and native ants. Fire ants have two social forms: polygyne, which tend to disperse poorly but establish at high densities, and monogyne, which disperse widely but establish at lower densities. In landscapes dominated by polygyne fire ants, fire ant abundance was higher and native ant diversity was lower in habitat patches connected by corridors than in unconnected patches. Conversely, in landscapes dominated by monogyne fire ants, connectivity had no influence on fire ant abundance and native ant diversity. Polygyne fire ants dominated recently created landscapes, suggesting that these corridor effects may be transient. Our results suggest that corridors can facilitate invasion and they highlight the importance of considering species’ traits when assessing corridor utility.

  2. Early experience with diverse foods increases intake of nonfamiliar flavors and feeds in sheep.

    PubMed

    Catanese, F; Distel, R A; Provenza, F D; Villalba, J J

    2012-08-01

    This study determined whether early experiences by sheep with monotonous or diverse diets influence intake of unfamiliar flavors and feeds later in life. Thirty 2-mo-old lambs were randomly assigned to 3 treatment diets (n = 10): diverse (DIV), diverse with plant toxins (DIV+T), and monotonous (MON). Lambs in DIV received in 9 successive periods of exposure 4-way choice combinations of 2 foods high in energy and 2 foods high in protein from an array of 6 foods: 3 high in energy [beet pulp, oat grain, and a mix of milo:grape pomace (60:40)] and 3 high in digestible protein (DP) (soybean meal, alfalfa, corn gluten meal). Lambs in DIV+T received the same exposure as DIV, but 2 plant toxins, oxalic acid (1.5%) and quebracho tannins (10%), were randomly added to 2 of the feeds in each of the choice combinations. Lambs in MON received a monotonous balanced diet, made with a mixture of all 6 feeds detailed before. All treatments received their feed in 4 separate buckets. During exposure, treatments did not differ in total daily DMI (P = 0.31), but daily intake of ME was less (P < 0.02) and daily intake of DP was greater (P < 0.03) for lambs in DIV and DIV+T than for lambs in MON. Treatments did not differ in ADG or G:F (P > 0.05). After exposure, lambs were offered a familiar feed (wheat bran) containing novel flavors (maple, garlic, or bitter) and 2-way choices of novel feeds (fescue hay vs. corn distillers grains, rice vs. calf manna, and green peas vs. rolled oats). Intake of maple-flavored wheat bran tended (P = 0.08) to be greater for lambs in DIV than for lambs in DIV+T and MON. Intake of bitter-flavored and garlic-flavored wheat bran were greater (P = 0.03 and P = 0.04, respectively) for lambs in DIV and DIV+T than for lambs in MON. During 2-way choice trials, lambs in DIV, but not in DIV+T, showed greater intakes of fescue hay (P = 0.05) and rice (P = 0.04) than lambs in MON. Intake of green peas was greater (P = 0.03) for lambs in DIV and DIV+T than for lambs in

  3. Increased knowledge of Francisella genus diversity highlights the benefits of optimised DNA-based assays

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent advances in sequencing technologies offer promising tools for generating large numbers of genomes, larger typing databases and improved mapping of environmental bacterial diversity. However, DNA-based methods for the detection of Francisella were developed with limited knowledge about genetic diversity. This, together with the high sequence identity between several Francisella species, means there is a high risk of false identification and detection of the highly virulent pathogen Francisella tularensis. Moreover, phylogenetic reconstructions using single or limited numbers of marker sequences often result in incorrect tree topologies and inferred evolutionary distances. The recent growth in publicly accessible whole-genome sequences now allows evaluation of published genetic markers to determine optimal combinations of markers that minimise both time and laboratory costs. Results In the present study, we evaluated 38 previously published DNA markers and the corresponding PCR primers against 42 genomes representing the currently known diversity of the genus Francisella. The results highlight that PCR assays for Francisella tularensis are often complicated by low specificity, resulting in a high probability of false positives. A method to select a set of one to seven markers for obtaining optimal phylogenetic resolution or diagnostic accuracy is presented. Conclusions Current multiple-locus sequence-typing systems and detection assays of Francisella, could be improved by redesigning some of the primers and reselecting typing markers. The use of only a few optimally selected sequence-typing markers allows construction of phylogenetic topologies with almost the same accuracy as topologies based on whole-genome sequences. PMID:23009728

  4. Increasing zooplankton size diversity enhances the strength of top-down control on phytoplankton in the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, L.; Chang, C.; García-Comas, C.; Gong, G.; Hsieh, C.

    2012-12-01

    Body size is one of the fundamental characteristics of organisms linking many ecosystem properties and functions. Recent studies suggest that environmental changes alter the size structure of pelagic food webs; however, ecosystem consequences of such changes remain unclear. Here we tested our main hypothesis that increasing zooplankton size diversity enhances top-down control on phytoplankton in the East China Sea (H1), as well as five conventional hypotheses explaining the top-down control: shallower zooplankton size spectrum enhances the strength of top-down control (H2); nutrient enrichment lessens the strength of top-down control (H3); increasing zooplankton taxonomic diversity enhances the strength of top-down control (H4); increasing fish predation is linked to decreasing the strength of top-down control of zooplankton on phytoplankton (H5); increasing temperature intensifies the strength of top-down control (H6). While the results of our univariate analyses support H1, H2, H3, and H4, more in depth analyses indicate that zooplankton size diversity is the most important factor in determining the strength of top-down control on phytoplankton in East China Sea. Our results suggest a new potential mechanism that increasing predator size diversity enhances the strength of top-down control on prey through diet niche partitioning. This mechanism can be explained by the concept of optimal predator-prey body-mass ratio concept. Suppose each size group of zooplankton predators has its own optimal phytoplankton prey size, increasing size diversity of zooplankton would promote diet niche partitioning of predators and thus elevates the top-down control.Fig. 1 Scatter plots the relationship between zooplankton/phytoplankton biomass ratio versus (A) zooplankton size diversity, (B) slope of zooplankton size spectrum, (C) Zoolankton Shannon diversity, (D) NO3, (E) PO4, (F) SiO3, (G) water temperature, and (H) fish larvae density in the East China Sea. Table 1. Results of the

  5. Native fungal endophytes suppress an exotic dominant and increase plant diversity over small and large spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Afkhami, Michelle E; Strauss, Sharon Y

    2016-05-01

    Understanding community dynamics and processes, such as the factors that generate and maintain biodiversity, drive succession, and affect invasion susceptibility, is a central goal in ecology and evolution. While most studies of how species interactions affect communities have focused on highly visible macroorganisms, we show that mutualistic microfungal endophytes have community-level effects across their host plant's range and provide the first example of fungal endophytes enhancing plant diversity. A three-year field study in which we experimentally manipulated endophyte abundance in a native Californian grass showed that despite their minute biomass, endophytes dramatically increased plant community diversity (~110% greater increase with endophytes) by suppressing a dominant invasive grass, Bromus diandrus. This effect was also detectable, but smaller, across five additional common gardens spanning ecologically diverse habitats, different climates, and > 400 km of the host grass' range as well as at microspatial scales within gardens. Our study illustrates that mutualistic microbes, while often hidden players, can have unexpectedly large ecological impacts across a wide range of habitats and scales and may be important for promoting diverse communities and ecosystems. PMID:27349093

  6. Sequencing of avian influenza virus genomes following random amplification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian Influenza (AI) is a significant disease of birds and a threat to humans. Recently, as a result of the emergence of Asian H5N1 viruses capable of zoonotic spread, wild and domestic bird surveillance for Avian Influenza viruses (AIV) has increased worldwide, requiring the development of fast a...

  7. Colonization with the enteric protozoa Blastocystis is associated with increased diversity of human gut bacterial microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Audebert, Christophe; Even, Gaël; Cian, Amandine; Safadi, Dima El; Certad, Gabriela; Delhaes, Laurence; Pereira, Bruno; Nourrisson, Céline; Poirier, Philippe; Wawrzyniak, Ivan; Delbac, Frédéric; Morelle, Christelle; Bastien, Patrick; Lachaud, Laurence; Bellanger, Anne-Pauline; Botterel, Françoise; Candolfi, Ermanno; Desoubeaux, Guillaume; Morio, Florent; Pomares, Christelle; Rabodonirina, Meja; Loywick, Alexandre; Merlin, Sophie; Viscogliosi, Eric; Chabé, Magali

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in the composition of commensal bacterial populations, a phenomenon known as dysbiosis, are linked to multiple gastrointestinal disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome, or to infections by diverse enteric pathogens. Blastocystis is one of the most common single-celled eukaryotes detected in human faecal samples. However, the clinical significance of this widespread colonization remains unclear, and its pathogenic potential is controversial. To address the issue of Blastocystis pathogenicity, we investigated the impact of colonization by this protist on the composition of the human gut microbiota. For that purpose, we conducted a cross-sectional study including 48 Blastocystis-colonized patients and 48 Blastocystis-free subjects and performed an Ion Torrent 16S rDNA gene sequencing to decipher the Blastocystis-associated gut microbiota. Here, we report a higher bacterial diversity in faecal microbiota of Blastocystis colonized patients, a higher abundance of Clostridia as well as a lower abundance of Enterobacteriaceae. Our results contribute to suggesting that Blastocystis colonization is usually associated with a healthy gut microbiota, rather than with gut dysbiosis generally observed in metabolic or infectious inflammatory diseases of the lower gastrointestinal tract. PMID:27147260

  8. Catastrophic Floods May Pave the Way for Increased Genetic Diversity in Endemic Artesian Spring Snail Populations

    PubMed Central

    Worthington Wilmer, Jessica; Murray, Lynde; Elkin, Ché; Wilcox, Chris; Niejalke, Darren; Possingham, Hugh

    2011-01-01

    The role of disturbance in the promotion of biological heterogeneity is widely recognised and occurs at a variety of ecological and evolutionary scales. However, within species, the impact of disturbances that decimate populations are neither predicted nor known to result in conditions that promote genetic diversity. Directly examining the population genetic consequences of catastrophic disturbances however, is rarely possible, as it requires both longitudinal genetic data sets and serendipitous timing. Our long-term study of the endemic aquatic invertebrates of the artesian spring ecosystem of arid central Australia has presented such an opportunity. Here we show a catastrophic flood event, which caused a near total population crash in an aquatic snail species (Fonscochlea accepta) endemic to this ecosystem, may have led to enhanced levels of within species genetic diversity. Analyses of individuals sampled and genotyped from the same springs sampled both pre (1988–1990) and post (1995, 2002–2006) a devastating flood event in 1992, revealed significantly higher allelic richness, reduced temporal population structuring and greater effective population sizes in nearly all post flood populations. Our results suggest that the response of individual species to disturbance and severe population bottlenecks is likely to be highly idiosyncratic and may depend on both their ecology (whether they are resilient or resistant to disturbance) and the stability of the environmental conditions (i.e. frequency and intensity of disturbances) in which they have evolved. PMID:22205959

  9. Helminth Colonization Is Associated with Increased Diversity of the Gut Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soo Ching; Tang, Mei San; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Choy, Seow Huey; Kurtz, Zachary D.; Cox, Laura M.; Gundra, Uma Mahesh; Cho, Ilseung; Bonneau, Richard; Blaser, Martin J.; Chua, Kek Heng; Loke, P'ng

    2014-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminths colonize more than 1.5 billion people worldwide, yet little is known about how they interact with bacterial communities in the gut microbiota. Differences in the gut microbiota between individuals living in developed and developing countries may be partly due to the presence of helminths, since they predominantly infect individuals from developing countries, such as the indigenous communities in Malaysia we examine in this work. We compared the composition and diversity of bacterial communities from the fecal microbiota of 51 people from two villages in Malaysia, of which 36 (70.6%) were infected by helminths. The 16S rRNA V4 region was sequenced at an average of nineteen thousand sequences per samples. Helminth-colonized individuals had greater species richness and number of observed OTUs with enrichment of Paraprevotellaceae, especially with Trichuris infection. We developed a new approach of combining centered log-ratio (clr) transformation for OTU relative abundances with sparse Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (sPLS-DA) to enable more robust predictions of OTU interrelationships. These results suggest that helminths may have an impact on the diversity, bacterial community structure and function of the gut microbiota. PMID:24851867

  10. A novel enrichment program using cascading mentorship to increase diversity in the health care professions.

    PubMed

    Afghani, Behnoosh; Santos, Rosanne; Angulo, Marco; Muratori, Walter

    2013-09-01

    The authors describe an innovative summer enrichment program based on a cascading mentorship model to transfer knowledge and skills from faculty to medical students to undergraduate students and finally to high school students. The program was designed to give high school students a glimpse of life in medical school and enhance the teaching and leadership skills of underrepresented undergraduate and medical students. Started in 2010 with 30 high school students and 9 college and medical student coaches, the University of California, Irvine, School of Medicine Summer Premed Program expanded rapidly over the next two summers and enrolled a total of 253 high school students, 48 college students, and 12 medical students. The college and medical student coaches, the majority of whom were underrepresented in medicine (URIM), reported that the program enhanced their teaching and leadership skills and self-confidence, motivated them toward careers in academic medicine, and raised their awareness about the importance of cultural diversity. The authors present the details of this interactive, structured program and describe how URIM student empowerment, near-peer teaching, science socialization, and support from the institution's leadership and faculty members provided a climate that fostered belonging, a sense of personal transformation, and professional development among students from different levels of education and diverse backgrounds. Long-term follow-up of the participants' career choices is needed. PMID:23887013

  11. Helminth colonization is associated with increased diversity of the gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Ching; Tang, Mei San; Lim, Yvonne A L; Choy, Seow Huey; Kurtz, Zachary D; Cox, Laura M; Gundra, Uma Mahesh; Cho, Ilseung; Bonneau, Richard; Blaser, Martin J; Chua, Kek Heng; Loke, P'ng

    2014-05-01

    Soil-transmitted helminths colonize more than 1.5 billion people worldwide, yet little is known about how they interact with bacterial communities in the gut microbiota. Differences in the gut microbiota between individuals living in developed and developing countries may be partly due to the presence of helminths, since they predominantly infect individuals from developing countries, such as the indigenous communities in Malaysia we examine in this work. We compared the composition and diversity of bacterial communities from the fecal microbiota of 51 people from two villages in Malaysia, of which 36 (70.6%) were infected by helminths. The 16S rRNA V4 region was sequenced at an average of nineteen thousand sequences per samples. Helminth-colonized individuals had greater species richness and number of observed OTUs with enrichment of Paraprevotellaceae, especially with Trichuris infection. We developed a new approach of combining centered log-ratio (clr) transformation for OTU relative abundances with sparse Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (sPLS-DA) to enable more robust predictions of OTU interrelationships. These results suggest that helminths may have an impact on the diversity, bacterial community structure and function of the gut microbiota. PMID:24851867

  12. Colonization with the enteric protozoa Blastocystis is associated with increased diversity of human gut bacterial microbiota.

    PubMed

    Audebert, Christophe; Even, Gaël; Cian, Amandine; Loywick, Alexandre; Merlin, Sophie; Viscogliosi, Eric; Chabé, Magali

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in the composition of commensal bacterial populations, a phenomenon known as dysbiosis, are linked to multiple gastrointestinal disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome, or to infections by diverse enteric pathogens. Blastocystis is one of the most common single-celled eukaryotes detected in human faecal samples. However, the clinical significance of this widespread colonization remains unclear, and its pathogenic potential is controversial. To address the issue of Blastocystis pathogenicity, we investigated the impact of colonization by this protist on the composition of the human gut microbiota. For that purpose, we conducted a cross-sectional study including 48 Blastocystis-colonized patients and 48 Blastocystis-free subjects and performed an Ion Torrent 16S rDNA gene sequencing to decipher the Blastocystis-associated gut microbiota. Here, we report a higher bacterial diversity in faecal microbiota of Blastocystis colonized patients, a higher abundance of Clostridia as well as a lower abundance of Enterobacteriaceae. Our results contribute to suggesting that Blastocystis colonization is usually associated with a healthy gut microbiota, rather than with gut dysbiosis generally observed in metabolic or infectious inflammatory diseases of the lower gastrointestinal tract. PMID:27147260

  13. Nitrogen deposition and management practices increase soil microbial biomass carbon but decrease diversity in Moso bamboo plantations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Quan; Song, Xinzhang; Gu, Honghao; Gao, Fei

    2016-06-01

    Because microbial communities play a key role in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling, changes in the soil microbial community may directly affect ecosystem functioning. However, the effects of N deposition and management practices on soil microbes are still poorly understood. We studied the effects of these two factors on soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and community composition in Moso bamboo plantations using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Plantations under conventional (CM) or intensive management (IM) were subjected to one of four N treatments for 30 months. IM and N addition, both separately and in combination, significantly increased soil MBC while decreasing bacterial diversity. However, increases in soil MBC were inhibited when N addition exceeded 60 kg N•ha‑1•yr‑1. IM increased the relative abundances of Actinobacteria and Crenarchaeota but decreased that of Acidobacteria. N addition increased the relative abundances of Acidobacteria, Crenarchaeota, and Actinobacteria but decreased that of Proteobacteria. Soil bacterial diversity was significantly related to soil pH, C/N ratio, and nitrogen and available phosphorus content. Management practices exerted a greater influence over regulation of the soil MBC and microbial diversity compared to that of N deposition in Moso bamboo plantations.

  14. Nitrogen deposition and management practices increase soil microbial biomass carbon but decrease diversity in Moso bamboo plantations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Quan; Song, Xinzhang; Gu, Honghao; Gao, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Because microbial communities play a key role in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling, changes in the soil microbial community may directly affect ecosystem functioning. However, the effects of N deposition and management practices on soil microbes are still poorly understood. We studied the effects of these two factors on soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and community composition in Moso bamboo plantations using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Plantations under conventional (CM) or intensive management (IM) were subjected to one of four N treatments for 30 months. IM and N addition, both separately and in combination, significantly increased soil MBC while decreasing bacterial diversity. However, increases in soil MBC were inhibited when N addition exceeded 60 kg N∙ha−1∙yr−1. IM increased the relative abundances of Actinobacteria and Crenarchaeota but decreased that of Acidobacteria. N addition increased the relative abundances of Acidobacteria, Crenarchaeota, and Actinobacteria but decreased that of Proteobacteria. Soil bacterial diversity was significantly related to soil pH, C/N ratio, and nitrogen and available phosphorus content. Management practices exerted a greater influence over regulation of the soil MBC and microbial diversity compared to that of N deposition in Moso bamboo plantations. PMID:27302857

  15. Nitrogen deposition and management practices increase soil microbial biomass carbon but decrease diversity in Moso bamboo plantations.

    PubMed

    Li, Quan; Song, Xinzhang; Gu, Honghao; Gao, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Because microbial communities play a key role in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling, changes in the soil microbial community may directly affect ecosystem functioning. However, the effects of N deposition and management practices on soil microbes are still poorly understood. We studied the effects of these two factors on soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and community composition in Moso bamboo plantations using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Plantations under conventional (CM) or intensive management (IM) were subjected to one of four N treatments for 30 months. IM and N addition, both separately and in combination, significantly increased soil MBC while decreasing bacterial diversity. However, increases in soil MBC were inhibited when N addition exceeded 60 kg N∙ha(-1)∙yr(-1). IM increased the relative abundances of Actinobacteria and Crenarchaeota but decreased that of Acidobacteria. N addition increased the relative abundances of Acidobacteria, Crenarchaeota, and Actinobacteria but decreased that of Proteobacteria. Soil bacterial diversity was significantly related to soil pH, C/N ratio, and nitrogen and available phosphorus content. Management practices exerted a greater influence over regulation of the soil MBC and microbial diversity compared to that of N deposition in Moso bamboo plantations. PMID:27302857

  16. Avian embryos in hypoxic environments.

    PubMed

    León-Velarde, F; Monge-C, C

    2004-08-12

    Avian embryos at high altitude do not benefit of the maternal protection against hypoxia as in mammals. Nevertheless, avian embryos are known to hatch successfully at altitudes between 4,000 and 6,500 m. This review considers some of the processes that bring about the outstanding modifications in the pressure differences between the environment and mitochondria of avian embryos in hypoxic environments. Among species, some maintain normal levels of oxygen consumption ( VO2) have a high oxygen carrying capacity, lower the air cell-arterial pressure difference ( PAO2 - PaO2 ) with a constant pH. Other species decrease VO2, increase only slightly the oxygen carrying capacity, have a higher PAO2 - PaO2 difference than sea-level embryos and lower the PCO2 and pH. High altitude embryos, and those exposed to hypoxia have an accelerated decline of erythrocyte ATP levels during development and an earlier stimulation of 2,3-BPG synthesis. A higher Bohr effect may ensure high tissue PO2 in the presence of the high-affinity hemoglobin. Independently of the strategy used, they serve together to promote suitable rates of development and successful hatching of high altitude birds in hypoxic environments. PMID:15288603

  17. Avian malaria in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Schoener, E R; Banda, M; Howe, L; Castro, I C; Alley, M R

    2014-07-01

    Avian malaria parasites of the genus Plasmodium have the ability to cause morbidity and mortality in naïve hosts, and their impact on the native biodiversity is potentially serious. Over the last decade, avian malaria has aroused increasing interest as an emerging disease in New Zealand with some endemic avian species, such as the endangered mohua (Mohua ochrocephala), thought to be particularly susceptible. To date, avian malaria parasites have been found in 35 different bird species in New Zealand and have been diagnosed as causing death in threatened species such as dotterel (Charadrius obscurus), South Island saddleback (Philesturnus carunculatus carunculatus), mohua, hihi (Notiomystis cincta) and two species of kiwi (Apteryx spp.). Introduced blackbirds (Turdus merula) have been found to be carriers of at least three strains of Plasmodium spp. and because they are very commonly infected, they are likely sources of infection for many of New Zealand's endemic birds. The spread and abundance of introduced and endemic mosquitoes as the result of climate change is also likely to be an important factor in the high prevalence of infection in some regions and at certain times of the year. Although still limited, there is a growing understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of Plasmodium spp. in New Zealand. Molecular biology has played an important part in this process and has markedly improved our understanding of the taxonomy of the genus Plasmodium. This review presents our current state of knowledge, discusses the possible infection and disease outcomes, the implications for host behaviour and reproduction, methods of diagnosis of infection, and the possible vectors for transmission of the disease in New Zealand. PMID:24313228

  18. Increasing Diversity in Global Climate Change, Space Weather and Space Technology Research and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, L. P.; Austin, S. A.; Howard, A. M.; Boxe, C.; Jiang, M.; Tulsee, T.; Chow, Y. W.; Zavala-Gutierrez, R.; Barley, R.; Filin, B.; Brathwaite, K.

    2015-12-01

    This presentation describes projects at Medgar Evers College of the City University of New York that contribute to the preparation of a diverse workforce in the areas of ocean modeling, planetary atmospheres, space weather and space technology. Specific projects incorporating both undergraduate and high school students include Assessing Parameterizations of Energy Input to Internal Ocean Mixing, Reaction Rate Uncertainty on Mars Atmospheric Ozone, Remote Sensing of Solar Active Regions and Intelligent Software for Nano-satellites. These projects are accompanied by a newly developed Computational Earth and Space Science course to provide additional background on methodologies and tools for scientific data analysis. This program is supported by NSF award AGS-1359293 REU Site: CUNY/GISS Center for Global Climate Research and the NASA New York State Space Grant Consortium.

  19. Plant diversity increases spatio-temporal niche complementarity in plant-pollinator interactions.

    PubMed

    Venjakob, Christine; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Ebeling, Anne; Tscharntke, Teja; Scherber, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    Ongoing biodiversity decline impairs ecosystem processes, including pollination. Flower visitation, an important indicator of pollination services, is influenced by plant species richness. However, the spatio-temporal responses of different pollinator groups to plant species richness have not yet been analyzed experimentally. Here, we used an experimental plant species richness gradient to analyze plant-pollinator interactions with an unprecedented spatio-temporal resolution. We observed four pollinator functional groups (honeybees, bumblebees, solitary bees, and hoverflies) in experimental plots at three different vegetation strata between sunrise and sunset. Visits were modified by plant species richness interacting with time and space. Furthermore, the complementarity of pollinator functional groups in space and time was stronger in species-rich mixtures. We conclude that high plant diversity should ensure stable pollination services, mediated via spatio-temporal niche complementarity in flower visitation. PMID:27069585

  20. Avian Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    NWCC Wildlife Work Group

    2004-12-01

    OAK-B135 After conducting four national research meetings, producing a document guiding research: Metrics and Methods for Determining or Monitoring Potential Impacts on Birds at Existing and Proposed Wind Energy Sites, 1999, and another paper, Avian Collisions with Wind Turbines: A Summary of Existing Studies and Comparisons to Other Sources of Avian Collision Mortality in the United States, 2001, the subcommittee recognized a need to summarize in a short fact sheet what is known about avian-wind interaction and what questions remain. This fact sheet attempts to summarize in lay terms the result of extensive discussion about avian-wind interaction on land. This fact sheet does not address research conducted on offshore development. This fact sheet is not intended as a conclusion on the subject; rather, it is a summary as of Fall/Winter 2002.

  1. Avian Influenza in Birds

    MedlinePlus

    ... and even kill certain domesticated bird species including chickens, ducks, and turkeys. Infected birds can shed avian ... virus’ ability to cause disease and mortality in chickens in a laboratory setting [2.5 MB, 64 ...

  2. Management with willow short rotation coppice increase the functional gene diversity and functional activity of a heavy metal polluted soil.

    PubMed

    Xue, K; van Nostrand, J D; Vangronsveld, J; Witters, N; Janssen, J O; Kumpiene, J; Siebielec, G; Galazka, R; Giagnoni, L; Arenella, M; Zhou, J-Z; Renella, G

    2015-11-01

    We studied the microbial functional diversity, biochemical activity, heavy metals (HM) availability and soil toxicity of Cd, Pb and Zn contaminated soils, kept under grassland or short rotation coppice (SRC) to attenuate the risks associated with HM contamination and restore the soil ecological functions. Soil microbial functional diversity was analyzed by the GeoChip, a functional gene microarray containing probes for genes involved in nutrient cycling, metal resistance and stress response. Soil under SRC showed a higher abundance of microbial genes involved in C, N, P and S cycles and resistance to various HM, higher microbial biomass, respiration and enzyme activity rates, and lower HM availability than the grassland soil. The linkages between functional genes of soil microbial communities and soil chemical properties, HM availability and biochemical activity were also investigated. Soil toxicity and N, P and Pb availability were important factors in shaping the microbial functional diversity, as determined by CCA. We concluded that in HM contaminated soils the microbial functional diversity was positively influenced by SRC management through the reduction of HM availability and soil toxicity increase of nutrient cycling. The presented results can be important in predicting the long term environmental sustainability of plant-based soil remediation. PMID:26183942

  3. Swine influenza virus: zoonotic potential and vaccination strategies for the control of avian and swine influenzas.

    PubMed

    Thacker, Eileen; Janke, Bruce

    2008-02-15

    Influenza viruses are able to infect humans, swine, and avian species, and swine have long been considered a potential source of new influenza viruses that can infect humans. Swine have receptors to which both avian and mammalian influenza viruses bind, which increases the potential for viruses to exchange genetic sequences and produce new reassortant viruses in swine. A number of genetically diverse viruses are circulating in swine herds throughout the world and are a major cause of concern to the swine industry. Control of swine influenza is primarily through the vaccination of sows, to protect young pigs through maternally derived antibodies. However, influenza viruses continue to circulate in pigs after the decay of maternal antibodies, providing a continuing source of virus on a herd basis. Measures to control avian influenza in commercial poultry operations are dictated by the virulence of the virus. Detection of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus results in immediate elimination of the flock. Low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses are controlled through vaccination, which is done primarily in turkey flocks. Maintenance of the current HPAI virus-free status of poultry in the United States is through constant surveillance of poultry flocks. Although current influenza vaccines for poultry and swine are inactivated and adjuvanted, ongoing research into the development of newer vaccines, such as DNA, live-virus, or vectored vaccines, is being done. Control of influenza virus infection in poultry and swine is critical to the reduction of potential cross-species adaptation and spread of influenza viruses, which will minimize the risk of animals being the source of the next pandemic. PMID:18269323

  4. Salinity altered root distribution and increased diversity of bacterial communities in the rhizosphere soil of Jerusalem artichoke

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hui; Hu, Jinxiang; Long, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhaopu; Rengel, Zed

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between roots and bacterial communities in halophytic species is poorly understood. Here, we used Jerusalem artichoke cultivar Nanyu 1 (NY-1) to characterise root distribution patterns and determine diversity and abundance of bacteria in the rhizosphere soil under variable salinity. Root growth was not inhibited within the salinity range 1.2 to 1.9 g salt/kg, but roots were mainly confined to 0–20 cm soil layer vertically and 0–30 cm horizontally from the plant centre. Root concentrations of K+, Na+, Mg2+ and particularly Ca2+ were relatively high under salinity stress. High salinity stress decreased soil invertase and catalase activity. Using a next-generation, Illumina-based sequencing approach, we determined higher diversity of bacteria in the rhizosphere soil at high than low salinity. More than 15,500 valid reads were obtained, and Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria predominated in all samples, accounting for >80% of the reads. On a genus level, 636 genera were common to the low and high salinity treatments at 0–5 cm and 5–10 cm depth. The abundance of Steroidobacter and Sphingomonas was significantly decreased by increasing salinity. Higher Shannon and Chao 1 indices with increasing severity of salt stress indicated that high salt stress increased diversity in the bacterial communities. PMID:26852800

  5. Salinity altered root distribution and increased diversity of bacterial communities in the rhizosphere soil of Jerusalem artichoke.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Hu, Jinxiang; Long, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhaopu; Rengel, Zed

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between roots and bacterial communities in halophytic species is poorly understood. Here, we used Jerusalem artichoke cultivar Nanyu 1 (NY-1) to characterise root distribution patterns and determine diversity and abundance of bacteria in the rhizosphere soil under variable salinity. Root growth was not inhibited within the salinity range 1.2 to 1.9 g salt/kg, but roots were mainly confined to 0-20 cm soil layer vertically and 0-30 cm horizontally from the plant centre. Root concentrations of K(+), Na(+), Mg(2+) and particularly Ca(2+) were relatively high under salinity stress. High salinity stress decreased soil invertase and catalase activity. Using a next-generation, Illumina-based sequencing approach, we determined higher diversity of bacteria in the rhizosphere soil at high than low salinity. More than 15,500 valid reads were obtained, and Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria predominated in all samples, accounting for >80% of the reads. On a genus level, 636 genera were common to the low and high salinity treatments at 0-5 cm and 5-10 cm depth. The abundance of Steroidobacter and Sphingomonas was significantly decreased by increasing salinity. Higher Shannon and Chao 1 indices with increasing severity of salt stress indicated that high salt stress increased diversity in the bacterial communities. PMID:26852800

  6. Avian response to bottomland hardwood reforestation: the first 10 years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Wilson, R.R.; Henne-Kerr, J.L.; Grosshuesch, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Bttomland hardwood forests were planted on agricultural fields in Mississippi and Louisiana using either predominantly Quercus species (oaks) or Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood). We assessed avian colonization of these reforested sites between 2 and 10 years after planting. Rapid vertical growth of cottonwoods (circa 2 - 3 m / yr) resulted in sites with forest structure that supported greater species richness of breeding birds, increased Shannon diversity indices, and supported greater territory densities than on sites planted with slower-growing oak species. Grassland birds (Spiza americana [Dickcissel], and Sturnella magna [Eastern Meadowlark]) were indicative of species breeding on oak-dominated reforestation # 10 years old. Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird) and Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite) characterized cottonwood reforestation # 4 years old, whereas 14 species of shrub-scrub birds (e.g., Passerina cyanea [Indigo Bunting]) and early-successional forest birds (e.g., Vireo gilvus [Warbling Vireo]) typified cottonwood reforestation 5 to 9 years after planting. Rates of daily nest survival did not differ between reforestation strategies. Nest parasitism increased markedly in older cottonwood stands, but was overwhelmed by predation as a cause of nest failure. Based on Partners in Flight prioritization scores and territory densities, the value of cottonwood reforestation for avian conservation was significantly greater than that of oak reforestation during their first 10 years. Because of benefits conferred on breeding birds, we recommend reforestation of bottomland hardwoods include a high proportion of fast-growing, early successional species such as cottonwood.

  7. Helping poultry and people through research on high pathogenicity avian influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) viruses are a diverse group divided into 144 different subtypes based on different combinations of the 16 hemagglutinin and 9 neuraminidase subtypes, and two different pathotypes (low [LP] and high pathogenicity [HP]). Low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses are maintai...

  8. Early crocodylomorph increases top tier predator diversity during rise of dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Zanno, Lindsay E; Drymala, Susan; Nesbitt, Sterling J; Schneider, Vincent P

    2015-01-01

    Triassic predatory guild evolution reflects a period of ecological flux spurred by the catastrophic end-Permian mass extinction and terminating with the global ecological dominance of dinosaurs in the early Jurassic. In responding to this dynamic ecospace, terrestrial predator diversity attained new levels, prompting unique trophic webs with a seeming overabundance of carnivorous taxa and the evolution of entirely new predatory clades. Key among these was Crocodylomorpha, the largest living reptiles and only one of two archosaurian lineages that survive to the present day. In contrast to their existing role as top, semi-aquatic predators, the earliest crocodylomorphs were generally small-bodied, terrestrial faunivores, occupying subsidiary (meso) predator roles. Here we describe Carnufex carolinensis a new, unexpectedly large-bodied taxon with a slender and ornamented skull from the Carnian Pekin Formation (~231 Ma), representing one of the oldest and earliest diverging crocodylomorphs described to date. Carnufex bridges a problematic gap in the early evolution of pseudosuchians by spanning key transitions in bauplan evolution and body mass near the origin of Crocodylomorpha. With a skull length of >50 cm, the new taxon documents a rare instance of crocodylomorphs ascending to top-tier predator guilds in the equatorial regions of Pangea prior to the dominance of dinosaurs. PMID:25787306

  9. A Large Set of Newly Created Interspecific Saccharomyces Hybrids Increases Aromatic Diversity in Lager Beers

    PubMed Central

    Mertens, Stijn; Steensels, Jan; Saels, Veerle; De Rouck, Gert; Aerts, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Lager beer is the most consumed alcoholic beverage in the world. Its production process is marked by a fermentation conducted at low (8 to 15°C) temperatures and by the use of Saccharomyces pastorianus, an interspecific hybrid between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the cold-tolerant Saccharomyces eubayanus. Recent whole-genome-sequencing efforts revealed that the currently available lager yeasts belong to one of only two archetypes, “Saaz” and “Frohberg.” This limited genetic variation likely reflects that all lager yeasts descend from only two separate interspecific hybridization events, which may also explain the relatively limited aromatic diversity between the available lager beer yeasts compared to, for example, wine and ale beer yeasts. In this study, 31 novel interspecific yeast hybrids were developed, resulting from large-scale robot-assisted selection and breeding between carefully selected strains of S. cerevisiae (six strains) and S. eubayanus (two strains). Interestingly, many of the resulting hybrids showed a broader temperature tolerance than their parental strains and reference S. pastorianus yeasts. Moreover, they combined a high fermentation capacity with a desirable aroma profile in laboratory-scale lager beer fermentations, thereby successfully enriching the currently available lager yeast biodiversity. Pilot-scale trials further confirmed the industrial potential of these hybrids and identified one strain, hybrid H29, which combines a fast fermentation, high attenuation, and the production of a complex, desirable fruity aroma. PMID:26407881

  10. Early crocodylomorph increases top tier predator diversity during rise of dinosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Zanno, Lindsay E.; Drymala, Susan; Nesbitt, Sterling J.; Schneider, Vincent P.

    2015-01-01

    Triassic predatory guild evolution reflects a period of ecological flux spurred by the catastrophic end-Permian mass extinction and terminating with the global ecological dominance of dinosaurs in the early Jurassic. In responding to this dynamic ecospace, terrestrial predator diversity attained new levels, prompting unique trophic webs with a seeming overabundance of carnivorous taxa and the evolution of entirely new predatory clades. Key among these was Crocodylomorpha, the largest living reptiles and only one of two archosaurian lineages that survive to the present day. In contrast to their existing role as top, semi-aquatic predators, the earliest crocodylomorphs were generally small-bodied, terrestrial faunivores, occupying subsidiary (meso) predator roles. Here we describe Carnufex carolinensis a new, unexpectedly large-bodied taxon with a slender and ornamented skull from the Carnian Pekin Formation (~231 Ma), representing one of the oldest and earliest diverging crocodylomorphs described to date. Carnufex bridges a problematic gap in the early evolution of pseudosuchians by spanning key transitions in bauplan evolution and body mass near the origin of Crocodylomorpha. With a skull length of >50 cm, the new taxon documents a rare instance of crocodylomorphs ascending to top-tier predator guilds in the equatorial regions of Pangea prior to the dominance of dinosaurs. PMID:25787306

  11. A large set of newly created interspecific Saccharomyces hybrids increases aromatic diversity in lager beers.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Stijn; Steensels, Jan; Saels, Veerle; De Rouck, Gert; Aerts, Guido; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2015-12-01

    Lager beer is the most consumed alcoholic beverage in the world. Its production process is marked by a fermentation conducted at low (8 to 15°C) temperatures and by the use of Saccharomyces pastorianus, an interspecific hybrid between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the cold-tolerant Saccharomyces eubayanus. Recent whole-genome-sequencing efforts revealed that the currently available lager yeasts belong to one of only two archetypes, "Saaz" and "Frohberg." This limited genetic variation likely reflects that all lager yeasts descend from only two separate interspecific hybridization events, which may also explain the relatively limited aromatic diversity between the available lager beer yeasts compared to, for example, wine and ale beer yeasts. In this study, 31 novel interspecific yeast hybrids were developed, resulting from large-scale robot-assisted selection and breeding between carefully selected strains of S. cerevisiae (six strains) and S. eubayanus (two strains). Interestingly, many of the resulting hybrids showed a broader temperature tolerance than their parental strains and reference S. pastorianus yeasts. Moreover, they combined a high fermentation capacity with a desirable aroma profile in laboratory-scale lager beer fermentations, thereby successfully enriching the currently available lager yeast biodiversity. Pilot-scale trials further confirmed the industrial potential of these hybrids and identified one strain, hybrid H29, which combines a fast fermentation, high attenuation, and the production of a complex, desirable fruity aroma. PMID:26407881

  12. Avian Schistosomes and Outbreaks of Cercarial Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Mikeš, Libor; Lichtenbergová, Lucie; Skála, Vladimír; Soldánová, Miroslava; Brant, Sara Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Cercarial dermatitis (swimmer's itch) is a condition caused by infective larvae (cercariae) of a species-rich group of mammalian and avian schistosomes. Over the last decade, it has been reported in areas that previously had few or no cases of dermatitis and is thus considered an emerging disease. It is obvious that avian schistosomes are responsible for the majority of reported dermatitis outbreaks around the world, and thus they are the primary focus of this review. Although they infect humans, they do not mature and usually die in the skin. Experimental infections of avian schistosomes in mice show that in previously exposed hosts, there is a strong skin immune reaction that kills the schistosome. However, penetration of larvae into naive mice can result in temporary migration from the skin. This is of particular interest because the worms are able to migrate to different organs, for example, the lungs in the case of visceral schistosomes and the central nervous system in the case of nasal schistosomes. The risk of such migration and accompanying disorders needs to be clarified for humans and animals of interest (e.g., dogs). Herein we compiled the most comprehensive review of the diversity, immunology, and epidemiology of avian schistosomes causing cercarial dermatitis. PMID:25567226

  13. Comparative genomics reveals insights into avian genome evolution and adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guojie; Li, Cai; Li, Qiye; Li, Bo; Larkin, Denis M.; Lee, Chul; Storz, Jay F.; Antunes, Agostinho; Greenwold, Matthew J.; Meredith, Robert W.; Ödeen, Anders; Cui, Jie; Zhou, Qi; Xu, Luohao; Pan, Hailin; Wang, Zongji; Jin, Lijun; Zhang, Pei; Hu, Haofu; Yang, Wei; Hu, Jiang; Xiao, Jin; Yang, Zhikai; Liu, Yang; Xie, Qiaolin; Yu, Hao; Lian, Jinmin; Wen, Ping; Zhang, Fang; Li, Hui; Zeng, Yongli; Xiong, Zijun; Liu, Shiping; Zhou, Long; Huang, Zhiyong; An, Na; Wang, Jie; Zheng, Qiumei; Xiong, Yingqi; Wang, Guangbiao; Wang, Bo; Wang, Jingjing; Fan, Yu; da Fonseca, Rute R.; Alfaro-Núñez, Alonzo; Schubert, Mikkel; Orlando, Ludovic; Mourier, Tobias; Howard, Jason T.; Ganapathy, Ganeshkumar; Pfenning, Andreas; Whitney, Osceola; Rivas, Miriam V.; Hara, Erina; Smith, Julia; Farré, Marta; Narayan, Jitendra; Slavov, Gancho; Romanov, Michael N; Borges, Rui; Machado, João Paulo; Khan, Imran; Springer, Mark S.; Gatesy, John; Hoffmann, Federico G.; Opazo, Juan C.; Håstad, Olle; Sawyer, Roger H.; Kim, Heebal; Kim, Kyu-Won; Kim, Hyeon Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Li, Ning; Huang, Yinhua; Bruford, Michael W.; Zhan, Xiangjiang; Dixon, Andrew; Bertelsen, Mads F.; Derryberry, Elizabeth; Warren, Wesley; Wilson, Richard K; Li, Shengbin; Ray, David A.; Green, Richard E.; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Griffin, Darren; Johnson, Warren E.; Haussler, David; Ryder, Oliver A.; Willerslev, Eske; Graves, Gary R.; Alström, Per; Fjeldså, Jon; Mindell, David P.; Edwards, Scott V.; Braun, Edward L.; Rahbek, Carsten; Burt, David W.; Houde, Peter; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jian; Jarvis, Erich D.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Wang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Birds are the most species-rich class of tetrapod vertebrates and have wide relevance across many research fields. We explored bird macroevolution using full genomes from 48 avian species representing all major extant clades. The avian genome is principally characterized by its constrained size, which predominantly arose because of lineage-specific erosion of repetitive elements, large segmental deletions, and gene loss. Avian genomes furthermore show a remarkably high degree of evolutionary stasis at the levels of nucleotide sequence, gene synteny, and chromosomal structure. Despite this pattern of conservation, we detected many non-neutral evolutionary changes in protein-coding genes and noncoding regions. These analyses reveal that pan-avian genomic diversity covaries with adaptations to different lifestyles and convergent evolution of traits. PMID:25504712

  14. Comparative genomics reveals insights into avian genome evolution and adaptation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guojie; Li, Cai; Li, Qiye; Li, Bo; Larkin, Denis M; Lee, Chul; Storz, Jay F; Antunes, Agostinho; Greenwold, Matthew J; Meredith, Robert W; Ödeen, Anders; Cui, Jie; Zhou, Qi; Xu, Luohao; Pan, Hailin; Wang, Zongji; Jin, Lijun; Zhang, Pei; Hu, Haofu; Yang, Wei; Hu, Jiang; Xiao, Jin; Yang, Zhikai; Liu, Yang; Xie, Qiaolin; Yu, Hao; Lian, Jinmin; Wen, Ping; Zhang, Fang; Li, Hui; Zeng, Yongli; Xiong, Zijun; Liu, Shiping; Zhou, Long; Huang, Zhiyong; An, Na; Wang, Jie; Zheng, Qiumei; Xiong, Yingqi; Wang, Guangbiao; Wang, Bo; Wang, Jingjing; Fan, Yu; da Fonseca, Rute R; Alfaro-Núñez, Alonzo; Schubert, Mikkel; Orlando, Ludovic; Mourier, Tobias; Howard, Jason T; Ganapathy, Ganeshkumar; Pfenning, Andreas; Whitney, Osceola; Rivas, Miriam V; Hara, Erina; Smith, Julia; Farré, Marta; Narayan, Jitendra; Slavov, Gancho; Romanov, Michael N; Borges, Rui; Machado, João Paulo; Khan, Imran; Springer, Mark S; Gatesy, John; Hoffmann, Federico G; Opazo, Juan C; Håstad, Olle; Sawyer, Roger H; Kim, Heebal; Kim, Kyu-Won; Kim, Hyeon Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Li, Ning; Huang, Yinhua; Bruford, Michael W; Zhan, Xiangjiang; Dixon, Andrew; Bertelsen, Mads F; Derryberry, Elizabeth; Warren, Wesley; Wilson, Richard K; Li, Shengbin; Ray, David A; Green, Richard E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Griffin, Darren; Johnson, Warren E; Haussler, David; Ryder, Oliver A; Willerslev, Eske; Graves, Gary R; Alström, Per; Fjeldså, Jon; Mindell, David P; Edwards, Scott V; Braun, Edward L; Rahbek, Carsten; Burt, David W; Houde, Peter; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jian; Jarvis, Erich D; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Wang, Jun

    2014-12-12

    Birds are the most species-rich class of tetrapod vertebrates and have wide relevance across many research fields. We explored bird macroevolution using full genomes from 48 avian species representing all major extant clades. The avian genome is principally characterized by its constrained size, which predominantly arose because of lineage-specific erosion of repetitive elements, large segmental deletions, and gene loss. Avian genomes furthermore show a remarkably high degree of evolutionary stasis at the levels of nucleotide sequence, gene synteny, and chromosomal structure. Despite this pattern of conservation, we detected many non-neutral evolutionary changes in protein-coding genes and noncoding regions. These analyses reveal that pan-avian genomic diversity covaries with adaptations to different lifestyles and convergent evolution of traits. PMID:25504712

  15. Factors Associated with Increased Risk for Lethal Violence in Intimate Partner Relationships among Ethnically Diverse Black Women

    PubMed Central

    Sabri, Bushra; Stockman, Jamila K.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; O’Brien, Sharon; Campbell, Doris; Callwood, Gloria B.; Bertrand, Desiree; Sutton, Lorna W.; Hart-Hyndman, Greta

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with increased risk for lethal violence among ethnically diverse Black women in Baltimore, Maryland (MD) and the US Virgin Islands (USVI). Women with abuse experiences (n=456) were recruited from primary care, prenatal or family planning clinics in Baltimore, MD and St. Thomas and St. Croix, USVI. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with the risk for lethal violence among abused women. Factors independently related to increased risk of lethal violence included fear of abusive partners, PTSD symptoms, and use of legal resources. These factors must be considered in assessing safety needs of Black women in abusive relationships. PMID:25429191

  16. Multiverse: Increasing Diversity in Earth and Space Science Through Multicultural Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peticolas, L. M.; Raftery, C. L.; Mendez, B.; Paglierani, R.; Ali, N. A.; Zevin, D.; Frappier, R.; Hauck, K.; Shackelford, R. L., III; Yan, D.; Thrall, L.

    2015-12-01

    Multiverse at the University of California, Berkeley Space Sciences Laboratory provides earth and space science educational opportunities and resources for a variety of audiences, especially for those who are underrepresented in the sciences. By way of carefully crafted space and earth science educational opportunities and resources, we seek to connect with people's sense of wonder and facilitate making personal ties to science and the learning process in order to, ultimately, bring the richness of diversity to science and make science discovery accessible for all. Our audiences include teachers, students, education and outreach professionals, and the public. We partner with NASA, the National Science Foundation, scientists, teachers, science center and museum educators, park interpreters, and others with expertise in reaching particular audiences. With these partners, we develop resources and communities of practice, offer educator workshops, and run events for the public. We will will present on our pedagogical techniques, our metrics for success, and our evaluation findings of our education and outreach projects that help us towards reaching our vision: We envision a world filled with science literate societies capable of thriving with today's technology, while maintaining a sustainable balance with the natural world; a world where people develop and sustain the ability to think critically using observation and evidence and participate authentically in scientific endeavors; a world where people see themselves and their culture within the scientific enterprise, and understand science within the context that we are all under one sky and on one Earth. Photo Caption: Multiverse Team Members at our Space Sciences Laboratory from left to right: Leitha Thrall, Daniel Zevin, Bryan Mendez, Nancy Ali, Igor Ruderman, Laura Peticolas, Ruth Paglierani, Renee Frappier, Rikki Shackelford, Claire Raftery, Karin Hauck, and Darlene Yan.

  17. Enhanced interannual precipitation variability increases plant functional diversity that in turn ameliorates negative impact on productivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although precipitation interannual variability is projected to increase due to climate change, effects of changes in precipitation variance have received considerable less attention than effects of changes in the mean state of climate. Interannual precipitation variability effects on functional dive...

  18. Host Tissue and Glycan Binding Specificities of Avian Viral Attachment Proteins Using Novel Avian Tissue Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Ambepitiya Wickramasinghe, Iresha N.; de Vries, Robert P.; Eggert, Amber M.; Wandee, Nantaporn; de Haan, Cornelis A. M.; Gröne, Andrea; Verheije, Monique H.

    2015-01-01

    The initial interaction between viral attachment proteins and the host cell is a critical determinant for the susceptibility of a host for a particular virus. To increase our understanding of avian pathogens and the susceptibility of poultry species, we developed novel avian tissue microarrays (TMAs). Tissue binding profiles of avian viral attachment proteins were studied by performing histochemistry on multi-species TMA, comprising of selected tissues from ten avian species, and single-species TMAs, grouping organ systems of each species together. The attachment pattern of the hemagglutinin protein was in line with the reported tropism of influenza virus H5N1, confirming the validity of TMAs in profiling the initial virus-host interaction. The previously believed chicken-specific coronavirus (CoV) M41 spike (S1) protein displayed a broad attachment pattern to respiratory tissues of various avian species, albeit with lower affinity than hemagglutinin, suggesting that other avian species might be susceptible for chicken CoV. When comparing tissue-specific binding patterns of various avian coronaviral S1 proteins on the single-species TMAs, chicken and partridge CoV S1 had predominant affinity for the trachea, while pigeon CoV S1 showed marked preference for lung of their respective hosts. Binding of all coronaviral S1 proteins was dependent on sialic acids; however, while chicken CoV S1 preferred sialic acids type I lactosamine (Gal(1-3)GlcNAc) over type II (Gal(1-4)GlcNAc), the fine glycan specificities of pigeon and partridge CoVs were different, as chicken CoV S1-specific sialylglycopolymers could not block their binding to tissues. Taken together, TMAs provide a novel platform in the field of infectious diseases to allow identification of binding specificities of viral attachment proteins and are helpful to gain insight into the susceptibility of host and organ for avian pathogens. PMID:26035584

  19. Endophytic Bacterium-Triggered Reactive Oxygen Species Directly Increase Oxygenous Sesquiterpenoid Content and Diversity in Atractylodes lancea.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jia-Yu; Yuan, Jie; Li, Xia; Ning, Yi-Fan; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2016-03-01

    Oxygenous terpenoids are active components of many medicinal plants. However, current studies that have focused on enzymatic oxidation reactions cannot comprehensively clarify the mechanisms of oxygenous terpenoid synthesis and diversity. This study shows that an endophytic bacterium can trigger the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that directly increase oxygenous sesquiterpenoid content and diversity in Atractylodes lancea. A. lancea is a famous but endangered Chinese medicinal plant that contains abundant oxygenous sesquiterpenoids. Geo-authentic A. lancea produces a wider range and a greater abundance of oxygenous sesquiterpenoids than the cultivated herb. Our previous studies have shown the mechanisms behind endophytic promotion of the production of sesquiterpenoid hydrocarbon scaffolds; however, how endophytes promote the formation of oxygenous sesquiterpenoids and their diversity is unclear. After colonization by Pseudomonas fluorescens ALEB7B, oxidative burst and oxygenous sesquiterpenoid accumulation in A. lancea occur synchronously. Treatment with exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or singlet oxygen induces oxidative burst and promotes oxygenous sesquiterpenoid accumulation in planta. Conversely, pretreatment of plantlets with the ROS scavenger ascorbic acid significantly inhibits the oxidative burst and oxygenous sesquiterpenoid accumulation induced by P. fluorescens ALEB7B. Further in vitro oxidation experiments show that several oxygenous sesquiterpenoids can be obtained from direct oxidation caused by H2O2 or singlet oxygen. In summary, this study demonstrates that endophytic bacterium-triggered ROS can directly oxidize oxygen-free sesquiterpenoids and increase the oxygenous sesquiterpenoid content and diversity in A. lancea, providing a novel explanation of the mechanisms of oxygenous terpenoid synthesis in planta and an essential complementarity to enzymatic oxidation reactions. PMID:26712554

  20. Endophytic Bacterium-Triggered Reactive Oxygen Species Directly Increase Oxygenous Sesquiterpenoid Content and Diversity in Atractylodes lancea

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jia-Yu; Yuan, Jie; Li, Xia; Ning, Yi-Fan

    2015-01-01

    Oxygenous terpenoids are active components of many medicinal plants. However, current studies that have focused on enzymatic oxidation reactions cannot comprehensively clarify the mechanisms of oxygenous terpenoid synthesis and diversity. This study shows that an endophytic bacterium can trigger the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that directly increase oxygenous sesquiterpenoid content and diversity in Atractylodes lancea. A. lancea is a famous but endangered Chinese medicinal plant that contains abundant oxygenous sesquiterpenoids. Geo-authentic A. lancea produces a wider range and a greater abundance of oxygenous sesquiterpenoids than the cultivated herb. Our previous studies have shown the mechanisms behind endophytic promotion of the production of sesquiterpenoid hydrocarbon scaffolds; however, how endophytes promote the formation of oxygenous sesquiterpenoids and their diversity is unclear. After colonization by Pseudomonas fluorescens ALEB7B, oxidative burst and oxygenous sesquiterpenoid accumulation in A. lancea occur synchronously. Treatment with exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or singlet oxygen induces oxidative burst and promotes oxygenous sesquiterpenoid accumulation in planta. Conversely, pretreatment of plantlets with the ROS scavenger ascorbic acid significantly inhibits the oxidative burst and oxygenous sesquiterpenoid accumulation induced by P. fluorescens ALEB7B. Further in vitro oxidation experiments show that several oxygenous sesquiterpenoids can be obtained from direct oxidation caused by H2O2 or singlet oxygen. In summary, this study demonstrates that endophytic bacterium-triggered ROS can directly oxidize oxygen-free sesquiterpenoids and increase the oxygenous sesquiterpenoid content and diversity in A. lancea, providing a novel explanation of the mechanisms of oxygenous terpenoid synthesis in planta and an essential complementarity to enzymatic oxidation reactions. PMID:26712554

  1. Reduced diversity and increased virulence-gene carriage in intestinal enterobacteria of coeliac children

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Ester; Nadal, Inmaculada; Donat, Ester; Ribes-Koninckx, Carmen; Calabuig, Miguel; Sanz, Yolanda

    2008-01-01

    Background Coeliac disease is an immune-mediated enteropathology triggered by the ingestion of cereal gluten proteins. This disorder is associated with imbalances in the composition of the gut microbiota that could be involved in its pathogenesis. The aim of the present study was to determine whether intestinal Enterobacteriaceae populations of active and non-active coeliac patients and healthy children differ in diversity and virulence-gene carriage, so as to establish a possible link between the pathogenic potential of enterobacteria and the disease. Methods Enterobacteriaceae clones were isolated on VRBD agar from faecal samples of 31 subjects (10 active coeliac patients, 10 symptom-free coeliac patients and 11 healthy controls) and identified at species level by the API 20E system. Escherichia coli clones were classified into four phylogenetic groups A, B1, B2 and D and the prevalence of eight virulence-associated genes (type-1 fimbriae [fimA], P fimbriae [papC], S fimbriae [sfaD/E], Dr haemagglutinin [draA], haemolysin [hlyA], capsule K1 [neuB], capsule K5 [KfiC] and aerobactin [iutA]) was determined by multiplex PCR. Results A total of 155 Enterobacteriaceae clones were isolated. Non-E. coli clones were more commonly isolated in healthy children than in coeliac patients. The four phylogenetic E. coli groups were equally distributed in healthy children, while in both coeliac patients most commensal isolates belonged to group A. Within the virulent groups, B2 was the most prevalent in active coeliac disease children, while D was the most prevalent in non-active coeliac patients. E coli clones of the virulent phylogenetic groups (B2+D) from active and non-active coeliac patients carried a higher number of virulence genes than those from healthy individuals. Prevalence of P fimbriae (papC), capsule K5 (sfaD/E) and haemolysin (hlyA) genes was higher in E. coli isolated from active and non-active coeliac children than in those from control subjects. Conclusion This

  2. A Program Evaluation of a Policy Intervention to Increase Racial Diversity in the Sciences and Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez Yepes, Ricardo Leon

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is an evaluation of an intervention designed to (a) increase the number of minority students who pursue graduate degrees in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) disciplines, and (b) to develop a cadre of qualified individuals from minority backgrounds who, upon finishing their training, are ready to take…

  3. Increasing Participation of Minority and Culturally Diverse Students in Gifted Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yancey, Elizabeth

    This pamphlet is designed as a resource to assist school administrators and directors of gifted and talented programs in their efforts to increase participation of minority students in such programs. It explores issues related to the current underrepresentation of minority students including statistics reflecting that underrepresentation;…

  4. Economic epidemiology of avian influenza on smallholder poultry farms☆

    PubMed Central

    Boni, Maciej F.; Galvani, Alison P.; Wickelgren, Abraham L.; Malani, Anup

    2013-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is often controlled through culling of poultry. Compensating farmers for culled chickens or ducks facilitates effective culling and control of HPAI. However, ensuing price shifts can create incentives that alter the disease dynamics of HPAI. Farmers control certain aspects of the dynamics by setting a farm size, implementing infection control measures, and determining the age at which poultry are sent to market. Their decisions can be influenced by the market price of poultry which can, in turn, be set by policy makers during an HPAI outbreak. Here, we integrate these economic considerations into an epidemiological model in which epidemiological parameters are determined by an outside agent (the farmer) to maximize profit from poultry sales. Our model exhibits a diversity of behaviors which are sensitive to (i) the ability to identify infected poultry, (ii) the average price of infected poultry, (iii) the basic reproductive number of avian influenza, (iv) the effect of culling on the market price of poultry, (v) the effect of market price on farm size, and (vi) the effect of poultry density on disease transmission. We find that under certain market and epidemiological conditions, culling can increase farm size and the total number of HPAI infections. Our model helps to inform the optimization of public health outcomes that best weigh the balance between public health risk and beneficial economic outcomes for farmers. PMID:24161559

  5. Reanalysis of Wupus agilis (Early Cretaceous) of Chongqing, China as a Large Avian Trace: Differentiating between Large Bird and Small Non-Avian Theropod Tracks.

    PubMed

    Xing, Lida; Buckley, Lisa G; McCrea, Richard T; Lockley, Martin G; Zhang, Jianping; Piñuela, Laura; Klein, Hendrik; Wang, Fengping

    2015-01-01

    Trace fossils provide the only records of Early Cretaceous birds from many parts of the world. The identification of traces from large avian track-makers is made difficult given their overall similarity in size and tridactyly in comparison with traces of small non-avian theropods. Reanalysis of Wupus agilis from the Early Cretaceous (Aptian-Albian) Jiaguan Formation, one of a small but growing number of known avian-pterosaur track assemblages, of southeast China determines that these are the traces of a large avian track-maker, analogous to extant herons. Wupus, originally identified as the trace of a small non-avian theropod track-maker, is therefore similar in both footprint and trackway characteristics to the Early Cretaceous (Albian) large avian trace Limiavipes curriei from western Canada, and Wupus is reassigned to the ichnofamily Limiavipedidae. The reanalysis of Wupus reveals that it and Limiavipes are distinct from similar traces of small to medium-sized non-avian theropods (Irenichnites, Columbosauripus, Magnoavipes) based on their relatively large footprint length to pace length ratio and higher mean footprint splay, and that Wupus shares enough characters with Limiavipes to be reassigned to the ichnofamily Limiavipedidae. The ability to discern traces of large avians from those of small non-avian theropods provides more data on the diversity of Early Cretaceous birds. This analysis reveals that, despite the current lack of body fossils, large wading birds were globally distributed in both Laurasia and Gondwana during the Early Cretaceous. PMID:25993285

  6. Reanalysis of Wupus agilis (Early Cretaceous) of Chongqing, China as a Large Avian Trace: Differentiating between Large Bird and Small Non-Avian Theropod Tracks

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Lida; Buckley, Lisa G.; McCrea, Richard T.; Lockley, Martin G.; Zhang, Jianping; Piñuela, Laura; Klein, Hendrik; Wang, Fengping

    2015-01-01

    Trace fossils provide the only records of Early Cretaceous birds from many parts of the world. The identification of traces from large avian track-makers is made difficult given their overall similarity in size and tridactyly in comparison with traces of small non-avian theropods. Reanalysis of Wupus agilis from the Early Cretaceous (Aptian-Albian) Jiaguan Formation, one of a small but growing number of known avian-pterosaur track assemblages, of southeast China determines that these are the traces of a large avian track-maker, analogous to extant herons. Wupus, originally identified as the trace of a small non-avian theropod track-maker, is therefore similar in both footprint and trackway characteristics to the Early Cretaceous (Albian) large avian trace Limiavipes curriei from western Canada, and Wupus is reassigned to the ichnofamily Limiavipedidae. The reanalysis of Wupus reveals that it and Limiavipes are distinct from similar traces of small to medium-sized non-avian theropods (Irenichnites, Columbosauripus, Magnoavipes) based on their relatively large footprint length to pace length ratio and higher mean footprint splay, and that Wupus shares enough characters with Limiavipes to be reassigned to the ichnofamily Limiavipedidae. The ability to discern traces of large avians from those of small non-avian theropods provides more data on the diversity of Early Cretaceous birds. This analysis reveals that, despite the current lack of body fossils, large wading birds were globally distributed in both Laurasia and Gondwana during the Early Cretaceous. PMID:25993285

  7. Reduced genetic diversity and increased reproductive isolation follow population-level loss of larval dispersal in a marine gastropod.

    PubMed

    Ellingson, Ryan A; Krug, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    Population-level consequences of dispersal ability remain poorly understood, especially for marine animals in which dispersal is typically considered a species-level trait governed by oceanographic transport of microscopic larvae. Transitions from dispersive (planktotrophic) to nondispersive, aplanktonic larvae are predicted to reduce connectivity, genetic diversity within populations, and the spatial scale at which reproductive isolation evolves. However, larval dimorphism within a species is rare, precluding population-level tests. We show the sea slug Costasiella ocellifera expresses both larval morphs in Florida and the Caribbean, regions with divergent mitochondrial lineages. Planktotrophy predominated at 11 sites, 10 of which formed a highly connected and genetically diverse Caribbean metapopulation. Four populations expressed mainly aplanktonic development and had markedly reduced connectivity, and lower genetic diversity at one mitochondrial and six nuclear loci. Aplanktonic dams showed partial postzygotic isolation in most interpopulation crosses, regardless of genetic or geographic distance to the sire's source, suggesting that outbreeding depression affects fragmented populations. Dams from genetically isolated and neighboring populations also exhibited premating isolation, consistent with reinforcement contingent on historical interaction. By increasing self-recruitment and genetic drift, the loss of dispersal may thus initiate a feedback loop resulting in the evolution of reproductive isolation over small spatial scales in the sea. PMID:26635309

  8. Constitutive overexpression of asm18 increases the production and diversity of maytansinoids in Actinosynnema pretiosum.

    PubMed

    Li, Shanren; Lu, Chunhua; Chang, Xiaoyan; Shen, Yuemao

    2016-03-01

    Ansamitocins isolated from Actinosynnema pretiosum, potent antitumor compounds, belong to the family of maytansinoids, and the antibody-maytansinoid conjugates are currently under different phases of clinical trials. The clinical applications of ansamitocins have stimulated extensive studies to improve their production yields. In this study, we investigated the function of a pathway-specific S treptomyces antibiotic regulatory protein (SARP) family regulator, Asm18, and observed that ectopic overexpression of the asm18 gene increased the production of N-demethyl-4,5-desepoxy-maytansinol (2) to 50 mg/L in the HGF052 + pJTU824-asm18 strain, an increase by 4.7-fold compared to that of the control strain HGF052 + pJTU824. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the overexpression of the asm18 gene selectively increased the transcription levels of the genes involved in the biosynthesis of the starter unit (asm43), polyketide assembly (asmA), post-PKS modification (asm21), as well as the transcription levels of the regulatory gene (asm8), which is a specific LAL-type activator in ansamitocin biosynthesis. With the increase of fermentation titre, seven ansamitocin analogs (1-7) including three new ones (1, 5, and 6) and maytansinol (7) were isolated from the HGF052 + pJTU824-asm18 strain. Our results not only pave the way for further improving the production of ansamitocin analogs but also indicate that the post-PKS modifications of ansamitocin biosynthesis are flexible, which brings a potential of producing maytansinol, the most fascinating intermediate for the synthesis of antibody-maytansinoid conjugates, by optimizing the HGF052 and/or HGF052 + pJTU824-asm18 strains. PMID:26572523

  9. Bison grazing increases arthropod abundance and diversity in a tallgrass prairie.

    PubMed

    Moran, Matthew D

    2014-10-01

    How grazing-induced ecosystem changes by ungulates indirectly affect other consumers is a question of great interest. I investigated the effect of grazing by American Bison (Bos bison L.) on an arthropod community in tallgrass prairie. Grazing increased the abundance of arthropods, an increase that was present in both herbivorous and carnivorous assemblages, but not in detritivores. The increase in herbivores and reduction in plant biomass from grazing resulted in an arthropod herbivore load almost three times higher in grazed plots compared with controls. Among herbivores, the sap-feeding insect guild was dramatically more abundant, while chewing herbivores were not affected. Herbivorous and carnivorous arthropod richness was higher in grazed plots, although the response was strongest among herbivores. Arthropod abundance on individual grasses and forbs was significantly higher in grazed areas, while plant type had no effect on abundance, indicating that the change was ecosystem-wide and not simply in response to a reduction in grass biomass from grazing. The response of arthropods to grazing was strongest in the early part of the growing season. Published research shows that ungulate grazing, although decreasing available biomass to other consumers, enhances plant quality by increasing nitrogen level in plants. The arthropod results of this study suggest higher plant quality outweighs the potential negative competitive effects of plant biomass removal, although other activities of bison could not be ruled out as the causative mechanism. Because arthropods are extremely abundant organisms in grasslands and a food source for other consumers, bison may represent valuable management tools for maintaining biodiversity. PMID:25198902

  10. Enterolignan Producing Phenotypes are Associated with Increased Gut Microbial Diversity and Altered Composition in Premenopausal Women in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hullar, Meredith A. J.; Lancaster, Samuel M.; Li, Fei; Tseng, Elizabeth; Beer, Karlyn; Atkinson, Charlotte; Wähälä, Kristiina; Copeland, Wade K.; Randolph, Timothy W.; Newton, Katherine M.; Lampe, Johanna W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Lignans in plant foods are metabolized by gut bacteria to the enterolignans, enterodiol (END) and enterolactone (ENL). Enterolignans have biologic activities important to the prevention of cancer and chronic diseases. We examined the composition of the gut microbial community (GMC) as a contributor to human enterolignan exposure. Methods We evaluated the association between the GMC in stool, urinary enterolignan excretion, and diet from a 3-day food record in 115 premenopausal (ages 40–45 y) women in the United States. Urinary enterolignans were measured using GC/MS. The GMC was evaluated using 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Sequences were aligned in SILVA (www.arb-silva.de). Operational taxonomic units (OTU) were identified at 97% sequence similarity. Taxonomic classification was performed and alpha and beta diversity in relationship to ENL production were assessed. Multivariate analysis and regression were used to model the association between enterolignan excretion and the GMC. Bacteria associated with ENL production were identified using univariate analysis and ridge regression. Results After adjusting for dietary fiber intake and adiposity, we found a significant positive association between ENL excretion and either the GMC (p=0.0007), or the diversity of the GMC (p=0.01). The GMC associated with high ENL production was distinct (UNIFRAC, p<0.003, MRPP) and enriched in Moryella spp., Acetanaerobacterium spp., Fastidiosipila spp., and Streptobacillus spp. Conclusion Diversity and composition of the GMC are associated with increased human exposure to enterolignans. Impact Differences in gut microbial diversity and composition explain variation in gut metabolic processes that impact environmental exposures and influences human health. PMID:25542830

  11. The Diversity of the Pollen Tube Pathway in Plants: Toward an Increasing Control by the Sporophyte

    PubMed Central

    Lora, Jorge; Hormaza, José I.; Herrero, María

    2016-01-01

    Plants, unlike animals, alternate multicellular diploid, and haploid generations in their life cycle. While this is widespread all along the plant kingdom, the size and autonomy of the diploid sporophyte and the haploid gametophyte generations vary along evolution. Vascular plants show an evolutionary trend toward a reduction of the gametophyte, reflected both in size and lifespan, together with an increasing dependence from the sporophyte. This has resulted in an overlooking of the importance of the gametophytic phase in the evolution of higher plants. This reliance on the sporophyte is most notorious along the pollen tube journey, where the male gametophytes have to travel a long way inside the sporophyte to reach the female gametophyte. Along evolution, there is a change in the scenery of the pollen tube pathway that favors pollen competition and selection. This trend, toward apparently making complicated what could be simple, appears to be related to an increasing control of the sporophyte over the gametophyte with implications for understanding plant evolution. PMID:26904071

  12. Behaviorally Induced Camouflage: A New Mechanism of Avian Egg Protection.

    PubMed

    Mayani-Parás, Fernando; Kilner, Rebecca M; Stoddard, Mary Caswell; Rodríguez, Cristina; Drummond, Hugh

    2015-10-01

    When animals potentially occupy diverse microhabitats, how can camouflage be achieved? Here we combine descriptive and experimental methods to uncover a novel form of phenotypic plasticity in the camouflage of bird eggs that may be present in other avian taxa. Soil from the bare substrate adheres to the blue-footed booby's (Sula nebouxii's) pale eggs, which parents manipulate both under and on top of their webs. Analysis of digital images confirmed that dirtiness increases progressively during the first 16 days of the incubation period, making eggs more similar to the nest substrate. Observations of 3,668 single-egg clutches showed that the probability of egg loss declines progressively over the same time frame and then remains low for the rest of the 41-day incubation period. An experiment showed that when chicken eggs are soiled and exposed in artificial booby nests, they are less likely to be taken by Heermann's gulls (Larus heermanni) than clean eggs. PMID:26655580

  13. Increasing Diversity in the Geosciences at the City University of New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damas, C.; Johnson, L.; McHugh, C.; Marchese, P. J.

    2007-12-01

    The City University of New York (CUNY) is the nation's largest urban university, with 23 institutions serving a large number of underrepresented minority (URM) and women students at all levels of the pipeline - community college to graduate school. CUNY has a strong record of recruiting, enrolling, retaining and graduating URMs in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields. Current efforts are underway to increase the number of URMs in the geosciences. These efforts include: 1) involving students in research at all levels of the pipeline; 2) incorporating innovative and proven pedagogical methods into the classroom; and 3) mentoring of students by research scientists from CUNY and other participating institutions. At all levels of the pipeline, students are actively engaged in Space and Earth Science research. At the community college level, students are introduced to the scientific research process through familiar software such as MS Excel to analyze simple time series. At the senior colleges, students progress to multi-variate data analysis, and they also have the opportunity to go into the field to collect data. As graduate students, they are involved as mentors and supervise undergraduate student research. Program initiatives such as the CUNY pipeline provide stipends and academic enrichment activities (i.e., GRE training, applying to graduate school, etc.) throughout the summer and academic year. During the summer, students also have the opportunity to work with and be mentored by research scientists at a CUNY campus, at a NASA center or a national laboratory. Mentors advise students about graduate school and careers, serve as role models, and perhaps more importantly, provide encouragement to students who lack confidence in their ability to do scientific research. Students also are expected to present their research findings at meetings and conferences, both locally and nationally. In addition to their research experiences, students also

  14. Biodiversity and Archeological Conservation Connected: Aragonite Shell Middens Increase Plant Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Vanderplank, Sula E.; Mata, Sergio; Ezcurra, Exequiel

    2014-01-01

    Natural and cultural heritage sites frequently have nonoverlapping or even conflicting conservation priorities, because human impacts have often resulted in local extirpations and reduced levels of native biodiversity. Over thousands of years, the predictable winter rains of northwestern Baja California have weathered calcium from the clam shells deposited by indigenous peoples in middens along the coast. The release of this calcium has changed soil properties, remediated sodic and saline soils, and resulted in a unique microhabitat that harbors plant assemblages very different from those of the surrounding matrix. Native plant biodiversity and landscape heterogeneity are significantly increased on the anthropogenic soils of these shell middens. Protection of this cultural landscape in the Anthropocene will further both archeological and biodiversity conservation in these anthropogenic footprints from the Holocene. Along these coasts, natural and cultural heritage priorities are overlapping and mutually beneficial. PMID:26955068

  15. Community-Engaged Strategies to Increase Diversity of Participants in Health Education Research.

    PubMed

    Khubchandani, Jagdish; Balls-Berry, Joyce; Price, James H; Webb, Fern J

    2016-05-01

    Minorities have historically been underrepresented in health-related research. Several strategies have been recommended to increase the participation of minorities in health-related research. However, most of the recommendations and guidelines apply to research in clinical or laboratory contexts. One of the more prominent methods to enhance minority participation in health-related research that has recently come to the fore is the use of community-engaged strategies. The purpose of this article is to summarize community-engaged outreach efforts that can be translated into useable strategies for health education research teams seeking to diversify the pool of research participants. Also, we provide a succinct overview of the various components of a research endeavor that may influence minority participation in health-related research. Finally, we analyze how health education specialists and SOPHE (Society of Public Health Education) can play a leading role in helping enhance minority participation in health-related research. PMID:27091602

  16. A cyst nematode effector binds to diverse plant proteins, increases nematode susceptibility and affects root morphology.

    PubMed

    Pogorelko, Gennady; Juvale, Parijat S; Rutter, William B; Hewezi, Tarek; Hussey, Richard; Davis, Eric L; Mitchum, Melissa G; Baum, Thomas J

    2016-08-01

    Cyst nematodes are plant-parasitic roundworms that are of significance in many cropping systems around the world. Cyst nematode infection is facilitated by effector proteins secreted from the nematode into the plant host. The cDNAs of the 25A01-like effector family are novel sequences that were isolated from the oesophageal gland cells of the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines). To aid functional characterization, we identified an orthologous member of this protein family (Hs25A01) from the closely related sugar beet cyst nematode H. schachtii, which infects Arabidopsis. Constitutive expression of the Hs25A01 CDS in Arabidopsis plants caused a small increase in root length, accompanied by up to a 22% increase in susceptibility to H. schachtii. A plant-expressed RNA interference (RNAi) construct targeting Hs25A01 transcripts in invading nematodes significantly reduced host susceptibility to H. schachtii. These data document that Hs25A01 has physiological functions in planta and a role in cyst nematode parasitism. In vivo and in vitro binding assays confirmed the specific interactions of Hs25A01 with an Arabidopsis F-box-containing protein, a chalcone synthase and the translation initiation factor eIF-2 β subunit (eIF-2bs), making these proteins probable candidates for involvement in the observed changes in plant growth and parasitism. A role of eIF-2bs in the mediation of Hs25A01 virulence function is further supported by the observation that two independent eIF-2bs Arabidopsis knock-out lines were significantly more susceptible to H. schachtii. PMID:26575318

  17. Increased Virulence in Sunflower Broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.) Populations from Southern Spain Is Associated with Greater Genetic Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Sanz, Alberto; Malek, Jebri; Fernández-Martínez, José M.; Pérez-Vich, Begoña; Velasco, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Orobanche cumana Wallr. (sunflower broomrape) is a holoparasitic weed that infects roots of sunflower in large areas of Europe and Asia. Two distant O. cumana gene pools have been identified in Spain, one in Cuenca province in the Center and another one in the Guadalquivir Valley in the South. Race F has been hypothesized to have arisen by separate mutational events in both gene pools. In the Guadalquivir Valley, race F spread in the middle 1990’s to become predominant and contained so far with race F hybrids. Recently, enhanced virulent populations of O. cumana have been observed in commercial fields parasitizing race F resistant hybrids. From them, we collected four independent populations and conducted virulence and SSR marker-based genetic diversity analysis. Virulence essays confirmed that the four populations studied can parasitize most of the race F resistant hybrids tested, but they cannot parasitize the differential inbred lines DEB-2, carrying resistance to race F and G, and P-96, resistant to F but susceptible to races G from other countries. Accordingly, the new populations have been classified as race GGV to distinguish them from other races G. Cluster analysis with a set of populations from the two Spanish gene pools and from other areas, mainly Eastern Europe, confirmed that race GGV populations maintain close genetic relatedness with the Guadalquivir Valley gene pool. This suggested that increased virulence was not caused by new introductions from other countries. Genetic diversity parameters revealed that the four populations had much greater genetic diversity than conventional populations of the same area, containing only alleles present in the Guadalquivir Valley and Cuenca gene pools. The results suggested that increased virulence may have resulted from admixture of populations from the Guadalquivir Valley and Cuenca followed by recombination of avirulence genes. PMID:27200060

  18. Long-Term Outcomes of a Dental Postbaccalaureate Program: Increasing Dental Student Diversity and Oral Health Care Access

    PubMed Central

    Wides, Cynthia D.; Brody, Harvey A.; Alexander, Charles J.; Gansky, Stuart A.; Mertz, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    The University of California, San Francisco School of Dentistry established the Dental Postbaccalaureate Program in 1998 to provide reapplication assistance to students from economically and/or educationally disadvantaged backgrounds who were previously denied admission to dental school. The goals were to increase diversity in the dental school student population and improve access to dental services for underserved populations. This article assesses the program’s short-, mid-, and long-term outcomes and is the first to examine long-term practice patterns after a dental postbaccalaureate program. Data collected on all participant (n=94) demographics, pre/post-program DAT scores, and post-program dental school admission results were used to assess short- and mid-term outcomes. Long-term outcomes and practice patterns were assessed using results of a census survey administered between 2009 and 2011 to the participants who had completed dental school and been in practice for at least two years (n=57). The survey had a response rate of 93 percent (n=53). Descriptive statistical techniques were used to examine the responses and to compare them to U.S. Census Bureau data and nationally available practice data for new dental graduates. Program participants’ DAT scores improved by an average of two points, and 98 percent were accepted to dental school. All survey respondents were practicing dentistry, and 81 percent reported serving underserved populations. These participants treat more Medicaid recipients than do most dentists, and their patient population is more diverse than the general population. The outcomes demonstrate that the program’s graduates are increasing diversity in the dental student population and that their practices are providing access to care for underserved populations. PMID:23658398

  19. Increased Virulence in Sunflower Broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.) Populations from Southern Spain Is Associated with Greater Genetic Diversity.

    PubMed

    Martín-Sanz, Alberto; Malek, Jebri; Fernández-Martínez, José M; Pérez-Vich, Begoña; Velasco, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Orobanche cumana Wallr. (sunflower broomrape) is a holoparasitic weed that infects roots of sunflower in large areas of Europe and Asia. Two distant O. cumana gene pools have been identified in Spain, one in Cuenca province in the Center and another one in the Guadalquivir Valley in the South. Race F has been hypothesized to have arisen by separate mutational events in both gene pools. In the Guadalquivir Valley, race F spread in the middle 1990's to become predominant and contained so far with race F hybrids. Recently, enhanced virulent populations of O. cumana have been observed in commercial fields parasitizing race F resistant hybrids. From them, we collected four independent populations and conducted virulence and SSR marker-based genetic diversity analysis. Virulence essays confirmed that the four populations studied can parasitize most of the race F resistant hybrids tested, but they cannot parasitize the differential inbred lines DEB-2, carrying resistance to race F and G, and P-96, resistant to F but susceptible to races G from other countries. Accordingly, the new populations have been classified as race GGV to distinguish them from other races G. Cluster analysis with a set of populations from the two Spanish gene pools and from other areas, mainly Eastern Europe, confirmed that race GGV populations maintain close genetic relatedness with the Guadalquivir Valley gene pool. This suggested that increased virulence was not caused by new introductions from other countries. Genetic diversity parameters revealed that the four populations had much greater genetic diversity than conventional populations of the same area, containing only alleles present in the Guadalquivir Valley and Cuenca gene pools. The results suggested that increased virulence may have resulted from admixture of populations from the Guadalquivir Valley and Cuenca followed by recombination of avirulence genes. PMID:27200060

  20. Measuring the Success of a Pipeline Program to Increase Nursing Workforce Diversity.

    PubMed

    Katz, Janet R; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; Benavides-Vaello, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand changes in knowledge and opinions of underserved American Indian and Hispanic high school students after attending a 2-week summer pipeline program using and testing a pre/postsurvey. The research aims were to (a) psychometrically analyze the survey to determine if scale items could be summed to create a total scale score or subscale scores; (b) assess change in scores pre/postprogram; and (c) examine the survey to make suggestions for modifications and further testing to develop a valid tool to measure changes in student perceptions about going to college and nursing as a result of pipeline programs. Psychometric analysis indicated poor model fit for a 1-factor model for the total scale and majority of subscales. Nonparametric tests indicated statistically significant increases in 13 items and decreases in 2 items. Therefore, while total scores or subscale scores cannot be used to assess changes in perceptions from pre- to postprogram, the survey can be used to examine changes over time in each item. Student did not have an accurate view of nursing and college and underestimated support needed to attend college. However students realized that nursing was a profession with autonomy, respect, and honor. PMID:26802586

  1. Hiring and Retention: Key Factors in Increasing Gender Diversity in the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, M.; O'Connell, S.; Frey, C.

    2004-12-01

    Graduation and hiring data of geoscientists over the last ten years indicate that the largest leak in the academic pipeline for women geoscientists is at hiring into tenure-track positions. Anecdotal explanations for this leak generally cite a lack of females in the applicant pool, but women in tenure-track positions anecdotally cite a lack of family-friendly practices by academic departments. Both ideas are currently being tested via surveys of geoscience departments. Is there a way to attract more women to the field to increase the applicant pool? Results of focus groups of geoscientists indicate that both men and women are attracted into the field of geosciences by the same types of events: over one-third became a geoscientist by randomly walking into an undergraduate class and finding themselves captivated by the topic and/or a dynamic instructor. The subject matter itself attracts another one-fourth, and family members encourage another one-fifth of geoscientists to initially enter the field. Slightly more women cite the first attractor of undergraduate class, but the principal draw for our future workforce, male and female, is good instruction of freshman courses. Retention of women in academia is another key issue. The proportion that considers leaving after working towards one or more degrees is highly skewed by gender: one-half of female and only one-third of male geoscientists considered leaving the field at some time in their career. The reasons for considering leaving also differ by gender. Males cite financial issues, including an uncertain job market. Females cite two principal reasons for considering leaving: family issues and difficulties with a graduate advisor. Strategies currently exist for "family issues", including stop-the-clock (of tenure for family needs), assignment shift, on-campus daycare facilities, and unflinching administrative support for such practices. Graduate advising is a learnable skill, and more attention needs to be paid to

  2. Power-Law Dynamics of Membrane Conductances Increase Spiking Diversity in a Hodgkin-Huxley Model.

    PubMed

    Teka, Wondimu; Stockton, David; Santamaria, Fidel

    2016-03-01

    We studied the effects of non-Markovian power-law voltage dependent conductances on the generation of action potentials and spiking patterns in a Hodgkin-Huxley model. To implement slow-adapting power-law dynamics of the gating variables of the potassium, n, and sodium, m and h, conductances we used fractional derivatives of order η≤1. The fractional derivatives were used to solve the kinetic equations of each gate. We systematically classified the properties of each gate as a function of η. We then tested if the full model could generate action potentials with the different power-law behaving gates. Finally, we studied the patterns of action potential that emerged in each case. Our results show the model produces a wide range of action potential shapes and spiking patterns in response to constant current stimulation as a function of η. In comparison with the classical model, the action potential shapes for power-law behaving potassium conductance (n gate) showed a longer peak and shallow hyperpolarization; for power-law activation of the sodium conductance (m gate), the action potentials had a sharp rise time; and for power-law inactivation of the sodium conductance (h gate) the spikes had wider peak that for low values of η replicated pituitary- and cardiac-type action potentials. With all physiological parameters fixed a wide range of spiking patterns emerged as a function of the value of the constant input current and η, such as square wave bursting, mixed mode oscillations, and pseudo-plateau potentials. Our analyses show that the intrinsic memory trace of the fractional derivative provides a negative feedback mechanism between the voltage trace and the activity of the power-law behaving gate variable. As a consequence, power-law behaving conductances result in an increase in the number of spiking patterns a neuron can generate and, we propose, expand the computational capacity of the neuron. PMID:26937967

  3. Power-Law Dynamics of Membrane Conductances Increase Spiking Diversity in a Hodgkin-Huxley Model

    PubMed Central

    Teka, Wondimu; Stockton, David; Santamaria, Fidel

    2016-01-01

    We studied the effects of non-Markovian power-law voltage dependent conductances on the generation of action potentials and spiking patterns in a Hodgkin-Huxley model. To implement slow-adapting power-law dynamics of the gating variables of the potassium, n, and sodium, m and h, conductances we used fractional derivatives of order η≤1. The fractional derivatives were used to solve the kinetic equations of each gate. We systematically classified the properties of each gate as a function of η. We then tested if the full model could generate action potentials with the different power-law behaving gates. Finally, we studied the patterns of action potential that emerged in each case. Our results show the model produces a wide range of action potential shapes and spiking patterns in response to constant current stimulation as a function of η. In comparison with the classical model, the action potential shapes for power-law behaving potassium conductance (n gate) showed a longer peak and shallow hyperpolarization; for power-law activation of the sodium conductance (m gate), the action potentials had a sharp rise time; and for power-law inactivation of the sodium conductance (h gate) the spikes had wider peak that for low values of η replicated pituitary- and cardiac-type action potentials. With all physiological parameters fixed a wide range of spiking patterns emerged as a function of the value of the constant input current and η, such as square wave bursting, mixed mode oscillations, and pseudo-plateau potentials. Our analyses show that the intrinsic memory trace of the fractional derivative provides a negative feedback mechanism between the voltage trace and the activity of the power-law behaving gate variable. As a consequence, power-law behaving conductances result in an increase in the number of spiking patterns a neuron can generate and, we propose, expand the computational capacity of the neuron. PMID:26937967

  4. Spectral determination of concentrations of functionally diverse pigments in increasingly complex arctic tundra canopies.

    PubMed

    Boelman, Natalie T; Magney, Troy S; Logan, Barry A; Griffin, Kevin L; Eitel, Jan U H; Greaves, Heather; Prager, Case M; Vierling, Lee A

    2016-09-01

    As the Arctic warms, tundra vegetation is becoming taller and more structurally complex, as tall deciduous shrubs become increasingly dominant. Emerging studies reveal that shrubs exhibit photosynthetic resource partitioning, akin to forests, that may need accounting for in the "big leaf" net ecosystem exchange models. We conducted a lab experiment on sun and shade leaves from S. pulchra shrubs to determine the influence of both constitutive (slowly changing bulk carotenoid and chlorophyll pools) and facultative (rapidly changing xanthophyll cycle) pigment pools on a suite of spectral vegetation indices, to devise a rapid means of estimating within canopy resource partitioning. We found that: (1) the PRI of dark-adapted shade leaves (PRIo) was double that of sun leaves, and that PRIo was sensitive to variation among sun and shade leaves in both xanthophyll cycle pool size (V + A + Z) (r (2) = 0.59) and Chla/b (r (2) = 0.64); (2) A corrected PRI (difference between dark and illuminated leaves, ΔPRI) was more sensitive to variation among sun and shade leaves in changes to the epoxidation state of their xanthophyll cycle pigments (dEPS) (r (2) = 0.78, RMSE = 0.007) compared to the uncorrected PRI of illuminated leaves (PRI) (r (2) = 0.34, RMSE = 0.02); and (3) the SR680 index was correlated with each of (V + A + Z), lutein, bulk carotenoids, (V + A + Z)/(Chla + b), and Chla/b (r (2) range = 0.52-0.69). We suggest that ΔPRI be employed as a proxy for facultative pigment dynamics, and the SR680 for the estimation of constitutive pigment pools. We contribute the first Arctic-specific information on disentangling PRI-pigment relationships, and offer insight into how spectral indices can assess resource partitioning within shrub tundra canopies. PMID:27193900

  5. Increase of Kv3.1b expression in avian auditory brainstem neurons correlates with synaptogenesis in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kuenzel, Thomas; Wirth, Marcus J; Luksch, Harald; Wagner, Hermann; Mey, Jörg

    2009-12-11

    In the auditory system voltage-activated currents mediated by potassium channels Kv1.1 and Kv3.1b and their interaction with sodium inward currents play a crucial role for computational function. However, it is unresolved how these potassium channels are developmentally regulated. We have therefore combined a biochemical investigation of Kv1.1 and Kv3.1b protein expression with electrophysiological recordings of membrane currents to characterize neuronal differentiation in the auditory brain stem of the chick. Differentiation in vitro was compared with cells prepared from corresponding embryonic stages in vivo. Using a computer model based on the empirical data we were then able to predict physiological properties of developing auditory brain stem neurons. In vivo Kv3.1b expression increased strongly between E10 and E14, a time of functional synaptogenesis in the auditory brainstem. We also found this increase of expression in vitro, again coinciding with synaptogenesis in the cultures. Whole-cell patch recordings revealed a corresponding increase of the (Kv3.1-like) high threshold potassium current. In contrast, Kv1.1 protein expression failed to increase in vitro, and changes in (Kv1.1-like) low threshold potassium current with time in culture were not significant. Electrophysiological recordings revealed that sodium inward currents increased with cultivation time. Thus, our data suggest that Kv3.1b expression occurs with the onset of functional synaptogenesis, while a different signal, absent from cultures of dissociated auditory brain stem, is needed for Kv1.1 expression. A biophysical model constructed with parameters from our recordings was used to investigate the functional impact of the currents mediated by these channels. We found that during development both high and low threshold potassium currents need to be increased in a concerted manner with the sodium conductance for the neurons to exhibit fast and phasic action potential firing and a narrow time

  6. Warming increases plant biomass and reduces diversity across continents, latitudes, and species migration scenarios in experimental wetland communities.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Andrew H; Jensen, Kai; Schönfeldt, Marisa

    2014-03-01

    Atmospheric warming may influence plant productivity and diversity and induce poleward migration of species, altering communities across latitudes. Complicating the picture is that communities from different continents deviate in evolutionary histories, which may modify responses to warming and migration. We used experimental wetland plant communities grown from seed banks as model systems to determine whether effects of warming on biomass production and species richness are consistent across continents, latitudes, and migration scenarios. We collected soil samples from each of three tidal freshwater marshes in estuaries at three latitudes (north, middle, south) on the Atlantic coasts of Europe and North America. In one experiment, we exposed soil seed bank communities from each latitude and continent to ambient and elevated (+2.8 °C) temperatures in the greenhouse. In a second experiment, soil samples were mixed either within each estuary (limited migration) or among estuaries from different latitudes in each continent (complete migration). Seed bank communities of these migration scenarios were also exposed to ambient and elevated temperatures and contrasted with a no-migration treatment. In the first experiment, warming overall increased biomass (+16%) and decreased species richness (-14%) across latitudes in Europe and North America. Species richness and evenness of south-latitude communities were less affected by warming than those of middle and north latitudes. In the second experiment, warming also stimulated biomass and lowered species richness. In addition, complete migration led to increased species richness (+60% in North America, + 100% in Europe), but this higher diversity did not translate into increased biomass. Species responded idiosyncratically to warming, but Lythrum salicaria and Bidens sp. increased significantly in response to warming in both continents. These results reveal for the first time consistent impacts of warming on biomass and

  7. Decreasing Abundance, Increasing Diversity and Changing Structure of the Wild Bee Community (Hymenoptera: Anthophila) along an Urbanization Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Fortel, Laura; Henry, Mickaël; Guilbaud, Laurent; Guirao, Anne Laure; Kuhlmann, Michael; Mouret, Hugues; Rollin, Orianne; Vaissière, Bernard E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Wild bees are important pollinators that have declined in diversity and abundance during the last decades. Habitat destruction and fragmentation associated with urbanization are reported as part of the main causes of this decline. Urbanization involves dramatic changes of the landscape, increasing the proportion of impervious surface while decreasing that of green areas. Few studies have investigated the effects of urbanization on bee communities. We assessed changes in the abundance, species richness, and composition of wild bee community along an urbanization gradient. Methodology/Principal Findings Over two years and on a monthly basis, bees were sampled with colored pan traps and insect nets at 24 sites located along an urbanization gradient. Landscape structure within three different radii was measured at each study site. We captured 291 wild bee species. The abundance of wild bees was negatively correlated with the proportion of impervious surface, while species richness reached a maximum at an intermediate (50%) proportion of impervious surface. The structure of the community changed along the urbanization gradient with more parasitic species in sites with an intermediate proportion of impervious surface. There were also greater numbers of cavity-nesting species and long-tongued species in sites with intermediate or higher proportion of impervious surface. However, urbanization had no effect on the occurrence of species depending on their social behavior or body size. Conclusions/Significance We found nearly a third of the wild bee fauna known from France in our study sites. Indeed, urban areas supported a diverse bee community, but sites with an intermediate level of urbanization were the most speciose ones, including greater proportion of parasitic species. The presence of a diverse array of bee species even in the most urbanized area makes these pollinators worthy of being a flagship group to raise the awareness of urban citizens about

  8. Avian lower intestine adapts to dietary salt (NaCl) depletion by increasing transepithelial sodium transport and microvillous membrane surface area.

    PubMed

    Sødring Elbrønd, V; Dantzer, V; Mayhew, T M; Skadhauge, E

    1991-09-01

    A tissue sampling scheme for tandem assessments of whole-organ physiology and ultrastructure was applied to the lower intestine (coprodaeum) of White Plymouth Rock hens on low- and high-NaCl diets. The objective was to correlate net amiloride-sensitive Na transport determined using the Ussing chamber with the plasma membrane surface areas due to microvilli at the epithelial cell apex. Hens kept on the low-NaCl diet for 3-4 weeks displayed a substantial increase in short-circuit current and in total microvillous membrane surface area. The latter rose from a group mean +/- S.E.M. of about 90 +/- 9.7 cm2 to one of 200 +/- 38 cm2 per organ. An increase in epithelial cell membrane contributed to, but did not fully explain, the increase in microvillous area. No differences in mean cell height or mean cell volume were found but the average cell in the low-NaCl birds was better developed in possessing a greater surface area of microvilli. On the high-NaCl diet, the epithelium was 33 +/- 2.7 microns tall and contained about 270 +/- 15 million cells. Each cell had a volume, on average, of 540 +/- 59 microns 3 and a microvillous surface of 32 +/- 2.6 microns 2. After NaCl depletion, there were 420 +/- 75 million cells and the average microvillous surface was 49 +/- 5.3 microns 2 per cell. The morphological adaptations alone do not explain the increased net Na transport found on the low-NaCl diet. Of cardinal importance is greater density of open Na channels in apical cell membranes. PMID:1742013

  9. Avian reproductive physiology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  10. The changing role of avian influenza on global health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) viruses are a diverse group divided into 144 different subtypes based on different combinations of the 16 hemagglutinin and 9 neuraminidase subtypes, and two different pathotypes (low [LP] and high pathogenicity [HP]). LPAI viruses are maintained in wild birds, and must be adapt...

  11. The avian heterophil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heterophils play an indispensable role in the immune defense of the avian host. To accomplish this defense, heterophils use sophisticated mechanisms to both detect and destroy pathogenic microbes. Detection of pathogens through toll-like receptors (TLR), FC and complement receptors, and other path...

  12. Avian influenza (fowl plague)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) viruses infect domestic poultry and wild birds. In domestic poultry, AI viruses are typically of low pathogenicity (LP) causing subclinical infections, respiratory disease or drops in egg production. However, a few AI viruses cause severe systemic disease with high mortality; ...

  13. Exploring the avian gut microbiota: current trends and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Waite, David W.; Taylor, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Birds represent a diverse and evolutionarily successful lineage, occupying a wide range of niches throughout the world. Like all vertebrates, avians harbor diverse communities of microorganisms within their guts, which collectively fulfill crucial roles in providing the host with nutrition and protection from pathogens. Across the field of avian microbiology knowledge is extremely uneven, with several species accounting for an overwhelming majority of all microbiological investigations. These include agriculturally important birds, such as chickens and turkeys, as well as birds of evolutionary or conservation interest. In our previous study we attempted the first meta-analysis of the avian gut microbiota, using 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained from a range of publicly available data sets. We have now extended our analysis to explore the microbiology of several key species in detail, to consider the avian microbiota within the context of what is known about other vertebrates, and to identify key areas of interest in avian microbiology for future study. PMID:26191057

  14. Trials of mixed-conifer plantings for increasing diversity in the lodgepole pine type. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, D.M.

    1993-03-01

    Greater forest diversity is needed in the lodgepole pine forest cover type--particularly, along and east of the Continental Divide in Montana--if large-scale losses from cyclical bark beetle outbreaks and subsequent wildfires are to be reduced. Three species were compared to lodgepole pine in a test of mixed-species planting in three ecological habitat types of the lodgepole pine type. Differences in seedling survival, condition, and growth were observed among species and among habitat types by the fifth year after planting. The results indicate Englemann spruce and Douglas-fir can be used to attain mixed-species stands by interplanting naturally regenerated lodgepole pine seedling stands. Western larch probably can succeed only when planted in moist Douglas-fir, spruce, or the warmer subalpine fir habitat types east of the Continental Divide. Because of greater frost tolerance, western larch x alpine larch hybrids are promising for increasing forest diversity in some of the colder subalpine fir habitat types.

  15. Avian dark cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hara, J.; Plymale, D. R.; Shepard, D. L.; Hara, H.; Garry, Robert F.; Yoshihara, T.; Zenner, Hans-Peter; Bolton, M.; Kalkeri, R.; Fermin, Cesar D.

    2002-01-01

    Dark cells (DCs) of mammalian and non-mammalian species help to maintain the homeostasis of the inner ear fluids in vivo. Although the avian cochlea is straight and the mammalian cochlea is coiled, no significant difference in the morphology and/or function of mammalian and avian DCs has been reported. The mammalian equivalent of avian DCs are marginal cells and are located in the stria vascularis along a bony sheet. Avian DCs hang free from the tegmentum vasculosum (TV) of the avian lagena between the perilymph and endolymph. Frame averaging was used to image the fluorescence emitted by several fluorochromes applied to freshly isolated dark cells (iDCs) from chickens (Gallus domesticus) inner ears. The viability of iDCs was monitored via trypan blue exclusion at each isolation step. Sodium Green, BCECF-AM, Rhodamine 123 and 9-anthroyl ouabain molecules were used to test iDC function. These fluorochromes label iDCs ionic transmembrane trafficking function, membrane electrogenic potentials and Na+/K+ ATPase pump's activity. Na+/K+ ATPase pump sites, were also evaluated by the p-nitrophenyl phosphatase reaction. These results suggest that iDCs remain viable for several hours after isolation without special culturing requirements and that the number and functional activity of Na+/K+ ATPase pumps in the iDCs were indistinguishable from in vivo DCs. Primary cultures of freshly iDCs were successfully maintained for 28 days in plastic dishes with RPMI 1640 culture medium. The preparation of iDCs overcomes the difficulty of DCs accessability in vivo and the unavoidable contamination that rupturing the inner ear microenvironments induces.

  16. Coevolution is linked with phenotypic diversification but not speciation in avian brood parasites.

    PubMed

    Medina, Iliana; Langmore, Naomi E

    2015-12-22

    Coevolution is often invoked as an engine of biological diversity. Avian brood parasites and their hosts provide one of the best-known examples of coevolution. Brood parasites lay their eggs in the nests of other species, selecting for host defences and reciprocal counteradaptations in parasites. In theory, this arms race should promote increased rates of speciation and phenotypic evolution. Here, we use recently developed methods to test whether the three largest avian brood parasitic lineages show changes in rates of phenotypic diversity and speciation relative to non-parasitic lineages. Our results challenge the accepted paradigm, and show that there is little consistent evidence that lineages of brood parasites have higher speciation or extinction rates than non-parasitic species. However, we provide the first evidence that the evolution of brood parasitic behaviour may affect rates of evolution in morphological traits associated with parasitism. Specifically, egg size and the colour and pattern of plumage have evolved up to nine times faster in parasitic than in non-parasitic cuckoos. Moreover, cuckoo clades of parasitic species that are sympatric (and share similar host genera) exhibit higher rates of phenotypic evolution. This supports the idea that competition for hosts may be linked to the high phenotypic diversity found in parasitic cuckoos. PMID:26702044

  17. Temporal dynamics of a commensal network of cavity-nesting vertebrates: increased diversity during an insect outbreak.

    PubMed

    Cockle, Kristina L; Martin, Kathy

    2015-04-01

    Network analysis offers insight into the structure and function of ecological communities, but little is known about how empirical networks change over time during perturbations. "Nest webs" are commensal networks that link secondary cavity-nesting vertebrates (e.g., bluebirds, ducks, and squirrels, which depend on tree cavities for nesting) with the excavators (e.g., woodpeckers) that produce cavities. In central British Columbia, Canada, Northern Flicker (Colaptes auratus) is considered a keystone excavator, providing most cavities for secondary cavity-nesters. However, roles of species in the network, and overall network architecture, are expected to vary with population fluctuations. Many excavator species increased in abundance in association with a pulse of food (adult and larval beetles) during an outbreak of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), which peaked in 2003-2004. We studied nest-web dynamics from 1998 to 2011 to determine how network architecture changed during this resource pulse. Cavity availability increased at the onset of the beetle outbreak and peaked in 2005. During and after the outbreak, secondary cavity-nesters increased their use of cavities made by five species of beetle-eating excavators, and decreased their use of flicker cavities. We found low link turnover, with 74% of links conserved from year to year. Nevertheless, the network increased in evenness and diversity of interactions, and declined slightly in nestedness and niche overlap. These patterns remained evident seven years after the beetle outbreak, suggesting a legacy effect. In contrast to previous snapshot studies of nest webs, our dynamic approach reveals how the role of each cavity producer, and thus quantitative network architecture, can vary over time. The increase in interaction diversity with the beetle outbreak adds to growing evidence that insect outbreaks can increase components of biodiversity in forest ecosystems at various temporal scales. The observed

  18. Increasing Diversity in STEM through Ka Hikina O Ka Lā Summer Bridge Program for Native Hawaiian Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coopersmith, A.; Cie, D. K.; Calder, S.; Naho`olewa, D.; Rai, B.

    2014-12-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) Mitigation Initiative and the Kahikina O Ka Lā Program are NSF-funded projects at the University of Hawai`i Maui College. These projects offer instruction and activities intended to increase diversity in STEM careers. Ke Alahaka, the 2014 summer bridge program, was offered to Native Hawaiian high-school students who indicated an interest in STEM areas. Content workshops were offered in Marine Science, Physics, Biotechnology, and Computer Science and Engineering as well as a Hawaiian Studies course designed to provide a cultural context for the STEM instruction. Focus groups and other program assessments indicate that 50% of the students attending the workshops intend to pursue a STEM major during their undergraduate studies.

  19. Establishment of exotic parasites: the origins and characteristics of an avian malaria community in an isolated island avifauna.

    PubMed

    Ewen, John G; Bensch, Staffan; Blackburn, Tim M; Bonneaud, Camille; Brown, Ruth; Cassey, Phillip; Clarke, Rohan H; Pérez-Tris, Javier

    2012-10-01

    Knowledge of the processes favouring the establishment of exotic parasites is poor. Herein, we test the characteristics of successful exotic parasites that have co-established in the remote island archipelago of New Zealand, due to the introduction of numerous avian host species. Our results show that avian malaria parasites (AM; parasites of the genus Plasmodium) that successfully invaded are more globally generalist (both geographically widespread and with a broad taxonomic range of hosts) than AM parasites not co-introduced to New Zealand. Furthermore, the successful AM parasites are presently more prevalent in their native range than AM parasites found in the same native range but not co-introduced to New Zealand. This has resulted in an increased number and greater taxonomic diversity of AM parasites now in New Zealand. PMID:22788956

  20. Increased anxiety and other similarities in temperament of alcoholics with and without antisocial personality disorder across three diverse populations

    PubMed Central

    Ducci, Francesca; Enoch, Mary-Anne; Funt, Samuel; Virkkunen, Matti; Albaugh, Bernard; Goldman, David

    2007-01-01

    According to Cloninger’s model, Type I alcoholics are thought to be innately vulnerable to anxiety and depression. In contrast, Type-II alcoholics are thought to have increased likelihood of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and reduced anxiety. However, allostatic activations of stress, anxiety and dysphoria may be a common thread in alcohol use disorders (AUD). Our aim was to find commonalities and differences in temperament of alcoholics with and without ASPD in three diverse populations. By sib-sib comparisons, we also evaluated the extent to which the temperament traits were moderated by familial factors including inheritance. We compared harm avoidance (HA), novelty seeking (NS), and reward dependence (RD) in alcoholics with ASPD, alcoholics without ASPD and controls. Correlations for each temperament dimension were evaluated in pairs of siblings concordant and discordant for AUD. Participants were derived from three independent populations: Finnish Caucasians (N=453, men = 100%, including a sample of alcoholic criminals), a Plains American Indian community sample (N=378; men = 42%) and a subset of the familial and predominantly Caucasian COGA sample (N=967, men = 47%). In all three populations both alcoholics with and without ASPD were higher in HA than controls. The increase of HA among alcoholics as compared to controls ranged from 54% to 12%. In two populations (COGA and Finns), NS was highest in alcoholics with ASPD, intermediate in alcoholics without ASPD, and lowest in controls. HA levels were correlated in sib-pairs concordant (either affected or unaffected) for AUD but not in discordant pairs. In conclusions, despite cultural diversity and different modes of ascertainment we found a consistent pattern of elevated HA in all groups of alcoholics, including alcoholics with ASPD. Even in alcoholics with long-term exposure to the anxiogenic effects of repeated cycles of alcohol withdrawal, genetic and other familial influences seem to play a role

  1. Increased anxiety and other similarities in temperament of alcoholics with and without antisocial personality disorder across three diverse populations.

    PubMed

    Ducci, Francesca; Enoch, Mary-Anne; Funt, Samuel; Virkkunen, Matti; Albaugh, Bernard; Goldman, David

    2007-02-01

    According to Cloninger's model, type I alcoholics are thought to be innately vulnerable to anxiety and depression. In contrast, type II alcoholics are thought to have increased likelihood of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and reduced anxiety. However, allostatic activations of stress, anxiety, and dysphoria may be a common thread in alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Our aim was to find commonalities and differences in temperament of alcoholics with and without ASPD in three diverse populations. By sib-sib comparisons, we also evaluated the extent to which the temperament traits were moderated by familial factors including inheritance. We compared harm avoidance (HA), novelty seeking (NS), and reward dependence (RD) in alcoholics with ASPD, alcoholics without ASPD, and controls. Correlations for each temperament dimension were evaluated in pairs of siblings concordant and discordant for AUD. Participants were derived from three independent populations: Finnish Caucasians (N=453, men=100%, including a sample of alcoholic criminals), a Plains American Indian community sample (N=378; men=42%), and a subset of the familial and predominantly Caucasian Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) sample (N=967, men=47%). In all the three populations, both alcoholics with and without ASPD were higher in HA than controls. The increase of HA among alcoholics as compared to controls ranged from 54% to 12%. In two populations (COGA and Finns), NS was highest in alcoholics with ASPD, intermediate in alcoholics without ASPD, and lowest in controls. HA levels were correlated in sib-pairs concordant (either affected or unaffected) for AUD but not in discordant pairs. In conclusions, despite cultural diversity and different modes of ascertainment we found a consistent pattern of elevated HA in all groups of alcoholics, including alcoholics with ASPD. Even in alcoholics with long-term exposure to the anxiogenic effects of repeated cycles of alcohol withdrawal

  2. Reduced Genetic Diversity and Increased Structure in American Mink on the Swedish Coast following Invasive Species Control.

    PubMed

    Zalewski, Andrzej; Zalewska, Hanna; Lunneryd, Sven-Gunnar; André, Carl; Mikusiński, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Eradication and population reductions are often used to mitigate the negative impacts of non-native invasive species on native biodiversity. However, monitoring the effectiveness of non-native species control programmes is necessary to evaluate the efficacy of these measures. Genetic monitoring could provide valuable insights into temporal changes in demographic, ecological, and evolutionary processes in invasive populations being subject to control programmes. Such programmes should cause a decrease in effective population size and/or in genetic diversity of the targeted non-native species and an increase in population genetic structuring over time. We used microsatellite DNA data from American mink (Neovison vison) to determine whether the removal of this predator on the Koster Islands archipelago and the nearby Swedish mainland affected genetic variation over six consecutive years of mink culling by trappers as part of a population control programme. We found that on Koster Islands allelic richness decreased (from on average 4.53 to 3.55), genetic structuring increased, and effective population size did not change. In contrast, the mink population from the Swedish coast showed no changes in genetic diversity or structure, suggesting the stability of this population over 6 years of culling. Effective population size did not change over time but was higher on the coast than on the islands across all years. Migration rates from the islands to the coast were almost two times higher than from the coast to the islands. Most migrants leaving the coast were localised on the southern edge of the archipelago, as expected from the direction of the sea current between the two sites. Genetic monitoring provided valuable information on temporal changes in the population of American mink suggesting that this approach can be used to evaluate and improve control programmes of invasive vertebrates. PMID:27333328

  3. Reduced Genetic Diversity and Increased Structure in American Mink on the Swedish Coast following Invasive Species Control

    PubMed Central

    Zalewska, Hanna; Lunneryd, Sven-Gunnar; André, Carl; Mikusiński, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Eradication and population reductions are often used to mitigate the negative impacts of non-native invasive species on native biodiversity. However, monitoring the effectiveness of non-native species control programmes is necessary to evaluate the efficacy of these measures. Genetic monitoring could provide valuable insights into temporal changes in demographic, ecological, and evolutionary processes in invasive populations being subject to control programmes. Such programmes should cause a decrease in effective population size and/or in genetic diversity of the targeted non-native species and an increase in population genetic structuring over time. We used microsatellite DNA data from American mink (Neovison vison) to determine whether the removal of this predator on the Koster Islands archipelago and the nearby Swedish mainland affected genetic variation over six consecutive years of mink culling by trappers as part of a population control programme. We found that on Koster Islands allelic richness decreased (from on average 4.53 to 3.55), genetic structuring increased, and effective population size did not change. In contrast, the mink population from the Swedish coast showed no changes in genetic diversity or structure, suggesting the stability of this population over 6 years of culling. Effective population size did not change over time but was higher on the coast than on the islands across all years. Migration rates from the islands to the coast were almost two times higher than from the coast to the islands. Most migrants leaving the coast were localised on the southern edge of the archipelago, as expected from the direction of the sea current between the two sites. Genetic monitoring provided valuable information on temporal changes in the population of American mink suggesting that this approach can be used to evaluate and improve control programmes of invasive vertebrates. PMID:27333328

  4. Minority cytotypes in European populations of the Gymnadenia conopsea complex (Orchidaceae) greatly increase intraspecific and intrapopulation diversity

    PubMed Central

    Trávníček, Pavel; Jersáková, Jana; Kubátová, Barbora; Krejčíková, Jana; Bateman, Richard M.; Lučanová, Magdalena; Krajníková, Eva; Těšitelová, Tamara; Štípková, Zuzana; Amardeilh, Jean-Pierre; Brzosko, Emilia; Jermakowicz, Edyta; Cabanne, Olivier; Durka, Walter; Efimov, Peter; Hedrén, Mikael; Hermosilla, Carlos E.; Kreutz, Karel; Kull, Tiiu; Tali, Kadri; Marchand, Olivier; Rey, Manel; Schiestl, Florian P.; Čurn, Vladislav; Suda, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Patterns of ploidy variation among and within populations can provide valuable insights into the evolutionary mechanisms shaping the dynamics of plant systems showing ploidy diversity. Whereas data on majority ploidies are, by definition, often sufficiently extensive, much less is known about the incidence and evolutionary role of minority cytotypes. Methods Ploidy and proportions of endoreplicated genome were determined using DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) flow cytometry in 6150 Gymnadenia plants (fragrant orchids) collected from 141 populations in 17 European countries. All widely recognized European species, and several taxa of less certain taxonomic status were sampled within Gymnadenia conopsea sensu lato. Key Results Most Gymnadenia populations were taxonomically and/or ploidy heterogeneous. Two majority (2x and 4x) and three minority (3x, 5x and 6x) cytotypes were identified. Evolution largely proceeded at the diploid level, whereas tetraploids were much more geographically and taxonomically restricted. Although minority ploidies constituted <2 % of the individuals sampled, they were found in 35 % of populations across the entire area investigated. The amount of nuclear DNA, together with the level of progressively partial endoreplication, separated all Gymnadenia species currently widely recognized in Europe. Conclusions Despite their low frequency, minority cytotypes substantially increase intraspecific and intrapopulation ploidy diversity estimates for fragrant orchids. The cytogenetic structure of Gymnadenia populations is remarkably dynamic and shaped by multiple evolutionary mechanisms, including both the ongoing production of unreduced gametes and heteroploid hybridization. Overall, it is likely that the level of ploidy heterogeneity experienced by most plant species/populations is currently underestimated; intensive sampling is necessary to obtain a holistic picture. PMID:23002267

  5. Coarse Woody Debris Increases Microbial Community Functional Diversity but not Enzyme Activities in Reclaimed Oil Sands Soils.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Jin-Hyeob; Chang, Scott X; Naeth, M Anne; Schaaf, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Forest floor mineral soil mix (FMM) and peat mineral soil mix (PMM) are cover soils commonly used for upland reclamation post open-pit oil sands mining in northern Alberta, Canada. Coarse woody debris (CWD) can be used to regulate soil temperature and water content, to increase organic matter content, and to create microsites for the establishment of microorganisms and vegetation in upland reclamation. We studied the effects of CWD on soil microbial community level physiological profile (CLPP) and soil enzyme activities in FMM and PMM in a reclaimed landscape in the oil sands. This experiment was conducted with a 2 (FMM vs PMM) × 2 (near CWD vs away from CWD) factorial design with 6 replications. The study plots were established with Populus tremuloides (trembling aspen) CWD placed on each plot between November 2007 and February 2008. Soil samples were collected within 5 cm from CWD and more than 100 cm away from CWD in July, August and September 2013 and 2014. Microbial biomass was greater (p<0.05) in FMM than in PMM, in July, and August 2013 and July 2014, and greater (p<0.05) near CWD than away from CWD in FMM in July and August samplings. Soil microbial CLPP differed between FMM and PMM (p<0.01) according to a principal component analysis and CWD changed microbial CLPP in FMM (p<0.05) but not in PMM. Coarse woody debris increased microbial community functional diversity (average well color development in Biolog Ecoplates) in both cover soils (p<0.05) in August and September 2014. Carbon degrading soil enzyme activities were greater in FMM than in PMM (p<0.05) regardless of distance from CWD but were not affected by CWD. Greater microbial biomass and enzyme activities in FMM than in PMM will increase organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling, improving plant growth. Enhanced microbial community functional diversity by CWD application in upland reclamation has implications for accelerating upland reclamation after oil sands mining. PMID:26618605

  6. Coarse Woody Debris Increases Microbial Community Functional Diversity but not Enzyme Activities in Reclaimed Oil Sands Soils

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Jin-Hyeob; Chang, Scott X.; Naeth, M. Anne; Schaaf, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Forest floor mineral soil mix (FMM) and peat mineral soil mix (PMM) are cover soils commonly used for upland reclamation post open-pit oil sands mining in northern Alberta, Canada. Coarse woody debris (CWD) can be used to regulate soil temperature and water content, to increase organic matter content, and to create microsites for the establishment of microorganisms and vegetation in upland reclamation. We studied the effects of CWD on soil microbial community level physiological profile (CLPP) and soil enzyme activities in FMM and PMM in a reclaimed landscape in the oil sands. This experiment was conducted with a 2 (FMM vs PMM) × 2 (near CWD vs away from CWD) factorial design with 6 replications. The study plots were established with Populus tremuloides (trembling aspen) CWD placed on each plot between November 2007 and February 2008. Soil samples were collected within 5 cm from CWD and more than 100 cm away from CWD in July, August and September 2013 and 2014. Microbial biomass was greater (p<0.05) in FMM than in PMM, in July, and August 2013 and July 2014, and greater (p<0.05) near CWD than away from CWD in FMM in July and August samplings. Soil microbial CLPP differed between FMM and PMM (p<0.01) according to a principal component analysis and CWD changed microbial CLPP in FMM (p<0.05) but not in PMM. Coarse woody debris increased microbial community functional diversity (average well color development in Biolog Ecoplates) in both cover soils (p<0.05) in August and September 2014. Carbon degrading soil enzyme activities were greater in FMM than in PMM (p<0.05) regardless of distance from CWD but were not affected by CWD. Greater microbial biomass and enzyme activities in FMM than in PMM will increase organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling, improving plant growth. Enhanced microbial community functional diversity by CWD application in upland reclamation has implications for accelerating upland reclamation after oil sands mining. PMID:26618605

  7. De Novo Synthesis of Benzenoid Compounds by the Yeast Hanseniaspora vineae Increases the Flavor Diversity of Wines.

    PubMed

    Martin, Valentina; Giorello, Facundo; Fariña, Laura; Minteguiaga, Manuel; Salzman, Valentina; Boido, Eduardo; Aguilar, Pablo S; Gaggero, Carina; Dellacassa, Eduardo; Mas, Albert; Carrau, Francisco

    2016-06-01

    Benzyl alcohol and other benzenoid-derived metabolites of particular importance in plants confer floral and fruity flavors to wines. Among the volatile aroma components in Vitis vinifera grape varieties, benzyl alcohol is present in its free and glycosylated forms. These compounds are considered to originate from grapes only and not from fermentative processes. We have found increased levels of benzyl alcohol in red Tannat wine compared to that in grape juice, suggesting de novo formation of this metabolite during vinification. In this work, we show that benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, and p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol are synthesized de novo in the absence of grape-derived precursors by Hanseniaspora vineae. Levels of benzyl alcohol produced by 11 different H. vineae strains were 20-200 times higher than those measured in fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. These results show that H. vineae contributes to flavor diversity by increasing grape variety aroma concentration in a chemically defined medium. Feeding experiments with phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine, p-aminobenzoic acid, and ammonium in an artificial medium were tested to evaluate the effect of these compounds either as precursors or as potential pathway regulators for the formation of benzenoid-derived aromas. Genomic analysis shows that the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and tyrosine ammonia lyase (TAL) pathways, used by plants to generate benzyl alcohols from aromatic amino acids, are absent in the H. vineae genome. Consequently, alternative pathways derived from chorismate with mandelate as an intermediate are discussed. PMID:27193819

  8. Promotion of cooperation due to diversity of players in the spatial public goods game with increasing neighborhood size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Cheng-jie; Sun, Shi-wen; Wang, Li; Ding, Shuai; Wang, Juan; Xia, Cheng-yi

    2014-07-01

    It is well-known that individual diversity is a typical feature within the collective population. To model this kind of characteristics, we propose an evolutionary model of public goods game with two types of players (named as A and B), where players are located on the sites of a square lattice satisfying the periodic boundary conditions. The evolution of the strategy distribution is governed by iterated strategy adoption from a randomly selected neighbor with a probability, which not only depends on the payoff difference between players, but also on the type of the neighbor. For B-type agents, we pose a pre-factor (0increased from 4 to 24. Within a range of the portion of A-type influential players, the inhomogeneous teaching activity in strategy transfer yields a relevant increase (dependent on w) in the density of cooperators characterizing the promotion of cooperation. Current findings are of utmost importance for us to understand the evolution of cooperation under many real-world circumstances, such as the natural, biological, economic and even social systems.

  9. Avian flu: pandemic preparedness.

    PubMed

    Jan, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Pandemic influenza is unpredictable, and the risk of an avian flu outbreak is unclear. It is critical that home health providers, who may become overburdened quickly in the event of a pandemic outbreak, be prepared to ensure a sustainable healthcare response. This article offers information on strategies that may be used by home health providers to prepare for, prevent, and manage pandemic influenza. PMID:17984642

  10. The Woods Hole Partnership Education Program: Increasing Diversity in the Ocean and Environmental Sciences in One Influential Science Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jearld, A.; Liles, G.; Gutierrez, B. T.; Scott, O.

    2012-12-01

    To increase diversity in one influential science community, a consortium of public and private institutions created the Woods Hole Partnership Education Program, or PEP, in 2008. PEP is a direct result of the Woods Hole Diversity Initiative (WHDI). Participating institutions are the Marine Biological Laboratory, the Woods Hole Laboratory of NOAA's Northeast Fisheries Science Center, the Sea Education Association, the Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center of the United States Geological Survey, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, and the Woods Hole Research Center. WHDI's primary academic partner is the University of Maryland Eastern Shore. PEP, a summer research internship program for undergraduate students, is open to students of all backgrounds but is designed especially to provide opportunities for individuals from populations underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and who otherwise would not have had the opportunity to come to Woods Hole to study or do research. In four years, PEP has brought to Woods Hole 60 students from 39 colleges and universities, including many that previously had sent few or no students to Woods Hole. Many of the students come from community and four-year colleges and universities without strong research opportunities, part of the program's's strategy of coupling coursework and research in the marine and environmental sciences. As an evidence-based, promising practice for retaining students in STEM, the PEP model is emerging as an effective and sustainable approach. Beyond Woods Hole, PEP is gaining national recognition as information about PEP is disseminated via multiple channels, both electronic and non-electronic. PEP's applicant pool has increased from 24 in Year 1 to 70 in Year 4. As a collaborative, partnership initiative, PEP has established a critical mass of underrepresented students participating in the Woods Hole scientific communities who, through their research, are

  11. Chemical ions affect survival of avian cholera organisms in pondwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, J.I.; Yandell, B.S.; Porter, W.P.

    1992-01-01

    Avian cholera (Pasteurella multocida) is a major disease of wild waterfowl, but its epizootiology remains little understood. Consequently, we examined whether chemical ions affected survival of avian cholera organisms in water collected from the Nebraska Rainwater Basin where avian cholera is enzootic. We tested the response of P. multocida to ammonium (NH4), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), nitrate (NO3), and ortho-phosphate (PO4) ions individually and in combination using a fractional factorial design divided into 4 blocks. High concentrations of Ca and Mg, singly or in combination, increased survival of P. multocida organisms (P < 0.001). We developed a survival index to predict whether or not specific ponds could be "problem" or "nonproblem" avian cholera sites based on concentrations of these ions in the water.

  12. Status of Avian Research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, K.

    2001-09-18

    As the use of wind energy expands across the United States, concerns about the impacts of commercial wind farms on bird and bat populations are frequently raised. Two primary areas of concern are (1) possible litigation resulting from the killing of even one bird if it is protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act, the Endangered Species Act, or both; and (2) the effect of avian mortality on bird populations. To properly address these concerns, the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) supports scientifically based avian/wind power interaction research. In this paper I describe NREL's field-based research projects and summarize the status of the research. I also summarize NREL's other research activities, including lab-based vision research to increase the visibility of moving turbine blades and avian acoustic research, as well as our collaborative efforts with the National Wind Coordinating Committee's Avian Subcommittee.

  13. Managing diversity.

    PubMed

    Epting, L A; Glover, S H; Boyd, S D

    1994-06-01

    The U.S. work force is becoming increasingly diverse as the 20th century approaches. Statistics prove that most organizations are experiencing gender, culture, and age diversity within their labor forces. All managers and leaders must accept this diversity and work to handle it effectively. This article examines the current literature concerning management of diversity and its implications for the health care profession. Gender, culture, and age diversity and the potential problems that may arise with each are also addressed. Reasons to manage diversity are offered, as well as methods of managing diversity for both the manager and the chief executive officer. PMID:10134144

  14. The Cal-Bridge Program: Increasing the Gender and Ethnic Diversity of Astrophysics Students in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smecker-Hane, Tammy A.; Rudolph, Alexander L.

    2016-06-01

    The mission of the Cal-Bridge program is to increase the number of underrepresented minority and women students completing a bachelor’s degree and entering a PhD program in astronomy, physics, or closely-related fields. The program has created a network of faculty at diverse higher education institutions, including 5 University of California (UC) campuses, 9 California State Universities (CSUs), and 10 community colleges in southern California, dedicated to this goal. Students selected for the program are know as “Cal-Bridge Scholars” and they are given a wide variety of support: (1) scholarships in their junior/senior years at CSU and their first year of graduate school at a UC, (2) intensive mentoring by a pair of CSU and UC faculty members, (3) tutoring, when needed, (4) professional development workshops, (5) exposure to research opportunities at various universities, and (6) membership in a growing cohort of like-minded students. We report on the structure of our program, lessons learned with our current 12 Cal-Bridge scholars, and the results of our first two years of operation. Funding for this program is provided by NSF-SSTEM Grant #1356133.

  15. Increase of genetic diversity and clonal replacement of epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains in South-East Austria

    PubMed Central

    Zarfel, Gernot; Luxner, Josefa; Folli, Bettina; Leitner, Eva; Feierl, Gebhard; Kittinger, Clemens; Grisold, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Spa-typing and microarray techniques were used to study epidemiological changes in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in South-East Austria. The population structure of 327 MRSA isolated between 2002 and 2012 was investigated. MRSA was assigned to 58 different spa types and 14 different MLST CC (multilocus sequence type clonal complexes); in particular, between 2007 and 2012, an increasing diversity in MRSA clones could be observed. The most abundant clonal complex was CC5. On the respective SCCmec cassettes, the CC5 isolates differed clearly within this decade and CC5/SCCmecI, the South German MRSA, predominant in 2002, was replaced by CC5/SCCmecII, the Rhine-Hesse MRSA in 2012. Whereas in many European countries MLST CC22-MRSA (EMRSA 15, the Barnim epidemic MRSA) is predominant, this clone occurred in Austria nearly 10 years later than in neighbouring countries. CC45, the Berlin EMRSA, epidemic in Germany, was only sporadically found in South-East Austria. The Irish ST8-MRSA-II represented by spa-type t190 was frequently found in 2002 and 2007, but disappeared in 2012. Our results demonstrate clonal replacement of MRSA clones within the last years in Austria. Ongoing surveillance is warranted for detection of changes within the MRSA population. PMID:27231237

  16. Increase of genetic diversity and clonal replacement of epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains in South-East Austria.

    PubMed

    Zarfel, Gernot; Luxner, Josefa; Folli, Bettina; Leitner, Eva; Feierl, Gebhard; Kittinger, Clemens; Grisold, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    Spa-typing and microarray techniques were used to study epidemiological changes in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in South-East Austria. The population structure of 327 MRSA isolated between 2002 and 2012 was investigated. MRSA was assigned to 58 different spa types and 14 different MLST CC (multilocus sequence type clonal complexes); in particular, between 2007 and 2012, an increasing diversity in MRSA clones could be observed. The most abundant clonal complex was CC5. On the respective SCCmec cassettes, the CC5 isolates differed clearly within this decade and CC5/SCCmecI, the South German MRSA, predominant in 2002, was replaced by CC5/SCCmecII, the Rhine-Hesse MRSA in 2012. Whereas in many European countries MLST CC22-MRSA (EMRSA 15, the Barnim epidemic MRSA) is predominant, this clone occurred in Austria nearly 10 years later than in neighbouring countries. CC45, the Berlin EMRSA, epidemic in Germany, was only sporadically found in South-East Austria. The Irish ST8-MRSA-II represented by spa-type t190 was frequently found in 2002 and 2007, but disappeared in 2012. Our results demonstrate clonal replacement of MRSA clones within the last years in Austria. Ongoing surveillance is warranted for detection of changes within the MRSA population. PMID:27231237

  17. Pathobiology of avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus causes serious disease in a wide variety of birds and mammals. Its natural hosts are wild aquatic birds, in which most infections are unapparent. Avian Influenza (AI) viruses are classified into 16 hemagglutinin (H1-16) and nine neuraminidase (N1-9) subtypes. Each virus has on...

  18. Avian influenza prevention and control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza is one of the most important diseases affecting the poultry industry around the world. Avian Influenza virus (AIV) has a broad host range in birds and mammals, although the natural reservoir is considered to be in wild birds where it typically causes an asymptomatic to mild infectio...

  19. Avian influenza: Vaccination and control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) is a viral disease of poultry that remains an economic threat to commercial poultry throughout the world by negatively impacting animal health and trade. Strategies to control avian influenza (AI) virus are developed to prevent, manage or eradicate the virus from the country, re...

  20. Avian influenza vaccination and control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) remains an economic threat to commercial poultry throughout the world by negatively impacting animal health and trade. Vaccination with high quality efficacious vaccines that are properly delivered can contribute to the control of avian AI outbreaks when used as part of a compr...

  1. Clotrimazole, an antifungal drug possessing diverse actions, increases the vulnerability to cadmium in lymphocytes dissociated from rat thymus.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Tomohiro M; Oyama, Toshihisa B; Oyama, Keisuke; Matsui, Hiroko; Horimoto, Kanna; Nishimura, Yumiko; Oyama, Yasuo

    2006-12-01

    Since clotrimazole, known as an antifungal drug, exerts diverse actions on cellular functions, it is expected that clotrimazole can be used for other purposes. This antifungal drug protects the cells overloaded with Ca(2+) by A23187, a calcium ionophore. Therefore, the agent may prevent the cells from death induced by heavy metals such as CdCl(2), PbCl(2), or HgCl(2) that are respectively proposed to increase intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. To test this possibility, we have examined the effect of clotrimazole on the cells simultaneously treated with CdCl(2), PbCl(2), or HgCl(2) using rat thymocytes and a flow cytometer with fluorescent probes. The simultaneous application of clotrimazole and CdCl(2) significantly decreased cell viability, even though the concentrations of both were ineffective at affecting the viability. The significant decrease in cell viability was not due to the inhibition of Ca(2+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels that were induced by clotrimazole. The simultaneous application increased the population of cells with phosphatidylserine exposed on membrane surface, indicating the change in asymmetrical distribution of membrane phospholipids. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity induced by the combination of clotrimazole and CdCl(2) under nominally Ca(2+)-free condition was more profound than that under normal Ca(2+) condition. Therefore, the membrane may be a target for the cytotoxic action of clotrimazole and CdCl(2) that were simultaneously applied. It is also the case for PbCl(2), but not the case for HgCl(2). It is concluded that clotrimazole can modulate the cytotoxicity of some heavy metals. PMID:17055140

  2. Endogenous hepadnaviruses in the genome of the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) and the evolution of avian hepadnaviruses.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jie; Holmes, Edward C

    2012-07-01

    Endogenous hepadnaviruses (hepatitis B viruses [HBVs]) were recently discovered in the genomes of passerine birds. We mined six additional avian genomes and discovered multiple copies of endogenous HBVs in the budgerigar (order Psittaciformes), designated eBHBV. A phylogenetic analysis reveals that the endogenous hepadnaviruses are more diverse than their exogenous counterparts and that the endogenous and exogenous hepadnaviruses form distinct lineages even when sampled from the same avian order, indicative of multiple genomic integration events. PMID:22553337

  3. Endogenous Hepadnaviruses in the Genome of the Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) and the Evolution of Avian Hepadnaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Endogenous hepadnaviruses (hepatitis B viruses [HBVs]) were recently discovered in the genomes of passerine birds. We mined six additional avian genomes and discovered multiple copies of endogenous HBVs in the budgerigar (order Psittaciformes), designated eBHBV. A phylogenetic analysis reveals that the endogenous hepadnaviruses are more diverse than their exogenous counterparts and that the endogenous and exogenous hepadnaviruses form distinct lineages even when sampled from the same avian order, indicative of multiple genomic integration events. PMID:22553337

  4. Avian Soft Tissue Surgery.

    PubMed

    Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon

    2016-01-01

    Basic surgical instrumentation for avian soft tissue surgery includes soft tissue retractors, microsurgical instrumentation, surgical loupes, and head-mounted lights. Hemostasis is fundamental during the surgical procedures. The indications, approach, and complications associated with soft tissue surgeries of the integumentary (digit constriction repair, feather cyst excision, cranial wound repair, sternal wound repair, uropygial gland excision), gastrointestinal (ingluviotomy, crop biopsy, crop burn repair, celiotomy, coelomic hernia and pseudohernia repair, proventriculotomy, ventriculotomy, enterotomy, intestinal resection and anastomosis, cloacoplasty, cloacopexy), respiratory (rhinolith removal, sinusotomy, tracheotomy, tracheal resection and anastomosis, tracheostomy, pneumonectomy) and reproductive (ovocentesis, ovariectomy, salpingohysterectomy, cesarean section, orchidectomy, vasectomy, phallectomy) systems are reviewed. PMID:26611927

  5. Increasing microbial diversity and nitrogen cycling potential of burnt forest soil in Spain through post-fire management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereg, Lily; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; McMillan, Mary; García-Orenes, Fuensanta

    2016-04-01

    Microbial diversity and function in soils are increasingly assessed by the application of molecular methods such as sequencing and PCR technology. We applied these techniques to study microbial recovery in post-fire forest soils. The recovery of forest ecosystems following severe fire is influenced by post-fire management. The removal of burnt tree stumps (salvage logging) is a common practice in Spain following fire. In some cases, the use of heavy machinery in addition to the vulnerability of soils to erosion and degradation make this management potentially damaging to soil, and therefore to the ecosystem. We hypothesized that tree removal slows down the recovery of soil biological communities including microbial and plant communities and contributes to soil degradation in the burnt affected area. The study area is located in "Sierra de Mariola Natural Park" in Alcoi, Alicante (E Spain). A big forest fire (>500 has) occurred in July 2012. The forest is composed mainly of Pinus halepensis trees with an understory of typical Mediterranean shrubs species such as Quercus coccifera, Rosmarinus officinalis, Thymus vulgaris, Brachypodium retusum, etc. Soil is classified as a Typic Xerorthent (Soil Survey Staff, 2014) developed over marls. In February 2013, salvage logging (SL) treatment, with a complete extraction of the burned wood using heavy machinery, was applied to a part of the affected forest. Plots for monitoring the effects of SL were installed in this area and in a similar nearby control (C) area, where no SL treatment was done. The recovery of soil bacterial and fungal communities post-fire with and without tree removal was analysed by using Next-Generation sequencing and the abundance of functional genes, related to nitrogen cycling, in the soil was estimated using quantitative PCR (qPCR). We will present the methods used and the results of our study in this PICO presentation.

  6. Chronic Trichuris muris Infection Decreases Diversity of the Intestinal Microbiota and Concomitantly Increases the Abundance of Lactobacilli.

    PubMed

    Holm, Jacob Bak; Sorobetea, Daniel; Kiilerich, Pia; Ramayo-Caldas, Yuliaxis; Estellé, Jordi; Ma, Tao; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten; Svensson-Frej, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota is vital for shaping the local intestinal environment as well as host immunity and metabolism. At the same time, epidemiological and experimental evidence suggest an important role for parasitic worm infections in maintaining the inflammatory and regulatory balance of the immune system. In line with this, the prevalence of persistent worm infections is inversely correlated with the incidence of immune-associated diseases, prompting the use of controlled parasite infections for therapeutic purposes. Despite this, the impact of parasite infection on the intestinal microbiota, as well as potential downstream effects on the immune system, remain largely unknown. We have assessed the influence of chronic infection with the large-intestinal nematode Trichuris muris, a close relative of the human pathogen Trichuris trichiura, on the composition of the murine intestinal microbiota by 16S ribosomal-RNA gene-based sequencing. Our results demonstrate that persistent T. muris infection dramatically affects the large-intestinal microbiota, most notably with a drop in the diversity of bacterial communities, as well as a marked increase in the relative abundance of the Lactobacillus genus. In parallel, chronic T. muris infection resulted in a significant shift in the balance between regulatory and inflammatory T cells in the intestinal adaptive immune system, in favour of inflammatory cells. Together, these data demonstrate that chronic parasite infection strongly influences the intestinal microbiota and the adaptive immune system. Our results illustrate the complex interactions between these factors in the intestinal tract, and contribute to furthering the understanding of this interplay, which is of crucial importance considering that 500 million people globally are suffering from these infections and their potential use for therapeutic purposes. PMID:25942314

  7. Chronic Trichuris muris Infection Decreases Diversity of the Intestinal Microbiota and Concomitantly Increases the Abundance of Lactobacilli

    PubMed Central

    Kiilerich, Pia; Ramayo-Caldas, Yuliaxis; Estellé, Jordi; Ma, Tao; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten; Svensson-Frej, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota is vital for shaping the local intestinal environment as well as host immunity and metabolism. At the same time, epidemiological and experimental evidence suggest an important role for parasitic worm infections in maintaining the inflammatory and regulatory balance of the immune system. In line with this, the prevalence of persistent worm infections is inversely correlated with the incidence of immune-associated diseases, prompting the use of controlled parasite infections for therapeutic purposes. Despite this, the impact of parasite infection on the intestinal microbiota, as well as potential downstream effects on the immune system, remain largely unknown. We have assessed the influence of chronic infection with the large-intestinal nematode Trichuris muris, a close relative of the human pathogen Trichuris trichiura, on the composition of the murine intestinal microbiota by 16S ribosomal-RNA gene-based sequencing. Our results demonstrate that persistent T. muris infection dramatically affects the large-intestinal microbiota, most notably with a drop in the diversity of bacterial communities, as well as a marked increase in the relative abundance of the Lactobacillus genus. In parallel, chronic T. muris infection resulted in a significant shift in the balance between regulatory and inflammatory T cells in the intestinal adaptive immune system, in favour of inflammatory cells. Together, these data demonstrate that chronic parasite infection strongly influences the intestinal microbiota and the adaptive immune system. Our results illustrate the complex interactions between these factors in the intestinal tract, and contribute to furthering the understanding of this interplay, which is of crucial importance considering that 500 million people globally are suffering from these infections and their potential use for therapeutic purposes. PMID:25942314

  8. Similar diversity-disturbance responses to different physical impacts: three cases of small-scale biodiversity increase in the Belgian part of the North Sea.

    PubMed

    De Backer, Annelies; Van Hoey, Gert; Coates, Delphine; Vanaverbeke, Jan; Hostens, Kris

    2014-07-15

    Human activities at sea are still increasing. As biodiversity is a central topic in the management of our seas, it is important to understand how diversity responds to different disturbances related with physical impacts. We investigated the effects of three impacts, i.e. sand extraction, dredge disposal and offshore wind energy exploitation, on the soft-bottom macrobenthic assemblages in the Belgian part of the North Sea. We found similar diversity-disturbance responses, mainly related to the fact that different impacts caused similar environmental changes. We observed a sediment refinement which triggered a shift towards a heterogenic, dynamic (transitional) soft-bottom macrobenthic assemblage, with several species typically associated with muddy sands. This led to a local unexpected biodiversity increase in the impacted area. On a wider regional scale, the ever increasing human impacts might lead to a homogenization of the sediment, resulting in a more uniform, yet less diverse benthic ecosystem. PMID:24889315

  9. Complete Genomic Sequence for an Avian Group G Rotavirus from South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Stucker, Karla M.; Stockwell, Timothy B.; Nyaga, Martin M.; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Fedorova, Nadia; Akopov, Asmik; Ngoveni, Harry; Peenze, Ina; Seheri, Mapaseka L.; Mphahlele, M. Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    We report the first complete sequence for an avian group G rotavirus (RVG) genome from Africa, which is the third publically available RVG genome. These RVG genomes are highly diverse, especially in their VP4, VP7, NSP4, and NSP3 segments, indicating that RVG diversity is comparable to that of rotavirus A. PMID:25767240

  10. Complete genomic sequence for an avian group G rotavirus from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Stucker, Karla M; Stockwell, Timothy B; Nyaga, Martin M; Halpin, Rebecca A; Fedorova, Nadia; Akopov, Asmik; Ngoveni, Harry; Peenze, Ina; Seheri, Mapaseka L; Mphahlele, M Jeffrey; Wentworth, David E

    2015-01-01

    We report the first complete sequence for an avian group G rotavirus (RVG) genome from Africa, which is the third publically available RVG genome. These RVG genomes are highly diverse, especially in their VP4, VP7, NSP4, and NSP3 segments, indicating that RVG diversity is comparable to that of rotavirus A. PMID:25767240

  11. Antigenic characterization of H3 subtypes of avian influenza A viruses from North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, Elizabeth; Long, Li-Pong; Zhao, Nan; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Baroch, John A; Nolting, Jaqueline; Senter, Lucy; Cunningham, Frederick L; Pharr, G Todd; Hanson, Larry; Slemons, Richard; DeLiberto, Thomas J.; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Besides humans, H3 subtypes of influenza A viruses (IAVs) can infect various animal hosts, including avian, swine, equine, canine, and sea mammal species. These H3 viruses are both antigenically and genetically diverse. Here, we characterized the antigenic diversity of contemporary H3 avian IAVs recovered from migratory birds in North America. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays were performed on 37 H3 isolates of avian IAVs recovered from 2007 to 2011 using generated reference chicken sera. These isolates were recovered from samples taken in the Atlantic, Mississippi, Central, and Pacific waterfowl migration flyways. Antisera to all the tested H3 isolates cross-reacted with each other and, to a lesser extent, with those to H3 canine and H3 equine IAVs. Antigenic cartography showed that the largest antigenic distance among the 37 avian IAVs is about four units, and each unit corresponds to a 2 log 2 difference in the HI titer. However, none of the tested H3 IAVs cross-reacted with ferret sera derived from contemporary swine and human IAVs. Our results showed that the H3 avian IAVs we tested lacked significant antigenic diversity, and these viruses were antigenically different from those circulating in swine and human populations. This suggests that H3 avian IAVs in North American waterfowl are antigenically relatively stable.

  12. Antigenic Characterization of H3 Subtypes of Avian Influenza A Viruses from North America.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Elizabeth; Long, Li-Ping; Zhao, Nan; Hall, Jeffrey S; Baroch, John A; Nolting, Jacqueline; Senter, Lucy; Cunningham, Frederick L; Pharr, G Todd; Hanson, Larry; Slemons, Richard; DeLiberto, Thomas J; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2016-05-01

    Besides humans, H3 subtypes of influenza A viruses (IAVs) can infect various animal hosts, including avian, swine, equine, canine, and sea mammal species. These H3 viruses are both antigenically and genetically diverse. Here, we characterized the antigenic diversity of contemporary H3 avian IAVs recovered from migratory birds in North America. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays were performed on 37 H3 isolates of avian IAVs recovered from 2007 to 2011 using generated reference chicken sera. These isolates were recovered from samples taken in the Atlantic, Mississippi, Central, and Pacific waterfowl migration flyways. Antisera to all the tested H3 isolates cross-reacted with each other and, to a lesser extent, with those to H3 canine and H3 equine IAVs. Antigenic cartography showed that the largest antigenic distance among the 37 avian IAVs is about four units, and each unit corresponds to a 2 log 2 difference in the HI titer. However, none of the tested H3 IAVs cross-reacted with ferret sera derived from contemporary swine and human IAVs. Our results showed that the H3 avian IAVs we tested lacked significant antigenic diversity, and these viruses were antigenically different from those circulating in swine and human populations. This suggests that H3 avian IAVs in North American waterfowl are antigenically relatively stable. PMID:27309078

  13. Antigenic Characterization of H3 Subtypes of Avian Influenza A Viruses from North America

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Elizabeth; Long, Li-Ping; Zhao, Nan; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Baroch, John A.; Nolting, Jacqueline; Senter, Lucy; Cunningham, Frederick L.; Pharr, G. Todd; Hanson, Larry; Slemons, Richard; DeLiberto, Thomas J.; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Besides humans, H3 subtypes of influenza A viruses (IAVs) can infect various animal hosts including avian, swine, equine, canine, and sea mammals. These H3 viruses are both antigenically and genetically diverse. Here we characterized the antigenic diversity of contemporary H3 avian IAVs recovered from migratory birds in North America. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays were performed on 37 H3 isolates of avian IAVs recovered from 2007 to 2011 using generated reference chicken sera. These isolates were recovered from samples taken in the Atlantic, Mississippi, Central, and Pacific waterfowl migration flyways. Antisera to all the tested H3 isolates cross-reacted with each other, and, to a lesser extent, with those to H3 canine and H3 equine IAVs. Antigenic cartography showed that the largest antigenic distance among the 37 avian IAVs is about 4 units, and each unit corresponds to a 2log2 difference in the HI titer. However, none of the tested H3 IAVs cross-reacted with ferret sera derived from contemporary swine and human IAVs. Our results showed that the H3 avian IAVs we tested lacked significant antigenic diversity, and these viruses were antigenically different from those circulating in swine and human populations. This suggests that H3 avian IAVs in North American waterfowl are antigenically relatively stable. PMID:27309078

  14. Phylogenetic Analysis Supports Horizontal Transmission as a Driving Force of the Spread of Avian Bornaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Rubbenstroth, Dennis; Schmidt, Volker; Rinder, Monika; Legler, Marko; Twietmeyer, Sönke; Schwemmer, Phillip; Corman, Victor M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Avian bornaviruses are a genetically diverse group of viruses initially discovered in 2008. They are known to infect several avian orders. Bornaviruses of parrots and related species (Psittaciformes) are causative agents of proventricular dilatation disease, a chronic and often fatal neurologic disease widely distributed in captive psittacine populations. Although knowledge has considerably increased in the past years, many aspects of the biology of avian bornaviruses are still undiscovered. In particular, the precise way of transmission remains unknown. Aims and Methods In order to collect further information on the epidemiology of bornavirus infections in birds we collected samples from captive and free-ranging aquatic birds (n = 738) and Passeriformes (n = 145) in Germany and tested them for the presence of bornaviruses by PCR assays covering a broad range of known bornaviruses. We detected aquatic bird bornavirus 1 (ABBV-1) in three out of 73 sampled free-ranging mute swans (Cygnus olor) and one out of 282 free-ranging Eurasian oystercatchers (Haematopus ostralegus). Canary bornavirus 1 (CnBV-1), CnBV-2 and CnBV-3 were detected in four, six and one out of 48 captive common canaries (Serinus canaria forma domestica), respectively. In addition, samples originating from 49 bornavirus-positive captive Psittaciformes were used for determination of parrot bornavirus 2 (PaBV-2) and PaBV-4 sequences. Bornavirus sequences compiled during this study were used for phylogenetic analysis together with all related sequences available in GenBank. Results of the Study Within ABBV-1, PaBV-2 and PaBV-4, identical or genetically closely related bornavirus sequences were found in parallel in various different avian species, suggesting that inter-species transmission is frequent relative to the overall transmission of these viruses. Our results argue for an important role of horizontal transmission, but do not exclude the additional possibility of vertical transmission

  15. Relationships among Trust in Messages, Risk Perception, and Risk Reduction Preferences Based upon Avian Influenza in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Fang, David; Fang, Chen-Ling; Tsai, Bi-Kun; Lan, Li-Chi; Hsu, Wen-Shan

    2012-01-01

    Improvements in communications technology enable consumers to receive information through diverse channels. In the case of avian influenza, information repeated by the mass media socially amplifies the consumer awareness of risks. Facing indeterminate risks, consumers may feel anxious and increase their risk perception. When consumers trust the information published by the media, their uncertainty toward avian influenza may decrease. Consumers might take some actions to reduce risk. Therefore, this study focuses on relationships among trust in messages, risk perception and risk reduction preferences. This study administered 525 random samples and consumer survey questionnaires in different city of Taiwan in 2007. Through statistical analysis, the results demonstrate: (1) the higher the trust consumers have in messages about avian influenza, the lower their risk perceptions are; (2) the higher the consumers’ risk perceptions are and, therefore, the higher their desired level of risk reductive, the more likely they are to accept risk reduction strategies; (3) consumer attributes such as age, education level, and marital status correlate with significant differences in risk perception and risk reduction preferences acceptance. Gender has significant differences only in risk reduction preferences and not in risk perception. PMID:23066394

  16. Dynamics of avian coronavirus circulation in commercial and non-commercial birds in Asia--a review.

    PubMed

    Promkuntod, Naruepol

    2016-01-01

    It is essential to understand the latest situation regarding avian coronaviruses (ACoVs), commonly referred to as the well-known avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), given that new and diverse types of IBV are continually being identified worldwide, particularly ones that are isolated from commercial poultry and associated with a wide range of disease conditions. The existing IBVs continue to evolve in various geographic areas in Asia, which results in the recombination and co-circulation between IBV types. This makes it increasingly difficult to prevent and control IBV infections, despite routine vaccination. Some ACoVs have also been identified in other avian species and they may pose a threat of cross-transmission to commercial sectors. The present review provides an overview of IBV circulation and the dynamic emergence of new variants found throughout Asia via the recombination of IBV strains. In addition to commercial poultry, backyard poultry and free-ranging birds may serve as a 'hub' for ACoV transmission within a particular area. These birds may be capable of spreading viruses, either to areas of close proximity, or to remote places via migration and trade. PMID:26629927

  17. Predictive model of avian electrocution risk on overhead power lines.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, J F; Harness, R E; Donohue, K

    2014-02-01

    Electrocution on overhead power structures negatively affects avian populations in diverse ecosystems worldwide, contributes to the endangerment of raptor populations in Europe and Africa, and is a major driver of legal action against electric utilities in North America. We investigated factors associated with avian electrocutions so poles that are likely to electrocute a bird can be identified and retrofitted prior to causing avian mortality. We used historical data from southern California to identify patterns of avian electrocution by voltage, month, and year to identify species most often killed by electrocution in our study area and to develop a predictive model that compared poles where an avian electrocution was known to have occurred (electrocution poles) with poles where no known electrocution occurred (comparison poles). We chose variables that could be quantified by personnel with little training in ornithology or electric systems. Electrocutions were more common at distribution voltages (≤ 33 kV) and during breeding seasons and were more commonly reported after a retrofitting program began. Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) (n = 265) and American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) (n = 258) were the most commonly electrocuted species. In the predictive model, 4 of 14 candidate variables were required to distinguish electrocution poles from comparison poles: number of jumpers (short wires connecting energized equipment), number of primary conductors, presence of grounding, and presence of unforested unpaved areas as the dominant nearby land cover. When tested against a sample of poles not used to build the model, our model distributed poles relatively normally across electrocution-risk values and identified the average risk as higher for electrocution poles relative to comparison poles. Our model can be used to reduce avian electrocutions through proactive identification and targeting of high-risk poles for retrofitting. PMID:24033371

  18. Increased Inter-Colony Fusion Rates Are Associated with Reduced COI Haplotype Diversity in an Invasive Colonial Ascidian Didemnum vexillum

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kirsty F.; Stefaniak, Lauren; Saito, Yasunori; Gemmill, Chrissen E. C.; Cary, S. Craig; Fidler, Andrew E.

    2012-01-01

    Considerable progress in our understanding of the population genetic changes associated with biological invasions has been made over the past decade. Using selectively neutral loci, it has been established that reductions in genetic diversity, reflecting founder effects, have occurred during the establishment of some invasive populations. However, some colonial organisms may actually gain an ecological advantage from reduced genetic diversity because of the associated reduction in inter-colony conflict. Here we report population genetic analyses, along with colony fusion experiments, for a highly invasive colonial ascidian, Didemnum vexillum. Analyses based on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) partial coding sequences revealed two distinct D. vexillum clades. One COI clade appears to be restricted to the probable native region (i.e., north-west Pacific Ocean), while the other clade is present in widely dispersed temperate coastal waters around the world. This clade structure was supported by 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence data, which revealed a one base-pair difference between the two clades. Recently established populations of D. vexillum in New Zealand displayed greatly reduced COI genetic diversity when compared with D. vexillum in Japan. In association with this reduction in genetic diversity was a significantly higher inter-colony fusion rate between randomly paired New Zealand D. vexillum colonies (80%, standard deviation ±18%) when compared with colonies found in Japan (27%, standard deviation ±15%). The results of this study add to growing evidence that for colonial organisms reductions in population level genetic diversity may alter colony interaction dynamics and enhance the invasive potential of newly colonizing species. PMID:22303442

  19. The Avian Transcriptome Response to Malaria Infection

    PubMed Central

    Videvall, Elin; Cornwallis, Charlie K.; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Valkiūnas, Gediminas; Hellgren, Olof

    2015-01-01

    Malaria parasites are highly virulent pathogens which infect a wide range of vertebrates. Despite their importance, the way different hosts control and suppress malaria infections remains poorly understood. With recent developments in next-generation sequencing techniques, however, it is now possible to quantify the response of the entire transcriptome to infections. We experimentally infected Eurasian siskins (Carduelis spinus) with avian malaria parasites (Plasmodium ashfordi), and used high-throughput RNA-sequencing to measure the avian transcriptome in blood collected before infection (day 0), during peak parasitemia (day 21 postinfection), and when parasitemia was decreasing (day 31). We found considerable differences in the transcriptomes of infected and uninfected individuals, with a large number of genes differentially expressed during both peak and decreasing parasitemia stages. These genes were overrepresented among functions involved in the immune system, stress response, cell death regulation, metabolism, and telomerase activity. Comparative analyses of the differentially expressed genes in our study to those found in other hosts of malaria (human and mouse) revealed a set of genes that are potentially involved in highly conserved evolutionary responses to malaria infection. By using RNA-sequencing we gained a more complete view of the host response, and were able to pinpoint not only well-documented host genes but also unannotated genes with clear significance during infection, such as microRNAs. This study shows how the avian blood transcriptome shifts in response to malaria infection, and we believe that it will facilitate further research into the diversity of molecular mechanisms that hosts utilize to fight malaria infections. PMID:25636457

  20. SARS/avian coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Monceyron Jonassen, C

    2006-01-01

    In the hunt for the aetiology of the SARS outbreak in 2003, a newly developed virus DNA micro-array was successfully used to hybridise PCR products obtained by random amplification of nucleic acids extracted from a cell culture infected with material from a SARS patient. The SARS agent was found to hybridise with micro-array probes from both coronaviruses and astroviruses, but one of the coronavirus probes and the four astrovirus probes contained redundant sequences, spanning a highly conserved motif, named s2m, found at the 3' end of the genomes of almost all astroviruses, one picornavirus, and the poultry coronaviruses. The three other coronavirus probes, that hybridised with the SARS agent, were located in the replicase gene, and it could be concluded that the SARS agent was a novel coronavirus, harbouring s2m. The presence of this motif in different virus families is probably the result of recombinations between unrelated viruses, but its presence in both poultry and SARS coronaviruses could suggest a bird involvement in the history of the SARS coronavirus. A recent screening of wild birds for the presence of coronaviruses, using a pan-coronavirus RT-PCR, led to the identification of novel coronaviruses in the three species studied. Phylogenetic analyses performed on both replicase gene and nucleocapsid protein could not add support to a close relationship between avian and SARS coronaviruses, but all the novel avian coronaviruses were found to harbour s2m. The motif is inserted at a homologous place in avian and SARS coronavirus genomes, but in a somewhat different context for the SARS coronavirus. If the presence of s2m in these viruses is a result of two separate recombination events, this suggests that its particular position in these genomes is the only one that would not be deleterious for coronaviral replication, or that it is the result of a copy-choice recombination between coronaviruses, following an ancestral introduction in the coronavirus family by

  1. Toward Reduced Bias and Increased Utility in the Assessment of School Refusal Behavior: The Case for Diverse Samples and Evaluations of Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Aaron R.; Cotler, Sheldon

    2007-01-01

    The current article reviews the literature on school refusal behavior. Definitional inconsistencies, the effects of biased assessment processes, and the consequences of the lack of ethnic, racial, and economic diversity in school refusal research samples are highlighted. An increase in the use of low-income, ethnic minority, community samples in…

  2. The Avian Development Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Avian Development Facility (ADF) supports 36 eggs in two carousels, one of which rotates to provide a 1-g control for comparing to eggs grown in microgravity. The ADF was designed to incubate up to 36 Japanese quail eggs, 18 in microgravity and 18 in artificial gravity. The two sets of eggs were exposed to otherwise identical conditions, the first time this is been accomplished in space. Eggs are preserved at intervals to provide snapshots of their development for later analysis. Quails incubate in just 15 days, so they are an ideal species to be studied within the duration of space shuttle missions. Further, several investigators can use the same specimens to address different questions. The ADF originated in NASA's Shuttle Student Involvement program in the 1980s and was developed under the NASA Small Business Irnovation Research program. In late 2001, the ADF made its first flight and carried eggs used in two investigations.

  3. Avian psychology and communication.

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Candy; Skelhorn, John

    2004-01-01

    The evolution of animal communication is a complex issue and one that attracts much research and debate. 'Receiver psychology' has been highlighted as a potential selective force, and we review how avian psychological processes and biases can influence the evolution and design of signals as well as the progress that has been made in testing these ideas in behavioural studies. Interestingly, although birds are a focal group for experimental psychologists and behavioural ecologists alike, the integration of theoretical ideas from psychology into studies of communication has been relatively slow. However, recent operant experiments are starting to address how birds perceive and respond to complex natural signals in an attempt to answer evolutionary problems in communication. This review outlines how a psychological approach to understanding communication is useful, and we hope that it stimulates further research addressing the role of psychological mechanisms in signal evolution. PMID:15306314

  4. Thromboelastography in Selected Avian Species.

    PubMed

    Strindberg, Sophie; Nielsen, Tenna W; Ribeiro, Ângela M; Wiinberg, Bo; Kristensen, Annemarie T; Bertelsen, Mads F

    2015-12-01

    Currently available assay methods and reagents are not optimized for evaluating avian hemostasis; therefore, assessing avian coagulopathies is challenging. Recently, thromboelastography (TEG), which measures the viscoelastic properties of blood, has been used clinically in mammalian species to diagnose and characterize hemostatic disorders. To evaluate TEG in healthy individuals of 6 avian species, we modified existing mammalian TEG protocols to allow analysis of citrated, avian whole-blood samples collected from scarlet ibis (Eudocimus ruber) (n = 13), American flamingos ( Phoenicopterus ruber ) (n = 13), helmeted Guinea fowl ( Numida meleagris ) (n = 12), Amazon parrots (Amazona species) (n = 9), Humboldt penguins ( Spheniscus humboldti ) (n = 6), and domestic chickens (n = 16). Activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, and fibrinogen were measured as a means of comparison. Regardless of the mode of activation, clot formation in the species studied was markedly delayed compared with mammals. Because of prolonged reaction time (14.7-52.7 minutes) with kaolin and diluted tissue factor, undiluted human tissue factor was used in all avian samples because it provided the shortest reaction time. Species differed significantly in reaction time (P = .007), clotting rate (P < .001), rate of clot formation (α angle; P < .001), and maximum amplitude (P < .001) values, indicating that species-specific reference intervals are necessary. Based on these results, TEG with specific reference intervals could prove useful in evaluating avian hemostatic disorders. PMID:26771317

  5. Evidence of previous avian influenza infection among US turkey workers.

    PubMed

    Kayali, G; Ortiz, E J; Chorazy, M L; Gray, G C

    2010-06-01

    The threat of an influenza pandemic is looming, with new cases of sporadic avian influenza infections in man frequently reported. Exposure to diseased poultry is a leading risk factor for these infections. In this study, we used logistic regression to investigate serological evidence of previous infection with avian influenza subtypes H4, H5, H6, H7, H8, H9, H10, and H11 among 95 adults occupationally exposed to turkeys in the US Midwest and 82 unexposed controls. Our results indicate that farmers practising backyard, organic or free-ranging turkey production methods are at an increased risk of infection with avian influenza. Among these farmers, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for elevated microneutralization assay titres against avian H4, H5, H6, H9, and H10 influenza strains ranged between 3.9 (95% CI 1.2-12.8) and 15.3 (95% CI 2.0-115.2) when compared to non-exposed controls. The measured ORs were adjusted for antibody titres against human influenza viruses and other exposure variables. These data suggest that sometime in their lives, the workers had been exposed to low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses. These findings support calls for inclusion of agricultural workers in priority groups in pandemic influenza preparedness efforts. These data further support increasing surveillance and other preparedness efforts to include not only confinement poultry facilities, but more importantly, also small scale farms. PMID:19486492

  6. Characterizing the avian gut microbiota: membership, driving influences, and potential function

    PubMed Central

    Waite, David W.; Taylor, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Birds represent a diverse and evolutionarily successful lineage, occupying a wide range of niches throughout the world. Like all vertebrates, avians harbor diverse communities of microorganisms within their guts, which collectively fulfill important roles in providing the host with nutrition and protection from pathogens. Although many studies have investigated the role of particular microbes in the guts of avian species, there has been no attempt to unify the results of previous, sequence-based studies to examine the factors that shape the avian gut microbiota as a whole. In this study, we present the first meta-analysis of the avian gut microbiota, using 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained from a range of publicly available clone-library and amplicon pyrosequencing data. We investigate community membership and structure, as well as probe the roles of some of the key biological factors that influence the gut microbiota of other vertebrates, such as host phylogeny, location within the gut, diet, and association with humans. Our results indicate that, across avian studies, the microbiota demonstrates a similar phylum-level composition to that of mammals. Host bird species is the most important factor in determining community composition, although sampling site, diet, and captivity status also contribute. These analyses provide a first integrated look at the composition of the avian microbiota, and serve as a foundation for future studies in this area. PMID:24904538

  7. Wetland environmental conditions associated with the risk of avian cholera outbreaks and the abundance of Pasteurella multocida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanchong, Julie A.; Samuel, Michael D.; Goldberg, Diana R.; Shadduck, Daniel J.; Creekmore, L.H.

    2006-01-01

    Avian cholera is a significant infectious disease affecting waterfowl across North America and occurs worldwide among various avian species. Despite the importance of this disease, little is known about the factors that cause avian cholera outbreaks and what management strategies might be used to reduce disease mortality. Previous studies indicated that wetland water conditions may affect survival and transmission of Pasteurella multocida, the agent that causes avian cholera. These studies hypothesized that water conditions affect the likelihood that avian cholera outbreaks will occur in specific wetlands. To test these predictions, we collected data from avian cholera outbreak and non-outbreak (control) wetlands throughout North America (wintera??spring 1995a??1996 to 1998a??1999) to evaluate whether water conditions were associated with outbreaks. Conditional logistic regression analysis on paired outbreak and non-outbreak wetlands indicated no significant association between water conditions and the risk of avian cholera outbreaks. For wetlands where avian cholera outbreaks occurred, linear regression showed that increased eutrophic nutrient concentrations (Potassium [K], nitrate [NO3], phosphorus [P], and phosphate [PO3]) were positively related to the abundance of P. multocida recovered from water and sediment samples. Wetland protein concentration and an El Ni??o event were also associated with P. multocida abundance. Our results indicate that wetland water conditions are not strongly associated with the risk of avian cholera outbreaks; however, some variables may play a role in the abundance of P. multocida bacteria and might be important in reducing the severity of avian cholera outbreaks.

  8. Increased sampling reveals novel lineages of Entamoeba: consequences of genetic diversity and host specificity for taxonomy and molecular detection.

    PubMed

    Stensvold, C Rune; Lebbad, Marianne; Victory, Emma L; Verweij, Jaco J; Tannich, Egbert; Alfellani, Mohammed; Legarraga, Paulette; Clark, C Graham

    2011-07-01

    To expand the representation for phylogenetic analysis, ten additional complete Entamoeba small-subunit rRNA gene sequences were obtained from humans, non-human primates, cattle and a tortoise. For some novel sequences no corresponding morphological data were available, and we suggest that these organisms should be referred to as ribosomal lineages (RL) rather than being assigned species names at present. To investigate genetic diversity and host specificity of selected Entamoeba species, a total of 91 new partial small subunit rRNA gene sequences were obtained, including 49 from Entamoeba coli, 18 from Entamoeba polecki, and 17 from Entamoeba hartmanni. We propose a new nomenclature for significant variants within established Entamoeba species. Based on current data we propose that the uninucleated-cyst-producing Entamoeba infecting humans is called Entamoeba polecki and divided into four subtypes (ST1-ST4) and that Entamoeba coli is divided into two subtypes (ST1-ST2). New hosts for several species were detected and, while host specificity and genetic diversity of several species remain to be clarified, it is clear that previous reliance on cultivated material has given us a misleading and incomplete picture of variation within the genus Entamoeba. PMID:21295520

  9. Do Epigeal Termite Mounds Increase the Diversity of Plant Habitats in a Tropical Rain Forest in Peninsular Malaysia?

    PubMed Central

    Beaudrot, Lydia; Du, Yanjun; Rahman Kassim, Abdul; Rejmánek, Marcel; Harrison, Rhett D.

    2011-01-01

    The extent to which environmental heterogeneity can account for tree species coexistence in diverse ecosystems, such as tropical rainforests, is hotly debated, although the importance of spatial variability in contributing to species co-existence is well recognized. Termites contribute to the micro-topographical and nutrient spatial heterogeneity of tropical forests. We therefore investigated whether epigeal termite mounds could contribute to the coexistence of plant species within a 50 ha plot at Pasoh Forest Reserve, Malaysia. Overall, stem density was significantly higher on mounds than in their immediate surroundings, but tree species diversity was significantly lower. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that location on or off mounds significantly influenced species distribution when stems were characterized by basal area. Like studies of termite mounds in other ecosystems, our results suggest that epigeal termite mounds provide a specific microhabitat for the enhanced growth and survival of certain species in these species-rich tropical forests. However, the extent to which epigeal termite mounds facilitate species coexistence warrants further investigation. PMID:21625558

  10. Evolutionary Analysis of Inter-Farm Transmission Dynamics in a Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Bataille, Arnaud; van der Meer, Frank; Stegeman, Arjan; Koch, Guus

    2011-01-01

    Phylogenetic studies have largely contributed to better understand the emergence, spread and evolution of highly pathogenic avian influenza during epidemics, but sampling of genetic data has never been detailed enough to allow mapping of the spatiotemporal spread of avian influenza viruses during a single epidemic. Here, we present genetic data of H7N7 viruses produced from 72% of the poultry farms infected during the 2003 epidemic in the Netherlands. We use phylogenetic analyses to unravel the pathways of virus transmission between farms and between infected areas. In addition, we investigated the evolutionary processes shaping viral genetic diversity, and assess how they could have affected our phylogenetic analyses. Our results show that the H7N7 virus was characterized by a high level of genetic diversity driven mainly by a high neutral substitution rate, purifying selection and limited positive selection. We also identified potential reassortment in the three genes that we have tested, but they had only a limited effect on the resolution of the inter-farm transmission network. Clonal sequencing analyses performed on six farm samples showed that at least one farm sample presented very complex virus diversity and was probably at the origin of chronological anomalies in the transmission network. However, most virus sequences could be grouped within clearly defined and chronologically sound clusters of infection and some likely transmission events between farms located 0.8–13 Km apart were identified. In addition, three farms were found as most likely source of virus introduction in distantly located new areas. These long distance transmission events were likely facilitated by human-mediated transport, underlining the need for strict enforcement of biosafety measures during outbreaks. This study shows that in-depth genetic analysis of virus outbreaks at multiple scales can provide critical information on virus transmission dynamics and can be used to increase

  11. Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Making a Candidate Vaccine Virus Related Links Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Language: English Españ ...

  12. Early apoptosis of porcine alveolar macrophages limits avian influenza virus replication and pro-inflammatory dysregulation

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Pengxiang; Kuchipudi, Suresh V.; Mellits, Kenneth H.; Sebastian, Sujith; James, Joe; Liu, Jinhua; Shelton, Holly; Chang, Kin-Chow

    2015-01-01

    Pigs are evidently more resistant to avian than swine influenza A viruses, mediated in part through frontline epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages (AM). Although porcine AM (PAM) are crucial in influenza virus control, their mode of control is unclear. To gain insight into the possible role of PAM in the mediation of avian influenza virus resistance, we compared the host effects and replication of two avian (H2N3 and H6N1) and three mammalian (swine H1N1, human H1N1 and pandemic H1N1) influenza viruses in PAM. We found that PAM were readily susceptible to initial infection with all five avian and mammalian influenza viruses but only avian viruses caused early and extensive apoptosis (by 6 h of infection) resulting in reduced virus progeny and moderated pro-inflammation. Full length viral PB1-F2 present only in avian influenza viruses is a virulence factor that targets AM for mitochondrial-associated apoptotic cell death. With the use of reverse genetics on an avian H5N1 virus, we found that full length PB1-F2 contributed to increased apoptosis and pro-inflammation but not to reduced virus replication. Taken together, we propose that early apoptosis of PAM limits the spread of avian influenza viruses and that PB1-F2 could play a contributory role in the process. PMID:26642934

  13. Early apoptosis of porcine alveolar macrophages limits avian influenza virus replication and pro-inflammatory dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Pengxiang; Kuchipudi, Suresh V; Mellits, Kenneth H; Sebastian, Sujith; James, Joe; Liu, Jinhua; Shelton, Holly; Chang, Kin-Chow

    2015-01-01

    Pigs are evidently more resistant to avian than swine influenza A viruses, mediated in part through frontline epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages (AM). Although porcine AM (PAM) are crucial in influenza virus control, their mode of control is unclear. To gain insight into the possible role of PAM in the mediation of avian influenza virus resistance, we compared the host effects and replication of two avian (H2N3 and H6N1) and three mammalian (swine H1N1, human H1N1 and pandemic H1N1) influenza viruses in PAM. We found that PAM were readily susceptible to initial infection with all five avian and mammalian influenza viruses but only avian viruses caused early and extensive apoptosis (by 6 h of infection) resulting in reduced virus progeny and moderated pro-inflammation. Full length viral PB1-F2 present only in avian influenza viruses is a virulence factor that targets AM for mitochondrial-associated apoptotic cell death. With the use of reverse genetics on an avian H5N1 virus, we found that full length PB1-F2 contributed to increased apoptosis and pro-inflammation but not to reduced virus replication. Taken together, we propose that early apoptosis of PAM limits the spread of avian influenza viruses and that PB1-F2 could play a contributory role in the process. PMID:26642934

  14. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix.

    PubMed

    Burleigh, J Gordon; Kimball, Rebecca T; Braun, Edward L

    2015-03-01

    Birds are the most diverse tetrapod class, with about 10,000 extant species that represent a remarkable evolutionary radiation in which most taxa arose during a short period of time. There has been a tremendous increase in the amount of molecular data available from birds, and more than two-thirds of these species have some sequence data available. Here we assembled these available sequence data from birds to estimate a large-scale avian phylogeny. We performed an unconstrained maximum likelihood analysis of a sparse supermatrix comprising 22 nuclear loci and seven mitochondrial regions from 6714 species. We inferred a phylogeny with a backbone remarkably similar to that obtained by detailed analyses of multigene datasets, yet with the addition of thousands of more taxa. All orders were monophyletic with generally high support. While most families and genera were well supported, a number of them, especially within the oscine passerines, had little or no support. This likely reflects problems with the circumscription of these genera and families. Our results indicate that the amount of sequence data currently available is sufficient to produce a robust estimate of the avian tree of life using current methods of inference. The availability of a tree that is unconstrained by prior information, with branch lengths that have a direct connection to the underlying data, should be useful for comparative methods, taxonomic revisions, and prioritizing taxa that should be targeted for additional data collection. PMID:25550149

  15. Sixty years of change in avian communities of the Pacific Northwest

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, W. Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Bird communities are influenced by local and regional processes. The degree to which communities are dynamic has implications for projecting responses in community composition as birds track geographic shifts of their habitats. Historic datasets offer a legacy of information that can be used to quantify changes over time in avian community composition. A rare, highly-detailed avian survey of multiple habitat types in the Willamette Valley, Oregon, was conducted in 1952. We resurveyed the same sites in 2013 and evaluated whether observed results agreed with theoretical patterns of community change. We compared alpha, beta, and gamma diversity between survey periods and evaluated shifts in categorical abundances of species. Most patterns of change were consistent with community turnover. Nearly 50% of species were replaced over six decades, with increased species richness and decreased evenness at local and regional spatial extents. Patterns of regional species turnover reflected local turnover. Evidence that local shifts in habitat type drove bird community change were not strongly supported, although historic data on habitats within study plots were limited to macro-level aerial photographs. Thus, regional factors and structural changes likely played important roles determining species composition and abundance. PMID:26339537

  16. Interactive mechanism between avian infectious bronchitis S1 protein T cell peptide and avian MHC I molecule.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng-Zhu; Lu, Mei; Huang, Qing-Hua; Huang, Yan-Yan; Yang, Shao-Hua; Cui, Yan-Shun; Liu, Chang; Tan, Liugang; Kong, Zhengjie; Xu, Chuan-Tian

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to construct a 3D structure of the avian major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-β2M complex through homology modelling technology, perform molecular docking of the predicted infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) S1 protein potential epitope peptide Sp6 (NQFYIKLT) and the avian MHC-β2M complex, and demonstrate the interactive mechanism between Sp6 and MHC using molecular dynamical simulations. The peptide Sp6 and the non-related peptide NP89-97 (PKKTGGPIY) were used to stimulate in vitro recombinant plasmid (pCAGGS-S1) avian splenic lymphocytes. Flow cytometric results show that CD8(+) T lymphocytes reproduce stimulated by the Sp6 and the nonrelated peptide proliferate by 34.8% and 2.6%, respectively. Meanwhile, fluorescent quantitative PCR results show that the secretion of IFN-γ in avian splenic lymphocytes increases after Sp6 stimulation. These data suggest that Sp6 can induce the activated avian lymphocytes in vitro to produce CTL, which is the CTL epitope in IBV S1. PMID:26876645

  17. Patterns of genetic diversity and migration in increasingly fragmented and declining orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus) populations from Sabah, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Goossens, B; Chikhi, L; Jalil, M F; Ancrenaz, M; Lackman-Ancrenaz, I; Mohamed, M; Andau, P; Bruford, M W

    2005-02-01

    We investigated the genetic structure within and among Bornean orang-utans (Pongo pygmaeus) in forest fragments of the Lower Kinabatangan flood plain in Sabah, Malaysia. DNA was extracted from hair and faecal samples for 200 wild individuals collected during boat surveys on the Kinabatangan River. Fourteen microsatellite loci were used to characterize patterns of genetic diversity. We found that genetic diversity was high in the set of samples (mean H(E) = 0.74) and that genetic differentiation was significant between the samples (average F(ST) = 0.04, P < 0.001) with F(ST) values ranging from low (0.01) to moderately large (0.12) values. Pairwise F(ST) values were significantly higher across the Kinabatangan River than between samples from the same river side, thereby confirming the role of the river as a natural barrier to gene flow. The correlation between genetic and geographical distance was tested by means of a series of Mantel tests based on different measures of geographical distance. We used a Bayesian method to estimate immigration rates. The results indicate that migration is unlikely across the river but cannot be completely ruled out because of the limited F(ST) values. Assignment tests confirm the overall picture that gene flow is limited across the river. We found that migration between samples from the same side of the river had a high probability indicating that orang-utans used to move relatively freely between neighbouring areas. This strongly suggests that there is a need to maintain migration between isolated forest fragments. This could be done by restoring forest corridors alongside the river banks and between patches. PMID:15660936

  18. The Completeness of the Fossil Record of Mesozoic Birds: Implications for Early Avian Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Brocklehurst, Neil; Upchurch, Paul; Mannion, Philip D.; O'Connor, Jingmai

    2012-01-01

    Many palaeobiological analyses have concluded that modern birds (Neornithes) radiated no earlier than the Maastrichtian, whereas molecular clock studies have argued for a much earlier origination. Here, we assess the quality of the fossil record of Mesozoic avian species, using a recently proposed character completeness metric which calculates the percentage of phylogenetic characters that can be scored for each taxon. Estimates of fossil record quality are plotted against geological time and compared to estimates of species level diversity, sea level, and depositional environment. Geographical controls on the avian fossil record are investigated by comparing the completeness scores of species in different continental regions and latitudinal bins. Avian fossil record quality varies greatly with peaks during the Tithonian-early Berriasian, Aptian, and Coniacian–Santonian, and troughs during the Albian-Turonian and the Maastrichtian. The completeness metric correlates more strongly with a ‘sampling corrected’ residual diversity curve of avian species than with the raw taxic diversity curve, suggesting that the abundance and diversity of birds might influence the probability of high quality specimens being preserved. There is no correlation between avian completeness and sea level, the number of fluviolacustrine localities or a recently constructed character completeness metric of sauropodomorph dinosaurs. Comparisons between the completeness of Mesozoic birds and sauropodomorphs suggest that small delicate vertebrate skeletons are more easily destroyed by taphonomic processes, but more easily preserved whole. Lagerstätten deposits might therefore have a stronger impact on reconstructions of diversity of smaller organisms relative to more robust forms. The relatively poor quality of the avian fossil record in the Late Cretaceous combined with very patchy regional sampling means that it is possible neornithine lineages were present throughout this interval but

  19. 77 FR 34783 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... avian influenza (HPAI). On January 24, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 4046-4056... Avian Influenza AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule... importation of bird and poultry products from regions where any subtype of highly pathogenic avian...

  20. 76 FR 24793 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ... Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 93, 94, and 95 RIN 0579-AC36 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza AGENCY: Animal... products from regions where any subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza is considered to exist. The... vaccinated for certain types of avian influenza, or that have moved through regions where any subtype...

  1. Markov Chain Estimation of Avian Seasonal Fecundity

    EPA Science Inventory

    To explore the consequences of modeling decisions on inference about avian seasonal fecundity we generalize previous Markov chain (MC) models of avian nest success to formulate two different MC models of avian seasonal fecundity that represent two different ways to model renestin...

  2. A brief introduction to avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) is caused by a type A influenza virus isolated from and adapted to an avian host. This chapter covers the basic physicochemical aspects of AIV including; virus family and properties, subtype classification; basic molecular biology and genetics. The avian host range and ecology...

  3. Avian infectious laryngotracheitis.

    PubMed

    Bagust, T J; Jones, R C; Guy, J S

    2000-08-01

    Avian infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) herpesvirus continues to cause sporadic cases of respiratory disease in chickens world-wide. Sources of transmission of ILT infection are three-fold, namely: chickens with acute upper respiratory tract disease, latently infected 'carrier' fowls which excrete infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) when stressed, and all fomites (inanimate articles as well as the personnel in contact with infected chickens). Infectious laryngotracheitis virus infectivity can persist for weeks to months in tracheal mucus or carcasses. Rigorous site biosecurity is therefore critical in ILT disease control. Furthermore, while current (modified live) ILT vaccines can offer good protection, the strains of ILTV used in vaccines can also produce latent infections, as well as ILT disease following bird-to-bird spread. The regional nature of reservoirs of ILTV-infected flocks will tend to interact unfavourably with widely varying ILT control practices in the poultry industry, so as to periodically result in sporadic and unexpected outbreaks of ILT in intensive poultry industry populations. Precautions for trade-related movements of chickens of all ages must therefore include an accurate knowledge of the ILT infection status, both of the donor and recipient flocks. PMID:10935275

  4. Molecular analysis of ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete communities in a Pinus sylvestris L. stand reveals long-term increased diversity after removal of litter and humus layers.

    PubMed

    Smit, Eric; Veenman, Christiaan; Baar, Jacqueline

    2003-07-01

    Abstract The number of fruiting bodies of ectomycorrhizal species in pine forests in The Netherlands has decreased dramatically in recent decades. This decrease has been attributed to an increase in nitrogen deposition and the accumulation of litter and humus. The effects of sod cutting and the removal of litter and humus, to restore ectomycorrhizal diversity in a Scots pine forest in Dwingeloo, The Netherlands, were investigated previously from 1990 to 1993. Removal of the litter and humus resulted in a significant increase in the numbers of species and fruiting bodies of ectomycorrhizal fungi. However, until now all data were obtained by counting fruiting bodies and the effects on mycelial development below ground were not assessed. To investigate hyphal development, DNA was extracted from bulk soil and polymerase chain reaction products were obtained by amplification using basidiomycete-specific internal transcribed spacer (ITS) primers. The differences in diversity between the control plots and the treated plots were analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. To assess the species composition and differences, ITS regions of the amplified fragments were cloned and sequenced. Sequences were compared with sequences from GenBank and from fruiting bodies collected from the same plots. Data indicated increased below-ground ectomycorrhizal diversity in the plots that had been subjected to removal of the litter and humus layers. PMID:19719606

  5. Avian ecosystem functions are influenced by small mammal ecosystem engineering

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Birds are important mobile link species that contribute to landscape-scale patterns by means of pollination, seed dispersal, and predation. Birds are often associated with habitats modified by small mammal ecosystem engineers. We investigated whether birds prefer to forage on degu (Octodon degus) runways by comparing their foraging effort across sites with a range of runway densities, including sites without runways. We measured granivory by granivorous and omnivorous birds at Rinconada de Maipú, central Chile. As a measure of potential bird foraging on insects, we sampled invertebrate prey richness and abundance across the same sites. We then quantified an index of plot-scale functional diversity due to avian foraging at the patch scale. Results We recorded that birds found food sources sooner and ate more at sites with higher densities of degu runways, cururo mounds, trees, and fewer shrubs. These sites also had higher invertebrate prey richness but lower invertebrate prey abundance. This implies that omnivorous birds, and possibly insectivorous birds, forage for invertebrates in the same plots with high degu runway densities where granivory takes place. In an exploratory analysis we also found that plot-scale functional diversity for four avian ecosystem functions were moderately to weakly correllated to expected ecosystem function outcomes at the plot scale. Conclusions Degu ecosystem engineering affects the behavior of avian mobile link species and is thus correlated with ecosystem functioning at relatively small spatial scales. PMID:24359802

  6. Epidemiology, Evolution, and Recent Outbreaks of Avian Influenza Virus in China

    PubMed Central

    Su, Shuo; Wong, Gary; Gray, Gregory C.; Gao, George F.

    2015-01-01

    Novel reassortants of H7N9, H10N8, and H5N6 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are currently circulating in China's poultry flocks, occasionally infecting humans and other mammals. Combined with the sometimes enzootic H5N1 and H9N2 strains, this cauldron of genetically diverse AIVs pose significant risks to public health. Here, we review the epidemiology, evolution, and recent outbreaks of AIVs in China, discuss reasons behind the recent increase in the emergence of novel AIVs, and identify warning signs which may point to the emergence of a potentially virulent and highly transmissible AIV to humans. This review will be useful to authorities who consider options for the detection and control of AIV transmission in animals and humans, with the goal of preventing future epidemics and pandemics. PMID:26063419

  7. Simulated climate-warming increases Coleoptera activity-densities and reduces community diversity in a cereal crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To assess one likely effect of global warming, we experimentally increased the temperature and precipitation of a coleopteran community (mainly Carabidae) of an agro-ecosystem. We simulated climate change on a field of spring wheat by experimentally increasing the temperature by 2°C using infrared h...

  8. Innate resistance to avian influenza: Of MHC's and Mx proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) is an economically important virus of poultry that has significant impact on global trade. Recently, increased attention to animal genomics has been applied to enhance innate resistance to infectious diseases in poultry. Two known contributors to innate resistance are the host m...

  9. The presence of monocytes enhances the susceptibility of B cells to highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus possibly through the increased expression of α2,3 SA receptor.

    PubMed

    Lersritwimanmaen, Patharapan; Na-Ek, Prasit; Thanunchai, Maytawan; Thewsoongnoen, Jutarat; Sa-Ard-Iam, Noppadol; Wiboon-ut, Suwimon; Mahanonda, Rangsini; Thitithanyanont, Arunee

    2015-08-28

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus causes severe systemic infection in avian and mammalian species, including humans by first targeting immune cells. This subsequently renders the innate and adaptive immune responses less active, thus allowing dissemination of the virus to systemic organs. To gain insight into the pathogenesis of H5N1, this study aims to determine the susceptibility of human PBMCs to the H5N1 virus and explore the factors which influence this susceptibility. We found that PBMCs were a target of H5N1 infection, and that monocytes and B cells were populations which were clearly the most susceptible. Analysis of PBMC subpopulations showed that isolated monocytes and monocytes residing in whole PBMCs had comparable percentages of infection (28.97 ± 5.54% vs 22.23 ± 5.14%). In contrast, isolated B cells were infected to a much lower degree than B cells residing in a mixture of whole PBMCs (0.88 ± 0.34% vs 34.87 ± 4.63%). Different susceptibility levels of B cells for these tested conditions spurred us to explore the B cell-H5N1 interaction mechanisms. Here, we first demonstrated that monocytes play a crucial role in the enhancement of B cell susceptibility to H5N1 infection. Although the actual mechanism by which this enhancement occurs remains in question, α2,3-linked sialic acid (SA), known for influenza virus receptors, could be a responsible factor for the greater susceptibility of B cells, as it was highly expressed on the surface of B cells upon H5N1 infection of B cell/monocyte co-cultures. Our findings reveal some of the factors involved with the permissiveness of human immune cells to H5N1 virus and provide a better understanding of the tropism of H5N1 in immune cells. PMID:26187669

  10. Transposon-based high sequence diversity in Avr-Pita alleles increases the potential for pathogenicity of Magnaporthe oryzae populations.

    PubMed

    Singh, P K; Thakur, S; Rathour, R; Variar, M; Prashanthi, S K; Singh, A K; Singh, U D; Sharma, V; Singh, N K; Sharma, T R

    2014-06-01

    Magnaporthe oryzae causes rice blast that is one of the most devastating diseases of rice worldwide. Highly variable nature of this fungus has evolved itself against major resistance genes in newly released rice varieties. Understanding the population structure of this fungus is essential for proper utilization of the rice blast resistance genes in rice crop plants. In the present study, we analyzed 133 isolates of M. oryzae from ten countries to find the allelic variation of Avr-Pita gene that is triggering Pita-mediated resistance in rice plant. The diversity analysis of these alleles showed higher level of nucleotide variation in the coding regions than the noncoding regions. Evolutionary analysis of these alleles indicates that Avr-Pita gene is under purifying selection to favor its major alleles in 133 isolates analyzed in this study. We hypothesize that the selection of favorable Avr-Pita allele in these isolates may occur through a genetic mechanism known as recurrent selective sweeps. A total of 22 functional Avr-Pita protein variants were identified in this study. Insertion of Pot3 transposable element into the promoter of Avr-Pita gene was identified in virulent isolates and was suggested that mobility of repeat elements in avirulence genes of M. oryzae seems to help in emergence of new virulent types of the pathogen. Allele-specific markers developed in this study will be helpful to identify a particular type of Avr-Pita allele from M. oryzae population which can form the basis for the deployment of Pita gene in different epidemiological regions. PMID:24633351

  11. Abyssal hills - hidden source of increased habitat heterogeneity, benthic megafaunal biomass and diversity in the deep sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durden, Jennifer M.; Bett, Brian J.; Jones, Daniel O. B.; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.; Ruhl, Henry A.

    2015-09-01

    Abyssal hills are the most abundant landform on Earth, yet the ecological impact of the resulting habitat heterogeneity on the wider abyss is largely unexplored. Topographic features are known to influence food availability and the sedimentary environment in other deep-sea habitats, in turn affecting the species assemblage and biomass. To assess this spatial variation, benthic assemblages and environmental conditions were compared at four hill and four plain sites at the Porcupine Abyssal Plain. Here we show that differences in megabenthic communities on abyssal hills and the adjacent plain are related to environmental conditions, which may be caused by local topography and hydrodynamics. Although these hills may receive similar particulate organic carbon flux (food supply from the surface ocean) to the adjacent plain, they differ significantly in depth, slope, and sediment particle size distribution. We found that megafaunal biomass was significantly greater on the hills (mean 13.45 g m-2, 95% confidence interval 9.25-19.36 g m-2) than the plain (4.34 g m-2, 95% CI 2.08-8.27 g m-2; ANOVA F(1, 6) = 23.8, p < 0.01). Assemblage and trophic compositions by both density and biomass measures were significantly different between the hill and plain, and correlated with sediment particle size distributions. Hydrodynamic conditions responsible for the local sedimentary environment may be the mechanism driving these assemblage differences. Since the ecological heterogeneity provided by hills in the abyss has been underappreciated, regional assessments of abyssal biological heterogeneity and diversity may be considerably higher than previously thought.

  12. Newcastle disease and other avian paramyxoviruses.

    PubMed

    Alexander, D J

    2000-08-01

    Newcastle disease (ND), caused by avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1) viruses, is included in List A of the Office International des Epizooties. Historically, ND has been a devastating disease of poultry, and in many countries the disease remains one of the major problems affecting existing or developing poultry industries. Even in countries where ND may be considered to be controlled, an economic burden is still associated with vaccination and/or maintaining strict biosecurity measures. The variable nature of Newcastle disease virus strains in terms of virulence for poultry and the different susceptibilities of the different species of birds mean that for control and trade purposes, ND requires careful definition. Confirmatory diagnosis of ND requires the isolation and characterisation of the virus involved. Assessments of virulence conventionally require in vivo testing. However, in vitro genetic characterisation of viruses is being used increasingly now that the molecular basis of pathogenicity is more fully understood. Control of ND is by prevention of introduction and spread, good biosecurity practices and/or vaccination. Newcastle disease viruses may infect humans, usually causing transient conjunctivitis, but human-to-human spread has never been reported. Eight other serotypes of avian paramyxoviruses are recognised, namely: APMV-2 to APMV-9. Most of these serotypes appear to be present in natural reservoirs of specific feral avian species, although other host species are usually susceptible. Only APMV-2 and APMV-3 viruses have made a significant disease and economic impact on poultry production. Both types of viruses cause respiratory disease and egg production losses which may be severe when exacerbated by other infections or environmental stresses. No reports exist of natural infections of chickens with APMV-3 viruses. PMID:10935273

  13. The Avian Proghrelin System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To understand how the proghrelin system functions in regulating growth hormone release and food intake as well as defining its pleiotropic roles in such diverse physiological processes as energy homeostasis, gastrointestinal tract function and reproduction requires detailed knowledge of the structur...

  14. Soil transfers from valley oak (Quercus lobata Nee) stands increase ectomycorrhizal diversity and alter root and shoot growth on valley oak seedlings.

    PubMed

    Berman, J T; Bledsoe, C S

    1998-02-01

    Soils from valley oak (Quercus lobata Nee) riparian areas of the Cosumnes River Nature Conservancy Preserve near Sacramento, California were added to growth medium of valley oak seedlings grown in a greenhouse or in agricultural fields at Cosumnes which probably once supported valley oak trees and are now replanted with native riparian vegetation or allowed to revegetate naturally. Agricultural field soil from the Cosumnes River Preserve was presumed to be low or lacking in ectomycorrhizal inoculum. The study was designed to (1) determine whether valley oak stand soil transfer could cause mycorrhizal infection on valley oak seedlings in an agricultural field and in a greenhouse, (2) describe ectomycorrhizal morphological types formed on valley oak seedlings, and (3) determine whether seedling growth is enhanced more by transfer of natural valley oak stand soil than agricultural field soil. In the field study, transfer of forest soil increased average ectomycorrhizal diversity (2.4 types) more than transfer of agricultural field soil (1.2 types). Valley oak seedlings were responsive to ectomycorrhizal infection in the field study. With increase in mycorrhizal infection there was an increase in shoot growth at the expense of root growth. In the greenhouse study, both percent mycorrhizal infection and mycorrhizal diversity were increased more by transfer of oak forest and woodland soils than agricultural field soil. Eight morphotypes occurred on seedlings in forest and woodland soils but only three morphotypes in agricultural soil. This result strongly suggests that the agricultural field also harbors ectomycorrhizal propagules but forest and woodland soils support a more abundant and diverse ectomycorrhizal flora. PMID:24578047

  15. Understanding the behavioral linkages needed for designing effective interventions to increase fruit and vegetable intake in diverse populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The design of interventions to increase fruit and vegetable consumption in a population (e.g. all men, all elementary school students) requires an underlying model that organizes the relevant literatures and provides an audience. The mediating-moderating variable model is a statistical analysis tech...

  16. Integrating Theory and Practice to Increase Scientific Workforce Diversity: A Framework for Career Development in Graduate Research Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byars-Winston, Angela; Gutierrez, Belinda; Topp, Sharon; Carnes, Molly

    2011-01-01

    Few, if any, educational interventions intended to increase underrepresented minority (URM) graduate students in biological and behavioral sciences are informed by theory and research on career persistence. Training and Education to Advance Minority Scholars in Science (TEAM-Science) is a program funded by the National Institute of General Medical…

  17. Cultural/Favorite Recipe Day: Strengthening Approaches to Increase Culturally Diverse Foods Served in Head Start Meals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Jessica A.; Agrawal, Tara; Carter, Sonia; Grinder, AnnMarie; Castaneda-Sceppa, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    One approach to halting the childhood obesity epidemic has been the modification of foods available to children during the school day. In recent years there has been an increased focus on obesity prevention efforts among children ages birth to 5 and the role of child care settings in prevention efforts. Head Start serves as an important venue for…

  18. Lessons from the Past: Confronting Past Discriminatory Practices To Alleviate the Nursing Shortage through Increased Professional Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Diane Randall

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the history of discriminatory practices in nursing, resulting in African Americans comprising only 4.9% of practicing nurses. Urges recognition of past injustices and suggests strategies to increase participation through recruitment, retention, and practice support. (Contains 21 references.) (SK)

  19. Integrating Theory and Practice to Increase Scientific Workforce Diversity: A Framework for Career Development in Graduate Research Training

    PubMed Central

    Byars-Winston, Angela; Gutierrez, Belinda; Topp, Sharon; Carnes, Molly

    2011-01-01

    Few, if any, educational interventions intended to increase underrepresented minority (URM) graduate students in biological and behavioral sciences are informed by theory and research on career persistence. Training and Education to Advance Minority Scholars in Science (TEAM-Science) is a program funded by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences at the University of Wisconsin–Madison with the twin goals of increasing the number of URM students entering and completing a PhD in BBS and increasing the number of these students who pursue academic careers. A framework for career development in graduate research training is proposed using social cognitive career theory. Based on this framework, TEAM-Science has five core components: 1) mentor training for the research advisor, 2) eight consensus-derived fundamental competencies required for a successful academic career, 3) career coaching by a senior faculty member, 4) an individualized career development plan that aligns students’ activities with the eight fundamental competencies, and 5) a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats personal career analysis. This paper describes the theoretical framework used to guide development of these components, the research and evaluation plan, and early experience implementing the program. We discuss the potential of this framework to increase desired career outcomes for URM graduate trainees in mentored research programs and, thereby, strengthen the effectiveness of such interventions on participants’ career behaviors. PMID:22135370

  20. Early Avian Research at the Savannah River Site: Historical Highlights and Possibilities for the Future

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, J.M.; Odum, E.P.

    2000-10-01

    Avian biology was a major component of early research and baseline surveys. The focus of research shifted and the SRS evolved from open fields to forest cover. In the early years avian species richness and abundance increased with successional age of the vegetation from old-field to forest. During the early years resident game birds increased. More recent studies will help to understand the role of habitat in local and regional extinctions. A variety of survey techniques is needed.

  1. Not so colourful after all: eggshell pigments constrain avian eggshell colour space.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Daniel; Grim, Tomáš; Cassey, Phillip; Hauber, Mark E

    2015-05-01

    Birds' eggshells are renowned for their striking colours and varied patterns. Although often considered exceptionally diverse, we report that avian eggshell coloration, sampled here across the full phylogenetic diversity of birds, occupies only 0.08-0.10% of the avian perceivable colour space. The concentrations of the two known tetrapyrrole eggshell pigments (protoporphyrin and biliverdin) are generally poor predictors of colour, both intra- and interspecifically. Here, we show that the constrained diversity of eggshell coloration can be accurately predicted by colour mixing models based on the relative contribution of both pigments and we demonstrate that the models' predictions can be improved by accounting for the reflectance of the eggshell's calcium carbonate matrix. The establishment of these proximate links between pigmentation and colour will enable future tests of hypotheses on the functions of perceived avian eggshell colours that depend on eggshell chemistry. More generally, colour mixing models are not limited to avian eggshell colours but apply to any natural colour. Our approach illustrates how modelling can aid the understanding of constraints on phenotypic diversity. PMID:25994009

  2. Limited evidence of intercontinental dispersal of avian paramyxovirus serotype 4 by migratory birds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian paramyxovirus serotype 4 (APMV-4) is a single stranded RNA virus that has most often been isolated from waterfowl. Limited information has been reported regarding the prevalence, pathogenicity, and genetic diversity of AMPV-4. To assess the intercontinental dispersal of this viral agent, we se...

  3. Temporal, geographic, and host distribution of avian paramyxovirus 1 (Newcastle disease virus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Newcastle disease (ND) caused by the virulent forms of avian paramyxoviruses of serotype 1 (APMV-1) reached panzootic proportions within two decades, after first being identified in 1926 in the United Kingdom and Indonesia. Reviewed here is the current understanding of the genetic diversity of APMV...

  4. Not so colourful after all: eggshell pigments constrain avian eggshell colour space

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, Daniel; Grim, Tomáš; Cassey, Phillip; Hauber, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Birds' eggshells are renowned for their striking colours and varied patterns. Although often considered exceptionally diverse, we report that avian eggshell coloration, sampled here across the full phylogenetic diversity of birds, occupies only 0.08–0.10% of the avian perceivable colour space. The concentrations of the two known tetrapyrrole eggshell pigments (protoporphyrin and biliverdin) are generally poor predictors of colour, both intra- and interspecifically. Here, we show that the constrained diversity of eggshell coloration can be accurately predicted by colour mixing models based on the relative contribution of both pigments and we demonstrate that the models' predictions can be improved by accounting for the reflectance of the eggshell's calcium carbonate matrix. The establishment of these proximate links between pigmentation and colour will enable future tests of hypotheses on the functions of perceived avian eggshell colours that depend on eggshell chemistry. More generally, colour mixing models are not limited to avian eggshell colours but apply to any natural colour. Our approach illustrates how modelling can aid the understanding of constraints on phenotypic diversity. PMID:25994009

  5. The evolutionary genetics and emergence of avian influenza viruses in wild birds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We surveyed the genetic diversity of avian influenza virus (AIV) in wild birds, comprising 167 complete viral genomes sampled from 14 bird species in four locations across North America. This revealed 29 combinations of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) subtypes, with 26% of isolates showin...

  6. Reverse genetics of avian metapneumoviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An overview of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) infection in turkeys and development of a reverse genetics system for aMPV subgroup C (aMPV-C) virus will be presented. By using reverse genetics technology, we generated recombinant aMPV-C viruses containing a different length of glycoprotein (G) gene or...

  7. Avian metapneumovirus in the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the United States of America (USA), avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) causes an upper respiratory tract infection in turkeys; no outbreaks have been reported in commercial chicken flocks. Typical clinical signs of the disease in turkey poults include coughing, sneezing, nasal discharge, tracheal rale...

  8. Avian influenza virus RNA extraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficient extraction and purification of viral RNA is critical for down-stream molecular applications whether it is the sensitive and specific detection of virus in clinical samples, virus gene cloning and expression, or quantification of avian influenza (AI) virus by molecular methods from expe...

  9. Laser Cleaning of Avian Eggshell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornish, L.; Ball, A.; Russell, D.

    A low vacuum SEM was used to evaluate the effect of using an Nd:YAG laser as a non-contact technique for cleaning avian eggshells. The technique shows potential, since there are no obvious deleterious effects from cleaning, but further study is required to understand how the laser is interacting with the sample surface.

  10. Molecular characterization of avian astroviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Astroviruses are frequently associated with enteric diseases in poultry, being isolated from cases of runting-stunting syndrome (RSS) of broiler chickens, poult enteritis complex (PEC) and poult enteritis mortality syndrome (PEMS) of turkeys. Currently, five types of avian astrovirus have been ident...

  11. Avian Influenza: Our current understanding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) has become one of the most important diseases of the poultry industry around the world. The virus has a broad host range in birds and mammals, although the natural reservoir is considered to be in wild birds where it typically causes an asymptomatic to mild infection. T...

  12. Influenza vaccines for avian species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beginning in Southeast Asia, in 2003, a multi-national epizootic outbreak of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) was identified in commercial poultry and wild bird species. This lineage, originally identified in Southern China in 1996 and then Hong Kong in 1997, caused severe morbidity an...

  13. Mercury risk to avian piscivores across western United States and Canada.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Allyson; Evers, David C; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Ackerman, Joshua T; Willacker, James J; Elliott, John E; Lepak, Jesse M; Vander Pol, Stacy S; Bryan, Colleen E

    2016-10-15

    The widespread distribution of mercury (Hg) threatens wildlife health, particularly piscivorous birds. Western North America is a diverse region that provides critical habitat to many piscivorous bird species, and also has a well-documented history of mercury contamination from legacy mining and atmospheric deposition. The diversity of landscapes in the west limits the distribution of avian piscivore species, complicating broad comparisons across the region. Mercury risk to avian piscivores was evaluated across the western United States and Canada using a suite of avian piscivore species representing a variety of foraging strategies that together occur broadly across the region. Prey fish Hg concentrations were size-adjusted to the preferred size class of the diet for each avian piscivore (Bald Eagle=36cm, Osprey=30cm, Common and Yellow-billed Loon=15cm, Western and Clark's Grebe=6cm, and Belted Kingfisher=5cm) across each species breeding range. Using a combination of field and lab-based studies on Hg effect in a variety of species, wet weight blood estimates were grouped into five relative risk categories including: background (<0.5μg/g), low (0.5-1μg/g), moderate (1-2μg/g), high (2-3μg/g), and extra high (>3μg/g). These risk categories were used to estimate potential mercury risk to avian piscivores across the west at a 1degree-by-1degree grid cell resolution. Avian piscivores foraging on larger-sized fish generally were at a higher relative risk to Hg. Habitats with a relatively high risk included wetland complexes (e.g., prairie pothole in Saskatchewan), river deltas (e.g., San Francisco Bay, Puget Sound, Columbia River), and arid lands (Great Basin and central Arizona). These results indicate that more intensive avian piscivore sampling is needed across Western North America to generate a more robust assessment of exposure risk. PMID:26996522

  14. Investigation of avian haemosporidian parasites from raptor birds in Turkey, with molecular characterisation and microscopic confirmation.

    PubMed

    Ciloglu, Arif; Yildirim, Alparslan; Duzlu, Onder; Onder, Zuhal; Dogan, Zafer; Inci, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Avian haemosporidians are common vector-borne blood parasites that have been reported in birds all over the world. Investigations of avian haemosporidian parasites are conducted mainly on passerine birds. However, studies that focus on non-passerine avian hosts are important for our understanding of the true diversity, host specificity and genetic variability among these widespread parasites. In the present study, blood samples from a total of 22 raptor birds belonging to two orders, two families and six species from the Central Anatolia Region of Turkey were investigated for three genera of avian haemosporidians (Plasmodium Marchiafava et Celli, 1885, Haemoproteus Kruse, 1890 and Leucocytozoon Sambon, 1908) using a combination of microscopic examination of blood films and nested PCR targeting the parasite mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (cyt-b). In total, six individual raptor birds identified positive for species of Plasmodium or Leucocytozoon and one individual was found co-infected with all three haemosporidian genera. We identified five parasite cyt-b haplotypes, three of which were reported for the first time. Among these, one Plasmodium haplotype is linked to a corresponding morphospecies (P-TURDUS1, Plasmodium circumflexum Kikuth, 1931). All haplotypes were clearly distinguishable in phylogenetic analyses. As one of the first studies to investigate blood parasites from non-passerine birds in the Central Anatolia Region of Turkey, this study provides important new information on the phylogenetic relationships and genetic diversity of avian haemosporidian parasites from raptor birds. We discuss these findings in the context of avian haemosporidian host-parasite relationships and we draw attention to the need for microscopy to detect parasite sexual development stages in surveys of avian haemosporidians. PMID:27507297

  15. Effects of experimentally increased near-bottom flow on meiofauna diversity and community structure in the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltwedel, Thomas; Mokievsky, Vadim; Rabouille, Christophe; Sauter, Eberhard; Volkenandt, Mareike; Hasemann, Christiane

    2013-03-01

    Effects of increased near-bottom flow velocities on the sedimentary environment and its associated small biota were studied in a long-term in situ experiment at 2500 m water depth at the Deep-Sea Observatory HAUSGARTEN in the eastern Fram Strait. In 2003, the Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) "Victor 6000" was used to install a stainless steel flume of about 8.5 m in length, consisting out of a 6 m long passageway with a cross-section of 50×50 cm and 3-4 m wide funnel-like doorways to increase bottom currents by a factor of approximately 6. Sediment sampling for biochemical sediment analyses, bacterial studies and meiofaunal investigations (with special focus on the nematode communities) was carried out 4 years after the installation of the flume using the ROV "Quest 4000". The data showed clearly reduced values for parameters indicating organic matter (food) availability in the sediments, and corresponding lower bacterial and meiofaunal densities inside the flume, compared to control sites outside the channel. Results suggest that increased near-bottom currents and food deficiency not only diminish sediment-inhabiting meiofaunal assemblages but also alter the meiobenthic composition. Compared to background sediments, the nematode community inside the flume evidently showed adaptations to the overall reduced food availability and a more heterogeneous environment due to generally increased and more turbulent flow velocities. The variable environmental conditions inside the flume have an effect not only on the number of genera present, but also on the identities of the genera and the functional composition of the nematode community.

  16. Thermal inactivation of avian influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus in a fat-free egg product

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) and Avian Paramyxovirus Type-1 (AMPV-1) viruses can survive on the carcasses, in organ tissue of infected birds, on fomites, and have the potential for egg transmission and egg product contamination. With the increase in global trade, there are concerns that egg products could ...

  17. Improved Yield of High Molecular Weight DNA Coincides with Increased Microbial Diversity Access from Iron Oxide Cemented Sub-Surface Clay Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Hurt, Jr., Richard Ashley; Moberly, James G; Shakya, Migun; Vishnivetskaya, T.; Elias, Dwayne A

    2014-01-01

    Despite more than three decades of progress, efficient nucleic acid extraction from microbial communities has remained difficult, particularly from clay environments. Lysis with concentrated guanidine followed by concentrated sodium phosphate extraction supported DNA and RNA recovery from high iron, low humus content clay. Alterating the extraction pH or using other ionic solutions (Na2SO4 and NH4H2PO4) yielded no detectable nucleic acid. DNA recovered using a lysis solution with 500 mM phosphate buffer (PB) followed by a 1 M PB wash was 15.22 2.33 g DNA/g clay, with most DNA consisting of >20 Kb fragments, compared to 2.46 0.25 g DNA/g clay with the Powerlyzer soil DNA system (MoBio). Increasing [PB] in the lysis reagent coincided with increasing DNA fragment length. Rarefaction plots based on16S rRNA (V1/V3 region) pyrosequencing libraries from A-horizon and clay soils showed an ~80% and ~400% larger accessed diversity compared to a previous grinding protocol or the Powerlyzer soil DNA system, respectively. The observed diversity from the Firmicutes showed the strongest increase with >3-fold more bacterial species recovered using this system. Additionally, some OTU s having more than 100 sequences in these libraries were absent in samples extracted using the PowerLyzer reagents or the previous lysis method.

  18. Collapsing avian community on a Hawaiian island.

    PubMed

    Paxton, Eben H; Camp, Richard J; Gorresen, P Marcos; Crampton, Lisa H; Leonard, David L; VanderWerf, Eric A

    2016-09-01

    The viability of many species has been jeopardized by numerous negative factors over the centuries, but climate change is predicted to accelerate and increase the pressure of many of these threats, leading to extinctions. The Hawaiian honeycreepers, famous for their spectacular adaptive radiation, are predicted to experience negative responses to climate change, given their susceptibility to introduced disease, the strong linkage of disease distribution to climatic conditions, and their current distribution. We document the rapid collapse of the native avifauna on the island of Kaua'i that corresponds to changes in climate and disease prevalence. Although multiple factors may be pressuring the community, we suggest that a tipping point has been crossed in which temperatures in forest habitats at high elevations have reached a threshold that facilitates the development of avian malaria and its vector throughout these species' ranges. Continued incursion of invasive weeds and non-native avian competitors may be facilitated by climate change and could also contribute to declines. If current rates of decline continue, we predict multiple extinctions in the coming decades. Kaua'i represents an early warning for the forest bird communities on the Maui and Hawai'i islands, as well as other species around the world that are trapped within a climatic space that is rapidly disappearing. PMID:27617287

  19. Collapsing avian community on a Hawaiian island

    PubMed Central

    Paxton, Eben H.; Camp, Richard J.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Crampton, Lisa H.; Leonard, David L.; VanderWerf, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    The viability of many species has been jeopardized by numerous negative factors over the centuries, but climate change is predicted to accelerate and increase the pressure of many of these threats, leading to extinctions. The Hawaiian honeycreepers, famous for their spectacular adaptive radiation, are predicted to experience negative responses to climate change, given their susceptibility to introduced disease, the strong linkage of disease distribution to climatic conditions, and their current distribution. We document the rapid collapse of the native avifauna on the island of Kaua‘i that corresponds to changes in climate and disease prevalence. Although multiple factors may be pressuring the community, we suggest that a tipping point has been crossed in which temperatures in forest habitats at high elevations have reached a threshold that facilitates the development of avian malaria and its vector throughout these species’ ranges. Continued incursion of invasive weeds and non-native avian competitors may be facilitated by climate change and could also contribute to declines. If current rates of decline continue, we predict multiple extinctions in the coming decades. Kaua‘i represents an early warning for the forest bird communities on the Maui and Hawai‘i islands, as well as other species around the world that are trapped within a climatic space that is rapidly disappearing. PMID:27617287

  20. Cord blood collection and banking from a population with highly diverse geographic origins increase HLA diversity in the registry and do not lower the proportion of validated cord blood units: experience of the Marseille Cord Blood Bank.

    PubMed

    Bordoni, C; Magalon, J; Gilbertas, C; Gamerre, M; Le Coz, P; Berthomieu, M; Chabannon, C; Di Cristofaro, J; Picard, C

    2015-04-01

    Several Cord Blood (CB) Bank studies suggested that ethnicity impaired CB unit (CBU) qualification. The Bone Marrow Donors Worldwide registries present an over-representation of unrelated donors (UD) from Northwestern European descent. This raises the question of equality of access to hematopoietic stem cells transplant, especially in the Mediterranean zone, which has taken in many waves of immigration. The aim of our study is to address whether, in the Marseille CB Bank, CBU qualification rate is impaired by geographic origin. The study compared biological characteristics of 106 CBU disqualified for total nucleated cell (TNC) count (dCBU) and 136 qualified CBU in relation to registry enrichment and haplotype origin. A high proportion (>80%) of both dCBU and CBU had at least one non-European haplotype and enrich CB and UD registries to a higher extent than those with two European haplotypes (P<0.001). No difference was observed between TNC count and volume according to geographic origin. Our study shows that diverse Mediterranean origins do not have an impact on the CBU qualification rate. Partnership with Mediterranean birth clinics with highly trained staff is a reasonable option to increase the HLA diversity of CB Bank inventories and to improve the representation of minorities. PMID:25621799

  1. Dinosaurian growth patterns and rapid avian growth rates.

    PubMed

    Erickson, G M; Rogers, K C; Yerby, S A

    2001-07-26

    Did dinosaurs grow in a manner similar to extant reptiles, mammals or birds, or were they unique? Are rapid avian growth rates an innovation unique to birds, or were they inherited from dinosaurian precursors? We quantified growth rates for a group of dinosaurs spanning the phylogenetic and size diversity for the clade and used regression analysis to characterize the results. Here we show that dinosaurs exhibited sigmoidal growth curves similar to those of other vertebrates, but had unique growth rates with respect to body mass. All dinosaurs grew at accelerated rates relative to the primitive condition seen in extant reptiles. Small dinosaurs grew at moderately rapid rates, similar to those of marsupials, but large species attained rates comparable to those of eutherian mammals and precocial birds. Growth in giant sauropods was similar to that of whales of comparable size. Non-avian dinosaurs did not attain rates like those of altricial birds. Avian growth rates were attained in a stepwise fashion after birds diverged from theropod ancestors in the Jurassic period. PMID:11473315

  2. A PCR test for avian malaria in Hawaiian birds.

    PubMed

    Feldman, R A; Freed, L A; Cann, R L

    1995-12-01

    The decline of native Hawaiian forest birds since European contact is attributed to factors ranging from habitat destruction to interactions with introduced species. Remaining populations of Hawaiian honeycreepers (Fringillidae: Drepanidinae) are most abundant and diverse in high elevation refuges above the normal range of disease-carrying mosquitoes. Challenge experiments suggest that honeycreepers are highly susceptible to avian malaria (Plasmodium sp.) but resistance exists in some species. In order to detect low levels of malarial infection and quantify prevalence of Plasmodium in high elevation natural populations of Hawaiian birds, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based diagnostic test was developed that identifies rRNA genes of Plasmodium in avian blood samples. Quantitative competitive PCR (QC-PCR) experiments indicate that the detection limit of our test is an order of magnitude greater than that reported for human malaria DNA blot tests. Compared with standard histological methods, the PCR test detected a higher prevalence of diseased birds at mid-elevations. Malaria was detected in three species of native birds living in a high elevation wildlife refuge on the island of Hawaii and in four species from Maui. Our results show that avian malaria is more widespread in Hawaiian forests than previously thought, a finding that has important conservation implications for these threatened species. PMID:8564006

  3. Sialic acid receptor specificity on erythrocytes affects detection of antibody to avian influenza haemagglutinin.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, I; Wood, J M; Nicholson, K G; Zambon, M C

    2003-07-01

    Haemagglutination-inhibition tests (HI) are used to detect increases in influenza antibody in serum. However, they are relatively insensitive for the detection of human antibody responses to avian haemagglutinin, even in the presence of high titres of neutralising antibody after confirmed infection or vaccination. Human influenza viruses bind preferentially sialic acid containing N-acetylneuraminic acid alpha2,6-galactose (SAalpha2,6Gal) linkages while avian and equine viruses bind preferentially those containing N-acetylneuraminic acid alpha2,3-galactose (SAalpha2,3Gal) linkages. Increasing the proportion of SAalpha2,3Gal linkages on the erythrocytes used, by enzymatic modification or change of species, improves the ability of erythrocytes to bind to avian influenza strains and thereby improves the sensitivity of detection of antibody to avian and equine HA in a range of mammalian and human sera using HI tests. PMID:12767002

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of Avian Bornavirus Genotype 1 from a Macaw with Proventricular Dilatation Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mirhosseini, Negin; Gray, Patricia L.; Tizard, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Avian bornaviruses (ABV) were first detected and described in 2008. They are the etiologic agents of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a frequently fatal neurologic disease of captive parrots. Seven ABV genogroups have been identified worldwide from a variety of sources, and that number may increase as surveillance for novel bornaviruses continues. Here, we report the first complete sequence of a genogroup 1 avian bornavirus (ABV1). PMID:22628404

  5. Complete genome sequence of avian bornavirus genotype 1 from a Macaw with proventricular dilatation disease.

    PubMed

    Mirhosseini, Negin; Gray, Patricia L; Tizard, Ian; Payne, Susan

    2012-06-01

    Avian bornaviruses (ABV) were first detected and described in 2008. They are the etiologic agents of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a frequently fatal neurologic disease of captive parrots. Seven ABV genogroups have been identified worldwide from a variety of sources, and that number may increase as surveillance for novel bornaviruses continues. Here, we report the first complete sequence of a genogroup 1 avian bornavirus (ABV1). PMID:22628404

  6. Brachyspira pilosicoli-induced avian intestinal spirochaetosis

    PubMed Central

    Le Roy, Caroline I.; Mappley, Luke J.; La Ragione, Roberto M.; Woodward, Martin J.; Claus, Sandrine P.

    2015-01-01

    Avian intestinal spirochaetosis (AIS) is a common disease occurring in poultry that can be caused by Brachyspira pilosicoli, a Gram-negative bacterium of the order Spirochaetes. During AIS, this opportunistic pathogen colonises the lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract of poultry (principally, the ileum, caeca, and colon), which can cause symptoms such as diarrhoea, reduced growth rate, and reduced egg production and quality. Due to the large increase of bacterial resistance to antibiotic treatment, the European Union banned in 2006 the prophylactic use of antibiotics as growth promoters in livestock. Consequently, the number of outbreaks of AIS has dramatically increased in the UK resulting in significant economic losses. This review summarises the current knowledge about AIS infection caused by B. pilosicoli and discusses various treatments and prevention strategies to control AIS. PMID:26679774

  7. Inhibiting avian influenza virus shedding using a novel RNAi antiviral vector technology: proof of concept in an avian cell model.

    PubMed

    Linke, Lyndsey M; Wilusz, Jeffrey; Pabilonia, Kristy L; Fruehauf, Johannes; Magnuson, Roberta; Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Triantis, Joni; Landolt, Gabriele; Salman, Mo

    2016-03-01

    Influenza A viruses pose significant health and economic threats to humans and animals. Outbreaks of avian influenza virus (AIV) are a liability to the poultry industry and increase the risk for transmission to humans. There are limitations to using the AIV vaccine in poultry, creating barriers to controlling outbreaks and a need for alternative effective control measures. Application of RNA interference (RNAi) techniques hold potential; however, the delivery of RNAi-mediating agents is a well-known obstacle to harnessing its clinical application. We introduce a novel antiviral approach using bacterial vectors that target avian mucosal epithelial cells and deliver (small interfering RNA) siRNAs against two AIV genes, nucleoprotein (NP) and polymerase acidic protein (PA). Using a red fluorescent reporter, we first demonstrated vector delivery and intracellular expression in avian epithelial cells. Subsequently, we demonstrated significant reductions in AIV shedding when applying these anti-AIV vectors prophylactically. These antiviral vectors provided up to a 10,000-fold reduction in viral titers shed, demonstrating in vitro proof-of-concept for using these novel anti-AIV vectors to inhibit AIV shedding. Our results indicate this siRNA vector technology could represent a scalable and clinically applicable antiviral technology for avian and human influenza and a prototype for RNAi-based vectors against other viruses. PMID:26910902

  8. Gender determination of avian embryo

    DOEpatents

    Daum, Keith A.; Atkinson, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for gender determination of avian embryos. During the embryo incubation process, the outer hard shells of eggs are drilled and samples of allantoic fluid are removed. The allantoic fluids are directly introduced into an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) for analysis. The resulting spectra contain the relevant marker peaks in the positive or negative mode which correlate with unique mobilities which are sex-specific. This way, the gender of the embryo can be determined.

  9. Avian influenza: the Canadian experience.

    PubMed

    Pasick, J; Berhane, Y; Hooper-McGrevy, K

    2009-04-01

    Reports of sporadic avian influenza outbreaks involving domestic poultry date back to the 1960s. With the exception of A/turkey/Ontario/7732/1966 (H5N9), which was isolated from a turkey breeding establishment, all viruses characterised prior to 2004 fit the criteria of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI). Only in retrospect was A/turkey/Ontario/7732/1966 shown to meet the criteria of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). In 2004, Canada reported its first case of HPAI to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The outbreak, which began in a broiler breeder farm in the Fraser Valley of British Columbia, involved an H7N3 LPAI virus which underwent a sudden virulence shift to HPAI. More than 17 million birds were culled and CAN$380 million in gross economic costs incurred before the outbreak was eventually brought under control. In its aftermath a number of changes were implemented to mitigate the impact of any future HPAI outbreaks. These changes involved various aspects of avian influenza detection and control, including self-quarantine, biosecurity, surveillance, and laboratory testing. In 2005, a national surveillance programme for influenza A viruses in wild birds was initiated. Results of this survey provided evidence for wild birds as the likely source of an H5N2 LPAI outbreak that occurred in domestic ducks in the Fraser Valley in the autumn of 2005. Wild birds were once again implicated in an H7N3 HPAI outbreak involving a broiler breeder operation in Saskatchewan in 2007. Fortunately, both of these outbreaks were limited in extent, a consequence of some of the changes implemented in response to the 2004 British Columbia outbreak. PMID:19618638

  10. BirdFlu2009: Avian Influenza and Human Health. 9-10 September 2009, Oxford, UK.

    PubMed

    Temperton, Nigel

    2009-11-01

    The BirdFlu2009 meeting entitled Avian Influenza and Human Health, held in Oxford, included topics covering new developments in the control of seasonal, avian and swine influenza virus infection, with a focus on the human-animal interface. This conference report highlights selected presentations on sialidase therapy for influenza infection, the use of IVIgs to study antibody diversity and reactivity, detecting oseltamivir carboxylate in waste water, H5N1 infection in Egyptian children, preparedness for an influenza pandemic and an indirect sandwich ELISA to detect H5 avian influenza virus. Investigational drugs discussed include NEX-DAS-181 (NexBio Inc) and MVA-NP-M1 (The Edward Jenner Institute for Vaccine Research). PMID:19844852

  11. Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kayali, Ghazi; Kandeil, Ahmed; El-Shesheny, Rabeh; Kayed, Ahmed S; Maatouq, Asmaa M; Cai, Zhipeng; McKenzie, Pamela P; Webby, Richard J; El Refaey, Samir; Kandeel, Amr; Ali, Mohamed A

    2016-03-01

    In Egypt, avian influenza A subtype H5N1 and H9N2 viruses are enzootic in poultry. The control plan devised by veterinary authorities in Egypt to prevent infections in poultry focused mainly on vaccination and ultimately failed. Recently, widespread H5N1 infections in poultry and a substantial increase in the number of human cases of H5N1 infection were observed. We summarize surveillance data from 2009 through 2014 and show that avian influenza viruses are established in poultry in Egypt and are continuously evolving genetically and antigenically. We also discuss the epidemiology of human infection with avian influenza in Egypt and describe how the true burden of disease is underestimated. We discuss the failures of relying on vaccinating poultry as the sole intervention tool. We conclude by highlighting the key components that need to be included in a new strategy to control avian influenza infections in poultry and humans in Egypt. PMID:26886164

  12. Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Kandeil, Ahmed; El-Shesheny, Rabeh; Kayed, Ahmed S.; Maatouq, Asmaa M.; Cai, Zhipeng; McKenzie, Pamela P.; Webby, Richard J.; El Refaey, Samir; Kandeel, Amr; Ali, Mohamed A.

    2016-01-01

    In Egypt, avian influenza A subtype H5N1 and H9N2 viruses are enzootic in poultry. The control plan devised by veterinary authorities in Egypt to prevent infections in poultry focused mainly on vaccination and ultimately failed. Recently, widespread H5N1 infections in poultry and a substantial increase in the number of human cases of H5N1 infection were observed. We summarize surveillance data from 2009 through 2014 and show that avian influenza viruses are established in poultry in Egypt and are continuously evolving genetically and antigenically. We also discuss the epidemiology of human infection with avian influenza in Egypt and describe how the true burden of disease is underestimated. We discuss the failures of relying on vaccinating poultry as the sole intervention tool. We conclude by highlighting the key components that need to be included in a new strategy to control avian influenza infections in poultry and humans in Egypt. PMID:26886164

  13. Nutrient uplift in a cyclonic eddy increases diversity, primary productivity and iron demand of microbial communities relative to a western boundary current.

    PubMed

    Doblin, Martina A; Petrou, Katherina; Sinutok, Sutinee; Seymour, Justin R; Messer, Lauren F; Brown, Mark V; Norman, Louiza; Everett, Jason D; McInnes, Allison S; Ralph, Peter J; Thompson, Peter A; Hassler, Christel S

    2016-01-01

    The intensification of western boundary currents in the global ocean will potentially influence meso-scale eddy generation, and redistribute microbes and their associated ecological and biogeochemical functions. To understand eddy-induced changes in microbial community composition as well as how they control growth, we targeted the East Australian Current (EAC) region to sample microbes in a cyclonic (cold-core) eddy (CCE) and the adjacent EAC. Phototrophic and diazotrophic microbes were more diverse (2-10 times greater Shannon index) in the CCE relative to the EAC, and the cell size distribution in the CCE was dominated (67%) by larger micro-plankton [Formula: see text], as opposed to pico- and nano-sized cells in the EAC. Nutrient addition experiments determined that nitrogen was the principal nutrient limiting growth in the EAC, while iron was a secondary limiting nutrient in the CCE. Among the diazotrophic community, heterotrophic NifH gene sequences dominated in the EAC and were attributable to members of the gamma-, beta-, and delta-proteobacteria, while the CCE contained both phototrophic and heterotrophic diazotrophs, including Trichodesmium, UCYN-A and gamma-proteobacteria. Daily sampling of incubation bottles following nutrient amendment captured a cascade of effects at the cellular, population and community level, indicating taxon-specific differences in the speed of response of microbes to nutrient supply. Nitrogen addition to the CCE community increased picoeukaryote chlorophyll a quotas within 24 h, suggesting that nutrient uplift by eddies causes a 'greening' effect as well as an increase in phytoplankton biomass. After three days in both the EAC and CCE, diatoms increased in abundance with macronutrient (N, P, Si) and iron amendment, whereas haptophytes and phototrophic dinoflagellates declined. Our results indicate that cyclonic eddies increase delivery of nitrogen to the upper ocean to potentially mitigate the negative consequences of increased

  14. Nutrient uplift in a cyclonic eddy increases diversity, primary productivity and iron demand of microbial communities relative to a western boundary current

    PubMed Central

    Petrou, Katherina; Sinutok, Sutinee; Seymour, Justin R.; Messer, Lauren F.; Brown, Mark V.; Norman, Louiza; Everett, Jason D.; McInnes, Allison S.; Ralph, Peter J.; Thompson, Peter A.; Hassler, Christel S.

    2016-01-01

    The intensification of western boundary currents in the global ocean will potentially influence meso-scale eddy generation, and redistribute microbes and their associated ecological and biogeochemical functions. To understand eddy-induced changes in microbial community composition as well as how they control growth, we targeted the East Australian Current (EAC) region to sample microbes in a cyclonic (cold-core) eddy (CCE) and the adjacent EAC. Phototrophic and diazotrophic microbes were more diverse (2–10 times greater Shannon index) in the CCE relative to the EAC, and the cell size distribution in the CCE was dominated (67%) by larger micro-plankton \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$(\\geq 20\\lrm{\\mu }\\mathrm{m})$\\end{document}≥20μm, as opposed to pico- and nano-sized cells in the EAC. Nutrient addition experiments determined that nitrogen was the principal nutrient limiting growth in the EAC, while iron was a secondary limiting nutrient in the CCE. Among the diazotrophic community, heterotrophic NifH gene sequences dominated in the EAC and were attributable to members of the gamma-, beta-, and delta-proteobacteria, while the CCE contained both phototrophic and heterotrophic diazotrophs, including Trichodesmium, UCYN-A and gamma-proteobacteria. Daily sampling of incubation bottles following nutrient amendment captured a cascade of effects at the cellular, population and community level, indicating taxon-specific differences in the speed of response of microbes to nutrient supply. Nitrogen addition to the CCE community increased picoeukaryote chlorophyll a quotas within 24 h, suggesting that nutrient uplift by eddies causes a ‘greening’ effect as well as an increase in phytoplankton biomass. After three days in both the EAC and CCE, diatoms

  15. Conspicuous male coloration impairs survival against avian predators in Aegean wall lizards, Podarcis erhardii.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Kate L A; Philpot, Kate E; Stevens, Martin

    2015-09-01

    Animal coloration is strikingly diverse in nature. Within-species color variation can arise through local adaptation for camouflage, sexual dimorphism and conspicuous sexual signals, which often have conflicting effects on survival. Here, we tested whether color variation between two island populations of Aegean wall lizards (Podarcis erhardii) is due to sexual dimorphism and differential survival of individuals varying in appearance. On both islands, we measured attack rates by wild avian predators on clay models matching the coloration of real male and female P. erhardii from each island population, modeled to avian predator vision. Avian predator attack rates differed among model treatments, although only on one island. Male-colored models, which were more conspicuous against their experimental backgrounds to avian predators, were accordingly detected and attacked more frequently by birds than less conspicuous female-colored models. This suggests that female coloration has evolved primarily under selection for camouflage, whereas sexually competing males exhibit costly conspicuous coloration. Unexpectedly, there was no difference in avian attack frequency between local and non-local model types. This may have arisen if the models did not resemble lizard coloration with sufficient precision, or if real lizards behaviorally choose backgrounds that improve camouflage. Overall, these results show that sexually dimorphic coloration can affect the risk of predator attacks, indicating that color variation within a species can be caused by interactions between natural and sexual selection. However, more work is needed to determine how these findings depend on the island environment that each population inhabits. PMID:26442582

  16. Diversity of terrestrial avifauna in response to distance from the shoreline of the Salton Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mendelsohn, M.B.; Boarman, W.I.; Fisher, R.N.; Hathaway, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    Large aquatic bodies influence surrounding terrestrial ecosystems by providing water and nutrients. In arid landscapes, the increased primary productivity that results may greatly enhance vertebrate biodiversity. The Salton Sea, a large saline lake in the Colorado Desert of southern California, provides nutrients in the form of hundreds of thousands of dead fish carcasses, brine flies, and chemical compounds through windborne salt sea spray. We performed point counts for landbirds and shorebirds monthly or every other month between March 2001 and February 2002 across a sampling grid of 35 points along the west edge of Salton Sea. We found that avian diversity (numbers of species and numbers per species) was dependent on proximity to the Sea. Diversity was at a maximum nearest the shore, and was significantly lower away from the Sea's edge, at all surveyed distances up to 1 km from the shore. Cover by the dominant shrubs on the study site also corresponded to proximity to the water's edge. Whereas one may hypothesize that the avian diversity patterns are caused by these differences in vegetation structure, our data did not support this. Future studies should further investigate this potential correlation between vegetation and bird patterns. Until more is understood about the relationship between elevated avian diversity and the physical environment of the land-shore interface, our results suggest that the Sea's surface be stabilized near its present level. Future management schemes at the Salton Sea that include reductions of water sources should be carefully analyzed, so as to not jeopardize the terrestrial avifauna at this unique ecosystem. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 76 FR 4046 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ...We are amending the regulations concerning the importation of animals and animal products to prohibit or restrict the importation of bird and poultry products from regions where any subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza is considered to exist. We are also adding restrictions concerning importation of live poultry and birds that have been vaccinated for certain types of avian influenza,......

  18. The global nature of avian influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus is a global virus which knows no geographic boundaries, has no political agenda, and can infect poultry irrespective of their agricultural or anthropocentric production systems. Avian influenza viruses or evidence of their infection have been detected in poultry and wild birds...

  19. Biology and transmission of avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The natural host and reservoir for avian influenza is in wild birds where the viral infection is typically asymptomatic. The virus primarily replicates in the enteric tract and transmission is thought to be primarily by fecal-oral transmission. Avian influenza can infect a broad host range, but fo...

  20. Avian influenza diagnostics and surveillance methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The clinical presentation of avian influenza (AI) varies by virus strain and host species. The clinical disease and lesions the virus produces in poultry are not pathognomonic for avian influenza; therefore, diagnosis of AI virus (AIV) infection requires a laboratory test. Detection of AIV infecti...

  1. Avian influenza biology and disease transmission

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The natural host and reservoir for avian influenza is in wild birds where the viral infection is typically asymptomatic. The virus primarily replicates in the enteric tract and transmission is thought to be primarily by fecal oral transmission. Avian influenza can infect a broad host range, but fo...

  2. Avian influenza: preparedness and response strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus is naturally found in wild birds, primarily waterfowl, but the virus may also be found in poultry. In the United States we have a strong passive and active surveillance program for avian influenza in poultry. This includes serologic testing on most flocks that go through the ...

  3. A brief introduction to avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) causes a disease of high economic importance for poultry production worldwide. The earliest recorded cases of probable high pathogenicity AIV in poultry were reported in Italy in the 1870’s and avian influenza been recognized in domestic poultry through the modern era of ...

  4. DIVA vaccination strategies for avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccination for both low pathogenic and highly pathogenic avian influenza is commonly used for countries that have been endemic for avian influenza influenza virus, but stamping out policies are common for countries that are normally free of the disease. Stamping out policies of euthanizing infecte...

  5. MANAGING AVIAN FLU, CARCASS MANAGEMENT & BIOSOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The avian influenza virus is discussed with emphasis on the impact to poultry and possible movement of the highly pathogenic H5N 1 virus to humans. A review is made of the worldwide effects to date of the avian influenza viruses; methods for the viruses to enter recreational wate...

  6. C-Terminal Amino Acids 471-507 of Avian Hepatitis E Virus Capsid Protein Are Crucial for Binding to Avian and Human Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinquan; Bilic, Ivana; Marek, Ana; Glösmann, Martin; Hess, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The infection of chickens with avian Hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) can be asymptomatic or induces clinical signs characterized by increased mortality and decreased egg production in adult birds. Due to the lack of an efficient cell culture system for avian HEV, the interaction between virus and host cells is still barely understood. In this study, four truncated avian HEV capsid proteins (ORF2-1 - ORF2-4) with an identical 338aa deletion at the N-terminus and gradual deletions from 0, 42, 99 and 136aa at the C-terminus, respectively, were expressed and used to map the possible binding site within avian HEV capsid protein. Results from the binding assay showed that three truncated capsid proteins attached to avian LMH cells, but did not penetrate into cells. However, the shortest construct, ORF2-4, lost the capability of binding to cells suggesting that the presence of amino acids 471 to 507 of the capsid protein is crucial for the attachment. The construct ORF2-3 (aa339-507) was used to study the potential binding of avian HEV capsid protein to human and other avian species. It could be demonstrated that ORF2-3 was capable of binding to QT-35 cells from Japanese quail and human HepG2 cells but failed to bind to P815 cells. Additionally, chicken serum raised against ORF2-3 successfully blocked the binding to LMH cells. Treatment with heparin sodium salt or sodium chlorate significantly reduced binding of ORF2-3 to LMH cells. However, heparinase II treatment of LMH cells had no effect on binding of the ORF2-3 construct, suggesting a possible distinct attachment mechanism of avian as compared to human HEV. For the first time, interactions between avian HEV capsid protein and host cells were investigated demonstrating that aa471 to 507 of the capsid protein are needed to facilitate interaction with different kind of cells from different species. PMID:27073893

  7. C-Terminal Amino Acids 471-507 of Avian Hepatitis E Virus Capsid Protein Are Crucial for Binding to Avian and Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinquan; Bilic, Ivana; Marek, Ana; Glösmann, Martin; Hess, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The infection of chickens with avian Hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) can be asymptomatic or induces clinical signs characterized by increased mortality and decreased egg production in adult birds. Due to the lack of an efficient cell culture system for avian HEV, the interaction between virus and host cells is still barely understood. In this study, four truncated avian HEV capsid proteins (ORF2-1 – ORF2-4) with an identical 338aa deletion at the N-terminus and gradual deletions from 0, 42, 99 and 136aa at the C-terminus, respectively, were expressed and used to map the possible binding site within avian HEV capsid protein. Results from the binding assay showed that three truncated capsid proteins attached to avian LMH cells, but did not penetrate into cells. However, the shortest construct, ORF2-4, lost the capability of binding to cells suggesting that the presence of amino acids 471 to 507 of the capsid protein is crucial for the attachment. The construct ORF2-3 (aa339-507) was used to study the potential binding of avian HEV capsid protein to human and other avian species. It could be demonstrated that ORF2-3 was capable of binding to QT-35 cells from Japanese quail and human HepG2 cells but failed to bind to P815 cells. Additionally, chicken serum raised against ORF2-3 successfully blocked the binding to LMH cells. Treatment with heparin sodium salt or sodium chlorate significantly reduced binding of ORF2-3 to LMH cells. However, heparinase II treatment of LMH cells had no effect on binding of the ORF2-3 construct, suggesting a possible distinct attachment mechanism of avian as compared to human HEV. For the first time, interactions between avian HEV capsid protein and host cells were investigated demonstrating that aa471 to 507 of the capsid protein are needed to facilitate interaction with different kind of cells from different species. PMID:27073893

  8. Cryoconservation of avian gonads in Canada.

    PubMed

    Silversides, F G; Robertson, M C; Liu, J

    2013-10-01

    Avian genetic resources have declined dramatically over the past half century as the cost of maintaining populations has exceeded the perceived benefit of keeping them. Despite the early importance of poultry in the development of cryopreservation techniques, very little avian germplasm has been conserved. Cryopreservation and recovery of avian gonads preserve the W chromosome and overcome problems of freezing and recovering semen or conserving and manipulating embryonic cells, and the use of vitrification procedures for preserving gonads minimizes cellular damage. On the basis of research demonstrating the biological possibility of cryopreserving and transplanting avian gonads, 5,125 testicles and 2,667 ovaries from 10 populations of Japanese quail, 9 populations of chickens, and 1 population of Chilean tinamou were cryopreserved and sent to the Canadian Animal Genetic Resources program for long-term storage. These gonads represent 20 of the 33 distinct avian populations currently maintained at Canadian public institutions of agricultural research. PMID:24046407

  9. Diverse Classrooms, Diverse Curriculum, Diverse Complications: Three Teacher Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungemah, Lori D.

    2015-01-01

    Racial, ethnic, linguistic, and religious diversity continues to increase in classrooms. Many call for a more diverse curriculum, but curricular diversity brings its own challenges to both teachers and students. These three vignettes are drawn from my ethnographic data at Atlantic High School in Brooklyn, New York, where I worked for ten years as…

  10. The motor origins of human and avian song structure.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Adam T; Russo, Frank A; Patel, Aniruddh D

    2011-09-13

    Human song exhibits great structural diversity, yet certain aspects of melodic shape (how pitch is patterned over time) are widespread. These include a predominance of arch-shaped and descending melodic contours in musical phrases, a tendency for phrase-final notes to be relatively long, and a bias toward small pitch movements between adjacent notes in a melody [Huron D (2006) Sweet Anticipation: Music and the Psychology of Expectation (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA)]. What is the origin of these features? We hypothesize that they stem from motor constraints on song production (i.e., the energetic efficiency of their underlying motor actions) rather than being innately specified. One prediction of this hypothesis is that any animals subject to similar motor constraints on song will exhibit similar melodic shapes, no matter how distantly related those animals are to humans. Conversely, animals who do not share similar motor constraints on song will not exhibit convergent melodic shapes. Birds provide an ideal case for testing these predictions, because their peripheral mechanisms of song production have both notable similarities and differences from human vocal mechanisms [Riede T, Goller F (2010) Brain Lang 115:69-80]. We use these similarities and differences to make specific predictions about shared and distinct features of human and avian song structure and find that these predictions are confirmed by empirical analysis of diverse human and avian song samples. PMID:21876156

  11. Development of a distance education program by a Land-Grant University augments the 2-year to 4-year STEM pipeline and increases diversity in STEM.

    PubMed

    Drew, Jennifer C; Oli, Monika W; Rice, Kelly C; Ardissone, Alexandria N; Galindo-Gonzalez, Sebastian; Sacasa, Pablo R; Belmont, Heather J; Wysocki, Allen F; Rieger, Mark; Triplett, Eric W

    2015-01-01

    Although initial interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) is high, recruitment and retention remains a challenge, and some populations are disproportionately underrepresented in STEM fields. To address these challenges, the Microbiology and Cell Science Department in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences at the University of Florida has developed an innovative 2+2 degree program. Typical 2+2 programs begin with a student earning an associate's degree at a local community college and then transferring to a 4-year institution to complete a bachelor's degree. However, many universities in the United States, particularly land-grant universities, are located in rural regions that are distantly located from their respective states' highly populated urban centers. This geographical and cultural distance could be an impediment to recruiting otherwise highly qualified and diverse students. Here, a new model of a 2+2 program is described that uses distance education as the vehicle to bring a research-intensive university's life sciences curriculum to students rather than the oft-tried model of a university attempting to recruit underrepresented minority students to its location. In this paradigm, community college graduates transfer into the Microbiology and Cell Science program as distance education students to complete their Bachelor of Science degree. The distance education students' experiences are similar to the on-campus students' experiences in that both groups of students take the same department courses taught by the same instructors, take required laboratory courses in a face-to-face format, take only proctored exams, and have the same availability to instructors. Data suggests that a hybrid online transfer program may be a viable approach to increasing STEM participation (as defined by enrollment) and diversity. This approach is particularly compelling as the distance education cohort has comparable grade point averages and

  12. Development of a Distance Education Program by a Land-Grant University Augments the 2-Year to 4-Year STEM Pipeline and Increases Diversity in STEM

    PubMed Central

    Drew, Jennifer C.; Oli, Monika W.; Rice, Kelly C.; Ardissone, Alexandria N.; Galindo-Gonzalez, Sebastian; Sacasa, Pablo R.; Belmont, Heather J.; Wysocki, Allen F.; Rieger, Mark; Triplett, Eric W.

    2015-01-01

    Although initial interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) is high, recruitment and retention remains a challenge, and some populations are disproportionately underrepresented in STEM fields. To address these challenges, the Microbiology and Cell Science Department in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences at the University of Florida has developed an innovative 2+2 degree program. Typical 2+2 programs begin with a student earning an associate’s degree at a local community college and then transferring to a 4-year institution to complete a bachelor’s degree. However, many universities in the United States, particularly land-grant universities, are located in rural regions that are distantly located from their respective states’ highly populated urban centers. This geographical and cultural distance could be an impediment to recruiting otherwise highly qualified and diverse students. Here, a new model of a 2+2 program is described that uses distance education as the vehicle to bring a research-intensive university’s life sciences curriculum to students rather than the oft-tried model of a university attempting to recruit underrepresented minority students to its location. In this paradigm, community college graduates transfer into the Microbiology and Cell Science program as distance education students to complete their Bachelor of Science degree. The distance education students’ experiences are similar to the on-campus students’ experiences in that both groups of students take the same department courses taught by the same instructors, take required laboratory courses in a face-to-face format, take only proctored exams, and have the same availability to instructors. Data suggests that a hybrid online transfer program may be a viable approach to increasing STEM participation (as defined by enrollment) and diversity. This approach is particularly compelling as the distance education cohort has comparable grade point

  13. Troop education and avian influenza surveillance in military barracks in Ghana, 2011

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Influenza A viruses that cause highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) also infect humans. In many developing countries such as Ghana, poultry and humans live in close proximity in both the general and military populations, increasing risk for the spread of HPAI from birds to humans. Respiratory infections such as influenza are especially prone to rapid spread among military populations living in close quarters such as barracks making this a key population for targeted avian influenza surveillance and public health education. Method Twelve military barracks situated in the coastal, tropical rain forest and northern savannah belts of the country were visited and the troops and their families educated on pandemic avian influenza. Attendants at each site was obtained from the attendance sheet provided for registration. The seminars focused on zoonotic diseases, influenza surveillance, pathogenesis of avian influenza, prevention of emerging infections and biosecurity. To help direct public health policies, a questionnaire was used to collect information on animal populations and handling practices from 102 households in the military barracks. Cloacal and tracheal samples were taken from 680 domestic and domesticated wild birds and analysed for influenza A using molecular methods for virus detection. Results Of the 1028 participants that took part in the seminars, 668 (65%) showed good knowledge of pandemic avian influenza and the risks associated with its infection. Even though no evidence of the presence of avian influenza (AI) infection was found in the 680 domestic and wild birds sampled, biosecurity in the households surveyed was very poor. Conclusion Active surveillance revealed that there was no AI circulation in the military barracks in April 2011. Though participants demonstrated good knowledge of pandemic avian influenza, biosecurity practices were minimal. Sustained educational programs are needed to further strengthen avian influenza surveillance

  14. Changes in avian and plant communities of aspen woodlands over 12 years after livestock removal in the Northwestern Great Basin.

    PubMed

    Earnst, Susan L; Dobkin, David S; Ballard, Jennifer A

    2012-10-01

    Riparian and quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) woodlands are centers of avian abundance and diversity in the western United States, but they have been affected adversely by land use practices, particularly livestock grazing. In 1990, cattle were removed from a 112,500-ha national wildlife refuge in southeastern Oregon. Thereafter, we monitored changes in vegetation and bird abundance in years 1-3 (phase 1) and 10-12 (phase 2) in 17 riparian and 9 snow-pocket aspen plots. On each 1.5-ha plot, we sampled vegetation in 6 transects. Three times during each breeding season, observers recorded all birds 50 m to each side of the plot's 150-m centerline for 25 minutes. We analyzed data with multivariate analysis of variance and paired t tests with p values adjusted for multiple comparisons. In both periods, riparian and snow-pocket aspen produced extensive regeneration of new shoots (stems/ha and 7079 stems/ha, respectively). By phase 2, a 64% increase in medium-diameter trees in riparian stands indicated successful recruitment into the overstory, but this pattern was not seen in snow-pocket stands, where the density of trees was over 2 times greater. By phase 2 in riparian and snow-pocket stands, native forb cover had increased by 68% and 57%, respectively, mesic shrub cover had increased by 29% and 58%, and sagebrush cover had decreased by 24% and 31%. Total avian abundance increased by 33% and 39% in riparian and snow-pocket aspen, respectively, ground or understory nesters increased by 133% and 67% and overstory nesters increased by 34% and 33%. Similarly, ground or understory foragers increased by 25% and 32%, aerial foragers by 55% and 57%, and overstory foragers by 66% and 43%. We interpreted the substantial regeneration of aspen shoots, increased densities of riparian forbs and shrubs, and increased avian abundances as a multitrophic-level response to the total removal of livestock and as substantial movement toward recovery of biological integrity. PMID:22889077

  15. Changes in avian and plant communities of aspen woodlands over 12 years after livestock removal in the northwestern Great Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Earnst, Susan L.; Dobkin, David S.; Ballard, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    Riparian and quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) woodlands are centers of avian abundance and diversity in the western United States, but they have been affected adversely by land use practices, particularly livestock grazing. In 1990, cattle were removed from a 112,500-ha national wildlife refuge in southeastern Oregon. Thereafter, we monitored changes in vegetation and bird abundance in years 1–3 (phase 1) and 10–12 (phase 2) in 17 riparian and 9 snow-pocket aspen plots. On each 1.5-ha plot, we sampled vegetation in 6 transects. Three times during each breeding season, observers recorded all birds 50 m to each side of the plot's 150-m centerline for 25 minutes. We analyzed data with multivariate analysis of variance and paired t tests with p values adjusted for multiple comparisons. In both periods, riparian and snow-pocket aspen produced extensive regeneration of new shoots (x̄ = 2646 stems/ha and 7079 stems/ha, respectively). By phase 2, a 64% increase in medium-diameter trees in riparian stands indicated successful recruitment into the overstory, but this pattern was not seen in snow-pocket stands, where the density of trees was over 2 times greater. By phase 2 in riparian and snow-pocket stands, native forb cover had increased by 68% and 57%, respectively, mesic shrub cover had increased by 29% and 58%, and sagebrush cover had decreased by 24% and 31%. Total avian abundance increased by 33% and 39% in riparian and snow-pocket aspen, respectively, ground or understory nesters increased by 133% and 67% and overstory nesters increased by 34% and 33%. Similarly, ground or understory foragers increased by 25% and 32%, aerial foragers by 55% and 57%, and overstory foragers by 66% and 43%. We interpreted the substantial regeneration of aspen shoots, increased densities of riparian forbs and shrubs, and increased avian abundances as a multitrophic-level response to the total removal of livestock and as substantial movement toward recovery of biological integrity.

  16. Influenza vaccines for avian species.

    PubMed

    Kapczynski, Darrell R; Swayne, David E

    2009-01-01

    Beginning in Southeast Asia in 2003, a multinational epizootic outbreak of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) was identified in commercial poultry and wild bird species. This lineage, originally identified in Southern China in 1996 and then Hong Kong in 1997, caused severe morbidity and mortality in many bird species, was responsible for considerable economic losses via trade restrictions, and crossed species barriers (including its recovery from human cases). To date, these H5N1 HPAI viruses have been isolated in European, Middle Eastern, and African countries, and are considered endemic in many areas where regulatory control and different production sectors face substantial hurdles in controlling the spread of this disease. While control of avian influenza (AI) virus infections in wild bird populations may not be feasible at this point, control and eradiation of AI from commercial, semicommercial, zoo, pet, and village/backyard birds will be critical to preventing events that could lead to the emergence of epizootic influenza virus. Efficacious vaccines can help reduce disease, viral shedding, and transmission to susceptible cohorts. However, only when vaccines are used in a comprehensive program including biosecurity, education, culling, diagnostics and surveillance can control and eradication be considered achievable goals. In humans, protection against influenza is provided by vaccines that are chosen based on molecular, epidemiologic, and antigenic data. In poultry and other birds, AI vaccines are produced against a specific hemagglutinin subtype of AI, and use is decided by government and state agricultural authorities based on risk and economic considerations, including the potential for trade restrictions. In the current H5N1 HPAI epizootic, vaccines have been used in a variety of avian species as a part of an overall control program to aid in disease management and control. PMID:19768403

  17. Genomic Avenue to Avian Colisepticemia

    PubMed Central

    Huja, Sagi; Oren, Yaara; Trost, Eva; Brzuszkiewicz, Elzbieta; Biran, Dvora; Blom, Jochen; Goesmann, Alexander; Gottschalk, Gerhard; Hacker, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here we present an extensive genomic and genetic analysis of Escherichia coli strains of serotype O78 that represent the major cause of avian colisepticemia, an invasive infection caused by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strains. It is associated with high mortality and morbidity, resulting in significant economic consequences for the poultry industry. To understand the genetic basis of the virulence of avian septicemic E. coli, we sequenced the entire genome of a clinical isolate of serotype O78—O78:H19 ST88 isolate 789 (O78-9)—and compared it with three publicly available APEC O78 sequences and one complete genome of APEC serotype O1 strain. Although there was a large variability in genome content between the APEC strains, several genes were conserved, which are potentially critical for colisepticemia. Some of these genes are present in multiple copies per genome or code for gene products with overlapping function, signifying their importance. A systematic deletion of each of these virulence-related genes identified three systems that are conserved in all septicemic strains examined and are critical for serum survival, a prerequisite for septicemia. These are the plasmid-encoded protein, the defective ETT2 (E. coli type 3 secretion system 2) type 3 secretion system ETT2sepsis, and iron uptake systems. Strain O78-9 is the only APEC O78 strain that also carried the regulon coding for yersiniabactin, the iron binding system of the Yersinia high-pathogenicity island. Interestingly, this system is the only one that cannot be complemented by other iron uptake systems under iron limitation and in serum. PMID:25587010

  18. Nature's Palette: Characterization of Shared Pigments in Colorful Avian and Mollusk Shells.

    PubMed

    Verdes, Aida; Cho, Wooyoung; Hossain, Marouf; Brennan, Patricia L R; Hanley, Daniel; Grim, Tomáš; Hauber, Mark E; Holford, Mandë

    2015-01-01

    Pigment-based coloration is a common trait found in a variety of organisms across the tree of life. For example, calcareous avian eggs are natural structures that vary greatly in color, yet just a handful of tetrapyrrole pigment compounds are responsible for generating this myriad of colors. To fully understand the diversity and constraints shaping nature's palette, it is imperative to characterize the similarities and differences in the types of compounds involved in color production across diverse lineages. Pigment composition was investigated in eggshells of eleven paleognath bird taxa, covering several extinct and extant lineages, and shells of four extant species of mollusks. Birds and mollusks are two distantly related, calcareous shell-building groups, thus characterization of pigments in their calcareous structures would provide insights to whether similar compounds are found in different phyla (Chordata and Mollusca). An ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) extraction protocol was used to analyze the presence and concentration of biliverdin and protoporphyrin, two known and ubiquitous tetrapyrrole avian eggshell pigments, in all avian and molluscan samples. Biliverdin was solely detected in birds, including the colorful eggshells of four tinamou species. In contrast, protoporphyrin was detected in both the eggshells of several avian species and in the shells of all mollusks. These findings support previous hypotheses about the ubiquitous deposition of tetrapyrroles in the eggshells of various bird lineages and provide evidence for its presence also across distantly related animal taxa. PMID:26650398

  19. Nature’s Palette: Characterization of Shared Pigments in Colorful Avian and Mollusk Shells

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Patricia L. R.; Hanley, Daniel; Grim, Tomáš; Hauber, Mark E.; Holford, Mandë

    2015-01-01

    Pigment-based coloration is a common trait found in a variety of organisms across the tree of life. For example, calcareous avian eggs are natural structures that vary greatly in color, yet just a handful of tetrapyrrole pigment compounds are responsible for generating this myriad of colors. To fully understand the diversity and constraints shaping nature’s palette, it is imperative to characterize the similarities and differences in the types of compounds involved in color production across diverse lineages. Pigment composition was investigated in eggshells of eleven paleognath bird taxa, covering several extinct and extant lineages, and shells of four extant species of mollusks. Birds and mollusks are two distantly related, calcareous shell-building groups, thus characterization of pigments in their calcareous structures would provide insights to whether similar compounds are found in different phyla (Chordata and Mollusca). An ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) extraction protocol was used to analyze the presence and concentration of biliverdin and protoporphyrin, two known and ubiquitous tetrapyrrole a